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Sample records for bullet cluster 1e

  1. The speed of the `bullet' in the merging galaxy cluster 1E0657-56

    CERN Document Server

    Springel, V; Springel, Volker; Farrar, Glennys

    2007-01-01

    Deep Chandra exposures of the hot galaxy cluster 1E0657-56 have revealed that the cluster is observed shortly after the first core-passage of a massive infalling subcluster, which is preceded by a prominent bow shock with Mach number M~3. The inferred shock velocity of ~4700 km/s has been commonly interpreted as the velocity of the `bullet' subcluster itself. This velocity is unexpectedly high in the LCDM cosmology, which may require non-trivial modifications in the dark sector to be accommodated if taken at face value. Here we present explicit hydrodynamical toy models of galaxy cluster mergers which very well reproduce the observed dynamical state of 1E0657-56 and the mass models inferred from gravitational lensing observations. However, despite a shock speed of 4500 km/s, the subcluster's mass centroid is moving only with 2600 km/s in the rest frame of the system. The difference arises in part due to a gravitationally induced inflow velocity of the gas ahead of the shock, which amounts to ~1100 km/s for ou...

  2. An ultra-bright, dust-obscured, millimeter-galaxy beyond the Bullet Cluster (1E0657-56)

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, G W; Hughes, D; Ezawa, H; Austermann, J E; Doyle, S; Hernandez-Curiel, I; Kawabe, R; Kitayama, T; Kohno, K; Kuboi, A; Matsuo, H; Mauskopf, P D; Murakoshi, Y; Montana, A; Natarajan, P; Oshima, T; Ota, N; Perera, T; Rand, J; Scott, K S; Tanaka, K; Tsuboi, M; Williams, C C; Yun, M S

    2008-01-01

    Deep 1.1 mm continuum observations of the interacting galaxy-clusters 1E0657-56 (the Bullet Cluster) taken with the millimeter-wavelength camera AzTEC on the 10-m Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE), have revealed an extremely bright (S_1.1mm=15.9mJy) unresolved source. This source, MMJ065837-5557.0, lies close to a maximum in the density of underlying mass-distribution as traced by the weak-lensing analysis of Clowe et al. 2006, towards the larger of the two interacting clusters. A lensing-derived mass model for the Bullet Cluster shows a critical-line (caustic) of magnification very near the AzTEC source, likely providing a high boost (> 20) to its millimeter flux. We explore various scenarios to explain the colors, morphologies and positional offsets between the potential optical and IR counterparts, and their relationship with MMJ065837-5557.0. One interpretation is that MMJ065837-5557.0 is an individual distant LIRG, with multiple HST and Spitzer images due to the strong lensing by the Bull...

  3. Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect Observations of the Bullet Cluster (1E 0657-56) with APEX-SZ

    CERN Document Server

    Halverson, N W; Ade, P A R; Basu, K; Bender, A N; Benson, B A; Bertoldi, F; Cho, H -M; Chon, G; Clarke, J; Dobbs, M; Ferrusca, D; Guesten, R; Holzapfel, W L; Kovács, A; Kennedy, J; Kermish, Z; Kneissl, R; Lee, A T; Lueker, M; Mehl, J; Menten, K M; Muders, D; Nord, M; Pacaud, F; Plagge, T; Reichardt, C; Richards, P L; Schaaf, R; Schilke, P; Schuller, F; Schwan, D; Spieler, H; Tucker, C; Weiss, A; Zahn, O

    2008-01-01

    We present observations of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) in the Bullet cluster (1E 0657-56) using the APEX-SZ instrument at 150 GHz with a resolution of 1 arcmin. The main results are maps of the SZE in this massive, merging galaxy cluster. The cluster is detected with 23 sigma significance within the central 1 arcmin radius of the source position. The SZE map has a broadly similar morphology to that in existing X-ray maps of this system, and we find no evidence for significant contamination of the SZE emission by radio or IR sources. In order to make simple quantitative comparisons with cluster gas models derived from X-ray observations, we fit our data to an isothermal elliptical beta model, despite the inadequacy of such a model for this complex merging system. With an X-ray derived prior on the power-law index, beta = 1.04 +0.16/-0.10, we find a core radius r_c =144 +/- 19 arcsec, an axial ratio of 0.881 +/- 0.086, and a central temperature decrement of -880 +/- 80 micro-K_CMB, including a +/- 6% fl...

  4. Sunyaev-Zel'Dovich effect observations of the bullet cluster (1E 0657-56) with APEX-SZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halverson, N.W.; Lanting, T.; Ade, P.A.R.; Basu, K.; Bender, A.N.; Benson, B.A.; Bertoldi, F.; Cho, H.-M.; Chon, G.; Clarke, J.; Dobbs, M.; Ferrusca, D.; Gusten, R.; Holzapfel, W.L.; Kovacs, A.; Kennedy, J.; Kermish, Z.; Kneissl, R.; Lee, A.T.; Lueker, M.; Mehl, J.; Menten, K.M.; Muders, D.; Nord, M.; Pacaud, F.; Plagge, T.; Reichardt, C.; Richards, P.L.; Schaaf, R.; Schilke, P.; Schuller, F.; Schwan, D.; Spieler, H.; Tucker, C.; Weiss, A.; Zahn, O.

    2008-07-25

    We present observations of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) in the Bullet cluster (1E 0657-56) using the APEX-SZ instrument at 150 GHz with a resolution of 1'. The main results are maps of the SZE in this massive, merging galaxy cluster. The cluster is detected with 23 sigma significance within the central 1' radius of the source position. The SZE map has a broadly similar morphology to that in existing X-ray maps of this system, and we find no evidence for significant contamination of the SZE emission by radio or IR sources. In order to make simple quantitative comparisons with cluster gas models derived from X-ray observations, we fit our data to an isothermal elliptical beta model, despite the inadequacy of such a model for this complex merging system. With an X-ray derived prior on the power-law index, beta = 1.04+0.16-0.10, we find a core radius rc = 142" +- 18", an axial ratio of 0.889 +- 0.072, and a central temperature decrement of -771 +- 71 muKCMB, including a +-5.5percent flux calibration uncertainty. Combining the APEX-SZ map with a map of projected electron surface density from Chandra X-ray observations, we determine the mass-weighted temperature of the cluster gas to be Tmg = 10.8 +- 0.9 keV, significantly lower than some previously reported X-ray spectroscopic temperatures. Under the assumption of an isothermal cluster gas distribution in hydrostatic equilibrium, we compute the gas mass fraction for prolate and oblate spheroidal geometries and find it to be consistent with previous results from X-ray and weak-lensing observations. This work is the first result from the APEX-SZ experiment and represents the first reported scientific result from observations with a large array of multiplexed superconducting transition-edge sensor bolometers.

  5. Analysis and Interpretation of Hard X-ray Emission from the Bullet Cluster (1E0657-56), the Most Distant Cluster of Galaxies Observed by RXTE

    CERN Document Server

    Petrosyan, V; Luli, K; Petrosian, Vahe'; Madejski, Greg; Luli, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    Evidence for non-thermal activity in clusters of galaxies is well established from radio observations of synchrotron emission by relativistic electrons. New windows in the Extreme Ultraviolet and Hard X-ray ranges have provided for more powerful tools for the investigation of this phenomenon. Detection of hard X-rays in the 20 to 100 keV range have been reported from several clusters of galaxies, notably from Coma and others. Based on these earlier observations we identified the relatively high redshift cluster 1E0657-56 (also known as RX J0658-5557) as a good candidate for hard X-ray observations. This cluster, also known as the bullet cluster, has many other interesting and unusual features, most notably that it is undergoing a merger, clearly visible in the X-ray images. Here we present results from a successful RXTE observations of this cluster. We summarize past observations and their theoretical interpretation which guided us in the selection process. We describe the new observations and present the con...

  6. A Bright Submillimeter Source in the Bullet Cluster (1E0657--56) Field Detected with BLAST

    CERN Document Server

    Rex, Marie; Aretxaga, Itziar; Bock, James J; Chapin, Edward L; Devlin, Mark J; Dicker, Simon R; Griffin, Matthew; Gundersen, Joshua O; Halpern, Mark; Hargrave, Peter C; Hughes, David H; Klein, Jeff; Marsden, Gaelen; Martin, Peter G; Mauskopf, Philip; Netterfield, Calvin B; Olmi, Luca; Pascale, Enzo; Patanchon, Guillaume; Scott, Douglas; Semisch, Christopher; Thomas, Nicholas; Truch, Matthew D P; Tucker, Carole; Tucker, Gregory S; Viero, Marco P; Wiebe, Donald V

    2009-01-01

    We present the 250, 350, and 500 micron detection of bright submillimeter emission in the direction of the Bullet Cluster measured by the Balloon-borne Large-Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST). The 500 micron centroid is coincident with an AzTEC 1.1 millimeter detection at a position close to the peak lensing magnification produced by the cluster. However, the 250 micron and 350 micron emission is resolved and elongated, with centroid positions shifted toward the south of the AzTEC source and a differential shift between bands that cannot be explained by pointing uncertainties. We therefore conclude that the BLAST detection is contaminated by emission from foreground galaxies associated with the Bullet Cluster. The submillimeter redshift estimate based on 250-1100 micron photometry at the position of the AzTEC source is z_phot = 2.9 (+0.6/-0.3), consistent with the infrared color redshift estimation of the most likely Spitzer IRAC counterpart. These flux densities indicate an apparent far-infrared lumin...

  7. Constrained simulation of the Bullet Cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we report on a detailed simulation of the Bullet Cluster (1E0657-56) merger, including magnetohydrodynamics, plasma cooling, and adaptive mesh refinement. We constrain the simulation with data from gravitational lensing reconstructions and the 0.5-2 keV Chandra X-ray flux map, then compare the resulting model to higher energy X-ray fluxes, the extracted plasma temperature map, Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect measurements, and cluster halo radio emission. We constrain the initial conditions by minimizing the chi-squared figure of merit between the full two-dimensional (2D) observational data sets and the simulation, rather than comparing only a few features such as the location of subcluster centroids, as in previous studies. A simple initial configuration of two triaxial clusters with Navarro-Frenk-White dark matter profiles and physically reasonable plasma profiles gives a good fit to the current observational morphology and X-ray emissions of the merging clusters. There is no need for unconventional physics or extreme infall velocities. The study gives insight into the astrophysical processes at play during a galaxy cluster merger, and constrains the strength and coherence length of the magnetic fields. The techniques developed here to create realistic, stable, triaxial clusters, and to utilize the totality of the 2D image data, will be applicable to future simulation studies of other merging clusters. This approach of constrained simulation, when applied to well-measured systems, should be a powerful complement to present tools for understanding X-ray clusters and their magnetic fields, and the processes governing their formation.

  8. 18 GHz SZ Measurements of the Bullet Cluster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Siddharth S. Malu; Ravi Subrahmanyan

    2011-12-01

    We present 18 GHz observations of the Bullet cluster using the Austalia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA), which show structure in the Sunyaev–Zeldovich effect; in particular, a deep, compact feature which does not correspond to any bright feature in X-ray, optical or lensing maps. In general, the relatively deeper SZE features appear to avoid the regions with the most intense X-ray emission. SZE displaced from X-ray centres implies that modeling cluster dynamics is non-trivial. The SZE distribution in the western parts of the cluster are co-spatial with the radio halo indicative of a common origin for the hot and relativistic electrons in the turbulent wake of the Bullet.

  9. Can Coupled Dark Energy Speed Up the Bullet Cluster?

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Jounghun

    2011-01-01

    It has been recently shown that the observed morphological properties of the Bullet Cluster can be accurately reproduced in hydrodynamical simulations only when the infall pairwise velocity V_{c} of the system exceeds 3000 km/s (or at least possibly 2500 km/s) at the pair separation of 2R_{vir}, where R_{vir} is the virial radius of the main cluster, and that the probability of finding such a bullet-like system is extremely low in the standard LCDM cosmology. We suggest here the fifth-force mediated by a coupled Dark Energy (cDE) scalar field as a possible velocity-enhancing mechanism and conduct a comprehensive investigation of its effect on the infall pairwise velocities of the bullet-like systems identified analyzing the halo catalogs from the CoDECS (COupled Dark Energy Cosmological Simulations) public database. Five different cDE models are considered: three with constant coupling and exponential potential, one with exponential coupling and exponential potential, and one with constant coupling and superg...

  10. TANGENTIAL VELOCITY OF THE DARK MATTER IN THE BULLET CLUSTER FROM PRECISE LENSED IMAGE REDSHIFTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that the fast-moving component of the ''Bullet Cluster'' (1E0657-56) can induce potentially resolvable redshift differences between multiply lensed images of background galaxies. This moving cluster effect, due to the tangential peculiar velocity of the lens, can be expressed as the scalar product of the lensing deflection angle with the tangential velocity of the mass components; the effect is maximal for clusters colliding in the plane of the sky with velocities boosted by their mutual gravity. The Bullet Cluster is likely to be the best candidate for the first measurement of this effect due to the large collision velocity and because the lensing deflection and the cluster fields can be calculated in advance. We derive the deflection field using multiply lensed background galaxies detected with the Hubble Space Telescope. The velocity field is modeled using self-consistent N-body/hydrodynamical simulations constrained by the observed X-ray and gravitational lensing features of this system. We predict that the triply lensed images of systems ''G'' and ''H'' straddling the critical curve of the bullet component will show the largest frequency shifts up to ∼0.5 km s–1. These shifts are within the range of the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array for molecular emission, and are near the resolution limit of the new generation high-throughput optical-IR spectrographs. The detection of this effect measures the tangential motion of the subclusters directly, thereby clarifying the tension with ΛCDM, which is inferred from the gas motion less directly. This method may be extended to smaller redshift differences using the Lyα forest toward QSOs lensed by more typical clusters of galaxies. More generally, the tangential component of the peculiar velocities of clusters derived by our method complements the radial component determined by the kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect, providing a full three-dimensional description of velocities

  11. Tangential Velocity of the Dark Matter in the Bullet Cluster from Precise Lensed Image Redshifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Sandor M.; Broadhurst, Tom; Umetsu, Keiichi; Zitrin, Adi; Rephaeli, Yoel; Shimon, Meir

    2013-09-01

    We show that the fast-moving component of the "Bullet Cluster" (1E0657-56) can induce potentially resolvable redshift differences between multiply lensed images of background galaxies. This moving cluster effect, due to the tangential peculiar velocity of the lens, can be expressed as the scalar product of the lensing deflection angle with the tangential velocity of the mass components; the effect is maximal for clusters colliding in the plane of the sky with velocities boosted by their mutual gravity. The Bullet Cluster is likely to be the best candidate for the first measurement of this effect due to the large collision velocity and because the lensing deflection and the cluster fields can be calculated in advance. We derive the deflection field using multiply lensed background galaxies detected with the Hubble Space Telescope. The velocity field is modeled using self-consistent N-body/hydrodynamical simulations constrained by the observed X-ray and gravitational lensing features of this system. We predict that the triply lensed images of systems "G" and "H" straddling the critical curve of the bullet component will show the largest frequency shifts up to ~0.5 km s-1. These shifts are within the range of the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array for molecular emission, and are near the resolution limit of the new generation high-throughput optical-IR spectrographs. The detection of this effect measures the tangential motion of the subclusters directly, thereby clarifying the tension with ΛCDM, which is inferred from the gas motion less directly. This method may be extended to smaller redshift differences using the Lyα forest toward QSOs lensed by more typical clusters of galaxies. More generally, the tangential component of the peculiar velocities of clusters derived by our method complements the radial component determined by the kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect, providing a full three-dimensional description of velocities.

  12. Tangential Velocity of the Dark Matter in the Bullet Cluster from Precise Lensed Image Redshifts

    CERN Document Server

    Molnar, Sandor M; Umetsu, Keiichi; Zitrin, Adi; Rephaeli, Yoel; Shimon, Meir

    2013-01-01

    We show that the fast moving component of the "bullet cluster" (1E0657-56) can induce potentially resolvable redshift differences between multiply-lensed images of background galaxies. The moving cluster effect can be expressed as the scalar product of the lensing deflection angle with the tangential velocity of the mass components, and it is maximal for clusters colliding in the plane of the sky with velocities boosted by their mutual gravity. The bullet cluster is likely to be the best candidate for the first measurement of this effect due to the large collision velocity and because the lensing deflection and the cluster fields can be calculated in advance. We derive the deflection field using multiply-lensed background galaxies detected with the Hubble Space Telescope. The velocity field is modeled using self-consistent N-body/hydrodynamical simulations constrained by the observed X-ray and gravitational lensing features of this system. We predict that the triply-lensed images of systems "G" and "H" stradd...

  13. What does the Bullet Cluster tell us about Self-Interacting Dark Matter?

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, Andrew; Eke, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    We perform numerical simulations of the merging galaxy cluster 1E 0657-56 (the Bullet Cluster), including the effects of elastic dark matter scattering. In a similar manner to the stripping of gas by ram pressure, dark matter self-interactions would transfer momentum between the two galaxy cluster dark matter haloes, causing them to lag behind the collisionless galaxies. The absence of an observed separation between the dark matter and stellar components in the Bullet Cluster has been used to place upper limits on the cross-section for dark matter scattering. We emphasise the importance of analysing simulations in an observationally-motivated manner, finding that the way in which the positions of the various components are measured can have a larger impact on derived constraints on dark matter's self-interaction cross-section than reasonable changes to the initial conditions for the merger. In particular, we find that the methods used in previous studies to place some of the tightest constraints on this cross...

  14. The Train Wreck Cluster and Bullet Cluster explained by modified gravity without dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Israel, N S

    2016-01-01

    A major hurdle for modified gravity theories is to explain the dynamics of galaxy clusters. This paper makes the case for a generalized gravitational theory called Scalar-Tensor-Vector-Gravity (STVG) to explain merging cluster dynamics, and it will be the first of a series of papers intended to investigate this issue. The paper presents the results of a re-analysis of the Bullet Cluster as well as an analysis of the Train Wreck Cluster (using data from Jee et al. and Harvey et al.) in the weak gravitational field limit without dark matter. The King-$\\beta$ model is used to fit the X-ray data of both clusters, and the $\\kappa$-maps are computed using the parameters of this fit. The amount of galaxies in the clusters is estimated by subtracting the predicted $\\kappa$-map from the $\\kappa$-map data. The estimate suggests that $3.2\\%$ of the Bullet Cluster is composed of galaxies. For the Train Wreck Cluster, if the Jee et al. data is used, it is found that $3.5\\%$ of it is galaxies, and $22\\%$ if the Harvey et a...

  15. Gravity in the Crossfire: Revealing the Properties of Dark Matter in Bullet-like Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clowe, Douglas

    2010-09-01

    We propose to study the physical nature of dark matter by using massive, merging clusters of galaxies. As shown with the Bullet Cluster {1E0657-56}, such massive well-measured systems are critical for our understanding of dark matter. By more than doubling the number of clusters in the sample and obtaining systems at different observation angles, impact parameters, geometrical arrangements, and merger velocities, the systematic uncertainties in the dark matter cross section calculations can be improved substantially, allowing us to move from rough order of magnitude estimates to measurements with quantifiable uncertainties that can be compared usefully with the predictions from numerical simulations, and the constraints on alternate gravity models become unambiguous. Our proposed targets are three extraordinary, merging galaxy clusters with X-ray and optical offsets that are placed at ideal redshifts for such a study; A520, A1758N, and A2163. To pin down the position of the dark matter component we require high resolution, absolutely calibrated mass maps. High resolution gravitational lensing data is needed to attain this goal, which can only be achieved with the excellent resolving power of the HST.

  16. The rise and fall of a challenger: the Bullet Cluster in Λ cold darkmatter simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Robert; Dave, Romeel; Nagamine, Kentaro

    2016-01-01

    The Bullet Cluster has provided some of the best evidence for the Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model via direct empirical proof of the existence of collisionless dark matter, while posing a serious challenge owing to the unusually high inferred pairwise velocities of its progenitor clusters. Here we investigate the probability of finding such a high-velocity pair in large-volume N-body simulations, particularly focusing on differences between halo finding algorithms. We find that algorithms that do not account for the kinematics of infalling groups yield vastly different statistics and probabilities. When employing the Rockstar (RS) halo finder that considers particle velocities, we find numerous Bullet-like pair candidates that closely match not only the high pairwise velocity, but also the mass, mass ratio, separation distance, and collision angle of the initial conditions that have been shown to produce the Bullet Cluster in non-cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. The probability of finding a high pairwise velocity pair among haloes with Mhalo≥1014 M⊙ is 4.6×10-4 using RS, while it is ≈34× lower using a friends-of-friends (FOF) based approach as in previous studies. This is because the typical spatial extent of Bullet progenitors is such that FOF tends to group them into a single halo despite clearly distinct kinematics. Further requiring an appropriately high average mass among the two progenitors, we find the comoving number density of potential Bullet-like candidates to be on the order of ≈10-10 Mpc-3. Our findings suggest that ΛCDM straightforwardly produces massive, high relative velocity halo pairs analogous to Bullet Cluster progenitors, and hence the Bullet Cluster does not present a challenge to the ΛCDM model.

  17. The far-infrared/submillimeter properties of galaxies located behind the Bullet cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Rex, M; Egami, E; Pérez-González, P G; Zemcov, M; Aretxaga, I; Chung, S M; Fadda, D; Gonzalez, A H; Hughes, D H; Horellou, C; Johansson, D; Kneib, J -P; Richard, J; Altieri, B; Fiedler, A K; Pereira, M J; Rieke, G H; Smail, I; Valtchanov, I; Blain, A W; Bock, J J; Boone, F; Bridge, C R; Clement, B; Combes, F; Dowell, C D; Dessauges-Zavadsky, M; Ilbert, O; Ivison, R J; Jauzac, M; Lutz, D; Omont, A; Pelló, R; Rodighiero, G; Schaerer, D; Smith, G P; Walth, G L; van der Werf, P; Werner, M W; Austermann, J E; Ezawa, H; Kawabe, R; Kohno, K; Perera, T A; Scott, K S; Wilson, G W; Yun, M S

    2010-01-01

    The Herschel Lensing Survey (HLS) takes advantage of gravitational lensing by massive galaxy clusters to sample a population of high-redshift galaxies which are too faint to be detected above the confusion limit of current far-infrared/submillimeter telescopes. Measurements from 100-500 micron bracket the peaks of the far-infrared spectral energy distributions of these galaxies, characterizing their infrared luminosities and star formation rates. We introduce initial results from our science demonstration phase observations, directed toward the Bullet cluster (1E0657-56). By combining our observations with LABOCA 870 micron and AzTEC 1.1 mm data we fully constrain the spectral energy distributions of 19 MIPS 24 micron selected galaxies which are located behind the cluster. We find that their colors are best fit using templates based on local galaxies with systematically lower infrared luminosities.This suggests that our sources are not like local ultra-luminous infrared galaxies in which vigorous star formati...

  18. Witnessing a merging bullet being stripped in the galaxy cluster, RXCJ2359.3-6042

    CERN Document Server

    Chon, Gayoung

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of the merging cluster, RXCJ2359.3-6042, from the REFLEX II cluster survey and present our results from all three detectors combined in the imaging and spectral analysis of the XMM-Newton data. Also known as Abell 4067, this is a unique system, where a compact bullet penetrates an extended, low density cluster at redshift z=0.099 clearly seen from our follow-up XMM-Newton observation. The bullet goes right through the central region of the cluster without being disrupted and we can clearly watch the process how the bullet component is stripped of its layers outside the core. There is an indication of a shock heated region in the East of the cluster with a higher temperature. The bulk temperature of the cluster is about 3.12 keV implying a lower mass system. Spearheading the bullet is a cool core centred by a massive early type galaxy. The temperatures and metallicities of a few regions in the cluster derived from the spectral analysis supports our conjecture based on the surface bright...

  19. Dark matter line emission constraints from NuSTAR observations of the Bullet Cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riemer-Sørensen, S.; Wik, D.; Madejski, G.;

    2015-01-01

    Some dark matter candidates, e.g., sterile neutrinos, provide observable signatures in the form of mono-energetic line emission. We present the first search for dark matter line emission in the range in a pointed observation of the Bullet Cluster with NuSTAR. We do not detect any significant line...... emission and instead we derive upper limits (95% CL) on the flux, and interpret these constraints in the context of sterile neutrinos and more generic dark matter candidates. NuSTAR does not have the sensitivity to constrain the recently claimed line detection at , but improves on the constraints...... for energies of 10–25 keV....

  20. $\\Psi$DM and the Bullet Cluster: Couple Inflaton to Higgs Field

    CERN Document Server

    Hsieh, Chia-Li

    2016-01-01

    Electroweak theory is extended to $SU_L(2)\\times U_Y(1)\\times U_{\\phi}(1)$, where $U_{\\phi}(1)$ comes from the coupling of inflaton field to Higgs field. There arises an extremely light boson, $Y_{\\mu}$. We resemble it as the wavelike dark matter, $\\Psi$DM, through the dynamical analysis. The interactions of $Y_{\\mu}$ may provide an explanation for the Bullet Cluster observations. Besides, a possible mechanism to produce $Y_{\\mu}$ is discussed.

  1. NuSTAR Observations of the Bullet Cluster: Constraints on Inverse Compton Emission

    CERN Document Server

    Wik, Daniel R; Molendi, Silvano; Madejski, Grzegorz; Harrison, Fiona A; Zoglauer, Andreas; Grefenstette, Brian W; Gastaldello, Fabio; Madsen, Kristin K; Westergaard, Niels J; Ferreira, Desiree D M; Kitaguchi, Takao; Pedersen, Kristian; Boggs, Steven E; Christensen, Finn E; Craig, William W; Hailey, Charles J; Stern, Daniel; Zhang, William W

    2014-01-01

    The search for diffuse non-thermal inverse Compton (IC) emission from galaxy clusters at hard X-ray energies has been undertaken with many instruments, with most detections being either of low significance or controversial. Background and contamination uncertainties present in the data of non-focusing observatories result in lower sensitivity to IC emission and a greater chance of false detection. We present 266ks NuSTAR observations of the Bullet cluster, detected from 3-30 keV. NuSTAR's unprecedented hard X-ray focusing capability largely eliminates confusion between diffuse IC and point sources; however, at the highest energies the background still dominates and must be well understood. To this end, we have developed a complete background model constructed of physically inspired components constrained by extragalactic survey field observations, the specific parameters of which are derived locally from data in non-source regions of target observations. Applying the background model to the Bullet cluster dat...

  2. First detection at 5.5 and 9 GHz of the radio relics in bullet cluster with ATCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malu, Siddharth; Datta, Abhirup; Sandhu, Pritpal

    2016-08-01

    We present here results from observations at 5.5 and 9 GHz of the Bullet cluster 1E 0657-55.8 with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). Our results show detection of diffuse emission in the cluster. Our findings are consistent with the previous observations by Shimwell et al. (2014, 2015) at 1.1-3.1 GHz. Morphology of diffuse structures (relic regions A and B and the radio halo) are consistent with those reported by the previous study. Our results indicate steepening in the spectral index at higher frequencies (≳5.0~GHz) for region A. The spectrum can be fit well by a broken power law. We discuss the possibility of a few recent theoretical models explaining this break in the power law spectrum, and find that a modified Diffusive Shock Acceleration (DSA) model or a turbulent reacceleration model may be relevant. Deep radio observations at high frequencies (≳5~GHz) are required for a detailed comparison with this model.

  3. First detection at 5.5 and 9 GHz of the radio relics in bullet cluster with ATCA

    CERN Document Server

    Malu, Siddharth; Sandhu, Pritpal

    2016-01-01

    We present here results from observations at 5.5 and 9 GHz of the Bullet cluster 1E 0657-55.8 with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). Our results show detection of diffuse emission in the cluster. Our findings are consistent with the previous observations by Shimwell et al. (2014) and Shimwell et al. (2015) at 1.1-3.1 GHz. Morphology of diffuse structures (relic regions A and B and the radio halo) are consistent with those reported by the previous study. Our results indicate steepening in the spectral index at higher frequencies (at and greater than 5.0 GHz) for region A. The spectrum can be fit well by a broken power law. We discuss the possibility of a few recent theoretical models explaining this break in the power law spectrum, and find that a modified Diffusive Shock Acceleration (DSA) model or a turbulent reacceleration model may be relevant. Deep radio observations at high frequencies (at and greater than 5 GHz) are required for a detailed comparison with this model.

  4. NuSTAR observations of the bullet cluster: constraints on inverse Compton emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wik, Daniel R.; Zhang, W. W. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Hornstrup, A.; Westergaard, N. J.; Ferreira, D. D. M.; Pedersen, K.; Christensen, F. E. [DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Molendi, S.; Gastaldello, F. [IASF-Milano, INAF, Via Bassini 15, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Madejski, G. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Harrison, F. A.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Madsen, K. K. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Zoglauer, A.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kitaguchi, T. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Hailey, C. J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Stern, D., E-mail: daniel.r.wik@nasa.gov [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The search for diffuse non-thermal inverse Compton (IC) emission from galaxy clusters at hard X-ray energies has been undertaken with many instruments, with most detections being either of low significance or controversial. Because all prior telescopes sensitive at E > 10 keV do not focus light and have degree-scale fields of view, their backgrounds are both high and difficult to characterize. The associated uncertainties result in lower sensitivity to IC emission and a greater chance of false detection. In this work, we present 266 ks NuSTAR observations of the Bullet cluster, which is detected in the energy range 3-30 keV. NuSTAR's unprecedented hard X-ray focusing capability largely eliminates confusion between diffuse IC and point sources; however, at the highest energies, the background still dominates and must be well understood. To this end, we have developed a complete background model constructed of physically inspired components constrained by extragalactic survey field observations, the specific parameters of which are derived locally from data in non-source regions of target observations. Applying the background model to the Bullet cluster data, we find that the spectrum is well—but not perfectly—described as an isothermal plasma with kT = 14.2 ± 0.2 keV. To slightly improve the fit, a second temperature component is added, which appears to account for lower temperature emission from the cool core, pushing the primary component to kT ∼ 15.3 keV. We see no convincing need to invoke an IC component to describe the spectrum of the Bullet cluster, and instead argue that it is dominated at all energies by emission from purely thermal gas. The conservatively derived 90% upper limit on the IC flux of 1.1 × 10{sup –12} erg s{sup –1} cm{sup –2} (50-100 keV), implying a lower limit on B ≳ 0.2 μG, is barely consistent with detected fluxes previously reported. In addition to discussing the possible origin of this discrepancy, we remark on the

  5. SPECTROSCOPIC CONFIRMATION OF A z = 6.740 GALAXY BEHIND THE BULLET CLUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradac, Marusa; Hall, Nicholas [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Vanzella, Eros [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via G.B. Tiepolo 11, 34131 Trieste (Italy); Treu, Tommaso [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Fontana, Adriano [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, 00040 Monteporzio (Italy); Gonzalez, Anthony H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Clowe, Douglas [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio University, Clippinger Labs 251B, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Zaritsky, Dennis; Clement, Benjamin [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Stiavelli, Massimo, E-mail: marusa@physics.ucdavis.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2012-08-10

    We present the first results of our spectroscopic follow-up of 6.5 < z < 10 candidate galaxies behind clusters of galaxies. We report the spectroscopic confirmation of an intrinsically faint Lyman break galaxy (LBG) identified as a z{sub 850LP}-band dropout behind the Bullet Cluster. We detect an emission line at {lambda} = 9412 A at >5{sigma} significance using a 16 hr long exposure with FORS2 VLT. Based on the absence of flux in bluer broadband filters, the blue color of the source, and the absence of additional lines, we identify the line as Ly{alpha} at z = 6.740 {+-} 0.003. The integrated line flux is f = (0.7 {+-} 0.1 {+-} 0.3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -17} erg{sup -1} s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} (the uncertainties are due to random and flux calibration errors, respectively) making it the faintest Ly{alpha} flux detected at these redshifts. Given the magnification of {mu} = 3.0 {+-} 0.2 the intrinsic (corrected for lensing) flux is f {sup int} = (0.23 {+-} 0.03 {+-} 0.10 {+-} 0.02) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -17} erg{sup -1} s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} (additional uncertainty due to magnification), which is {approx}2-3 times fainter than other such measurements in z {approx} 7 galaxies. The intrinsic H{sub 160W}-band magnitude of the object is m{sup int}{sub H{sub 1{sub 6{sub 0{sub W}}}}}=27.57{+-}0.17, corresponding to 0.5 L* for LBGs at these redshifts. The galaxy is one of the two sub-L* LBG galaxies spectroscopically confirmed at these high redshifts (the other is also a lensed z = 7.045 galaxy), making it a valuable probe for the neutral hydrogen fraction in the early universe.

  6. NuSTAR observations of the bullet cluster: constraints on inverse compton emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wik, Daniel R.; Hornstrup, Allan; Molendi, S.;

    2014-01-01

    The search for diffuse non-thermal inverse Compton (IC) emission from galaxy clusters at hard X-ray energies has been undertaken with many instruments, with most detections being either of low significance or controversial. Because all prior telescopes sensitive at E > 10 keV do not focus light a...

  7. Ghosts of Milky Way's past: the globular cluster ESO 37-1 (E 3)

    CERN Document Server

    Marcos, R de la Fuente; Bidin, C Moni; Ortolani, S; Carraro, G

    2015-01-01

    Context. In the Milky Way, most globular clusters are highly conspicuous objects that were found centuries ago. However, a few dozen of them are faint, sparsely populated systems identified largely during the second half of the past century. One of the faintest is ESO 37-1 (E 3) and as such it remains poorly studied, with no spectroscopic observations published so far, although it was discovered in 1976. Aims. We investigate the globular cluster E 3 in an attempt to better constrain its fundamental parameters. Spectroscopy of stars in the field of E 3 is shown here for the first time. Methods. Deep, precise VI CCD photometry of E 3 down to V=26 mag is presented and analyzed. Low resolution, medium signal-to-noise ratio spectra of 9 candidate members are studied to derive radial velocity and metallicity. Proper motions from the UCAC4 catalogue are used to explore the kinematics of the bright members of E 3. Results. Isochrone fitting indicates that E 3 is probably very old, with an age of about 13 Gyr; its dis...

  8. Strong and Weak Lensing United III: Measuring the Mass Distribution of the Merging Galaxy Cluster 1E0657-56

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradac, Marusa; Clowe, Douglas; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Marshall, Phil; Forman, William; Jones, Christine; Markevitch, Maxim; Randall, Scott; Schrabback, Tim; Zaritsky,; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Bonn, Inst. Astrophys. /Arizona U., Astron. Dept. - Steward Observ. /Florida U. /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.

    2006-09-27

    The galaxy cluster 1E0657-56 (z = 0.296) is remarkably well-suited for addressing outstanding issues in both galaxy evolution and fundamental physics. We present a reconstruction of the mass distribution from both strong and weak gravitational lensing data. Multi-color, high-resolution HST ACS images allow detection of many more arc candidates than were previously known, especially around the subcluster. Using the known redshift of one of the multiply imaged systems, we determine the remaining source redshifts using the predictive power of the strong lens model. Combining this information with shape measurements of ''weakly'' lensed sources, we derive a high-resolution, absolutely-calibrated mass map, using no assumptions regarding the physical properties of the underlying cluster potential. This map provides the best available quantification of the total mass of the central part of the cluster. We also confirm the result from Clowe et al. (2004, 2006a) that the total mass does not trace the baryonic mass.

  9. $Suzaku$ and $XMM-Newton$ observations of a newly-discovered early-stage cluster merger 1E2216.0-0401 and 1E2215.7-0404

    CERN Document Server

    Akamatsu, H; Shimwell, T W; Mernier, F; Mao, J; Urdampilleta, I; de Plaa, J; Röttgering, H J A; Kaastra, J S

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of $Suzaku$ and $XMM-Newton$ X-ray observations of the cluster pair 1E2216.0-0401 and 1E2215.7-0404. We discover an X-ray bridge between the clusters. $Suzaku$ and $XMM-Newton$ observations revealed that each cluster hosts gas with moderate temperature of $kT_{1E2216.0-0401}=$4.8$\\pm$0.1 keV and $kT_{1E2215.7-0404}=$5.8$\\pm$0.2 keV, respectively. On the other hand, the bridge region shows a remarkably high temperature ({\\it kT}=6.6$\\pm$0.5 keV). Furthermore, at the position of the bridge, we detected an enhancement in the wavelet-decomposed soft-band (0.5-4.0 keV) $XMM-Newton$ image at 3 sigma significance, this is most likely due to a compression of the intracluster medium (ICM) as a consequence of the merging activity. This X-ray intensity and temperature enhancement are not consistent with those expected from a late phase, but are in agreement with the predictions by numerical simulations of an early phase merger. From the temperature jump at the location of the bridge, the Mach numb...

  10. OBSERVING CASCADES OF SOLAR BULLETS AT HIGH RESOLUTION. II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scullion, E.; Engvold, O.; Lin, Y.; Voort, L. Rouppe van der, E-mail: scullie@tcd.ie [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029, Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway)

    2015-12-01

    High resolution observations from the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope revealed bright, discrete, blob-like structures (which we refer to as solar bullets) in the Hα 656.28 nm line core that appear to propagate laterally across the solar atmosphere as clusters in active regions (ARs). These small-scale structures appear to be field aligned and many bullets become triggered simultaneously and traverse collectively as a cluster. Here, we conduct a follow-up study on these rapidly evolving structures with coincident observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly. With the co-aligned data sets, we reveal (a) an evolving multithermal structure in the bullet cluster ranging from chromospheric to at least transition region temperatures, (b) evidence for cascade-like behavior and corresponding bidirectional motions in bullets within the cluster, which indicate that there is a common source of the initial instability leading to bullet formation, and (c) a direct relationship between co-incident bullet velocities observed in Hα and He ii 30.4 nm and an inverse relationship with respect to bullet intensity in these channels. We find evidence supporting that bullets are typically composed of a cooler, higher density core detectable in Hα with a less dense, hotter, and fainter co-moving outer sheath. Bullets unequivocally demonstrate the finely structured nature of the AR corona. We have no clear evidence for bullets being associated with locally heated (or cooled), fast flowing plasma. Fast MHD pulses (such as solitons) could best describe the dynamic properties of bullets whereas the presence of a multithermal structure is new.

  11. Suzaku and XMM-Newton observations of the newly discovered early-stage cluster merger of 1E2216.0-0401 and 1E2215.7-0404

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akamatsu, H.; Gu, L.; Shimwell, T. W.; Mernier, F.; Mao, J.; Urdampilleta, I.; de Plaa, J.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Kaastra, J. S.

    2016-09-01

    We present the results of Suzaku and XMM-Newton X-ray observations of the cluster pair 1E2216.0-0401 and 1E2215.7-0404. We discover an X-ray bridge between the clusters. Suzaku and XMM-Newton observations revealed that each cluster hosts gas with moderate temperature of kT0401 = 4.8 ± 0.1 keV and kT0404 = 5.8 ± 0.2 keV, respectively. On the other hand, the bridge region shows a remarkably high temperature (kT = 6.6 ± 0.5 keV). Furthermore, at the position of the bridge, we detected an enhancement in the wavelet-decomposed soft-band (0.5-4.0 keV) XMM-Newton image at 3 sigma significance, this is most likely due to a compression of the intracluster medium (ICM) as a consequence of the merging activity. This X-ray intensity and temperature enhancement are not consistent with those expected from a late phase, but are in agreement with the predictions by numerical simulations of an early phase merger. From the temperature jump at the location of the bridge, the Mach number is estimated to be ℳ = 1.4 ± 0.1, which corresponds to a shock propagation velocity of about 1570 km s-1. From the shock properties, we estimate that core-passage will occur in 0.3-0.6 Gyr and that the age of the shock structure is 50-100 Myr. Based on the measured properties of the ICM at the bridge and estimation of timescales, we find indications for non-equilibrium ionization. We also discover possible diffuse radio emission located between the merging clusters. Combining the radio, X-ray, and optical image data, we speculate that the detected radio sources are most likely related to the merger event. Thus, 1E2216.0-0401 and 1E2215.7-0404 is a new example of an early phase cluster merger with remarkable characteristics.

  12. Standards for bullets and casings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F Song

    2002-11-01

    The Office of Law Enforcement Standards (OLES at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST manages research in many different disciplines of forensic science. One of these projects supports the National Integrated Ballistics Information Network (NIBIN. NIST digitized six bullet signatures from samples provided by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms (ATF and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI. Using these signatures as a virtual standard, NIST’s Instrument Shop manufactured 20 reference materials (RM 8240 standard bullets using a numerically-controlled diamond turning machine. Test results show high reproducibility of the bullet signatures on standard bullets. NIST has also developed a new parameter for bullet signature comparisons, using autocorrelation functions, and proposed a diagram for tracing local ballistics measurements to the National Laboratory Center of the ATF and to the FBI. Using an electro-forming process, NIST has manufactured prototype standard casings and test results show high reproducibility for the casing signatures.

  13. Experimental investigations of plasma bullets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mericam-Bourdet, N; Laroussi, M; Begum, A; Karakas, E, E-mail: mlarouss@odu.ed [Laser and Plasma Engineering Institute, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529 (United States)

    2009-03-07

    Recently several investigators reported on various means of generating cold plasma jets at atmospheric pressure. More interestingly, these jets turned out to be not continuous plasmas but trains of small high velocity plasma packets/bullets. However, until now little is known of the nature of these 'bullets'. Here we present experimental insights into the physical and chemical characteristics of bullets. We show that their time of initiation, their velocity and the distance they travel are directly dependent on the value of the applied voltage. We also show that these bullets can be controlled by the application of an external electric field. Using an intensified charge coupled device camera we report on their geometrical shape, which was revealed to be 'donut' shaped, therefore giving an indication that solitary surface ionization waves may be responsible for the creation of these bullets. In addition, using emission spectroscopy, we follow the evolution of various species along the trajectory of the bullets, in this way correlating the bullet propagation with the evolution of their chemical activity.

  14. Measuring Bullet Velocity with a PC Soundcard

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, M; Courtney, Michael; Edwards, Brian

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a simple method for using a PC soundcard to accurately measure bullet velocity. The method involves placing the microphone within a foot of the muzzle and firing at a steel target between 50 and 100 yards away. The time of flight for the bullet is simply the recorded time between muzzle blast and sound of the bullet hitting the target minus the time it takes the sound to return from the target to the microphone. The average bullet velocity is simply the distance from the muzzle to the target divided by the time of flight of the bullet. This method can also be applied to measurement of paintball velocities.

  15. Standards for bullets and casings

    OpenAIRE

    J.F Song; T.V Vorburger; Clary, R.; E Whitenton; Ma, L.; S Ballou

    2002-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology is developing reference standards through its Office of Law Enforcement Standards with funding provided by the National Institute of Justice. The standard reference materials are used by crime laboratories to verify that results obtained when using their protocols and methodologies meet legal requirements and that equipment is operating properly. The NIST Reference Materials 8240/8250 standard bullets and casings is an example of materials th...

  16. A Coning Theory of Bullet Motions

    CERN Document Server

    Boatright, James A

    2012-01-01

    Each observable ballistic phenomenon of a spin-stabilized rifle bullet can be explained in terms of the acceleration of gravity and the total aerodynamic force acting on that bullet. In addition to the coning motion itself, Coning Theory explains the spinning bullet's aerodynamic jump and its steadily increasing yaw of repose together with its resulting spin-drift. The total aerodynamic force on the bullet comprises its drag and lift rectangular components and produces an associated overturning moment acting upon the rigid bullet. The coning motion of the bullet includes two distinct but synchronized aspects: 1) the well-known gyroscopic precession of the spin-axis of the bullet, and 2) the previously little-known orbiting of the center of gravity of the bullet around its mean trajectory with the nose of the bullet angled inward toward that trajectory. New equations are developed governing the orbital motion of the CG as a circular, isotropic harmonic oscillation driven by the lift and drag forces as they rev...

  17. NIST bullet signature measurement system for RM (Reference Material) 8240 standard bullets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Song, John; Whitenton, Eric; Zheng, Alan; Vorburger, Theodore; Zhou, Jack

    2004-07-01

    A bullet signature measurement system based on a stylus instrument was developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for the signature measurements of NIST RM (Reference Material) 8240 standard bullets. The standard bullets are developed as a reference standard for bullet signature measurements and are aimed to support the recently established National Integrated Ballistics Information Network (NIBIN) by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF) and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). The RM bullets are designed as both a virtual and a physical bullet signature standard. The virtual standard is a set of six digitized bullet signatures originally profiled from six master bullets fired at ATF and FBI using six different guns. By using the virtual signature standard to control the tool path on a numerically controlled diamond turning machine at NIST, 40 RM bullets were produced. In this paper, a comparison parameter and an algorithm using auto-and cross-correlation functions are described for qualifying the bullet signature differences between the RM bullets and the virtual bullet signature standard. When two compared signatures are exactly the same (point by point), their cross-correlation function (CCF) value will be equal to 100%. The measurement system setup, measurement program, and initial measurement results are discussed. Initial measurement results for the 40 standard bullets, each measured at six land impressions, show that the CCF values for the 240 signature measurements are higher than 95%, with most of them even higher than 99%. These results demonstrate the high reproducibility for both the manufacturing process and the measurement system for the NIST RM 8240 standard bullets. PMID:15317178

  18. [Frangible bullets: wounding capability and clinical aspects of their use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komenda, J; Hejna, P; Rydlo, M; Novak, M; Krajsa, J; Racek, F

    2012-04-01

    The article deals with basic characteristics of the frangible bullets and it documents a very specific behaviour of chosen types of these bullets in testing blocks as a substitute materials of alive tissues. The frangible bullets have several important advantages compared to the classical sorts of firearms bullets. The highest benefit could be seen especially in the limited penetrating capability and very low ricochet hazard connected with the use of these bullets. The absence of poisonous elements in the material of frangible bullets (for instance lead) is highly appreciated from the ecology reasons nowadays as well. The cartridges assembled with frangible bullets are used most of all for the practise reasons by law enforcement units, but can be used very effectively also in combat situations. Results of own shooting experiments confirm that the wound potential of bullet can be changed in a very large extent with the change of the manufacturing technology and the bullets geometry. Newly developed frangible bullets and the already manufactured bullets available on the market are characterized by very specific terminal ballistic features. Some frangible bullets behave in a comparable way to full metal jacketed bullets while penetrating soft tissues. Another frangible bullets of different designs fragment to the pieces in soft tissues and cause very serious wounds with persistent effects. The usage of frangible bullets and a potential risk of misuse of this specific sort of ammunition require also new approaches in the medicine for the treatment of the gunshot wounds. PMID:22724652

  19. Isotopic analysis of bullet lead samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of using the isotopic composition of lead for the identification of bullet lead is investigated. Lead from several spent bullets were converted to lead sulphide and analysed for the isotopic abundances using an MS-7 mass spectrometer. The abundances are measured relative to that for Pb204 was too small to permit differentiation, while the range of variation of Pb206 and Pb207 and the better precision in their analyses permitted differentiating samples from one another. The correlation among the samples examined has been pointed out. The method is complementary to characterisation of bullet leads by the trace element composition. The possibility of using isotopically enriched lead for tagging bullet lead is pointed out. (author)

  20. Traces of ricocheted action safety bullets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schyma, C; Placidi, P

    1997-03-01

    Experimental gunshots were made with Action-1 and -3 ammunition (9 mm Luger) using a part dummy made of textile, pig skin, and gelatine as the target. After ricocheting off a concrete floor tile with impact angles of 15 degrees or 20 degrees, the deformed projectiles penetrated the gelatine block to a depth of between 21 and 37 cm. The ricochet angles varied between 5 degrees and 11 degrees. None of the bullets mushroomed after ricochet; a few bullets even overpenetrated. The ricocheted projectiles sprayed a substantial amount of copper particles onto the textile, and metallic fragments were also deposited along the bullet path. These traces were detected by high-resolution radiography. The Action-3 brass bullet was more resistant, had more kinetic energy, and was less deformed than the Action-1 copper bullet. The morphology of the wounds presented a very varied spectrum; round lesions were also observed. The results of the experimental study prove that ricocheted Action bullets present a serious risk of injury. PMID:9095295

  1. Rotating Bullets from A Variable Protostar

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xuepeng; Zhang, Qizhou; Launhardt, Ralf; Henning, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We present SMA CO(2-1) observations toward the protostellar jet driven by SVS13A, a variable protostar in the NGC1333 star-forming region. The SMA CO(2-1) images show an extremely high-velocity jet composed of a series of molecular 'bullets'. Based on the SMA CO observations, we discover clear and large systematic velocity gradients, perpendicular to the jet axis, in the blueshifted and redshifted bullets. After discussing several alternative interpretations, such as twin-jets, jet precession, warped disk, and internal helical shock, we suggest that the systematic velocity gradients observed in the bullets result from the rotation of the SVS13A jet. From the SMA CO images, the measured rotation velocities are 11.7-13.7 km/s for the blueshifted bullet and 4.7+/-0.5 km/s for the redshifted bullet. The estimated specific angular momenta of the two bullets are comparable to those of dense cores, about 10 times larger than those of protostellar envelopes, and about 20 times larger than those of circumstellar disks...

  2. Probability 1/e

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Reginald; Jones, Martin L.

    2011-01-01

    Quite a number of interesting problems in probability feature an event with probability equal to 1/e. This article discusses three such problems and attempts to explain why this probability occurs with such frequency.

  3. Main: 1E1E [RPSD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1E1E トウモロコシ Corn Zea mays L. Beta-Glucosidase, Chloroplast Precursor Name=Glu1; Zea...TDDAYASQEVNGPDGKPIGPPMGNPWIYMYPEGLKDLLMIMKNKYGNPPIYITENGIGDVDTKETPLPMEAALNDYKRLDYIQRHIATLKESIDLGSNVQGYFAWSLLDNFEWFAGFTERYGIVYVDRNNNCTRYMKESAKWLKEFNTAKKPSKKILTPA corn_1E1E.jpg ...

  4. Ballistic Reconstruction of a Migrating Bullet in the Parapharyngeal Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bächinger, David; Bolliger, Stephan; Huber, Gerhard F.; Laske, Roman D.

    2015-01-01

    A 21-year-old male suffering from severe throat pain after being hit by a bullet in Syria claimed that he was shot through his eye and that the bullet subsequently descended behind his throat. Even though the first medical report stated that this course is implausible, meticulous workup provided evidence that the bullet might have entered the parapharyngeal space in a more cranial position than the one it was found eight months later. Our case highlights that bullets are able to move within the body, rendering ballistic reconstruction difficult. However, after removal of the bullet the patient's symptoms completely resolved. PMID:26770857

  5. Gyroscopic Stability of Open Tipped Match Style Rifle Bullets

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, Elya R

    2014-01-01

    Earlier work has produced formulas for predicting stability of rifle bullets of near uniform density and also for plastic-tipped rifle bullets. These formulas have been shown to be accurate to within 5%. However, the original Miller twist formula for metal bullets of near uniform density underestimates the stability of match style open tipped rifle bullets having a significant empty volume in the tip. This paper presents a new formula for accurately estimating the stability of these open tipped match style rifle bullets from parameters easily obtained such as the bullet mass, length, and depth of the empty space in the tip. The formula is tested by measuring the aerodynamic drag vs. predicted stability of several bullets over a range of stabilities.

  6. Turbulent Cosmic-Ray Reacceleration at Radio Relics and Halos in Clusters of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Yutaka; Takizawa, Motokazu; Yamazaki, Ryo; Akamatsu, Hiroki; Ohno, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    Radio relics are synchrotron emission found on the periphery of galaxy clusters. From the position and the morphology, it is often believed that the relics are generated by cosmic-ray (CR) electrons accelerated at shocks through a diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) mechanism. However, some radio relics have harder spectra than the prediction of the standard DSA model. One example is observed in the cluster 1RXS J0603.3+4214, which is often called the “Toothbrush Cluster.” Interestingly, the position of the relic is shifted from that of a possible shock. In this study, we show that these discrepancies in the spectrum and the position can be solved if turbulent (re)acceleration is very effective behind the shock. This means that for some relics turbulent reacceleration may be the main mechanism to produce high-energy electrons, contrary to the common belief that it is the DSA. Moreover, we show that for efficient reacceleration, the effective mean free path of the electrons has to be much smaller than their Coulomb mean free path. We also study the merging cluster 1E 0657‑56, or the “Bullet Cluster,” in which a radio relic has not been found at the position of the prominent shock ahead of the bullet. We indicate that a possible relic at the shock is obscured by the observed large radio halo that is generated by strong turbulence behind the shock. We propose a simple explanation of the morphological differences of radio emission among the Toothbrush, the Bullet, and the Sausage (CIZA J2242.8+5301) Clusters.

  7. Paul Ehrlich: From magic bullets to chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Fernando Cediel

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Paul Ehrlich is one of the most notable figures in the world of science. Considered by many as the father of chemotherapy, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine in 1908 for his contributions to immunology. This document outlines some of his most important findings, including those who led him to create his famous «magic bullets», precursors of current chemotherapeutic agents.

  8. A case of "boomerang" bullet ricochet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karger, B; Joosten, U

    2001-10-01

    A .375 Holland & Holland Magnum Winchester Fail Safe bullet was fired against a steel plate. The big-game hunting bullet (17.4 g, approx. 810 m/s) has a solid copper-alloy hollow point design including a lead core limited to the rear portion. The range of firing was 20 m and the angle of impact was 90 degrees. A large fragment (10.9 g) consisting of the main part of the copper portion was deformed in a peculiar manner similar to a tube or ring and wounded the left hand of the person shooting. The unique fragment trajectory strictly against the line of fire and the velocity sufficient to shatter bone after a distance of 20 m can be explained by an extraordinary deformation mechanism. Unlike in tissue, the high resistance of the steel plate caused the lead core in the rear of the bullet to move forward perforating the central copper barrier behind the hollow point cavity. Thus, the peculiar fragment was created. The subsequent backwards acceleration of the ring-like fragment was probably caused by the partly elastic impact of the copper-alloy portion against the hard steel plate. Due to the perpendicular impact resulting in a centric and symmetrical deformation, the fragment moved in a direction exactly backwards along the original line of fire. PMID:11724432

  9. Complete endoscopic management of a retained bullet in the bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman, Ariella A.; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Kaul, Sanjeev; Bhandari, Akshay

    2013-01-01

    A 25-year-old male gunshot victim presented at our institution with gross hematuria following Foley catheter insertion. Computed tomography and cystogram did not show a bladder perforation, but were notable for a left ischial fracture and the presence of a bullet within the bladder. After failed attempts at retrieving the bullet with a resectoscope and loop, as well as a cystoscope and stone crusher, a 26 French nephroscope was inserted transurethrally, and the bullet was successfully engaged...

  10. Topological light bullets supported by spatio-temporal gain

    CERN Document Server

    Lobanov, Valery E; Kartashov, Yaroslav V; Vysloukh, Victor A; Torner, Lluis

    2012-01-01

    We reveal that the competition between diffraction, cubic nonlinearity, two-photon absorption, and gain localized in both space and time results in arrest of collapse, suppression of azimuthal modula-tion instabilities for spatiotemporal wavepackets, and formation of stable three-dimensional light bul-lets. We show that Gaussian spatiotemporal gain landscapes support bright, fundamental light bullets, while gain landscapes featuring a ring-like spatial and a Gaussian temporal shapes may support stable vortex bullets carrying topological phase dislocations.

  11. Simulations of Galaxy Cluster Collisions with a Dark Plasma Component

    CERN Document Server

    Sepp, Tiit; Heikinheimo, Matti; Hektor, Andi; Raidal, Martti; Spethmann, Christian; Tempel, Elmo; Veermäe, Hardi

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of galaxy cluster collisions with a two component model of dark matter, which is assumed to consist of a predominant non-interacting dark matter component and a 20 percent mass fraction of dark plasma. Dark plasma is an intriguing form of interacting dark matter with an effective fluid-like behavior, which is well motivated by various theoretical particle physics models. We find that by choosing suitable simulation parameters, the observed distributions of dark matter in both the Bullet Cluster (1E 0657-558) and Abell 520 (MS 0451.5+0250) can be qualitatively reproduced. In particular, it is found that dark plasma forms an isolated mass clump in the Abell 520 system which cannot be explained by traditional models of dark matter, but has been detected in weak lensing observations.

  12. Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinfei Liu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available DBSCAN is a well-known density-based clustering algorithm which offers advantages for finding clusters of arbitrary shapes compared to partitioning and hierarchical clustering methods. However, there are few papers studying the DBSCAN algorithm under the privacy preserving distributed data mining model, in which the data is distributed between two or more parties, and the parties cooperate to obtain the clustering results without revealing the data at the individual parties. In this paper, we address the problem of two-party privacy preserving DBSCAN clustering. We first propose two protocols for privacy preserving DBSCAN clustering over horizontally and vertically partitioned data respectively and then extend them to arbitrarily partitioned data. We also provide performance analysis and privacy proof of our solution..

  13. The Influence of Cluster Mergers on Galaxy Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawle, T. D.; Altieri, B.; Bouy, H.; Egami, E.; Pérez-González, P. G.; Richard, J.; Valtchanov, I.; Walth, G.

    2016-06-01

    The rich environment of galaxy clusters is understood to have a profound effect on the evolution of constituent galaxies. However, even clusters of a similar mass and at fixed redshift are not homogeneous, displaying a range in structural complexity. Here we concentrate on the effect of cluster merging, the most massive dynamic process in the Universe. Two spectacular cluster mergers at z~0.3 are explored: the archetypal Bullet cluster (1E0657-558; Rawle et al. 2012), and the HST Frontier Field, Pandora's cluster (Abell 2744; Rawle et al. 2014, 2016). We present detailed analysis of their total star formation, derived from multi-wavelength observations of both dusty and unobscured activity from Herschel, Spitzer, WISE and GALEX. Examination of the morphologies of individual cluster galaxies reveals striking evidence for transformation and enhanced star formation, triggered by the merger-induced shock front. This includes several galaxies identified as having "jellyfish" morphologies caused by the passing shock. We discuss the implications, and preview future work exploring a large sample of clusters covering a range of dynamic states and redshifts.

  14. Spontaneously generated X-shaped light bullets

    CERN Document Server

    Trapani, P D; Piskarskas, A; Jedrkiewicz, O; Trull, J; Conti, C; Trillo, S

    2003-01-01

    We observe the formation of an intense optical wavepacket fully localized in all dimensions, i.e. both longitudinally (in time) and in the transverse plane, with an extension of a few tens of fsec and microns, respectively. Our measurements show that the self-trapped wave is a X-shaped light bullet spontaneously generated from a standard laser wavepacket via the nonlinear material response (i.e., second-harmonic generation), which extend the soliton concept to a new realm, where the main hump coexists with conical tails which reflect the symmetry of linear dispersion relationship.

