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Sample records for bullfrog rana catesbeiana

  1. Type I collagen from bullfrog ( Rana catesbeiana ) fallopian tube ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rana catesbeiana) with a yield of 16.4%, on a dry weight basis. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacylamide-gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) showed that the PSC contained two alpha components (α1 and α2) and was classified as type I collagen ...

  2. Relationships among developmental stage, metamorphic timing, and concentrations of elements in bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snodgrass, J.W.; Hopkins, W.A.; Roe, J.H. [Towson University, Towson, MD (United States). Dept. for Biological Science

    2003-07-01

    We collected bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) larvae from a coal combustion waste settling basin to investigate the effects of developmental stage and timing of metamorphosis on concentrations of a series of trace elements in bullfrog tissues. Bullfrogs at four stages of development (from no hind limbs to recently metamorphosed juveniles) and bullfrogs that metamorphosed in the fall or overwintered in the contaminated basin and metamorphosed in the spring were analyzed for whole-body concentrations of Al, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, As, Pb, Cd, Zn, Ag, Sr, and Se. After the effects of dry mass were removed, tissue concentrations of six elements (Al, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, As, and Pb) decreased from the late larval stage through metamorphosis. Decreases in concentrations through metamorphosis ranged from 40% for Cu to 97% for Al. Tissue concentrations of these elements were also similar or higher in spring; Al and Cr concentrations were 34 and 90% higher in the spring, respectively, whereas As, Ni, Cu, and Pb concentrations were {lt} 10% higher. Concentrations of Cd, Se, and Ag varied among seasons but not among stages; Cd and Ag concentrations were 40 and 62% lower, respectively, and Se concentrations were 21% higher in spring. Concentrations of Zn varied only among stages; concentrations decreased gradually through late larval stage and then increased through metamorphosis. Concentrations of Sr varied among stages, but this variation was dependent on the season. Concentrations of Sr were higher in larval stages during the spring, but because concentrations of Sr increased 122% through metamorphosis in the fall and only 22% in the spring, concentrations were higher in fall metamorphs when compared with spring metamorphs. Our results indicate that metamorphosis and season of metamorphosis affects trace element concentrations in bullfrogs and may have important implications for the health of juveniles and the transfer of pollutants from the aquatic to the terrestrial environment.

  3. Cathelicidins from the bullfrog Rana catesbeiana provides novel template for peptide antibiotic design.

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    Guiying Ling

    Full Text Available Cathelicidins, a class of gene-encoded effector molecules of vertebrate innate immunity, provide a first line of defense against microbial invasions. Although cathelicidins from mammals, birds, reptiles and fishes have been extensively studied, little is known about cathelicidins from amphibians. Here we report the identification and characterization of two cathelicidins (cathelicidin-RC1 and cathelicidin-RC2 from the bullfrog Rana catesbeiana. The cDNA sequences (677 and 700 bp, respectively encoding the two peptides were successfully cloned from the constructed lung cDNA library of R. catesbeiana. And the deduced mature peptides are composed of 28 and 33 residues, respectively. Structural analysis indicated that cathelicidin-RC1 mainly assumes an amphipathic alpha-helical conformation, while cathelicidin-RC2 could not form stable amphipathic structure. Antimicrobial and bacterial killing kinetic analysis indicated that the synthetic cathelicidin-RC1 possesses potent, broad-spectrum and rapid antimicrobial potency, while cathelicidin-RC2 exhibited very weak antimicrobial activity. Besides, the antimicrobial activity of cathelicidin-RC1 is salt-independent and highly stable. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis indicated that cathelicidin-RC1 kills microorganisms through the disruption of microbial membrane. Moreover, cathelicidin-RC1 exhibited low cytotoxic activity against mammalian normal or tumor cell lines, and low hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes. The potent, broad-spectrum and rapid antimicrobial activity combined with the salt-independence, high stability, low cytotoxic and hemolytic activities make cathelicidin-RC1 an ideal template for the development of novel peptide antibiotics.

  4. Habituation and sensitization of aggression in bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana): testing the dual-process theory of habituation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bee, M A

    2001-09-01

    The aggressive response of male bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) habituates with repeated broadcasts of acoustic stimuli simulating a new territorial neighbor. The effects of stimulus repetition rate and stimulus intensity on bullfrog aggressive responses were tested in a field experiment designed to test the assumptions of a dual-process theory of habituation. Synthetic advertisement calls were broadcast at 2 repetition rates and 2 intensities in a factorial design. Bullfrogs were more aggressive at the higher stimulus intensity at both repetition rates. Aggressive responses habituated more slowly at the higher stimulus intensity and slower repetition rate compared with other treatments. Several biotic and abiotic factors had small or negligible effects on aggressive responses. Although consistent with the operation of 2 opposing processes, habituation and sensitization, the data provide only partial support for the assumptions of dual-process theory.

  5. Gastrin and Cholecystokinin of the Bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana, Have Distinct Effects on Gallbladder Motility and Gastric Acid Secretion in Vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kaj; Bomgren, Peter; Holmgren, Susanne

    1998-01-01

    distinct members of the CCK/gastrin family were identified in the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana), termed CCK and gastrin. Frog gastrin is very similar to CCK in the region defining biological activity. To evaluate whether the two endogenous peptides have distinct properties, their effects were studied...... values are 3.1 and 17.2 nM, respectively. Furthermore, gastrin had a significantly higher efficacy than CCK-8s. Thus, in spite of their close structural resemblance, there are clear differences between the two endogenous peptides in their action on gallbladder and gastric mucosa. It is concluded...

  6. Ranalexin. A novel antimicrobial peptide from bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) skin, structurally related to the bacterial antibiotic, polymyxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D P; Durell, S; Maloy, W L; Zasloff, M

    1994-04-08

    Antimicrobial peptides comprise a diverse class of molecules used in host defense by plants, insects, and animals. In this study we have isolated a novel antimicrobial peptide from the skin of the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana. This 20 amino acid peptide, which we have termed Ranalexin, has the amino acid sequence: NH2-Phe-Leu-Gly-Gly-Leu-Ile-Lys-Ile-Val-Pro-Ala-Met-Ile-Cys-Ala-Val-Thr- Lys-Lys - Cys-COOH, and it contains a single intramolecular disulfide bond which forms a heptapeptide ring within the molecule. Structurally, Ranalexin resembles the bacterial antibiotic, polymyxin, which contains a similar heptapeptide ring. We have also cloned the cDNA for Ranalexin from a metamorphic R. catesbeiana tadpole cDNA library. Based on the cDNA sequence, it appears that Ranalexin is initially synthesized as a propeptide with a putative signal sequence and an acidic amino acid-rich region at its amino-terminal end. Interestingly, the putative signal sequence of the Ranalexin cDNA is strikingly similar to the signal sequence of opioid peptide precursors isolated from the skin of the South American frogs Phyllomedusa sauvagei and Phyllomedusa bicolor. Northern blot analysis and in situ hybridization experiments demonstrated that Ranalexin mRNA is first expressed in R. catesbeiana skin at metamorphosis and continues to be expressed into adulthood.

  7. Effects of testosterone on contractile properties of sexually dimorphic forelimb muscles in male bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana, Shaw 1802

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    Aaron R. Kampe

    2013-07-01

    This study examined the effects of testosterone (T on the contractile properties of two sexually dimorphic forelimb muscles and one non-dimorphic muscle in male bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana, Shaw 1802. The dimorphic muscles in castrated males with testosterone replacement (T+ achieved higher forces and lower fatigability than did castrated males without replaced testosterone (T0 males, but the magnitude of the differences was low and many of the pair-wise comparisons of each muscle property were not statistically significant. However, when taken as a whole, the means of seven contractile properties varied in the directions expected of masculine values in T+ animals in the sexually dimorphic muscles. Moreover, these data, compared with previous data on male and female bullfrogs, show that values for T+ males are similar to normal males and are significantly different from females. The T0 males tended to be intermediate in character between T+ males and females, generally retaining masculine values. This suggests that the exposure of young males to T in their first breeding season produces a masculinizing effect on the sexually dimorphic muscles that is not reversed between breeding seasons when T levels are low. The relatively minor differences in contractile properties between T+ and T0 males may indicate that as circulating T levels rise during breeding season in normal males, contractile properties can be enhanced rapidly to maximal functional levels for breeding success.

  8. Identification of Elizabethkingia meningoseptica from American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana farmed in Sabah, Malaysia using PCR method and future management of outbreak

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    Zainuri, N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: High demand for frog meat in Malaysia especially the American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana has promoted intensive farming of the animal. However, the farming of American bullfrog is restricted by the occurrence of diseases. This study reports the first isolation of Elizabethkingia meningoseptica from specimens of American bullfrog that suffer from cataract and ‘red-leg’ syndrome.Methodology and Result: The pathogen was isolated from eyes and internal organs (liver, kidney and spleen of thediseased bullfrog specimens. All the bacterial isolates were subjected to phenotypic characterization and antibiotic susceptibility assay, and further identified by using the 16S rDNA sequencing analysis. We designed two pair of specific PCR primers (22-25 mers which are complimentary to the β-lactamase gene in the reference strain ofE. meningoseptica ATCC49470. The result showed all the bacterial isolates shared similar phenotypic characters and antibiotic susceptibility. BLAST analysis of the 16S rDNA sequences indicated that the bacterial isolates had very high sequence homology (100% with E. meningospetica ATCC49470 and E. meningoseptica isolates from mosquito. The two PCR primers were very specific to E. meningoseptica isolates of this study. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: This is the first isolation and characterization of bacterial pathogen, E. meningoseptica in cultured American bullfrog (Rana catesbeina that suffered from eye cataract and ‘red-leg’syndrome in Sabah, Malaysia. It is suspected that one of the possible transmission routes of the bacterial pathogen could be via mosquito bites. The findings suggest that there is urgent requirement for standard guideline of good farming practice to be adopted in frog farms throughout the country. Such a guideline can help in minimizing economic losses, preventing transmission of the zoonotic bacterial pathogen to farm workers, and sustaining the industry in Malaysia andupgrading

  9. Incidence and impact of axial malformations in larval bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) developing in sites polluted by a coal-burning power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, W.A.; Congdon, J.; Ray, J.K.

    2000-01-01

    Amphibian malformations have recently received much attention from the scientific community, but few studies have provided evidence linking environmental pollution to larval amphibian malformations in the field. The authors document an increased incidence of axial malformations in bullfrog larvae (Rana catesbeiana) inhabiting two sites contaminated with coal combustion wastes. In the polluted sites, 18 and 37% of larvae exhibited lateral curvatures of the spine, whereas zero and 4% of larvae from two reference sites had similar malformations. Larvae from the most heavily polluted site had significantly higher tissue concentrations of potentially toxic trace elements, including As, Cd, Se, Cu, Cr, and V, compared with conspecifics from the reference sites. In addition, malformed larvae from the cost contaminated site had decreased swimming speeds compared with those of normal larvae from the same site. The authors hypothesize that the complex mixture of contaminants produced by coal combustion is responsible for the high incidence of malformations and associated effects on swimming performance

  10. The tactile-stimulated startle response of tadpoles: acceleration performance and its relationship to the anatomy of wood frog (Rana sylvatica), bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana), and American toad (Bufo americanus) tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidietis, Laura

    2006-04-01

    I described the tactile-stimulated startle response (TSR) of wood frog (Rana sylvatica), bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana), and American toad (Bufo americanus) tadpoles. One purpose was to rank species in terms of maximum acceleration performance. Also, I tested whether anatomical indicators of performance potential were predictive of realized performance. TSRs were elicited in a laboratory setting, filmed at 250 Hz, and digitally analyzed. TSRs began with two, initial body curls during which tadpoles showed a broad spectrum of movement patterns. TSR performance was quantified by maximum linear acceleration and maximum rotational acceleration of the head/body, both of which tended to occur immediately upon initiation of motion ( wood frog > American toad. The species' rank order for the anatomical indicator of rotational acceleration potential was bullfrog > wood frog = American toad. Thus, the anatomical indicators roughly predicted the rank order of interspecific average performance. However, the anatomical indicators did not correlate with individual tadpole performance. Variability in behavioral patterns may obscure the connection between anatomy and performance. This is seen in the current lack of intraspecific correlation between a morphological indicator of acceleration capacity and acceleration performance.

  11. Effect of bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana oil administered by gavage on the fatty acid composition and oxidative stress of mouse liver

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    L.P. Silva

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of daily intragastric administration of bullfrog oil (oleic, linoleic and palmitoleic acid-rich oil, corresponding to 0.4% of body weight for four weeks, on fatty acid composition and oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation and catalase activity in mouse liver. The activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT, biomarkers of tissue injury, were determined in liver homogenates and serum. The proportions of 18:2n-6, 20:4n-6, 20:5n-3, and 22:6n-3 (polyunsaturated fatty acids, from 37 to 60% in the total fatty acid content were increased in the liver of the bullfrog oil-treated group (P < 0.05 compared to control. At the same time, a significant decrease in the relative abundance of 14:0, 16:0, and 18:0 (saturated fatty acids, from 49 to 25% was observed. The hepatic content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS was increased from 2.3 ± 0.2 to 12.3 ± 0.3 nmol TBA-MDA/mg protein and catalase activity was increased from 840 ± 32 to 1110 ± 45 µmol reduced H2O2 min-1 mg protein-1 in the treated group. Bullfrog oil administration increased AST and ALP activities in the liver (from 234.10 ± 0.12 to 342.84 ± 0.13 and 9.38 ± 0.60 to 20.06 ± 0.27 U/g, respectively and in serum (from 95.41 ± 6.13 to 120.32 ± 3.15 and 234.75 ± 11.5 to 254.41 ± 2.73 U/l, respectively, suggesting that this treatment induced tissue damage. ALT activity was increased from 287.28 ± 0.29 to 315.98 ± 0.34 U/g in the liver but remained unchanged in serum, whereas the GGT activity was not affected by bullfrog oil treatment. Therefore, despite the interesting modulation of fatty acids by bullfrog oil, a possible therapeutic use requires care since some adverse effects were observed in liver.

  12. Linking the distribution of an invasive amphibian (Rana catesbeiana) to habitat conditions in a managed river system in northern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terra Fuller; Karen Pope; Donald Ashton; Hartwell Welsh

    2010-01-01

    Extensive modifications of river systems have left floodplains some of the most endangered ecosystems in the world and made restoration of these systems a priority. Modified river ecosystems frequently support invasive species to the detriment of native species. Rana catesbeiana (American bullfrog) is an invasive amphibian that thrives in modified...

  13. Reversão sexual de rã-touro (Rana catesbeiana com hormônio masculinizante misturado à ração de girinos Sexual reversion of bullfrog with masculinizing hormone added to the tadpole ration

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    Claudio Angelo Agostinho

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho consistiu em testar a eficiência de um hormônio masculinizante (17beta-hidróxi-17-metil-andróxi-4-en-3-ona na reversão sexual de girinos de rã-touro (Rana catesbeiana. Foram usados 352 girinos com dois a três meses de idade, nos estádios 30 a 36, para testar quatro níveis de hormônio na ração (0, 30, 60 e 90 mig/g por 45 dias. Após a metamorfose, 167 imagos foram sacrificados e 185 imagos foram criados até a idade de quatro meses e, então, sacrificados. As análises macroscópicas das gônadas e das características sexuais secundárias confirmaram a masculinização nos tratamentos com hormônio. Muitos ovócitos foram observados nos testículos dos imagos revertidos (ovotestis; entretanto, quatro meses após a metamorfose, os ovotestis ocorreram esporadicamente. Concluiu-se que, após a metamorfose, iniciou-se um processo de reabsorção dos ovócitos nos imagos revertidos, culminando com a quase total reabsorção dos ovócitos no quarto mês de idade.This work consisted in testing the efficiency of a masculinizing hormone (17beta-hydroxy-17-methyl-androxy-4-en-3-one in the sex reversal of bullfrog tadpoles. Three hundred and fifty two tadpoles with two or three months old, from the stages 30 to 36, were used to test four levels of hormone in the ration (0, 30, 60 and 90 mug/g, for 45 days. After metamorphosis, 167 juveniles were sacrificed and 185 were reared until the fourth month of age and sacrificed thereafter. Macroscopic analysis of the gonads and secondary traits confirmed the masculinization in the treatments with hormone. Many oocytes were observed in the testes of the masculinized juveniles; however, four months after metamorphosis the ovotestes were sporadic. It was concluded that, after metamorphosis, oocyte reabsorption started in reversed juveniles, culminating in almost total reabsorption at the fourth months.

  14. Meal from tilapia filleting industrial waste in the feed of the bullfrog tadpoles (Rana Catesbeiana Shaw, 1802/ Inclusão de farinha de resíduos da indústria de filetagem de tilápias na alimentação de girinos de rã-touro (Rana Catesbeiana Shaw,1802

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    Cleiton Manske

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the inclusion of meal of tilapia industrial waster in bullfrog tadpoles’ diets (Rana Catesbeina Shaw, 1802. Two hundred fifty tadpoles with initial weight and length of 0,18 ± 0,05g and 2,50 ± 0,18 centimeters were used, respectively, they were used and distributed in 25 aquariums of 30 liter each in a complete randomized design with five treatments and five repetitions. The tadpoles were fed four times a day with diets containing 0, 5, 10 and 15% of inclusion of tilapia filleting and another diet with 0% of supplemented tilapia filleting with synthetic methionine, being supplied four times a day at ease. The experiment period was 30 days. The diets with tilapia filleting inclusion and methionine supplementation did not have influence in the final weight and length averages, feed survival and conversion of bullfrog tadpoles. It cam be used until 15% of tilapia filleting inclusion in the bullfrog tadpoles food. The synthetic methionine supplementation in diets for bullfrog tadpoles is not necessary in diets with levels over 0,47% of the total methionine.Este experimento objetivou avaliar a inclusão da farinha de resíduos de filetagem de tilápias (FT em rações para girinos de rã-touro (Rana Catesbeina Shaw,1802. Foram utilizados 250 girinos com peso e comprimento inicial de 0,18 ± 0,05g e 2,50 ± 0,18 cm, respectivamente, distribuídos em 25 aquários de 30 L cada, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições. Os girinos foram alimentados quatro vezes ao dia, com rações contendo 0, 5, 10, 15% de inclusão de FT e outra ração com 0% de FT suplementada com metionina sintética, sendo fornecidas quatro vezes ao dia a vontade. O período do experimento foi de 30 dias. As rações com inclusão de FT e suplementação de metionina não influenciaram nas médias de peso final, comprimento final, sobrevivência e conversão alimentar dos girinos de r

  15. Cardiovascular, respiratory and metabolic responses to temperature and hypoxia of the winter frog Rana catesbeiana

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    Rocha P.L.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of hypoxia and temperature on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems and plasma glucose levels of the winter bullfrog Rana catesbeiana. Body temperature was maintained at 10, 15, 25 and 35oC for measurements of breathing frequency, heart rate, arterial blood pressure, metabolic rate, plasma glucose levels, blood gases and acid-base status. Reducing body temperature from 35 to 10oC decreased (P<0.001 heart rate (bpm from 64.0 ± 3.1 (N = 5 to 12.5 ± 2.5 (N = 6 and blood pressure (mmHg (P<0.05 from 41.9 ± 2.1 (N = 5 to 33.1 ± 2.1 (N = 6, whereas no significant changes were observed under hypoxia. Hypoxia-induced changes in breathing frequency and acid-base status were proportional to body temperature, being pronounced at 25oC, less so at 15oC, and absent at 10oC. Hypoxia at 35oC was lethal. Under normoxia, plasma glucose concentration (mg/dl decreased (P<0.01 from 53.0 ± 3.4 (N = 6 to 35.9 ± 1.7 (N = 6 at body temperatures of 35 and 10oC, respectively. Hypoxia had no significant effect on plasma glucose concentration at 10 and 15oC, but at 25oC there was a significant increase under conditions of 3% inspired O2. The arterial PO2 and pH values were similar to those reported in previous studies on non-estivating Rana catesbeiana, but PaCO2 (37.5 ± 1.9 mmHg, N = 5 was 3-fold higher, indicating increased plasma bicarbonate levels. The estivating bullfrog may be exposed not only to low temperatures but also to hypoxia. These animals show temperature-dependent responses that may be beneficial since during low body temperatures the sensitivity of most physiological systems to hypoxia is reduced

  16. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Rana catesbeiana [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Rana catesbeiana 名詞 一般 * * * * ウシ...ガエル ウシガエル ウシガエル Thesaurus2015 200906051181134488 C LS05 UNKNOWN_2 Rana catesbeiana

  17. Indução à ovulação pelo uso de LHRH análogo e fertilização artificial em rã-touro (Rana catesbeiana Spawning inducing by analog LHRH and artificial fertilization of bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana

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    Claudio Angelo Agostinho

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo aperfeiçoar a técnica de reprodução induzida existente para rã-touro, com o intuito de aumentar a taxa de fecundidade e viabilizar seu uso pelo produtor. As doses hormonais para a indução da ovulação e espermiação seguiram as propostas de FALCON e CULLEY (1995 e ALONSO (1997; entretanto, a técnica de fertilização artificial foi adaptada da metodologia para reprodução artificial de peixes com ovos não-aderentes (WOYNAROVICH e HORVÁTH, 1983. A técnica proposta apresenta as seguintes etapas: I sincronização da ovulação e da espermiação, por meio de hormônio liberador de gonadotropina ((Des-Gli10, D-His(Bzl6, Pro-NHEt9-LHRH; II extração dos óvulos de cada fêmea (1 a 2 minutos; III fertilização dos óvulos (2 minutos com líquido espermático diluído em 100 mL de água; IV hidratação dos ovos em 10 a 20 litros de água; e V incubação dos ovos em quadros de tela de 1x 0,70 m, com malha de 1 mm. As taxas de fertilização obtidas com as modificações propostas foram superiores a 60%. Ressalta-se ainda que a técnica propiciou a obtenção, a partir de um mesmo animal, de várias desovas, sendo que cada fêmea pode ovular em intervalos de, aproximadamente, 45 dias.The objective of this study was to improve the artificial fertilization techniques for bullfrog, to increase the fertilization rate and become their use accessible for frog producers. Hormone dosages for inducing ovulation and spermiation followed those proposed by FALCON and CULLEY (1995 and ALONSO (1997; however, the artificial fertilization technique was adapted from the available methodology for artificial reproduction of fish with non-adhering eggs (WOYNAROVICH e HORVÁTH, 1983. The proposed technique consists of the following steps: I synchronization of ovulation and spermiation through gonadotropin releasing hormone ((Des-Gli10, D-His(Bzl6, Pro-NHEt9-LHRH; II complete ovule extrusion in every female (1 to 2 minutes

  18. Efeito da temperatura e do fotoperíodo sobre o desenvolvimento do aparelho reprodutor de rã-touro (Rana catesbeiana Shaw, 1802 Effect of the temperature and the photoperiod on the development of bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana Shaw, 1802 reproduction apparel

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    Mario Roberto Chim Figueiredo

    2001-06-01

    combination of the temperatures of 26.0 and 29.0°C with photoperiods of 8/16, 12/12 and 16/8 h L/D, until they reach the gonadal maturity. Temperature interacted with photoperiod in its effects on the development of the reproductive organs of bullfrog. Temperature affected the diameter of the abdomen/distance relation between the eyes, with higher values calculated for 26°C. It was considered that the highest ovocites diameters are obtained under a temperature of 26.0°C, with photoperiod of 12.6/11.4 h L/D.

  19. De novo Transcriptome Assemblies of Rana (Lithobates catesbeiana and Xenopus laevis Tadpole Livers for Comparative Genomics without Reference Genomes.

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    Inanc Birol

    Full Text Available In this work we studied the liver transcriptomes of two frog species, the American bullfrog (Rana (Lithobates catesbeiana and the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis. We used high throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq data to assemble and annotate these transcriptomes, and compared how their baseline expression profiles change when tadpoles of the two species are exposed to thyroid hormone. We generated more than 1.5 billion RNA-seq reads in total for the two species under two conditions as treatment/control pairs. We de novo assembled these reads using Trans-ABySS to reconstruct reference transcriptomes, obtaining over 350,000 and 130,000 putative transcripts for R. catesbeiana and X. laevis, respectively. Using available genomics resources for X. laevis, we annotated over 97% of our X. laevis transcriptome contigs, demonstrating the utility and efficacy of our methodology. Leveraging this validated analysis pipeline, we also annotated the assembled R. catesbeiana transcriptome. We used the expression profiles of the annotated genes of the two species to examine the similarities and differences between the tadpole liver transcriptomes. We also compared the gene ontology terms of expressed genes to measure how the animals react to a challenge by thyroid hormone. Our study reports three main conclusions. First, de novo assembly of RNA-seq data is a powerful method for annotating and establishing transcriptomes of non-model organisms. Second, the liver transcriptomes of the two frog species, R. catesbeiana and X. laevis, show many common features, and the distribution of their gene ontology profiles are statistically indistinguishable. Third, although they broadly respond the same way to the presence of thyroid hormone in their environment, their receptor/signal transduction pathways display marked differences.

  20. Micronuclei induction in Rana catesbeiana tadpoles by the pyrethroid insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin

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    Marcela Alejandra Campana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrethroid lambda-cyhalothrin genotoxicity was evaluated using the micronucleus test in Rana catesbeiana tadpoles. The effects of concentration and exposure time on the micronuclei frequency were studied in blood smears obtained from tadpoles exposed to four concentrations (0.02, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg/L of the compound for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h and 8, 15, 20 and 30 days. As a positive control, tadpoles were exposed to cyclophosphamide (5 mg/L. The micronucleated cell frequency was expressed per 1,000 cells. R. catesbeiana tadpoles exposed to increasing concentrations of lambda-cyhalothrin showed an increase in the micronuclei frequency in peripheral blood. Tadpoles exposed to cyclophosphamide (CP also showed a significant increase in micronucleated erythrocytes which peaked after 15 days. These results suggest that R. catesbeiana tadpoles may provide a useful model for monitoring water pollution.

  1. Micronuclei induction in Rana catesbeiana tadpoles by the pyrethroid insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin

    OpenAIRE

    Campana, Marcela Alejandra; Panzeri, Ana María; Moreno, Víctor Jorge; Dulout, Fernando Noel

    2003-01-01

    Pyrethroid lambda-cyhalothrin genotoxicity was evaluated using the micronucleus test in Rana catesbeiana tadpoles. The effects of concentration and exposure time on the micronuclei frequency were studied in blood smears obtained from tadpoles exposed to four concentrations (0.02, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg/L) of the compound for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h and 8, 15, 20 and 30 days. As a positive control, tadpoles were exposed to cyclophosphamide (5 mg/L). The micronucleated cell frequency was expressed per...

  2. Acid-base regulation in tadpoles of Rana catesbeiana exposed to environmental hypercapnia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busk, Morten; Larsen, Erik Hviid; Jensen, Frank B.

    1997-01-01

    Tadpoles of Rana catesbeiana were exposed to different levels of environmental hypercapnia. The acid-base regulatory response differed from that in adult amphibians in showing a high degree of pH compensation in the extracellular fluid (65-85%) and complete compensation in the intracellular fluid......-base equivalents marginally, suggesting that mobilisable CaCO3 stores were depleted during the first exposure to hypercapnia and that they were not refilled. The CaCO3 stores may normally be mobilised during the slowly developing internal hypercapnia that occurs during metamorphosis....

  3. Metals in riparian wildlife of the lead mining district of southeastern Missouri. [Rana catesbeiana, Ondatra zibethicus; Butorides striatus; Nerodia sipedon; Stelgidopteryx serripennis, Riparia riparia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niethammer, K.R.; Atkinson, R.D.; Baskett, T.S.; Samson, F.B.

    1985-03-01

    Five species of riparian vertebrates (425 individuals) primarily representing upper trophic levels were collected from the Big River and Black River drainages in two lead mining districts of southeastern Missouri, 1981-82. Big River is subject to metal pollution via erosion and seepage from large tailings piles from inactive lead mines. Black River drains part of a currently mined area. Bull-frogs (Rana catesbeiana), muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus), and green-backed herons (Butorides striatus) collected downstream from the source of metal contamination to Big River had significantly higher lead and cadmium levels than specimens collected at either an uncontaminated upstream site or on Black River. Northern water snakes (Nerodia sipedon) had elevated lead levels below the tailings source, but did not seem to accumulate cadmium. Levels of lead, cadmium, or zinc in northern rough-winged swallows (Stelgidopteryx serripennis) were not related to collecting locality. Carcasses of ten bank swallows (Riparia riparia) collected from a colony nesting in a tailings pile along the Big River had lead concentrations of 2.0-39 ppm wet weight. Differences between zinc concentrations in vertebrates collected from contaminated and uncontaminated sites were less apparent than differences in lead and cadmium. There was little relationship between metal concentrations in the animals studied and their trophic levels. Bull-frogs are the most promising species examined for monitoring environmental levels of lead, cadmium, and zinc.

  4. Thyrotropic Activity of Various Adenohypophyseal Hormones of the Bullfrog(Endocrinology)

    OpenAIRE

    MAKOTO, SAKAI; YOICHI, HANAOKA; SHIGEYASU, TANAKA; HIROAKI, HAYASHI; SAKAE, KIKUYAMA; Department of Biology, School of Education, Waseda University; Institute of Endocrinology, Gunma University; Institute of Endocrinology, Gunma University; Institute of Endocrinology, Gunma University; Department of Biology, School of Education, Waseda University

    1991-01-01

    The effects of adenohypophyseal hormones of the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) origin on the in vitro release of thyroxine (T_4) from the thyroid of prometamorphic larvae were studied. The bullfrog thyrotropin (TSH) preparation was 4 times as potent as bovine TSH in this model. Bullfrog luteinizing hormones (LHS) (I-IV) and follicle-stimulating hormones (FSHS) (I-IV), which were classified according to their isoelectric points, were tested for their thyrotropic activity and demons-trated about 1...

  5. EXAMINATION OF HABITAT USE AND DISPERSAL OF EXOTIC BULLFROGS AND THEIR POTENTIAL IMPACT ON NATIVE AMPHIBIAN COMMUNITIES IN THE WILLAMETTE VALLEY, OREGON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) are exotic in the west and have been implicated in the decline of western pond turtles and native ranids. Habitat alterations that favor bullfrogs have enhanced populations, particularly in agricultural areas such as the Willamette Valley. I will pres...

  6. COMPARATIVE TOXICITY OF DIURON ON SURVIVAL AND GROWTH OF PACIFIC TREEFROG, BULLFROG, RED-LEGGED FROG, AND AFRICAN CLAWED FROG EMBRYOS AND TADPOLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of the herbicide diuron on survival and growth of Pacific treefrog (Pseudacris regilla),bullfrog(Rana catesbeiana), red-legged frog(Rana aurora),and African clawed frog(Xenopus laevis)embryos and tadpoles were determined in static-renewal tests. P.regilla and X.laevis...

  7. Blood and urine physiological values in farm-cultured Rana catesbeiana (Anura: Ranidae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A Coppo

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 302 samples of healthy farm-cultured Rana catesbeiana specimens (9-21 months-old, 50- 350 g liveweight, 50% each sex from the north-east of Argentina, were analyzed through spectrophotometry, electrophoresis, densitometry, refractometry and microscopy in order to obtain blood and urine normal values. Confidence intervals (pCon el propósito de obtener valores normales sanguíneos y urinarios, 302 muestras de ejemplares sanos de Rana catesbeiana del nordeste argentino (9-21 meses de edad, 50-350 g de peso vivo, 50% de cada sexo, fueron analizados por espectrofotometría, electroforesis, densitometría, refractometría y microscopía. Fueron obtenidos intervalos de confianza (p<0.05 para hematocrito (28.6-31.6%, eritrocitos (0.40-0.44 T/L, VCM (686-732 fL, hemoglobina (6.41-7.20 g/dL, HCM (151-164 pg, CHCM (22.6-24.0%, leucocitos (18.7-22.3 G/L, neutrófilos (58.4-63.4%, linfocitos (23.9-29.8%, monocitos (2.1-3.8%, eosinófilos (4.6-7.0%, basófilos (2.9-4.1%, tiempo de sangría (289-393s, tiempo de coagulación (452- 696s, tiempo de protrombina (76-128s, densidad urinaria (1.0061-1.0089 g/mL, pH urinario (6.38-6.96, fibrinógeno (0.59-0.99 g/dL, proteínas totales (4.19-4.49 g/dL, albúmina (1.49-1.67 g/dL, alfa-1 globulina (0.20-0.24 g/dL, alfa-2 globulina (0.48-0.54 g/dL, beta globulina (0.68-0.77 g/dL, gamma globulina (1.28-1.42 g/dL, relación albúmina/globulinas (0.50-0.58, creatinina (4.09-5.56 mg/L, urea (76.1-92.4 mg/L, ácido úrico (11.5-15.4 mg/L, triglicéridos (0.34-0.52 g/L, colesterol total (0.56-0.67 g/L, C-HDL (0.03-0.05 g/L, C-LDL (0.34-0.44 g/L, alfa lipoproteína (6.01-8.67%, beta lipoproteína (91.3-93.9%, glucosa (0.45-0.54 g/L, Na (116-121 meq/L, K (3.42- 3.81 meq/L, Cl (100-116 meq/L, Ca (7.98-8.61 mg/dL, P (8.31-9.36 mg/dL, Mg (2.26-2.55 mg/dL, Fe (105-178 ug/dL, ALP (144-170 IU/L, ALT (10.0-14.8 IU/L, AST (42.8-53.4 IU/L, GGT (7.8-10.6 IU/L, LDH (99-135 IU/L, CHE (151-185 IU/L y CPK (365-500 IU/L. Algunos

  8. Avoidance response of juvenile Pacific treefrogs to chemical cues of introduced predatory bullfrogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivers, D P; Wildy, E L; Kiesecker, J M; Blaustein, A R

    2001-08-01

    Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana), native to eastern North America, were introduced into Oregon in the 1930's. Bullfrogs are highly efficient predators that are known to eat a variety of prey including other amphibians. In laboratory experiments, we investigated whether juvenile Pacific treefrogs (Hyla regilla) recognize adult bullfrogs as a predatory threat. The ability of prey animals to acquire recognition of an introduced predator has important implications for survival of the prey. We found that treefrogs from a population that co-occurred with bullfrogs showed a strong avoidance of chemical cues of bullfrogs. In contrast, treefrogs from a population that did not co-occur with bullfrogs, did not respond to the bullfrog cues. Additional experiments showed that both populations of treefrogs use chemical cues to mediate predation risk. Treefrogs from both populations avoided chemical alarm cues from injured conspecifics.

  9. The esophagus anatomic-histology of bull frog ("Rana catesbeiana" Shaw, 1802 Anatomo-histologia do esôfago da rã touro ("Rana catesbeiana" Shaw, 1802

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Lino Pinto

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to describe the esophage functional morpho – histology of bull frog (Rana catebeiana Shaw, 1802, twenty bull frog, mean body weight of 85.00 ± 2.03 g, were used. The esophageal mucosa architecture is defined by thick longitudinal folds, showing an esophageal ciliated pseudostratified epithelium with mucous cells and pluricellular glands; the esophageal muscular coat is composed by inner circular muscular lamina, and by outer longitudinal muscular lamina.Com o objetivo de descrever a anatomo histologia funcional do esôfago da rã touro (Rana catesbeiana Shaw, 1802, foram utilizados 20 (vinte exemplares de rã touro com peso médio de 85,00 ± 2,03 g. Verificou-se que a arquitetura da mucosa esofágica é definida por pregas espessas e longitudinais, com epitélio esofágico do tipo pseudo estratificado ciliado com células mucosas e glândulas pluricelulares; a túnica muscular esofágica é constituida pela túnica muscular circular, mais interna, e pela túnica muscular longitudinal, mais externa.

  10. Fall and winter movements and habitat use of the introduced American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeiana) in a Montana pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Adam; Layhee, Megan J.

    2015-01-01

    American Bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) have been introduced across the globe, including in many northern latitude habitats where wetlands are ice-covered for part of the year. Because bullfrogs are less mobile at low temperatures, greater knowledge about their overwintering habitat may provide additional opportunities for control. Here, we described fall and early-winter movements and habitat associations for introduced juvenile bullfrogs in a pond within the Yellowstone River corridor near Billings, Montana, USA. We attached radio-transmitters to 13 juvenile bullfrogs and located individuals from 28 August to 10 December 2014. Bullfrogs moved greater distances in late summer and early autumn, and later during brief warming periods. Collectively, all bullfrog locations were distributed across a 15,384 m2 area during the active season, but contracted to a 130 m2 area in the east cove of the pond by the time the study site froze over. Our research provides evidence that managers in northern latitude regions like Montana may be able to use the long, cold winters to their advantage because the site-specific distributions of introduced bullfrogs contracted as temperatures decreased.

  11. EVIDENCE FOR ACCELERATED METAMORPHOSIS IN BULLFROG (RANA CATESBIEANA) TADPOLES IN AN EPHEMERAL POND

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has been widely accepted that time to metamorphosis for non-native bullfrog tadpoles in the Pacific Northwest is greater than one year. We surveyed 22 ponds within the EE Wilson Reserve (Benton County, Oregon) for bullfrog tadpoles and metamorphs from April through September, ...

  12. Suppressing bullfrog larvae with carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Jackson A.; Ray, Andrew; Sepulveda, Adam J.; Watten, Barnaby J.; Densmore, Christine L.; Layhee, Megan J.; Mark Abbey-Lambert,; ,

    2014-01-01

    Current management strategies for the control and suppression of the American Bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus = Rana catesbeiana Shaw) and other invasive amphibians have had minimal effect on their abundance and distribution. This study evaluates the effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) on pre- and prometamorphic Bullfrog larvae. Bullfrogs are a model organism for evaluating potential suppression agents because they are a successful invader worldwide. From experimental trials we estimated that the 24-h 50% and 99% lethal concentration (LC50 and LC99) values for Bullfrog larvae were 371 and 549 mg CO2/L, respectively. Overall, larvae that succumbed to experimental conditions had a lower body condition index than those that survived. We also documented sublethal changes in blood chemistry during prolonged exposure to elevated CO2. Specifically, blood pH decreased by more than 0.5 pH units after 9 h of exposure and both blood partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and blood glucose increased. These findings suggest that CO2 treatments can be lethal to Bullfrog larvae under controlled laboratory conditions. We believe this work represents the necessary foundation for further consideration of CO2 as a potential suppression agent for one of the most harmful invaders to freshwater ecosystems.

  13. Evaluation of the effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on cultured Rana catesbeiana tailfin tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Austin eHammond

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles (NPs, materials that have one dimension less than 100 nm, are used in manufacturing, health and food products, and consumer products including cosmetics, clothing and household appliances. Their utility to industry is derived from their high surface-area-to-volume ratios and physico-chemical properties distinct from their bulk counterparts, but the near-certainty that NPs will be released into the environment raises the possibility that they could present health risks to humans and wildlife. The thyroid hormones (THs, thyroxine and 3,3’,5-triiodothyronine (T3, are involved in development and metabolism in vertebrates including humans and frogs. Many of the processes of anuran metamorphosis are analogous to human post-embryonic development and disruption of TH action can have drastic effects. These shared features make the metamorphosis of anurans an excellent model for screening for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs. We used the cultured tailfin (C-fin assay to examine the exposure effects of 0.1-10 nM (~8-800 ng/L of three types of ~20 nm TiO2 NPs (P25, M212, M262 and micron-sized TiO2 (μTiO2 ±10 nM T3. The actual Ti levels were 40.9 – 64.7% of the nominal value. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR was used to measure the relative amounts of mRNA transcripts encoding TH-responsive thyroid hormone receptors (thra and thrb and Rana larval keratin type I (rlk1, as well as the cellular stress-responsive heat shock protein 30 kDa (hsp30, superoxide dismutase (sod, and catalase (cat. The levels of the TH-responsive transcripts were largely unaffected by any form of TiO2. Some significant effects on stress-related transcripts were observed upon exposure to micron-sized TiO2, P25 and M212 while no effect was observed with M262 exposure. Therefore the risk of adversely affecting amphibian tissue by disrupting TH-signalling or inducing cellular stress is low for these compounds relative to other previously

  14. Influence of Nitrate and Nitrite on Thyroid Hormone Responsive and Stress-Associated Gene Expression in Cultured Rana catesbeiana Tadpole Tail Fin Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinther, Ashley; Edwards, Thea M.; Guillette, Louis J.; Helbing, Caren C.

    2012-01-01

    Nitrate and nitrite are common aqueous pollutants that are known to disrupt the thyroid axis. In amphibians, thyroid hormone (TH)-dependent metamorphosis is affected, although whether the effect is acceleration or deceleration of this developmental process varies from study to study. One mechanism of action of these nitrogenous compounds is through alteration of TH synthesis. However, direct target tissue effects on TH signaling are hypothesized. The present study uses the recently developed cultured tail fin biopsy (C-fin) assay to study possible direct tissue effects of nitrate and nitrite. Tail biopsies obtained from premetamorphic Rana catesbeiana tadpoles were exposed to 5 and 50 mg/L nitrate (NO3–N) and 0.5 and 5 mg/L nitrite (NO2–N) in the absence and presence of 10 nM T3. Thyroid hormone receptor β (TRβ) and Rana larval keratin type I (RLKI), both of which are TH-responsive gene transcripts, were measured using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. To assess cellular stress which could affect TH signaling and metamorphosis, heat shock protein 30, and catalase (CAT) transcript levels were also measured. We found that nitrate and nitrite did not significantly change the level of any of the four transcripts tested. However, nitrate exposure significantly increased the heteroscedasticity in response of TRβ and RLKI transcripts to T3. Alteration in population variation in such a way could contribute to the previously observed alterations of metamorphosis in frog tadpoles, but may not represent a major mechanism of action. PMID:22493607

  15. Influence of nitrate and nitrite on thyroid hormone-responsive and stress-associated gene expression in cultured Rana catesbeiana tadpole tail fin tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley eHinther

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate and nitrite are common aqueous pollutants that are known to disrupt the thyroid axis. In amphibians, thyroid hormone (TH-dependent metamorphosis is affected, although whether the effect is acceleration or deceleration of this developmental process varies from study to study. One mechanism of action of these nitrogenous compounds is through alteration of TH synthesis. However, direct target tissue effects on TH signalling are hypothesized. The present study uses the recently developed cultured tail fin biopsy (C-fin assay to study possible direct tissue effects of nitrate and nitrite. Tail biopsies obtained from premetamorphic Rana catesbeiana tadpoles were exposed to 5 mg/L and 50 mg/L nitrate (NO3-N and 0.5 mg/L and 5 mg/L nitrite (NO2-N in the absence and presence of 10 nM T3. Thyroid hormone receptor β (TRβ and Rana larval keratin type I (RLKI, both of which are thyroid hormone responsive gene transcripts, were measured using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. To assess cellular stress which could affect TH signalling and metamorphosis, heat shock protein 30 (HSP30 and catalase (CAT transcript levels were also measured. We found that nitrate and nitrite did not significantly change the level of any of the four transcripts tested. However, nitrate exposure significantly increased the heteroscedasticity in response of TRβ and RLKI transcripts to T3. Alteration in population variation in such a way could contribute to the previously observed alterations of metamorphosis in frog tadpoles, but may not represent a major mechanism of action.

  16. Novel insulin from the bullfrog: its structure and function in protein secretion by hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulsebus, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    Bullfrog insulin was extracted and purified from the pancreas of Rana catesbeiana adults using gel filtration and reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. Amino acid analysis of bullfrog insulin revealed 52 amino acids instead of the most common number of 51. The most unique features of bullfrog insulin is a two amino acid extension on the amino terminus (A1) of the A chain. This is the only insulin to date that has an extension at this position. Bullfrog and porcine insulin increase protein secretion from bullfrog adult and three developmental stages of tadpole hepatocytes in a totally defined, serum-free culture system. The hormone slightly stimulates protein secretion by premetamorphic and early prometamorphic tadpoles. Late prometamorphic tadpoles respond to bullfrog and porcine insulin with higher concentrations of secreted protein than either of the two previous developmental stages. Insulin treated adult hepatocytes secrete significantly higher concentrations of protein than any of the tadpole stages. 35 S-methionine and 35 S-cysteine were added to the culture medium for twelve hours. Proteins secreted into the medium were separated using SDS polyacrylamide linear gradient gels. Densitometer scans of autoradiograms did not show an increases in any specific proteins, but did show a generalized increase in all secreted proteins for both adults, and tadpoles

  17. Rana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Søren Vissing

    and for visualization. As a tool Rana offers a graphic user interface for live event visualization, agent feedback and simulation configuration. To establish Rana as an end-user tool, it is evaluated against the existing state of the art for multi-agent systems simulation tools and three different Rana models...... interface for defining the nature of an events propagation. This provides an interface for determination of event relevance during a simulation, and for visualization of a simulations event-scape. Two different simulations are presented that demonstrate event-processing functionality in agent design...

  18. Desempenho zootécnico e tabela de alimentação de girinos de rã-touro (Rana catesbeiana criados no sistema anfigranja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima Samuel Lopes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com a execução deste trabalho avaliar, em nível de campo, o desempenho zootécnico de girinos de rã-touro (Rana catesbeiana criados em ranários comerciais que utilizam o sistema anfigranja, e simultaneamente estimar os valores de consumo diário de ração para compor uma tabela de referência para a alimentação dos animais. Os resultados encontrados nas unidades de observações monitoradas (aproximadamente 249 mil animais atingiram os seguintes índices médios: a mortalidade (em % variou de: 0,7 a 35,2 (média 5,9%; o ganho de peso (g. p/dia: de 0,03 a 0,22 (média 0,11 g/dia; e a conversão alimentar: de 0,92 a 2,75 : 1; (média 1,50 : 1. Comparados com dados preliminares, tais resultados indicam uma significativa otimização dos índices zootécnicos, demonstrando que houve um relativo ganho de produtividade com o aperfeiçoamento das técnicas de manejo implementadas. A redução do valor médio da conversão alimentar aparente foi provocada principalmente pelo adequado uso da tabela de referência, cujos valores foram ratificados durante o trabalho de monitoramento das unidades. Tal tabela possibilita o cálculo da quantidade de alimento a ser oferecido diariamente, baseado nos peso médio dos girinos e na estimativa do percentual de consumo, para temperatura da água entre 18 a 29 graus centígrados, (girinos de 0,1 a 26 gramas de peso médio.

  19. A new record for American Bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus in San Juan, Argentina Nuevo registro de rana toro americana (Lithobates catesbeianus en San Juan, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sanabria

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a new record of Lithobates catesbeianus (American bullfrog from Argentina. L. catesbeianus was first introduced to San Juan Province 11 years ago in Calingasta Department, where the habitat is pre-cordilleran. The new record is for Zonda Department, San Juan Province, in the Monte desert region. Here, L. catesbeianus uses artificial ponds for reproduction and tadpole development. These ponds receive water from an irrigation system that connects the whole agriculture land in the region. The tadpoles use the irrigation canals to move among ponds. We suggest that legislation should be established to prevent future invasions and to achieve sustainable management of the wild American bullfrog populations in San Juan. Prevention of future invasion and management of established populations of this species requires the cooperation of numerous stake holders.Se presenta un nuevo registro de Lithobates catesbeianus (rana toro americana en Argentina. L. catesbeianus fue introducida por primera vez a la provincia de San Juan hace 11 años en el Departamento Calingasta, donde el hábitat es pre-cordillerano. El nuevo registro es para el Departamento Zonda en la provincia de San Juan, en el desierto del Monte. En este sitio, L. catesbeianus usa estanques artificiales para la reproducción y desarrollo del renacuajo. Los estanques reciben agua de un sistema de riego que conecta todas las tierras de la agricultura en la región. Los renacuajos utilizan los canales de riego para moverse entre los estanques. Sugerimos que se establezcan leyes para prevenir invasiones futuras y para lograr un manejo integrado de las poblaciones silvestres de rana toro que se encuentran en San Juan. La prevención de futuras invasiones y el manejo de las poblaciones establecidas de esta especie requieren la cooperación de numerosas entidades tanto gubernamentales como privadas.

  20. Stuttering: A novel bullfrog vocalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Andrea; Suggs, Dianne

    2004-05-01

    The advertisement call of male bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) consists of a series of individual croaks, each of which contains multiple harmonics with a missing or attenuated fundamental frequency of approximately 100 Hz. The envelope of individual croaks has typically been represented in the literature as smooth and unmodulated. From an analysis of 5251 advertisement calls from 17 different choruses over two mating seasons, we show that males add an extra modulation (around 4 Hz) to the envelope of individual croaks, following specific rules. We term these extra modulations stutters. Neither single croak calls nor the first croak in multiple croak calls contains stutters. When stuttering begins, it does so with a croak containing a single stutter, and the number of stutters increases linearly (plus or minus 1 stutter, up to 4 stutters) with the number of croaks. This pattern is stable across individual males (N=10). Playback experiments reveal that vocal responses to stuttered and nonstuttered calls vary with proximity to the stimulus. Close males respond with nonstuttered calls, while far males respond with stuttered calls. The data suggest that nonstuttered calls are used for aggressive or territorial purposes, while stuttered calls are used to attract females.

  1. Evaluation of use of tiletamine/zolazepam for anesthesia of bullfrogs and leopard frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letcher, J; Durante, R

    1995-07-01

    Use of tiletamine hydrochloride and zolazepam hydrochloride (1:1 fixed ratio combination) as an anesthetic agent in 2 anuran species was studied. A dosage of 5 mg/kg of body weight, administered IM, resulted in variable weak tranquilization. Intramuscular administration at dosages of 10 and 20 mg/kg induced variable states of tranquilization or anesthesia in leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) and bullfrogs (R catesbeiana). The dosages of 50 mg/kg induced anesthesia with greater consistency than lower dosages in bullfrogs, but resulted in mortalities. The same dosage was uniformly fatal in leopard frogs. Neither gross nor histologic lesions were identified in the frogs that died. Depth and duration of anesthesia was dosage related. At the 20 and 50 mg/kg dosages, leopard frogs attained a greater depth of anesthesia and remained anesthetized for a significantly greater duration than did bullfrogs; however, at the 5 and 10 mg/kg dosages, bullfrogs developed greater tranquilization for longer periods than did leopard frogs. Results of this study revealed profound intraspecies variation in depth and duration of effect of tiletamine/zolazepam; therefore, the drug does not appear to be a suitable injectable anesthetic in anurans.

  2. Interactions of bullfrog tadpole predators and an insecticide: Predation release and facilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, M.D.; Semlitsch, R.D.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of a contaminant on a community may not be easily predicted, given that complex changes in food resources and predator-prey dynamics may result. The objectives of our study were to determine the interactive effects of the insecticide carbaryl and predators on body size, development, survival, and activity of tadpoles of the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana). We conducted the study in cattle tank mesocosm ponds exposed to 0, 3.5, or 7.0 mg/l carbaryl, and no predators or two red-spotted newts (Notophthalmus viridescens), bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus), or crayfish (Orconectes sp.). Carbaryl negatively affected predator survival by eliminating crayfish from all ponds, and by eliminating bluegill sunfish from ponds exposed to the highest concentration of carbaryl; carbaryl exposure did not effect survival of red-spotted newts. Because crayfish were eliminated by carbaryl, bullfrogs were released from predation and survival was near that of predator controls at low concentrations of carbaryl exposure. High concentrations of carbaryl reduced tadpole survival regardless of whether predators survived carbaryl exposure or not. Presence of crayfish and newts reduced tadpole survival, while bluegill sunfish appeared to facilitate bullfrog tadpole survival. Presence of carbaryl stimulated bullfrog tadpole mass and development. Our study demonstrates that the presence of a contaminant stress can alter community regulation by releasing prey from predators that are vulnerable to contaminants in some exposure scenarios.

  3. Development of Hepatozoon caimani (Carini, 1909 Pessôa, De Biasi & De Souza, 1972 in the Caiman Caiman c. crocodilus, the frog Rana catesbeiana and the mosquito Culex fatigans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lainson Ralph

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The sporogony of Hepatozoon caimani has been studied, by light microscopy, in the mosquito Culex fatigans fed on specimens of the caiman Caiman c. crocodilus showing gametocytes in their peripheral blood. Sporonts iniciate development in the space between the epithelium of the insect gut and the elastic membrane covering the haemocoele surface of the stomach. Sporulating oocysts are clustered on the gut, still invested by the gut surface membrane. Fully mature oocysts were first seen 21 days after the blood-meal. No sporogonic stages were found in some unidentified leeches fed on an infected caiman, up to 30 days following the blood-meal. When mosquitoes containing mature oocysts were fed to frogs (Leptodactylus fuscus and Rana catesbeiana, cysts containing cystozoites developed in the internal organs, principally the liver. Feeding these frogs to farm-bred caimans resulted in the appearance of gametocytes in their peripheral blood at some time between 59 and 79 days later, and the development of tissue cysts in the liver, spleen, lungs and kidneys. Transmission of the parasite was also obtained by feeding young caimans with infected mosquitoes and it is suggested that both methods occur in nature. The finding of similar cysts containing cystozoites in the semi-aquatic lizard Neusticurus bicarinatus, experimentally fed with infected C. fatigans, suggests that other secondary hosts may be involved.

  4. Influência da baixa temperatura ambiental sobre a inflamação em rã-touro gigante (Rana catesbeiana: avaliações qualitativa e quantitativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Catão-Dias

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo investigar a modulação exercida pela temperatura ambiental sobre a cinética celular inflamatória experimentalmente induzida em Rana catesbeiana, rã-touro gigante. Para tanto, 120 espécimes pós-metamórficos foram mantidos a 6ºC e 24ºC e tratados pela transfixação do tecido muscular da coxa por fio de sutura ou injeção intramuscular de carragenina. Os resultados obtidos através de avaliações qualitativa e quantitativa do foco lesional mostraram que a baixa temperatura ambiental modula significativamente a evolução do processo inflamatório. Animais mantidos a 6ºC, em ambos os modelos, apresentaram números de células inflamatórias significativamente menores que os verificados a 24ºC, independentemente do tempo de avaliação. Por outro lado, algum fator pertencente aos mecanismos de defesa do hospedeiro não deve ter sido bloqueado pela temperatura, visto que a área de reação à injúria mostrou-se equivalente na maioria dos tempos pesquisados.

  5. Rana catesbeiana, pólvora e modulação supramolecular cicatrização intestinal e prognóstico no câncer de cólon: uma mesma origem biológica para o insucesso? Rana catesbeiana, Gunpowder and Supramolecular Modulation Intestinal Healing and Prognosis in Colon Cancer: The Same Biological Origin of the Failure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Delabio-Ferraz

    2010-06-01

    studying tadpole resorption of the American bullfrog. Metalloproteinases activity in cancer research, has taken a special place. Currently, evidences points to the cancer cell ability to interfere with enzymatic activity modulation - an co-factor which affects local invasiveness and metastatic dissemination. Both MMPs-2 and -7 have been frequently observed in colon cancer. Moreover, MMP-12 seems to counteract MMP-7 effect therefore considered as a protector and associated with better prognosis, in contrast to MMP-3, which may be responsible for a worse outcome. Association between high activity of MMPs, the prognosis of cancer and increased risk of intestinal anastomotic leakage has been highlighted, suggesting a consistent trilogy. Pharmacological therapy using MMPs inhibitors has been extensively studied, especially targeted for cancer control. The article discusses the most relevant information and updated information on the subject.

  6. Within-individual variation in bullfrog vocalizations: implications for a vocally mediated social recognition system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bee, Mark A

    2004-12-01

    Acoustic signals provide a basis for social recognition in a wide range of animals. Few studies, however, have attempted to relate the patterns of individual variation in signals to behavioral discrimination thresholds used by receivers to discriminate among individuals. North American bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) discriminate among familiar and unfamiliar individuals based on individual variation in advertisement calls. The sources, patterns, and magnitudes of variation in eight acoustic properties of multiple-note advertisement calls were examined to understand how patterns of within-individual variation might either constrain, or provide additional cues for, vocal recognition. Six of eight acoustic properties exhibited significant note-to-note variation within multiple-note calls. Despite this source of within-individual variation, all call properties varied significantly among individuals, and multivariate analyses indicated that call notes were individually distinct. Fine-temporal and spectral call properties exhibited less within-individual variation compared to gross-temporal properties and contributed most toward statistically distinguishing among individuals. Among-individual differences in the patterns of within-individual variation in some properties suggest that within-individual variation could also function as a recognition cue. The distributions of among-individual and within-individual differences were used to generate hypotheses about the expected behavioral discrimination thresholds of receivers.

  7. EVIDENCE FOR FIRST YEAR METAMORPHOSIS OF BULLFROGS IN AN EPHEMERAL POND

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is widely accepted that bullfrog ( R catesbeiana) tadpoles in the Pacific Northwest require more than one year for metamorphosis. Often time to metamorphosis increases along a latitudinal gradient. During our pond surveys at the EE Wilson Reserve, we found evidence of first ...

  8. Gill and lung ventilation responses to steady-state aquatic hypoxia and hyperoxia in the bullfrog tadpole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, N H; Burggren, W W

    1982-02-01

    Gill ventilation frequency (fG), the pressure amplitude (PBC) and stroke volume (VS) of buccal ventilation cycles, the frequency of air breaths (fL), water flow over the gills (VW), gill oxygen uptake (MGO2), oxygen utilization (U), and heart frequency (fH) have been measured in unanaesthetized, air breathing Rana catesbeiana tadpoles (stage XVI-XIX). The animals were unrestrained except for ECG leads or cannulae, and were able to surface voluntarily for air breathing. They were subjected to aquatic normoxia, hyperoxia and three levels of aquatic hypoxia, and their respiratory responses recorded in the steady state. The experiments were performed at 20 +/- 0.5 degrees C. In hyperoxia there was an absence of air breathing, and fG, PBC and VW fell from the normoxic values, while U increased, resulting in no significant change in MGO2. Animals in normoxia showed a very low fL which increased in progressively more hypoxic states. VW increased from the normoxic value in mild hypoxia (PO2 = 96 +/- 2 mm Hg), but fell, associated with a reduction in PBC, in moderate (PO2 = 41 +/- 1 mm Hg) and severe (PO2 = 21 +/- 3 mm Hg) hypoxia in the presence of lung ventilation. Gill MGO2 was not significantly different from the normoxic value in mild hypoxia but fell in moderate hypoxia, while in severe hypoxia oxygen was lost to the ventilating water from the blood perfusing the gills. There was no significant change in fH from the normoxic value in either hypoxia or hyperoxia. These data indicate, that in the bimodally breathing bullfrog tadpole, aquatic PO2 exerts a strong control over both gill and lung ventilation. Furthermore, there is an interaction between gill and lung ventilation such that the onset of a high frequency of lung ventilation in moderate and severe hypoxia promotes a suppression of gill ventilation cycles.

  9. Rana nigromaculata

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ONLINE RESOURCES. Development and characterization of 13 polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers for the pond green frog (Rana nigromaculata). JIE GONG1,2, HONG LAN1,2, SHENG-GUO FANG1,2 and QIU-HONG WAN1,2∗. 1College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, People's Republic of ...

  10. Physiological response of American bullfrog tadpoles to stressor conditions of capture and hypoxia Resposta fisiológica de girinos de rã-touro americana submetidos aos mecanismos estressores de captura e hipóxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme C Rocha

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana, recently named Lithobates catesbeianus is currently farmed for commercial purposes throughout various regions of Brazil. Stressful situations such as problems of management, inadequate facilities and environmental changes with consequent reduction of immunity are common in intensive production. The assessments of these situations of stress allow us detect these problems decreasing the injuries causes by confinement. The main objective of this study was to use the biological markers of plasma cortisol and glucose level and hematological parameters to evaluate the response of bullfrog tadpoles submitted to stressed mechanisms of capture and hypoxia. The animals were subjected to three treatments: stress due to individual capture with a hand net; stress due to batch capture with a hand net; and stress due to capture by emptying. The results obtained demonstrated that there were no statistically significant differences in the parameters tested when comparing the treatments with and without exposure to air (normoxia and hypoxia. Based on these results we can conclude that the stressful stimuli tested were not adequate to alter the biomarker tested. For the cortisol, probably this should have occurred due to the synergistic action between this hormone and thyroxin, which induces metamorphosis in these animals.A rã-touro americana (Rana catesbeiana recentemente denominada Lithobates catesbeianus é cria da com propósito comercial em várias regiões do Brasil. Situações estressantes tais como problemas de manejo, criação inadequada e alterações ambientais com consequente redução da imunidade são comuns em produções intensivas. A avaliação destas situações de estresse permite-nos detectar estes probemas e diminuir as injurias causadas pelo confinamento. O principal objetivo deste estudo foi utilizar os marcadores biológicos de cortisol, glicemia e dados hematológicos para avaliar a resposta de

  11. Dispersión de la rana toro, Lithobates catesbeianus (Shaw 1802 (Anura: Ranidae, en el estado Mérida, Venezuela, entre 2005-2013 | Dispersal of bullfrog, Lithobates catesbeianus (Shaw 1802 (Anura: Ranidae in Mérida state, Venezuela, between 2005 and 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Nava-González

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The bullfrog, Lithobates catesbeianus, is one of the one hundred worst invasive species in the world. Its introduction into the Venezuelan Andes is worrying due to the large number of endemic species that could be affected by its presence. We examined the dispersal of Lithobates catesbeianus in western Venezuela to identify the areas where follow-up and control are a priority to avoid further invasion. Based on data on absence and presence of the bullfrog, we updated its distribution and compared it to records from 2005 (46.001 km2 and 2010 (53.502 km2. The area invaded by 2013 was 76.417 km2, 1.6 times the distribution in 2005, growing at a rate of 3,041 km2 per year. Factors such as inclination of the terrain, presence of forests and bodies of fast moving water could be acting as barriers to further dispersal. Taking into account that the distribution of this species in Venezuela by 2013 was limited to the basins of the rivers Capazón, Las González and Quebrada La Sucia in Mérida state; the regions at the greatest risk of being invaded due to natural dispersal are downriver from these bodies of water. However, the risk of invasion exists due to human introduction in nearby areas similar to those currently inhabitedby the bullfrog. Our recommendations are the conservation and reforestation of forests in the area, the creation of early warning protocols for the areas at greatest risk of invasion, and the continuation of measures prohibiting the transportation of bullfrogs outside of their current distribution.

  12. Alterações histopatológicas em girinos de rã-touro alimentados com rações comerciais de diferentes níveis protéicos Histopathological alterations in bullfrog tadpoles fed commercial diets with three levels of crude protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Teixeira de Seixas Filho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Realizaram-se necropsia e exame histopatológico de girinos de rã-touro (Rana catesbeiana alimentados com rações comerciais formuladas com 32, 36, 45 ou 55% de proteína bruta (PB visando estabelecer a relação entre o nível de proteína bruta da ração e a sanidade do animal. Na necropsia, os girinos não apresentaram externamente nenhuma alteração aparente, no entanto, o fígado dos animais, em todos os níveis de proteína bruta, apresentou-se de cor palha e manchado. Na análise histopatológica, observaram-se fígados com rarefação e degeneração celular protéica, intestinos com colite e achatamento das microvilosidades; baço com hiperplasia linfocitária; coração sem nenhuma alteração; rins com glomerulonefrite e áreas de tubulonefroses; gastrite mononuclear e hiperplasia e hipertrofia dos linfonodos regionais. Em todos os órgãos, verificou-se depósito de hemossiderina. Essas lesões sugerem quadro degenerativo nutricional, com desenvolvimento de processos inflamatórios, se difundindo para todos os órgãos. Os resultados sugerem que os animais foram alimentados com rações com proteínas de baixo valor biológico, portanto, de má qualidade, o que comprometeu a sanidade e o desempenho dos animais. Estudos complementares são necessários para compreensão do comportamento bioquímico de rãs-touro na fase de girino visando à nutrição adequada desses animais.Necropsy and histological examination were made on bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana tadpoles fed commercial rations with 32, 36, 45 or 55% crude protein (CP to establish the relationship between dietary crude protein and health of the animal. In the necropsy, the tadpoles did not show externally any changes, however, the liver of animals at all crude protein levels, presented a straw color and stained. Histological analysis showed livers with rarefaction and degeneration of cell protein, intestines, with colitis and flattening of microvilli, spleen with lymphocyte

  13. Ugrizna rana lica

    OpenAIRE

    Knežević, Bojana; Knežević, Predrag; Uglešić, Vedran; Zubčić, Vedran

    2006-01-01

    Ugrizne rane jedne su od najčešćih ozljeda u ljudi. Najčešći su ugrizi pasa (više od 80%), mačaka i ljudi. U velikom postotku ugrizne rane locirane su na licu, osobito kod djece. Najčešće bakterije koje se mogu naći u ugriznoj rani su aerobi i anaerobi iz oralne flore napadača i aerobi s kože žrtve. Liječenje ugriznih rana lica je specifično u odnosu prema ostalim dijelovima tijela. Ugrizne rane lica primarno se šivaju, a zbog dobre prokrvljenosti komplikacije su rijetke, no ako se dogode mog...

