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Sample records for bullet cluster 1e

  1. Sunyaev-Zel'Dovich effect observations of the bullet cluster (1E 0657-56) with APEX-SZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halverson, N.W.; Lanting, T.; Ade, P.A.R.; Basu, K.; Bender, A.N.; Benson, B.A.; Bertoldi, F.; Cho, H.-M.; Chon, G.; Clarke, J.; Dobbs, M.; Ferrusca, D.; Gusten, R.; Holzapfel, W.L.; Kovacs, A.; Kennedy, J.; Kermish, Z.; Kneissl, R.; Lee, A.T.; Lueker, M.; Mehl, J.; Menten, K.M.; Muders, D.; Nord, M.; Pacaud, F.; Plagge, T.; Reichardt, C.; Richards, P.L.; Schaaf, R.; Schilke, P.; Schuller, F.; Schwan, D.; Spieler, H.; Tucker, C.; Weiss, A.; Zahn, O.

    2008-07-25

    We present observations of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) in the Bullet cluster (1E 0657-56) using the APEX-SZ instrument at 150 GHz with a resolution of 1'. The main results are maps of the SZE in this massive, merging galaxy cluster. The cluster is detected with 23 sigma significance within the central 1' radius of the source position. The SZE map has a broadly similar morphology to that in existing X-ray maps of this system, and we find no evidence for significant contamination of the SZE emission by radio or IR sources. In order to make simple quantitative comparisons with cluster gas models derived from X-ray observations, we fit our data to an isothermal elliptical beta model, despite the inadequacy of such a model for this complex merging system. With an X-ray derived prior on the power-law index, beta = 1.04+0.16-0.10, we find a core radius rc = 142" +- 18", an axial ratio of 0.889 +- 0.072, and a central temperature decrement of -771 +- 71 muKCMB, including a +-5.5percent flux calibration uncertainty. Combining the APEX-SZ map with a map of projected electron surface density from Chandra X-ray observations, we determine the mass-weighted temperature of the cluster gas to be Tmg = 10.8 +- 0.9 keV, significantly lower than some previously reported X-ray spectroscopic temperatures. Under the assumption of an isothermal cluster gas distribution in hydrostatic equilibrium, we compute the gas mass fraction for prolate and oblate spheroidal geometries and find it to be consistent with previous results from X-ray and weak-lensing observations. This work is the first result from the APEX-SZ experiment and represents the first reported scientific result from observations with a large array of multiplexed superconducting transition-edge sensor bolometers.

  2. Focusing Cosmic Telescopes: Observing z 7 Universe Behind The "Bullet Cluster"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradac, Marusa

    2010-01-01

    The cluster of galaxies 1E0657-56 has been the subject of intense research in the last few years. This system is remarkably well-suited to addressing outstanding issues in both cosmology and fundamental physics. In this talk I will present the new HST/WFC3 deep data on the Bullet Cluster. Using this ideally placed (in terms of redshift) and accurately focused cosmic telescope we are able to efficiently sample the bright end of the luminosity function of high redshift galaxies. Furthermore, gravitational lensing offers often the only way to confirm their redshifts purely from imaging data, and potentially also allow for (otherwise prohibitive) spectroscopic follow up. With shallower and comparable magnitude limits to UDF and GOODS (respectively), the Bullet Cluster observations, after correcting for magnification, probe deeper into the luminosity function of the high redshift galaxies and paired with deep HST/WFC3 observations will provide us with one of the first peaks at z>7 galaxies.

  3. Another Shock for the Bullet Cluster, and the Source of Seed Electrons for Radio Relics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimwell, Timothy W,; Markevitch, Maxim; Brown, Shea; Feretti, Luigina; Gaensler, B. M.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Lage, Craig; Srinivasan, Raghav

    2015-01-01

    With Australia Telescope Compact Array observations, we detect a highly elongated Mpc-scale diffuse radio source on the eastern periphery of the Bullet cluster 1E 0657-55.8, which we argue has the positional, spectral and polarimetric characteristics of a radio relic. This powerful relic (2:30:11025 WHz(exp -1) consists of a bright northern bulb and a faint linear tail. The bulb emits 94% of the observed radio flux and has the highest surface brightness of any known relic. Exactly coincident with the linear tail we find a sharp X-ray surface brightness edge in the deep Chandra image of the cluster - a signature of a shock front in the hot intracluster medium (ICM), located on the opposite side of the cluster to the famous bow shock. This new example of an X-ray shock coincident with a relic further supports the hypothesis that shocks in the outer regions of clusters can form relics via diffusive shock (re- )acceleration. Intriguingly, our new relic suggests that seed electrons for reacceleration are coming from a local remnant of a radio galaxy, which we are lucky to catch before its complete disruption. If this scenario, in which a relic forms when a shock crosses a well-defined region of the ICM polluted with aged relativistic plasma - as opposed to the usual assumption that seeds are uniformly mixed in the ICM - is also the case for other relics, this may explain a number of peculiar properties of peripheral relics.

  4. 18 GHz SZ Measurements of the Bullet Cluster Siddharth S. Malu ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    is a cluster collision/merger event at z ∼0.296, with the larger, westward cluster being ∼10 times the mass of the smaller 'bullet'. It is known to have a strong radio halo (Liang et al. 2000), and the Sunyaev–Zel'dovich effect (Andreani et al. 1999;. Halverson et al. 2009), and is X-ray bright (Markevitch et al. 2002), though it is.

  5. NuSTAR observations of the bullet cluster: constraints on inverse compton emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wik, Daniel R.; Hornstrup, Allan; Molendi, S.

    2014-01-01

    The search for diffuse non-thermal inverse Compton (IC) emission from galaxy clusters at hard X-ray energies has been undertaken with many instruments, with most detections being either of low significance or controversial. Because all prior telescopes sensitive at E > 10 keV do not focus light...... in the energy range 3-30 keV. NuSTAR's unprecedented hard X-ray focusing capability largely eliminates confusion between diffuse IC and point sources; however, at the highest energies, the background still dominates and must be well understood. To this end, we have developed a complete background model...... constructed of physically inspired components constrained by extragalactic survey field observations, the specific parameters of which are derived locally from data in non-source regions of target observations. Applying the background model to the Bullet cluster data, we find that the spectrum is well...

  6. Dark matter line emission constraints from NuSTAR observations of the Bullet Cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riemer-Sørensen, S.; Wik, D.; Madejski, G.

    2015-01-01

    Some dark matter candidates, e.g., sterile neutrinos, provide observable signatures in the form of mono-energetic line emission. We present the first search for dark matter line emission in the range in a pointed observation of the Bullet Cluster with NuSTAR. We do not detect any significant line...

  7. Ghosts of Milky Way's past: the globular cluster ESO 37-1 (E 3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente Marcos, R.; de la Fuente Marcos, C.; Moni Bidin, C.; Ortolani, S.; Carraro, G.

    2015-09-01

    Context. In the Milky Way, most globular clusters are highly conspicuous objects that were found centuries ago. However, a few dozen of them are faint, sparsely populated systems that were identified largely during the second half of the past century. One of the faintest is ESO 37-1 (E 3) and as such it remains poorly studied, with no spectroscopic observations published so far although it was discovered in 1976. Aims: We investigate the globular cluster E 3 in an attempt to better constrain its fundamental parameters. Spectroscopy of stars in the field of E 3 is shown here for the first time. Methods: Deep, precise VI CCD photometry of E 3 down to V ~ 26 mag is presented and analysed. Low-resolution, medium signal-to-noise ratio spectra of nine candidate members are studied to derive radial velocity and metallicity. Proper motions from the UCAC4 catalogue are used to explore the kinematics of the bright members of E 3. Results: Isochrone fitting indicates that E 3 is probably very old, with an age of about 13 Gyr; its distance from the Sun is nearly 10 kpc. It is also somewhat metal rich with [Fe/H] = -0.7. Regarding its kinematics, our tentative estimate for the proper motions is (μα cosδ,μδ) = (-7.0 ± 0.8, 3.5 ± 0.3) mas yr-1 (or a tangential velocity of 382 ± 79 km s-1) and for the radial velocity 45 ± 5 km s-1 in the solar rest frame. Conclusions: E 3 is one of the most intriguing globular clusters in the Galaxy. Having an old age and being metal rich is clearly a peculiar combination, only seen in a handful of objects like the far more conspicuous NGC 104 (47 Tucanae). In addition, its low luminosity and sparse population make it a unique template for the study of the final evolutionary phases in the life of a star cluster. Unfortunately, E 3 is among the most elusive and challenging known globular clusters because field contamination severely hampers spectroscopic studies. This research note is based on observations made with the ESO VLT at the

  8. Going Ballistic: Bullet Trajectories

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amanda Wade

    2011-01-01

    ...? We begin by modeling the bullet's trajectory using Euler's method with the help of a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet solver, and then systematically search for the angle corresponding to the center of the target...

  9. Going Ballistic: Bullet Trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Wade

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This project seeks to answer at what angle does a gun marksman have to aim in order to hit the center of a target one meter off the ground and 1000 meters away? We begin by modeling the bullet's trajectory using Euler's method with the help of a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet solver, and then systematically search for the angle corresponding to the center of the target. It was found that a marksman shooting a target 1000 meters away and 1 meter off the ground has to aim the rifle 0.436° above horizontal to hit the center.

  10. Unleaded shooting: hunters like copper bullets

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-03-01

    Mar 1, 2007 ... Ammunition, Bismuth Cartridge Co. and Barnes Bullets to let hunters see if they worked. They did. Shot groups fired with the Barnes copper hollow point. Triple Shock X-Bullet were generally tighter than with conventional softpoint bullets. A test firing of the two types of bullets into plastic bins filled with wet.

  11. Bioethics. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Cathy, Comp.; Cadoree, Michelle

    This guide lists published materials on many aspects of bioethics, the literature of which is varied and scattered. Related guides in the LC Science Tracer Bullet series are TB 80-9, Terminal Care, TB 80-11, Drug Research on Human Subjects, TB 83-4, Science Policy, and TB 84-7, Biotechnology. Not intended to be a comprehensive bibliography, this…

  12. Ignition potential of rifle bullets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevor Maynard; Mark Finney; Sara McAllister; Ian Grob

    2013-01-01

    In January 2013, the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service's Rocky Mountain Research Station and National Technology and Development Centers performed experiments to evaluate the potential for rifle bullets to ignite organic matter after striking hard surfaces. Outdoor target shooting is often suspected as a wildfire cause, but investigators currently do...

  13. Clustered metallothionein genes are co-regulated in rice and ectopic expression of OsMT1e-P confers multiple abiotic stress tolerance in tobacco via ROS scavenging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Gautam

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metallothioneins (MT are low molecular weight, cysteine rich metal binding proteins, found across genera and species, but their function(s in abiotic stress tolerance are not well documented. Results We have characterized a rice MT gene, OsMT1e-P, isolated from a subtractive library generated from a stressed salinity tolerant rice genotype, Pokkali. Bioinformatics analysis of the rice genome sequence revealed that this gene belongs to a multigenic family, which consists of 13 genes with 15 protein products. OsMT1e-P is located on chromosome XI, away from the majority of other type I genes that are clustered on chromosome XII. Various members of this MT gene cluster showed a tight co-regulation pattern under several abiotic stresses. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of conserved cysteine residues in OsMT1e-P protein. Salinity stress was found to regulate the transcript abundance of OsMT1e-P in a developmental and organ specific manner. Using transgenic approach, we found a positive correlation between ectopic expression of OsMT1e-P and stress tolerance. Our experiments further suggest ROS scavenging to be the possible mechanism for multiple stress tolerance conferred by OsMT1e-P. Conclusion We present an overview of MTs, describing their gene structure, genome localization and expression patterns under salinity and development in rice. We have found that ectopic expression of OsMT1e-P enhances tolerance towards multiple abiotic stresses in transgenic tobacco and the resultant plants could survive and set viable seeds under saline conditions. Taken together, the experiments presented here have indicated that ectopic expression of OsMT1e-P protects against oxidative stress primarily through efficient scavenging of reactive oxygen species.

  14. A study of ignition by rifle bullets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Finney; Trevor B. Maynard; Sara S. McAllister; Ian J. Grob

    2013-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine the potential for rifle bullets to ignite organic matter after impacting a hard surface. The tests were performed using a variety of common cartridges (7.62x51, 7.62x39, 7.62x54R, and 5.56x45) and bullet materials (steel core, lead core, solid copper, steel jacket, and copper jacket). Bullets were fired at a steel plate that...

  15. A Coning Theory of Bullet Motions

    CERN Document Server

    Boatright, James A

    2012-01-01

    Each observable ballistic phenomenon of a spin-stabilized rifle bullet can be explained in terms of the acceleration of gravity and the total aerodynamic force acting on that bullet. In addition to the coning motion itself, Coning Theory explains the spinning bullet's aerodynamic jump and its steadily increasing yaw of repose together with its resulting spin-drift. The total aerodynamic force on the bullet comprises its drag and lift rectangular components and produces an associated overturning moment acting upon the rigid bullet. The coning motion of the bullet includes two distinct but synchronized aspects: 1) the well-known gyroscopic precession of the spin-axis of the bullet, and 2) the previously little-known orbiting of the center of gravity of the bullet around its mean trajectory with the nose of the bullet angled inward toward that trajectory. New equations are developed governing the orbital motion of the CG as a circular, isotropic harmonic oscillation driven by the lift and drag forces as they rev...

  16. Ballistics reviews: mechanisms of bullet wound trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiden, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    The location of an entrance wound (bullet placement) and the projectile path are the most important factors in causing significant injury or death following a shooting. The head followed by the torso are the most vulnerable areas, with incapacitation resulting from central nervous system (brain or cord) disruption, or massive organ destruction with hemorrhage. Tissue and organ trauma result from the permanent wound cavity caused by direct destruction by the bullet, and also from radial stretching of surrounding tissues causing a temporary wound cavity. The extent of tissue damage is influenced by the type of bullet, its velocity and mass, as well as the physical characteristics of the tissues. The latter includes resistance to strain, physical dimensions of an organ, and the presence or absence of surrounding anatomical constraints. Bullet shape and construction will also affect tissue damage and bullets which display greater yaw will be associated with increased temporary cavitation. Military bullet designs do not include bullets that will expand or flatten as these cause greater wound trauma and are regulated by convention.

  17. On $bullet$-lict signed graphs $L_{bullet_c}(S$ and $bullet$-line signed graphs $L_bullet(S$

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukti Acharya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A emph{signed graph} (or, in short, emph{sigraph} $S=(S^u,sigma$ consists of an underlying graph $S^u :=G=(V,E$ and a function $sigma:E(S^ulongrightarrow {+,-}$, called the signature of $S$. A emph{marking} of $S$ is a function $mu:V(Slongrightarrow {+,-}$. The emph{canonical marking} of a signed graph $S$, denoted $mu_sigma$, is given as $$mu_sigma(v := prod_{vwin E(S}sigma(vw.$$The line-cut graph (or, in short, emph{lict graph} of a graph $G=(V,E$, denoted by $L_c(G$, is the graph with vertex set $E(Gcup C(G$, where $C(G$ is the set of cut-vertices of $G$, in which two vertices are adjacent if and only if they correspond to adjacent edges of $G$ or one vertex corresponds to an edge $e$ of $G$ and the other vertex corresponds to a cut-vertex $c$ of $G$ such that $e$ is incident with $c$.In this paper, we introduce emph{Dot-lict signed graph} (or emph{$bullet$-lict signed graph} $L_{bullet_c}(S$, which has $L_c(S^u$ as its underlying graph. Every edge $uv$ in $L_{bullet_c}(S$ has the sign $mu_sigma(p$, if $u, v in E(S$ and $pin V(S$ is a common vertex of these edges, and it has the sign $mu_sigma(v$, if $uin E(S$ and $vin C(S$.we characterize signed graphs on $K_p$, $pgeq2$, on cycle $C_n$ and on $K_{m,n}$ which are $bullet$-lict signed graphs or $bullet$-line signed graphs, characterize signed graphs $S$ so that $L_{bullet_c}(S$ and $L_bullet(S$ are balanced. We also establish the characterization of signed graphs $S$ for which $Ssim L_{bullet_c}(S$, $Ssim L_bullet(S$, $eta(Ssim L_{bullet_c}(S$ and $eta(Ssim L_bullet(S$, here $eta(S$ is negation of $S$ and $sim$ stands for switching equivalence.

  18. Probability 1/e

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Reginald; Jones, Martin L.

    2011-01-01

    Quite a number of interesting problems in probability feature an event with probability equal to 1/e. This article discusses three such problems and attempts to explain why this probability occurs with such frequency.

  19. Observations on the trajectory of the bullet in 15 horses euthanased by free bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, G I; Mills, D S

    2000-06-24

    The trajectories taken by the free bullets used to euthanase 15 horses were examined. The point of entry of the bullet relative to the recommended site was measured, together with the angle of the trajectory of the bullet relative to a tangent to its point of entry, the deviation of the trajectory from the midline of the brain, the structures of the brain that were damaged and the extent of this damage. Despite a reasonably consistent point of entry, there were wide variations in the damage inflicted, ranging from the total destruction of the hindbrain to injury to the cerebral cortex alone. The extent of the bullet's lateral deviation from the midline appeared to be the most significant factor affecting the level of destruction to the hindbrain, suggesting that angular direction may be more important than precise surface location in effecting a satisfactory kill.

  20. Gyroscopic Stability of Open Tipped Match Style Rifle Bullets

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, Elya R

    2014-01-01

    Earlier work has produced formulas for predicting stability of rifle bullets of near uniform density and also for plastic-tipped rifle bullets. These formulas have been shown to be accurate to within 5%. However, the original Miller twist formula for metal bullets of near uniform density underestimates the stability of match style open tipped rifle bullets having a significant empty volume in the tip. This paper presents a new formula for accurately estimating the stability of these open tipped match style rifle bullets from parameters easily obtained such as the bullet mass, length, and depth of the empty space in the tip. The formula is tested by measuring the aerodynamic drag vs. predicted stability of several bullets over a range of stabilities.

  1. Rifle bullet penetration into ballistic gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yaoke; Xu, Cheng; Jin, Yongxi; Batra, R C

    2017-03-01

    The penetration of a rifle bullet into a block of ballistic gelatin is experimentally and computationally studied for enhancing our understanding of the damage caused to human soft tissues. The gelatin is modeled as an isotropic and homogeneous elastic-plastic linearly strain-hardening material that obeys a polynomial equation of state. Effects of numerical uncertainties on penetration characteristics are found by repeating simulations with minute variations in the impact speed and the angle of attack. The temporary cavity formed in the gelatin and seen in pictures taken by two high speed cameras is found to compare well with the computed one. The computed time histories of the hydrostatic pressure at points situated 60 mm above the line of impact are found to have "two peaks", one due to the bullet impact and the other due to the bullet tumbling. Contours of the von Mises stress and of the effective plastic strain in the gelatin block imply that a very small region adjacent to the cavity surface is plastically deformed. The angle of attack is found to noticeably affect the penetration depth at the instant of the bullet tumbling through 90°. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Main: 1E1E [RPSD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1E1E トウモロコシ Corn Zea mays L. Beta-Glucosidase, Chloroplast Precursor Name=Glu1; Zea...TDDAYASQEVNGPDGKPIGPPMGNPWIYMYPEGLKDLLMIMKNKYGNPPIYITENGIGDVDTKETPLPMEAALNDYKRLDYIQRHIATLKESIDLGSNVQGYFAWSLLDNFEWFAGFTERYGIVYVDRNNNCTRYMKESAKWLKEFNTAKKPSKKILTPA corn_1E1E.jpg ...

  3. A Molecular-line Study of the Interstellar Bullet Engine IRAS05506+2414

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, Raghvendra; Lee, Chin-Fei; Sánchez Contreras, Carmen; Patel, Nimesh; Morris, Mark R.; Claussen, Mark

    2017-12-01

    We present interferometric and single-dish molecular line observations of the interstellar bullet-outflow source IRAS 05506+2414, whose wide-angle bullet spray is similar to the Orion BN/KL explosive outflow and likely arises from an entirely different mechanism than the classical accretion-disk-driven bipolar flows in young stellar objects. The bullet-outflow source is associated with a large pseudo-disk and three molecular outflows—a high-velocity outflow (HVO), a medium-velocity outflow (MVO), and a slow, extended outflow (SEO). The size (mass) of the pseudo-disk is 10,350 au × 6400 au (0.64-0.17 M ⊙) from a model-fit assuming infall and rotation, we derive a central stellar mass of 8-19 M ⊙. The HVO (MVO) has an angular size ˜5180 (˜3330) au and a projected outflow velocity of ˜140 km s-1 (˜30 km s-1). The SEO size (outflow speed) is ˜0.9 pc (˜6 km s-1). The HVO’s axis is aligned with (orthogonal to) that of the SEO (pseudo-disk). The velocity structure of the MVO is unresolved. The scalar momenta in the HVO and SEO are very similar, suggesting that the SEO has resulted from the HVO interacting with ambient-cloud material. The bullet spray shares a common axis with the pseudo-disk and has an age comparable to that of MVO (few hundred years), suggesting that these three structures are intimately linked. We discuss several models for the outflows in IRAS 05506+2414 (including dynamical decay of a stellar cluster, chance encounter of a runaway star with a dense cloud, and close passage of two protostars), and conclude that second-epoch imaging to derive proper motions of the bullets and nearby stars can help to discriminate between them.

  4. The anatomy of plastic bullet damage and crowd control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metress, E K; Metress, S P

    1987-01-01

    The plastic bullet was introduced into Northern Ireland as a riot control weapon in 1973. It became fully operational in 1975, replacing its predecessor the rubber bullet. The missile, which has been portrayed as a "minimum force," nonlethal weapon, has resulted in 13 deaths, including those of seven children, and scores of serious, permanent injuries and disabilities. Evidence regarding injury inflicted by the plastic bullet indicates that it is more dangerous than the rubber bullet that it replaced. It tends to cause more serious injuries to the skull and brain and therefore more deaths. An examination of the three rubber bullet and 13 plastic bullet deaths reveals that most victims were shot from distances much less than that determined to be "safe" and in a manner that contrasted with the rules of engagement. The data from numerous case studies seem to support allegations of abuse of the weapon by security forces.