  15. Complete endoscopic management of a retained bullet in the bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Ariella A; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Kaul, Sanjeev; Bhandari, Akshay

    2013-01-01

    A 25-year-old male gunshot victim presented at our institution with gross hematuria following Foley catheter insertion. Computed tomography and cystogram did not show a bladder perforation, but were notable for a left ischial fracture and the presence of a bullet within the bladder. After failed attempts at retrieving the bullet with a resectoscope and loop, as well as a cystoscope and stone crusher, a 26 French nephroscope was inserted transurethrally, and the bullet was successfully engaged and removed using a Perc NCircle (Cook Medical, Bloomington, IN) grasper. The extra-peritoneal injury was managed conservatively with catheter drainage. To our knowledge, this represents the first case of successful transurethral management of a retained intravesical bullet. Such an approach may benefit patients with retained intravesical bullets or other challenging intravesical foreign bodies and may be helpful in select circumstances to spare patients from more extensive surgeries. PMID:23671506

  16. Cell adhesion during bullet motion in capillaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeishi, Naoki; Imai, Yohsuke; Ishida, Shunichi; Omori, Toshihiro; Kamm, Roger D; Ishikawa, Takuji

    2016-08-01

    A numerical analysis is presented of cell adhesion in capillaries whose diameter is comparable to or smaller than that of the cell. In contrast to a large number of previous efforts on leukocyte and tumor cell rolling, much is still unknown about cell motion in capillaries. The solid and fluid mechanics of a cell in flow was coupled with a slip bond model of ligand-receptor interactions. When the size of a capillary was reduced, the cell always transitioned to "bullet-like" motion, with a consequent decrease in the velocity of the cell. A state diagram was obtained for various values of capillary diameter and receptor density. We found that bullet motion enables firm adhesion of a cell to the capillary wall even for a weak ligand-receptor binding. We also quantified effects of various parameters, including the dissociation rate constant, the spring constant, and the reactive compliance on the characteristics of cell motion. Our results suggest that even under the interaction between P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) and P-selectin, which is mainly responsible for leukocyte rolling, a cell is able to show firm adhesion in a small capillary. These findings may help in understanding such phenomena as leukocyte plugging and cancer metastasis.

  17. Compositional variation in bullet lead manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koons, Robert D; Grant, Diana M

    2002-09-01

    The concentrations of antimony, copper, tin, arsenic, silver, bismuth, and cadmium in lead alloys produced by two smelters and one ammunition manufacturer were determined using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. These element concentrations were used to measure the variations in composition of lead products that result from various processes involved in the manufacture of lead projectiles. In general, when a pot containing molten lead is used to cast a number of objects, these objects are similar, although not necessarily analytically indistinguishable in their elemental compositions. In each subsequent step in the processing of lead at the smelter and at the ammunition manufacturer, the size of an individual homogeneous melt of lead decreases as more distinct compositions are formed as a result of remelting and mixing of sources, including lead scrap. The ammunition manufacturer in this study produced at least 10 compositionally distinguishable groups of bullet wire in a 19.7-h period. The largest group could potentially be used to produce a maximum of 1.3 million compositionally indistinguishable 40 grain bullets. PMID:12353580

  18. Performance analysis of bullet trajectory estimation: Approach, simulation, and experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, L.C.; Karr, T.J.

    1994-11-08

    This paper describes an approach to estimate a bullet`s trajectory from a time sequence of angles-only observations from a high-speed camera, and analyzes its performance. The technique is based on fitting a ballistic model of a bullet in flight along with unknown source location parameters to a time series of angular observations. The theory is developed to precisely reconstruct, from firing range geometry, the actual bullet trajectory as it appeared on the focal plane array and in real space. A metric for measuring the effective trajectory track error is also presented. Detailed Monte-Carlo simulations assuming different bullet ranges, shot-angles, camera frame rates, and angular noise show that angular track error can be as small as 100 {mu}rad for a 2 mrad/pixel sensor. It is also shown that if actual values of bullet ballistic parameters were available, the bullet s source location variables, and the angles of flight information could also be determined.

  19. Firearms, bullets, and wound ballistics: an imaging primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Tarek N; Shuaib, Waqas; Han, Tatiana; Mehta, Ajeet; Khosa, Faisal

    2015-07-01

    Based on its intrinsic mass and velocity, a bullet has an upper limit of wounding potential. Actual wound severity is a function of the bullet construction and trajectory, as well as the properties of the tissues traversed. Interpreting physicians must evaluate the bullet trajectory and describe patterns of injury resulting from the effect of energy transfer from the projectile into living tissue. A basic understanding of firearms, projectiles, and wound ballistics can help the interpreting physicians in conceptualizing these injuries and interpreting these cases. PMID:25724396

  20. Passive infrared bullet detection and tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karr, T.J.

    1994-12-31

    An apparatus and method for passively detecting a projectile such as, for example, a bullet using a passive infrared detector. A passive infrared detector is focused onto a region in which a projectile is expected to be located. Successive images of infrared radiation in the region are recorded. Background infrared radiation present in the region is suppressed such that second successive images of infrared radiation generated by the projectile as the projectile passes through the region are produced. A projectile path calculator determines the path and other aspects of the projectile by using the second successive images of infrared radiation generated by the projectile. The present invention, in certain embodiments, also determines the origin of the path of the projectile and takes a photograph of the area surrounding the origin and/or fires at least one projectile at the area surrounding the origin of the path of the projectile.

  1. A method for testing handgun bullets in deer

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, M; Courtney, Amy; Courtney, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Using service handguns to test bullets in deer is problematic because of velocity loss with range and accuracy giving sub-optimal shot placement. An alternate method is presented using a scoped muzzleloader shooting saboted handgun bullets to allow precise (within 2" in many cases) shot placement for studying terminal ballistics in a living target. Deer are baited to a known range and path obstructions are used to place the deer broadside to the shooter. Muzzleloading powder charges provide a combination of muzzle velocity and velocity loss due to air resistance for a given ballistic coefficient that produce impact velocities corresponding to typical pistol velocities. With readily available sabots, this approach allows for testing of terminal ballistics of .355, .357, .40, .429, .45, and .458 caliber bullets with two muzzleloaders (.45 and .50 caliber). Examples are described demonstrating the usefulness of testing handgun bullets in deer for acoustic shooting event reconstruction, understanding tissue damag...

  2. Shocked $H_{2}$ and $Fe^{+}$ Dynamics in the Orion Bullets

    CERN Document Server

    Tedds, J A; Burton, M G; Tedds, Jonathan A.; Brand, Peter W.J.L.; Burton, Michael G.

    1999-01-01

    Observations of H2 velocity profiles in the two most clearly defined Orion bullets are extremely difficult to reconcile with existing steady-state shock models. We have observed [FeII] 1.644um velocity profiles of selected bullets and H2 1-0 S(1) 2.122um velocity profiles for a series of positions along and across the corresponding bow-shaped shock fronts driven into the surrounding molecular cloud. Integrated [FeII] velocity profiles of the brightest bullets are consistent with theoretical bow shock predictions. However, observations of broad, singly-peaked H2 1-0 S(1) profiles at a range of positions within the most clearly resolved bullet wakes are not consistent with molecular shock modelling. A uniform, collisionally broadened background component which pervades the region in both tracers is inconsistent with fluorescence due to the ionizing radiation of the Trapezium stars alone.

  3. A method for testing handgun bullets in deer

    OpenAIRE

    Courtney, Michael; Courtney, Amy

    2007-01-01

    Using service handguns to test bullets in deer is problematic because of velocity loss with range and accuracy giving sub-optimal shot placement. An alternate method is presented using a scoped muzzleloader shooting saboted handgun bullets to allow precise (within 2" in many cases) shot placement for studying terminal ballistics in a living target. Deer are baited to a known range and path obstructions are used to place the deer broadside to the shooter. Muzzleloading powder charges provide a...

  4. Elastic collision and molecule formation of spatiotemporal light bullets in a cubic-quintic nonlinear medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, S. K.

    2016-09-01

    We consider the statics and dynamics of a stable, mobile three-dimensional (3D) spatiotemporal light bullet in a cubic-quintic nonlinear medium with a focusing cubic nonlinearity above a critical value and any defocusing quintic nonlinearity. The 3D light bullet can propagate with a constant velocity in any direction. Stability of the light bullet under a small perturbation is established numerically. We consider frontal collision between two light bullets with different relative velocities. At large velocities the collision is elastic with the bullets emerge after collision with practically no distortion. At small velocities two bullets coalesce to form a bullet molecule. At a small range of intermediate velocities the localized bullets could form a single entity which expands indefinitely, leading to a destruction of the bullets after collision. The present study is based on an analytic Lagrange variational approximation and a full numerical solution of the 3D nonlinear Schrödinger equation.

  5. Estimating the shooting distance of a 9-mm Parabellum bullet via ballistic experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresson, F; Franck, O

    2009-11-20

    We demonstrate here how the shooting distance of a 9-mm Parabellum FMJ bullet (115gr) has been estimated via shooting experiments. Such a bullet was found by investigators near a concrete wall, fairly distorted at its tip. The bullet carries no evidence of multiple impact and no evidence of ballistic impact on the wall has been reported. We estimated the impact velocity by comparing the questioned bullet with a set of comparison bullets hitting a wall (rigid target) with different velocities. The shooting distance was recovered from the impact velocity by studying the typical behavior of a manufactured 9 mm bullet weighting 115g (7.45g), shot in pistol or a sub-machine gun. The results demonstrated that the questioned bullet was a lost bullet. The shooting distance also helped the investigators, narrowing the range of the estimated positions of the shooter. PMID:19733457

  6. Bullet migration from the knee to the heart after a gunshot injury: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xiao-hui; LU Zhi-jun; HU Jun; SONG Jian-xin; CHEN Shun-liang

    2011-01-01

    @@ Migration of a bullet to a distant part of the body after a gunshot is rarely observed in the clinical setting, and migration to the heart is even rarer.There are usually no clear symptoms or signs from migration of a bullet.The bullet can be easily missed and sometimes identified in a review examination.A case of bullet migration to the heart 2 months after a gunshot to the left knee was reported.

  7. EDITORIAL: Plasma jets and plasma bullets Plasma jets and plasma bullets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, M. G.; Ganguly, B. N.; Hicks, R. F.

    2012-06-01

    -mentioned early studies has witnessed a considerable and exciting growth in terms of new phenomena observed, new physics and chemistry uncovered, new plasma jet sources conceived, and new applications developed. Examples include the observations of plasma bullets on a nanosecond scale [16], the similarity of plasma bullets to streamers [17], arrays of plasma jets as metamaterials [18], and a rapid increase of applications in biomedicine [19]. However the considerable growth in the research of plasma jets has not been adequately supported, so far, by a sound fundamental underpinning, partly resulting from a somewhat underdevelopment of effective diagnostics and modelling tools. Recognizing the critical importance of basic science for future growth of low-temperature plasma jet technology, this special issue on plasma jets and bullets aims to address some of the most important fundamental questions. Many of the special issue papers continue the established line of investigation to characterize the formation of plasma bullets, using typically ultrafast imaging, electrical detection including electric field and plasma conductivity measurement, and optical emission spectrometry [20]-[26]. These offer strong experimental evidence for the well-known hypothesis that a plasma jet is a form of streamer, and that the ionization wave plays a critical role in their formation. The interaction of two parallel plasma jets [27] and manipulation of plasma jet characteristics [28, 29] are also reported using a similar combination of experimental techniques. Some of the common characteristics of plasma jets are summarized in a review paper in this special issue [30]. A somewhat different line of investigation is employed in a detailed experimental characterization of deterministic chaos in atmospheric plasma jets [31], one of the few non-bullet modes of plasma jets. Although chaos in ionized gases have been observed in other types of discharge plasmas, their applications have not so far been linked

  8. Bullet Points, New Writing, and the Marketization of Public Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Theo; Djonov, Emilia

    2014-01-01

    Bullet lists epitomize both new writing practices, which are promoted through ubiquitous software such as Microsoft's PowerPoint, and the marketization of public discourse. The argument is illustrated with an analysis of the recontextualization of the Australian Treasurer's Budget speech into a b......Bullet lists epitomize both new writing practices, which are promoted through ubiquitous software such as Microsoft's PowerPoint, and the marketization of public discourse. The argument is illustrated with an analysis of the recontextualization of the Australian Treasurer's Budget speech...... into a brochure promoting the Government's economic policies....

  9. Collisions between two dissipative optical bullets separated in space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya Li; Long Luo; Yi Tang

    2011-01-01

    We present the numerical results of both head-on and non-head-on collisions between two stable dissipa-tive optical bullets (DOBs) in a three-dimensional complex Ginzburg-Landau equation with cubic-quintic nonlinearity. The system parameters chosen are in the coexistence regions for both stationary DOBs and double bullet complexes (DBCs). By varying the initial velocities v and the impact parameters P which represent the distance between the parallel trajectories of colliding bullets, we observe three generic properties of the bullets: fusion, fission, and quasi-elastic collisions. A novel and interesting behavior is observed in the results, in which two or three DBCs occur in non-head-on collisions at intermediate values of v.%We present the numerical results of both head-on and non-head-on collisions between two stable dissipative optical bullets (DOBs) in a three-dimensional complex Ginzburg-Landau equation with cubic-quintic nonlinearity.The system parameters chosen are in the coexistence regions for both stationary DOBs and double bullet complexes (DBCs).By varying the initial velocities v and the impact parameters P which represent the distance between the parallel trajectories of colliding bullets,we observe three generic properties of the bullets:fusion,fission,and quasi-elastic collisions.A novel and interesting behavior is observed in the results,in which two or three DBCs occur in non-head-on collisions at intermediate values of v.Recently,the concept of the dissipative soliton,which is rooted in the classical soliton theory,the nonlinear dynamics theory of bifurcations,and the concept of selforganization proposed by Prigogine,has received increased attention[1].Dissipative solitons are recognized as fixed localized solutions resulting from a double balance:between dispersion and nonlinearity on one hand and between gain and loss on the other hand.Taking fiber laser as an example,the high-order vector soliton[2]and the dissipative dark soliton[3] occur

  10. Chandra measurements of non-thermal X-ray emission from massive, merging, radio-halo clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Million, E T

    2008-01-01

    We report the discovery of spatially-extended, non-thermal or hot, quasi-thermal emission components in Chandra X-ray spectra for five of a sample of seven massive, merging galaxy clusters with powerful radio halos: Abell 665, 2163, 2255, 2319, and 1E0657-56. The emission components can be fitted by power-law models with mean photon indices in the range 1.4 20 keV. A control sample of regular, dynamically relaxed clusters without radio halos but with comparable thermal temperatures and luminosities shows no evidence for similar components in their Chandra spectra. Detailed X-ray spectral mapping reveals the complex thermodynamic states of the radio halo clusters. We report the discovery of a clear, large-scale shock front in Abell 2219. Our deepest observations, of the Bullet Cluster 1E0657-56, demonstrate a spatial correlation between the strongest power law X-ray emission, highest thermal pressure, and brightest 1.34GHz radio halo emission in this cluster. The integrated flux and mean spectral index of the...

  11. A high-frequency study of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect morphology in galaxy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Prokhorov, D A; Akahori, T; Million, E T; Nagataki, S; Yoshikawa, K

    2011-01-01

    High-frequency, high-resolution imaging of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect is an important technique to study the complex structures of the atmospheres of merging galaxy clusters. Such observations are sensitive to the details of the electron spectrum. We show that the morphology of the SZ intensity maps in simulated galaxy clusters observed at 345 GHz, 600 GHz, and 857 GHz are significantly different because of SZ relativistic corrections. These differences can be revealed by high-resolution imaging instruments. We calculate relativistically corrected SZ intensity maps of a simulated, massive, merging galaxy cluster and of the massive, merging clusters 1E0657-558 (the Bullet Cluster) and Abell 2219. The morphologies of the SZ intensity maps are remarkably different between 345 GHz and 857 GHz for each merging cluster. We show that high-resolution imaging observations of the SZ intensity maps at these frequencies, obtainable with the LABOCA and HERSCHEL-SPIRE instruments, allow to fully exploit the astroph...

  12. Atypical gunshot wound: Bullet trajectory analyzed by computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Ro

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: If an abnormal trajectory is maintained, it is possible for a bullet to traverse half the length of the body without the patient realizing it. Accurate CT analysis and quick decisions in surgical and medical management are critical takeaways to provide quality care to patients with these injuries.

  13. Controversy Over Bullets and in the Bully Pulpit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Nature leads with a story about the suspected double-whammy packed by bullets made of depleted uranium. A slew of new appointees in both houses of the U.S. Congress leads the news in Science this week.

  14. Bullet embolism of pulmonary artery: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Gustavo Ieiri Yamanari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The authors report the case of a patient victim of gunshots, with a very rare complication: venous bullet embolism from the left external iliac vein to the lingular segment of the left pulmonary artery. Diagnosis is made with whole-body radiography or computed tomography. Digital angiography is reserved for supplementary diagnosis or to be used as a therapeutic procedure.

  15. Are lead-free hunting rifle bullets as effective at killing wildlife as conventional lead bullets? A comparison based on wound size and morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trinogga, Anna, E-mail: anna_trinogga@gmx.de; Fritsch, Guido; Hofer, Heribert; Krone, Oliver

    2013-01-15

    Fragmentation of the lead core of conventional wildlife hunting rifle bullets causes contamination of the target with lead. The community of scavenger species which feed on carcasses or viscera discarded by hunters are regularly exposed to these lead fragments and may die by acute or chronic lead intoxication, as demonstrated for numerous species such as white-tailed eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) where it is among the most important sources of mortality. Not only does hunting with conventional ammunition deposit lead in considerable quantities in the environment, it also significantly delays or threatens the recovery of endangered raptor populations. Although lead-free bullets might be considered a suitable alternative that addresses the source of these problems, serious reservations have been expressed as to their ability to quickly and effectively kill a hunted animal. To assess the suitability of lead-free projectiles for hunting practice, the wounding potential of conventional bullets was compared with lead-free bullets under real life hunting conditions. Wound dimensions were regarded as good markers of the projectiles' killing potential. Wound channels in 34 killed wild ungulates were evaluated using computed tomography and post-mortem macroscopical examination. Wound diameters caused by conventional bullets did not differ significantly to those created by lead-free bullets. Similarly, the size of the maximum cross-sectional area of the wound was similar for both bullet types. Injury patterns suggested that all animals died by exsanguination. This study demonstrates that lead-free bullets are equal to conventional hunting bullets in terms of killing effectiveness and thus equally meet the welfare requirements of killing wildlife as painlessly as possible. The widespread introduction and use of lead-free bullets should be encouraged as it prevents environmental contamination with a seriously toxic pollutant and contributes to the conservation of a wide

  16. Galaxy Clusters in the Swift/BAT era II: 10 more Clusters detected above 15 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajello, M.; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Rebusco, P.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Cappelluti, N.; /Garching, Max Planck Inst., MPE /Maryland U., Baltimore County; Reimer, O.; /SLAC /Palermo Observ.; Boehringer, H.; /Garching, Max Planck Inst., MPE; La Parola, V.; Cusumano, G.; /Palermo Observ.

    2010-10-27

    We report on the discovery of 10 additional galaxy clusters detected in the ongoing Swift/BAT all-sky survey. Among the newly BAT-discovered clusters there are: Bullet, Abell 85, Norma, and PKS 0745-19. Norma is the only cluster, among those presented here, which is resolved by BAT. For all the clusters we perform a detailed spectral analysis using XMM-Newton and Swift/BAT data to investigate the presence of a hard (non-thermal) X-ray excess. We find that in most cases the clusters emission in the 0.3-200 keV band can be explained by a multi-temperature thermal model confirming our previous results. For two clusters (Bullet and Abell 3667) we find evidence for the presence of a hard X-ray excess. In the case of the Bullet cluster, our analysis confirms the presence of a non-thermal, power-law like, component with a 20-100 keV flux of 3.4 x 10{sup -12} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} as detected in previous studies. For Abell 3667 the excess emission can be successfully modeled as a hot component (kT = {approx}13 keV). We thus conclude that the hard X-ray emission from galaxy clusters (except the Bullet) has most likely thermal origin.

  17. Bullet Retarding Forces in Ballistic Gelatin by Analysis of High Speed Video

    CERN Document Server

    Gaylord, Steven; Courtney, Michael; Courtney, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Though three distinct wounding mechanisms (permanent cavity, temporary cavity, and ballistic pressure wave) are described in the wound ballistics literature, they all have their physical origin in the retarding force between bullet and tissue as the bullet penetrates. If the bullet path is the same, larger retarding forces produce larger wounding effects and a greater probability of rapid incapacitation. By Newton's third law, the force of the bullet on the tissue is equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to the force of the tissue on the bullet. For bullets penetrating with constant mass, the retarding force on the bullet can be determined by frame by frame analysis of high speed video of the bullet penetrating a suitable tissue simulant such as calibrated 10% ballistic gelatin. Here the technique is demonstrated with 9mm NATO bullets, 32 cm long blocks of gelatin, and a high speed video camera operating at 20,000 frames per second. It is found that different 9mm NATO bullets have a wide variety of pot...

  18. Laparoscopic Bullet Removal in a Penetrating Abdominal Gunshot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Stefanou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Penetrating abdominal trauma has been traditionally treated by exploratory laparotomy. Nowadays laparoscopy has become an accepted practice in hemodynamically stable patient without signs of peritonitis. We report a case of a lower anterior abdominal gunshot patient treated laparoscopically. A 32-year-old male presented to the Emergency Department with complaint of gunshot penetrating injury at left lower anterior abdominal wall. The patient had no symptoms or obvious bleeding and was vitally stable. On examination we identified 1 cm diameter entry wound at the left lower abdominal wall. The imaging studies showed the bullet in the peritoneal cavity but no injured intraperitoneal and retroperitoneal viscera. We decided to remove the bullet laparoscopically. Twenty-four hours after the intervention the patient was discharged. The decision for managing gunshot patients should be based on clinical and diagnostic findings. Anterior abdominal injuries in a stable patient without other health problems can be managed laparoscopically.

  19. Death following rubber bullet wounds to the chest: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalebi, A; Olumbe, A K O

    2005-07-01

    The rubber bullet has been portrayed as a non-lethal weapon and has gained preference in riot-control over live ammunition. Despite the fact that it was designed to be safer than live ammunition, several cases of fatalities have been reported from its use. Most of these fatalities were because of abuse of the weapon in terms of range of fire and anatomical area of the body targeted. This is a case report of such a fatality following shotgun rubber bullet injury, including the circumstance surrounding this unusual occurrence, the autopsy findings and reports of the ballistic analysis. Four projectiles penetrated the right chest lodging in the right lung and injuring the right pulmonary artery, causing death. The mechanism of death in this case is rapid massive pulmonary haemorrhage. PMID:16167715

  20. Light bullets by synthetic diffraction-dispersion matching

    OpenAIRE

    Lobanov, Valery E.; Kartashov, Yaroslav; Torner Sabata, Lluís

    2010-01-01

    We put forward a new approach to generate stable, fully three-dimensional light bullets, which is based on the matching of the intrinsic material dispersion with a suitable effective diffraction. The matching is achieved in adequate waveguide arrays whose refractive index is periodically modulated along the direction of light propagation. We show that by using non-conventional, out-of-phase longitudinal modulation of the refractive index of neighboring channels, it is possible to tune the eff...

  1. Janus "nano-bullets" for magnetic targeting liver cancer chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Dan; Li, Jing; Zheng, Xiao; Pan, Yue; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Ming; Chen, Qi-Xian; Dong, Wen-Fei; Chen, Li

    2016-09-01

    Tumor-targeted delivery of anti-cancer drugs with controlled drug release function has been recognized as a promising strategy for pursuit of increased chemotherapeutic efficacy and reduced adverse effects. Development of magnetic nanoparticulates as delivery carriers to accommodate cytotoxic drugs for liver cancer treatment has evoked immense interest with respect to their convenience in biomedical application. Herein, we engineered multifunctional Janus nanocomposites, characterized by a head of magnetic Fe3O4 and a body of mesoporous SiO2 containing doxorubicin (DOX) as "nano-bullets" (M-MSNs-DOX). This nanodrug formulation possessed nanosize with controlled aspect-ratio, defined abundance in pore structures, and superior magnetic properties. M-MSN-DOX was determined to induce selective growth inhibition to the cancer cell under magnetic field rather than human normal cells due to its preferable endocytosis by the tumor cells and pH-promoted DOX release in the interior of cancer cells. Ultimately, both subcutaneous and orthotropic liver tumor models in mice have demonstrated that the proposed Janus nano-bullets imposed remarkable suppression of the tumor growth and significantly reduced systematic toxicity. Taken together, this study demonstrates an intriguing targeting strategy for liver cancer treatment based on a novel Janus nano-bullet, aiming for utilization of nanotechnology to obtain safe and efficient treatment of liver cancer.

  2. Janus "nano-bullets" for magnetic targeting liver cancer chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Dan; Li, Jing; Zheng, Xiao; Pan, Yue; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Ming; Chen, Qi-Xian; Dong, Wen-Fei; Chen, Li

    2016-09-01

    Tumor-targeted delivery of anti-cancer drugs with controlled drug release function has been recognized as a promising strategy for pursuit of increased chemotherapeutic efficacy and reduced adverse effects. Development of magnetic nanoparticulates as delivery carriers to accommodate cytotoxic drugs for liver cancer treatment has evoked immense interest with respect to their convenience in biomedical application. Herein, we engineered multifunctional Janus nanocomposites, characterized by a head of magnetic Fe3O4 and a body of mesoporous SiO2 containing doxorubicin (DOX) as "nano-bullets" (M-MSNs-DOX). This nanodrug formulation possessed nanosize with controlled aspect-ratio, defined abundance in pore structures, and superior magnetic properties. M-MSN-DOX was determined to induce selective growth inhibition to the cancer cell under magnetic field rather than human normal cells due to its preferable endocytosis by the tumor cells and pH-promoted DOX release in the interior of cancer cells. Ultimately, both subcutaneous and orthotropic liver tumor models in mice have demonstrated that the proposed Janus nano-bullets imposed remarkable suppression of the tumor growth and significantly reduced systematic toxicity. Taken together, this study demonstrates an intriguing targeting strategy for liver cancer treatment based on a novel Janus nano-bullet, aiming for utilization of nanotechnology to obtain safe and efficient treatment of liver cancer. PMID:27258482

  3. Sniper bullet detection by millimeter-wave radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Uri; Lefevre, Russell J.; Mann, John; Avent, Randy K.; Deo, Naresh

    1999-01-01

    Law enforcement and military operations would clearly benefit from a capability to locate snipers by backtracking the sniper's bullet trajectory. Achieving sufficient backtracking accuracy for bullets is a demanding radar design, requiring good measurement accuracy, high update rate, and detection of very low cross-section objects. In addition, reasonable cost is a driving requirement for law enforcement use. These divergent design requirements are addressed in an experimental millimeter-wave focal plane array radar that uses integrated millimeter-wave receiver technology. The radar is being built for DARPA by Technology Service Corporation, with assistance from M.I.T. Lincoln Laboratory and QuinStar Technology. The key element in the radar is a 35-GHz focal plane array receiver. The receiving antenna lens focuses radar signals from a wide field of view onto an array of receivers, each receiver processing a separate element of the field of view. Receiver detections are then combined in a tracking processor. An FM-CW waveform is used to provide high average power, good range resolution, and stationary clutter rejection. TSC will be testing the sniper detection radar, using radar environment simulator technology developed at Lincoln Laboratory. The simulator will retransmit the received signal with the range delay, Doppler shift, and ERP for various simulated bullet trajectories.

  4. Characteristics of behind armor blunt trauma produced by bullets with different structural materials: an experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Ling-qing WANG; Xi-nan LAI; Zhang, Bo; Zheng-lin SU; Huang, Yi-Feng; Wang, Li-Li

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of structural materials of bullets on behind armor blunt trauma (BABT). Methods Ten healthy male Landraces were randomly divided into two groups (5 each): 56 type 7.62-mm rifle bullet group and SS109 5.56-mm rifle bullet group. The kinetic energy of two types of bullets was adjusted to the same level (about 1880J) by the way of grow downwards gunpowder. Then the animals as protected with both grade NIJ Ⅲ ceramic hard armor and grade Ⅱ police soft body armor...

  5. The density and velocity of plasma bullets propagating along one dielectric tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study shows that the propagation of plasma bullets along one dielectric tube is strongly affected by many discharge parameters, such as the waveform of applied voltage (AC or pulsed DC), peak voltage, He flow rate, and the frequency of AC voltage. Analysis indicates that the density and velocity of plasma bullets are mainly determined by the electric field at the front of plasma bullets. These discharge parameters may significantly influence the distribution of plasma potential along the tube, thus control the electric field at the front of plasma bullets and their propagation. An increase in the pulsed DC voltage with its rise time of <40-50 ns can lead to an obvious improvement in the electric field at the front of plasma bullets, resulting in generation of a plasma in the high density gas and a fast propagation of plasma bullets. He flowing through the tube can contribute to the surface diffusion of charged species, and greatly increase the electric field at the front of plasma bullets. During the propagation of plasma bullets, their density is decreased due to the surface recombination of charged species, such as electrons and ions

  6. The density and velocity of plasma bullets propagating along one dielectric tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Longfei; Xia, Yang; Bi, Zhenhua; Niu, Jinhai; Liu, Dongping [Liaoning Key Lab of Optoelectronic Films & Materials, School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China)

    2015-08-15

    This study shows that the propagation of plasma bullets along one dielectric tube is strongly affected by many discharge parameters, such as the waveform of applied voltage (AC or pulsed DC), peak voltage, He flow rate, and the frequency of AC voltage. Analysis indicates that the density and velocity of plasma bullets are mainly determined by the electric field at the front of plasma bullets. These discharge parameters may significantly influence the distribution of plasma potential along the tube, thus control the electric field at the front of plasma bullets and their propagation. An increase in the pulsed DC voltage with its rise time of <40-50 ns can lead to an obvious improvement in the electric field at the front of plasma bullets, resulting in generation of a plasma in the high density gas and a fast propagation of plasma bullets. He flowing through the tube can contribute to the surface diffusion of charged species, and greatly increase the electric field at the front of plasma bullets. During the propagation of plasma bullets, their density is decreased due to the surface recombination of charged species, such as electrons and ions.

  7. A Stability Formula for Plastic-Tipped Bullets Part 2: Experimental Testing

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, Michael W

    2014-01-01

    Part 1 of this paper describes a modification of the original Miller twist rule for computing gyroscopic bullet stability that is better suited to plastic-tipped bullets. The original Miller twist rule assumes a bullet of constant density, but it also works well for conventional copper (or gilding metal) jacketed lead bullets because the density of copper and lead are sufficiently close. However, the original Miller twist rule significantly underestimates the gyroscopic stability of plastic-tipped bullets, because the density of plastic is much lower than the density of copper and lead. Here, a new amended formula is developed for the gyroscopic stability of plastic-tipped bullets by substituting the length of just the metal portion for the total length in the (1 + L2) term of the original Miller twist rule. Part 2 describes experimental testing of this new formula on three plastic-tipped bullets. The new formula is relatively accurate for plastic-tipped bullets whose metal portion has nearly uniform density,...

  8. A Stability Formula for Plastic-Tipped Bullets Part 1: Motivation and Development of New Formula

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, Michael W

    2014-01-01

    Part 1 of this paper describes a modification of the original Miller twist rule for computing gyroscopic bullet stability that is better suited to plastic-tipped bullets. The original Miller twist rule assumes a bullet of constant density, but it also works well for conventional copper (or gilding metal) jacketed lead bullets because the density of copper and lead are sufficiently close. However, the original Miller twist rule significantly underestimates the gyroscopic stability of plastic-tipped bullets, because the density of plastic is much lower than the density of copper and lead. Here, a new amended formula is developed for the gyroscopic stability of plastic-tipped bullets by substituting the length of just the metal portion for the total length in the $(1 + L^2)$ term of the original Miller twist rule. Part 2 describes experimental testing of this new formula on three plastic-tipped bullets. The new formula is relatively accurate for plastic-tipped bullets whose metal portion has nearly uniform densi...

  9. The density and velocity of plasma bullets propagating along one dielectric tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longfei Ji

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study shows that the propagation of plasma bullets along one dielectric tube is strongly affected by many discharge parameters, such as the waveform of applied voltage (AC or pulsed DC, peak voltage, He flow rate, and the frequency of AC voltage. Analysis indicates that the density and velocity of plasma bullets are mainly determined by the electric field at the front of plasma bullets. These discharge parameters may significantly influence the distribution of plasma potential along the tube, thus control the electric field at the front of plasma bullets and their propagation. An increase in the pulsed DC voltage with its rise time of <40-50 ns can lead to an obvious improvement in the electric field at the front of plasma bullets, resulting in generation of a plasma in the high density gas and a fast propagation of plasma bullets. He flowing through the tube can contribute to the surface diffusion of charged species, and greatly increase the electric field at the front of plasma bullets. During the propagation of plasma bullets, their density is decreased due to the surface recombination of charged species, such as electrons and ions.

  10. The density and velocity of plasma bullets propagating along one dielectric tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Longfei; Xia, Yang; Bi, Zhenhua; Niu, Jinhai; Liu, Dongping

    2015-08-01

    This study shows that the propagation of plasma bullets along one dielectric tube is strongly affected by many discharge parameters, such as the waveform of applied voltage (AC or pulsed DC), peak voltage, He flow rate, and the frequency of AC voltage. Analysis indicates that the density and velocity of plasma bullets are mainly determined by the electric field at the front of plasma bullets. These discharge parameters may significantly influence the distribution of plasma potential along the tube, thus control the electric field at the front of plasma bullets and their propagation. An increase in the pulsed DC voltage with its rise time of <40-50 ns can lead to an obvious improvement in the electric field at the front of plasma bullets, resulting in generation of a plasma in the high density gas and a fast propagation of plasma bullets. He flowing through the tube can contribute to the surface diffusion of charged species, and greatly increase the electric field at the front of plasma bullets. During the propagation of plasma bullets, their density is decreased due to the surface recombination of charged species, such as electrons and ions.

  11. [The forensic medical characteristics of the entrance bullet holes created by the shots from pneumatic rifles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legin, G A; Bondarchuk, A O; Perebetiuk, A N

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare the injurious action of three types of the bullets for the pneumatic weapons shot from different distances using the Gamo pump air pistol and the BAM B22-1 pneumatic rifle. The following four kinds of the bullets were tested: "the fireball", "Luman cap 0.3", "Luman Field Target 0.68" and "DIABOLO". It was experimentally shown that the injurious action of the bullets fired from the same distance from the pneumatic weapons depends on the type of both the bullet and the weapon, as well as the properties of the target material. Specifically, the action of bullets fired from the piston pneumatic rifle remained stable whereas that of the bullets shot from the gas-balloon air pistol decreased as the gas was exhausted. The studies by the contact-diffusion method have demonstrated that the entrance bullet holes created by the shots from pneumatic weapons are surrounded by dispersed metal particles which makes it possible to estimate the shooting distance. Moreover, the bullets fired from the pneumatic weapons leave the muzzle face imprint on certain target materials. PMID:26036066

  12. The experimental and numerical investigation of pistol bullet penetrating soft tissue simulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongjuan; Shi, Xiaoning; Chen, Aijun; Xu, Cheng

    2015-04-01

    Gelatin, a representative simulant for soft tissue of the human body, was used to study the effects of 9 mm pistol bullet's penetration. The behavior of a bullet penetrating gelatin was quantified by the temporary cavity sizes in ballistic gelatin and the pressure values of bullet's impact. A numerical simulation model of a bullet penetrating the soft tissue simulant gelatin was built using the finite element method (FEM). The model was validated by the comparison between the numerical results and the experimental results. During a bullet penetrating ballistic gelatin, four stages were clearly observed in both the experiment and the numerical simulation: a smooth attenuation stage, a rolling stage, a full penetration stage, and a stage of expansion and contraction. The cavity evolution, equivalent stress field and the strain field in gelatin were analyzed by numerical simulation. Moreover, the effects of the bullet's impact velocities and angles of incidence on the temporary cavity in gelatin, its velocity attenuation, and its rolling angle were investigated, as well as the bullet's resistance and energy variation. The physical process and the interactive mechanism during a pistol bullet penetrating gelatin were comprehensively revealed. This may be significant for research in wound ballistics. PMID:25747327

  13. Learning game physics with Bullet Physics and OpenGL

    CERN Document Server

    Dickinson, Chris

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive set of straight-forward, easy-to-follow tutorials in OpenGL and Bullet Physics that will teach you how modern game physics and 3D graphics work.If you're a beginner or intermediate programmer with a basic understanding of 3D mathematics, and you want a stronger foundation in 3D graphics and physics, then this book is perfect for you! You'll even learn some of the fundamental concepts in 3D mathematics and software design that lies beneath them both, discovering some techniques and tricks in graphics and physics that you can use in any game development project.

  14. Firearm bullet settling into the lumbar spinal canal without causing neurological deficit: A report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayfun Hakan

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Bullet settling into the lumbar spinal canal without causing neurological deficit may require surgical intervention. Removal of bullets provided not only pain relief in both the cases but also prevented future complications such as migration of the bullets, plumbism, and neuropathic pain and instability.

  15. Pilot study of automated bullet signature identification based on topography measurements and correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wei; Song, John; Vorburger, Theodore; Yen, James; Ballou, Susan; Bachrach, Benjamin

    2010-03-01

    A procedure for automated bullet signature identification is described based on topography measurements using confocal microscopy and correlation calculation. Automated search and retrieval systems are widely used for comparison of firearms evidence. In this study, 48 bullets fired from six different barrel manufacturers are classified into different groups based on the width class characteristic for each land engraved area of the bullets. Then the cross-correlation function is applied both for automatic selection of the effective correlation area, and for the extraction of a 2D bullet profile signature. Based on the cross-correlation maximum values, a list of top ranking candidates against a ballistics signature database of bullets fired from the same model firearm is developed. The correlation results show a 9.3% higher accuracy rate compared with a currently used commercial system based on optical reflection. This suggests that correlation results can be improved using the sequence of methods described here. PMID:20102451

  16. Terminal ballistics of 7.62 mm NATO bullets: experiments in ordnance gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, P J; Vigsnaes, J S; Rasmussen, R; Nissen, P S

    1995-01-01

    Military rifle bullets are assumed to tumble 180 degrees in the target and end up facing backwards, but intact. It has been claimed, however, that a German version of the 7.62 mm x 51 (7.62 mm NATO) bullet may fragment at ranges up to 100 m. A lack of strength in the jacket, causing it to break at the cannelure when hitting the target at high impact velocity, has been held responsible for this behaviour. The Danish Armed Forces use a 7.62 mm x 51 bullet, produced by Ammunitionsarsenalet (AMA), which is similar in design. Since the legality of this and similar bullets may be questioned in view of the Hague Declaration of 1899, we decided to supplement an investigation of actual fatal cases with an investigation using ordnance gelatin. In order to compare various makes of bullets on an equal basis, they were fired into ordnance gelatin at various ranges and, consequently with various impact velocities. Bullets manufactured by the US Government, Bofors (Sweden), Raufoss (Norway) and AMA were used. The AMA bullet M/75 used previously was found to fragment at ranges up to approx. 100 m, corresponding to impact velocities of approx. 715 m/sec, while all the other 3 types of bullets were intact at ranges down to 2.5 m, corresponding to impact velocities of approx. 810 m/sec. The final prototype of an AMA bullet to answer this criticism proved capable of withstanding fragmentation as well as the foreign makes previously tested. It will enter series production in late 1995. PMID:8547160

  17. X-1E on Lakebed with Collapsed Nose Gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    1956-01-01

    This photo was taken June 18, 1956 on Rogers Dry Lakebed after Flight 7 of the Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1E with NACA High-Speed Flight Station test pilot Joseph `Joe' Walker at the controls. The first generation X-1s were well known for nose gear failures and the X-1E was no exception. The hard pitch down on landing usually resulted in a collapsed nose gear. The damage rarely was serious but required several days of down-time for repair. The X-1E was the only one to have a true tail skid to protect the empennage from over-rotation during landing. There were four versions of the Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for EXperimental Supersonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system requirements; powerplant compatibility; and cockpit environments. The X-1 aircraft were the first transonic-capable aircraft to use an all-moving stabilizer. The flights of the X-1s opened up a new era in aviation. The first X-1 was air-launched unpowered from a Boeing B-29 Superfortress on January 25

  18. Surveillance, detection, and 3D infrared tracking of bullets, rockets, mortars, and artillery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Daniel H.; Hyman, Howard; Moore, Fritz; Squire, Mark D.

    2001-09-01

    We describe test results using the FIRST (Fast InfraRed Sniper Tracker) to detect, track, and range to bullets in flight for determining the location of the bullet launch point. The technology developed for the FIRST system can be used to provide detection and accurate 3D track data for other small threat objects including rockets, mortars, and artillery in addition to bullets. We discuss the radiometry and detection range for these objects, and discuss the trade-offs involved in design of the very fast optical system for acquisition, tracking, and ranging of these targets.

  19. The Ballistic Pressure Wave Theory of Handgun Bullet Incapacitation

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of seven distinct chains of evidence, which, taken together, provide compelling support for the theory that a ballistic pressure wave radiating outward from the penetrating projectile can contribute to wounding and incapacitating effects of handgun bullets. These chains of evidence include the fluid percussion model of traumatic brain injury, observations of remote ballistic pressure wave injury in animal models, observations of rapid incapacitation highly correlated with pressure magnitude in animal models, epidemiological data from human shootings showing that the probability of incapacitation increases with peak pressure magnitude, case studies in humans showing remote pressure wave damage in the brain and spinal cord, and observations of blast waves causing remote brain injury.

  20. Type Ia Supernova Remnants: Shaping by Iron Bullets

    CERN Document Server

    Tsebrenko, Danny

    2015-01-01

    Using 2D numerical hydrodynamical simulations of type Ia supernova remnants (SNR Ia) we show that iron clumps few times denser than the rest of the SN ejecta might form protrusions in an otherwise spherical SNR. Such protrusions exist in some SNR Ia, e.g., SNR 1885 and Tycho. Iron clumps are expected to form in the deflagration to detonation explosion model. In SNR Ia where there are two opposite protrusions, termed ears, such as Kepler's SNR and SNR G1.9+0.3, our scenario implies that the dense clumps, or iron bullets, were formed along an axis. Such a preferred axis can result from a rotating white dwarf progenitor. If our claim holds, this offers an important clue to the SN Ia explosion scenario.

  1. Does the prior application of the field kit bullet hole testing kit 3 on a suspected bullet hole bias the analysis of atomic absorption spectrophotometry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltenhammer, Monika H; Fitzl, Christine; Wieser, Ingo; Binder, Reinhard; Paula, Pia; Risser, Daniele U

    2014-09-01

    Forensic ballistics is the study of bullet trajectory and consists of determining gunshot residue (GSR) to identify bullet holes. Among several highly sensitive methods, atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) is employed to analyze GSR in the laboratory. However, it is sometimes necessary to identify bullet holes immediately at a crime scene. The purpose of this examination was to determine whether the use of the field test Bullet Hole Testing Kit 3 (BTK3) on a suspected bullet hole would influence the outcome of AAS-analysis: Three commonly encountered firearms (Glock17, Tokarev, and Colt) were fired at skin, wood, and cloth. AAS-analysis was performed with and without previous BTK3 application. The results clearly indicate that there is no significant interaction on the grounds of BTK3 use (BTK3 vs. no-BTK3 [kit_nokit] [Pb: p = 0.1309; Sb: p = 0.9111], material*kit_nokit [Pb: p = 0.5960; Sb: p = 0.9930], distance*kit_nokit [Pb: p = 0.4014; Sb: p = 0.9184], and firearm type*kit_nokit [Pb: p = 0.9662; Sb: p = 0.9885]); hence, applying this field kit does not falsify later AAS outcomes. PMID:25040851

  2. Galaxy Clusters in the Swift/BAT era II: 10 more Clusters detected above 15 keV

    CERN Document Server

    Ajello, M; Cappelluti, N; Reimer, O; Boehringer, H; La Parola, V; Cusumano, G

    2010-01-01

    We report on the discovery of 10 additional galaxy clusters detected in the ongoing Swift/BAT all-sky survey. Among the newly BAT-discovered clusters there are: Bullet, Abell 85, Norma, and PKS 0745-19. Norma is the only cluster, among those presented here, which is resolved by BAT. For all the clusters we perform a detailed spectral analysis using XMM-Newton and Swift/BAT data to investigate the presence of a hard (non-thermal) X-ray excess. We find that in most cases the clusters' emission in the 0.3-200keV band can be explained by a multi-temperature thermal model confirming our previous results. For two clusters (Bullet and Abell 3667) we find evidence for the presence of a hard X-ray excess. In the case of the Bullet cluster, our analysis confirms the presence of a non-thermal, power-law like, component with a 20-100 keV flux of 3.4 \\times 10-12 erg cm-2 s-1 as detected in previous studies. For Abell 3667 the excess emission can be successfully modeled as a hot component (kT=~13keV). We thus conclude tha...

  3. Effects of human decomposition on test fired bullet – An experimental research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Rao

    2016-03-01

    The observations through comparison microscope indicated that the individual characteristic (microscopic markings on the bullet in the form of microstriae showed complete corrosion or obscuring by the 10th day. The surface appeared smooth, onset of corrosion process was noted on the 2nd day and by the 4th day 50% obscuring of the marks was noted. This change in the markings of the metal surface of the bullet was uniform to all the ammunitions used in this study. The control bullets showed no such changes during the period of study. The study confirms the existence of a potential danger in dealing with crime bullets retrieved from putrefied bodies. It also highlights the importance of early retrieval of dead bodies in firearm deaths and the importance of proper storage facilities to deal with cases of firearm deaths.

  4. Pure air-plasma bullets propagating inside microcapillaries and in ambient air

    KAUST Repository

    Lacoste, Deanna

    2014-11-04

    This paper reports on the characterization of air-plasma bullets in microcapillary tubes and in ambient air, obtained without the use of inert or noble gases. The bullets were produced by nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharges, applied in a dielectric barrier discharge configuration. The anode was a tungsten wire with a diameter of 50 μm, centered in the microcapillary, while the cathode was a silver ring, fixed on the outer surface of the fused silica tube. The effects of the applied voltage and the inner diameter of the microcapillary tube on the plasma behavior were investigated. Inside the tubes, while the topology of the bullets seems to be strongly dependent on the diameter, their velocity is only a function of the amplitude of the applied voltage. In ambient air, the propagation of air bullets with a velocity of about 1.25 ×105 m s-1 is observed.

  5. Terminal ballistics of the 7.62 mm NATO bullet. Autopsy findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, P J; Theilade, P

    1993-01-01

    The 7.62 mm x 51 military rifle bullet (7.62 mm NATO) as manufactured in Denmark, and in some other countries as well, has been claimed to fragment when fired at ranges encountered in forensic practice. All autopsied cases of death due to this bullet in Denmark since 1975 were investigated by studying autopsy reports and the bullets retrieved by the police. With one exception, all bullets that were found in, or known to have passed through the body, had fragmented. This behaviour is assumed to be due to a lack of strength in the jacket causing it to break at the cannelure when hitting the target at high velocity. The fragments will increase the already sizeable lesions and may leave the body through several separate exit wounds, presenting problems both for the surgeon treating survivors and for the forensic scientists when defining the direction of the shot. The legality of this and similar bullets in view of the Hague Declaration of 1899 may be questioned, and we feel that the bullet should be redesigned. A programme to this end has been initiated by the Danish state owned ammunition factory. PMID:8217867

  6. THE SHAPING OF THE MULTIPOLAR PRE-PLANETARY NEBULA CRL 618 BY MULTIDIRECTIONAL BULLETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Po-Sheng; Lee, Chin-Fei; Moraghan, Anthony [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Smith, Michael, E-mail: posheng@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Centre for Astrophysics and Space Science, University of Kent, Canterbury CT2 7NH (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-01

    In order to understand the formation of the multipolar structures of the pre-planetary nebula CRL 618, we perform 3D simulations using a multidirectional bullet model. The optical lobes of CRL 618 and fast molecular outflows at the tips of the lobes have been found to have similar expansion ages of ∼100 yr. Additional fast molecular outflows were found near the source along the outflow axes with ages of ∼45 yr, suggesting a second episode of bullet ejections. Thus, in our simulations, two episodes of bullet ejections are assumed. The shaping process is simulated using the ZEUS-3D hydrodynamics code that includes molecular and atomic cooling. In addition, molecular chemistry is also included to calculate the CO intensity maps. Our results show the following: (1) Multiepoch bullets interacting with the toroidal dense core can produce the collimated multiple lobes as seen in CRL 618. The total mass of the bullets is ∼0.034 M{sub ⊙}, consistent with the observed high-velocity (HV) CO emission in fast molecular outflows. (2) The simulated CO J = 3–2 intensity maps show that the low-velocity cavity wall and the HV outflows along the lobes are reasonably consistent with the observations. The position–velocity diagram of the outflows along the outflow axes shows a linear increase of velocity with distance, similar to the observations. The ejections of these bullets could be due to magnetorotational explosions or nova-like explosions around a binary companion.

  7. Analysis of long-range bullet entrance holes by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravreby, M

    1982-01-01

    Bullet residue and primer particles were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis (SEM-EDA) and by flame and flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). The residue and particles were on cloth targets around entrance holes produced by bullets fired at distances of 10 to 200 m. Primer particles and their chemical constituents were almost always detected by SEM-EDA around the holes produced by rifles and pistols fired at long ranges, and in many cases the barium and antimony associated with primer particles were detected by flameless AAS. Particles were also detected by SEM-EDA on the rear of bullets fired into and recovered from wooden blocks. Usually a hole caused by a bullet jacketed with gilding metal could be distinguished from one caused by a bullet jacketed with yellow brass alloy. Paint from bullet tips of military tracers was also detected. Analysis of the various residues around entrance holes provides a means for identifying the type of ammunition used. PMID:7097199

  8. Comparing Terminal Performance of .357 SIG and 9mm Bullets in Ballistic Gelatin Using Retarding Force Analysis from High Speed Video

    CERN Document Server

    Keys, Elizabeth; Courtney, Michael

    2015-01-01

    High-speed video has emerged as an valuable tool for quantifying bullet performance in ballistic gelatin. This paper presents the results of testing four .357 SIG bullets using high-speed video of bullet impacts in ballistic gelatin to determine retarding force curves, permanent cavities, temporary cavities, and energy deposit vs. penetration depth. Since the methods are identical, results are meaningfully compared with four 9mm NATO bullets studied in an earlier project. Though .357 SIG bullets perform slightly better due to higher impact energy, the principal finding is that there is a much bigger difference in performance between the best and worst performing bullets in each cartridge than there is between bullets of similar design in the two cartridges. In each cartridge, higher performing expanding bullets (jacketed hollow points) outperform non-expanding bullets (full metal jacket) by a wide margin, showing a much higher probability of rapid incapacitation according to an Army Research Laboratory model ...

  9. Galaxy Cluster Bulk Flows and Collision Velocities in QUMOND

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Harley; Teuben, Peter; Angus, G W

    2013-01-01

    We examine the formation of clusters of galaxies in numerical simulations of a QUMOND cosmogony with massive sterile neutrinos. Clusters formed in these exploratory simulations develop higher velocities than those found in {\\Lambda}CDM simulations. The bulk motions of clusters attain about 1000 km/s by low redshift, comparable to observations whereas {\\Lambda}CDM simulated clusters tend to fall short. Similarly, high pairwise velocities are common in cluster-cluster collisions like the Bullet cluster. There is also a propensity for the most massive clusters to be larger in QUMOND and to appear earlier than in {\\Lambda}CDM, potentially providing an explanation for 'pink elephants' like El Gordo. However, it is not obvious that the cluster mass function can be recovered.

  10. Quantitative/Statistical Approach to Bullet-to-Firearm Identification with Consecutively Manufactured Barrels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Striupaitis; R.E. Gaensslen

    2005-01-30

    Efforts to use objective image comparison and bullet scanning technologies to distinguish bullets from consecutively manufactured handgun barrels from two manufacturers gave mixed results. The ability of a technology to reliably distinguish between matching and non-matching bullets, where the non-matching bullets were as close in pattern to the matching ones as is probably possible, would provide evidence that the distinctions could be made ''objectively'', and independently of human eyes. That evidence is identical or very close to what seems to be needed to satisfy Daubert standards. It is fair to say that the FTI IBIS image comparison technology correctly distinguished between all the Springfield barrel bullets, and between most but not all of the HiPoint barrel bullets. In the HiPoint cases that were not distinguished 100% of the time, they would he distinguished correctly at least 83% of the time. These results, although obviously limited to the materials used in the comparisons, provide strong evidence that barrel-to-bullet matching is objectively reliable. The results with SciClops were less compelling. The results do not mean that bullet-to-barrel matching is not objectively reliable--rather, they mean that this version of the particular technology could not quite distinguish between these extremely similar yet different bullets as well as the image comparison technology did. In a number of cases, the numerical results made the correct distinctions, although they were close to one another. It is hard to say from this data that this technology differs in its ability to make distinctions between the manufacturers, because the results are very similar with both. The human examiner results were as expected. We did not expect any misidentifications, and there were not any. It would have been preferable to have a higher return rate, and thus more comparisons in the overall sample. As noted, the ''consecutively manufactured barrel

  11. The effect of bullet removal and vegetation on mobility of Pb in shooting range soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayiga, Abioye O; Saha, Uttam

    2016-10-01

    Lead (Pb) contamination at shooting ranges is a public health concern because Pb is a toxic metal. An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of two best management practices; bullet removal and vegetation, on bioavailability and leachability of Pb in three shooting range (SR) soils. St. Augustine grass was grown in sieved (2 mm) and un-sieved SR soils for 8 weeks after which leachates, soil and plant samples were analyzed. Bullet removal reduced total soil Pb, increased Mehlich-3 Pb in unvegetated soils and increased dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in all soils. Bullet removal increased leaching in two SR soils while grasses reduced leaching but increased water soluble Pb in two SR soils. The roots of the grasses were able to accumulate more Pb in the root (1893-5021 mg kg(-1)) than the aboveground biomass (252-880 mg kg(-1)) due to mobilization of Pb in the rhizosphere. Grasses had a higher plant biomass in unsieved soils suggesting tolerance to the presence of bullets in the unsieved soils. Results suggest that bullet removal probably increased microbial activity and Pb bioavailability in the soil. The leaching and bioavailability of Pb in shooting range soils depends on biological activities and chemical processes in the soil. PMID:27391048

  12. Ultraslow Helical Optical Bullets and Their Acceleration in Magneto-Optically Controlled Coherent Atomic Media

    CERN Document Server

    Hang, Chao

    2014-01-01

    We propose a scheme to produce ultraslow (3+1)-dimensional helical optical solitons, alias helical optical bullets, in a resonant three-level $\\Lambda$-type atomic system via quantum coherence. We show that, due to the effect of electromagnetically induced transparency, the helical optical bullets can propagate with an ultraslow velocity up to $10^{-5}$ $c$ ($c$ is the light speed in vacuum) in longitudinal direction and a slow rotational motion (with velocity $10^{-7}$ $c$) in transverse directions. The generation power of such optical bullets can be lowered to microwatt, and their stability can be achieved by using a Bessel optical lattice potential formed by a far-detuned laser field. We also show that the transverse rotational motion of the optical bullets can be accelerated by applying a time-dependent Stern-Gerlach magnetic field. Because of the untraslow velocity in the longitudinal direction, a significant acceleration of the rotational motion of optical bullets may be observed for a very short medium...

  13. The Shaping of the Multipolar Pre-Planetary Nebula CRL 618 by Multi-directional Bullets

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Po-Sheng; Moraghan, Anthony; Smith, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In order to understand the formation of the multipolar structures of the pre-planetary nebula (PPN) CRL 618, we perform 3D simulations using a multi-directional bullet model. The optical lobes of CRL 618 and fast molecular outflows at the tips of the lobes have been found to have similar expansion ages of ~ 100 yr. Additional fast molecular outflows were found near the source along the outflow axes with ages of ~ 45 yr, suggesting a second episode of bullet ejections. Thus, in our simulations, two episodes of bullet ejections are assumed. The shaping process is simulated using the ZEUS-3D hydrodynamics code that includes molecular and atomic cooling. In addition, molecular chemistry is also included to calculate the CO intensity maps. Our results show the following: (1) Multi-epoch bullets interacting with the toroidal dense core can produce the collimated multiple lobes as seen in CRL 618. The total mass of the bullets is ~ 0.034 solar mass, consistent with the observed high-velocity CO emission in fast mole...

  14. Cranio-thoracic bullet migration over a period of 27 years: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Rangel, C; Reyes-Soto, G; Mendizábal-Guerra, R

    2010-08-01

    We report the case of a 36 year old woman that was hurt in the head with a lost bullet while walking through the street when she was 9 years old. On admission, the patient was fully conscious with no neurological deficits. Skull radiography showed the intracranial bullet but she was dispatched after 24 hours of observation without neurological deterioration. Six months later she suddenly presented quadriplegia and after one year of rehabilitation she recovered the mobility and strength in all her limbs. 25 years latter she began with thoracic pain (dermatomal sensory changes), constipation, paresthesias and weakness in the lower extremities; the X-Ray showed a bullet caliber 9 mm in the thoracic canal at T4 level. The bullet was removed via posterior laminectomy and dorsal midline mielotomy. 12 hours after surgery, the patient presented signs of medullar shock. The post-operatory MRI showed the trajectory of the bullet through the brain to the spinal cord in FLAIR, and spinal cord edema as well. The patient received steroids as treatment for the spinal cord edema, and with the help of rehabilitation she recovered movement in the lower extremities 30 days after the surgery. PMID:20725703

  15. Proper assessment of the JFK assassination bullet lead evidence from metallurgical and statistical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randich, Erik; Grant, Patrick M

    2006-07-01

    The bullet evidence in the JFK assassination investigation was reexamined from metallurgical and statistical standpoints. The questioned specimens are comprised of soft lead, possibly from full-metal-jacketed Mannlicher-Carcano (MC), 6.5-mm ammunition. During lead refining, contaminant elements are removed to specified levels for a desired alloy or composition. Microsegregation of trace and minor elements during lead casting and processing can account for the experimental variabilities measured in various evidentiary and comparison samples by laboratory analysts. Thus, elevated concentrations of antimony and copper at crystallographic grain boundaries, the widely varying sizes of grains in MC bullet lead, and the 5-60 mg bullet samples analyzed for assassination intelligence effectively resulted in operational sampling error for the analyses. This deficiency was not considered in the original data interpretation and resulted in an invalid conclusion in favor of the single-bullet theory of the assassination. Alternate statistical calculations, based on the historic analytical data, incorporating weighted averaging and propagation of experimental uncertainties also considerably weaken support for the single-bullet theory. In effect, this assessment of the material composition of the lead specimens from the assassination concludes that the extant evidence is consistent with any number between two and five rounds fired in Dealey Plaza during the shooting.