  14. A New Kind of Biomaterials-Bullfrog Skin Collagen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He LI; Bai Ling LIU; Hua Lin CHEN; Li Zhen GAO

    2003-01-01

    Pepsin-soluble collagen was prepared from bullfrog skin and partially characterized. This study revealed interesting differences, such as molecular weight, amino acid composition, denaturation temperature (Td), in the frog skin collagen when compared to the known vertebrate collagens. This study gives hints that bullfrog skin can be a potential, safe alternative source of collagen from cattle for use in various fields.

  15. Uniaxial compression test series on Bullfrog Tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.H.; Jones, A.K.; Nimick, K.G.

    1982-04-01

    Nineteen uniaxial compressive experiments were performed on samples of the Bullfrog Member of the Crater Flat Tuff, obtained from drillhole USW-G1 at Yucca Mountain on the Nevada Test Site. The water saturated samples were deformed at a nominal strain rate of 10 -5 sec -1 , atmospheric pressure and room temperature. Resultant unconfined compressive strengths, axial strains to failure, Young's moduli and Poisson's ratios ranged from 4.63 to 153. MPa, .0028 to .0058, 2.03 to 28.9 GPa and .08 to .16, respectively

  16. Comprehensive Monitoring Program: Final Biota Annual Report for 1989. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    between April and July. Snows usually occur from September to May. with the heaviest snowfall in March and possible accumulation as late as June...intermittent wet areas (such as Upper )erby Lake) on RMA. The northern leopard frog (Rana Divens) and the bullfrog (R. catesbeiana) were also observed...For species, the acronym was based on the first two letters of the genus and species scientific names, unless the "species" was really a higher

  17. Basolateral Cl- channels in the larval bullfrog skin epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillyard, Stanley D.; Rios, K.; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    2002-01-01

    The addition of 150 U/ml nystatin to the mucosal surface of isolated skin from larval bullfrogs increases apical membrane permeability and allows a voltage clamp to be applied to the basolateral membrane. With identical Ringer's solutions bathing either side of the tissue the short-circuit curren...

  18. Stretch-activated cation channel from larval bullfrog skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillyard, Stanley D; Willumsen, Niels J; Marrero, Mario B

    2010-01-01

    Cell-attached patches from isolated epithelial cells from larval bullfrog skin revealed a cation channel that was activated by applying suction (-1 kPa to -4.5 kPa) to the pipette. Activation was characterized by an initial large current spike that rapidly attenuated to a stable value and showed ...

  19. Habitat restoration as a management tool for invasive American bullfrog

    OpenAIRE

    Devisscher, Sander; Adriaens, Tim; Louette, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    The control of invasive alien species is essential for securing native biodiversity. As for the American bullfrog, Lithobates catesbeianus, suspected to cause ecological damage to native amphibians around the globe, comprehensive management techniques are currently absent. We investigated two contrasting approaches to control the species in permanent, small and shallow water bodies in Flanders (northern Belgium). Small and isolated populations were actively managed through trapping with doubl...

  20. Antibiogram and heavy metal tolerance of bullfrog bacteria in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Tee, L.W.; Najiah, M.

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial isolates from 30 farmed bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) weighing 500-600 g at Johore, Malaysia with external clinical signs of ulcer, red leg and torticollis were tested for their antibiograms and heavy metal tolerance patterns. A total of 17 bacterial species with 77 strains were successfully isolated and assigned to 21 antibiotics and 4 types of heavy metal (Hg2+, Cr6+, Cd2+, Cu2+). Results revealed that bacteria were resistant against lincomycin (92%), oleandomycin (72.7%) an...

  1. Antibiogram and heavy metal tolerance of bullfrog bacteria in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Najiah

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial isolates from 30 farmed bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus weighing 500-600 g at Johore, Malaysia with external clinical signs of ulcer, red leg and torticollis were tested for their antibiograms and heavy metal tolerance patterns. A total of 17 bacterial species with 77 strains were successfully isolated and assigned to 21 antibiotics and 4 types of heavy metal (Hg2+, Cr6+, Cd2+, Cu2+. Results revealed that bacteria were resistant against lincomycin (92%, oleandomycin (72.7% and furazolidone (71.4% while being susceptible to chloramphenicol and florfenicol at 97.4%. The multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR index for C. freundii, E. coli and M. morganii was high with the value up to 0.71. Bacterial strains were found to exhibit 100 % resistance to chromium and mercury. High correlation of resistance against both antibiotics and heavy metals was found (71.4 to 100% between bullfrog bacteria isolates, except bacteria that were resistant to kanamycin showed only 25% resistance against Cu2+. Based on the results in this study, bacterial pathogens of bullfrog culture in Johore, Malaysia, were highly resistant to both antibiotics and heavy metals.

  2. Antibiogram and heavy metal tolerance of bullfrog bacteria in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, L W; Najiah, M

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial isolates from 30 farmed bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) weighing 500-600 g at Johore, Malaysia with external clinical signs of ulcer, red leg and torticollis were tested for their antibiograms and heavy metal tolerance patterns. A total of 17 bacterial species with 77 strains were successfully isolated and assigned to 21 antibiotics and 4 types of heavy metal (Hg(2+), Cr(6+), Cd(2+), Cu(2+)). Results revealed that bacteria were resistant against lincomycin (92%), oleandomycin (72.7%) and furazolidone (71.4%) while being susceptible to chloramphenicol and florfenicol at 97.4%. The multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index for C. freundii, E. coli and M. morganii was high with the value up to 0.71. Bacterial strains were found to exhibit 100 % resistance to chromium and mercury. High correlation of resistance against both antibiotics and heavy metals was found (71.4 to 100%) between bullfrog bacteria isolates, except bacteria that were resistant to kanamycin showed only 25% resistance against Cu(2+). Based on the results in this study, bacterial pathogens of bullfrog culture in Johore, Malaysia, were highly resistant to both antibiotics and heavy metals.

  3. Exotic Amphibians in the Pet Shops of Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Chun Lucy Hou

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Pet trade is an important mechanism for introducing alien species. We surveyed a total of 434 pet shops in major cities of Taiwan and found 49 species of alien amphibians belonging to 14 families and 31 genera. Two of the alien species, Rana catesbeiana and Kaloula pulchra, have established in the fields and the other three, Bufo marinus, Xenopus laevis, and Dendrobates auratus, have invasion records in other countries. There were 16 CITES Appendix II species. The most frequently displayed species were the horned frogs, eratophrys spp. And the most abundant species was the American Bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana. We urge the authority of Taiwan establishing regulations on pet trade and enforcing the wildlife conservation law to reduce the risks of alien species invasions.

  4. Influência da baixa temperatura ambiental sobre a atividade fagocítica de troinbócitos de rã touro gigante (Rana catesbeiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo De Luca Penha

    1996-03-01

    que o frio foi capaz de modular significativamente a capacidade fagocítica dos trombócitos. Animais tratados e mantidos a 6°C exibiram uma lenta atividade inicial à 1h (16,3 ± 4,3; resultados expressos como média desvio padrão de trombócitos positivos em 400 células analisadas/animal; n=6, que aumentou discretamente às 6h e 12h (45,8 ± 12,2; 55,5 ± 9,6, alcançando o máximo de reação aos 3d e 7d (80,3 ± 27,5; 78,3 ± 29,5. Por outro lado, rãs mantidas a 24°C apresentaram uma forte resposta inicial à 1h (90,0 ± 16,7, aumentando marcadamente até 1d (196,0 ± 49,8, e então diminuindo até 7d (56,0 ± 10,6. Os resultados obtidos suportam estudos prévios que demonstram a importância da temperatura ambiental sobre múltiplos processos relativos aos mecanismos de defesa desses animais.

  5. L'introduction d'espèces allochtones de grenouilles vertes en France, deux problèmes différents : celui de R. Catesbeiana et celui des taxons non présents du complexe Esculenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEVEU A.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Depuis quelques années, la grenouille taureau (Rana catesbeiana est signalée en France dans une zone limitée de gravières près de Bordeaux. Elle est aussi présente depuis peu aux Pays-Bas et, dans les deux cas, la reproduction est effective. Cette espèce existe déjà en Europe depuis les années 30, à la suite d'introductions volontaires en Italie, sans pour cela avoir été signalée dans la partie ouest. La grenouille taureau est la plus grande des espèces nord-américaines et est considérée comme un prédateur éclectique. De ce fait, elle peut présenter un danger pour d'autres animaux, en particulier les grenouilles autochtones. Mais aucune donnée ne permet d'estimer cet éventuel impact en France et les données de la littérature ont souvent surestimé ce dernier. Par précaution, des mesures pourraient être prises pour réduire les populations actuelles présentes dans une aire pour le moment limitée. Les importations de grenouilles vivantes pour la consommation humaine, surtout à partir des pays du sud de l'Europe, sont l'occasion d'introductions de nouveaux taxons. Mais ces grenouilles font partie du même complexe et sont proches sur le plan morphologique, biologique et écologique. Les risques potentiels pour les populations locales sont les introductions de gènes, mais en ce qui concerne un éventuel avantage compétitif aucune donnée ne permet de conclure.

  6. Respiratory signaling of locus coeruleus neurons during hypercapnic acidosis in the bullfrog, Lithobates catesbeianus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santin, J M; Hartzler, L K

    2013-02-01

    The locus coeruleus (LC) in the brainstem senses alterations in CO(2)/pH and influences ventilatory adjustments that restore blood gas values to starting levels in bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus). We hypothesized that neurons of the bullfrog LC are sensitive to changes in CO(2)/pH and that chemosensitive responses are intrinsic to individual neurons. In addition, we hypothesized putative respiratory control neurons of the bullfrog LC would be stimulated by hypercapnic acidosis within physiological ranges of P(CO(2))/pH. 84% of LC neurons depolarized and increased firing rates during exposure to hypercapnic acidosis (HA). A pH dose response curve shows LC neurons from bullfrogs increase firing rates during physiologically relevant CO(2)/pH changes. With chemical synapses blocked, half of chemosensitive neurons lost sensitivity to HA; however, gap junction blockade did not alter chemosensitive responses. Intrinsically chemosensitive neurons increased input resistance during HA. These data demonstrate that majority of neurons within the bullfrog LC elicit robust firing responses during physiological ΔCO(2)/pH, likely enabling adjustment of acid-base balance through breathing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Climate change and American Bullfrog invasion: what could we expect in South America?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Nori

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Biological invasion and climate change pose challenges to biodiversity conservation in the 21(st century. Invasive species modify ecosystem structure and functioning and climatic changes are likely to produce invasive species' range shifts pushing some populations into protected areas. The American Bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus is one of the hundred worst invasive species in the world. Native from the southeast of USA, it has colonized more than 75% of South America where it has been reported as a highly effective predator, competitor and vector of amphibian diseases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We modeled the potential distribution of the bullfrog in its native range based on different climate models and green-house gases emission scenarios, and projected the results onto South America for the years of 2050 and 2080. We also overlaid projected models onto the South American network of protected areas. Our results indicate a slight decrease in potential suitable area for bullfrog invasion, although protected areas will become more climatically suitable. Therefore, invasion of these sites is forecasted. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We provide new evidence supporting the vulnerability of the Atlantic Forest Biodiversity Hotspot to bullfrog invasion and call attention to optimal future climatic conditions of the Andean-Patagonian forest, eastern Paraguay, and northwestern Bolivia, where invasive populations have not been found yet. We recommend several management and policy strategies to control bullfrog invasion and argue that these would be possible if based on appropriate articulation among government agencies, NGOs, research institutions and civil society.

  8. Introduced bullfrogs are associated with increased Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis prevalence and reduced occurrence of Korean treefrogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaël Borzée

    Full Text Available Bullfrogs, Lithobates catesbeianus, have been described as major vectors of the amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd. Bd is widespread throughout the range of amphibians yet varies considerably within and among populations in prevalence and host impact. In our study, the presence of L. catesbeianus is correlated with a 2.5 increase in Bd prevalence in treefrogs, and the endangered Dryophytes suweonensis displays a significantly higher Bd prevalence than the more abundant D. japonicus for the 37 sites surveyed. In addition, the occurrence of L. catesbeianus was significantly correlated with a decrease in presence of D. suweonensis at sites. We could not determine if it is the presence of bullfrogs as competitors or predators that is limiting the distribution of D. suweonensis or whether this is caused by bullfrogs acting as a reservoir for Bd. However, L. catesbeianus can now be added to the list of factors responsible for the decline of D. suweonensis populations.

  9. Alternative leech vectors for frog and turtle trypanosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddall, M E; Desser, S S

    1992-06-01

    Trypanosoma pipientis infections were achieved by exposing laboratory-raised bullfrog tadpoles (Rana catesbeiana) to the leech Desserobdella picta that had fed on infected frogs. Likewise, a laboratory-raised snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) was infected with Trypanosoma chrysemydis following exposure to infected Placobdella ornata. Transmission of the trypanosomes by these leeches constitutes new vector records for the parasites. The biology of D. picta and P. ornata suggests that they are more important in transmitting these flagellates than the species of leech previously reported as vectors.

  10. Asymmetric [14C]albumin transport across bullfrog alveolar epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.J.; LeBon, T.R.; Shinbane, J.S.; Crandall, E.D.

    1985-01-01

    Bullfrog lungs were prepared as planar sheets and bathed with Ringer solution in Ussing chambers. In the presence of a constant electrical gradient (20, 0, or -20 mV) across the tissue, 14 C-labeled bovine serum albumin or inulin was instilled into the upstream reservoir and the rate of appearance of the tracer in the downstream reservoir was monitored. Two lungs from the same animal were used to determine any directional difference in tracer fluxes. An apparent permeability coefficient was estimated from a relationship between normalized downstream radioactivities and time. Results showed that the apparent permeability of albumin in the alveolar to pleural direction across the alveolar epithelial barrier is 2.3 X 10(-7) cm/s, significantly greater (P less than 0.0005) than that in the pleural to alveolar direction (5.3 X 10(-8) cm/s) when the tissue was short circuited. Permeability of inulin, on the other hand, did not show any directional dependence and averaged 3.1 X 10(-8) cm/s in both directions. There was no effect on radiotracer fluxes permeabilities of different electrical gradients across the tissue. Gel electrophoretograms and corresponding radiochromatograms suggest that the large and asymmetric isotope fluxes are not primarily due to digestion or degradation of labeled molecules. Inulin appears to traverse the alveolar epithelial barrier by simple diffusion through hydrated paracellular pathways. On the other hand, [ 14 C]albumin crosses the alveolar epithelium more rapidly than would be expected by simple diffusion. These asymmetric and large tracer fluxes suggest that a specialized mechanism is present in alveolar epithelium that may be capable of helping to remove albumin from the alveolar space

  11. α-ENaC in bullfrog embryo: expression in cement gland, gills and skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimaki-Aoba, Kayo; Tanaka, Kayoko; Inomata, Reiko; Jensik, Philip J; Takada, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is involved in Na(+) responses such as Na(+) absorption and salt taste. The alpha ENaC subunit (α-ENaC) is expressed in the skin of both the adult and larval (tadpole) bullfrog. α-ENaC expression in the developing bullfrog embryo has not been previously investigated. In this study, the expression of α-ENaC at various stages (Sts.) of bullfrog embryonic development is assessed by western blot and immunofluorescence analysis. Bullfrog α-ENaC (α-fENaC) protein was detected by western blot in embryos at Sts. (Gosner/Shumway) 19, 21 and 25. Immunofluorescence studies indicate that α-fENaC was localized to the embryonic cement glands at St. 18 (muscular response), St. 19 (heart beat) and St. 21 (mouth open and/or cornea transparent), to the external gills at St. 21 and to the outermost cell-layer of the skin at St. 25 (operculum complete). The function(s) of ENaC in these embryonic structures remain to be elucidated.

  12. Morphometric variation in the Tunisian green frog, Rana saharica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rana saharica is the most widely distributed anuran in Tunisia. We examined morphological variation in 124 specimens as a function of their geographical origin, using univariate and multivariate statistics with traditional morphometrics. Our results supported the existence of three morphotypes of this species, correctly ...

  13. Foraging behaviour in tadpoles of the bronze frog Rana temporalis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The ability of bronze frog Rana temporalis tadpoles (pure or mixed parental lines) to ... less of whether they are siblings or non-siblings in a group, which correlates well with ..... Sutherland W J and Parker G A 1992 The relationship between.

  14. In vivo study of lens regeneration in Rana cyanophlyctis under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-12

    Mar 12, 2014 ... enhanced the percentage lens regeneration not only in young tadpoles but also in froglets. Lens regeneration ability ... Influence of vitamin A and ascorbic acid on lens regeneration in young, mature tadpoles and froglets of the frog Rana cyanophlyctis. Group .... ingested by macrophages. Dorsal iris cells ...

  15. Genetic reconstruction of a bullfrog invasion to elucidate vectors of introduction and secondary spread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Pauline L.; Sepulveda, Adam; Layhee, Megan J.

    2016-01-01

    Reconstructing historical colonization pathways of an invasive species is critical for uncovering factors that determine invasion success and for designing management strategies. The American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus) is endemic to eastern North America, but now has a global distribution and is considered to be one of the worst invaders in the world. In Montana, several introduced populations have been reported, but little is known of their sources and vectors of introduction and secondary spread. We evaluated the genetic composition of introduced populations at local (Yellowstone River floodplain) and regional (Montana and Wyoming) scales in contrast to native range populations. Our objectives were to (1) estimate the number of introductions, (2) identify probable native sources, (3) evaluate genetic variation relative to sources, and (4) characterize properties of local- and regional-scale spread. We sequenced 937 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome b locus in 395 tadpoles collected along 100 km of the Yellowstone River, from three additional sites in MT and a proximate site in WY. Pairwise ΦST revealed high divergence among nonnative populations, suggesting at least four independent introductions into MT from diverse sources. Three cyt b haplotypes were identical to native haplotypes distributed across the Midwest and Great Lakes regions, and AMOVA confirmed the western native region as a likely source. While haplotype (Hd = 0.69) and nucleotide diversity (π = 0.005) were low in introduced bullfrogs, the levels of diversity did not differ significantly from source populations. In the Yellowstone, two identified haplotypes implied few introduction vectors and a significant relationship between genetic and river distance was found. Evidence for multiple invasions and lack of subsequent regional spread emphasizes the importance of enforcing legislation prohibiting bullfrog importation and the need for continuing public education to prevent

  16. Morphometric growth characteristics and body composition of bullfrog tadpoles in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber Menegasso Mansano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Feed management needs to be improved in frog farming to reduce the indirect effects of inadequate feeding and, consequently, to increase growth rates and nutrient deposition, obtaining better quality animals. The objective of this study was to establish morphometric growth curves for bullfrog tadpoles (Lithobates catesbeianus and to determine nutrient deposition in the carcass. A total of 6,480 bullfrogs (Gosner stage 25 received an experimental diet (26.23% digestible protein and 32.68% crude protein and a commercial diet (37.92% crude protein ad libitum. A Gompertz model was used to describe the growth curve. Tadpoles fed the experimental diet presented higher final protein deposition. In addition, the sigmoidal curve was much more homogenous, indicating a more constant daily protein deposition rate. The Gompertz model provided an excellent fit of the data to describe the morphometric growth curve and carcass nutrient deposition of bullfrog tadpoles, showing that animals fed the experimental diet presented a better growth rate and nutrient deposition.

  17. Differential uptake of gold nanoparticles by 2 species of tadpole, the wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) and the bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lucas B; Carfagno, Gerardo L F; Andresen, Kurt; Sitton, Andrea J; Bury, Taylor; Lee, Laura L; Lerner, Kevin T; Fong, Peter P

    2017-12-01

    Engineered nanoparticles are aquatic contaminants of emerging concern that exert ecotoxicological effects on a wide variety of organisms. We exposed cetyltrimethylammonium bromide-capped spherical gold nanoparticles to wood frog and bullfrog tadpoles with conspecifics and in combination with the other species continuously for 21 d, then measured uptake and localization of gold. Wood frog tadpoles alone and in combination with bullfrog tadpoles took up significantly more gold than bullfrogs. Bullfrog tadpoles in combination with wood frogs took up significantly more gold than controls. The rank order of weight-normalized gold uptake was wood frogs in combination > wood frogs alone > bullfrogs in combination > bullfrogs alone > controls. In all gold-exposed groups of tadpoles, gold was concentrated in the anterior region compared with the posterior region of the body. The concentration of gold nanoparticles in the anterior region of wood frogs both alone and in combination with bullfrogs was significantly higher than the corresponding posterior regions. We also measured depuration time of gold in wood frogs. After 21 d in a solution of gold nanoparticles, tadpoles lost >83% of internalized gold when placed in gold-free water for 5 d. After 10 d in gold-free water, tadpoles lost 94% of their gold. After 15 d, gold concentrations were below the level of detection. Our finding of differential uptake between closely related species living in similar habitats with overlapping geographical distributions argues against generalizing toxicological effects of nanoparticles for a large group of organisms based on measurements in only one species. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:3351-3358. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  18. Habitat connectivity and resident shared predators determine the impact of invasive bullfrogs on native frogs in farm ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atobe, Takashi; Osada, Yutaka; Takeda, Hayato; Kuroe, Misako; Miyashita, Tadashi

    2014-07-07

    Habitat connectivity is considered to have an important role on the persistence of populations in the face of habitat fragmentation, in particular, for species with conservation concern. However, it can also impose indirect negative effects on native species through the spread of invasive species. Here, we investigated direct and indirect effects of habitat connectivity on populations of invasive bullfrogs and native wrinkled frogs and how these effects are modified by the presence of common carp, a resident shared predator, in a farm pond system in Japan. The distribution pattern analysis using a hierarchical Bayesian modelling indicated that bullfrogs had negative effects on wrinkled frogs, and that these negative effects were enhanced with increasing habitat connectivity owing to the metapopulation structure of bullfrogs. The analysis also suggested that common carp mitigated these impacts, presumably owing to a top-down trophic cascade through preferential predation on bullfrog tadpoles. These presumed interspecific interactions were supported by evidence from laboratory experiments, i.e. predation by carp was more intense on bullfrog tadpoles than on wrinkled frog tadpoles owing to the difference in refuge use. Our results indicate that metacommunity perspectives could provide useful insights for establishing effective management strategies of invasive species living in patchy habitats. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Helminth communities of two green frogs (Rana perezi and Rana saharica from both shores of the Alboran Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarro P.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The helminth communities of two populations of green frogs from both shores of the Alborán Sea (Western Mediterranean were studied. Of the 79 frogs examined for helminths, 39 individuals of the species Rana saharica were collected from Bab-Taza (Morocco, and 40 of the species Rana perezi were collected from the Natural Park of the Sierra de Grazalema (Spain. Although the species richness of helminths was identical in the two sampled areas, the differences observed in the structure of the helminth infracommunities were quite important. Statistically, significant differences were found between the species richness and the diversity of the infracommunities of R. perezi female population and the other three studied statistical populations. The helminth component communities of these two green frogs can be considered as depauperate, although their infracommunities present interactive features.

  20. On the presence of Rana ridibunda ridibunda Pallas in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.

    1975-01-01

    Since long there has been a dispute whether in the Netherlands there occur one or two species of green frogs of the genus Rana. There has never been any doubt concerning the presence of Rana esculenta Linnaeus, a species widely distributed throughout the country (Van de Bund, 1964, 1968). The first

  1. When local anesthesia becomes universal: Pronounced systemic effects of subcutaneous lidocaine in bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Catherine; Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Bertelsen, Mads Frost

    2017-01-01

    Sodium channel blockers are commonly injected local anesthetics but are also routinely used for general immersion anesthesia in fish and amphibians. Here we report the effects of subcutaneous injection of lidocaine (5 or 50mgkg-1) in the hind limb of bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) on reflexes...... regained over 4h. Systemic sedative effects were not coupled to local anti-nociception, as a forceps pinch test at the site of injection provoked movement at the height of the systemic effect (tested at 81±4min). Amphibians are routinely subject to general anesthesia via exposure to sodium channel blockers...

  2. ULOGA DEBRIDMANA U LIJEČENJU KRONIČNIH RANA

    OpenAIRE

    HULJEV, DUBRAVKO; GAJIĆ, ALEKSANDAR; TRILLER, CIRIL; KECELJ LESKOVEC, NADA

    2013-01-01

    Debridement je proces uklanjanja mrtvog tkiva iz rane. Struktura, boja i neugodni mirisi devitaliziranog tkiva se razlikuju. osim toga, devitalizirano tkivo može biti suho ili sa secernacijom. Devitalizirano tkivo usporava ili u potpunosti onemogućuje zarastanje rane te je indicirano da ga se u okviru liječenja rana mora odstraniti. Cilj debridmana je pretvaranje kronične rane u stanje akutne rane i iniciranje procesa zaraštavanja. Debridement je osnovni postupak u liječenju svake rane, ali i...

  3. RANA, a real-time multi-agent system simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Søren Vissing; Demazeau, Yves; Hallam, John

    2016-01-01

    for individualisation and abstraction while retaining efficiency. Events are managed by the C++ simulator core. Full run state can be recorded for post-processed visualisation or analysis. The new tool is demonstrated in three different cases: a mining robot simulation, which is purely action based; an agent......-based setup that is verifies the high precision exhibited by RANAs simulation core; and a state-based firefly-like agent simulation that models real-time responses to fellow agents' signals, in which event propagation and reception affect the result of the simulation....

  4. Correlated factors in amphibian decline: Exotic species and habitat change in western Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    Amphibian declines may frequently be associated with multiple, correlated factors. In western North America, exotic species and hydrological changes are often correlated and are considered 2 of the greatest threats to freshwater systems. Bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) introductions are frequently cited as a threat to lentic-breeding anurans native to western North America and are a suspected factor in the decline of red-legged frogs (Rana aurora) in California. Introduced fish and habitat change are cited less frequently but are equally viable hypotheses. I examined the relation among introduced species, habitat, and the distribution and abundance of red-legged frogs in western Washington. Red-legged frog occurrence in the Puget Lowlands was more closely associated with habitat structure and the presence of exotic fish than with the presence of bull-frogs. The spread of exotics is correlated with a shift toward greater permanence in wetland habitats regionally. Conservation of more ephemeral wetland habitats may have direct benefits for some native amphibians and may also reduce the threat of exotic fish and bullfrogs, both of which were associated with permanent wetlands. Research and conservation efforts for lowland anurans in the West should emphasize the complexities of multiple contributing factors to amphibian losses.

  5. Fecal collection methods for the determination of protein digestibility in bullfrogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Verardino De Stéfani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Adequate methods for the determination of protein digestibility in bullfrogs are important for the understanding of nutrient utilization. Therefore, this study evaluated two methods of feces collection: intestinal dissection and fecal decantation, using cylindric-conical tanks. Frogs were fed with a commercial diet (45% crude protein which was ground and supplemented with 0.5% chromium oxide III. The frogs were fasted 48h before force-feeding (5% of the animal's live weight. For the decantation method, the animals were sacrificed 36 h after force-feeding and feces were collected directly from the large intestine. For the sedimentation method, feces were collected when they appeared in the tubes attached to the front end of the cylindric tanks. No significant difference (P>0.05 in the apparent digestibility coefficients of crude protein for dietary was observed between the methods tested (74.0% and 76.4% for the dissection and decantation methods, respectively. In conclusion, both methods can be used for the determination of protein digestibility of bullfrog feeds

  6. Efferent control of the electrical and mechanical properties of hair cells in the bullfrog's sacculus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Castellano-Muñoz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Hair cells in the auditory, vestibular, and lateral-line systems respond to mechanical stimulation and transmit information to afferent nerve fibers. The sensitivity of mechanoelectrical transduction is modulated by the efferent pathway, whose activity usually reduces the responsiveness of hair cells. The basis of this effect remains unknown.We employed immunocytological, electrophysiological, and micromechanical approaches to characterize the anatomy of efferent innervation and the effect of efferent activity on the electrical and mechanical properties of hair cells in the bullfrog's sacculus. We found that efferent fibers form extensive synaptic terminals on all macular and extramacular hair cells. Macular hair cells expressing the Ca(2+-buffering protein calretinin contain half as many synaptic ribbons and are innervated by twice as many efferent terminals as calretinin-negative hair cells. Efferent activity elicits inhibitory postsynaptic potentials in hair cells and thus inhibits their electrical resonance. In hair cells that exhibit spiking activity, efferent stimulation suppresses the generation of action potentials. Finally, efferent activity triggers a displacement of the hair bundle's resting position.The hair cells of the bullfrog's sacculus receive a rich efferent innervation with the heaviest projection to calretinin-containing cells. Stimulation of efferent axons desensitizes the hair cells and suppresses their spiking activity. Although efferent activation influences mechanoelectrical transduction, the mechanical effects on hair bundles are inconsistent.

  7. Efectivos poblacionales de la Rana ágil (Rana dalmatina y uso del hábitat reproductor en Navarra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GOSA, Alberto

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available La población navarra de Rana dalmatina se encuentra fragmentada en 4 núcleos incomunicados, con baja disponibilidad de humedales para la reproducción (entre 2 y 15 por área. La población de hembras adultas fluctúa anualmente entre 1000 y 1500 individuos, sin considerar de la La Barranca, todavía no investigada. La conservación de la especie depende de la gestión de las zonas húmedas.

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0317 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PMAR-01-0317 gb|AAL06717.1| type III GnRH receptor splice variant 2 [Rana catesbeia...na] gb|AAL06718.1| type III GnRH receptor splice variant 3 [Rana catesbeiana] gb|AAL06719.1| type III GnRH receptor splice variant 4 [Rana catesbeiana] AAL06717.1 3e-67 63% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-EEUR-01-0693 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-EEUR-01-0693 gb|AAL06717.1| type III GnRH receptor splice variant 2 [Rana catesbeia...na] gb|AAL06718.1| type III GnRH receptor splice variant 3 [Rana catesbeiana] gb|AAL06719.1| type III GnRH receptor splice variant 4 [Rana catesbeiana] AAL06717.1 2e-41 58% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-VPAC-01-1004 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-VPAC-01-1004 gb|AAL06717.1| type III GnRH receptor splice variant 2 [Rana catesbeia...na] gb|AAL06718.1| type III GnRH receptor splice variant 3 [Rana catesbeiana] gb|AAL06719.1| type III GnRH receptor splice variant 4 [Rana catesbeiana] AAL06717.1 4e-38 57% ...

  11. KARBOKSITERAPIJA – POTPORNA TERAPIJA U LIJEČENJU KRONIČNIH RANA

    OpenAIRE

    SINOŽIĆ, TAMARA; KOVAČEVIĆ, JADRANKA

    2014-01-01

    Karboksiterapija je potporna metoda liječenja kroničnih rana koja se provodi kutanim ili supkutanim ubrizgavanjem medicinskog ugljičnog dioksida (Co2). osnovni princip djelovanja ubrizganog plina Co2 je korekcija tkivne hipoksije temeljem bohrovog efekta. Djelujući na endotelne faktore rasta potiče neoangiogenezu te stimulirajući fibroblaste na sintezu kolagena što sve zajedno dovodi do boljeg zacjeljivanja rana. brojna su područja primjene karboksiterapije - od liječenja kroničnih rana, bole...

  12. Effects of elevated temperature and pore pressure on the mechanical behavior of Bullfrog tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, W.A.

    1982-02-01

    Samples of the Bullfrog Member of the Crater Flat Tuff from the depth interval 758.9 to 759.2 m in hole USW-G1 on the Nevada Test Site were tested in triaxial compression. Test conditions were: (1) effective confining pressure to 20 MPa; (2) temperature of 200 0 C; (3) both dry and with pore water pressures from 3.4 to 5 MPa; and (4) a strain-rate of 10 -4 /s. The results suggest that the presence of water causes the strength to decrease. In addition, the brittle-ductile transition pressure for this rock was found to be about 15 MPa, regardless of saturation. Below this pressure deformation is characterized by unstable stress drops and the development of a single fracture, and above this pressure deformation is stable and distributed more uniformly throughout the sample

  13. Effect of dietary supplements in American bullfrogs reared in low and high stocking densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgina Juliana Gradisse Freitas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the probiotic Bacillus subtillis and beta-glucan from the fungus Agaricus blazei on survival, growth and immunological capacity in bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus cultured in low and high stocking densities. Animals weighing 24.3 ± 2.38 g were randomly distributed into four treatments with four simultaneous replicates: D100: 100 frogs/m2 (control; D236: 236 frogs/m2; D236 + Prob.: 236 frogs/m2 supplemented with probiotic; and D236 + BG: 236 frogs/m2 supplemented with beta-glucan. The parameters evaluated were weight gain, survival, plasma corticosterone (CORT, phagocytic capacity (PC and phagocytic index (PI, at 24 h and 15 and 30 days. There is significant interaction between treatments and time for CORT levels. At 30 days, these values were very close for the D100 (control and D236 + BG groups. Meanwhile, no statistical differences were observed between treatments for PC and PI. These results indicate that beta-glucan reduced the effects of stress caused by high density in bullfrogs, but the probiotic did not reduce these effects. Both compounds are not efficient at increasing survival rates, weight gain and neither immune response of animals. Thus, the use of commercial food additives may not have the favorable impact desired by the farmer. Their use in aquaculture should be further studied in experiments involving a longer trial period and taking into account the cost of their use.

  14. Widespread bacterial infection affecting Rana temporaria tadpoles in mountain areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Tiberti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Periodic mass die-offs of Rana temporaria tadpole populations have occurred in the ponds of prealpine mountain areas of Brescia (northern Italy since the early 2000s. The author reports some observational data and analytical results from three sites: tadpoles from mortality events had erythema, especially on the legs, suggestive of septicemia. Bacterial culture of these tadpoles revealed Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas sobria, two organisms often associated with Red leg disease. Egg mass counts from 29 pastureland ponds did not revealed breeding activity declines over five years in the Monte Guglielmo area. Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas sobria usually behave as opportunistic bacteria that can become pathogenic after suppression of the immune system by endogenous or exogenous stressors. Thus, a plurality of environmental factors may contribute to mortality events; some of them are discussed, including loss of high altitude breeding ponds resulting in overcrowding and poor water quality in remaining ponds and the presence of other pathogens.

  15. Population size, survival, growth, and movements of Rana sierrae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellers, Gary M.; Kleeman, Patrick M.; Miller, David A. W.; Halstead, Brian J.; Link, William

    2013-01-01

    Based on 2431 captures of 757 individual frogs over a 9-yr period, we found that the population of R. sierrae in one meadow–stream complex in Yosemite National Park ranged from an estimated 45 to 115 adult frogs. Rana sierrae at our relatively low elevation site (2200 m) grew at a fast rate (K = 0.73–0.78), had high overwintering survival rates (44.6–95%), lived a long time (up to 16 yr), and tended to be fairly sedentary during the summer (100% minimum convex polygon annual home ranges of 139 m2) but had low year-to-year site fidelity. Even though the amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd) has been present in the population for at least 13 yr, there was no clear downward trend as might be expected from reports of R. sierrae population declines associated with Bd or from reports of widespread population decline of R. sierrae throughout its range.

  16. Alimentación de las ranas pardas, Rana gr. temporaria, en el circo de Piedrafita, (Pirineos, España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Vieites, D.

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Feeding of high Pyrenean mountain brown frogs were studied in the pre-wintering period. The main prey is beetles (44'97o, two-winged flies (12'9% and bees, wasps, ants, etc (11'4%. For the whole of the frogs, the most frequent prey size is the small (smaller than 10 mm. Big frogs tend to consume bigger prey in not ,o. many quantity, while small frogs consume more quantity of preys but smaller in size. From prey way of life, frogs eat mainly terrestrial and aerial preys, although capture of aquatic prey was observed (11'5% and these preys were eaten inside the water.

    Se ha estudiado la dieta de las ranas pardas en alta montaña pirenaica durante el periodo pre-invernal. Las ranas consumen principalmente coleópteros (44'9%, dípteros (12'9% e himenópteros (11'4%. Para el conjunto de todas las ranas estudiadas, las presas más consumidas son las de pequeño tamaño (menores de 10 mm. Las ranas de mayor talla tienden a consumir presas más grandes y en poca cantidad, mientras que las ranas pequeñas consumen más presas aunque de pequeño tamaño. En cuanto a forma de vida las presas más consumidas son terrestres y aéreas, aunque también se ha comprobado la captura de presas acuáticas (11'5% que son consumidas por las ranas dentro del agua.

  17. Detailed mineralogical characterization of the Bullfrog and Tram members USW-G1, with emphasis on clay mineralogy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bish, D.L.

    1981-10-01

    The detailed mineralogy of the Bullfrog and Tram Members of the Crater Flat Tuff from drill hole USW-G1 has been examined, primarily to characterize fully the amounts and types of clay minerals in the tuffs and the possible effects clay minerals have on rock properties. Results of bulk sample x-ray diffraction analyses agree closely with previous determinations, although slightly higher clay mineral contents were found in this study. X-ray diffraction analysis of fine fractions revealed that the clay minerals in the tuffs are sodium-saturated montmorillonite-beidellites with typical layer charges and no high-charge layers. These smectites are found in virtually all samples of the Bullfrog and Tram, and there is no correlation between the amounts of smectites and the amounts of zeolite, quartz, and feldspar. Smectites are present in both welded and nonwelded horizons and are scarce in some zones with slight-to-absent welding

  18. Phylogenetic relationships of leopard frogs (Rana pipiens complex) from an isolated coastal mountain range in southern Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiler, E; Markow, T A

    2008-10-01

    Mitochondrial DNA sequence data from the control region and 12S rRNA in leopard frogs from the Sierra El Aguaje of southern Sonora, Mexico, together with GenBank sequences, were used to infer taxonomic identity and provide phylogenetic hypotheses for relationships with other members of the Rana pipiens complex. We show that frogs from the Sierra El Aguaje belong to the Rana berlandieri subgroup, or Scurrilirana clade, of the R. pipiens group, and are most closely related to Rana magnaocularis from Nayarit, Mexico. We also provide further evidence that Rana magnaocularis and R. yavapaiensis are close relatives.

  19. Petrologic and geochemical characterization of the Bullfrog Member of the Crater Flat Tuff: outcrop samples used in waste package experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knauss, K.G.

    1983-09-01

    In support of the Waste Package Task within the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI), experiments on hydrothermal rock/water interaction, corrosion, thermomechanics, and geochemical modeling calculations are being conducted. All of these activities require characterization of the initial bulk composition, mineralogy, and individual phase geochemistry of the potential repository host rock. This report summarizes the characterization done on samples of the Bullfrog Member of the Crater Flat Tuff (Tcfb) used for Waste Package experimental programs. 11 references, 17 figures, 3 tables

  20. Trophic ecology and microhabitat utilization by the Bufo gargarizans, Rana guentheri, and Rana limnocharis in southwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonglei Yu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We studied the trophic ecology and microhabitat use of the Asiatic toad, Bufo gargarizans Cantor, 1842; Guentheri frog, Rana guentheri (Boulenger, 1882; and the Ricefield frog, Rana limnocharis (Boie, 1834. These three species are common around Nanchong City, in southwestern China, where they live in the same habitat before hibernation. The main objective of this study was to analyze the diets and patterns of coexistence relative to the microhabitat of each species. In the Asiatic toad, based on index of relative importance, the diet was dominated by adult Coleoptera, Isopoda, and Hymenoptera (29.53%, 22.07%, and 15.20%, respectively, while the Guenther's frog and Ricefield frog ingested predominantly Orthoptera (67.44% and 40.94%, respectively. The standardized feeding niche breadth of the Asiatic toad (0.277 was wider than that of the Guentheri frog (0.177 and Ricefield frog (0.269. The overlap in the trophic niche (prey proportion between the toad and two species of frog was low (toad vs. Guentheri frog, C H = 0.526; toad vs. Ricefield frog, C H = 0.521, while this was high for the two species of frogs (C H = 0.942. The three species also differed in microhabitat use. Asiatic toads showed strong preference for small roads close to shrubs or pre-harvest corn, while Guenther's frogs preferred bare surfaces on habitat edges, and Ricefield frogs showed a preference for bare surfaces as feeding sites in the middle of habitat. The difference in diet observed during three species seems to be explained by the difference in microhabitat use and body size of three species.

  1. Peripheral innervation patterns of vestibular nerve afferents in the bullfrog utriculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Richard A.; Schuff, N. R.

    1994-01-01

    Vestibular nerve afferents innervating the bullfrog utriculus differ in their response dynamics and sensitivity to natural stimulation. They also supply hair cells that differ markedly in hair bundle morphology. To examine the peripheral innervation patterns of individual utricular afferents more closely, afferent fibers were labeled by the extracellular injection of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) into the vestibular nerve after sectioning the vestibular nerve medial to Scarpa's ganglion to allow the degeneration of sympathetic and efferent fibers. The peripheral arborizations of individual afferents were then correlated with the diameters of their parent axons, the regions of the macula they innervate, and the number and type of hair cells they supply. The utriculus is divided by the striola, a narrow zone of distinctive morphology, into media and lateral parts. Utiricular afferents were classified as striolar or extrastriolar according to the epithelial entrance of their parent axons and the location of their terminal fields. In general, striolar afferents had thicker parent axons, fewer subepithelial bifurcations, larger terminal fields, and more synaptic endings than afferents in extrstriolar regions. Afferents in a juxtastriolar zone, immediately adjacent to the medial striola, had innervation patterns transitional between those in the striola and more peripheral parts of the medial extrastriola. moast afferents innervated only a single macular zone. The terminal fields of striolar afferents, with the notable exception of a few afferents with thin parent axons, were generally confined to one side of the striola. Hair cells in the bullfrog utriculus have perviously been classified into four types based on hair bundle morphology. Afferents in the extrastriolar and juxtastriolar zones largely or exclusively innervated Type B hair cells, the predominant hair cell type in the utricular macula. Striolar afferents supplied a mixture of four hair cell types, but largely

  2. Microscopic morphology and testis morphometry of captivity-bred Adult bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus Shaw, 1802

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Carlos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the testicular morphometry of captivity-bred adult bullfrogs. Fifteen young adult male were studied, in the rainy season and a lengthy photoperiod. The GSI was established at 0.15%. The nuclear diameter of germinative and Leydig cells, the nucleolus diameter of Sertoli cells and the area of cysts and tubules were determined and the mean number of ISPC, IISPC and SPT per cyst and the mean number of cysts per tubule was estimated. The nucleoplasmatic proportion of the nucleus of the Leydig cell was 76.22%, indicating less cytoplasmic activity. Eight generations of spermatogonia were found. The spermatogenesis efficiency in meiosis and in mitosis was 63 and 49%, respectively. The spermatogenesis of bullfrog fited in the pattern of other captivity Anurans, with differences as the morphology of Sertoli and Leydig cells nuclei.A morfometria é uma importante ferramenta para a biologia estrutural, permitindo estudos estereológicos e análises quantitativas. Existem muitos pontos a serem esclarecidos sobre a morfometria testicular desta espécie, que objetivamos desvendar neste trabalho. Quinze machos adultos foram estudados, em período chuvoso e de fotoperíodo longo (dezembro, 2000. O IGS encontrado foi de 0.15%. O diâmetro nuclear das células germinativas e da célula de Leydig, o diâmetro nucleolar das células de Sertoli e a área dos cistos e túbulos foram determinados. O número médio de ISPC, IISPC e SPT por cisto e o número médio de cisto por túbulo foi estimado. A proporção nucleoplasmática do núcleo da célula de Leydig foi de 76.22%, indicando pouca atividade citoplasmática. Oito gerações de espermatogônia foram estimadas. A eficiência da espermatogênese na meiose e mitose foi de 63% e49%, respectivamente. A espermatogênese de rãtouro segue os padrões dos demais Anuros de cativeiro, apresentando diferenças nos núcleos das c��lulas de Sertoli e Leydig.

  3. THE MOCHE BOTANICAL FROG (La rana botánica mochica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna McClelland †

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Plants and animals with features which identify them as supernaturals characterize the art of the Precolumbian Moche culture of northern Peru. Among these animals is a frog with feline attributes and a consistent association with manioc tubers, stalks, and plants, the Botanical Frog. The Botanical Frog appears to have been patterned on Leptodactylus pentadactylus. It is shown copulating with felines. Fine line painted vessels and ones with low relief decoration show the Botanical Frog performing as part of a ritual involving other animals and cultivated crops, suggesting that the Botanical Frog was associated with agriculture. ESPAÑOL: El arte de la cultura mochica de la costa norte del Perú presenta plantas y animales mostrando rasgos sobrenaturales. Uno de los animales es una rana con elementos felinos y asociada con tubérculos, ramas y plantas de yuca. La Rana Botánica probablemente tiene su origen en Leptodactylus pentadactylus, una rana carnívora de la selva amazónica. La Rana Botánica copula con felinos y, en vasijas pintadas con líneas finas o con escenarios representados en bajorrelieve, toma parte en ceremonias involucrando a otros animales y cosechas domésticas. Parece ser que la Rana Botánica era un ser sobrenatural asociado con la agricultura.

  4. Exposures to estradiol, ethinylestradiol and octylphenol affect survival and growth of Rana pipiens and Rana sylvatica tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Natacha S; Lean, David R S; Trudeau, Vance L

    2006-08-01

    Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are often detected in the aquatic environment and can negatively affect the health of wildlife populations. However, little is known about the sensitivity of native amphibians to EDCs. Wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) and Northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) were exposed to three estrogenic EDCs: estradiol (E2), ethinylestradiol (EE2), and 4-tert-octylphenol (OP). In addition, R. pipiens were exposed during two developmental stages (Gosner stages 26 and 36) to examine life-stage differences in sensitivity. Tadpoles were exposed for 2 wk to 8 nominal concentrations (0.25 microM-10 microM) of each compound. Individual mortality was recorded during the exposure period, while body weight was measured at the end of 2 wk. LC50 values were calculated, and differences in body weight between vehicle control and exposed groups were assessed. Rank order toxicity of the compounds for both R. pipiens stages and both species was OP > EE2 > E2. Gosner stage 26 tadpoles were more sensitive (LC50: E2 [5.57 microM], EE2 [3.01 microM], OP [1.36 microM]) to all three compounds when compared to stage 36 tadpoles (LC50: E2 [>10 microM], EE2 [4.17 microM], OP [2.80 microM]). Interspecies comparisons revealed R. sylvatica tadpoles (LC50: E2 [2.50 microM], EE2 [1.89 microM], OP [0.74 microM]) as being more sensitive to the three compounds than R. pipiens (LC50: E2 [4.56 microM], EE2 [2.75 microM], OP [1.42 microM]). Xenoestrogen exposure also affected tadpole body weight which may have long-term adverse effects on the rate of metamorphosis. These results provide toxicological data needed for assessing sublethal effects of estrogenic compounds on amphibian development and suggest that environmental levels of OP may pose a serious risk to the health of amphibian populations.

  5. Geologic map of the northwest quarter of the Bullfrog 15-minute quadrangle, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maldonado, F.

    1990-01-01

    This study of the northwest quarter of the Bullfrog 15-minute quadrangle was undertaken to determine the stratigraphy and structural setting as part of a regional study in cooperation with the US Department of Energy. Geologic data were plotted on aerial photographs at a scale of 1:24,000. Alluvial deposits were mapped on aerial photographs, and, in some cases, field-checked. Thickness of bedded tuff as shown on the map and in the geologic sections was exaggerated in some cases in order to show distribution. Thicknesses of units are approximate due to varying degrees of internal deformation. A detachment fault is defined for this study as ''...a low-angle normal fault that formed at a low angle, has significant displacement, and is of subregional extent.'' Nomenclature for lavas and igneous dikes is based on field identifications, guided by some petrographic determinations; latite-type rocks are termed ''latitic, '' dacite-type, ''dacitic,'' and so forth. Age determinations where indicated for the rock units have been corrected for new K-Ar constants. 17 refs

  6. Greater ATP dependence than sodium dependence of radiocalcium efflux in bullfrog ventricle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brommundt, G.; Kavaler, F.

    1985-01-01

    45 Ca efflux was studied in intact bullfrog ventricles following a 2-h period of loading with radiocalcium-containing Ringer solution. The cannulated ventricle was placed in a closed air-filled container to which were applied rhythmic, electronically timed, positive- and negative-pressure pulsations, which induced ventricular volume excursions. The mechanical arrangement and timing circuitry made it possible for each period to be as short in duration as 15 s. By use of this technique, penetration of the extracellular space by [ 14 C]inulin was found to be complete within 30 s, and recovery of the inulin proceeded with a time constant of 17-24 s, indicating a completeness of recovery of 98% within 90 s. Washout of added 45 Ca was quantitatively quite close to that of inulin, and in addition the estimated rate of sequestration of the isotope was slow enough to introduce only a small error into the experimental results. 45 Ca efflux was only slightly (15%) sensitive to replacement of extracellular sodium but was profoundly sensitive to the inhibitors of ATP synthesis, cyanide and 2-deoxy-glucose

  7. Reaction of Bullfrog tuff with J-13 well water at 900C and 1500C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oversby, V.M.; Knauss, K.G.

    1983-01-01

    A series of experiments was conducted on crushed tuff at 90 0 C and 150 0 C and on core wafer samples at 150 0 C. The results show the following: increasing the ratio of rock to water increases the rate of approach to steady-state concentrations in solution. Surface outcrop samples of Bullfrog tuff contain a minor component of highly soluble material believed to be a residue from the evaporation of surface runoff water in the pores of the rock. This material can be removed by shaking the crushed rock with water at room temperature and subjecting it briefly to heat with fresh water. Solution analyses for unfiltered samples that have reacted for short periods show higher concentrations of Al and Fe than do analyses for filtered samples; results for other elements are independent of filtration. This difference probably exists because of particulate matter in the solutions that dissolves when the samples are acidified prior to analysis. Agitation of samples during reaction produces sub-0.1 μ particles in the solutions. These particles dissolve when samples are acidified, resulting in abnormally high concentration values for some elements, such as Al and Fe. Comparison of the results for crushed rock with those for core wafers shows that the method of sample preparation does not have a large effect on the results of rock-water interaction studies

  8. Hair cell regeneration in the bullfrog vestibular otolith organs following aminoglycoside toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Richard A.; Torres, M. A.; Schuff, N. R.

    1994-01-01

    Adult bullfrogs were given single intraotic injections of the aminoglycoside antibiotic gentamicin sulfate and sacrificed at postinjection times ranging from 0.5 to 9 days. The saccular and utricular maculae of normal and injected animals were examined in wholemount and cross-section. Intraotic 200 (mu) M gentamicin concentrations resulted in the uniform destruction of the hair bundles and, at later times, the cell bodies of saccular hair cells. In the utriculus, striolar hair cells were selectively damaged while extrastriolar hair cells were relatively unaffected. Regenerating hair cells, identified in sectioned material by their small cell bodies and short, well-formed hair bundles, were seen in the saccular and utricular maculae as early as 24-48 h postinjection. Immature versions of mature hair cell types in both otolith organs were recognized by the presence of absence of a bulbed kinocilia and the relative lengths of their kinocilia and longest sterocilia. Utricular hair cell types with kinocilia longer than their longest stereocilia were observed at earlier times than hair cell types with shorter kinocilia. In the same sacculus, the hair bundles of gentamicin-treated animals, even at 9 days postinjection, were significantly smaller than those of normal animals. The hair bundles of utricular hair cells, on the other hand, reached full maturity within the same time period.

  9. The Current and Historical Distribution of Special Status Amphibians at the Livermore Site and Site 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattem, M V; Paterson, L; Woollett, J

    2008-08-20

    65 surveys were completed in 2002 to assess the current distribution of special status amphibians at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Livermore Site and Site 300. Combined with historical information from previous years, the information presented herein illustrates the dynamic and probable risk that amphibian populations face at both sites. The Livermore Site is developed and in stark contrast to the mostly undeveloped Site 300. Yet both sites have significant issues threatening the long-term sustainability of their respective amphibian populations. Livermore Site amphibians are presented with a suite of challenges inherent of urban interfaces, most predictably the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana), while Site 300's erosion issues and periodic feral pig (Sus scrofa) infestations reduce and threaten populations. The long-term sustainability of LLNL's special status amphibians will require active management and resource commitment to maintain and restore amphibian habitat at both sites.

  10. SEPTICEMIA EM GIRINOS DE CRIAÇÃO NA FASE PRÉ-METAMÓRFICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Alfredo Mazzoni

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Herein we describe septicemic outbreaks affecting pre-metamorphic bullfrog tadpoles (Rana [Lithobates] catesbeiana Shaw, 1802. The survey was performed in three commercial frog farms located in Goiás State. Clinical assessment and tadpole sampling for necropsy, histopathology, microbiology, parasitology, transmission electronic microscopy and molecular studies were performed. Septicemic outbreaks were characterized by edema, ascites and nervous signs. Main etiological agents identified were Gram-positive cocci. Lesions were more prevalent in liver and kidney, but they were also found in other internal organs. Typical lesions were degeneration and necroses associated to mononuclear lympohcytes and granuloma formation. The disease may be considered as a “secondary streptococcal septicemia”. It was not possible to determine the primary cause preceding tissue colonization by streptococci, but the intensive husbandry practices might have an important role.

  11. Morfologfa conchffera, crecimiento, reproducción y letargo de los caracoles gigantes africanos : observaciones en laboratorio sobre Archachatina marginata suturalis, Achatina achatina y Achatina fulica'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stiévenart, C.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available hell Shape, Growth, Reproduction and Estivation in Giant African Landsnails : Observations in Laboratory on"Archachatina marginata suturalis, Achatina achatina and Achatina fulica". Commercial frog farms exist in several countries. It seems hopeless believing that frog leg consumption can be prohibited, and the solution is probably a very strict control of the origin of the legs sold and imported. Uncontrolled hunting-poaching of frogs should be replaced by sustainable and rational breeding of frogs for sale. A large frog farm located near Singapore is described with the infrastructure and the management of the production. The two species bred are the American and the Asian bull-frogs Rana catesbeiana and R. tigerina. It is also mentioned that appropriate slaughtering techniques exist for frogs based on same guidelines as for conventional farm animals.

  12. Effects of the organophosphorus pesticide Folisuper 600 (methyl parathion on the heart function of bullfrog tadpoles, Lithobates catesbeianus (Shaw, 1802

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Costa

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this work was to evaluate whether the heart function of bullfrog tadpoles (25 Gosner stage is affected by their acute exposure (48 h to a sub-lethal concentration (10 µg.L–1 of the active principle of the organophosphorus pesticide Folisuper 600R (methyl parathion - MP. Our results demonstrated that MP causes not only a reduction in tadpoles’ cardiac ventricular mass, resulting in a marked reduction in their cardiac twitch force, but also impairs their swimming performance, irrespective of increasing their heart rate. Together, these findings indicate that low and realistic concentration of MP have a negative impact on tadpoles’ performance, jeopardizing their survival.

  13. Effects of lead-contaminated sediment on Rana sphenocephala tadpoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparling, D.W.; Krest, S.K.; Ortiz-Santaliestra, M.

    2006-01-01

    We exposed larval southern leopard frogs (Rana sphenocephala) to lead-contaminated sediments to determine the lethal and sublethal effects of this metal. Tadpoles were laboratory-raised from early free-swimming stage through metamorphosis at lead concentrations of 45, 75, 180, 540, 2360, 3940, 5520, and 7580 mg/kg dry weight in sediment. Corresponding pore water lead concentrations were 123, 227, 589, 1833, 8121, 13,579, 19,038, and 24,427 ug/L. Tadpoles exposed to lead concentrations in sediment of 3940 mg/kg or higher died within 2 to 5 days of exposure. At lower concentrations, mortality through metamorphosis ranged from 3.5% at 45 mg/kg lead to 37% at 2360 mg/kg lead in sediment. The LC50 value for lead in sediment was 3728 mg/kg (95% CI=1315 to 72,847 mg/kg), which corresponded to 12,539 ug/L lead in pore water (95% CI= 4000 to 35,200 ug/L). Early growth and development were depressed at 2,360 mg/kg lead in sediment (8100 ug/L in pore water) but differences were not evident by the time of metamorphosis. The most obvious effect of lead was its pronounced influence on skeletal development. Whereas tadpoles at 45 mg/kg lead in sediment did not display permanent abnormalities, skeletal malformations increased in frequency and severity at all higher lead concentrations. By 2360 mg/kg, 100% of surviving metamorphs displayed severe spinal problems, reduced femur and humerus lengths, deformed digits, and other bone malformations. Lead concentrations in tissues correlated positively with sediment and pore water concentrations.

  14. Chromosome Aberrations of East Asian Bullfrog (Hoplobatrachus rugulosus around a Gold Mine Area with Arsenic Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atidtaya Suttichaiya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to investigate the chromosome aberrations of the East Asian Bullfrog (Hoplobatrachus rugulosus in the gold mine area compared to an unaffected area. Three H. rugulosus were collected, and chromosome aberrations were studied using bone marrow. The level of arsenic was measured in water, sediment and H. rugulosus samples. The average concentrations of arsenic in the water and sediment samples from the gold mine and unaffected areas were 0.03 ± 0.003 mg/l and not detected in water as well as 351.59 ± 5.73 and 1.37 ± 1.07 mg/kg in sediment, respectively. The gold mine values were higher than the permissible limit of the water and soil quality standards, but the arsenic concentrations in the samples from the unaffected area were within prescribed limit. The average concentrations of arsenic in H. rugulosus samples from the gold mine and unaffected areas were 0.39 ± 0.30 and 0.07 ± 0.01 mg/kg, respectively, which were both lower than the standard of arsenic contamination in food. The diploid chromosome number of H. rugulosus in both areas was 2n=26, and the percentage of chromosome breakages of H. rugulosus in the gold mine area were higher than the unaffected area. There were eight types of chromosome aberrations, including a single chromatid gap, isochromatid gap, single chromatid break, isochromatid break, centric fragmentation, deletion, fragmentation and translocation. The most common chromosome aberration in the samples from the affected area was deletion. The difference in the percentage of chromosome breakages in H. rugulosus from both areas was statistically significant (p<0.05.

  15. Influence of anuran prey on the condition and distribution of Rana muscosa in the Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.L. Pope; K.R. Matthews

    2002-01-01

    Mountain yellow-legged frogs (Rana muscosa) at high elevations of the Sierra Nevada must obtain enough food during summer to survive 7–9 winter months when their aquatic habitats are frozen and food is presumably unavailable. Adults of R. muscosa prey on a variety of organisms, including aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates and...

  16. Delayed metamorphosis and recurrence of bacterial infection in irradiated Rana clamitans tadpoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, D.R.

    1982-03-01

    X-ray doses of 5 and 10 Gy (1 Gy/min) given to premetamorphic Green Frog (Rana clamitans) tadpoles delayed their metamorphosis relative to unirradiated controls. Previous pathogenic bacterial infections recurred in irradiated animals prior to metamorphic climax. Limited mortality occurred during metamorphic climax, 80-105 days after irradiation

  17. Long-Term United Kindrom Trends in the Breeding Phenology of the Common Frog, Rana temporaria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Scott, W.A.; Pithart, David; Adamson, J. K.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 1 (2008), s. 89-96 ISSN 0022-1511 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Long-term * Common Frog * Breeding * Rana temporaria Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.888, year: 2008

  18. Leech presence on Iberian Brown Frog, Rana iberica, (Amphibia: Anura: Ranidae from north-western Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Ayres

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe a case of parasitism on Rana iberica by two species of leeches, Batracobdella sp. and Hirudo medicinalis, in a mountainous area of north-western Spain. Conservation implications of high parasite load on small and isolated populations are discussed.

  19. Mating strategy and breeding patterns of the foothill yellow-legged frog (Rana boylii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clara A. Wheeler; Hartwell H. Welsh Jr.

    2008-01-01

    The Foothill Yellow-legged Frog (Rana boylii) has declined across much of its native range in California. Improper stream management may lower egg mass survival and reduce the availability of suitable breeding habitats. We collected data during six breeding-seasons (2002-2007) along an unregulated stream in northwestern California. We monitored...

  20. Effects of the Chytrid fungus on the Tarahumara frog (Rana tarahumarae) in Arizona and Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen F. Hale; Philip C. Rosen; James L. Jarchow; Gregory A. Bradley

    2005-01-01

    We conducted histological analyses on museum specimens collected 1975-1999 from 10 sites in Arizona and Sonora to test for the pathogenic chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) in ranid frogs, focusing on the Tarahumara frog (Rana tarahumarae). During 1981-2000, frogs displaying disease signs were found in the field, and...

  1. Site fidelity of the declining amphibian Rana sierrae (Sierra Nevada yellow-legged frog)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen Matthews; Haiganoush Preisler

    2010-01-01

    From 1997 to 2006, we used mark–recapture models to estimate the site fidelity of 1250 Sierra Nevada yellow-legged frogs (Rana sierrae) in Kings Canyon National Park, California, USA, during their three main activity periods of overwintering, breeding, and feeding. To quantify site fidelity, the tendency to return to and reuse previously occupied...

  2. Respiration and hemoglobin function in the giant African bullfrog Pyxicephalus adspersus Tschudi (Anura: Pyxicephalidae) during rest, exercise and dormancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Aardt, W.J; Weber, Roy E.

    2010-01-01

    The survival strategies of frogs exposed to harsh conditions include various forms of dormancy. Giant bullfrogs Pyxicephalus adspersus subjected to slow desiccation without access to moist substrata over winter in cocoons during dormancy. We found that Pyxicephalus can survive long periods of dor...

  3. Liver histopathological changes in breeding bullfrogs - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i4.15981

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Teixeira de Seixas Filho

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to complement the histopathological study of juveniles and tadpoles of the bullfrog, Lithobathes catesbeianus, fed commercial diet used by frog farms in Rio de Janeiro, containing 40% crude protein, we performed necropsy and histopathology of the liver to establish a relationship between the quality of crude protein in the diet and animal health. For this, it was used twenty breeding male bullfrogs, with average weight 591.30 g (± 91.90 g and length 165.02 mm (± 14.22 mm, and ten females with average weight and length of 629.80 g (± 134.47 g and 169.32 mm (± 21.82 mm. The liver histopathology showed hyperemia, high number of melanomacrophages and cytoplasmic rarefaction, probably due to protein deficiency and fatty liver degeneration and presence of inflammatory processes. These lesions indicate a degenerative nutritional process. These findings suggest that the animals were fed with proteins of low biological value, indicating poor quality of feed, undermining the sanity. The impairment of liver function by these injuries will lead to reduced availability of precursors of sex hormones, since the liver is important in the metabolism of the same, and reproductive performance of these animals may be impaired.