  5. Possible influences on bullet trajectory deflection in ballistic gelatine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Fabiano; Kerkhoff, Wim; Bolck, Annabel; Mattijssen, Erwin J A T

    2017-02-01

    The influence of the distance to the top and bottom of a gelatine block and to bullet tracks from previously fired shots on a bullet's trajectory, when passing through ballistic gelatine, was studied. No significant difference in deflection was found when trajectories of 9mm Luger bullets, fired at a 3.5cm distance to the top and bottom of a gelatine block and to bullet tracks from previously fired shots, were compared to trajectories of bullets fired 7cm or more away from any of the aforementioned aspects. A surprisingly consistent 6.5° absolute deflection angle was found when these bullets passed through 22.5 to 23.5cm of ballistic gelatine. The projection angle, determined by the direction of the deflection, appeared to be random. The consistent absolute angle, in combination with the random projection angle, resulted in a cone-like deflection pattern. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Light bullets from near-IR filament in fused silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetanina, E. O.; Kompanets, V. O.; Dormidonov, A. E.; Chekalin, S. V.; Kandidov, V. P.

    2013-10-01

    The formation of light bullets during femtosecond laser pulse filamentation in the presence of anomalous group velocity dispersion has been recorded for the first time. The minimum experimentally detected width of the light bullet autocorrelation function is 27 fs, which corresponds to a duration of about 13.5 fs. The duration of the light bullet at a wavelength of 1800 nm is about two periods of the light field oscillation. The numerically calculated width of the autocorrelation function for such a light bullet is 23 fs, which is in good agreement with the experimental value.

  7. Recognition of Bullet Holes Based on Video Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruolin, Zhu; Jianbo, Liu; Yuan, Zhang; Xiaoyu, Wu

    2017-10-01

    The technology of computer vision is used in the training of military shooting. In order to overcome the limitation of the bullet holes recognition using Video Image Analysis that exists over-detection or leak-detection, this paper adopts the support vector machine algorithm and convolutional neural network to extract and recognize Bullet Holes in the digital video and compares their performance. It extracts HOG characteristics of bullet holes and train SVM classifier quickly, though the target is under outdoor environment. Experiments show that support vector machine algorithm used in this paper realize a fast and efficient extraction and recognition of bullet holes, improving the efficiency of shooting training.

  8. cluster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    electron transfer chains involved in a number of biologi- cal systems including respiration and photosynthesis.1. The most common iron–sulphur clusters found as active centres in iron–sulphur proteins are [Fe2S2], [Fe3S4] and [Fe4S4], in which Fe(III) ions are coordinated to cysteines from the peptide and are linked to each ...

  9. A correlation based bullet identification method using empirical mode decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigdeli, Saeed; Danandeh, Hamed; Ebrahimi Moghaddam, Mohsen

    2017-09-01

    The striations on bullet surface are 3D micro structures formed when a bullet is forcing its way out of barrel. Each barrel leaves individual striation patterns on bullets. Hence, the striation information of bullets is helpful for firearm identification. Common automatic identification methods process these images using linear time invariant (LTI) filters based on correlation. These methods do not consider the sensitivity of correlation based comparisons to nonlinear baseline drifts. The striations are undeniably random unique micro structures caused by random non-model-based imperfections in the tools used in rifling process, therefore any characteristic profile that is extracted from a bullet image is statistically non-stationary. Due to limitations of LTI filters, using them in smoothing bullet images and profiles may cause information loss and impact the process of identification. To address these problems, in this article, we consider bullet images as nonlinear non-stationary processes and propose a novel method which uses ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) as a preprocessing algorithm for smoothing and feature extraction. The features extracted by EEMD algorithm not only contain less noise, but also have no nonlinear baseline drifts. These improvements help the correlation based comparison methods to perform more robustly and efficiently. The experiments showed that our proposed method attained better results compared with two common methods in the field of automatic bullet identification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Moving bullet syndrome: a complication of penetrating head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafonte, R D; Watanabe, T; Mann, N R

    1998-11-01

    Penetrating injuries, by definition, result in retained bullets or fragments. Usually, these fragments are removed surgically during wound debridement. Occasionally, the position of the bullet may preclude removal if it is thought that surgery could exacerbate neurologic damage. Complications from retained fragments are uncommon. One rare complication is the spontaneous migration of the fragment. Two cases of spontaneous migration of retained bullets are presented. In both cases neurologic deterioration was noted and computed tomographic imaging was diagnostic. In one case, this complication delayed transfer from the acute care hospital to rehabilitation. In the other case, the migrating bullet was removed during the inpatient rehabilitation stay. Each person improved neurologically after the migrating bullet fragment was removed. Additionally, functional progress was marked in both persons and symptomatic relief noted. Rehabilitation physicians caring for survivors of penetrating brain injuries need to be aware of this potentially devastating phenomenon.

  11. Grazing bullet wounds on the tongue and liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayase, T; Yamamoto, K; Yamamoto, Y; Matsumoto, H; Ojima, K; Matsubayashi, K; Abiru, H; Fukui, Y

    1996-08-01

    A 59-year-old man was shot at the wheel of his car while waiting for a traffic light at an intersection. He was shot through the windshield from a distance of about 1 m. He was pronounced dead on arrival at an emergency hospital. X-ray photographs taken there demonstrated the presence of three bullets within the body. The murder weapon was found to be a thirty-eight caliber revolver. In all, five bullet wounds were recognized, one was located in the right side of the neck, one in the lower part of the left temple, and three on the right side of the body. The wound in the right neck was an entrance bullet wound. The bullet had exited at the left temple, after glancing on the root of the tongue. The three wounds on the right side of the body were all entrance bullet wounds. The fatal bullet entered the right chest cavity at the 7th intercostal space and lacerated the right lung and the ascending aorta after glancing on the right lobe of the liver. The cause of death was hemorrhage from the lacerated aorta. The grazing bullet wounds of the tongue and liver were shallow defects of the tissues with irregular margins.

  12. Bullet embolism in a case of homicide: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Bullet embolism is a special form of embolism, where embolus is either a bullet or its fragment. Bullet penetrates through the injured part of the body into circulation and then travels to a distant part of the body, until it gets blocked in a vessel of the same diameter as the bullet. Case Outline. We are presenting a case of gunshot injury in a 26­year­old male, found unconscious on the passenger seat, with the gunshot injury of the right hand and hemithorax, who died two hours after admission to hospital. Post­mortem X­ray revealed the presence of a metallic foreign body - a bullet, in the level of the left femoral neck. The autopsy revealed entrance and exit gunshot wounds of the upper third of the right upper arm. There was a second entrance gunshot wound, and the bullet passed through the right hemithorax and the right lung, and then through the intervertebral disc between the eighth and ninth thoracic vertebrae, and also making a complete laceration of the wall of the thoracic aorta, in the right posterior semicircumference. The slightly deformed bul­ let, caliber 7.65 mm, was found embedded in the lumen of the vessel at the bifurcation of the deep femoral artery from the left femoral artery. Conclusion. Bullet embolism is a rare complication of gunshot wounds. It should be suspected in any gunshot wound victim without an exit wound, or the lack of a missile in the bullet pathway, or if there are premortem signs or symptoms unexpected for the presumed pathway of the bullet, such as distant ischemia or infection. In these cases, some of postmortem imaging techniques should be used to save time in diagnosis, treatment and at autopsy.

  13. Firearms, bullets, and wound ballistics: an imaging primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Tarek N; Shuaib, Waqas; Han, Tatiana; Mehta, Ajeet; Khosa, Faisal

    2015-07-01

    Based on its intrinsic mass and velocity, a bullet has an upper limit of wounding potential. Actual wound severity is a function of the bullet construction and trajectory, as well as the properties of the tissues traversed. Interpreting physicians must evaluate the bullet trajectory and describe patterns of injury resulting from the effect of energy transfer from the projectile into living tissue. A basic understanding of firearms, projectiles, and wound ballistics can help the interpreting physicians in conceptualizing these injuries and interpreting these cases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Physicomathematical Simulation Analysis for Small Bullets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Margaris

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A full six degrees of freedom (6-DOF flight dynamics model is proposed for the accurate prediction of short and long-range trajectories of small bullets via atmospheric flight to final impact point. The mathematical model is based on the full equations of motion set up in the no-roll body reference frame and is integrated numerically from given initial conditions at the firing site. The projectile maneuvering motion depends on the most significant force and moment variations, in addition to gravity and Magnus effect. The computational flight analysis takes into consideration the Mach number and total angle of attack effects by means of the variable aerodynamic coefficients. For the purposes of the present work, linear interpolation has been applied for aerodynamic coefficients from the official tabulated database. The developed computational method gives satisfactory agreement with published data of verified experiments and computational codes on atmospheric projectile trajectory analysis for various initial firing flight conditions.

  15. Automated bullet-identification system based on surface topography techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, F.; Xiao, S; Blunt, Liam; Zeng, Wenhan; Jiang, Xiang

    2008-01-01

    Every firearm has individual characteristics that are as unique to it as fingerprints are to human beings. When a firearm is fired, it transfers these characteristics – in the form of microscopic scratches and dents – to the fired bullets and cartridge casings. The rifling of the barrel of the firearm marks the bullets travelling through it, and the firearm's breech mechanism marks the ammunition's cartridge casing. Characterising these marks is the critical element in identifying firearms.\\u...

  16. Nondestructive recovery and examination of bullet fragments from brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A C; Kinard, W D; Washington, W D

    1980-04-01

    A technique providing both analytical and toolmark results for lead fragments from bullets is discussed. It permits the nondestructive recovery of bullet fragments from soft cadaver tissue and was used with a plasma asher in an actual homicide case. The lead fragments are examined by neutron activation analysis (but other analytical techniques can be used) for their antimony and arsenic content and by microscopy for matching toolmarks.

  17. Spontaneous migration of a retained bullet within the brain: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Mehmet; Eseoğlu, Metehan; Güdü, Burhan Oral; Demir, Ismail; Kozan, Abdul Baki

    2012-09-01

    Gunshot injury to the head is usually mortal, and spontaneous migration of a retained bullet is rare. We report the case of a 23-year-old man with a spontaneously migrated bullet within the brain. Cranial computerized tomography (CT) indicated that the bullet was lodged deeply in the left parietal region. The patient was conscious and had right homonymous hemianopsia. The bullet was close to the vital structures and deep-seated; therefore, surgical intervention was not considered. Two months after the injury, repeat CT revealed that the bullet had migrated posteriorly and caudally due to gravitational factors. Management of the retained bullet was controversial. Removal of a deep-seated bullet may cause additional neurological deficit, but migration of a retained bullet may cause damage to vital structures, producing significant neurological damage. We proposed that the bullet in the brain should be removed if it could be reasonably accessed without causing additional neurological damage.

  18. Lead poisoning by intradiscal firearm bullet: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristante, Alexandre F; de Souza, Fabiano I; Barros Filho, Tarcisio E P; Oliveira, Reginaldo P; Marcon, Raphael M

    2010-02-15

    The report of a rare case of lead poisoning by an intradiscal firearm bullet is presented. To describe and discuss the clinical and radiologic features (by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) of a gunshot wound in the L2-L3 space which caused lead poisoning 5 years afterwards. Lead poisoning from firearm bullets is rare, but the possibility should be investigated in the case of bullets lodged in the joints. A 30-year-old man presented to the emergency room with an intense lumbar pain complaint, colic, intestinal constipation, insomnia, and progressive headache for 20 days. He had a history of a gunshot wound 5 years previously, and the bullet was left in situ, in the intravertebral disc between L2 and L3, as confirmed by radiographs, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. The hypothesis of lead poisoning was confirmed by the laboratory results. Chelation treatment with calcium versenate (disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate, or CaNa (2) EDTA) was indicated. The patient was admitted and treated once again, before surgical removal of the bullet. After removal of the bullet, the patient had an episode of recurrence, and a new chelation cycle was performed, with complete resolution. Lead poisoning can result in severe clinical disorders that require rapid treatment. In this case, both clinical and surgical treatments led to complete resolution of the symptoms.

  19. The forensic aspects of contemporary disintegrating rifle bullets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Lucien C

    2013-03-01

    A relatively new type of rifle bullet has appeared in the last few years that contains no lead and rapidly disintegrates into very small particles and jacket fragments immediately upon entry into soft tissue. These bullets are intended for use by 'varmint' hunters in high-velocity centerfire rifles where the effect on such animals as prairie dogs, gophers, ground hogs, and other similarly sized animals is nothing short of explosive. The shooting of much larger animals to include human beings will typically result in nonperforating wounds with short wound paths. X-ray views of a decedent or gunshot victim will lack any recognizable bullet or projectile. Only 1 jacket fragment among the many present in the wound tract is suitable for subsequent firearms identification purposes, namely, the small copper disc that represents the base or heel of the bullet jacket. This small circular fragment bears vestiges of the rifling marks of the responsible firearm.This article will aid the forensic pathologist in recognizing gunshot wounds produced by these atypical bullets and the importance of recovering the base portion of the disintegrated bullet jacket.

  20. The destabilizing effect of body armour on military rifle bullets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, P J; Sørensen, O H

    1997-01-01

    Soft body armour is designed to give protection against fragments and some low velocity bullets but is not designed to stop high velocity rifle bullets. Reports have claimed that soft body armour might disturb the stability of bullets that penetrate it, and that this might increase the size of the lesions. The reason for such an effect might be early yaw of the bullet, so we studied the behaviour of bullets which had passed through soft body armour. A 7.62 x 39 mm AK-47 rifle was fired from a permanent stand using full metal jacketed lead core bullets at a range of 30 m. Soft body armour composed for 14 and 28 layers of aramid fibres (Kevlar) was placed at 90 degrees and 60 degrees to the line of fire. Yaw was measured by the shadowgraph technique and a TERMA Doppler radar. A total of ten shots without body armour, and ten shots with each of the two types of body armour at the two angles were used. The results of the shadowgraph and Doppler radar measurements showed a proportional correlation between the two methods of determining the bullet yaw. The semiquantitative approach of the Doppler radar measurement was in agreement with the more concise measurement using the photographic technique. Velocity loss and loss of spin rate from penetrating 14 or 28 ply Kevlar was negligible. We observed induced instability after penetration of 14 and particularly 28 ply Kevlar, dependence of yaw with respect to the number of layers of Kevlar as well as to the angle of the body armour with respect to the line of fire.

  1. [The determination of the ballistics of a hunting rifle loaded with a Poleva-3 bullet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetlakov, A V; Sotin, A V; Nagornov, M N

    2014-01-01

    Various approaches are considered to determine the shooting range of a hunting rifle loaded with a Poleva-3 bullet from the specific features of gunshot injuries inflicted by container-type Poleba-3 bullets for hunting rifles.

  2. Destabilization and intracranial fragmentation of a full metal jacket bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, A; Raul, J S; Geraut, A; Tortel, M C; Ludes, B

    2009-10-01

    We report a case with an atypical entrance wound as a result of a destabilized full metal jacket bullet penetration. The destabilized bullet by an impact with the dorsal hand experiences a yawing to tumbling motion in flight. The large angle of yaw induces a larger presenting profile upon impact that contributes, associated to a rapid deceleration, to a greater mechanical force on the projectile structure and a fragmentation into core and jacket. Forensic pathologists have to be aware that the metal jacket bullet could tend to break up outside or inside the body particularly after a shooting through a target. This phenomenon induces atypical entrance wounds and atypical X-ray presentation. 2009 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine.

  3. Artemisinin Antimalarials: Preserving the "Magic Bullet"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maude, Richard J; Woodrow, Charles J; White, Lisa J

    2010-02-01

    The artemisinins are the most effective antimalarial drugs known. They possess a remarkably wide therapeutic index. These agents have been used in traditional Chinese herbal medicine for more than 2,000 years but were not subjected to scientific scrutiny until the 1970s. The first formal clinical trials of the artemisinins, and the development of methods for their industrial scale production, followed rapidly. A decade later, Chinese scientists shared their findings with the rest of the world; since then, a significant body of international trial evidence has confirmed these drugs to be far superior to any available alternatives. In particular, they have the ability to rapidly kill a broad range of asexual parasite stages at safe concentrations that are consistently achievable via standard dosing regimens. As their half-life is very short, there was also thought to be a low risk of resistance. These discoveries coincided with the appearance and spread of resistance to all the other major classes of antimalarials. As a result, the artemisinins now form an essential element of recommended first-line antimalarial treatment regimens worldwide. To minimize the risk of artemisinin resistance, they are recommended to be used to treat uncomplicated malaria in combination with other antimalarials as artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs). Their rollout has resulted in documented reductions in malaria prevalence in a number of African and Asian countries. Unfortunately, there are already worrisome early signs of artemisinin resistance appearing in western Cambodia. If this resistance were to spread, it would be disastrous for malaria control efforts worldwide. The enormous challenge for the international community is how to avert this catastrophe and preserve the effectiveness of this antimalarial "magic bullet". Drug Dev Res 71: 12-19, 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. EDITORIAL: Plasma jets and plasma bullets Plasma jets and plasma bullets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, M. G.; Ganguly, B. N.; Hicks, R. F.

    2012-06-01

    -mentioned early studies has witnessed a considerable and exciting growth in terms of new phenomena observed, new physics and chemistry uncovered, new plasma jet sources conceived, and new applications developed. Examples include the observations of plasma bullets on a nanosecond scale [16], the similarity of plasma bullets to streamers [17], arrays of plasma jets as metamaterials [18], and a rapid increase of applications in biomedicine [19]. However the considerable growth in the research of plasma jets has not been adequately supported, so far, by a sound fundamental underpinning, partly resulting from a somewhat underdevelopment of effective diagnostics and modelling tools. Recognizing the critical importance of basic science for future growth of low-temperature plasma jet technology, this special issue on plasma jets and bullets aims to address some of the most important fundamental questions. Many of the special issue papers continue the established line of investigation to characterize the formation of plasma bullets, using typically ultrafast imaging, electrical detection including electric field and plasma conductivity measurement, and optical emission spectrometry [20]-[26]. These offer strong experimental evidence for the well-known hypothesis that a plasma jet is a form of streamer, and that the ionization wave plays a critical role in their formation. The interaction of two parallel plasma jets [27] and manipulation of plasma jet characteristics [28, 29] are also reported using a similar combination of experimental techniques. Some of the common characteristics of plasma jets are summarized in a review paper in this special issue [30]. A somewhat different line of investigation is employed in a detailed experimental characterization of deterministic chaos in atmospheric plasma jets [31], one of the few non-bullet modes of plasma jets. Although chaos in ionized gases have been observed in other types of discharge plasmas, their applications have not so far been linked

  5. RX-26-AW/AX rifle bullet tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, D.D.

    1980-04-01

    A series of rifle bullet tests was performed at the request of LLL for two explosives, RX-26-AW and RX-26-AX, using the Pantex version of the Picatinny Arsenal test (PA-2). Both exposives tested displayed essentially the same low sensitivity to bullet impact. Slow burning of the explosive was the highest order of reaction observed. Also, in a continuing effort to improve the capability of the test facility, different rifle sighting and shot alignment procedures were implemented during this test series.

  6. RX-26-AY/AF rifle bullet tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, D.D.

    1980-11-01

    A series of rifle bullet tests was performed on two explosives, RX-26-AY and RX-26-AF, using the Pantex version of the Picatinny Arsenal Test (PA-2). With the exception of one test, both explosives displayed a relatively low sensitivity to bullet impact. However, a marked difference was noted in the average burn time duration between the two types of explosives being tested. A minor modification was made on the rifle barrel used at the test site in order to improve the sighting procedure.

  7. Management of migrating intracranial bullets: lessons learned from surviving an AK-47 bullet through the lateral brainstem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammo, Richard A; DeFazio, Michael V; Bullock, M Ross

    2012-01-01

    Survival after a gunshot wound (GSW) to the head is becoming more common, with an accompanying increase in spontaneous migration of these intracranial bullet fragments. This phenomenon is well described in current literature and is a potentially life-threatening delayed complication of GSW to the head. We present the case of a 17-year-old boy who survived a penetrating GSW to the cranium and cerebellum after an accident involving an AK (Automatic Kalashnikov)-47 (7.62 mm). Following initial attempts to remove the bullet and associated hematoma from the cerebellar hemisphere, intraoperative fluoroscopy revealed that the bullet had migrated to lie within the right middle cerebellar peduncle with the development of intraoperative cardiac arrhythmia. The bullet could not be retrieved without risk of damage to the superior and inferior cerebellar arteries. The patient then developed bacterial meningitis, and further imaging revealed the bullet had again migrated under the cerebellar cortex to an accessible location. The infection was treated with aggressive antibiotic therapy and the bullet was removed from the posterior fossa, thus preventing recurrence of infection and further migration. The patient regained full motor, speech, and proprioceptive function within months after injury. The potential for spontaneous migration exists with any penetrating brain injury involving a retained foreign body. When a retained intracranial foreign body is unable to be safely extracted during initial debridement, close clinical evaluation is essential and plain-film or computed tomographic imaging should be considered in order to enhance the early detection of delayed-onset life-threatening deterioration, such as meningitis and occlusion of cerebrospinal fluid drainage, because of spontaneous migration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Galaxy Clusters in the Swift/BAT era II: 10 more Clusters detected above 15 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajello, M.; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Rebusco, P.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Cappelluti, N.; /Garching, Max Planck Inst., MPE /Maryland U., Baltimore County; Reimer, O.; /SLAC /Palermo Observ.; Boehringer, H.; /Garching, Max Planck Inst., MPE; La Parola, V.; Cusumano, G.; /Palermo Observ.

    2010-10-27

    We report on the discovery of 10 additional galaxy clusters detected in the ongoing Swift/BAT all-sky survey. Among the newly BAT-discovered clusters there are: Bullet, Abell 85, Norma, and PKS 0745-19. Norma is the only cluster, among those presented here, which is resolved by BAT. For all the clusters we perform a detailed spectral analysis using XMM-Newton and Swift/BAT data to investigate the presence of a hard (non-thermal) X-ray excess. We find that in most cases the clusters emission in the 0.3-200 keV band can be explained by a multi-temperature thermal model confirming our previous results. For two clusters (Bullet and Abell 3667) we find evidence for the presence of a hard X-ray excess. In the case of the Bullet cluster, our analysis confirms the presence of a non-thermal, power-law like, component with a 20-100 keV flux of 3.4 x 10{sup -12} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} as detected in previous studies. For Abell 3667 the excess emission can be successfully modeled as a hot component (kT = {approx}13 keV). We thus conclude that the hard X-ray emission from galaxy clusters (except the Bullet) has most likely thermal origin.