  16. Proper Assessment of the JFK Assassination Bullet Lead Evidence from Metallurgical and Statistical Perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randich, E; Grant, P M

    2006-08-29

    The bullet evidence in the JFK assassination investigation was reexamined from metallurgical and statistical standpoints. The questioned specimens are comprised of soft lead, possibly from full-metal-jacketed Mannlicher-Carcano, 6.5-mm ammunition. During lead refining, contaminant elements are removed to specified levels for a desired alloy or composition. Microsegregation of trace and minor elements during lead casting and processing can account for the experimental variabilities measured in various evidentiary and comparison samples by laboratory analysts. Thus, elevated concentrations of antimony and copper at crystallographic grain boundaries, the widely varying sizes of grains in Mannlicher-Carcano bullet lead, and the 5-60 mg bullet samples analyzed for assassination intelligence effectively resulted in operational sampling error for the analyses. This deficiency was not considered in the original data interpretation and resulted in an invalid conclusion in favor of the single-bullet theory of the assassination. Alternate statistical calculations, based on the historic analytical data, incorporating weighted averaging and propagation of experimental uncertainties also considerably weaken support for the single-bullet theory. In effect, this assessment of the material composition of the lead specimens from the assassination concludes that the extant evidence is consistent with any number between two and five rounds fired in Dealey Plaza during the shooting.

  17. Stunning effect of different rifle-bullets for slaughter of outdoor cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Retz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The slaughter method via gunshot implies a stunning of cattle by means of a targeted shot from a rifle and is as an alternative to regular slaughter at abattoirs. This method is only permitted under restricted circumstances and if the cattle is held on a pasture all the year. However, there is a considerable lack of specifications regulated by law concerning calibre and bullet-type. In this study, four different calibres, two bullet-types and two different shot placements were investigated with respect to their stunning efficiency. All of the calibres exhibited an entry-energy over 400 J and provided sufficient stunning potential. Yet, only calibre .22 Magnum caused no exit of the bullet out of the scull, which provides higher safety conditions for man and cattle.

  18. Pseudo-gunpowder stippling caused by fragmentation of a plated bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prahlow, Joseph A; Allen, Susan B; Spinder, Travis; Poole, Robert A

    2003-09-01

    In this report we present a case of pseudo-gunpowder stippling caused by fragmentation of a plated bullet. Investigation of the incident revealed absence of an interposed target, no evidence of ricochet, and a normally functioning, undamaged weapon. Electroplated ("plated" or "coated") bullets are relatively uncommon. They look similar to jacketed bullets in that the lead core is covered by a copper-colored jacketlike material. However, the copper-colored plating material is thinner than the typical jacket material. In certain instances, the plating may strip away from the lead core during transit through the barrel of the weapon and can produce injuries that mimic gunpowder stippling. Forensic pathologists are advised to be aware of this phenomenon. Misinterpretation of such wounds could result in improper classification of range of fire or improper conclusions about the presence or absence of an interposed target or ricochet. PMID:12960660

  19. Bullet Fragment of the Lumbar Spine: The Decision Is More Important Than the Incision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisi, Marc D; Page, Jeni; Gahramanov, Seymour; Oskouian, Rod J

    2015-12-01

    Study Design Case report. Objective Treatment of gunshot wounds to the spine is a topic of continued discussion and controversy. The following case study provides a description of a patient with a gunshot wound to the lumbar spine with a retained bullet in the intrathecal space. Methods Immediately after gunshot injury, a patient developed lumbar and radicular pain, as well as neurologic deficits. He was taken for surgery to remove the retained bullet. Results Following surgery, pain and neurologic function improved. The operative techniques and the postoperative clinical management are discussed in this report. Conclusion In our opinion, it was necessary to remove the bullet to avoid migration and possible worsening of neurologic function. However, surgical intervention is not appropriate in every case, and ultimately decisions should be based on patient presentation, symptomology, and imaging. PMID:26682104

  20. Gunshot wound in lumbar spine with intradural location of a bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordon, G; Burguet Girona, S

    2014-01-01

    The presence of a migratory bullet in the spinal canal after a gunshot injury is a rare finding, specially without causing permanent neurologic damage. We present the case of a patient who suffered a gunshot wound with an entry point in the posterior arc of L2-L3 and a migratory bullet detected at the level of L5-S1 in the CT scan. The patient complained about intense headache, dizziness, and variable sensitive impairment in lower legs apparently depending on the patient's position in bed. We decided to remove the bullet in order to prevent the delayed neurological damage and lead toxicity. We discuss technical details of this surgery. PMID:24991440

  1. Gunshot Wound in Lumbar Spine with Intradural Location of a Bullet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bordon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of a migratory bullet in the spinal canal after a gunshot injury is a rare finding, specially without causing permanent neurologic damage. We present the case of a patient who suffered a gunshot wound with an entry point in the posterior arc of L2-L3 and a migratory bullet detected at the level of L5-S1 in the CT scan. The patient complained about intense headache, dizziness, and variable sensitive impairment in lower legs apparently depending on the patient’s position in bed. We decided to remove the bullet in order to prevent the delayed neurological damage and lead toxicity. We discuss technical details of this surgery.

  2. Regular "Breathing" of Single-Cycle Light Bullets in Mid-IR Filament

    CERN Document Server

    Chekalin, S V; Kuznetzov, A V; Dormidonov, A E; Shlenov, S A; Kandidov, V P

    2015-01-01

    Experimental and numerical studies of a temporal evolution of a light bullet formed in isotropic LiF by Mid IR femtosecond pulse (2500 to 3250 nm) of power, slightly exceeding the critical power for self-focusing, are presented. For the first time regular oscillations of the light bullet intensity during its propagation in a filament were registered by investigation of induced color centers in LiF. It was revealed that color centers in a single laser pulse filament have a strictly periodic structure with a length of separate sections about 30 mcm, which increases with a laser pulse wavelength decreasing. It was shown that the origin of light bullet modulation is a periodical change of the light field amplitude of an extremely compressed single cycle wave packet in a filament, due to the difference of the wave packet group velocity and the carrier wave phase velocity.

  3. Class 1E digital systems studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is furnished as part of the effort to develop NRC Class 1E Digital Computer Systems Guidelines which is Task 8 of USAF Rome Laboratories Contract F30602-89-D-0100. The report addresses four major topics, namely, computer programming languages, software design and development, software testing and fault tolerance and fault avoidance. The topics are intended as stepping stones leading to a Draft Regulatory Guide document. As part of this task a small scale survey of software fault avoidance and fault tolerance practices was conducted among vendors of nuclear safety related systems and among agencies that develop software for other applications demanding very high reliability. The findings of the present report are in part based on the survey and in part on review of software literature relating to nuclear and other critical installations, as well as on the authors' experience in these areas

  4. Gunshot Wound in Lumbar Spine with Intradural Location of a Bullet

    OpenAIRE

    Bordon, G.; Burguet Girona, S.

    2014-01-01

    The presence of a migratory bullet in the spinal canal after a gunshot injury is a rare finding, specially without causing permanent neurologic damage. We present the case of a patient who suffered a gunshot wound with an entry point in the posterior arc of L2-L3 and a migratory bullet detected at the level of L5-S1 in the CT scan. The patient complained about intense headache, dizziness, and variable sensitive impairment in lower legs apparently depending on the patient’s position in bed. We...

  5. Characteristics of behind armor blunt trauma produced by bullets with different structural materials: an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-qing WANG

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effect of structural materials of bullets on behind armor blunt trauma (BABT. Methods Ten healthy male Landraces were randomly divided into two groups (5 each: 56 type 7.62-mm rifle bullet group and SS109 5.56-mm rifle bullet group. The kinetic energy of two types of bullets was adjusted to the same level (about 1880J by the way of grow downwards gunpowder. Then the animals as protected with both grade NIJ Ⅲ ceramic hard armor and grade Ⅱ police soft body armor, were shot at the left midclavicular line of fourth intercostal space (shooting distance was 25m. The damage to the animals was observed. Other 2 healthy male Landraces were selected, and biomechanical sensor was subcutaneously implanted into the soft tissue in precordium and intracalvarium to detect the pressure at the time point of bullet contact under the protection of armor, and the relationship between pressure and damage was analyzed. Results Respiration, heart rate and systolic arterial pressure of animals in two groups were all elevated after injury, but there was no significant difference between the two groups. No obvious change was found on blood oxygen saturation of both groups. Gross anatomy showed the predominant local injury was cardiac and pulmonary contusions. The area of pulmonary hemorrhage of 7.62mm group was 6.00%±3.18%, significantly higher than that of 5.56mm group (3.59%±2.11%, P<0.05. Histopathological examination revealed acute injuries of lung tissues, myocardial tissue and cerebral cortical neurons. The contents of cardiac troponin T (TnT, creatine kinase (CK and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB isoenzyme were all increased 3 hours after injury, and the rise was higher in 7.62mm group than in 5.56mm group (P<0.05. Biomechanical testing showed the pressure of precordium and intracalvarium was elevated at the moment of bullet contact, and the rise was higher in 7.62mm group than in 5.56mm group (P<0.05. Conclusions

  6. Lead isotope ratio analysis of bullet samples by using quadrupole ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement conditions for the precise analysis of the lead stable isotope ratio by using an ICP-MS equipped with a quadrupole mass spectrometer were studied in order to apply the technique to the forensic identification of bullet samples. The values of the relative standard deviation obtained for the ratio of 208Pb/206Pb, 207Pb/206Pb and 204Pb/206Pb were lower than 0.2% after optimization of the analytical conditions, including the optimum lead concentration of the sample solution to be about 70 ppb and an integration time for 1 m/s of 15 s. This method was applied to an analysis of lead in bullets for rifles and handguns; a stable isotope ratio of lead was found to be suitable for the identification of bullets. This study has demonstrated that the lead isotope ratio measured by using a quadrupole ICP-MS was useful for a practical analysis of bullet samples in forensic science. (author)

  7. Science Fair Projects. LC Science Tracer Bullet. TB 07-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howland, Joyce, Comp.

    2007-01-01

    Selected sources in this bibliography provide guidance to students, parents, and teachers throughout the process of planning, developing, implementing and competing in science fair activities. Sources range in suitability from elementary to high school levels. This guide updates "Library of Congress Science Tracer Bullet" 01-4. More specialized…

  8. Full-Scale Schlieren Imaging of Firearms Discharge and Bullets in Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grumstrup, Torben; Settles, Gary; Dodson-Dreibelbis, Lori

    2003-11-01

    A lens-and-grid-type schlieren system using a very large grid as a light source, thus having a 2x3m field-of-view, was described at previous APS/DFD meetings. The implementation of high-speed still imaging and cinematography of shock waves with this system has also been described. Schlieren methods and external ballistics have been closely related since Mach and Salcher first photographed shock waves about a bullet in 1887. The reason to revisit the topic here is that a large field of view allows imaging not only of the bullet and muzzle blast, but also of shock wave interactions with the surroundings and with the person firing the gun. Microsecond still images reveal various stages of these phenomena for both transonic and supersonic (pistol and rifle) bullets. High-speed movies at 30,000 frames/s are also presented. Some implications of these results for hearing protection while using firearms, the improvement of gun and ammunition design and safety, and forensic investigations of close-range bullet wounds are discussed.

  9. Lead bullet fragments in venison from rifle-killed deer: potential for human dietary exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Grainger Hunt

    Full Text Available Human consumers of wildlife killed with lead ammunition may be exposed to health risks associated with lead ingestion. This hypothesis is based on published studies showing elevated blood lead concentrations in subsistence hunter populations, retention of ammunition residues in the tissues of hunter-killed animals, and systemic, cognitive, and behavioral disorders associated with human lead body burdens once considered safe. Our objective was to determine the incidence and bioavailability of lead bullet fragments in hunter-killed venison, a widely-eaten food among hunters and their families. We radiographed 30 eviscerated carcasses of White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus shot by hunters with standard lead-core, copper-jacketed bullets under normal hunting conditions. All carcasses showed metal fragments (geometric mean = 136 fragments, range = 15-409 and widespread fragment dispersion. We took each carcass to a separate meat processor and fluoroscopically scanned the resulting meat packages; fluoroscopy revealed metal fragments in the ground meat packages of 24 (80% of the 30 deer; 32% of 234 ground meat packages contained at least one fragment. Fragments were identified as lead by ICP in 93% of 27 samples. Isotope ratios of lead in meat matched the ratios of bullets, and differed from background lead in bone. We fed fragment-containing venison to four pigs to test bioavailability; four controls received venison without fragments from the same deer. Mean blood lead concentrations in pigs peaked at 2.29 microg/dL (maximum 3.8 microg/dL 2 days following ingestion of fragment-containing venison, significantly higher than the 0.63 microg/dL averaged by controls. We conclude that people risk exposure to bioavailable lead from bullet fragments when they eat venison from deer killed with standard lead-based rifle bullets and processed under normal procedures. At risk in the U.S. are some ten million hunters, their families, and low

  10. Application of a XMM-Newton EPIC Monte Carlo to analysis and interpretation of data for Abell 1689, RXJ0658-55 and the Centaurus clusters of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, K E; Madejski, G M

    2006-01-01

    We propose a new Monte Carlo method to study extended X-ray sources with the European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC) aboard XMM Newton. The Smoothed Particle Inference (SPI) technique, described in a companion paper, is applied here to the EPIC data for the clusters of galaxies Abell 1689, Centaurus and RXJ 0658-55 (the ``bullet cluster''). We aim to show the advantages of this method of simultaneous spectral-spatial modeling over traditional X-ray spectral analysis. In Abell 1689 we confirm our earlier findings about structure in temperature distribution and produce a high resolution temperature map. We also confirm our findings about velocity structure within the gas. In the bullet cluster, RXJ 0658-55, we produce the highest resolution temperature map yet to be published of this cluster allowing us to trace what looks like the motion of the bullet in the cluster. We even detect a south to north temperature gradient within the bullet itself. In the Centaurus cluster we detect, by dividing up the luminosity of...

  11. Main: 1E4N [RPSD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1E4N トウモロコシ Corn Zea mays L. Beta-Glucosidase, Chloroplast Precursor Name=Glu1; Zea...EVNGPDGKPIGPPMGNPWIYMYPEGLKDLLMIMKNKYGNPPIYITENGIGDVDTKETPLPMEAALNDYKRLDYIQRHIATLKESIDLGSNVQGYFAWSLLDNFEWFAGFTERYGIVYVDRNNNCTRYMKESAKWLKEFNTAKKPSKKILTPA corn_1E4N.jpg ...

  12. Main: 1E4L [RPSD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1E4L トウモロコシ Corn Zea mays L. Beta-Glucosidase, Chloroplast Precursor Name=Glu1; Zea...MKNKYGNPPIYITENGIGDVDTKETPLPMEAALNDYKRLDYIQRHIATLKESIDLGSNVQGYFAWSLLDNFEWFAGFTERYGIVYVDRNNNCTRYMKESAKWLKEFNTAKKPSKKILTPA corn_1E4L.jpg ...

  13. Main: 1E1F [RPSD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1E1F トウモロコシ Corn Zea mays L. Beta-Glucosidase, Chloroplast Precursor Name=Glu1; Zea...QRHIATLKESIDLGSNVQGYFAWSLLDNFEWFAGFTERYGIVYVDRNNNCTRYMKESAKWLKEFNTAKKPSKKILTPA corn_1E1F.jpg ...

  14. THE ABUNDANCE OF BULLET GROUPS IN ΛCDM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-Trincado, J. G.; Forero-Romero, J. E. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de los Andes, Cra. 1 No. 18A-10, Edificio Ip, Bogotá (Colombia); Foex, G.; Motta, V. [Instituto de Física y Astronomía, Universidad de Valparaíso, Avda. Gran Bretaña 1111, Playa Ancha, Valparaíso 2360102 (Chile); Verdugo, T., E-mail: jfernandez@obs-besancon.fr, E-mail: je.forero@uniandes.edu.co [Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomía, AP 264, Mérida 5101-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2014-06-01

    We estimate the expected distribution of displacements between the two dominant dark matter (DM) peaks (DM-DM displacements) and between the DM and gaseous baryon peak (DM-gas displacements) in DM halos with masses larger than 10{sup 13} h {sup –1} M {sub ☉}. As a benchmark, we use the observation of SL2S J08544–0121, which is the lowest mass system (1.0 × 10{sup 14} h {sup –1} M {sub ☉}) observed so far, featuring a bi-modal DM distribution with a dislocated gas component. We find that (50 ± 10)% of the DM halos with circular velocities in the range 300-700 km s{sup –1} (groups) show DM-DM displacements equal to or larger than 186 ± 30 h {sup –1} kpc as observed in SL2S J08544–0121. For DM halos with circular velocities larger than 700 km s{sup –1} (clusters) this fraction rises to (70 ± 10)%. Using the same simulation, we estimate the DM-gas displacements and find that 0.1%-1.0% of the groups should present separations equal to or larger than 87 ± 14 h {sup –1} kpc, corresponding to our observational benchmark; for clusters, this fraction rises to (7 ± 3)%, consistent with previous studies of DM to baryon separations. Considering both constraints on the DM-DM and DM-gas displacements, we find that the number density of groups similar to SL2S J08544–0121 is ∼6.0 × 10{sup –7} Mpc{sup –3}, three times larger than the estimated value for clusters. These results open up the possibility for a new statistical test of ΛCDM by looking for DM-gas displacements in low mass clusters and groups.

  15. A Fortunate Story of an Unusual AK-47 Bullet Trajectory: Always Keep a Smartphone in Your Pocket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabouillot, Oscar; Perrier, Pierre; Roche, Nicolas-Charles; Agard, David; Barbier, Olivier; Martin, Guillaume; Viant, Eric; Leclere, Jean-Baptiste

    2016-06-01

    This is a report of a fortunate story of an unusual AK-47 bullet trajectory which took place during the Paris (France) attack of November 13th, 2015. A young man, trying to protect his girlfriend, interfered between her and a shooter. He had been wounded in the posterior compartment of the thigh. The bullet penetrated him and, instead of exiting, rebound against his Smartphone, which was in the front pocket of his pants. Thanks to that, the missile bullet did not injure his girlfriend but ended its trajectory in the fat tissue of his thigh. Thabouillot O , Perrier P , Roche NC , Agard D , Barbier O , Martin G , Viant E , Leclere JB . A fortunate story of an unusual AK-47 bullet trajectory: always keep a Smartphone in your pocket. Prehosp Disaster Med, 2016;31(3):343-345.

  16. Terminal Performance of Lead-Free Pistol Bullets in Ballistic Gelatin Using Retarding Force Analysis from High Speed Video

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, Elijah; Andrusiv, Lubov; Courtney, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Due to concerns about environmental and industrial hazards of lead, a number of military, law enforcement, and wildlife management agencies are giving careful consideration to lead-free ammunition. The goal of lead-free bullets is to gain the advantages of reduced lead use in the environment while maintaining equal or better terminal performance. Accepting reduced terminal performance would foolishly risk the lives of military and law enforcement personnel. This paper uses the established technique of studying bullet impacts in ballistic gelatin to characterize the terminal performance of eight commercial off-the- shelf lead-free handgun bullets for comparison with earlier analysis of jacketed lead bullets. Peak retarding force and energy deposit in calibrated ballistic gelatin are quantified using high speed video. The temporary stretch cavities and permanent wound cavities are also characterized. Two factors tend to reduce the terminal performance of these lead-free projectiles compared to similar jacketed ...

  17. Generation of Ultrashort Light Bullets in Dispersive Kerr Media Using the Fourth-Order Dispersion-Dependent Spatiotemporal Instability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文双春; 钱列加; 范滇元

    2003-01-01

    A new method for generation of a train of ultrashort pulses or a sequence of ultrashort light bullets is proposed.This method is based on the fourth-order dispersion-dependent spatiotemporal instability in dispersive Kerr media. The repetition-rate of the generated bullets can be made quite large by increasing the corresponding spatial modulation frequency locating in the new instability region resulted from fourth-order dispersion.

  18. Light bullets and supercontinuum spectrum during femtosecond pulse filamentation under conditions of anomalous group-velocity dispersion in fused silicalicati

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekalin, Sergei V; Kompanets, V O; Smetanina, E O; Kandidov, V P

    2013-04-30

    We report the results of theoretical and experimental research on spectrum transformation and spatiotemporal distribution of the femtosecond laser radiation intensity during filamentation in fused silica. The formation of light bullets with a high power density is first observed in a femtosecond laser pulse in the anomalous group velocity dispersion regime at a wavelength of 1800 nm. The minimum duration of the light bullet is about two oscillation cycles of the light field. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  19. Terminal ballistics of the 9mm with Action Safety bullet or Blitz-Action-Trauma (BAT) ammunition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, P E; Stone, R S; Broudy, D; Morgan, T M

    1994-05-01

    Specialty ammunition creating atypical gunshot wounds of entrance can create confusion and may be misinterpreted by pathologists unfamiliar with the terminal ballistics of these projectiles. The previously unreported wound ballistics caused by the 9mm with Action Safety bullet described in a homicide highlights the atypical entrance wound(s) and wounding capacity of this novel ammunition. Manufactured by Geco division of Dynamit Nobel, the bullet consists of a nonjacketed solid copper alloy bullet body without a conventional lead core. The large deformation well and part of the smaller central channel is filled with a hard plastic core and post that creates a round nose bullet. The internal ballistics and unique design allow the plastic nose cap and post to separate from the copper alloy base while still in the barrel. The radiolucent nose cap leaves the bullet's path but can still penetrate tissue giving the appearance of a separate but smaller entrance wound. The sharp leading edge of the deformation well and relative high velocity of the bullet body creates a punched out entrance wound with minimal marginal abrasion. When the plastic nose cap or fragments of the plastic post impact the subject, test firings may allow an inference to the muzzle-target distance even in the absence of soot deposition or stippling. PMID:8006608

  20. Base deformation of full metal-jacketed rifle bullets as a measure of impact velocity and range of fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Lucien C

    2015-03-01

    Full metal-jacketed rifle bullets with lead cores and open bases can experience deformation of their cylindrical shapes as they yaw during the penetration of soft tissues. The amount of deformation depends upon the strength of the bullet and the velocity in soft tissue when they go into yaw. The yaw behavior of a bullet in soft tissue depends upon its design (length, ogive shape, ogive length, center of gravity, and pre-impact stability) as it penetrates soft tissue. The yaw characteristics of common spitzer-type military rifle bullets are relatively well known and quite reproducible when fired into suitable soft tissue simulants. This, in turn, results in a relationship between the amount of deformation of the bullet's shank and impact velocity with soft tissue. The specific relationship between impact velocity and bullet deformation must be worked out through empirical testing, but this relationship can be of critical importance in determining impact velocity, which, in turn, relates to range of fire.

  1. Arthroscopic Bullet Removal From the Central and Peripheral Compartments of the Hip Joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howse, Elizabeth A; Rogers, Jason P; Stone, Austin V; Mannava, Sandeep; Stubbs, Allston J

    2016-04-01

    Recent advances in hip arthroscopy offer an approach for treating an uncommon but highly disabling injury from intra-articular missile injury to the hip. Hip arthroscopy affords the patient the benefit of minimally invasive surgery while allowing for the diagnosis and treatment of concomitant pathology, which may be either acute, from the trauma of the missile, or chronic. We present a technique for the removal of projectiles from the central and peripheral compartments of the hip joint. Through a surgical series of a variety of gunshot wounds, we detail the unique aspects of retrieval for the various missile endpoints. We describe this technique for bullets or pieces of bullets lodged within the hip joint space, bone of the acetabulum, or femoral head. Furthermore, we provide an example in which hip arthroscopy is not a suitable option for treatment because of the resulting fracture pattern, which necessitates open reduction along with internal fixation. PMID:27489755

  2. Bullet embolisation from injured inferior cava vein to the right ventricle

    OpenAIRE

    Zenelaj, A; M Brati; Kerci, M

    2010-01-01

    Gunshot injuries of the human body challenge surgical teams in the emergency department. Since such injuries do not follow any rule, every patient should be considered a special case. Our case, of bullet embolism from injured inferior cava vein to the right heart ventricle is a rare one. Such cases make us be more alert for diagnosis and treatment of this kind of injury. Well equipped hospitals and experienced medical teams are necessary for successful outcome.

  3. [Bullet and shrapnel injuries in the face and neck regions. Current aspects of wound ballistics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauer, T; Huschitt, N; Kulla, M; Kneubuehl, B; Willy, C

    2011-08-01

    A basic understanding of the ballistic behaviour of projectiles or fragments after entering the human body is essential for the head and neck surgeon in the military environment in order to anticipate the diagnostic and therapeutic consequences of this type of injury. Although a large number of factors influence the missile in flight and after penetration of the body, the most important factor is the amount of energy transmitted to the tissue. Long guns (rifles or shotguns) have a much higher muzzle energy compared to handguns, explaining why the remote effects beyond the bullet track play a major role. While most full metal jacket bullets release their energy after 12-20 cm (depending on the calibre), soft point bullets release their energy immediately after entry into the human body. This results in a major difference in extremity wounds, but not so much in injuries with long bullet paths (e.g. diagonal shots). Shrapnel wounds are usually produced with similarly high kinetic energy to those caused by hand- and long guns. However, fragments tend to dissipate the entire amount of energy within the body, which increases the degree of tissue disruption. Of all relevant injuries in the head and neck region, soft tissue injuries make up the largest proportion (60%), while injuries to the face are seen three times more often than injuries to the neck. Concomitant intracranial or spinal injury is seen in 30% of cases. Due to high levels of wound contamination, the infection rate is approximately 15%, often associated with a complicated and/or multiresistant spectrum of germs. PMID:21833833

  4. Correlation of bullet dispersion and transverse barrel tip displacement on a firing PHALANX gun system

    OpenAIRE

    Cela, David

    1994-01-01

    The PHALANX Close-In Weapons System (CIWS) is a very important part of the anti-ship missile defense structure of the U.S. Navy. The PHALANX gun system currently experiences random and variable bullet dispersion which diminishes its ability to destroy its intended targets. The more that is understood about parameters that control PHALANX gun dispersion performance, the more the Navy can increase its performance and hence, ship survivability. The research described in this thesis is an attempt...

  5. Wallets, ballots, or bullets: does wealth, democracy, or military capabilities determine war outcomes?

    OpenAIRE

    Bayer, Reşat; Henderson, Errol A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Henderson, Errol A. and Reat Bayer. (2013) Wallets, Ballots, or Bullets: Does Wealth, Democracy, or Military Capabilities Determine War Outcomes? International Studies Quarterly, doi: 10.1111/isqu.12026 (c) 2013 International Studies Association We examine the extent to which wealth, democracy, and/or relative military capabilities contribute to victory in interstate war. Examining contingency tables, we find that states with greater military capabilities are more likely to win th...

  6. Flattening mountains: micro-fabrication of planar replicas for bullet lateral striae analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cominato, Laura; Valle, Francesco; Pierini, Giovanni; Bonini, Paolo; Biscarini, Fabio; D'Elia, Marcello

    2015-02-01

    The application of replica molding has proven to be a valuable tool in the analysis of different forensic evidences in particular for its ability to extract the toolmarks from complex sample surfaces. A well known problem in the analysis of ballistic evidences is the accurate characterization of the lateral striae of real bullets seized on crime scenes after shots, due primarily to impact deformations and to unpredictable issues related to laboratory illumination setup. To overcome these problems a possible way is to confine over a flat surface all the features still preserving their three dimensionality. This can be achieved by a novel application of replica molding performed onto the relevant lateral portion of the bullet surface. A quasi-two-dimensional negative copy of the original tridimensional indented surface has been thus fabricated. It combines the real tridimensional topography of class characteristics (land and groove impressions) and of individual caracteristics (striae) impressed by rifled barrels on projectiles, moreover with the possibility of quantitative characterization of these features in a planar configuration, that will allow one-shot comparison of the "whole striae landscape" without the typical artifacts arising from the bullet shape and the illumination issue. A detailed analysis has been carried on at the morphological level by standard optical and scanning electron microscopy, while the 3D topography has been characterized by white light optical profilometry. A quantitative characterization of toolmarks of bullets derived from ammunitions shot by guns of large diffusion, as the Beretta 98 FS cal. 9×21 mm, has been performed and will be presented ranging between the whole landscape and the sub-μm resolution. To investigate the real potentiality of this technique, the experiment has been extended to highly impact-deformed projectiles. PMID:25555234

  7. Pattern of rubber bullet injuries in the lower limbs: A report from Kashmir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shabir Ahmed Dhar; Tahir Ahmed Dar; Sharief Ahmed Wani; Saheel Maajid; Jawed Ahmed Bhat; Naseer Ahmed Mir; Imtiyaz Hussain Dar

    2016-01-01

    Purpose:Rubber bullets are considered a non-lethal method of crowd control and are being used over the world.However the literature regarding the pattern and management of these injuries is scarce for the forensic pathologist as well as for the traumatologist.The objective of this report was to add our experience to the existing literature.Methods:From June 2008 to August 2010 the Government Hospital for Bone and Joint Surgery Barzulla and the Department of Orthopaedics,SKIMS Medical College/Hospital Bemina Srinagar received 28 patients for management of their orthopaedic injuries caused by rubber bullets.We documented all injuries and also recorded the management issues and complications that we encountered.Results:All patients were males with an age range of 11-32 years and were civilians who had been hit by rubber bullets fired by the police and the paramilitary forces.Among them,19 patients had injuries of the lower limbs and 9 patients had injuries of the upper limbs.All patients were received within 5 h of being shot.Conclusion:Our findings suggest that these weapons are capable of causing significant injuries including fractures and it is important for the surgeon to be well versed with the management of such injuries especially in areas of unrest.The report is also supportive of the opinion that these weapons are lethal and should hence be reclassified.

  8. Adaptive Generation and Diagnostics of Linear Few-Cycle Light Bullets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Bock

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently we introduced the class of highly localized wavepackets (HLWs as a generalization of optical Bessel-like needle beams. Here we report on the progress in this field. In contrast to pulsed Bessel beams and Airy beams, ultrashort-pulsed HLWs propagate with high stability in both spatial and temporal domain, are nearly paraxial (supercollimated, have fringe-less spatial profiles and thus represent the best possible approximation to linear “light bullets”. Like Bessel beams and Airy beams, HLWs show self-reconstructing behavior. Adaptive HLWs can be shaped by ultraflat three-dimensional phase profiles (generalized axicons which are programmed via calibrated grayscale maps of liquid-crystal-on-silicon spatial light modulators (LCoS-SLMs. Light bullets of even higher complexity can either be freely formed from quasi-continuous phase maps or discretely composed from addressable arrays of identical nondiffracting beams. The characterization of few-cycle light bullets requires spatially resolved measuring techniques. In our experiments, wavefront, pulse and phase were detected with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, 2D-autocorrelation and spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction (SPIDER. The combination of the unique propagation properties of light bullets with the flexibility of adaptive optics opens new prospects for applications of structured light like optical tweezers, microscopy, data transfer and storage, laser fusion, plasmon control or nonlinear spectroscopy.

  9. A deceptive case of gunshot entry wounds -- beware of frangible bullets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martrille, Laurent; Artuso, Alain; Cattaneo, Cristina; Baccino, Eric

    2007-04-01

    In December 2003, two young men decided to go shooting in the countryside near Montpellier, France. One accidentally shot the other. Upon crime scene examination and autopsy of the victim experts observed, at the right thorax, two round wounds, distanced 5mm from each other, presenting typical characteristics of entry wounds of bullets shot from a distance. Because of the presence of two clear cut round wounds, the Procurator suspected voluntary homicide. However, thanks to the balistics expertise, the authors concluded that all fragments belonged to a unique projectile, 22 Short caliber (Remington cartouche) of the frangible type. The barrel of the rifle infact presented an imperfection where the screw was fixed on the frontsite. The screw had obviously been changed, and the new screw was longer and therefore extended into the barrel, causing a small obstacle to the bullet when exiting the barrel. Shooting tests were performed, allowing the authors to conclude that a single bullet had fragmented before entering the body into two fragments. This lead the Procurator to consider the lesions consistent with an accident. PMID:17079183

  10. Three rounds as "tandem bullets": unusual findings in a case of a suicidal gunshot to the head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattoli, Lucia; Schmid, Simone; Tsokos, Michael

    2014-12-01

    We report an unusual case of suicide in which three 7.65 caliber projectiles were found in the single gunshot wound to the head of a 53-year-old man. Based on data collected at the death scene, CT scan, autopsy findings, and ballistics analysis, the events were reconstructed as follows: two 7.65 mm rounds had already been fired from the 9 mm Makarov pistol the subject was using but, being a smaller caliber, the cartridges had slipped forward and lodged within the barrel. When a third 7.65 mm cartridge was chambered and the gun fired for the third time, the nose of the last bullet hit the lodged bullets and all three rounds were propelled out of the muzzle in tandem as a single shot. Ballistic investigations confirmed that the kinetic energy of the three tandem bullets would have been sufficient to perforate the skull. In cases of gunshot wounds where the manner of death is unclear, a number of well-described circumstantial parameters, such as an atypical anatomical location of the gunshot, unusual firearm, or ammunition, as well as ambiguous autopsy findings, can raise doubts about the manner of death. In very rare cases, despite a single entrance wound, two or more bullets are recovered from the body, fired by the same weapon at the same time (the so-called "tandem bullet" phenomenon). Injuries by "tandem bullets" have crucial implications in gunshot deaths because of the mismatch between the number of entrance and exit wounds and the number of bullets found in or near the body. PMID:25091600

  11. Automatic comparison of bullet marks by matching 3-D topography of different bullets%采用三维形貌特征匹配的弹痕自动比对

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李一芒; 何昕; 魏仲慧

    2013-01-01

    In order to achieve automatic comparison of bullet marks through computer technology, a method to match 3-D topography of different bullets was proposed. First, a proven threshold function of wavelet was used to de-noise the database of the collected 3-D bullet mark information. Second, as in accordance with the vertical direction of the bullet procedure, after de-noising the designed one-dimensional Gaussian filter was used to extract useful information to replace the classical two-dimensional Gaussian filter, and to reduce the loss of information. Finally , after the rotation and translation, we were able to retrieve useful bullet marks near the edge of each bullet, and calculate the cross-correlation measure between two different bullets to identify whether they were fired by the same type of firearm. Experiments show that the proposed method was capable of extracting 3D topography of bullets and realize the automatic comparison of bullet marks through programming. The accuracy rate of the identification was no less than 98% based on the current database.%为了实现计算机对枪弹痕的自动比对,提出了一种采用三维形貌特征匹配的弹痕比对方法.首先通过改进的小波阈值函数对采集到的三维弹痕数据进行滤波以去除噪声干扰;去噪后,设计一维高斯滤波器按照弹痕的垂直方向提取有效信息取代采用经典二维高斯滤波器提取信息,能够减少弹痕信息的损失;最后经旋转、平移截取子弹次棱附近的有效弹痕信息,并计算不同子弹间对应次棱附近的弹痕纹理互相关测度,以判断痕迹所属弹头是否为同一型号枪支所发射.实验表明,所提方法能够提取弹痕的三维形貌特征,并能通过软件编程实现计算机对弹痕的自动比对,在现有数据范围内,其比对正确率不低于98%.

  12. Regular ‘breathing’ of a near-single-cycle light bullet in mid-IR filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekalin, S. V.; Kompanets, V. O.; Kuznetsov, A. V.; Dormidonov, A. E.; Kandidov, V. P.

    2016-06-01

    Experimental and numerical studies of a temporal evolution of a light bullet formed in isotropic LiF by mid-IR femtosecond pulse (2600-3350 nm) of power, slightly exceeding the critical power for self-focusing, are presented. For the first time regular oscillations of the light bullet field peak amplitude during its propagation in a filament were registered by investigation of induced color centers in LiF. It was revealed that color centers in a single laser pulse filament have the strictly periodic structure with a length of separate sections about 30 μm, which increases with a laser pulse wavelength decreasing. It was shown that the origin of a light bullet modulation is a periodical change of the light field amplitude of a near single-cycle wave packet in a filament, due to a difference of the wave packet group velocity and the carrier wave phase velocity.

  13. A Bullet Entered through the Open Mouth and Ended Up in the Parapharyngeal Space and Skull Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saileswar Goswami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shot from a revolver from a close range, a bullet pierced the chest of a policeman and entered through the open mouth of a young male person standing behind. The entry wound was found in the cheek mucosa adjacent to the left lower third molar. After hitting and fracturing the body and the ramus of the mandible, the bullet was deflected and was finally lodged in the parapharyngeal space and skull base, anterolateral to the transverse process of the atlas. The great vessels of the neck were not injured. The patient’s condition was very critical but his life could be saved. The bullet was approached through a modified Blair’s incision and was found to be lying over the carotid sheath. It was removed safely and the patient recovered completely.

  14. Rupture of Human Skin Membrane under Impact of Parabolodial Projectile: Bullet wound Ballistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mukhtar Ali

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to study the effect of the impact of a paraboloidal projectile on human shin membrane. The tip of the projectile (i.e., the bullet tip has been considered to be paraboloidal and is made of lead or steel. The threshold velocity i.e., the velocity when the skin membrane is about to rupture has been calculated for human beings of various age groups. The threshold velocity for a paraboloidal projectile of certain dimensions has been found, for all age groups, to be less than that of a spherical projectile under similar conditions.

  15. Rupture of Human Skin Membrane under Impact of Parabolodial Projectile: Bullet wound Ballistics

    OpenAIRE

    M. Mukhtar Ali; Vijay Paul Singh; GH. Nabi Parrey

    1996-01-01

    This paper attempts to study the effect of the impact of a paraboloidal projectile on human shin membrane. The tip of the projectile (i.e., the bullet tip) has been considered to be paraboloidal and is made of lead or steel. The threshold velocity i.e., the velocity when the skin membrane is about to rupture has been calculated for human beings of various age groups. The threshold velocity for a paraboloidal projectile of certain dimensions has been found, for all age groups, to be les...

  16. A firearm bullet lodged into the thoracic spinal canal without vertebral bone destruction: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joorabian Morteza

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Firearm injuries account for 13% to 17% of all spinal cord injuries, and are generally caused during warfare or assault with intent to kill. Spinal cord injuries caused by firearms are usually observed in patients aged 15 to 34 years old, and are especially common among men. Case presentation We report the case of a 28-year-old Iraqi man who was referred to our radiology department with lower limb paraplegia secondary to a gunshot wound. We performed 64-slice computerized tomography with two-dimensional and three-dimensional reconstruction of the thoracolumbar spine. On the two-dimensional and three-dimensional reconstructed axial images of the thoracolumbar spine, an intra-canalicular bullet nucleus was found at the mid-spinal cord at the T8 level, with no evidence of vertebral bone destruction. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, there is only one previous report in the literature describing a case of a bullet nucleus lodged into the inferior epidural spinal canal without destruction of the vertebral bone. With the rise of violence worldwide the incidence of gunshot injuries continues to increase, and, thus, it is essential for radiologists to have a clear understanding of gunshot injuries and the findings on radiographic images.

  17. Purification and Structural Analysis of Plectin and BPAG1e.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manso, José A; García Rubio, Inés; Gómez-Hernández, María; Ortega, Esther; Buey, Rubén M; Carballido, Ana M; Carabias, Arturo; Alonso-García, Noelia; de Pereda, José M

    2016-01-01

    Plectin and BPAG1e belong to the plakin family of high-molecular-weight proteins that interconnect the cytoskeletal systems and anchor them to junctional complexes. Plectin and BPAG1e are prototypical plakins with a similar tripartite modular structure. The N- and C-terminal regions are built of multiple discrete structural domains, while the central rod domain mediates dimerization by coiled-coil interactions. Owing to the mosaic organization of plakins, the structure of their constituent individual domains or small multi-domain segments can be analyzed isolated. Yet, understanding the integrated function of large regions, oligomers, and heterocomplexes of plakins is difficult due to the large and segmented structure. Here, we describe methods for the production of plectin and BPAG1e samples suitable for structural and biophysical analysis. In addition, we discuss the combination of hybrid methods that yield information at several resolution levels to study the complex, multi-domain, and flexible structure of plakins.

  18. Weighted Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackerman, Margareta; Ben-David, Shai; Branzei, Simina;

    2012-01-01

    We investigate a natural generalization of the classical clustering problem, considering clustering tasks in which different instances may have different weights.We conduct the first extensive theoretical analysis on the influence of weighted data on standard clustering algorithms in both the...... partitional and hierarchical settings, characterizing the conditions under which algorithms react to weights. Extending a recent framework for clustering algorithm selection, we propose intuitive properties that would allow users to choose between clustering algorithms in the weighted setting and classify...

  19. Effectiveness of best management practices in reducing Pb-bullet weathering in a shooting range in Florida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This field study evaluated the effectiveness of three best management practices (BMPs) in reducing the weathering of Pb-bullets in a shooting range. The BMPs included replacing soil berm with sand berm, liming sand berm, and removing Pb-bullets from soil berm. Berm samples were collected before and after implementing BMPs and analyzed for total Pb and/or water-soluble Pb. After 11 months of operation, the total Pb concentrations in the sand berm (57 mg kg-1) were significantly lower than that in the soil berm (277 mg kg-1). The reduced weathering of Pb-bullets in the sand berm was attributed to its lower moisture content and organic matter as both water and CO2 are critical in chemical weathering. Though liming reduced total Pb concentrations in the sand berm from 497-777 to 302-362 mg kg-1 after 15 months of application, it increased water-soluble Pb in some cases. While removal of Pb-bullets removed the sources of Pb, X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that its abrasive action transferred metallic Pb to the soil fraction (-1. While all BMPs can be applied to mange Pb in shooting ranges, cautions need to be excised to minimize the adverse impacts.

  20. The removal of intravascular bullets by interventional radiology: the prevention of central migration by balloon occlusion--case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclafani, S J; Shatzkes, D; Scalea, T

    1991-10-01

    A migratory intravascular bullet fragment located within the hypogastric vein was removed successfully with the aid of interventional radiologic techniques. The authors describe the use of the technique of balloon trapping as part of this procedure. A balloon should be inflated between the foreign body and the heart before retrieval is attempted in order to prevent migration back to the heart during the manipulation.

  1. Bullet embolism of pulmonary artery: a case report; Embolia pulmonar por projetil de arma de fogo: relato de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanari, Mauricio Gustavo Ieiri; Mansur, Maria Clara Dias; Kay, Fernando Uliana; Silverio, Paulo Rogerio Barboza; Jayanthi, Shri Krishna; Funari, Marcelo Buarque de Gusmao, E-mail: mauriciogustavo91@yahoo.com.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IHC-FMUSP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Hospital das Clinicas

    2014-03-15

    The authors report the case of a patient victim of gunshots, with a very rare complication: venous bullet embolism from the left external iliac vein to the lingular segment of the left pulmonary artery. Diagnosis is made with whole-body radiography or computed tomography. Digital angiography is reserved for supplementary diagnosis or to be used as a therapeutic procedure. (author)

  2. Inconsistency in 9 mm bullets: correlation of jacket thickness to post-impact geometry measured with non-destructive X-ray computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornby, John; Landheer, Dirk; Williams, Tim; Barnes-Warden, Jane; Fenne, Paul; Norman, Daniel; Attridge, Alex; Williams, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Fundamental to any ballistic armour standard is the reference projectile to be defeated. Typically, for certification purposes, a consistent and symmetrical bullet geometry is assumed, however variations in bullet jacket dimensions can have far reaching consequences. Traditionally, characteristics and internal dimensions have been analysed by physically sectioning bullets--an approach which is of restricted scope and which precludes subsequent ballistic assessment. The use of a non-destructive X-ray computed tomography (CT) method has been demonstrated and validated (Kumar et al., 2011 [15]); the authors now apply this technique to correlate bullet impact response with jacket thickness variations. A set of 20 bullets (9 mm DM11) were selected for comparison and an image-based analysis method was employed to map jacket thickness and determine the centre of gravity of each specimen. Both intra- and inter-bullet variations were investigated, with thickness variations of the order of 200 μm commonly found along the length of all bullets and angular variations of up to 50 μm in some. The bullets were subsequently impacted against a rigid flat plate under controlled conditions (observed on a high-speed video camera) and the resulting deformed projectiles were re-analysed. The results of the experiments demonstrate a marked difference in ballistic performance between bullets from different manufacturers and an asymmetric thinning of the jacket is observed in regions of pre-impact weakness. The conclusions are relevant for future soft armour standards and provide important quantitative data for numerical model correlation and development. The implications of the findings of the work on the reliability and repeatability of the industry standard V50 ballistic test are also discussed.

  3. Stick-slip behavior identified in helium cluster growth in the subsurface of tungsten: effects of cluster depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinlong; Niu, Liang-Liang; Shu, Xiaolin; Zhang, Ying

    2015-10-01

    We have performed a molecular dynamics study on the growth of helium (He) clusters in the subsurface of tungsten (W) (1 0 0) at 300 K, focusing on the role of cluster depth. Irregular ‘stick-slip’ behavior exhibited during the evolution of the He cluster growth is identified, which is due to the combined effects of the continuous cluster growth and the loop punching induced pressure relief. We demonstrate that the He cluster grows via trap-mutation and loop punching mechanisms. Initially, the self-interstitial atom SIA clusters are almost always attached to the He cluster; while they are instantly emitted to the surface once a critical cluster pressure is reached. The repetition of this process results in the He cluster approaching the surface via a ‘stop-and-go’ manner and the formation of surface adatom islands (surface roughening), ultimately leading to cluster bursting and He escape. We reveal that, for the Nth loop punching event, the critical size of the He cluster to trigger loop punching and the size of the emitted SIA clusters are correspondingly increased with the increasing initial cluster depth. We tentatively attribute the observed depth effects to the lower formation energies of Frenkel pairs and the greatly reduced barriers for loop punching in the stress field of the W subsurface. In addition, some intriguing features emerge, such as the morphological transformation of the He cluster from ‘platelet-like’ to spherical, to ellipsoidal with a ‘bullet-like’ tip, and finally to a ‘bottle-like’ shape after cluster rupture.

  4. Nieuwe grondstoffen voor biobrandstoffen : alternatieve 1e generatie energiegewassen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbersen, H.W.; Oyen, L.P.A.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Blaauw, R.

    2009-01-01

    Bioenergie en dan vooral biobrandstoffen (voor transport) staan in de belangstelling. Hierbij gaat het vooral om de huidige zogenaamde 1e generatie biobrandstoffen. Deze zijn gebaseerd op suikers en zetmeel voor de productie van bioethanol als benzinevervanging of oliën en vetten voor de productie v

  5. The precessing jets of 1E 1740.7-2942

    CERN Document Server

    Luque-Escamilla, Pedro L; Martinez-Aroza, Josee

    2015-01-01

    Context. 1E 1740.7-2942 is believed to be one of the two prototypical microquasars towards the Galactic center region whose X-ray states strongly resemble those of Cygnus X-1. Yet, the bipolar radio jets of 1E 1740.7-2942 are very reminiscent of a radio galaxy. The true nature of the object has thus remained an open question for nearly a quarter of a century. Aims. Our main goal here is to confirm the Galactic membership of 1E 1740.7-2942 by searching for morphological changes of its extended radio jets in human timescales. This work was triggered as a result of recent positive detection of fast structural changes in the large-scale jets of its 'twin' GRS 1758-258. Methods. We carried out an in-depth exploration of the VLA public archives and fully recalibrated all 1E 1740.7-2942 extended data sets in the C configuration of the array. We obtained and analyzed matching beam radio maps for five epochs, covering years 1992, 1993, 1994, 1997 and 2000, with an angular resolution of a few arcseconds. Results. We cl...

  6. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1E4XH-1JGUH [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  7. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1E4XI-1CF8H [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1E4XI-1LO3H [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  9. TURBULENT COSMIC-RAY REACCELERATION AT RADIO RELICS AND HALOS IN CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Yutaka [Department of Earth and Space Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Takizawa, Motokazu [Department of Physics, Yamagata University, 1-4-12 Kojirakawa-machi, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Yamazaki, Ryo [Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, Fuchinobe, Chuou-ku, Sagamihara 252-5258 (Japan); Akamatsu, Hiroki [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands); Ohno, Hiroshi, E-mail: fujita@vega.ess.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp [Tohoku Bunkyo College, 515 Katayachi, Yamagata 990-2316 (Japan)

    2015-12-20

    Radio relics are synchrotron emission found on the periphery of galaxy clusters. From the position and the morphology, it is often believed that the relics are generated by cosmic-ray (CR) electrons accelerated at shocks through a diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) mechanism. However, some radio relics have harder spectra than the prediction of the standard DSA model. One example is observed in the cluster 1RXS J0603.3+4214, which is often called the “Toothbrush Cluster.” Interestingly, the position of the relic is shifted from that of a possible shock. In this study, we show that these discrepancies in the spectrum and the position can be solved if turbulent (re)acceleration is very effective behind the shock. This means that for some relics turbulent reacceleration may be the main mechanism to produce high-energy electrons, contrary to the common belief that it is the DSA. Moreover, we show that for efficient reacceleration, the effective mean free path of the electrons has to be much smaller than their Coulomb mean free path. We also study the merging cluster 1E 0657−56, or the “Bullet Cluster,” in which a radio relic has not been found at the position of the prominent shock ahead of the bullet. We indicate that a possible relic at the shock is obscured by the observed large radio halo that is generated by strong turbulence behind the shock. We propose a simple explanation of the morphological differences of radio emission among the Toothbrush, the Bullet, and the Sausage (CIZA J2242.8+5301) Clusters.

  10. Vortical light bullets in second-harmonic-generating media supported by a trapping potential

    CERN Document Server

    Sakaguchi, Hidetsugu

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a three-dimensional (3D) model of optical media with the quadratic ($\\chi ^{(2)}$) nonlinearity and an effective 2D isotropic harmonic-oscillator (HO) potential. While it is well known that 3D \\chi^2 solitons with embedded vorticity ("vortical light bullets") are unstable in the free space, we demonstrate that they have a broad stability region in the present model, being supported by the HO potential against the splitting instability. The shape of the vortical solitons may be accurately predicted by the variational approximation (VA). They exist above a threshold value of the total energy (norm) and below another critical value, which determines a stability boundary. The existence threshold vanishes is a part of the parameter space, depending on the mismatch parameter, which is explained by means of the comparison with the 2D counterpart of the system. Above the stability boundary, the vortex features shape oscillations, periodically breaking its axisymmetric form and restoring it. Collisions be...

  11. Large spin-wave bullet in a ferrimagnetic insulator driven by spin Hall effect.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungfleisch, M. B.; Zhang, W.; Sklenar, J.; Ding, J.; Jiang, W.; Chang, Houchen; Fradin, F. Y.; Pearson, J. E.; Ketterson, J. B.; Novosad, V.; Wu, Mingzhong; Hoffmann, A.

    2016-02-01

    Due to its transverse nature, spin Hall effects (SHE) provide the possibility to excite and detect spin currents and magnetization dynamics even in magnetic insulators. Magnetic insulators are outstanding materials for the investigation of nonlinear phenomena and for novel low power spintronics applications because of their extremely low Gilbert damping. Here, we report on the direct imaging of electrically driven spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance (ST-FMR) in the ferrimagnetic insulator Y3Fe5O12 based on the excitation and detection by SHEs. The driven spin dynamics in Y3Fe5O12 is directly imaged by spatially-resolved microfocused Brillouin light scattering (BLS) spectroscopy. Previously, ST-FMR experiments assumed a uniform precession across the sample, which is not valid in our measurements. A strong spin-wave localization in the center of the sample is observed indicating the formation of a nonlinear, self-localized spin-wave `bullet'.

  12. Large Spin-Wave Bullet in a Ferrimagnetic Insulator Driven by the Spin Hall Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungfleisch, M B; Zhang, W; Sklenar, J; Ding, J; Jiang, W; Chang, H; Fradin, F Y; Pearson, J E; Ketterson, J B; Novosad, V; Wu, M; Hoffmann, A

    2016-02-01

    Because of its transverse nature, spin Hall effects (SHE) provide the possibility to excite and detect spin currents and magnetization dynamics even in magnetic insulators. Magnetic insulators are outstanding materials for the investigation of nonlinear phenomena and for novel low power spintronics applications because of their extremely low Gilbert damping. Here, we report on the direct imaging of electrically driven spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance (ST-FMR) in the ferrimagnetic insulator Y_{3}Fe_{5}O_{12} based on the excitation and detection by SHEs. The driven spin dynamics in Y_{3}Fe_{5}O_{12} is directly imaged by spatially resolved microfocused Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy. Previously, ST-FMR experiments assumed a uniform precession across the sample, which is not valid in our measurements. A strong spin-wave localization in the center of the sample is observed indicating the formation of a nonlinear, self-localized spin-wave "bullet". PMID:26894733

  13. The precessing jets of 1E 1740.7-2942

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Escamilla, Pedro L.; Martí, Josep; Martínez-Aroza, José

    2015-12-01

    Context. The source 1E 1740.7-2942 is believed to be one of the two prototypical microquasars towards the Galactic center region whose X-ray states strongly resemble those of Cygnus X-1. Yet, the bipolar radio jets of 1E 1740.7-2942 are very reminiscent of a radio galaxy. The true nature of the object has thus remained an open question for nearly a quarter of a century. Aims: Our main goal here is to confirm the Galactic membership of 1E 1740.7-2942 by searching for morphological changes of its extended radio jets in human timescales. This work was triggered as a result of recent positive detection of fast structural changes in the large-scale jets of the very similar source GRS 1758-258. Methods: We carried out an in-depth exploration of the Very Large Array public archives and fully recalibrated all 1E 1740.7-2942 extended data sets in the C configuration of the array. We obtained and analyzed matching beam radio maps for five epochs, covering years 1992, 1993, 1994, 1997 and 2000, with an angular resolution of a few arcseconds. Results: We clearly detected structural changes in the arc-minute jets of 1E 1740.7-2942 on timescales of roughly a year, which set a firm distance upper limit of 12 kpc. Moreover, a simple precessing twin-jet model was simultaneously fitted to the five observing epochs available. The observed changes in the jet flow are strongly suggestive of a precession period of ~1.3 yr. Conclusions: The fitting of the precession model to the data yields a distance of ~5 kpc. This value, and the observed changes, rule out any remaining doubts about the 1E 1740.7-2942 Galactic nature. To our knowledge, this microquasar is the second whose jet precession ephemeris become available after SS433. This kind of information is relevant to the physics of compact objects, since the genesis of the precession phenomenon occurs very close to the interplay region between the accretion disk and the compact object in the system. Appendix A and a movie associated to

  14. Isotopic clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spectra of isotopically mixed clusters (dimers of SF6) are calculated as well as transition frequencies. The result leads to speculations about the suitability of the laser-cluster fragmentation process for isotope separation. (Auth.)

  15. Meaningful Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Calapristi, Augustin J.; Crow, Vernon L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.

    2004-05-26

    We present an approach to the disambiguation of cluster labels that capitalizes on the notion of semantic similarity to assign WordNet senses to cluster labels. The approach provides interesting insights on how document clustering can provide the basis for developing a novel approach to word sense disambiguation.

  16. VLA Discovers Giant Rings Around Galaxy Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope have discovered giant, ring-like structures around a cluster of galaxies. The discovery provides tantalizing new information about how such galaxy clusters are assembled, about magnetic fields in the vast spaces between galaxy clusters, and possibly about the origin of cosmic rays. Radio-Optical Image of Cluster Galaxy Cluster Abell 3376 (Radio/Optical) CREDIT: Joydeep Bagchi, IUCAA, NRAO/AUI/NSF Above, a combined radio/optical image shows the galaxy cluster Abell 3376 in visible light (blue) and radio (red) images. The giant radio arcs surrounding the cluster were discovered using the Very Large Array. The visible-light image is from the Digitized Sky survey. Below, an X-ray image of Abell 3376 made using the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton telescope shows a spectacular, bullet-shaped region of X-rays coming from gas heated to 60 million degrees Kelvin. The bullet shape results from the supersonic collision of a smaller smaller galaxy subcluster with the main body of the larger cluster. Click on images for larger version. X-Ray Image of Cluster Galaxy Cluster Abell 3376 (X-Ray) CREDIT: Joydeep Bagchi, IUCAA, ESA "These giant, radio-emitting rings probably are the result of shock waves caused by violent collisions of smaller groups of galaxies within the cluster," said Joydeep Bagchi, of the Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics in Pune, India, who led an international research team. The scientists reported their findings in the November 3 edition of the journal Science. The newly-discovered ring segments, some 6 million light-years across, surround a galaxy cluster called Abell 3376, more than 600 million light-years from Earth. They were revealed because fast-moving electrons emitted radio waves as they spiraled around magnetic field lines in intergalactic space. "Even from this large distance, the feeble radio waves were easily picked up by the VLA

  17. A Death Involving a Fired and Deflected Bullet: A Case Report from Lyon University Institute of Forensic Science, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maujean, Géraldine; Guinet, Tiphaine; Malicier, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In case of gunshot deaths, atypical wounds can make the distinction between entrance and exit wounds harder. They may be due either to anatomical reasons or to diverse cogent ballistic arguments. The reported case pertains to a fatal hunting accident involving an expanded conical point bullet against the neck with both atypical entrance and exit wounds. Ballistic analyses including test firings allowed a better understanding of the external and internal findings. Upon premature impact with an intermediary target, the bullet experienced expansion in the formation of sharp brass petals responsible for a star-shaped entry wound. The trajectory of the deformed high energy projectile through the victim's body was then deviated by the cervical column, causing it to be tangential to the skin when exiting the body. The description of such atypical cases may benefit other experts and may assist in their investigation into similar cases.