  4. Analysis of Conservative Tracer Tests in the Bullfrog, Tram, and Prow Pass Tuffs, 1996 to 1998, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umari, Amjad; Fahy, Michael F.; Earle, John D.; Tucci, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the potential for transport of radionuclides in ground water from the proposed high-level nuclear-waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, conservative (nonsorbing) tracer tests were conducted among three boreholes, known as the C-hole Complex, and values for transport (or flow) porosity, storage (or matrix) porosity, longitudinal dispersivity, and the extent of matrix diffusion were obtained. The C-holes are completed in a sequence of Miocene tuffaceous rock, consisting of nonwelded to densely welded ash-flow tuff with intervals of ash-fall tuff and volcaniclastic rocks, covered by Quaternary alluvium. The lower part of the tuffaceous-rock sequence includes the Prow Pass, Bullfrog, and Tram Tuffs of the Crater Flat Group. The rocks are pervaded by tectonic and cooling fractures. Paleozoic limestone and dolomite underlie the tuffaceous rocks. Four radially convergent and one partially recirculating conservative (nonsorbing) tracer tests were conducted at the C-hole Complex from 1996 to 1998 to establish values for flow porosity, storage porosity, longitudinal dispersivity, and extent of matrix diffusion in the Bullfrog and Tram Tuffs and the Prow Pass Tuff. Tracer tests included (1) injection of iodide into the combined Bullfrog-Tram interval; (2) injection of 2,6 difluorobenzoic acid into the Lower Bullfrog interval; (3) injection of 3-carbamoyl-2-pyridone into the Lower Bullfrog interval; and (4) injection of iodide and 2,4,5 trifluorobenzoic acid, followed by 2,3,4,5 tetrafluorobenzoic acid, into the Prow Pass Tuff. All tracer tests were analyzed by the Moench single- and dual-porosity analytical solutions to the advection-dispersion equation or by superposition of these solutions. Nonlinear regression techniques were used to corroborate tracer solution results, to obtain optimal parameter values from the solutions, and to quantify parameter uncertainty resulting from analyzing two of the three radially convergent conservative tracer tests

  5. Non-native species impacts on pond occupancy by an anuran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Michael J.; Pearl, Christopher A.; Galvan, Stephanie; McCreary, Brome

    2011-01-01

    Non-native fish and bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus; Rana catesbeiana) are frequently cited as factors contributing to the decline of ranid frogs in the western United States (Bradford 2005). This hypothesis is supported by studies showing competition with or predation by these introduced species (Kupferberg 1997, Kiesecker and Blaustein 1998, Lawler et al. 1999, Knapp et al. 2001) and studies suggesting a deficit of native frogs at sites occupied by bullfrogs or game fish (Hammerson 1982, Schwalbe and Rosen 1988, Fisher and Shaffer 1996, Adams 1999). Conversely, other studies failed to find a negative association between native ranids and bullfrogs and point out that presence of non-native species correlates with habitat alterations that could also contribute to declines of native species (Hayes and Jennings 1986; Adams 1999, 2000; Pearl et al. 2005). A criticism of these studies is that they may not detect an effect of non-native species if the process of displacement is at an early stage. We are not aware of any studies that have monitored a set of native frog populations to determine if non-native species predict population losses. Our objective was to study site occupancy trends in relation to non-native species for northern red-legged frogs (Rana aurora) on federal lands in the southern Willamette Valley, Oregon. We conducted a 5-yr monitoring study to answer the following questions about the status and trends of the northern red-legged frog: 1) What is the rate of local extinction (how often is a site that is occupied in year t unoccupied in year t+1) and what factors predict variation in local extinction? and 2) What is the rate of colonization (how often is a site that is unoccupied in year t occupied in year t+1) and what factors predict variation in colonization? The factors we hypothesized for local extinction were: 1) bullfrog presence, 2) bullfrogs mediated by wetland vegetation, 3) non-native fish (Centrarchidae), 4) non-native fish mediated by

  6. Diversity and phylogeography of Northeast Asian brown frogs allied to Rana dybowskii (Anura, Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bao-Tian; Zhou, Yu; Min, Mi-Sook; Matsui, Masafumi; Dong, Bing-Jun; Li, Pi-Peng; Fong, Jonathan J

    2017-07-01

    We investigated the species diversity and phylogeography of the Northeast Asian brown frogs allied to Rana dybowskii (the R. dybowskii species complex: R. dybowskii, R. pirica, and R. uenoi) using four mitochondrial and three nuclear loci. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed the existence of three distinct species in this complex; using extensive molecular data, we confirm the validity of Rana uenoi recognized as a distinct species, and infer R. dybowskii and R. pirica to be sister species. Also, we included populations from previously unsampled regions in Northeast China, and identified them to be R. dybowskii. While many species in Northeast Asia diverged due to Pleistocene glaciation, divergence-dating analyses inferred older, Miocene speciation in the R. dybowskii species complex. Ancestral area reconstruction identified the orogenic movement of the Changbai Mountain Range and the opening of the Sea of Japan/East Sea being major events influencing allopatric speciation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Large intestine bacterial flora of nonhibernating and hibernating leopard frogs (Rana pipiens).

    OpenAIRE

    Gossling, J; Loesche, W J; Nace, G W

    1982-01-01

    The bacteria in the large intestines of 10 northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) were enumerated and partially characterized. Four nonhibernating frogs were collected in the summer, four hibernating frogs were collected in the winter, and two frogs just emerged from hibernation were collected in the spring. All frogs had about 10(10) bacteria per g (wet weight) of intestinal contents and about 10(9) bacteria per g (wet weight) of mucosal scraping, although the counts from the winter frogs wer...

  8. N.C. Rana: The Life of a `Comet' in the Astrophysical World

    OpenAIRE

    Mukhopadhyay, Utpal; Ray, Saibal

    2014-01-01

    Narayan Chandra Rana, a person with extraordinary potential from a remote village of Bengal, India, came into the limelight of the international scientific world through his exceptional talent, zeal and courage. In his very short life-span, he excelled not only into various branches of astrophysics, but also took a leading role in science popularization, text book writing etc. In this paper, life and works of that budding scientist of India have been discussed from multifarious viewpoints.

  9. Ultrastructure and localisation of late-sporogonic developmental stages of Sphaerospora ranae (Myxosporea: Sphaerosporidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirků, Miloslav; Bartošová, Pavla

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 4 (2014), s. 311-321 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/2330; GA ČR(CZ) GPP506/11/P724 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Amphibia * Anura * Europe * kidneys * myxospore * Myxozoa * Rana * sporogony * synchronisation * in situ hybridisation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.147, year: 2014

  10. O sufixo -rana no português falado pelo caboclo amazonense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Azevedo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo aborda a formação de palavras com o sufixo -rana no português falado em seis localidades situadas na região do Médio Solimões no Estado do Amazonas. O corpus para a análise foi retirado das respostas dos informantes ao questionário semântico-lexical da tese de Azevedo¹, que está em andamento e que trata da variação dialetal na região do Baixo Amazonas e do Médio Solimões. Para os propósitos da pesquisa, nossa fundamentação foi baseada no modelo da morfologia gerativa a fim de que fosse possível a construção de uma regra aplicável às bases que esse sufixo seleciona. Os resultados mostraram a existência de formações neológicas, uma vez que não foram encontradas em obras lexicográficas. Além disso, o sufixo -rana ao selecionar bases substantivas não muda a classe gramatical da palavra primitiva ao formar novos substantivos. Devido à regularidade, foi possível estabelecermos uma regra de formação de palavras para o sufixo -rana no português falado nessa região da Amazônia brasileira.

  11. Reproducción de la rana Hyla labialis Reproducción del rana Hvla labialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunter Alice S.

    1962-11-01

    Full Text Available 1. Se estudió la ovogénesis en la Hyla labialis para compararla con el mismo proceso en las ranas que viven en países con estaciones climatéricas definidas. Por inyección de glándula pituitaria se pueden obtener huevos fertilizados durante los meses de octubre a junio, y rara vez en los otros meses. 2. Se midieron y se contaron ovocitos enteros en muestras de ovarios maduros, inmaduros y después de la ovulación, Hay ovocitos de todos los tamaños presentes en los ovarios maduros; en los ovarios no maduros, y después de la ovulación hay células de todos los tamaños hasta 1.200 mm. de diámetro. 3. En secciones de ovarios se midió el diámetro de las células y de los núcleos y plaquetas vitelinas. Se estudiaron los cambios citológicos de los núcleos y también del citoplasma. Las plaquetas vitelinas aparecen en células que tienen un diámetro de 0.350 a 0.400 mm, La melanina aparece en ovocitos que tienen 0.700 mm. o más de diámetro. En general, los cambios citológicos son muy semejantes a los descritos por otros investigadores en otras especies. 4. La diferencia más obvia e interesante entre la ovogénesis de la Hyla Iabialis y la de otras especies descritas es la presencia de ovocitos de todos los tamaños y en cantidades grandes en el ovario inmediatamente después de la ovulación. Se piensa que los resultados demuestran que el proceso de ovogénesis sigue durante todos los meses sin detenerse como se hace en países con estaciones climatéricas definidas. 1. Oögenesis of the frog, Hyla labialis has been studied in order to Compare it with the same process in frogs which live in countries with definite climatic seasons. Fertilized eggs can be obtained after pituitary injection during the months of October through June and occasionally during the rest of the year. 2. Whole oöcytes were measured and counted in samples taken from mature ovaries, immature ovaries and ovaries after ovulation had taken place. There are o

  12. A survey of blood and other tissue parasites of leopard frogs Rana pipiens in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, N D; Nye, R R

    1977-01-01

    In a survey of blood and other tissue parasites from 137 leopard frogs, Rana pipiens complex, purchased from 13 commercial vendors in 8 states in the United States, Trypanosoma pipientis was found in 2 R. p. berlandieri, Toxoplasma ranae in 1 R. pipiens, Isospora lieberkuehni in 1 leopard frog, Haemogregarina magna in 44, Lankesterella minima in 3, Leptotheca ohlmacheri in 3 and microfilariae of Foleyella sp. in 6. The report of I. lieberkuehni is presumably a new host record. Haemogregarina temporariae (Nöller,, 1920) nov. comb. is established as a new combination for Nematopsis temporariae.

  13. Effects of two endocrine disruptors Prochloraz and Ethinylestradiol on development of Rana Temporaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brande-Lavridsen, Nanna; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Korsgaard, Bodil

    2009-01-01

    to complete phenotypic sex reversal. The effect of the synthetic estrogen ethinylestradiol and the aromatase-inhibiting fungicide prochloraz on sexual differentiation in Rana temporaria, a species exhibiting natural juvenile hermaphroditism, was investigated. Prochloraz caused an increase in the percentage......  Effects of Prochloraz and Ethinylestradiol on development in Rana temporaria   The ontogeny of most amphibians is characterized by a large degree of sexual plasticity and sex steroids play an important role in the final differentiation of the gonads. One consequence of this plasticity...

  14. Laboratory studies bearing on pigment pattern polymorphisms in wild populations of Rana pipiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrell, D J

    1972-01-01

    Data are presented for 2,393 progeny from a number of crosses related to a study in ecological genetics of the Burnsi and Kandiyohi polymorphisms in natural populations of the leopard frog, Rana pipiens. No significant differences in viability were found between wild-type homozygotes (+/+) and Burnsi heterozygotes (B/+) or homozygotes (B/B). Similarly, no difference in viability was found between wild-type (+/+) and Kandiyohi heterozygotes (K/+) and homozygotes (K/K). However, there appears to be slight reduction in viability of the double dominant heterozygote (B/+; K/+) in comparison with (+/+), (B/+), and (K/+) progeny from the same cross.-The Kandiyohi heterozygotes (K/+) appeared to have a more rapid rate of development from fertilization through metamorphosis than wild-type (+/+) or Burnsi (B+/) or Burnsi-Kandiyohi heterozygotes (B+K/+). Since Kandiyohi is associated primarily with the prairie habitat (Merrell 1965), this finding suggests that the adaptive advantage of Kandiyohi lies in the more rapid rate of development of frogs carrying this gene, enabling them to complete metamorphosis before the prairie breeding ponds dry up.-Data are presented from crosses involving dorsal spot number. The results suggest that heredity plays a role in the determination of dorsal spot number but that non-genetic influences are also of considerable importance.-The results of these crosses are discussed with respect to their bearing on the formation of pigment patterns in Rana pipiens. From the available data it is clear that the pigment pattern in Rana pipiens is a complex trait influenced by major gene loci, by modifying genes, and by environmental effects. The relative importance of these factors varies depending on the particular combination of genetic and environmental conditions.

  15. O SUFIXO -RANA NO PORTUGUÊS FALADO PELO CABOCLO AMAZONENSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Azevedo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo aborda a formação de palavras com o sufixo –rana no português falado em seis localidades situadas na região do Médio Solimões no Estado do Amazonas. O corpus para a análise foi retirado das respostas dos informantes ao questionário semântico-lexical da tese de Azevedo, que está em andamento e que trata da variação dialetal na região do Baixo Amazonas e do Médio Solimões. Para os propósitos da pesquisa, nossa fundamentação foi baseada no modelo da morfologia gerativa a fim de que fosse possível a construção de uma regra aplicável às bases que esse sufixo seleciona. Os resultados mostraram a existência de formações neológicas, uma vez que não foram encontradas em obras lexicográficas. Além disso, o sufixo –rana ao selecionar bases substantivas não muda a classe gramatical da palavra primitiva ao formar novos substantivos. Devido à regularidade, foi possível estabelecermos uma regra de formação de palavras para o sufixo –rana no português falado nessa região da Amazônia brasileira.

  16. Food Habits of the Endemic Long Legged Wood Frog, Rana Pseudodalmatina (Amphibia, Ranidae, in Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najibzadeh M.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Iranian long legged wood frog, Rana pseudodalmatina Eiselt & Schmidtler, 1971 is a brown frog species endemic to the Hyrcanian forest. The objective of the present study is to collect detailed information on the feeding habits of 44 specimens of this species (24 ♂, 20 ♀ by analyzing the stomach contents of individuals from 10 populations inhabiting range. The food habit of R. pseudodalmatina generally varies by the availability of surrounding prey items, and it is a foraging predator, the food of which consists largely of Coleoptera (mainly Carabidae, Dytiscidae and Haliplidae, Diptera (Muscidae and Hymenoptera (Formicidae, and no difference was found between females and males in the stomach content.

  17. First report of Hepatozoon sp. in the Oregon spotted frog, Rana pretiosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenberg, Patricia L; Bowerman, William J

    2010-07-01

    From 2005 through 2008, we screened 650 Oregon spotted frogs (Rana pretiosa) from three populations in central Oregon, USA, for hemoparasites. A Hepatozoon sp., not previously reported in R. pretiosa, was found in one population of frogs, mostly as intracellular gamonts at a prevalence of 10.5% with parasitemias ranging from 0.02% to greater than 42% of erythrocytes within individual frogs. Intra-and extracellular merozoites were present, but rare. A potential vector, the mosquito Culex boharti, was common throughout the habitat of the population carrying Hepatozoon sp.

  18. Analysis of isolates within species of anuran trypanosomes using random amplified polymorphic DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lun, Z R; Desser, S S

    1996-01-01

    A total of 20 decamer primers were used to generate random applied polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers from 5 isolates of Trypanosoma fallisi, 3 isolates of T. ranarum, 2 isolates of T. rotatorium, and 2 isolates of T. rotatorium-like trypanosomes in addition to 2 species from the American Type Culture Collection, T. chattoni (ATCC 50294) and Trypanosoma sp. (ATCC 50295). A slight polymorphism was observed among the four isolates of T. fallisi obtained form American toads, Bufo americanus, collected in Algonquin Park, Ontario, Canada, and an isolate obtained from the same species of host collected in Marquette, Michigan, United States, and produced similarity coefficients ranging from 80.7% to 96.9%. Pronounced polymorphism was recorded among the three isolates of T. ranarum from bullfrogs, Rana catesbeiana, collected in Ontario, Canada, and in Maryland, United States, and from a Northern leopard frog, R. pipiens, collected in Minnesota (USA). The similarity coefficients ranged from 54.7% to 59.5%, suggesting that alleles of these isolates were conserved over a wide geographic range. The high degree of polymorphism observed in two isolates of T. rotatorium from a bullfrog collected in Ontario and two isolates of a T. rotatorium-like parasite from the green frog R. clamitans, collected in Louisiana (USA) suggests that they are different species. These results reflect the high similarity among isolates from the same geographic location and the pronounced polymorphism apparent among isolates from distant geographic locations.

  19. Bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls in ranid frogs and northern water snakes from a hazardous waste site and a contaminated watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenot, L W; Noble, G P; Akins, J M; Stephens, M D; Cobb, G P

    2000-04-01

    Livers of bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) from a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contaminated watershed and hazardous waste site located in Pickens County, South Carolina, contained significantly higher concentrations of PCBs (2.33 and 2.26 ppm, respectively) than those from a reference site (0.05 ppm). Green frogs (R. clamitans) from the two contaminated sites also accumulated higher levels of PCBs (2.37 and 3.88 ppm, respectively) than those from the reference site (0.02 ppm). No temporal variation was observed in PCB concentrations of bullfrogs or green frogs from the contaminated sites between 1992 and 1993. Levels of PCBs in the livers of northern water snakes (Nerodia sipedon) were significantly higher in snakes from the contaminated watershed (13.70 ppm) than in those from the waste site (2.29 ppm) and two reference sites (2.50 and 1.23 ppm). When compared to frogs, significantly higher bioaccumulation occurred in water snakes from the contaminated watershed. No significant differences in PCB levels were found with respect to sex or body size (snout-vent length (SVL) or body mass) for frogs or snakes. PCBs were detected also in eggs of both frogs and snakes. Results of this study provide baseline data and document the bioaccumulation of PCB residues in frog and snake tissues; however, the significance of these tissue residues to reproduction, survival, growth/development, and population dynamics in contaminated habitats is unknown.

  20. Ichthyophonus-like infection in wild amphibians from Québec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikaelian, I; Ouellet, M; Pauli, B; Rodrigue, J; Harshbarger, J C; Green, D M

    2000-04-20

    Myositis associated with infection by Ichthyophonus-like organisms was diagnosed in 35 of 260 (13%) wild amphibians collected in Quebec, Canada, from 1959 to 1964 (n = 30), and 1992 to 1999 (n = 230). Infection was diagnosed in 17 green frogs Rana clamitans, 9 wood frogs R. sylvatica, 4 red-spotted newts Notophthalmus viridescens, 3 bullfrogs R. catesbeiana, 1 spring peeper Pseudacris crucifer, and 1 pickerel frog R. palustris. The spring peeper and one of the bullfrogs were collected in 1964 from the Mont Saint-Hilaire Biosphere Reserve, indicating long-term presence of the organism. Spores of the organisms invaded striated muscle fibers and were associated with variable degrees of granulomatous and eosinophilic inflammation. Infection was considered fatal in 2 green frogs, 1 wood frog, and 1 red-spotted newt. It was considered potentially significant in 3 additional green frogs in which up to 100% of the fibers of some muscles were replaced by spores associated with a severe granulomatous reaction. Ultrastructural features of Ichthyophonus-like spores included a thick trilaminated wall, a paramural cytoplasm, multiple nuclei, oval mitochondria with short tubulo-vesicular cristae and numerous ribosomes. This report represents 4 new host records and shows that ichthyophonosis is enzootic in amphibians from Quebec.

  1. Response characteristics of vibration-sensitive neurons in the midbrain of the grassfrog, Rana temporaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Jørgensen, M B

    1989-01-01

    European grassfrogs (Rana temporaria) were stimulated with pulsed sinusoidal, vertical vibrations (10-300 Hz) and the responses of 46 single midbrain neurons were recorded in awake, immobilized animals. Most units (40) had simple V-shaped excitatory vibrational tuning curves. The distribution of ...... stimuli probably play a role in communication and detection of predators and the vibration-sensitive midbrain neurons may be involved in the central processing of such behaviorally significant stimuli.......European grassfrogs (Rana temporaria) were stimulated with pulsed sinusoidal, vertical vibrations (10-300 Hz) and the responses of 46 single midbrain neurons were recorded in awake, immobilized animals. Most units (40) had simple V-shaped excitatory vibrational tuning curves. The distribution...... of best frequencies (BF's) was bimodal with peaks at 10 and 100 Hz and the thresholds ranged from 0.02 to 1.28 cm/s2 at the BF. Twenty-three neurons showed phasic-tonic and 11 neurons phasic responses. The dynamic range of seismic intensity for most neurons was 20-30 dB. In contrast to the sharp phase...

  2. Hemoparasites in Oregon spotted frogs (Rana pretiosa) from central Oregon, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenberg, Patricia L; Bowerman, William J

    2008-04-01

    Between 2001 and 2003, we screened blood smears of 156 Oregon spotted frogs (Rana pretiosa) from three populations in central Oregon for blood parasites. A Lankesterella sp. and a Trypanosoma sp. were detected in 31% and 35% of the frogs, respectively. Parasite loads were generally light, with Lankesterella sporozoites in 1-2% of erythrocytes, and extracellular trypanosomes were seen at rates of about one parasite per 200 fields of view at 1,000x. Little work has been published on hemoparasites of ranids in the western USA in the past 30 yr. Because of the recent taxonomic division of the Rana pretiosa complex, this may be the first published report of blood parasites for R. pretiosa sensu stricto. Both parasites reported here differed in morphologic features and morphometric comparisons from previous descriptions of anuran hemoparasites. Much work remains to sort out the taxonomy of hemoparasites among western USA ranids and to determine the ecological significance of these parasites; both tasks are important steps in understanding and managing these, and related, sensitive and threatened species.

  3. The response characteristics of vibration-sensitive saccular fibers in the grassfrog, Rana temporaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Jørgensen, M B

    1988-01-01

    The response characteristics of saccular nerve fibers in European grassfrogs (Rana temporaria) subjected to dorso-ventral, 10-200 Hz sinusoidal vibrations were studied. Only 4 fibers out of a total of 129 did not respond to the vibrations. 70 fibers had an irregular spontaneous activity of 2-48 s...... motion of the otolith relative to the macula is complex. No behavioral role of a vibration receptor has been demonstrated in the grassfrog.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)......The response characteristics of saccular nerve fibers in European grassfrogs (Rana temporaria) subjected to dorso-ventral, 10-200 Hz sinusoidal vibrations were studied. Only 4 fibers out of a total of 129 did not respond to the vibrations. 70 fibers had an irregular spontaneous activity of 2......-48 spikes/s. These fibers were very vibration-sensitive. The synchronization thresholds at 10-20 Hz varied from below 0.005 to 0.02 cm/s2. In contrast to earlier results, all these fibers had low-pass characteristics (with respect to acceleration) and responded maximally at 10 and 20 Hz. 55 fibers had...

  4. Accelerated hatching of southern leopard frog (Rana sphenocephala) eggs in response to the presence of a crayfish Procambarus nigrocinctus predator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Saenz; James B. Johnson; Cory K. Adams; Gage H. Dayton

    2003-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity, such as morphological and behavioral changes in response to predators, is common in larval anurans. Less is known about inducible defenses in the embryonic stages of development. We investigated the predation risk imposed by crayfish (Procambarus nigrocinctus) on southern leopard frog (Rana sphenocephala)...

  5. Complex patterns of geographic variation in heat tolerance and Hsp70 expression levels in the common frog Rana temporaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Pekkonen, Minna; Lindgren, Beatrice

    2009-01-01

    1. We tested for geographical variation in heat tolerance and Hsp70 expression levels of Rana temporaria tadpoles along a 1500 km long latitudinal gradient in Sweden.   2. Temperature tolerance of the hatchling tadpoles did not differ among populations, but they tolerated stressful hot temperatur...

  6. Water velocity tolerance in tadpoles of the foothill yellow-legged frog (Rana boylii): Swimming performance, growth, and survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Kupferberg; A. Lind; V. Thill; S. Yarnell

    2011-01-01

    We explored the effects of large magnitude flow fluctuations in rivers with dams, commonly referred to as pulsed flows, on tadpoles of the lotic-breeding Foothill Yellow-legged Frog, Rana boylii. We quantified the velocity conditions in habitats occupied by tadpoles and then conducted experiments to assess the tolerance to values at the upper limit...

  7. Nisin Z produced by Lactococcus lactis from bullfrog hatchery is active against Citrobacter freundii, a red-leg syndrome related pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Gabriel; Niederle, Maria V; Minahk, Carlos J; Picariello, Gianluca; Nader-Macías, María E F; Pasteris, Sergio E

    2017-09-27

    Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CRL 1584 isolated from a bullfrog hatchery produces a bacteriocin that inhibits both indigenous Citrobacter freundii (a Red-Leg Syndrome related pathogen) and Lactobacillus plantarum, and Listeria monocytogenes as well. Considering that probiotics requires high cell densities and/or bacteriocin concentrations, the effect of the temperature on L. lactis growth and bacteriocin production was evaluated to find the optimal conditions. Thus, the growth rate was maximal at 36 °C, whereas the highest biomass and bacteriocin activity was achieved between 20 and 30 °C and 20-25 °C, respectively. The bacteriocin synthesis was closely growth associated reaching the maximal values at the end of the exponential phase. Since bacteriocins co-production has been evidenced in bacterial genera, a purification of the bacteriocin/s from L. lactis culture supernatants was carried out. The active fraction was purified by cationic-exchange chromatography and then, a RP-HPLC was carried out. The purified sample was a peptide with a 3353.05 Da, a molecular mass that matches nisin Z, which turned out to be the only bacteriocin produced by L. lactis CRL 1584. Nisin Z showed bactericidal effect on C. freundii and L. monocytogenes, which increased in the presence L-lactic acid + H 2 O 2 . This is the first report on nisin Z production by L. lactis from a bullfrog hatchery that resulted active on a Gram-negative pathogen. This peptide has potential probiotic for raniculture and as food biopreservative for bullfrog meat.

  8. Phylogeography of the arid-adapted Malagasy bullfrog, Laliostoma labrosum, influenced by past connectivity and habitat stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabijan, Maciej; Brown, Jason L; Chan, Lauren M; Rakotondravony, Hery A; Raselimanana, Achille P; Yoder, Anne D; Glaw, Frank; Vences, Miguel

    2015-11-01

    The rainforest biome of eastern Madagascar is renowned for its extraordinary biodiversity and restricted distribution ranges of many species, whereas the arid western region of the island is relatively species poor. We provide insight into the biogeography of western Madagascar by analyzing a multilocus phylogeographic dataset assembled for an amphibian, the widespread Malagasy bullfrog, Laliostoma labrosum. We find no cryptic species in L. labrosum (maximum 1.1% pairwise genetic distance between individuals in the 16S rRNA gene) attributable to considerable gene flow at the regional level as shown by genetic admixture in both mtDNA and three nuclear loci, especially in central Madagascar. Low breeding site fidelity, viewed as an adaptation to the unreliability of standing pools of freshwater in dry and seasonal environments, and a ubiquitous distribution within its range may underlie overall low genetic differentiation. Moreover, reductions in population size associated with periods of high aridity in western Madagascar may have purged DNA variation in this species. The mtDNA gene tree revealed seven major phylogroups within this species, five of which show mostly non-overlapping distributions. The nested positions of the northern and central mtDNA phylogroups imply a southwestern origin for all extant mtDNA lineages in L. labrosum. The current phylogeography of this species and paleo-distributions of major mtDNA lineages suggest five potential refugia in northern, western and southwestern Madagascar, likely the result of Pleistocene range fragmentation during drier and cooler climates. Lineage sorting in mtDNA and nuclear loci highlighted a main phylogeographic break between populations north and south of the Sambirano region, suggesting a role of the coastal Sambirano rainforest as a barrier to gene flow. Paleo-species distribution models and dispersal networks suggest that the persistence of some refugial populations was mainly determined by high population

  9. 'Man and biosphere' - studies of the Sikkim Himalayas. Pt. 5. Acute toxicity of selected heavy metals on the tadpoles of Rana hexadactyla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khangarot, B S; Sehgal, A; Bhasin, M K

    1985-01-01

    The toxicity of different heavy metals as mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic and zinc was tested on tadpoles of Rana hexadactyla. The rank order of the toxicity was determined. The results are briefly discussed.

  10. Hepatic effects of the clomazone herbicide in both its free form and associated with chitosan-alginate nanoparticles in bullfrog tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Cristiane Ronchi; Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes; Rizzi, Gisele Miglioranza; Salla, Raquel Fernanda; Abdalla, Fábio Camargo; Costa, Monica Jones; Silva-Zacarin, Elaine Cristina Mathias

    2016-04-01

    The use of agrochemicals in agriculture is intense and most of them could be carried out to aquatic environment. Nevertheless, there are only few studies that assess the effects of these xenobiotics on amphibians. Clomazone is an herbicide widely used in rice fields, where amphibian species live. Thus, those species may be threatened by non-target exposure. However, nanoparticles are being developed to be used as a carrier system for the agrochemicals. Such nanoparticles release the herbicide in a modified way, and are considered to be more efficient and less harmful to the environment. The aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate the effect of clomazone in its free form and associated with nanoparticles, in the liver of bullfrog tadpoles (Lithobates catesbeianus) when submitted to acute exposure for 96 h. According to semi-quantitative analysis, there was an increase in the frequency of melanomacrophage centres, in the accumulation of eosinophils and in lipidosis in the liver of experimental groups exposed to clomazone - in its free form and associated with nanoparticles - in comparison with the control group, and the nanotoxicity of chitosan-alginate nanoparticles. The increase of melanomacrophage centres in all exposed groups was significant (P hepatic responses. Moreover, these results provided important data about the effect of the clomazone herbicide and organic nanoparticles, which act as carriers of agrochemicals, on the bullfrog tadpole liver. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Modelling the impact of roads on regional population of Moor frogs (Rana arvalis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Maj-Britt

    for decisions concerning road lay-out and mitigation measures. As model species was chosen the Moor frog (Rana arvalis). Populations of Moor frogs are assumed to follow a pattern of metapopulation dynamics, with colonisation, extinction and recolonisation of suitable habitat patches. Thus, road constructions...... to be constructed and analysed. The first scenario should be a map of the area as it is before the planned road construction (scenario 0). This analysis measures the ecological performance of the original landscape and is a reference against which other scenarios are to be compared. The second map (scenario 1......) should show the landscape as it is expected to be after the road constructions. In combination, the analyses of scenario 0 and scenario 1 make it possible to assess the effect of road construction on connectivity and population persistence. The analyses also constitute the basis for planning...

  12. Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris) in southeastern Oregon: A survey of historical localities, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Chistopher A.; Galvan, Stephanie K.; Adams, Michael J.; McCreary, Brome

    2010-01-01

    The Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris) occupies a large range in western North America and is comprised of at least three genetic units. Concern exists regarding the status of the Great Basin populations in Oregon, Idaho, and Nevada. We surveyed target and nearby alternate sites on public lands in southeastern Oregon where there was evidence that Columbia spotted frogs were historically present. We found the species at 59.5 percent (25 of 42) of target or nearby alternate sites. They were in 15 of 23 permanent streams and 8 of 13 intermittent streams. Our surveys do not provide evidence of widespread population losses in our sites. Interpretation of status of Columbia spotted frogs in this study is limited by a lack of precision in some of the historical locations and by our inability to determine if locations where only adults were indicated in the historical record once had breeding populations. Our results support the need for continued investigation of these populations.

  13. Bone marrow reconstitution of immune responses following irradiation in the leopard frog, Rana pipiens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, J.A.; Wright, R.K.; Cooper, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    The bone marrow of Rana is an important source of cells capable of maintaining individual viability, responding to Concanavalin A (Con A) and producing PFC against sheep erythrocyte (SRBC) antigens. Frog marrow is more effective than the spleen in maintaining life. Radiation destroys the ability of frogs to respond to SRBC immunization (lack of bone marrow and spleen PFC, serum antibody) and bone marrow/spleen cells to respond to Con A, i.e., bone marrow and spleen contain radiation-sensitive cells. Shielding one hind leg during irradiation leads to reconstitution of bone marrow/spleen PFC responses, antibody synthesis and individual viability. Our results suggest that bone marrow is: a) the source of stem cells, and b) the source of mature T- and B- lymphocytes that can recirculate within the immune system

  14. Sound and vibration sensitivity of VIIIth nerve fibers in the grassfrog, Rana temporaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Jørgensen, M B

    1996-01-01

    thresholds from 0.02 cm/s2. The sound and vibration sensitivity was compared for each fiber using the offset between the rate-level curves for sound and vibration stimulation as a measure of relative vibration sensitivity. When measured in this way relative vibration sensitivity decreases with frequency from......We have studied the sound and vibration sensitivity of 164 amphibian papilla fibers in the VIIIth nerve of the grassfrog, Rana temporaria. The VIIIth nerve was exposed using a dorsal approach. The frogs were placed in a natural sitting posture and stimulated by free-field sound. Furthermore......, the animals were stimulated with dorso-ventral vibrations, and the sound-induced vertical vibrations in the setup could be canceled by emitting vibrations in antiphase from the vibration exciter. All low-frequency fibers responded to both sound and vibration with sound thresholds from 23 dB SPL and vibration...

  15. Basic response characteristics of auditory nerve fibers in the grassfrog (Rana temporaria)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Jørgensen, M B; Kanneworff, M

    1998-01-01

    -excitatory suppression (PS) of their spontaneous activity. The duration of PS increased with sound level, also in fibers showing a decrease in firing rate at high intensities. Most fibers showing one-tone suppression did not show PS at their best suppression frequencies. Strong suppression was observed also in very......Responses to free-field sound of 401 fibers from the VIIIth nerve of the grassfrog, Rana temporaria, are described. The spontaneous activities of the fibers ranged from 0 to 75 spikes/s, showing only weak correlation with frequency or sensitivity of the fibers. The highest spontaneous activities...... were approximately twice as high as reported previously for frogs. Best frequencies ranged from 100 to 1600 Hz and thresholds ranged from 21 to 80 dB SPL. The median dynamic range was 20 dB and the slopes of the rate-level curves ranged from 5 to 20 spikes/(s-dB). Most of the units showed post...

  16. Biota sediment concentration ratio (CRs-b) for fishes of Rana Pratap Sagar Lake, Rawatbhata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, S.K.; Srivastava, A.P.; Jain, A.K.; Meenal, Balram; Tiwari, S.N.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2018-01-01

    Radionuclides dissolved in water can be adsorbed by bottom/shore sediment transferring it to the deep sediment layers. These adsorbed radionuclides can be remobilized and be available again for uptake by freshwater biota. The biota sediment concentration ratio (CR s-b ) is the ratio of the concentration of a radionuclide in an organism (C b ) on a fresh weight basis to the radionuclide concentration measured in the sediment (C sediment ). Using the data of 137 Cs activity in fish and shore sediment, CR s-b was calculated for fish samples of Rana Pratap Sagar (RPS) Lake, Rawatbhata. This value can be applied in predictive models to calculate radionuclide concentration in fish samples

  17. Workplace safety in Bangladesh ready-made garment sector: 3 years after the Rana Plaza collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, Uttama; Ansary, Mehedi Ahmed

    2017-12-01

    Workplace safety is one of the most important issues in industries worldwide, and is endangered by industrial accidents. Different industrial disasters have resulted in several initiatives worldwide to protect human life and reduce material damage, both nationally and internationally. In Bangladesh, the ready-made garment (RMG) industry is one of the most important export-oriented business sectors, which is facing challenges to ensure workplace safety. The Rana Plaza collapse in Bangladesh is the consequence of such non-compliance. The accident resulted in different local and global initiatives to address the challenges. This article reviews progress and achievement of the initiatives to reduce vulnerability in the Bangladesh RMG industry within 3 years after the deadly accident. In the long run, the challenge is to maintain momentum already created for achieving sustainability in the RMG sector in Bangladesh and maintaining compliance even after the end of support from external partners.

  18. Effects of exposure to ultraviolet light on the development of Rana pipiens, the northern leopard frog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.J.; Wofford, H.W.

    1996-01-01

    The increase in ultraviolet light intensity levels due to ozone depletion recently has been linked to the decline in amphibian population. In this experiment, eggs and larvae of Rana pipiens were subjected to differing amounts of ultraviolet radiation to determine the effects of ultraviolet light on the development of amphibian tadpoles. The total length, length of body without tail, and maximum width of each specimen was recorded for a month of the tadpoles' development, including several measurements after the ultraviolet exposures were concluded. It was found that ultraviolet exposure significantly reduced the size of the organisms in comparison with the control group in all three measured areas. Ultraviolet radiation altered the health and appearance of the exposed organisms and was lethal at large amounts. This experiment showed that ultraviolet radiation could cause many problems in developing amphibians. By slowing their development and physically weakening predation, thus contributing to a decline in overall population levels

  19. Parasites of the mink frog (rana septentrionalis) from Minnesota, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotthoefer, Anna M.; Bolek, M.G.; Cole, Rebecca A.; Beasley, Val R.

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-two mink frogs, Rana septentrionalis, collected from two locations in Minnesota, United States, were examined for helminth and protozoan blood parasites in July 1999. A total of 16 parasite taxa were recovered including 5 larval digenean trematodes, 7 adult digenean trematodes, 3 nematodes, and I Trypanosorna species. Infracommunities were dominated by the digeneans in terms of richness and abundance. In particular, echinostomatid metacercariae in the kidneys of frogs were the most common parasites found, infecting 100% of the frogs and consisting of about 90% of all helminth individuals recovered. Gorgodera amplicava, Gorgoderina multilohata, Haernaroloechus pan'iplexus, Haernatoloechus breviplexus, Cosnwcercoides dukae, and Oswaldocruzia pipiens represent new host records. The survey presented here represents the second known helminth survey of mink frogs conducted in North America. A summary of metazoan parasites reported from mink frogs is included.

  20. Shore and off-shore monitoring of Rana Pratap Sagar lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, P.C.; Roy, Alpana; Hegde, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    The Rana Pratap Sagar (RPS) is a man made fresh water reservoir on the river Chambal and is located about 65 km away from Kota city in the state of Rajasthan. It is a balancing reservoir between Gandhi Sagar, upstream and Jawahar Sagar, downstream. On the eastern bank of RPS there exist Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS) Site, comprising of four operating pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) of 220 MWe each. The low level radioactive effluents from RAPS, are released in controlled manner to RPS. On release the effluents undergo dispersion in the aquatic environment of RPS and may reach man through, various pathways. Being fresh water reservoir, considerable emphasis is laid on the aquatic monitoring aspects relating to RPS and downstream reservoirs. This paper presents the monitored levels of radioactivity prevailing in the aquatic samples collected from near shore and off shore locations of RPS. (author)

  1. Comparative microhabitat characteristics at oviposition sites of the California red-legged frog (Rana draytonii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Jeff A.; Cook, David G.; Yee, Julie L.; van Hattem, Michael G.; Fong, Darren R.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the microhabitat characteristics of 747 egg masses of the federally-threatened Rana draytonii (California red-legged frog) at eight sites in California. our study showed that a broad range of aquatic habitats are utilized by ovipositing R. draytonii, including sites with perennial and ephemeral water sources, natural and constructed wetlands, lentic and lotic hydrology, and sites surrounded by protected lands and nested within modified urban areas. We recorded 45 different egg mass attachment types, although the use of only a few types was common at each site. These attachment types ranged from branches and roots of riparian trees, emergent and submergent wetland vegetation, flooded upland grassland/ruderal vegetation, and debris. eggs were deposited in relatively shallow water (mean 39.7 cm) when compared to maximum site depths. We found that most frogs in artificial pond, natural creek, and artificial channel habitats deposited egg masses within one meter of the shore, while egg masses in a seasonal marsh averaged 27.3 m from the shore due to extensive emergent vegetation. Rana draytonii appeared to delay breeding in lotic habitats and in more inland sites compared to lentic habitats and coastal sites. eggs occurred as early as mid-december at a coastal artificial pond and as late as mid-April in an inland natural creek. We speculate that this delay in breeding may represent a method of avoiding high-flow events and/or freezing temperatures. Understanding the factors related to the reproductive needs of this species can contribute to creating, managing, or preserving appropriate habitat, and promoting species recovery.

  2. Pseudacris triseriata (western chorus frog) and Rana sylvatica (wood frog) chytridiomycosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittman, S.E.; Muths, E.; Green, D.E.

    2003-01-01

    The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a known pathogen of anuran amphibians, and has been correlated with amphibian die-offs worldwide (Daszak et. al. 1999. Emerging Infectious Diseases 5:735-748). In Colorado, B. dendrobatidis has infected Boreal toads (Bufo boreas) (Muths et. al., in review) and has been identified on museum specimens of northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) (Carey et. al. 1999. Develop. Comp. Immunol. 23:459-472). We report the first verified case of chytrid fungus in chorus frogs (Pseudacris triseriata) and wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) in the United States. We collected seven P. triseriata, and two adult and two juvenile R. sylvatica in the Kawuneeche Valley in Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP) during June 2001. These animals were submitted to the National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC) as part of an amphibian health evaluation in RMNP. Chorus frogs were shipped in one container. Wood frog adults and juveniles were shipped in two separate containers. Histological examinations of all chorus frogs and 3 of 4 wood frogs were positive for chytrid fungus infection. The fourth (adult) wood frog was too decomposed for meaningful histology. Histological findings consisted of multifocally mild to diffusely severe infections of the epidermis of the ventrum and hindlimb digital skin. Chytrid thalli were confined to the thickened epidermis (hyperkeratosis), were spherical to oval, and occasional thalli contained characteristic discharge pores or zoospores (Green and Kagarise Sherman 1999. J. Herpetol 35:92-103; Fellers et al. 2001. Copeia 2001:945-953). We cannot confirm that all specimens carried the fungus at collection, because infection may have spread from one individual to all other individuals in each container during transport. Further sampling of amphibians in Kawuneeche Valley is warranted to determine the rate of infection and mortality in these populations.

  3. Biospectroscopy reveals the effect of varying water quality on tadpole tissues of the common frog (Rana temporaria)

    OpenAIRE

    Strong, Becky; Halsall, Crispin James; Ferenčík, Martin; Jones, Kevin Christopher; Shore, Richard Francis; Martin, Francis Luke

    2016-01-01

    Amphibians are undergoing large population declines in many regions around the world. As environmental pollution from both agricultural and urban sources has been implicated in such declines, there is a need for a biomonitoring approach to study potential impacts on this vulnerable class of organism. This study assessed the use of infrared (IR) spectroscopy as a tool to detect changes in several tissues (liver, muscle, kidney, heart and skin) of late-stage common frog (Rana temporaria) tadpol...

  4. Infestación por esparganos en ranas del genero Pristimantis (Anura, Strabomantidae del Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Gomez-Puerta

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio, reportamos el parasitismo por esparganos del cestode Spirometra sp. en los anfibios: Pristimantis nephophilus y Pristimantis rhodostichus, provenientes del departamento de San Martin, Perú. Tres estructuras filiformes localizadas a nivel subcutáneo, fueron colectadas e identificadas como esparganos. El hallazgo de este metacestode constituye el primer registro en anfibios del Perú y demuestra que las ranas P. nephophilus y P. rhodostichus son nuevos hospederos intermediarios para Spirometra sp.

  5. Radiocesium accumulation in the anuran frog, Rana tagoi tagoi, in forest ecosystems after the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahara, Teruhiko; Endo, Satoru; Takada, Momo; Oba, Yurika; Nursal, Wim Ikbal; Igawa, Takeshi; Doi, Hideyuki; Yamada, Toshihiro; Okuda, Toshinori

    2015-01-01

    Amphibians are key components in forest food webs. When examining radioactive contamination in anurans, it is important to understand how radiocesium transfer occurs from lower to higher trophic levels in forest ecosystems. We investigated the activity concentration of radiocesium ( 134 Cs and 137 Cs) in Tago's brown frog (Rana tagoi tagoi) captured on the forest floor approximately 2.5 years after the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident. We collected 66 R. tagoi tagoi at different distances from the FNPP. Radiocesium accumulation showed positive correlations with the air radiation dose rate and litter contamination but not with distance from the FNPP. Whole-body radioactivity showed no correlation with body mass or length. Our results suggest that differences in the available food items result in large variability in individual contamination. Contamination level monitoring in terrestrial and aquatic amphibian is necessary for clarifying the processes and mechanisms of radiocesium transfer through forest food webs. - Highlights: • Radiocesium level in Rana tagoi tagoi from forests near Fukushima was assessed. • Radiocesium accumulation was related to air dose rate and litter contamination. • Differences in dietary intake might lead to variability in individual contamination. • Transfer of radiocesium among trophic levels can occur via anurans. - Rana tagoi tagoi accumulates radiocesium in forest floor habitats near Fukushima

  6. Bioaccumulation of macro- and trace elements by European frogbit (Hydrocharis morsus-ranae L.) in relation to environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polechońska, Ludmiła; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra

    2016-02-01

    The aim of present study was to investigate the level of trace metals and macroelements in Hydrocharis morsus-ranae collected from regions differing in the degree and type of pollution. Concentrations of 17 macro- and microelements were determined in roots and shoots of European frogbit as well as in water and bottom sediments from 30 study sites. Plants differed in concentrations of elements and bioaccumulation capacity depending on the characteristics of dominant anthropogenic activities in the vicinity of the sampling site. Shoots of H. morsus-ranae growing in the vicinity of organic chemistry plants and automotive industry contained particularly high levels of Cd, Co, and S. Plants from area close to heat and power plant, former ferrochrome industry and new highway, were distinguished by the highest concentrations of Cr, Cu, and Pb. European frogbit from both these regions contained more Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, and Zn than plants from agricultural and recreational areas. The concentrations of alkali metals and Co, Fe, and N in H. morsus-ranae were elevated in relation to the natural content in macrophytes irrespectively to their content in the environment. Based on the values of Bioaccumulation and Translocation Factors, European frogbit is an accumulator for Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn and a good candidate for phytoremediation of water polluted with Co, Cu, Hg, K, Mn, and Ni. The amount of Co and Mn removed from water and accumulated in the plant biomass during the vegetation season was considerably high.

  7. Biodiversity and productivity of Rana Patap Sagar lake a thermo-ecological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, P.C.; Sharma, L.L.

    2007-01-01

    Rana Pratap Sagar (RPS) in Rajasthan, is a man made fresh water reservoir and is balancing between Gandhi Sagar on upstream and Jawahar sagar on its down stream. On its eastern bank there exists Rawatbhata Site, comprising of multi -nuclear facilities. There are four PHWR units of Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS) which are in operations, two are under construction and another two are under advanced stage of planning. In addition to nuclear power plants the Site also houses a Heavy Water Plant and other allied facilities such as cobalt facility and waste management facilities. RAPS draws water from RPS lake through a 300 m long conduit pipe located at lake bottom about 20 m below the surface. Duly treated low level radioactive liquid effluents from RAPS facilities are injected to the warmed condenser outlet and then allowed to discharge to RPS in a controlled manner. The warm water is likely to remain at the surface and get mixed with lake water and cooled due to dilutions, evaporation from lake surface and wind currents. The heat release to the RPS lake through condenser outlet may effect the microbiological and water quality parameters, planktonic biodiversity, fish productivity etc. and thus it is imperative to conduct the thermal ecological study to assess the extent of maturation of the water body to identify its present trophic status in terms of eutrophication. This presentation gives the details of thermal ecological studies carried out at Rana Pratap Sagar lake during 2002-2004 under DAE-BRNS project.. The study includes monitoring of several water quality parameters, biological and bacterial parameters and data on thermal stratification in respect of RPS reservoir. The data so obtained were subjected to statistical analysis. The probabilistic and possibilistic approaches have been applied to evaluate ecological risk. The study reveals that there is no adverse effect on RPS water quality owing to receive the warmed effluents from RAPS. Furthermore, it

  8. Helicopter-borne magnetic, electromagnetic and radiometric geophysical survey in the Storforshei area, Rana, Nordland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodionov, Alexei; Ofstad, Frode; Tassis, Georgios

    2012-07-01

    NGU conducted an airborne geophysical survey in Mo i Rana area in July 2012. This report describes and documents the aquisition, processing and visualization of recorded datasets. The geophysical survey results reported herein are 1414 line km. The Geotech Ltd. Hummingbird frequency domain system supplemented by optically pumped cesium magnetometer and 1024 channels RSX-5 spectrometer was used for data aquisition. The survey was flown with 100 m line spacing, line direction of 180 deg North-South (in the west) and 150 deg NorthWest-SouthEast (in the east) with the average speed 96 km/h. The average terrain clearance of the bird was 55 m. Collected data were processed by AR GeoConsulting using Geosoft Oasis Montaj software. Raw total magnetic field data were corrected for diurnal variation and levelled using standard micro levelling algorithm. EM data were filtered and levelled using both automated and manual levelling procedure. Apparent resistivity was calculated from in-phase and quadrature data for each of the five frequencies separately using a homogeneous half space model. Apparent resistivity dataset was levelled and filtered. Radiometric data were processed using standard procedures recommended by International Atomic Energy Association (IAEA). All data were gridded with the cell size of 25 m and presented as shaded relief maps at the scale of 1:25 000.(Author)

  9. Relationships between leukocytes and Hepatozoon spp. In green frogs, Rana clamitans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutler, Dave; Smith, Todd G; Robinson, Stephen R

    2009-01-01

    There are few published data on amphibian leukocyte profiles, and relationships between amphibian leukocytes and parasites are even less well known. Using counts from 35 pairs of blood smears taken 2 days apart, we tested for correlations between leukocyte proportions and infection intensities of Hepatozoon spp. (either Hepatozoon catesbianae or Hepatozoon clamatae) in green frogs (Rana clamitans). On average (SE), we counted 65.4 (1.7) lymphocytes, 14.0 (1.3) neutrophils, 19.3 (1.6) eosinophils, 0.9 (0.1) monocytes, and 0.4 (0.1) basophils per 100 leukocytes. All frogs harbored Hepatozoon spp. (median seven parasites per 100 leukocytes; range 1-250). Significant relationships were not observed between numbers of leukocytes and infection intensities of Hepatozoon spp. Among the possible explanations for these null results are that Hepatozoon spp. is benign, that Hepatozoon spp. is able to evade detection by the immune system, that Hepatozoon spp. is able to manipulate leukocyte investment, or that other unmeasured or undetected parasites were more important in affecting immune response.

  10. Comparative toxicity of chlorpyrifos, diazinon, malathion and their oxon derivatives to larval Rana boylii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparling, D.W.; Fellers, G.

    2007-01-01

    Organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) are ubiquitous in the environment and are highly toxic to amphibians. They deactivate cholinesterase, resulting in neurological dysfunction. Most chemicals in this group require oxidative desulfuration to achieve their greatest cholinesterase-inhibiting potencies. Oxon derivatives are formed within liver cells but also by bacterial decay of parental pesticides. This study examines the toxicity of chlorpyrifos, malathion and diazinon and their oxons on the foothill yellow-legged frog (Rana boylii). R. boylii is exposed to agricultural pesticides in the California Central Valley. Median lethal concentrations of the parental forms during a 96 h exposure were 3.00 mg/L (24 h) for chlorpyrifos, 2.14 mg/L for malathion and 7.49 mg/L for diazinon. Corresponding oxons were 10 to 100 times more toxic than their parental forms. We conclude that environmental concentrations of these pesticides can be harmful to R. boylii populations. - Laboratory tests on the toxicity of OP insecticides and their oxons suggest that they may be acutely lethal to amphibians at ecologically relevant concentrations

  11. Comparative toxicity of chlorpyrifos, diazinon, malathion and their oxon derivatives to larval Rana boylii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparling, D.W. [Cooperative Wildlife Research Laboratory, Department of Zoology and Center for Ecology, Southern Illinois University, LS II, MS6504, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States)]. E-mail: dsparl@siu.edu; Fellers, G. [Western Ecology Research Center, U.S. Geological Survey, Point Reyes National Seashore, Point Reyes, CA 94956 (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) are ubiquitous in the environment and are highly toxic to amphibians. They deactivate cholinesterase, resulting in neurological dysfunction. Most chemicals in this group require oxidative desulfuration to achieve their greatest cholinesterase-inhibiting potencies. Oxon derivatives are formed within liver cells but also by bacterial decay of parental pesticides. This study examines the toxicity of chlorpyrifos, malathion and diazinon and their oxons on the foothill yellow-legged frog (Rana boylii). R. boylii is exposed to agricultural pesticides in the California Central Valley. Median lethal concentrations of the parental forms during a 96 h exposure were 3.00 mg/L (24 h) for chlorpyrifos, 2.14 mg/L for malathion and 7.49 mg/L for diazinon. Corresponding oxons were 10 to 100 times more toxic than their parental forms. We conclude that environmental concentrations of these pesticides can be harmful to R. boylii populations. - Laboratory tests on the toxicity of OP insecticides and their oxons suggest that they may be acutely lethal to amphibians at ecologically relevant concentrations.

  12. Climatic influences on the breeding biology of the agile frog ( Rana dalmatina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, Magali; Pinaud, David; Barbraud, Christophe; Trotignon, Jacques; Brischoux, François

    2018-02-01

    Severe population declines of amphibians have been shown to be attributed to climate change. Nevertheless, the various mechanisms through which climate can influence population dynamics of amphibians remain to be assessed, notably to disentangle the relative synergetic or antagonistic influences of temperature and precipitations on specific life history stages. We investigated the impact of rainfall and temperature on the egg-clutch abundance in a population of agile frog ( Rana dalmatina) during 29 years (1987-2016) on 14 breeding sites located in Brenne Natural Park, France. Specifically, we examined the influence of environmental conditions occurring during five temporal windows of the year cycle corresponding to specific life history stages. Overall, our results suggest that the year-to-year fluctuations of egg-clutch abundances in Brenne Natural Park were partly dependent on local climatic conditions (rainfall and temperature). Climate seemed to influence breeding frogs during the autumn-winter period preceding reproduction. Spring and summer conditions did not influence reproduction. Additionally, we failed to detect effects of climatic conditions on newly metamorphosed individuals. Other factors such as density dependence and inter-specific interactions with introduced predators are likely to play a significant role in reproduction dynamics of the studied frog populations.

  13. Activation of eggs of the frog, Rana nigromaculata Hallowell, after localized UV-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sambuichi, Hajime

    1981-01-01

    To analyze the mode of transmission of the activating stimulus, the change in time course of the 2nd maturation division was examined in eggs of the frog, Rana nigromaculata, which were activated by insemination or by pricking after UV-irradiation at either the animal or the vegetal hemisphere. Irradiation of the animal (UAF) or the vegetal (UVF) hemisphere before insemination retarded the 2nd maturation division in comparison with that in normally fertilized eggs (CF). When the eggs were pricked at the irradiated surface (UAP and UVP, respectively), however, the 2nd maturation division progressed faster than that of CF. The comparison of the velocity of the 2nd maturation division between UAF and UVF, and also between UAP and UVP, showed that the cortical reaction in the vegetal hemisphere was affected by UV-irradiation more severely than that in the animal hemisphere. The results suggested that the quality of the granules or the constituent within the egg cortex might vary according to the regional difference in the egg surface. (author)

  14. Helicopter-borne magnetic, electromagnetic and radiometric geophysical survey in the Storforshei area, Rana, Nordland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodionov, Alexei; Ofstad, Frode; Tassis, Georgios

    2012-01-01

    NGU conducted an airborne geophysical survey in Mo i Rana area in July 2012. This report describes and documents the aquisition, processing and visualization of recorded datasets. The geophysical survey results reported herein are 1414 line km. The Geotech Ltd. Hummingbird frequency domain system supplemented by optically pumped cesium magnetometer and 1024 channels RSX-5 spectrometer was used for data aquisition. The survey was flown with 100 m line spacing, line direction of 180 deg North-South (in the west) and 150 deg NorthWest-SouthEast (in the east) with the average speed 96 km/h. The average terrain clearance of the bird was 55 m. Collected data were processed by AR GeoConsulting using Geosoft Oasis Montaj software. Raw total magnetic field data were corrected for diurnal variation and levelled using standard micro levelling algorithm. EM data were filtered and levelled using both automated and manual levelling procedure. Apparent resistivity was calculated from in-phase and quadrature data for each of the five frequencies separately using a homogeneous half space model. Apparent resistivity dataset was levelled and filtered. Radiometric data were processed using standard procedures recommended by International Atomic Energy Association (IAEA). All data were gridded with the cell size of 25 m and presented as shaded relief maps at the scale of 1:25 000.(Author)

  15. Seasonal Variation in the Hepatoproteome of the Dehydration- and Freeze-Tolerant Wood Frog, Rana sylvatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon P. Costanzo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Winter’s advent invokes physiological adjustments that permit temperate ectotherms to cope with stresses such as food shortage, water deprivation, hypoxia, and hypothermia. We used liquid chromatography (LC in combination with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS quantitative isobaric (iTRAQ™ peptide mapping to assess variation in the abundance of hepatic proteins in summer- and winter-acclimatized wood frogs (Rana sylvatica, a northerly-distributed species that tolerates extreme dehydration and tissue freezing during hibernation. Thirty-three unique proteins exhibited strong seasonal lability. Livers of winter frogs had relatively high levels of proteins involved in cytoprotection, including heat-shock proteins and an antioxidant, and a reduced abundance of proteins involved in cell proliferation, protein synthesis, and mitochondrial function. They also exhibited altered levels of certain metabolic enzymes that participate in the biochemical reorganization associated with aphagia and reliance on energy reserves, as well as the freezing mobilization and post-thaw recovery of glucose, an important cryoprotective solute in freezing adaptation.

  16. Toxic effects of NH4+-N on embryonic development of Bufo gargarizans and Rana chensinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hongzhang; Chai, Lihong; Luo, Pingping; Zhou, Meimei; Nover, Daniel; Zhao, Xiaohong

    2017-09-01

    Although nitrogen fertilizer is commonly used worldwide, little information is currently available about NH 4 + -N toxicity on amphibians. This study determined the acute and chronic toxic effects of NH 4 + -N on two native Chinese amphibian species (Bufo gargarizans and Rana chensinensis), and compared the negative sensitivity of different embryos to NH 4 + -N. Static renewal aqueous exposures were performed using B. gargarizans and R. chensinensis embryos at Gosner stage 2 over 96 h. In terms of 96 h-LC 50 , B. gargarizans and R. chensinensis embryos had significantly different responses to NH 4 + -N, and the latter was more sensitive to NH 4 + -N than the former. In the chronic toxicity test, exposure to 10 mg L -1 NH 4 + -N or higher significantly decreased the hatching rate of embryos in both species. Significant increases in the abnormality rate of embryos at 50 mg L -1 NH 4 + -N or higher were observed and morphological abnormalities were characterized by axial flexures, yolk sac edema, and hyperplasia in both species. Additionally, the total length of embryos decreased in a dose-dependent manner after exposure to NH 4 + -N. The results indicate that NH 4 + -N exposure can increase abnormality and inhibit the hatching and development of embryos in B. gargarizans and R. chensinensis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ranid Herpesvirus 3 and Proliferative Dermatitis in Free-Ranging Wild Common Frogs (Rana Temporaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Origgi, F C; Schmidt, B R; Lohmann, P; Otten, P; Akdesir, E; Gaschen, V; Aguilar-Bultet, L; Wahli, T; Sattler, U; Stoffel, M H

    2017-07-01

    Amphibian pathogens are of current interest as contributors to the global decline of amphibians. However, compared with chytrid fungi and ranaviruses, herpesviruses have received relatively little attention. Two ranid herpesviruses have been described: namely, Ranid herpesvirus 1 (RHV1) and Ranid herpesvirus 2 (RHV2). This article describes the discovery and partial characterization of a novel virus tentatively named Ranid herpesvirus 3 (RHV3), a candidate member of the genus Batrachovirus in the family Alloherpesviridae. RHV3 infection in wild common frogs (Rana temporaria) was associated with severe multifocal epidermal hyperplasia, dermal edema, a minor inflammatory response, and variable mucous gland degeneration. Intranuclear inclusions were numerous in the affected epidermis together with unique extracellular aggregates of herpesvirus-like particles. The RHV3-associated skin disease has features similar to those of a condition recognized in European frogs for the last 20 years and whose cause has remained elusive. The genome of RHV3 shares most of the features of the Alloherpesviruses. The characterization of this presumptive pathogen may be of value for amphibian conservation and for a better understanding of the biology of Alloherpesviruses.

  18. Receptor-mediated endocytosis of lysozyme in renal proximal tubules of the frog Rana temporaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Seliverstova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of protein reabsorption in the kidney of lower vertebrates remains insufficiently investigated in spite of raising interest to the amphibian and fish kidneys as a useful model for physiological and pathophysiological examinations. In the present study, we examined the renal tubular uptake and the internalization rote of lysozyme after its intravenous injection in the wintering frog Rana temporaria using immunohisto- and immunocytochemistry and specific markers for some endocytic compartments. The distinct expression of megalin and cubilin in the proximal tubule cells of lysozyme-injected frogs was revealed whereas kidney tissue of control animals showed no positive immunoreactivity. Lysozyme was detected in the apical endocytic compartment of the tubular cells and colocalized with clathrin 10 min after injection. After 20 min, lysozyme was located in the subapical compartment negative to clathrin (endosomes, and intracellular trafficking of lysozyme was coincided with the distribution of megalin and cubilin. However, internalized protein was retained in the endosomes and did not reach lysosomes within 30 min after treatment that may indicate the inhibition of intracellular trafficking in hibernating frogs. For the first time, we provided the evidence that lysozyme is filtered through the glomeruli and absorbed by receptor-mediated clathrin-dependent endocytosis in the frog proximal tubule cells. Thus, the protein uptake in the amphibian mesonephros is mediated by megalin and cubilin that confirms a critical role of endocytic receptors in the renal reabsorption of proteins in amphibians as in mammals.

  19. Mobile phone mast effects on common frog (Rana temporaria) tadpoles: the city turned into a laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmori, Alfonso

    2010-06-01

    An experiment has been made exposing eggs and tadpoles of the common frog (Rana temporaria) to electromagnetic radiation from several mobile (cell) phone antennae located at a distance of 140 meters. The experiment lasted two months, from the egg phase until an advanced phase of tadpole prior to metamorphosis. Measurements of electric field intensity (radiofrequencies and microwaves) in V/m obtained with three different devices were 1.8 to 3.5 V/m. In the exposed group (n = 70), low coordination of movements, an asynchronous growth, resulting in both big and small tadpoles, and a high mortality (90%) was observed. Regarding the control group (n = 70) under the same conditions but inside a Faraday cage, the coordination of movements was normal, the development was synchronous, and a mortality of 4.2% was obtained. These results indicate that radiation emitted by phone masts in a real situation may affect the development and may cause an increase in mortality of exposed tadpoles. This research may have huge implications for the natural world, which is now exposed to high microwave radiation levels from a multitude of phone masts.

  20. Molecular cloning and expression patterns of the Vasa gene from Rana nigromaculata (Amphibia: Anura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Jia

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Vasa protein is a member of the DEAD (Asp-Glu-Alu-Asp box family of ATP-dependent RNA helicases. The Vasa gene is specifically expressed in germ-line cells of many metazoans and is known to play a critical role in gametogenesis and reproductive regulation. In this paper, we isolate the full length cDNA sequence of the Vasa gene from the frog Rana nigromaculata Hallowell, 1861. The open reading frame (ORF encoding 398 amino acid residues has nine conserved motifs. According to the similarities at the amino acid sequenceythe phylogenetic analysis of Vasa gene was consistent with the evolution relationships from chordates to mammals. Furthermore, the expression pattern analysis of RnVasa mRNA, using the technique of Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR, showed a high level of transcripts in testis, ovary and kidney, whereas little to no signal was detected in other tissues, which suggests that it may play a role during gametogenesis.

  1. Rana computatrix to human language: towards a computational neuroethology of language evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbib, Michael A

    2003-10-15

    Walter's Machina speculatrix inspired the name Rana computatrix for a family of models of visuomotor coordination in the frog, which contributed to the development of computational neuroethology. We offer here an 'evolutionary' perspective on models in the same tradition for rat, monkey and human. For rat, we show how the frog-like taxon affordance model provides a basis for the spatial navigation mechanisms that involve the hippocampus and other brain regions. For monkey, we recall two models of neural mechanisms for visuomotor coordination. The first, for saccades, shows how interactions between the parietal and frontal cortex augment superior colliculus seen as the homologue of frog tectum. The second, for grasping, continues the theme of parieto-frontal interactions, linking parietal affordances to motor schemas in premotor cortex. It further emphasizes the mirror system for grasping, in which neurons are active both when the monkey executes a specific grasp and when it observes a similar grasp executed by others. The model of human-brain mechanisms is based on the mirror-system hypothesis of the evolution of the language-ready brain, which sees the human Broca's area as an evolved extension of the mirror system for grasping.