  9. Bullet Points, New Writing, and the Marketization of Public Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Theo; Djonov, Emilia

    2014-01-01

    Bullet lists epitomize both new writing practices, which are promoted through ubiquitous software such as Microsoft's PowerPoint, and the marketization of public discourse. The argument is illustrated with an analysis of the recontextualization of the Australian Treasurer's Budget speech...

  10. Fragment volume determination in bullet/armor holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David L.; Watts, David B.; Marsh, James S.; Gordon, Joseph E.; Anderson, Christopher S.

    1998-03-01

    This report presents automatic data reduction techniques for determining bullet and fragment volumes, positions, and momenta from holograms of bullets penetrating armor. The holography technique and the computer data reduction methods are described. Initial results are shown and sources of error in the technique are described. 2D digital images of the hologram are computationally combined by running a backprojection algorithm to produce a 3D array that represents the space containing the bullet and fragments. Thresholding the numbers in this space from the backprojection algorithm produces a representation of the bullet and fragments. Methods of automatically counting the voxels (3D picture elements) that occur in separated fragments have been programmed. These programs also find the centroids and shapes of the fragments and determine velocity using timing information. Volume errors are 40% in current results. These errors could be reduced to less than 3% if the described error sources were eliminated. Future work to improve the algorithms and the holographic process is described.

  11. Atypical gunshot wound: Bullet trajectory analyzed by computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Ro

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: If an abnormal trajectory is maintained, it is possible for a bullet to traverse half the length of the body without the patient realizing it. Accurate CT analysis and quick decisions in surgical and medical management are critical takeaways to provide quality care to patients with these injuries.

  12. Case Report: Bullet in heart removed from knee | King | Malawi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case Report: Bullet in heart removed from knee. M King. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/mmj.v27i3.10 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  13. Case Report: Bullet in heart removed from knee

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-04-30

    Apr 30, 2015 ... wounds, constrictive pericarditis, and drainage of pericardial effusions through the diaphragm. I now have a scar like Richard's. Luckily my mitral valve prolapse and tissue valve replacement occurred in Cambridge. I have searched the internet for cases similar to Richard's. Metal bullets and fragments have ...

  14. Are lead-free hunting rifle bullets as effective at killing wildlife as conventional lead bullets? A comparison based on wound size and morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trinogga, Anna, E-mail: anna_trinogga@gmx.de; Fritsch, Guido; Hofer, Heribert; Krone, Oliver

    2013-01-15

    Fragmentation of the lead core of conventional wildlife hunting rifle bullets causes contamination of the target with lead. The community of scavenger species which feed on carcasses or viscera discarded by hunters are regularly exposed to these lead fragments and may die by acute or chronic lead intoxication, as demonstrated for numerous species such as white-tailed eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) where it is among the most important sources of mortality. Not only does hunting with conventional ammunition deposit lead in considerable quantities in the environment, it also significantly delays or threatens the recovery of endangered raptor populations. Although lead-free bullets might be considered a suitable alternative that addresses the source of these problems, serious reservations have been expressed as to their ability to quickly and effectively kill a hunted animal. To assess the suitability of lead-free projectiles for hunting practice, the wounding potential of conventional bullets was compared with lead-free bullets under real life hunting conditions. Wound dimensions were regarded as good markers of the projectiles' killing potential. Wound channels in 34 killed wild ungulates were evaluated using computed tomography and post-mortem macroscopical examination. Wound diameters caused by conventional bullets did not differ significantly to those created by lead-free bullets. Similarly, the size of the maximum cross-sectional area of the wound was similar for both bullet types. Injury patterns suggested that all animals died by exsanguination. This study demonstrates that lead-free bullets are equal to conventional hunting bullets in terms of killing effectiveness and thus equally meet the welfare requirements of killing wildlife as painlessly as possible. The widespread introduction and use of lead-free bullets should be encouraged as it prevents environmental contamination with a seriously toxic pollutant and contributes to the conservation of a wide

  15. Are lead-free hunting rifle bullets as effective at killing wildlife as conventional lead bullets? A comparison based on wound size and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinogga, Anna; Fritsch, Guido; Hofer, Heribert; Krone, Oliver

    2013-01-15

    Fragmentation of the lead core of conventional wildlife hunting rifle bullets causes contamination of the target with lead. The community of scavenger species which feed on carcasses or viscera discarded by hunters are regularly exposed to these lead fragments and may die by acute or chronic lead intoxication, as demonstrated for numerous species such as white-tailed eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) where it is among the most important sources of mortality. Not only does hunting with conventional ammunition deposit lead in considerable quantities in the environment, it also significantly delays or threatens the recovery of endangered raptor populations. Although lead-free bullets might be considered a suitable alternative that addresses the source of these problems, serious reservations have been expressed as to their ability to quickly and effectively kill a hunted animal. To assess the suitability of lead-free projectiles for hunting practice, the wounding potential of conventional bullets was compared with lead-free bullets under real life hunting conditions. Wound dimensions were regarded as good markers of the projectiles' killing potential. Wound channels in 34 killed wild ungulates were evaluated using computed tomography and post-mortem macroscopical examination. Wound diameters caused by conventional bullets did not differ significantly to those created by lead-free bullets. Similarly, the size of the maximum cross-sectional area of the wound was similar for both bullet types. Injury patterns suggested that all animals died by exsanguination. This study demonstrates that lead-free bullets are equal to conventional hunting bullets in terms of killing effectiveness and thus equally meet the welfare requirements of killing wildlife as painlessly as possible. The widespread introduction and use of lead-free bullets should be encouraged as it prevents environmental contamination with a seriously toxic pollutant and contributes to the conservation of a wide variety

  16. Cavity Light Bullets in Passively Mode-Locked Semiconductor Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaloyes, J.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the existence of stable three-dimensional dissipative localized structures in the output of a laser coupled to a distant saturable absorber. These phase invariant cavity light bullets are individually addressable and can be envisioned for three-dimensional optical information storage. An effective theory provides for an intuitive picture and allows us to relate their formation to the morphogenesis of static spatial autosolitons and temporal cellular patterns.

  17. Oral lead bullet fragment exposure in northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Richard; Holladay, Jeremy; Holladay, Steven; Tannenbaum, Lawrence; Selcer, Barbara; Meldrum, Blair; Williams, Susan; Jarrett, Timothy; Gogal, Robert

    2011-11-01

    Lead (Pb) is a worldwide environmental contaminant known to adversely affect multiple organ systems in both mammalian and avian species. In birds, a common route of exposure is via oral ingestion of lead particles. Data are currently lacking for the retention and clearance of Pb bullet fragments in gastrointestinal (GI) tract of birds while linking toxicity with blood Pb levels. In the present study, northern bobwhite quail fed a seed-based diet were orally gavaged with Pb bullet fragments (zero, one or five fragments/bird) and evaluated for rate of fragment clearance, and changes in peripheral blood, renal, immune, and gastrointestinal parameters. Based on radiographs, the majority of the birds cleared or absorbed the fragments by seven days, with the exception of one five-fragment bird which took between 7 and 14 days. Blood Pb levels were higher in males than females, which may be related to egg production in females. In males but not females, feed consumption, body weight gain, packed cell volume (PCV), plasma protein concentration, and δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD) activity were all adversely affected by five Pb fragments. Birds of both sexes that received a single Pb fragment displayed depressed δ-ALAD, suggesting altered hematologic function, while all birds dosed with five bullet fragments exhibited greater morbidity.

  18. Pathophysiology of free-bullet slaughter of horses and ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Troy J; Bedford, Elisabeth M; Chancellor, Natalie M; Limon, Georgina

    2015-10-01

    Forty-six equines were observed during routine commercial slaughter in an abattoir. The animals were shot once with a .22 calibre long rifle with hollow point rounds. Indicators of sensibility/insensibility were evaluated immediately after the shot (prior to exsanguination) and the resulting pathophysiology of free-bullet injury was assessed. All animals were rendered immediately insensible, with only one pony showing signs of a shallow depth of concussion, with an intermittently positive palpebral reflex but no other signs of brainstem function. All animals (100%) had some degree of damage to the structures of the brainstem or lobes of the cerebrums, while 41 (89%) had damage to the thalamus/hypothalamus. The bullet in one pony missed the brain but still caused mild damage to the thalamus, midbrain, pons and cerebellum, this animal had no signs of sensibility. The findings confirm that free-bullet shooting is an effective dispatch method for horses and ponies. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Simulations of galaxy cluster collisions with a dark plasma component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spethmann, Christian; Veermäe, Hardi; Sepp, Tiit; Heikinheimo, Matti; Deshev, Boris; Hektor, Andi; Raidal, Martti

    2017-12-01

    Context. Dark plasma is an intriguing form of self-interacting dark matter with an effective fluid-like behavior, which is well motivated by various theoretical particle physics models. Aims: We aim to find an explanation for an isolated mass clump in the Abell 520 system, which cannot be explained by traditional models of dark matter, but has been detected in weak lensing observations. Methods: We performed N-body smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of galaxy cluster collisions with a two component model of dark matter, which is assumed to consist of a predominant non-interacting dark matter component and a 10-40% mass fraction of dark plasma. Results: The mass of a possible dark clump was calculated for each simulation in a parameter scan over the underlying model parameters. In two higher resolution simulations shock-waves and Mach cones were observed to form in the dark plasma halos. Conclusions: By choosing suitable simulation parameters, the observed distributions of dark matter in both the Bullet cluster (1E 0657-558) and Abell 520 (MS 0451.5+0250) can be qualitatively reproduced. Movies associated to Figs. A.1 and A.2 are available at http://www.aanda.org

  20. The Critical Angle for Perforation versus Ricochet of a .38 CAL. LRN Bullet on a Windshield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirakawa, Shunsuke; Saimoto, Akihide; Ishimatsu, Takakazu

    2016-07-01

    From forensic point of view, it is important to clarify the condition whether ricochet or perforate for a bullet fired toward the automobile windshield. The purpose of this study was to specify the critical angle at which the ricochet of the fired bullet takes place. To estimate the result of firing, a rigid-body dynamics simulation of the bullet together with the test-firing using .38 CAL. LRN bullet was examined. It was found both from numerical simulation and firing test that when the incidence angle is 60°. To measure the static failure resistance of various windshields, static indentation test was also examined. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. A Measuring Method About the Bullet Velocity in Electromagnetic Rail Gun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianming LIU

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The operating principle of electromagnetic rail gun by store capacitor was analyzed. A simulation model about the bullet velocity in the electromagnetic rail gun was built. The results of computer simulation experiment showed the relationships between the bullet velocity and the capacitor charging voltage and the pellet mass. By ten coil targets, a new kind of measuring method for the bullet velocity in electromagnetic rail gun was presented. The results of the actual experiment were analyzed. The improving method for measuring bullet velocity was put forward.

  2. The density and velocity of plasma bullets propagating along one dielectric tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longfei Ji

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study shows that the propagation of plasma bullets along one dielectric tube is strongly affected by many discharge parameters, such as the waveform of applied voltage (AC or pulsed DC, peak voltage, He flow rate, and the frequency of AC voltage. Analysis indicates that the density and velocity of plasma bullets are mainly determined by the electric field at the front of plasma bullets. These discharge parameters may significantly influence the distribution of plasma potential along the tube, thus control the electric field at the front of plasma bullets and their propagation. An increase in the pulsed DC voltage with its rise time of <40-50 ns can lead to an obvious improvement in the electric field at the front of plasma bullets, resulting in generation of a plasma in the high density gas and a fast propagation of plasma bullets. He flowing through the tube can contribute to the surface diffusion of charged species, and greatly increase the electric field at the front of plasma bullets. During the propagation of plasma bullets, their density is decreased due to the surface recombination of charged species, such as electrons and ions.

  3. Surgical management of late bullet embolization from the abdomen to the right ventricle: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramos Mayo Alan Elison

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: There are no established guidelines about the management of migrating foreign bodies or bullets, however, conservative, endovascular and surgical management have been proposed. In the cases of bullet embolization to the thoracic cavity, surgery represents a safe, low risk approach with high success rates.

  4. A Stability Formula for Plastic-Tipped Bullets Part 1: Motivation and Development of New Formula

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, Michael W

    2014-01-01

    Part 1 of this paper describes a modification of the original Miller twist rule for computing gyroscopic bullet stability that is better suited to plastic-tipped bullets. The original Miller twist rule assumes a bullet of constant density, but it also works well for conventional copper (or gilding metal) jacketed lead bullets because the density of copper and lead are sufficiently close. However, the original Miller twist rule significantly underestimates the gyroscopic stability of plastic-tipped bullets, because the density of plastic is much lower than the density of copper and lead. Here, a new amended formula is developed for the gyroscopic stability of plastic-tipped bullets by substituting the length of just the metal portion for the total length in the $(1 + L^2)$ term of the original Miller twist rule. Part 2 describes experimental testing of this new formula on three plastic-tipped bullets. The new formula is relatively accurate for plastic-tipped bullets whose metal portion has nearly uniform densi...

  5. A Stability Formula for Plastic-Tipped Bullets Part 2: Experimental Testing

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, Michael W

    2014-01-01

    Part 1 of this paper describes a modification of the original Miller twist rule for computing gyroscopic bullet stability that is better suited to plastic-tipped bullets. The original Miller twist rule assumes a bullet of constant density, but it also works well for conventional copper (or gilding metal) jacketed lead bullets because the density of copper and lead are sufficiently close. However, the original Miller twist rule significantly underestimates the gyroscopic stability of plastic-tipped bullets, because the density of plastic is much lower than the density of copper and lead. Here, a new amended formula is developed for the gyroscopic stability of plastic-tipped bullets by substituting the length of just the metal portion for the total length in the (1 + L2) term of the original Miller twist rule. Part 2 describes experimental testing of this new formula on three plastic-tipped bullets. The new formula is relatively accurate for plastic-tipped bullets whose metal portion has nearly uniform density,...

  6. The density and velocity of plasma bullets propagating along one dielectric tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Longfei; Xia, Yang; Bi, Zhenhua; Niu, Jinhai; Liu, Dongping [Liaoning Key Lab of Optoelectronic Films & Materials, School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China)

    2015-08-15

    This study shows that the propagation of plasma bullets along one dielectric tube is strongly affected by many discharge parameters, such as the waveform of applied voltage (AC or pulsed DC), peak voltage, He flow rate, and the frequency of AC voltage. Analysis indicates that the density and velocity of plasma bullets are mainly determined by the electric field at the front of plasma bullets. These discharge parameters may significantly influence the distribution of plasma potential along the tube, thus control the electric field at the front of plasma bullets and their propagation. An increase in the pulsed DC voltage with its rise time of <40-50 ns can lead to an obvious improvement in the electric field at the front of plasma bullets, resulting in generation of a plasma in the high density gas and a fast propagation of plasma bullets. He flowing through the tube can contribute to the surface diffusion of charged species, and greatly increase the electric field at the front of plasma bullets. During the propagation of plasma bullets, their density is decreased due to the surface recombination of charged species, such as electrons and ions.

  7. Retained Intraspinal Bullet: A Rare Case in a Visitor to Malaysia - A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Ariffin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Firearm injuries to the spine commonly present with acute neurology caused by direct penetration or indirectly from concussive effects of bullet impact on the vertebral column. We report a case of delayed neurologic presentation of retained intra-spinal bullet in a 42 year-old African who had chronic low back pain and sciatica with a past history of gunshot injury to the spine and radiograph revealed a bullet at the L4-5 disc level. Intra-operative exploration showed a fibrous mass around the bullet compressing on the L4 existing nerve root and L5 traversing nerve root. Removal of the retained bullet resulted in a good clinical outcome with complete resolution of symptoms.

  8. Guiding ultraslow weak-light bullets with Airy beams in a coherent atomic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Chao; Huang, Guoxiang

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of guiding stable ultraslow weak-light bullets by using Airy beams in a cold, lifetime-broadened four-level atomic system via electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). We show that under EIT condition the light bullet with ultraslow propagating velocity and extremely low generation power formed by the balance between diffraction and nonlinearity in the probe field can be not only stabilized but also steered by the assisted field. In particular, when the assisted field is taken to be an Airy beam, the light bullet can be trapped into the main lobe of the Airy beam, propagate ultraslowly in longitudinal direction, accelerate in transverse directions, and move along a parabolic trajectory. We further show that the light bullet can bypass an obstacle when guided by two sequential Airy beams. A technique for generating ultraslow helical weak-light bullets is also proposed.

  9. Lead poisoning due to bullets lodged in the human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstner Garcés, Juan Bernardo; Manotas Artuz, Rafael Ignacio

    2012-07-01

    With the increased violence and use of firearms in Colombia, we may see more cases of lead poisoning in our environment, and must be prepared to diagnose and treat them. Subtle signs and symptoms as unexplained anemia, gastro-intestinal discomfort and abdominal cramps, as well as severe signs such as changes in behavior and neurological status, nephropathy, and unexplained death, may be associated with a history of gunshot wounds and bullets in the human body. We must offer the patient knowledge and management strategies of pathology.

  10. Electric-field sensors for bullet detection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinci, Stephen; Hull, David; Ghionea, Simon; Ludwig, William; Deligeorges, Socrates; Gudmundsson, Thorkell; Noras, Maciej

    2014-06-01

    Research and experimental trials have shown that electric-field (E-field) sensors are effective at detecting charged projectiles. E-field sensors can likely complement traditional acoustic sensors, and help provide a more robust and effective solution for bullet detection and tracking. By far, the acoustic sensor is the most prevalent technology in use today for hostile fire defeat systems due to compact size and low cost, yet they come with a number of challenges that include multipath, reverberant environments, false positives and low signal-to-noise. Studies have shown that these systems can benefit from additional sensor modalities such as E-field sensors. However, E-field sensors are a newer technology that is relatively untested beyond basic experimental trials; this technology has not been deployed in any fielded systems. The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) has conducted live-fire experiments at Aberdeen Proving Grounds (APG) to collect data from E-field sensors. Three types of E-field sensors were included in these experiments: (a) an electric potential gradiometer manufactured by Quasar Federal Systems (QFS), (b) electric charge induction, or "D-dot" sensors designed and built by the Army Research Lab (ARL), and (c) a varactor based E-field sensor prototype designed by University of North Carolina-Charlotte (UNCC). Sensors were placed in strategic locations near the bullet trajectories, and their data were recorded. We analyzed the performance of each E-field sensor type in regard to small-arms bullet detection capability. The most recent experiment in October 2013 allowed demonstration of improved versions of the varactor and D-dot sensor types. Results of new real-time analysis hardware employing detection algorithms were also tested. The algorithms were used to process the raw data streams to determine when bullet detections occurred. Performance among the sensor types and algorithm effectiveness were compared to estimates from acoustics signatures

  11. Learning game physics with Bullet Physics and OpenGL

    CERN Document Server

    Dickinson, Chris

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive set of straight-forward, easy-to-follow tutorials in OpenGL and Bullet Physics that will teach you how modern game physics and 3D graphics work.If you're a beginner or intermediate programmer with a basic understanding of 3D mathematics, and you want a stronger foundation in 3D graphics and physics, then this book is perfect for you! You'll even learn some of the fundamental concepts in 3D mathematics and software design that lies beneath them both, discovering some techniques and tricks in graphics and physics that you can use in any game development project.

  12. Reduction potential of the sulfhydryl radical: Pulse radiolysis and laser flash photolysis studies of the formation and reactions of {sm_bullet}SH and HSSH{sm_bullet}{sup {minus}} in aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, T.N.; Huie, R.E.; Neta, P.; Padmaja, S. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Physical and Chemical Properties Div.

    1999-07-08

    H{sub 2}S, which is a very toxic gas, has a large number of natural and anthropogenic sources, and the safe removal of this substance has been a matter of ongoing industrial concern. Formation and reactions of the {sm_bullet}SH/{sm_bullet}S{sup {minus}} and HSSH{sm_bullet}{sup {minus}}/HSS{sm_bullet}{sup 2{minus}} radicals in aqueous solutions have been studied by excimer laser flash photolysis and by pulse radiolysis. Acidic H{sub 2}S solutions can be photolyzed with 193 nm laser pulses and produce a transient species with {lambda}{sub max} at 240 nm, ascribed to the {sm_bullet}SH/{sm_bullet}S{sup {minus}} radical. Solutions of SH{sup {minus}} can be photolyzed also with 248 nm laser pulses to produce the {sm_bullet}SH/{sm_bullet}S{sup {minus}} reacts with SH{sup {minus}} ({kappa}{sub f} = 4 {times} 10{sup 9} L/mol s, {kappa}{sub r} = 5 {times} 10{sup 5} s{sup {minus}1}) to form HSSH{sm_bullet}{sup {minus}}/HSS{sm_bullet}{sup 2{minus}}, with {lambda}{sub max} at 380 nm. Both {sm_bullet}SH/{sm_bullet}S{sup {minus}} and HSSH{sm_bullet}{sup {minus}}/HSS{sm_bullet}{sup 2{minus}} react rapidly with O{sub 2}; the former produces SO{sub 2}{sm_bullet}{sup {minus}} ({kappa} = 5 {times} 10{sup 9} L/mol s), and the latter produces O{sub 2}{sm_bullet} ({kappa} = 4 {times} 10{sup 8} L/mol s). Both radicals react with olefinic compounds. The monomeric radical oxidizes Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 4{minus}}, SO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}, ClO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}, and chlorpromazine. The dimeric radical is a weaker oxidant toward ferrocyanide but reduces N-methylpyridinium compounds. The reduction potential for the dimeric radical at pH 7 was determined from one-electron transfer equilibria with Mo(CN){sub 8}{sup 3{minus}} and with the 4-methoxyaniline radical cation and found to be 0.69 V vs NHE. From the equilibrium constant K = [HSS{sm_bullet}{sup 2{minus}}]/[SH{sup {minus}}][{sm_bullet}S{sup {minus}}] = 8 {times} 10{sup 3} L/mol, the reduction potential for ({sm_bullet}S{sup {minus

  13. Polarization resolved electric field measurements on plasma bullets in N2 using four-wave mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Schans, Marc; Boehm, Patrick; Nijdam, Sander; Ijzerman, Wilbert; Czarnetzki, Uwe

    2016-09-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma jets generated by kHz AC or pulsed DC voltages typically consist of discrete guided ionization waves called plasma bullets. In this work, the electric field of plasma bullets generated in a pulsed DC jet with N2 as feed gas is investigated using the four-wave mixing method. In this diagnostic two laser beams, where one is Stokes shifted from the other, non-linearly interact with the N2 molecules and the bullet's electric field. As a result of the interaction a coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattered (CARS) beam and an infrared beam are generated from which the electric field can be determined. Compared to emission-based methods, this technique has the advantage of being able to also probe the electric field in regions around the plasma bullet where no photons are emitted. The four-wave mixing method and its analysis have been adapted to work with the non-uniform electric field of plasma bullets. In addition, an ex-situ calibration procedure using an electrode geometry different from the discharge geometry has been developed. An experimentally obtained radial profile of the axial electric field component of a plasma bullet in N2 is presented. The position of this profile is related to the location of the propagating bullet from temporally resolved images.