  18. Spatiotemporal light bullets and supercontinuum generation in β-BBO crystal with competing quadratic and cubic nonlinearities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šuminas, R; Tamošauskas, G; Valiulis, G; Dubietis, A

    2016-05-01

    We experimentally study filamentation and supercontinuum generation in a birefringent medium [beta-barium borate (β-BBO) crystal] pumped by intense 90 fs, 1.8 μm laser pulses whose carrier wavelength falls in the range of anomalous group velocity dispersion of the crystal. We demonstrate that the competition between the intrinsic cubic and cascaded-quadratic nonlinearities may serve as a useful tool for controlling the self-action effects via phase matching condition. In particular, we found that spectral superbroadening of the ordinary polarization is linked to three-dimensional self-focusing and formation of self-compressed spatiotemporal light bullets that could be accessed within a certain range of either positive or negative phase mismatch. In the extraordinary polarization, we detect giant spectral shifts of the second harmonic radiation, which are attributed to a light bullet-induced self-phase matching.

  19. Data Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Kiri L.

    2012-03-01

    On obtaining a new data set, the researcher is immediately faced with the challenge of obtaining a high-level understanding from the observations. What does a typical item look like? What are the dominant trends? How many distinct groups are included in the data set, and how is each one characterized? Which observable values are common, and which rarely occur? Which items stand out as anomalies or outliers from the rest of the data? This challenge is exacerbated by the steady growth in data set size [11] as new instruments push into new frontiers of parameter space, via improvements in temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution, or by the desire to "fuse" observations from different modalities and instruments into a larger-picture understanding of the same underlying phenomenon. Data clustering algorithms provide a variety of solutions for this task. They can generate summaries, locate outliers, compress data, identify dense or sparse regions of feature space, and build data models. It is useful to note up front that "clusters" in this context refer to groups of items within some descriptive feature space, not (necessarily) to "galaxy clusters" which are dense regions in physical space. The goal of this chapter is to survey a variety of data clustering methods, with an eye toward their applicability to astronomical data analysis. In addition to improving the individual researcher’s understanding of a given data set, clustering has led directly to scientific advances, such as the discovery of new subclasses of stars [14] and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) [38]. All clustering algorithms seek to identify groups within a data set that reflect some observed, quantifiable structure. Clustering is traditionally an unsupervised approach to data analysis, in the sense that it operates without any direct guidance about which items should be assigned to which clusters. There has been a recent trend in the clustering literature toward supporting semisupervised or constrained

  20. Two bullets to the head and an early winter: fate permits Kutuzov to defeat Napoleon at Moscow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushchayev, Sergiy V; Belykh, Evgenii; Fishchenko, Yakiv; Salei, Aliaksei; Teytelboym, Oleg M; Shabaturov, Leonid; Cruse, Mark; Preul, Mark C

    2015-07-01

    General Mikhail Kutuzov (circa 1745-1813) brilliantly repelled Napoleon's invasion of Russia. Honored as a national hero and a savior of Russia, Kutuzov has a unique medical story. He was shot in the head twice while fighting the Turks (1774 and 1788) and survived the serious injuries seemingly against all odds. The first bullet "ran through the head from one temple to the other behind both eyes." The second bullet entered the cheek, destroyed upper teeth, traveled through the head, and exited the occiput. Massot, a French surgeon with the Russian army, wrote after treating Kutuzov's seemingly two mortal wounds: "It must be believed that fate appoints Kutuzov to something great, because he was still alive after two injuries, a death sentence by all the rules of medical science." Aided by Massot's expert surgical technique, Kutuzov lived to become intimately engaged in events that altered world history. His health did, however, suffer significant effects due to the bullet wounds. In 1812, as Napoleon's Grande Armée approached, Kutuzov realized he could not confront Napoleon and he strategically retreated from Moscow, submitting the French to the harsh winter and Russian cavalry. Napoleon's devastated army retreated to Paris, and Kutuzov became the personification of Russian spirit and character. Kutuzov's survival of two nearly mortal head wounds created the legends, additional mystery, and drama surrounding him, not the least astonishing of which was the skilled neurosurgical care that probably saved his life.

  1. Bullet embolization to the external iliac artery after gunshot injury to the abdominal aorta: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaha Luan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Abdominal vascular trauma is fairly common in modern civilian life and is a highly lethal injury. However, if the projectile is small enough, if its energy is diminished when passing through the tissue and if the arterial system is elastic enough, the entry wound into the artery may close without exsanguination and therefore may not be fatal. A projectile captured may even travel downstream until it is arrested by the smaller distal vasculature. The occurrence of this phenomenon is rare and was first described by Trimble in 1968. Case presentation Here we present a case of a 29-year-old Albanian man who, due to a gunshot injury to the back, suffered fracture of his twelfth thoracic and first lumbar vertebra, injury to the posterior wall of his abdominal aorta and then bullet embolism to his left external iliac artery. It is interesting that the signs of distal ischemia developed several hours after the exploratory surgery, raising the possibility that the bullet migrated in the interim or that there was a failure to recognize it during the exploratory surgery. Conclusion In all cases where there is a gunshot injury to the abdomen or chest without an exit wound and with no projectile in the area, there should be a high index of suspicion for possible bullet embolism, particularly in the presence of the distal ischemia.

  2. Pattern, presentation and management of vascular injuries due to pellets and rubber bullets in a conflict zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd L Wani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rubber bullets and pellet guns are considered non-lethal low-velocity weapons. They are used to disperse a mob during street protests. The present study was undertaken to analyze the pattern, presentation and management of vascular injuries caused by these weapons. Patients and Methods: This was a prospective study of patients with features of vascular injuries due to pellets and rubber bullets from June 2010 to November 2010. All patients with features of vascular injuries due to these non-lethal weapons were included in the study. Vascular injuries caused by other causes were excluded from the study. Results: A total of 35 patients who presented with features of vascular injury during this period were studied. All of them were males. The mean age was 22 years. Fifteen patients were revascularized primarily, 19 patients needed reverse saphenous vein graft and, in one, patient lateral repair was done. There were two mortalities in our series. Wound infection was the most common complication. The amputation rate was around 6%. Conclusion: Pellet and rubber bullets can cause serious life-threatening injuries. Vascular injury caused by these weapons need no different approach than other vascular injuries. Early revascularization and prompt resuscitation prevents the loss of limb or life.

  3. NACA Aircraft on Lakebed - D-558-2, X-1B, and X-1E

    Science.gov (United States)

    1955-01-01

    Early NACA research aircraft on the lakebed at the High Speed Research Station in 1955: Left to right: X-1E, D-558-2, X-1B There were four versions of the original Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for EXperimental Supersonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system requirements; powerplant compatibility; and cockpit environments. The X-1 aircraft were the first transonic-capable aircraft to use an all-moving stabilizer. The flights of the X-1s opened up a new era in aviation. The first X-1 was air-launched unpowered from a Boeing B-29 Superfortress on January 25, 1946. Powered flights began in December 1946. On October 14, 1947, the X-1-1, piloted by Air Force Captain Charles 'Chuck' Yeager, became the first aircraft to exceed the speed of sound, reaching about 700 miles per hour (Mach 1.06) and an altitude of 43,000 feet. The number 2 X-1 was modified and redesignated the X-1E. The modifications included adding a conventional canopy, an ejection seat, a low-pressure fuel system

  4. Cluster Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Cansisting of eight scientists from the State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces and Xiamen University, this creative research group is devoted to the research of cluster chemistry and creation of nanomaterials.After three-year hard work, the group scored a series of encouraging progresses in synthesis of clusters with special structures, including novel fullerenes, fullerene-like metal cluster compounds as well as other related nanomaterials, and their properties study.

  5. Aging evaluation of class 1E batteries: Seismic testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edson, J.L. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

    1990-08-01

    This report presents the results of a seismic testing program on naturally aged class 1E batteries obtained from a nuclear plant. The testing program is a Phase 2 activity resulting from a Phase 1 aging evaluation of class 1E batteries in safety systems of nuclear power plants, performed previously as a part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program and reported in NUREG/CR-4457. The primary purpose of the program was to evaluate the seismic ruggedness of naturally aged batteries to determine if aged batteries could have adequate electrical capacity, as determined by tests recommended by IEEE Standards, and yet have inadequate seismic ruggedness to provide needed electrical power during and after a safe shutdown earthquake (SSE) event. A secondary purpose of the program was to evaluate selected advanced surveillance methods to determine if they were likely to be more sensitive to the aging degradation that reduces seismic ruggedness. The program used twelve batteries naturally aged to about 14 years of age in a nuclear facility and tested them at four different seismic levels representative of the levels of possible earthquakes specified for nuclear plants in the United States. Seismic testing of the batteries did not cause any loss of electrical capacity. 19 refs., 29 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. Aging evaluation of class 1E batteries: Seismic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of a seismic testing program on naturally aged class 1E batteries obtained from a nuclear plant. The testing program is a Phase 2 activity resulting from a Phase 1 aging evaluation of class 1E batteries in safety systems of nuclear power plants, performed previously as a part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program and reported in NUREG/CR-4457. The primary purpose of the program was to evaluate the seismic ruggedness of naturally aged batteries to determine if aged batteries could have adequate electrical capacity, as determined by tests recommended by IEEE Standards, and yet have inadequate seismic ruggedness to provide needed electrical power during and after a safe shutdown earthquake (SSE) event. A secondary purpose of the program was to evaluate selected advanced surveillance methods to determine if they were likely to be more sensitive to the aging degradation that reduces seismic ruggedness. The program used twelve batteries naturally aged to about 14 years of age in a nuclear facility and tested them at four different seismic levels representative of the levels of possible earthquakes specified for nuclear plants in the United States. Seismic testing of the batteries did not cause any loss of electrical capacity. 19 refs., 29 figs., 7 tabs

  7. The nongravitational interactions of dark matter in colliding galaxy clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, David; Massey, Richard; Kitching, Thomas; Taylor, Andy; Tittley, Eric

    2015-03-27

    Collisions between galaxy clusters provide a test of the nongravitational forces acting on dark matter. Dark matter's lack of deceleration in the "bullet cluster" collision constrained its self-interaction cross section σ(DM)/m dark matter) for long-ranged forces. Using the Chandra and Hubble Space Telescopes, we have now observed 72 collisions, including both major and minor mergers. Combining these measurements statistically, we detect the existence of dark mass at 7.6σ significance. The position of the dark mass has remained closely aligned within 5.8 ± 8.2 kiloparsecs of associated stars, implying a self-interaction cross section σ(DM)/m < 0.47 cm(2)/g (95% CL) and disfavoring some proposed extensions to the standard model.

  8. Cosmology based on $f(R)$ gravity with ${\\cal O}(1)$ eV sterile neutrino

    CERN Document Server

    Chudaykin, A S; Starobinsky, A A; Burenin, R A

    2015-01-01

    We address the cosmological role of ${\\cal O}(1)$ eV sterile neutrino in modified gravity models. We confront the present cosmological data with the predictions of FLRW cosmological model based on a variant of $f(R)$ modified gravity proposed by one of the authors previously. This viable cosmological model which deviation from general relativity with an induced effective cosmological constant decreases as $R^{-2n}$ for large, but not too large values of the Ricci scalar $R$ provides an alternative to the bare cosmological constant explanation of the present dark energy and accelerated expansion of the Universe ($n=2$ is adopted). We used various up-to-date cosmological data sets including Planck CMB anisotropy, CMB lensing potential, BAO, cluster mass function and Hubble constant measurements. Using the low-z measurements of linear perturbation amplitude from galaxy cluster mass function data we find that sum of neutrino masses constrained by CMB+BAO data is not sufficient to compensate for the extra linear p...

  9. Fuzzy Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berks, G.; Keyserlingk, Diedrich Graf von; Jantzen, Jan;

    2000-01-01

    -mean clustering is an easy and well improved tool, which has been applied in many medical fields. We used c-mean fuzzy clustering after feature extraction from an aphasia database. Factor analysis was applied on a correlation matrix of 26 symptoms of language disorders and led to five factors. The factors...

  10. BEST sensitivity to O(1) eV sterile neutrino

    CERN Document Server

    Barinov, Vladislav; Gorbunov, Dmitry; Ibragimova, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Numerous anomalous results in neutrino oscillation experiments can be attributed to interference of ~1 eV sterile neutrino. The specially designed to fully explore the Gallium anomaly Baksan Experiment on Sterile Transitions (BEST) starts next year. We investigate the sensitivity of BEST in searches for sterile neutrino mixed with electron neutrino. Then, performing the combined analysis of all the Gallium experiments (SAGE, GALLEX, BEST) we find the regions in model parameter space (sterile neutrino mass and mixing angle), which will be excluded if BEST agrees with no sterile neutrino hypothesis. For the opposite case, if BEST observes the signal as it follows from the sterile neutrino explanation of the Gallium (SAGE and GALLEX) anomaly, we show how BEST will improve upon the present estimates of the model parameters.

  11. Bullet scintigraphy: can gamma camera be used for depleted uranium accident measurements?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to see could gamma cameras be used for measurement of internal contamination with depleted uranium. Radioactive waste depleted uranium, which is by-product from the production of enriched fuel for nuclear rectors and weapons now, is used for manufacture bullets, which are used in Iraq, Republic of Srpska and Yugoslavia. In this paper is measured minimum detectable activity (MDA) of gamma cameras for depleted uranium, iodine and technetium. For detection of the depleted uranium are used low energy X-rays, energy of 100 keV with 20% windows width. About 40% of gamma emissions of the depleted uranium are in these limits. Measured MDA activities 50-100 Bq for depleted uranium, iodine and technetium are about ten times more than same for WBC (5 Bq). Gamma cameras can be used for relatively measurement of depleted uranium activity, what can be used for absorbed dose estimation. Detection of low level internal contamination with depleted uranium can be done with gamma cameras. (author)

  12. Bullet scintigraphy: can gamma camera be used for depleted uranium accident measurements?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to see could gamma cameras be used for measurement of internal contamination with depleted uranium. Radioactive waste depleted uranium, which is by-product from the production of enriched fuel for nuclear rectors and weapons now, is used for manufacture bullets, which are used in Iraq, Republic of Srpska and Yugoslavia. In this paper is measured minimum detectable activity (MDA) of gamma cameras for depleted uranium, iodine and technetium. For detection of the depleted uranium are used low energy X-rays, energy of 100 keV with 20% windows width. About 40% of gamma emissions of the depleted uranium are in these limits. Measured MDA activities 50-100 Bq for depleted uranium, iodine and technetium are about then times more then same for WBC (5 Bq). Gamma cameras can be used for relatively measurement of depleted uranium activity, what can be used for absorbed dose estimation. Detection of low level internal contamination with depleted uranium can be done with gamma cameras. (authors)

  13. Crystal growth of bullet-shaped magnetite in magnetotactic bacteria of the Nitrospirae phylum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhua; Menguy, Nicolas; Gatel, Christophe; Boureau, Victor; Snoeck, Etienne; Patriarche, Gilles; Leroy, Eric; Pan, Yongxin

    2015-02-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are known to produce single-domain magnetite or greigite crystals within intracellular membrane organelles and to navigate along the Earth's magnetic field lines. MTB have been suggested as being one of the most ancient biomineralizing metabolisms on the Earth and they represent a fundamental model of intracellular biomineralization. Moreover, the determination of their specific crystallographic signature (e.g. structure and morphology) is essential for palaeoenvironmental and ancient-life studies. Yet, the mechanisms of MTB biomineralization remain poorly understood, although this process has been extensively studied in several cultured MTB strains in the Proteobacteria phylum. Here, we show a comprehensive transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study of magnetic and structural properties down to atomic scales on bullet-shaped magnetites produced by the uncultured strain MYR-1 belonging to the Nitrospirae phylum, a deeply branching phylogenetic MTB group. We observed a multiple-step crystal growth of MYR-1 magnetite: initial isotropic growth forming cubo-octahedral particles (less than approx. 40 nm), subsequent anisotropic growth and a systematic final elongation along [001] direction. During the crystal growth, one major {111} face is well developed and preserved at the larger basal end of the crystal. The basal {111} face appears to be terminated by a tetrahedral-octahedral-mixed iron surface, suggesting dimensional advantages for binding protein(s), which may template the crystallization of magnetite. This study offers new insights for understanding magnetite biomineralization within the Nitrospirae phylum. PMID:25566884

  14. Weighted Clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerman, Margareta; Branzei, Simina; Loker, David

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we investigate clustering in the weighted setting, in which every data point is assigned a real valued weight. We conduct a theoretical analysis on the influence of weighted data on standard clustering algorithms in each of the partitional and hierarchical settings, characterising the precise conditions under which such algorithms react to weights, and classifying clustering methods into three broad categories: weight-responsive, weight-considering, and weight-robust. Our analysis raises several interesting questions and can be directly mapped to the classical unweighted setting.

  15. Cluster analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Everitt, Brian S; Leese, Morven; Stahl, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Cluster analysis comprises a range of methods for classifying multivariate data into subgroups. By organizing multivariate data into such subgroups, clustering can help reveal the characteristics of any structure or patterns present. These techniques have proven useful in a wide range of areas such as medicine, psychology, market research and bioinformatics.This fifth edition of the highly successful Cluster Analysis includes coverage of the latest developments in the field and a new chapter dealing with finite mixture models for structured data.Real life examples are used throughout to demons

  16. Cluster editing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böcker, S.; Baumbach, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The Cluster Editing problem asks to transform a graph into a disjoint union of cliques using a minimum number of edge modifications. Although the problem has been proven NP-complete several times, it has nevertheless attracted much research both from the theoretical and the applied side. The...... algorithms for biological problems. © 2013 Springer-Verlag....... problem has been the inspiration for numerous algorithms in bioinformatics, aiming at clustering entities such as genes, proteins, phenotypes, or patients. In this paper, we review exact and heuristic methods that have been proposed for the Cluster Editing problem, and also applications of these...

  17. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1E1QC-2HLDA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1E1QC-2HLDA 1E1Q 2HLD C A ADTSVDLEETGRVLSIGDGIARVHGLRNVQAEEMVEFSS...ELFYKGIRPAINVGLSVSRVGSAAQTRAMKQVAGTMKLELAQYREVAAFAQFGSDLDAATQQLLSRGVRLTELLKQGQYSPMAIEEQVAVIYAGVRGYLDKLEPSKIT...RPAINVGLSVSRVGSAAQVKALKQVAGSLKLFLAQYREVAAFAQS--DLDASTKQTLVRGERLTQLLKQNQYSPLATEEQV...> 0 2HLD A 2HLDA AFAQS--DLDA...ain> 1E1Q C 1E1QC AFAQFGSDLDA

  18. Effect of electron-withdrawing power of the substituted group on ${}^{\\bullet}$OH radical reaction with substituted aryl sulphides: A pulse radiolysis study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hari Mohan

    2002-12-01

    In neutral aqueous solution of (phenylthio)acetic acid, hydroxyl radical is observed to react with a bimolecular rate constant of 7.2 × 109 dm3 mol-1 s-1 and the transient absorption bands are assigned to ${}^{\\bullet}$OH radical addition to benzene and sulphur with a rough estimated values of 50 and 40% respectively. The reaction of the ${}^{\\bullet}$OH radical with diphenyl sulphide ( = 4.3 × 108 dm3 mol-1 s-1) is observed to take place with formation of solute radical cation, OH-adduct at sulphur and benzene with estimated values of about 12, 28 and 60% respectively. The transient absorption bands observed on reaction of ${}^{\\bullet}$OH radical, in neutral aqueous solution of 4-(methylthio) phenyl acetic acid, are assigned to solute radical cation (max = 550 and 730 nm), OH-adduct at sulphur (max = 360 nm) and addition at benzene ring (max = 320 nm). The fraction of ${}^{\\bullet}$OH radical reacting to form solute radical cation is observed to depend on the electron-withdrawing power of substituted group. In acidic solutions, depending on the concentration of acid and electron-withdrawing power, solute radical cation is the only transient species formed on reaction of ${}^{\\bullet}$OH radical with the sulphides studied.

  19. Laminar flow past a spinning bullet-shaped body at moderate angular velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-González, J. I.; Sanmiguel-Rojas, E.; Sevilla, A.; Martínez-Bazán, C.

    2013-11-01

    We present a numerical study of the flow past a spinning bullet-shaped body of length-to-diameter ratio L/D=2, focusing on the evolution of the forces and flow regimes that appear depending on the values of the two governing parameters, namely the Reynolds number, Re=ρw∞D/μ, and the dimensionless angular velocity, Ω=ωD/(2w∞), where ρ, μ and w∞ are the free-stream density, viscosity and velocity, respectively, and ω is the angular velocity of the body. The parametric study covers the range 0≤Ω≤0.4 for Re<450, corresponding to laminar flow and moderate rotation velocities. It is shown that the (Re,Ω) parameter plane can be divided into four regions, corresponding to the destabilization of several instability modes. In the range 0≤Ω≲0.2, three different flow regimes take place as Re increases keeping constant Ω: axisymmetric, frozen and spiral flow regimes respectively; the latter leading to a swirling configuration of vortices curling up around the axis, caused by a combination of the frozen mode and the vortex shedding. However, at Ω≃0.2, a new frozen spiral mode takes place for large enough values of Re, where two counter-rotating vortices spiral around the axis, as a result of a lock-in process of the vortex shedding associated to the unsteady spiral regime, being this mode the single unstable one existent for Ω≥0.225. An exhaustive study of the dependence of the drag and lift forces on Ω and Re is also presented.

  20. Potential hazard to human health from exposure to fragments of lead bullets and shot in the tissues of game animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah J Pain

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lead is highly toxic to animals. Humans eating game killed using lead ammunition generally avoid swallowing shot or bullets and dietary lead exposure from this source has been considered low. Recent evidence illustrates that lead bullets fragment on impact, leaving small lead particles widely distributed in game tissues. Our paper asks whether lead gunshot pellets also fragment upon impact, and whether lead derived from spent gunshot and bullets in the tissues of game animals could pose a threat to human health. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Wild-shot gamebirds (6 species obtained in the UK were X-rayed to determine the number of shot and shot fragments present, and cooked using typical methods. Shot were then removed to simulate realistic practice before consumption, and lead concentrations determined. Data from the Veterinary Medicines Directorate Statutory Surveillance Programme documenting lead levels in raw tissues of wild gamebirds and deer, without shot being removed, are also presented. Gamebirds containing > or =5 shot had high tissue lead concentrations, but some with fewer or no shot also had high lead concentrations, confirming X-ray results indicating that small lead fragments remain in the flesh of birds even when the shot exits the body. A high proportion of samples from both surveys had lead concentrations exceeding the European Union Maximum Level of 100 ppb w.w. (0.1 mg kg(-1 w.w. for meat from bovine animals, sheep, pigs and poultry (no level is set for game meat, some by several orders of magnitude. High, but feasible, levels of consumption of some species could result in the current FAO/WHO Provisional Weekly Tolerable Intake of lead being exceeded. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The potential health hazard from lead ingested in the meat of game animals may be larger than previous risk assessments indicated, especially for vulnerable groups, such as children, and those consuming large amounts of game.

  1. X-1E launch from B-50 mothership

    Science.gov (United States)

    1950-01-01

    it was to be launched on its second flight. It had to be jettisoned to the Muroc desert. Shop experiments soon determined that the deadly explosive culprit for the X-1D, the X-1 #3, and the X-1A was the ulmer leather gasket material used in contact with the liquid oxygen. The loss of the X-1 #3 and the X-1D led the NACA to rebuild the X-1 #2 into a new aircraft. By December 1955, the redesignated X-1E was ready. It featured a new, very thin 4-percent wing along with the existing 8-percent tail, with an efficient low-pressure turbo-pump for the engine. It also contained an ejection seat for the pilot, unlike the original X-1. On October 8, 1957, the aircraft with NACA pilot Joseph A. Walker achieved a speed of Mach 2.24 (1,478 mph). During its second flight career, the new X-1E allowed NACA to gather significant data on high Mach flight and stability questions and to demonstrate improved engine and production technology for incorporation into new USAF aircraft. The X-1E was also used to obtain in-flight data on the improvements achieved with the high-speed wing. These wings, made by Stanley Aircraft, wereonly 3 - 3/8-in. thick at the thickest point and had 343 gauges installed in them for measurement of structural loads and aerodynamic heating. Like the original X-1 it was air launched. This movie clip running about 10 seconds shows a drop from the B-50 mothership, accelerating away under rocket power and at speed making a high altitude contrail.

  2. Star formation in the massive cluster merger Abell 2744

    CERN Document Server

    Rawle, T D; Egami, E; Perez-Gonzalez, P G; Richard, J; Santos, J S; Valtchanov, I; Walth, G; Bouy, H; Haines, C P; Okabe, N

    2014-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of star-forming (SF) galaxies in the HST Frontier Field recent cluster merger A2744 (z=0.308). Wide-field, ultraviolet-infrared (UV-IR) imaging enables a direct constraint of the total star formation rate (SFR) for 53 cluster galaxies, with SFR{UV+IR}=343+/-10 Msun/yr. Within the central 4 arcmin (1.1 Mpc) radius, the integrated SFR is complete, yielding a total SFR{UV+IR}=201+/-9 Msun/yr. Focussing on obscured star formation, this core region exhibits a total SFR{IR}=138+/-8 Msun/yr, a mass-normalised SFR{IR} of Sigma{SFR}=11.2+/-0.7 Msun/yr per 10^14 Msun and a fraction of IR-detected SF galaxies f{SF}=0.080(+0.010,-0.037). Overall, the cluster population at z~0.3 exhibits significant intrinsic scatter in IR properties (total SFR{IR}, Tdust distribution) apparently unrelated to the dynamical state: A2744 is noticeably different to the merging Bullet cluster, but similar to several relaxed clusters. However, in A2744 we identify a trail of SF sources including jellyfish galax...

  3. Storage and retrieval of (3+1)-dimensional weak-light bullets and vortices in a coherent atomic gas

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Zhiming; Li, Hui-jun; Hang, Chao; Huang, Guoxiang

    2016-01-01

    A robust light storage and retrieval (LSR) in high dimensions is highly desirable for light and quantum information processing. However, most schemes on LSR realized up to now encounter problems due to not only dissipation, but also dispersion and diffraction, which make LSR with a very low fidelity. Here we propose a scheme to achieve a robust storage and retrieval of weak nonlinear high-dimensional light pulses in a coherent atomic gas via electromagnetically induced transparency. We show that it is available to produce stable (3+1)-dimensional light bullets and vortices, which have very attractive physical property and are suitable to obtain a robust LSR in high dimensions.

  4. High-Speed Bullet Ejections during the AGB to Planetary Nebula Transition: HST Observations of the Carbon Star, V Hydrae

    CERN Document Server

    Sahai, R; Morris, M R

    2016-01-01

    The well-studied carbon star, V Hya, showing evidence for high-speed, collimated outflows and dense equatorial structures, is a key object in the study of the poorly understood transition of AGB stars into aspherical planetary nebulae. Using the STIS instrument onboard HST, we have obtained high spatial-resolution long-slit optical spectra of V Hya that show high-velocity emission in [SII] and [FeII] lines. Our dataset, spanning three epochs spaced apart by a year during each of two periods (in 2002-2004 and 2011-2013), shows that V Hya ejects high-speed (about 200-250 km/s) bullets once every ~8.5 yr. The ejection axis flip-flops around a roughly eastern direction, both in and perpendicular to the sky-plane, and the radial velocities of the ejecta also vary in concert between low and high values. We propose a model in which the bullet ejection is associated with the periastron passage of a binary companion in an eccentric orbit around V Hya with an orbital period of ~8.5 yr. The flip-flop phenomenon is likel...

  5. Experimental research on the penetration of tungsten-fiber/metallic-glass matrix composite material bullet into steel target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X. W.; Chen, G.

    2012-08-01

    In the present paper, the penetration experiments of tungsten-fiber/metallic-glass matrix composite material bullets into 45# steel targets are conducted by employing H25 artillery. In which, an experimental technique of sub-caliber penetration is constructed. The quasi static and dynamic behaviours of tungsten-fiber/metallic-glass matrix composite material are also experimental investigated. The self-sharpening phenomenon of composite material is observed. Integrated with metallographic analysis, the failure modes of tungsten-fiber/metallic-glass matrix composite material are identified systemically and compared with the quasi-static and dynamic material tests. It includes four failure modes, i.e., shear fracture of tungsten fiber, brittle fracture of tungsten fiber and shear fracture of metallic glass matrix as well as melting of tungsten fiber and metallic glass matrix. Comparatively, three failure mechanisms of tungsten fiber in the bullet nose are also identified, i.e., shear fracture, splitting fracture and bending or/and buckling. Finally, the mechanism of self-sharpening behaviour of tungsten-fiber/metallic-glass matrix composite material is discussed.

  6. Test and Numerical Analysis for Penetration Residual Velocity of Bullet Considering Failure Strain Uncertainty of Composite Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Myungseok; Lee, Minhyung [Sejong Univ., Sejong (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The ballistic performance data of composite materials is distributed due to material inhomogeneity. In this paper, the uncertainty in residual velocity is obtained experimentally, and a method of predicting it is established numerically for the high-speed impact of a bullet into laminated composites. First, the failure strain distribution was obtained by conducting a tensile test using 10 specimens. Next, a ballistic impact test was carried out for the impact of a fragment-simulating projectile (FSP) bullet with 4ply ([0/90]s) and 8ply ([0/90/0/90]s) glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) plates. Eighteen shots were made at the same impact velocity and the residual velocities were obtained. Finally, simulations were conducted to predict the residual velocities by using the failure strain distributions that were obtained from the tensile test. For this simulation, two impact velocities were chosen at 411.7m/s (4ply) and 592.5m/s (8ply). The simulation results show that the predicted residual velocities are in close agreement with test results. Additionally, the modeling of a composite plate with layered solid elements requires less calculation time than modeling with solid elements.

  7. Detection of bone and bone-plus-bullet particles in backspatter from close-range shots to heads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, B R

    1991-11-01

    A victim was shot in the head with a 9-mm Smith & Wesson pistol using Winchester Silvertip hollow-point ammunition. Of interest in this case was the distance from the muzzle of the weapon to the victim's head, since the wound characteristics were equivocal for firing distance. Two other handguns (revolvers) were involved in this shooting, in addition to a revolver owned by the victim. The handguns were sampled using tape lifts, and the casings were sampled by washing them in distilled water, followed by vacuum filtration of the washing water through 0.2-microns-pore Nuclepore filters. These materials were examined by scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. Calcium-phosphorous (bone) particles were detected on the 9-mm Smith & Wesson pistol, on two casings found at the scene, and on one of the revolvers. Two of the calcium-phosphorous particles on the casings had associated bullet fragments. Test shots on live pigs destined for slaughter showed that bone particles are a feature of backspatter from close-range shots to heads. Contamination of nearby surfaces by bone fragments and bone-plus-bullet fragments, as well as other organic debris, appears to be quite heavy. PMID:1770342

  8. Experimental research on the penetration of tungsten-fiber/metallic-glass matrix composite material bullet into steel target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen X.W.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, the penetration experiments of tungsten-fiber/metallic-glass matrix composite material bullets into 45# steel targets are conducted by employing H25 artillery. In which, an experimental technique of sub-caliber penetration is constructed. The quasi static and dynamic behaviours of tungsten-fiber/metallic-glass matrix composite material are also experimental investigated. The self-sharpening phenomenon of composite material is observed. Integrated with metallographic analysis, the failure modes of tungsten-fiber/metallic-glass matrix composite material are identified systemically and compared with the quasi-static and dynamic material tests. It includes four failure modes, i.e., shear fracture of tungsten fiber, brittle fracture of tungsten fiber and shear fracture of metallic glass matrix as well as melting of tungsten fiber and metallic glass matrix. Comparatively, three failure mechanisms of tungsten fiber in the bullet nose are also identified, i.e., shear fracture, splitting fracture and bending or/and buckling. Finally, the mechanism of self-sharpening behaviour of tungsten-fiber/metallic-glass matrix composite material is discussed.

  9. Combination of natural fiber Boehmeria nivea (ramie) with matrix epoxide for bullet proof vest body armor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anggoro, Didi Dwi, E-mail: anggorophd@gmail.com; Kristiana, Nunung, E-mail: nuna.c631@gmail.com [Master of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University Jln. Prof. Sudharto, Tembalang, Semarang, 50239 (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    Ballistic protection equipment, such as a bulletproof vest, is a soldier’s most important means of preserving life and survivability in extreme combat conditions. The bulletproof vests are designed to protect the user’s chest from injury without disturbing the ability to perform his duties. Aromatic polyamide or aramid fibers known under the trade name Kevlar, Trawon and so is synthetic fiber materials commonly used in the manufacture of bulletproof vests. This synthetic fibers have high tensile strength and ductility. Kevlar is expensive and imported material. In this study, will introduce local natural raw materials, ramie fiber (Boehmeria nivea) which is cheaper and environmentally friendly. It has enough tenacity and tensile strength as a bulletproof vest. This experiment uses two panels, there are Panel A as front surface of Panel B. Panel A is a combination of ramie and epoxide matrix, while panel B is only ramie. From several variations of experimental combinations between Panel A and Panel B, optimal combination obtained with 16 layers of panel A and 31-34 layers of panel B which is able to protect againts cal. 7.65 mm × 17 mm (.32 ACP) bullet fired through pistol .32 Pindad from a distance of 20 meters. Panel with a size of 20 cm × 20 cm has a total thickness between 12,922 to13,745 mm and a total weight between 506,26 to 520,926gram. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations indicated that the porosity and surface area of the ramie fiber is smooth, fiber surfaces showed topography with micropores. SEM also showed well-arranged structure of fibers bonding. Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis indicated 100 % carbon contents in ramie fiber. Test result indicates that panel from composite ramie-epoxide can reach the level 1of International Standard of NIJ - 010104. Compared to panel from polyester fiber, the panel from composite ramie-epoxide (0,50-0,52 kg) is lighter weight than panel polyester fiber (1,642 kg)

  10. Combination of natural fiber Boehmeria nivea (ramie) with matrix epoxide for bullet proof vest body armor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggoro, Didi Dwi; Kristiana, Nunung

    2015-12-01

    Ballistic protection equipment, such as a bulletproof vest, is a soldier's most important means of preserving life and survivability in extreme combat conditions. The bulletproof vests are designed to protect the user's chest from injury without disturbing the ability to perform his duties. Aromatic polyamide or aramid fibers known under the trade name Kevlar, Trawon and so is synthetic fiber materials commonly used in the manufacture of bulletproof vests. This synthetic fibers have high tensile strength and ductility. Kevlar is expensive and imported material. In this study, will introduce local natural raw materials, ramie fiber (Boehmeria nivea) which is cheaper and environmentally friendly. It has enough tenacity and tensile strength as a bulletproof vest. This experiment uses two panels, there are Panel A as front surface of Panel B. Panel A is a combination of ramie and epoxide matrix, while panel B is only ramie. From several variations of experimental combinations between Panel A and Panel B, optimal combination obtained with 16 layers of panel A and 31-34 layers of panel B which is able to protect againts cal. 7.65 mm × 17 mm (.32 ACP) bullet fired through pistol .32 Pindad from a distance of 20 meters. Panel with a size of 20 cm × 20 cm has a total thickness between 12,922 to13,745 mm and a total weight between 506,26 to 520,926gram. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations indicated that the porosity and surface area of the ramie fiber is smooth, fiber surfaces showed topography with micropores. SEM also showed well-arranged structure of fibers bonding. Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis indicated 100 % carbon contents in ramie fiber. Test result indicates that panel from composite ramie-epoxide can reach the level 1of International Standard of NIJ - 010104. Compared to panel from polyester fiber, the panel from composite ramie-epoxide (0,50-0,52 kg) is lighter weight than panel polyester fiber (1,642 kg).

  11. Advances in the Application of ICP-MS in Bullet Identiifcation%电感耦合等离子体质谱检验弹头研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋小娇; 郭洪玲; 梅宏成; 权养科

    2015-01-01

    本文简要介绍了电感耦合等离子体质谱仪(ICP-MS)的工作原理和几种常见的ICP-MS技术,综述了国外法庭科学领域应用ICP-MS技术分析弹头化学组成来推断弹头来源的研究成果,重点阐述了ICP-MS分析铅同位素组成在弹头检验中的应用,分析了国内在相关领域研究中存在的问题,指出研究国产弹头的铅同位素组成以及微量元素组成,并建立相关数据库,对推断弹头来源以及涉枪案件的侦破具有重要意义。%ABATRACT:In shooting cases, bullets are very important physical evidence. To link a bullet that has been ifred to a certain weapon, the most conclusive way is still by identifying the striation marks on bullet. However, quite often in casework, the marks comparison cannot be carried out. For example, the ifrearm is covered or the bullet is totally crushed, and only bullet fragments or particles remain in victims’ body or at the crime scene. In such circumstances, chemical analysis of bullet fragments or lead particles can play a pivotal role in helping to identify the source of the bullet. Usually, three kinds of chemistry comparisons can provide useful information: lead isotope ratios, the percentage of antimony and amounts of trace elements. Lead has four stable isotopes, namely204Pb,206Pb,207Pb and208Pb. The204Pb has no radioactive precursor, while the other three come from nuclear disintegration of238U,235U and232Th, respectively. The isotopic ratios of lead in bullets vary as a function of the age of the ore ifeld where lead was extracted, so isotopic composition analysis is reliable to distinguish the source of bullets. Antimony is added by manufacturers in different proportions to harden the bullet depending on the characteristics needed. Analysis of antimony content would contribute to conifrm the results obtained with the lead isotopic ratios measurement. The amounts of trace elements are relevant to lead origin and its manufacturing

  12. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1E0UC-3G2GD [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1E0UC-3G2GD 1E0U 3G2G C D ----------------------------MKKTKIVCTIG...PKTESEEMLAKMLDAGMNVMRLNFSHGDYAEHGQRIQNLRNVMSKT------GKTAAILLDTKGPEIRTMKLEGGNDVSLKAGQTFTFTTDKSVI--GNSEMVAVTYE...GFTTDLSVGNTVLVDDGLIGMEVTAIEGNKVICKVLNNGDLGENKGVNLPGVSIALPALAEKDKQDLIFGCEQGVDFVAASFIRKRSDVIEIREHLKAHGGENIHIIS...KIENQEGLNNFDEILEASDGIMVARGDLGVEIPVEEVIFAQKMMIEKCIRALKVVITATMMLDSMIKNPRPTRAEAGDVAN...TAHQLVLSKGVVPQLV--KEITSTDDFYR----LGKELALQSGLAHKGDVVVMVSGALVPSGTTNTASVHVL- QTQQLHAAMADTFLEHMCRLD

  13. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1E1RC-2HLDA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1E1RC-2HLDA 1E1R 2HLD C A ADTSVDLEETGRVLSIGDGIARVHGLRNVQAEEMVEFSS...ELFYKGIRPAINVGLSVSRVGSAAQTRAMKQVAGTMKLELAQYREVAAFAQFGSDLDAATQQLLSRGVRLTELLKQGQYSPMAIEEQVAVIYAGVRGYLDKLEPSKIT...RPAINVGLSVSRVGSAAQVKALKQVAGSLKLFLAQYREVAAFAQS--DLDASTKQTLVRGERLTQLLKQNQYSPLATEEQV...fEVID> 0 2HLD A 2HLDA AFAQS--DLDAS GGG -- HH

  14. Cluster headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doctors do not know exactly what causes cluster headaches. They seem to be related to the body's sudden release of histamine (chemical in the body released during an allergic response) or serotonin (chemical made by nerve cells). A problem in a small area at ...

  15. Regional Innovation Clusters

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — The Regional Innovation Clusters serve a diverse group of sectors and geographies. Three of the initial pilot clusters, termed Advanced Defense Technology clusters,...

  16. N2 Mole Fraction Dependence of Plasma Bullet Propagation in Premixed He/N2 Plasma Needle Discharge at Atmospheric Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Gengsong; Qian, Muyang; Yang, Congying; Liu, Sanqiu; Wang, Dezhen

    2016-07-01

    In this work, a computational modeling study on the mechanism of the acceleration behavior of a plasma bullet in needle-plane configuration is presented. Above all, in our model, two sub-models of time-dependent plasma dynamics and laminar flow are connected using a oneway coupled method, and both the working gas and the surrounding gas around the plasma jet are assumed to be the same, which are premixed He/N2 gas. The mole fractions of the N2 (NMF) ingredient are set to be 0.01%, 0.1% and 1% in three cases, respectively. It is found that in each case, the plasma bullet accelerates with time to a peak velocity after it exits the nozzle and then decreases until getting to the treated surface, and that the velocity of the plasma bullet increases at each time moment with the peak value changing from 0.72×106 m/s to 0.80×106 m/s but then drops more sharply when the NMF varies from 0.01% to 1%. Besides, the electron impact ionizations of helium neutrals and nitrogen molecules are found to have key influences on the propagation of a plasma bullet instead of the penning ionization. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11465013), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangxi Province, China (No. 20151BAB212012), and in part by the International Science and Technology Cooperation Program of China (No. 2015DFA61800)

  17. Cluster forcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Budde

    The cluster theory attributed to Michael Porter has significantly influenced industrial policies in countries across Europe and North America since the beginning of the 1990s. Institutions such as the EU, OECD and the World Bank and governments in countries such as the UK, France, The Netherlands......, Portugal and New Zealand have adopted the concept. Public sector interventions that aim to support cluster development in industries most often focus upon economic policy goals such as enhanced employment and improved productivity, but rarely emphasise broader societal policy goals relating to e...... a difference in terms of enhancing regional development but the paper also concludes that the interventions tend to follow the development path of the established industry and thus tend to neglect long term sustainable development issues while failing to escape the traditional confines of regional industrial...

  18. Clustering experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhengwei; Tan, Ken; Di, Zengru; Roehner, Bertrand M

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that bees cluster together in cold weather, in the process of swarming (when the ``old'' queen leaves with part of the colony) or absconding (when the queen leaves with all the colony) and in defense against intruders such as wasps or hornets. In this paper we describe a fairly different clustering process which occurs at any temperature and independently of any special stimulus or circumstance. As a matter of fact, this process is about four times faster at 28 degree Celsius than at 15 degrees. Because of its simplicity and low level of ``noise'' we think that this phenomenon can provide a means for exploring the strength of inter-individual attraction between bees or other living organisms. For instance, and at first sight fairly surprisingly, our observations showed that this attraction does also exist between bees belonging to different colonies. As this study is aimed at providing a comparative perspective, we also describe a similar clustering experiment for red fire ants.

  19. Finslerian MOND versus the Strong Gravitational Lensing of the Early-type Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Zhe; Li, Ming-Hua; Li, Xin; Lin, Hai-Nan(Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049, Beijing, China); Wang, Sai

    2013-01-01

    The gravitational lensing of Bullet Clusters and early-type galaxies pose serious challenges on the validity of MOND. Recently, Finslerian MOND, a generalization of MOND in the framework of Finsler gravity, has been proposed to explain the mass discrepancy problem of Bullet Cluster 1E 0657\\ 558. In this paper, we check the validity of the Finslerian MOND in describing the strong gravitational lensing of early-type galaxies. The investigation on ten strong lenses of the CASTLES samples shows t...

  20. Implications for wildlife and humans of dietary exposure to lead from fragments of lead rifle bullets in deer shot in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead poisoning caused by ingested spent lead shotgun pellets has long been known to be a cause of unnecessary mortality in waterfowl and has led to legislation limiting its use in many countries. Recent evidence has shown that the problem extends to terrestrial ecosystems and to fragmented rifle bullets eaten by scavengers as well as shotgun pellets. Dietary exposure of human consumers to lead from spent ammunition in game meat also poses potential risks to human health. To assess the degree of fragmentation of lead bullets used to kill wild deer, twelve deer were shot in the thorax using copper-jacketed lead-cored bullets, as part of planned deer management operations. The thoracic region of the eviscerated carcasses and the abdominal viscera of each deer were X-rayed. An average of 356 metal fragments was visible on radiographs of the carcass and 180 fragments in the viscera. The weight of fragments was estimated by reference to an X-rayed scale of fragments of known weight. The average total weight of metal fragments, likely to be mostly lead, was estimated to be 1.2 g for the carcass and 0.2 g for the viscera. The total estimated weight of fragments in the entire carcass was estimated to be 17% of the weight of the bullet. Most fragments were small in size, with those in the viscera being smaller than those in the carcass. Metal fragments in the viscera were sufficiently small that at least 80% of the metallic bullet-derived lead in the viscera would be expected to be ingested by scavenging birds, such as buzzards and eagles, which feed on them.

  1. The Dream About the Magic Silver Bullet – the Complexity of Designing for Tablet-Mediated Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahnke, Isa; Svendsen, Niels Vandel; Johansen, Simon Kristoffer;

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we report three cases of the integration of technology, such as web-enabled media tablets in Scandinavian schools. Both qualitative and quantitative data have been applied. A daily challenge for teachers is to coordinate their group of students in a way that enables collaborative...... learning. We report the gaps and interrelations between the dreams and the practice of the teachers. They dream about an interconnected praxis – the magic silver bullet – and establish their visions of inter- connectivity because of their breakdown experiences of media tablets aiding complexity instead...... of reducing it. The teachers must learn how to navigate during the breakdowns before media tablets reduce complexity and reach a state in which the tablets take part in the classroom ecology as functional organs. The teachers have to deal with complex situations during class in situ. In order to be able...

  2. Globular Cluster Formation in the Virgo Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Moran, C Corbett; Lake, G

    2014-01-01

    Metal poor globular clusters (MPGCs) are a unique probe of the early universe, in particular the reionization era. Systems of globular clusters in galaxy clusters are particularly interesting as it is in the progenitors of galaxy clusters that the earliest reionizing sources first formed. Although the exact physical origin of globular clusters is still debated, it is generally admitted that globular clusters form in early, rare dark matter peaks (Moore et al. 2006; Boley et al. 2009). We provide a fully numerical analysis of the Virgo cluster globular cluster system by identifying the present day globular cluster system with exactly such early, rare dark matter peaks. A popular hypothesis is that that the observed truncation of blue metal poor globular cluster formation is due to reionization (Spitler et al. 2012; Boley et al. 2009; Brodie & Strader 2006); adopting this view, constraining the formation epoch of MPGCs provides a complementary constraint on the epoch of reionization. By analyzing both the l...

  3. "5M1E"监督管理初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卫东

    2008-01-01

    @@ 一、影响安全生产的基本因素--"5M1E" "5M1E"是指对安全生产起主要影响作用的人(Man)、机(Machine)、科(Material)、法(Methods)、测(Measurement)、环(Environment)6大因素,简称"5M1E"因素.

  4. Big Bangs in Galaxy Clusters: Using X-ray Temperature Maps to Trace Merger Histories in Clusters with Radio Halos/Relics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jack O.; Datta, Abhirup; Hallman, Eric J.

    2016-06-01

    Galaxy clusters are assembled through large and small mergers which are the most energetic events ("bangs") since the Big Bang. Cluster mergers "stir" the intracluster medium (ICM) creating shocks and turbulence which are illuminated by ~Mpc-sized radio features called relics and halos. These shocks heat the ICM and are detected in x-rays via thermal emission. Disturbed morphologies in x-ray surface brightness and temperatures are direct evidence for cluster mergers. In the radio, relics (in the outskirts of the clusters) and halos (located near the cluster core) are also clear signposts of recent mergers. Our recent ENZO cosmological simulations suggest that around a merger event, radio emission peaks very sharply (and briefly) while the x-ray emission rises and decays slowly. Hence, a sample of galaxy clusters that shows both luminous x-ray emission and radio relics/halos are good candidates for very recent mergers. We are in the early stages of analyzing a unique sample of 48 galaxy clusters with (i) known radio relics and/or halos and (ii) significant archival x-ray observations (>50 ksec) from Chandra and/or XMM. We have developed a new x-ray data analysis pipeline, implemented on parallel processor supercomputers, to create x-ray surface brightness, high fidelity temperature, and pressure maps of these clusters in order to study merging activity. The temperature maps are made using three different map-making techniques: Weighted Voronoi Tessellation, Adaptive Circular Binning, and Contour Binning. In this talk, we will show preliminary results for several clusters, including Abell 2744 and the Bullet cluster. This work is supported by NASA ADAP grant NNX15AE17G.

  5. Top class images help ESA's Rosetta prepare to ride on a cosmic bullet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-02-01

    to the end of the mission in July 2013, at which time the comet is at its closest approach to the Sun, at about 160 million km from it. VLT observations have also provided Rosetta mission planners with an accurate measurement of their target's size: Wirtanen is only 1.2 km in diameter, a true cosmic bullet. "Rosetta is certainly a very challenging space mission. No one has ever tried to land on a comet before," says Gerhard Schwehm, Rosetta's Project Scientist. "We need to learn as much as possible about our target. The new data will allow us to improve our models and make decisions once we get there." Note to editors Rosetta's prime scientific goal is to unravel the origin of the Solar System. The chemical composition of comets is known to reflect that of the primordial nebula that gave birth to the Solar System - in the planets, that primeval material has gone through complex processing, but not in the comets. Therefore, Rosetta will allow scientists to look back 4.6 billion years, to an epoch when the Solar System formed. Previous studies by ESA's Giotto spacecraft and by ground-based observatories have shown that comets contain complex organic molecules - compounds that are rich in carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Intriguingly, these are the elements which make up nucleic acids and amino acids, essential ingredients for life as we know it. Did life on Earth begin with the help of comet seeding? Rosetta may help us to find the answer to this fundamental question. Rosetta carries 21 experiments in total . These are provided by scientific consortia from institutes across Europe and the United States. The Wirtanen observations by the VLT fall into a tradition of fruitful collaboration between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO). The two organizations are already combining their efforts in several strategic areas, in order to facilitate the synergy between space and ground facilities, where mutual sharing of technology and

  6. Investigation about the influence of the mechanical properties of lead core and brass jacket of a NATO 7.62 mm ball bullet in numerical simulations of ballistic impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giglio, M.; Gilioli, A.; Manes, A.; Peroni, L.; Scapin, M.

    2012-08-01

    In the present work a validated numerical approach has been used in order to build a robust and reliable FE model of the impact of a NATO 7.62 mm ball bullet, against an aluminium transmission shaft. The bullet is a full metal jacket type, with a lead alloy core and a brass jacket. Target shaft is made by an Al6061-T6 aluminium alloy. According to the soft core (lead alloy) of the bullet, most effort has been spent in order to evaluate the effect of bullet materials mechanical properties on the numerical results. Numerical analyses, carried out using the non-linear dynamic finite element solver Abaqus∖Explicit 6.10, have been performed focusing on core and jacket material behaviour (target material, Al6061-T6, has been previously calibrated by the authors). Thus numerical analyses have been performed considering for the mechanical behaviour of the bullet both a simplified approach (as reported in literature) and new material data (with strain rate effect) obtained by means of experimental tests on the two materials (lead and brass) with specimens cut directly from the bullet. Finally the results of the analyses have been compared with real experimental ballistic tests.

  7. Investigation about the influence of the mechanical properties of lead core and brass jacket of a NATO 7.62 mm ball bullet in numerical simulations of ballistic impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scapin M.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present work a validated numerical approach has been used in order to build a robust and reliable FE model of the impact of a NATO 7.62 mm ball bullet, against an aluminium transmission shaft. The bullet is a full metal jacket type, with a lead alloy core and a brass jacket. Target shaft is made by an Al6061-T6 aluminium alloy. According to the soft core (lead alloy of the bullet, most effort has been spent in order to evaluate the effect of bullet materials mechanical properties on the numerical results. Numerical analyses, carried out using the non-linear dynamic finite element solver Abaqus∖Explicit 6.10, have been performed focusing on core and jacket material behaviour (target material, Al6061-T6, has been previously calibrated by the authors. Thus numerical analyses have been performed considering for the mechanical behaviour of the bullet both a simplified approach (as reported in literature and new material data (with strain rate effect obtained by means of experimental tests on the two materials (lead and brass with specimens cut directly from the bullet. Finally the results of the analyses have been compared with real experimental ballistic tests.

  8. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1E4WL-1MCEA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. Physicochemical and biological characterization of 1E10 Anti-Idiotype vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado Yoan J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 1E10 monoclonal antibody is a murine anti-idiotypic antibody that mimics N-glycolyl-GM3 gangliosides. This antibody has been tested as an anti-idiotypic cancer vaccine, adjuvated in Al(OH3, in several clinical trials for melanoma, breast, and lung cancer. During early clinical development this mAb was obtained in vivo from mice ascites fluid. Currently, the production process of 1E10 is being transferred from the in vivo to a bioreactor-based method. Results Here, we present a comprehensive molecular and immunological characterization of 1E10 produced by the two different production processes in order to determine the impact of the manufacturing process in vaccine performance. We observed differences in glycosylation pattern, charge heterogeneity and structural stability between in vivo-produced 1E10 and bioreactor-obtained 1E10. Interestingly, these modifications had no significant impact on the immune responses elicited in two different animal models. Conclusions Changes in 1E10 primary structure like glycosylation; asparagine deamidation and oxidation affected 1E10 structural stability but did not affect the immune response elicited in mice and chickens when compared to 1E10 produced in mice.

  15. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1E43A-2DIEA [Confc[Archive

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  16. Complete Genome Sequence of a Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Subgenotype 1e Strain Isolated in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Stalder, Hanspeter; Schweizer, Matthias; Bachofen, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    We sequenced the complete genome of the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strain Carlito. It belongs to the subgenotype 1e that is described in Europe only and represents the second most prevalent subgenotype in Switzerland. This is the first report of a full-length sequence of BVDV-1e.

  17. Cluster Decline and Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Christian Richter; Park, Eun Kyung

    Most studies on regional clusters focus on identifying factors and processes that make clusters grow. However, sometimes technologies and market conditions suddenly shift, and clusters decline. This paper analyses the process of decline of the wireless communication cluster in Denmark, 1963...... in new resources to the cluster but being quick to withdraw in times of crisis....

  18. CRH2型动车组辅助电源系统故障分析%Fault analysis of auxiliary power system in CRH2 bullet train

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李向超; 王亦军

    2013-01-01

    探讨了300 km速度级CRH2C型动车组辅助电源系统的供电电压、工作原理以及内部构成。针对CRH2C型动车组辅助电源系统的常见故障,分析了故障发生的原因,并提出了有效的应急处理措施。%The supply voltage, working principle and internal structure of auxiliary power supply system in 300 km/h grade CRH2C bullet train are discussed. The common fault causes of auxiliary power supply system in CRH2C bullet train are analyzed. The effective emergent measures for the fault treatment are put forward.

  19. Chandra observation of two shock fronts in the merging galaxy cluster Abell 2146

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, H R; Fabian, A C; Baum, S A; Donahue, M; Edge, A C; McNamara, B R; O'Dea, C P

    2010-01-01

    We present a new Chandra observation of the galaxy cluster Abell 2146 which has revealed a complex merging system with a gas structure that is remarkably similar to the Bullet cluster (eg. Markevitch et al. 2002). The X-ray image and temperature map show a cool 2-3 keV subcluster with a ram pressure stripped tail of gas just exiting the disrupted 6-7 keV primary cluster. From the sharp jump in the temperature and density of the gas, we determine that the subcluster is preceded by a bow shock with a Mach number M=2.2+/-0.8, corresponding to a velocity v=2200^{+1000}_{-900} km/s relative to the main cluster. We estimate that the subcluster passed through the primary core only 0.1-0.3 Gyr ago. In addition, we observe a slower upstream shock propagating through the outer region of the primary cluster and calculate a Mach number M=1.7+/-0.3. Based on the measured shock Mach numbers M~2 and the strength of the upstream shock, we argue that the mass ratio between the two merging clusters is between 3 and 4 to one. B...

  20. ESO's VLT Helps ESA's Rosetta Spacecraft Prepare to Ride on a Cosmic Bullet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-02-01

    (about 6 million times fainter than what can be perceived with the unaided eye). These observations have now confirmed that - at the same distance from the Sun at which the landing will take place (about 450 million km from the Sun) - the activity on Wirtanen is very low, cf. PR Photo 06a/02 . This is very good news for the mission, because it means that there will not be so much dust near the nucleus as to make the landing dramatically difficult . Landing on a 1-km snowball Cometary nuclei are small frozen bodies made of ice and dust ('dirty snowballs'). When they get close to the Sun the heat causes ices on the surface to 'evaporate'. Gas and dust grains are ejected into the surrounding space forming the comet's atmosphere (coma) and the tail. In addition to dropping a lander on Wirtanen's nucleus for detailed in-situ observations, Rosetta's task is to investigate the evolution of the comet on its way to the Sun: in fact, Rosetta will keep orbiting around Wirtanen up to the end of the mission in July 2013, at which time the comet is at its closest approach to the Sun, at about 160 million km from it. These and earlier VLT observations have also provided Rosetta mission planners with an accurate measurement of their target's size: Wirtanen's nucleus is only 1.2 km in diameter, a true cosmic bullet . "Rosetta is certainly a very challenging space mission. No one has ever tried to land on a comet before," says Gerhard Schwehm , Rosetta's Project Scientist. "We need to learn as much as possible about our target. The new VLT data will allow us to improve our models and make decisions once we get there." "It is a pleasure to help our colleagues at ESA", says ESO astronomer and comet specialist Hermann Boehnhardt . "We will continue to keep an eye on this comet, in particular when Rosetta is approaching its target. We can then provide the spacecraft controllers and the astronomers with very useful, regular updates, e.g., about the 'cometary weather' at the time of arrival

  1. Hybrid treatment of bullet embolism at the abdominal aortic bifurcation, complicated with thoracoabdominal aorta pseudoaneurysm and common iliac artery occlusion: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Bastos Metzger

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Embolization due to a firearm projectile entering the bloodstream is a rare event that is unlikely to be suspected during initial treatment of trauma patients. We describe and discuss a case of bullet embolism of the abdominal aortic bifurcation, complicated by a pseudoaneurysm of the thoracoabdominal aorta and occlusion of the right common iliac artery, but successfully treated using a combination of endovascular methods and conventional surgery.