  2. BIOMETRIC STUDY TO RANA RIDIBUNDA FROG SPECIES NEARNESS TO TIMISOARA LOCALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BURA

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Speciality literature provides little informations regarding Rana ridibunda frogbiometry. For supply this gap we studied the size and weight of 54 frogs sampled fromnearby Timişoara area ponds.The mean body lenght was 8,08 ± 0,54 cm for the females and respectively 6,17 ± 0,45cm for the males. Before evisceration on a par females weighted 62,28 ± 12,87 g andthe males 22,46 ± 5,3 g whereas after this action the carcase weighted 43,89 ± 8,91 gin the case of females and respectively 18,45 ± 4,42 g in the case of male lake frog. Themean leg lenght measured 12,59 ± 0,68 cm for female frogs and 9,78 ± 0,66 cm in thecase of male frogs. The hind stylopodium was estimated on a par as 13,23 ± 2,57 g forfemales and 5,33 ± 1,26 g for the males.

  3. Acute Toxicity of an Organophosphate Insecticide Chlorpyrifos to an Anuran, Rana cyanophlyctis

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    Ajai Kumar Srivastav

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphate pesticide that elicits broad-spectrum insecticidal activity against a number of important arthropod pests. Determining the insecticides’ toxicity to amphibians can give us a better understanding regarding the role of toxicants in amphibian declines. This information would be beneficial to assess their ecological relevance at environmental concentrations. The present study assessed toxicity of chlorpyrifos to an anuran Rana cyanophlyctis. Methods: For the determination of LC50 values for chlorpyrifos, four-day static renewal acute toxicity test was used. Five replicates each containing ten frogs were subjected to each concentration of chlorpyrifos (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 and 16 mg/L for the test. Mortality of the frog at different exposure periods (24, 48, 72 and 96 h was subjected to Probit analysis with the POLO-PC software (LeOra Software to calculate the LC50 and 95% confidence level. Results: The LC50 values of chlorpyrifos for the frog R. cyanophlyctis at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h were 8.252, 7.254, 6.247 and 4.993mg/L, respectively. Conclusion: Mortality has been noticed in chlorpyrifos treated frogs related to the decline in amphibian population. Therefore, chlorpyrifos should not be used near water reservoirs.

  4. Acute Toxicity of a Heavy Metal Cadmium to an Anuran, the Indian Skipper Frog Rana cyanophlyctis

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    Ajai Kumar Srivastav

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There has been increasing awareness throughout the world regarding the remarkable decrease in amphibian population. For such amphibian population decline several causes have been given. Cadmium, a heavy metal is released both from natural sources (leaching of cadmium rich soils and anthropogenic activities to the aquatic and terrestrial environments. This study evaluated the toxicity of heavy metal cadmium to Indian skipper frog Rana cyanophlyctis. Methods: For the determination of LC50 values for cadmium, four-day static renewal acute toxicity test was used. Five replicates each containing ten frogs were subjected to each concentration of cadmium chloride (15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50 mg/L. At different exposure periods (24, 48, 72 and 96 h, the mortality of the frog was subjected to Probit analysis with the POLO-PC software (LeOra Software to calculate the LC50 and 95% confidence level. Results: The LC50 values of cadmium chloride for the frog R. cyanophlyctis at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h are 32.586, 29.994, 27.219 and 23.048 mg/L, respectively. The results have been discussed with the toxicity reported for other aquatic vertebrate --fish. Conclusion: Cadmium caused mortality to the frog and this could be one of the reasons for population decline of frogs which inhabit water contaminated with heavy metals.

  5. Effects of agricultural pesticides on the immune system of Xenopus laevis and Rana pipiens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christin, M.S.; Menard, L.; Gendron, A.D.; Ruby, S.; Cyr, D.; Marcogliese, D.J.; Rollins-Smith, L.; Fournier, M.

    2004-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, there have been mass declines in diverse geographic locations among amphibian populations. Multiple causes have been suggested to explain this decline. Among these, environmental pollution is gaining attention. Indeed, some chemicals of environmental concern are known to alter the immune system. Given that amphibians are frequently exposed to agricultural pesticides, it is possible that these pollutants alter their immune system and render them more susceptible to different pathogens. In this study, we exposed two frog species, Xenopus laevis and Rana pipiens, for a short period of time to a mixture of pesticides (atrazine, metribuzine, endosulfan, lindane, aldicarb and dieldrin) representative in terms of composition and concentrations to what it is found in the environment of the southwest region of the province of Quebec. The pesticides were known to be present in surface water of many tributaries of the St. Lawrence River (Quebec, Canada). Our results demonstrate that the mixture of pesticides could alter the cellularity and phagocytic activity of X. laevis and the lymphocyte proliferation of R. pipiens. Taken together, these results indicate that agricultural pesticides can alter some aspects of the immune response in frogs and could contribute to their global decline by rendering them more susceptible to certain infections

  6. Effects of agricultural pesticides on the immune system of Xenopus laevis and Rana pipiens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christin, M.S.; Menard, L.; Gendron, A.D.; Ruby, S.; Cyr, D.; Marcogliese, D.J.; Rollins-Smith, L.; Fournier, M

    2004-03-30

    Over the last 30 years, there have been mass declines in diverse geographic locations among amphibian populations. Multiple causes have been suggested to explain this decline. Among these, environmental pollution is gaining attention. Indeed, some chemicals of environmental concern are known to alter the immune system. Given that amphibians are frequently exposed to agricultural pesticides, it is possible that these pollutants alter their immune system and render them more susceptible to different pathogens. In this study, we exposed two frog species, Xenopus laevis and Rana pipiens, for a short period of time to a mixture of pesticides (atrazine, metribuzine, endosulfan, lindane, aldicarb and dieldrin) representative in terms of composition and concentrations to what it is found in the environment of the southwest region of the province of Quebec. The pesticides were known to be present in surface water of many tributaries of the St. Lawrence River (Quebec, Canada). Our results demonstrate that the mixture of pesticides could alter the cellularity and phagocytic activity of X. laevis and the lymphocyte proliferation of R. pipiens. Taken together, these results indicate that agricultural pesticides can alter some aspects of the immune response in frogs and could contribute to their global decline by rendering them more susceptible to certain infections.

  7. Effect of rana galamensis–based diet on the activities of some enzymes and histopathology of selected tissues of albino rats

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    Basiru Olaitan Ajiboye

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Rana galamensis-based diet on the activities of some enzymes and histopathology of selected tissues of albino rats was investigated for eight weeks. A total of sixteen albino rats weighing between 29.15 and 26.01g (21 days old were divided into two groups. The first group contains animals fed on casein-based diet (control; the second group was fed on Rana galamensis-based diet. The animals were fed with their appropriate diet on daily basis and on the eight weeks of the experiment the animals were sacrificed using diethyl ether as anesthesia, blood was collected by cardiac puncture and organs of interest were harvested. Thereafter, organ to body weight ratio, some biochemical parameters and histopathology examination were carried out. There was no significant difference (p >0.05 in the organ to body weight ratio of the animals fed on control and Rana galamensis-based diets. Also, there was no significant different (p >0.05 in the activities of all the enzymes (ALP [alkaline phosphatase], AST [asparate transaminase], ALT [alanine transaminase], and γGT [gamma glutamyl transferase] investigated in the selected tissues and serum of rats fed on Rana galamensis- based diet when compared with the control. In addition, histological examinations of hepatocyte's rats fed on Rana galamensis- based diet show normal architecture structure when compared with the control. The insignificant different in the activities of all the enzymes studies (ALP, AST, ALT and γGT indicated no organ damage, supported by the normal histology studies. The obtained results may imply that Rana galamensis is safe for consumption.  Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  8. The postglacial recolonization of Northern Europe by Rana arvalis as revealed by microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopp, T; Merilä, J

    2009-02-01

    The postglacial history of the moor frog (Rana arvalis) in Northern Europe was investigated with the aid of eight variable microsatellite loci and a 661 bp sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. A division between eastern and western mitochondrial lineages was discovered, supporting two recolonization routes to Fennoscandia since the last glacial maximum. This result was corroborated by the microsatellite data, which revealed a contact zone between the two lineages in Northern Sweden. These findings add to the increasing evidence that an intraspecific genetic biodiversity founded on the existence of eastern and western clades is a common element in Fennoscandian fauna and flora.

  9. Hexadactyly case at a Rana kl. esculenta sample from the north-western part of Romania (Short Notes

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    Istvan SAS

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available At 17 June 2006, in a habitat close to Gherta Mica locality (47°56'0'' N, 23°14'0'' E, Satu-Mare County, Romania we had found a sample of Rana kl. esculenta which presented hexadactyly at both of its posterior feet. The captured sample of edible frog had fully formed extra (sixth toes, with phalanges (bones. The hexadactyly was perfectly symmetrical at both of the posterior feet. At this individual we did not discovered any other malformations, the biometrical characters situating in the variations limits of the other green frogs from the studied habitat. A symmetric hexadacytly can be a result of atavism.

  10. Cuervo, rana y tortuga en Gönnersdord : Animales representados raras veces, que han sido dibujados perfectamente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannelore Bosinski

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En las placas de pizarra del yacimiento magdaleniense de Gönnersdorf (Renania, Alemania encontramos, junto con muchas otras representaciones, un cuervo, una rana y una tortuga. A pesar de que estos animales han sido representados en raras ocasiones, estas figuras son vivas y con muchos detalles anatómicos. Tomando en consideración que los animales no sirvieron de modelo mientras eran dibujados, estas figuras fueron realizadas tras una observación intensiva y dibujadas por artistas con genio eidético.

  11. Oxidative stress induced in PCB 126-exposed northern leopard frogs, Rana pipiens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.-W.; Hoffman, D.J.; Karasov, W.H.

    2007-01-01

    Northern leopard frogs Rana pipiens exposed to PCB 126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl) were examined for hepatic oxidative stress. In a dose-response study, northern leopard frogs were injected intraperitoneally with either PCB 126 in corn oil (0.2, 0.7, 2.3, or 7.8 mg/kg body weight) or corn oil alone. In a time-course study, frogs received 7.8 mg/kg or corn oil alone, and were examined at 1, 2, 3, and 4 wk after dosing. Hepatic concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and total sulfhydryls (total SH), as well as activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-P), GSSG reductase (GSSG-R), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH), and glutathione S-transferase (GSH-S-T) were measured. In the dose-response experiment, few effects were apparent 1 wk after dosing. In the time-course experiment, significant changes were observed in the 7.8-mg/kg group at 2 wk or more posttreatment. Hepatic concentrations of GSH and TBARS were higher than in corresponding controls at wk 3 and 4; the activities of GSSG-R and GSH-S-T were higher than in controls at wk 2 and 4; and the activity of G-6-PDH was increased at wk 2 and 4. These data collectively indicate that altered glutathione metabolism and oxidative stress occurred and were indicative of both toxicity and induction of protective mechanisms in frogs exposed to PCB. A similar delay in response was reported in fish and may relate to lower metabolic rate and physiological reactions in ectothermic vertebrates

  12. Oral chytridiomycosis in the mountain yellow-legged frog (Rana muscosa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellers, G.M.; Green, E.D.; Longcore, J.E.

    2001-01-01

    The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis was originally reported in wild frog populations in Panama and Australia, and from captive frogs in the U.S. National Zoological Park (Washington, DC). This recently described fungus affects the keratinized epidermis of amphibians and has been implicated as a causative factor in the declines of frog populations. We report here the presence of B. dendrobatidis in larval and recently metamorphosed mountain yellow-legged frogs (Rana muscosa) in or near the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California, an area where declines have been documented in all five species of native anurans. Forty-one percent (158 of 387) of larval R. muscosa examined in the field with a hand lens and 18% (14 of 79) of preserved larvae had abnormalities of the oral disc. Twenty-eight larvae were collected from 10 sites where tadpoles had been observed with missing or abnormally keratinized mouthparts, and 24 of these were examined for infection. Sixty-seven percent (16 of 24) of these tadpoles were infected with B. dendrobatidis. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis was cultured from both tadpoles and recent metamorphs from one of these sites. Tadpoles with mouthpart abnormalities or confirmed chytrid fungus infections were collected at 23 sites spanning a distance of > 440 km and an elevational range from 1658-3550 m. Life-history traits of R. muscosa may make this species particularly susceptible to infection by Batrachochytrium. We recommend that biologists examine tadpoles for oral disc abnormalities as a preliminary indication of chytridiomycosis. Further, we believe that biologists should take precautions to prevent spreading this and other amphibian diseases from one site to another.

  13. Population trends, survival, and sampling methodologies for a population of Rana draytonii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellers, Gary M.; Kleeman, Patrick M.; Miller, David A.W.; Halstead, Brian J.

    2017-01-01

    Estimating population trends provides valuable information for resource managers, but monitoring programs face trade-offs between the quality and quantity of information gained and the number of sites surveyed. We compared the effectiveness of monitoring techniques for estimating population trends of Rana draytonii (California Red-legged Frog) at Point Reyes National Seashore, California, USA, over a 13-yr period. Our primary goals were to: 1) estimate trends for a focal pond at Point Reyes National Seashore, and 2) evaluate whether egg mass counts could reliably estimate an index of abundance relative to more-intensive capture–mark–recapture methods. Capture–mark–recapture (CMR) surveys of males indicated a stable population from 2005 to 2009, despite low annual apparent survival (26.3%). Egg mass counts from 2000 to 2012 indicated that despite some large fluctuations, the breeding female population was generally stable or increasing, with annual abundance varying between 26 and 130 individuals. Minor modifications to egg mass counts, such as marking egg masses, can allow estimation of egg mass detection probabilities necessary to convert counts to abundance estimates, even when closure of egg mass abundance cannot be assumed within a breeding season. High egg mass detection probabilities (mean per-survey detection probability = 0.98 [0.89–0.99]) indicate that egg mass surveys can be an efficient and reliable method for monitoring population trends of federally threatened R. draytonii. Combining egg mass surveys to estimate trends at many sites with CMR methods to evaluate factors affecting adult survival at focal populations is likely a profitable path forward to enhance understanding and conservation of R. draytonii.

  14. Habitat use and home range of the endangered gold-spotted pond frog (Rana chosenica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Nam-Yong; Sung, Ha-Cheol; Cheong, Seokwan; Lee, Jung-Hyun; Eom, Junho; Park, Daesik

    2008-09-01

    Because of their complex life styles, amphibians and reptiles living in wetlands require both aquatic and terrestrial buffer zones in their protected conservation areas. Due to steep declines in wild populations, the gold-spotted pond frog (Rana chosenica) is listed as vulnerable by the IUCN. However, lack of data about its movements and use of habitat prevents effective conservation planning. To determine the habitat use and home range of this species, we radio-tracked 44 adult frogs for 37 days between 10 July and 4 Nov. 2007 to observe three different populations in the breeding season, non-breeding season, and late fall. The gold-spotted pond frog was very sedentary; its daily average movement was 9.8 m. Frogs stayed close to breeding ponds (within 6.6 m), and did not leave damp areas surrounding these ponds, except for dormancy migration to terrestrial sites such as dried crop fields. The average distance of dormancy migration of seven frogs from the edge of their breeding ponds was 32.0 m. The average size of an individual's home range was 713.8 m(2) (0.07 ha). The year-round population home range, which accounts for the home ranges of a population of frogs, was determined for two populations to be 8,765.0 m(2) (0.88 ha) and 3,700.9 m(2) (0.37 ha). Our results showed that to conserve this endangered species, appropriately sized wetlands and extended terrestrial buffer areas surrounding the wetlands (at least 1.33 ha, diameter 130 m) should be protected.

  15. Impacts of weathered tire debris on the development of Rana sylvatica larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camponelli, K.M.; Casey, R.E.; Snodgrass, J.W.; Lev, S.M.; Landa, E.R.

    2009-01-01

    Highway runoff has the potential to negatively impact receiving systems including stormwater retention ponds where highway particulate matter can accumulate following runoff events. Tire wear particles, which contain about 1% Zn by mass, make up approximately one-third of the vehicle derived particulates in highway runoff and therefore may serve as a stressor to organisms utilizing retention ponds as habitat. In this study, we focused on the potential contribution of tire debris to Zn accumulation by Rana sylvatica larvae and possible lethal or sublethal impacts resulting from exposure to weathered tire debris during development. Eggs and larvae were exposed to aged sediments (containing either ZnCl2 or tire particulate matter, both providing nominal concentrations of 1000 mg Zn kg-1) through metamorphosis. Water column Zn was elevated in both the ZnCl2 and tire treatments relative to the control treatment, indicating that aging allowed Zn leaching from tire debris to occur. Tissue Zn was also elevated for the ZnCl2 and tire treatments indicating that Zn in the treatments was available for uptake by the amphibians. Exposure to both ZnCl2 and tire treatments increased the time for larvae to complete metamorphosis in comparison with controls. We also observed that the longer the organisms took to complete metamorphosis, the smaller their mass at metamorphosis. Our results indicate that Zn leached from aged tire debris is bioavailable to developing R. sylvatica larvae and that exposure to tire debris amended sediments can result in measurable physiological outcomes to wood frogs that may influence population dynamics. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Effects of wetland vs. landscape variables on parasite communities of Rana pipiens: links to anthropogenic factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotthoefer, Anna M.; Rohr, Jason R.; Cole, Rebecca A.; Koehler, Anson V.; Johnson, Catherine M.; Johnson, Lucinda B.; Beasley, Val R.

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of several diseases affecting amphibian populations worldwide has prompted investigations into determinants of the occurrence and abundance of parasites in frogs. To understand the spatial scales and identify specific environmental factors that determine risks of parasitism in frogs, helminth communities in metamorphic frogs of the northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens) were examined in relation to wetland and landscape factors at local (1 km) and regional (10 km) spatial extents in an agricultural region of Minnesota (USA) using regression analyses, ordination, and variance partitioning techniques. Greater amounts of forested and woody wetland habitats, shorter distances between woody wetlands, and smaller-sized open water patches in surrounding landscapes were the most consistently positive correlates with the abundances, richness, and diversity of helminths found in the frogs. Wetland and local landscape variables were suggested as most important for larval trematode abundances, whereas local and regional landscape variables appeared most important for adult helminths. As previously reported, the sum concentration of atrazine and its metabolite desethylatrazine, was the strongest predictor of larval trematode communities. In this report, we highlight the additional influences of landscape factors. In particular, our data suggest that anthropogenic activities that have resulted in the loss of the availability and connectivity of suitable habitats in the surrounding landscapes of wetlands are associated with declines in helminth richness and abundance, but that alteration of wetland water quality through eutrophication or pesticide contamination may facilitate the transmission of certain parasite taxa when they are present at wetlands. Although additional research is needed to quantify the negative effects of parasitism on frog populations, efforts to reduce inputs of agrochemicals into wetlands to limit larval trematode infections may be warranted

  17. Oxidative stress induced in PCB 126-exposed northern leopard frogs, Rana pipiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yue-wern; Hoffman, David J; Karasov, William H

    2007-04-15

    Northern leopard frogs Rana pipiens exposed to PCB 126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl) were examined for hepatic oxidative stress. In a dose-response study, northern leopard frogs were injected intraperitoneally with either PCB 126 in corn oil (0.2, 0.7, 2.3, or 7.8 mg/kg body weight) or corn oil alone. In a time-course study, frogs received 7.8 mg/kg or corn oil alone, and were examined at 1, 2, 3, and 4 wk after dosing. Hepatic concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and total sulfhydryls (total SH), as well as activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-P), GSSG reductase (GSSG-R), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH), and glutathione S-transferase (GSH-S-T) were measured. In the dose-response experiment, few effects were apparent 1 wk after dosing. In the time-course experiment, significant changes were observed in the 7.8-mg/kg group at 2 wk or more posttreatment. Hepatic concentrations of GSH and TBARS were higher than in corresponding controls at wk 3 and 4; the activities of GSSG-R and GSH-S-T were higher than in controls at wk 2 and 4; and the activity of G-6-PDH was increased at wk 2 and 4. These data collectively indicate that altered glutathione metabolism and oxidative stress occurred and were indicative of both toxicity and induction of protective mechanisms in frogs exposed to PCB. A similar delay in response was reported in fish and may relate to lower metabolic rate and physiological reactions in ectothermic vertebrates.

  18. Gonadal differentiation in frogs, Rana japonica and R. brevipoda, raised from UV irradiated eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirane, T.

    1982-01-01

    The gonadal differentiation of anurans, Rana japonica and R. brevipoda, was examined in animals raised from eggs which had been irradiated at the vegetal hemisphere with UV (9300 erg/mm2) at the 2-cell stage. In R. japonica about 70% of the larvae at stage I from the pressed and UV-irradiated eggs were germ cell free, but at a stage immediately after metamorphosis all animals had at least some germ cells, although their gonads often were extremely small and poorly differentiated. When male animals matured sexually, many of them had abnormal gonads. However, all of them were shown by artificial means to be capable of fertilization. In the nonpressed and irradiated group, no larvae were germ cell free and the animals immediately after metamorphosis showed nearly normal gonadal differentiation except for the presence of a few degenerate oocytes in the ovaries. The results in R. brevipoda were basically similar to those in R. japonica. In both species, sex ratios were determined at two stages, the first immediately after metamorphosis and the other when the animals matured, as based on gonad morphology and histology and on external sexually dimorphic characters as well. Sex ratios at these two stages in frogs from the pressed and irradiated eggs differed markedly in R. brevipoda. The ratio was normal at metamorphosis but high M/F ratios occurred when animals became mature. That sex reversal took place in this species as well as in R. japonica (in which sex-ratio deviation was not statistically significant) was supported by the sex ratios of the progenies of these supernumerary males

  19. Impacts of weathered tire debris on the development of Rana sylvatica larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camponelli, Kimberly M; Casey, Ryan E; Snodgrass, Joel W; Lev, Steven M; Landa, Edward R

    2009-02-01

    Highway runoff has the potential to negatively impact receiving systems including stormwater retention ponds where highway particulate matter can accumulate following runoff events. Tire wear particles, which contain about 1% Zn by mass, make up approximately one-third of the vehicle derived particulates in highway runoff and therefore may serve as a stressor to organisms utilizing retention ponds as habitat. In this study, we focused on the potential contribution of tire debris to Zn accumulation by Rana sylvatica larvae and possible lethal or sublethal impacts resulting from exposure to weathered tire debris during development. Eggs and larvae were exposed to aged sediments (containing either ZnCl2 or tire particulate matter, both providing nominal concentrations of 1000 mg Zn kg(-1)) through metamorphosis. Water column Zn was elevated in both the ZnCl2 and tire treatments relative to the control treatment, indicating that aging allowed Zn leaching from tire debris to occur. Tissue Zn was also elevated for the ZnCl2 and tire treatments indicating that Zn in the treatments was available for uptake by the amphibians. Exposure to both ZnCl2 and tire treatments increased the time for larvae to complete metamorphosis in comparison with controls. We also observed that the longer the organisms took to complete metamorphosis, the smaller their mass at metamorphosis. Our results indicate that Zn leached from aged tire debris is bioavailable to developing R. sylvatica larvae and that exposure to tire debris amended sediments can result in measurable physiological outcomes to wood frogs that may influence population dynamics.

  20. Enzymatic regulation of seasonal glycogen cycling in the freeze-tolerant wood frog, Rana sylvatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Amaral, M Clara F; Lee, Richard E; Costanzo, Jon P

    2016-12-01

    Liver glycogen is an important energy store in vertebrates, and in the freeze-tolerant wood frog, Rana sylvatica, this carbohydrate also serves as a major source of the cryoprotectant glucose. We investigated how variation in the levels of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A (PKAc), glycogen phosphorylase (GP), and glycogen synthase (GS) relates to seasonal glycogen cycling in a temperate (Ohioan) and subarctic (Alaskan) populations of this species. In spring, Ohioan frogs had reduced potential for glycogen synthesis, as evidenced by low GS activity and high PKAc protein levels. In addition, glycogen levels in spring were the lowest of four seasonal samples, as energy input was likely directed towards metabolism and somatic growth during this period. Near-maximal glycogen levels were reached by mid-summer, and remained unchanged in fall and winter, suggesting that glycogenesis was curtailed during this period. Ohioan frogs had a high potential for glycogenolysis and glycogenesis in winter, as evidenced by large glycogen reserves, high levels of GP and GS proteins, and high GS activity, which likely allows for rapid mobilization of cryoprotectant during freezing and replenishing of glycogen reserves during thawing. Alaskan frogs also achieved a near-maximal liver glycogen concentration by summer and displayed high glycogenic and glycogenolytic potential in winter, but, unlike Ohioan frogs, started replenishing their energy reserves early in spring. We conclude that variation in levels of both glycogenolytic and glycogenic enzymes likely happens in response to seasonal changes in energetic strategies and demands, with winter survival being a key component to understanding the regulation of glycogen cycling in this species.

  1. Cadmium-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in the testes of frog Rana limnocharis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hangjun; Cai Chenchen; Shi Cailei; Cao Hui; Han Ziliu; Jia Xiuying

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cd can cause vacuoles and deformity of the spermatogenic cells in the frog testes. ► Cd can result in oxidative stress in the frog testes. ► Cd can induce significantly increase of ROS contents triggered DNA damages in the frog testes. ► Cd can cause apoptosis in the testes of male R. limnocharis. ► Apoptosis by Cd in the frog testes is related to Caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2 genes. - Abstract: This study explored the genetic damage induced by cadmium exposure in the testes of Rana limnocharis. Healthy adult frogs were exposed to 2.5, 5, 7.5, or 10 mg/L of cadmium solution for 14 days. The results showed that exposure to these concentrations increased the levels of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde content in the testes, clearly indicating a dose–effect relationship. Moreover, the same dosages of Cd 2+ solution increased glutathione (reduced) content, with the values being significantly different from those observed in the control group (P < 0.01). The comet assay results demonstrated that the DNA damage rate, tail length, and tail moment of samples obtained from frogs exposed to 2.5–7.5 mg/L of cadmium solution significantly increased compared with those of samples obtained from the control group (P < 0.01). These findings suggest that cadmium can induce free radical generation, followed by lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. Ultrastructural observation revealed vacuoles in the spermatogenic cells, cell dispersion, incomplete cell structures, and deformed nucleoli. Moreover, cadmium exposure induced significant down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression and up-regulation of Bax and caspase-3 expressions. Taken together, these data indicate that cadmium can induce testicular cell apoptosis in R. limnocharis. Exploring the effects of cadmium on the mechanism of reproductive toxicity in amphibians will help provide a scientific basis accounting for the global population decline in amphibian species.

  2. Cadmium pollution and amphibians--Studies in tadpoles of Rana limnocharis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patar, Arabinda; Giri, Anirudha; Boro, Freeman; Bhuyan, Krishna; Singha, Utsab; Giri, Sarbani

    2016-02-01

    Cadmium is released into the environment in increasing amounts from different natural and anthropogenic activities contaminating the aquatic habitats. Amphibian tadpoles develop in water and hence are likely to be adversely affected by cadmium present in the aquatic environment. We have studied the toxic and genotoxic effects of CdCl2 on the tadpoles of Rana limnocharis. CdCl2 in the concentration range between 0.1 and 0.4 mg/L induced significant mortality in R. limnocharis tadpoles in a dose and time dependent manner. The 10-day LC50 which has more ecological relevance was far less than the 24-h LC50. Tadpoles exposed to CdCl2 metamorphosed at an early age possibly as a survival strategy to move out of the stressful environment. The body weight of the CdCl2 exposed animals at metamorphosis was lower compared to the control individuals which may affect survival and reproductive fitness in adult life. Besides, the average body length of the metamorphosed individuals in the CdCl2 exposed group was higher than the control group. CdCl2 was found to be genotoxic in micronucleus test and comet assay. The ambient concentration of Cd could reach up to 60 μg/L or more. Exposure to 18.5 μg/L of CdCl2 (1% of 24-h LC50) induced significant increase in DNA strand breaks as compared to the control. The present findings demonstrate that presence of cadmium in the aquatic environment can significantly alter the life history traits and cause DNA damage in amphibians and hence, could contribute towards their population decline. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Oregon Spotted Frog (Rana pretiosa) movement and demography at Dilman Meadow: Implications for future monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelgren, Nathan D.; Pearl, Christopher A.; Bowerman, Jay; Adams, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    From 2001 to 2005, we studied the demography and seasonal movement of Oregon spotted frogs (Rana pretiosa) translocated into created ponds in Dilman Meadow in central Oregon. Our objectives were to inform future monitoring and management at the site, and to elucidate poorly known aspects of the species’ population ecology. Movement rates revealed complementary use of sites seasonally, with one small spring being preferred during winter that was rarely used during the rest of the year. Growth rates were significantly higher in ponds that were not used for breeding, and larger size resulted in significantly higher survival. When variation in survival by size was accounted for there was little variation among ponds in survival. Seasonal estimates of survival were lowest for males during the breeding/post-breeding redistribution period, suggesting a high cost of breeding for males. Overwintering survival for both genders was relatively high. Our study supports others in suggesting Oregon spotted frogs are specific in their overwintering habitat requirements, and that predator-free springs may be of particular value. We suggest that any future monitoring include measures of the rate of pond succession. Demographic monitoring should include metrics of both frog reproduction and survival: counts of egg masses at all ponds during spring, and capture-recapture study of survival in mid and late summer when capture rates are highest. Additional study of early life stages would be particularly useful to broaden our understanding of the species’ ecology. Specifically, adding intensive capture and marking effort after larval transformation in fall would enable a full understanding of the annual life cycle. Complete study of the annual life cycle is needed to isolate the life stages and mechanisms through which Oregon spotted frogs are affected by stressors such as nonnative predators. Dilman Meadow, which lacks many hypothesized stressors, is an important reference for

  4. A new gorgoderid species of the urinary bladder of Rana zweifeli from Michoacán, Mexico Una nueva especie de gorgodérido de la vejiga urinaria de Rana zweifeli de Michoacán, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Mata-López

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Gorgoderina tarascae n. sp. is described from the urinary bladder of Rana zweifeli, from Cutzaróndiro, Michoacán, Mexico. Gorgoderina tarascae differs from the other species of the genus by possessing the following combination of characters: follicular vitelline glands, arranged in two clusters of 4-7 follicles dorsal to the ovary, compact and smooth reproductive organs situated far from each other and from the acetabulum, suckers close to each other, and a slender, spindle shaped body with a flexed position due to the situation of the acetabulum.Gorgoderina tarascae n. sp. se describe como parásita de la vejiga urinaria de Rana zweifeli de Cutzaróndiro, Michoacán, México. Gorgoderina tarascae difiere del resto de las especies del género por la siguiente combinación de características: posee glándulas vitelógenas arregladas en dos racimos de 4-7 folículos situados dorsalmente al ovario, órganos reproductivos compactos y de bordes lisos, muy separados entre si y con respecto del acetábulo, ventosas cercanas una de la otra y cuerpo delgado, en forma de huso y flexionado debido a la posición del acetábulo.

  5. The Effects of Electronic Cigarette (ECIG-Generated Aerosol and Conventional Cigarette Smoke on the Mucociliary Transport Velocity (MTV Using the Bullfrog (R. catesbiana Palate Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic L. Palazzolo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: While ECIGs are under scrutiny concerning safety, particularly in reference to the physiological impact that aerosolized ECIG liquid (E-liquid may have on respiratory tissues, others believe that ECIGs are a “Harm Reduction” alternative to conventional cigarettes. Previous studies investigating ciliated respiratory epithelium indicate that smoking shortens cilia length, reduces cilia beat frequency and disrupts respiratory epithelium, which most likely contributes to the inhibition of mucocilliary clearance. Monitoring mucous clearance of respiratory tissues exposed to ECIG-generated aerosol or conventional cigarette smoke, as indexed by mucous transport velocity (MTV, is one way to gauge the impact aerosol and smoke have on the respiratory tract. Therefore, we designed an experiment to test the effect of ECIG-generated aerosol and smoke on MTV using the frog palate paradigm.Methods: Peristaltic pumps transport ECIG-generated aerosol and conventional cigarette smoke into custom-made chambers containing excised bullfrog palates. MTVs were determined before exposure, immediately after exposure and approximately 1 day following exposure. MTVs were also determined (at the same time points for palates exposed to air (control. Surface and cross sectional SEM images of palates from all three groups were obtained to support MTV data.Results: The results indicate that ECIG-generated aerosol has a modest inhibitory effect (p < 0.05 on MTV 1 day post-exposure (0.09 ± 0.01 compared to control MTV (0.16 ± 0.03 mm/s. In contrast, smoke completely inhibits MTV from 0.14 ± 0.03 mm/s immediately before exposure to 0.00 mm/sec immediately after exposure and the MTV is unable to recover 1 day later. SEM images of control palates and palates exposed to ECIG-generated aerosol both show cilia throughout their epithelial surface, while some areas of palates exposed to smoke are completely devoid of cilia. Additionally, the epithelial thickness of

  6. Effects of CFT Legumine (5% Rotenone) on tadpole survival and metamorphosis of Chiricahua leopard frogs Lithobates chiricahuensis, Northern leopard frogs L. pipiens, and American bullfrogs L. catesbeianus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Guillermo; Caldwell, Colleen A.; Kruse, Carter G.

    2017-01-01

    Amphibians may experience collateral effects if exposed to CFT Legumine (5% rotenone), a piscicide that is used to remove invasive fish. A series of 48-h static toxicity tests assessed the acute effects of CFT Legumine on multi-aged tadpoles of the federally listed Chiricahua leopard frog Lithobates chiricahuensis, the widespread northern leopard frog L. pipiens, and the increasingly invasive American bullfrog L. catesbeianus. At the earliest Gosner stages (GS 21–25), Chiricahua leopard frogs were more sensitive to CFT Legumine (median lethal concentration [LC50] = 0.41–0.58 mg/L) than American bullfrogs (LC50 = 0.63–0.69 mg/L) and northern leopard frogs (LC50 = 0.91 and 1.17 mg/L). As tadpoles developed (i.e., increase in GS), their sensitivity to rotenone decreased. In a separate series of 48-h static nonrenewal toxicity tests, tadpoles (GS 21–25 and GS 31–36) of all three species were exposed to piscicidal concentrations of CFT Legumine (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg/L) to assess postexposure effects on metamorphosis. In survivors of all three species at both life stages, the time to tail resorption was nearly doubled in comparison with that of controls. For example, mid-age (GS 31–36) Chiricahua leopard frog tadpoles required 210.7 h to complete tail resorption, whereas controls required 108.5 h. However, because tail resorption is a relatively short period in metamorphosis, the total duration of development (days from posthatch to complete metamorphosis) and the final weight did not differ in either age-group surviving nominal concentrations of 0.5-, 1.0-, and 2.0-mg/L CFT Legumine relative to controls. This research demonstrates that the CFT Legumine concentrations commonly used in field applications to remove unwanted fish could result in considerable mortality of the earliest stages of Lithobates species. In addition to acute lethality, piscicide treatments may result in delayed tail resorption, which places the tadpoles at risk by increasing

  7. Interaction of an Introduced Predator with Future Effects of Climate Change in the Recruitment Dynamics of the Imperiled Sierra Nevada Yellow-legged Frog (Rana sierrae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    I Lacan; Kathleen R. Matthews; K.V. Feldman

    2008-01-01

    Between-year variation in snowpack (from 20 to 200% of average) and summer rainfall cause large fluctuations in volume of small lakes in the higher elevation (> 3000 m) Sierra Nevada, which are important habitat for the imperiled Sierra Nevada Yellow-legged Frog, Rana sierrae. Climate change (global warming) is predicted to increase these...

  8. Directionality of auditory nerve fiber responses to pure tone stimuli in the grassfrog, Rana temporaria. II. Spike timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, M B; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J

    1997-01-01

    We studied the directionality of spike timing in the responses of single auditory nerve fibers of the grass frog, Rana temporaria, to tone burst stimulation. Both the latency of the first spike after stimulus onset and the preferred firing phase during the stimulus were studied. In addition, the ...

  9. Movement ecology and seasonal distribution of mountain yellow-legged frogs, Rana muscosa, in a high-elevation Sierra Nevada basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.L. Pope; K.R. Matthews

    2001-01-01

    Movement ecology and seasonal distribution of mountain yellow-legged frogs (Rana muscosa) in Dusy Basin (3470 m), Kings Canyon National Park, California, were characterized using passive integrated transponder (PIT) surveys and visual encounter surveys. We individually PIT-tagged 500 frogs during the summers of 1997 and 1998 and monitored these individuals during seven...

  10. Extra-intestinal localization of Goussia sp (Apicomplexa) oocysts in Rana dalmatina (Anura: Ranidae), and the fate of infection after metamorphosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirků, M.; Modrý, David

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 3 (2006), s. 237-241 ISSN 0177-5103 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/1544; GA ČR GD524/03/H133 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Goussia * Rana * Coccidia Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.509, year: 2006

  11. Experimental Repatriation of Mountain Yellow-legged Frogs (Rana muscosa) in the Sierra Nevada of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellers, Gary M.; Bradford, David F.; Pratt, David; Wood, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    In the late 1970s, Rana muscosa (mountain yellow-legged frog) was common in the Tableland area of Sequoia National Park, California where it was possible to find hundreds of tadpoles and adults around many of the ponds and lakes. Surveys in 1993-1995 demonstrated that R. muscosa was absent from more than half of all suitable habitat within the park, including the Tableland area. At that same time, R. muscosa was still common at Sixty Lake Basin, Kings Canyon National Park, 30 km to the northeast. To evaluate the potential causes for the extirpation, we repatriated R. muscosa eggs, tadpoles, subadults, and adult frogs from Sixty Lake Basin to four sites in the Tableland area in 1994 and 1995. We subsequently surveyed each release site and the surrounding area 2 - 3 times per week in 1994-1995, and intermittently in 1996-1997, to monitor the survival of all life history stages, and to detect dispersal of adults and subadults. We also monitored predation, water quality, weather, and water temperature. Our techniques for capturing, holding, transporting, and releasing R. muscosa were refined during the study, and during 1995 resulted in high initial survival rates of all life history stages. Adult frogs were anaesthetized, weighed, measured, tagged, and held in plastic boxes with wet paper towels. Tadpoles were collected and held in fiberglass screen cages set in the water at the edge of a pond. This resulted in relatively natural conditions with less crowding and good water circulation. Frogs, tadpoles, and eggs were placed in Ziploc bags for transport to the Tableland by helicopter. Short-term survival of tadpoles, subadults, and adults was high at all four release sites, tadpoles reached metamorphosis, and adult frogs were still present. However, we detected no evidence of reproduction at three sites (e.g., no new eggs or small tadpoles) and nearly all life history stages disappeared within 12 months. At the fourth site, there was limited reproduction, but it was

  12. Regulation of 5'-adenosine monophosphate deaminase in the freeze tolerant wood frog, Rana sylvatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieni, Christopher A; Storey, Kenneth B

    2008-04-22

    The wood frog, Rana sylvatica, is one of a few vertebrate species that have developed natural freeze tolerance, surviving days or weeks with 65-70% of its total body water frozen in extracellular ice masses. Frozen frogs exhibit no vital signs and their organs must endure multiple stresses, particularly long term anoxia and ischemia. Maintenance of cellular energy supply is critical to viability in the frozen state and in skeletal muscle, AMP deaminase (AMPD) plays a key role in stabilizing cellular energetics. The present study investigated AMPD control in wood frog muscle. Wood frog AMPD was subject to multiple regulatory controls: binding to subcellular structures, protein phosphorylation, and effects of allosteric effectors, cryoprotectants and temperature. The percentage of bound AMPD activity increased from 20 to 35% with the transition to the frozen state. Bound AMPD showed altered kinetic parameters compared with the free enzyme (S0.5 AMP was reduced, Hill coefficient fell to approximately 1.0) and the transition to the frozen state led to a 3-fold increase in S0.5 AMP of the bound enzyme. AMPD was a target of protein phosphorylation. Bound AMPD from control frogs proved to be a low phosphate form with a low S0.5 AMP and was phosphorylated in incubations that stimulated PKA, PKC, CaMK, or AMPK. Bound AMPD from frozen frogs was a high phosphate form with a high S0.5 AMP that was reduced under incubation conditions that stimulated protein phosphatases. Frog muscle AMPD was activated by Mg.ATP and Mg.ADP and inhibited by Mg.GTP, KCl, NaCl and NH4Cl. The enzyme product, IMP, uniquely inhibited only the bound (phosphorylated) enzyme from muscle of frozen frogs. Activators and inhibitors differentially affected the free versus bound enzyme. S0.5 AMP of bound AMPD was also differentially affected by high versus low assay temperature (25 vs 5 degrees C) and by the presence/absence of the natural cryoprotectant (250 mM glucose) that accumulates during freezing

  13. Cadmium-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in the testes of frog Rana limnocharis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Hangjun; Cai Chenchen; Shi Cailei; Cao Hui; Han Ziliu [Department of Environmental Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Xuelin Road 16, Xiasha Gaojiao Dongqu, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, 310036 (China); Jia Xiuying, E-mail: hznujiaxiuying@126.com [Department of Environmental Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Xuelin Road 16, Xiasha Gaojiao Dongqu, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, 310036 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd can cause vacuoles and deformity of the spermatogenic cells in the frog testes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd can result in oxidative stress in the frog testes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd can induce significantly increase of ROS contents triggered DNA damages in the frog testes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd can cause apoptosis in the testes of male R. limnocharis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Apoptosis by Cd in the frog testes is related to Caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2 genes. - Abstract: This study explored the genetic damage induced by cadmium exposure in the testes of Rana limnocharis. Healthy adult frogs were exposed to 2.5, 5, 7.5, or 10 mg/L of cadmium solution for 14 days. The results showed that exposure to these concentrations increased the levels of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde content in the testes, clearly indicating a dose-effect relationship. Moreover, the same dosages of Cd{sup 2+} solution increased glutathione (reduced) content, with the values being significantly different from those observed in the control group (P < 0.01). The comet assay results demonstrated that the DNA damage rate, tail length, and tail moment of samples obtained from frogs exposed to 2.5-7.5 mg/L of cadmium solution significantly increased compared with those of samples obtained from the control group (P < 0.01). These findings suggest that cadmium can induce free radical generation, followed by lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. Ultrastructural observation revealed vacuoles in the spermatogenic cells, cell dispersion, incomplete cell structures, and deformed nucleoli. Moreover, cadmium exposure induced significant down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression and up-regulation of Bax and caspase-3 expressions. Taken together, these data indicate that cadmium can induce testicular cell apoptosis in R. limnocharis. Exploring the effects of cadmium on the mechanism of reproductive toxicity in amphibians will help provide a

  14. Use of femur bone density to segregate wild from farmed Dybowski's frog (Rana dybowskii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shu Hui; Huang, Xiao Ming; Xia, Rui; Xu, Yan Chun; Dahmer, Thomas D

    2011-04-15

    Wildlife has been utilized by humans throughout history and demand continues to grow today. Farming of wildlife can supplement the supply of wild-harvested wildlife products and, in theory, can reduce pressure on free-ranging populations. However, poached wildlife products frequently enter legal markets where they are fraudulently sold as farmed wildlife products. To effectively close this illegal trade in wild-captured wildlife, there is a need to discriminate wild products from farmed products. Because of the strong market demand for wild-captured frog meat and the resulting strong downward pressure on wild populations, we undertook research to develop a method to discriminate wild from farmed Dybowski's frog (Rana dybowskii) based on femur bone density. We measured femur bone density (D(f)) as the ratio of bone mass to bone volume. D(f) of wild frogs revealed a slightly increasing linear trend with increasing age (R(2)=0.214 in males and R(2)=0.111 in females, p=0.000). Wild males and wild females of age classes from 2 to ≥ 5 years had similar D(f) values. In contrast, 2-year-old farmed frogs showed significantly higher D(f) values (p=0.000) among males (mean D(f)=0.623 ± 0.011 g/ml, n=32) than females (mean D(f)=0.558 ± 0.011 g/ml, n=27). For both sexes, D(f) of wild frogs was significantly higher than that of farmed frogs (p=0.000). Among males, 87.5% (28 of 32 individuals) of farmed frogs were correctly identified as farmed frogs and 86.3% (69 of 80 individuals) of wild frogs were correctly identified as wild frogs. These results suggest that femur bone density is one reliable tool for discriminating between wild and farmed Dybowski's frog. This study also highlights a novel strategy with explicit forensic potential to discriminate wild from captive bred wildlife species. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. cytogenetic effects in populations of amphibians Rana arvalis living on the radio-contaminated area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yushkova, E.; Bodnar, I.; Zainullin, V. [Institute of Biology of Komi Scientific Centre of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    The study of the features reactions of the animals a differing complicated individual development (metamorphosis) and living in conditions of radioactive contamination is an important trend in the modern radio-ecology. This information is of interest not only from the point of view of detection the mechanisms of radiobiological effects (hyper-radiosensitivity, hormesis, radio-adaptation, etc.) but also viewpoint of predicting delayed radiation effects that is necessary at account the normalization of technogeneous loading on natural ecosystems. An assessment of the level of cytogenetic damages (single-strand and double-strand DNA breaks) in the blood cells of tadpoles of Rana arvalis living in areas contaminated of wastes radium production (Russia, Komi Republic, Ukhta district) was conducted. Using this biological matter as a bioindicator due to the fact that development amphibian is carried out by metamorphosis and includes larval stage. At this stage post-embryonic development of an individual are the most sensitive to anthropogenic impact. To exclude the effects of other factors (temperature, age-specific peculiarities, overpopulation, etc.) on the formation of DNA damages from the studied reservoirs were taken laying eggs of amphibians (12-15 egg laying from the area) which afterwards are contain in strictly controlled laboratory conditions using water, belt silt, plants of native pond. The reaction of amphibians on the contamination was assessed by the level of DNA damage by method Comet assay was determined. With each egg laying were selected for 7 even-aged individuals. Total for cytogenetic analysis was used 189 individuals. It is shown that in animals that develop on the radio-contaminated area the level of single-strand DNA (alkaline pH version of the Comet assay) was higher than in the control area. According an estimate to the level of double-strand DNA (neutral pH version of the Comet assay) significant differences not was found. The high variability

  16. Existence of multiple receptors in single neurons: responses of single bullfrog olfactory neurons to many cAMP-dependent and independent odorants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwayanagi, M; Shimano, K; Kurihara, K

    1996-11-04

    The responses of single bullfrog olfactory neurons to various odorants were measured with the whole-cell patch clamp which offers direct information on cellular events and with the ciliary recording technique to obtain stable quantitative data from many neurons. A large portion of single olfactory neurons (about 64% and 79% in the whole-cell recording and in the ciliary recording, respectively) responded to many odorants with quite diverse molecular structures, including both odorants previously indicated to be cAMP-dependent (increasing) and independent odorants. One odorant elicited a response in many cells; e.g. hedione and citralva elicited the response in 100% and 92% of total neurons examined with the ciliary recording technique. To confirm that a single neuron carries different receptors or transduction pathways, the cross-adaptation technique was applied to single neurons. Application of hedione to a single neuron after desensitization of the current in response to lyral or citralva induced an inward current with a similar magnitude to that applied alone. It was suggested that most single olfactory neurons carry multiple receptors and at least dual transduction pathways.

  17. Reproduction of the exotic bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus (Shaw, 1802 (Anura, Ranidae in creeks of the Atlantic Rainforest of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Gomes Afonso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Reproduction of the exotic bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus was studied every two months from January 2005 to December 2006, analyzing tadpoles, juveniles, and adult vocalizations at three creeks located in the largest Brazilian center of ornamental fish breeding. Absolute and relative tadpole frequencies were measured bimonthly in three development stages: G1 (no limbs, G2 (hind limbs present, G3 (fore and hind limbs and I (metamorphs. Results show that, during warmest months, a greater proportion of tadpoles in G1, G2, and G3 phases were found in Santo Antônio and Chato creeks, while G1, G3, and I phases were more common in Gavião creek. Tadpoles in G1 and G2 phases predominated in coldest months at all locations. Male calls and highest average water temperatures and rainfall were recorded at 3 streams during the hottest months. Management measures should be adopted, such as the extermination of larval and adult stages, and initiatives should be taken to prevent new re-introductions, such as: (1 installation of fences around tanks where adults are located, (2 placement of protective screens on the pipes that release waste water from tanks directly into streams, (3 capacity building and educational measures on the problems of biological invasions for staff working on ornamental fish farms.

  18. Reproduction of the exotic bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus (Shaw, 1802 (Anura, Ranidae in creeks of the Atlantic Rainforest of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Gomes Afonso

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Reproduction of the exotic bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus was studied every two months from January 2005 to December 2006, analyzing tadpoles, juveniles, and adult vocalizations at three creeks located in the largest Brazilian center of ornamental fish breeding. Absolute and relative tadpole frequencies were measured bimonthly in three development stages: G1 (no limbs, G2 (hind limbs present, G3 (fore and hind limbs and I (metamorphs. Results show that, during warmest months, a greater proportion of tadpoles in G1, G2, and G3 phases were found in Santo Antônio and Chato creeks, while G1, G3, and I phases were more common in Gavião creek. Tadpoles in G1 and G2 phases predominated in coldest months at all locations. Male calls and highest average water temperatures and rainfall were recorded at 3 streams during the hottest months. Management measures should be adopted, such as the extermination of larval and adult stages, and initiatives should be taken to prevent new re-introductions, such as: (1 installation of fences around tanks where adults are located, (2 placement of protective screens on the pipes that release waste water from tanks directly into streams, (3 capacity building and educational measures on the problems of biological invasions for staff working on ornamental fish farms.

  19. Time-resolved x-ray diffraction from frog skeletal muscle during shortening against an inertial load and a quick release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amemiya, Yoshiyuki; Hashizume, Hiroo; Tameyasu, Tsukasa; Tanaka, Hidehiro; Sugi, Haruo.

    1980-01-01

    A group of Japanese researchers conducted, for the first time in this field, experiments on time-resolved x-ray diffraction of frog (bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana) skeletal muscle in conditions where both the force and the muscle length change with time. During an isotonic twitch under a load of about 0.3 P 0 , the intensity ratio started falling on stimulation and reached a minimum value of 0.5 - 0.6 at the early shortening phase, which was maintained until the beginning of relaxation. Except that the minimum value was not retained until the start of relaxation, the same was observed during a twitch against an inertial load whereby the peak force exerted by the muscle was about 0.4 P 0 . The results may be taken to indicate that the change in the intensity ratio reflects not the time course of shortening but that of force generation. When a quick release (3 - 4% of muscle length) was applied during the rising phase of an isometric twitch, the intensity ratio showed no distinct change. Judging from tentative calculation results, however, the foregoing result is subject to further experiments with a much improved time resolution of the measurements. (Kitajima, A.)

  20. Mine-drainage treatment wetland as habitat for herptofaunal wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacki, Michael J.; Hummer, Joseph W.; Webster, Harold J.

    1992-07-01

    Land reclamation techniques that incorporate habitat features for herptofaunal wildlife have received little attention. We assessed the suitability of a wetland, constructed for the treatment of mine-water drainage, for supporting herptofaunal wildlife from 1988 through 1990 using diurnal and nocturnal surveys. Natural wetlands within the surrounding watershed were also monitored for comparison. The treatment wetland supported the greatest abundance and species richness of herptofauna among the sites surveyed. Abundance was a function of the frog density, particularly green frogs ( Rana clamitans) and pickerel frogs ( R. palustris), while species richness was due to the number of snake species found. The rich mix of snake species present at the treatment wetland was believed due to a combination of an abundant frog prey base and an amply supply of den sites in rock debris left behind from earlier surface-mining activities. Nocturnal surveys of breeding male frogs demonstrated highest breeding activity at the treatment wetland, particularly for spring peepers ( Hyla crucifer). Whole-body assays of green frog and bullfrog ( R. catesbeiana) tissues showed no differences among sites in uptake of iron, aluminum, and zinc; managanese levels in samples from the treatment wetland were significantly lower than those from natural wetlands. These results suggest that wetlands established for water quality improvement can provide habitat for reptiles and amphibians, with the species composition dependent on the construction design, the proximity to source populations, and the degree of acidity and heavy-metal concentrations in drainage waters.

  1. Metabolism and genotoxicity of aromatic amines in aquatic organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knezovich, J.P.; Krauter, P.W.; Lawton, M.P.; Harrison, F.L.

    1987-01-01

    Marine mussels (Mytilus edulis) and bullfrog tadpoles (Rana catesbeiana) were used to investigate the comparative metabolism and genotoxicity of aromatic amines in vivo. These organisms were selected because they possess distinctly different metabolic capabilities: mussels lack an active mixed-function-oxidase enzyme system that is present in most other organisms, including amphibians. Using 14 C-labeled chemical probes (o- and p-toluidine, 2-aminofluorene (2-AF), and 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF)), mussels and tadpoles well dosed with individual compounds by direct immersion in aqueous solutions. The identities of metabolites were then determined by HPLC and GC/MS methods. Results indicate that the N-conjugating pathways used by mussels result primarily in the detoxification of aromatic amines by limiting the amount of primary amine available for activation. The tadpoles excreted a number of 2-AAF metabolites but did form DNA and protein adducts in the liver. Induction of micronuclei in the peripheral red blood cells was also demonstrated. The tadpole was shown to be a sensitive biological indicator of pollution in aquatic ecosystems

  2. Post-evaluation of the neurophaties treatment post-trauma with therapeutic laser. Model in sciatic nerve of frog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Antonio S.; Ocampo, Arcelia F. M.; Hernández, María G. H.; Jasso, José L. C.; Lira, Maricela O. F.; Flores, Mariana A.; Balderrama, Vicente L.

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the compound nerve action potential amplitude and latency measured to determine the degree of myelination and the number of fibers stimulated in a model of stimulated frog sciatic nerve laser at 810 nm as perioperative treatment after injury. It used 30 bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) to obtain 60 sciatic nerves forming four groups, groups 1 and 2 worked with nerves in vitro, were dissected in humid chambers for placing isolated organ, was recorded on compound nerve action potential, the second group laser was applied at 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours and at the same time were placed in 10% formalin. Groups 3 and 4 are worked in vivo localizing the nerve and causing damage through compression, occurred over the compound nerve action potential to assess the degree of myelination and the number of fibers stimulated, the group 4 was applied to 810 nm laser (500 Hz, 10 J, 200 mW) after injury, after 48 hours, three frogs were sacrificed by introducing the nerves in 10% formalin. The latency recorded by stimulating the sciatic nerve of frog to 0.5 mA and 100 ms in groups 1 and 2 show significant differences (p000), as to the extent, if any statistically significant difference. (pparesthesia (post-traumatic neuropathy).

  3. Post-evaluation of the neurophaties treatment post-trauma with therapeutic laser. Model in sciatic nerve of frog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobar, Antonio S.; Ocampo, Arcelia F. M.; Hernandez, Maria G. H.; Jasso, Jose L. C.; Lira, Maricela O. F.; Flores, Mariana A.; Balderrama, Vicente L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the compound nerve action potential amplitude and latency measured to determine the degree of myelination and the number of fibers stimulated in a model of stimulated frog sciatic nerve laser at 810 nm as perioperative treatment after injury. It used 30 bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) to obtain 60 sciatic nerves forming four groups, groups 1 and 2 worked with nerves in vitro, were dissected in humid chambers for placing isolated organ, was recorded on compound nerve action potential, the second group laser was applied at 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours and at the same time were placed in 10% formalin. Groups 3 and 4 are worked in vivo localizing the nerve and causing damage through compression, occurred over the compound nerve action potential to assess the degree of myelination and the number of fibers stimulated, the group 4 was applied to 810 nm laser (500 Hz, 10 J, 200 mW) after injury, after 48 hours, three frogs were sacrificed by introducing the nerves in 10% formalin. The latency recorded by stimulating the sciatic nerve of frog to 0.5 mA and 100 ms in groups 1 and 2 show significant differences (p 000), as to the extent, if any statistically significant difference. (p<0.001 and p<0.000). The laser produces a favorable response in the treatment of paresthesia (post-traumatic neuropathy).

  4. Evolutionary aspects of growth hormones and prolactins and their receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarpey, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    The interactions of GH's, PRL's and PL's with receptors for GH and PRL were examined from a comparative and evolutionary viewpoint. The binding of 125 I-bGH to membrane preparations from liver of representatives of the major classes of non-mammalian vertebrates was also studied. Only hepatic membranes from sturgeon and Gillichthys had significant bGH binding and were further characterized and compared with male rabbit liver membranes in terms of time, temperature, pH, and membrane concentration to optimize binding conditions. The binding of several members of the GH, PRL, PL family of hormones to GH receptors from liver of sturgeon, Gillichthys, rabbit, mouse and rat was investigated. in terms of hormonal specificity, the mammalian receptors and the sturgeon binding sites were similar, while Gillichthys receptors had a different pattern of hormonal specificity. The binding of 125 I-oPRL to renal membranes of the turtle, Pseudemys scripta elegans, was characterized and compared to PRL binding sites of kidney membranes of the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana, and the tiger salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum

  5. Short-term occupancy and abundance dynamics of the Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa) across its core range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Michael J.; Pearl, Christopher A.; Mccreary, Brome; Galvan, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    The Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa) occupies only a fraction of its original range and is listed as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act. We surveyed 93 sites in a rotating frame design (2010–13) in the Klamath and Deschutes Basins, Oregon, which encompass most of the species’ core extant range. Oregon spotted frogs are declining in abundance and probability of site occupancy. We did not find an association between the probability that Oregon spotted frogs disappear from a site (local extinction) and any of the variables hypothesized to affect Oregon spotted frog occupancy. This 4-year study provides baseline data, but the 4-year period was too short to draw firm conclusions. Further study is essential to understand how habitat changes and management practices relate to the status and trends of this species.

  6. Evidence for a intimate relationship between mast cells and nerve fibers in the tongue of the frog, Rana esculenta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chieffi Baccari, Gabriella; Minucci, Sergio [Naples, II Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisiologia Umana e Funzioni Biologiche Integrate `Filippo Bottazzi`

    1997-12-31

    Morphological and ultrastructural association of mast cells and nerve fibers were studied in the tongue of the frog Rana esculenta. The number of mast cells in the tongue (253 {+-} 45 / mm{sup 2}) is far the highest of the frog tissue as far as people know. They are distributed throughout the connective tissue among the muscular fibers, near arterioles and venules but predominantly in close association and within the nerves. They are often embedded in the endoneurium within a nerve bundle near to myelinic or unmyelinic fibers and in membrane-to-membrane contact with axonlike processes. Just for the richness of mast cells, the tongue of the frog could represent an useful model to study the relationship between these cells and the peripheral nervous system.

  7. Effect of X-ray irradiation on morphophysiological reactions of epidermal melanophor cells in the larvae of Rana temporaria L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, D.V.; Kalistratova, E.N.; Kaluzhina, A.V.

    1982-01-01

    Dynamics of physiological reactions of epidermal melanophors of larvae Rana temporaria L.. adapted to white and black backgrounds and irradiated with a dose of 700 R has been investigated. Ouring the first day after irradiation no day changes of melanophor index characteristic of intact tadpoles were discovered in whitebackground animals; melanophors preserve the aggregation state. Comparison of black background irradiated and control larvae didn't show confident differences in changes of their melanophor indices. Irradiation affects differently epidermal melanophors in the state of pigment dispersion and aggregation. It is suggested that pigment dispersion and aggregation in melanophor is realized at the expense of different cellular structures. It is shown that by the end of the experiment (21-st day) the amount of epidermal melanophor per surface unit is two times larger in black-ground larvae. General biological signaficance of revealed facts from the point of view of ontogenesis evolution is discussed

  8. Food composition of Uludağ frog, Rana macrocnemis Boulenger, 1885 in Uludağ (Bursa, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerim Çiçek

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Feeding habit and food preferences of Uludağ frog, Rana macrocnemis were studied in 2006 and 2007 in Uludağ (Bursa, Turkey. Stomach contents of 165 (87 males, 58 females, 20 juveniles individuals were analyzed and a total of 2,129 prey items were determined. It was found that the species fed mainly on a variety of invertebrates and especially on insects (96.5%. The most frequently consumed prey items were Coleoptera (62.8%, Diptera (14.4%, and Hymenoptera (9.8%. There was no significant sex- and age-dependent difference in the feeding regime. It appears that the species is feeding less in the breeding period and more in the post-breeding period. It was also evident that there was an increase in the consumption of Coleoptera depending on the elevation.

  9. Effect of sublethal doses of radiation and cystamine on the dynamics of Rana temporaria L. larvae development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, D.V.

    1979-01-01

    The longevity of Rana temporaria L. larvae in the 45th stage of development is studied after irradiation in sublethal doses (10.000-20.000 R) and irradiation with preliminary cystamine protection. It has been shown that the protective effect of cystamine is revealed in partial normalization of the larvae development rate but does not eliminate the typical anomalies of extremity development and does not prolong the time of animal survival. It has been found that LD 50/30 dose for R. temporaria tadpoles in the 45th stage of development is slightly higher than 10.000 R. The selective effect of X-radiation on the formative bonds at cornea induction in Anura larvae is concluded

  10. Evidence for a intimate relationship between mast cells and nerve fibers in the tongue of the frog, Rana esculenta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chieffi Baccari, Gabriella; Minucci, Sergio [Naples, II Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisiologia Umana e Funzioni Biologiche Integrate ` Filippo Bottazzi`

    1998-12-31

    Morphological and ultrastructural association of mast cells and nerve fibers were studied in the tongue of the frog Rana esculenta. The number of mast cells in the tongue (253 {+-} 45 / mm{sup 2}) is far the highest of the frog tissue as far as people know. They are distributed throughout the connective tissue among the muscular fibers, near arterioles and venules but predominantly in close association and within the nerves. They are often embedded in the endoneurium within a nerve bundle near to myelinic or unmyelinic fibers and in membrane-to-membrane contact with axonlike processes. Just for the richness of mast cells, the tongue of the frog could represent an useful model to study the relationship between these cells and the peripheral nervous system.

  11. A New Locality for Rana ridibunda caralitana Arıkan, 1988 (Anura: Ranidae in the Central Anatolia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinçer Ayaz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Orta Anadolu’da Rana ridibunda caralitana Arıkan, 1988 için yeni bir lokalite. Bu çalışmada, Bor (Niğde’dan toplanan 18 (10 ♂♂, 8 ♀♀ ergin ova kurbağası örneği, başta renk-desen olmak üzere yapılan morfolojik analiz sonucunda incelenmiştir. İncelenen örneklerin caralitana formuna ait olduğu anlaşılmıştır. Böylece caralitana’nın dağılış areali genişletilmiştir

  12. Los cromosomas meióticos de la rana arborícola Smilisca baudinii (Anura: Hylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Hernández-Guzmán

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available La rana arborícola mexicana Smilisca baudinii, es una especie de rana común en Centroamérica. Sin embargo, la biología y genética de la especie, es pobremente conocida a pesar de su importancia para mantener en equilibrio ecológico las selvas tropicales. Con el propósito de contribuir con el conocimiento biológico de esta especie, establecimos el cariotipo típico en meiosis en especímenes recolectados en Tabasco, México, mediante procedimientos citogenéticos estándares. El estudio, se fundamentó en el análisis de 131 dispersiones cromosómicas en estadio meiótico de dos adultos de la especie (una hembra y un macho. El análisis de las metafases, permitió establecer el número modal haploide de 1n=12 cromosomas bivalentes. La fórmula cromosómica del cariotipo haploide, se integró por 12 cromosomas birrámeos caracterizado por 12 pares de cromosomas bivalentes metacéntricos-submetacéntricos (msm. Los conteos en meiosis, hacen suponer como número diploide de cromosomas a un complemento integrado por 2n=24 cromosomas birrámeos. No fue posible observar presencia de cromosomas sexuales, entre las dispersiones meióticas del espécimen hembra y macho. Los resultados sugieren que la estructura cromosómica de S. baudinii, es compartida ampliamente entre las especies de la familia Hylidae y los cromosomas "B" son estructuras importantes en la diversificación de las especies.