  14. Light bullets in waveguide arrays: spacetime-coupling, spectral symmetry breaking and superluminal decay [Invited].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilenberger, Falk; Minardi, Stefano; Szameit, Alexander; Röpke, Ulrich; Kobelke, Jens; Schuster, Kay; Bartelt, Hartmut; Nolte, Stefan; Tünnermann, Andreas; Pertsch, Thomas

    2011-11-07

    We investigate the effects of the space-time coupling (STC) on the nonlinear formation and propagation of Light Bullets, spatiotemporal solitons in which dispersion and diffraction along all dimensions are balanced by nonlinearity, through periodic media with a weak transverse modulation of the refractive index, i.e. waveguide arrays. The STC arises from wavelength dependence of the strength of inter-waveguide coupling and can be tuned by variation of the array geometry. We show experimentally and numerically that the STC breaks the spectral symmetry of Light Bullets to a considerable degree and modifies their group velocity, leading to superluminal propagation when the Light Bullets decay.

  15. Intracranial bullet retained since the Sino-Japanese war manifesting as hallucination--case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakawa, H; Takenaka, K; Sumi, Y; Morita, T; Suhara, T; Kato, H; Sakai, N; Yamada, H

    1994-07-01

    A 69-year-old male with an intracranial bullet retained in the right occipital lobe for 45 years presented with epileptic seizure occasionally accompanied by visual hallucinations. Neurological examination revealed left homonymous hemianopsia and right hearing loss, and electroencephalography showed slow discharges localized in the lesion. The bullet was removed together with the thickened fibrous capsule. His postoperative course was uneventful, and he has become seizure-free. The bullet caused metal toxicity and progressive gliosis, which caused the epileptogenetic focus and associated hallucinations.

  16. Pure air-plasma bullets propagating inside microcapillaries and in ambient air

    KAUST Repository

    Lacoste, Deanna

    2014-11-04

    This paper reports on the characterization of air-plasma bullets in microcapillary tubes and in ambient air, obtained without the use of inert or noble gases. The bullets were produced by nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharges, applied in a dielectric barrier discharge configuration. The anode was a tungsten wire with a diameter of 50 μm, centered in the microcapillary, while the cathode was a silver ring, fixed on the outer surface of the fused silica tube. The effects of the applied voltage and the inner diameter of the microcapillary tube on the plasma behavior were investigated. Inside the tubes, while the topology of the bullets seems to be strongly dependent on the diameter, their velocity is only a function of the amplitude of the applied voltage. In ambient air, the propagation of air bullets with a velocity of about 1.25 ×105 m s-1 is observed.

  17. Bullet fragments in Belding's ground squirrels in Oregon and California in 2014-2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The dataset includes specifics on fragments of bullets recovered from shot Belding's ground squirrels from Oregon and California. Ground squirrels were radiographed...

  18. Effects of human decomposition on test fired bullet – An experimental research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Rao

    2016-03-01

    The observations through comparison microscope indicated that the individual characteristic (microscopic markings on the bullet in the form of microstriae showed complete corrosion or obscuring by the 10th day. The surface appeared smooth, onset of corrosion process was noted on the 2nd day and by the 4th day 50% obscuring of the marks was noted. This change in the markings of the metal surface of the bullet was uniform to all the ammunitions used in this study. The control bullets showed no such changes during the period of study. The study confirms the existence of a potential danger in dealing with crime bullets retrieved from putrefied bodies. It also highlights the importance of early retrieval of dead bodies in firearm deaths and the importance of proper storage facilities to deal with cases of firearm deaths.

  19. Removal of a bullet in the pericardial cavity by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mohammed W; Khan, Tanveer; Gower, Simon; Loubani, Mahmoud

    2012-08-01

    The use of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) in dealing with thoracic trauma has been well established. VATS avoids a thoracotomy and offers excellent visualization of the entire pleural cavity. The removal of bullets from the pleural cavity using VATS has also been reported, but, to our knowledge, this is the first time a bullet has been removed from the pericardial cavity using VATS.

  20. Flash x-ray observations of cavitation in cadaver thighs caused by high-velocity bullets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, C N; Holland, G E; Seely, J F

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to record flash x-ray images of cavitation in human cadaver thighs caused by the passage of high-velocity bullets. The images are an initial step for understanding the cavitation process in human tissue and for implementing a better definition of extensive tissue injury. Bullets were fired through the mid-thighs of 13 cadaver legs. The bullets were of two calibers, 7.62-mm full metal jacket boat tail with strike velocities in the range of 794 m/s to 880 m/s (10 thighs) and 5.70 mm full metal jacket with velocities in the range of 973 m/s to 992 m/s (3 thighs). Short duration (35 ns) x-ray images were recorded at various selected times after the bullets passed near the femurs. This study was carried out at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology under approved human subject protocols. The cavity sizes and shapes were observed for the two types of bullets and at a number of times during the expansion and collapse of the cavities. As the bullets passed through the thighs, narrow cavities behind the bullets were observed. At later times, large expanded cavities were observed that encompassed the entire mid-thigh region. The observed cavities are at variance with those which were reported previously in gelatin tissue simulants. Flash x-ray radiography is an effective technique for the observation of internal cavitation in cadaver thighs caused by high-velocity bullets. These observations suggest that gelatin is not a proven simulant for human cadaver tissue in the study of cavitation subsequent to high-velocity missile impact.

  1. Lead poisoning due to gunshot bullet in contact with cerebrospinal fluid: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madureira, Paulo Roberto de; De Capitani, Eduardo Mello; Vieira, Ronan José; Sakuma, Alice Momoyo; Toledo, Adriana Safioti; Mello, Suely Moreira

    2009-01-01

    Lead poisoning due to retained gunshot bullets is a well-known clinical problem that is fairly frequently described in the literature. The risk factors for this occurrence relate mainly to whether the lead bullet is in contact with the joint fluid or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The treatment for these cases entails chelation therapy while symptoms are shown and definitive surgical removal of the bullet as a potential source of lead. The aim of this paper is to describe a clinical case of lead poisoning due to a retained gunshot bullet in contact with CSF. A 42-year-old male was hit by gunshot bullets during a holdup, and one of them was retained in the spinal cord. Six years later, he developed intense low back pain and underwent laminectomy. Nine years later, he then underwent arthrodesis on L5-S1, but he developed intense abdominal pain after the surgical procedure. For five years, he was treated with calcium versenate in five-day cycles, with a good response. The chelation therapy cycles showed great efficacy during symptomatic periods, thus reducing the symptoms and signs of poisoning and promoting great amounts of lead excretion, thereby reducing the total lead burden responsible for the symptoms. Fortunately, over the last four years, the symptoms have improved and the urine levels of aminolevulinic acid (ALA) have declined, to reach complete normalization. This shows that a healing process is probably taking place on the spinal wound, thereby isolating the bullet fragments from CSF contact.

  2. THE SHAPING OF THE MULTIPOLAR PRE-PLANETARY NEBULA CRL 618 BY MULTIDIRECTIONAL BULLETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Po-Sheng; Lee, Chin-Fei; Moraghan, Anthony [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Smith, Michael, E-mail: posheng@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Centre for Astrophysics and Space Science, University of Kent, Canterbury CT2 7NH (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-01

    In order to understand the formation of the multipolar structures of the pre-planetary nebula CRL 618, we perform 3D simulations using a multidirectional bullet model. The optical lobes of CRL 618 and fast molecular outflows at the tips of the lobes have been found to have similar expansion ages of ∼100 yr. Additional fast molecular outflows were found near the source along the outflow axes with ages of ∼45 yr, suggesting a second episode of bullet ejections. Thus, in our simulations, two episodes of bullet ejections are assumed. The shaping process is simulated using the ZEUS-3D hydrodynamics code that includes molecular and atomic cooling. In addition, molecular chemistry is also included to calculate the CO intensity maps. Our results show the following: (1) Multiepoch bullets interacting with the toroidal dense core can produce the collimated multiple lobes as seen in CRL 618. The total mass of the bullets is ∼0.034 M{sub ⊙}, consistent with the observed high-velocity (HV) CO emission in fast molecular outflows. (2) The simulated CO J = 3–2 intensity maps show that the low-velocity cavity wall and the HV outflows along the lobes are reasonably consistent with the observations. The position–velocity diagram of the outflows along the outflow axes shows a linear increase of velocity with distance, similar to the observations. The ejections of these bullets could be due to magnetorotational explosions or nova-like explosions around a binary companion.

  3. GALAXY CLUSTER BULK FLOWS AND COLLISION VELOCITIES IN QUMOND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, Harley; McGaugh, Stacy; Teuben, Peter [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Angus, G. W., E-mail: hkatz@astro.umd.edu, E-mail: stacy.mcgaugh@case.edu, E-mail: teuben@astro.umd.edu, E-mail: angus.gz@gmail.com [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7700 (South Africa)

    2013-07-20

    We examine the formation of clusters of galaxies in numerical simulations of a QUMOND cosmogony with massive sterile neutrinos. Clusters formed in these exploratory simulations develop higher velocities than those found in {Lambda}CDM simulations. The bulk motions of clusters attain {approx}1000 km s{sup -1} by low redshift, comparable to observations whereas {Lambda}CDM simulated clusters tend to fall short. Similarly, high pairwise velocities are common in cluster-cluster collisions like the Bullet Cluster. There is also a propensity for the most massive clusters to be larger in QUMOND and to appear earlier than in {Lambda}CDM, potentially providing an explanation for ''pink elephants'' like El Gordo. However, it is not obvious that the cluster mass function can be recovered.

  4. Fractures Due to Gunshot Wounds: Do Retained Bullet Fragments Affect Union?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehl, John T; Connolly, Keith; Haidukewych, George; Koval, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Many types of projectiles, including modern hollow point bullets, fragment into smaller pieces upon impact, particularly when striking bone. This study was performed to examine the effect on time to union with retained bullet material near a fracture site in cases of gunshot injury. All gunshot injuries operatively treated with internal fixation at a Level 1 Trauma Center between March 2008 and August 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Retained bullet load near the fracture site was calculated based on percentage of material retained compared to the cortical diameter of the involved bone. Analyses were performed to assess the effect of the lead-cortical ratio and amount of comminution on time to fracture union. Thirty-two patients (34 fractures) met the inclusion criteria, with an equal number of comminuted (17) and non-comminuted fractures (17). Seventeen of 34 fractures (50%) united within 4 months, 16/34 (47%) developed a delayed union, and 1/34 (3%) developed a nonunion requiring revision surgery. Sixteen of 17 fractures (94%) that united by 4 months had a cumulative amount of bullet fragmentation retained near the fracture site of less than 20% of the cortical diameter. Nine out of 10 fractures (90%) with retained fragments near the fracture site was equal to or exceeding 20% of the cortical diameter had delayed or nonunion. Fracture comminution had no effect on time to union. The quantity of retained bullet material near the fracture site was more predictive of the rate of fracture union than was comminution. Fractures with bullet fragmentation equal to or exceeding 20% of the cortical width demonstrated a significantly higher rate of delayed union/nonunion compared to those fractures with less retained bullet material, which may indicate a local cytotoxic effect from lead on bone healing. These findings may influence decisions on timing of secondary surgeries. Level III.

  5. Quantitative/Statistical Approach to Bullet-to-Firearm Identification with Consecutively Manufactured Barrels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Striupaitis; R.E. Gaensslen

    2005-01-30

    Efforts to use objective image comparison and bullet scanning technologies to distinguish bullets from consecutively manufactured handgun barrels from two manufacturers gave mixed results. The ability of a technology to reliably distinguish between matching and non-matching bullets, where the non-matching bullets were as close in pattern to the matching ones as is probably possible, would provide evidence that the distinctions could be made ''objectively'', and independently of human eyes. That evidence is identical or very close to what seems to be needed to satisfy Daubert standards. It is fair to say that the FTI IBIS image comparison technology correctly distinguished between all the Springfield barrel bullets, and between most but not all of the HiPoint barrel bullets. In the HiPoint cases that were not distinguished 100% of the time, they would he distinguished correctly at least 83% of the time. These results, although obviously limited to the materials used in the comparisons, provide strong evidence that barrel-to-bullet matching is objectively reliable. The results with SciClops were less compelling. The results do not mean that bullet-to-barrel matching is not objectively reliable--rather, they mean that this version of the particular technology could not quite distinguish between these extremely similar yet different bullets as well as the image comparison technology did. In a number of cases, the numerical results made the correct distinctions, although they were close to one another. It is hard to say from this data that this technology differs in its ability to make distinctions between the manufacturers, because the results are very similar with both. The human examiner results were as expected. We did not expect any misidentifications, and there were not any. It would have been preferable to have a higher return rate, and thus more comparisons in the overall sample. As noted, the ''consecutively manufactured barrel

  6. The effect of bullet removal and vegetation on mobility of Pb in shooting range soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayiga, Abioye O; Saha, Uttam

    2016-10-01

    Lead (Pb) contamination at shooting ranges is a public health concern because Pb is a toxic metal. An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of two best management practices; bullet removal and vegetation, on bioavailability and leachability of Pb in three shooting range (SR) soils. St. Augustine grass was grown in sieved (2 mm) and un-sieved SR soils for 8 weeks after which leachates, soil and plant samples were analyzed. Bullet removal reduced total soil Pb, increased Mehlich-3 Pb in unvegetated soils and increased dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in all soils. Bullet removal increased leaching in two SR soils while grasses reduced leaching but increased water soluble Pb in two SR soils. The roots of the grasses were able to accumulate more Pb in the root (1893-5021 mg kg(-1)) than the aboveground biomass (252-880 mg kg(-1)) due to mobilization of Pb in the rhizosphere. Grasses had a higher plant biomass in unsieved soils suggesting tolerance to the presence of bullets in the unsieved soils. Results suggest that bullet removal probably increased microbial activity and Pb bioavailability in the soil. The leaching and bioavailability of Pb in shooting range soils depends on biological activities and chemical processes in the soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. China's bullet trains facilitate market integration and mitigate the cost of megacity growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Siqi; Kahn, Matthew E

    2013-04-02

    Megacity growth in the developing world is fueled by a desire to access their large local labor markets. Growing megacities suffer from high levels of traffic congestion and pollution, which degrade local quality of life. Transportation technology that allows individuals to access the megacity without living within its boundaries offers potentially large social benefits, because individuals can enjoy the benefits of urban agglomeration while not paying megacity real estate rents and suffering from the city's social costs. This paper presents evidence supporting the claim that China's bullet trains are playing this role. The bullet train is regarded as one of the most significant technological breakthroughs in passenger transportation developed in the second half of the 20th century. Starting in 2007, China has introduced several new bullet trains that connect megacities such as Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou with nearby cities. Through facilitating market integration, bullet trains will stimulate the development of second- and third-tier cities. By offering households and firms a larger menu of location alternatives, bullet trains help to protect the quality of life of the growing urban population. We document that this transport innovation is associated with rising real estate prices in the nearby secondary cities.

  8. Proper Assessment of the JFK Assassination Bullet Lead Evidence from Metallurgical and Statistical Perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randich, E; Grant, P M

    2006-08-29

    The bullet evidence in the JFK assassination investigation was reexamined from metallurgical and statistical standpoints. The questioned specimens are comprised of soft lead, possibly from full-metal-jacketed Mannlicher-Carcano, 6.5-mm ammunition. During lead refining, contaminant elements are removed to specified levels for a desired alloy or composition. Microsegregation of trace and minor elements during lead casting and processing can account for the experimental variabilities measured in various evidentiary and comparison samples by laboratory analysts. Thus, elevated concentrations of antimony and copper at crystallographic grain boundaries, the widely varying sizes of grains in Mannlicher-Carcano bullet lead, and the 5-60 mg bullet samples analyzed for assassination intelligence effectively resulted in operational sampling error for the analyses. This deficiency was not considered in the original data interpretation and resulted in an invalid conclusion in favor of the single-bullet theory of the assassination. Alternate statistical calculations, based on the historic analytical data, incorporating weighted averaging and propagation of experimental uncertainties also considerably weaken support for the single-bullet theory. In effect, this assessment of the material composition of the lead specimens from the assassination concludes that the extant evidence is consistent with any number between two and five rounds fired in Dealey Plaza during the shooting.

  9. Proper assessment of the JFK assassination bullet lead evidence from metallurgical and statistical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randich, Erik; Grant, Patrick M

    2006-07-01

    The bullet evidence in the JFK assassination investigation was reexamined from metallurgical and statistical standpoints. The questioned specimens are comprised of soft lead, possibly from full-metal-jacketed Mannlicher-Carcano (MC), 6.5-mm ammunition. During lead refining, contaminant elements are removed to specified levels for a desired alloy or composition. Microsegregation of trace and minor elements during lead casting and processing can account for the experimental variabilities measured in various evidentiary and comparison samples by laboratory analysts. Thus, elevated concentrations of antimony and copper at crystallographic grain boundaries, the widely varying sizes of grains in MC bullet lead, and the 5-60 mg bullet samples analyzed for assassination intelligence effectively resulted in operational sampling error for the analyses. This deficiency was not considered in the original data interpretation and resulted in an invalid conclusion in favor of the single-bullet theory of the assassination. Alternate statistical calculations, based on the historic analytical data, incorporating weighted averaging and propagation of experimental uncertainties also considerably weaken support for the single-bullet theory. In effect, this assessment of the material composition of the lead specimens from the assassination concludes that the extant evidence is consistent with any number between two and five rounds fired in Dealey Plaza during the shooting.

  10. Spatiotemporal controllable Airy–Airy-vortex light bullets in free space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xi; Peng, Yulian; Li, Dongdong; Zhang, Liping; Zhuang, Jingli; Zhao, Fang; Chen, Xingyu; Yang, Xiangbo; Deng, Dongmei

    2017-12-01

    Spatiotemporal controllable accelerating and decelerating Airy–Airy-vortex (CAiAiV) light bullets are obtained by solving the (3+1)- dimensional free space Schrödinger equation. For these light bullets, the temporal parts come from controllable Airy distributions, and the spatial parts come from controllable Airy vortex distributions. Their propagation properties are affected by the initial velocity, the topological charge and the decay factor. A positive initial velocity causes self-acceleration in both the spatial and the temporal domains of the CAiAiV light bullet, while negative initial velocity makes it first decelerate and then accelerate. The maximum decelerating deflection is determined by the negative initial velocity. The structure of CAiAiV light bullets is influenced by weakening the main lobe and strengthening the side lobes with the topological charge increasing. The peculiar propagation properties of the side lobes of such light bullets are also affected by the decay factors in X, Y and T directions. The superposition of different-order CAiAiV functions is also discussed.

  11. Gunshot Wound in Lumbar Spine with Intradural Location of a Bullet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bordon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of a migratory bullet in the spinal canal after a gunshot injury is a rare finding, specially without causing permanent neurologic damage. We present the case of a patient who suffered a gunshot wound with an entry point in the posterior arc of L2-L3 and a migratory bullet detected at the level of L5-S1 in the CT scan. The patient complained about intense headache, dizziness, and variable sensitive impairment in lower legs apparently depending on the patient’s position in bed. We decided to remove the bullet in order to prevent the delayed neurological damage and lead toxicity. We discuss technical details of this surgery.

  12. Pain from a Bullet Lingers on: An Uncommon Case of Lead Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albin Abraham

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Lead toxicity from a retained bullet as a cause for abdominal pain is rarely considered. Given its unpredictable latent period and nonspecific clinical symptoms, such cases are difficult to diagnose but may be fatal if unrecognized. We present the case of a 48-year-old man who presented with complaints of abdominal pain, weight loss and constipation. His past history was significant for a gunshot wound to the left hip about 20 years before. Radiographic studies confirmed the same with the presence of numerous intra-articular bullet fragments and a calcified hemarthrosis surrounding the left femoral head. Blood lead levels were elevated following which the patient was started on chelation therapy with succimer which resulted in symptomatic improvement. The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of considering lead toxicity from a retained bullet as a cause of abdominal pain and to review the relevant literature.

  13. A bullet fired in dry water: an investigative activity to learn hydrodynamics concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo Leitão, Ulisses; dos Anjos Pinheiro da Silva, Antonio; Trindade do Nascimento, Natália Cristina; Mara Benedita da Cruz Gervásio, Lilian

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we report an investigative activity on hydrodynamics, in the context of an inquiry-based learning project. The aim is to analyse the experiment of a bullet shot underwater. Using Tracker, a video analysing and modelling software, the displacement of the bullet was measured as function of time, processing a slow motion video from YouTube. It was found that the displacement of the bullet is well described in the first 20 ms by the inviscid flow regime, where the Newtonian drag force overcomes the viscous drag. This behaviour is discussed in the context of what Richard Feynman’s famous Lectures on Physics describes as ‘The Flow of Dry Water’.