  2. Muzzle-loading weapons discharging spherical lead bullets: two case studies and experimental simulation using a skin-soap composite model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Große Perdekamp, Markus; Braunwarth, Roland; Kromeier, Jan; Nadjem, Hadi; Pollak, Stefan; Thierauf, Annette

    2013-07-01

    In current forensic practice, fatal injuries from black powder guns are rare events. In contact and close-range shots, the intensity of GSR deposition (soot, powder particles) is much greater than that in shots with smokeless powder ammunition. The same applies to any burning effects from the combustion gases. Besides, a wad of felt interposed between the propellant and the lead bullet may enter the wound channel. Apart from these findings seen in close-range shots, another characteristic feature results from the mostly spherical shape of the missiles causing maximum tissue damage at the entrance site. Two fatal injuries inflicted with muzzle-loading weapons are reported. In the first case, suicide was committed with a cal. 11.6 mm miniature cannon by firing a contact shot to the back of the neck. In test shots using black powder (1 and 2 g) as propellant, the mean bullet velocity measured 1 m away from the weapon was 87.11 and 146.85 m/s, respectively, corresponding to a kinetic energy of 32.49 and 92.95 J, respectively. Contact test shots to composite models consisting of ballistic soap covered by pig skin at the entrance site were evaluated by CT and revealed cone-like cavitations along the bullet path as known from spherical missiles and penetration depths up to 25 cm. The second case presented deals with a homicidal close-range shot discharged from a muzzle-loading percussion pistol cal. .44. The skin around the entrance site (root of the nose) was densely covered with blackish soot and powder particles, whereas the eyebrows and eyelashes showed singeing of the hairs. The flattened bullet and the wad had got stuck under the scalp of the occipital region. In both cases, there was a disproportionally large zone of tissue destruction in the initial parts of the wound tracks. PMID:23250385

  3. Atomic mobility in energetic cluster deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Zheng-Ying; WANG Yue-Xia; WEI Qi; LI Zhi-Jie; ZHOU Liang; ZHANG Liang-Kun

    2004-01-01

    This paper tries to outline the influence of atomic mobility on the initial fabrication of thin films formed by LECBD. Based on our recent studies on low-energy cluster beam deposition (LECBD) by molecular dynamics simulation, two examples, the deposition of small carbon clusters on Si and diamond surfaces and Al clusters on Ni substrate, were mainly discussed. The impact energy of the cluster ranges from 0.1 eV to 100 eV. In the former case,the mobility and the lateral migration of surface atoms, especially the recoil atoms, are enhanced with increasing the impact energy, which promote the film to be smoother and denser. For the latter case, the transverse kinetic energy of cluster atoms, caused mainly by the collision between moving cluster atoms, dominates the lateral spread of cluster atoms on the surface, which is contributive to layer-by-layer growth of thin films. Our result is consistent with the experimental observations that the film structure is strongly dependent on the impact energy. In addition, it elucidates that the atomic mobility takes a leading role in the structure characteristic of films formed by LECBD.

  4. Broadband X-ray Spectral Investigations of Magnetars, 4U 0142+61, 1E 1841-045, 1E 2259+586, and 1E 1048.1-5937

    CERN Document Server

    Weng, Shan-Shan

    2015-01-01

    We have generated an extended version of rather simplified but physically oriented three-dimensional magnetar emission model, STEMS3D, to allow spectral investigations up to 100 keV. We have then applied it to the broadband spectral spectra of four magnetars: 4U 0142+61, 1E 1841-045, 1E 2259+586 and 1E 1048.1-5937, using data collected with Swift/XRT or XMM-Newton in soft X-rays, and Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array in the hard X-ray band. We found that the hard X-ray emission of 4U 0142+61 was spectrally hard compared to the earlier detections, indicating that the source was likely in a transition to or from a harder state. We find that the surface properties of the four magnetars are consistent with what we have obtained using only the soft X-ray data with STEMS3D, implying that our physically motivated magnetar emission model is a robust tool. Based on our broadband spectral investigations, we conclude that resonant scattering of the surface photons in the magnetosphere alone cannot account for the ha...

  5. Comparison of Gunshot Entrance Morphologies Caused by .40-Caliber Smith & Wesson, .380-Caliber, and 9-mm Luger Bullets: A Finite Element Analysis Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoso, Rodrigo Ivo; Freire, Alexandre Rodrigues; Santos, Leonardo Soriano de Mello; Daruge Junior, Eduardo; Rossi, Ana Claudia; Prado, Felippe Bevilacqua

    2014-01-01

    Firearms can cause fatal wounds, which can be identified by traces on or around the body. However, there are cases where neither the bullet nor gun is found at the crime scene. Ballistic research involving finite element models can reproduce computational biomechanical conditions, without compromising bioethics, as they involve no direct tests on animals or humans. This study aims to compare the morphologies of gunshot entrance holes caused by.40-caliber Smith & Wesson (S&W), .380-caliber, and 9×19-mm Luger bullets. A fully metal-jacketed.40 S&W projectile, a fully metal-jacketed.380 projectile, and a fully metal-jacketed 9×19-mm Luger projectile were computationally fired at the glabellar region of the finite element model from a distance of 10 cm, at perpendicular incidence. The results show different morphologies in the entrance holes produced by the three bullets, using the same skull at the same shot distance. The results and traits of the entrance holes are discussed. Finite element models allow feasible computational ballistic research, which may be useful to forensic experts when comparing and analyzing data related to gunshot wounds in the forehead. PMID:25343337

  6. Partitional clustering algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book summarizes the state-of-the-art in partitional clustering. Clustering, the unsupervised classification of patterns into groups, is one of the most important tasks in exploratory data analysis. Primary goals of clustering include gaining insight into, classifying, and compressing data. Clustering has a long and rich history that spans a variety of scientific disciplines including anthropology, biology, medicine, psychology, statistics, mathematics, engineering, and computer science. As a result, numerous clustering algorithms have been proposed since the early 1950s. Among these algorithms, partitional (nonhierarchical) ones have found many applications, especially in engineering and computer science. This book provides coverage of consensus clustering, constrained clustering, large scale and/or high dimensional clustering, cluster validity, cluster visualization, and applications of clustering. Examines clustering as it applies to large and/or high-dimensional data sets commonly encountered in reali...

  7. Modernization typologies industrial clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karapetian, Eduard

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Generalized theoretical approach to the criteria of industrial clusters. On this basis, a detailed typology of industrial cluster structures, which takes into account the peculiarities of the functioning of clusters in the domestic economy.

  8. Research on the Anti-Bullet Properties of Aerogel Composite Materials%气凝胶复合材料抗弹性能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨杰; 李树奎; 王富耻

    2011-01-01

    使用球形弹丸对硅气凝胶、有机气凝胶和碳气凝胶复合材料进行靶试实验,研究3种气凝胶复合材料的抗弹性能.实验表明:气凝胶作为面板可以有效提高复合靶板的抗弹能力;在子弹冲击过程中,气凝胶表现出明显的应变率强化效应,吸收子弹动能的能力显著提高;当气凝胶作为夹层,铝合金为面板和背板时,面板由于没有足够的背强作用而发生弯曲破坏,导致靶板整体抗弹性能提高不明显;有机气凝胶具有较高的动态压缩强度和较大的动态失效应变,因此其抗弹性能较好;硅气凝胶的动态压缩强度虽然低于碳气凝胶的动态压缩强度,但是其动态失效应变高于碳气凝胶的动态失效应变,因此硅气凝胶与碳气凝胶的抗弹能力相当.%Anti-bullet properties of silica aerogel, organic aerogel and carbon aerogel composite materials were investigated by target experiment using spherical projectile. Results show that when aerogels are used as faceplate, aerogels could improve the anti-bullet property of composite target obviously. Aerogels display a remarkable strain rate strengthening effect when they are impacted by projectile, which could improve the energy absorption capability of aerogels. When aerogels are sandwiched by aluminum alloy, aluminum alloy faceplate fails by bend due to the insufficient support of the aerogels interlayer, thus the anti-bullet property of composite target improves slightly. Organic aerogel has relatively high dynamic compressive strength and high dynamic failure strain, thus the anti-bullet property of organic aerogel is better than other aerogels. Silica aerogel has lower dynamic compressive strength than carbon aerogel. However, the dynamic failure strain of silica aerogel is higher than that of carbon aerogel. Thus the anti bullet property of silica aerogel is similar to that of carbon aerogel.

  9. Factorial PD-Clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Tortora, Cristina; Summa, Mireille Gettler

    2011-01-01

    Factorial clustering methods have been developed in recent years thanks to the improving of computational power. These methods perform a linear transformation of data and a clustering on transformed data optimizing a common criterion. Factorial PD-clustering is based on Probabilistic Distance clustering (PD-clustering). PD-clustering is an iterative, distribution free, probabilistic, clustering method. Factorial PD-clustering make a linear transformation of original variables into a reduced number of orthogonal ones using a common criterion with PD-Clustering. It is demonstrated that Tucker 3 decomposition allows to obtain this transformation. Factorial PD-clustering makes alternatively a Tucker 3 decomposition and a PD-clustering on transformed data until convergence. This method could significantly improve the algorithm performance and allows to work with large dataset, to improve the stability and the robustness of the method.

  10. Possibilistic Exponential Fuzzy Clustering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kiatichai Treerattanapitak; Chuleerat Jaruskulchai

    2013-01-01

    Generally,abnormal points (noise and outliers) cause cluster analysis to produce low accuracy especially in fuzzy clustering.These data not only stay in clusters but also deviate the centroids from their true positions.Traditional fuzzy clustering like Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) always assigns data to all clusters which is not reasonable in some circumstances.By reformulating objective function in exponential equation,the algorithm aggressively selects data into the clusters.However noisy data and outliers cannot be properly handled by clustering process therefore they are forced to be included in a cluster because of a general probabilistic constraint that the sum of the membership degrees across all clusters is one.In order to improve this weakness,possibilistic approach relaxes this condition to improve membership assignment.Nevertheless,possibilistic clustering algorithms generally suffer from coincident clusters because their membership equations ignore the distance to other clusters.Although there are some possibilistic clustering approaches that do not generate coincident clusters,most of them require the right combination of multiple parameters for the algorithms to work.In this paper,we theoretically study Possibilistic Exponential Fuzzy Clustering (PXFCM) that integrates possibilistic approach with exponential fuzzy clustering.PXFCM has only one parameter and not only partitions the data but also filters noisy data or detects them as outliers.The comprehensive experiments show that PXFCM produces high accuracy in both clustering results and outlier detection without generating coincident problems.

  11. Environment and air pollution like gun and bullet for low-income countries: war for better health and wealth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiang; Azam, Muhammad; Islam, Talat; Zaman, Khalid

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the impact of environmental indicators and air pollution on "health" and "wealth" for the low-income countries. The study used a number of promising variables including arable land, fossil fuel energy consumption, population density, and carbon dioxide emissions that simultaneously affect the health (i.e., health expenditures per capita) and wealth (i.e., GDP per capita) of the low-income countries. The general representation for low-income countries has shown by aggregate data that consist of 39 observations from the period of 1975-2013. The study decomposes the data set from different econometric tests for managing robust inferences. The study uses temporal forecasting for the health and wealth model by a vector error correction model (VECM) and an innovation accounting technique. The results show that environment and air pollution is the menace for low-income countries' health and wealth. Among environmental indicators, arable land has the largest variance to affect health and wealth for the next 10-year period, while air pollution exerts the least contribution to change health and wealth of low-income countries. These results indicate the prevalence of war situation, where environment and air pollution become visible like "gun" and "bullet" for low-income countries. There are required sound and effective macroeconomic policies to combat with the environmental evils that affect the health and wealth of the low-income countries.

  12. [Bullet injury of the bladder. In the novel "La Regenta" by Leopoldo Alas "Clarín"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fariña Pérez, L A

    2000-01-01

    Some great literature works show medical pictures of high historical value. In "La Regenta", by Leopoldo Alas Clarín (1852-1901), considered the best XIX-century Spanish novel and one of the most important of the whole Spanish literature, there is a faithful account of a bullet wound of the bladder: the possibility of making the diagnosis, the complications and inevitable poor prognosis are depicted, since in the story the wound is followed by peritonitis and death of the wounded character, with the attending doctors rejecting a transfer to the hospital or a surgical intervention. This episode reminds us of an important chapter in the History of Surgery and Urology: the diagnosis of trauma wounds of the urinary tract, based over a long time on the data provided by urethral catheterisation; and the treatment of penetrating abdominal wounds in general, a matter of discussion between partisans and detractors of surgical exploration, that had a high mortality until well into the XX-century, when modern means of vital support, anaesthesia and antiseptics were on hand.

  13. Metazoan parasites in the head region of the bullet tuna Auxis rochei (Osteichthyes: Scombridae) from the western Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mele, S; Saber, S; Gómez-Vives, M J; Garippa, G; Alemany, F; Macías, D; Merella, P

    2015-11-01

    The head region of 72 bullet tuna Auxis rochei from the western Mediterranean Sea (south-east Spain and the Strait of Gibraltar) was examined for parasites. Seven metazoan species were found in the fish from south-east Spain: three monogeneans, two trematodes and two copepods, whereas only three species were isolated in the fish from the Strait of Gibraltar. A comparison of the levels of infection of the parasites according to fish size in south-east Spain showed that the prevalence of Didymozoon auxis and the mean abundance of Allopseudaxine macrova were higher in the larger hosts (range of fork length = 38-44 cm) than in the smaller ones (33-37 cm). A comparison of the parasite infections according to geographical region showed that the mean abundances of Nematobothriinae gen. sp. and Caligus bonito were higher in fish from south-east Spain than in those from the Strait of Gibraltar. A comparison of the parasite fauna of A. rochei from the Mediterranean Sea with the published data on Auxis spp. from the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans revealed the closest similarity between the Mediterranean A. rochei and the Atlantic A. thazard.

  14. Terahertz brightness at the extreme: demonstration of 5 GV/m, 17 T low frequency {\\lambda}3 terahertz bullet

    CERN Document Server

    Shalaby, Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    The brightness of a light source defines its applicability to nonlinear phenomena in science. Bright low frequency terahertz (< 5THz) radiation confined to a diffraction-limited spot size is a present hurdle due to the broad bandwidth and long wavelengths associated with single-cycle terahertz pulses as well as due to the lack of terahertz wavefront correctors. Here, using a present-technology system, we employ a new concept of terahertz wavefront manipulation and focusing optimization. We demonstrate a spatio-temporal confinement of terahertz energy at its physical limits to the least possible 3-dimensional light bullet volume of lambda cubic. This leads to a new regime of extremely bright terahertz radiation reaching 40 PW/m2 intensity. The presented work is focused on the sub-5 THz range using small aperture organic crystals DSTMS and OH1. The obtained peak field of up to 5 GV/m and 17 Tesla is order of magnitude higher than any reported single-cycle field oscillation in the entire THz range from a lase...

  15. Construction of a recombinant adenovirus Vector of human papillomavirus type 16 L1_E7c

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses are closely associated with human cervical cancer, especially HPV types 16 and 18. At present, HPV can not be produced in large quantity; it also has tumorgenicity and these properties of HPV have seriously hampered the development of HPV vaccine. HPV type 16 L1 proteins can assembled into virus-like particles (VLP), which are morphologically identical to the nature virion. In order to develop the recombinant adenovirus vectors of HPV, we constructed a recombinant adenovirus shuttle plasmid pCA14 L1-E7c. Methods: Human papillomavirus type 16 L1 open reading frame without terminator codon (TAA) (5559- 7152) and E7c (682- 855) were amplified using PCR. The L1 and E7c fragments were inserted into pGEM-T easy vectors by T- A strategy, named pTAL1 and pTAE7c. pTAL1 was cut with Hind III and BglII, the pTAE7c with BamHI and ClaI. The L1 DNA fragment, E7c and pBluesscript SK were ligated together using T4 DNA ligase. pBSL1-E7c and pBSL1-E7c was digested with Hind III and Xhol. The L1-E7c fragment was inserted into adenovirus shuttle plasmids pCAl4, named pCAl4L1-E7c. DNA sequence results indicated that The L1-E7c DNA fragment can encode the HPV16L1-E7 fusion protein correctly. Results: The L1 and E7c DNA fragments were amplified by PCR and recombinant plasmid pTAL1, pTAE7c, pBSL1-E7c and pCA14L1-E7c were constructed correctly. The pCAl4L1-E7c can be used in the further research work, cotransfected the 293 cell with the parent adenovirus pBHG10. Conclusion: Our results indicated that we have constructed a HPV16L1-E7 fusion DNA fragments and the adenovirus shuttle plasmids pCALl-E7c for the further research.

  16. The Burst Cluster: Dark Matter in a Cluster Merger Associated with the Short Gamma-Ray Burst, GRB 050509B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahle, H.; Sarazin, C. L.; Lopez, L. A.; Kouveliotou, C.; Patel, S. K.; Rol, E.; van der Horst, A. J.; Fynbo, J.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Burrows, D. N.; Gehrels, N.; Grupe, D.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Michałowski, M. J.

    2013-07-01

    We have identified a merging galaxy cluster with evidence of two distinct subclusters. The X-ray and optical data suggest that the subclusters are presently moving away from each other after closest approach. This cluster merger was discovered from observations of the first well-localized short-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB), GRB 050509B. The Swift/Burst Alert Telescope error position of the source is coincident with a cluster of galaxies ZwCl 1234.0+02916, while the subsequent Swift/X-Ray Telescope localization of the X-ray afterglow found the GRB coincident with 2MASX J12361286+2858580, a giant red elliptical galaxy in the cluster. Deep multi-epoch optical images were obtained in this field to constrain the evolution of the GRB afterglow, including a total of 27,480 s exposure in the F814W band with Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys, among the deepest imaging ever obtained toward a known galaxy cluster in a single passband. We perform a weak gravitational lensing analysis based on these data, including mapping of the total mass distribution of the merger system with high spatial resolution. When combined with Chandra X-ray Observatory Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer and Swift/XRT observations, we are able to investigate the dynamical state of the merger to better understand the nature of the dark matter component. Our weak gravitational lensing measurements reveal a separation of the X-ray centroid of the western subcluster from the center of the mass and galaxy light distributions, which is somewhat similar to that of the famous "Bullet cluster," and we conclude that this "Burst cluster" adds another candidate to the previously known merger systems for determining the nature of dark matter, as well as for studying the environment of a short GRB. Finally, we discuss potential connections between the cluster dynamical state and/or matter composition, and compact object mergers, which is currently the leading model for the origin of short GRBs

  17. THE BURST CLUSTER: DARK MATTER IN A CLUSTER MERGER ASSOCIATED WITH THE SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURST, GRB 050509B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahle, H. [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029, Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Sarazin, C. L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Lopez, L. A. [MIT-Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, 37-664H, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Kouveliotou, C. [Space Science Office, ZP12, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Patel, S. K. [Optical Sciences Corporation, 6767 Old Madison Pike, Suite 650, Huntsville, AL 35806 (United States); Rol, E.; Van der Horst, A. J.; Wijers, R. A. M. J. [Astronomical Institute ' Anton Pannekoek' , University of Amsterdam, Kruislaan 403, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Fynbo, J.; Michalowski, M. J. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Burrows, D. N.; Grupe, D. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Gehrels, N. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Ramirez-Ruiz, E., E-mail: hdahle@astro.uio.no [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95060 (United States)

    2013-07-20

    We have identified a merging galaxy cluster with evidence of two distinct subclusters. The X-ray and optical data suggest that the subclusters are presently moving away from each other after closest approach. This cluster merger was discovered from observations of the first well-localized short-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB), GRB 050509B. The Swift/Burst Alert Telescope error position of the source is coincident with a cluster of galaxies ZwCl 1234.0+02916, while the subsequent Swift/X-Ray Telescope localization of the X-ray afterglow found the GRB coincident with 2MASX J12361286+2858580, a giant red elliptical galaxy in the cluster. Deep multi-epoch optical images were obtained in this field to constrain the evolution of the GRB afterglow, including a total of 27,480 s exposure in the F814W band with Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys, among the deepest imaging ever obtained toward a known galaxy cluster in a single passband. We perform a weak gravitational lensing analysis based on these data, including mapping of the total mass distribution of the merger system with high spatial resolution. When combined with Chandra X-ray Observatory Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer and Swift/XRT observations, we are able to investigate the dynamical state of the merger to better understand the nature of the dark matter component. Our weak gravitational lensing measurements reveal a separation of the X-ray centroid of the western subcluster from the center of the mass and galaxy light distributions, which is somewhat similar to that of the famous 'Bullet cluster', and we conclude that this 'Burst cluster' adds another candidate to the previously known merger systems for determining the nature of dark matter, as well as for studying the environment of a short GRB. Finally, we discuss potential connections between the cluster dynamical state and/or matter composition, and compact object mergers, which is currently the leading model for the

  18. A merger mystery: no radio halo in the merging cluster Abell 2146

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, H R; Edge, A C; McNamara, B R; Sanders, J S; Fabian, A C; Baum, S A; Canning, R E A; Donahue, M; O'Dea, C P

    2011-01-01

    We present a new 400 ks Chandra X-ray observation and a GMRT radio observation at 325 MHz of the merging galaxy cluster Abell 2146. The Chandra observation reveals detailed structure associated with the major merger event including the Mach M=2.1+/-0.3 bow shock located ahead of the dense subcluster core and the first known example of an upstream shock (M=1.52+/-0.07). Surprisingly, the deep GMRT observation at 325 MHz does not detect an extended radio halo or any radio relics associated with the shock fronts. All other merging galaxy clusters with X-ray detected shock fronts, including the Bullet cluster, Abell 520 and Abell 754, and clusters with candidate shock fronts have detected radio halos or relics. We calculate a 3 sigma upper limit of 13 mJy, which is significantly below the radio power expected by the observed P_{radio}-L_{X-ray} correlation for merging systems. We explore possible explanations for this unexpected result including the cluster mass, magnetic field, pre-existing electron population, ...

  19. Management of cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tfelt-Hansen, Peer C; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2012-01-01

    and agitation. Patients may have up to eight attacks per day. Episodic cluster headache (ECH) occurs in clusters of weeks to months duration, whereas chronic cluster headache (CCH) attacks occur for more than 1 year without remissions. Management of cluster headache is divided into acute attack treatment...

  20. Structures of Mn clusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tina M Briere; Marcel H F Sluiter; Vijay Kumar; Yoshiyuki Kawazoe

    2003-01-01

    The geometries of several Mn clusters in the size range Mn13–Mn23 are studied via the generalized gradient approximation to density functional theory. For the 13- and 19-atom clusters, the icosahedral structures are found to be most stable, while for the 15-atom cluster, the bcc structure is more favoured. The clusters show ferrimagnetic spin configurations.

  1. Graded cluster algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Grabowski, Jan

    2015-01-01

    In the cluster algebra literature, the notion of a graded cluster algebra has been implicit since the origin of the subject. In this work, we wish to bring this aspect of cluster algebra theory to the foreground and promote its study. We transfer a definition of Gekhtman, Shapiro and Vainshtein to the algebraic setting, yielding the notion of a multi-graded cluster algebra. We then study gradings for finite type cluster algebras without coefficients, giving a full classification. Translating ...

  2. Herschel Observations of a Potential Core Forming Clump: Perseus B1-E

    CERN Document Server

    Sadavoy, S I; Andre, Ph; Pezzuto, S; Bernard, J -P; Bontemps, S; Bressert, E; Chitsazzadeh, S; Fallscheer, C; Hennemann, M; Hill, T; Martin, P; Motte, F; Luong, Q Nguyen; Peretto, N; Reid, M; Schneider, N; Testi, L; White, G J; Wilson, C

    2011-01-01

    We present continuum observations of the Perseus B1-E region from the Herschel Gould Belt Survey. These Herschel data reveal a loose grouping of substructures at 160 - 500 micron not seen in previous submillimetre observations. We measure temperature and column density from these data and select the nine densest and coolest substructures for follow-up spectral line observations with the Green Bank Telescope. We find that the B1-E clump has a mass of ~ 100 solar masses and appears to be gravitationally bound. Furthermore, of the nine substructures examined here, one substructure (B1-E2) appears to be itself bound. The substructures are typically less than a Jeans length from their nearest neighbour and thus, may interact on a timescale of ~ 1 Myr. We propose that B1-E may be forming a first generation of dense cores, which could provide important constraints on the initial conditions of prestellar core formation. Our results suggest that B1-E may be influenced by a strong, localized magnetic field, but further...

  3. Herschel observations of a potential core-forming clump: Perseus B1-E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadavoy, S. I.; di Francesco, J.; André, Ph.; Pezzuto, S.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bontemps, S.; Bressert, E.; Chitsazzadeh, S.; Fallscheer, C.; Hennemann, M.; Hill, T.; Martin, P.; Motte, F.; Nguyen Luong, Q.; Peretto, N.; Reid, M.; Schneider, N.; Testi, L.; White, G. J.; Wilson, C.

    2012-04-01

    We present continuum observations of the Perseus B1-E region from the Herschel Gould Belt Survey. These Herschel data reveal a loose grouping of substructures at 160-500 μm not seen in previous submillimetre observations. We measure temperature and column density from these data and select the nine densest and coolest substructures for follow-up spectral line observations with the Green Bank Telescope. We find that the B1-E clump has a mass of ~100 M⊙ and appears to be gravitationally bound. Furthermore, of the nine substructures examined here, one substructure (B1-E2) appears to be itself bound. The substructures are typically less than a Jeans length from their nearest neighbour and thus, may interact on a timescale of ~1 Myr. We propose that B1-E may be forming a first generation of dense cores, which could provide important constraints on the initial conditions of prestellar core formation. Our results suggest that B1-E may be influenced by a strong, localized magnetic field, but further observations are still required.

  4. A comparison of surface topography characterization technologies for use in comparing spent bullet and cartridge case signatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batishko, C.R.; Hickman, B.J.; Cuta, F.M.

    1992-11-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory was tasked by the US Department of Energy to provide technical assistance to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in evaluating and ranking technologies potentially useful in high-speed comparison of unique spent bullet and cartridge case surface signatures. Information sources included vendor input, current relevant literature, vendor phone contacts, other FBI resources, relevant PNL reports, and personal contact with numerous PNL technical staff. A comprehensive list of technologies was reduced to a list of 38 by grouping very similar methodologies, and further reduced to a short list of six by applying a set of five minimum functional requirements. A total of 14 primary criteria, many having secondary criteria, were subsequently used to evaluate each technology. The ranked short list results are reported and supported in this document, and their scores normalized to a hypothetical ideal system are as follows: (1) confocal microscopy 82.13; (2) laser dynamic focusing 72.04; (3)moire interferometry V70.94; (4)fringe field capacitance;(5)laser triangulation 66.18; (6)structured/sectioned light 65.55. Information available within the time/budget constraints which was used for the evaluation and ranking was not sufficiently detailed to evaluate specific implementations of the technologies. Each of the technologies in the short list was judged potentially capable of meeting the minimum requirements. Clever, novel engineering solutions resulting in a more cost-effective system, or a closer fit to the ``ideal system,`` could result in a reordering of the short list when actual technical proposals are evaluated. Therefore, it is recommended that a Request for Proposal not be limited to only the highest ranked technology, but include all six technologies in the short list.

  5. A comparison of surface topography characterization technologies for use in comparing spent bullet and cartridge case signatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batishko, C.R.; Hickman, B.J.; Cuta, F.M.

    1992-11-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory was tasked by the US Department of Energy to provide technical assistance to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in evaluating and ranking technologies potentially useful in high-speed comparison of unique spent bullet and cartridge case surface signatures. Information sources included vendor input, current relevant literature, vendor phone contacts, other FBI resources, relevant PNL reports, and personal contact with numerous PNL technical staff. A comprehensive list of technologies was reduced to a list of 38 by grouping very similar methodologies, and further reduced to a short list of six by applying a set of five minimum functional requirements. A total of 14 primary criteria, many having secondary criteria, were subsequently used to evaluate each technology. The ranked short list results are reported and supported in this document, and their scores normalized to a hypothetical ideal system are as follows: (1) confocal microscopy 82.13; (2) laser dynamic focusing 72.04; (3)moire interferometry V70.94; (4)fringe field capacitance;(5)laser triangulation 66.18; (6)structured/sectioned light 65.55. Information available within the time/budget constraints which was used for the evaluation and ranking was not sufficiently detailed to evaluate specific implementations of the technologies. Each of the technologies in the short list was judged potentially capable of meeting the minimum requirements. Clever, novel engineering solutions resulting in a more cost-effective system, or a closer fit to the ideal system,'' could result in a reordering of the short list when actual technical proposals are evaluated. Therefore, it is recommended that a Request for Proposal not be limited to only the highest ranked technology, but include all six technologies in the short list.

  6. What Makes Clusters Decline?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Christian Richter; Park, Eun Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Most studies on regional clusters focus on identifying factors and processes that make clusters grow. However, sometimes technologies and market conditions suddenly shift, and clusters decline. This paper analyses the process of decline of the wireless communication cluster in Denmark....... The longitudinal study on the high-tech cluster reveals that technological lock-in and exit of key firms have contributed to decline. Entrepreneurship has a positive effect on the cluster’s adaptive capabilities, while multinational companies have contradicting effects by bringing in new resources to the cluster...

  7. Sequence-based Association Analysis Reveals an MGST1 eQTL with Pleiotropic Effects on Bovine Milk Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlejohn, Mathew D.; Tiplady, Kathryn; Fink, Tania A.; Lehnert, Klaus; Lopdell, Thomas; Johnson, Thomas; Couldrey, Christine; Keehan, Mike; Sherlock, Richard G.; Harland, Chad; Scott, Andrew; Snell, Russell G.; Davis, Stephen R.; Spelman, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    The mammary gland is a prolific lipogenic organ, synthesising copious amounts of triglycerides for secretion into milk. The fat content of milk varies widely both between and within species, and recent independent genome-wide association studies have highlighted a milk fat percentage quantitative trait locus (QTL) of large effect on bovine chromosome 5. Although both EPS8 and MGST1 have been proposed to underlie these signals, the causative status of these genes has not been functionally confirmed. To investigate this QTL in detail, we report genome sequence-based imputation and association mapping in a population of 64,244 taurine cattle. This analysis reveals a cluster of 17 non-coding variants spanning MGST1 that are highly associated with milk fat percentage, and a range of other milk composition traits. Further, we exploit a high-depth mammary RNA sequence dataset to conduct expression QTL (eQTL) mapping in 375 lactating cows, revealing a strong MGST1 eQTL underpinning these effects. These data demonstrate the utility of DNA and RNA sequence-based association mapping, and implicate MGST1, a gene with no obvious mechanistic relationship to milk composition regulation, as causally involved in these processes. PMID:27146958

  8. Research of Energy-transferring of Bullet in Kill Efficiency%能量传递在弹丸致伤效应中的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕臣; 李忠新

    2014-01-01

    Concerning the characteristics of the body and taking the classical external ballistics theory and wound ballistics theory as reference,the kinetic model of bullet in body is established in order to seek a quantitative method which is used to better assess the kill efficiency of the light weapons on the body. By the use of pulse X-ray radiography,the relevant experimental data is acquired,then the kinetic model is programmed by the Matlab. The variation of speed in muscle which was hit upon as a target in a distance is calculated by using this program,and further the transferred energy of bullet is got. Then the kill efficiency of bullet can be estimated quickly.%为了寻求一种量化的方法,更好地评估轻武器对肌体的致伤效能,根据肌体特性,以经典外弹道理论[1]和创伤弹道学理论[2]为依据,建立弹丸在肌体组织内的运动模型。利用脉冲X射线照相得到相关实验数据,运用Matlab软件对弹丸运动模型进行编程[3],计算出弹丸侵彻距枪口某距离处肌体靶标后,在肌体内的速度变化规律,从而计算出弹丸传递给人体能量的大小,再以此为依据快速评价出弹丸的致伤效能。

  9. 子弹撞击对发射药易损性响应影响研究%Vulnerabile Response of Gun Propellant by Bullet Impact Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张邹邹; 杨丽侠; 刘来东; 张衡

    2011-01-01

    The response characterastics and the impact factors of typical propellant charges were discussed in terms of general methods of tailoring the propellants to counter mechanical threats by the bullet impact,where bullet type is a 12.7 mm armor-piercing projectile,and the impact velocity is (850 ±20) m ? S-1. The results show that there are obvious correlations with the propellant compositions,forms and the piercing depth in the vulnerability response extents by the bullet impacts,but the energy level of pro-pellants. Also,there are obvious influence on the propellant vulnerability response for the restrained conditions to the propel lants. The typical propellants have no violent reaction in the weaker restrained conditions.%选用单基药、双基药、太根药和硝基胍药等发射药,采用速度为(850±20)m·s-1的12.7 mm标准穿甲弹撞击样弹,研究子弹撞击机械刺激下发射药的易损性响应特性和影响因素.结果表明:子弹撞击对发射药的易损性响应程度与发射药能量水平无明显对应关系,但与其配方组分、药型以及子弹的穿透深度有一定关系;约束条件对发射药子弹撞击下易损性响应影响明显,发射药在强约束条件下发生燃烧甚至比燃烧更剧烈的反应,而在弱约束条件下未发生燃烧反应.

  10. Use of echocardiographic subxiphoid five-sixth area length (bullet method in evaluation of adequacy of borderline left ventricle in hypoplastic left heart complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin T Tretter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Indexed left ventricular end-diastolic volume (ILVEDV is commonly used in evaluating "borderline left ventricle (LV" in hypoplastic left heart complex (HLHC to determine if the LV can sustain adequate systemic cardiac output. Commonly used quantification methods include biplane Simpson or the traditional five-sixth area length "bullet" methods, which have been shown to underestimate true LV volumes, when septal position is mildly abnormal. Subxiphoid five-sixth area length method is proposed as a more accurate estimate of true LV volume in the evaluation of borderline LV.

  11. Atypical gunshot injury to the right side of the face with the bullet lodged in the carotid sheath: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Ongom, Peter A; Kijjambu, Stephen C; Jombwe, Josephat

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Gunshot injuries of the head and neck from the AK-47 rifle (a common assault rifle, submachine gun type) are a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality among civilians in Sub-Saharan Africa. They may cause significant damage to the closely arranged structures in this region, and the bullet’s trajectory can be very difficult to determine. We present an unusual case of gunshot injury with an atypical bullet entry wound, profound injury to the face, lodgment in the right c...

  12. [Comments on the paper by D. Tausch et al. Experiments on the penetration power of various bullets into skin and muscle tissue (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammermann, W

    1979-07-17

    The objections in the following comments on a recent paper by Tausch et al. (1978) are raised principally to the points that the mass of the projectile is given an importance for the penetration which is not justified, and that the inherent uncertainty of the measurement data and the scope of validity of the empirical formulas are not sufficiently taken into account. The discussion on the process of penetration and a discontinuity of the depth of penetration as a function of the velocity of the bullet is of fundamental significance, with consequences for the definition of the critical velocity.

  13. Star clusters and associations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All 33 papers presented at the symposium were inputted to INIS. They dealt with open clusters, globular clusters, stellar associations and moving groups, and local kinematics and galactic structures. (E.S.)

  14. On the Formation of Cool, Non-Flowing Cores in Galaxy Clusters via Hierarchical Mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, J O; Norman, M L; Bryan, G L

    2003-01-01

    We present a new model for the creation of cool cores in rich galaxy clusters within a LambdaCDM cosmological framework using the results from high spatial dynamic range, adaptive mesh hydro/N-body simulations. It is proposed that cores of cool gas first form in subclusters and these subclusters merge to create rich clusters with cool, central X-Ray excesses. The rich cool clusters do not possess ``cooling flows'' due to the presence of bulk velocities in the intracluster medium in excess of 1000 km/sec produced by on-going accretion of gas from supercluster filaments. This new model has several attractive features including the presence of substantial core substructure within the cool cores, and it predicts the appearance of cool bullets, cool fronts, and cool filaments all of which have been recently observed with X-Ray satellites. This hierarchical formation model is also consistent with the observation that cool cores in Abell clusters occur preferentially in dense supercluster environments. On the other ...

  15. THE STUDIES ON THE PROTECTION FUNCTION OF COMPOUND MATERIAL MULTI-FUNCTION BULLET-PROOF PLATE%复合材料多功能防弹板防弹性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李欢秋; 欧阳科峰; 张仕

    2013-01-01

    Although the bullet-proof plates made by single armor steel or the armed fiber have good characteristics of and-penetration to high-speed bullet, but the compound structure can greatly increase bullet-proof properties and reduce its area density. The propertities of penetration of the sandwich structure with foam and armor steel reinforced by the armed fiber under the 56 types with 7. 62 mm common steel core bullet are studied by experiments and numerical analysis. The protective ability of and-bullet and influence factors of the absorbing bullet kinetic energy have been researched through the different compound forms of foam sandwich structure. The concept of the best bullet-proof speed zone and V50 homologous formula in the structure are given. So the bullet-proof plates with the best benefit-cost ratio can be designed.%虽然单一的装甲钢或芳纶板具有良好的防高速弹丸贯穿性能,但采用复合结构可以大大提高单一防弹板的防弹效率,减轻防护板面密度.通过弹道实验和数值模拟方法研究了装甲钢复合芳纶泡沫夹层结构抗56式7.62mm普通钢芯弹贯穿特性;探讨了不同复合形式的装甲钢复合芳纶泡沫夹层结构抵抗弹丸的防护效能和影响防弹板吸收子弹动能的因素;提出了该种装甲钢复合芳纶泡沫夹层结构最佳防弹速度区间的概念和相应的V50估算公式,由此可以设计出防弹效费比最佳的防弹板.

  16. Exceptional flaring activity of the anomalous X-ray pulsar 1E 1547.0-5408

    CERN Document Server

    Savchenko, V; Beckmann, V; Produit, N; Walter, R

    2009-01-01

    (Abridged) We studied an exceptional period of activity of the anomalous X-ray pulsar 1E 1547.0-5408 in January 2009, during which about 200 bursts were detected by INTEGRAL. The major activity episode happened when the source was outside the field of view of all the INTEGRAL instruments. But we were still able to study the properties of 84 bursts detected simultaneously by the anti-coincidence shield of the spectrometer SPI and by the detector of the imager ISGRI. We find that the luminosity of the 22 January 2009 bursts of 1E 1547.0-5408 was > 1e42 erg/s. This luminosity is comparable to that of the bursts of soft gamma repeaters (SGR) and is at least two orders of magnitude larger than the luminosity of the previously reported bursts from AXPs. Similarly to the SGR bursts, the brightest bursts of 1E 1547.0-5408 consist of a short spike of ~100 ms duration with a hard spectrum, followed by a softer extended tail of 1-10 s duration, which occasionally exhibits pulsations with the source spin period of ~2 s. ...

  17. NuSTAR observations of magnetar 1e 1841-045

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    An, Hongjun; Hascoet, Romain; Kaspi, Victoria M.;

    2013-01-01

    We report new spectral and temporal observations of the magnetar 1E 1841-045 in the Kes 73 supernova remnant obtained with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array. Combined with new Swift and archival XMM-Newton and Chandra observations, the phase-averaged spectrum is well characterized by a bl...

  18. NuSTAR Observations of the Magnetar 1E 2259+586

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Julia K.; Hascoet, Romain; Kaspi, Victoria M.;

    2014-01-01

    We report on new broad band spectral and temporal observations of the magnetar 1E 2259+586, which is located in the supernova remnant CTB 109. Our data were obtained simultaneously with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and Swift, and cover the energy range from 0.5-79 keV. We pr...

  19. An application study for the class 1E digital control and monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an application study for the Class 1E digital control and monitoring system to the next Japanese plants, especially about MMIS. The system architecture of hardware and software is also introduced, which will explain the strategic plan for the necessary software verification and validation according to the latest requirement from Japanese regulatory guide. (author)

  20. Quantum Annealing for Clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Kurihara, Kenichi; Tanaka, Shu; Miyashita, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies quantum annealing (QA) for clustering, which can be seen as an extension of simulated annealing (SA). We derive a QA algorithm for clustering and propose an annealing schedule, which is crucial in practice. Experiments show the proposed QA algorithm finds better clustering assignments than SA. Furthermore, QA is as easy as SA to implement.

  1. Emergence of regional clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Michael S.; Østergaard, Christian Richter; Dalum, Bent

    2010-01-01

    approach to analyse how successful early firms can lead to formation of clusters. Three key determinants are identified: (1) the geographical dimension of entrepreneurial activity, (2) spinoffs from successful firms and (3) new market opportunities. The chapter studies in great detail the evolution...... of the wireless communications cluster in Northern Denmark and compare it with the evolution of other clusters....

  2. The Durban Auto Cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Jochen; Robbins, Glen; Barnes, Justin

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the formation of the Durban Auto Cluster in the context of trade liberalization. It argues that the improvement of operational competitiveness of firms in the cluster is prominently due to joint action. It tests this proposition by comparing the gains from cluster activities i...

  3. Cluster Physics with Merging Galaxy Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandor M. Molnar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Collisions between galaxy clusters provide a unique opportunity to study matter in a parameter space which cannot be explored in our laboratories on Earth. In the standard LCDM model, where the total density is dominated by the cosmological constant ($Lambda$ and the matter density by cold dark matter (CDM, structure formation is hierarchical, and clusters grow mostly by merging.Mergers of two massive clusters are the most energetic events in the universe after the Big Bang,hence they provide a unique laboratory to study cluster physics.The two main mass components in clusters behave differently during collisions:the dark matter is nearly collisionless, responding only to gravity, while the gas is subject to pressure forces and dissipation, and shocks and turbulenceare developed during collisions. In the present contribution we review the different methods used to derive the physical properties of merging clusters. Different physical processes leave their signatures on different wavelengths, thusour review is based on a multifrequency analysis. In principle, the best way to analyze multifrequency observations of merging clustersis to model them using N-body/HYDRO numerical simulations. We discuss the results of such detailed analyses.New high spatial and spectral resolution ground and space based telescopeswill come online in the near future. Motivated by these new opportunities,we briefly discuss methods which will be feasible in the near future in studying merging clusters.

  4. Cluster beam sources. Part 1. Methods of cluster beams generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Ju. Karpenko

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The short review on cluster beams generation is proposed. The basic types of cluster sources are considered and the processes leading to cluster formation are analyzed. The parameters, that affects the work of cluster sources are presented.

  5. Marriage à-la-MOND: Baryonic dark matter in galaxy clusters and the cooling flow puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgrom, Mordehai

    2008-05-01

    I start with a brief introduction to MOND phenomenology and its possible roots in cosmology—a notion that may turn out to be the most far reaching aspect of MOND. Next I discuss the implications of MOND for the dark matter (DM) doctrine: MOND's successes imply that baryons determine everything. For DM this would mean that the puny tail of leftover baryons in galaxies wags the hefty DM dog. This has to occur in many intricate ways, and despite the haphazard construction history of galaxies—a very tall order. I then concentrate on galaxy clusters in light of MOND, which still requires some yet undetected cluster dark matter, presumably in some baryonic form (CBDM). This CBDM might contribute to the heating of the X-ray emitting gas and thus alleviate the cooling flow puzzle. MOND, qua theory of dynamics, does not directly enter the microphysics of the gas; however, it does force a new outlook on the role of DM in shaping the cluster gas dynamics: MOND tells us that the cluster DM is not cold dark matter, is not so abundant, and is not expected in galaxies; it is thus not subject to constraints on baryonic DM in galaxies. The mass in CBDM required in a whole cluster is, typically, similar to that in hot gas, but is rather more centrally concentrated, totally dominating the core. The CBDM contribution to the baryon budget in the universe is thus small. Its properties, deduced for isolated clusters, are consistent with the observations of the "bullet cluster". Its kinetic energy reservoir is much larger than that of the hot gas in the core, and would suffice to keep the gas hot for many cooling times. Heating can be effected in various ways depending on the exact nature of the CBDM, from very massive black holes to cool, compact gas clouds.

  6. Cluster analysis for applications

    CERN Document Server

    Anderberg, Michael R

    1973-01-01

    Cluster Analysis for Applications deals with methods and various applications of cluster analysis. Topics covered range from variables and scales to measures of association among variables and among data units. Conceptual problems in cluster analysis are discussed, along with hierarchical and non-hierarchical clustering methods. The necessary elements of data analysis, statistics, cluster analysis, and computer implementation are integrated vertically to cover the complete path from raw data to a finished analysis.Comprised of 10 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to the subject o

  7. Mechanical properties at high strain-rate of lead core and brass jacket of a NATO 7.62 mm ball bullet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manes A.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulations are now an actual option in order to try to reproduce and understand the mechanical response in components subjected to extreme loading conditions, like in a ballistic impact. A correct materials calibration is therefore necessary in order to extract the materials parameters. In this work the simple and widely used Johnson-Cook model was used to analyse the experimental data obtained for the characterization of the bullet materials. The bullet under investigation is a full metal jacket ball, with a lead-antimony alloy core and a brass jacket. The experimental tests cover a wide range in strain-rate, starting from quasi-static tests up to high dynamic tests performed on a standard Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar setup. In general, there is a great lack in strain-rate sensitivity and failure data. Pure lead is very soft and ductile, so antimony is used to give greater hardness and strength. The results of this study show a significant strain-rate influence for this alloy that can be associated with the presence of the lead-antimony phases and their structures. Also in case of the brass the results showed significant strain-rate sensitivity in the material response.

  8. Mechanical properties at high strain-rate of lead core and brass jacket of a NATO 7.62 mm ball bullet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peroni, L.; Scapin, M.; Fichera, C.; Manes, A.; Giglio, M.

    2012-08-01

    Numerical simulations are now an actual option in order to try to reproduce and understand the mechanical response in components subjected to extreme loading conditions, like in a ballistic impact. A correct materials calibration is therefore necessary in order to extract the materials parameters. In this work the simple and widely used Johnson-Cook model was used to analyse the experimental data obtained for the characterization of the bullet materials. The bullet under investigation is a full metal jacket ball, with a lead-antimony alloy core and a brass jacket. The experimental tests cover a wide range in strain-rate, starting from quasi-static tests up to high dynamic tests performed on a standard Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar setup. In general, there is a great lack in strain-rate sensitivity and failure data. Pure lead is very soft and ductile, so antimony is used to give greater hardness and strength. The results of this study show a significant strain-rate influence for this alloy that can be associated with the presence of the lead-antimony phases and their structures. Also in case of the brass the results showed significant strain-rate sensitivity in the material response.

  9. Facile green fabrication of nanostructure ZnO plates, bullets, flower, prismatic tip, closed pine cone: Their antibacterial, antioxidant, photoluminescent and photocatalytic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, H. R.; Sharma, S. C.; Udayabhanu; Suresh, D.; Vidya, Y. S.; Nagabhushana, H.; Rajanaik, H.; Anantharaju, K. S.; Prashantha, S. C.; Sadananda Maiya, P.

    2016-01-01

    Green synthesis of multifunctional Zinc oxide nanoparticles (NPs) with a variety of morphologies were achieved by low temperature solution combustion route employing neem (Azadirachta indica) extract as fuel. The nanoparticles were characterized by PXRD, FTIR, XPS, Raman and UV-Visible spectroscopic studies. The Morphologies were studied by SEM and TEM analysis. The NPs were subjected for photoluminescence, photocatalytic, antibacterial and antioxidant activity studies. PXRD pattern confirmed the hexagonal wurtzite structure of the product. SEM images indicated the transformation of mushroom like hexagonal disks to bullets, buds, cones, bundles and closed pine cone structured NPs with increase in the concentration of neem extract in reaction mixture. The NPs exhibited prominent green emission due to the presence of intrinsic defect centers. The as-formed bullet shaped ZnO with 4 ml of neem extract was found to decolorize Methylene blue (MB) under Sunlight and UV light irradiation. The antibacterial studies indicated that ZnO NPs of concentration 500, 750 and 1000 μg resulted in significant antibacterial activity on Klebsiella aerogenes and Staphylococcus aureus but not against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in agar well diffusion method. Further, ZnO NPs exhibited significant antioxidant activity against scavenging DPPH free radicals. The current investigation demonstrated green engineering method for the synthesis of multifunctional ZnO NPs with interesting morphologies using neem extract.

  10. Suicidal single gunshot injury to the head: differences in site of entrance wound and direction of the bullet path between right- and left-handed--an autopsy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Slobodan; Zivković, Vladimir; Babić, Dragan; Juković, Fehim

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the differences in the anatomical site of a gunshot entrance wound and the direction of the bullet path between right- and left-handed subjects who committed a suicide by a single gunshot injury to the head. The retrospective autopsy study was performed for a 10-year period, and it included selected cases of single suicidal gunshot head injury, committed by handguns. We considered only contact or near-contact wounds. The sample included 479 deceased, with average age 47.1 ± 19.1 years (range, 12-89 years): 432 males and 47 females, with 317 right-handed, 25 left-handed, and 137 subjects with unknown dominant hand. In our observed sample, most cases involved the right temple as the site of entrance gunshot wound (about 67%), followed by the mouth (16%), forehead (7%), left temple (6%), submental (2%), and parietal region (1%). The left temple, right temple, and forehead were the sites of the gunshot entrance wounds, which were the best predictors of the handedness of the deceased (Spearman ρ = 0.149, P = 0.006). Our study showed that the direction of the bullet intracranial path in cases of suicide was even a more potent predictor of the handedness of the deceased (Spearman ρ = 0.263, P = 0.000; Wald = 149.503, P = 0.000).

  11. Clusters in nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, Christian

    Following the pioneering discovery of alpha clustering and of molecular resonances, the field of nuclear clustering is today one of those domains of heavy-ion nuclear physics that faces the greatest challenges, yet also contains the greatest opportunities. After many summer schools and workshops, in particular over the last decade, the community of nuclear molecular physicists has decided to collaborate in producing a comprehensive collection of lectures and tutorial reviews covering the field. This third volume follows the successful Lect. Notes Phys. 818 (Vol. 1) and 848 (Vol. 2), and comprises six extensive lectures covering the following topics:  - Gamma Rays and Molecular Structure - Faddeev Equation Approach for Three Cluster Nuclear Reactions - Tomography of the Cluster Structure of Light Nuclei Via Relativistic Dissociation - Clustering Effects Within the Dinuclear Model : From Light to Hyper-heavy Molecules in Dynamical Mean-field Approach - Clusterization in Ternary Fission - Clusters in Light N...

  12. Unconventional methods for clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotyrba, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Cluster analysis or clustering is a task of grouping a set of objects in such a way that objects in the same group (called a cluster) are more similar (in some sense or another) to each other than to those in other groups (clusters). It is the main task of exploratory data mining and a common technique for statistical data analysis used in many fields, including machine learning, pattern recognition, image analysis, information retrieval, and bioinformatics. The topic of this paper is one of the modern methods of clustering namely SOM (Self Organising Map). The paper describes the theory needed to understand the principle of clustering and descriptions of algorithm used with clustering in our experiments.

  13. Spatial cluster modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Lawson, Andrew B

    2002-01-01

    Research has generated a number of advances in methods for spatial cluster modelling in recent years, particularly in the area of Bayesian cluster modelling. Along with these advances has come an explosion of interest in the potential applications of this work, especially in epidemiology and genome research. In one integrated volume, this book reviews the state-of-the-art in spatial clustering and spatial cluster modelling, bringing together research and applications previously scattered throughout the literature. It begins with an overview of the field, then presents a series of chapters that illuminate the nature and purpose of cluster modelling within different application areas, including astrophysics, epidemiology, ecology, and imaging. The focus then shifts to methods, with discussions on point and object process modelling, perfect sampling of cluster processes, partitioning in space and space-time, spatial and spatio-temporal process modelling, nonparametric methods for clustering, and spatio-temporal ...

  14. Survey on Text Document Clustering

    OpenAIRE

    M.Thangamani; Dr.P.Thangaraj

    2010-01-01

    Document clustering is also referred as text clustering, and its concept is merely equal to data clustering. It is hardly difficult to find the selective information from an ‘N’number of series information, so that document clustering came into picture. Basically cluster means a group of similar data, document clustering means segregating the data into different groups of similar data. Clustering can be of mathematical, statistical or numerical domain. Clustering is a fundamental data analysi...

  15. Agricultural Clusters in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, M.A.; Heijman, W.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Michael Porter was the first to use the term cluster in an economic context. He introduced the term in The Competitive Advantage of Nations (1990). The term cluster is also known as business cluster, industry cluster, competitive cluster or Porterian cluster. This article aims at determining and mea

  16. Suzaku Studies of the Supernova Remnant CTB~109 Hosting the Magnetar 1E~2259+586

    CERN Document Server

    Nakano, Toshio; Hiraga, Junoko S; Uchiyama, Hideki; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Enoto, Teruaki

    2015-01-01

    Ages of the magnetar 1E 2259+586 and the associated supernova remnant CTB~109 were studied. Analyzing the Suzaku data of CTB~109, its age was estimated to be $\\sim$14~kyr, which is much shorter than the measured characteristic age of 1E 2259+586, 230 kyr. This reconfirms the previously reported age discrepancy of this magnetar/remnant association, and suggests that the characteristic ages of magnetars are generally over-estimated as compared to their true ages. This discrepancy is thought to arise because the former are calculated without considering decay of the magnetic fields. This novel view is supported independently by much stronger Galactic-plane concentration of magnetars than other pulsars. The process of magnetic field decay in magnetars is mathematically modeled. It is implied that magnetars are much younger objects than previously considered, and can dominate new-born neutron stars.

  17. "5M1E"法在生产管理中的运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘秋香

    2010-01-01

    人(man)、机械(machine)、材料(material)、方法(method)、环境(enviroment)、管理(manage)这几个主要环节实行全面质量管理,称为"5M1E"法.在生产管理中应用该法,可以达到提升人品质、提升产品品质,提高员工士气.

  18. Evidence for the magnetar nature of 1E 161348-5055 in RCW 103

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aì, A.; Evans, P. A.; Burrows, D. N.; Kuin, N. P. M.; Kann, D. A.; Campana, S.; Maselli, A.; Romano, P.; Cusumano, G.; La Parola, V.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Beardmore, A. P.; Cenko, S. B.; De Pasquale, M.; Gehrels, N.; Greiner, J.; Kennea, J. A.; Klose, S.; Melandri, A.; Nousek, J. A.; Osborne, J. P.; Palmer, D. M.; Sbarufatti, B.; Schady, P.; Siegel, M. H.; Tagliaferri, G.; Yates, R.; Zane, S.

    2016-08-01

    We report on the detection of a bright, short, structured X-ray burst coming from the supernova remnant RCW 103 on 2016 June 22 caught by the Swift/BAT monitor, and on the follow-up campaign made with Swift/XRT, Swift/UVOT and the optical/NIR GROND detector. The characteristics of this flash, such as duration and spectral shape, are consistent with typical short bursts observed from soft gamma repeaters. The BAT error circle at 68% confidence range encloses the point-like X-ray source at the centre of the nebula, 1E 161348-5055. Its nature has been long debated due to a periodicity of 6.67 hr in X-rays, which could indicate either an extremely slow pulsating neutron star, or the orbital period of a very compact X-ray binary system. We found that 20 minutes before the BAT trigger, the soft X-ray emission of 1E 161348-5055 was a factor of ˜ 100 higher than measured two years earlier, indicating that an outburst had already started. By comparing the spectral and timing characteristics of the source in the two years before the outburst and after the BAT event, we find that, besides a change in luminosity and spectral shape, also the 6.67 hr pulsed profile has significantly changed with a clear phase shift with respect to its low-flux profile. The UV/optical/NIR observations did not reveal any counterpart at the position of 1E 161348-5055. Based on these findings, we associate the BAT burst with 1E 161348-5055, we classify it as a magnetar, and pinpoint the 6.67 hr periodicity as the magnetar spin period.

  19. Phenotypic diversity of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 E1 Tor strains identified in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵璇

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand the phenotypic diversity of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 E1 Tor strains isolated from different provinces in China during the last 50 years.Methods Traditional biotyping testings including susceptibility to polymyxin B,sensitivity to groupⅣphage,Voges-Proskauer test and haemolysis of sheep erythrocytes were conducted.Results Data from Biotype-specific phenotype analysis revealed that only 133 isolates carried the typical E1 Tor phenotypes while the other 251

  20. Neutronic analysis of the 1D and 1E banks reflux detection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-12-21

    Two H Canyon neutron monitoring systems for early detection of postulated abnormal reflux conditions in the Second Uranium Cycle 1E and 1D Mixer-Settle Banks have been designed and built. Monte Carlo neutron transport simulations using the general purpose, general geometry, n-particle MCNP code have been performed to model expected response of the monitoring systems to varying conditions.The confirmatory studies documented herein conclude that the 1E and 1D neutron monitoring systems are able to achieve adequate neutron count rates for various neutron source and detector configurations, thereby eliminating excessive integration count time. Neutron count rate sensitivity studies are also performed. Conversely, the transport studies concluded that the neutron count rates are statistically insensitive to nitric acid content in the aqueous region and to the transition region length. These studies conclude that the 1E and 1D neutron monitoring systems are able to predict the postulated reflux conditions for all examined perturbations in the neutron source and detector configurations. In the cases examined, the relative change in the neutron count rates due to postulated transitions from normal {sup 235}U concentration levels to reflux levels remain satisfactory detectable.

  1. Security 1E10 anti-idiotypic vaccine in patients with tumors of different locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Viada

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a leading cause of death in Cuba and the world. Lung cancer is the leading cause of death, breast cancer is the second leading cause of death and colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of death. The 1E10 anti-idiotype vaccine is a new immunotherapeutic agent, registered for lung cancer by the Center for Molecular Immunology (CIM. You want to evaluate the safety of this vaccine in the treatment of various cancer sites. To determine the safety adverse events occurred in six clinical trials (one stage I lung, 3 phase II in breast, colon and lung, 1 phase II-III and program expanded use, both in lung were evaluated. 656 patients were studied. Demographic variables, the characteristics of the disease and adverse events were measured. The studies were balanced with respect to baseline characteristics. The most common adverse events were local reactions associated with 1E10 anti-idiotype vaccine and systemic reactions of mild or moderate intensity that were not related to the administration of the vaccine under study. The 1E10 anti-idiotype vaccine is safe for the low frequency and intensity of adverse events reported.

  2. Clustering Categorical Data:A Cluster Ensemble Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Zengyou(何增友); Xu Xiaofei; Deng Shengchun

    2003-01-01

    Clustering categorical data, an integral part of data mining,has attracted much attention recently. In this paper, the authors formally define the categorical data clustering problem as an optimization problem from the viewpoint of cluster ensemble, and apply cluster ensemble approach for clustering categorical data. Experimental results on real datasets show that better clustering accuracy can be obtained by comparing with existing categorical data clustering algorithms.

  3. Spatial Scan Statistic: Selecting clusters and generating elliptic clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Andersen, Jens Strodl

    2004-01-01

    The spatial scan statistic is widely used to search for clusters. This paper shows that the usually applied elimination of overlapping clusters to find secondary clusters is sensitive to smooth changes in the shape of the clusters. We present an algorithm for generation of set of confocal elliptic...... clusters. In addition, we propose a new way to present the information in a given set of clusters based on the significance of the clusters....

  4. Cosmology with cluster surveys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subhabrata Majumdar

    2004-10-01

    Surveys of clusters of galaxies provide us with a powerful probe of the density and nature of the dark energy. The red-shift distribution of detected clusters is highly sensitive to the dark energy equation of state parameter . Upcoming Sunyaev–Zel'dovich (SZ) surveys would provide us large yields of clusters to very high red-shifts. Self-calibration of cluster scaling relations, possible for such a huge sample, would be able to constrain systematic biases on mass estimators. Combining cluster red-shift abundance with limited mass follow-up and cluster mass power spectrum can then give constraints on , as well as on 8 and to a few per cents.