  13. Effects of a behavior change campaign on household drinking water disinfection in the Lake Chad basin using the RANAS approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilje, Jonathan; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2018-04-01

    Worldwide, an estimated 700 million people rely on unimproved drinking water sources; even more consume water that is not safe to drink. Inadequate drinking water quality constitutes a major risk factor for cholera and other diarrheal diseases around the globe, especially for young children in developing countries. Household water treatment and safe storage systems represent an intermediate solution for settings that lack infrastructure supplying safe drinking water. However, the correct and consistent usage of such treatment technologies rely almost exclusively on the consumer's behavior. This study targeted at evaluating effects of a behavior change campaign promoting the uptake of household drinking water chlorination in communities along the Chari and Logone rivers in Chad. The campaign was based on formative research using health psychological theory and targeted several behavioral factors identified as relevant. A total of 220 primary caregivers were interviewed concerning their household water treatment practices and mindset related to water treatment six months after the campaign. The Risks, Attitudes, Norms, Abilities, and Self-regulation (RANAS) model was used to structure the interviews as the RANAS approach had been used for designing the campaign. Results show significantly higher self-reported drinking water chlorination among participants of the intervention. Significant differences from a control group were identified regarding several behavioral factors. Mediation analysis revealed that the intervention positively affected participants' individual risk estimation for diarrheal disease, health knowledge, perceived efforts and benefits of water treatment, social support strategies, knowledge of how to perform chlorination, and perceived ability to do so. The campaign's effect on water treatment was mainly mediated through differences in health knowledge, changes in norms, and self-efficacy convictions. The findings imply that water treatment behavior

  14. Effects of arginine vasotocin and mesotocin on the activation and development of amiloride-blockable short-circuit current across larval, adult, and cultured larval bullfrog skins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Makoto; Fujimaki-Aoba, Kayo; Hokari, Shigeru

    2010-03-01

    Amphibian skin has osmoregulatory functions, with Na(+) crossing from outside to inside. Na(+) transport can be measured as the short-circuit current (SCC). We investigated the short-term and long-term effects of arginine vasotocin (AVT) and mesotocin (MT) (which modulate Na(+) transport) on the activation and development of an amiloride-blockable SCC (adult-type feature) in larval, adult, and corticoid-cultured larval bullfrog skins. We found: (1) AVT-receptor (AVT-R) and MT-receptor (MT-R) mRNAs could be detected in both larval and adult skins, (2) in the short term (within 60 min), the larval SCC (amiloride-stimulated SCC) was increased by AVT, forskolin, and MT, suggesting that AVT and MT did not activate the inactive ENaC (epithelial sodium channel) protein thought to be expressed in larval skin, (3) in the short term (within 90 min), AVT, forskolin, and MT stimulated the adult SCC (amiloride-blockable SCC), (4) AVT and MT increased both the larval and adult SCC via receptors insensitive to OPC-21268 (an antagonist of the V(1)-type receptor), OPC-31260 (an antagonist of the V(2)-type receptor), and ([d(CH(2))(5),Tyr(Me)(2),Thr(4),Orn(8),des-Gly-NH (2) (9) ]VT) (an antagonist of the oxytocin receptor), (5) culturing EDTA-treated larval skin with corticoids supplemented with AVT (1 microM) or MT (1 microM) for 2 weeks (long-term effects of AVT and MT) did not alter the corticoid-induced development of an amiloride-blockable SCC (adult-type feature). AVT and MT thus have the potential to stimulate SCC though channels that are already expressed, but they may not influence the development of the amiloride-blockable SCC (an adult-type feature) in larval skin.

  15. New species of Oswaldocruzia (Nematoda: Molineoidae), new species of Rhabdias (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae), and other helminths in Rana cf. forreri (Anura: Ranidae) from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursey, Charles R; Goldberg, Stephen R

    2005-06-01

    Oswaldocruzia costaricensis n. sp. (Strongylida: Molineidae) from the intestines and Rhabdias savagei n. sp. (Rhabditida: Rhabdiasidae) from the lungs of Rana cf. forreri (Anura: Ranidae) are described and illustrated. Oswaldocruzia costaricensis represents the 77th species assigned to the genus and differs from the other Neotropical species in the genus by possessing a Type II bursa and long cervical alae. Rhabdias savagei represents the 47th species assigned to the genus and differs from other Neotropical species in the genus by possession of 4 lips and a postequatorial vulva. Rana cf. forreri was also found to harbor the trematodes, Haematoloechus parcivitellarius and Megalodiscus temperatus, the nematodes, Aplectana incerta, Aplectana itzocanensis, Cosmocerca podicipinus, Foleyellides striatus, Subulascaris falcaustriformis, and a larva of the nematode Brevimulticaecum sp. Cosmocerca panamaensis is considered to be a synonym of Cosmocerca podicipinus.

  16. Tracing the genus Sphaerospora: rediscovery, redescription and phylogeny of the Sphaerospora ranae (Morelle, 1929) n. comb. (Myxosporea, Sphaerosporidae), with emendation of the genus Sphaerospora

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirků, Miloslav; Fiala, Ivan; Modrý, David

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 134, č. 12 (2007), s. 1727-1739 ISSN 0031-1820 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/1544; GA ČR GD524/03/H133; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Myxosporea * Amphibia * Rana * redescription * phylogeny * SSU rDNA * genus emendation * molecular characteristic Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.081, year: 2007

  17. Peran ILO (International Labour Organization) dalam Menangani Kecelakaan Kerja pada Industri Garmen di Bangladesh Studi Kasus Tragedi Rana Plaza Tahun 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Pakpahan, Saiman; Tambun, Harry Panduari

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to determine the role of International Labour Organization (ILO) in dealing with industrial workplace accidents in Bangladesh by focusing on Rana Plaza tragedy in 2013. ILO plays an active role to promote decent work for every man and woman all over the world. Workplace accident is one of many problems usually found in garment industry in Bangladesh. Unsafe structural integrity and fire safety are the factors that cause workplace accidents.This research uses Pluralism Persp...

  18. Critical electrolyte concentration of spermatozoal chromatin containing histone H1 variants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R.P. Falco

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The critical electrolyte concentrations (CEC of sperm chromatin from animal species known or suspected to contain histone H1 variants were compared by examining the affinity of their DNA-protein complexes for toluidine blue in the presence of Mg2+. Bullfrog, sea urchin, bee and bumblebee spermatozoa were studied. The CEC for Rana catesbeiana and two sea urchin species were similar to that of histone H5-containing chromatin from chicken erythrocytes, thus confirming the biochemical and structural similarities of these DNA-protein complexes. The CEC for bees and the bumblebee, Bombus atratus, showed no particular phylogenetic relationship. We concluded that the CEC of histone H1-containing sperm cell chromatin is a useful indicator of variability in DNA-protein complexes but is of little phylogenetic value.Valores de concentração crítica de eletrólitos (CEC da cromatina de espermatozóides de espécies conhecidas ou suspeitas de apresentarem variantes da histona H1 foram comparados entre si. O objetivo foi estabelecer semelhanças ou diferenças nos complexos DNA-proteína de espermatozóides dessas espécies em nível citoquímico. A afinidade por moléculas de azul de toluidina em condições de competição com íons Mg2+ foi investigada nos espermatozóides do sapo boi e de ouriços do mar, abelhas e mamangava. Uma íntima relação entre os valores de CEC de Rana catesbeiana e de duas espécies de ouriço do mar com os da cromatina de eritrócitos de frango, que contém a histona H5, foi vista estar de acordo com certas semelhanças bioquímicas e estruturais entre seus complexos DNA-proteína. Quanto aos dados para abelhas e para a mamangava Bombus atratus, não se pôde associar a variabilidade em valores de CEC com a posição das espécies na respectiva árvore filogenética. Conclui-se, portanto, que a CEC de cromatina de espermatozóides que contêm histona H1 é um indicador útil da influência de variantes de H1 na organiza

  19. Nueva especie de rana del género Pristimantis del grupo lacrimosus (Amphibia: Craugastoridae del Parque Nacional Sangay, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Batallas R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Describimos una nueva especie de rana terrestre del genero Pristimantis de tamaño mediano (LRC en machos desde 22.18 a 25.13 mm descubierta en los bosques nublados de las estribaciones orientales del Parque Nacional Sangay, al centro oriente de Ecuador, a elevaciones de 2750 m. Asignamos a Pristimantis latericius sp. nov., al grupo Pristimantis lacrimosus, el cual se diferencia del resto de miembros de este grupo por presentar tubérculos prominentes en el parpado superior y una coloración rojo anaranjado en el dorso. Las llamadas son cortas, conformadas por una sola nota y dos bandas armónicas. Importantes levantamientos de información faunística se han venido generando en los últimos años en el Parque Nacional Sangay, sin embargo es necesario incrementar estudios que ayuden a documentar la ecología e historia natural de los anfibios, ya que sin lugar a dudas ayudaran a comprender procesos ecológicos. El descubrimiento de esta y otras nuevas especies en este sector, demuestra su importancia biológica confortando al desarrollo de planes de conservación en este importante Patrimonio Natural de la Humanidad.

  20. Hind limb malformations in free-living northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) from Maine, Minnesota, and Vermont suggest multiple etiologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meteyer, C.U.; Loeffler, I.K.; Fallon, J.F.; Converse, K.A.; Green, E.; Helgen, J.C.; Kersten, S.; Levey, R.; Eaton-Poole, L.; Burkhart, J.G.

    2000-01-01

    Background Reports of malformed frogs have increased throughout the North American continent in recent years. Most of the observed malformations have involved the hind limbs. The goal of this study was to accurately characterize the hind limb malformations in wild frogs as an important step toward understanding the possible etiologies. Methods During 1997 and 1998, 182 recently metamorphosed northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) were collected from Minnesota, Vermont, and Maine. Malformed hind limbs were present in 157 (86%) of these frogs, which underwent necropsy and radiographic evaluation at the National Wildlife Health Center. These malformations are described in detail and classified into four major categories: (1) no limb (amelia); (2) multiple limbs or limb elements (polymelia, polydactyly, polyphalangy); (3) reduced limb segments or elements (phocomelia, ectromelia, ectrodactyly, and brachydactyly; and (4) distally complete but malformed limb (bone rotations, bridging, skin webbing, and micromelia). Results Amelia and reduced segments and/or elements were the most common finding. Frogs with bilateral hind limb malformations were not common, and in only eight of these 22 frogs were the malformations symmetrical. Malformations of a given type tended to occur in frogs collected from the same site, but the types of malformations varied widely among all three states, and between study sites within Minnesota. Conclusions Clustering of malformation type suggests that developmental events may produce a variety of phenotypes depending on the timing, sequence, and severity of the environmental insult. Hind limb malformations in free-living frogs transcend current mechanistic explanations of tetrapod limb development.

  1. Geographical variation and sexual differences of body length and age composition in Rana temporaria: the ontogenetic development and phenotypic trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyapkov Sergey

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of literature data on the mean values of age and body length of adult individuals of widespread species Rana temporaria from about 70 spatially separated populations, including our published data, was conducted. The evident trend in population mean age increase with the decrease of the of activity season length was revealed as well as the absence of that trend in the mean body length, with the maximal mean value in body length being near central part of the range. Our explanation of non-linear trend in the mean values of body length does not contradict other models of geographic variability explaining the correspondence and discrepance with the Bergman rule. In addition our explanation corresponds to the revealed features of interpopulation variation in growth rate. The revealed trend of variation in the mean body length is resulted from both growth rate decrease and mean age increase with the decrease in the length of activity season. The relatively low mean values of body length in populations from south and southern-west borders of the range are explained not only by low mean age but by lower growth rate despite high length of activity season. The interpopulation variation in body length is determined not only by body length but by age composition differences both between and within population. Therefore, the direction and intensity of sexual differences have not distinct trends, and the correspondence to Rensch rule (in contrast to Bergman rule is rarely observed.

  2. Behaviors of 14C-butachlor, 14C-chlorpyrifos and 14C-DDT in Rana japonica japonica Guenther

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yiqiang; Zhong Chuangguang; Zhao Xiaokui; Chen Shunhua

    2002-01-01

    The research on the behaviors of 14 C-butachlor, 14 C-chlorpyrifos and 14 C-DDT in the frog Rana japonica japonica Guenther was carried out. After administrated per os to the frogs in doses of 380, 347, 363 Bq/g, 14 C-butachlor, 14 C-chlorpyrifos and 14 C-DDT, were distributed respectively to various organs within 24 h with specific accumulating organs as gallbladder, intestine and intestine, relevantly to the pesticides described. Compared to that in gallbladder and intestine, the radioactivity of many organs was extremely low, and this might due to the characters of the pesticides. Analysis of the metabolites of 14 C-DDT in frog at 24 th hr demonstrated that DDT was difficult to be degraded. Most 14 C-butachlor, 14 C-chlorpyrifos 14 C-DDT in liver and fat or ovary of frog was extractable with acetone. However, there were some differences between the pesticides, and the organs as well. And 14 C-butachlor, 14 C-chlorpyrifos or 14 C-DDT were better bound in liver than in fat

  3. Odorous and non-fatal skin secretion of adult wrinkled frog (Rana rugosa is effective in avoiding predation by snakes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Yoshimura

    Full Text Available The roles played by nonfatal secretions of adult anurans in the avoidance of predation remain unknown. The adult Wrinkled frog (Rana rugosa has warty skin with the odorous mucus secretion that is not fatal to the snake Elaphe quadrivirgata. We fed R. rugosa or Fejervarya limnocharis, which resembles R. rugosa in appearance and has mucus secretion, to snakes and compared the snakes' responses to the frogs. Compared to F. limnocharis, R. rugosa was less frequently bitten or swallowed by snakes. The snakes that bit R. rugosa spat out the frogs and showed mouth opening (gaping behavior, while the snakes that bit F. limnocharis did not show gaping behavior. We also compared the responses of the snakes to R. rugosa and F. limnocharis secretions. We coated palatable R. japonica with secretions from R. rugosa or F. limnocharis. The frogs coated by R. rugosa secretion were less frequently bitten or swallowed than those coated by F. limnocharis secretion. We concluded that compared to different frog species of similar sizes, the adult R. rugosa was less frequently preyed upon by, and that its skin secretion was effective in avoiding predation by snakes.

  4. Pre-hibernation energy reserves in a temperate anuran, Rana chensinensis, along a relatively fine elevational gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, X.; Li, B.; Li, Y.; Ma, X.; Fellers, G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Temperate anurans have energy substrates in the liver, fat bodies, carcass and gonads; these stores provide support for metabolism and egg production during hibernation, and for breeding activities in spring. This paper compares the energy budget shortly before hibernation among Rana chensinensis populations at elevations of 1400, 1700 and 2000 m along a river in northern China. The larger frogs, regardless of elevation, had relatively heavy storage organs and the masses of nearly all these organs were positively correlated with each other. After controlling for the effect of body size, we found no significant difference in energetic organ mass among different age classes for each of the three populations. There were sexual differences in energy strategy. Males in all populations accumulated greater reserves in liver, fat bodies and carcass than did females. In contrast, females put more energy into their ovaries and oviducts. Frogs from higher elevations tended to have heavier organs than those from lower elevations; however, the pattern did not vary systematically along fine environmental gradients. Mid-elevation R. chensinensis built up significantly more reserves than low-elevation individuals, but were similar to their highland conspecifics. Males from higher elevations tended to have heavier liver and fat bodies; females were similar in liver and ovary mass across all elevations, but formed heavier fat bodies, oviducts and somatic tissue at higher elevation sites.

  5. The effects of four arthropod diets on the body and organ weights of the leopard frog, Rana pipiens, during vitellogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, G C

    1978-12-01

    Wild-caught adult Rana pipiens females were captured in midsummer and fed diets of crickets, flies sowbugs or wax moth larvae during a three-month period of active vitellogenesis. The cricket diet supported the most extensive body weight gain during this time and promoted a prolonged period of weight increase in an additional long-term study. Synchronous growth of the oocytes occurred in all four groups, but the ovaries and oviducts of cricket-fed animals were significantly larger than those of frogs on the other three diets. The significantly higher liver weights of frogs fed wax moth larvae may have reflected an augmentation of hepatic energy stores. Fat body weights were also highest in this group of animals. Frogs fed crickets and wax moth larvae possessed larger fat bodies than did the midsummer control animals killed immediately after their arrival in the laboratory. In contrast, frogs fed flies and sowbugs had smaller fat bodies than did the initial controls, suggesting that animals on these diets had utilized fat body lipid during vitellogenesis. Gastrocnemius and final body weights were lowest in frogs fed wax moth larvae. These findings may have reflected the nutritional content of the diet or the reduction in appetite frequently noted in these animals during observations of feeding behavior.

  6. Multifarious selection through environmental change: acidity and predator-mediated adaptive divergence in the moor frog (Rana arvalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egea-Serrano, Andrés; Hangartner, Sandra; Laurila, Anssi; Räsänen, Katja

    2014-04-07

    Environmental change can simultaneously cause abiotic stress and alter biological communities, yet adaptation of natural populations to co-changing environmental factors is poorly understood. We studied adaptation to acid and predator stress in six moor frog (Rana arvalis) populations along an acidification gradient, where abundance of invertebrate predators increases with increasing acidity of R. arvalis breeding ponds. First, we quantified divergence among the populations in anti-predator traits (behaviour and morphology) at different rearing conditions in the laboratory (factorial combinations of acid or neutral pH and the presence or the absence of a caged predator). Second, we evaluated relative fitness (survival) of the populations by exposing tadpoles from the different rearing conditions to predation by free-ranging dragonfly larvae. We found that morphological defences (relative tail depth) as well as survival of tadpoles under predation increased with increasing pond acidity (under most experimental conditions). Tail depth and larval size mediated survival differences among populations, but the contribution of trait divergence to survival was strongly dependent on prior rearing conditions. Our results indicate that R. arvalis populations are adapted to the elevated predator pressure in acidified ponds and emphasize the importance of multifarious selection via both direct (here: pH) and indirect (here: predators) environmental changes.

  7. Odorous and non-fatal skin secretion of adult wrinkled frog (Rana rugosa) is effective in avoiding predation by snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Yuri; Kasuya, Eiiti

    2013-01-01

    The roles played by nonfatal secretions of adult anurans in the avoidance of predation remain unknown. The adult Wrinkled frog (Rana rugosa) has warty skin with the odorous mucus secretion that is not fatal to the snake Elaphe quadrivirgata. We fed R. rugosa or Fejervarya limnocharis, which resembles R. rugosa in appearance and has mucus secretion, to snakes and compared the snakes' responses to the frogs. Compared to F. limnocharis, R. rugosa was less frequently bitten or swallowed by snakes. The snakes that bit R. rugosa spat out the frogs and showed mouth opening (gaping) behavior, while the snakes that bit F. limnocharis did not show gaping behavior. We also compared the responses of the snakes to R. rugosa and F. limnocharis secretions. We coated palatable R. japonica with secretions from R. rugosa or F. limnocharis. The frogs coated by R. rugosa secretion were less frequently bitten or swallowed than those coated by F. limnocharis secretion. We concluded that compared to different frog species of similar sizes, the adult R. rugosa was less frequently preyed upon by, and that its skin secretion was effective in avoiding predation by snakes.

  8. Predator mediated selection and the impact of developmental stage on viability in wood frog tadpoles (Rana sylvatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calsbeek Ryan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complex life histories require adaptation of a single organism for multiple ecological niches. Transitions between life stages, however, may expose individuals to an increased risk of mortality, as the process of metamorphosis typically includes developmental stages that function relatively poorly in both the pre- and post-metamorphic habitat. We studied predator-mediated selection on tadpoles of the wood frog, Rana sylvatica, to identify this hypothesized period of differential predation risk and estimate its ontogenetic onset. We reared tadpoles in replicated mesocosms in the presence of the larval odonate Anax junius, a known tadpole predator. Results The probability of tadpole survival increased with increasing age and size, but declined steeply at the point in development where hind limbs began to erupt from the body wall. Selection gradient analyses indicate that natural selection favored tadpoles with short, deep tail fins. Tadpoles resorb their tails as they progress toward metamorphosis, which may have led to the observed decrease in survivorship. Path models revealed that selection acted directly on tail morphology, rather than through its indirect influence on swimming performance. Conclusions This is consistent with the hypothesis that tail morphology influences predation rates by reducing the probability a predator strikes the head or body.

  9. Multifarious selection through environmental change: acidity and predator-mediated adaptive divergence in the moor frog (Rana arvalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egea-Serrano, Andrés; Hangartner, Sandra; Laurila, Anssi; Räsänen, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Environmental change can simultaneously cause abiotic stress and alter biological communities, yet adaptation of natural populations to co-changing environmental factors is poorly understood. We studied adaptation to acid and predator stress in six moor frog (Rana arvalis) populations along an acidification gradient, where abundance of invertebrate predators increases with increasing acidity of R. arvalis breeding ponds. First, we quantified divergence among the populations in anti-predator traits (behaviour and morphology) at different rearing conditions in the laboratory (factorial combinations of acid or neutral pH and the presence or the absence of a caged predator). Second, we evaluated relative fitness (survival) of the populations by exposing tadpoles from the different rearing conditions to predation by free-ranging dragonfly larvae. We found that morphological defences (relative tail depth) as well as survival of tadpoles under predation increased with increasing pond acidity (under most experimental conditions). Tail depth and larval size mediated survival differences among populations, but the contribution of trait divergence to survival was strongly dependent on prior rearing conditions. Our results indicate that R. arvalis populations are adapted to the elevated predator pressure in acidified ponds and emphasize the importance of multifarious selection via both direct (here: pH) and indirect (here: predators) environmental changes. PMID:24552840

  10. Effects of chronic copper exposure on development and survival in the southern leopard frog (Lithobates [Rana] sphenocephalus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Stacey L; Erickson, Matthew R; Flynn, R Wesley; Mills, Gary L; Tuberville, Tracey D; Scott, David E

    2012-07-01

    Exposure to environmental contaminants contributes to the global decline of amphibian populations. The impacts of organic contaminants on amphibians are well documented. However, substantially less is known concerning the potential effects of metals on amphibian populations. Copper (Cu) is an essential element, but it can be toxic at concentrations only slightly higher than the normal physiological range. The present study examines the effects of chronic Cu exposure on embryos and larvae of southern leopard frogs, Lithobates (Rana) sphenocephalus. Groups of eggs from multiple clutches were collected from two wetlands and exposed to a range of Cu concentrations (0-150 µg/L) until they reached the free-swimming stage, and then individual larvae were reared to metamorphosis. Higher Cu concentrations significantly reduced embryo survival to the free-swimming stage but did not further reduce survival to metamorphosis. Larval period was affected by Cu treatment, but the clutch from which larvae originated (i.e., parentage) explained a higher proportion of the variation. Embryo survival to hatching varied significantly among clutches, ranging from 42.9 to 79.2%. Measurable levels of Cu were found in larvae with body burdens up to 595 µg Cu/g dry mass in the 100 µg/L treatment, and larval Cu body burdens were higher than in metamorphs. The present study also demonstrated that higher initial egg density ameliorated embryo mortality at higher Cu levels and should be accounted for in future studies. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  11. Differing long term trends for two common amphibian species (Bufo bufo and Rana temporaria in alpine landscapes of Salzburg, Austria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kyek

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the population trends of two widespread European anuran species: the common toad (Bufo bufo and the common frog (Rana temporaria. The basis of this study is data gathered over two decades of amphibian fencing alongside roads in the Austrian state of Salzburg. Different statistical approaches were used to analyse the data. Overall average increase or decrease of each species was estimated by calculating a simple average locality index. In addition the statistical software TRIM was used to verify these trends as well as to categorize the data based on the geographic location of each migration site. The results show differing overall trends for the two species: the common toad being stable and the common frog showing a substantial decline over the last two decades. Further analyses based on geographic categorization reveal the strongest decrease in the alpine range of the species. Drainage and agricultural intensification are still ongoing problems within alpine areas, not only in Salzburg. Particularly in respect to micro-climate and the availability of spawning places these changes appear to have a greater impact on the habitats of the common frog than the common toad. Therefore we consider habitat destruction to be the main potential reason behind this dramatic decline. We also conclude that the substantial loss of biomass of a widespread species such as the common frog must have a severe, and often overlooked, ecological impact.

  12. Growth and developmental effects of coal combustion residues on Southern Leopard Frog (Rana sphenocephala) tadpoles exposed throughout metamorphosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, J.D.; Peterson, V.A.; Mendonca, M.T. [Auburn University, Auburn, AL (United States). Dept. for Biological Science

    2008-09-15

    The effects of aquatic deposition of coal combustion residues (CCRs) on amphibian life histories have been the focus of many recent studies. In summer 2005, we raised larval Southern Leopard Frogs, Rana sphenocephala, on either sand or CCR substrate (approximately 1 cm deep within plastic bins) and documented effects of sediment type on oral disc condition, as well as time to, mass at, and total body length at key developmental stages, including metamorphosis (Gosner stages (GS) 37, 42, and 46). We found no significant difference in mortality between the two treatments and mortality was relatively low (eight of 48 in the control group and four of 48 in the CCR group). Ninety percent of exposed tadpoles displayed oral disc abnormalities, while no control individuals displayed abnormalities. Tadpoles raised on CCR-contaminated sediment had decreased developmental rates and weighed significantly less at all developmental stages, on average, when compared to controls. The CCR treatment group was also significantly shorter In length than controls at the completion of metamorphosis (GS 46). Collectively, these findings are the most severe sub-lethal effects noted for any amphibian exposed to CCRs to date. More research is needed to understand how these long term effects may contribute to the dynamics of local amphibian populations.

  13. Efecto de ocho Protocolos de Inducción Hormonal sobre la Reproducción de Ranas Venenosas Dendrobates truncatus (Cope, 1861) en el Parque Recreativo y Zoológico Piscilago

    OpenAIRE

    J Alexander Franco; Sandra Sarmiento

    2012-01-01

    La difícil reproducción en cautiverio de ranas del género Dendrobates y su importanciapara la investigación médica y la industria de mascotas, han llevando a través del trafico al declive a sus poblaciones naturales, generando la necesidad de investigar el potencial zootécnico y la conservación de estas especies. Este estudio evaluó el efecto de ocho protocolos de inducción hormonal sobre la reproducción de ranas Dendrobates truncatus, se realizó en el Parque recreativo y zoológico Piscilago ...

  14. Changes in growth rate and macroelement and trace element accumulation in Hydrocharis morsus-ranae L. during the growing season in relation to environmental contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polechońska, Ludmiła; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra; Dambiec, Małgorzata

    2017-02-01

    The temporal variations in plant chemistry connected with its life cycle may affect the cycling of elements in an ecosystem as well as determine the usefulness of the species in phytoremediation and bioindication. In this context, there is a gap in knowledge on the role of floating plants for elements cycling in aquatic reservoirs. The aim of the study was to determine if there are variations in Hydrocharis morsus-ranae (European frog-bit) bioaccumulation capacity and the growth rate of its population during the growing season and to test the impact of environmental pollution on these features. The content of macroelements (Ca, K, Mg, N, Na, P, S) and trace metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Hg, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) was determined in H. morsus-ranae collected monthly from June to October from habitats differing in environmental contamination. The results showed that the highest content of most trace metals (Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Zn) and some nutrients (N, P) in plants as well as the greatest bioaccumulation efficiency occurred simultaneously in the beginning of the growing season. In the following months, a dilution effect (manifested by a decrease in content) related to the rapid growth was observed. Co, Mn, and Ni content in plant tissues reflected the level of environmental contamination throughout the growing season which makes H. morsus-ranae a potential biomonitor of pollution for these metals. Considering the great bioaccumulation ability, high sensitivity to contamination, and low biomass of European frog-bit in polluted systems, further investigation is required to assess the real phytoremediation capability of the species.

  15. Los cromosomas meióticos de la rana arborícola Smilisca baudinii (Anura: Hylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Hernández-Guzmán

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available La rana arborícola mexicana Smilisca baudinii, es una especie de rana común en Centroamérica. Sin embargo, la biología y genética de la especie, es pobremente conocida a pesar de su importancia para mantener en equilibrio ecológico las selvas tropicales. Con el propósito de contribuir con el conocimiento biológico de esta especie, establecimos el cariotipo típico en meiosis en especímenes recolectados en Tabasco, México, mediante procedimientos citogenéticos estándares. El estudio, se fundamentó en el análisis de 131 dispersiones cromosómicas en estadio meiótico de dos adultos de la especie (una hembra y un macho. El análisis de las metafases, permitió establecer el número modal haploide de 1n=12 cromosomas bivalentes. La fórmula cromosómica del cariotipo haploide, se integró por 12 cromosomas birrámeos caracterizado por 12 pares de cromosomas bivalentes metacéntricos-submetacéntricos (msm. Los conteos en meiosis, hacen suponer como número diploide de cromosomas a un complemento integrado por 2n=24 cromosomas birrámeos. No fue posible observar presencia de cromosomas sexuales, entre las dispersiones meióticas del espécimen hembra y macho. Los resultados sugieren que la estructura cromosómica de S. baudinii, es compartida ampliamente entre las especies de la familia Hylidae y los cromosomas "B" son estructuras importantes en la diversificación de las especies.Meiotic chromosomes of the tree frog Smilisca baudinii (Anura: Hylidae. The Mexican tree frog Smilisca baudinii, is a very common frog in Central America. In spite their importance to keep the ecological equilibrium of the rainforest, its biology and genetics are poorly known. In order to contribute with its biological knowledge, we described the typical meiotic karyotype based in standard cytogenetic protocols to specimens collected in Tabasco, Mexico. The study was centered in the analysis of 131 chromosome spreads at meiotic stage from two adults of the

  16. Endocrine-disrupting effects and reproductive toxicity of low dose MCLR on male frogs (Rana nigromaculata) in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Xiuying; Cai, Chenchen; Wang, Jia; Gao, Nana; Zhang, Hangjun, E-mail: zhanghangjun@gmail.com

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Low-dose MCLR (1 μg/L) elicits a potential ecological effect on amphibian populations. • MCLR can induce abnormal sperm morphologies and activities on male frogs. • MCLR can induce a decrease in serum testosterone and an increase in serum estradiol of male frogs. • MCLR can increase SF-1 protein levels and decrease P450 aromatase levels in the gonads of frogs. - Abstract: Toxic cyanobacterial blooms are potential global threats to aquatic ecosystems and human health. The World Health Organization has set a provisional guideline limit of 1 μg/L microcystin-LR (MCLR) in freshwater. However, MCLR concentrations in several water bodies have exceeded this level. Despite this recommended human safety standard, MCLR-induced endocrine-disrupting effects and reproductive toxicity on male frog (Rana nigromaculata) were demonstrated in this study. Results showed that sperm motility and sperm count were significantly and negatively correlated with exposure time and concentration. By contrast, abnormal sperm rate was positively correlated with both parameters. Ultrastructural observation results revealed abnormal sperm morphologies, vacuoles in spermatogenic cells, cell dispersion, incomplete cell structures, and deformed nucleoli. These results indicated that MCLR could induce toxic effects on the reproductive system of frogs, significantly decrease testosterone content, and rapidly increase estradiol content. Prolonged exposure and increased concentration enhanced the relative expression levels of P450 aromatase and steroidogenic factor 1; thus, endocrine function in frogs was disrupted. This study is the first to demonstrate in vivo MCLR toxicity in the reproductive system of male R. nigromaculata. This study provided a scientific basis of the global decline in amphibian populations.

  17. Endocrine-disrupting effects and reproductive toxicity of low dose MCLR on male frogs (Rana nigromaculata) in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Xiuying; Cai, Chenchen; Wang, Jia; Gao, Nana; Zhang, Hangjun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Low-dose MCLR (1 μg/L) elicits a potential ecological effect on amphibian populations. • MCLR can induce abnormal sperm morphologies and activities on male frogs. • MCLR can induce a decrease in serum testosterone and an increase in serum estradiol of male frogs. • MCLR can increase SF-1 protein levels and decrease P450 aromatase levels in the gonads of frogs. - Abstract: Toxic cyanobacterial blooms are potential global threats to aquatic ecosystems and human health. The World Health Organization has set a provisional guideline limit of 1 μg/L microcystin-LR (MCLR) in freshwater. However, MCLR concentrations in several water bodies have exceeded this level. Despite this recommended human safety standard, MCLR-induced endocrine-disrupting effects and reproductive toxicity on male frog (Rana nigromaculata) were demonstrated in this study. Results showed that sperm motility and sperm count were significantly and negatively correlated with exposure time and concentration. By contrast, abnormal sperm rate was positively correlated with both parameters. Ultrastructural observation results revealed abnormal sperm morphologies, vacuoles in spermatogenic cells, cell dispersion, incomplete cell structures, and deformed nucleoli. These results indicated that MCLR could induce toxic effects on the reproductive system of frogs, significantly decrease testosterone content, and rapidly increase estradiol content. Prolonged exposure and increased concentration enhanced the relative expression levels of P450 aromatase and steroidogenic factor 1; thus, endocrine function in frogs was disrupted. This study is the first to demonstrate in vivo MCLR toxicity in the reproductive system of male R. nigromaculata. This study provided a scientific basis of the global decline in amphibian populations

  18. Biospectroscopy reveals the effect of varying water quality on tadpole tissues of the common frog (Rana temporaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Rebecca J; Halsall, Crispin J; Ferenčík, Martin; Jones, Kevin C; Shore, Richard F; Martin, Francis L

    2016-06-01

    Amphibians are undergoing large population declines in many regions around the world. As environmental pollution from both agricultural and urban sources has been implicated in such declines, there is a need for a biomonitoring approach to study potential impacts on this vulnerable class of organism. This study assessed the use of infrared (IR) spectroscopy as a tool to detect changes in several tissues (liver, muscle, kidney, heart and skin) of late-stage common frog (Rana temporaria) tadpoles collected from ponds with differing water quality. Small differences in spectral signatures were revealed between a rural agricultural pond and an urban pond receiving wastewater and landfill run-off; these were limited to the liver and heart, although large differences in body size were apparent, surprisingly with tadpoles from the urban site larger than those from the rural site. Large differences in liver spectra were found between tadpoles from the pesticide and nutrient impacted pond compared to the rural agricultural pond, particularly in regions associated with lipids. Liver mass and hepatosomatic indices were found to be significantly increased in tadpoles from the site impacted by pesticides and trace organic chemicals, suggestive of exposure to environmental contamination. Significant alterations were also found in muscle tissue between tadpoles from these two ponds in regions associated with glycogen, potentially indicative of a stress response. This study highlights the use of IR spectroscopy, a low-cost, rapid and reagent-free technique in the biomonitoring of a class of organisms susceptible to environmental degradation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Histopathological changes and erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities in Iberian green frogs (Rana perezi Seoane) from a uranium mine pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, S.M.; Antunes, S.C.; Pissarra, H.; Pereira, M.L.; Goncalves, F.; Pereira, R.

    2009-01-01

    In spite of their sensitivity to anthropogenic stressors, adults of Rana perezi Seoane were found inhabiting effluent ponds from a uranium mine. Due to the presence of such organisms in this environment, it becomes of paramount importance to assess the damages induced by local contamination on these aquatic vertebrates, in order to integrate this information on a site-specific risk assessment that is being carried out in the area. To attain this purpose an ethically and statistically acceptable number of green frogs were captured in the mine pond (M) and in a pristine river (VR), a few kilometres from the mine. Bioaccumulation of metals and histopathological alterations were evaluated in the liver, kidneys, spleen, lungs and testes of the animals. Simultaneously, blood samples were collected for the evaluation of genotoxic damage on erythrocytes. Animals captured in the M pond showed significantly increased levels of Be, Al, Mn, Fe and U in the liver, as well as Pb and U in the kidney. The liver was the main target organ for the bioaccumulation of Be, Al, Fe and U. However, renal histopathologies were more severe than those of liver. The main tissue alterations recorded in animals from the mine were: a slight increase in melanomacrophagic centers (MMC) in liver, lung and kidneys; dilatation of the renal tubules lumen associated with tubular necrosis. A significantly higher number of erythrocytic abnormalities (lobed, notched and kidney shaped nuclei and micronuclei) were recorded in frogs from M than in frogs from VR, along with a significantly lower frequency of immature erythrocytes. Both observations suggested that the removal of abnormal blood cells might be compromised

  20. Histopathological changes and erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities in Iberian green frogs (Rana perezi Seoane) from a uranium mine pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, S.M. [Departamento de Biologia/Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar (CESAM), Campus de Santiago, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)], E-mail: s.reis.marques@gmail.com; Antunes, S.C. [Departamento de Biologia/Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar (CESAM), Campus de Santiago, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Pissarra, H. [Laboratorio de Anatomia Patologica, Centro de Investigacao Interdisciplinar em Sanidade Animal (CIISA), Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria, U.T.L., Lisboa (Portugal); Pereira, M.L. [Departamento de Biologia/Centro de Investigacao em Materiais Ceramicos e Compositos (CICECO), Campus de Santiago, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Goncalves, F.; Pereira, R. [Departamento de Biologia/Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar (CESAM), Campus de Santiago, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2009-01-31

    In spite of their sensitivity to anthropogenic stressors, adults of Rana perezi Seoane were found inhabiting effluent ponds from a uranium mine. Due to the presence of such organisms in this environment, it becomes of paramount importance to assess the damages induced by local contamination on these aquatic vertebrates, in order to integrate this information on a site-specific risk assessment that is being carried out in the area. To attain this purpose an ethically and statistically acceptable number of green frogs were captured in the mine pond (M) and in a pristine river (VR), a few kilometres from the mine. Bioaccumulation of metals and histopathological alterations were evaluated in the liver, kidneys, spleen, lungs and testes of the animals. Simultaneously, blood samples were collected for the evaluation of genotoxic damage on erythrocytes. Animals captured in the M pond showed significantly increased levels of Be, Al, Mn, Fe and U in the liver, as well as Pb and U in the kidney. The liver was the main target organ for the bioaccumulation of Be, Al, Fe and U. However, renal histopathologies were more severe than those of liver. The main tissue alterations recorded in animals from the mine were: a slight increase in melanomacrophagic centers (MMC) in liver, lung and kidneys; dilatation of the renal tubules lumen associated with tubular necrosis. A significantly higher number of erythrocytic abnormalities (lobed, notched and kidney shaped nuclei and micronuclei) were recorded in frogs from M than in frogs from VR, along with a significantly lower frequency of immature erythrocytes. Both observations suggested that the removal of abnormal blood cells might be compromised.

  1. UNA ESPECIE NUEVA DE RANA DEL GÉNERO CHIASMOCLEIS (MICROHYLIDAE: GASTROPHRYNINAE DE LA CORDILLERA DEL CÓNDOR, ECUADOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA ALMENDÁRIZ C.

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Se describe una especie nueva de rana del género Chiasmocleis de los bosques montanos del suroriente del Ecuador, en las laderas occidentales de la Cordillera del Cóndor, entre 1.025-1.630 m de altitud. En base a nuevas secuencias de ADN mitocondrial y nuclear presentamos las relaciones filogenéticas de la nueva especie y sus congéneres. La filogenia muestra una relación cercana a C. antenori, C. carvalhoi, C. magnova, y C. tridactyla. La nueva especie forma parte de un clado integrado por especies que previamente habían sido asignadas al género Syncope. Este clado es hermano de otro conformado por el resto de especies de Chiasmocleis. La nueva especie difiere de sus congéneres por su dorso café ladrillo a café obscuro (sepia cubierto por puntos diminutos blanco-amarillentos. Chiasmocleis parkeri sp. nov. se parece a Chiasmocleis antenori por la ausencia del dedo I, tanto en las manos como en los pies, pero difiere en la coloración, la disposición y tamaño de las manchas claras y la ausencia de una línea clara en la región cantal. La especie nueva presenta algunos rasgos que le distinguen de especies similares. Describimos el canto, caracterizado por tener notas sin pulsos y aportamos datos ecológicos de la localidad típica y áreas adyacentes.

  2. Octylphenol and UV-B radiation alter larval development and hypothalamic gene expression in the leopard frog (Rana pipiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, Douglas; Lean, David; Trudeau, Vance L

    2002-03-01

    We assessed octylphenol (OP), an estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemical, and UV-B radiation, a known stressor in amphibian development, for their effects on hypothalamic gene expression and premetamorphic development in the leopard frog Rana pipiens. Newly hatched tadpoles were exposed for 10 days to OP alone at two different dose levels; to subambient UV-B radiation alone; and to two combinations of OP and UV-B. Control animals were exposed to ethanol vehicle (0.01%) exposure, a subset of tadpoles from each treatment group was raised to metamorphosis to assess differences in body weight and time required for hindlimb emergence. Tadpoles from one of the OP/UV-B combination groups had greater body weight and earlier hindlimb emergence (p weight or hindlimb emergence, indicating a potential mechanism of interaction between OP and UV-B. We hypothesized that the developing hypothalamus might be a potential environmental sensor for neurotoxicologic studies because of its role in the endocrine control of metamorphosis. We used a differential display strategy to identify candidate genes differentially expressed in the hypothalamic region of the exposed tadpoles. Homology cloning was performed to obtain R. pipiens glutamate decarboxylases--GAD65 and GAD67, enzymes involved in the synthesis of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). cDNA expression profiles revealed that OP and UV-B affected the levels of several candidate transcripts in tadpole (i.e., Nck, Ash, and phospholipase C gamma-binding protein 4 and brain angiogenesis inhibitor-3) and metamorph (i.e., GAD67, cytochrome C oxidase, and brain angiogenesis inhibitor-2 and -3) brains. This study represents a novel approach in toxicology that combines physiologic and molecular end points and indicates that levels of OP commonly found in the environment and subambient levels of UV-B alter the expression of important hypothalamic genes and disrupt tadpole growth patterns.

  3. Chilled frogs are hot: hibernation and reproduction of the Endangered mountain yellow-legged frog Rana muscosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Frank E.; Swaisgood, Ronald R.; Lemm, Jeffrey M.; Fisher, Robert N.; Clark, Rulon W.

    2015-01-01

    In the face of the sixth great extinction crisis, it is imperative to establish effective breeding protocols for amphibian conservation breeding programs. Captive efforts should not proceed by trial and error, nor should they jump prematurely to assisted reproduction techniques, which can be invasive, difficult, costly, and, at times, counterproductive. Instead, conservation practitioners should first look to nature for guidance, and replicate key conditions found in nature in the captive environment, according to the ecological and behavioral requirements of the species. We tested the effect of a natural hibernation regime on reproductive behaviors and body condition in the Endangered mountain yellow-legged frog Rana muscosa. Hibernation had a clear positive effect on reproductive behavior, manifesting in vocal advertisement signaling, female receptivity, amplexus, and oviposition. These behaviors are critical components of courtship that lead to successful reproduction. Our main finding was that captive R. muscosa require a hibernation period for successful reproduction, as only hibernated females produced eggs and only hibernated males successfully fertilized eggs. Although hibernation also resulted in a reduced body condition, the reduction appeared to be minimal with no associated mortality. The importance of hibernation for reproduction is not surprising, since it is a major component of the conditions that R. muscosa experiences in the wild. Other amphibian conservation breeding programs can also benefit from a scientific approach that tests the effect of natural ecological conditions on reproduction. This will ensure that captive colonies maximize their role in providing genetic reservoirs for assurance and reintroduction efforts.

  4. Cryptic invasion of Northern Leopard Frogs (Rana pipiens) across phylogeographic boundaries and a dilemma for conservation of a declining amphibian

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Ryan P.; Drost, Charles A.; Mock, Karen E.

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic introduction of species is a major contributor to loss of biodiversity. Translocations within the range of a species are less frequently recognized, but have the potential for negative effects as well. Genetic mixing may lead to loss of local adaptations or further decline through outbreeding depression. These cryptic invasions may be quite difficult to recognize, but genetic tools can be used to recognize and monitor such intraspecific introductions. Conversely, translocations within species can be an important conservation tool to reduce inbreeding depression and replace lost genetic diversity. Thus, cryptic invasions can be either an aid or a hindrance to conservation efforts. We tested for the presence of non-native genotypes and assessed the extent and nature of introgression in populations of Northern Leopard Frog (Rana pipiens) in the southwestern US, where populations have declined to a few remnant populations. The most abundant and diverse complex of populations in the region contained a mitochondrial haplotype that was not native to the western US, probably resulting from the introduction of released pets, laboratory animals, or release during fish stocking. These non-native haplotypes were well integrated into a large complex of ponds and lakes, contributing to high genetic diversity in this area. Logistically, the geographic extent of non-native genetic influence within this population precludes eliminating or controlling the non-native component of this population. We recommend assessing the progress and fate of the introgression over time—along with population fitness parameters—to determine whether this introduction is beneficial or detrimental to population persistence. Meanwhile, translocations from nearby locations with similar environmental conditions have the best prospects for avoiding problems with outbreeding depression in other declining populations and will also most effectively preserve regional genetic diversity.

  5. Influence of larval period on responses of overwintering green frog (Rana clamitans) larvae exposed to contaminated sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snodgrass, J.W.; Hopkins, W.A.; Jackson, B.P.; Baionno, J.A.; Broughton, J. [Towson State University, Towson, MD (US). Dept. of Biological Science

    2005-06-01

    Pond-breeding amphibians exhibit large intra- and interspecific differences in the duration of the aquatic larval phase. In contaminated aquatic environments, a prolonged larval phase means prolonged exposure to pollutants and, potentially, more severe toxic effects. In the laboratory, we tested this hypothesis by exposing green frog larvae (Rana clamitans) to commercial clean sand (control), sediment from an abandoned surface mine (mine), or sediment contaminated with coal combustion waste (CCW). By collecting eggs late in the breeding season, we obligated larvae to overwinter and spend a protracted amount of time exposed to contaminated sediments. The experiment was continued until all larvae either successfully completed metamorphosis or died (301 d). Larvae exposed to mine sediments accumulated significant levels of Pb and Zn, whereas larvae exposed to CCW-contaminated sediment accumulated significant levels of As, Se, Sr, and V. Larvae exposed to mine sediments suffered sublethal effects in the form of reduced growth and size at metamorphosis, but the proportion of larvae successfully completing metamorphosis (93%) was the same for both control and mine treatments. In contrast, larvae exposed to CCW-contaminated sediment suffered greatly reduced survival (13%) compared to both control and mine treatments. Moreover, among larvae in the CCW treatment, the majority of mortality occurred during the latter part the overwintering period (after day 205), corresponding to the onset of metamorphosis in the controls. Our results suggest that the length of the larval period may be one of many life-history or ecological characteristics that influence the sensitivity of aquatic breeding amphibians to environmental pollutants.

  6. Cuando un príncipe besa a una rana: ¡Sorpresa! Una propuesta didáctica desde la homosexualidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Jódar Sánchez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: En esta propuesta didáctica, utilizamos el álbum ilustrado como herramienta para la enseñanza de contenido lingüístico, así como valores sociales y cívicos a un grupo de estudiantes de ELE de nivel A2. Utilizamos el álbum ilustrado El día de la rana roja que narra la historia de dos príncipes que se enamoran y adoptan a una niña huérfana. Estructuramos nuestra propuesta en cuatro fases (introducción, comprensión, consolidación, resignificación, de las cuáles las dos últimas son las dos que más desarrollamos. Planteamos una entrevista a la rana del cuento, un teatro con marionetas, y el dibujo del mapa del reino como actividades de introducción. En la fase de comprensión se sugieren actividades de léxico y gramática sencillas, tratando, por ejemplo, los tiempos de presente y futuro. En la fase de consolidación, el profesor tiene la opción de realizar el taller del adivinador de sueños o la puesta en escena de declaraciones de amor entre animales. Finalmente, para la fase de resignificación, se cuestiona por qué el rey y la reina cambian el vestido por unos pantalones al averiguar que su hijo se casará con un chico. Palabras clave: Homosexualidad, español como lengua extranjera, álbum ilustrado, El día de la rana roja.   Abstract: This teaching material is based on the picture book El día de la rana roja, the story of a prince who marries another man and together adopt an orphan child. It is targeted to students of Spanish as a foreign language of any country, including the United States, with an A2 level. Picture books are useful tools to teach, not only language and grammar, but also civility and good manners in society. The proposal is divided into four phases (introduction, comprehension, consolidation, and intellectual challenge, the latter of which are explained in detail. For the introduction phase, we propose interviewing the frog in the story, having a puppet role play narrating the story, and

  7. Alteration of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in estrogen- and androgen-treated adult male leopard frog, Rana pipiens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Jeremy T

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gonadal steroids, in particular 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT and 17 beta-estradiol (E2, have been shown to feed back on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis of the ranid frog. However, questions still remain on how DHT and E2 impact two of the less-studied components of the ranid HPG axis, the hypothalamus and the gonad, and if the feedback effects are consistently negative. Thus, the goal of the study was to examine the effects of DHT and E2 upon the HPG axis of the gonadally-intact, sexually mature male leopard frogs, Rana pipiens. Methods R. pipiens were implanted with silastic capsules containing either cholesterol (Ch, a control, DHT, or E2 for 10 or 30 days. At each time point, steroid-induced changes in hypothalamic GnRH and pituitary LH concentrations, circulating luteinizing hormone (LH, and testicular histology were examined. Results Frogs implanted with DHT or E2 for 10 days did not show significant alterations in the HPG axis. In contrast, frogs implanted with hormones for 30 days had significantly lower circulating LH (for both DHT and E2, decreased pituitary LH concentration (for E2 only, and disrupted spermatogenesis (for both DHT and E2. The disruption of spermatogenesis was qualitatively similar between DHT and E2, although the effects of E2 were consistently more potent. In both DHT and E2-treated animals, a marked loss of all pre-meiotic germ cells was observed, although the loss of secondary spermatogonia appeared to be the primary cause of disrupted spermatogenesis. Unexpectedly, the presence of post-meiotic germ cells was either unaffected or enhanced by DHT or E2 treatment. Conclusions Overall, these results showed that both DHT and E2 inhibited circulating LH and disrupted spermatogenesis progressively in a time-dependent manner, with the longer duration of treatment producing the more pronounced effects. Further, the feedback effects exerted by both steroid hormones upon the HPG axis were

  8. Persistence of a circadian rhythmicity for thyroid hormones in plasma and thyroid of hibernating male Rana ridibunda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, E R; Delmotte, N M; Darras, V M

    1983-06-01

    The presence and circadian rhythmicity of thyroid hormones was studied in plasma and the thyroid gland of male Rana ridibunda before and during hibernation. Hibernating January frogs do have a lower T3 and T4 content of their thyroid gland whereas plasma levels of T3 are maintained and of T4 increased compared to fed September or October frogs. It seems likely that the increased photoperiod in January will be responsible for this increased T4 secretion, since controlled laboratory experiments performed in December did not reveal any influence of low temperature on circulating T3 or T4 levels. Also feeding does not influence circulating levels and thyroid content of thyroid hormones in frogs kept at room temperature during the month of January. A circadian rhythmicity of T3 and T4 in the thyroid gland is present in fed October frogs and in non fed December frogs acclimated at 5 degrees C for 12 days with an acrophase for T3 at approximately 1500 h and for T4 at around 1900 h, whereas in plasma only T3 does have circadian variations (acrophase about midnight) but not T4. When December frogs are acclimated to room temperature for 12 days, frogs are active again, but do not eat and have a lower body weight than frogs hibernating at 5 degrees C. Their T3 content of the thyroid gland has disappeared, but T4 thyroid content and plasma levels of T3 and T4 are maintained. As in hibernating frogs, no circadian variations in T4 plasma concentrations are present whereas the circadian thyroid T4 rhythm disappears. At the same time a dampening in rhythmicity for plasma T3 as judged by the significantly lower amplitude occurs. It is concluded that the persistence of circulating levels of thyroid hormones and of a circadian cyclicity for T3 in plasma in non feeding hibernating frogs may reflect the special metabolic state e.g. availability of food reserves in these animals.

  9. The role of MEF2 transcription factors in dehydration and anoxia survival in Rana sylvatica skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam P. Hoyeck

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The wood frog (Rana sylvatica can endure freezing of up to 65% of total body water during winter. When frozen, wood frogs enter a dormant state characterized by a cessation of vital functions (i.e., no heartbeat, blood circulation, breathing, brain activity, or movement. Wood frogs utilize various behavioural and biochemical adaptations to survive extreme freezing and component anoxia and dehydration stresses, including a global suppression of metabolic functions and gene expression. The stress-responsive myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2 transcription factor family regulates the selective expression of genes involved in glucose transport, protein quality control, and phosphagen homeostasis. This study examined the role of MEF2A and MEF2C proteins as well as select downstream targets (glucose transporter-4, calreticulin, and muscle and brain creatine kinase isozymes in 40% dehydration and 24 h anoxia exposure at the transcriptional, translational, and post-translational levels using qRT-PCR, immunoblotting, and subcellular localization. Mef2a/c transcript levels remained constant during dehydration and anoxia. Total, cytoplasmic, and nuclear MEF2A/C and phospho-MEF2A/C protein levels remained constant during dehydration, whereas a decrease in total MEF2C levels was observed during rehydration. Total and phospho-MEF2A levels remained constant during anoxia, whereas total MEF2C levels decreased during 24 h anoxia and P-MEF2C levels increased during 4 h anoxia. In contrast, cytoplasmic MEF2A levels and nuclear phospho-MEF2A/C levels were upregulated during anoxia. MEF2 downstream targets remained constant during dehydration and anoxia, with the exception of glut4 which was upregulated during anoxia. These results suggest that the upregulated MEF2 response reported in wood frogs during freezing may in part stem from their cellular responses to surviving prolonged anoxia, rather than dehydration, leading to an increase in GLUT4 expression which may

  10. Terrestrial activity and conservation of adult California red-legged frogs Rana aurora draytonii in coastal forests and grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulger, J.B.; Scott, N.J.; Seymour, R.B.

    2003-01-01

    The federally threatened California red-legged frog Rana aurora draytonii occupies both aquatic and terrestrial habitats in its adult life stage. The terrestrial activities of this species are not well known and require documentation to assist in the development of appropriate levels of protection under the US Endangered Species Act. We studied the terrestrial activities of radio-tagged red-legged frogs (n = 8-26) inhabiting a coastal watershed in Santa Cruz County, California, during 1997-1998. In particular, we investigated (1) the use of terrestrial habitats by non-migrating adults in relation to season, breeding chronology, and precipitation, and (2) adult migration behavior, including seasonal timing, duration, distances traveled, and the use of corridors. Non-migrating red-legged frogs occupied terrestrial habitats briefly (median = 4-6 days) following infrequent summer rains, but resided nearly continuously on land (median = 20-30 days) from the onset of the winter wet-season until breeding activities commenced 1-2 months later. All of the non-migrating frogs remained within 130 m of their aquatic site of residence (median days), despite frequent and copious rainfall. Adult migration to and from breeding sites occurred from late October through mid-May (wet season). We monitored 25 migration events between aquatic sites that were 200-2800 m apart. Short distance movements ( days, longer movements required up to 2 months. Most migrating frogs moved overland in approximately straight lines to target sites without apparent regard to vegetation type or topography. Riparian corridors were neither essential nor preferred as migration routes. Frogs traveling overland occurred in upland habitats as far as 500 m from water. Approximately 11-22% of the adult population was estimated to migrate to and from breeding sites annually, whereas the bulk of the adult population was resident at these sites. Adequate protection of red-legged frog populations inhabiting

  11. Amphibian population genetics in agricultural landscapes: does viniculture drive the population structuring of the European common frog (Rana temporaria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick P. Lenhardt

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Amphibian populations have been declining globally over the past decades. The intensification of agriculture, habitat loss, fragmentation of populations and toxic substances in the environment are considered as driving factors for this decline. Today, about 50% of the area of Germany is used for agriculture and is inhabited by a diverse variety of 20 amphibian species. Of these, 19 are exhibiting declining populations. Due to the protection status of native amphibian species, it is important to evaluate the effect of land use and associated stressors (such as road mortality and pesticide toxicity on the genetic population structure of amphibians in agricultural landscapes. We investigated the effects of viniculture on the genetic differentiation of European common frog (Rana temporaria populations in Southern Palatinate (Germany. We analyzed microsatellite data of ten loci from ten breeding pond populations located within viniculture landscape and in the adjacent forest block and compared these results with a previously developed landscape permeability model. We tested for significant correlation of genetic population differentiation and landscape elements, including land use as well as roads and their associated traffic intensity, to explain the genetic structure in the study area. Genetic differentiation among forest populations was significantly lower (median pairwise FST = 0.0041 at 5.39 km to 0.0159 at 9.40 km distance than between viniculture populations (median pairwise FST = 0.0215 at 2.34 km to 0.0987 at 2.39 km distance. Our analyses rejected isolation by distance based on roads and associated traffic intensity as the sole explanation of the genetic differentiation and suggest that the viniculture landscape has to be considered as a limiting barrier for R. temporaria migration, partially confirming the isolation of breeding ponds predicted by the landscape permeability model. Therefore, arable land may act as a sink habitat

  12. Assessment of thyroid system disruption in Rana pipiens tadpoles chronically exposed to UVB radiation and 4-tert-octylphenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, M.C., E-mail: maxinecroteau@hotmail.com [Centre for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics (CAREG), Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 20 Marie Curie Street, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Davidson, M., E-mail: mdavi089@uottawa.ca [Centre for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics (CAREG), Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 20 Marie Curie Street, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Duarte-Guterman, P., E-mail: duarte.paula@gmail.com [Centre for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics (CAREG), Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 20 Marie Curie Street, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Wade, M., E-mail: mike_wade@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 50 Columbine Driveway, Tunney' s Pasture, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0K9 (Canada); Popesku, J.T., E-mail: jpopesku@gmail.com [Centre for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics (CAREG), Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 20 Marie Curie Street, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Wiens, S., E-mail: susannawiens@hotmail.com [Centre for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics (CAREG), Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 20 Marie Curie Street, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Lean, D.R.S., E-mail: dlean@uottawa.ca [Centre for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics (CAREG), Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 20 Marie Curie Street, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Trudeau, V.L., E-mail: trudeauv@uottawa.ca [Centre for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics (CAREG), Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 20 Marie Curie Street, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2009-11-08

    Many studies have considered recent increases in ultraviolet B radiation (UVBR) and endocrine disrupting chemicals polluting the environment as possible contributing factors to the reduction in amphibian populations. It has been demonstrated that exposure of amphibians to estrogenic chemicals or UVBR can affect the timing of larval development and metamorphosis. However, amphibians in the wild are exposed to multiple environmental stressors simultaneously. Therefore, our study examines the effects of UVBR and the estrogenic chemical 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), alone and in combination, on the thyroid system of Rana pipiens tadpoles, which is the main regulator of amphibian metamorphosis. Results demonstrate that thyroid gland histomorphology measurements in Gosner stage 31 tadpoles continuously exposed to UVBR (0.21 W/m{sup 2}) were not different than those measured in animals from the control group. In a separate experiment, tadpoles exposed to environmentally relevant levels of UVBR (0.22 W/m{sup 2}) and/or OP (0.01 nM or 10 nM) exhibited significantly delayed development starting from Gosner stage 29, given that fewer tadpoles developed past stage 29 in these groups. In addition, significantly fewer UVBR-treated tadpoles developed past stage 34 and metamorphosed. Samples were collected from stages 29 and 34 tadpoles for gene expression analysis in tail tissue and measurements of T3 (triiodothyronine) whole body levels (minus tail). UVBR and/or OP exposure did not affect T3 levels in stages 29 and 34 tadpoles. However, a decrease in deiodinase type 2 (D2) or increase in deiodinase type 3 (D3) mRNA levels was observed in groups of tadpoles with slowed developmental rates at those developmental stages. Given that D2 activates and D3 inactivates thyroid hormones (TH), UVBR/OP mediated disruptions in development are likely caused by dysfunctions in the localized metabolism of THs through alterations in the expression of these enzymes in peripheral tissues. This is the

  13. Spatial Amphibian Impact Assessment – a management tool for assessment of road effects on regional populations of Moor frogs (Rana arvalis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Maj-Britt; Nachman, Gøsta Støger

    2013-01-01

    viability. Analyses of maps without the planned road constructions will constitute a “null-model” against which other scenarios can be compared, making it possible to assess the effect of road projects on landscape connectivity and population dynamics. Analyses and comparisons of several...... demonstrate how SAIA can be used to assess which management measures would be best to mitigate the effect of landscape fragmentation caused by road constructions by means of a case study dedicated to the Moor frog (Rana arvalis).......An expanding network of roads and railways fragments natural habitat affecting the amount and quality of habitat and reducing connectivity between habitat patches with severe consequences for biodiversity and population persistence. To ensure an ecologically sustainable transportation system...

  14. Induction of cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenases in northern leopard frogs, Rana pipiens, by 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.-W.; Melancon, M.J.; Jung, R.E.; Karasov, W.H.

    1998-01-01

    Northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) were injected intraperitoneally either with a solution of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 126 in corn oil at a concentration of 0.2, 0.7, 2.3 and 7.8 mg/kg body weight or with corn oil alone. Appropriate assay conditions with hepatic microsomes were determined for four cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenases: ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD), methoxy-ROD (MROD), benzyloxy-ROD (BROD) and pentoxy-ROD (PROD). One week after PCB administration, the specific activities of EROD, MROD, BROD and PROD were not elevated at doses ? 0.7 mg/kg (p > 0.05), but were significantly increased at doses ? 2.3 mg/kg compared to the control groups (p leopard frogs.

  15. Una nueva especie de rana terrestre del género Pristimantis (Amphibia: Craugastoridae, de la Cordillera de Kutukú, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Brito M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Describimos una especie nueva de mediano tamaño (LRC en la hembra 38.7 mm; en machos de 23.8 a 26.4 mm de rana terrestre del género Pristimantis de los bosques sub-tropicales de la Cordillera de Kutukú, del sureste de Ecuador, a elevaciones de 1581-1820 m. Asignamos a Pristimantis almendariz sp. nov., al subgénero Hypodictyon, serie de especies ridens. La nueva especie difiere de otros miembros de la serie ridens por su patrón distintivo con manchas dorsales, membrana timpánica ausente, presencia de tubérculos cónicos agrandados en el párpado, tubérculo inter-orbital prominente, e iris plateado con reticulaciones negras.

  16. Integrating Individual-Based Indices of Contaminant Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L. Rowe

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Habitat contamination can alter numerous biological processes in individual organisms. Examining multiple individual-level responses in an integrative fashion is necessary to understand how individual health or fitness reflects environmental contamination. Here we provide an example of such an integrated perspective based upon recent studies of an amphibian (the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana that experiences several, disparate changes when larval development occurs in a trace element�contaminated habitat. First, we present an overview of studies focused on specific responses of individuals collected from, or transplanted into, a habitat contaminated by coal combustion residues (CCR. These studies have reported morphological, behavioral, and physiological modifications to individuals chronically interacting with sediments in the CCR-contaminated site. Morphological abnormalities in the oral and tail regions in contaminant-exposed individuals influenced other properties such as grazing, growth, and swimming performance. Behavioral changes in swimming activities and responses to stimuli appear to influence predation risk in the contaminant-exposed population. Significant changes in bioenergetics in the contaminated habitat, evident as abnormally high energetic expenditures for survival (maintenance costs, may ultimately influence production pathways (growth, energy storage in individuals. We then present a conceptual model to examine how interactions among the affected systems (morphological, behavioral, physiological may ultimately bring about more severe effects than would be predicted if the responses were considered in isolation. A complex interplay among simultaneously occurring biological changes emerges in which multiple, sublethal effects ultimately can translate into reductions in larval or juvenile survival, and thus reduced recruitment of juveniles into the population. In systems where individuals are exposed to low concentrations of

  17. Metal levels in southern leopard frogs from the Savannah River Site: location and body compartment effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, J; Snodgrass, J

    2001-06-01

    Tadpoles have been proposed as useful bioindicators of environmental contamination; yet, recently it has been shown that metal levels vary in different body compartments of tadpoles. Metals levels are higher in the digestive tract of bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) tadpoles, which is usually not removed during such analysis. In this paper we examine the heavy metal levels in southern leopard frog (R. utricularia) tadpoles from several wetlands at the Savannah River Site and test the null hypotheses that (1) there are no differences in metal levels in different body compartments of the tadpoles, including the digestive tract; (2) there are no differences in heavy metal levels among different wetlands; and (3) there are no differences in the ratio of metals in the tail/body and in the digestive tract/body as a function of metal or developmental stage as indicated by body weight. Variations in heavy metal levels were explained by wetland and body compartment for all metals and by tadpole weight for selenium and manganese. In all cases, levels of metals were higher in the digestive tract than in the body or tail of tadpoles. Metal levels were highest in a wetland that had been remediated and lowest in a wetland that was never a pasture or remediated (i.e., was truly undisturbed). Although tadpoles are sometimes eaten by fish and other aquatic predators, leopard frogs usually avoid laying their eggs in ponds with such predators. However, avian predators will eat them. These data suggest that tadpoles can be used as bioindicators of differences in metal levels among wetlands and as indicators of potential exposure for higher-trophic-level organisms, but that to assess effects on the tadpoles themselves, digestive tracts should be removed before analysis. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  18. Development of contractile and energetic capacity in anuran hindlimb muscle during metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Cheol; Kim, Han Suk; Yamashita, Masamichi; Choi, Inho

    2003-01-01

    Anuran larvae undergo water-to-land transition during late metamorphosis. We investigated the development of the iliofibularis muscle in bullfrog tadpoles (Rana catesbeiana) between Gosner's stage 37 and stage 46 (the last stage). The tadpoles began staying in shallow water at least as early as stage 37, kicking from stage 39, active hindlimb swimming from stage 41, and emerging onto shore from stage 42. For control tadpoles kept in water throughout metamorphosis, muscle mass and length increased two- to threefold between stages 37 and 46, with rapid increases at stage 40. Large, steady increases were found in femur mass, tetanic tension, contraction rate, and power between stages 37 and 46. Concentrations of ATP and creatine phosphate and rates of the phosphagen depletion and the activity of creatine kinase increased significantly, mainly after stage 43. Shortening velocity, tetanic rise time, and half-relaxation time varied little. Energy charge (the amount of metabolically available energy stored in the adenine nucleotide pool) remained unchanged until stage 43 but decreased at stage 46. Compared with the control, experimental tadpoles that were allowed access to both water and land exhibited 1.2- to 1.8-fold greater increases in femur mass, tetanic tension, power, phosphagen depletion rates, and creatine kinase activities at late metamorphic stages but no significant differences for other parameters measured. In sum, most hindlimb development proceeds on the basis of the increasingly active use of limbs for locomotion in water. The further increases in tension, mechanical power, and "chemical power" on emergence would be advantageous for terrestrial antigravity performance.