  14. Stunning effect of different rifle-bullets for slaughter of outdoor cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Retz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The slaughter method via gunshot implies a stunning of cattle by means of a targeted shot from a rifle and is as an alternative to regular slaughter at abattoirs. This method is only permitted under restricted circumstances and if the cattle is held on a pasture all the year. However, there is a considerable lack of specifications regulated by law concerning calibre and bullet-type. In this study, four different calibres, two bullet-types and two different shot placements were investigated with respect to their stunning efficiency. All of the calibres exhibited an entry-energy over 400 J and provided sufficient stunning potential. Yet, only calibre .22 Magnum caused no exit of the bullet out of the scull, which provides higher safety conditions for man and cattle.

  15. Bullet fragmentation preceding a contour shot: case study and experimental simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterzik, V; Kneubuehl, B P; Bohnert, M; Riva, F; Glardon, M

    2017-01-01

    In medico-legal literature, only a small number of publications deal with lethal injuries caused by shots with modified guns. This might lead to the conclusion that such cases are extremely rare. However, there are cases again and yet again. During the investigation process, the modified gun is of particular importance since it can show an unusual ballistic behaviour. The present paper reports on a suicide of a 60-year-old man, committed with a modified revolver and a lead bullet. The man had a single gunshot wound with entrance at the right temporal bone. Autopsy revealed that the bullet had fragmented into two major parts. The smaller one stood outside the cranial cavity and pushed its way alongside between the cranial bone and scalp to its end position in the left temporal area. The bigger part entered the cranial cavity and ended in the left parietal lobe. In shots on ballistic soap and on a head-model, the ballistics of the weapon and lead bullet were characterized. The angle necessary for bullet fragmentation was determined by shots on ballistic soap and turned out to be 55°-60° at a velocity of around 200 m/s. This knowledge was transferred to contact shots on a head-model consisting of a layered polyurethane sphere filled with 10 % ballistic gelatine and covered with a skin-like cap almost all around. The resulting injury pattern corresponded to the one of the suicide person. The bigger bullet part entered the skull while the smaller part pushed its way alongside between skin and skull causing an outer contour shot. Furthermore, the revolver was documented firing off two bullets by one trigger pull-a phenomenon of importance for forensic casework the authors have not found reported in forensic literature.

  16. Lead poisoning due to gunshot bullet in contact with cerebrospinal fluid: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto de Madureira

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Lead poisoning due to retained gunshot bullets is a well-known clinical problem that is fairly frequently described in the literature. The risk factors for this occurrence relate mainly to whether the lead bullet is in contact with the joint fluid or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. The treatment for these cases entails chelation therapy while symptoms are shown and definitive surgical removal of the bullet as a potential source of lead. The aim of this paper is to describe a clinical case of lead poisoning due to a retained gunshot bullet in contact with CSF. CASE REPORT: A 42-year-old male was hit by gunshot bullets during a holdup, and one of them was retained in the spinal cord. Six years later, he developed intense low back pain and underwent laminectomy. Nine years later, he then underwent arthrodesis on L5-S1, but he developed intense abdominal pain after the surgical procedure. For five years, he was treated with calcium versenate in five-day cycles, with a good response. The chelation therapy cycles showed great efficacy during symptomatic periods, thus reducing the symptoms and signs of poisoning and promoting great amounts of lead excretion, thereby reducing the total lead burden responsible for the symptoms. Fortunately, over the last four years, the symptoms have improved and the urine levels of aminolevulinic acid (ALA have declined, to reach complete normalization. This shows that a healing process is probably taking place on the spinal wound, thereby isolating the bullet fragments from CSF contact.

  17. Relative Armor Penetration of Jacketed Lead, Solid Copper, Solid Brass, and Steel Core Bullets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    square) and a proprietary fiber composite armor (glass backed with aramid fabric) were tested against four different types of bullets in 5.56mm...penetration of four different projectile types (all in 5.56mm NATO) on both 6.35mm thick steel plate (A36) and proprietary glass/ aramid composite armor...different projectile types (all in 5.56mm NATO) on both 6.35mm thick steel plate (A36) and proprietary glass/ aramid composite armor. The bullet

  18. Bone marrow edema induced by a bullet after a self-inflicted accidental firing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Nicole; Paula, Pia; Gascho, Dominic; Flach, Patricia M; Thali, Michael J; Ross, Steffen G; Ampanozi, Garyfalia

    2013-11-01

    We present a case of a postmortem finding of bone marrow edema in postmortem magnetic resonance imaging (PMMR) indirectly induced by a bullet, which barely missed the bone of a 92-year-old man found kneeling in front of his bed of a tidy apartment. Additionally, a selective postmortem computed tomography angiography (PMCTA) of the left leg was performed, visualizing a laceration of the left femoral vein by the bullet with consecutive contrast media extravasation. A vast pulmonary fat embolism was diagnosed and together with the blood loss found to be the cause of death. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis of Anti-Bullet Resistance of Armored Steels of Foreign Manufacture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Zuzov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies penetrating armour plates from the steel alloys such as Armox 560T, Domex protect 500, Weldox 700 E, Hardox 400, and Armstal 500, which are used for armour protection. In all tests for five different thick (6 mm, 8 mm, 10 mm, 6 + 6 mm, and 8 + 8mm plates was used one of the most common bullets, i.e. a 7.62 mm "APM2" (hard steel core bullet with an impact velocity of 830 m / s and 920 m / s. The article presents the developed rational finite element models of plates and bullets, which allow us to obtain results with acceptable accuracy and minimum time of solution using the LS-DYNA solver. Predicts the rational thickness values and the steel properties to ensure protection according to the European standard EN1063 ("BR7". Also conducts analysis of influence of the friction coefficient on the results of numerical simulation.The main results of calculations include the residual velocity and kinetic energy of the bullet after penetrating and the pattern of the plate fracture mechanism (for each plate type and thickness. As a result of the studies, it was found that the monolayer 6 mm, 8 mm and 10 mm thick plates from all the investigated steel alloys do not provide a protection level of "BR7" (with an initial bullet velocity of 830 m / s and, on the other hand, the two-layer plates from the alloys Armox 560T, Domex protect 500, and Armstal 500 with a total thickness of 12 mm provide such level of protection. It was also revealed that the influence of the coefficient of friction on the resistance to the bullet penetration is very small, so friction can be neglected.At an initial velocity of 920 m / s a bullet penetrated two-layer 6x2 mm thick plates from all the steel alloys under consideration, while with a thickness of 8x2 mm the bullet could not penetrate (except the Weldox 700E alloy plate.

  20. Characteristics of behind armor blunt trauma produced by bullets with different structural materials: an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-qing WANG

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effect of structural materials of bullets on behind armor blunt trauma (BABT. Methods Ten healthy male Landraces were randomly divided into two groups (5 each: 56 type 7.62-mm rifle bullet group and SS109 5.56-mm rifle bullet group. The kinetic energy of two types of bullets was adjusted to the same level (about 1880J by the way of grow downwards gunpowder. Then the animals as protected with both grade NIJ Ⅲ ceramic hard armor and grade Ⅱ police soft body armor, were shot at the left midclavicular line of fourth intercostal space (shooting distance was 25m. The damage to the animals was observed. Other 2 healthy male Landraces were selected, and biomechanical sensor was subcutaneously implanted into the soft tissue in precordium and intracalvarium to detect the pressure at the time point of bullet contact under the protection of armor, and the relationship between pressure and damage was analyzed. Results Respiration, heart rate and systolic arterial pressure of animals in two groups were all elevated after injury, but there was no significant difference between the two groups. No obvious change was found on blood oxygen saturation of both groups. Gross anatomy showed the predominant local injury was cardiac and pulmonary contusions. The area of pulmonary hemorrhage of 7.62mm group was 6.00%±3.18%, significantly higher than that of 5.56mm group (3.59%±2.11%, P<0.05. Histopathological examination revealed acute injuries of lung tissues, myocardial tissue and cerebral cortical neurons. The contents of cardiac troponin T (TnT, creatine kinase (CK and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB isoenzyme were all increased 3 hours after injury, and the rise was higher in 7.62mm group than in 5.56mm group (P<0.05. Biomechanical testing showed the pressure of precordium and intracalvarium was elevated at the moment of bullet contact, and the rise was higher in 7.62mm group than in 5.56mm group (P<0.05. Conclusions

  1. Curvilinear trajectory estimation of a supersonic bullet using ballistic shock wave arrivals at asynchronous acoustic sensor nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Kam W

    2017-06-01

    The trajectory of a supersonic bullet, which is subjected to drag and gravity, is curvilinear and the supersonic flight of the bullet generates a ballistic shock wave (SW). A model for the differential time of arrival (DTOA) of the SW at a pair of acoustic sensors is derived for a given bullet trajectory, which is fully described by seven parameters including the drag coefficient exponent and ballistic constant of the bullet. Assuming that the drag coefficient exponent is 0.5, the DTOA model is used to develop a nonlinear least-squares (NLS) method to estimate the other six trajectory parameters using DTOA of SW measurements from each node (which comprises a small acoustic sensor array) of an asynchronous sensor network. The position of the shooter and the muzzle speed of the bullet are then determined by tracing the estimated bullet trajectory back to topographic or man-made obstructions on a digital map. The effectiveness of the NLS method is verified using simulated data for different types of real bullets, and the error standard deviations in the parameter estimates are close to the Cramer-Rao lower bounds.

  2. Computer Modeling and Simulation of Bullet Impact to the Human Thorax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-01

    tw fnt fr hit shall be m •uaud to determine complianoe No fair hit ballet or one impacting at a velocity lower than the minimum. required bullet...www.oles.org/ pdf /aaaad.pdf], April 1987. 1. DeMaio, M., Parks, S., et al., "Biomechanical Evaluation of Chest Body Armor," report, Armed Forces

  3. Intra-myocardial Bullet causing heart block in a patient with multiple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    complications are usually related to size and location of the missile. Although the natural course, long term. Intra-myocardial Bullet causing heart block in a patient with multiple gunshot wounds: Case Report. Authors: Odhiambo W.A. 1 BDS, MDS (OMFS), Guthua S.W. 1 BDS, MMED SC, DOMS, FIAOMS, FCS, Munene J. 2, ...

  4. Scientific and Technical Libraries: Administration and Management. LC Science Tracer Bullet 84-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Constance, Comp.

    This guide to reference materials on the management of scientific and technical libraries updates and expands LC Science Tracer Bullet 76-l. While the guide is not intended to be a comprehensive bibliography, the compilation does provide the user with a representative sample of types of materials available and suggestions on appropriate…

  5. Space Science Projects. LC Science Tracer Bullet No. TB-89-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Constance, Comp.

    This publication aims to assist elementary and secondary school students and teachers in planning, preparing and executing projects in the space sciences. Sources in other areas of science and on science fairs themselves are listed in "Science Fair Projects" (LC Science Tracer Bullet 88-4). This compilation is not intended to be a comprehensive…

  6. Intra-myocardial Bullet causing heart block in a patient with multiple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    complications and migratory potential are unpredict- able and not well documented in the literature, many right and left ventricular injuries have been treated non- operatively (5,6,7,8). We present a case of a multiply injured patient found to have a bullet lodged in his heart. Thoracotomy was nec- essary in this case as ...

  7. Retained Lumbar Bullet: A Case Report of Chronic Lead Toxicity and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Nirma D; Macias-Konstantopoulos, Wendy L

    2016-07-01

    Lead toxicity from retained bullet fragments is difficult to both predict and diagnose, but important to treat early, given the potential severity of disease. Blood lead levels > 25 μg/dL and 40 μg/dL are considered toxic in children and adults, respectively. Symptoms may range from nonspecific constitutional symptoms to seizures and coma. Chelation is the mainstay therapy for lead poisoning and levels to treat depend on patient age, blood lead levels, and the presence of symptoms. CASE  We present the case of a woman with symptoms of severe lead toxicity from 20-year-old retained bullet fragments. She had been seen by multiple providers for evaluation of each symptom, but a unifying diagnosis had not been found. After identifying this complication, she was treated appropriately and more serious complications were prevented. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: We present this case to increase awareness among emergency physicians of lead toxicity in patients with a seemingly unrelated constellation of symptoms and a history of a previous gunshot wound with retained bullet or bullet fragments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Age and growth of bullet tuna, Auxis rochei (Risso), from the Turkish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aims to identify the age and growth parameters of bullet tuna (Auxis rochei) in Turkish waters. The fish were caught from the Turkish Mediterranean coasts between December 2008 and December 2009. A total of 186 dorsal fin spines obtained from the specimens were analyzed for ageing and growth studies.

  9. Blood Back Spatter Caused by a Blunt Bullet Gunshot: Theory and Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiskey, Patrick; Yarin, Alexander; Kim, Sungu; Attinger, Daniel

    A theoretical model describing the blood back spatter pattern resulting from a blunt bullet gunshot is proposed and compared to experimental data. It is shown that the blunt bullet impact results in blood accelerating towards air opposite of the bullet motion creating a situation for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability which determines droplet sizes and initial velocities. Then, drop trajectories can be predicted accounting for all forces involved: air drag and gravity forces, as well as for the collective effect of drop-drop interaction through air which diminishes the drag force on drops moving in the wake of the others. Experimental data was acquired by shooting a blunt bullet into a porous substrate impregnated with swine blood and the spatter pattern was collected on a vertical surface located between the target and the shooter. The spatter pattern was analyzed for the number of droplets, the area of blood stains, total stain area, and location. Comparisons with the theoretical results reveal satisfactory agreement. The theory also predicts the impact angle at the collection surface, the Weber number corresponding to the drop impact onto the collection surface, and the stain ellipticity. Support of this work by the US National Institute of Justice (award NIJ 2014-DN-BX-K036) is greatly appreciated.

  10. Science Fair Projects. LC Science Tracer Bullet. TB 07-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howland, Joyce, Comp.

    2007-01-01

    Selected sources in this bibliography provide guidance to students, parents, and teachers throughout the process of planning, developing, implementing and competing in science fair activities. Sources range in suitability from elementary to high school levels. This guide updates "Library of Congress Science Tracer Bullet" 01-4. More specialized…

  11. An Atypical Path of a Bullet in Thorax in a Firearm Injury Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Çobanoğlu

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Various weapons have been used in the history of mankind for defence and attack. With the progression of new technologies numerous types and greater destroying effects accompanied these weapons. Bullets of gunshots can be localised in different regions from the entry point due to its high kinetic energy and tissue contact. Fourty eight years old male was admitted to emergency unit due to gun shot injury on the chest. Bullet entered thorax from 4. intercostal space. It passed through upper lobe by causing injure paranchyme and toward sternum. It entered to right hemithorax by pericardial laceration and rupture of internal mammary artery and then changed its direction downward. Following right lower lobe laseration and 7. rib fracture, it directed upward and left thorax from 5.intercostal space. It injured medial border of scapula and setteled down to posterior of scapula. This case was discussed for its interesting outcome due to an atipical route in the chest with a gunshot bullet. Key words: Gunshot bullet core, atipical route, chest cavity, forensic case

  12. Bullet Retarding Forces in Ballistic Gelatin by Analysis of High Speed Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    cavity arises because the retarding force accelerates tissue which then stretches until the combination of inertia , weight, and elasticity causes it to...at impact. Damping of the oscillations over the first 50 m is due to the bullets “going to sleep ” (damping of pitch and yaw). Decreasing

  13. Intraorbital foreign body: A rifle bullet removed 20 years after the accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarós, P; Fokouo, J V F; Clarós, A

    2017-02-01

    Trauma of the orbit and eyeball is common, but intraorbital bullet is a relatively rare event. The authors report the management of a patient with chorioretinitis sclopetaria secondary to a gunshot wound twenty years previously. The clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of this unusual case of intraorbital foreign body are discussed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  14. Class 1E digital systems studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecht, H.; Tai, A.T.; Tso, K.S. [SoHaR, Inc., Beverly Hills, CA (United States)

    1993-10-01

    This document is furnished as part of the effort to develop NRC Class 1E Digital Computer Systems Guidelines which is Task 8 of USAF Rome Laboratories Contract F30602-89-D-0100. The report addresses four major topics, namely, computer programming languages, software design and development, software testing and fault tolerance and fault avoidance. The topics are intended as stepping stones leading to a Draft Regulatory Guide document. As part of this task a small scale survey of software fault avoidance and fault tolerance practices was conducted among vendors of nuclear safety related systems and among agencies that develop software for other applications demanding very high reliability. The findings of the present report are in part based on the survey and in part on review of software literature relating to nuclear and other critical installations, as well as on the authors` experience in these areas.

  15. Hydrodynamics of back spatter by blunt bullet gunshot with a link to bloodstain pattern analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiskey, P. M.; Yarin, A. L.; Attinger, D.

    2017-07-01

    A theoretical model describing the blood spatter pattern resulting from a blunt bullet gunshot is proposed. The predictions are compared to experimental data acquired in the present work. This hydrodynamic problem belongs to the class of the impact hydrodynamics with the pressure impulse generating the blood flow. At the free surface, the latter is directed outwards and accelerated toward the surrounding air. As a result, the Rayleigh-Taylor instability of the flow of blood occurs, which is responsible for the formation of blood drops of different sizes and initial velocities. Thus, the initial diameter, velocity, and acceleration of the atomized blood drops can be determined. Then, the equations of motion are solved, describing drop trajectories in air accounting for gravity, and air drag. Also considered are the drop-drop interactions through air, which diminish air drag on the subsequent drops. Accordingly, deposition of two-phase (blood-drop and air) jets on a vertical cardstock sheet located between the shooter and the target (and perforated by the bullet) is predicted and compared with experimental data. The experimental data were acquired with a porous polyurethane foam sheet target impregnated with swine blood, and the blood drops were collected on a vertical cardstock sheet which was perforated by the blunt bullet. The highly porous target possesses a low hydraulic resistance and therefore resembles a pool of blood shot by a blunt bullet normally to its free surface. The back spatter pattern was predicted numerically and compared to the experimental data for the number of drops, their area, the total stain area, and the final impact angle as functions of radial location from the bullet hole in the cardstock sheet (the collection screen). Comparisons of the predicted results with the experimental data revealed satisfactory agreement. The predictions also allow one to find the impact Weber number on the collection screen, which is necessary to predict stain

  16. Lead bullet fragments in venison from rifle-killed deer: potential for human dietary exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Grainger Hunt

    Full Text Available Human consumers of wildlife killed with lead ammunition may be exposed to health risks associated with lead ingestion. This hypothesis is based on published studies showing elevated blood lead concentrations in subsistence hunter populations, retention of ammunition residues in the tissues of hunter-killed animals, and systemic, cognitive, and behavioral disorders associated with human lead body burdens once considered safe. Our objective was to determine the incidence and bioavailability of lead bullet fragments in hunter-killed venison, a widely-eaten food among hunters and their families. We radiographed 30 eviscerated carcasses of White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus shot by hunters with standard lead-core, copper-jacketed bullets under normal hunting conditions. All carcasses showed metal fragments (geometric mean = 136 fragments, range = 15-409 and widespread fragment dispersion. We took each carcass to a separate meat processor and fluoroscopically scanned the resulting meat packages; fluoroscopy revealed metal fragments in the ground meat packages of 24 (80% of the 30 deer; 32% of 234 ground meat packages contained at least one fragment. Fragments were identified as lead by ICP in 93% of 27 samples. Isotope ratios of lead in meat matched the ratios of bullets, and differed from background lead in bone. We fed fragment-containing venison to four pigs to test bioavailability; four controls received venison without fragments from the same deer. Mean blood lead concentrations in pigs peaked at 2.29 microg/dL (maximum 3.8 microg/dL 2 days following ingestion of fragment-containing venison, significantly higher than the 0.63 microg/dL averaged by controls. We conclude that people risk exposure to bioavailable lead from bullet fragments when they eat venison from deer killed with standard lead-based rifle bullets and processed under normal procedures. At risk in the U.S. are some ten million hunters, their families, and low

  17. Stabilizing lead bullets in shooting range soil by phosphate-based surface coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Hua

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil lead (Pb is well known as a threat to human health and ecosystem. Although relatively insoluble, lead bullets in shooting range soil can be readily released into soluble forms through natural weathering processes and thus pose significant human and environmental risks. In this study, laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate if the Pb bullets in shooting range soil can be stabilized through surface coating of phosphate-based materials. Results indicated that FePO4 or AlPO4 coatings, insoluble metal phosphates, have been successfully formed on the surface of the Pb bullets. The EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP test showed that FePO4 or AlPO4 surface coating would effectively reduce the Pb solubility or leachability of the bullets. The surface coating under pH of <5.5 for 7 days could achieve 92–100% reduction, with 85–98% by FePO4 coating and 77–98% by AlPO4 coating as compared with the non-coating. Leachable Pb concentration in the contaminated shooting range soil was reduced by 85–98% or 77–98% as a result of the FePO4 or AlPO4 solution treatment. This study demonstrated that the FePO4 or AlPO4–based surface coating on lead bullets can effectively inhibit the Pb weathering and significantly reduce the Pb release from soil through in situ chemical stabilization, which could be potentially applicable as a cost-effective and environmental-sound technology for the remediation of Pb-contaminated shooting range soil.

  18. Cancer Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research Cancer Clusters On This Page What is a cancer cluster? ... the number of cancer cases in the suspected cluster Many reported clusters include too few cancer cases ...