  5. CSR in Industrial Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Pillay, Renginee G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The paper seeks to review the literature on CSR in industrial clusters in developing countries, identifying the main strengths, weaknesses, and gaps in this literature, pointing to future research directions and policy implications in the area of CSR and industrial cluster development...... in this field and their comments incorporated in the final version submitted to Corporate Governance. Findings – The article traces the origins of the debate on industrial clusters and CSR in developing countries back to the early 1990s when clusters began to be seen as an important vehicle for local economic...... development in the South. At the turn of the millennium the industrial cluster debate expanded as clusters were perceived as a potential source of poverty reduction, while their role in promoting CSR among small and medium-sized enterprises began to take shape from 2006 onwards. At present, there is still...

  6. Melting of sodium clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Reyes-Nava, J A; Beltran, M R; Michaelian, K

    2002-01-01

    Thermal stability properties and the melting-like transition of Na_n, n=13-147, clusters are studied through microcanonical molecular dynamics simulations. The metallic bonding in the sodium clusters is mimicked by a many-body Gupta potential based on the second moment approximation of a tight-binding Hamiltonian. The characteristics of the solid-to-liquid transition in the sodium clusters are analyzed by calculating physical quantities like caloric curves, heat capacities, and root-mean-square bond length fluctuations using simulation times of several nanoseconds. Distinct melting mechanisms are obtained for the sodium clusters in the size range investigated. The calculated melting temperatures show an irregular variation with the cluster size, in qualitative agreement with recent experimental results. However, the calculated melting point for the Na_55 cluster is about 40 % lower than the experimental value.

  7. Service Like a Bullet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A new fast train boosts competition and the economy in south China’s Pearl River Delta regions The launch of China’s longest high-speed rail road between the two major cities of Wuhan and Guangzhou will

  8. The silver bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinn, L E

    1993-06-01

    A case of autoerotic asphyxiation is presented. The incident demonstrates 12 of the 13 characteristics particular to autoerotic asphyxias. The elements of attire and bondage used are unique in comparison with previously reported cases. The addictive nature of this behavior is well demonstrated in the victim's sexual history. Interestingly, his spouse was aware of his autoerotic activity. PMID:8328435

  9. Bill Shane's bullets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The argument is made that the BTU tax on natural gas should be collected downstream not upstream. There should be 100% pass-through to customers of the BTU tax by state Public Utility Commissions based on the take or pay structure. Two key premises for the upstream collection of the BTU tax are that production issues are less important than they once were and the fundamentals of the natural gas market are in good shape. The following topics are outlines: (1) components of reliable service; (2) the open-quotes oldclose quotes reliability; (3) the open-quotes newclose quotes reliability; (4) what is the Resonance Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA); (5) RCRA re-authorization: what is at stake; and (6) waste management conclusions

  10. The dynamics of the merger in the Frontier Field cluster Abell 2744.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owers, Matt S.

    2015-08-01

    In this talk I will present results from a combined analysis of deep Chandra X-ray observations and a comprehensive redshift survey of the frontier field cluster A2744. From the redshift information, 343 cluster members are selected which are projected within 3 Mpc of the cluster center. Combining positions and velocities, two major substructures are identified, corresponding to the remnants of two major subclusters. The data are consistent with a post-core-passage, major merger taking place along an axis that is tilted well out of the plane of the sky, together with an interloping minor merger. Supporting this interpretation, the X-ray data reveal enriched, low entropy gas from the core of the approaching, major subcluster, lying ~2 north of the cluster center, and a shock front to the southeast of the previously known bright, compact core associated with the receding subcluster. The X-ray morphology of the compact core is consistent with a Bullet-like cluster viewed from within ~45 degrees of the merger axis. An X-ray peak ~3 arcminutes northwest of the cluster center, with an associated cold front to the northeast and a trail of low entropy gas to the south, is interpreted as the remnant of an interloping minor merger taking place roughly in the plane of the sky. The new data taken for the Frontier Fields has allowed precise measurements of the peaks in the projected mass distribution. I will discuss these new results in the context of our redshift and X-ray information and our inferred merger scenario. I will also present preliminary results on the impact of the merger on the galaxy populations bsed on our spectroscopy.

  11. Structures in Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Escalera, E; Girardi, M; Giuricin, G; Mardirossian, F; Mazure, A; Mezzetti, M

    1993-01-01

    The analysis of the presence of substructures in 16 well-sampled clusters of galaxies suggests a stimulating hypothesis: Clusters could be classified as unimodal or bimodal, on the basis of to the sub-clump distribution in the {\\em 3-D} space of positions and velocities. The dynamic study of these clusters shows that their fundamental characteristics, in particular the virial masses, are not severely biased by the presence of subclustering if the system considered is bound.

  12. Cluster Symmetries and Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freer Martin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many light nuclei display behaviour that indicates that rather than behaving as an A-body systems, the protons and neutrons condense into clusters. The α-particle is the most obvious example of such clustering. This contribution examines the role of such α-clustering on the structure, symmetries and dynamics of the nuclei 8Be, 12C and 16O, recent experimental measurements and future perspectives.

  13. Clustering Techniques in Bioinformatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Masood

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dealing with data means to group information into a set of categories either in order to learn new artifacts or understand new domains. For this purpose researchers have always looked for the hidden patterns in data that can be defined and compared with other known notions based on the similarity or dissimilarity of their attributes according to well-defined rules. Data mining, having the tools of data classification and data clustering, is one of the most powerful techniques to deal with data in such a manner that it can help researchers identify the required information. As a step forward to address this challenge, experts have utilized clustering techniques as a mean of exploring hidden structure and patterns in underlying data. Improved stability, robustness and accuracy of unsupervised data classification in many fields including pattern recognition, machine learning, information retrieval, image analysis and bioinformatics, clustering has proven itself as a reliable tool. To identify the clusters in datasets algorithm are utilized to partition data set into several groups based on the similarity within a group. There is no specific clustering algorithm, but various algorithms are utilized based on domain of data that constitutes a cluster and the level of efficiency required. Clustering techniques are categorized based upon different approaches. This paper is a survey of few clustering techniques out of many in data mining. For the purpose five of the most common clustering techniques out of many have been discussed. The clustering techniques which have been surveyed are: K-medoids, K-means, Fuzzy C-means, Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise (DBSCAN and Self-Organizing Map (SOM clustering.

  14. 15th Cluster workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Laakso, Harri; Escoubet, C. Philippe; The Cluster Active Archive : Studying the Earth’s Space Plasma Environment

    2010-01-01

    Since the year 2000 the ESA Cluster mission has been investigating the small-scale structures and processes of the Earth's plasma environment, such as those involved in the interaction between the solar wind and the magnetospheric plasma, in global magnetotail dynamics, in cross-tail currents, and in the formation and dynamics of the neutral line and of plasmoids. This book contains presentations made at the 15th Cluster workshop held in March 2008. It also presents several articles about the Cluster Active Archive and its datasets, a few overview papers on the Cluster mission, and articles reporting on scientific findings on the solar wind, the magnetosheath, the magnetopause and the magnetotail.

  15. Galaxy Clusters with Chandra

    CERN Document Server

    Forman, W; Markevitch, M L; Vikhlinin, A A; Churazov, E

    2002-01-01

    We discuss Chandra results related to 1) cluster mergers and cold fronts and 2) interactions between relativistic plasma and hot cluster atmospheres. We describe the properties of cold fronts using NGC1404 in the Fornax cluster and A3667 as examples. We discuss multiple surface brightness discontinuities in the cooling flow cluster ZW3146. We review the supersonic merger underway in CL0657. Finally, we summarize the interaction between plasma bubbles produced by AGN and hot gas using M87 and NGC507 as examples.

  16. Management of cluster headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tfelt-Hansen, Peer C; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2012-07-01

    The prevalence of cluster headache is 0.1% and cluster headache is often not diagnosed or misdiagnosed as migraine or sinusitis. In cluster headache there is often a considerable diagnostic delay - an average of 7 years in a population-based survey. Cluster headache is characterized by very severe or severe orbital or periorbital pain with a duration of 15-180 minutes. The cluster headache attacks are accompanied by characteristic associated unilateral symptoms such as tearing, nasal congestion and/or rhinorrhoea, eyelid oedema, miosis and/or ptosis. In addition, there is a sense of restlessness and agitation. Patients may have up to eight attacks per day. Episodic cluster headache (ECH) occurs in clusters of weeks to months duration, whereas chronic cluster headache (CCH) attacks occur for more than 1 year without remissions. Management of cluster headache is divided into acute attack treatment and prophylactic treatment. In ECH and CCH the attacks can be treated with oxygen (12 L/min) or subcutaneous sumatriptan 6 mg. For both oxygen and sumatriptan there are two randomized, placebo-controlled trials demonstrating efficacy. In both ECH and CCH, verapamil is the prophylactic drug of choice. Verapamil 360 mg/day was found to be superior to placebo in one clinical trial. In clinical practice, daily doses of 480-720 mg are mostly used. Thus, the dose of verapamil used in cluster headache treatment may be double the dose used in cardiology, and with the higher doses the PR interval should be checked with an ECG. At the start of a cluster, transitional preventive treatment such as corticosteroids or greater occipital nerve blockade can be given. In CCH and in long-standing clusters of ECH, lithium, methysergide, topiramate, valproic acid and ergotamine tartrate can be used as add-on prophylactic treatment. In drug-resistant CCH, neuromodulation with either occipital nerve stimulation or deep brain stimulation of the hypothalamus is an alternative treatment strategy

  17. The merger history of the complex cluster Abell 1758: a combined weak lensing and spectroscopic view

    CERN Document Server

    Monteiro-Oliveira, Rogério; Machado, Rubens E G; Lima-Neto, Gastão B; Ribeiro, André L B; Sodré, Laerte; Dupke, Renato A

    2016-01-01

    We present a weak-lensing and dynamical study of the complex cluster Abell 1758 (A1758, z = 0.278) supported by hydrodynamical simulations. This cluster is composed of two structures, each one experiencing a merger event. The Northern structure is composed of A1758NW & A1758NE, with lensing determined masses of 7.90_{-1.55}^{+1.89} x 10^{14} M_{\\odot} and 5.49_{-1.33}^{+1.67} x 10^{14} M_{\\odot}, respectively. They show a remarkable feature: while in A1758NW there is a spatial agreement among weak lensing mass distribution, intracluster medium and its brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) in A1758NE the X-ray peak is located 96_{-15}^{+14} arcsec away from the mass peak and BCG positions in a configuration we have called "demi-bullet". Give the detachment between gas and mass we could use the local surface mass density to estimate an upper limit for the dark matter self-interaction cross section: \\sigma/m<5.83 cm^2 g^{-1}. Combining our velocity data with hydrodynamical simulations we have shown that A1758~NW...

  18. Document Clustering Based on Semi-Supervised Term Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Mahmoodi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The study is conducted to propose a multi-step feature (term selection process and in semi-supervised fashion, provide initial centers for term clusters. Then utilize the fuzzy c-means (FCM clustering algorithm for clustering terms. Finally assign each of documents to closest associated term clusters. While most text clustering algorithms directly use documents for clustering, we propose to first group the terms using FCM algorithm and then cluster documents based on terms clusters. We evaluate effectiveness of our technique on several standard text collections and compare our results with the some classical text clustering algorithms.

  19. PRELIMINARY STUDY OF A NOVEL HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS TYPE 16 L1/E6-E7 CHIMERIC RECOMBINANT DNA VACCINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑瑾; 马军; 张福萍; 杨筱凤; 董小平; 司履生; 王一理

    2004-01-01

    Objective Preparations of HPV16 L1/E6 and L1/E7 prophylactic and therapeutic DNA vaccines. Methods The nucleotides within HPV16 E6 and E7 genes, which are responsible for viral transforming activity, were mutated by mage primer site-directed mutagenesis method. The correctly mutated E6 and E7 fragments were separately cloned into an eukaryotic expression vector pVAX1, together with HPV16 L1 gene, generating chimeric recombinants plasmids 1MpVAX1-L1E6, 2MpVAX1-L1E6, 1MpVAX1-L1E7, 2MpVAX1-L1E7 and 3MpVAX1-L1E7. CHO cells were transiently transfected with the individual DNA vaccines by calcium phosphate method. Target protein expressions in the extracts of the transfected cell lines were measured by ELISA and immunohistochemistry, with HPV16 L1 and E6 specific monoclonal antibodies. Results ELISA assays showed the P/N ratios in the cell extracts transfected with L1E6 and L1E7 plasmids were more than 2.1. Immunohistochemistry revealed brownish precipitant signal in cytoplasm and nuclei of the transfected cells. Conclusion Successful constructions of prophylactic and therapeutic DNA vaccine plasmids lay solid foundation for future animal experiment and clinical trial.

  20. Analysis of trapped gas in 1E34 detonators by gas chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, D.K.; Back, P.S.; Barnhart, B.V.

    1980-05-14

    A method was developed to extract and then analyze gas trapped in thermally aged 1E34 detonators. This gas was extracted into an evacuated volume and injected into a gas chromatograph for separation and quantitative analysis. To effect this gas extraction, a device was designed for puncturing the detonator cup and capturing the effused gas. Limited testing of five detonators in this device shows amounts of gas ranging from about 0.5 X 10 {sup -7} to 12 X 10 {sup - 7} moles.

  1. Pulsed high-energy gamma-radiation from Geminga (1E0630 + 178)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertsch, D. L.; Brazier, K. T. S.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Hunter, S. D.; Kanbach, G.; Kniffen, D. A.; Kwok, P. W.; Lin, Y. C.; Mattox, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    The detection of pulsed gamma rays with energy above 50 MeV from the soft X-ray source 1E0630 + 178 is reported, confirming the identification of Geminga with this X-ray source. The period derivative (11.4 +/- 1.7) x 10 exp -15 s/s suggests that Geminga is a nearby isolated rotating neutron star with a magnetic field of 1.6 x 10 exp 12 gauss, a characteristic age of 300,000 yr, and a spin-down energy loss rate of 3.5 x 10 exp 34 erg/s.

  2. Mitochondrial genome of the bullet tuna Auxis rochei from Indo-West Pacific collection provides novel genetic information about two subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingming; Guo, Liang; Zhang, Heng; Yang, Sen; Chen, Xinghan; Lin, Haoran; Meng, Zining

    2016-09-01

    Previously morphological studies supported the division of the bullet tuna into the two subspecies, Auxis rochei rochei and A. rochei eudorax. As a cosmopolitan species, A. rochei rochei ranges in the Indo-West Pacific and Atlantic oceans, while A. rochei eudorax inhabits in eastern Pacific region. Here, we used the HiSeq next-generation sequencing technique to determine the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of A. rochei from Indo-West Pacific collection, and then compared our data with mitogenomic sequences of the Atlantic and eastern Pacific retrieved from NCBI database. Results showed the mitogenome of A. rochei from three geographic collections shared the same genes and gene order, similar to typical teleosts. Also, we examined a low level of nucleotide diversity among these mitogenomic sequences. Interestingly, nucleotide diversity of intra-subspecies (Atlantic versus Indo-West) was higher than that of inter-subspecies (Atlantic versus eastern Pacific, Indo-West versus eastern Pacific). PMID:25629476

  3. Mitochondrial genome of the bullet tuna Auxis rochei from Indo-West Pacific collection provides novel genetic information about two subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingming; Guo, Liang; Zhang, Heng; Yang, Sen; Chen, Xinghan; Lin, Haoran; Meng, Zining

    2016-09-01

    Previously morphological studies supported the division of the bullet tuna into the two subspecies, Auxis rochei rochei and A. rochei eudorax. As a cosmopolitan species, A. rochei rochei ranges in the Indo-West Pacific and Atlantic oceans, while A. rochei eudorax inhabits in eastern Pacific region. Here, we used the HiSeq next-generation sequencing technique to determine the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of A. rochei from Indo-West Pacific collection, and then compared our data with mitogenomic sequences of the Atlantic and eastern Pacific retrieved from NCBI database. Results showed the mitogenome of A. rochei from three geographic collections shared the same genes and gene order, similar to typical teleosts. Also, we examined a low level of nucleotide diversity among these mitogenomic sequences. Interestingly, nucleotide diversity of intra-subspecies (Atlantic versus Indo-West) was higher than that of inter-subspecies (Atlantic versus eastern Pacific, Indo-West versus eastern Pacific).

  4. Experimental Investigation of Stochastic Pulsation and Formation of Light Bullets with Megagauss Magnetic Fields by an Intense Laser Pulse Propagating in a Preionized Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Nadja I.; Kochan, N.

    2001-01-01

    The generation of extremely stable light bullets in a preformed plasma near critical density has been observed experimentally during the interaction of intense picosecond laser beam with a metallic target in air. Optical probing measurements indicate the formation of pulsating channels, typically of about 5 μm in diameter, directed towards a heating laser beam, as well as of disconnected massive plasma blocks moving also towards the laser beam. The velocities of the dense plasma blocks reach the values of 4.5×108 cm/s. The blocks are stable during their acceleration and propagation in air. Self-generated magnetic fields up to 4-7 MG were observed by means of the Faraday rotation of a probe laser beam.

  5. From collisions to clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loukonen, Ville; Bork, Nicolai; Vehkamaki, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    to overcome the possible initial non-optimal collision orientations. No post-collisional cluster break up is observed. The reasons for the efficient clustering are (i) the proton transfer reaction which takes place in each of the collision simulations and (ii) the subsequent competition over the proton...

  6. Cost-Effective Clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Gottlieb, S

    2001-01-01

    Small Beowulf clusters can effectively serve as personal or group supercomputers. In such an environment, a cluster can be optimally designed for a specific problem (or a small set of codes). We discuss how theoretical analysis of the code and benchmarking on similar hardware lead to optimal systems.

  7. Coma cluster of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Atlas Image mosaic, covering 34' x 34' on the sky, of the Coma cluster, aka Abell 1656. This is a particularly rich cluster of individual galaxies (over 1000 members), most prominently the two giant ellipticals, NGC 4874 (right) and NGC 4889 (left). The remaining members are mostly smaller ellipticals, but spiral galaxies are also evident in the 2MASS image. The cluster is seen toward the constellation Coma Berenices, but is actually at a distance of about 100 Mpc (330 million light years, or a redshift of 0.023) from us. At this distance, the cluster is in what is known as the 'Hubble flow,' or the overall expansion of the Universe. As such, astronomers can measure the Hubble Constant, or the universal expansion rate, based on the distance to this cluster. Large, rich clusters, such as Coma, allow astronomers to measure the 'missing mass,' i.e., the matter in the cluster that we cannot see, since it gravitationally influences the motions of the member galaxies within the cluster. The near-infrared maps the overall luminous mass content of the member galaxies, since the light at these wavelengths is dominated by the more numerous older stellar populations. Galaxies, as seen by 2MASS, look fairly smooth and homogeneous, as can be seen from the Hubble 'tuning fork' diagram of near-infrared galaxy morphology. Image mosaic by S. Van Dyk (IPAC).

  8. Clustering Text Data Streams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Bao Liu; Jia-Rong Cai; Jian Yin; Ada Wai-Chee Fu

    2008-01-01

    Clustering text data streams is an important issue in data mining community and has a number of applications such as news group filtering, text crawling, document organization and topic detection and tracing etc. However, most methods are similarity-based approaches and only use the TF*IDF scheme to represent the semantics of text data and often lead to poor clustering quality. Recently, researchers argue that semantic smoothing model is more efficient than the existing TF.IDF scheme for improving text clustering quality. However, the existing semantic smoothing model is not suitable for dynamic text data context. In this paper, we extend the semantic smoothing model into text data streams context firstly. Based on the extended model, we then present two online clustering algorithms OCTS and OCTSM for the clustering of massive text data streams. In both algorithms, we also present a new cluster statistics structure named cluster profile which can capture the semantics of text data streams dynamically and at the same time speed up the clustering process. Some efficient implementations for our algorithms are also given. Finally, we present a series of experimental results illustrating the effectiveness of our technique.

  9. Brightest Cluster Galaxy Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisman, Luke; Haarsma, D. B.; Sebald, D. A.; ACCEPT Team

    2011-01-01

    Brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) play an important role in several fields of astronomical research. The literature includes many different methods and criteria for identifying the BCG in the cluster, such as choosing the brightest galaxy, the galaxy nearest the X-ray peak, or the galaxy with the most extended profile. Here we examine a sample of 75 clusters from the Archive of Chandra Cluster Entropy Profile Tables (ACCEPT) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), measuring masked magnitudes and profiles for BCG candidates in each cluster. We first identified galaxies by hand; in 15% of clusters at least one team member selected a different galaxy than the others.We also applied 6 other identification methods to the ACCEPT sample; in 30% of clusters at least one of these methods selected a different galaxy than the other methods. We then developed an algorithm that weighs brightness, profile, and proximity to the X-ray peak and centroid. This algorithm incorporates the advantages of by-hand identification (weighing multiple properties) and automated selection (repeatable and consistent). The BCG population chosen by the algorithm is more uniform in its properties than populations selected by other methods, particularly in the relation between absolute magnitude (a proxy for galaxy mass) and average gas temperature (a proxy for cluster mass). This work supported by a Barry M. Goldwater Scholarship and a Sid Jansma Summer Research Fellowship.

  10. Blue emitting undecaplatinum clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Indranath; Bhuin, Radha Gobinda; Bhat, Shridevi; Pradeep, T.

    2014-07-01

    A blue luminescent 11-atom platinum cluster showing step-like optical features and the absence of plasmon absorption was synthesized. The cluster was purified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) suggest a composition, Pt11(BBS)8, which was confirmed by a range of other experimental tools. The cluster is highly stable and compatible with many organic solvents.A blue luminescent 11-atom platinum cluster showing step-like optical features and the absence of plasmon absorption was synthesized. The cluster was purified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) suggest a composition, Pt11(BBS)8, which was confirmed by a range of other experimental tools. The cluster is highly stable and compatible with many organic solvents. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of experimental procedures, instrumentation, chromatogram of the crude cluster; SEM/EDAX, DLS, PXRD, TEM, FT-IR, and XPS of the isolated Pt11 cluster; UV/Vis, MALDI MS and SEM/EDAX of isolated 2 and 3; and 195Pt NMR of the K2PtCl6 standard. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02778g

  11. Investigation of Cluster and Cluster Queuing System

    OpenAIRE

    Halifu, Saerda

    2008-01-01

    Cluster became main platform as parallel and distributed computing structure for high performance computing. Following the development of high performance computer architecture more and more different branches of natural science benefit fromhuge and efficient computational power. For instance bio-informatics, climate science, computational physics, computational chemistry, marine science, etc. Efficient and reliable computing powermay not only expending demand of existing high performance com...

  12. The Cluster Substructure - Alignment Connection

    CERN Document Server

    Plionis, M

    2002-01-01

    Using the APM cluster data we investigate whether the dynamical status of clusters is related to the large-scale structure of the Universe. We find that cluster substructure is strongly correlated with the tendency of clusters to be aligned with their nearest neighbour and in general with the nearby clusters that belong to the same supercluster. Furthermore, dynamically young clusters are more clustered than the overall cluster population. These are strong indications that cluster develop in a hierarchical fashion by anisotropy merging along the large-scale filamentary superclusters within which they are embedded.

  13. Job Oriented Monitoring Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayalaxmi Cigala,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available There has been a lot of development in the field of clusters and grids. Recently, the use of clusters has been on rise in every possible field. This paper proposes a system that monitors jobs onlarge computational clusters. Monitoring jobs is essential to understand how jobs are being executed. This helps us in understanding the complete life cycle of the jobs being executed on large clusters. Also, this paper describes how the information obtained by monitoring the jobs would help in increasing the overall throughput of clusters. Heuristics help in efficient job distribution among the computational nodes, thereby accomplishing fair job distribution policy. The proposed system would be capable of loadbalancing among the computational nodes, detecting failures, taking corrective actions after failure detection, job monitoring, system resource monitoring, etc.

  14. Pulsars in Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Camilo, F; Camilo, Fernando; Rasio, Frederic A.

    2005-01-01

    More than 100 radio pulsars have been detected in 24 globular clusters. The largest observed samples are in Terzan 5 and 47 Tucanae, which together contain 45 pulsars. Accurate timing solutions, including positions in the cluster, are known for many of these pulsars. Here we provide an observational overview of some properties of pulsars in globular clusters, as well as properties of the globular clusters with detected pulsars. The many recent detections also provide a new opportunity to re-examine theoretically the formation and evolution of recycled pulsars in globular clusters. Our brief review considers the most important dynamical interaction and binary evolution processes: collisions, exchange interactions, mass transfer, and common-envelope phases.

  15. Mathematical classification and clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Mirkin, Boris

    1996-01-01

    I am very happy to have this opportunity to present the work of Boris Mirkin, a distinguished Russian scholar in the areas of data analysis and decision making methodologies. The monograph is devoted entirely to clustering, a discipline dispersed through many theoretical and application areas, from mathematical statistics and combina­ torial optimization to biology, sociology and organizational structures. It compiles an immense amount of research done to date, including many original Russian de­ velopments never presented to the international community before (for instance, cluster-by-cluster versions of the K-Means method in Chapter 4 or uniform par­ titioning in Chapter 5). The author's approach, approximation clustering, allows him both to systematize a great part of the discipline and to develop many in­ novative methods in the framework of optimization problems. The optimization methods considered are proved to be meaningful in the contexts of data analysis and clustering. The material presented in ...

  16. On TPC cluster reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Dydak, F; Nefedov, Y; Wotschack, J; Zhemchugov, A

    2004-01-01

    For a bias-free momentum measurement of TPC tracks, the correct determination of cluster positions is mandatory. We argue in particular that (i) the reconstruction of the entire longitudinal signal shape in view of longitudinal diffusion, electronic pulse shaping, and track inclination is important both for the polar angle reconstruction and for optimum r phi resolution; and that (ii) self-crosstalk of pad signals calls for special measures for the reconstruction of the z coordinate. The problem of 'shadow clusters' is resolved. Algorithms are presented for accepting clusters as 'good' clusters, and for the reconstruction of the r phi and z cluster coordinates, including provisions for 'bad' pads and pads next to sector boundaries, respectively.

  17. Cool Cluster Correctly Correlated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sergey Aleksandrovich Varganov

    2005-12-17

    Atomic clusters are unique objects, which occupy an intermediate position between atoms and condensed matter systems. For a long time it was thought that physical and chemical properties of atomic dusters monotonically change with increasing size of the cluster from a single atom to a condensed matter system. However, recently it has become clear that many properties of atomic clusters can change drastically with the size of the clusters. Because physical and chemical properties of clusters can be adjusted simply by changing the cluster's size, different applications of atomic clusters were proposed. One example is the catalytic activity of clusters of specific sizes in different chemical reactions. Another example is a potential application of atomic clusters in microelectronics, where their band gaps can be adjusted by simply changing cluster sizes. In recent years significant advances in experimental techniques allow one to synthesize and study atomic clusters of specified sizes. However, the interpretation of the results is often difficult. The theoretical methods are frequently used to help in interpretation of complex experimental data. Most of the theoretical approaches have been based on empirical or semiempirical methods. These methods allow one to study large and small dusters using the same approximations. However, since empirical and semiempirical methods rely on simple models with many parameters, it is often difficult to estimate the quantitative and even qualitative accuracy of the results. On the other hand, because of significant advances in quantum chemical methods and computer capabilities, it is now possible to do high quality ab-initio calculations not only on systems of few atoms but on clusters of practical interest as well. In addition to accurate results for specific clusters, such methods can be used for benchmarking of different empirical and semiempirical approaches. The atomic clusters studied in this work contain from a few atoms

  18. Cluster ion beam evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cluster ions can be made by the supercooling due to adiabatic expansion of substances to be vaporized which are ejected from a nozzle. This paper is described on the recent progress of studies concerning the cluster beam. The technique of cluster ion beam has been applied for the studies of thermonuclear plasma, the fabrication of thin films, crystal growth and electronic devices. The density of cluster ion beam is larger than that of atomic ion beam, and the formation of thin films can be easily done in high vacuum. This method is also useful for epitaxial growth. Metallic vapour cluster beam was made by the help of jetting rare gas beam. Various beam sources were developed. The characteristics of these sources were measured and analyzed. (Kato, T.)

  19. 射孔弹爆轰波间干扰的有限元分析%Finite element analysis of detonation wave interference among perforating bullets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹丽娜; 韩秀清; 张永光; 曹宇欣

    2011-01-01

    Two-dimensional numerical simulation of detonation wave interference among perforating bullets was made by employing the explicit dynamic finite element program. Effects of the projectile body on detonation wave interference among perforating bullets were considered. And the results of numerical simulation were discussed. The main cause of interference among charges, which affected perforation result in high shot density perforating technology, was the interfered pressure field of blast wave and damaged detonation wave, which was designed initially. The results of numerical simulation are in agreement with previous physical phenomena and laws. The study indicates that the calculation model and simulation method are reasonable and feasible, which can be applied to the optimizing design for gun-perforator of high shot density.%通过有限元显式动力分析程序的显式算法,对石油射孔弹顺序起爆后弹间爆轰冲击波干扰的过程进行了2维数值模拟,并考虑了弹体对弹间干扰的影响,对模拟结果进行了讨论;分析了影响高孔密射孔技术的弹间干扰产生的原因,主要是爆轰冲击波的压力场受到不同程度的干扰,致使初始爆轰波形破坏.计算结果与已有的物理现象和规律吻合,说明该计算模型和模拟方法合理、可行,可用于高孔密射孔枪的优化设计.

  20. High-speed Bullet Ejections during the AGB-to-Planetary Nebula Transition: HST Observations of the Carbon Star, V Hydrae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, R.; Scibelli, S.; Morris, M. R.

    2016-08-01

    The well-studied carbon star, V Hya, showing evidence for high-speed, collimated outflows and dense equatorial structures, is a key object in the study of the poorly understood transition of AGB stars into aspherical planetary nebulae. Using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph instrument on board the Hubble Space Telescope, we have obtained high spatial-resolution long-slit optical spectra of V Hya that show high-velocity emission in [S ii] and [Fe ii] lines. Our data set, spanning three epochs spaced apart by a year during each of two periods (in 2002-2004 and 2011-2013), shows that V Hya ejects high-speed (˜200-250 {km} {{{s}}}-1) bullets once every ˜8.5 years. The ejection axis flip-flops around a roughly eastern direction, both in and perpendicular to the sky-plane, and the radial velocities of the ejecta also vary in concert between low and high values. We propose a model in which the bullet ejection is associated with the periastron passage of a binary companion in an eccentric orbit around V Hya with an orbital period of ˜8.5 years. The flip-flop phenomenon is likely the result of collimated ejection from an accretion disk (produced by gravitational capture of material from the primary) that is warped and precessing, and/or that has a magnetic field that is misaligned with that of the companion or the primary star. We show how a previously observed 17 year period in V Hya’s light-cycle can also be explained in our model. Additionally, we describe how the model proposed here can be extended to account for multipolar nebulae.

  1. High-speed Bullet Ejections during the AGB-to-Planetary Nebula Transition: HST Observations of the Carbon Star, V Hydrae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, R.; Scibelli, S.; Morris, M. R.

    2016-08-01

    The well-studied carbon star, V Hya, showing evidence for high-speed, collimated outflows and dense equatorial structures, is a key object in the study of the poorly understood transition of AGB stars into aspherical planetary nebulae. Using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph instrument on board the Hubble Space Telescope, we have obtained high spatial-resolution long-slit optical spectra of V Hya that show high-velocity emission in [S ii] and [Fe ii] lines. Our data set, spanning three epochs spaced apart by a year during each of two periods (in 2002–2004 and 2011–2013), shows that V Hya ejects high-speed (˜200–250 {km} {{{s}}}-1) bullets once every ˜8.5 years. The ejection axis flip–flops around a roughly eastern direction, both in and perpendicular to the sky-plane, and the radial velocities of the ejecta also vary in concert between low and high values. We propose a model in which the bullet ejection is associated with the periastron passage of a binary companion in an eccentric orbit around V Hya with an orbital period of ˜8.5 years. The flip–flop phenomenon is likely the result of collimated ejection from an accretion disk (produced by gravitational capture of material from the primary) that is warped and precessing, and/or that has a magnetic field that is misaligned with that of the companion or the primary star. We show how a previously observed 17 year period in V Hya’s light-cycle can also be explained in our model. Additionally, we describe how the model proposed here can be extended to account for multipolar nebulae.

  2. Mutagenic Potential ofBos taurus Papillomavirus Type 1 E6 Recombinant Protein: First Description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pinheiro Araldi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine papillomavirus (BPV is considered a useful model to study HPV oncogenic process. BPV interacts with the host chromatin, resulting in DNA damage, which is attributed to E5, E6, and E7 viral oncoproteins activity. However, the oncogenic mechanisms of BPV E6 oncoprotein per se remain unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the mutagenic potential of Bos taurus papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1 E6 recombinant oncoprotein by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMNA and comet assay (CA. Peripheral blood samples of five calves were collected. Samples were subjected to molecular diagnosis, which did not reveal presence of BPV sequences. Samples were treated with 1 μg/mL of BPV-1 E6 oncoprotein and 50 μg/mL of cyclophosphamide (positive control. Negative controls were not submitted to any treatment. The samples were submitted to the CBMNA and CA. The results showed that BPV E6 oncoprotein induces clastogenesis per se, which is indicative of genomic instability. These results allowed better understanding the mechanism of cancer promotion associated with the BPV E6 oncoprotein and revealed that this oncoprotein can induce carcinogenesis per se. E6 recombinant oncoprotein has been suggested as a possible vaccine candidate. Results pointed out that BPV E6 recombinant oncoprotein modifications are required to use it as vaccine.

  3. Unveiling the high energy tail of 1E 1740.7-2942 with INTEGRAL

    CERN Document Server

    Bouchet, L; Jourdain, E; Roques, J P; Bazzano, A; De Cesare, G

    2008-01-01

    The microquasar 1E 1740.7-2942 is observed with Integral since Spring 2003. Here, we report on the source high energy behaviour by using the first three years of data collected with SPI and IBIS telescopes, taking advantage of the instruments complementarity. Light curves analysis showed two main states for 1E 1740.7-2942: the canonical low/hard state of black-hole candidates and a ``dim'' state, characterised by a ~ 20 times fainter emission, detected only below 50 keV and when summing more than 1Ms of data. For the first time the continuum of the low/hard state has been measured up to ~ 600 keV with a spectrum that is well represented by a thermal Comptonization plus an additional component necessary to fit the data above 200 keV. This high energy component could be related to non-thermal processes as already observed in other black-hole candidates. Alternatively, we show that a model composed by two thermal Comptonizations provides an equally representative description of the data: the temperature of the f...

  4. SNR 1E0102.2-7219 after Six Years with Chandra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, M. J.; Schlegel, E. M.; Keohane, J.

    2005-12-01

    We present Chandra X-ray Observatory archived observations of the supernova remnant 1E0102.2-7219 in the Small Magellanic Cloud. Combining 22 ACIS-I observations for 230 ks of total exposure time, we present ACIS images with an unprecedented signal to noise ratio for this remnant. We present three upper limits on the X-ray flux for the remnant's elusive central compact object, which are consistent with current neutron star cooling models, based on a Cas A-like blackbody spectrum. Additionally, we discuss the elliptical structure of the remnant and the relative positions of the blast wave, the reverse shock, and the extent of 1E0102.2-7219's rim. This research was supported by the NSF REU Program at SAO under Eric Schlegel, whose research was supported by contract number NAS8-39073 from NASA to SAO for operation of the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. Jonathan Keohane's research was supported by Chandra award GO3-4070C.

  5. Proper Motion and Timing of Two Unusual Pulsars: Calvera and 1E 1207.4-5209

    CERN Document Server

    Halpern, J P

    2015-01-01

    Using pairs of images from the Chandra High-Resolution Camera we examine the proper motion of the central compact object (CCO) 1E 1207.4-5209 in the supernova remnant (SNR) PKS 1209-51/52, and the unusual pulsar Calvera that is possibly a CCO descendant. For 1E 1207.4-5209, an insignificant proper motion of 15+/-7 mas/yr is measured, corresponding to a corrected tangential velocity of <180 km/s at the distance of 2 kpc. This proves that the previously noted large offset of the pulsar from the apparent geometric center of the SNR is not due to high proper motion; evidently the symmetry of the remnant does not indicate its center of expansion. Calvera has a marginally significant proper motion of 69+/-26 mas/yr, corresponding to 86+/-33 km/s for a hypothetical distance of 0.3 kpc. Notably, its vector is away from the Galactic plane, although its high Galactic latitude of b = +37 deg may be more a consequence of its proximity than its velocity. We also provide updated timing solutions for each pulsar. Spannin...

  6. Proposal to Search for Magnetically Charged Particles with Magnetic Charge 1e

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Michael K. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fryberger, David [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-11-02

    A model for composite elementary Standard Model (SM) particles based upon magnetically bound vorton pairs, we briefly introduce here, predicts the existence of a complete family of magnetically charged particles, as well as their neutral isotopic partners (all counterparts to the SM elementary particles), in which the lowest mass (charged) particle would be an electrically neutral stable lepton, but which carries a magnetic charge equivalent to 1e. This new particle, which we call a magneticon (a counterpart to the electron) would be pair produced at all e+e- colliders at an Ecm above twice its mass. In addition, PP and PPbar colliders should also be able to produce these new particles through the Drell-Yan process. To our knowledge, no monopole search experiment has been sensitive to such a low-charged magnetic monopole above a particle mass of about 5 GeV/c2. Hence, we propose that a search for such a stable particle of magnetic charge 1e should be undertaken. We have taken the ATLAS detector at the LHC as an example in which this search might be done. To this end, we modeled the magnetic fields and muon trigger chambers of this detector. We show results from a simple Monte Carlo simulation program to indicate how these particles might look in the detector and describe how one might search for these new particles in the ATLAS data stream.

  7. Evidence for the magnetar nature of 1E 161348-5055 in RCW 103

    CERN Document Server

    D'Aì, A; Burrows, D N; Lien, A Y; Kann, D A; Campana, S; Maselli, A; Romano, P; Cusumano, G; La Parola, V; Beardmore, A P; Cenko, B; De Pasquale, M; Gehrels, N; Greiner, J; Kennea, J A; Klose, S; Melandri, A; Nousek, J A; Osborne, J P; Sbarufatti, B; Siegel, M H; Schady, P; Tagliaferri, G; Yates, R; Zane, S

    2016-01-01

    We report on the detection of a bright, short, hard X-ray burst coming from the supernova remnant RCW 103 on 2016 June 22 caught by the \\emph{Swift}/BAT monitor, and on a follow-up campaign made with \\emph{Swift}/XRT and the optical/NIR GROND detector. The characteristics of the flash, such as duration and spectral shape, are consistent with typical bursts observed from soft gamma repeaters. The BAT error circle at 68\\% confidence range encloses the point-like X-ray source at the centre of the nebula, 1E 161348-5055. Its nature has been long debated because of a periodicity of 6.67 hr in X-rays, that could indicate either an extremely slow pulsating neutron star, or an orbital period of a very compact X-ray binary system. We found that the soft X-ray emission of 1E 161348-5055, 20 minutes earlier than the BAT detected burst, was already a factor $\\sim$ 100 higher with respect to the past two years, indicating that an outburst had started. By comparing the spectral and timing characteristics of the source in t...

  8. A Deep XMM-Newton Observation of the Enigmatic Microquasar 1E 1740.7-2942

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jon

    1E 1740.7-2942 is a microquasar residing in the Galactic center. It is persistently bright at X-ray energies and has been shown to power large scale bi-polar jets, thus making it an ideal source to probe the jet generation/launching mechanism in accreting black holes. Analysis of archival data hinted at the presence of a relativistically broadened iron line, providing a means to constrain the spin of the black hole in this system for the first time. In AO-10 we were awarded a 130 ks XMM-Newton category B target of oppurtunity (ToO) observation, with the aim of observing this system in the low-hard state. This observation was triggered in April 2012 and the data have been obtained, where a preliminary analysis reveals the expected broad iron line. Modeling this iron line will allow us to constrain the spin of the black hole and probe its relation to the presence of large scale jets in this system. We request a total of $63.7k funding to support the analysis of this deep XMM-Newton observation, including the primary target (1E 1740.7-2942) and the serendipitous sources in the field of view (destiny of the universe, and the nature of black holes, dark energy, dark matter, and gravity. and 2.4.2: Improve understanding of the many phenomena and processes associated with galaxy, stellar, and planetary system formation and evolution from the earliest epochs to today.

  9. The anti-glitch of magnetar 1E 2259+586 in the wind braking scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, H., E-mail: tonghao@xao.ac.cn [Xinjiang Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi, Xinjiang (China)

    2014-04-01

    The anti-glitch of magnetar 1E 2259+586 is analyzed theoretically. An enhanced particle wind during the observational interval takes away additional rotational energy of the neutron star, which will result in a net spin-down of the magnetar, i.e., an anti-glitch. In the wind braking scenario of the anti-glitch, there are several predictions: (1) a radiative event will always accompany the anti-glitch, (2) there will be a decrease/variation of the braking index after the anti-glitch, and (3) the anti-glitch is just a period of enhanced spin-down. If there are enough timing observations, a period of enhanced spin-down is expected instead of an anti-glitch. Applications to previous timing events of SGR 1900+14 and PSR J1846–0258 are also included. It is shown that current timing events of 1E 2259+586, SGR 1900+14, and PSR J1846–0258 can be understood safely in the wind braking model. The enhanced spin-down and absence of an anti-glitch before the giant flare of SGR 1806–20 is consistent with the wind braking scenario.

  10. Implications of the remarkable homogeneity of galaxy groups and clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Balogh, Michael L.; McGee, Sean L.

    2009-01-01

    We measure the diversity of galaxy groups and clusters with mass M>1E13/h Msun, in terms of the star formation history of their galaxy populations, for the purpose of constraining the mass scale at which environmentally-important processes play a role in galaxy evolution. We consider three different group catalogues, selected in different ways, with photometry and spectroscopy from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. For each system we measure the fraction of passively-evolving galaxies within R200...

  11. Textile Industrial Clusters in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    "National Textile Industry Cluster Development Seminar" convened, held by China National Textile and Apparel Council, 23 cities and towns were awarded as China’s Textile Industry Cluster Pilot District. By far, China’s textile industrial clusters have grown

  12. Spanning Tree Based Attribute Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yifeng; Jorge, Cordero Hernandez

    2009-01-01

    inconsistent edges from a maximum spanning tree by starting appropriate initial modes, therefore generating stable clusters. It discovers sound clusters through simple graph operations and achieves significant computational savings. We compare the Star Discovery algorithm against earlier attribute clustering...

  13. Cluster knockout reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arun K Jain; B N Joshi

    2014-04-01

    Cluster knockout reactions are expected to reveal the amount of clustering (such as that of , d and even of heavier clusters such as 12C, 16O etc.) in the target nucleus. In simple terms, incident medium high-energy nuclear projectile interacts strongly with the cluster (present in the target nucleus) as if it were existing as a free entity. Theoretically, the relatively softer interactions of the two outgoing particles with the residual nucleus lead to optical distortions and are treated in terms of distorted wave (DW) formalism. The long-range projectile–cluster interaction is accounted for, in terms of the finite range (FR) direct reaction formalism, as against the more commonly adopted zero-range (ZR) distorted wave impulse approximation (DWIA) formalism. Comparison of the DWIA calculations with the observed data provide information about the momentum distribution and the clustering spectroscopic factor of the target nucleus. Interesting results and some recent advancements in the area of (, 2) reactions and heavy cluster knockout reactions are discussed. Importance of the finite-range vertex and the final-state interactions are brought out.

  14. Software-Defined Cluster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂华; 杨晓君; 刘淘英

    2015-01-01

    The cluster architecture has played an important role in high-end computing for the past 20 years. With the advent of Internet services, big data, and cloud computing, traditional clusters face three challenges: 1) providing flexible system balance among computing, memory, and I/O capabilities;2) reducing resource pooling overheads;and 3) addressing low performance-power efficiency. This position paper proposes a software-defined cluster (SDC) architecture to deal with these challenges. The SDC architecture inherits two features of traditional cluster: its architecture is multicomputer and it has loosely-coupled interconnect. SDC provides two new mechanisms: global I/O space (GIO) and hardware-supported native access (HNA) to remote devices. Application software can define a virtual cluster best suited to its needs from resources pools provided by a physical cluster, and traditional cluster ecosystems need no modification. We also discuss a prototype design and implementation of a 32-processor cloud server utilizing the SDC architecture.

  15. Electron scattering from 4He and Ne clusters: determination of the cluster density from the electronic surface barrier potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, K.; Toennies, J. P.; Winkler, C.

    1991-03-01

    A monoenergetic beam of electrons is scattered from a beam of 4He clusters. The angular distribution of the scattered electronically excited atoms and clusters is measured by an open Venetian-blind multiplier, which is rotatable in the plane of both beams. The threshold electron energy for excitation of the clusters shows a shift to higher energies with respect to the atom component by between 0.6 and 1.1 eV depending on the cluster source temperature T0 ( P0 = 20 bar in all experiments). The observed potential shift Eb is attributed to the surface barrier for penetration of the electrons into the cluster. From the known dependence of Eb on density the core densities of the helium clusters is estimated to vary between n = 1.2 × 10 22 cm -3 and n = 2.2 × 10 22 cm -3 for T0 = 14.9 and 11 K, respectively. The latter values agree with those for bulk liquid helium. For Ne clusters, Eb = 0.7 ± 0.3 eV independent of the source conditions.

  16. Extending Beowulf Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinwand, Daniel R.; Maddox, Brian; Beckmann, Tim; Hamer, George

    2003-01-01

    Beowulf clusters can provide a cost-effective way to compute numerical models and process large amounts of remote sensing image data. Usually a Beowulf cluster is designed to accomplish a specific set of processing goals, and processing is very efficient when the problem remains inside the constraints of the original design. There are cases, however, when one might wish to compute a problem that is beyond the capacity of the local Beowulf system. In these cases, spreading the problem to multiple clusters or to other machines on the network may provide a cost-effective solution.

  17. Cluster Management Institutionalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Normann, Leo; Agger Nielsen, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    institutionalism together with a longitudinal case-based inquiry into how cluster management has entered and penetrated the management practices of day care in Denmark. We demonstrate how cluster management became widely adopted in the day care field not only because of its intrinsic properties but also because...... legitimized at the field level, then spread, and finally translated into action in the adopting organizations. Instead, we observed entangled field and organizational-level processes. Accordingly, we argue that cluster management institutionalization is most readily understood by simultaneously investigating...

  18. Introduction to cluster dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhard, Paul-Gerhard

    2008-01-01

    Clusters as mesoscopic particles represent an intermediate state of matter between single atoms and solid material. The tendency to miniaturise technical objects requires knowledge about systems which contain a ""small"" number of atoms or molecules only. This is all the more true for dynamical aspects, particularly in relation to the qick development of laser technology and femtosecond spectroscopy. Here, for the first time is a highly qualitative introduction to cluster physics. With its emphasis on cluster dynamics, this will be vital to everyone involved in this interdisciplinary subje

  19. Dwarfs in Coma Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for larger poster version This false-color mosaic of the central region of the Coma cluster combines infrared and visible-light images to reveal thousands of faint objects (green). Follow-up observations showed that many of these objects, which appear here as faint green smudges, are dwarf galaxies belonging to the cluster. Two large elliptical galaxies, NGC 4889 and NGC 4874, dominate the cluster's center. The mosaic combines visible-light data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (color coded blue) with long- and short-wavelength infrared views (red and green, respectively) from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope.

  20. Raspberry Pi super cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Dennis, Andrew K

    2013-01-01

    This book follows a step-by-step, tutorial-based approach which will teach you how to develop your own super cluster using Raspberry Pi computers quickly and efficiently.Raspberry Pi Super Cluster is an introductory guide for those interested in experimenting with parallel computing at home. Aimed at Raspberry Pi enthusiasts, this book is a primer for getting your first cluster up and running.Basic knowledge of C or Java would be helpful but no prior knowledge of parallel computing is necessary.

  1. Partially supervised speaker clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hao; Chu, Stephen Mingyu; Hasegawa-Johnson, Mark; Huang, Thomas S

    2012-05-01

    Content-based multimedia indexing, retrieval, and processing as well as multimedia databases demand the structuring of the media content (image, audio, video, text, etc.), one significant goal being to associate the identity of the content to the individual segments of the signals. In this paper, we specifically address the problem of speaker clustering, the task of assigning every speech utterance in an audio stream to its speaker. We offer a complete treatment to the idea of partially supervised speaker clustering, which refers to the use of our prior knowledge of speakers in general to assist the unsupervised speaker clustering process. By means of an independent training data set, we encode the prior knowledge at the various stages of the speaker clustering pipeline via 1) learning a speaker-discriminative acoustic feature transformation, 2) learning a universal speaker prior model, and 3) learning a discriminative speaker subspace, or equivalently, a speaker-discriminative distance metric. We study the directional scattering property of the Gaussian mixture model (GMM) mean supervector representation of utterances in the high-dimensional space, and advocate exploiting this property by using the cosine distance metric instead of the euclidean distance metric for speaker clustering in the GMM mean supervector space. We propose to perform discriminant analysis based on the cosine distance metric, which leads to a novel distance metric learning algorithm—linear spherical discriminant analysis (LSDA). We show that the proposed LSDA formulation can be systematically solved within the elegant graph embedding general dimensionality reduction framework. Our speaker clustering experiments on the GALE database clearly indicate that 1) our speaker clustering methods based on the GMM mean supervector representation and vector-based distance metrics outperform traditional speaker clustering methods based on the “bag of acoustic features” representation and statistical

  2. Clustering in nuclear environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties of few-body clusters (mass number A ≤ 4) are modified if they are immersed in a nuclear medium. In particular, Pauli blocking that reflects the antisymmetrization of the many-body wave function is responsible for the medium modification of light clusters and the dissolution with increasing density. A more consistent description is given with takes also the contribution of correlations in the continuum into account. The relation between cluster formation in warm dense matter and in nuclear structure is discussed

  3. Combining cluster number counts and galaxy clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacasa, Fabien; Rosenfeld, Rogerio

    2016-08-01

    The abundance of clusters and the clustering of galaxies are two of the important cosmological probes for current and future large scale surveys of galaxies, such as the Dark Energy Survey. In order to combine them one has to account for the fact that they are not independent quantities, since they probe the same density field. It is important to develop a good understanding of their correlation in order to extract parameter constraints. We present a detailed modelling of the joint covariance matrix between cluster number counts and the galaxy angular power spectrum. We employ the framework of the halo model complemented by a Halo Occupation Distribution model (HOD). We demonstrate the importance of accounting for non-Gaussianity to produce accurate covariance predictions. Indeed, we show that the non-Gaussian covariance becomes dominant at small scales, low redshifts or high cluster masses. We discuss in particular the case of the super-sample covariance (SSC), including the effects of galaxy shot-noise, halo second order bias and non-local bias. We demonstrate that the SSC obeys mathematical inequalities and positivity. Using the joint covariance matrix and a Fisher matrix methodology, we examine the prospects of combining these two probes to constrain cosmological and HOD parameters. We find that the combination indeed results in noticeably better constraints, with improvements of order 20% on cosmological parameters compared to the best single probe, and even greater improvement on HOD parameters, with reduction of error bars by a factor 1.4-4.8. This happens in particular because the cross-covariance introduces a synergy between the probes on small scales. We conclude that accounting for non-Gaussian effects is required for the joint analysis of these observables in galaxy surveys.

  4. Robinson-Schensted-Knuth Correspondence and Weak Polynomial Identities of M1,1(E)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Onofrio Mario Di Vincenzo; Roberto La Scala

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, it is proved that the ideal Iω of the weak polynomial identities of the superalgebra M1,1(E) is generated by the p roper polynomials [x1,x2, x3] and [x2,x1][xa,x1][x4, x1]. This is proved for any infinite field F of characteristic different a basis and the dimension of any multihomogeneous component of the quotient algebra B/(B ∩ Iw). We also compute the Hilbert series of this algebra. One of the main tools of this paper is a variant we found of the Robinson-Schensted-Knuth correspondence defined for single semistandard tableaux of double shape.

  5. E1, M1, E2 transition energies and probabilities of W$^{54+}$ ions

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Xiao-bin; Liu, Jia-xin; Koike, Fumihiro; Murakami, Izumi; Kato, Daiji; Sakaue, Hiroyuki A; Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Dong, Chen-zhong

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive theoretical study of the E1, M1, E2 transitions of Ca-like tungsten ions is presented. Using multi-configuration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) method with a restricted active space treatment, the wavelengths and probabilities of the M1 and E2 transitions between the multiplets of the ground state configuration ([Ne]3s$^{2}$3p$^{6}$3d$^{2}$) and of the E1 transitions between [Ne]3s$^{2}$3p$^{5}$3d$^{3}$ and [Ne]3s$^{2}$3p$^{6}$3d$^{2}$ have been calculated. The results are in reasonable agreement with available experimental data. The present E1 and M1 calculations are compared with previous theoretical values. For E2 transitions, the importance of electron correlation from 3s and 3p orbitals is pointed out. Several strong E1 transitions are predicted, which have potential advantage for plasma diagnostics.

  6. Deep NuSTAR and Swift monitoring observations of the magnetar 1E 1841-045

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    An, Hongjun; Archibald, Robert F.; Hascoët, Romain;

    2015-01-01

    We report on a 350 ks NuSTAR observation of the magnetar 1E 1841-045 taken in 2013 September. During the observation, NuSTAR detected six bursts of short duration, with T90 ≲ 1 s. An elevated level of emission tail is detected after the brightest burst, persisting for ~1 ks. The emission showed...... and magnetic dipole axes of the magnetar αmag the twisted magnetic flux, 2.5 × 1026 G cm2, and the power released in the twisted magnetosphere, = 6 × 1036 erg s-1. Assuming this model for the hard-X-ray spectrum, the soft-X-ray component is well fit by a two-black body model, with the hotter blackbody...

  7. Toward Selective Drug Development for the Human 5-Hydroxytryptamine 1E Receptor: A Comparison of 5-Hydroxytryptamine 1E and 1F Receptor Structure-Affinity RelationshipsS⃞

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Michael T.; Dukat, Małgorzata; Glennon, Richard A.; Teitler, Milt

    2011-01-01

    The 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) 1E receptor is highly expressed in the human frontal cortex and hippocampus, and this distribution suggests the function of 5-HT1E receptors might be linked to memory. To test this hypothesis, behavioral experiments are needed. Because rats and mice lack a 5-HT1E receptor gene, knockout strategies cannot be used to elucidate this receptor's functions. Thus, selective pharmacological tools must be developed. The tryptamine-related agonist BRL54443 [5-hydroxy-3-(1...

  8. Human Papillomavirus Type 1 E1^E4 Protein Is a Potent Inhibitor of the Serine-Arginine (SR) Protein Kinase SRPK1 and Inhibits Phosphorylation of Host SR Proteins and of the Viral Transcription and Replication Regulator E2

    OpenAIRE

    Prescott, Emma L.; Brimacombe, Claire L.; Hartley, Margaret; Bell, Ian; Graham, Sheila; Roberts, Sally

    2014-01-01

    The serine-arginine-specific protein kinase SRPK1 is a common binding partner of the E1^E4 protein of diverse human papillomavirus types. We show here for the first time that the interaction between HPV1 E1^E4 and SRPK1 leads to potent inhibition of SRPK1 phosphorylation of host serine-arginine (SR) proteins that have critical roles in mRNA metabolism, including pre-mRNA processing, mRNA export, and translation. Furthermore, we show that SRPK1 phosphorylates serine residues of SR/RS dipeptide...

  9. On the Assembly of Dwarf Galaxies in Clusters and their Efficient Formation of Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Mistani, Pouria A; Pillepich, Annalisa; Sanchez-Janssen, Ruben; Vogelsberger, Mark; Nelson, Dylan; Rodriguez-Gomez, Vicente; Torrey, Paul; Hernquist, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Galaxy clusters contain a large population of low mass dwarf elliptical galaxies whose exact origin is unclear: their colors, structural properties and kinematics differ substantially from those of dwarf irregulars in the field. We use the Illustris cosmological simulation to study differences in the assembly paths of dwarf galaxies (3e8 < M_*/M_sun < 1e10) according to their environment. We find that cluster dwarfs achieve their maximum total and stellar mass on average ~ 8 and ~ 4.5 Gyr ago, respectively, around the time of infall into the clusters. In contrast, field dwarfs not subjected to environmental stripping, reach their maximum mass at redshift z = 0. This different assembly history naturally produces a color bimodality, with blue isolated dwarfs and redder cluster dwarfs exhibiting negligible star-formation today. The cessation of star formation happens over median times 3.5-5 Gyr depending on stellar mass, and shows a large scatter (~ 1-8 Gyr), with the lower values associated with starburst...

  10. Evolution of clustered storage

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Van de Vyvre, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    The session actually featured two presentations: * Evolution of clustered storage by Lance Hukill, Quantum Corporation * ALICE DAQ - Usage of a Cluster-File System: Quantum StorNext by Pierre Vande Vyvre, CERN-PH the second one prepared at short notice by Pierre (thanks!) to present how the Quantum technologies are being used in the ALICE experiment. The abstract to Mr Hukill's follows. Clustered Storage is a technology that is driven by business and mission applications. The evolution of Clustered Storage solutions starts first at the alignment between End-users needs and Industry trends: * Push-and-Pull between managing for today versus planning for tomorrow * Breaking down the real business problems to the core applications * Commoditization of clients, servers, and target devices * Interchangeability, Interoperability, Remote Access, Centralized control * Oh, and yes, there is a budget and the "real world" to deal with This presentation will talk through these needs and trends, and then ask the question, ...