  19. The bactericidal agent triclosan modulates thyroid hormone-associated gene expression and disrupts postembryonic anuran development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veldhoen, Nik; Skirrow, Rachel C.; Osachoff, Heather; Wigmore, Heidi; Clapson, David J.; Gunderson, Mark P.; Van Aggelen, Graham; Helbing, Caren C.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated whether exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of the bactericidal agent, triclosan, induces changes in the thyroid hormone-mediated process of metamorphosis of the North American bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana and alters the expression profile of thyroid hormone receptor (TR) α and β, basic transcription element binding protein (BTEB) and proliferating nuclear cell antigen (PCNA) gene transcripts. Premetamorphic tadpoles were immersed in environmentally relevant concentrations of triclosan and injected with 1 x 10 -11 mol/g body weight 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T 3 ) or vehicle control. Morphometric measurements and steady-state mRNA levels obtained by quantitative polymerase chain reaction were determined. mRNA abundance was also examined in Xenopus laevis XTC-2 cells treated with triclosan and/or 10 nM T 3 . Tadpoles pretreated with triclosan concentrations as low as 0.15 ± 0.03 μg/L for 4 days showed increased hindlimb development and a decrease in total body weight following T 3 administration. Triclosan exposure also resulted in decreased T 3 -mediated TRβ mRNA expression in the tadpole tail fin and increased levels of PCNA transcript in the brain within 48 h of T 3 treatment whereas TRα and BTEB were unaffected. Triclosan alone altered thyroid hormone receptor α transcript levels in the brain of premetamorphic tadpoles and induced a transient weight loss. In XTC-2 cells, exposure to T 3 plus nominal concentrations of triclosan as low as 0.03 μg/L for 24 h resulted in altered thyroid hormone receptor mRNA expression. Exposure to low levels of triclosan disrupts thyroid hormone-associated gene expression and can alter the rate of thyroid hormone-mediated postembryonic anuran development

  20. The bactericidal agent triclosan modulates thyroid hormone-associated gene expression and disrupts postembryonic anuran development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veldhoen, Nik [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, P.O. Box 3055, Stn. CSC, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 3P6 (Canada); Skirrow, Rachel C. [Pacific Environmental Science Centre, 2645 Dollarton Highway, North Vancouver, British Columbia V7H 1V2 (Canada); Osachoff, Heather [Pacific Environmental Science Centre, 2645 Dollarton Highway, North Vancouver, British Columbia V7H 1V2 (Canada); Wigmore, Heidi [Pacific Environmental Science Centre, 2645 Dollarton Highway, North Vancouver, British Columbia V7H 1V2 (Canada); Clapson, David J. [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, P.O. Box 3055, Stn. CSC, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 3P6 (Canada); Gunderson, Mark P. [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, P.O. Box 3055, Stn. CSC, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 3P6 (Canada); Van Aggelen, Graham [Pacific Environmental Science Centre, 2645 Dollarton Highway, North Vancouver, British Columbia V7H 1V2 (Canada); Helbing, Caren C. [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, P.O. Box 3055, Stn. CSC, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 3P6 (Canada)]. E-mail: chelbing@uvic.ca

    2006-12-01

    We investigated whether exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of the bactericidal agent, triclosan, induces changes in the thyroid hormone-mediated process of metamorphosis of the North American bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana and alters the expression profile of thyroid hormone receptor (TR) {alpha} and {beta}, basic transcription element binding protein (BTEB) and proliferating nuclear cell antigen (PCNA) gene transcripts. Premetamorphic tadpoles were immersed in environmentally relevant concentrations of triclosan and injected with 1 x 10{sup -11} mol/g body weight 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}) or vehicle control. Morphometric measurements and steady-state mRNA levels obtained by quantitative polymerase chain reaction were determined. mRNA abundance was also examined in Xenopus laevis XTC-2 cells treated with triclosan and/or 10 nM T{sub 3}. Tadpoles pretreated with triclosan concentrations as low as 0.15 {+-} 0.03 {mu}g/L for 4 days showed increased hindlimb development and a decrease in total body weight following T{sub 3} administration. Triclosan exposure also resulted in decreased T{sub 3}-mediated TR{beta} mRNA expression in the tadpole tail fin and increased levels of PCNA transcript in the brain within 48 h of T{sub 3} treatment whereas TR{alpha} and BTEB were unaffected. Triclosan alone altered thyroid hormone receptor {alpha} transcript levels in the brain of premetamorphic tadpoles and induced a transient weight loss. In XTC-2 cells, exposure to T{sub 3} plus nominal concentrations of triclosan as low as 0.03 {mu}g/L for 24 h resulted in altered thyroid hormone receptor mRNA expression. Exposure to low levels of triclosan disrupts thyroid hormone-associated gene expression and can alter the rate of thyroid hormone-mediated postembryonic anuran development.

  1. Supplementary studies of Pleurogenoides medians (Digenea: Lecithodendriidae infecting the Marsh frog Rana Ridibunda (Amphibia: Ranidae in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rewaida Abdel-Gaber

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Pleurogenoides medians, a digenean lecithodendriid trematode, parasitize numerous aquatic vertebrate species including frogs, freshwater fish, urodeles and anurans. In the present study, a total of 190 out of 300 (63.33% marsh frogs Rana Ridibunda were found to be infected with this digenean parasite. The highest percentage of infection was recorded in winter reaching 93.33%, and the lowest value was recorded to be 6.66% during summer. Prevalence and intensity of infection were positively correlated with the host size. Host sex showed no effect in this respect. Morphological studies based on light and scanning electron microscopy revealed that the adult worms characterized by small body size measured 1.980–2.430 (2.205 ± 0.1 mm long and 0.870–1.20 (9.87 ± 0.01 mm wide with spines of similar size distributed all over the body surface; oral sucker is sub-terminal and measured 0.180–0.230 (0.203 ± 0.01 mm long and 0.120–0.180 (0.150 ± 0.01 mm wide; ventral sucker is smaller than the oral sucker, post-ovarian located at 1/3 level from the anterior end and measured 0.080–0.102 (0.090 ± 0.001 mm long and 0.100–0140 (0.120 ± 0.001 mm wide; two symmetrical testes were located near the cecal termination on both sides of the ventral sucker, measured 0.153–0.193 (0.176 ± 0.01 mm long and 0.160–0.192 (0.175 ± 0.01 mm wide; pre-acetabular ovary was present and measured 0.130–0.150 (0.140 ± 0.01 mm long and 0.100–0.130 (0.120 ± 0.01 mm wide; vitellaria are extra-caecal and extended from the level of the pharynx to a level slightly beyond the ovary. By comparing the recovered parasite with different species of the same genus from different hosts having different localities, it was found that the present species morphometrically more or less different from the comparable species and the only similar species was P. medians described previously from the common toad Bufo bufo by having all similar

  2. The effects of aquatic oxygen concentration, body size and respiratory behaviour on the stamina of obligate aquatic (Bufo americanus) and facultative air-breathing (Xenopus laevis and Rana berlandieri) anuran larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassersug, R J; Feder, M E

    1983-07-01

    Larvae of the anurans Rana berlandieri and Xenopus laevis have lungs and can breathe air as well as irrigate buccal and pharyngeal surfaces for aquatic respiration. Larvae of Bufo americanus lack lungs until just before metamorphosis and are obligately aquatic. We examined the relationship between the locomotor stamina (time to fatigue), aquatic oxygen concentration, body size, and respiratory behaviour of swimming larvae of these species, with the following results: Stamina is size-dependent in all three species. Aquatic hypoxia reduces stamina in larvae of all three species, but most conspicuously in Bufo. Breathing air increases stamina in Rana larvae, especially in large animals and under aquatic hypoxia. In contrast to Rana larvae, Xenopus larvae swimming in normoxic water undergo a reduction in stamina when allowed to breathe air. In hypoxic water, aerial respiration moderates the reduction in stamina seen in Xenopus larvae. Branchial irrigation is associated with increased stamina in Xenopus, and is increased under hypoxia and at high swimming velocities. Respiratory demand, buoyancy and the drag associated with branchial irrigation all affect respiratory behaviour in Xenopus larvae. The great amount of interspecific variation in the relationship between respiratory behaviour and stamina reveals the importance of measuring performance directly when attempting to interpret the functional significance of respiratory structures and behaviour.

  3. Rações comerciais e o rendimento de carcaça e subprodutos de rã-touro Commercial food and the carcass yield and by-products of bullfrog

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    Alex Poeta Casali

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito do sexo e do uso de quatro rações comerciais extrusadas (R1, R2, R3 e R4 e uma ração peletizada (R5 sobre o rendimento de carcaça e aproveitamento de subprodutos da ranicultura, após 56 dias de experimentação. As rações comerciais eram recomendadas para diferentes espécies e fases de desenvolvimento animal, a saber: R1 = para rãs (na fase inicial, imagos; R2 = para peixes onívoros (em fase inicial; R3 = para trutas (peixe carnívoro na fase de crescimento; e R4 = para trutas (na fase inicial. Foram analisados os teores (% de matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, extrato etéreo (EE, fibra bruta (FB e matéria mineral (MM das rações. Foram utilizadas 80 rãs-touro com peso médio inicial de 51,57g distribuídas em um delineamento em blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial (cinco rações X dois sexos com oito repetições de uma rã por unidade experimental. Não houve significância na interação entre os fatores para todas as variáveis analisadas. Os menores valores de rendimento de carcaça foram observados nos animais que receberam a ração R3, sendo as demais iguais. No aproveitamento de subprodutos, destacou-se a ração R1, que proporcionou maior peso de fígado e descartes, e a ração R4, com maior peso de fígado e corpo gorduroso. O sexo dos animais apenas influenciou no aproveitamento de descartes, sendo que os machos proporcionaram maiores médias.The objective was to evaluate the effect of the sex and the use of four commercial extruded foods (R1, R2, R3, and R4 and a pelleted food (R5 on the carcass yield and the by-product utilization of the bullfrog culture, after 56 days of experimentation. The commercial foods were recommended to different species or phases of growth: R1 = for frogs in the initial phase; R2 = for omnivorous fish in the initial phase; R3 = for trout (carnivorous fish in phase of growth; and R4 = for trout in initial phase. The chemical composition (DM, CP, EE, CF

  4. Effects of maturation and acidosis on the chaos-like complexity of the neural respiratory output in the isolated brainstem of the tadpole, Rana esculenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straus, Christian; Samara, Ziyad; Fiamma, Marie-Noëlle; Bautin, Nathalie; Ranohavimparany, Anja; Le Coz, Patrick; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Darré, Pierre; Zelter, Marc; Poon, Chi-Sang; Similowski, Thomas

    2011-05-01

    Human ventilation at rest exhibits mathematical chaos-like complexity that can be described as long-term unpredictability mediated (in whole or in part) by some low-dimensional nonlinear deterministic process. Although various physiological and pathological situations can affect respiratory complexity, the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely elucidated. If such chaos-like complexity is an intrinsic property of central respiratory generators, it should appear or increase when these structures mature or are stimulated. To test this hypothesis, we employed the isolated tadpole brainstem model [Rana (Pelophylax) esculenta] and recorded the neural respiratory output (buccal and lung rhythms) of pre- (n = 8) and postmetamorphic tadpoles (n = 8), at physiologic (7.8) and acidic pH (7.4). We analyzed the root mean square of the cranial nerve V or VII neurograms. Development and acidosis had no effect on buccal period. Lung frequency increased with development (P acidosis, but in postmetamorphic tadpoles only (P respiratory central rhythm generator accounts for ventilatory chaos-like complexity, especially in the postmetamorphic stage and at low pH. According to the ventilatory generators homology theory, this may also be the case in mammals.

  5. The prevalence and risk factors of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among workers injured in Rana Plaza building collapse in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Taylor; Villanueva, Gabriela; Quadir, Mohammad M; Sagiraju, Hari K R; Alamgir, Hasanat

    2015-07-01

    Prevalence and risk factors of PTSD among injured garment workers who survived a major factory collapse. Survivors receiving treatment or rehabilitation care at one year post event were surveyed, which included Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist Specific version. The respondents consisted of 181 people with a mean age of 27.8 years and a majority had less than high school education (91.2%). Multivariable logistic regression found that the odds of having PTSD was higher among married (OR: 3.2 [95% CI: 1.3-8.0]), those who used to work more than 70 hr/week (OR: 2.4 [1.1-5.3]), workers who used to hold higher job positions (OR: 2.6 [1.2-5.6]) or who had a concussion injury (OR: 3.7 [1.4-9.8]). Among the respondents, 83.4% remained unemployed, and only 57.3% (63 people) reported receiving a quarter or less of what they were promised as compensation. Probable PTSD was prevalent among surviving workers of the Rana Plaza building collapse in Bangladesh. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Sexual dimorphism of extensor carpi radialis muscle size, isometric force, relaxation rate and stamina during the breeding season of the frog Rana temporaria Linnaeus 1758.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas, Carlos A; James, Rob S

    2007-02-01

    Mating success of individual male frogs within explosive breeding species can depend on their ability to compete for a mate and to hold onto that mate during amplexus. Such importance of amplexus has resulted in the evolution of sexual dimorphism in the morphology and contractile characteristics of the anuran forelimb muscles used during amplexus. The aims of our study were to use an explosive breeding frog (Rana temporaria) during the breeding season to compare extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscle length, mass, isometric activation times, relaxation times, absolute force, relative force (stress) and fatigue between male and female frogs. We found that ECR muscle mass and length were greater (tenfold and 1.4-fold, respectively), absolute tetanic muscle force and relative tetanic force (stress) were greater (16-fold and 2.2-fold, respectively) and relaxation times were slower in males than in females. Male ECR muscles incompletely relaxed during fatigue tests and showed less fatigue than female muscles. These sex differences are likely to be beneficial to the male frogs in allowing them to produce relatively high absolute muscle forces for prolonged periods of time to hold onto their mate during amplexus.

  7. NUEVA ESPECIE DE RANA BROMELÍCOLA DEL GÉNERO PRISTIMANTIS (AMPHIBIA: CRAUGASTORIDAE, MESETA DE LA CORDILLERA DEL CÓNDOR, ECUADOR

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    JORGE BRITO M.

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Describimos una especie pequeña de rana bromelícola del género Pristimantis (longitud rostro-cloaca en hembras 20.3-23.3 mm; en machos 16.1-17.4 mm, proveniente de una remota meseta de arenisca de la Cordillera del Cóndor, en el sureste de Ecuador, con un rango altitudinal de 2.045-2.860 m. Una filogenia en base a secuencias de ADN (genes mitocondriales y nucleares muestra que la nueva especie forma parte del grupo P. orestes y está más cercanamente relacionada con una especie de Pristimantis aún no descrita de la vertiente sur oriental ecuatoriana. Difiere de sus congéneres de Ecuador, por su coloración dorsal y ventral predominantemente negra; superficie palmar amplia y robusta con dedos cortos y gruesos; presencia de un surco profundo y amplio extendido desde la base anterior del I dedo manual hasta la base posterior del tubérculo palmar; tubérculos subarticulares divididos, tubérculos supernumerarios agrandados y con granulaciones pequeñas. Todos los individuos registrados estuvieron en bromelias terrestres. Las llamadas son cortas, de frecuencia modulada, conformada por una nota con duración de 5-15 ms. Los insectos representaron el 80% de la dieta de la especie nueva.

  8. Population and life-stage-specific effects of two herbicide formulations on the aquatic development of European common frogs (Rana temporaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Norman; Veith, Michael; Lötters, Stefan; Viertel, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Environmental contamination is suggested to contribute to amphibian population declines. However, the effects of a contaminant on a particular amphibian species can differ among populations. The authors investigated the toxic effects of 2 herbicide formulations on different populations and on representative developmental stages of the European common frog (Rana temporaria). Larvae from forest populations were more sensitive to a commonly used glyphosate-based herbicide compared with individuals from agrarian land. Median lethal concentrations correlated with measured glyphosate levels in the breeding ponds, which may be a sign of evolved tolerances. The reverse result was observed for a less commonly used cycloxydim-based herbicide. Effects of the glyphosate-based herbicide were stronger for earlier larval stages compared with later larval stages. Hence, applications in early spring (when early larvae are present in breeding ponds) pose greater risk concerning acute toxic effects on R. temporaria. With regard to late larval stages, short exposure (96 h) of prometamorphic larvae prolonged time to metamorphosis, but only at the highest test concentration that did not significantly induce mortality. This could be due to impairment of the thyroid axis. Notably, nearly all test concentrations of the 2 herbicides provoked growth retardation. Further research on how evolved or induced tolerances are acquired, actual contamination levels of amphibian habitats, and potential endocrine effects of glyphosate-based herbicides is necessary. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:190-200. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  9. Rangewide phylogeography and landscape genetics of the Western U.S. endemic frog Rana boylii (Ranidae): Implications for the conservation of frogs and rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, A.J.; Spinks, P.Q.; Fellers, G.M.; Shaffer, H.B.

    2011-01-01

    Genetic data are increasingly being used in conservation planning for declining species. We sampled both the ecological and distributional limits of the foothill yellow-legged frog, Rana boylii to characterize mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in this declining, riverine amphibian. We evaluated 1525 base pairs (bp) of cytochrome b and ND2 fragments for 77 individuals from 34 localities using phylogenetic and population genetic analyses. We constructed gene trees using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference, and quantified genetic variance (using AMOVA and partial Mantel tests) within and among hydrologic regions and river basins. Several moderately supported, geographically-cohesive mtDNA clades were recovered for R. boylii. While genetic variation was low among populations in the largest, most inclusive clade, samples from localities at the edges of the geographic range demonstrated substantial genetic divergence from each other and from more central populations. Hydrologic regions and river basins, which represent likely dispersal corridors for R. boylii, accounted for significant levels of genetic variation. These results suggest that both rivers and larger hydrologic and geographic regions should be used in conservation planning for R. boylii. ?? 2010 US Government.

  10. How fast do amphibians disperse? Introductions, distribution and dispersal of the common frog Rana temporaria and the common toad Bufo bufo on a coastal island in Central Norway

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    Dag Dolmen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The common frog (Rana temporaria and the common toad (Bufo bufo were introduced successfully to the coastal island of Frøya in Central Norway several times during 1960–2012. There is still a very high degree of conformity between sites where they were introduced and the present distribution of the two species. However, in western Frøya, a release of frogs about 1996 was followed by a quick expansion of their distribution area; in 2012 and 2013, breeding was registered close to 7 km westwards and eastwards, respectively, i.e. a population dispersal speed of approximately 0.4 km/yr. On eastern Frøya and some small islands in the archipelago, area expansions at another four frog localities have been prevented by ecological barriers like unfavourable limnetic or terrestrial habitats or salty water. Two local common toad populations on eastern Frøya do not show any expansion either. However, an apparently isolated record of the species on western Frøya in 2011 can possibly be explained by the expansion westwards of a population in northern central Frøya, where toads were introduced around 1995. This stretch is about 9.9 km, i.e. an average population dispersal speed of 0.6 km/yr.

  11. Effects of maturation and acidosis on the chaos-like complexity of the neural respiratory output in the isolated brainstem of the tadpole, Rana esculenta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, Ziyad; Fiamma, Marie-Noëlle; Bautin, Nathalie; Ranohavimparany, Anja; Le Coz, Patrick; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Darré, Pierre; Zelter, Marc; Poon, Chi-Sang; Similowski, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Human ventilation at rest exhibits mathematical chaos-like complexity that can be described as long-term unpredictability mediated (in whole or in part) by some low-dimensional nonlinear deterministic process. Although various physiological and pathological situations can affect respiratory complexity, the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely elucidated. If such chaos-like complexity is an intrinsic property of central respiratory generators, it should appear or increase when these structures mature or are stimulated. To test this hypothesis, we employed the isolated tadpole brainstem model [Rana (Pelophylax) esculenta] and recorded the neural respiratory output (buccal and lung rhythms) of pre- (n = 8) and postmetamorphic tadpoles (n = 8), at physiologic (7.8) and acidic pH (7.4). We analyzed the root mean square of the cranial nerve V or VII neurograms. Development and acidosis had no effect on buccal period. Lung frequency increased with development (P Chaos-like complexity, assessed through the noise limit, increased from pH 7.8 to pH 7.4 (P chaos-like complexity, especially in the postmetamorphic stage and at low pH. According to the ventilatory generators homology theory, this may also be the case in mammals. PMID:21325645

  12. The effect of the aluminum chloride – quercetin complex on Ca(2+,Mg(2+-ATPase activity and contraction dynamic properties of muscle tibialis anterior from Rana temporaria

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    D. M. Nozdrenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Combined effect of aluminum chloride and quercetin solutions on the enzymatic activity and contraction dynamics of muscle fiber bundles of the Rana temporaria m. tibialis anterior was investigated. It was shown that these complexes inhibit muscle contraction. Linear reduction of Ca2+,Mg2+-ATPase activity induced by all of the used concentrations of AlCl3 – quercetin was demonstrated. It was found that complex of quercetin with AlCl3 has a greater inhibitory effect on muscle contraction dynamic and causes greater reduction during all periods of stimulation in comparison to the separate effect of the investigated compounds. All the studied concentrations of AlCl3 and quercetin solutions (AlCl3: 10-4-10-2 M; quercetin: 10-6-10-5 M caused concentration depended contraction strengths and lengths reduction. The decrease in strength and length of muscle contractions was of constant and mostly linear nature within observed timeframe as well as within each periods of contraction. The changes were least pronounced within pretetanic period, but were profound within terminal period of muscle activity. The changes in dynamic contraction properties and Ca2+,Mg2+-ATPase activity of sarcoplasmic reticulum under effect of the investigated compounds was minimal in the beginning of the muscle’s response to stimulus, prior to muscle strength reaching stable contraction level.

  13. Assessment of heavy metals and metalloids in tissues of two frog species: Rana tigrina and Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis from industrial city Sialkot, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Irfan Zia; Kashif, Zeshan; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar; Su, Xiaomei; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Ullah, Kalim; Hu, Jinxing; Dawood, Muhammad

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, we investigated the concentrations of Ni, Fe, Pb, Cu, Co, Zn, Cd, Mn, and Cr in selected body tissues (liver, stomach, kidney, heart, lungs, and skeletal muscles) of two frog species: Rana tigrina and Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis captured from industrial wastewater of Sialkot city known worldwide for its tanning industry. The both frog species had darker appearance, distinctively different wet body weight, and snout-vent length. The results revealed that the heavy metal concentrations were high in the samples collected from industrial sites as compared to non-industrial sites. The different tissues of R. tigrina and E. cyanophlyctis exhibited little significant differences from two sites. The concentrations of heavy metals were more in tissues of R. tigrina as compared to E. cyanophlyctis. Mean concentration of Cd, Fe, Ni, Mn, Cu, and Cr was comparatively greater in R. tigrina, whereas Pb and Co were higher in E. cyanophlyctis. The concentration of Cu and Cd in the liver and kidney were relatively more in both species as compared to other organs. Further, the results indicated that frogs collected from industrial sites showed decreased body length and weight, and greater metal accumulation. The results will help the authorities for the conservation of these frog species which are under the influence of heavy metal contamination.

  14. Exposure to coal combustion residues during metamorphosis elevates corticosterone content and adversely affects oral morphology, growth, and development in Rana sphenocephala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, J.D.; Peterson, V.A.; Mendonca, M.T. [Auburn University, Auburn, AL (USA). Dept. of Biological Science

    2009-01-15

    Coal combustion residues (CCRs) are documented to negatively impact oral morphology, growth, and development in larval amphibians. It is currently unclear what physiological mechanisms may mediate these effects. Corticosterone, a glucocorticoid hormone, is a likely mediator because when administered exogenously it, like CCRs, also negatively influences oral morphology, growth, and development in larval amphibians. In an attempt to identify if corticosterone mediates these effects, we raised larval Southern Leopard Frogs, Rana sphenocephala, on either sand or CCR substrate and documented effects of sediment type on whole body corticosterone, oral morphology, and time to and mass at key metamorphic stages. Coal combustion residue treated tadpoles contained significantly more corticosterone than controls throughout metamorphosis. However, significantly more oral abnormalities occurred early in metamorphosis when differences in corticosterone levels between treatments were minimal. Overall, CCR-treated tadpoles took significantly more time to transition between key stages and gained less mass between stages than controls, but these differences between treatments decreased during later stages when corticosterone differences between treatments were greatest. Our results suggest endogenous increase in corticosterone content and its influence on oral morphology, growth and development is more complex than previously thought.

  15. Big mountains but small barriers: population genetic structure of the Chinese wood frog (Rana chensinensis) in the Tsinling and Daba Mountain region of northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Aibin; Li, Cheng; Fu, Jinzhong

    2009-04-09

    Amphibians in general are poor dispersers and highly philopatric, and landscape features often have important impacts on their population genetic structure and dispersal patterns. Numerous studies have suggested that genetic differentiation among amphibian populations are particularly pronounced for populations separated by mountain ridges. The Tsinling Mountain range of northern China is a major mountain chain that forms the boundary between the Oriental and Palearctic zoogeographic realms. We studied the population structure of the Chinese wood frog (Rana chensinensis) to test whether the Tsinling Mountains and the nearby Daba Mountains impose major barriers to gene flow. Using 13 polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci, 523 individuals from 12 breeding sites with geographical distances ranging from 2.6 to 422.8 kilometers were examined. Substantial genetic diversity was detected at all sites with an average of 25.5 alleles per locus and an expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.504 to 0.855, and two peripheral populations revealed significantly lower genetic diversity than the central populations. In addition, the genetic differentiation among the central populations was statistically significant, with pairwise FST values ranging from 0.0175 to 0.1625 with an average of 0.0878. Furthermore, hierarchical AMOVA analysis attributed most genetic variation to the within-population component, and the between-population variation can largely be explained by isolation-by-distance. None of the putative barriers detected from genetic data coincided with the location of the Tsinling Mountains. The Tsinling and Daba Mountains revealed no significant impact on the population genetic structure of R. chensinensis. High population connectivity and extensive juvenile dispersal may account for the significant, but moderate differentiation between populations. Chinese wood frogs are able to use streams as breeding sites at high elevations, which may significantly contribute to the

  16. Big mountains but small barriers: Population genetic structure of the Chinese wood frog (Rana chensinensis in the Tsinling and Daba Mountain region of northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Cheng

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amphibians in general are poor dispersers and highly philopatric, and landscape features often have important impacts on their population genetic structure and dispersal patterns. Numerous studies have suggested that genetic differentiation among amphibian populations are particularly pronounced for populations separated by mountain ridges. The Tsinling Mountain range of northern China is a major mountain chain that forms the boundary between the Oriental and Palearctic zoogeographic realms. We studied the population structure of the Chinese wood frog (Rana chensinensis to test whether the Tsinling Mountains and the nearby Daba Mountains impose major barriers to gene flow. Results Using 13 polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci, 523 individuals from 12 breeding sites with geographical distances ranging from 2.6 to 422.8 kilometers were examined. Substantial genetic diversity was detected at all sites with an average of 25.5 alleles per locus and an expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.504 to 0.855, and two peripheral populations revealed significantly lower genetic diversity than the central populations. In addition, the genetic differentiation among the central populations was statistically significant, with pairwise FST values ranging from 0.0175 to 0.1625 with an average of 0.0878. Furthermore, hierarchical AMOVA analysis attributed most genetic variation to the within-population component, and the between-population variation can largely be explained by isolation-by-distance. None of the putative barriers detected from genetic data coincided with the location of the Tsinling Mountains. Conclusion The Tsinling and Daba Mountains revealed no significant impact on the population genetic structure of R. chensinensis. High population connectivity and extensive juvenile dispersal may account for the significant, but moderate differentiation between populations. Chinese wood frogs are able to use streams as breeding sites at high

  17. Don't get the blues: conspicuous nuptial colouration of male moor frogs (Rana arvalis) supports visual mate recognition during scramble competition in large breeding aggregations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztatecsny, Marc; Preininger, Doris; Freudmann, Anita; Loretto, Matthias-Claudio; Maier, Franziska; Hödl, Walter

    2012-12-01

    Conspicuous male colouration is expected to have evolved primarily through selection by female choice. In what way conspicuous colours could be advantageous to males scrambling for mates remains largely unknown. The moor frog (Rana arvalis) belongs to the so-called explosive breeders in which spawning period is short; intrasexual competition is strong, and males actively search and scramble for females. During breeding, male body colouration changes from a dull brown (similar to females) to a conspicuous blue, and we wanted to test if male blueness influences mating success or facilitates male mate recognition. To do so, we first measured the colour of mated and non-mated males using a spectrophotometer. In an experiment, we then analysed interactions of actual male moor frogs in natural spawning aggregations with a brown (resembling a female or a non-breeding male) and a blue model frog. Mated and non-mated males did not differ in colouration, suggesting that female choice based on colour traits was unlikely. In our behavioural experiment, male moor frogs spent significantly more time in contact and in amplexus with the brown model than with the blue model. Our results suggest that the nuptial colouration in moor frogs can act as a new type of visual signal in anurans evolved to promote instantaneous mate recognition allowing males to quickly move between rivals while scrambling for females. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00265-012-1412-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  18. Low levels of the herbicide atrazine alter sex ratios and reduce metamorphic success in Rana pipiens tadpoles raised in outdoor mesocosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Valérie S; Carew, Amanda C; Pauli, Bruce D; Wade, Michael G; Cooke, Gerard M; Trudeau, Vance L

    2010-04-01

    There are conflicting reports regarding the effects of atrazine (ATZ) on amphibian development. Therefore, further studies are needed to examine the potential mechanisms of action of ATZ in amphibians. Our aim in this study was to determine whether low concentrations of ATZ affect gonadal development and metamorphosis in the Northern leopard frog, Rana pipiens. Tadpoles were exposed in outdoor mesocosms to nominal concentrations of 0.1 and 1.8 microg/L of formulated ATZ from Gosner stage 27 (G27) to metamorphic climax (G42). Exposure to 17alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2; 1.5 microg/L) provided a positive control for induction of testicular oocytes in males. Endocrine-related gene expression and gonadal histopathology were examined at G42 and in a subset of premetamorphic G34 tadpoles that failed to metamorphose. Gonadal gross morphology revealed that the 1.8-microg/L ATZ treatment produced 20% more females compared with the control. Histologic analysis revealed that 22% of EE2-treated males had testicular oocytes, whereas none were observed in any animals from the control or either ATZ groups. ATZ increased brain estrogen receptor alpha mRNA to 2.5 times that of the control at premetamorphosis and altered liver levels of 5beta-reductase activity at metamorphosis. In contrast, brain aromatase mRNA level and activity did not change. ATZ treatments significantly reduced metamorphic success (number of animals reaching metamorphosis) without affecting body weight, snout-vent length, or age at metamorphosis. Gene expression analysis indicated that ATZ decreased the expression of deiodinase type 3 in the tail at premetamorphosis. Our study indicates that exposure to low concentrations of ATZ in experimental mesocosms alters gonadal differentiation and metamorphosis in developing R. pipiens.

  19. Estrogenic exposure affects metamorphosis and alters sex ratios in the northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens): identifying critically vulnerable periods of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Natacha S; Duarte, Paula; Wade, Michael G; Lean, David R S; Trudeau, Vance L

    2008-05-01

    During the transformation from larval tadpole to juvenile frog, there are critical periods of metamorphic development and sex differentiation that may be particularly sensitive to endocrine disruption. The aim of the present study was to identify sensitive developmental periods for estrogenic endocrine disruption in the northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens) using short, targeted exposures to the synthetic estrogen, ethinylestradiol (EE2). Post-hatch tadpoles (Gosner stage 27) were exposed over five distinct periods of metamorphosis: early (stage 27-30), mid (stage 30-36), early and mid (stage 27-36), late (stage 36-42), and the entire metamorphic period (chronic; stage 27-42). For each period, animals were sampled immediately following the EE2 exposure and at metamorphic climax (stage 42). The effects of EE2 on metamorphic development and sex differentiation were assessed through measures of length, weight, developmental stage, days to metamorphosis, sex ratios and incidence of gonadal intersex. Our results show that tadpoles exposed to EE2 during mid-metamorphosis were developmentally delayed immediately following exposure and took 2 weeks longer to reach metamorphic climax. In the unexposed groups, there was low proportion (0.15) of intersex tadpoles at stage 30 and gonads appeared to be morphologically distinct (male and female) in all individuals by stage 36. Tadpoles exposed early in development displayed a strong female-biased sex ratio compared to the controls. Moreover, these effects were also seen at metamorphic climax, approximately 2-3 months after the exposure period, demonstrating that transient early life-stage exposure to estrogen can induce effects on the reproductive organs that persist into the beginning of adult life-stages.

  20. Una especie nueva de rana arbórea del género Hyloscirtus (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae de la Cordillera del Cóndor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Almendáriz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Las ranas ecuatorianas del género Hyloscirtus incluyen 16 especies descritas, de las cuales 11 pertenecen al grupo H. larinopygion. Su distribución se limita a los flancos de la Cordillera de los Andes, tanto al oriente como al occidente. Una evaluación de la herpetofauna en el sector meridional de la Cordillera del Cóndor (bosques montanos sobre mesetas de arenisca en la provincia de Zamora Chinchipe, Ecuador, condujo al descubrimiento de una especie nueva del grupo que describimos aquí como Hyloscirtus condor sp. nov.; se analizan los renacuajos, las llamadas de anuncio y se estima las relaciones filogenéticas de la especie nueva y de las especies relacionadas en base a nuevas secuencias de los genes mitocondriales 12S, tRNA Val y 16S, con un total de hasta 2508 bp. Los resultados muestran que el grupo H. larinopygion está conformado por dos clados, uno distribuido en los Andes norte y centro de Ecuador y el otro al sur. La nueva especie pertenece al clado sur y es hermana de H. tapichalaca y de una especie aparentemente no descrita de la Provincia Morona Santiago. La especie nueva difiere de sus congéneres por su patrón de coloración dorsal, que consiste de puntos amarillo obscuro en un fondo canela. Es la especie más grande del grupo H. larinopygion y comparte con H. tapichalaca la presencia de una espina prepólica grande y curvada y brazos hipertrofiados. La especie nueva habita un área remota y bien conservada de la Cordillera del Cóndor. El descubrimiento de ésta y otras especies nuevas del mismo lugar denota la importancia biológica del área y motivan al desarrollo de planes de conservación.

  1. Composition of Micro-eukaryotes on the Skin of the Cascades Frog (Rana cascadae and Patterns of Correlation between Skin Microbes and Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan G. Kueneman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Global amphibian decline linked to fungal pathogens has galvanized research on applied amphibian conservation. Skin-associated bacterial communities of amphibians have been shown to mediate fungal skin infections and the development of probiotic treatments with antifungal bacteria has become an emergent area of research. While exploring the role of protective bacteria has been a primary focus for amphibian conservation, we aim to expand and study the other microbes present in amphibian skin communities including fungi and other micro-eukaryotes. Here, we characterize skin-associated bacteria and micro-eukaryotic diversity found across life stages of Cascades frog (Rana cascadae and their associated aquatic environments using culture independent 16S and 18S rRNA marker-gene sequencing. Individuals of various life stages of Cascades frogs were sampled from a population located in the Trinity Alps in Northern California during an epidemic of the chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. We filtered the bacterial sequences against a published database of bacteria known to inhibit B. dendrobatidis in co-culture to estimate the proportion of the skin bacterial community that is likely to provide defense against B. dendrobatidis. Tadpoles had a significantly higher proportion of B. dendrobatidis-inhibitory bacterial sequence matches relative to subadult and adult Cascades frogs. We applied a network analysis to examine patterns of correlation between bacterial taxa and B. dendrobatidis, as well as micro-eukaryotic taxa and B. dendrobatidis. Combined with the published database of bacteria known to inhibit B. dendrobatidis, we used the network analysis to identify bacteria that negatively correlated with B. dendrobatidis and thus could be good probiotic candidates in the Cascades frog system.

  2. Food composition of Uludağ frog, Rana macrocnemis Boulenger, 1885 in Uludağ (Bursa, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerim CICEK

    2011-06-01

    -ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} --> Feeding habit and food preferences of Uludağ frog, Rana macrocnemis were studied in 2006 and 2007 in Uludağ (Bursa, Turkey. Stomach contents of 165 (87 ♂♂, 58 ♀♀, 20 juveniles individuals were analyzed and a total of 2,129 preys were determined. It was found that the species fed mainly on a variety of invertebrates and especially on insects (96.5%. The most frequently consumed preys were Coleoptera (62.8%, Diptera (14.4%, and Hymenoptera (9.8%. It was observed that there was no significant sex- and age-dependent difference in the feeding regime. The species was found to feed less in the breeding period and more in the post-breeding period. It was also striking that there was an increase in the consumption of Coleoptera depending on elevation. In conclusion, the species is an opportunistic and widely-foraging predator that feeds on terrestrial and aquatic insects and its food composition varies by the availability of prey items around it.

  3. Primer registro de una población asilvestrada de rana toro (Lithobates catesbeianus en la Provincia de Córdoba, Argentina: Notas sobre la biología de la especie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akmentins, Mauricio S.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En Argentina se ha constatado la presencia de poblaciones asilvestradas de Lithobates catesbeianus en las provincias de San Juan (Sanabria et al., 2005 y de Misiones (Pereyra et al., 2006. Las ranas toro pueden eliminar a los anfibios nativos directamente a través de predación o competencia por interferencia, o indirectamente por competencia por explotación, modificación del comportamiento, alteración del hábitat o introducción de enfermedades o parásitos (Boone et al., 2004. El presente trabajo se realizó en la localidad de Agua de las Piedras (30º48' 46,2"S; 64º12'57,9"O; 760 msnm, la cual se encuentra a 65 km al norte de la ciudad de Córdoba, provincia de Córdoba, Argentina.

  4. Abundancia relativa y uso de microhábitat de la rana Geobatrachus walkeri (Anura: Strabomantidae en dos hábitats en Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia

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    Vera Martínez Baños

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La rana Geobatrachus walkeri pertenece a un género monotípico y endémico del área de San Lorenzo, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia. La especie habita en el bosque secundario natural y en una plantación de pino (dominada por Pinus patula. Para comparar la abundancia relativa y el uso del microhábitat en estos dos hábitat y durante los períodos de máxima y mínima precipitación, se distribuyeron aleatoriamente 30 cuadrantes en cada bosque sobre los que se registraron el número de individuos y los microhábitats ocupados. Además se reconocieron otros aspectos de la historia natural mediante muestreo por encuentros casuales (VES, se incluye en los dos hábitats áreas no muestreadas por los cuadrantes. La mayor abundancia de ranas se obtuvo en la plantación de pino y durante la época de lluvias. El microhábitat más usado fue la hojarasca de pino. Geobatrachus walkeri es una especie exitosa en las plantaciones de pino, asociada permanentemente a su hojarasca en donde parece desarrollar todo su ciclo de vida. Las claras modificaciones derivadas de la introducción de las plantaciones de pino en el suelo y el agua, parecen no haber afectado la supervivencia y mantenimiento exitoso de esta especie categorizada como en peligro de extinción.

  5. Estufas climatizadas para experimentos ambientais com rãs, em gaiolas Acclimatized incubators for environmental experiments with frogs, in cages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Roberto Chim Figueiredo

    2001-07-01

    12/12 hours of light/hours of darkness (h L/D were available to frogs adaptation during 15 days before each experiment. The treatments consisted to simulate environments with temperatures varying from 20 to 35ºC and photoperiods of 8/16, 12/12 and 16/8 h L/D. They were accomplished experiments with bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana Shaw, 1802 and with butterfrog (Leptodactylus ocellatus Linnaeus, 1758. In these incubators it was possible to estimate that: a the highest weight gain of bullfrog was obtained between 27.6 and 29.7ºC, with better growth between 28.2 and 30.1ºC; for butterfrog the best gain and alimentary conversion were verified at 28.6 and 28ºC, respectively; b temperature interact with photoperiod affecting the frogs performance and gonadal development; c at 27.7ºC (temperature of thermal comfort there will be less frogs inside of water; d the highest cloacal temperature: 32.1ºC, in the dry part, and 33.8ºC, inside of water, at 35ºC, evidenced the bullfrog thermoregulation; e the tetraiodotironine (T4 level in the plasm decreases in the temperature of thermal comfort; f butterfrog was conditioned to the routine handling, coming around feeder at eater time.

  6. Influence of supplying bullfrog tadpoles with feed containing 28% crude protein on performance and enzymatic activities Influência do fornecimento de uma ração comercial com 28% de proteína bruta sobre o desempenho e a atividade de enzimas digestivas de girinos de rã-touro

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    José Teixeira de Seixas Filho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was evaluate the influence of feeding bullfrog tadpoles on commercial feed containing 28% crude protein (CP, on their digestive enzyme performance and activities. The experiment lasted 60 days, at the density of one tadpole/L in boxes containing 30 L water. A hundred and twenty tadpoles at the 25 Gosner stage averaging weight and length was 0.046 g and 6.22 mm, respectively, were used. Survival rate, length, final weight, weight gain, feed consumption, apparent food conversion, specific growth rate and activities of chime, amylase, lipase and trypisin were the parameters evaluated, biweekly, in five biometries. Quadratic effect was observed for the length and the weight. There was larger growth of the tadpoles from the 15th to the 45th day (19.82 mm. On the 15th day, the tadpoles presented the largest specific growth rate (16.93%/day, and the largest weight gain (5.460 g, feed intake (14.099 g and the best apparent food conversion (2.46 was from the 45th to the 60th day. The specific activity of amylase was 205 times greater at 60 days when compared to the beginning of the experiment. The results demonstrated that, for the three enzymes studied, the action capacity over the tadpole chime increased significantly after the 30th experimental day. Moreover, they suggested a greater capacity of tadpoles to digest carbohydrates in detriment to proteins, and this fact was accentuated in the initial phase of the exogenous feeding of this amphibian. The commercial feed with 28% CP provide good performance in the bullfrog tadpoles, indicating the juvenile formation within commercial bullfrog farming standards.Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a influência da alimentação de girinos de rã-touro com ração comercial contendo 28% de proteína bruta (PB no desempenho e nas atividades de enzimas digestivas desses animais. Utilizaram-se 120 girinos no estágio 25 de Gosner com 0,046 g e 6,22 mm, respectivamente, mantidos em

  7. Abundancia relativa y uso de microhábitat de la rana Geobatrachus walkeri (Anura: Strabomantidae en dos hábitats en Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Martínez Baños

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La rana Geobatrachus walkeri pertenece a un género monotípico y endémico del área de San Lorenzo, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia. La especie habita en el bosque secundario natural y en una plantación de pino (dominada por Pinus patula. Para comparar la abundancia relativa y el uso del microhábitat en estos dos hábitat y durante los períodos de máxima y mínima precipitación, se distribuyeron aleatoriamente 30 cuadrantes en cada bosque sobre los que se registraron el número de individuos y los microhábitats ocupados. Además se reconocieron otros aspectos de la historia natural mediante muestreo por encuentros casuales (VES, se incluye en los dos hábitats áreas no muestreadas por los cuadrantes. La mayor abundancia de ranas se obtuvo en la plantación de pino y durante la época de lluvias. El microhábitat más usado fue la hojarasca de pino. Geobatrachus walkeri es una especie exitosa en las plantaciones de pino, asociada permanentemente a su hojarasca en donde parece desarrollar todo su ciclo de vida. Las claras modificaciones derivadas de la introducción de las plantaciones de pino en el suelo y el agua, parecen no haber afectado la supervivencia y mantenimiento exitoso de esta especie categorizada como en peligro de extinción.Relative abundance and microhabitat use by the frog Geobatrachus walkeri (Anura:Strabomantidae in two habitats of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia. Geobatrachus walkeri belongs to a monotypic frog genus endemic to the San Lorenzo area, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia. This species has been categorized as endangered because of its small distribution area and the decline in the extent and quality of its habitat. It inhabits two forest types with different composition and structure, the native secondary forest and a pine plantation (dominated by Pinus patula. To compare the relative abundance and microhabitat use of this species in these habitat types, 30 quadrants/environment were

  8. Distribución y abundancia de Craugastor vulcani: una especie de rana en riesgo de Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, México Distribution and abundance of Craugastor vulcani: an endangered frog species from Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Pineda

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available En México, más de la mitad de las especies de anfibios están amenazadas y de la mayoría no se genera información que permita conocer el estatus en el que se encuentran sus poblaciones. En este trabajo se evaluó la distribución y abundancia de Craugastor vulcani, una rana endémica de la sierra de Los Tuxtlas Veracruz que se encuentra en riesgo de extinción, en función de la transformación de la selva. Para este trabajo, se consultaron bases de datos de registros históricos y se muestrearon 12 sitios que representan ambientes comunes de la región. Se registró un total de 524 individuos, de los cuales el 77% se encontraron en fragmentos de selva, el 20% en remanentes riparios y sólo el 3% en potreros. La mayor abundancia (62% se registró durante la época seca del año. La distribución conocida de C. vulcani está sesgada hacia el norte de la sierra, existe poca información sobre su presencia en la porción sur. La permanencia de la especie en la zona parece depender de los pocos fragmentos de bosque existentes. El aumento en el número, área y conectividad de tales remanentes son algunas de las medidas necesarias para conservar ésta y otras especies amenazadas en la región.More than a half of all amphibian species occurring in Mexico are threatened, and for most of them there is no current information to assess the status of their populations. Craugastor vulcani is an endemic frog from the Los Tuxtlas mountains, Veracruz, and it is classified as an endangered species. We examine the distribution and abundance of C. vulcani as a function of rainforest transformation in Los Tuxtlas. We consulted historical records in databases and sampled 12 sites representing common habitats of the region. We recorded a total of 524 individuals of which 77% were found in rainforest fragments, 20% were collected in riparian remnants and just 3% in cattle pastures. Most individuals (62% were recorded during the dry season. The known distribution

  9. Osteología, taxonomía y relaciones filogenéticas de las ranas del género Telmatobufo (Leptodactylidae Osteology, taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of the frog genus Telmatobufo (Leptodactylidae

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    J. RAMÓN FORMAS

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Se hizo un análisis osteológico de las especies del género Telmatobufo (T. australis, T. bullocki, T. venustus, el que completa la definición genérica fundamentada exclusivamente en la osteología de T. bullocki y caracteres larvarios. Para cada especie se entrega nueva información distribucional, ecológica, reproductiva, morfométrica, cromosómica, alozímica y molecular. Se presenta una clave para identificar individuos adultos de las tres especies de Telmatobufo. Se publica por primera vez una lámina de Philippi perdida por casi un siglo, lo que permite aclarar de manera definitiva la identidad taxonómica de T. venustus. Con las distancias de Mahalanobis y las distancias genéticas de Rogers se determinan las similitudes morfológicas y genéticas entre las especies de Telmatobufo. Usando las secuencias para ARN 12S mitocondrial, frecuencias alélicas polarizadas de genes estructurales y caracteres morfológicos (osteológicos y morfológicos externos se propone una hipótesis de relaciones filogenéticas basada en los principios de máxima parsimonia y máxima probabilidad. Finalmente se entrega una proposición acerca de la especiación e historia evolutiva de este grupo de ranas endémicas de los bosques templados del centro-sur de ChileAn osteological analysis of the three species of the genus Telmatobufo (T. australis, T. bullocki, and T. venustus was done. That analysis completes the generic definition based mainly on the osteology of T. bullocki and on morphological larval characters. New information on morphometry, chromosomes, reproductive biology, ecology, geographical range, allozymes, and molecular data is provided for each species. A key for the taxonomic determination of adult specimens of Telmatobufo is also presented. An unedited original plate by R.A. Philippi, lost for almost a century, is published for the first time; this plate allowed the restatement of the taxonomical identity of T. venustus. Mahalanobis

  10. DIAGNOSTIC CHARACTERS OF TOMOPTERNA AND RANA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    five-toed stage, of a spur on the hind foot, giving a six-toed appearance when the spur first appears. This feature ... In the main key, besides the spur on the foot, tail and spiracle characters were used, the former with the .... and is generally pale ... ' (p. 96) and 'They reach a maximum of 70 mm, and are flat, heavy tadpoles ..•.

  11. Invasive American bullfrogs and African clawed frogs in South America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbosa, Fabiana G.; Both, Camila; Bastos, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    .5% of the protected areas within the Atlantic Forest may be most at risk of invasion by L. catesbeianus and X. laevis under current climate conditions, followed by areas in the Cerrado (51.7), Tropical Andes (37.6%), Tumbes-Choco-Magdalena (22.5%), and Chilean Winter Rainfall and Valdivian Forests (20...

  12. Allozyme comparison of three Trypanosoma species (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) of toads and frogs by starch-gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, D S; Desser, S S; Hong, H

    1992-04-01

    Six metabolic enzymes, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucosephosphate isomerase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, phosphoglucomutase, and purine nucleoside phosphorylase, from clonal isolates of 3 presumptive species of Trypanosoma (T. fallisi, T. ranarum, and T. rotatorium) from 3 anuran hosts (Bufo americanus, Rana clamitans, and Rana catesbeiana) were compared using starch-gel electrophoresis. Although bands were shared among the different zymodemes of isolates of the same host genus, low genetic polymorphism of the enzyme loci was observed with few apparent shared bands between samples isolated from frogs and toads. A distance value calculated between toad and frog trypanosome isolates suggests the likelihood of long-time separation of species. Cluster analysis based on overall similarity distinguished the trypanosomes of toads and frogs as separate taxa, suggesting that host specificity and observed morphological differences are consistent with heritable allozyme differences.

  13. Osmotic pressure of the cutaneous surface fluid of Rana esculenta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid Larsen, Erik; Ramløv, Hans

    2012-01-01

    The osmotic pressure of the cutaneous surface fluid (CSF) in vivo was measured for investigating whether evaporative water loss (EWL) derives from water diffusing through the skin or fluid secreted by exocrine subepidermal mucous glands. EWL was stimulated by subjecting R. esculenta to 30–34 °C....../Kg, n = 16. Osmolality of lymph was, 239 ± 4 mosmol/Kg, n = 8. Thus the flow of water across the epidermis would be in the direction from CSF to the interstitial fluid driven by the above osmotic gradients and/or coupled to the inward active Na+ flux via the slightly hyperosmotic paracellular...... compartment [EH Larsen et al. (2009) Acta Physiologica 195: 171–186]. It is concluded that the source of EWL of the frog on land is the fluid secreted by the mucous glands and not water diffusing through the skin. The study supports the hypothesis [EH Larsen (2011) Acta Physiologica 202: 435–464] that volume...

  14. Los fantasmas en Ranas de Aristófanes

    OpenAIRE

    Planchas Gallarte, Soraya

    2014-01-01

    La finalidad de nuestra investigación consiste principalmente en presentar y analizar aquellos pasajes de las comedias aristofánicas relacionados con el tópico de las apariciones fantasmales. Comenzaremos ofreciendo una visión general de este motivo, tan recurrente entre los autores clásicos, para, a continuación, detenernos exclusivamente en el tratamiento que hizo el comediógrafo ateniense. Creemos que una detenida observación de las similitudes e innovaciones de estas cue...

  15. LOS FANTASMAS EN RANAS DE ARISTÓFANES

    OpenAIRE

    Soraya Planchas Gallarte

    2015-01-01

    THE GHOSTS IN ARISTOPHANES’ FROGS. The aim of the following paper is to present and analyze the passages of the comedies of Aristophanes related to ghostly apparitions. By offering an overview of this issue, so recurrent among classical authors, we will be able to sketch, on the one hand, how the Athenian comic playwright configures this topic in one of his works. On the other, by contextualizing Aristophanes’ treatment of ghosts in his genre, we will have the opportunity of focusing ...

  16. El declive de una población costera cantábrica de Rana bermeja (Rana temporaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GOSA, A.

    1998-01-01

    Algunas de las características reproductoras de la población son de notable alargamiento de su periodo de puesta, que comienza a primeros de noviembre y puede extenderse hasta febrero y primeros de marzo ; la baja fecundidad de las hembras (media de 1006 huevos por puesta y la permanencia de los machos en los charcos donde se reproducen(algunos pasan en ellos hasta dos meses y medio.El pico reproductor medio para el periodo de estudio se produce en la segunda decena de diciembre, fecha en la que ya se ha hecho el 60% de la puesta total.

  17. The role of desensititation in decay time of miniature endplate currents in frogs Rana ridibunda and Rana temporaria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Giniatullin, R. A.; Talantova, M. V.; Vyskočil, František

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 3 (2001), s. 287-292 ISSN 0168-0102 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA7011902; GA MŠk VS97099; GA MŠk OK 267 Grant - others:RFBR(RU) 98-04-48044; INTAS(BE) 2000-1147 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : frog * desensitisation * miniature endplate potential Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.770, year: 2001

  18. a Morphometric Analysis of HYLARANA SIGNATA Group (previously Known as RANA SIGNATA and RANA PICTURATA) of Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainudin, Ramlah; Sazali, Siti Nurlydia

    A study on morphometrical variations of Malaysian Hylarana signata group was conducted to reveal the morphological relationships within the species group. Twenty-seven morphological characters from 18 individuals of H. signata and H. picturata were measured and recorded. The numerical data were analysed using Discriminant Function Analysis in SPSS program version 16.0 and UPGMA Cluster Analysis in Minitab program version 14.0. The results show the complexity clustering between the examined species that might be due to ancient polymorphism of the lineages or cryptic species within the group. Hence, further study should include more representatives in order to fully elucidate the morphological relationships of H. signata group.

  19. Choosy females and indiscriminate males: mate choice in mixed populations of sexual and hybridogenetic water frogs (Rana lessonae, Rana esculenta)

    OpenAIRE

    Engeler, B; Reyer, H U

    2001-01-01

    For several decades, behavioral ecologists have studied the effects of the environment on the behavior of individuals; but only fairly recently they have started to ask the reverse question: how do the behavioral strategies of individuals affect the composition and dynamics of populations and communities? Although intuitively obvious, this feedback from individual to higher levels is difficult to demonstrate, except in systems with exceptionally fast and marked responses of the populations to...

  20. First record of the chytrid fungus in Lithobates catesbeianus from Argentina: exotic species and conservation Primer registro del hongo quitridio en Lithobates catesbeianus de Argentina: especies exóticas y conservación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Ghirardi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Chytridiomycosis, a disease caused by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (B.d., is recognized as one of the major factors of amphibian decline. Global trade of amphibians has been identified as one of the causes of B.d. spread, involving hundreds of species world wide. In this work we detected the presence of B.d. through histological examination on 5 out of 9 analyzed specimens of bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus from a farm in Santa Fe City (Argentina, deposited since 1993 in the herpetological collection of the Provincial Museum of Natural Sciences "Florentino Ameghino". Our finding represents the oldest record of B.d. for Argentina and the first case of the chytrid fungus infecting the exotic bullfrog in this country. We emphasize the importance of determining and monitoring the distribution and spread of B.d in Argentina, particularly in areas where feral bullfrog populations have already been identified.La quitridiomicosis, enfermedad emergente producida por el hongo Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (B.d., es reconocida como uno de los factores causantes de la declinación de anfibios. El comercio mundial de anfibios ha sido señalado como una de las fuentes de dispersión de B.d. En este trabajo se detectó la presencia de B.d. en la especie exótica rana toro (Lithobates catesbeianus mediante cortes histológicos en 5 de 9 ejemplares provenientes de un criadero de la ciudad de Santa Fe (Argentina, depositados y conservados desde 1993 en la Colección Herpetológica del Museo Provincial de Ciencias Naturales "Florentino Ameghino". Este registro representa el hallazgo más antiguo de B.d. en Argentina y el primer caso de este hongo en la rana toro exótica en el país; por lo que enfatizamos la importancia de determinar y monitorear la distribución y dispersión de B.d., particularmente en los sitios donde ya se han detectado poblaciones silvestres de rana toro.

  1. Cardiovascular effects of alfaxalone and propofol in the bullfrog, Lithobates catesbeianus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Catherine; Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Bertelsen, Mads

    2018-01-01

    pressure (MAP) (assessed by direct measurement from the catheter) are reported from under undisturbed conditions to assess both the direct effects of the drugs and the interaction with the stress of handling associated with IM injection of alfaxalone where IM administration is possible. Alfaxalone caused...... for alfaxalone but after IV use decreased significantly from 10 min following administration. Propofol did not affect blood pressure after 5 min from injection. Assessment of immobilization following intramuscular injection of alfaxalone in a pilot study was in accordance with the literature, as it provided...... ( Lithobates catesbeianus), following intramuscular (IM) and intravascular (IV) administration (via a femoral artery catheter) and compared with an IV dose of propofol, another parenteral GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) agonist in common veterinary use as an induction agent. Heart rate (HR) and mean arterial blood...

  2. Development of a water recirculating system for bullfrog production: technological innovation for small farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Conceição Reis Pereira Mello

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Despite the technological progress in frog farming, issues related to the environment, biosafety, and the use of technologies that minimise environmental impacts are frequently neglected by farmers. With the goal of developing a low-cost technology for reuse and preservation of water quality, an anaerobic filtering system combined with an aerobic filtering system was implemented in the grow-out sector in the Frog Culture Research Unit at Fundação Instituto de Pesca do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FIPERJ. The filtering system received the effluent from six pens of frogs that were populated with 362 frogs in different development phases. The efficiency of the filtering system was evaluated by an analysis of the water before and after passing through the filters. In addition to the standards of water quality, the animals' performance was also observed through monitoring rates of survival, weight gain and feed conversion ratio. The results showed the effectiveness of the filtering system by removing organic matter, on average 87%. The values of total ammonia and non-ionisable reached 1.04 and 0.004 mg/L, respectively. Also, frogs subjected to the system presented satisfactory rates of weight gain and a high survival rate (97%.

  3. The rostral medulla of bullfrog tadpoles contains critical lung rhythmogenic and chemosensitive regions across metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Mitchell D; Iceman, Kimberly E; Harris, Michael B; Taylor, Barbara E

    2018-06-08

    The development of amphibian breathing provides insight into vertebrate respiratory control mechanisms. Neural oscillators in the rostral and caudal medulla drive ventilation in amphibians, and previous reports describe ventilatory oscillators and CO 2 sensitive regions arise during different stages of amphibian metamorphosis. However, inconsistent findings have been enigmatic, and make comparisons to potential mammalian counterparts challenging. In the current study we assessed amphibian central CO 2 responsiveness and respiratory rhythm generation during two different developmental stages. Whole-nerve recordings of respiratory burst activity in cranial and spinal nerves were made from intact or transected brainstems isolated from tadpoles during early or late stages of metamorphosis. Brainstems were transected at the level of the trigeminal nerve, removing rostral structures including the nucleus isthmi, midbrain, and locus coeruleus, or transected at the level of the glossopharyngeal nerve, removing the putative buccal oscillator and caudal medulla. Removal of caudal structures stimulated the frequency of lung ventilatory bursts and revealed a hypercapnic response in normally unresponsive preparations derived from early stage tadpoles. In preparations derived from late stage tadpoles, removal of rostral or caudal structures reduced lung burst frequency, while CO 2 responsiveness was retained. Our results illustrate that structures within the rostral medulla are capable of sensing CO 2 throughout metamorphic development. Similarly, the region controlling lung ventilation appears to be contained in the rostral medulla throughout metamorphosis. This work offers insight into the consistency of rhythmic respiratory and chemosensitive capacities during metamorphosis. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Effect of ouabain on intracellular Na+ and K+ in the ventral epidermis of the larval bullfrog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, D.H.; Mills, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    The ventral skin of the tadpole has a high affinity receptor for ouabain that is distributed throughout the epithelium. However, the short-circuit current (SCC) is inhibited by only 50% after 2 hrs of treatment with 10 -2 M ouabain. They investigated if the incomplete inhibition could be explained by a prolonged time of Na + gain and K + loss. After 1 hr of treatment with 5 x 10 -4 M ouabain, the Na + , in epidermis that had been separated from the dermis with collagenase and hydrostatic pressure, increased from 48.8 +/- 3.3 mM to 66.2 +/- 4.9 mM (P + decreased from 115 +/- 7 mM to 104 +/- 9 mM (P + was from 41.4 +/- 2.4 mM to 73.3 +/- 4.3 mM (P + changed from 113 +/- 10 mM to 85.9 +/- 5.3 mM (P + curve (14.7 mM/hr) not significantly different from the absolute value of the slope of the K + curve (-13.8 mM/hr). Cell volume, determined by use of 14 C-urea and expressed as μl/mg dry weight, is unchanged from 4.83 +/- 0.40 for the control, 5.08 +/- 0.60 after 1 hr and 4.38 +/- 0.29 after 2 hrs of ouabain. They propose that the slow decline of SCC after exposure to ouabain is due to a low Na + permeability which results in a slow gain of Na + across the apical membrane, and a concurrent loss of K + across the basolateral membrane

  5. Vertebrate hosts and phylogenetic relationships of amphibian trypanosomes from a potential invertebrate vector, Culex territans Walker (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett-Healy, Kristen; Crans, Wayne; Gaugler, Randy

    2009-04-01

    The blood meals of field-collected female Culex territans (Diptera: Culicidae) were concurrently assayed for the presence of trypanosomes and for vertebrate host identification. We amplified vertebrate DNA in 42 of 119 females and made positive identification to the host species level in 29 of those samples. Of the 119 field-collected Cx. territans females, 24 were infected with trypanosomes. Phylogenetic analysis placed the trypanosomes in the amphibian portion of the aquatic clade of the Trypanosomatidae. These trypanosomes were isolated from Cx. territans females that had fed on the frog species Rana clamitans, R. catesbeiana, R. virgatipes, and Rana spp. Results support a potential new lineage of dipteran-transmitted amphibian trypanosomes may occur within the aquatic clade. The frequency in which female Cx. territans acquire trypanosomes, through diverse feeding habits, indicates a new relationship between amphibian trypanosomes and mosquitoes that has not been examined previously. Combining Trypanosoma species, invertebrate, and vertebrate hosts to existing phylogenies can elucidate trypanosome and host relationships.