  19. Differentiation of bullet type based on the analysis of gunshot residue using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udey, Ruth N; Hunter, Brian C; Smith, Ruth Waddell

    2011-09-01

    Porcine tissue samples shot with two different types of bullets, jacketed and nonjacketed, were collected in the fresh state and throughout moderate decomposition. Wound samples were microwave-digested and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to detect all elements present at measurable levels in gunshot residue (GSR). Elements detected included antimony (Sb), barium (Ba), and lead (Pb), which are considered characteristic of GSR, as well as iron (Fe) and copper (Cu). These five elements were used to differentiate shot tissue and unshot tissue, as well as tissue shot by the two different bullet types, both in the fresh state and throughout moderate decomposition. The concentrations of Cu, Sb, and Pb were able to distinguish the two bullet types in fresh tissue samples at the 95% confidence level. Cu and Pb were able to differentiate the bullet types throughout moderate decomposition at the 99% confidence level. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  20. Terminal Performance of Lead-Free Pistol Bullets in Ballistic Gelatin Using Retarding Force Analysis from High Speed Video

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, Elijah; Andrusiv, Lubov; Courtney, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Due to concerns about environmental and industrial hazards of lead, a number of military, law enforcement, and wildlife management agencies are giving careful consideration to lead-free ammunition. The goal of lead-free bullets is to gain the advantages of reduced lead use in the environment while maintaining equal or better terminal performance. Accepting reduced terminal performance would foolishly risk the lives of military and law enforcement personnel. This paper uses the established technique of studying bullet impacts in ballistic gelatin to characterize the terminal performance of eight commercial off-the- shelf lead-free handgun bullets for comparison with earlier analysis of jacketed lead bullets. Peak retarding force and energy deposit in calibrated ballistic gelatin are quantified using high speed video. The temporary stretch cavities and permanent wound cavities are also characterized. Two factors tend to reduce the terminal performance of these lead-free projectiles compared to similar jacketed ...

  1. Mechanism of bullet-to-streamer transition in water surface incident helium atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sung-Young; Kim, Gon-Ho; Kim, Su-Jeong; Bae, Byeongjun; Kim, Seong Bong; Ryu, Seungmin; Yoo, Suk Jae

    2016-09-01

    The mechanism of bullet to streamer transition of helium-APPJ bullet on the electrolyte surface was investigated. The APPJ was discharged in pin-to-ring DBD reactor system with helium gas by applying the ac-driven voltage at a frequency of 10 kHz. The water evaporation was controlled via saline temperature. The temporal- and 2-dimensional spatially- resolved plasma properties are monitored by optical diagnostics. During the APPJ bullet propagation from reactor to electrolyte surface, the transition of bullet from streamer was recognized from the high speed image, hydrogen beta emission line, and bullet propagation speed. The He metastable species density profiles from the tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) showed the metastable lost the energy near electrolyte surface. It is found that the bullet transited to streamer when the water fraction reached to 29%. This can be fascinating result to study the plasma physics liquid surface, non-fixed boundary. Acknowledgements: This work was partly supported by R&D Program of `Plasma Advanced Technology for Agriculture and Food (Plasma Farming)' through the National Fusion Research Institute of Korea (NFRI) funded by the Government fund was carried out as part.

  2. Base deformation of full metal-jacketed rifle bullets as a measure of impact velocity and range of fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Lucien C

    2015-03-01

    Full metal-jacketed rifle bullets with lead cores and open bases can experience deformation of their cylindrical shapes as they yaw during the penetration of soft tissues. The amount of deformation depends upon the strength of the bullet and the velocity in soft tissue when they go into yaw. The yaw behavior of a bullet in soft tissue depends upon its design (length, ogive shape, ogive length, center of gravity, and pre-impact stability) as it penetrates soft tissue. The yaw characteristics of common spitzer-type military rifle bullets are relatively well known and quite reproducible when fired into suitable soft tissue simulants. This, in turn, results in a relationship between the amount of deformation of the bullet's shank and impact velocity with soft tissue. The specific relationship between impact velocity and bullet deformation must be worked out through empirical testing, but this relationship can be of critical importance in determining impact velocity, which, in turn, relates to range of fire.

  3. Distributed radar network for real-time tracking of bullet trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yimin; Li, Xin; Jin, Yuanwei; Amin, Moeness G.; Eydgahi, Ali

    2009-05-01

    Gunshot detection, sniper localization, and bullet trajectory prediction are of significant importance in military and homeland security applications. While the majority of existing work is based on acoustic and electro-optical sensors, this paper develops a framework of networked radar systems that uses distributed radar sensor networks to achieve the aforementioned objectives. The use of radio frequency radar systems allows the achievement of subtime- of-flight tracking response, enabling to response before the bullet reaches its target and, as such, effectively leading to the reduction of injuries and casualties in military and homeland security operations. The focus of this paper is to examine the MIMO radar concept with concurrent transmission of low-correlation waveforms from multiple radar sets to ensure wide surveillance coverage and maintain a high waveform repetition frequency for long coherent time interval required to achieve return signal concentration.

  4. [Bullet and shrapnel injuries in the face and neck regions. Current aspects of wound ballistics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauer, T; Huschitt, N; Kulla, M; Kneubuehl, B; Willy, C

    2011-08-01

    A basic understanding of the ballistic behaviour of projectiles or fragments after entering the human body is essential for the head and neck surgeon in the military environment in order to anticipate the diagnostic and therapeutic consequences of this type of injury. Although a large number of factors influence the missile in flight and after penetration of the body, the most important factor is the amount of energy transmitted to the tissue. Long guns (rifles or shotguns) have a much higher muzzle energy compared to handguns, explaining why the remote effects beyond the bullet track play a major role. While most full metal jacket bullets release their energy after 12-20 cm (depending on the calibre), soft point bullets release their energy immediately after entry into the human body. This results in a major difference in extremity wounds, but not so much in injuries with long bullet paths (e.g. diagonal shots). Shrapnel wounds are usually produced with similarly high kinetic energy to those caused by hand- and long guns. However, fragments tend to dissipate the entire amount of energy within the body, which increases the degree of tissue disruption. Of all relevant injuries in the head and neck region, soft tissue injuries make up the largest proportion (60%), while injuries to the face are seen three times more often than injuries to the neck. Concomitant intracranial or spinal injury is seen in 30% of cases. Due to high levels of wound contamination, the infection rate is approximately 15%, often associated with a complicated and/or multiresistant spectrum of germs.

  5. GSR deposition along the bullet path in contact shots to composite models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse Perdekamp, Markus; Arnold, Max; Merkel, Joachim; Mierdel, Katrin; Braunwarth, Roland; Kneubuehl, Beat P; Pollak, Stefan; Thierauf, Annette

    2011-01-01

    In contact shots, all the materials emerging from the muzzle (combustion gases, soot, powder grains, and metals from the primer) will be driven into the depth of the entrance wound and the following sections of the bullet track. The so-called "pocket" ("powder cavity") under the skin containing soot and gunpowder particles is regarded as a significant indicator of a contact entrance wound since one would expect that the quantity of GSR deposited along the bullet's path rapidly declines towards the exit hole. Nevertheless, experience has shown that soot, powder particles, and carboxyhemoglobin may be found not only in the initial part of the wound channel, but also far away from the entrance and even at the exit. In order to investigate the propagation of GSRs under standardized conditions, contact test shots were fired against composite models of pig skin and 25-cm-long gelatin blocks using 9-mm Luger pistol cartridges with two different primers (Sinoxid® and Sintox®). Subsequently, 1-cm-thick layers of the gelatin blocks were examined as to their primer element contents (lead, barium, and antimony as discharge residues of Sinoxid® as well as zinc and titanium from Sintox®) by means of X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. As expected, the highest element concentrations were found in the initial parts of the bullet tracks, but also the distal sections contained detectable amounts of the respective primer elements. The same was true for amorphous soot and unburned/partly burned powder particles, which could be demonstrated even at the exit site. With the help of a high-speed motion camera it was shown that for a short time the temporary cavitation extends from the entrance to the exit thus facilitating the unlimited spread of discharge residues along the whole bullet path.

  6. Improve of recovery during the training process of shot-bullet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petruk I.D.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Special features of the restorative means during the training of shot-bullet are described. Author made analysis of special literature, compares and assessments combination means of recovery, recommends to apply the complex of restorative means. The processes of sportsmen recovery became better during combination of sport massage and functional music, using the complex of facilities during a stage level of recovery.

  7. Experimentally Studied Influence of the Bullet Head Shape on Dispersion Characteristics at Subsonic Airspeeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Ilukhin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents description and results of experiments on a ballistic track and subsonic wind tunnel. The subject of study is important an issue such as the assessment of the influence of the bullet head shape on the accuracy of shooting parameters at subsonic muzzle velocity. The article points to the features of examined precision of guided and unguided aircraft, refers to the main disturbing factors. In addition, it outlines the most well known ways to improve the flight precision of unguided munitions. The article presents the geometric parameters of bullets and their scale models used in the experiments. It describes the experimental facilities and the studies themselves. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of experimental air-gun firings. Results for different muzzle velocities of flight are compared. The paper notes an ambiguity in comparison of accuracy and head drag coefficient. The results are clearly aligned with the data purging in the little turbulent subsonic wind tunnel. The article describes in detail the use of the method for visualizing a structure of the flow for the delimitation of attached flow and estimation of stagnation zone. A revealed physical picture has comprehensive theoretical underpinning. The conclusions of the work also give a advices on selecting a bullet to have the best dispersion parameters.

  8. Three-dimensional reconstitution of bullet trajectory in gunshot wounds: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, Katerina; Taveira, Francisco; Madureira, António J; Santos, Agostinho; Magalhães, Teresa

    2009-10-01

    In the medico-legal assessment of cases of aggression with firearms, imaging techniques have a particularly important role, especially in the study of a bullet's path through the victim's body. The analysis of these trajectories can be performed by the use of three-dimensional reconstitution techniques, namely Three-Dimensional Multi-Slice Computed Tomography (3D-MSCT). This imaging technique has been widely used in fatal cases, as a very important complement of the classical autopsy procedures, becoming known as "virtual autopsy" or "Virtopsy". To our knowledge, no reports describing the use of 3D-MSCT in non-fatal cases have been described in the medico-legal literature. The authors present a case of a man with a gunshot injury, in the context of a multiple aggressor situation, in which it was not possible to extract the bullet. To accurately determine the bullet's trajectory, 3D-MSCT was performed, thus contributing to a more reliable reconstruction of the crime scene in which the victim and the suspects were located. 2009 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine.

  9. Electric field measurements on plasma bullets in N2 using four-wave mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Schans, Marc; Böhm, Patrick; Teunissen, Jannis; Nijdam, Sander; IJzerman, Wilbert; Czarnetzki, Uwe

    2017-11-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma jets generated by kHz nanosecond voltage pulses typically consist of guided streamer discharges called plasma bullets. In this work, plasma bullets are generated in a pulsed plasma jet using N2 as feed gas and their electric field distribution is investigated by polarization-resolved four-wave mixing. The method and its analysis have been extended to resolve radial profiles of non-uniform, but radially symmetric, electric field distributions. In addition, a calibration procedure using an electrode geometry different from the discharge geometry has been developed. A radially resolved profile of the axial electric field component of a plasma bullet in N2 is presented, as well as the temporal development of the (line-integrated) radial and axial components of the electric field. To verify the results, they are compared to a streamer model adapted to the conditions of the experiment. The peak values obtained from the experiment are in the range expected from streamer literature. However, there are some quantitative differences with the model, which predicts values approximately a factor two lower than those found in the experiment, as well as a faster radial decay. The temporal development shows similar features in both the experiment and the model. Explanations for these differences are provided and further improvements for the method are outlined.

  10. Adaptive Generation and Diagnostics of Linear Few-Cycle Light Bullets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Bock

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently we introduced the class of highly localized wavepackets (HLWs as a generalization of optical Bessel-like needle beams. Here we report on the progress in this field. In contrast to pulsed Bessel beams and Airy beams, ultrashort-pulsed HLWs propagate with high stability in both spatial and temporal domain, are nearly paraxial (supercollimated, have fringe-less spatial profiles and thus represent the best possible approximation to linear “light bullets”. Like Bessel beams and Airy beams, HLWs show self-reconstructing behavior. Adaptive HLWs can be shaped by ultraflat three-dimensional phase profiles (generalized axicons which are programmed via calibrated grayscale maps of liquid-crystal-on-silicon spatial light modulators (LCoS-SLMs. Light bullets of even higher complexity can either be freely formed from quasi-continuous phase maps or discretely composed from addressable arrays of identical nondiffracting beams. The characterization of few-cycle light bullets requires spatially resolved measuring techniques. In our experiments, wavefront, pulse and phase were detected with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, 2D-autocorrelation and spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction (SPIDER. The combination of the unique propagation properties of light bullets with the flexibility of adaptive optics opens new prospects for applications of structured light like optical tweezers, microscopy, data transfer and storage, laser fusion, plasmon control or nonlinear spectroscopy.

  11. Measurement of bullet impact conditions using automated in-flight photography system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Decker

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of impact conditions is critical to evaluating the terminal impact performance of a projectile. For a small caliber bullet, in-flight velocity has been precisely measured for decades using detection screens, but accurately quantifying the orientation of the bullet on a target has been more challenging. This report introduces the Automated Small-Arms Photogrammetry (ASAP analysis method used to measure, model, and predict the orientation of a small caliber bullet before reaching an impact surface. ASAP uses advanced hardware developed by Sydor Technologies to record a series of infrared digital photographs. Individual images (four orthogonal pairs are processed using computer vision algorithms to quantify the orientation of the projectile and re-project its precise position and orientation into a three-dimensional muzzle-fixed coordinate system. An epicyclic motion model is fit to the measured data, and the epicyclic motion is extrapolated to the target location. Analysis results are fairly immediate and may be reviewed during testing. Prove-out demonstrations have shown that the impact-angle prediction capability is less than six hundredths of a degree for the 5.56 mm ball round tested. Keywords: Yaw, Terminal ballistics, Exterior ballistics, Test & evaluation, Computer vision, Image processing, Angle of attack

  12. Importance of 3D-CT imaging in single-bullet cranioencephalic gunshot wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartaglione, T; Filograna, L; Roiati, S; Guglielmi, G; Colosimo, C; Bonomo, L

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that computed tomography (CT) and three-dimensional (3D) CT imaging techniques can be useful tools for evaluating gunshot wounds of the skull in forensic medicine. Three purposes can be achieved: (1) identifying and recognising the bullet entrance wound - and exit wound, if present; (2) recognising the bullet's intracranial course by studying damage to bone and brain tissue; (3) suggesting hypotheses as to the dynamics of the event. Ten cadavers of people who died of a fatal head injury caused by a single gunshot were imaged with total-body CT prior to conventional autoptic examination. Three-dimensional-CT reconstructions were obtained with the volume-rendering technique, and data were analysed by two independent observers and compared with autopsy results. In our experience, CT analysis and volumetric reconstruction techniques allowed the identification of the bullet entrance and exit wounds and intracranial trajectory, as well as helping to formulate a hypothesis on the extracranial trajectory to corroborate circumstantial evidence. CT imaging techniques are excellent tools for addressing the most important questions of forensic medicine in the case of gunshot wounds of the skull, with results as good as (or sometimes better than) traditional autoptic methods.

  13. The experimental and numerical study of indirect effect of a rifle bullet on the bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyun; Xu, Cheng; Wen, Yaoke; Luo, Shaomin

    2015-12-01

    We study the transient indirect effect of a rifle bullet on bone in the gelatin-bone composite target experimentally and computationally. The process of a 56 type 7.62-mm rifle bullet penetrating the composite target has been simulated using numerical method. The experiment provided the criteria for verifying the correctness of the numerical model. We have obtained tomographic data of bone by CT scans, and also defined the bone as different layers by the gray scale to simulate its heterogeneity. The computed results are in good agreement with the experimental data. Effects of the impact velocity and bone location on damage caused to the composite target have also been studied. The numerical results imply the follows: When the velocity of bullet increases, the stress on bone also increases with the earlier pressure peak; When the bone is located in a certain distance from the trajectory, it will not be fractured, although it is affected by the stress wave. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Interrami intraoral fixation technique for severe mandibular rifle fragmented bullet injury management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuker, Sabri T

    2013-07-01

    Interrami intraoral Kirschner wire fixation technique is presented for the reduction, stabilization, and immobilization of a pulverized and avulsed lower jaw caused by rifle fragmented bullet injuries. This indirect mandibular war injury fixation technique was tolerated by the patients and tissue more than any indirect external fixation. In addition, it is easier than open reduction using large bone plates for disrupted ballistics mandibular injury defects. An interrami intraoral fixation is appropriate for severely disrupted mandibular hard and soft tissues, and has been adapted in cases of mass casualties and limited resources. Benefits of use include limited hospital beds and fewer follow-up visits. Rifle fragmented bullet injuries need more attention for several reasons: not only because of the higher mortality and devastating nature of the injuries, but also because these injuries are responsible for an unreported type of bullet biomechanism wounding in the craniofacial region. In turn, this necessitates specialized victim management. The survival rates depend on immediate proper execution of airway, breathing, and circulation, which become more complicated as it relates to airway compromise and oropharyngeal hemorrhage resuscitation. Survival is predicated on the implementation of feasible, sensible, life-saving techniques that are applied at the appropriate time.

  15. Main: 1E4N [RPSD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1E4N トウモロコシ Corn Zea mays L. Beta-Glucosidase, Chloroplast Precursor Name=Glu1; Zea...EVNGPDGKPIGPPMGNPWIYMYPEGLKDLLMIMKNKYGNPPIYITENGIGDVDTKETPLPMEAALNDYKRLDYIQRHIATLKESIDLGSNVQGYFAWSLLDNFEWFAGFTERYGIVYVDRNNNCTRYMKESAKWLKEFNTAKKPSKKILTPA corn_1E4N.jpg ...

  16. Emergence and Continuous Evolution of Genotype 1E Rubella Viruses in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhen; Cui, Aili; Wang, Huanhuan; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Chunyu; Wang, Changyin; Zhou, Shujie; Chen, Xia; Zhang, Zhenying; Feng, Daxin; Wang, Yan; Chen, Haiyun; Pan, Zhengfan; Zeng, Xiangjie; Zhou, Jianhui; Wang, Shuang; Chang, Xin; Lei, Yue; Tian, Hong; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Shunde; Zhan, Jun; Chen, Hui; Gu, Suyi; Tian, Xiaoling; Liu, Jianfeng; Chen, Ying; Fu, Hong; Yang, Xiuhui; Zheng, Huanying; Liu, Leng; Zheng, Lei; Gao, Hui; He, Jilan; Sun, Li

    2012-01-01

    In China, rubella vaccination was introduced into the national immunization program in 2008, and a rubella epidemic occurred in the same year. In order to know whether changes in the genotypic distribution of rubella viruses have occurred in the postvaccination era, we investigate in detail the epidemiological profile of rubella in China and estimate the evolutionary rate, molecular clock phylogeny, and demographic history of the predominant rubella virus genotypes circulating in China using Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo phylodynamic analyses. 1E was found to be the predominant rubella virus genotype since its initial isolation in China in 2001, and no genotypic shift has occurred since then. The results suggest that the global 1E genotype may have diverged in 1995 and that it has evolved at a mutation rate of 1.65 × 10−3 per site per year. The Chinese 1E rubella virus isolates were grouped into either cluster 1 or cluster 2, which likely originated in 1997 and 2006, respectively. Cluster 1 viruses were found in all provinces examined in this study and had a mutation rate of 1.90 × 10−3 per site per year. The effective number of infections remained constant until 2007, and along with the introduction of rubella vaccine into the national immunization program, although the circulation of cluster 1 viruses has not been interrupted, some viral lineages have disappeared, and the epidemic started a decline that led to a decrease in the effective population size. Cluster 2 viruses were found only in Hainan Province, likely because of importation. PMID:22162559

  17. Star clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gieles, M.

    2006-01-01

    Star clusters are observed in almost every galaxy. In this thesis we address several fundamental problems concerning the formation, evolution and disruption of star clusters. From observations of (young) star clusters in the interacting galaxy M51, we found that clusters are formed in complexes of

  18. CATCH AND SIZE OF BULLET AND FRIGATE TUNA CAUGHT BY USING DRIFTING GILLNET IN INDIAN OCEAN OF INDONESIA BASED AT CILACAP FISHING PORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustinus Anung Widodo

    2013-12-01

    rate of drifting gillnets on the bullet tuna was also decreased from 0.178 mt/trip in 2006 to 0.013 mt/ trip in 2011. The FL of bullet and frigate tuna ranged respectively between 16-39cm and 25-46cm. Both species were mostly caught by drifting gillnet in adult size condition.

  19. Weighted Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackerman, Margareta; Ben-David, Shai; Branzei, Simina

    2012-01-01

    We investigate a natural generalization of the classical clustering problem, considering clustering tasks in which different instances may have different weights.We conduct the first extensive theoretical analysis on the influence of weighted data on standard clustering algorithms in both...... the partitional and hierarchical settings, characterizing the conditions under which algorithms react to weights. Extending a recent framework for clustering algorithm selection, we propose intuitive properties that would allow users to choose between clustering algorithms in the weighted setting and classify...

  20. 3D-MSCT imaging of bullet trajectory in 3D crime scene reconstruction: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colard, T; Delannoy, Y; Bresson, F; Marechal, C; Raul, J S; Hedouin, V

    2013-11-01

    Postmortem investigations are increasingly assisted by three-dimensional multi-slice computed tomography (3D-MSCT) and have become more available to forensic pathologists over the past 20years. In cases of ballistic wounds, 3D-MSCT can provide an accurate description of the bullet location, bone fractures and, more interestingly, a clear visual of the intracorporeal trajectory (bullet track). These forensic medical examinations can be combined with tridimensional bullet trajectory reconstructions created by forensic ballistic experts. These case reports present the implementation of tridimensional methods and the results of 3D crime scene reconstruction in two cases. The authors highlight the value of collaborations between police forensic experts and forensic medicine institutes through the incorporation of 3D-MSCT data in a crime scene reconstruction, which is of great interest in forensic science as a clear visual communication tool between experts and the court. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Bullet Entered through the Open Mouth and Ended Up in the Parapharyngeal Space and Skull Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saileswar Goswami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shot from a revolver from a close range, a bullet pierced the chest of a policeman and entered through the open mouth of a young male person standing behind. The entry wound was found in the cheek mucosa adjacent to the left lower third molar. After hitting and fracturing the body and the ramus of the mandible, the bullet was deflected and was finally lodged in the parapharyngeal space and skull base, anterolateral to the transverse process of the atlas. The great vessels of the neck were not injured. The patient’s condition was very critical but his life could be saved. The bullet was approached through a modified Blair’s incision and was found to be lying over the carotid sheath. It was removed safely and the patient recovered completely.