  11. Dynamic Bayesian clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Anna; Menon, Vilas; Heard, Nicholas A

    2013-10-01

    Clusters of time series data may change location and memberships over time; in gene expression data, this occurs as groups of genes or samples respond differently to stimuli or experimental conditions at different times. In order to uncover this underlying temporal structure, we consider dynamic clusters with time-dependent parameters which split and merge over time, enabling cluster memberships to change. These interesting time-dependent structures are useful in understanding the development of organisms or complex organs, and could not be identified using traditional clustering methods. In cell cycle data, these time-dependent structure may provide links between genes and stages of the cell cycle, whilst in developmental data sets they may highlight key developmental transitions. PMID:24131050

  12. Internal Cluster Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Bartelmann, Matthias; Meneghetti, Massimo; Schmidt, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The core structure of galaxy clusters is fundamentally important. Even though self-gravitating systems have no stable equilibrium state due to their negative heat capacity, numerical simulations find density profiles which are universal in the sense that they are fairly flat within a scale radius and gradually steepen farther outward, asymptotically approaching a logarithmic slope of $\\approx-3$ near the virial radius. We argue that the reason for the formation of this profile is not satisfactorily understood. The ratio between the virial radius and the scale radius, the so-called concentration, is found in simulations to be closely related to the mass and the redshift and low for cluster-sized haloes, but observed to be substantially higher at least in a subset of observed clusters. Haloes formed from cold dark matter should furthermore be richly substructured. We review theoretical and observational aspects of cluster cores here, discuss modifications by baryonic physics and observables that can provide bet...

  13. Finnish Mobile Gaming Cluster

    OpenAIRE

    Masira, Elijah; Chowdhury, Nafis Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The Finnish mobile gaming cluster is one of the most promising industries that have been growing significantly in the past few years to become a substantial cultural export product / service of Finland. The main objective of this research was to gain a persuasive understanding about the emergence of the mobile gaming cluster in Finland and explore the factors behind its success. The literature review centers on M. E Porter’s publications on competitiveness and other publication...

  14. Clustering audiology data

    OpenAIRE

    Anwar, Naveed; Oakes, Michael; Wermter, Stefan; Heinrich, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe new results of statistical and neural data mining of audiology patient records, with the ultimate aim of looking for factors influencing which patients would most benefit from being fitted with a hearing aid. We describe how a combination of neural and statistical techniques can usefully subdivide a set of patients into clusters, based on their hearing thresholds at six different frequencies, and then label the clusters with meaningful text labels. In our first exper...

  15. Industry clusters and SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Arnoud Muizer; Gert Jan Hospers

    1999-01-01

    Studie naar de rol van clusters van bedrijven in de economie. Clusters van bedrijven krijgen een groeiende aandacht op alle bestuurlijke niveaus. De achterliggende gedachte is dat samenwerking tussen bedrijven op technologisch gebied leidt tot de creatie van extra toegevoegde waarde, niet alleen voor de samenwerkingspartners zelf, maar ook voor de lokale, regionale en nationale economie. In de studie wordt een clusterdefinitie gepresenteerd en een raamwerk dat als basis kan dienen voor nader ...

  16. Centroid Based Text Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priti Maheshwari

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Web mining is a burgeoning new field that attempts to glean meaningful information from natural language text. Web mining refers generally to the process of extracting interesting information and knowledge from unstructured text. Text clustering is one of the important Web mining functionalities. Text clustering is the task in which texts are classified into groups of similar objects based on their contents. Current research in the area of Web mining is tacklesproblems of text data representation, classification, clustering, information extraction or the search for and modeling of hidden patterns. In this paper we propose for mining large document collections it is necessary to pre-process the web documents and store the information in a data structure, which is more appropriate for further processing than a plain web file. In this paper we developed a php-mySql based utility to convert unstructured web documents into structured tabular representation by preprocessing, indexing .We apply centroid based web clustering method on preprocessed data. We apply three methods for clustering. Finally we proposed a method that can increase accuracy based on clustering ofdocuments.

  17. Galaxy cluster's rotation

    CERN Document Server

    Manolopoulou, Maria

    2016-01-01

    We study the possible rotation of cluster galaxies, developing, testing and applying a novel algorithm which identifies rotation, if such does exits, as well as its rotational centre, its axis orientation, rotational velocity amplitude and, finally, the clockwise or counterclockwise direction of rotation on the plane of the sky. To validate our algorithms we construct realistic Monte-Carlo mock rotating clusters and confirm that our method provides robust indications of rotation. We then apply our methodology on a sample of Abell clusters with z<~0.1 with member galaxies selected from the SDSS DR10 spectroscopic database. We find that ~35% of our clusters are rotating when using a set of strict criteria, while loosening the criteria we find this fraction increasing to ~48%. We correlate our rotation indicators with the cluster dynamical state, provided either by their Bautz-Morgan type or by their X-ray isophotal shape and find for those clusters showing rotation that the significance and strength of their...

  18. Cluster bomb ocular injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad M Mansour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To present the visual outcomes and ocular sequelae of victims of cluster bombs. Materials and Methods: This retrospective, multicenter case series of ocular injury due to cluster bombs was conducted for 3 years after the war in South Lebanon (July 2006. Data were gathered from the reports to the Information Management System for Mine Action. Results: There were 308 victims of clusters bombs; 36 individuals were killed, of which 2 received ocular lacerations and; 272 individuals were injured with 18 receiving ocular injury. These 18 surviving individuals were assessed by the authors. Ocular injury occurred in 6.5% (20/308 of cluster bomb victims. Trauma to multiple organs occurred in 12 of 18 cases (67% with ocular injury. Ocular findings included corneal or scleral lacerations (16 eyes, corneal foreign bodies (9 eyes, corneal decompensation (2 eyes, ruptured cataract (6 eyes, and intravitreal foreign bodies (10 eyes. The corneas of one patient had extreme attenuation of the endothelium. Conclusions: Ocular injury occurred in 6.5% of cluster bomb victims and 67% of the patients with ocular injury sustained trauma to multiple organs. Visual morbidity in civilians is an additional reason for a global ban on the use of cluster bombs.

  19. Finslerian MOND versus the strong gravitational lensing of the early-type galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Zhe; Li, Xin [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities, Beijing (China); Li, Ming-Hua; Lin, Hai-Nan; Wang, Sai [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China)

    2013-08-15

    The gravitational lensing of Bullet Clusters and early-type galaxies pose serious challenges on the validity of MOND. Recently, Finslerian MOND, a generalization of MOND in the framework of Finsler gravity, has been proposed to explain the mass discrepancy problem of Bullet Cluster 1E0657-558. In this paper, we check the validity of the Finslerian MOND in describing the strong gravitational lensing of early-type galaxies. The investigation on ten strong lenses of the CASTLES samples shows that there is no strong evidence for the existence of dark matter. (orig.)

  20. Finslerian MOND versus the strong gravitational lensing of the early-type galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gravitational lensing of Bullet Clusters and early-type galaxies pose serious challenges on the validity of MOND. Recently, Finslerian MOND, a generalization of MOND in the framework of Finsler gravity, has been proposed to explain the mass discrepancy problem of Bullet Cluster 1E0657-558. In this paper, we check the validity of the Finslerian MOND in describing the strong gravitational lensing of early-type galaxies. The investigation on ten strong lenses of the CASTLES samples shows that there is no strong evidence for the existence of dark matter. (orig.)

  1. Cluster fusion algorithm: application to Lennard-Jones clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Solov'yov, Andrey V.; Greiner, Walter

    2008-01-01

    paths up to the cluster size of 150 atoms. We demonstrate that in this way all known global minima structures of the Lennard-Jones clusters can be found. Our method provides an efficient tool for the calculation and analysis of atomic cluster structure. With its use we justify the magic number sequence......We present a new general theoretical framework for modelling the cluster structure and apply it to description of the Lennard-Jones clusters. Starting from the initial tetrahedral cluster configuration, adding new atoms to the system and absorbing its energy at each step, we find cluster growing...... for the clusters of noble gas atoms and compare it with experimental observations. We report the striking correspondence of the peaks in the dependence of the second derivative of the binding energy per atom on cluster size calculated for the chain of the Lennard-Jones clusters based on the icosahedral symmetry...

  2. Cluster fusion algorithm: application to Lennard-Jones clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Solov'yov, Andrey V.; Greiner, Walter

    2006-01-01

    paths up to the cluster size of 150 atoms. We demonstrate that in this way all known global minima structures of the Lennard-Jones clusters can be found. Our method provides an efficient tool for the calculation and analysis of atomic cluster structure. With its use we justify the magic number sequence......We present a new general theoretical framework for modelling the cluster structure and apply it to description of the Lennard-Jones clusters. Starting from the initial tetrahedral cluster configuration, adding new atoms to the system and absorbing its energy at each step, we find cluster growing...... for the clusters of noble gas atoms and compare it with experimental observations. We report the striking correspondence of the peaks in the dependence of the second derivative of the binding energy per atom on cluster size calculated for the chain of the Lennard-Jones clusters based on the icosahedral symmetry...

  3. 动车电机检修工艺布局优化及信息化管理研究%A Research on Optimizationand Informatization Management of the Process Layout of Maintenanceand Repair for BulletTrain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡阳; 刘丹丹; 杨朋飞; 王长江; 胡林福; 雷金; 赵桂发

    2015-01-01

    This paper introducedthe compositepatternof themaintenance assemblylineof bullet train, from the perspec-tive of lean production,it integrated the concept of “a flow" andbalancedproducting line balancing , combined with modern information technology, it designed a new patten of process layout for the maintenanceof bullet train.%主要介绍了动车电机检修的流水线组成模式,从精益生产角度,综合运用“一个流”和生产线平衡理念,结合现代信息技术,设计一种动车电机检修工艺布局新模式。

  4. A Hydrodynamical Solution for the "Twin-Tailed" Colliding Galaxy Cluster "El Gordo"

    CERN Document Server

    Molnar, Sandor M

    2014-01-01

    The distinctive cometary X-ray morphology of the recently discovered massive galaxy cluster "El Gordo" (ACT-CT J0102-4915; z=0.87) indicates that an unusually high-speed collision is ongoing between two massive galaxy clusters. A bright X-ray "bullet" leads a "twin-tailed" wake, with the SZ centroid at the end of the Northern tail. We show how the physical properties of this system can be determined using our FLASH-based, N-body/hydrodynamic model, constrained by detailed X-ray, Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ), and Hubble lensing and dynamical data. The X-ray morphology and the location of the two Dark Matter components and the SZ peak are accurately described by a simple binary collision viewed about 480 million years after the first core passage. We derive an impact parameter of ~300 kpc, and a relative initial infall velocity of ~2250 km/sec when separated by the sum of the two virial radii assuming an initial total mass of 2.15x10^(15) Msun and a mass ratio of 1.9. Our model demonstrates that tidally stretched ga...

  5. Shock fronts, electron-ion equilibration and ICM transport processes in the merging cluster Abell 2146

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, H R; Sanders, J S; Fabian, A C; Nulsen, P E J; Canning, R E A; Baum, S A; Donahue, M; Edge, A C; King, L J; O'Dea, C P

    2012-01-01

    We present a new 400 ks Chandra X-ray observation of the merging galaxy cluster Abell 2146. This deep observation reveals detailed structure associated with the major merger event including the Mach M=2.3+/-0.2 bow shock ahead of the dense, ram pressure stripped subcluster core and the first known example of an upstream shock in the ICM (M=1.6+/-0.1). By measuring the electron temperature profile behind each shock front, we determine the timescale for the electron population to thermally equilibrate with the shock-heated ions. We find that the temperature profile behind the bow shock is consistent with the timescale for Coulomb collisional equilibration and the postshock temperature is lower than expected for instant shock-heating of the electrons. Although like the Bullet cluster the electron temperatures behind the upstream shock front are hotter than expected, favouring the instant heating model, the uncertainty on the temperature values is greater here and there is significant substructure complicating th...

  6. “The Land That He Saw Looked Like a Paradise. It Was Not, He Knew”: Suburbia and the Maladjusted American Male in John Cheever’s Bullet Park

    OpenAIRE

    Stilley, Harriet Poppy

    2016-01-01

    This essay explores the issue of masculinity in John Cheever’s somewhat critically overlooked novel, Bullet Park (1969), so as to call attention to the inevitable conflict between the conformist ideologies of the postwar corporate world and the dormant desires of the atomized male suburbanite. By way of an interrelated interpretation of contemporaneous sociological and psychological theory, this essay foreparts the dysfunctional dimensions of masculine dejection as being derivative of suburbi...

  7. The rotation of Galaxy Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Tovmassian, Hrant M.

    2015-01-01

    The method for detection of the galaxy cluster rotation based on the study of distribution of member galaxies with velocities lower and higher of the cluster mean velocity over the cluster image is proposed. The search for rotation is made for flat clusters with $a/b>1.8$ and BMI type clusters which are expected to be rotating. For comparison there were studied also round clusters and clusters of NBMI type, the second by brightness galaxy in which does not differ significantly from the cluste...

  8. 弹丸时间零点获取方法的现状和发展趋势%Status and Development Trend of Bullet Zero-time Pot Acquiring Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯建强; 韩壮志; 王宁可

    2015-01-01

    Bullet zero-time pot is the time when bullet flying out of muzzle. It is a key data of artillery performance analyzing,experimenting and testing. Common acquiring methods of bullet zero-tome pot are analyzed in this paper. Methods are analyzed from the view of theory,basing on the characteristic of artillery running firing in this paper. The reason is pointed out that why traditional methods cannot be used on high-requency artillery. Improved ways and study direction are also touched upon in this paper.%弹丸时间零点即弹丸飞离炮口的时刻,是火炮性能分析、试验和测试中的关键数据。分析了目前几种常用的弹丸时间零点检测方法,并根据高射频火炮弹丸连发情况下的特点,指出了传统时间零点检测方法的不适用性,从理论角度分析了高射频火炮连发弹丸的时间获取方法。最后针对高射频武器装备的发展情况和时间零点检测方法的现状进行了展望。

  9. Protein microarrays for the identification of praja1 e3 ubiquitin ligase substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loch, Christian M; Eddins, Michael J; Strickler, James E

    2011-06-01

    Although they are the primary determinants of substrate specificity, few E3-substrate pairs have been positively identified, and few E3's profiled in a proteomic fashion. Praja1 is an E3 implicated in bone development and highly expressed in brain. Although it has been well studied relative to the majority of E3's, little is known concerning the repertoire of proteins it ubiquitylates. We sought to identify high confidence substrates for Praja1 from an unbiased proteomic profile of thousands of human proteins using protein microarrays. We first profiled Praja1 activity against a panel of E2's to identify its optimal partner in vitro. We then ubiquitylated multiple, identical protein arrays and detected putative substrates with reagents that vary in ubiquitin recognition according to the extent of chain formation. Gene ontology clustering identified putative substrates consistent with information previously known about Praja1 function, and provides clues into novel aspects of this enzyme's function.

  10. Stellar populations in star clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Chengyuan; Deng, Licai

    2016-01-01

    Stellar populations contain the most important information about star clus- ter formation and evolution. Until several decades ago, star clusters were believed to be ideal laboratories for studies of simple stellar populations (SSPs). However, discoveries of multiple stellar populations in Galactic globular clusters have expanded our view on stellar populations in star clusters. They have simultaneously generated a number of controversies, particularly as to whether young star clusters may have the same origin as old globular clusters. In addition, extensive studies have revealed that the SSP scenario does not seem to hold for some intermediate-age and young star clusters either, thus making the origin of multiple stellar populations in star clusters even more complicated. Stellar population anomalies in numerous star clusters are well-documented, implying that the notion of star clusters as true SSPs faces serious challenges. In this review, we focus on stellar populations in massive clusters with different ...

  11. A1E reduces stemness and self-renewal in HPV 16-positive cervical cancer stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Taeho; Bak, Yesol; Ham, Sun-Young; Yu, Dae-Yeul; Yoon, Do-Young

    2016-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in females. Recent reports have revealed the critical role of cervical cancer stem cells (CSCs) in tumorigenicity and metastasis. Previously we demonstrated that A1E exerts an anti-proliferative action, which inhibits the growth of cervical cancer cells. Methods A1E is composed of 11 oriental medicinal herbs. Cervical cancer cell culture, wund healing and invasion assay, flow cytometry, sheroid formation assay, and wstern blot assays...

  12. SPAK and OSR1 Sensitive Cell Membrane Protein Abundance and Activity of KCNQ1/E1 K+ Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernat Elvira

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: KCNQ1/E1 channels are expressed in diverse tissues and serve a variety of functions including endolymph secretion in the inner ear, cardiac repolarization, epithelial transport and cell volume regulation. Kinases involved in regulation of epithelial transport and cell volume include SPAK (SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase and OSR1 (oxidative stress-responsive kinase 1, which are under control of WNK (with-no-K[Lys] kinases. The present study explored whether KCNQ1/E1 channels are regulated by SPAK and/or OSR1. Methods: cRNA encoding KCNQ1/E1 was injected into Xenopus oocytes with or without additional injection of cRNA encoding wild-type SPAK, constitutively active T233ESPAK, WNK insensitive T233ASPAK, catalytically inactive D212ASPAK, wild-type OSR1, constitutively active T185EOSR1, WNK insensitive T185AOSR1 and catalytically inactive D164AOSR1. Voltage gated K+ channel activity was quantified utilizing dual electrode voltage clamp and KCNQ1/E1 channel protein abundance in the cell membrane utilizing chemiluminescence of KCNQ1/E1 containing an extracellular Flag tag epitope (KCNQ1-Flag/E1. Results: KCNQ1/E1 activity and KCNQ1-Flag/E1 protein abundance were significantly enhanced by wild-type SPAK and T233ESPAK, but not by T233ASPAK and D212ASPAK. Similarly, KCNQ1/E1 activity and KCNQ1-Flag/E1 protein abundance were significantly increased by wild-type OSR1 and T185EOSR1, but not by T185AOSR1 and D164AOSR1. Conclusions: SPAK and OSR1 participate in the regulation of KCNQ1/E1 protein abundance and activity.

  13. NuSTAR Observations of the Magnetar 1E 2259+586

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Julia K.; Hascoet, Romain; Kaspi, Victoria M.;

    2014-01-01

    We report on new broad band spectral and temporal observations of the magnetar 1E 2259+586, which is located in the supernova remnant CTB 109. Our data were obtained simultaneously with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and Swift, and cover the energy range from 0.5-79 keV. We...... present pulse profiles in various energy bands and compare them to previous RXTE results. The NuSTAR data show pulsations above 20 keV for the first time and we report evidence that one of the pulses in the double-peaked pulse profile shifts position with energy. The pulsed fraction of the magnetar is...... shown to increase strongly with energy. Our spectral analysis reveals that the soft X-ray spectrum is well characterized by an absorbed double blackbody or blackbody plus power-law model in agreement with previous reports. Our new hard X-ray data, however, suggest that an additional component, such as a...

  14. The Swift/Fermi GRB 080928 from 1 eV to 150 keV

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, A; Klose, S; Kann, D A; Rau, A; Krimm, H A; Jóhannesson, G; Panaitescu, A; Yuan, F; Ferrero, P; Krühler, T; Greiner, J; Schady, P; Pandey, S B; Amati, L; Afonso, P M J; Akerlof, C W; Arnold, L; Clemens, C; Filgas, R; Hartmann, D H; Yoldaş, A Küpcü; McBreen, S; McKay, T A; Guelbenzu, A Nicuesa; E., F Olivares; Paciesas, B; Rykoff, E S; Szokoly, G; Updike, A C; Yoldaş, A

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of a comprehensive study of the Gamma-Ray Burst 080928 and of its afterglow. GRB 080928 was a long burst detected by Swift/BAT and Fermi/GBM. It is one of the exceptional cases where optical emission was already detected when the GRB itself was still radiating in the gamma-ray band. For nearly 100 seconds simultaneous optical, X-ray and gamma-ray data provide a coverage of the spectral energy distribution of the transient source from about 1 eV to 150 keV. Here we analyze the prompt emission, constrain its spectral properties, and set lower limits on the initial Lorentz factor of the relativistic outflow. In particular, we show that the SED during the main prompt emission phase is in agreement with synchrotron radiation. We construct the optical/near-infrared light curve and the spectral energy distribution based on Swift/UVOT, ROTSE-IIIa (Australia) and GROND (La Silla) data and compare it to the X-ray light curve retrieved from the Swift/XRT repository. We show that its bumpy shape ca...

  15. The X-ray Bursts from the Magnetar Candidate 1E 2259+586

    CERN Document Server

    Gavriil, F P; Woods, P M; Gavriil, Fotis P.; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Woods, Peter M.

    2004-01-01

    We present a statistical analysis of the X-ray bursts observed from the 2002 June 18 outburst of the Anomalous X-ray Pulsar (AXP) 1E 2259+586, observed with the Proportional Counter Array aboard the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. We show that the properties of these bursts are similar to those of Soft Gamma-Repeaters (SGRs). The similarities we find are: the burst durations follow a log-normal distribution which peaks at 99 ms, the differential burst fluence distribution is well described by a power law of index -1.7, the burst fluences are positively correlated with the burst durations, the distribution of waiting times is well described by a log-normal distribution of mean 47 s, and the bursts are generally asymmetric with faster rise than fall times. However, we find several quantitative differences between the AXP and SGR bursts. Specifically, there is a correlation of burst phase with pulsed intensity, the AXP bursts we observed exhibit a wider range of durations, the correlation between burst fluence and ...

  16. NuSTAR Observations of the Magnetar 1E 2259+586

    CERN Document Server

    Vogel, Julia K; Kaspi, Victoria M; An, Hongjun; Archibald, Robert; Beloborodov, Andrei M; Boggs, Steven E; Christensen, Finn E; Craig, William W; Gotthelf, Eric V; Grefenstette, Brian W; Hailey, Charles J; Harrison, Fiona A; Kennea, Jamie A; Madsen, Kristin K; Pivovaroff, Michael J; Stern, Daniel; Zhang, William W

    2014-01-01

    We report on new broad band spectral and temporal observations of the magnetar 1E 2259+586, which is located in the supernova remnant CTB 109. Our data were obtained simultaneously with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and Swift, and cover the energy range from 0.5-79 keV. We present pulse profiles in various energy bands and compare them to previous RXTE results. The NuSTAR data show pulsations above 20 keV for the first time and we report evidence that one of the pulses in the double-peaked pulse profile shifts position with energy. The pulsed fraction of the magnetar is shown to increase strongly with energy. Our spectral analysis reveals that the soft X-ray spectrum is well characterized by an absorbed double-blackbody or blackbody plus power-law model in agreement with previous reports. Our new hard X-ray data, however, suggests that an additional component, such as a power-law, is needed to describe the NuSTAR and Swift spectrum. We also fit the data with the recently developed coronal...

  17. Amino acids critical for the functions of the bovine papillomavirus type 1 E2 transactivator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brokaw, J L; Blanco, M; McBride, A A

    1996-01-01

    The N-terminal domain of the bovine papillomavirus type 1 E2 protein is important for viral DNA replication, for transcriptional transactivation, and for interaction with the E1 protein. To determine which residues of this 200-amino-acid domain are important for these activities, single conservative amino acid substitutions have been generated in 17 residues that are invariant among all papillomavirus E2 proteins. The resulting mutated E2 proteins were tested for the ability to support viral DNA replication, activate transcription, and cooperatively bind to the origin of replication with the E1 protein. We identified five mutated proteins that were completely defective for transcriptional activation and either were defective or could support viral DNA replication at only low levels. However, several of these proteins could still interact efficiently with the E1 protein. In addition, we identified several mutated proteins that were unable to efficiently cooperatively bind to the origin with the E1 protein. Although a number of the mutated proteins demonstrated wild-type activity in all of the functions tested, only 3 out of 17 mutated viral genomes were able to induce foci in a C127 focus formation assay when the mutations were generated in the background of the entire bovine papillomavirus type 1 genome. This finding suggests that the E2 protein may have additional activities that are important for the viral life cycle. PMID:8523530

  18. Rates of E1, E2, M1, and M2 transitions in Ni II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, C. M.; Hibbert, A.; Ramsbottom, C. A.

    2016-03-01

    Aims: We present rates for all E1, E2, M1, and M2 transitions among the 295 fine-structure levels of the configurations 3d9, 3d84s, 3d74s2, 3d84p, and 3d74s4p, determined through an extensive configuration interaction calculation. Methods: The CIV3 code developed by Hibbert and coworkers is used to determine for these levels configuration interaction wave functions with relativistic effects introduced through the Breit-Pauli approximation. Results: Two different sets of calculations have been undertaken with different 3d and 4d functions to ascertain the effect of such variation. The main body of the text includes a representative selection of data, chosen so that key points can be discussed. Some analysis to assess the accuracy of the present data has been undertaken, including comparison with earlier calculations and the more limited range of experimental determinations. The full set of transition data is given in the supplementary material as it is very extensive. Conclusions: We believe that the present transition data are the best currently available. Full Table 4 and Tables 5-8 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/587/A107

  19. 1-eV GaInNAs solar cells for ultrahigh-frequency multijunction devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, D.J.; Geisz, J.F.; Kurtz, S.R.; Olson, J.M. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-09-01

    The authors demonstrate working prototypes of a GaInNAs-based solar cell lattice-matched to GaAs with photoresponse down to 1 eV. This device is intended for use as the third junction of future-generation ultrahigh-efficiency three- and four-junction devices. Under the AM1.5 direct spectrum with all the light higher in energy than the GaAs band gap filtered out, the prototypes have open-circuit voltages ranging from 0.35 to 0.44 V, short-circuit currents of 1.8 mA/cm{sup 2}, and fill factors from 61--66%. The short-circuit currents are of principal concern: the internal quantum efficiencies rise only to about 0.2. The authors discuss the short diffusion lengths which are the reason for this low photocurrent. As a partial workaround for the poor diffusion lengths, they demonstrate a depletion-width-enhanced variation of one of the prototype devices that grades off decreased voltage for increased photocurrent, with a short-circuit current of 6.5 mA/cm{sup 2} and an open-circuit voltage of 0.29 V.

  20. A cascading activity-based probe sequentially targets E1-E2-E3 ubiquitin enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Monique P C; Witting, Katharina; Berlin, Ilana; Pruneda, Jonathan N; Wu, Kuen-Phon; Chang, Jer-Gung; Merkx, Remco; Bialas, Johanna; Groettrup, Marcus; Vertegaal, Alfred C O; Schulman, Brenda A; Komander, David; Neefjes, Jacques; El Oualid, Farid; Ovaa, Huib

    2016-07-01

    Post-translational modifications of proteins with ubiquitin (Ub) and ubiquitin-like modifiers (Ubls), orchestrated by a cascade of specialized E1, E2 and E3 enzymes, control a wide range of cellular processes. To monitor catalysis along these complex reaction pathways, we developed a cascading activity-based probe, UbDha. Similarly to the native Ub, upon ATP-dependent activation by the E1, UbDha can travel downstream to the E2 (and subsequently E3) enzymes through sequential trans-thioesterifications. Unlike the native Ub, at each step along the cascade, UbDha has the option to react irreversibly with active site cysteine residues of target enzymes, thus enabling their detection. We show that our cascading probe 'hops' and 'traps' catalytically active Ub-modifying enzymes (but not their substrates) by a mechanism diversifiable to Ubls. Our founder methodology, amenable to structural studies, proteome-wide profiling and monitoring of enzymatic activity in living cells, presents novel and versatile tools to interrogate Ub and Ubl cascades. PMID:27182664

  1. Deep NuSTAR and Swift Monitoring Observations of the Magnetar 1E 1841-045

    CERN Document Server

    An, Hongjun; Hascoet, Romain; Archibald, Anne M; Beardmore, Andy; Boggs, Steven E; Christensen, Finn E; Craig, William W; Gehrels, Niel; Hailey, Charles J; Harrison, Fiona A; Kennea, Jamie; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Stern, Daniel; Younes, George; Zhang, William W

    2015-01-01

    We report on a 350-ks NuSTAR observation of the magnetar 1E 1841-045 taken in 2013 September. During the observation, NuSTAR detected six bursts of short duration, with $T_{90}<1$ s. An elevated level of emission tail is detected after the brightest burst, persisting for $\\sim$1 ks. The emission showed a power-law decay with a temporal index of 0.5 before returning to the persistent emission level. The long observation also provided detailed phase-resolved spectra of the persistent X-ray emission of the source. By comparing the persistent spectrum with that previously reported, we find that the source hard-band emission has been stable over approximately 10 years. The persistent hard X-ray emission is well fitted by a coronal outflow model, where $e^{+/-}$ pairs in the magnetosphere upscatter thermal X-rays. Our fit of phase-resolved spectra allowed us to estimate the angle between the rotational and magnetic dipole axes of the magnetar, $\\alpha_{mag}=0.25$, the twisted magnetic flux, $2.5\\times10^{26}\\rm ...

  2. NuSTAR observations of the magnetar 1E 2259+586

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, Julia K.; Craig, William W.; Pivovaroff, Michael J. [Physics Division, Physical and Life Sciences Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Hascoët, Romain; Beloborodov, Andrei M.; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Hailey, Charles J. [Physics Department and Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Kaspi, Victoria M.; An, Hongjun; Archibald, Robert [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada); Boggs, Steven E. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Christensen, Finn E. [DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Grefenstette, Brian W.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Madsen, Kristin K. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Kennea, Jamie A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Zhang, William W. [Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    We report on new broad band spectral and temporal observations of the magnetar 1E 2259+586, which is located in the supernova remnant CTB 109. Our data were obtained simultaneously with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and Swift, and cover the energy range from 0.5-79 keV. We present pulse profiles in various energy bands and compare them to previous RXTE results. The NuSTAR data show pulsations above 20 keV for the first time and we report evidence that one of the pulses in the double-peaked pulse profile shifts position with energy. The pulsed fraction of the magnetar is shown to increase strongly with energy. Our spectral analysis reveals that the soft X-ray spectrum is well characterized by an absorbed double blackbody or blackbody plus power-law model in agreement with previous reports. Our new hard X-ray data, however, suggest that an additional component, such as a power law, is needed to describe the NuSTAR and Swift spectrum. We also fit the data with the recently developed coronal outflow model by Beloborodov for hard X-ray emission from magnetars. The outflow from a ring on the magnetar surface is statistically preferred over outflow from a polar cap.

  3. NuSTAR Observations of the Magnetar 1E 2259+586

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Julia K.; Hascoet, Romain; Kaspi, Victoria M.; An, Hongjun; Archibald, Robert; Beloborodov, Andrei M.; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Hailey, Charles J.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Kennea, Jamie A.; Madsen, Kristin K.; Pivovaroff, Michael J.; Stern, Daniel; Zhang, William W.

    2014-01-01

    We report on new broad band spectral and temporal observations of the magnetar 1E 2259+586, which is located in the supernova remnant CTB 109. Our data were obtained simultaneously with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and Swift, and cover the energy range from 0.5-79 keV. We present pulse profiles in various energy bands and compare them to previous RXTE results. The NuSTAR data show pulsations above 20 keV for the first time and we report evidence that one of the pulses in the double-peaked pulse profile shifts position with energy. The pulsed fraction of the magnetar is shown to increase strongly with energy. Our spectral analysis reveals that the soft X-ray spectrum is well characterized by an absorbed double blackbody or blackbody plus power-law model in agreement with previous reports. Our new hard X-ray data, however, suggest that an additional component, such as a power law, is needed to describe the NuSTAR and Swift spectrum. We also fit the data with the recently developed coronal outflow model by Beloborodov for hard X-ray emission from magnetars. The outflow from a ring on the magnetar surface is statistically preferred over outflow from a polar cap.

  4. NuSTAR OBSERVATIONS OF THE MAGNETAR 1E 2259+586

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, Julia K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hascoët, Romain [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Kaspi, Victoria M. [Univ. of Montreal, Quebec (Canada); An, Hongjun [Univ. of Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Archibald, Robert [Univ. of Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Beloborodov, Andrei M. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Boggs, Steven E. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Christensen, Finn E. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark); Craig, William W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gotthelf, Eric V. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Grefenstette, Brian W. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Hailey, Charles J. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Harrison, Fiona A. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Kennea, Jamie A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States); Madsen, Kristin K. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Pivovaroff, Michael J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Stern, Daniel [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Zhang, William W. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    2014-07-01

    We report on new broad band spectral and temporal observations of the magnetar 1E 2259+586, which is located in the supernova remnant CTB 109. Our data were obtained simultaneously with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and Swift, and cover the energy range from 0.5-79 keV. We present pulse profiles in various energy bands and compare them to previous RXTE results. The NuSTAR data show pulsations above 20 keV for the first time and we report evidence that one of the pulses in the double-peaked pulse profile shifts position with energy. The pulsed fraction of the magnetar is shown to increase strongly with energy. Our spectral analysis reveals that the soft X-ray spectrum is well characterized by an absorbed double blackbody or blackbody plus power-law model in agreement with previous reports. Our new hard X-ray data, however, suggest that an additional component, such as a power law, is needed to describe the NuSTAR and Swift spectrum. We also fit the data with the recently developed coronal outflow model by Beloborodov for hard X-ray emission from magnetars. The outflow from a ring on the magnetar surface is statistically preferred over outflow from a polar cap.

  5. 弹丸侵彻明胶靶标的毁伤参数获取方法%Acquirement Method of Damage Parameter of Bullet Penetrating Gelatin Target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭凯

    2014-01-01

    To accurately obtain the parameters of bullet damaging gelatin target,the digital image-processing technology on the basis of improved adaptive mean filter and outline tracking method were put forward to segment contour line of gelatin target.The 3-D modeling technology was used to build 3-D model of damaged cavity,which was based on the methods such as removing pseudo contour-line,polynomial fitting,removing horn according to tangent-line-slope difference and ellipse cross-section method.The penetrated gelatin image shot by the super-speed imaging system was applied to test the method.The three important damage parameters were calculated exactly,including the maximum winking cavity volume,the narrow tract wound length and the transmitted kinetic energy numeric of bullet.The study offers a feasible method to evaluate the damage efficiency of small arm.%为准确获取枪弹对明胶靶标的毁伤参数,采用基于改进型自适应均值滤波、二值化轮廓跟踪法的数字图像预处理技术,实现了被侵彻明胶靶标正交图像的空腔轮廓线提取;采用基于去除伪轮廓线、多项式拟合、切线斜率差去尖角、椭圆截面法的三维建模技术,建立了毁伤空腔模型。以高速摄影系统拍摄的弹丸侵彻明胶靶标图像为实例,对模型进行了验证,计算出了3个重要毁伤参数,即弹丸侵彻最大瞬时空腔体积、窄伤道长度、动能传递量,为枪械杀伤效能评估研究提供了一种可行方法。

  6. Clustering by Pattern Similarity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-xun Wang; Jian Pei

    2008-01-01

    The task of clustering is to identify classes of similar objects among a set of objects. The definition of similarity varies from one clustering model to another. However, in most of these models the concept of similarity is often based on such metrics as Manhattan distance, Euclidean distance or other Lp distances. In other words, similar objects must have close values in at least a set of dimensions. In this paper, we explore a more general type of similarity. Under the pCluster model we proposed, two objects are similar if they exhibit a coherent pattern on a subset of dimensions. The new similarity concept models a wide range of applications. For instance, in DNA microarray analysis, the expression levels of two genes may rise and fall synchronously in response to a set of environmental stimuli. Although the magnitude of their expression levels may not be close, the patterns they exhibit can be very much alike. Discovery of such clusters of genes is essential in revealing significant connections in gene regulatory networks. E-commerce applications, such as collaborative filtering, can also benefit from the new model, because it is able to capture not only the closeness of values of certain leading indicators but also the closeness of (purchasing, browsing, etc.) patterns exhibited by the customers. In addition to the novel similarity model, this paper also introduces an effective and efficient algorithm to detect such clusters, and we perform tests on several real and synthetic data sets to show its performance.

  7. Clustering in bubbly liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Bernardo; Zenit, Roberto

    2004-11-01

    We are conducting experiments to determine the amount of clustering that occurs when small gas bubbles ascend in clean water. In particular, we are interested in flows for which the liquid motion around the bubbles can be described, with a certain degree of accuracy, using potential flow theory. This model is applicable for the case of bubbly liquids in which the Reynolds number is large and the Weber number is small. To clearly observe the formation of bubble clusters we propose the use of a Hele-Shaw-type channel. In this thin channel the bubbles cannot overlap in the depth direction, therefore the identification of bubble clusters cannot be misinterpreted. Direct video image analysis is performed to calculate the velocity and size of the bubbles, as well as the formation of clusters. Although the walls do affect the motion of the bubbles, the clustering phenomena does occur and has the same qualitative behavior as in fully three-dimensional flows. A series of preliminary measurements are presented. A brief discussion of our plans to perform PIV measurements to obtain the liquid velocity fields is also presented.

  8. Evolution of a Powerful Radio Loud Quasar 3C186 and its Impact on the Cluster Environment at z=1

    CERN Document Server

    Siemiginowska, Aneta; Burke, Doug; Bechtold, Jill; Cheung, C C; LaMassa, Stephanie; Worrall, Diana M

    2007-01-01

    X-ray cluster emission has been observed mainly in clusters with "inactive" cD galaxies (L_bol ~1E40-1E43erg/sec), which do not show signs of accretion onto a SMBH. Our recent Chandra discovery of ~100kpc scale diffuse X-ray emission revealed the presence of an X-ray cluster associated with the radio loud quasar 3C186 at redshift z=1.1 and suggests interactions between the quasar and the cluster. In contrast to the majority of X-ray clusters the 3C186 cluster contains a quasar in the center whose radiative power alone exceeds that which would be needed to quench the cluster cooling. We present the Chandra X-ray data and new deep radio and optical images of this cluster. The 3C186 quasar is a powerful Compact Steep Spectrum radio source expanding into the cluster medium. The 2arcsec radio jet is unresolved in the Chandra observation, but its direction is orthogonal to the elliptical surface brightness of the cluster. The radio data show the possible presence of old radio lobes on 10 arcsec scale in the directi...

  9. AKT1E17K Is Oncogenic in Mouse Lung and Cooperates with Chemical Carcinogens in Inducing Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanga, Donatella; Belmonte, Stefania; Colelli, Fabiana; Scarfò, Marzia; De Marco, Carmela; Oliveira, Duarte Mendes; Mirante, Teresa; Camastra, Caterina; Gagliardi, Monica; Rizzuto, Antonia; Mignogna, Chiara; Paciello, Orlando; Papparella, Serenella; Fagman, Henrik; Viglietto, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The hotspot AKT1E17K mutation in the pleckstrin homology domain of AKT1 occurs in approximately 0.6–2% of human lung cancers. Recently, we have demonstrated that AKT1E17K transforms immortalized human bronchial cells. Here by use of a transgenic Cre-inducible murine strain in the wild type Rosa26 (R26) locus (R26-AKT1E17K mice) we demonstrate that AKT1E17K is a bona-fide oncogene and plays a role in the development of lung cancer in vivo. In fact, we report that mutant AKT1E17K induces bronchial and/or bronchiolar hyperplastic lesions in murine lung epithelium, which progress to frank carcinoma at very low frequency, and accelerates tumor formation induced by chemical carcinogens. In conclusion, AKT1E17K induces hyperplasia of mouse lung epithelium in vivo and cooperates with urethane to induce the fully malignant phenotype. PMID:26859676

  10. Clusters in Light Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, C; Zafra, A Sanchez i; Thummerer, S; Azaiez, F; Bednarczyk, P; Courtin, S; Curien, D; Dorvaux, O; Goasduff, A; ~Lebhertz, D; Nourreddine, A; ~Rousseau, M; Salsac, M -D; von Oertzen, W; Gebauer, B; Wheldon, C; Kokalova, Tz; Efimov, G; Zherebchevsky, V; Schulz, Ch; Bohlen, H G; Kamanin, D; de Angelis, G; Gadea, A; Lenzi, S; Napoli, D R; Szilner, S; Milin, M; Catford, W N; Jenkins, D G; Royer, G

    2010-01-01

    A great deal of research work has been undertaken in the alpha-clustering study since the pioneering discovery, half a century ago, of 12C+12C molecular resonances. Our knowledge of the field of the physics of nuclear molecules has increased considerably and nuclear clustering remains one of the most fruitful domains of nuclear physics, facing some of the greatest challenges and opportunities in the years ahead. In this work, the occurence of "exotic" shapes in light N=Z alpha-like nuclei is investigated. Various approaches of superdeformed and hyperdeformed bands associated with quasimolecular resonant structures are presented. Results on clustering aspects are also discussed for light neutron-rich Oxygen isotopes.

  11. Vanadogermanate cluster anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, T; Wang, X; Jacobson, A J

    2003-06-16

    Three novel vanadogermanate cluster anions have been synthesized by hydrothermal reactions. The cluster anions are derived from the (V(18)O(42)) Keggin cluster shell by substitution of V=O(2+) "caps" by Ge(2)O(OH)(2)(4+) species. In Cs(8)[Ge(4)V(16)O(42)(OH)(4)].4.7H(2)O, 1, (monoclinic, space group C2/c (No. 15), Z = 8, a = 44.513(2) A, b = 12.7632(7) A, c = 22.923(1) A, beta = 101.376(1) degrees ) and (pipH(2))(4)(pipH)(4)[Ge(8)V(14)O(50).(H(2)O)] (pip = C(4)N(2)H(10)), 2 (tetragonal, space group P4(2)/nnm (No. 134), Z = 2, a = 14.9950(7) A, c = 18.408(1) A), two and four VO(2+) caps are replaced, respectively, and each cluster anion encapsulates a water molecule. In K(5)H(8)Ge(8)V(12)SO(52).10H(2)O, 3, (tetragonal, space group I4/m (No. 87), Z = 2, a = 15.573(1) A, c = 10.963(1) A), four VO(2+) caps are replaced by Ge(2)O(OH)(2)(4+) species, and an additional two are omitted. The cluster ion in 3 contains a sulfate anion disordered over two positions. The cluster anions are analogous to the vanadoarsenate anions [V(18)(-)(n)()As(2)(n)()O(42)(X)](m)(-) (X = SO(3), SO(4), Cl; n = 3, 4) previously reported. PMID:12793808

  12. Expression and identification of the ADF-linker-3-1E gene of Eimeria acervulina of chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuelan, Zhao; Yiwei, Liu; Liyuan, Liu; Yue, Zhao; Wenbo, Cao; Yongzhan, Bao; Jianhua, Qin

    2016-04-01

    Coccidiosis is a widely distributed disease with higher mortality and morbidity, which is caused by several species of protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Eimeria and recognized as a serious challenge for the poultry industry. This research was conducted to construct the recombinant plasmid pET32a(+)-ADF-linker-3-1E of Eimeria acervulina (E. acervulina) of the chicken and test the bioactivity of the ADF-linker-3-1E protein. The ADF-linker-3-1E gene of E. acervulina of the chicken was cloned by splicing by overlap extension by the polymerase chain reaction (SOE-PCR) and then inserted into the pET32a(+) to construct the recombinant plasmid pET32a(+)-ADF-linker-3-1E. The recombinant plasmid was transformed into Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3) competent cells and then induced by IPTG (0.6 mmol/L). The expressed product in the culture medium was identified by the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The bioactivity of the ADF-linker-3-1E protein was tested by Western blotting. The result showed that the amplified ADF-linker-3-1E gene was about 1346 bp. The PCR amplification with the recombinant plasmid pET-32a(+)-ADF-linker-3-1E as a template resulted in a special band of 1346 bp. The digested products resulted in two fragments of 1346 bp target fragment and 5.9 kb pET-32a(+)-vector fragment. The results indicated that the ADF-linker3-1E gene was successfully inserted into the pET-32a(+)-vector. The expressed products in the culture medium resulted in a single band of approximately 54.8 kDa by SDS-PAGE. Western blotting analysis indicated that the recombinant protein could be reacted specifically with His-Tag(2A8) Mouse mAb. This study indicated that the ADF-linker-3-1E protein with good bioactivity was successfully obtained, which laid a foundation for the exploitation of the nuclear vaccine by using the ADF-linker-3-1E protein. PMID:26767375

  13. Refractory chronic cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitsikostas, Dimos D; Edvinsson, Lars; Jensen, Rigmor H;

    2014-01-01

    for clinical and research use. The preparation of the final consensus followed three stages. Internal between authors, a larger between all European Headache Federation members and finally an international one among all investigators that have published clinical studies on cluster headache the last five years......Chronic cluster headache (CCH) often resists to prophylactic pharmaceutical treatments resulting in patients' life damage. In this rare but pragmatic situation escalation to invasive management is needed but framing criteria are lacking. We aimed to reach a consensus for refractory CCH definition...

  14. Kinematics of Clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Steven; Metcalfe, Guy; Wu, Jie

    2014-01-01

    The dynamical system for inertial particles in fluid flow has both attracting and repelling regions, the interplay of which can localize particles. In laminar flow experiments we find that particles, initially moving throughout the fluid domain, can undergo an instability and cluster into subdomains of the fluid when the flow Reynolds number exceeds a critical value that depends on particle and fluid inertia. We derive an expression for the instability boundary and for a universal curve that describes the clustering rate for all particles.

  15. South Asian Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Sergiu Pirju

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at presenting the South Asian cluster composed of India, Indonesia, Iran and Malaysia, the intercultural values that characterizes it, the supported leadership style and tracing the main macroeconomic considerations which characterizes them. The research is synchronic, analysing the contemporary situation of these countries without reference to their evolution in time, by using the positivist paradigm that explains the reality at one point. It will be analysed the overall cluster with the existing interactions between the countries that composes it, while the article being one of information will avoid building recommendation, or new theories.

  16. Cluster's last stand?

    OpenAIRE

    Lockwood, Mike

    1997-01-01

    On 4 June last year the first attempt to make three-dimensional measurements in space was lost when the Ariane 5 rocket veered off course and self-destructed, 39 s into its maiden flight. On board were four identical spacecraft which made up Cluster,a mission that the European Space Agency called a “cornerstone” of its Horizon 2000 scientific programme. A full description of the Cluster satellites is given in a special issue of Space Science Reviews (Escoubet et al. 1997). Their loss de...

  17. Clustering Game Behavior Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauckhage, C.; Drachen, Anders; Sifa, Rafet

    2015-01-01

    and other techniques for player profiling and play style analysis have, therefore, become popular in the nascent field of game analytics. However, the proper use of clustering techniques requires expertise and an understanding of games is essential to evaluate results. With this paper, we address game data...... scientists and present a review and tutorial focusing on the application of clustering techniques to mine behavioral game data. Several algorithms are reviewed and examples of their application shown. Key topics such as feature normalization are discussed and open problems in the context of game analytics...

  18. An Emerge Approach in Inter Cluster Similarity for Quality Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Venkateswara Reddy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Relationship between the datasets is one most important issue in recent years. The recent methods are based mostly on the numerical data, but these methods are not suitable for real time data such as web pages, business transactions etc., which are known as Categorical data. It is difficult to find relationship in categorical data. In this paper, a new approach is proposed for finding the relationshipbetween the categorical data, hence to find relationship between the clusters. The main aim is to identify the quality clusters based on the relationship between clusters. If there is no relationship between clusters then those clusters are treated as quality clusters.

  19. 弹载高冲击一体化子母弹子弹飞行姿态测量系统%The Integrative High Impact Embed Bullet Flying Attitude Detection System of Some Shrapnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文丰; 任勇峰; 王强

    2012-01-01

    为了测试获取子母弹爆炸抛撒后的子弹飞行姿态,采用基于MEMS惯性测量组合与动态存储测试技术相结合的方法来测试子母弹子弹的飞行姿态,对系统的组成、工作原理和主要关键技术的实现途径进行了详细的介绍.系统以MEMS三维角速度和三维加速度的惯性测量组合为姿态敏感元件,一体化的子母弹子弹飞行姿态测量记录器主要由FLASH存储器、FPGA为中心控制器及多通道高速12位模数转换器等组成.记录器具有多通道、低功耗、体积小、大容量、高精度及嵌入子弹内部随子弹飞行测量等优点.系统试验结果表明:该系统能够准确获取子弹从抛撒到中靶的整个过程的姿态数据.%For getting the bullet attitude of some shrapnel after it is dispersed, the method based on MEMS IMU and the dynamic storage test technology is integrated for testing the bullet attitude of shrapnel. The principle of operation, the system composition and major critical implements is provided. The attitude sense organ is three axis angular velocity transducer and three axis accelerometer, the integrative bullet attitude of some shrapnel recorder is composed by flash memory, FPGA ( the center controller) and multi-channel high speed 12 bit ADC, etc. The merits of the recorder are multi-channel, low power dissipation, small in size but high storage capacity, high-precision and can be embed the bullet flying with it for real attitude detecting. The system test result of the flight test proves that the integrated system can get the flight attitude data, which is the bullet from firing to hitting the target.

  20. 97式18.4 mm动能痛块弹终点效应实验%Research on Experiment Terminal Effect of 97 Type 18.4 mm Kinetic Energy Pain Block Bullet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱永杰; 翟晓军; 董旭丹

    2013-01-01

    In order to promote the anti-riot kinetic energy weapon and ammunition to play an effective role, it is necessary to make a scientific and systemic research on the terminal effect of anti-riot kinetic energy weapon and ammunition. Take the 97 type 18.4 mm kinetic energy pain block bullet as an example, on the ground of analyzing the action mechanism of kinetic energy bullet on the human target, with establishing an experimental firing platform, using gelatin simulated target and high-speed photography and recording system, this paper carries out the end effect experiment of the bullet in different shooting distance. By analyzing the experimental data and error correction, combining with foreign relevant research results, this paper obtained that the effective range of the bullet is 30 m~45 m, the ideal non-lethal end effect value of the kinetic energy pain block bullet is a ratio of kinetic energy of 8.2 J/cm2, it is of great help of the scientific use of this type of an-riot weapons and ammunition.%为了促进防暴动能武器及其弹药有效发挥作用,有必要对其终点效应进行系统科学的研究.以97式18.4 mm动能痛块弹为例,在分析动能弹丸对人体目标作用机理的基础上,通过建立实验射击平台,选用明胶模拟靶标,利用高速摄影记录系统,进行了该弹在不同射击距离上的终点效应实验.经过实验数据分析和误差修正,结合国外相关研究成果,得到该型号动能弹实际有效作用范围是30 m~45 m,较为理想的非致命终点效应值是打击比动能8.2 J/cm2,为该类防暴武器及弹药的科学使用及优化改进提供帮助.

  1. The Swift/Fermi GRB 080928 from 1 eV to 150 keV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonbas, Eda; Rossi, A.; Schulze, S.; Klose, S.; Kann, D. A.; Ferrero, P.; NicuesaGuelbenzu, A.; Rau, A.; Kruehler, T.; Greiner, J.; Schady, P.; Afonso, P. M. J.; Clemens, C.; Filgas, R.; KuepcuYoldas, A.; McBreen, S.; Olivares, F.; Szokoly, G.; Yoldas, A.; Krimm, H. A.; Johannesson, G.; Panaitescu, A.; Yuan, F.; Pandey, S. B.; Akerlof, C. W.

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of a comprehensive study of the Gamma-Ray Burst 080928 and of its afterglow. GRB 08092 was a long burst detected by Swift/BAT and Fermi/GBM, It is one of the exceptional cases where optical emission was already detected when the GRB itself was still radiating in the gamma-ray band. for nearly 100 seconds simultaneous optical X-ray and gamma-ray data provide a coverage of the spectral energy distribution of the transient source from about 1 eV to 150 keV. Here we analyze the prompt emission, constrain its spectral propertIes. and set lower limits on the initial Lorentz factor of the relativistic outflow, In particular. we show that the SED during the main prompt emission phase is in agreement with synchrotron radiation. We construct the optical/near-infrared light curve and the spectral energy distribution based on Swift/UVOT. ROTSE-Illa (Australia) and GROND (La Silla) data and compare it to the X-ray light curve retrieved from the Swift/XRT repository. We show that its bumpy shape can be modeled by multiple energy injections into the forward shock. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the temporal and spectral evolution of the first strong flare seen in the early X-ray light curve can be explained by large-angle emission. Finally, we report on the results of our search for the GRB host galaxy, for which only a deep upper limit can be provided.

  2. Analysis of chromatin attachment and partitioning functions of bovine papillomavirus type 1 E2 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abroi, Aare; Ilves, Ivar; Kivi, Sirje; Ustav, Mart

    2004-02-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the tethering of viral genomes to host cell chromosomes could provide one of the ways to achieve their nuclear retention and partitioning during extrachromosomal maintenance in dividing cells. The data we present here provide firm evidence that the partitioning of the bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV1) genome is dependent on the chromatin attachment process mediated by viral E2 protein and its multiple binding sites. On the other hand, the attachment of E2 and the E2-mediated tethering of reporter plasmids to host chromosomes are not necessarily sufficient for efficient partitioning, suggesting that additional E2-dependent activities might be involved in the latter process. The activity of E2 protein in chromatin attachment and partitioning is more sensitive to the point mutations in the N-terminal domain than its transactivation and replication initiation functions. Therefore, at least part of the interactions of the E2 N-terminal domain with its targets during the chromatin attachment and partitioning processes are likely to involve specific receptors not involved in transactivation and replication activities of the protein. The mutational analysis also indicates that the binding of E2 to chromatin is not achieved through interaction of linear N-terminal subsequences of the E2 protein with putative receptors. Instead, the composite surface elements of the N-terminal domain build up the receptor-binding surface of E2. In this regard, the interaction of BPV1 E2 with its chromosomal targets clearly differs from the interactions of LANA1 protein from Kaposi's sarcoma-associated human herpesvirus and EBNA1 from Epstein-Barr virus with their specific receptors. PMID:14747575

  3. NuSTAR observations of magnetar 1E 1841–045

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Hongjun; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Dufour, François; Archibald, Robert [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada); Hascoët, Romain; Beloborodov, Andrei M.; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Hailey, Charles J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Bachetti, Matteo [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Christensen, Finn E. [DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Greffenstette, Brian W.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Madsen, Kristin K. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Kitaguchi, Takao [RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Kouveliotou, Chryssa [Space Science Office, ZP12, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Markwardt, Craig B. [Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Vogel, Julia K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); and others

    2013-12-20

    We report new spectral and temporal observations of the magnetar 1E 1841–045 in the Kes 73 supernova remnant obtained with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array. Combined with new Swift and archival XMM-Newton and Chandra observations, the phase-averaged spectrum is well characterized by a blackbody plus double power law, in agreement with previous multimission X-ray results. However, we are unable to reproduce the spectral results reported based on Suzaku observations. The pulsed fraction of the source is found to increase with photon energy. The measured rms pulsed fractions are ∼12% and ∼17% at ∼20 and ∼50 keV, respectively. We detect a new feature in the 24-35 keV band pulse profile that is uniquely double peaked. This feature may be associated with a possible absorption or emission feature in the phase-resolved spectrum. We fit the X-ray data using the recently developed electron-positron outflow model by Beloborodov for the hard X-ray emission from magnetars. This produces a satisfactory fit, allowing a constraint on the angle between the rotation and magnetic axes of the neutron star of ∼20° and on the angle between the rotation axis and line of sight of ∼50°. In this model, the soft X-ray component is inconsistent with a single blackbody; adding a second blackbody or a power-law component fits the data. The two-blackbody interpretation suggests a hot spot of temperature kT ≈ 0.9 keV occupying ∼1% of the stellar surface.

  4. Combining cluster number counts and galaxy clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Lacasa, Fabien

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed modelling of the joint covariance matrix between cluster number counts and the galaxy angular power spectrum. To this end, we use a Halo Model framework complemented by a Halo Occupation Distribution model (HOD), and we work in full-sky. We demonstrate the importance of accounting for non-Gaussianity to produce accurate covariance predictions, as the Gaussian part of the covariance can in fact become subdominant in certain configurations. We discuss in particular the case of the super-sample covariance (SSC), including the effects of galaxy shot-noise, halo second order bias and non-local bias, and demonstrating interesting mathematical properties. Using the joint covariance matrix and a Fisher matrix methodology, we examine the prospects of combining these two probes to constrain cosmological and HOD parameters. We find that the combination indeed results in noticeable better constraints, in particular because the cross-covariance introduces a synergy between the probes on small scales....

  5. Localized attack on clustering networks

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Gaogao; Du, Ruijin; Shao, Shuai; Stanley, H Eugene; Shlomo, Havlin

    2016-01-01

    Clustering network is one of which complex network attracting plenty of scholars to discuss and study the structures and cascading process. We primarily analyzed the effect of clustering coefficient to other various of the single clustering network under localized attack. These network models including double clustering network and star-like NON with clustering and random regular (RR) NON of ER networks with clustering are made up of at least two networks among which exist interdependent relation among whose degree of dependence is measured by coupling strength. We show both analytically and numerically, how the coupling strength and clustering coefficient effect the percolation threshold, size of giant component, critical coupling point where the behavior of phase transition changes from second order to first order with the increase of coupling strength between the networks. Last, we study the two types of clustering network: one type is same with double clustering network in which each subnetwork satisfies ...

  6. Projection effects in cluster catalogues

    CERN Document Server

    Van Haarlem, M P; White, S D M

    1997-01-01

    We investigate the importance of projection effects in the identification of galaxy clusters in 2D galaxy maps and their effect on the estimation of cluster velocity dispersions. A volume limited galaxy catalogue that was derived from a Standard CDM N-body simulation was used. We select clusters using criteria that match those employed in the construction of real cluster catalogues and find that our mock Abell cluster catalogues are heavily contaminated and incomplete. Over one third (34 per cent) of clusters of richness class R>=1 are miclassifications arising from the projection of one or more clumps onto an intrinsically poor cluster. Conversely, 32 per cent of intrinsically rich clusters are missed from the R>=1 catalogues, mostly because of statistical fluctuations in the background count. Selection by X-ray luminosity rather than optical richness reduces, but does not completely eliminate, these problems. Contamination by unvirialised sub-clumps near a cluster leads to a considerable overestimation of t...

  7. CSNK1E/CTNNB1 Are Synthetic Lethal To TP53 in Colorectal Cancer and Are Markers for Prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khong-Loon Tiong

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Two genes are called synthetic lethal (SL if their simultaneous mutations lead to cell death, but each individual mutation does not. Targeting SL partners of mutated cancer genes can kill cancer cells specifically, but leave normal cells intact. We present an integrated approach to uncovering SL pairs in colorectal cancer (CRC. Screening verified SL pairs using microarray gene expression data of cancerous and normal tissues, we first identified potential functionally relevant (simultaneously differentially expressed gene pairs. From the top-ranked pairs, ~20 genes were chosen for immunohistochemistry (IHC staining in 171 CRC patients. To find novel SL pairs, all 169 combined pairs from the individual IHC were synergistically correlated to five clinicopathological features, e.g. overall survival. Of the 11 predicted SL pairs, MSH2-POLB and CSNK1E-MYC were consistent with literature, and we validated the top two pairs, CSNK1E-TP53 and CTNNB1-TP53 using RNAi knockdown and small molecule inhibitors of CSNK1E in isogenic HCT-116 and RKO cells. Furthermore, synthetic lethality of CSNK1E and TP53 was verified in mouse model. Importantly, multivariate analysis revealed that CSNK1E-P53, CTNNB1-P53, MSH2-RB1, and BRCA1-WNT5A were independent prognosis markers from stage, with CSNK1E-P53 applicable to early-stage and the remaining three throughout all stages. Our findings suggest that CSNK1E is a promising target for TP53-mutant CRC patients which constitute ~40% to 50% of patients, while to date safety regarding inhibition of TP53 is controversial. Thus the integrated approach is useful in finding novel SL pairs for cancer therapeutics, and it is readily accessible and applicable to other cancers.