  6. Acclimation temperature affects the metabolic response of amphibian skeletal muscle to insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Ann M; Gleeson, Todd T

    2011-09-01

    Frog skeletal muscle mainly utilizes the substrates glucose and lactate for energy metabolism. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of insulin on the uptake and metabolic fate of lactate and glucose at rest in skeletal muscle of the American bullfrog, Lithobates catesbeiana, under varying temperature regimens. We hypothesize that lactate and glucose metabolic pathways will respond differently to the presence of insulin in cold versus warm acclimated frog tissues, suggesting an interaction between temperature and metabolism under varying environmental conditions. We employed radiolabeled tracer techniques to measure in vitro uptake, oxidation, and incorporation of glucose and lactate into glycogen by isolated muscles from bullfrogs acclimated to 5 °C (cold) or 25 °C (warm). Isolated bundles from Sartorius muscles were incubated at 5 °C, 15 °C, or 25 °C, and in the presence and absence of 0.05 IU/mL bovine insulin. Insulin treatment in the warm acclimated and incubated frogs resulted in an increase in glucose incorporation into glycogen, and an increase in intracellular [glucose] of 0.5 μmol/g (Pmuscle. When compared to the warm treatment group, cold acclimation and incubation resulted in increased rates of glucose oxidation and glycogen synthesis, and a reduction in free intracellular glucose levels (Pmuscles from either acclimation group were incubated at an intermediate temperature of 15 °C, insulin's effect on substrate metabolism was attenuated or even reversed. Therefore, a significant interaction between insulin and acclimation condition in controlling skeletal muscle metabolism appears to exist. Our findings further suggest that one of insulin's actions in frog muscle is to increase glucose incorporation into glycogen, and to reduce reliance on lactate as the primary metabolic fuel. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Severe IgE-mediated anaphylaxis following consumption of fried frog legs: definition of alpha-parvalbumin as the allergen in cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilger, C; Grigioni, F; Thill, L; Mertens, L; Hentges, F

    2002-11-01

    IgE-mediated allergic reactions to bullfrog and edible frog have been reported. The implicated allergens have not been defined so far. The frog material and the patient's serum from a case of severe food-induced anaphylaxis were used to define the implicated allergen at the protein and DNA level. Immunoblotting techniques and N-terminal protein microsequencing were used to define the allergen recognized by the patient's serum. Back translation from the identified protein sequence was used to design degenerated primers to amplify the allergen's cDNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We defined the nucleotide sequence of the allergen from the frog of Indonesian origin that was consumed by the patient, and the homologous cDNA from Rana esculenta. Protein microsequencing revealed that the implicated frog allergen belonged to the parvalbumin family. cDNAs coding for alpha- and beta-parvalbumin of R. esculenta and Rana species were cloned. Recombinant proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli. The patient's serum IgE antibodies recognized parvalbumin prepared from frog muscle and recombinant alpha-parvalbumin from R. species but not from R. esculenta. Recombinant beta-parvalbumin was not recognized by the IgE antibodies. This work defines at the protein and DNA levels alpha-parvalbumin as the allergen implicated in a case of IgE-mediated anaphylaxis to frog muscle. It also shows that a protein belonging to the parvalbumin family is implicated in type I allergies outside the fish species.

  8. Spatial-ecological divergence of the common frog (Rana temporaria L. and the moor frog (Rana arvalis Nilss. within their geographic ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutenkov Anatoly

    2017-03-01

    It is only where there is the interpenetration of «core» landscapes of each species (large areas of the northern and western parts of the East European Plain, and a part of the West Siberian Plain contiguous to the Urals, one can observe the examples of real sympatry of R. arvalis and R. temporaria.

  9. Profile of cortisol, glycaemia, and blood parameters of American Bullfrog tadpoles Lithobates catesbeianus exposed to density and hypoxia stressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia C. Teixeira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate alterations to the physiological profile (cortisol, glycaemia, and blood parameters of Lithobates catesbeianus caused by the stressors density and hypoxia. The organisms were in the prometamorphosis stage and exposed to different tadpole densities: 1 tadpole/L (T1, 5 tadpoles/L (T2, and 10 tadpoles/L (T3 for 12 days. The blood was collected through the rupture of the caudal blood vessel and collected under normoxia (immediate collection and hypoxia (after 15 minutes of air exposure conditions. Cortisol levels rose on the fourth and eighth days of treatment and returned to basal levels by the end of the experiment. The stressor mechanisms tested did not affect glycaemia. White blood cells (total number of lymphocytes, neutrophils, and eosinophils showed a significant difference at the twelfth day of the experiment when compared with the start of the experiment. We concluded that, under controlled conditions, a density of up to 10 tadpoles/L and air exposure for 15 minutes did not cause harmful physiological alterations during the experimental period. The answer to these stressors maybe was in another hormonal level (corticosterone.

  10. UV-B affects the immune system and promotes nuclear abnormalities in pigmented and non-pigmented bullfrog tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Belussi, Lilian; Fanali, Lara Zácari; De Oliveira, Classius

    2018-03-01

    Ultra-Violet (UV) radiation is a stressor of the immune system and causes DNA damage. Leukocytes can change in response to environmental changes in anurans, making them an important biomarker of stressful situations. The initial barrier against UV in ectothermic animals is melanin-containing cells in skin and in their internal organs. Here, we tested the effects of UV exposure on immune cells and DNA integrity in pigmented and non-pigmented tadpoles of Lithobates catesbeianus. We used an inflammation model with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Escherichia coli to test synergic effects of UV and LPS. We tested the following hypotheses: 1) DNA damage caused by UV will be more pronounced in non-pigmented than in pigmented animals; 2) LPS increases leukocytes in both pigmented and non-pigmented animals by systemic inflammation; 3) The combined LPS and UV exposure will decrease the number of leukocytes. We found that the frequency of immune cells differed between pigmented and non-pigmented tadpoles. UV exposure increased mast cells and DNA damage in erythrocytes in both pigmented and non-pigmented tadpoles, while leukocytes decreased after UV exposure. Non-pigmented tadpoles experienced DNA damage and a lower lymphocyte count earlier than pigmented tadpoles. UV altered immune cells likely as a consequence of local and systemic inflammation. These alterations were less severe in pigmented than in non-pigmented animals. UV and LPS increased internal melanin in pigmented tadpoles, which were correlated with DNA damage and leukocytes. Here, we described for the first time the effects of UV and LPS in immune cells of pigmented and non-pigmented tadpoles. In addition, we demonstrated that internal melanin in tadpoles help in these defenses, since leukocyte responses were faster in non-pigmented animals, supporting the hypothesis that melanin is involved in the initial innate immune response. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Using occupancy models to understand the distribution of an amphibian pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Michael J.; Chelgren, Nathan; Reinitz, David M.; Cole, Rebecca A.; Rachowicz, L.J.; Galvan, Stephanie; Mccreary, Brome; Pearl, Christopher A.; Bailey, Larissa L.; Bettaso, Jamie B.; Bull, Evelyn L.; Leu, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a fungal pathogen that is receiving attention around the world for its role in amphibian declines. Study of its occurrence patterns is hampered by false negatives: the failure to detect the pathogen when it is present. Occupancy models are a useful but currently underutilized tool for analyzing detection data when the probability of detecting a species is population, was related to amphibian development stage, day of the year, elevation, and human activities. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis was found throughout our study area but was only estimated to occur in 53.4% of 78 populations of native amphibians and 66.4% of 40 populations of nonnative Rana catesbeiana tested. We found little evidence to support any spatial hypotheses concerning the probability that the pathogen occurs in a population, but did find evidence of some taxonomic variation. We discuss the interpretation of occupancy model parameters, when, unlike a conventional occupancy application, the number of potential samples or observations is finite.

  12. Using occupancy models to understand the distribution of an amphibian pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Michael J.; Chelgren, Nathan; Reinitz, David M.; Cole, Rebecca A.; Rachowicz, L.J.; Galvan, Stephanie; Mccreary, Brome; Pearl, Christopher A.; Bailey, Larissa L.; Bettaso, Jamie B.; Bull, Evelyn L.; Leu, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a fungal pathogen that is receiving attention around the world for its role in amphibian declines. Study of its occurrence patterns is hampered by false negatives: the failure to detect the pathogen when it is present. Occupancy models are a useful but currently underutilized tool for analyzing detection data when the probability of detecting a species is <1. We use occupancy models to evaluate hypotheses concerning the occurrence and prevalence of B. dendrobatidis and discuss how this application differs from a conventional occupancy approach. We found that the probability of detecting the pathogen, conditional on presence of the pathogen in the anuran population, was related to amphibian development stage, day of the year, elevation, and human activities. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis was found throughout our study area but was only estimated to occur in 53.4% of 78 populations of native amphibians and 66.4% of 40 populations of nonnative Rana catesbeiana tested. We found little evidence to support any spatial hypotheses concerning the probability that the pathogen occurs in a population, but did find evidence of some taxonomic variation. We discuss the interpretation of occupancy model parameters, when, unlike a conventional occupancy application, the number of potential samples or observations is finite.

  13. Neural regulation of duodenal alkali secretion: Effects of electrical field stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crampton, J.R.; Gibbons, L.G.; Rees, W.D.W.

    1988-01-01

    The role of transmitters released from enteric neurons in regulating bicarbonate secretion by the proximal duodenum has been studied using electrical field stimulation (EFS). Stripped duodenal mucosa from Rana catesbeiana was mounted as an intact tube over circular platinum electrode,s and luminal alkalinization was measured by pH stat titration before, during, and after EFS. Transmucosal potential difference (PD) was simultaneously measured before and after EFS by paired electrodes. Square-wave pulses 50 V, 2 ms in duration, at 10 Hz were delivered in trains of 0.5 s at 1 Hz for periods of 15 min after stable basal secretion. This resulted in a 63 ± 27% increase in alkalinization that returned to basal values after cessation of the stimulus, without change in transmucosal PD. Serosal-to-lumen [ 3 H]mannitol flux was not affected. Repetition of the stimulus resulted in a similar responses for as long as the tissue remained viable. The response to EFS was abolished by tetrodotoxin and veratrine indicating that intrinsic neurons were responsible for mediating the effect. In addition, the effect was blocked by serosal dinitrophenol, indicating that the secretory response occurred by a metabolically dependent process. These results indicate that alkalinization by proximal duodenum may be controlled by neurotransmitter release from local enteric neurons

  14. Trichobothrial mediation of an aquatic escape response: Directional jumps by the fishing spider, Dolomedes triton, foil frog attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B. Suter

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Fishing spiders (Pisauridae frequent the surfaces of ponds and streams and thereby expose themselves to predation by a variety of aquatic and semi-aquatic vertebrates. To assess the possibility that the impressive jumps of fishing spiders from the water surface function in evading attacks by frogs, attacks by bullfrogs (Rana catesbiana and green frogs (R. clamitans on Dolomedes triton were studied. Both the attack dynamics of the frogs and the evasive behaviors of the spiders were recorded at 250 frames per second. A freeze-dried bullfrog, propelled toward spiders with acceleration, posture, and position that approximated the natural attack posture and dynamics, was used to assess the spiders' behavior. Qualitatively, the spiders responded to these mock-attacks just as they had to attacks by live frogs: jumping (N=29 jumps, 56.9% of instances, rearing the legs nearest the attacking frog (N=15, 29.4%, or showing no visible response (N=7, 13.7%. Spiders that jumped always did so away (in the vertical plane from the attack (mean =137° vs. vertical at 90° or horizontally toward the frog at 0°. The involvement of the trichobothria (leg hairs sensitive to air movements, and the eyes as sensory mediators of the evasion response was assessed. Spiders with deactivated trichobothria were significantly impaired relative to intact and sham-deactivated spiders, and relative to spiders in total darkness. Thus, functional trichobothria, unlike the eyes, are both necessary and sufficient mediators of the evasion response. Measurements of air flow during frog attacks suggest that an exponential rise in flow velocity is the airborne signature of an attack.

  15. DEBRIDEMENT – KRUCIJALNI POSTUPAK U LIJEČENJU KRONIČNIH RANA

    OpenAIRE

    HULJEV, DUBRAVKO

    2014-01-01

    Debridement je proces uklanjanja mrtvog tkiva iz rane. Devitalizirano tkivo usporava ili u potpunosti onemogućava zarastanje rane. Cilj debridmana je pretvaranje kronične rane u stanje akutne rane i iniciranje procesa zaraštavanja. Debridement je osnovni postupak u liječenju svake rane, ali i tretman koji se mora ponavljati u zavisnosti o stvaranju nekrotičnog tkiva. Postoji više načina debridmana. To su mehanički, autolitički, kemijski, enzimski, biološki i novi načini debridmana. Napredovan...

  16. Effects of X-irradiation on some aspects of protein metabolism in the frog, Rana hexadactyla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajarami Reddy, G.; Sasira Babu, K.

    1980-01-01

    Changes in the level of total proteins and protease in brain, muscle and liver tissues of normal and X-irradiated frogs were determined. Low doses of radiation produced an increment in protein level while high doses produced decrement. However, protease activity at all doses exhibited an elevatory trend. Exposure of frogs to lethal doses resulted in increased protease activity and decreased protein content during post-irradiation periods. The results are discussed on the basis of protein destruction and lysosomal damage. (auth.)

  17. Species Profile: Gopher Frog (Rana capito spp.) on Military Installations in the Southeastern United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Palis, John

    1997-01-01

    ....' Gopher frogs inhabit xeric upland pine communities of the Southeastern Coastal Plain from the southern half of the North Carolina coastal plain to southern Florida and westward to eastern Louisiana...

  18. THE MOCHE BOTANICAL FROG (La rana botánica mochica)

    OpenAIRE

    Donna McClelland †

    2011-01-01

    Plants and animals with features which identify them as supernaturals characterize the art of the Precolumbian Moche culture of northern Peru. Among these animals is a frog with feline attributes and a consistent association with manioc tubers, stalks, and plants, the Botanical Frog. The Botanical Frog appears to have been patterned on Leptodactylus pentadactylus. It is shown copulating with felines. Fine line painted vessels and ones with low relief decoration show the Botanical Frog perform...

  19. Nueva especie de rana (Atelopus de Los Farallones de Cali, Cordillera Occidental de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kattan Gustavo

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Durante la realización de colecciones herpetológicas en el Departamento del Valle del Cauca, fue encontrada una especie no descrita de Atelopus (Anura: Bufonidae en los farallones de Cali, a 2600 m de altura. Esta es la primera especie en este género que se encuentra a elevaciones superiores a 2000 m en la Cordillera Occidental. Se conocen varias especies de Atelopus en las Cordilleras Central y Oriental de Colombia y en los Andes ecuatorianos (COCHRAN y GOIN 1970; PETERS 1973; RIVERO 1963 y probablemente futuras colecciones herpetológicas continuaran revelando nuevas especies en las partes altas de la Cordillera Occidental.

  20. Anatomical evidence for brainstem circuits mediating feeding motor programs in the leopard frog, Rana pipiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C W

    2001-09-01

    Using injections of small molecular weight fluorescein dextran amines, combined with activity-dependent uptake of sulforhodamine 101 (SR101), brainstem circuits presumed to be involved in feeding motor output were investigated. As has been shown previously in other studies, projections to the cerebellar nuclei were identified from the cerebellar cortex, the trigeminal motor nucleus, and the vestibular nuclei. Results presented here suggest an additional pathway from the hypoglossal motor nuclei to the cerebellar nucleus as well as an afferent projection from the peripheral hypoglossal nerve to the Purkinje cell layer of the cerebellar cortex. Injections in the cerebellar cortex combined with retrograde labeling of the peripheral hypoglossal nerve demonstrate anatomical convergence at the level of the medial reticular formation. This suggests a possible integrative region for afferent feedback from the hypoglossal nerve and information through the Purkinje cell layer of the cerebellar cortex. The activity-dependent uptake of SR101 additionally suggests a reciprocal, polysynaptic pathway between this same area of the medial reticular formation and the trigeminal motor nuclei. The trigeminal motor neurons innervate the m adductor mandibulae, the primary mouth-closing muscle. The SR101 uptake clearly labeled the ventrolateral hypoglossal nuclei, the medial reticular formation, and the Purkinje cell layer of the cerebellar cortex. Unlike retrograde labeling of the peripheral hypoglossal nerve, stimulating the hypoglossal nerve while SR101 was bath-applied labeled trigeminal motor neurons. This, combined with the dextran labeling, suggests a reciprocal connection between the trigeminal motor nuclei and the cerebellar nuclei, as well as the medulla. Taken together, these data are important for understanding the neurophysiological pathways used to coordinate the proper timing of an extremely rapid, goal-directed movement and may prove useful for elucidating some of the first principles of sensorimotor integration.

  1. Species Profile: Gopher Frog (Rana capito spp.) on Military Installations in the Southeastern United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Palis, John

    1997-01-01

    ...; one is a candidate species for listing as Threatened or Endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the other two are former candidates now unofficially considered 'Species of Concern...

  2. Effects of road de-icing salt (NaCl) on larval wood frogs (Rana sylvatica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanzo, Domenico; Hecnar, Stephen J.

    2006-01-01

    Vast networks of roads cover the earth and have numerous environmental effects including pollution. A major component of road runoff in northern countries is salt (mostly NaCl) used as a winter de-icing agent, but few studies of effects of road salts on aquatic organisms exist. Amphibians require aquatic habitats and chemical pollution is implicated as a major factor in global population declines. We exposed wood frog tadpoles to NaCl. Tests revealed 96-h LC50 values of 2636 and 5109 mg/l and tadpoles experienced reduced activity, weight, and displayed physical abnormalities. A 90 d chronic experiment revealed significantly lower survivorship, decreased time to metamorphosis, reduced weight and activity, and increased physical abnormalities with increasing salt concentration (0.00, 0.39, 77.50, 1030.00 mg/l). Road salts had toxic effects on larvae at environmentally realistic concentrations with potentially far-ranging ecological impacts. More studies on the effects of road salts are warranted. - Road salts have toxic effects on amphibians at environmentally realistic concentrations

  3. Effects of road de-icing salt (NaCl) on larval wood frogs (Rana sylvatica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanzo, Domenico [Department of Biology, Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Road, Thunder Bay, ON, P7B 5E1 (Canada); Hecnar, Stephen J. [Department of Biology, Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Road, Thunder Bay, ON, P7B 5E1 (Canada)]. E-mail: stephen.hecnar@lakeheadu.ca

    2006-03-15

    Vast networks of roads cover the earth and have numerous environmental effects including pollution. A major component of road runoff in northern countries is salt (mostly NaCl) used as a winter de-icing agent, but few studies of effects of road salts on aquatic organisms exist. Amphibians require aquatic habitats and chemical pollution is implicated as a major factor in global population declines. We exposed wood frog tadpoles to NaCl. Tests revealed 96-h LC50 values of 2636 and 5109 mg/l and tadpoles experienced reduced activity, weight, and displayed physical abnormalities. A 90 d chronic experiment revealed significantly lower survivorship, decreased time to metamorphosis, reduced weight and activity, and increased physical abnormalities with increasing salt concentration (0.00, 0.39, 77.50, 1030.00 mg/l). Road salts had toxic effects on larvae at environmentally realistic concentrations with potentially far-ranging ecological impacts. More studies on the effects of road salts are warranted. - Road salts have toxic effects on amphibians at environmentally realistic concentrations.

  4. Effects of oil sands waste water on the wood frog (rana sylvatica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hersikorn, B.; Smits, J.E. [Saskatchewan Univ., Regina, SK (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    The sustainability of various reclamation strategies can be determined by the growth and health of indigenous amphibians (Wood Frogs). This paper referred to the large quantities of tailings water that are generated by oil sand extraction activities. It presented the results of a study that was conducted in the spring and summer of 2006 and 2007 on reclaimed formation wetlands comprising tailings water. The objective was to understand the impact of these wetlands on native amphibians. Frogs were exposed to wetlands containing oil sands process affected water (OSPW) and reference water (no OSPW). Six experimental trenches were made at one site in the first year. Each trench had 3 enclosures with 50 tadpoles. In the second year, there were 13 sites, including 6 reference and 7 OSPW affected sites, which were classified as old (more than 8 yrs) or young (less than 7 yrs). Four enclosures, with 50 tadpoles each, were placed in each wetland. The study involved the evaluation of growth rate, survival, time to metamorphosis, thyroid hormone concentrations, liver EROD activity, and tissue retinol concentrations. In addition, stable isotopes were used to track carbon flow from primary production plants, through the food chain, to tadpoles and frogs which represent intermediate and higher trophic levels in reclaimed wetlands.

  5. Studies on seasonal variation in water quality parameters of Rana Pratap Sagar lake (1996-99)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, R.; Rout, D.; Purohit, K.C.

    2000-01-01

    Water- chemistry monitoring identifies the concentration and patterns of fluctuation in chemical constituents. This information is essential to project future trends monitoring in Lake Water chemistry to identify any potential for affecting plant operation through scaling or corrosion of the circulating and service-water system equipment. Regular water chemistry monitoring provides a useful record of past. This record helps in identification of conditions that would impair station operations before their onset, allowing remedial action to be undertaken before plant performance is significantly affected. Preventive action to control the parameters influencing the corrosion, scaling and bio-fouling in the cooling system, in turn, eliminates excessive maintenance and premature replacement that otherwise would result from damage caused by unforeseen changes in the cooling water. This paper highlights the systematic monitoring approach for the variation of chemical parameters influenced by the seasonal changes in a total period of four years. (author)

  6. Diets of three species of anurans from the cache creek watershed, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hothem, R.L.; Meckstroth, A.M.; Wegner, K.E.; Jennings, M.R.; Crayon, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the diets of three sympatric anuran species, the native Northern Pacific Treefrog, Pseudacris regilla, and Foothill Yellow-Legged Frog, Rana boylii, and the introduced American Bullfrog, Lithobates catesbeianus, based on stomach contents of frogs collected at 36 sites in 1997 and 1998. This investigation was part of a study of mercury bioaccumulation in the biota of the Cache Creek Watershed in north-central California, an area affected by mercury contamination from natural sources and abandoned mercury mines. We collected R. boylii at 22 sites, L. catesbeianus at 21 sites, and P. regilla at 13 sites. We collected both L. catesbeianus and R. boylii at nine sites and all three species at five sites. Pseudacris regilla had the least aquatic diet (100% of the samples had terrestrial prey vs. 5% with aquatic prey), followed by R. boylii (98% terrestrial, 28% aquatic), and L. catesbeianus, which had similar percentages of terrestrial (81%) and aquatic prey (74%). Observed predation by L. catesbeianus on R. boylii may indicate that interaction between these two species is significant. Based on their widespread abundance and their preference for aquatic foods, we suggest that, where present, L. catesbeianus should be the species of choice for all lethal biomonitoring of mercury in amphibians. Copyright ?? 2009 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  7. Neutron diffraction analysis of the structure of rod photoreceptor membranes in intact retinas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaeger, M; Schoenborn, B; Engelman, D; Moore, P; Stryer, L

    1980-01-01

    Neutron diffraction data have been collected from samples containing ten dark-adapted Rana catesbiana bullfrog retinas in 100, 80, 60, 40, and 30% D/sub 2/O Ringer's solution using a step-scanning Soller slit diffractometer. Diffraction was also recorded from retinas equilibrated in D/sub 2/O solutions with varying osmolarity. Rocking curve experiments demonstrated that the rods are disoriented in a cylindrically symmetrical fashion. Structure factor amplitudes were obtained using semi-automated curve-fitting procedures, and phases were obtained by interpreting the D/sub 2/O-H/sub 2/O and osmotic Patterson maps. In D/sub 2/O Ringer's solution the first four structure factors are -353 +- 25, 246 +- 19, 434 +- 13 and 383 +- 19. Neutron scattering density profiles were calculated to 75 A resolution using these structure factors. These neutron diffraction data are consistent with the view that the lipid bilayer is a major structural motif of the rod outer segment disc membrane. Neutron Fourier syntheses in different mixtures of D/sub 2/O and H/sub 2/O indicate that the intradisc and extradisc spaces are predominantly aqueous, consistent with the increase in the intradisc and extradisc volumes as the Ringer's solution is made more hypotomic. In isotonic Ringer's solution, the thicknesses of the intradisc and extradisc spaces are about 36 A and 160 A, respectively, and the center-to-center separation between the 50 A thick lipid bilayer is 88 A.

  8. Phylogeny, ecological fitting and lung flukes: helping solve the problem of emerging infectious diseases Filogenia, flexibilidad ecológica y digéneos de pulmones: ayudando a resolver la crisis de las enfermedaes infecciosas emergentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R. Brooks

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional wisdom, based on assumptions of species-specific coevolutionary interactions between hosts and parasites, suggests that pathogens with multi-host life cycles are unlikely to move with their definitive hosts because their transmission requirements are so specialized. Ecological fitting provides a theory of diffuse coevolution, which allows introduced pathogens with complex life cycles to become established and spread rapidly into native hosts if the resource required at each stage of the life cycle is both phylogenetically conservative (distributed among numerous species and geographically widespread. The external appearance of life cycle complexity does not, therefore, on its own, predict the potential for an organism to become an emerging infectious disease. We apply this concept to explain a potential enigma, the presence of a lung fluke, Haematoloechus floedae, endemic to North American bullfrogs, in Costa Rican leopard frogs, even though there are no bullfrogs extant in the country today, and none ever occurred where the parasite has been discovered. We then discuss how the integration of ecological and life history information within a phylogenetic framework can help biologists move from attempts to manage emerging infectious disease outbreaks to the ability to predict and thus circumvent the outbreak in the first place.Con base en el supuesto de coevolución a nivel de especies de parásitos y hospederos, tradicionalmente se asume como poco probable que aquellos patógenos con ciclos de vida que involucran varios hospederos acompañen a su hospedero definitivo a un nuevo ambiente, por lo especializado de sus requerimientos de transmisión. El fenómeno de flexibilidad ecológica aporta una teoría de coevolución difusa, que permite a los patógenos con ciclos de vida complejos, que han sido introducidos, establecerse y dispersarse de una manera rápida en hospederos nativos, si el recurso requerido en cada etapa del ciclo de

  9. Hydroecology of Intermittent and Ephemeral Streams: Will Landscape Connectivity Sustain Aquatic Organisms in a Changing Climate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-24

    invaded ponds (2 bullfrog ponds (BF), dark grey triangles: CHOL = Cholla Pond, SHEL = Shell Pond; 1 bullfrog and mosquitofish pond (BF+M), black...conditions can cause loss of species and biomass that triggers restructuring of food webs (Ledger et al. 2013a). In light of projected climate change...ponds”), two ponds with bullfrogs present at time of sampling ( Shell and Cholla Ponds, “BF ponds”), and one pond with bullfrogs and mosquitofish

  10. Transduction proteins of olfactory receptor cells: identification of guanine nucleotide binding proteins and protein kinase C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anholt, R.R.H.; Mumby, S.M.; Stoffers, D.A.; Girard, P.R.; Kuo, J.F.; Snyder, S.H.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have analyzed guanine nucleotide binding proteins (G-proteins) in the olfactory epithelium of Rana catesbeiana using subunit-specific antisera. The olfactory epithelium contained the α subunits of three G-proteins, migrating on polyacrylamide gels in SDS with apparent molecular weights of 45,000, 42,000, and 40,000, corresponding to G/sub s/, G/sub i/, and G/sub o/, respectively. A single β subunit with an apparent molecular weight of 36,000 was detected. An antiserum against the α subunit of retinal transducin failed to detect immunoreactive proteins in olfactory cilia detached from the epithelium. The olfactory cilia appeared to be enriched in immunoreactive G/sub sα/ relative to G/sub ichemical bond/ and G/sub ochemical bond/ when compared to membranes prepared from the olfactory epithelium after detachment of the cilia. Bound antibody was detected by autoradiography after incubation with [ 125 I]protein. Immunohistochemical studies using an antiserum against the β subunit of G-proteins revealed intense staining of the ciliary surface of the olfactory epithelium and of the axon bundles in the lamina propria. In contrast, an antiserum against a common sequence of the α subunits preferentially stained the cell membranes of the olfactory receptor cells and the acinar cells of Bowman's glands and the deep submucosal glands. In addition to G-proteins, they have identified protein kinase C in olfactory cilia via a protein kinase C specific antiserum and via phorbol ester binding. However, in contrast to the G-proteins, protein kinase C occurred also in cilia isolated from respiratory epithelium

  11. Rethinking the biological relationships of the thyroid hormones, l-thyroxine and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Stacey K; Wojnarowicz, Pola; Ichu, Taka-Aki; Veldhoen, Nik; Lu, Linghong; Lesperance, Mary; Propper, Catherine R; Helbing, Caren C

    2016-06-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs), l-thyroxine (T4) and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3), are essential for vertebrate growth and development. Classically, T4 is 5'-deiodinated to the active hormone, T3, in target tissues which then binds nuclear TH receptors (TRs) and regulates gene transcription. However, it is possible that T4 acts directly on target tissues. Frog metamorphosis is a powerful TR-dependent model for studying TH action. Premetamorphic Rana (Lithobates) catesbeiana tadpoles were injected with 0.1-50 T3 or 0.5-250T4pmol/gbodyweight to account for their 5-fold difference in biological activity and the mRNA profiles in six tissues from well-characterized TH-responsive genes were evaluated after 48h using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. 5'-deiodinase-poor tissues should produce superimposable dose-response curves if T4 does not require conversion to T3. This was the case in lung and tail fin; the latter tissue recapitulating these responses in organ culture. 5'-deiodinase-rich tissues should convert T4 to T3. Because T3 has a higher affinity to TRs, a 5-fold higher T4 dose compared to T3 should produce greater transcript induction. This was observed in the brain and for most intestinal transcripts. However, some gene transcripts in the intestine and all transcripts in the back skin produced superimposable response curves suggesting that a direct mode of T4 action is plausible in these tissues. While the liver showed results consistent with its 5'-deiodinase-poor status, we found evidence of an alternate, non-genomic mechanism for two gene transcripts. Therefore, mechanisms not requiring T4 conversion to T3 may play a far greater role than previously thought. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Vasotocin- and mesotocin-induced increases in short-circuit current across tree frog skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Makoto; Fujimaki-Aoba, Kayo; Hokari, Shigeru

    2011-02-01

    In adult amphibian skin, Na(+) crosses from outside to inside. This Na(+) transport can be measured as the amiloride-blockable short-circuit current (SCC) across the skin. We investigated the effects of arginine vasotocin (AVT) and mesotocin (MT), and those of antagonists of the vasopressin and oxytocin receptors, on the SCC across Hyla japonica skin. (1) Both AVT (100 pmol/L or more) and MT (1 nmol/L or more) increased the SCC. (2) The AVT- and MT-induced increases in SCC recovered with time (downregulation). (3) These AVT/MT-induced effects were blocked by application of OPC-31260 (vasopressin V(2)-receptor antagonist). (4) The OPC-31260 concentration needed to block the AVT-induced response was lower upon post-application (after application of agonist) than upon pre-application (before application of agonist), suggesting the number of receptors may have decreased after AVT application. (5) Upon repeated application of AVT (100 pmol/L), the induced SCC increase did not differ significantly between the 1st and 2nd applications. (6) The time to reach the half-maximum value of the AVT-induced or MT-induced increase in SCC was not significantly different between washout and post-application of OPC-31260, suggesting that post-application of OPC-31260 cleared AVT and MT from their receptors. The effects of AVT, MT, and their antagonists in H. japonica, which is adapted to a terrestrial habitat, are compared with our previously published data on Rana catesbeiana (=Lithobates catesbeianus), which is adapted to a semiaquatic habitat.

  13. Peripheral origins and functional characteristics of vibration-sensitive VIIIth nerve fibers in the frog Rana temporaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jøgensen, Morten Buhl; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    1991-01-01

    were studied. 2) Vibration-sensitive fibers were found in both the anterior and posterior branch of the VIIIth nerve. 3) No vibration-sensitive fibers were found in the lagenar nerve. 4) The vibration-sensitive fibers in the posterior branch probably innervated the amphibian papilla and many...... of these fibers also responded to low-frequency sound. 5) The vibration-sensitive fibers in the anterior branch probably innervated the sacculus and the utriculus. 6) Hence, the grassfrog has at least two, and probably three, vibration-sensitive organs in the inner ear. 7) All fibers had V-shaped vibrational...... tuning curves. In the posterior branch best frequencies (BFs) ranged from 10 to 300 Hz, in the anterior branch from 10 to 100 Hz. In the posterior branch spike-rate thresholds at BF ranged from 0.04 to 1.28 cm/s2, in the anterior branch from 0.02 to 1.28 cm/s2. All fibers showed strong synchronization...

  14. Correlation between chloride flux via the mitochondria-rich cells and transepithelial water movement in isolated frog skin (Rana esculenta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Antidiuretic hormone; chloride transport; electroosmosis; Frog skin; Intercalated cells; Local osmosis; Mitochondria-rich cells.......Antidiuretic hormone; chloride transport; electroosmosis; Frog skin; Intercalated cells; Local osmosis; Mitochondria-rich cells....

  15. Estimation of the factors determining body size of youngs of the year of Rana temporaria L. before a hibernation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutenkov Anatoly Petrovich

    2013-10-01

    This equation and statistical analysis showed that the year-to-year morphological variability of juvenile frogs by the autumn depends on air temperature, rainfall, and the time of exposition (from the beginning of metamorphosis up to the end of foraging, rather than intrinsic properties of different groups of newly metamorphosed froglets.

  16. The Effects of Nicotinic and Muscarinic Receptor Activation on Patch-Clamped Cells in the Optic Tectum of Rana Pipiens

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, C.-J.; Debski, E. A.

    2003-01-01

    Both nicotinic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors are present in the optic tectum. To begin to understand how the activation of these receptors affects visual activity patterns, we have determined the types of physiological responses induced by their activation. Using tectal brain slices from the leopard frog, we found that application of nicotine (100 μM) evoked long-lasting responses in 60% of patch-clamped tectal cells. Thirty percent of these responses consisted of an increase in sponta...

  17. The effects of nicotinic and muscarinic receptor activation on patch-clamped cells in the optic tectum of Rana pipiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, C-J; Debski, E A

    2003-01-01

    Both nicotinic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors are present in the optic tectum. To begin to understand how the activation of these receptors affects visual activity patterns, we have determined the types of physiological responses induced by their activation. Using tectal brain slices from the leopard frog, we found that application of nicotine (100 microM) evoked long-lasting responses in 60% of patch-clamped tectal cells. Thirty percent of these responses consisted of an increase in spontaneous postsynaptic currents (sPSCs) and had both a glutamatergic and GABAergic component as determined by the use of 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (50 microM) and bicuculline (25 microM), respectively. Remaining response types consisted of an inward membrane current (16%) and an increase in sPSCs combined with an inward membrane current (14%). All responses could be elicited in the presence of tetrodotoxin (0.5 microM). Muscarinic receptor-mediated responses, induced by carbachol (100 microM) application after nicotinic receptor desensitization, produced responses in 70% of tectal cells. In contrast to responses elicited by nicotine, carbachol-induced responses could be evoked multiple times without significant decrement. Responses consisted of either an outward current (57%), a decrease in sPSCs (5%) or an increase in sPSCs, with (almost 6%) or without (almost 3%) an outward current. The response elicited by carbachol was not predicted by the response of the cell to nicotine. Our results suggest that nicotinic receptors are found predominantly at presynaptic locations in the optic tectum while muscarinic receptors are most often present at postsynaptic sites. We conclude that both of these receptor types could substantially modulate visual activity by changing either the input to tectal neurons or the level of their response to that input.

  18. Effects of thyroidal, gonadal and adrenal hormones on tissue respiration of streaked frog, Rana limnocharis, at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, B B; Chakrabarty, P

    1990-01-01

    In vivo and in vitro effects of thyroidal, gonadal and adrenal hormones were studied on the rate of liver and skeletal muscle respiration in both the sexes of R. limnocharis during active and inactive phases of the annual activity cycle. Triiodothyronine (L-T3) and thyroxine (L-T4) did not stimulate tissue (liver and muscle) respiration in any of the experiments irrespective of season, sex and temperature. Testosterone, estradiol and corticosterone stimulated O2 uptake significantly irrespective of season, sex and temperature. Adrenaline and nor-adrenaline also stimulated tissue respiration significantly during the winter month. Since the ambient temperature was low even during the active phase (max. temperature 21 degrees C), it seems that the frog might have developed tissue sensitivity for gonadal and adrenal hormones at low temperatures when thyroid hormones are calorigenically ineffective.

  19. Ecology of anuran populations inhabiting thermally stressed aquatic ecosystems, with emphasis on larval Rana pipiens and Bufo terrestris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.H.

    1974-01-01

    Field and laboratory studies were conducted to determine the responses of anuran populations to thermally stressed aquatic ecosystems. Adult and larval amphibians were sampled in and around a cool arm of a 67 ha reservoir that receives high temperature effluent from a nuclear production reactor on the Savannah River Plant (SRP) in South Carolina. Patterns for some species were compared with data from nearby unheated areas and analyzed in terms of the thermal gradient (16-45 C) extending the length of the reservoir's cool arm. The adaptation to breeding during nocturnal rainfall fortuitously confers a double advantage especially to anurans breeding in thermally stressed waters. (U.S.)

  20. [The coiled bodies and satellite microbodies of the oocyte nuclei in hibernating Rana temporaria frogs contain actin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetkov, A G; Kvasov, I D; Khaĭtlina, S Iu; Parfenov, V N

    1997-01-01

    Immunocytochemical analysis of preparation of dispersed nuclei content in oocytes of III-IV stages of oogenesis, in terms of Dumont (1972), from hibernating grass frogs using monoclonal antibodies against actin, revealed two types of intranuclear structures containing this protein: coiled bodies (CB) and satellite microbodies (SM). Staining of these preparations with Rhodamin-phalloidin, known specifically to interact with fibrillar actin, did not reveal it in these structures. Results of our biochemical studies, using protease ESP32 specifically cutting only globular actin, are suggesting that both CB and SM contain globular actin. Gall et al. (1975) proposed that CB may be involved in assembling and sorting of small nuclear RNA for the three main RNA processing pathways: pre-mRNA splicing, pre-rRNA processing, and histone pre-mRNA 3'-end formation. Our finding of actin in CB allows a suggestion on actin involvement in the transport of RNA processing complexes from CB to some actual places where processing of RNA takes place. According to our previous data (Tsvetkov, Parfenov., 1994), SM participate in the karyosphere capsule formation. This process is preceded by SM fusion triggered presumably by actin.

  1. new hormone in the neuro-hypophysis of Rana esculenta L. stimulating the active transport of sodium through the skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maetz, J.; Morel, F.; Race, B.

    1960-01-01

    A test is described for the determination of the activity of hormones and extracts of the neuro-hypophysis in the active transport of sodium through the skin of R. esculenta. This test shows ocytocin to be active in limit concentrations of 0.15 to 1 mU/ml, while vasopressin appears to have practical no activity. The results show that the activity of the extract of rat neuro-hypophysis is exactly accounted for by its ocytocin content. However, extracts of frog neuro-hypophysis show an activity of which only 8 % can be ascribed to ocytocin. Therefore it is assumed that the posterior hypophysis of R. esculenta contains a hormone 'Natriferine', different from ocytocin and vasopressin, and not existent in rat hypophysis. Reprint of a paper published in Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, Vol. 36, 1959 [fr

  2. De werking van de hydro- en acetylverbindingen van kinidine en kinine op het hart van Rana esculenta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sibie, Johan Dirk

    1942-01-01

    In hoofdstuk I werd een inleiding gegeven betreffende de geschiedenis van de kina en van het begin der kinacultuur op Java, de chemie der kinaälkaloïden en enkele aspecten der pharmacologische werking van de kinaderivaten. ... Zie: Samenvatting

  3. Identification of parental chromosomes in hybridogenetic water frog Pelophylax esculentus (Rana esculenta) by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zalésna, A.; Choleva, Lukáš; Ogielska, M.; Rábová, Marie; Marec, František; Ráb, Petr

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 16 (2010), s. 754-755 ISSN 0967-3849. [19th International Colloquium on animal cytogenetics and gene mapping. 06.06.-09.06.2010, Krakow] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515; CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : parental chromosomes * Pelophylax esculentus * hybridization Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  4. Effects of nitrate and atrazine on larval development and sexual differentiation in the northern leopard frog Rana pipiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Frances; Carr, James A; Handy, Richard D

    2006-01-01

    Pollution from agrochemicals may be contributing to the global decline in amphibian populations. Environmentally relevant concentrations of nitrate and/or atrazine on anuran development and gonadal differentiation were tested. Four replicates of 20 tadpoles per tank (80/treatment) were exposed from Taylor-Kollros stage 2 to 3 to stage 23 to 34 to either 10 mg/L nitrate, 10 microg/L atrazine, a combined exposure of 10 mg/L nitrate plus 10 microg/L atrazine, or untreated controls. No treatment-dependent effects on weight, snout-vent or hind limb length, or time to forelimb emergence were observed. The proportions of females increased in all treatments compared to the controls, especially in the combined treatment (chi2 = 17.90, df = 6, p = 0.0065, combined = 66.4% female, control = 41% female). The frequency of intersex was low in all treatments. No treatment-related effects on the total number of spermatogenic cells were observed, but the ratio of cell types differed in that testes from animals in the treated groups exhibited more spermatogonia, fewer spermatocytes, and more spermatids than the control (significantly different, Kruskal-Wallis, p < 0.05). Ovaries from animals treated with nitrate or atrazine exhibited larger immature (previtellogenic) and mature (vitellogenic) follicles, but ovaries from the combined treatment had larger immature follicles only. Testicular oocytes were observed in the nitrate-only and atrazine-only treatments, and the control treatment, but not the combined treatment. Overall, this study has demonstrated changes in sex ratios that are more marked in response to combined nitrate/atrazine exposure than with these chemicals alone. Histological evidence suggests that premature maturation of gonad may occur as a result of nitrate and/or atrazine exposure during larval development.

  5. Characterization of kappa 1 and kappa 2 opioid binding sites in frog (Rana esculenta) brain membrane preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benyhe, S.; Varga, E.; Hepp, J.; Magyar, A.; Borsodi, A.; Wollemann, M.

    1990-09-01

    The distribution and properties of frog brain kappa-opioid receptor subtypes differ not only from those of the guinea pig brain, but also from that of the rat brain. In guinea pig cerebellum the kappa 1 is the dominant receptor subtype, frog brain contains mainly the kappa 2 subtype, and the distribution of the rat brain subtypes is intermediate between the two others. In competition experiments it has been established that ethylketocyclazocine and N-cyclopropylmethyl-norazidomorphine, which are nonselective kappa-ligands, have relatively high affinities to frog brain membranes. The kappa 2 ligands (Met5)enkephalin-Arg6-Phe7 and etorphine also show high affinities to the frog brain. Kappa 1 binding sites measured in the presence of 5 microM/D-Ala2-Leu5/enkephalin represent 25-30% of (3H)ethylketocyclazocine binding in frog brain membranes. The kappa 2 subtype in frog brain resembles more to the mu subtype than the delta subtype of opioid receptors, but it differs from the mu subtype in displaying low affinity toward beta-endorphin and /D-Ala2-(Me)Phe4-Gly5-ol/enkephalin (DAGO). From our data it is evident that the opioid receptor subtypes are already present in the amphibian brain but the differences among them are less pronounced than in mammalian brain.

  6. Characterization of kappa 1 and kappa 2 opioid binding sites in frog (Rana esculenta) brain membrane preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benyhe, S.; Varga, E.; Hepp, J.; Magyar, A.; Borsodi, A.; Wollemann, M.

    1990-01-01

    The distribution and properties of frog brain kappa-opioid receptor subtypes differ not only from those of the guinea pig brain, but also from that of the rat brain. In guinea pig cerebellum the kappa 1 is the dominant receptor subtype, frog brain contains mainly the kappa 2 subtype, and the distribution of the rat brain subtypes is intermediate between the two others. In competition experiments it has been established that ethylketocyclazocine and N-cyclopropylmethyl-norazidomorphine, which are nonselective kappa-ligands, have relatively high affinities to frog brain membranes. The kappa 2 ligands (Met5)enkephalin-Arg6-Phe7 and etorphine also show high affinities to the frog brain. Kappa 1 binding sites measured in the presence of 5 microM/D-Ala2-Leu5/enkephalin represent 25-30% of [3H]ethylketocyclazocine binding in frog brain membranes. The kappa 2 subtype in frog brain resembles more to the mu subtype than the delta subtype of opioid receptors, but it differs from the mu subtype in displaying low affinity toward beta-endorphin and /D-Ala2-(Me)Phe4-Gly5-ol/enkephalin (DAGO). From our data it is evident that the opioid receptor subtypes are already present in the amphibian brain but the differences among them are less pronounced than in mammalian brain

  7. In-situ caging of wood frog (Rana sylvatica) larvae in wetlands formed from oil sands tailings materials (OSPM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hersikorn, B.; Smits, J.E. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    The reclamation of oil sand tailings through the formation of wetlands was examined during the spring and summer of 2006 and 2007 in a mesocosm study of indigenous amphibians (wood frogs). In both years, frogs were exposed to wetlands containing oil sands process-affected materials (OSPM) and reference wetlands that did not contain any OSPM. In year 2 there were 14 sites, of which 7 were reference sites and 7 were OSPM- affected sites. The sites were classified as older or younger than 7 yrs. Four enclosures, each containing 50 tadpoles, were placed in each wetland. Survival time to metamorphosis, and thyroid hormone ratios of larvae raised in young OSPM wetlands were found to be different from those of reference wetlands and old OSPM wetlands. This presentation also provided data on liver EROD activity and whole-body triglyceride concentrations. The study showed that the formation of wetlands from tailings material may support populations of amphibians if the wetlands are given the time to age. The development and health of native amphibians reflects the sustainability of the different reclamation strategies and delineates how higher trophic level organisms may be affected by OSPM.

  8. Persistence at distributional edges: Columbia spotted frog habitat in the arid Great Basin, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkle, Robert S; Pilliod, David S

    2015-09-01

    A common challenge in the conservation of broadly distributed, yet imperiled species is understanding which factors facilitate persistence at distributional edges, locations where populations are often vulnerable to extirpation due to changes in climate, land use, or distributions of other species. For Columbia spotted frogs (Rana luteiventris) in the Great Basin (USA), a genetically distinct population segment of conservation concern, we approached this problem by examining (1) landscape-scale habitat availability and distribution, (2) water body-scale habitat associations, and (3) resource management-identified threats to persistence. We found that areas with perennial aquatic habitat and suitable climate are extremely limited in the southern portion of the species' range. Within these suitable areas, native and non-native predators (trout and American bullfrogs [Lithobates catesbeianus]) are widespread and may further limit habitat availability in upper- and lower-elevation areas, respectively. At the water body scale, spotted frog occupancy was associated with deeper sites containing abundant emergent vegetation and nontrout fish species. Streams with American beaver (Castor canadensis) frequently had these structural characteristics and were significantly more likely to be occupied than ponds, lakes, streams without beaver, or streams with inactive beaver ponds, highlighting the importance of active manipulation of stream environments by beaver. Native and non-native trout reduced the likelihood of spotted frog occupancy, especially where emergent vegetation cover was sparse. Intensive livestock grazing, low aquatic connectivity, and ephemeral hydroperiods were also negatively associated with spotted frog occupancy. We conclude that persistence of this species at the arid end of its range has been largely facilitated by habitat stability (i.e., permanent hydroperiod), connectivity, predator-free refugia, and a commensalistic interaction with an ecosystem

  9. Contractilidad del músculo ventricular bajo la acción de prajmalina-propanolol y prajmalina-epinefrina Contractibility of the ventricular muscle under the action of prajmaline-propanolol and prajmaline-epinephrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Pérez Valdivia

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Los efectos de la estimulación adrenérgica alfa y beta, pueden ser logrados por agentes agonistas y antagonistas, como la epinefrina y el propranolol respectivamente. Con el objetivo de precisar aspectos relacionados con la contractilidad del músculo ventricular, se realizaron un total de trece experimentos utilizando combinaciones de prajmalina-epinefrina y prajmalina-propanolol, prefundiendo preparaciones de tiras de músculo ventricular de trece ejemplares adultos de ranas catesbeiana. La prajmalina, antiarrítmico del grupo I, se obtuvo a partir de la Rauvvolfia viridis, planta endémica de Cuba. Las preparaciones fueron estimuladas con pulsos de corriente, y la tensión desarrollada por el músculo fue registrada por un transductor fuerza-desplazamiento. Las señales eléctricas fueron convertidas en trazos por un equipo registrador. Los resultados indican que las combinaciones de prajmalina-epinefrina y prajmanina-propanolol afectan de forma diametralmente opuesta la contractilidad del músculo cardíaco, aumentando en un 40% y disminuyendo en un 15% respectivamente la fuerza de la contracción del músculo ventricular. Por otra parte se sugiere un posible mecanismo de acción de la prajmalina sobre los receptores alfa presentes en las membranas de las células ventriculares.The effects of alfa and beta adrenergic stimulation can be accomplished by agonist and antagonist agents such as epinephrine and propanolol respectively. Aimed at determining the aspects related to contractibility of ventricular muscle, thirteen experiments were performed using combinations of prajmaline "epinephrine and prajmaline" propanolol, being perfused preparations of ventricular muscle strips of thirteen samples of adult Catesblian frogs. Prajmaline, a group I antiarrhythmic, was obtained from Rauvvolfia viridis, an endemic plant in Cuba. The preparations were stimulated with electric current pulses and the tension performed by the muscle was registered by a

  10. Bilan des introductions récentes d'amphibiens et de reptiles dans les milieux aquatiques continentaux de France métropolitaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAFFNER P.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available En France métropolitaine, on dénombre actuellement 36 amphibiens et 33 reptiles se reproduisant régulièrement. A deux exceptions près, les amphibiens de la faune française sont aquatiques. En revanche, seules quatre espèces de reptiles (2 tortues et 2 serpents fréquentent très régulièrement ou exclusivement les milieux aquatiques. Les introductions en milieux aquatiques effectuées depuis le début du siècle ne concernent qu'une vingtaine d'espèces d'amphibiens ou de reptiles. Le discoglosse peint (Discoglossus pictus et la grenouille taureau (Rana catesbeiana sont les deux seules espèces étrangères dont l'introduction a conduit à une naturalisation. La tortue de «Floride» (Trachemys scripta elegans pourrait bien suivre prochainement la même voie. Certaines espèces françaises ont, par contre, été introduites avec succès en métropole, hors de leurs aires d'indigénat. Les causes connues de ces introductions sont liées à des opérations à but économique (commerce, à caractère socioculturel (loisirs ou à fondement scientifique (expériences. Ces opérations n'ont cependant généralement pas pour but l'introduction volontaire d'une espèce dans le milieu naturel, celle-ci résultant plutôt de négligences. Certaines introductions involontaires ont pu aussi avoir pour origine un transport passif (par exemple, par voie maritime. Des conséquences négatives de ces introductions sont suspectées, mais ne sont généralement pas démontrées. Elles peuvent s'inscrire dans les catégories suivantes : compétition avec une espèce autochtone, prédation excessive sur une ou plusieurs espèces autochtones, pollution génétique, introduction de maladies ou de parasites.

  11. Una nueva especie de rana de cristal del género Hyalinobatrachium (Anura: Centrolenidae del Delta del Río Orinoco, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Celsa Señaris

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describe una nueva especie de Hyalinobatrachium del grupo fleischmanni, H. mondolfii, de las planicies inundables del delta del río Orinoco, Venezuela. Hyalinobatrachium mondolfii se distingue del resto de las especies del grupo por la siguiente combinación de caracteres: peritoneo parietal translúcido, pericardio y peritoneos visceral y hepático blancos, coloración dorsal en vida verde claro con diminutos puntos amarillos y en preservativo crema uniforme con diminutos melanóforos oscuros (visibles solo bajo magnificación, huesos blancos en vida, palmeadura de manos y pies extensa, cabeza redondeada en vista dorsal e inclinada en vista lateral, piel dorsal granular y un canto con frecuencia fundamental superior a los 5 000 HzA new species of Hyalinobatrachium of the fleischmanni group, H. mondolfii, is described from the Orinoco delta floodplains in Venezuela. This new species can be distinguished from other congeners by the following combination of characters: parietal peritoneum clear, pericardium white, visceral and hepatic peritoneum white, color in life pale green with diminute yellow spots and, in preservative, cream with small dark melanophores (visible only under magnification, bones white in life, extense webbing, snout round in dorsal view and inclinate in lateral view, dorsal skin granulate and a advertisement call with a fundamental frequency greater than 5000 Hz

  12. In vitro and in vivo responses of saccular and caudal nucleus neurons in the grassfrog (Rana temporaria)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Walkowiak, W

    1999-01-01

    We present results from in vitro and in vivo studies of response properties of neurons in the saccular and caudal nuclei in the frog. In the in vitro studies the saccular nerve of the isolated brain was stimulated with electrical pulses. In the in vivo experiments, the neurons were stimulated...... by dorso-ventral vibrations of the intact animal. We identified six response types: (1) primary-like cells with short latencies and follow repetition rates up to 100 Hz; (2) phasic cells responding only to the first pulse in a train; (3) bursting cells firing several spikes in response to any stimulation......; (4) late responders with very long latencies; (5) integrator cells showing facilitated responses, and (6) inhibitory cells inhibited by saccular nerve stimulation.The cells have comparable sensitivity and frequency characteristics to the primary fibres (BF 10-80 Hz, thresholds from 0.01 cm/s2...

  13. Identification of individual foothill yellow-legged frogs (Rana boylii) using chin pattern photographs: a non-invasive and effective method for small population studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.R. Marlow; K.D. Wiseman; Clara Wheeler; J.E.  Drennan; R.E.  Jackman

    2016-01-01

    The ability to identify individual animals is a valuable tool in the study of amphibian population dynamics, movement ecology, social behavior, and habitat use. Numerous methods of marking amphibians have been employed including the use of passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags, radio-transmitters, elastomers, branding, and mutilation techniques such as toe...

  14. Factors related to the distribution and prevalence of the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dentrobatidis in Rana cascadae and other amphibians in the Klamath Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonah Piovia-Scott; Karen L. Pope; Sharon P. Lawler; Esther M. Cole; Janet E. Foley

    2011-01-01

    The fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), which causes the disease chytridiomycosis, has been associated with declines and extinctions of montane amphibians worldwide. To gain insight into factors affecting its distribution and prevalence we focus on the amphibian community of the Klamath Mountains in northwest...

  15. [Early stages of development of Trypanosoma rotatorium (Mayer, 1843) from peripheral blood and internal organs of Anurans Bufo bufo (Linnaeus) and Rana sp. (Anura)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malysheva, M N

    2014-01-01

    The data on the fauna of trypanosomes of Anura of the Leningrad Province are given. The initial development stages of Trypanosoma rotatorium in peripheral blood and internal organs of the frog are described for the first time.

  16. Parasitic copepod (Lernaea cyprinacea) outbreaks in foothill yellow-legged frogs (Rana boylii) linked to unusually warm summers in northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah J. Kupferberg; Alessandro Catenazzi; Kevin Lunde; Amy J. Lind; Wendy J. Palen

    2009-01-01

    How climate change may affect parasite–host assemblages and emerging infectious diseases is an important question in amphibian decline research. We present data supporting a link between periods of unusually warm summer water temperatures during 2006 and 2008 in a northern California river, outbreaks of the parasitic copepod Lernaea cyprinacea, and...

  17. Surmanuhtlus kõrgeima võimaliku karistusmäärana : [bakalaureusetöö] / Katrin Roosmaa ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Silvia Kaugia

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roosmaa, Katrin, 1984-

    2007-01-01

    Surmanuhtluse olemus ja selle karistusliigiga sanktsioneeritud teod Eestis lähiminevikus, surmanuhtluse määramine ja täideviimine kuni 1998. a.-ni, surmanuhtluse kaotamise direktiiv ning seda toetavad ja mittetoetavad riigid, levinumad poolt- ja vastuargumendid, Eesti elanikkonna suhtumine

  18. On the occurrence and identity of triploids of Rana kl. esculenta Linnaeus and R. lessonae Camerano in The Netherlands (Anura: Ranidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blommers-Schlösser, Rose M.A.

    1990-01-01

    According to electrophoresis and erythrocyte size the genotypes of 756 waterfrogs, collected during 1986—1988 in 54 localities in The Netherlands, were classified as belonging to 5 different genotypes: 331 diploid R. lessonae (LL), 5 triploid R. lessonae (LLL), 250 diploid R. kl. esculenta (LR), 133

  19. Lista anotada y clave para las ranas (género Eleutherodactylus chocoanas del Valle del Cauca, y apuntes sobre las especies de la Cordillera Occidental adyacente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynch John Douglas

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-three species of the genus Eleutherodactylus are reported fram 24 localities in the western lowlands of Valle del Cauca, Colombia, with notes on their identificacion and distributions. Up to 16 species have been taken from a single site. The cloud forest fauna of  Eleutherodactylus found on the Cordillera Occidental above the drainages of the Anchicayá, Cajambre, Calima, and Dagua rivers consists of 24 species with up to 18 species being found in a single site.Se da información sobre la identificación y las distribuciones de 23 especies del género Eleutherodactylus de 24 sitios de las tierras bajas del occidente del Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Hasta 16 especies fueron registradas del mismo sitio. La fauna de Eleutherodactylus de los bosques nublados de la Cordillera Occidental en los drenajes de los ríos Anchicayá, Cajambre, Calima, y Dagua consta de 24 especies, con hasta 18 encontradas en un mismo sitio.

  20. Evidence of independent action of neurohypophyseal peptides on osmotic water flow and active sodium transport in the same target organ: studies on RANA esculenta skin and bladder (1961)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourguet, J.; Maetz, J.

    1961-01-01

    Neurohypophyseal peptides produce on the skin and bladder of certain amphibia simultaneous increases of the passive osmotic permeability to water and active transport of sodium. The present work shows that oxytocin and two of its analogues arginine-8-oxytocin (arginine vasotocin) and lysine-8-oxytocin (lysine vasotocin) may produce the same increase of water permeability, while stimulating in quite different ways the sodium transport. This is the case for both skin and bladder. In other words, there is no correlation between natriferic and hydro-osmotic activities. The results are interpreted as evidence that neurohypophyseal hormones act on not one, as previously assumed, but two targets, inside the same epithelial cell. (author) [fr

  1. Sound and vibration sensitivity of VIIIth nerve fibers in the frogs Leptodactylus albilabris and Rana pipiens pipiens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Narins, P M

    1993-01-01

    and to sound from 40 dB SPL by increasing their spike rate. Best frequencies (BFs) ranged from 60 to 900 Hz, and only fibers with BFs below 500 Hz responded to vibrations. The fibers had identical BF's for sound and vibration. The saccular fibers had BFs ranging from 10 to 80 Hz with 22 fibers having BFs at 40......-50 Hz. The fibers responded to sound from 70 dB SPL and to vibrations from 0.01 cm/s2. 3. No differences in sensitivity, tuning or phase-locking were found between the two species, except that most BP-fibers in R. pipiens pipiens had BFs from 1.2 to 1.4 kHz, whereas those in L. albilabris had BFs from 2...

  2. Prevalence and risk factors for PTSD in injured workers in Bangladesh: a study of surviving workers from the Rana Plaza building collapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Fitch, MPH

    2015-03-01

    Funding: Travel expenses of participants were covered by Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbei. Taylor Fitch and Gabriela Villanueva both received travel grants from UTHSCSA for airfare and lodging.

  3. Neoliberalismo y oclusión de la política en el peronismo cordobés. Algunas notas desde una lectura rancièrana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Reynares

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta algunos avances de investigación en el marco de una tesis doctoral que se pregunta por las transformaciones de un actor político – partidario subnacional, el peronismo cordobés, bajo la hegemonía neoliberal en la última década del siglo XX. En pos de una reflexión sobre el neoliberalismo, traemos a colación algunos aportes del filósofo Jacques Rancière, más específicamente su desarrollo de las lógicas de la política y la policía, y de la emergencia subjetiva del demos. Nos interesa analizar algunos efectos de la sobredeterminación neoliberal, tanto en la palabra pública como en la práctica partidaria, en el peronismo cordobés, bajo lo que consideraremos como una expansión de la lógica policial que conlleva una obturación de la posibilidad de emergencia del demos como sujeto político abarcador. Así la práctica política será interpretada por los actores políticos como expresión de diferencias sociales en el aparato administrativo del Estado, o bien como adaptación ante la inevitabilidad de procesos económicos.

  4. Ion channel regulation of the dynamical instability of the resting membrane potential in saccular hair cells of the green frog (Rana esculenta)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorgensen, F; Kroese, ABA

    2005-01-01

    Aims: We investigated the ion channel regulation of the resting membrane potential of hair cells with the aim to determine if the resting membrane potential is poised close to instability and thereby a potential cause of the spontaneous afferent spike activity. Methods: The ionic mechanism and the

  5. A review on fungal diseases of algae, marine fishes, shrimps and corals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.

    parasite of Rana esculenta in Central Italy. These authors have listed species designated to this genus (and authorities, references can be found in Palusconi et al 18 ):Dermocystidium pusula Pérez, 1907; Dermocystidium ranae Guyenot & Naville, 1922...

  6. Popmuusika / Valner Valme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Valme, Valner, 1970-

    2006-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest Nits "Les Nuits", Bullfrog Brown "Snakes & Devils", "Motown remixed", "The Dukes Of Hazzard", Critical "Chapter One ehk Teine Maitse", The Dandy Warhols "Odditorium Or Warlords Of Mars", Solveig Slettahjell Slow motion Quintet "Pixiedust"

  7. Plaadid / Tiit Kusnets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kusnets, Tiit

    2004-01-01

    Uutest plaatidest Luavrik Luavrik "Passioon & Fuuga", Arve Henriksen "Chiaroscuro", Bullfrog Brown "Mudhole Stories", "Scoonby-Doo 2", Bela fleck & Edgar Mayer "Music For Two", Christiana Milian "It's About Time"

  8. Bits and Pieces ehk kolumna / DJ Pickney Tiger

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    DJ Pickney Tiger, pseud., 1970-

    2009-01-01

    Tutvustused: XXI Sajandi Orkester. Kaheksa. Tallinn : XXI Sajandi Orkester, 2006 ; XXI Sajandi Orkester. Üheksa. Tallinn : XXI Sajandi Orkester, 2008 ; Silent Bass. Crosshatched. Germany : Laika, 2008 ; Bullfrog Brown with Steve Lury. 2009

  9. Kuula ka neid / Joosep Sang

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sang, Joosep

    2009-01-01

    Heliplaaditutvustused: Bullfrog Brown with Steve Lury. KWAQ Records, 2009; Grupa Janke Randalu. Live. [Saksamaa] : Jazz'n'Arts, 2008; Paha Polly. Ei jäägi üle muud... [Tartu] : Forward, 2008. Uutest heliplaatidest

  10. Avaliação de níveis de proteína digestível para girinos de rã-touro

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Donovan Filipe Henrique [UNESP

    2014-01-01

    Given the importance of growing tadpoles to get good results in frog farming, this study aimed to determine the digestible protein requirement for bullfrog tadpoles and evaluate the deposition of body nutrients. 9,120 bullfrog tadpoles were used, housed in 24 tanks and fed with isocaloric diets (3,676 kcal DE kg- 1) containing 21, 23, 25, 27, 29 and 31 % digestible protein (DP). We evaluated weight gain, feed intake, protein intake, food conversion, specific growth rate (SGR) and protein effi...

  11. Novel application of explicit dynamics occupancy models to ongoing aquatic invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Adam J.