  2. The benefit of a tough skin: bullet holes, weathering and the preservation of heritage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mol, Lisa; Gomez-Heras, M; Brassey, C; Green, O; Blenkinsop, T

    2017-02-01

    Projectile damage to building stone is a widespread phenomenon. Sites damaged 100 years ago during the First World War still see daily use, while in a more contemporary setting numerous reports show the damage to buildings in Babylon, Mosul and Palmyra. While research has been carried out on the long-term effects of conflict such as fire damage, little is known about the protracted damage sustained through the impact of bullets, shrapnel and other metal projectiles outside of the field of engineering focused on ceramics and metals. To investigate alterations to mineral structure caused by projectile damage, impacts were created in medium-grained, well-compacted, mesoporous sandstone samples using 0.22 calibre lead bullets shot at a distance of 20 m. Half these samples were treated with a surface consolidant (Wacker OH 100), to mimic natural cementation of the rock surface. These samples were then tested for changes to surface hardness and moisture movement during temperature cycles of 15-65°C. Petrographic thin section analysis was carried out to investigate the micro-scale deformation associated with high-speed impact. The results surprisingly show that stress build-up behind pre-existing cementation of the surface, as found in heritage sites that have been exposed to moisture and temperature fluctuations for longer periods of time, can be alleviated with a bullet impact. However, fracture networks and alteration of the mineral matrices still form a weak point within the structure, even at a relatively low impact calibre. This initial study illustrates the need for geomorphologists, geologists, engineers and heritage specialists to work collectively to gain further insights into the long-term impact of higher calibre armed warfare on heritage deterioration.

  3. The benefit of a tough skin: bullet holes, weathering and the preservation of heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mol, Lisa; Gomez-Heras, M.; Brassey, C.; Green, O.; Blenkinsop, T.

    2017-02-01

    Projectile damage to building stone is a widespread phenomenon. Sites damaged 100 years ago during the First World War still see daily use, while in a more contemporary setting numerous reports show the damage to buildings in Babylon, Mosul and Palmyra. While research has been carried out on the long-term effects of conflict such as fire damage, little is known about the protracted damage sustained through the impact of bullets, shrapnel and other metal projectiles outside of the field of engineering focused on ceramics and metals. To investigate alterations to mineral structure caused by projectile damage, impacts were created in medium-grained, well-compacted, mesoporous sandstone samples using 0.22 calibre lead bullets shot at a distance of 20 m. Half these samples were treated with a surface consolidant (Wacker OH 100), to mimic natural cementation of the rock surface. These samples were then tested for changes to surface hardness and moisture movement during temperature cycles of 15-65°C. Petrographic thin section analysis was carried out to investigate the micro-scale deformation associated with high-speed impact. The results surprisingly show that stress build-up behind pre-existing cementation of the surface, as found in heritage sites that have been exposed to moisture and temperature fluctuations for longer periods of time, can be alleviated with a bullet impact. However, fracture networks and alteration of the mineral matrices still form a weak point within the structure, even at a relatively low impact calibre. This initial study illustrates the need for geomorphologists, geologists, engineers and heritage specialists to work collectively to gain further insights into the long-term impact of higher calibre armed warfare on heritage deterioration.

  4. A Bullet Lying Next to the Common Carotid Artery in the Neck of a Young Boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Gülpembe; Akpinar, Meltem Esen; Ünsal, Özlem; Coşkun, Berna Uslu

    2017-01-01

    Penetrating neck trauma is most commonly caused by firearm discharge, and is potentially very dangerous, being associated with a high risk of mortality. A 12-year-old patient with a recent history of a gunshot wound to the neck was evaluated in detail; a bullet was located in close proximity to the left common carotid artery. Neck exploration was performed and the foreign body was removed without any complications. The management of the patient is discussed, as are contemporary approaches to the treatment of penetrating neck trauma. However, the choice of treatment for a stable patient with a penetrating neck injury remains controversial.

  5. Lipossomas: a bala mágica acertou? Liposomes: has the magic bullet hit the target?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno C. Santos

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Efficient drug delivery systems are as important as drug themselves. A powerful drug unable to reach the target cell is useless in practice. Ehrlich's Magic Bullet was the first carrier system to be proposed. The evolution in this domain has been quite slow as the natural mechanisms of mammals against foreign products are hard to overcome. However, lipid-based systems (liposomes and related vesicles have attained reasonable success. The basic preparations and structural features of liposomes and related vesicles as well as their applications are addressed from the chemist's and biochemist's point of view.

  6. Cluster management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, R

    1992-11-01

    Cluster management is a management model that fosters decentralization of management, develops leadership potential of staff, and creates ownership of unit-based goals. Unlike shared governance models, there is no formal structure created by committees and it is less threatening for managers. There are two parts to the cluster management model. One is the formation of cluster groups, consisting of all staff and facilitated by a cluster leader. The cluster groups function for communication and problem-solving. The second part of the cluster management model is the creation of task forces. These task forces are designed to work on short-term goals, usually in response to solving one of the unit's goals. Sometimes the task forces are used for quality improvement or system problems. Clusters are groups of not more than five or six staff members, facilitated by a cluster leader. A cluster is made up of individuals who work the same shift. For example, people with job titles who work days would be in a cluster. There would be registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, nursing assistants, and unit clerks in the cluster. The cluster leader is chosen by the manager based on certain criteria and is trained for this specialized role. The concept of cluster management, criteria for choosing leaders, training for leaders, using cluster groups to solve quality improvement issues, and the learning process necessary for manager support are described.

  7. Modified Johnson–Cook Model-based Numerical Simulation of Small Arms Bullets Penetration in the Aluminum Alloy Plates

    OpenAIRE

    N. Shash; V. N. Zuzov

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we simulated and studied the penetration process of 7,62 x 63 mm bullets "NATO Ball" (with a soft lead core) and 7.62 x 63 mm ones «APM2» (with hard steel core) in three kinds of aluminum plates, namely AA5083- H116, AA6082-T4, and AA7075-T6 with three different thicknesses of 10 mm, 20 mm, and 30 mm. The impact velocity was 830 m / s in all tests. Based on the test results and numerical calculations, all plates and a bullet were modeled as the deformable ones with modified con...

  8. Cluster Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... re at risk of cluster headache. A family history. Having a parent or sibling who has had cluster headache might increase your risk. By Mayo Clinic Staff . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms ...

  9. Elemental analysis of gunshot residue to differentiate bullet type and firing distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Christine Ella

    Gunshot residue (GSR) was deposited on porcine tissue with hand loaded non-jacketed (NJ) and full-jacketed (FJ) ammunition at two different firing distances. Fresh tissue samples, as well as samples collected throughout decomposition were microwave digested in nitric acid and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to determine the elemental composition of the GSR. Element concentrations for lead (Pb), antimony (Sb), barium (Ba), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) were statistically compared in order to investigate differentiation of bullet type and firing distance based on chemical concentrations in the GSR. Control (unshot) samples were collected in order to assess for environmental contaminants. Results of this study demonstrated that ICP-OES was adequate to detect the characteristic elements of GSR in fresh tissue, but was not sensitive enough to detect all elements throughout decomposition. Lead and Sb were significantly greater in NJ samples. Barium was useful in differentiating firing distance for both bullet types, while Cu was used to differentiate firing distance in FJ ammunition only. Analysis using ICP-MS, which has detection limits up to three orders of magnitude lower compared to ICP-OES, demonstrated the persistence of Pb, Sb, and Ba on porcine tissue throughout decomposition at a firing distance of 5 cm for both NJ and FJ ammunition.

  10. To drink or grasp? How bullet ants ( Paraponera clavata) differentiate between sugars and proteins in liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandt, Jennifer; Larson, Hannah K.; Tellez, Peter; McGlynn, Terrence P.

    2013-12-01

    Flexibility in behavior can increase the likelihood that a forager may respond optimally in a fluctuating environment. Nevertheless, physiological or neuronal constraints may result in suboptimal responses to stimuli. We observed foraging workers of the giant tropical ant (also referred to as the "bullet ant"), Paraponera clavata, as they reacted to liquid solutions with varying concentrations of sugar and protein. We show that when protein/sucrose concentration is high, many bullet ants will often try to grasp at the droplet, rather than gather it by drinking. Because P. clavata actively hunt for prey, fixed action patterns and rapid responses to protein may be adaptively important, regardless of the medium in which it is presented. We conclude that, in P. clavata, food-handling decisions are made in response to the nutrient content of the food rather than the texture of the food. Further, we suggest that colonies that maintain a mixture of individuals with consistent fixed or flexible behavioral responses to food-handling decisions may be better adapted to fluctuating environmental conditions, and we propose future studies that could address this.

  11. Diversity and Persistence of the Gut Microbiome of the Giant Neotropical Bullet Ant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Corrie S; Rubin, Benjamin E R

    2017-10-01

    Identifying the factors that structure host-associated microbiota is critical to understand the role these microbes may play in host ecology and evolutionary history. To begin to address this question we investigate the diversity and persistence of the bacterial community of the giant Neotropical bullet ant, Paraponera clavata. We included samples from four widely dispersed locations to address the role geography plays in shaping these communities. To understand how the digestive tract can filter bacterial communities, we sampled mouth and gut communities. To investigate the stability of community members we sampled wild caught and individuals kept on a sterile diet. Only a single bacterial taxon in the Firmicutes is consistently present across individuals, indicating a remarkably simple "core" bacterial community for the giant Neotropical bullet ant. Geography did not explain host bacterial diversity, but we did find significant reductions in diversity between the mouth and the gut tract. Lastly, our diet manipulations highlight the importance of controlled experiments to tease apart persistent microbial communities from environmental transients. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Cluster Headache

    OpenAIRE

    Bergseng, Marta Næss

    1985-01-01

    Cluster headache is the most severe primary headache with recurrent pain attacks described as worse than giving birth. The aim of this paper was to make an overview of current knowledge on cluster headache with a focus on pathophysiology and treatment. This paper presents hypotheses of cluster headache pathophysiology, current treatment options and possible future therapy approaches. For years, the hypothalamus was regarded as the key structure in cluster headache, but is now thought to be pa...

  13. Meaningful Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Calapristi, Augustin J.; Crow, Vernon L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.

    2004-05-26

    We present an approach to the disambiguation of cluster labels that capitalizes on the notion of semantic similarity to assign WordNet senses to cluster labels. The approach provides interesting insights on how document clustering can provide the basis for developing a novel approach to word sense disambiguation.

  14. Merging Galaxy Clusters: Analysis of Simulated Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Jayke; Wittman, David; Cornell, Hunter

    2018-01-01

    The nature of dark matter can be better constrained by observing merging galaxy clusters. However, uncertainty in the viewing angle leads to uncertainty in dynamical quantities such as 3-d velocities, 3-d separations, and time since pericenter. The classic timing argument links these quantities via equations of motion, but neglects effects of nonzero impact parameter (i.e. it assumes velocities are parallel to the separation vector), dynamical friction, substructure, and larger-scale environment. We present a new approach using n-body cosmological simulations that naturally incorporate these effects. By uniformly sampling viewing angles about simulated cluster analogs, we see projected merger parameters in the many possible configurations of a given cluster. We select comparable simulated analogs and evaluate the likelihood of particular merger parameters as a function of viewing angle. We present viewing angle constraints for a sample of observed mergers including the Bullet cluster and El Gordo, and show that the separation vectors are closer to the plane of the sky than previously reported.

  15. Dimetallaheteroborane clusters containing group 16 elements: A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Recently we described the synthesis and structural characterization of various dimetallaherteroborane clusters, namely nido-[(Cp∗Mo)2B4EClH6−], 1-3; (1: E = S, x = 0; 2: E = Se, x = 0; 3: E = Te, x = 1). A combined theoretical and experimental study was also performed, which demonstrated that the clusters 1-3 with their ...

  16. Bullet embolism of pulmonary artery: a case report; Embolia pulmonar por projetil de arma de fogo: relato de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanari, Mauricio Gustavo Ieiri; Mansur, Maria Clara Dias; Kay, Fernando Uliana; Silverio, Paulo Rogerio Barboza; Jayanthi, Shri Krishna; Funari, Marcelo Buarque de Gusmao, E-mail: mauriciogustavo91@yahoo.com.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IHC-FMUSP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Hospital das Clinicas

    2014-03-15

    The authors report the case of a patient victim of gunshots, with a very rare complication: venous bullet embolism from the left external iliac vein to the lingular segment of the left pulmonary artery. Diagnosis is made with whole-body radiography or computed tomography. Digital angiography is reserved for supplementary diagnosis or to be used as a therapeutic procedure. (author)

  17. Detection of lead nanoparticles in game meat by single particle ICP-MS following use of lead-containing bullets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kollander, Barbro; Widemo, Fredrik; Ågren, Erik

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether game meat may contain nanoparticles of lead from ammunition. Lead nanoparticles in the range 40 to 750 nm were detected by ICP-MS in single particle mode in game shot with lead-containing bullets. The median diameter of the detected nanoparticles was around 60 nm...

  18. Rubella epidemic caused by genotype 1E rubella viruses in Beijing, China, in 2007–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background A series of different rubella vaccination strategies were implemented to control rubella and prevent congenital rubella virus infection in Beijing, China. The rubella vaccine was available in 1995 in Beijing, and was introduced into the Beijing immunization program (vaccine recipients at their own expense vaccination) in 2000, and was introduced into the National Expanded Program on Immunization (vaccine recipients free vaccination) in 2006. Rubella virological surveillance started in Beijing in 2007. Results The reported rubella incidence rate has decreased dramatically due to the introduction of the vaccine in Beijing since 1995. However, rubella epidemics occurred regardless in 2001 and 2007. The incidence rate among the floating population has gradually increased since 2002, reaching 2 or more times that in the permanent resident population. The peak age of rubella cases gradually changed from rubella virus isolates. All Beijing rubella virus isolates belong to genotype 1E/cluster1 and were clustered interspersed with viruses from other provinces in China. The effective number of infections indicated by a Bayesian skyline plot remained constant from 2007 to 2011. Conclusions The proportion of rubella cases among the floating population has increased significantly in Beijing since 2002, and the disease burden gradually shifted to the older age group (15- to 39-year olds), which has become a major group with rubella infection since 2006. Genotype 1E rubella virus continuously caused a rubella epidemic in Beijing in 2007–2011 and was the predominant virus, and all Beijing genotype 1E viruses belong to cluster 1, which is also widely circulated throughout the country. PMID:23596982

  19. Modified Johnson–Cook Model-based Numerical Simulation of Small Arms Bullets Penetration in the Aluminum Alloy Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Shash

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we simulated and studied the penetration process of 7,62 x 63 mm bullets "NATO Ball" (with a soft lead core and 7.62 x 63 mm ones «APM2» (with hard steel core in three kinds of aluminum plates, namely AA5083- H116, AA6082-T4, and AA7075-T6 with three different thicknesses of 10 mm, 20 mm, and 30 mm. The impact velocity was 830 m / s in all tests. Based on the test results and numerical calculations, all plates and a bullet were modeled as the deformable ones with modified constitutive Johnson-Cook relationship and Cockcroft-Latham fracture criterion. Then they were used in modeling by three-dimensional nonlinear finite element in Ansys Ls-Dyna package. The influence of the finite element size in the finite element model on the length and results of calculations has been investigated as well.The main calculation results, we have received, include the residual bullet velocity and the residual kinetic energy of the bullet after drilling a hole in the plate and plate failure mechanism for each type and thickness of the plate with two types of bullets. We have noticed that the residual velocities of the bullets for small thicknesses of aluminum alloys (up to 10 mm have relatively equal values upon penetration of the bullets "NATO Ball" and «APM2» (a bit more, as well as the calculation-obtained failure mechanisms are adequate to experimental. In addition, resistance of AA7075-T651 aluminum alloy to penetration is higher than that of AA5083-H116 and AA6082-T4 ones.It should also be noted that the accuracy of the results depends mainly on the size of the grid elements. The more is the number of elements, the higher is the accuracy of the results, but the longer is the solution time. Therefore, we advice to use the finite element size of 0.2 mm, at most, to obtain the highly accurate results that are adequate to the experimental results.

  20. Inconsistency in 9 mm bullets: correlation of jacket thickness to post-impact geometry measured with non-destructive X-ray computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornby, John; Landheer, Dirk; Williams, Tim; Barnes-Warden, Jane; Fenne, Paul; Norman, Daniel; Attridge, Alex; Williams, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Fundamental to any ballistic armour standard is the reference projectile to be defeated. Typically, for certification purposes, a consistent and symmetrical bullet geometry is assumed, however variations in bullet jacket dimensions can have far reaching consequences. Traditionally, characteristics and internal dimensions have been analysed by physically sectioning bullets--an approach which is of restricted scope and which precludes subsequent ballistic assessment. The use of a non-destructive X-ray computed tomography (CT) method has been demonstrated and validated (Kumar et al., 2011 [15]); the authors now apply this technique to correlate bullet impact response with jacket thickness variations. A set of 20 bullets (9 mm DM11) were selected for comparison and an image-based analysis method was employed to map jacket thickness and determine the centre of gravity of each specimen. Both intra- and inter-bullet variations were investigated, with thickness variations of the order of 200 μm commonly found along the length of all bullets and angular variations of up to 50 μm in some. The bullets were subsequently impacted against a rigid flat plate under controlled conditions (observed on a high-speed video camera) and the resulting deformed projectiles were re-analysed. The results of the experiments demonstrate a marked difference in ballistic performance between bullets from different manufacturers and an asymmetric thinning of the jacket is observed in regions of pre-impact weakness. The conclusions are relevant for future soft armour standards and provide important quantitative data for numerical model correlation and development. The implications of the findings of the work on the reliability and repeatability of the industry standard V50 ballistic test are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Assistance of microbial glycolipid antigen processing by CD1e.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Salle, Henri; Mariotti, Sabrina; Angenieux, Catherine; Gilleron, Martine; Garcia-Alles, Luis-Fernando; Malm, Dag; Berg, Thomas; Paoletti, Samantha; Maître, Blandine; Mourey, Lionel; Salamero, Jean; Cazenave, Jean Pierre; Hanau, Daniel; Mori, Lucia; Puzo, Germain; De Libero, Gennaro

    2005-11-25

    Complexes between CD1 molecules and self or microbial glycolipids represent important immunogenic ligands for specific subsets of T cells. However, the function of one of the CD1 family members, CD1e, has yet to be determined. Here, we show that the mycobacterial antigens hexamannosylated phosphatidyl-myo-inositols (PIM6) stimulate CD1b-restricted T cells only after partial digestion of the oligomannose moiety by lysosomal alpha-mannosidase and that soluble CD1e is required for this processing. Furthermore, recombinant CD1e was able to bind glycolipids and assist in the digestion of PIM6. We propose that, through this form of glycolipid editing, CD1e helps expand the repertoire of glycolipidic T cell antigens to optimize antimicrobial immune responses.

  2. About the Clusters Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Technology Innovation Clusters Program advises cluster organizations, encourages collaboration between clusters, tracks U.S. environmental technology clusters, and connects EPA programs to cluster needs.

  3. High-Speed Bullet Ejections during the AGB to Planetary Nebula Transition: A Study of the Carbon Star V Hydrae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, Raghvendra

    2017-08-01

    The carbon star V Hya is experiencing heavy mass loss as it undergoes the transition from an AGB star to a planetary nebula (PN). This is possibly the earliest object known in this brief phase, which is so short that few nearby stars are likely to be caught in the act. Molecular observations reveal that a bipolar nebula has been established even at this early stage. Using STIS, we obtained high spatial-resolution long-slit optical spectra of V Hya spanning 3 epochs spaced apart by a year during each of two periods (2002-2004, 2011-2013). These data reveal high-velocity emission in [SII] lines from compact blobs located both on- and off-source, with the ejection axis executing a flip-flop, both in, and perpendicular to, the sky-plane. We have proposed a detailed model in which V Hya ejects high-speed (200-250 km/s) bullets once every 8.5 yr associated with periastron passage of a binary companion in an eccentric orbit with an 8.5 yr period. We suggest that the jet driver is an accretion disk (produced by gravitational capture of material from the primary) that is warped and precessing. Our model predicts the locations of previously ejected bullets in V Hya and future epochs at which new bullets will emerge. We now propose new STIS observations of these remarkable bullet ejections over two new epochs well separated from previous ones, to robustly test our model. The proposed observations will provide us with an unprecedented opportunity to look on as V Hya's circumstellar envelope is sculpted by these bullets. Our study will help solve the long-standing puzzle of how the spherical mass-loss envelopes of AGB stars evolve into bipolar and multipolar PNe.

  4. Bullet Train.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galagan, Patricia A.

    1999-01-01

    Knowledge Universe is a conglomerate that includes an assortment of training companies, a chain of child-care centers, a knowledge-management consulting business, and an educational toy maker. KU's mission includes building human capital from birth to post-retirement, providing lifelong learning opportunities, and helping businesses use the power…

  5. Dodging Bullets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witte, Caroline T.; Burger, Martijn J.; Ianchovichina, Elena I.

    2017-01-01

    , such as political terror, have no effect on the location choice decisions of multinational enterprises. These findings inform the strategies of multinationals with a nuanced and much-needed understanding of the effects of political violence and the risks it poses to their businesses....