  8. Clustering of resting state networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan H Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The goal of the study was to demonstrate a hierarchical structure of resting state activity in the healthy brain using a data-driven clustering algorithm. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The fuzzy-c-means clustering algorithm was applied to resting state fMRI data in cortical and subcortical gray matter from two groups acquired separately, one of 17 healthy individuals and the second of 21 healthy individuals. Different numbers of clusters and different starting conditions were used. A cluster dispersion measure determined the optimal numbers of clusters. An inner product metric provided a measure of similarity between different clusters. The two cluster result found the task-negative and task-positive systems. The cluster dispersion measure was minimized with seven and eleven clusters. Each of the clusters in the seven and eleven cluster result was associated with either the task-negative or task-positive system. Applying the algorithm to find seven clusters recovered previously described resting state networks, including the default mode network, frontoparietal control network, ventral and dorsal attention networks, somatomotor, visual, and language networks. The language and ventral attention networks had significant subcortical involvement. This parcellation was consistently found in a large majority of algorithm runs under different conditions and was robust to different methods of initialization. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The clustering of resting state activity using different optimal numbers of clusters identified resting state networks comparable to previously obtained results. This work reinforces the observation that resting state networks are hierarchically organized.

  9. 树脂基防弹防刺材料的研究%The Research of Resin Based Bullet and Puncture Proof Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高晓清; 左向春; 袁承军; 樊凤彬

    2012-01-01

    本文通过不同芳纶织物与改性环氧树脂复合实验,优选出适用防弹防刺材料的增强体,并最终制备出防弹防刺材料。实验表明材料满足GA141—2010《警用防弹衣》、GA68—2008《警用防刺服》3级标准要求,且轻质、柔软、舒适,具有良好的市场前景。%Bullet and puncture proof materials finally have been made in this paper by applying modified epoxy on different aramid fabrics and optimizing the ingredients of composite. It shows that the materials which are light-weight, soft, flexible have a good perspective of application meet all the requirement of level 3 in the standard of GA141-2010 "Police Ballistic Resistance of Body Armor" and the standard of GA68-2008 "Stab Resistance Body Armor for Police".

  10. PVM Support for Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, P.

    2000-01-01

    The latest version of PVM (3.4.3) now contains support for a PC cluster running Linux, also known as a Beowulf system. A PVM user of a computer outside the Beowulf system can add the Beowulf as a single machine.

  11. Evolution of Galaxy Clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Bagla, J. S.

    1997-01-01

    We show that the galaxy correlation function does not evolve in proportion with the correlation function of the underlying mass distribution. Earliest galaxies cluster very strongly and the amplitude of the galaxy correlation function decreases from this large value. This continues till the average peaks have collapsed, after which, the galaxy correlation function does not evolve very strongly.

  12. Fuzzy clustering of mechanisms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amitabha Ghosh; Dilip Kumar Pratihar; M V V Amarnath; Guenter Dittrich; Jorg Mueller

    2012-10-01

    During the course of development of Mechanical Engineering, a large number of mechanisms (that is, linkages to perform various types of tasks) have been conceived and developed. Quite a few atlases and catalogues were prepared by the designers of machines and mechanical systems. However, often it is felt that a clustering technique for handling the list of large number of mechanisms can be very useful,if it is developed based on a scientific principle. In this paper, it has been shown that the concept of fuzzy sets can be conveniently used for this purpose, if an adequate number of properly chosen attributes (also called characteristics) are identified. Using two clustering techniques, the mechanisms have been classified in the present work and in future, it may be extended to develop an expert system, which can automate type synthesis phase of mechanical design. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this type of clustering of mechanisms has not been attempted before. Thus, this is the first attempt to cluster the mechanisms based on some quantitative measures. It may help the engineers to carry out type synthesis of the mechanisms.

  13. Clustering under Perturbation Resilience

    CERN Document Server

    Balcan, Maria Florina

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Bilu and Linial \\cite{BL} formalized an implicit assumption often made when choosing a clustering objective: that the optimum clustering to the objective should be preserved under small multiplicative perturbations to distances between points. They showed that for max-cut clustering it is possible to circumvent NP-hardness and obtain polynomial-time algorithms for instances resilient to large (factor $O(\\sqrt{n})$) perturbations, and subsequently Awasthi et al. \\cite{ABS10} considered center-based objectives, giving algorithms for instances resilient to O(1) factor perturbations. In this paper, we greatly advance this line of work. For the $k$-median objective, we present an algorithm that can optimally cluster instances resilient to $(1 + \\sqrt{2})$-factor perturbations, solving an open problem of Awasthi et al.\\cite{ABS10}. We additionally give algorithms for a more relaxed assumption in which we allow the optimal solution to change in a small $\\epsilon$ fraction of the points after perturbation. ...

  14. Clustering high dimensional data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assent, Ira

    2012-01-01

    High-dimensional data, i.e., data described by a large number of attributes, pose specific challenges to clustering. The so-called ‘curse of dimensionality’, coined originally to describe the general increase in complexity of various computational problems as dimensionality increases, is known to...

  15. Detecting alternative graph clusterings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandala, Supreet; Kumara, Soundar; Yao, Tao

    2012-07-01

    The problem of graph clustering or community detection has enjoyed a lot of attention in complex networks literature. A quality function, modularity, quantifies the strength of clustering and on maximization yields sensible partitions. However, in most real world networks, there are an exponentially large number of near-optimal partitions with some being very different from each other. Therefore, picking an optimal clustering among the alternatives does not provide complete information about network topology. To tackle this problem, we propose a graph perturbation scheme which can be used to identify an ensemble of near-optimal and diverse clusterings. We establish analytical properties of modularity function under the perturbation which ensures diversity. Our approach is algorithm independent and therefore can leverage any of the existing modularity maximizing algorithms. We numerically show that our methodology can systematically identify very different partitions on several existing data sets. The knowledge of diverse partitions sheds more light into the topological organization and helps gain a more complete understanding of the underlying complex network.

  16. Galactic Open Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Von Hippel, T

    2005-01-01

    The study of open clusters has a classic feel to it since the subject predates anyone alive today. Despite the age of this topic, I show via an ADS search that its relevance and importance in astronomy has grown faster in the last few decades than astronomy in general. This is surely due to both technical reasons and the interconnection of the field of stellar evolution to many branches of astronomy. In this review, I outline what we know today about open clusters and what they have taught us about a range of topics from stellar evolution to Galactic structure to stellar disk dissipation timescales. I argue that the most important astrophysics we have learned from open clusters is stellar evolution and that its most important product has been reasonably precise stellar ages. I discuss where open cluster research is likely to go in the next few years, as well as in the era of 20m telescopes, SIM, and GAIA. Age will continue to be of wide relevance in astronomy, from cosmology to planet formation timescales, an...

  17. Disentangling Porterian Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagtfelt, Tue

    intertwined and that Porter’s consciously paradigmatic textbook very likely gained worldwide influence due to two interrelated factors. The first factor is the deliberately holistic gestalt figure propounded in Nations, which prompted scientific communities to pursue cluster research; the second factor...

  18. Curriculum Guide Construction Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Ken

    As part of a model construction cluster curriculum development project, this guide was developed and implemented in the Beaverton (Oregon) School District. The curriculum guide contains 16 units covering the following topics: introduction to construction jobs; safety and first aid; blueprint readings; basic mathematics; site work; framing; roofing…

  19. Data clustering algorithms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, Charu C

    2013-01-01

    Research on the problem of clustering tends to be fragmented across the pattern recognition, database, data mining, and machine learning communities. Addressing this problem in a unified way, Data Clustering: Algorithms and Applications provides complete coverage of the entire area of clustering, from basic methods to more refined and complex data clustering approaches. It pays special attention to recent issues in graphs, social networks, and other domains.The book focuses on three primary aspects of data clustering: Methods, describing key techniques commonly used for clustering, such as fea

  20. Quartile Clustering: A quartile based technique for Generating Meaningful Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Goswami, Saptarsi

    2012-01-01

    Clustering is one of the main tasks in exploratory data analysis and descriptive statistics where the main objective is partitioning observations in groups. Clustering has a broad range of application in varied domains like climate, business, information retrieval, biology, psychology, to name a few. A variety of methods and algorithms have been developed for clustering tasks in the last few decades. We observe that most of these algorithms define a cluster in terms of value of the attributes, density, distance etc. However these definitions fail to attach a clear meaning/semantics to the generated clusters. We argue that clusters having understandable and distinct semantics defined in terms of quartiles/halves are more appealing to business analysts than the clusters defined by data boundaries or prototypes. On the samepremise, we propose our new algorithm named as quartile clustering technique. Through a series of experiments we establish efficacy of this algorithm. We demonstrate that the quartile clusteri...

  1. Cloning, sequence analysis, and expression of the genes encoding lytic functions of Bacteriophage phi g1e.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, M; Kakikawa, M; Yamada, K; Taketo, A; Kodaira, K I

    1996-10-17

    The lysis genes of a Lactobacillus phage phi g1e were cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli. Nucleotide sequencing of a 3813-bp phi g1e DNA revealed five successive open reading frames (ORF), Rorf50, Rorf118, hol, and lys and Rorf175, in the same DNA strand. By comparative analysis of the DNA sequence, the putative hol product (holin) has an estimated molecular weight is 14.2 kDa, and contains two potential transmembrane helices and highly charged N- and C-termini, resembling predicted holins (which are thought to be a cytoplasmic membrane-disrupting protein) encoded by other phages such as mv1 from Lactobacillus bulgaricus, phi adh from Lactobacillus gasseri, as well as monocins from Listeria. On the other hand, the putative phi g1e lys product (lysin) of 48.4 kDa shows significant similarity with presumed muramidase, known as a cell wall peptidoglycandegrading enzyme, encoded by the Lactobacillus phage mv1 and phi adh, the Lactococcus lactis phage phi LC3, and the Streptococcus pneumoniae phages Cp-1, Cp-7 and Cp-9. When expressed in E. coli, the phi g1e lysin and/or holin decreased the cell turbidity significantly, suggesting that the phi g1e hol-lys system is involved in cytolytic process. PMID:8918256

  2. The Rotation of Galaxy Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovmassian, H. M.

    2015-09-01

    The method for detection of the galaxy cluster rotation based on the study of distribution of member galaxies with velocities lower and higher than the cluster mean velocity over the cluster image is proposed. The search for rotation is made for flat clusters with a/b > 1.8 and BMI type clusters which are expected to be rotating. For comparison there were studied also round clusters and clusters of NBMI type, the second by brightness galaxy, which does not differ significantly from the cluster cD galaxy. Seventeen out of studied 65 clusters are found to be rotating. It was found that the detection rate is sufficiently high for flat clusters, over 60%, and clusters of BMI type with dominant cD galaxy, ≈ 35% . The obtained results show that clusters were formed from the huge primordial gas clouds and preserved the rotation of the primordial clouds, unless they did not experience mergings with other clusters and groups of galaxies, as a result of which the rotation was prevented.

  3. The rotation of Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Tovmassian, Hrant M

    2015-01-01

    The method for detection of the galaxy cluster rotation based on the study of distribution of member galaxies with velocities lower and higher of the cluster mean velocity over the cluster image is proposed. The search for rotation is made for flat clusters with $a/b>1.8$ and BMI type clusters which are expected to be rotating. For comparison there were studied also round clusters and clusters of NBMI type, the second by brightness galaxy in which does not differ significantly from the cluster cD galaxy. Seventeen out of studied 65 clusters are found to be rotating. It was found that the detection rate is sufficiently high for flat clusters, over 60\\%, and clusters of BMI type with dominant cD galaxy, ~ 35%. The obtained results show that clusters were formed from the huge primordial gas clouds and preserved the rotation of the primordial clouds, unless they did not have merging with other clusters and groups of galaxies, in the result of which the rotation has been prevented.

  4. Single-cluster dynamics for the random-cluster model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, Y.; Qian, X.; Blöte, H.W.J.

    2009-01-01

    We formulate a single-cluster Monte Carlo algorithm for the simulation of the random-cluster model. This algorithm is a generalization of the Wolff single-cluster method for the q-state Potts model to noninteger values q>1. Its results for static quantities are in a satisfactory agreement with those

  5. Bright Young Star Clusters in NGC5253 with LEGUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzetti, Daniela; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Adamo, Angela; Gallagher, John S.; Andrews, Jennifer E.; Smith, Linda J.; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Lee, Janice C.; Sabbi, Elena; Ubeda, Leonardo; Kim, Hwihyun; Ryon, Jenna E.; Thilker, David A.; Bright, Stacey N.; Zackrisson, Erik; Kennicutt, Robert; de Mink, Selma E.; Whitmore, Bradley C.; Aloisi, Alessandra; Chandar, Rupali; Cignoni, Michele; Cook, David; Dale, Daniel A.; Elmegreen, Bruce; Elmegreen, Debra M.; Evans, Aaron S.; Fumagalli, Michele; Gouliermis, Dimitrios; Grasha, Kathryn; Grebel, Eva; Krumholz, Mark R.; Walterbos, Rene A. M.; Wofford, Aida; Brown, Thomas M.; Christian, Carol A.; Dobbs, Claire; Herrero-Davo`, Artemio; Kahre, Lauren; Messa, Matteo; Nair, Preethi; Nota, Antonella; Östlin, Göran; Pellerin, Anne; Sacchi, Elena; Schaerer, Daniel; Tosi, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Using UV-to-H broad and narrow-band HST imaging, we derive the ages and masses of the 11 brightest star clusters in the dwarf galaxy NGC5253. This galaxy, located at ~3 Mpc, hosts an intense starburst, which includes a centrally-concentrated dusty region with strong thermal radio emission (the `radio nebula'). The HST imaging includes data from the Cycle 21 Treasury Program LEGUS (Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey), in addition to narrow--band H-alpha (6563 A), P-beta (12820 A), and P-alpha (18756 A). The bright clusters have ages ~1-15 Myr and masses ~1E4 - 2.5E5 Msun. Two of the 11 star clusters are located within the radio nebula, and suffer from significant dust attenuation. Both are extremely young, with a best-fit age around 1 Myr, and masses ~7.5E4 and ~2.5E5 Msun, respectively. The most massive of the two `radio nebula' clusters is 2-4 times less massive than previously estimated and is embedded within a cloud of dust with A_V~50 mag. The two clusters account for about half of the ionizing photon rate in the radio nebula, and will eventually supply about 2/3 of the mechanical energy in present-day shocks. Additional sources are required to supply the remaining ionizing radiation, and may include very massive stars.

  6. New Limits On Gamma-Ray Emission From Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Griffin, Rhiannon D; Kochanek, Christopher S

    2014-01-01

    Galaxy clusters are predicted to produce gamma-rays through cosmic ray interactions and/or dark matter annihilation, potentially detectable by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT). We present a new, independent stacking analysis of Fermi-LAT photon count maps using the 79 richest nearby clusters (z<0.12) from the Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) cluster catalog. We obtain the lowest limit on the photon flux to date, 1.1e-11 ph/s/cm^2 (95% confidence) per cluster in the 0.8--100~GeV band, which corresponds to a luminosity limit of 1.7e44 ph/s. We also constrain the emission limits in a range of narrower energy bands. Scaling to recent cosmic ray acceleration and gamma-ray emission models, we find that cosmic rays represent a negligible contribution to the intra-cluster energy density and gas pressure. Furthermore, either accretion shocks must have lower Mach numbers than usually assumed (2--4) or significantly less than 50% of the baryon mass has been processed through such shocks, and thus, the majo...

  7. Analytic strong-coupling expansion in 1/e for the electron propagator without fermion loops in quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting from the path-integral representation for the electron propagator without fermion loops in QED, we analytically investigate the strong-coupling behavior in an arbitrary background electromagnetic field through a series expansion in powers of 1/e. Contrary to the perturbation theory expansion in e the new series only contains positive powers of the derivative operator p. Due to infrared singularities in the path integral the series does not exist beyond the lowest orders, although one can build a systematic expansion in powers of p (not 1/e) which can be calculated up to any order. To handle infinities we regularize using a Pauli-Villars approach. The introduction of fermion loops would not correspond to higher orders in 1/e, so a priori our results are only pertinent to the sector of QED we have chosen. 17 refs., 1 fig

  8. THE ATACAMA COSMOLOGY TELESCOPE: PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SUNYAEV-ZEL'DOVICH EFFECT CLUSTERS ON THE CELESTIAL EQUATOR {sup ,}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menanteau, Felipe; Hughes, John P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Sifon, Cristobal; Barrientos, L. Felipe; Duenner, Rolando; Infante, Leopoldo [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Facultad de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Battaglia, Nicholas [McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Bond, J. Richard; Hajian, Amir; Hincks, Adam D. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Crichton, Devin; Gralla, Megan; Marriage, Tobias A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218-2686 (United States); Das, Sudeep [High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Hasselfield, Matthew [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Hilton, Matt [Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban (South Africa); Kosowsky, Arthur [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Pittsburgh, 100 Allen Hall, 3941 O' Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Marsden, Danica [Department of Physics, University of California Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); and others

    2013-03-01

    We present the optical and X-ray properties of 68 galaxy clusters selected via the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect at 148 GHz by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). Our sample, from an area of 504 deg{sup 2} centered on the celestial equator, is divided into two regions. The main region uses 270 deg{sup 2} of the ACT survey that overlaps with the co-added ugriz imaging from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) over Stripe 82 plus additional near-infrared pointed observations with the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 m telescope. We confirm a total of 49 clusters to z Almost-Equal-To 1.3, of which 22 (all at z > 0.55) are new discoveries. For the second region, the regular-depth SDSS imaging allows us to confirm 19 more clusters up to z Almost-Equal-To 0.7, of which 10 systems are new. We present the optical richness, photometric redshifts, and separation between the SZ position and the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG). We find no significant offset between the cluster SZ centroid and BCG location and a weak correlation between optical richness and SZ-derived mass. We also present X-ray fluxes and luminosities from the ROSAT All Sky Survey which confirm that this is a massive sample. One of the newly discovered clusters, ACT-CL J0044.4+0113 at z = 1.1 (photometric), has an integrated XMM-Newton X-ray temperature of kT{sub X} = 7.9 {+-} 1.0 keV and combined mass of M {sub 200a} = 8.2{sup +3.3} {sub -2.5} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} h {sup -1} {sub 70} M {sub Sun }, placing it among the most massive and X-ray-hot clusters known at redshifts beyond z = 1. We also highlight the optically rich cluster ACT-CL J2327.4-0204 (RCS2 2327) at z = 0.705 (spectroscopic) as the most significant detection of the whole equatorial sample with a Chandra-derived mass of M {sub 200a} = 1.9{sup +0.6} {sub -0.4} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} h {sup -1} {sub 70} M {sub Sun }, placing it in the ranks of the most massive known clusters like El Gordo and the Bullet Cluster.

  9. Eclipsing binaries in open clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, John; Clausen, J.V.

    2006-01-01

    Stars: fundamental parameters - Stars : binaries : eclipsing - Stars: Binaries: spectroscopic - Open clusters and ass. : general Udgivelsesdato: 5 August......Stars: fundamental parameters - Stars : binaries : eclipsing - Stars: Binaries: spectroscopic - Open clusters and ass. : general Udgivelsesdato: 5 August...

  10. Radio observations of Planck clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Kale, Ruta

    2012-01-01

    Recently, a number of new galaxy clusters have been detected by the ESA-Planck satellite, the South Pole Telescope and the Atacama Cosmology Telescope using the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect. Several of the newly detected clusters are massive, merging systems with disturbed morphology in the X-ray surface brightness. Diffuse radio sources in clusters, called giant radio halos and relics, are direct probes of cosmic rays and magnetic fields in the intra-cluster medium. These radio sources are found to occur mainly in massive merging clusters. Thus, the new SZ-discovered clusters are good candidates to search for new radio halos and relics. We have initiated radio observations of the clusters detected by Planck with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope. These observations have already led to the detection of a radio halo in PLCKG171.9-40.7, the first giant halo discovered in one of the new Planck clusters.

  11. The Evolution of Cluster Substructure

    CERN Document Server

    Jeltema, T E; Bautz, M W; Buote, D A; Jeltema, Tesla E.; Canizares, Claude R.; Bautz, Mark W.; Buote, David A.

    2003-01-01

    Using Chandra archival data, we have begun a study to quantify the evolution of cluster morphology with redshift. To quantify cluster morphology, we use the power ratio method developed by Buote and Tsai (1995). Power ratios are constructed from moments of the two-dimensional gravitational potential and are, therefore, related to a cluster's dynamical state. Our sample will include around 50 clusters from the Chandra archive with redshifts between 0.11 and 1.1. These clusters were selected from two fairly complete flux-limited X-ray surveys (the ROSAT Bright Cluster Sample and the Einstein Medium Sensitivity Survey), and additional high-redshift clusters were selected from recent ROSAT flux-limited surveys. Here we present preliminary results from the first 15 clusters in this sample. Of these, eight have redshifts below 0.5, and seven have redshifts above 0.5.

  12. Detailed atmosphere modelling for the neutron star 1E1207.4-5209: Evidence of Oxygen/Neon atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Mori, Kaya; Hailey, Charles J,

    2003-01-01

    We present a comprehensive investigation of the two broad absorption features observed in the X-ray spectrum of the neutron star 1E1207.4-5209 based on a recent analysis of the 260 ksec XMM-Newton data by Mori et al. 2005. Expanding on our earlier work (Hailey & Mori 2002) we have examined all previously proposed atmospheric models for 1E1207.4-5209. Using our atomic code, which rapidly solves Schrodinger's equation for arbitrary ion in strong magnetic field (Mori & Hailey 2002), we have syst...

  13. Investigation of the {sup 1}E{sub 2g}{sup {minus}} states in cyclic polyenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracken, P.; Cizek, J. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-03-05

    An analysis withing the one-dimensional Hubbard model of the {sup 1}E{sub 2g}{sup {minus}} type state in cyclic polyenes is reported. In terms of the resonance integral {beta}, a small {beta} analysis and asymptotic large {beta} analysis have been carried out. Energy as a function of {beta} has been calculated numerically, and a second state with {sup 1}E{sub 2g}{sup {minus}} symmetry has been found. Some missing information about the higher momentum state of this symmetry is provided. 15 refs., 4 tabs.

  14. Textile Industrial Clusters in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nie Ting

    2010-01-01

    @@ "National Textile Industry Cluster Development Seminar" convened,held by China National Textile and Apparel Council,23 cities and towns were awarded as China's Textile Industry Cluster Pilot District.By far,China's textile industrial clusters have grown to 164,which indicate a quick and gorgeous development.These textile industrial clusters have a great impact on the local economy and even the whole national textile industry's development.

  15. [Cluster analysis in biomedical researches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akopov, A S; Moskovtsev, A A; Dolenko, S A; Savina, G D

    2013-01-01

    Cluster analysis is one of the most popular methods for the analysis of multi-parameter data. The cluster analysis reveals the internal structure of the data, group the separate observations on the degree of their similarity. The review provides a definition of the basic concepts of cluster analysis, and discusses the most popular clustering algorithms: k-means, hierarchical algorithms, Kohonen networks algorithms. Examples are the use of these algorithms in biomedical research. PMID:24640781

  16. Clustering analysis using Swarm Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Farmani, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the application of the swarm intelligence methods in clustering analysis of datasets. The main objectives of the thesis are ∙ Take the advantage of a novel evolutionary algorithm, called artificial bee colony, to improve the capability of K-means in finding global optimum clusters in nonlinear partitional clustering problems. ∙ Consider partitional clustering as an optimization problem and an improved antbased algorithm, named Opposition-Based A...

  17. Defining Clusters of Related Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Mercedes Delgado; Porter, Michael E.; Scott Stern

    2014-01-01

    Clusters are geographic concentrations of industries related by knowledge, skills, inputs, demand, and/or other linkages. A growing body of empirical literature has shown the positive impact of clusters on regional and industry performance, including job creation, patenting, and new business formation. There is an increasing need for cluster-based data to support research, facilitate comparisons of clusters across regions, and support policymakers and practitioners in defining regional strate...

  18. Practical Introduction to Clustering Data

    CERN Document Server

    Hartmann, Alexander K

    2016-01-01

    Data clustering is an approach to seek for structure in sets of complex data, i.e., sets of "objects". The main objective is to identify groups of objects which are similar to each other, e.g., for classification. Here, an introduction to clustering is given and three basic approaches are introduced: the k-means algorithm, neighbour-based clustering, and an agglomerative clustering method. For all cases, C source code examples are given, allowing for an easy implementation.

  19. The Assembly of Galaxy Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrier, Joel C.; Stewart, Kyle R.; Bullock, James S.; Purcell, Chris W.; Barton, Elizabeth J.; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2008-05-16

    We study the formation of fifty-three galaxy cluster-size dark matter halos (M = 10{sup 14.0-14.76} M{sub {circle_dot}}) formed within a pair of cosmological {Lambda}CDM N-body simulations, and track the accretion histories of cluster subhalos with masses large enough to host {approx} 0.1L{sub *} galaxies. By associating subhalos with cluster galaxies, we find the majority of galaxies in clusters experience no 'pre-processing' in the group environment prior to their accretion into the cluster. On average, {approx} 70% of cluster galaxies fall into the cluster potential directly from the field, with no luminous companions in their host halos at the time of accretion; and less than {approx} 12% are accreted as members of groups with five or more galaxies. Moreover, we find that cluster galaxies are significantly less likely to have experienced a merger in the recent past ({approx}< 6 Gyr) than a field halo of the same mass. These results suggest that local, cluster processes like ram-pressure stripping, galaxy harassment, or strangulation play the dominant role in explaining the difference between cluster and field populations at a fixed stellar mass; and that pre-evolution or past merging in the group environment is of secondary importance for setting cluster galaxy properties for most clusters. The accretion times for z = 0 cluster members are quite extended, with {approx} 20% incorporated into the cluster halo more than 7 Gyr ago and {approx} 20% within the last 2 Gyr. By comparing the observed morphological fractions in cluster and field populations, we estimate an approximate time-scale for late-type to early-type transformation within the cluster environment to be {approx} 6 Gyr.

  20. Massive star clusters in galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, William E

    2009-01-01

    The ensemble of all star clusters in a galaxy constitutes its star cluster system. In this review, the focus of the discussion is on the ability of star clusters, particularly the systems of old massive globular clusters (GCSs), to mark the early evolutionary history of galaxies. I review current themes and key findings in GCS research, and highlight some of the outstanding questions that are emerging from recent work.

  1. On clusters and clustering from atoms to fractals

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, PJ

    1993-01-01

    This book attempts to answer why there is so much interest in clusters. Clusters occur on all length scales, and as a result occur in a variety of fields. Clusters are interesting scientifically, but they also have important consequences technologically. The division of the book into three parts roughly separates the field into small, intermediate, and large-scale clusters. Small clusters are the regime of atomic and molecular physics and chemistry. The intermediate regime is the transitional regime, with its characteristics including the onset of bulk-like behavior, growth and aggregation, a

  2. Recovery Rate of Clustering Algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Fajie; Klette, Reinhard; Wada, T; Huang, F; Lin, S

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a simple and general way for defining the recovery rate of clustering algorithms using a given family of old clusters for evaluating the performance of the algorithm when calculating a family of new clusters. Under the assumption of dealing with simulated data (i.e., known old

  3. Analytical Approximations to Galaxy Clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Mo, H. J.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss some recent progress in constructing analytic approximations to the galaxy clustering. We show that successful models can be constructed for the clustering of both dark matter and dark matter haloes. Our understanding of galaxy clustering and galaxy biasing can be greatly enhanced by these models.

  4. Geographic Projection of Cluster Composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nerbonne, J.; Bosveld-de Smet, L.M.; Kleiweg, P.; Blackwell, A.; Marriott, K.; Shimojima, A.

    2004-01-01

    A composite cluster map displays a fuzzy categorisation of geographic areas. It combines information from several sources to provide a visualisation of the significance of cluster borders. The basic technique renders the chance that two neighbouring locations are members of different clusters as the

  5. Programming with MPI on clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors discuss the current state of development for the key aspects of MPI programming on clusters. These aspects are the evolution of the MPI Standard itself, developments in cluster hardware and system software that directly affect MPI implementations, and supporting software that facilitates the use of MPI on scalable clusters. In each case we give a brief background and summarize the current status

  6. Adaptive Clustering of Hypermedia Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew; Fotouhi, Farshad

    1996-01-01

    Discussion of hypermedia systems focuses on a comparison of two types of adaptive algorithm (genetic algorithm and neural network) in clustering hypermedia documents. These clusters allow the user to index into the nodes to find needed information more quickly, since clustering is "personalized" based on the user's paths rather than representing…

  7. Binaries in globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hut, Piet; Mcmillan, Steve; Goodman, Jeremy; Mateo, Mario; Phinney, E. S.; Pryor, Carlton; Richer, Harvey B.; Verbunt, Frank; Weinberg, Martin

    1992-01-01

    Recent observations have shown that globular clusters contain a substantial number of binaries most of which are believed to be primordial. We discuss different successful optical search techniques, based on radial-velocity variables, photometric variables, and the positions of stars in the color-magnitude diagram. In addition, we review searches in other wavelengths, which have turned up low-mass X-ray binaries and more recently a variety of radio pulsars. On the theoretical side, we give an overview of the different physical mechanisms through which individual binaries evolve. We discuss the various simulation techniques which recently have been employed to study the effects of a primordial binary population, and the fascinating interplay between stellar evolution and stellar dynamics which drives globular-cluster evolution.

  8. Di - lambpha cluster states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lightest (p, n, Λ) closed-shell hypernucleus sub(ΛΛ) sup(6)He can be considered as a most likely candidate for the unit of hypernuclear cluster structure. First the internal structure of lambpha, α sub(Λ) = sub(ΛΛ) sup(6)He, is investigated by solving the α + Λ + Λ three-body problem microscopically. The compact h. o. wave function (0 s)6 is found to be a good description for α sub(Λ). Secondly, by using the fully microscopic GCM, we have demonstrated that di - α sub(Λ) cluster states constitute a characteristic rotational band of J = 0+ -- 6+. The E2 transition rate from particle - stable 2+ to 0+ states is predicted to be 2 - order faster than the weak decay rate of this system. (author)

  9. Outskirts of Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Reiprich, Thomas H; Ettori, Stefano; Israel, Holger; Lovisari, Lorenzo; Molendi, Silvano; Pointecouteau, Etienne; Roncarelli, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    Until recently, only about 10% of the total intracluster gas volume had been studied with high accuracy, leaving a vast region essentially unexplored. This is now changing and a wide area of hot gas physics and chemistry awaits discovery in galaxy cluster outskirts. Also, robust large-scale total mass profiles and maps are within reach. First observational and theoretical results in this emerging field have been achieved in recent years with sometimes surprising findings. Here, we summarize and illustrate the relevant underlying physical and chemical processes and review the recent progress in X-ray, Sunyaev--Zel'dovich, and weak gravitational lensing observations of cluster outskirts, including also brief discussions of technical challenges and possible future improvements.

  10. Are megaquakes clustered?

    CERN Document Server

    Daub, Eric G; Guyer, Robert A; Johnson, Paul A

    2012-01-01

    We study statistical properties of the number of large earthquakes over the past century. We analyze the cumulative distribution of the number of earthquakes with magnitude larger than threshold M in time interval T, and quantify the statistical significance of these results by simulating a large number of synthetic random catalogs. We find that in general, the earthquake record cannot be distinguished from a process that is random in time. This conclusion holds whether aftershocks are removed or not, except at magnitudes below M = 7.3. At long time intervals (T = 2-5 years), we find that statistically significant clustering is present in the catalog for lower magnitude thresholds (M = 7-7.2). However, this clustering is due to a large number of earthquakes on record in the early part of the 20th century, when magnitudes are less certain.

  11. Tailoring and Scaling Energetic Aluminum Clusters into Cluster Assembled Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jordan Cesar

    As matter decreases in size the importance of a single atom increases exponentially. The properties of clusters, molecules with less than 100 atoms, will change drastically with the addition or removal of a single atom. Clusters have been shown to have properties that mimic other elements and properties that are completely unique. Cluster assemblies could enable the tailoring of precise properties in materials, providing cheap replacements for expensive elements, or novel materials for new applications. Aluminum clusters show great potential use in many applications including energy and catalysis. This work is focused on gaining a better understanding of how geometry and electronic structure affect aluminum cluster reactivity and how useful clusters might be successfully assembled into materials. The effects of doping aluminum cluster ions with boron atoms are reported and show that the addition of a single boron atom usually stabilizes the cluster while adding more boron atoms results in a breaking of symmetry and destabilization. A new analytical technique, matrix isolation cavity ring-down spectroscopy (MICRDS) was developed to help bridge the gap between gas phase cluster studies and condensed phase cluster materials. Molecules are trapped in an inert matrix and studied using cavity ring-down spectroscopy. MICRDS has the potential to also combine clusters into small stable units that would maintain their advantageous gas phase properties.

  12. Clusters and entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado, Mercedes; Porter, Michael E.; Stern, Scott, 1969-

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the role of regional clusters in regional entrepreneurship. We focus on the distinct influences of convergence and agglomeration on growth in the number of start-up firms as well as in employment in these new firms in a given region-industry. While reversion to the mean and diminishing returns to entrepreneurship at the region-industry level can result in a convergence effect, the presence of complementary economic activity creates externalities that enhance incentives a...

  13. Clusters, Governance and Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Neto, Paulo; Serrano, Maria Manuel

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important aspects of current economical and social reality of each local and regional territory, and very much determinative for its economic development potential, is the nature of its territorial organization of the productive processes, as well as, the characteristics, and sophistication level, of the enterprise strategies that are functioning in it. This paper seeks to contribute to the ongoing discussion on the role of clusters as engines of economic and social developmen...

  14. Astrophysics of galaxy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettori, Stefano

    2016-07-01

    As the nodes of the cosmic web, clusters of galaxies trace the large-scale distribution of matter in the Universe. They are thus privileged sites in which to investigate the complex physics of structure formation. However, the complete story of how these structures grow, and how they dissipate the gravitational and non-thermal components of their energy budget over cosmic time, is still beyond our grasp. Most of the baryons gravitationally bound to the cluster's halo is in the form of a diffuse, hot, metal-enriched plasma that radiates primarily in the X-ray band. X-ray observations of the evolving cluster population provide a unique opportunity to address such fundamental open questions as: How do hot diffuse baryons accrete and dynamically evolve in dark matter potentials? How and when was the energy that we observe in the ICM generated and distributed? Where and when are heavy elements produced and how are they circulated? We will present the ongoing activities to define the strategy on how an X-ray observatory with large collecting area and an unprecedented combination of high spectral and angular resolution, such as Athena, can address these questions.

  15. Support Policies in Clusters: Prioritization of Support Needs by Cluster Members According to Cluster Life Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulcin Salıngan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Economic development has always been a moving target. Both the national and local governments have been facing the challenge of implementing the effective and efficient economic policy and program in order to best utilize their limited resources. One of the recent approaches in this area is called cluster-based economic analysis and strategy development. This study reviews key literature and some of the cluster based economic policies adopted by different governments. Based on this review, it proposes “the cluster life cycle” as a determining factor to identify the support requirements of clusters. A survey, designed based on literature review of International Cluster support programs, was conducted with 30 participants from 3 clusters with different maturity stage. This paper discusses the results of this study conducted among the cluster members in Eskişehir- Bilecik-Kütahya Region in Turkey on the requirement of the support to foster the development of related clusters.

  16. Polymorphisms in CACNA1E and Camk2d are associated with seizure susceptibility of Sprague-Dawley rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkers, K.; Mescheriakova, J.; Majoie, M.; Lemmens, E.; Wijk, X.M.R. van; Philippens, M.; Kranen-Mastenbroek, V.H. van; Schijns, O.; Vles, J.; Hoogland, G.

    2010-01-01

    Seizures are associated with high intracellular calcium levels. However, conditions characterized by high intracellular calcium levels, such as stroke or traumatic brain injury, do not always evoke epilepsy. We hypothesized that polymorphisms in calcium-related genes CACNA1E and Camk2d contribute to

  17. A Burst and Simultaneous Short-Term Pulsed Flux Enhancement from the Magnetar Candidate 1E 1048.1-5937

    CERN Document Server

    Gavriil, F P; Woods, P M; Gavriil, Fotis P.; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Woods, Peter M.

    2006-01-01

    We report on the 2004 June 29 burst detected from the direction of the Anomalous X-ray Pulsar (AXP) 1E 1048.1-5937 using the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). We find a simultaneous increase of ~3.5 times the quiescent value in the 2-10 keV pulsed flux of 1E 1048.1-5937 during the tail of the burst which identifies the AXP as the burst's origin. The burst was overall very similar to the two others reported from the direction of this source in 2001. The unambiguous identification of 1E 1048.1-5937 as the burster here confirms it was the origin of the 2001 bursts as well. The epoch of the burst peak was very close to the arrival time of 1E 1048.1-5937's pulse peak. The burst exhibited significant spectral evolution with the trend going from hard to soft. During the 11 days following the burst, the AXP was observed further with RXTE, XMM-Newton and Chandra. Pre- and post-burst observations revealed no change in the total flux or spectrum of the quiescent emission. Comparing all three bursts detected thus far f...

  18. Two distinct regions of the BPV1 E1 replication protein interact with the activation domain of E2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscufo, N; Sverdrup, F; Breiding, D E; Androphy, E J

    1999-12-15

    Papillomavirus E1 and E2 proteins co-operation in viral DNA replication is mediated by protein-protein interactions that lead to formation of an E1-E2 complex. To identify the domains involved, portions of the two proteins were expressed as fusions to the DNA-binding protein LexA or the transactivation domain of VP16 and analyzed by the yeast two-hybrid system. The C-terminal 266 amino acids of BPV1 E1 (E1C266) interacted strongly with E2 in the yeast system and in a mammalian two-hybrid assay. VP16-E1C266 interacted with a region encompassing amino acids 1-200 of the transactivation domain of E2 that was fused to LexA. The interaction between E1 full length and E2 was clearly observed only when E1 was expressed as LexA-E1 chimera. In addition, we found that in the LexA context also the N-terminal region encompassing the first 340 amino acids of E1 (E1N340) interacted with E2 full length. The interactions of E1N340 and E1C266 with E2 were confirmed also by in vitro binding studies. These observations demonstrate that two distinct regions of E1 mediate the interaction with E2 in vivo. PMID:10581387

  19. Discovery of a pulsar wind nebula around the Magnetar Candidate AXP 1E1547.0-5408

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, J.; Bamba, A.

    2009-01-01

    We report the detection of extended emission around the anomalous X-ray pulsar 1E1547.0-5408 using archival data of the Chandra X-ray satellite. The extended emission consists of an inner part, with an extent of 45 , and an outer part with an outer radius of 2. 9, which coincides with a supernova re

  20. The Relationship between Eating Disorders and ICAM-1, E-selection and Ghrelin Resting Level in Overweight People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Sharifi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction There is an agreement that eating disorder is related to psychological characteristics and on the other hand, level of ghrelin hormone, Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 and E-selection also change during eating disorders. We aimed to study the relationship between eating disorders and rest levels, ICAM-1, E-selection, and ghrelin hormone in obese people. Materials and Methods  In this quasi-experimental study, 120 obese men (25-30 years old were purposefully selected. Then the data about their eating disorders gathered with eating attitudes test (EAT-26 questionnaire. In the next phase in the rest condition and after overnight fasting, blood samples are collected for measurement of rest levels, ICAM-1, E-selection, and ghrelin hormone. Finally the data were analyzed with appropriate statistical tests in SPSS version 18. Results Mean and deviation of rest levels, ICAM-1, E-selection, and ghrelin hormone were respectively 3064.19, 61.5±19.7, and 2.5±1.5 and there was not any statistical significance relationship between eating disorders ICAM-1, E-selection, and ghrelin hormone in obese men (P

  1. NuSTAR and INTEGRAL observations of a low/hard state of 1E1740.7-2942

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Natalucci, Lorenzo; Tomsick, John A.; Bazzano, Angela;

    2014-01-01

    The microquasar 1E1740.7-2942, also known as the "Great Annihilator", was observed by NuSTAR in the Summer of 2012. We have analyzed in detail two observations taken ~2 weeks apart, for which we measure hard and smooth spectra typical of the low/hard state. A few weeks later the source flux decli...

  2. NuSTAR Observations of X-ray Bursts from the Magnetar 1E 1048.1-5937

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    An, Hongjun; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Beloborodov, Andrei M.;

    2014-01-01

    We report the detection of eight bright X-ray bursts from the 6.5 s magnetar 1E 1048.1–5937, during a 2013 July observation campaign with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array. We study the morphological and spectral properties of these bursts and their evolution with time. The bursts resulte...

  3. Cluster headache after orbital exenteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, S; Sörös, P; Brilla, R; Gerding, H; Husstedt, I W

    1997-10-01

    A 37-year-old man developed an ipsilateral headache which fulfilled the criteria for cluster headache after orbital extenteration because of a traumatic lesion of the bulb. The headache could be treated successfully by drugs usually applied in the therapy of cluster headache. Six similar cases of cluster headache after orbital exenteration could be identified in the literature suggesting that the eye itself is not necessarily part of the pathogenesis of cluster headache. We hypothesize that orbital exenteration can cause cluster headache by lesions of sympathetic structures. Possibly, these mechanisms are similar to those of sympathetic reflex dystrophy (Sudeck-Leriche syndrome) causing pain of the limbs. PMID:9350391

  4. Cluster Based Text Classification Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nizamani, Sarwat; Memon, Nasrullah; Wiil, Uffe Kock

    2011-01-01

    We propose a cluster based classification model for suspicious email detection and other text classification tasks. The text classification tasks comprise many training examples that require a complex classification model. Using clusters for classification makes the model simpler and increases......, the classifier is trained on each cluster having reduced dimensionality and less number of examples. The experimental results show that the proposed model outperforms the existing classification models for the task of suspicious email detection and topic categorization on the Reuters-21578 and 20 Newsgroups...... datasets. Our model also outperforms A Decision Cluster Classification (ADCC) and the Decision Cluster Forest Classification (DCFC) models on the Reuters-21578 dataset....

  5. Multiscale hierarchical support vector clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Michael Saas; Holm, David Alberg; Sjöstrand, Karl; Ley, Carsten Dan; Rowland, Ian John; Larsen, Rasmus

    2008-03-01

    Clustering is the preferred choice of method in many applications, and support vector clustering (SVC) has proven efficient for clustering noisy and high-dimensional data sets. A method for multiscale support vector clustering is demonstrated, using the recently emerged method for fast calculation of the entire regularization path of the support vector domain description. The method is illustrated on artificially generated examples, and applied for detecting blood vessels from high resolution time series of magnetic resonance imaging data. The obtained results are robust while the need for parameter estimation is reduced, compared to support vector clustering.

  6. Silicon clusters: Chemistry and structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarrold, M.F.; Ray, U.; Ijiri, Y. (AT and T Bell Labs., Murray Hill, NJ (USA))

    1991-01-01

    The chemical reactions of size selected silicon cluster ions (containing up to 70 atoms) have been studied with a number of different reagents using injected ion drift tube techniques. Both kinetic and equilibrium measurements have been performed as a function of temperature, and the influence of cluster annealing on chemical reactivity explored. Unlike metal clusters, where bulk behavior appears to be approached with around 30 atoms, large silicon clusters (n up to 70) are much less reactive than bulk silicon surfaces. These results suggest that the clusters in the size range examined here are not small crystals of bulk silicon, but have compact, high coordination number structures with few dangling bonds. (orig.).

  7. Molecular Cloning and Expression of MaNPR1E Gene from Banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Cavendish)%香蕉NPR 1E 基因的克隆及表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卓; 徐碧玉; 贾彩红; 李健平; 刘菊华; 张建斌; 苗红霞; 金志强

    2015-01-01

    NPR1基因可参与调节植物对病原菌的广谱抗性,在植物系统抗性中起着关键的调控作用。通过RACE (rapid-amplification of cDNA ends)方法从香蕉根系中获得NPR1E基因,命名为MaNPR1E(GenBank登录号分别为: KF582550)。 MaNPR1E是香蕉NPR1基因编码框全长cDNA,包含一个1755 bp的最大开放阅读框,编码一个含584个氨基酸的蛋白质。经蛋白质序列同源比对发现,其含有完整的BTB/POZ结构域、锚蛋白重复ANK序列和NPR1-like-C结构域,属于典型的NPR1蛋白。系统进化树比对分析表明, MaNPR1E与海枣PdNPR3(XP_008808341.1)和油棕EgNPR3(XP_010914123.1)的亲缘关系较近。组织特异性研究表明,该基因组成型表达于香蕉各组织。实时荧光定量PCR分析表明,接种枯萎病菌后MaNPR1E的表达在感病品种中被抑制,而在抗病品种中被激活; MaNPR1E的表达受乙烯利和水杨酸的诱导。上述结果表明, MaNPR1E可能在香蕉抗枯萎病过程中扮演重要的调控角色。%NPR1(nonexpressor of PR gene 1), involved in regulating plant broad-spectrum resistance, plays important roles in plant system resistance. In this study, we report the molecular characteristics of NPR1E gene cloned from banana(Musa acuminate L. AAA group, cv. Cavendish)using a RACE-PCR-based strategy. MaNPR1E(accession number: KF582550) contained an open reading frame of 1 755 bp which encoded a polypeptide of 584 amino acids. Protein alignment showed that they contain the complete typical conserved BTB/POZ (BR-C, ttk and bab/Pox virus and Zinc finger)domain, ankyrin repeats and NPR1/NIM1 like defence protein C terminal, which belongs to a typical NPR1 protein. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the deduced amino acid sequences of MaNPR1E also have high similarity to PdNPR3 (XP_008808341.1) and EgNPR3 (XP_010914123.1) from Phoenix dactylifera and Elaeis guineensis, respectively. Tissue-specific studies showed that the expression of MaNPR1E was constitutive

  8. Clustering Methodologies for Software Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Shtern

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The size and complexity of industrial strength software systems are constantly increasing. This means that the task of managing a large software project is becoming even more challenging, especially in light of high turnover of experienced personnel. Software clustering approaches can help with the task of understanding large, complex software systems by automatically decomposing them into smaller, easier-to-manage subsystems. The main objective of this paper is to identify important research directions in the area of software clustering that require further attention in order to develop more effective and efficient clustering methodologies for software engineering. To that end, we first present the state of the art in software clustering research. We discuss the clustering methods that have received the most attention from the research community and outline their strengths and weaknesses. Our paper describes each phase of a clustering algorithm separately. We also present the most important approaches for evaluating the effectiveness of software clustering.

  9. Statistics of sunspot group clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getko Ryszarda

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Zubrzycki method is utilized to find all sunspot groups which are close to each other during each Carrington rotation. The sunspot group areas and their positions for the years 1874–2008 are used. The descending, the ascending and the maximum phases of solar cycles for each solar hemisphere are considered separately. To establish the size of the region D where the clusters are searched, the correlation function dependent on the distance between two groups is applied. The method estimates the weighted area of each cluster. The weights dependent on the correlation function of distances between sunspot groups created each cluster. For each cluster the weighted position is also evaluated. The weights dependent on the areas of sunspot groups created a given cluster. The number distribution of the sunspot groups created each cluster and the cluster statistics within different phases of the 11-year cycle and within all considered solar cycles are also presented.

  10. Caveolin-1, E-cadherin and β-catenin in Gastric Carcinoma, Precancerous Tissues and Chronic Non-atrophic Gastritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-yang Sun; Jun-xia Wu; Jian-sheng Wu; Yu-ting Pan; Rong Jin

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the expressions of caveolin-1,E-cadherin and β-catenin in gastric carcinoma,precancerous gastric and chronic non-atrophic gastritis tissues,and evaluate the correlation of these expressions with the development of gastric cancer.Methods:The expressions of caveolin-1,E-cadherin and β-catenin were detected by biotin-streptavidinperoxidase (SP) immunohistochemistry on 58 gastric cancer tissues,40 precancerous gastric tissues and 42 chronic non-atrophic gastritis tissues.The correlation between the expressions of caveolin-1,E-cadherin and β-catenin,and the clinicopathologic parameters of gastric cancer was analyzed retrospectively.Results:The positive rates of caveolin-1 and E-cadherin expressions in gastric carcinoma were significantly lower than precancerous gastric and chronic non-atrophic gastritis tissues (P<0.01).An abnormal rate of β-catenin expression in gastric carcinoma was higher than precancerous gastric and chronic non-atrophic gastritis tissues (P<0.01).Moreover,low expressions of caveolin-1,E-cadherin and β-catenin correlated with tumor size,depth of invasion,lymph node metastasis and TNM stage (P<0.05).The positive rates of caveolin-1 and E-cadherin expressions decreased (P<0.01),while an abnormal rate of β-catenin expression increased inversely,with the degree of atypical hyperplasia (P<0.01).Caveolin-1 expression correlated positively with E-cadherin (r=0.41,P<0.05).Caveolin-1 (r=-0.36,P<0.05) and E-cadherin (r=-0.45,P<0.05) expressions negatively correlated with abnormal β-catenin expression.Conclusion:These results suggested that dysregulated expressions of caveolin-1,E-cadherin and β-catenin correlated with the development of gastric cancer and its biological behavior.

  11. Convex clustering: an attractive alternative to hierarchical clustering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary K Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal in cluster analysis is to discover natural groupings of objects. The field of cluster analysis is crowded with diverse methods that make special assumptions about data and address different scientific aims. Despite its shortcomings in accuracy, hierarchical clustering is the dominant clustering method in bioinformatics. Biologists find the trees constructed by hierarchical clustering visually appealing and in tune with their evolutionary perspective. Hierarchical clustering operates on multiple scales simultaneously. This is essential, for instance, in transcriptome data, where one may be interested in making qualitative inferences about how lower-order relationships like gene modules lead to higher-order relationships like pathways or biological processes. The recently developed method of convex clustering preserves the visual appeal of hierarchical clustering while ameliorating its propensity to make false inferences in the presence of outliers and noise. The solution paths generated by convex clustering reveal relationships between clusters that are hidden by static methods such as k-means clustering. The current paper derives and tests a novel proximal distance algorithm for minimizing the objective function of convex clustering. The algorithm separates parameters, accommodates missing data, and supports prior information on relationships. Our program CONVEXCLUSTER incorporating the algorithm is implemented on ATI and nVidia graphics processing units (GPUs for maximal speed. Several biological examples illustrate the strengths of convex clustering and the ability of the proximal distance algorithm to handle high-dimensional problems. CONVEXCLUSTER can be freely downloaded from the UCLA Human Genetics web site at http://www.genetics.ucla.edu/software/.

  12. Web Fuzzy Clustering and a Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Mao-fu; HE Jing; HE Yan-xiang; HU Hui-jun

    2004-01-01

    We combine the web usage mining and fuzzy clustering and give the concept of web fuzzy clustering, and then put forward the web fuzzy clustering processing model which is discussed in detail. Web fuzzy clustering can be used in the web users clustering and web pages clustering. In the end, a case study is given and the result has proved the feasibility of using web fuzzy clustering in web pages clustering.

  13. Research on the Anti-bullet Performance of Composite Structure with Aerogel Interlayer%以气凝胶为夹层的复合结构抗弹性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨杰; 李树奎; 王富耻

    2012-01-01

    The composite targets made of bulletproof fibers, SiC/Al composite material and ceramics in which the aerogel is an interlayer were tested, and the anti-bullet performance of composite structure with aerogel interlayer were studied. The results show that, when the aerogel is combined with bulletproof fibers, the aerogel interlayer could improve the anti-bullet performance of composite target because the deformation of bulletproof fibers is greater due to the low strength of aerogel interlayer. Thus the energy absorption capacity of composite targets improves significantly, and the non-penetrability damage of projectile can also be prevented. When the aerogel is combined with SiC/Al composite material, the anti-bullet performance of composite target improves slightly. The aerogel interlayer could improve the integrality of composite material faceplate after ballistic experiment obviously. When aerogel is combined with ceramics, ceramic faceplate may be bent due to the insufficient support of the aerogel interlayer, resulting in the decrease in the anti-bullet performance of composite target.%对气凝胶分别与防弹纤维、SiC/A1复合材料和陶瓷组成的复合靶板进行靶试试验,研究气凝胶作为夹层时复合结构的抗弹性能.结果表明:当防弹纤维后面加上气凝胶夹层后,强度较低的气凝胶夹层使防弹纤维面板的变形有了很大的扩展空间,复合靶板吸收弹头动能的能力大幅提高,同时可以有效防止弹头的非贯穿性伤害.SiC/A1复合材料后面加上气凝胶夹层后,复合靶板的抗弹性能提高不明显,但可以大幅提高复合材料受到冲击后的完整性.当气凝胶作为夹层放置在陶瓷面板后面时,陶瓷面板由于没有足够的支撑作用而发生弯曲破坏,反而导致整个复合结构的防弹能力降低.

  14. Hadoop cluster deployment

    CERN Document Server

    Zburivsky, Danil

    2013-01-01

    This book is a step-by-step tutorial filled with practical examples which will show you how to build and manage a Hadoop cluster along with its intricacies.This book is ideal for database administrators, data engineers, and system administrators, and it will act as an invaluable reference if you are planning to use the Hadoop platform in your organization. It is expected that you have basic Linux skills since all the examples in this book use this operating system. It is also useful if you have access to test hardware or virtual machines to be able to follow the examples in the book.

  15. Convex Decomposition Based Cluster Labeling Method for Support Vector Clustering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Ping; Ying-Jie Tian; Ya-Jian Zhou; Yi-Xian Yang

    2012-01-01

    Support vector clustering (SVC) is an important boundary-based clustering algorithm in multiple applications for its capability of handling arbitrary cluster shapes. However,SVC's popularity is degraded by its highly intensive time complexity and poor label performance.To overcome such problems,we present a novel efficient and robust convex decomposition based cluster labeling (CDCL) method based on the topological property of dataset.The CDCL decomposes the implicit cluster into convex hulls and each one is comprised by a subset of support vectors (SVs).According to a robust algorithm applied in the nearest neighboring convex hulls,the adjacency matrix of convex hulls is built up for finding the connected components; and the remaining data points would be assigned the label of the nearest convex hull appropriately.The approach's validation is guaranteed by geometric proofs.Time complexity analysis and comparative experiments suggest that CDCL improves both the efficiency and clustering quality significantly.

  16. Qualification of electric motors class 1E for supply of motors and its repair; Calificacion de motores electricos clase 1E para el suministro de motores alternativos a los orginales y su reparacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, E.; Gonzalez, J. J.; Fernandez, A.; Garcia, D.

    2005-07-01

    Different original suppliers of nuclear grade equipment have either disappeared or discontinued the manufacture of this kind equipment. Under this situation nuclear plants are experiencing difficulties when dealing with the substitution or maintenance of these equipment. Tecnatom and Cantarey have developed a new line of Class 1E qualified electric low voltage motors which can be used as an alternative to originally installed safety-related motors or for its repair and maintenance. (Author)

  17. Clustering and Classification via Cluster-Weighted Factor Analyzers

    OpenAIRE

    Subedi, Sanjeena; PUNZO, ANTONIO; Ingrassia, Salvatore; McNicholas, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    In model-based clustering and classification, the cluster-weighted model constitutes a convenient approach when the random vector of interest constitutes a response variable Y and a set p of explanatory variables X. However, its applicability may be limited when p is high. To overcome this problem, this paper assumes a latent factor structure for X in each mixture component. This leads to the cluster-weighted factor analyzers (CWFA) model. By imposing constraints on the variance of Y and the ...

  18. Brightest Cluster Galaxies and Core Gas Density in REXCESS Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Haarsma, D B; Donahue, M; Bruch, S; Boehringer, H; Croston, J H; Pratt, G W; Voit, G M; Arnaud, M; Pierini, D

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) and their host clusters using a sample of nearby galaxy clusters from the Representative XMM-Newton Cluster Structure Survey (REXCESS). The sample was imaged with the Southern Observatory for Astrophysical Research (SOAR) in R band to investigate the mass of the old stellar population. Using a metric radius of 12h^-1 kpc, we find that the BCG luminosity depends weakly on overall cluster mass as L_BCG \\propto M_cl^0.18+-0.07, consistent with previous work. We found that 90% of the BCGs are located within 0.035 R_500 of the peak of the X-ray emission, including all of the cool core (CC) clusters. We also found an unexpected correlation between the BCG metric luminosity and the core gas density for non-cool core (non-CC) clusters, following a power law of n_e \\propto L_BCG^2.7+-0.4 (where n_e is measured at 0.008 R_500). The correlation is not easily explained by star formation (which is weak in non-CC clusters) or overall cluster mass (wh...

  19. Query Results Clustering by Extending SPARQL with CLUSTER BY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ławrynowicz, Agnieszka

    The task of dynamic clustering of the search results proved to be useful in the Web context, where the user often does not know the granularity of the search results in advance. The goal of this paper is to provide a declarative way for invoking dynamic clustering of the results of queries submitted over Semantic Web data. To achieve this goal the paper proposes an approach that extends SPARQL by clustering abilities. The approach introduces a new statement, CLUSTER BY, into the SPARQL grammar and proposes semantics for such extension.

  20. Effects of zinc supplementation and zinc chelation on in vitro β-cell function in INS-1E cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Sanne Bjørn; Larsen, Agnete; Knuhtsen, Astrid;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Zinc is essential for the activities of pancreatic β-cells, especially insulin storage and secretion. Insulin secretion leads to co-release of zinc which contributes to the paracrine communication in the pancreatic islets. Zinc-transporting proteins (zinc-regulated transporter, iron......-regulated transporter-like proteins [ZIPs] and zinc transporters [ZnTs]) and metal-buffering proteins (metallothioneins, MTs) tightly regulate intracellular zinc homeostasis. The present study investigated how modulation of cellular zinc availability affects β-cell function using INS-1E cells. RESULTS: Using INS-1E...... cells, we found that zinc supplementation and zinc chelation had significant effects on insulin content and insulin secretion. Supplemental zinc within the physiological concentration range induced insulin secretion. Insulin content was reduced by zinc chelation with N,N,N',N-tektrakis(2-pyridylmethyl...