    2018-01-01

    Identification of suitable habitats, where invasive species can establish, is an important step towards controlling their spread. Accurate identification is difficult for new or slow invaders because unoccupied habitats may be suitable, given enough time for dispersal, while occupied habitats may prove to be unsuitable for establishment.To identify the suitable habitat of a recent invader, I used an explicit dynamics occupancy modelling framework to evaluate habitat covariates related to successful and failed establishments of American bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) within the Yellowstone River floodplain of Montana, USA from 2012-2016.During this five-year period, bullfrogs failed to establish at most sites they colonized. Bullfrog establishment was most likely to occur and least likely to fail at sites closest to human-modified ponds and lakes and those with emergent vegetation. These habitat covariates were generally associated with the presence of permanent water.Suitable habitat for bullfrog establishment is abundant in the Yellowstone River floodplain, though many sites with suitable habitat remain uncolonized. Thus, the maximum distribution of bullfrogs is much greater than their current distribution.Synthesis and applications. Focused control efforts on habitats with or proximate to permanent waters are most likely to reduce the potential for invasive bullfrog establishment and spread in the Yellowstone River. The novel application of explicit dynamics occupancy models is a useful and widely applicable tool for guiding management efforts towards those habitats where new or slow invaders are most likely to establish and persist.

  12. A Model for Taxonomic Work on Homoxenous Coccidia: Redescription, Host Specificity, and Molecular Phylogeny of Eimeria ranae Dobell, 1909, with a Review of Anuran-Host Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriorina)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirků, Miloslav; Jirků, Milan; Oborník, Miroslav; Lukeš, Julius; Modrý, David

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 1 (2009), s. 39-51 ISSN 1066-5234 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/1544 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Amphibia * Anura * experimental infections * metamorphosis * morphotypes * SSU rDNA sequence * tadpoles * ultrastructure Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.355, year: 2009

  13. A stockpile of ova in the grass frog Rana temporaria is established once for the life span. Do ovaries in amphibians and in mammals follow the same evolutionary strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogielska, Maria; Kotusz, Agnieszka; Augustyńska, Renata; Ihnatowicz, Jerzy; Paśko, Łukasz

    2013-04-01

    Most anuran amphibians produce high numbers of eggs during several consecutive breeding seasons. The question is still open whether oocytes are formed anew as a result of oogonial proliferation after each spawning or the definitive pool of oocytes is established during the juvenile period and is sufficient for the whole reproductive life span of a female. Our quantitative studies show that primary oogonia in adult female frogs can proliferate, but they fail to differentiate further and do not enter meiosis, and thereby there is no supplementation of new generations of oocytes after each spawning. Ovaries of one-year-old grass frogs contain (median) 53,447 diplotene oocytes, in two-years-old frogs this number decreased to 33,583 and eventually reached 25,679 in virgin mature females. More than 50% decrease in the total oocyte number was accompanied by massive degeneration (atresia) of oocytes. The final number of oocytes in a female forms a stock for 11-12 breeding seasons and exceeds the number of eggs produced during the potential reproductive life span of this species. The phylogenetic context of oocyte recruitment modes in the major clades of vertebrates is discussed in respect to their ability to replenish the stock (a renewable stock in ovaries named "open" vs. a non-renewable stock in ovaries named "closed"). Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Effects of water temperature on breeding phenology, growth, and metamorphosis of foothill yellow-legged frogs (Rana boylii): a case study of the regulated mainstem and unregulated tributaries of California's Trinity River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clara Wheeler; James Bettaso; Donald Ashton; Hartwell Welsh

    2014-01-01

    Many riverine organisms are well adapted to seasonally dynamic environments, but extreme changes in flow and thermal regimes can threaten sustainability of their populations in regulated rivers. Altered thermal regimes may limit recruitment to populations by shifting the timing of breeding activities and affecting the growth and development of early life stages. Stream...

  15. La planificación tributaria como instrumento idóneo para maximizar los beneficios económicos: caso del subsector comercializadoras de la rana especie "catesbiana”

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Gallardo, Ana Lucía

    2016-01-01

    La presente investigación tiene como propósito aplicar la planificación tributaria como instrumento idóneo para maximizar el aprovechamiento de los beneficios e incentivos existentes en nuestro sistema tributario, aplicado al subsector ranicultor. El objetivo principal es proporcionar a los empresarios (principalmente pequeños y medianos) directrices para aprovechar los beneficios e incentivos que la ley establece, e incentivar de esta forma el emprendimiento y la asociación entre empresarios...

  16. Effects of water temperature on breeding phenology, growth and timing of metamorphosis of foothill yellow-legged frogs (Rana boylii) on the mainstem and selected tributaries of California's Trinity River - 2004-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clara Wheeler; James Bettaso; Donald Ashton; Hartwell Welsh

    2013-01-01

    The cold temperatures maintained in the Trinity River are beneficial to fish but may be problematic for foothill yellow-legged frogs. We examined the timing of breeding, reproductive output, and growth and development of tadpoles for populations of foothill yellow-legged frogs on the mainstem and six tributaries of the Trinity River. On the colder mainstem, onset of...

  17. Evidence of independent action of neurohypophyseal peptides on osmotic water flow and active sodium transport in the same target organ: studies on RANA esculenta skin and bladder (1961); Arguments en faveur de l'independance des mecanismes d'action de divers peptides neurohypophysaires sur le flux osmotique d'eau et sur le transport actif de sodium au sein d'un meme recepteur: etudes sur la vessie et la peau de RANA esculanta L (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourguet, J; Maetz, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    Neurohypophyseal peptides produce on the skin and bladder of certain amphibia simultaneous increases of the passive osmotic permeability to water and active transport of sodium. The present work shows that oxytocin and two of its analogues arginine-8-oxytocin (arginine vasotocin) and lysine-8-oxytocin (lysine vasotocin) may produce the same increase of water permeability, while stimulating in quite different ways the sodium transport. This is the case for both skin and bladder. In other words, there is no correlation between natriferic and hydro-osmotic activities. The results are interpreted as evidence that neurohypophyseal hormones act on not one, as previously assumed, but two targets, inside the same epithelial cell. (author) [French] Les peptides neurohypophysaires produisent simultanement une augmentation de la permeabilite osmotique passive a l'eau, et une stimulation du transport actif de sodium sur la peau et sur la vessie de certains amphibiens. Ce travail montre que l'ocytocine et deux de ses analogues, l'arginine 8-ocytocine (arginine vasotocine) et la lysine-8-ocytocine (lysine vasotocine ) entrainent un accroissement identique de la permeabilite a l'eau, mais stimulent de facon differente le transport de sodium. Ceci est vrai aussi bien pour la peau que pour la vessie. Autrement dit, il n'existe pas de correlation entre les activites natriferique et hydrosmotique. Les resultats suggerent que les hormones neurohypophysaires agissent non sur une seule cible comme on l'avait cru, mais sur deux cibles se trouvant dans la meme cellule. (auteur)

  18. Effect of Sika Deer and Reindeer Peripheral and Antler Blood Perfusion on Myocardial Contractility and Heart Rate of Heart Isolated from Bullfrog%梅花鹿和驯鹿外周血和茸血对牛蛙离体心脏心肌收缩力和心率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王博; 邢婷婷; 黄伟; 刘忠军

    2013-01-01

    为探讨鹿血对牛蛙离体心脏收缩力和心率的影响,采用斯氏法离体蛙心,分别用不同的鹿血对离体心脏进行灌流,用BL-420E生物技能试验系统记录离体心脏给药前、后心肌收缩力和心率的变化.试验结果表明:梅花鹿外周血、梅花鹿茸血、驯鹿外周血和驯鹿茸血与任氏液对照组相比心肌收缩力增加42.27% ~126.62%,差异极显著(P<0.01),其中梅花鹿外周血和驯鹿外周血较比梅花鹿茸血和驯鹿茸血对增强离体蛙心心肌收缩力更为明显,但对各组间的心率没有影响(P>0.05).

  19. Journal of Genetics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics. RANA GOPAL SINGH. Articles written in Journal of Genetics. Volume 96 Issue 6 December 2017 pp 885-893 RESEARCH ARTICLE. Mutational screening of PKD2 gene in the north Indian polycystic kidney disease patients revealed 28 genetic variations · SONAM RAJ RANA GOPAL ...

  20. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. R S Rana. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 122 Issue 2 April 2013 pp 289-307. Palynostratigraphy and depositional environment of Vastan Lignite Mine (Early Eocene), Gujarat, western India · M R Rao Ashok Sahni R S Rana Poonam Verma.

  1. Bio-historia

    OpenAIRE

    Réaumur, René-Antoine Ferchault de; Aguiló, F. de S.

    2012-01-01

    Memorias sobre las ranas (1) (el apareamiento de las ranas) (2) 1736 (Inédito) (3) / memorias sobre los sapos. Sapos de agua (9) (10 de abril de 1740) (Inédito). Versión y notas del Prof. F. de S. Aguiló

  2. Bio-historia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René-Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur

    1951-08-01

    Full Text Available Memorias sobre las ranas (1 (el apareamiento de las ranas (2 1736 (Inédito (3 / memorias sobre los sapos. Sapos de agua (9 (10 de abril de 1740 (Inédito. Versión y notas del Prof. F. de S. Aguiló

  3. Resonance – Journal of Science Education | Indian Academy of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Shubashis Rana. Articles written in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 22 Issue 7 July 2017 pp 659-676 General Article. Second Law, Landauer's Principle and Autonomous Information Machine · Shubashis Rana A M Jayannavar · More Details ...

  4. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Anjali Verma1 Nikhil Kumar2 S A Ranade1. Plant Molecular Biology, National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow 226 001, India; Betelvine Laboratories, National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow 226 001, India ...

  5. VRIJEDNOST KARBOKSITERAPIJE PRI LIJEČENJU KRONIČNE RANE POTKOLJENICE

    OpenAIRE

    KOVAČEVIĆ, JADRANKA; SINOŽIĆ, TAMARA

    2015-01-01

    Karboksiterapija je potporna metoda liječenja kroničnih rana koja se provodi kutanim ili subkutanim ubrizgavanjem medicinskog ugljičnog dioksida (Co2). osnovni princip djelovanja ubrizganog plina Co2 je korekcija tkivne hipoksije temeljem Bohrovog efekta. Djelujući na endotelne faktore rasta potiče neoangiogenezu te stimuliraju ibroblaste na sintezu kolagena što sve zajedno dovodi do boljeg zacjeljivanja rana. Brojna su područja primjene karboksiterapije: od liječenja kroničnih rana, bolesti ...

  6. Evaluation of the interespecific behaviour in frogs Avaliação do comportamento interespecífico de rã, Leptodactylus labyrinthicus (rã pimenta) e Lithobates catesbeianus (rã-touro) em diferentes ambientes. DOI: 10.7902/ecb.v2i1.23

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Oliveira de Souza; Adriano de Souza Alves; Oswaldo Pinto Ribeiro Filho; Rafael de Souza Alves; Marcelo Maia Pereira

    2011-01-01

    The experiment was conducted in Experimental Frog Federal University of Viçosa, in the period from 7 to 8 November 2010, aiming to assess the interspecific behavior of two species of frog, Leptodactylus labyrinthicus (frog-pepper) and Lithobates catesbeianus ( bullfrog) in different environments. In one stall (floor masonry) were placed 5 copies of pepper and five-frog bull-frogs with an average weight of 171.6 ± 157.8 ± 2g and 2g respectively. Bay...

  7. Nucleotide diversity and phylogenetic relationships among ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-03-03

    Mar 3, 2017 ... 2Department of Botany, D. S. B. Campus, Kumaun University, Nainital 263 001, India ... Rana T. S. 2017 Nucleotide diversity and phylogenetic relationships ... Anderson and Park 1989). ..... Edgewood Press, Edgewood, USA.

  8. Genetic structure of the marsh frog (Pelophylax ridibundus) populations in urban landscape

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikulíček, Peter; Pišút, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 5 (2012), s. 833-845 ISSN 1612-4642 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Genetic differentiation * Habitat fragmentation * Microsatellites * Rana ridibunda * Ranidae * Urbanization Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.355, year: 2012

  9. Decay of Hoyle state

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-11-02

    Nov 2, 2014 ... T K RANA, C BHATTACHARYA, S KUNDU, ... of various direct 3α decay mechanisms of the Hoyle state. ... Pramana – J. Phys., Vol. ... FMD predicts a compact triangle shape and LEFT predicts a bent arm chain structure,.

  10. Nucleotide diversity and phylogenetic relationships among ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    1CSIR-National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow ... used to characterize and identify the cultivars; however, it is often difficult and even .... complete deletion of the missing/gap sites from all the sequences (table 2).

  11. Environmental Assessment, Change in C-17 Flight Training Operations at Grant County International Airport, Washington by Joint Base Lewis-McChord

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    young in the ocean. Resident and juvenile bull trout prey on invertebrates and small fish. Adult migratory bull trout primarily eat fish. Resident...Federal Status Amphibians 1 Northern leopard frog Rana pipiens Endangered None Birds 2 Bald eagle Haliaeetus

  12. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    the background scattering due to slow tissue degradation or ... aorta isolated from Rana tigrina were tested for their ability to reduce ferricyanide, methylene blue, and 2,6- .... Merker M P, Bongrad R D, Linehan J H, Okamoto Y, Vyprachticky.

  13. Acute and chronic effects of organophosphate pesticides (Basudin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-07-04

    Jul 4, 2007 ... been shown to have negative effects on amphibian deve- lopment. ... (1933). The results were expressed as a percentage of the wet weight of tissue. .... life stages of the southern leopard frog (Rana sphenocephala). Arch.

  14. A skeletochronological study of growth, longevity, and age at sexual ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    nearest mm, body weight, and reproductive status were recorded. Before release ..... analysis to ascertain whether bone resorption might have completely removed one or .... distribution and longevity in the Ramsey Canyon leopard frog, Rana ...

  15. A natriferic principle other than arginine-vasotocin in the frog neuro hypophysis (1961)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, F.; Maetz, J.

    1961-01-01

    In the neurohypophysis of Rana esculenta there exists, in addition to vasotocin, an unknown active principle which accounts for approximately half of the total natriferic activity of the gland. This principle is not found in chickens. (authors) [fr

  16. The high cost of cheap clothes | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-05-31

    May 31, 2017 ... The collapse of a garment factory in Dhaka, Bangladesh, on April 24, 2013, ... the Rana Plaza garment factory killed more than 1,000 people in Bangladesh, ... Does labour-intensive manufacturing promote economic mobility?

  17. A natriferic principle other than arginine-vasotocin in the frog neuro hypophysis (1961); Un principe natriferique autre que l'arginine vasotocine dans la neuro hypophyse de la grenouille (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morel, F; Maetz, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Acher, R; Chauvet, J; Lenci, M T [Faculte des Sciences de Paris, 75 (France)

    1961-07-01

    In the neurohypophysis of Rana esculenta there exists, in addition to vasotocin, an unknown active principle which accounts for approximately half of the total natriferic activity of the gland. This principle is not found in chickens. (authors) [French] II existe dans la neurohypophyse de Rana esculenta, en plus de la vasotocine, un principe actif inconnu qui rend compte approximativement de la moitie de l'activite natriferique totale de la glande. Ce principe ne se retrouve pas chez le poulet. (auteurs)

  18. Maximizing Sampling Efficiency and Minimizing Uncertainty in Presence/Absence Classification of Rare Salamander Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-31

    of the Apalachicola River drainage. Although this proposed division in classification appears to be generally accepted by the herpetological community...breeding in small forest ponds. Herpetological Review 33(4):275-280. Carle, F. L. and M. R. Strub. 1978. A new method for estimating population size...gopher frogs (Rana capito) and southern leopard frogs (Rana sphenocephala). Journal of Herpetology 42: 97-103. Grevstad, F.S. 2005. Simulating

  19. Cultural Resources Investigations in the Vicinity of Fort Jackson, Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana: The Proposed Solari Borrow Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    tory of flora. Trees such as Virginia live oak (Quercus virginiana), black willow (Salix nigra), hackberry (Celtislaevi- gata), and persimmon ( Diospyros ...bullfrog, is a human food source today and may have been prehistorically as well. The toad, however, of the genus Bufo is not normally consumed

  20. A new case of alert about a possible menace to native fauna of amphibians in Colombia: first report of the bull frog (Lithobates catesbeianus) in the savanna of Bogota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueses Cisneros, Jhon Jairo; Ballen, Gustavo

    2007-01-01

    Two specimens of bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus) in two different localities of Bogota are reported. Knowing the devastating effect that this species produces to the native populations of amphibians where it is introduced, we warn of the possible danger that the species of amphibians of the sabana of Bogota can suffer if no controls on the management and trade of this species are done

  1. Folkloor bluusi sünnimaalt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    9. veebruaril tutvustavad USA folkloristid Anna Lomax Wood ja Todd Dunham Harvey Eesti Kirjandusmuuseumi saalis Tartus John A. Lomaxi (1867-1948) ja Alan Lomaxi (1915-2002) kogutud afroameerika folkloori, näidatakse dokumentaalfilmi "Land Where the Blues Began" ja esineb Emajõe deltabluesi ansambel Bullfrog Brown

  2. Effects of environmental radiation of Kori nuclear power plant on the human population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.J.

    1979-01-01

    In order to clarify and protect the effects of environmental radiation according to the operation of Kori nuclear power plant on human population, the base line survey for the human monitoring, the fauna of land nocturnal insects, and the karyotypes of amphibian species which have been living around the power plant site were carried out. ''Kilchunri'' population which took for the human monitoring lie within a 2km distance from power plant site. Human monitoring, house and food characteristics, individual experience of X-ray exposures, human chromosome analysis and fauna of nocturnal land insects were surveyed and expressed in numerical tables. Chromosome number obtained from the amphibia which were collected around the power plant area was as follows; Kaloula borealis 2N=30, Rana amurensis 2N=26, Rana dybouskii 2N=24, Rana rugosa 2N=26, Rana migromaculata 2N=26, Rana plancyi 2N=26, Bombina orientalis 2N=24, Hyla arborea 2N=24, Bufo stejnegeri 2N=22, and Bufo bufo 2N=22. (author)

  3. Final report on effects of environmental radiation of Kori nuclear power plant on human population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.J.; Kim, J.B.; Chung, K.H.; Lee, K.S.; Kim, S.R.; Yang, S.Y.

    1980-01-01

    In order to clarify and protect the effects of environmental radiation according to the operation of Kori nuclear power plant on the human population, the base line survey for the human monitoring, human life habits, expected individual exposure dose, frequencies of chromosomal aberration, gene frequencies and karyotypes in amphibia, fauna, and radiation sensitivities in microorganisms which have been living around the power plant site were carried out. Kilchonri population which took for the human monitoring lie within a 2 km distance from the power plant site. Human monitoring, house and food characteristics, individual experience of x-ray exposures, human chromosome analysis and fauna were surveyed and expressed in numerical tables. Chromosome number obtained from the amphibia which were collected around the power plant area was as follows: Kaloula borealis 2N=30, Rana amurensis 2N=26, Rana dybouskii 2N=24, Rana rugosa 2N=26, Rana nigromaculata 2N=26, Rana plancyi 2N=26, Bombina orientalis 2N=24, Hyla arborea 2N=24, Bufo stejnegeri 2N=22, Bufo bufo 2N=22. (author)

  4. Nomenclatural notes on living and fossil amphibians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín, C.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A review of extinct and living amphibians known from fossils (Allocaudata, Anura and Caudata has revealed several cases that require nomenclatural changes in order to stabilize the taxonomy of the group. Nomenclatural changes include homonym replacements, corrections of spelling variants and authorships, name availabilities, and in particular, the proposal of new combinations. These changes will allow the incorporation of some palaeontological taxa to the current evolutionary models of relationship of modern forms based on molecular phylogenies. Rana cadurcorum for Rana plicata Filhol, 1877, Rana auscitana for Rana pygmaea Lartet, 1851, and Rana sendoa for Rana robusta Brunner, 1956. Anchylorana Taylor, 1942 is considered a new synonym of Lithobates Fitzinger, 1843. New combinations proposed are: Anaxyrus defensor for Bufo defensor Meylan, 2005; Anaxyrus hibbardi for Bufo hibbardi Taylor, 1937; Anaxyrus pliocompactilis for Bufo pliocompactilis Wilson, 1968; Anaxyrus repentinus for Bufo repentinus Tihen, 1962; Anaxyrus rexroadensis for Bufo rexroadensis Tihen, 1962; Anaxyrus spongifrons for Bufo spongifrons Tihen, 1962; Anaxyrus suspectus for Bufo suspectus Tihen, 1962; Anaxyrus tiheni for Bufo tiheni Auffenberg, 1957; Anaxyrus valentinensis for Bufo valentinensis Estes et Tihen, 1964; Ichthyosaura wintershofi for Triturus wintershofi Lunau, 1950; Incilius praevius for Bufo praevius Tihen, 1951; Lithobates bucella for Rana bucella Holman, 1965; Lithobates dubitus for Anchylorana dubita Taylor, 1942; Lithobates fayeae for Rana fayeae Taylor, 1942; Lithobates miocenicus for Rana miocenica Holman, 1965; Lithobates moorei for Anchylorana moorei Taylor, 1942; Lithobates parvissimus for Rana parvissima

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL AND AESTHETIC THOUGHT AROUNDTHE IDEA OF AN ETHOS-FROG-CHILD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Paola Beltrán Molina

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available El presente escrito es resultado de un proceso de investigación en pensamiento ambiental en clave estética en torno a las ranas, en configuración simbólica de la tríada ethos/rana/niño, y en alternancia a las maneras como son concebidas biológicamente en su objetivación. Para su realización se contó con la participación de niños de la Institución Educativa Rural Hojas Anchas, del municipio de Circasia, departamento del Quindío, quienes relataron sobre ellas, desde su cercanía y percepción a través de escrituras y expresión pictórica. Así, sus relatos fueron organizados en tendencias por lo que dicen, por lo que anuncian, y son el punto de partida para la construcción de emergencias de Pensamiento Ambiental para su consideración en clave estética. En consecuencia, se construyen cuatro tendencias que se enuncian así: “un abrazo fecundo de los cuerpos que se contorsionan”; “vestiduras de una rana: coqueteo entre amantes o advertencia letal”; “la rana y el agua: la vida en su potencia y su latencia” y “naturaleza hecha rana: reflejos de una fragilidad corpórea”. A partir de estos enunciados, se construyen derivas de pensamiento de un ethos/rana/niño en deseo de su disolución simbólica y en resistencia a su cosificación, que a su vez, aportan para repensar la vida en el ámbito del aula. En este sentido, se acoge la obra pictórica de la artista mexicana Teresa Irene Barrera, entre otros autores del pensamiento ambiental.

  6. Louisiana Coastal Area, Louisiana. Freshwater Diversion to Barataria and Breton Sound Basins. Feasibility Study. Volume 2. Technical Appendixes A, B, C, and D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    the bullfrog, pig frog, bronze frop, leopard frog, lesser siren, gulf coast toad, preen and squirrel treefrogs, cricket frog, and several species of...geese that winter in significant numbers are lesser snow geese. Other game birds include coots, rails, gallinules, snipe, woodcock, and mourning doves...98 • . - . . . ." . . . . - " - -. - . . Simoneaux, L.F. 1979. The distribution of menhaden, genus Brevortia. with respect to salinity, in the upper

  7. Biomimetic agent based modelling using male Frog calling behaviour as a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Søren V.; Demazeau, Yves; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    by individuals to generate their observed population behaviour. A number of existing agent-modelling frameworks are considered, but none have the ability to handle large numbers of time-dependent event-generating agents; hence the construction of a new tool, RANA. The calling behaviour of the Puerto Rican Tree...... Frog, E. coqui, is implemented as a case study for the presentation and discussion of the tool, and results from this model are presented. RANA, in its present stage of development, is shown to be able to handle the problem of modelling calling frogs, and several fruitful extensions are proposed...

  8. Electrophoretic pattern of blood serum proteins of some of the vertebrates of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakoori, Abdul Rauf; Zaheer, Saleem Akhtar; Ahmad, Muhammad Salih.

    1976-01-01

    The electrophoretic pattern of blood serum proteins of some of the common fishes e.g. Catla catla, Cirrhina mrigala, Channa punctatus, Channa marulius, Wallago attu, Heterop-neustes fossilis; amphibia e.g., Rana tigrina, Rana cyanophlyctis, Bufo melanostictus; reptiles e.g. Varanus bengalensis, Uromastix hardwickii; birds e.g. Columba livia, Gallus domesticus, Passer domestica, Anas platyrhynchos; and mammals e.g. Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Lepus cuniculus have been described. The mobility of proteins of blood sera has been studied over cellulose acetate paper and then a comparative pattern analysed

  9. Species Diversity and Distribution of Amphibians and Reptiles in Nature Park "Sinite Kamani" in Stara Planina Mt. (Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanimira R. Deleva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study presents briefly the species composition and distribution of the amphibians and reptiles in the Nature Park "Sinite Kamani" in Stara Planina Mnt. Bulgaria, based on a 2×2 km UTM grid. Between 2012 and 2014, we identified total 20 species (7 amphibians and 13 reptiles. We documented three new amphibian species for the region (Hyla arborea, Rana dalmatina and Rana graeca, which is discovered for the area for the first time and three species of reptiles (Testudo hermanni, Ablepharus kitaibelii and Lacerta trilienata. The contemporary conservation status for each species is presented and conservation threats and problems, specific for the park are discussed.

  10. Improved biolistic transfection of hair cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Zhao

    Full Text Available Transient transfection of hair cells has proven challenging. Here we describe modifications to the Bio-Rad Helios Gene Gun that, along with an optimized protocol, improve transfection of bullfrog, chick, and mouse hair cells. The increased penetrating power afforded by our method allowed us to transfect mouse hair cells from the basal side, through the basilar membrane; this configuration protects hair bundles from damage during the procedure. We characterized the efficiency of transfection of mouse hair cells with fluorescently-tagged actin fusion protein using both the optimized procedure and a published procedure; while the efficiency of the two methods was similar, the morphology of transfected hair cells was improved with the new procedure. In addition, using the improved method, we were able to transfect hair cells in the bullfrog sacculus and chick cochlea for the first time. We used fluorescent-protein fusions of harmonin b (USH1C and PMCA2 (ATP2B2; plasma-membrane Ca(2+-ATPase isoform 2 to examine protein distribution in hair cells. While PMCA2-EGFP localization was similar to endogenous PMCA2 detected with antibodies, high levels of harmonin-EGFP were found at stereocilia tapers in bullfrog and chick, but not mouse; by contrast, harmonin-EGFP was concentrated in stereocilia tips in mouse hair cells.

  11. Evidence of niche shift and invasion potential of Lithobates catesbeianus in the habitat of Mexican endemic frogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Becerra López

    Full Text Available Invasive alien species are one of most severe threats to biodiversity and natural resources. These biological invasions have been studied from the niche conservatism and niche shifts perspective. Niche differentiation may result from changes in fundamental niche or realized niche or both; in biological invasions, niche differences between native and non-native ranges can appear through niche expansion, niche unfilling and niche stability. The American bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus is an invasive species that can have negative impacts on native amphibian populations. This research examines the climate niche shifts of this frog, its potential range of expansion in Mexico and the risk of invasion by bullfrog in the habitats of 82 frog species endemic to Mexico, that based on their climatic niche similarity were divided in four ecological groups. The results indicate that species in two ecological groups were the most vulnerable to invasion by bullfrog. However, the climate niche shifts of L. catesbeianus may allow it to adapt to new environmental conditions, so species from the two remaining groups cannot be dismissed as not vulnerable. This information is valuable for decision making in prioritizing areas for conservation of Mexican endemic frogs.

  12. Ovid MEDLINE Instruction can be Evaluated Using a Validated Search Assessment Tool. A Review of: Rana, G. K., Bradley, D. R., Hamstra, S. J., Ross, P. T., Schumacher, R. E., Frohna, J. G., & Lypson, M. L. (2011. A validated search assessment tool: Assessing practice-based learning and improvement in a residency program. Journal of the Medical Library Association, 99(1, 77-81. doi:10.3163/1536-5050.99.1.013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Badia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine the construct validity of a search assessment instrument that is used to evaluate search strategies in Ovid MEDLINE. Design – Cross-sectional, cohort study. Setting – The Academic Medical Center of the University of Michigan. Subjects – All 22 first-year residents in the Department of Pediatrics in 2004 (cohort 1; 10 senior pediatric residents in 2005 (cohort 2; and 9 faculty members who taught evidence based medicine (EBM and published on EBM topics. Methods – Two methods were employed to determine whether the University of Michigan MEDLINE Search Assessment Instrument (UMMSA could show differences between searchers’ construction of a MEDLINE search strategy.The first method tested the search skills of all 22 incoming pediatrics residents (cohort 1 after they received MEDLINE training in 2004, and again upon graduation in 2007. Only 15 of these residents were tested upon graduation; seven were either no longer in the residency program, or had quickly left the institution after graduation. The search test asked study participants to read a clinical scenario, identify the search question in the scenario, and perform an Ovid MEDLINE search. Two librarians scored the blinded search strategies.The second method compared the scores of the 22 residents with the scores of ten senior residents (cohort 2 and nine faculty volunteers. Unlike the first cohort, the ten senior residents had not received any MEDLINE training. The faculty members’ search strategies were used as the gold standard comparison for scoring the search skills of the two cohorts.Main Results – The search strategy scores of the 22 first-year residents, who received training, improved from 2004 to 2007 (mean improvement: 51.7 to 78.7; t(14=5.43, PConclusion – According to the authors, “the results of this study provide evidence for the validity of an instrument to evaluate MEDLINE search strategies” (p. 81, since the instrument under investigation was able to measure improvements and differences in the search performances of the study’s participants. A validated search assessment instrument can effectively measure improvements in residents’ search skills to demonstrate training effectiveness, as well as satisfy practice-based learning competency requirements from the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education.

  13. Moving beyond Boycotts: Strategies for Shared Responsibility in the Collegiate Apparel Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Scott P.

    2014-01-01

    The 2013 factory collapse at Rana Plaza in Bangladesh is a painful reminder that labor issues in the apparel industry are abundant and troubling. Catholic colleges and universities (CCUs) are confronted with the reality that many apparel manufacturers can operate in stark contrast to the vision of economic justice found in Catholic social thought…

  14. Thermoregulation in the hippopotamus on land

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1986-11-28

    Nov 28, 1986 ... tadpoles (Anura: Bufonidae). Zool. Afr. 8:153-156. CHANNING, A. 1976. Rana johnstoni inyangae tadpoles from Rhodesia. Amoldia Rhod. 8: 1-4. CHANNING, A. 1978. A new bufonid genus (Amphibia: Anura) from Rhodesia. Herpetologica 34: 394-397. FROST, D.R 1985. Amphibian species of the world.

  15. sequences in Chickpea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Milena

    quality and concentration of DNA were measured on Nano-Drop ... Author(s) agree that this article remains permanently open access under the terms of the Creative Commons ..... Aggarwal H, Rao A, Kumar A, Singh J, Rana JS, Naik PK, Chhokar V. (2015). ... variance inferred from metric distances among DNA haplotypes:.

  16. genotypes for okra yellow vein mosaic virus incidence

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-19

    Mar 19, 2014 ... by whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Gen.) (Rana et al., 2006). ... Solankey et al. 1337. Table 1. Scale for classifying disease reaction in okra to OYVMV disease. Symptom. Severity grade. Response value. Coefficient of infection. Reaction ..... On the basis of two season research work, it was observed that the okra ...

  17. Mitochondria in biology and medicine--2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus Desler; Rasmussen, Lene Juel

    2014-01-01

    as biomarkers for the diseases and most important, it opens the possibility of a treatment or a cure for a disease. "Mitochondria in Biology and Medicine" was the title of the second annual conference of Society of Mitochondrial Research and Medicine-India. The conference was organized by Rana P. Singh, Keshav...

  18. A frog's-eye view of the landscape : quantifying connectivity for fragmented amphibian populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    The spatial habitat requirements are studied for two amphibian species: the tree frog ( Hyla arborea ) and the moor frog ( Rana arvalis ). Fragmentation, the destruction of suitable habitat, results in small fragments that are separated by

  19. One-tone suppression in the frog auditory nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Jørgensen, M B

    1996-01-01

    Sixty-seven fibers of a sample of 401 in the auditory nerve of grassfrogs (Rana temporaria) showed one-tone suppression, i.e., their spontaneous activity was suppressed by tones. All fibers were afferents from the amphibian papilla with best frequencies between 100 and 400 Hz. Best suppression...

  20. Sadhana | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana. DWAIPAYAN SARKAR. Articles written in Sadhana. Volume 42 Issue 4 April 2017 pp 533-541. Immersed boundary simulation of flow through arterial junctions · DWAIPAYAN SARKAR NISHANT UPADHYAY SOMNATH ROY SUBHAS CHANDRA RANA · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.

  1. New Fellows and Honorary Fellow

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 1943 Section: Earth & Planetary Sciences. Rana, Khadag Narsingh Jung Bahadur. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. 29th Mid-year meeting. Posted on 19 January 2018. The 29th Mid-year meeting of the Academy will be held from 29–30 June 2018 in ...

  2. Changes in dynamics processes of the muscles’ traction under influence of stress-factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Nozdrenko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Change of fibers’ dynamic parameters of the frog Rana temporaria skeletal muscle m. tibialis traction under influence of modulated stimulation and aluminium chloride solutions was studied. At 10-4,5·10-4 and 10‑3 M·l-1 concentrations of aluminium chloride the nonlinear decrease of the muscle fibers’ traction parameters was observed.

  3. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The ability of bronze frog Rana temporalis tadpoles (pure or mixed parental lines) to assess the profitability of food habitats and distribute themselves accordingly was tested experimentally using a rectangular choice tank with a non-continuous input design. Food (boiled spinach) was placed at two opposite ends of the ...

  4. Surveys for California red-legged frog and arroyo toad on the Los Padres National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerie K. Hubbartt; Thomas G. Murphey

    2005-01-01

    Starting in the spring of 1999 through the fall of 2000, USDA Forest Service biologists have conducted surveys throughout the Los Padres National Forest for the federally-listed California red-legged frog (Rana aurora draytonii) and arroyo toad (Bufo californicus). Sites known to have frogs or toads present were monitored for...

  5. Multiple Antigen Peptide Vaccines against Plasmodium falciparum Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Robert A. Boykins/ Victoria Majam,l Hong Zheng,1 Rana Chattopadhyay,l Patricia de Ia Vcga,3 J. Kathleen Moch ,J J. David Hayncs,3 Igor M. Belyakov,2...K. Moch , and D. S. Smoot. 2002. Erythroc-ytic malaria growth or invasion inhibition assays with emphasis on suspension culture GIA. Methods Mol. Med

  6. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 28; Issue 6. A skeletochronological study of growth, longevity, and age at sexual maturity in a population of Rana latastei (Amphibia, Anura). Fabio M Guarino Silvia Lunardi Michela Carlomagno Stefano Mazzotti. Articles Volume 28 Issue 6 December 2003 pp 775-782 ...

  7. (Ciliophora: Peritrichia) from the urinary bladder of Bufo gutturalis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-09-07

    Sep 7, 1988 ... vesicola Suzuki, 1950 from Rana rugosa (Suzuki 1950). The question arises whether T. dampanula sp. n. may possibly be the same species as observed by Fantham. (1924) in the urinary bladder of B. regularis, i.e. T. bufonis. Owing to the fact that none of the character- istics provided by Fantham (1924) ...

  8. Inherent rhythmcity and interstitial cells of Cajal in a frog vein

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Interstitial cells of Cajal are responsible for rhythmic contractions of the musculature of the gastrointestinal tract and blood vessels. The existence of these cells and spontaneous rhythmicity were noticed in amphibian vein and the findings are reported in this paper. The postcaval vein was identified in the frog, Rana tigrina ...

  9. Macro and Trace Element Accumulation in Edible Crabs and Frogs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tissue accumulation of five macroelements (Na, Mg, K, Ca, Fe) and twelve trace elements (Vd, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, Pb) were assessed in the organs of the edible frogs; Xenopus laevis and Rana esculentus, and whole body of the crab, Callinestes caught from Alaro Stream Floodplain (Ibadan, ...

  10. First report of freshwater leech Helobdella stagnalis (Rhyncobdellida: Glossiphoniidae as a parasite of an anuran amphibian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Tiberti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe the first case of parasitism on anuran amphibian, Rana temporaria, by the freshwater leech Helobdella stagnalis, in a mountainous area of northwestern Italy. The presence of skin abrasions and haemorrhages attributable to leech attack discards the hypothesis of a simple phoretic relationship between leech and frog.

  11. Njv Magazine 3 final

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    En-Joy

    diseases, including neoplasia (Done, 1996), viral (Buffetaut and Upton, 1997;. Jacopson, 1989), bacterial (Foggin, 1987) mycotic (Jacopson, 1989) and parasitic .... LECLAIR Jr., R and CASTANET, J. A. (1987): Skeletochronological assessment of age and growth in the frog Rana pipiens Schreber. (Amphibia, Anura) from.

  12. Contractual Control in the Supply Chain. On Corporate Social Responsibility, Codes of Conduct, Contracts and (Avoiding) Liability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vytopil, A.L.

    2015-01-01

    This research addresses a number of questions that have been raised in the wake of the Rana Plaza factory collapse. It focuses on the extent of the legal responsibility and liability for CSR violations in the supply chains of MNCs in the Netherlands, England and California (United States). Many MNCs

  13. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 251 - 300 of 462 ... Manar Obada, Ashraf El-Fert, Mohamed S. Hashim, Mones Obada, ... M Essawi, H Nasr, I Mazen, K Gaafar, K Amr, M Hafez, Y Gad ... Farida El Baza, Heba Ahmed AlShahawi, Sally Zahra, Rana Ahmed AbdelHakim.

  14. Chiricahua leopard frog status in the Galiuro Mountains, Arizona, with a monitoring framework for the species' entire range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence L. C. Jones; Michael J. Sredl

    2005-01-01

    The Chiricahua leopard frog (Rana chiricahuensis) was historically widespread in suitable habitat throughout its range. Reports of recent population declines led to inventories of Chiricahua leopard frog localities. Surveys reported here establish a new baseline of occurrence in the Galiuros: only two of 21 historical localities were found to be...

  15. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Triethylammonium salt of dimethyl diphenyldithiophosphates: Single crystal X-ray and DFT analysis. SANDEEP KUMAR RUCHI KHAJURIA MANDEEP KOUR RAKESH KUMAR LOVE KARAN RANA GEETA HUNDAL VIVEK K GUPTA RAJNI KANT SUSHIL K PANDEY. Regular Article Volume 128 Issue 6 June 2016 pp ...

  16. Nature and composition of interbedded marine basaltic pumice in the

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 126; Issue 2. Nature and composition of interbedded marine basaltic pumice in the ~52–50 Ma Vastan lignite sequence, western India: Implication for Early Eocene MORB volcanism offshore Arabian Sea. Sarajit Sensarma Hukam Singh R S Rana Debajyoti Paul ...

  17. Developing probabilistic models to predict amphibian site occupancy in a patchy landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. A. Knapp; K.R. Matthews; H. K. Preisler; R. Jellison

    2003-01-01

    Abstract. Human-caused fragmentation of habitats is threatening an increasing number of animal and plant species, making an understanding of the factors influencing patch occupancy ever more important. The overall goal of the current study was to develop probabilistic models of patch occupancy for the mountain yellow-legged frog (Rana muscosa). This once-common species...

  18. Algunos temas de investigación a nivel elemental

    OpenAIRE

    Takeuchi, Yu

    2012-01-01

    En algunas ramas de la Ciencia como la Biología, la Geología, etc., no es difícil encontrar temas originales de investigación, por ejemplo;  “ una investigación sobre cierta clase de ranas de tres patas que vive exclusivamente en la Sabana de Bogotá ".

  19. Les Semences du Monde: L'Amélioration Participative des Plantes

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Chacun constitue en outre un point de convergence vers un site web où le CRDI ...... Les comités locaux de recherche agricole (Comité de Investigación Agrícola ...... Subedi, A., Joshi, K.D., Rana, R.B. et M. Subedi, 2001, Participatory plant ...

  20. Working group report: High energy and collider physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    in such a high value of tan β in the present investigation as the loss of light ..... 1 de- cays for θt = 130◦, and tan β = 10: in (a) as a function of φ1 for M2 = 225 ..... rana masses of the neutrinos can be generated both at the tree-level and at the.

  1. Ammoxidation of 2-methyl pyrazine on supported ammonium salt of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Investigations using 31P MAS NMR spectroscopy of samples revealed that. Keggin ion existed ..... De-convoluted 31P MAS NMR data of AMPA on different supports. Loading (wt%) ..... Rana S, Mallick S and Parida K M 2012 J. Porous. Mater.

  2. Density-dependent growth and metamorphosis in the larval bronze ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Effects of density and kinship on growth and metamorphosis in tadpoles of Rana temporalis were studied in a 2 × 4 factorial experiment. Fifteen egg masses were collected from streams in the Western Ghat region of south India. The tadpoles were raised as siblings or in groups of non-siblings at increasing density levels, viz ...

  3. Fossil frogs (Anura) from Shanwang (Middle Miocene; Shandong Province, China)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roček, Zbyněk; Dong, L.; Přikryl, Tomáš; Sun, Ch.; Tan, J.; Wang, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 5 (2011), s. 499-518 ISSN 0016-6995 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130705 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Anura * Neogene * Bufo * Macropelobates * Rana * Tadpole * East Asia Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.010, year: 2011

  4. Nigerian Journal of Surgery - Vol 22, No 2 (2016)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of the survival of dental implants in irradiated jaws following treatment of oral cancer: A retrospective study · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Meenakshi Chauhan Rana, Swati Solanki, Sudarshan C Pujari, Eisha Shaw, Swati Sharma, ...

  5. Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Forthcoming articles. Forthcoming articles. Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences. PMSC-D-14-00136. Combinatorics of tenth order mock theta functions. J K SAREEN M RANA. Abstract. In this paper we are providing the combinatorial interpretations of two tenth ...

  6. Effects of an Awareness Raising Campaign on Intention and Behavioural Determinants for Handwashing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seimetz, E.; Kumar, S.; Mosler, H.-J.

    2016-01-01

    This article assesses the effectiveness of The Great WASH Yatra handwashing awareness raising campaign in India on changing visitors' intention to wash hands with soap after using the toilet and the underlying behavioural determinants. Interviews based on the RANAS (Risk, Attitudes, Norms, Abilities, Self-regulation) model of behaviour change were…

  7. Characterization of pars intermedia connections in amphibians by biocytin tract tracing and immunofluorescence aided by confocal microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, K; Fabro, C; Artero, C; Feuilloley, M; Vaudry, H; Fasolo, A; Franzoni, MF

    Biocytin, recently introduced in neuroanatomical studies, was used as a retrograde tract tracer in combination with immunofluorescence in order to analyse the neurochemical characters of some central neuronal projections to the pars intermedia in two amphibian species, the anuran Rana esculenta and

  8. Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Fernando Cunha1 Sohel Rana1 Raul Fangueiro1 2 Graça Vasconcelos2. Fibrous Materials Research Group (FMRG), School of Engineering, University of Minho, Guimarães 4800-058, Portugal; Department of Civil Engineering, University of Minho, Guimarães 4800-058, Portugal ...

  9. Observations on the oesophageal glands in some Tanzanian anurans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in Hyla, Rana, BUfo, Pelobates and Triturus more pep- sinogen was produced in these glands than in the gastric glands. The aim of the present study was to obtain data on the occurrence of oesophageal glands in selected anurans from Tanzania and to compare their structure with the better known gastric glands. Materials ...

  10. Resonance – Journal of Science Education | Indian Academy of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. A M Jayannavar. Articles written in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 22 Issue 7 July 2017 pp 659-676 General Article. Second Law, Landauer's Principle and Autonomous Information Machine · Shubashis Rana A M Jayannavar · More Details ...

  11. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Saqib Mahmood. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 40 Issue 3 September 2015 pp 521-530 Articles. Role of leptin G-2548A polymorphism in age- and gender-specific development of obesity · Adeela Shahid Sobia Rana Saqib Mahmood Shahid Saeed · More Details ...

  12. Modeling potential river management conflicts between frogs and salmonids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven F. Railsback; Bret C. Harvey; Sarah J. Kupferberg; Margaret M. Lang; Scott McBain; Hart H. Welsh

    2016-01-01

    Management of regulated rivers for yellow-legged frogs (Rana boylii) and salmonids exemplifies potential conflicts among species adapted to different parts of the natural flow and temperature regimes. Yellow-legged frogs oviposit in rivers in spring and depend on declining flows and warming temperatures for egg and tadpole survival and growth,...

  13. Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 119; Issue 1. Issue front cover thumbnail. Volume 119, Issue 1. February 2009, pages 1-135. pp 1-7. On an Extension of a Combinatorial Identity · M Rana A K Agarwal · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. Using Frobenius partitions we extend the main results ...

  14. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Triethylammonium salt of dimethyl diphenyldithiophosphates: Single crystal X-ray and DFT analysis · SANDEEP KUMAR RUCHI KHAJURIA MANDEEP KOUR RAKESH KUMAR LOVE KARAN RANA GEETA HUNDAL VIVEK K GUPTA RAJNI KANT SUSHIL K PANDEY · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. The present work ...

  15. Quantitation of ranaviruses in cell culture and tissue samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holopainen, Riikka; Honkanen, Jarno; Jensen, Britt Bang

    2011-01-01

    ; European sheatfish virus, ESV; Frog virus 3, FV3; Bohle iridovirus, BIV; Doctor fish virus, DFV; Guppy virus 6, GV6; Pike-perch iridovirus, PPIV; Rana esculenta virus Italy 282/I02, REV282/I02 and Short-finned eel ranavirus, SERV) were detected with the qPCR assay. In addition, two fish cell lines...

  16. One step forward or more window-dressing? A legal analysis of the recent CSR Initiatives in the Garment Industry in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Haar, B.; Keune, M.

    2014-01-01

    The Bangladesh ready-made garment industry has recently been affected by a number of terrible accidents, with the collapse of the Rana Plaza on 24 April 2013 as the deadliest garment-factory accident ever known. Under the pressure of renewed attention to the role and responsibilities of

  17. Far East Asia | Page 74 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Four years after the collapse of the Rana Plaza garment factory killed more than 1,000 people in Bangladesh, a Dhaka-based think tank continues to push for wholesale changes to one of the country's most important industries. Part of an ongoing series of stories about innovative projects in the developing world, ...

  18. Predatory leeches (Hirudinida) may contribute to amphibian declines in the Lassen, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stead Jonathan; Karen Pope

    2010-01-01

    Researchers have documented precipitous declines in Cascades Frog (Rana cascadae) populations in the southern portion of the species' range, in the Lassen region of California. Reasons for the declines, however, have not been elucidated. In addition to common, widespread causes, an understanding of local community interactions may be necessary...

  19. Pesticides and Population Declines of California Alpine Frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airborne pesticides from the Central Valley of California have been implicated as a cause for population declines of several amphibian species, with the strongest evidence for the mountain yellow-legged frog complex (Rana muscosa and R. sierrae) in the Sierra Nevada. We measured ...

  20. Hydroperiod and cattle use associated with lower recruitment in an r-selected amphibian with a declining population trend in the Klamath Mountains, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esther M. Cole; Rosemary Hartman; Malcolm P. North

    2016-01-01

    Recent population declines in amphibians associated with mortality in early life stages highlight the need for a better understanding of the environmental factors related to successful survival to metamorphosis. In our study, we closely examine the relative importance of environmental factors to three stages of recruitment for Cascade frogs (Rana cascadae...

  1. Airborne Pesticides as an Unlikely Cause for Population Declines of Alpine Frogs in the Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airborne pesticides from the Central Valley of California have been implicated as a cause for population declines of several amphibian species, with the strongest evidence for the mountain yellow-legged frog complex (Rana muscosa and R. sierrae) in the Sierra Nevada. We measured...

  2. Terrestrial movements and habitat use of gopher frogs in longleaf pine forests: a comparative study of juveniles and adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth A. Roznik; Steve A. Johnson; Cathryn H. Greenberg; George W. Tanner

    2009-01-01

    Many animals exhibit changes in patterns of movement and habitat use as they age, and understanding such ontogenetic shifts is important for ensuring that habitat management is appropriate for all life stages. We used radiotelemetry to study movements and habitat use of juvenile and adult gopher frogs (Rana capito) as they migrated from the same ponds following...

  3. Memorias de un protagonista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Cecilia Herrera C.

    1987-10-01

    Full Text Available Facultades de educación y Escuela Normal Superior: Su historia y aporte científico, humanístico y educativo. José Francisco Socarrás. Ediciones La Rana y el Aguila, Tunja, 1987, 169 págs.

  4. Associateship | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Date of birth: 21 September 1953. Specialization: Plant Genetics Address during Associateship: Scientist, National Botanical Research, Institute, Rana Prathap Marg, Lucknow 226 001. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. 29th Mid-year meeting. Posted on 19 January 2018. The 29th Mid-year ...

  5. Lupeol induces S-phase arrest and mitochondria-mediated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    48

    Lupeol induces S-phase arrest and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in cervical cancer cells. Nupoor Prasad1, Akash Sabarwal2, Umesh C. S. Yadav1, Rana P. Singh2,*. 1School of Life Sciences, Central University of Gujarat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India. 2Cancer Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal ...

  6. Winners and losers in the complex web of global supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendon, Lee

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses how supply chain, risk and business continuity professionals can collaboratively address the consequences of increasing supply chain complexity in order to deliver both resilient and sustainable supply chains. The paper identifies the key drivers of complexity supported by recent case examples, including the equine DNA scandal and the Rana Plaza tragedy in Bangladesh.

  7. DIET OF DIRECT-DEVELOPING FROGS (ANURA: CRAUGASTORIDAE: Pristimantis FROM THE ANDES OF WESTERN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos GARCIA-R

    2015-01-01

    Estudiamos la dieta de 15 especies de ranas montanas del género Pristimantis (Craugastoridae en la Cordillera Occidental de Colombia para determinar su variación, amplitud y traslape de nicho. En los contenidos estomacales e intestinales de 154 especímenes se identificaron 499 presas que fueron organizadas en 74 categorías diferentes. Las 15 categorías de presas más comunes representaron el 65 % de la dieta. Las familias de invertebrados Isotomidae, Chironomidae, Formicidae y Tipulidae fueron las más abundantes, representando el 32 % de la dieta de las ranas. Diez de las 15 especies de ranas presentaron al menos un ítem de Araneae. Coleoptera y Tipulidae fueron otras categorías frecuentemente encontradas en los tractos digestivos de las ranas (nueve especies de ranas presentaron estos ítems,  seguidas de Acari y Carabidae (ocho especies. En general, los escarabajos fueron encontrados en los tractos gastrointestinales de todas las especies, excepto en P. quantus, pero este resultado debe tratarse con precaución porque solo un individuo de esta especie fue capturado. Pristimantis hectus mostró una dieta especializada consumiendo principalmente dípteros de la familia Chironomidae, mientras que las especies restantes mostraron una dieta generalista. Pristimantis palmeri presentó superposiciones de nicho con P. erythropleura (Фjk = 0,69, P. myops (Фjk = 0,64, y P. orpacobates (Фjk = 0,64. Nuestros resultados sugieren que la mayoría de las especies estudiadas son generalistas que se alimentan de manera oportunista de dípteros, arácnidos, colémbolos, coleópteros e himenópteros. Aquí, reportamos la dieta de especies montanas de Pristimantis y discutimos los resultados con datos de otros estudios en especies relacionadas de regiones montanas y tierras bajas

  8. Evaluation of an acute oral gavage method for assessment of pesticide toxicity in terrestrial amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Douglas J; Mathis, Michael B; Kee, Faith; Whatling, Paul; Clerkin, David; Staveley, Jane; Habig, Clifford

    2018-02-01

    Development of an acute oral toxicity test with a terrestrial-phase amphibian was considered necessary to remove the uncertainty within the field of agrochemical risk assessments. The bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus) was selected for use as it is a representative of the family Ranidae and historically this species has been used as an amphibian test model species. Prior to definitive study, oral gavage methods were developed with fenthion and tetraethyl pyrophosphate. Dimethoate and malathion were subsequently tested with both male and female juvenile bullfrogs in comprehensive acute oral median lethal dose (LD50) studies. Juvenile bullfrogs were administered a single dose of the test article via oral gavage of a single gelatin capsule of dimethoate technical (dimethoate) or neat liquid Fyfanon ® Technical (synonym malathion), returned to their respective aquaria, and monitored for survival for 14 d. The primary endpoint was mortality, whereas behavioral responses, food consumption, body weight, and snout-vent length (SVL) were used to evaluate indications of sublethal toxicity (secondary endpoints). Acute oral LD50 values (95% fiducial interval) for dimethoate were 1459 (1176-1810, males) and 1528 (1275-1831, females), and for malathion they were 1829 (1480-2259, males) and 1672 (1280-2183, females) mg active substance/kg body weight, respectively. Based on the results of these studies, the methodology for the acute oral gavage administration of test items to terrestrial-phase amphibians was demonstrated as being a practical method of providing data for risk assessments. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:436-450. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  9. Distribution of rubidium, strontium, and zirconium in tuff from two deep coreholes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spengler, R.W.; Peterman, Z.E.

    1991-01-01

    Variations in concentrations of trace elements Rb, Sr, and Zr within the sequence of high-silica tuff and dacitic lava beneath Yucca Mountain reflect both primary composition and secondary alteration. Rb and K concentrations have parallel trends. Rb concentrations are significantly lower within intervals containing zeolitic nonwelded to partially welded and bedded tuffs and are higher in thick moderately to densely welded zones. Sr concentrations increase with depth from about 30 parts per million (ppM) in the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff to almost 300 ppM in the older tuffs. Zr concentrations are about 100 ppM in the Topopah Spring Member and also increase with depth to about 150 ppM in the Lithic Ridge Tuff and upper part of the older tuffs. Conspicuous local high concentrations of Sr in the lower part of the Tram Member, in the dacite lava, and in unit c of the older tuffs in USW G-1, and in the densely welded zone of the Bullfrog Member in USW GU-3/G-3 closely correlate with high concentrations of less-mobile Zr and may reflect either primary composition or elemental redistribution resulting largely from smectitic alteration. Initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr values from composite samples increase upward in units above the Bullfrog Member of the Crater Flat Tuff. The progressive tenfold increase in Sr with depth coupled with the similarity of initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr values within the Bullfrog Member and older units to those of Paleozoic marine carbonates are consistent with a massive influx or Sr from water derived from a Paleozoic carbonate aquifer. 23 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  10. Regional decline of an iconic amphibian associated with elevation, land-use change, and invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Pieter T J; McKenzie, Valerie J; Peterson, Anna C; Kerby, Jacob L; Brown, Jennifer; Blaustein, Andrew R; Jackson, Tina

    2011-06-01

    Ecological theory predicts that species with restricted geographic ranges will have the highest probability of extinction, but species with extensive distributions and high population densities can also exhibit widespread population losses. In the western United States populations of northern leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens)-historically one of the most widespread frogs in North America-have declined dramatically in abundance and geographic distribution. To assess the status of leopard frogs in Colorado and evaluate causes of decline, we coupled statewide surveys of 196 historically occupied sites with intensive sampling of 274 wetlands stratified by land use. We used an information-theoretic approach to evaluate the contributions of factors at multiple spatial extents in explaining the contemporary distribution of leopard frogs. Our results indicate leopard frogs have declined in Colorado, but this decline was regionally variable. The lowest proportion of occupied wetlands occurred in eastern Colorado (2-28%), coincident with urban development and colonization by non-native bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus). Variables at several spatial extents explained observed leopard frog distributional patterns. In low-elevation wetlands introduced fishes, bullfrogs, and urbanization or suburbanization associated negatively with leopard frog occurrence, whereas wetland area was positively associated with occurrence. Leopard frogs were more abundant and widespread west of the Continental Divide, where urban development and bullfrog abundance were low. Although the pathogenic chytrid Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) was not selected in our best-supported models, the nearly complete extirpation of leopard frogs from montane wetlands could reflect the individual or interactive effects of Bd and climate patterns. Our results highlight the importance of considering multiple, competing hypotheses to explain species declines, particularly when implicated factors operate at

  11. Diphtheroid colitis in a Boa constrictor infected with amphibian Entamoeba sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Barbara; Kübber-Heiss, Anna; Weissenböck, Herbert

    2008-05-06

    A female boa (Boa constrictor) from a zoological collection was submitted for necropsy after sudden death. Prominent pathological findings included a diphtheroid colitis, endoparasitism, focal pneumonia and inclusion bodies typical for inclusion body disease (IBD). In the colon entamoebae were identified, which differed in size and distribution from Entamoeba invadens. Gene sequence analysis of the 18S ribosomal RNA revealed 100% similarity with an Entamoeba species from the African bullfrog (Pyxicephalus adspersus), probably Entamoeba ranarum. The snake was possibly immunosuppressed, and the source of infection remains unclear. This is the first report of an infection with an amphibian Entamoeba species associated with colitis in a snake.

  12. SPR imaging combined with cyclic voltammetry for the detection of neural activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Surface plasmon resonance (SPR detects changes in refractive index at a metal-dielectric interface. In this study, SPR imaging (SPRi combined with cyclic voltammetry (CV was applied to detect neural activity in isolated bullfrog sciatic nerves. The neural activities induced by chemical and electrical stimulation led to an SPR response, and the activities were recorded in real time. The activities of different parts of the sciatic nerve were recorded and compared. The results demonstrated that SPR imaging combined with CV is a powerful tool for the investigation of neural activity.

  13. Compte rendu de la Commission Mixte Tuniso-Belge Septembre 1991, secteur agricole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pétry, M.

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Report of the Tunisian-Belgian Joint Commission. September 1991. The importations of frogs in the European Economic Community are worth 20-40 millions ECU yearly ; Asia is the most important area of supply. Frog breeding is difficult and nearly all the trade is based on gathering in the wild. The article gives some information on a commercial frog farm near Manila in the Philippines, where the bull-frog initially imported from U.S.A. is bred. The whole production cycle is controlled. This enterprise could serve as a model for edible African species, which are much doser to our green European frogs.

  14. El arlequín de limón: una joya en extinción

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Peña

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Estos malignos y pestilentes animales…son detestables por su cuerpo frío, su palidez, esqueleto cartilaginoso, piel desagradable, aspecto feroz, ojos calculadores, olor irritante, voz chillona, moradas miserables y terrible veneno”. Así describió el naturalista sueco Carl Von Linneo en 1758 a los anfibios (Linneo, citado por Wells, 2007: 1. En la actualidad la reputación de sapos y ranas ha mejorado considerablemente, pero todavía existen aquellos que tienen una idea equivocada de estos animales. Lo que estas personas no saben es que las ranas y sapos son elementos de extrema importancia en los ecosistemas naturales, la medicina y la industria turística.

  15. Toxicity of road salt to Nova Scotia amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sara J; Russell, Ronald W

    2009-01-01

    The deposition of chemical pollutants into roadside wetlands from runoff is a current environmental concern. In northern latitudes, a major pollutant in runoff water is salt (NaCl), used as de-icing agents. In this study, 26 roadside ponds were surveyed for amphibian species richness and chloride concentration. Acute toxicity tests (LC(50)) were performed on five locally common amphibian species using a range of environmentally significant NaCl concentrations. Field surveys indicated that spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) and wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) did not occupy high chloride ponds. American toads (Bufo americanus) showed no pond preference based on chloride concentration. Acute toxicity tests showed spotted salamanders and wood frogs were most sensitive to chloride, and American toads were the least. Spring peepers (Pseudacris crucifer) and green frogs (Rana clamitans) showed intermediate sensitivities. We concluded that chloride concentrations in ponds due to application of de-icing salts, influenced community structure by excluding salt intolerant species.

  16. Amphibians of the Simbruini Mountains (Latium, Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierangelo Crucitti

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Little attention has been paid to the herpetological fauna of the Simbruini Mountains Regional Park, Latium (Central Italy. In this study, we surveyed 50 sites in the course of about ten years of field research, especially during the period 2005-2008. Nine amphibian species, four Caudata and five Anura, 60.0% out of the 15 amphibian species so far observed in Latium, were discovered in the protected area: Salamandra salamandra, Salamandrina perspicillata, Lissotriton vulgaris, Triturus carnifex, Bombina pachypus, Bufo balearicus, Bufo bufo, Rana dalmatina, Rana italica. Physiography of sites has been detailed together with potential threatening patterns. For each species the following topics have been discussed; ecology of sites, altitudinal distribution, phenology, sintopy. Salamandra salamandra and Bombina pachypus are at higher risk. The importance of the maintenance of artificial/natural water bodies for the conservation management of amphibian population of this territory is discussed.

  17. Amphibians of the “Cilento e Vallo di Diano” National Park (Campania, Southern Italy: updated check list, distribution and conservation notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Romano

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present the results of our field and bibliographic survey on the amphibians of the “Cilento and Vallo di Diano” National Park (Southern Italy. Two hundred and thirty three spawning sites (167 original and 66 derived from literature, and 11 amphibian species were found. Reproductive activity was recorded for Salamandra salamandra, Salamandrina terdigitata, Triturus carnifex, Lissotriton italicus, Bufo bufo, Hyla intermedia, Rana italica, Rana dalmatina and Pelophylax synkl. hispanica. The distribution record of many species is widely improved with respect to bibliographic data. Our results also suggested that preservation and restoration of small aquatic sites, in particular of the artificial ones, such as stony wells and drinking-troughs, are fundamental for an appropriate conservation management of amphibians in the “Cilento and Vallo di Diano” National Park.

  18. Nematodes of amphibians from Java, Indonesia, with a description of new species, Meteterakis wonosoboensis n. sp. (Nematoda : Heterakoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwaningsih, Endang; Dewi, Kartika; Hasegawa, Hideo

    2015-06-24

    During a survey on the parasites of amphibians of Indonesia, toads (30 Bufo melanostictus) and 246 frogs (213 Fejervarya cancrivora, 11 F. limnocharis, 22 Rana macrodon from West Java and 68 F. cancrivora from Central Java) were examined for parasitic nematodes. Three species of nematodes were found and described, i.e. Meteterakis wonosoboensis n. sp. from Fejervaria cancrivora; Meteterakis japonica from Bufo melanostictus, F. cancrivora and F. limnocharis; and Chabaudus sp. from F. cancrivora, F. limnocharis and Rana macrodon. Meteterakis wonosoboensis n. sp. is distinguished from other species of the genus by the length and shape of spicules, the number of caudal papillae, the presence of gubernaculum in male and the presence of vulval flap in female. Bufo melanostictus and Java are recorded as new host and locality for M. japonica, respectively.

  19. Effects of Insecticides on Strawberry Aphid Chaetosiphon fragaefolii (Cockerell on Resistant and Susceptible Strawberry Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Milenković

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Strawberry aphid, Chaetosiphon fragaefolii (Cockerell, is the most important vector ofstrawberry virus. Breeding of genotypes resistant to this pest is an important preventivecontrol measure, which can be compatible with rational insecticide application. The aimof the paper was to determine effects of dimethoate and deltamethrin on C. fragaefoliipopulations reared on two strawberry genotypes different in susceptibility: susceptiblestrawberry cultivar Čačanska rana and medium resistant hybrid, zf/1/94/96 (Senga Fructarinax Del Norte. Lower toxicity of deltamethrin was observed (laboratory assay as well aslower biological efficacy of dimethoate at lower concentrations (field trial for specimensfrom C. fragaefolii population reared on susceptible strawberry cultivar Čačanska rana.

  20. Identifying behavioural determinants for interventions to increase handwashing practices among primary school children in rural Burundi and urban Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seimetz, Elisabeth; Slekiene, Jurgita; Friedrich, Max N D; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2017-07-14

    This article presents the development of a school handwashing programme in two different sub-Saharan countries that applies the RANAS (risk, attitudes, norms, ability, and self-regulation) systematic approach to behaviour change. Interviews were conducted with 669 children enrolled in 20 primary schools in Burundi and 524 children in 20 primary schools in Zimbabwe. Regression analyses were used to assess the influence of the RANAS behavioural determinants on reported handwashing frequencies. The results revealed that, in both countries, a programme targeting social norms and self-efficacy would be most effective. In Burundi, raising the children's perceived severity of the consequences of contracting diarrhoea, and in Zimbabwe, increasing the children's health knowledge should be part of the programme. The school handwashing programme should create awareness of the benefits of handwashing through educational activities, raise the children's ability and confidence in washing hands at school through infrastructural improvements, and highlight the normality of washing hands at school through events and poster creation.