  6. Data Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Kiri L.

    2012-03-01

    On obtaining a new data set, the researcher is immediately faced with the challenge of obtaining a high-level understanding from the observations. What does a typical item look like? What are the dominant trends? How many distinct groups are included in the data set, and how is each one characterized? Which observable values are common, and which rarely occur? Which items stand out as anomalies or outliers from the rest of the data? This challenge is exacerbated by the steady growth in data set size [11] as new instruments push into new frontiers of parameter space, via improvements in temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution, or by the desire to "fuse" observations from different modalities and instruments into a larger-picture understanding of the same underlying phenomenon. Data clustering algorithms provide a variety of solutions for this task. They can generate summaries, locate outliers, compress data, identify dense or sparse regions of feature space, and build data models. It is useful to note up front that "clusters" in this context refer to groups of items within some descriptive feature space, not (necessarily) to "galaxy clusters" which are dense regions in physical space. The goal of this chapter is to survey a variety of data clustering methods, with an eye toward their applicability to astronomical data analysis. In addition to improving the individual researcher’s understanding of a given data set, clustering has led directly to scientific advances, such as the discovery of new subclasses of stars [14] and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) [38]. All clustering algorithms seek to identify groups within a data set that reflect some observed, quantifiable structure. Clustering is traditionally an unsupervised approach to data analysis, in the sense that it operates without any direct guidance about which items should be assigned to which clusters. There has been a recent trend in the clustering literature toward supporting semisupervised or constrained

  7. The drone ambulance [A-UAS]: golden bullet or just a blank?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Voorde, P; Gautama, S; Momont, A; Ionescu, C M; De Paepe, P; Fraeyman, N

    2017-07-01

    Defibrillation within the first minutes after sudden cardiac arrest can save many quality-adjusted life years. Yet, despite enormous investments, 'healthcare' is still unable to provide this for the majority of patients. Emergency Medical Services often have a too long mean response time and many issues surround Public Access Defibrillation programs. In this article we argument that AED-equipped drones could be the 'magic bullet'. They are easily deployed and fast, and have a relatively low operational cost. As such they could rapidly bring an AED next to the victim, irrespective of most geographical circumstances, give visual feedback and situational awareness to the EMS dispatcher and thus assist a bystander to provide better CPR. Although there are many real-life barriers to actual deployment, we argument these might all get solved once we have solved the described technological issues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Traumatic intracranial aneurysm secondary to a bullet wound. Clinical case and a review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Rosa Morilla, Silvestre Emilio; Melot, Anthony; Boissonneau, Sebastien; Farah, Kaissar; Brunel, Herve; Roche, Pierre-Hugues

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic intracranial aneurysms (AICT) are rare and are associated with high morbidity and mortality. AICT are the result of head injuries caused by accidents, explosions, and gunfire. The case is reported here of a 28 year old man who was admitted to our hospital after suffering a penetrating head injury caused by a bullet. Radiographic studies showed interhemispheric subarachnoid haemorrhage and a likely AICT image that initially went unnoticed. One week later he underwent a cerebral angiography which showed a bilateral vasospasm of the terminal portion of the internal carotid and the appearance of a 2mm fusiform AICT at the orbit-frontal branch of the anterior cerebral artery. This was surgically treated after an aneurismal growth of 3.4mm and failure of the endovascular treatment. The patient showed a favourable outcome after surgery. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  9. Removal of 10-nm contaminant particles from Si wafers using CO2 bullet particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Inho; Hwang, Kwangseok; Lee, JinWon

    2012-04-01

    Removal of nanometer-sized contaminant particles (CPs) from substrates is essential in successful fabrication of nanoscale devices. The particle beam technique that uses nanometer-sized bullet particles (BPs) moving at supersonic velocity was improved by operating it at room temperature to achieve higher velocity and size uniformity of BPs and was successfully used to remove CPs as small as 10 nm. CO2 BPs were generated by gas-phase nucleation and growth in a supersonic nozzle; appropriate size and velocity of the BPs were obtained by optimizing the nozzle contours and CO2/He mixture fraction. Cleaning efficiency greater than 95% was attained. BP velocity was the most important parameter affecting removal of CPs in the 10-nm size range. Compared to cryogenic Ar or N2 particles, CO2 BPs were more uniform in size and had higher velocity and, therefore, cleaned CPs more effectively.

  10. Video camera system for locating bullet holes in targets at a ballistics tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burner, A. W.; Rummler, D. R.; Goad, W. K.

    1990-01-01

    A system consisting of a single charge coupled device (CCD) video camera, computer controlled video digitizer, and software to automate the measurement was developed to measure the location of bullet holes in targets at the International Shooters Development Fund (ISDF)/NASA Ballistics Tunnel. The camera/digitizer system is a crucial component of a highly instrumented indoor 50 meter rifle range which is being constructed to support development of wind resistant, ultra match ammunition. The system was designed to take data rapidly (10 sec between shoots) and automatically with little operator intervention. The system description, measurement concept, and procedure are presented along with laboratory tests of repeatability and bias error. The long term (1 hour) repeatability of the system was found to be 4 microns (one standard deviation) at the target and the bias error was found to be less than 50 microns. An analysis of potential errors and a technique for calibration of the system are presented.

  11. "You are our only hope": trading metaphorical "magic bullets" for stem cell "superheroes".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    In the wake of two recent developments in stem cell research, it is a fitting time to reassess the claim that stem cells will radically transform the concept and function of medicine. The first is the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's decision in January 2009 to approve Geron Corporation's Phase I clinical trial using human embryonic stem cells for patients with spinal cord injuries. The second is the National Institutes of Health's decision to permit federal funding of research using donated IVF human embryos in their July 2009 Guidelines on Human Stem Cell Research. We are now poised to see whether stem cell research can deliver on what it promises. However, what exactly does it promise and how? Moreover, who is doing the promising? Turning to the use of metaphor can help us to answer these questions and enable us to develop a better appreciation of the unique features of promised stem cell therapies. Indeed, metaphors have exerted profound influence in medicine, and it is fitting that we seek new metaphors for new therapies where appropriate. In this case, other metaphors such as magic bullets or the Holy Grail cannot capture what is unique about stem cells. Accordingly, I propose a new metaphor: the stem cell superhero. Stem cell superheroes are characterized by the following traits: they are seemingly capable of fighting the evil of virtually all disease (unlike "magic bullets") and they seem to be our only hope of doing so, although to summon them we must make difficult moral choices. In the course of assessing the merits of three recent yet covert references to the superhero metaphor, I conclude that this powerful new paradigm employs a problematic logic (i.e., we cannot know that something is "our only hope"), but that the aspiration as such is a good one.

  12. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis method for the determination of tin, arsenic, copper and antimony for the forensic comparison of bullet lead specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, H.B.; Parthasarathy, R. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Analytical Chemistry Div.)

    1983-01-01

    Trace element characterization of bullet lead by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is hampered by the high spectral background due to antimony, normally present in high concentration in bullet lead. Tin is indicated to be a very useful element for characterization purposes. Beta-active /sup 121/Sn is a suitable nuclide for quantitation of tin provided it is separated in high radiochemical purity. A radiochemical procedure capable of determining tin down to 10 ppm in bullet lead, a sequential procedure for its determination along with copper, arsenic and antimony and the application of this procedure for the determination of the contents of these elements in various bullet leads are described. This method has been applied to a 'Rhinoceros shoot-out' case, referred to the authors' laboratory.

  13. Approximation Clustering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Approximation Clustering. Clustering within (1+ ε) of the optimum cost. ε is user defined tolerance. For metric spaces even approximating is. hard (below, say 30%). Euclidean k-median in fixed dimension can. be approximated in polynomial time.

  14. The nongravitational interactions of dark matter in colliding galaxy clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, David; Massey, Richard; Kitching, Thomas; Taylor, Andy; Tittley, Eric

    2015-03-27

    Collisions between galaxy clusters provide a test of the nongravitational forces acting on dark matter. Dark matter's lack of deceleration in the "bullet cluster" collision constrained its self-interaction cross section σ(DM)/m dark matter) for long-ranged forces. Using the Chandra and Hubble Space Telescopes, we have now observed 72 collisions, including both major and minor mergers. Combining these measurements statistically, we detect the existence of dark mass at 7.6σ significance. The position of the dark mass has remained closely aligned within 5.8 ± 8.2 kiloparsecs of associated stars, implying a self-interaction cross section σ(DM)/m < 0.47 cm(2)/g (95% CL) and disfavoring some proposed extensions to the standard model. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Cluster Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulati, Mukesh; Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Suresh, Sangeetha

    2018-01-01

    In this chapter, we investigate corporate social responsibility (CSR) in industrial clusters in the Indian context. We use the definition of CSR as given in the Indian Ministry of Corporate Affairs’ National Voluntary Guidelines (NVGs) for Business Responsibility: ‘the commitment of an enterprise...... sell their products successfully in international markets, but there is also an increasingly large consumer base within India. Indeed, Indian industrial clusters have contributed to a substantial part of this growth process, and there are several hundred registered clusters within the country....... At the same time, several attempts have been made at promoting the adoption of CSR in MSMEs in Indian industrial clusters. In fact, India has proved to be a kind of laboratory for experimenting with different types of cluster-based CSR and is thus an interesting location in relation to the broader aim...

  16. Clustering Dycom

    KAUST Repository

    Minku, Leandro L.

    2017-10-06

    Background: Software Effort Estimation (SEE) can be formulated as an online learning problem, where new projects are completed over time and may become available for training. In this scenario, a Cross-Company (CC) SEE approach called Dycom can drastically reduce the number of Within-Company (WC) projects needed for training, saving the high cost of collecting such training projects. However, Dycom relies on splitting CC projects into different subsets in order to create its CC models. Such splitting can have a significant impact on Dycom\\'s predictive performance. Aims: This paper investigates whether clustering methods can be used to help finding good CC splits for Dycom. Method: Dycom is extended to use clustering methods for creating the CC subsets. Three different clustering methods are investigated, namely Hierarchical Clustering, K-Means, and Expectation-Maximisation. Clustering Dycom is compared against the original Dycom with CC subsets of different sizes, based on four SEE databases. A baseline WC model is also included in the analysis. Results: Clustering Dycom with K-Means can potentially help to split the CC projects, managing to achieve similar or better predictive performance than Dycom. However, K-Means still requires the number of CC subsets to be pre-defined, and a poor choice can negatively affect predictive performance. EM enables Dycom to automatically set the number of CC subsets while still maintaining or improving predictive performance with respect to the baseline WC model. Clustering Dycom with Hierarchical Clustering did not offer significant advantage in terms of predictive performance. Conclusion: Clustering methods can be an effective way to automatically generate Dycom\\'s CC subsets.

  17. Cluster analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Everitt, Brian S; Leese, Morven; Stahl, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Cluster analysis comprises a range of methods for classifying multivariate data into subgroups. By organizing multivariate data into such subgroups, clustering can help reveal the characteristics of any structure or patterns present. These techniques have proven useful in a wide range of areas such as medicine, psychology, market research and bioinformatics.This fifth edition of the highly successful Cluster Analysis includes coverage of the latest developments in the field and a new chapter dealing with finite mixture models for structured data.Real life examples are used throughout to demons

  18. Cluster editing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böcker, S.; Baumbach, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The Cluster Editing problem asks to transform a graph into a disjoint union of cliques using a minimum number of edge modifications. Although the problem has been proven NP-complete several times, it has nevertheless attracted much research both from the theoretical and the applied side. The prob......The Cluster Editing problem asks to transform a graph into a disjoint union of cliques using a minimum number of edge modifications. Although the problem has been proven NP-complete several times, it has nevertheless attracted much research both from the theoretical and the applied side....... The problem has been the inspiration for numerous algorithms in bioinformatics, aiming at clustering entities such as genes, proteins, phenotypes, or patients. In this paper, we review exact and heuristic methods that have been proposed for the Cluster Editing problem, and also applications...

  19. Fixation Strength of Polyetheretherketone Sheath-and-Bullet Device for Soft Tissue Repair in the Foot and Ankle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Jay; Fischer, Brian; Nute, Michael; Rizza, Robert

    Tendon transfers are often performed in the foot and ankle. Recently, interference screws have been a popular choice owing to their ease of use and fixation strength. Considering the benefits, one disadvantage of such devices is laceration of the soft tissues by the implant threads during placement that potentially weaken the structural integrity of the grafts. A shape memory polyetheretherketone bullet-in-sheath tenodesis device uses circumferential compression, eliminating potential damage from thread rotation and maintaining the soft tissue orientation of the graft. The aim of this study was to determine the pullout strength and failure mode for this device in both a synthetic bone analogue and porcine bone models. Thirteen mature bovine extensor tendons were secured into ten 4.0 × 4.0 × 4.0-cm cubes of 15-pound per cubic foot solid rigid polyurethane foam bone analogue models or 3 porcine femoral condyles using the 5 × 20-mm polyetheretherketone soft tissue anchor. The bullet-in-sheath device demonstrated a mean pullout of 280.84 N in the bone analog models and 419.47 N in the porcine bone models. (p = .001). The bullet-in-sheath design preserved the integrity of the tendon graft, and none of the implants dislodged from their original position. Copyright © 2017 The American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Two bullets to the head and an early winter: fate permits Kutuzov to defeat Napoleon at Moscow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushchayev, Sergiy V; Belykh, Evgenii; Fishchenko, Yakiv; Salei, Aliaksei; Teytelboym, Oleg M; Shabaturov, Leonid; Cruse, Mark; Preul, Mark C

    2015-07-01

    General Mikhail Kutuzov (circa 1745-1813) brilliantly repelled Napoleon's invasion of Russia. Honored as a national hero and a savior of Russia, Kutuzov has a unique medical story. He was shot in the head twice while fighting the Turks (1774 and 1788) and survived the serious injuries seemingly against all odds. The first bullet "ran through the head from one temple to the other behind both eyes." The second bullet entered the cheek, destroyed upper teeth, traveled through the head, and exited the occiput. Massot, a French surgeon with the Russian army, wrote after treating Kutuzov's seemingly two mortal wounds: "It must be believed that fate appoints Kutuzov to something great, because he was still alive after two injuries, a death sentence by all the rules of medical science." Aided by Massot's expert surgical technique, Kutuzov lived to become intimately engaged in events that altered world history. His health did, however, suffer significant effects due to the bullet wounds. In 1812, as Napoleon's Grande Armée approached, Kutuzov realized he could not confront Napoleon and he strategically retreated from Moscow, submitting the French to the harsh winter and Russian cavalry. Napoleon's devastated army retreated to Paris, and Kutuzov became the personification of Russian spirit and character. Kutuzov's survival of two nearly mortal head wounds created the legends, additional mystery, and drama surrounding him, not the least astonishing of which was the skilled neurosurgical care that probably saved his life.

  1. Pattern, presentation and management of vascular injuries due to pellets and rubber bullets in a conflict zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd L Wani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rubber bullets and pellet guns are considered non-lethal low-velocity weapons. They are used to disperse a mob during street protests. The present study was undertaken to analyze the pattern, presentation and management of vascular injuries caused by these weapons. Patients and Methods: This was a prospective study of patients with features of vascular injuries due to pellets and rubber bullets from June 2010 to November 2010. All patients with features of vascular injuries due to these non-lethal weapons were included in the study. Vascular injuries caused by other causes were excluded from the study. Results: A total of 35 patients who presented with features of vascular injury during this period were studied. All of them were males. The mean age was 22 years. Fifteen patients were revascularized primarily, 19 patients needed reverse saphenous vein graft and, in one, patient lateral repair was done. There were two mortalities in our series. Wound infection was the most common complication. The amputation rate was around 6%. Conclusion: Pellet and rubber bullets can cause serious life-threatening injuries. Vascular injury caused by these weapons need no different approach than other vascular injuries. Early revascularization and prompt resuscitation prevents the loss of limb or life.

  2. Comparisons between sine-Gordon and perturbed nonlinear Schrödinger equations for modeling light bullets beyond critical collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Weizhu; Dong, Xuanchun; Xin, Jack

    2010-07-01

    The sine-Gordon (SG) equation and perturbed nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equations are studied numerically for modeling the propagation of two space dimensional (2D) localized pulses (the so-called light bullets) in nonlinear dispersive optical media. We begin with the (2 + 1) SG equation obtained as an asymptotic reduction in the two level dissipationless Maxwell-Bloch system, followed by the review on the perturbed NLS equation in 2D for SG pulse envelopes, which is globally well posed and has all the relevant higher order terms to regularize the collapse of standard critical (cubic focusing) NLS. The perturbed NLS is approximated by truncating the nonlinearity into finite higher order terms undergoing focusing-defocusing cycles. Efficient semi-implicit sine pseudospectral discretizations for SG and perturbed NLS are proposed with rigorous error estimates. Numerical comparison results between light bullet solutions of SG and perturbed NLS as well as critical NLS are reported, which validate that the solution of the perturbed NLS as well as its finite-term truncations are in qualitative and quantitative agreement with the solution of SG for the light bullets propagation even after the critical collapse of cubic focusing NLS. In contrast, standard critical NLS is in qualitative agreement with SG only before its collapse. As a benefit of such observations, pulse propagations are studied via solving the perturbed NLS truncated by reasonably many nonlinear terms, which is a much cheaper task than solving SG equation directly.

  3. Bullet-shaped ionization front of plasma jet plumes driven by microwave pulses at atmospheric gas pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhaoquan; Xia, Guangqing; Zou, Changlin; Liu, Xiaodong; Feng, Deren; Li, Ping; Hu, Yelin; Stepanova, Olga; Kudryavtsev, A. A.

    2017-09-01

    Ionization waves (propagating bullet-shaped plasma) are always present in atmospheric-pressure plasma jets generated by a pulsed DC power supply or low-frequency voltages. Nevertheless, whether these ionization waves exist for pulsed microwave plasma jets remains unclear. In this paper, a coaxial transmission line resonator driven by microwave pulses is capable of generating atmospheric pressure plasma jet plumes. Depending on the discharges, these plasma jet plumes exhibit distinctive characteristics, such as bullet-shaped ionization fronts for argon plasma and ball-shaped for helium plasma. Fast images show argon plasma plumes generating several small branches but only one dominant ionization front travels more distance along the jet axis. Both ionization-wave images and electromagnetic simulation results indicate that the bullet-shaped ionization front forms a plasma jet plume immediately. The dominant ionization wave is resonantly excited by the local enhanced electric field, which originates from the local net charge of the streamer plus surface plasmon polariton located at the open end of the resonator.

  4. Transformation by Bovine Papillomavirus Type 1 E6 Requires Paxillin▿

    OpenAIRE

    Wade, Ramon; Brimer, Nicole; Vande Pol, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Papillomavirus E6 proteins are adapters that change the function of cellular regulatory proteins. The bovine papillomavirus type 1 E6 (BE6) binds to LXXLL peptide sequences termed LD motifs (consensus sequence LDXLLXXL) on the cellular protein paxillin that is a substrate of Src and focal adhesion kinases. Anchorage-independent transformation induced by BE6 required both paxillin and BE6-binding LD motifs on paxillin but was independent of the major tyrosine phosphorylation sites of paxillin....

  5. DOE-2, BDL summary. Version 2.1E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkelmann, F.C.; Birdsall, B.E.; Buhl, W.F.; Ellington, K.L.; Erdem, A.E. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Hirsch, J.J.; Gates, S. [Hirsch & Associates, Camarillo, CA (United States)

    1993-11-01

    This document contains summary information on all commands and keywords in the DOE-2 Building Description Language (BDL). It also contains supplementary tables and maps. The fundamentals of BDL are discussed in Chapter II of the Reference Manual (2.1A); detailed descriptions of the commands and keywords summarized here can be found in the Reference Manual (2.1A) and in the Supplement (2.1E).

  6. Bussines Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarmiza Pencea

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Clusters are complex economic structures in which similar companies, their up-stream and down-stream business partners, universities, research institutes, educational units, various service providers, diverse private and public institutions concentrate geografically, striving to get economies of agglomeration and scale, to capitalize on the resulting spill over effects, to cut costs, to better harness resources, to exchange information and experience, to improve quality, innovation, skills and productivity. By somehow unexpectedly combining competition and cooperation, they form a new, sophisticated stage in the evolution of production structures in quest of higher efficiency. This paper forays into the world of clusters and clusterization, which seem to increasingly capture the interest of businesses, scholars and policy makers. It looks at what clusters are, how they arise, what are their specific features, what benefits and challenges they can generate for companies and for the regions in which they locate and if and how they should be fostered by industrial policy interventions. The conclusion is that clusters can be very important development triggers and therefore they should be encouraged and nurtured by adequate policy measures. They should not only be used as a regular policy tool, but be placed at the very center of the development strategies of emerging economies.

  7. Scape goats, silver bullets, and other pitfalls in the path to sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Webster

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws from 'The Lathe of Heaven' by Ursula Le Guin to highlight some of the most likely pitfalls on the political road to a sustainable planet. Through the literary device of dreams that can change the world, Le Guin explores how the individual’s egoistic desire to save humanity can be twisted by the limitations of our psyche and our society, turning an already uncomfortable future Earth into a devastated planet. It is a stinging critique of answers handed down from above, and a call to action for those of us who just get by here below. Her story warns of the ancient “road to hell”, paved and trodden by would be saviors with the best intentions but also points to the license that public apathy provides to the powerful when the costs of environmental harm are borne by the powerless. These disconnects, combined with cycles of rationalization, silver bullet mentalities, and the tendency to scapegoat others for negative side effects, can all derail sustainability transitions. 'Lathe' provides an allegorical assessment of this process, but much more study is needed to fully understand and regulate the resulting governance treadmill.

  8. Simulation of white light generation and near light bullets using a novel numerical technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Haider

    2018-01-01

    An accurate and efficient simulation has been devised, employing a new numerical technique to simulate the derivative generalised non-linear Schrödinger equation in all three spatial dimensions and time. The simulation models all pertinent effects such as self-steepening and plasma for the non-linear propagation of ultrafast optical radiation in bulk material. Simulation results are compared to published experimental spectral data of an example ytterbium aluminum garnet system at 3.1 μm radiation and fits to within a factor of 5. The simulation shows that there is a stability point near the end of the 2 mm crystal where a quasi-light bullet (spatial temporal soliton) is present. Within this region, the pulse is collimated at a reduced diameter (factor of ∼2) and there exists a near temporal soliton at the spatial center. The temporal intensity within this stable region is compressed by a factor of ∼4 compared to the input. This study shows that the simulation highlights new physical phenomena based on the interplay of various linear, non-linear and plasma effects that go beyond the experiment and is thus integral to achieving accurate designs of white light generation systems for optical applications. An adaptive error reduction algorithm tailor made for this simulation will also be presented in appendix.

  9. Cluster forcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Budde

    The cluster theory attributed to Michael Porter has significantly influenced industrial policies in countries across Europe and North America since the beginning of the 1990s. Institutions such as the EU, OECD and the World Bank and governments in countries such as the UK, France, The Netherlands......, Portugal and New Zealand have adopted the concept. Public sector interventions that aim to support cluster development in industries most often focus upon economic policy goals such as enhanced employment and improved productivity, but rarely emphasise broader societal policy goals relating to e.......g. sustainability or quality of life. The purpose of this paper is to explore how and to what extent public sector interventions that aim at forcing cluster development in industries can support sustainable development as defined in the Brundtland tradition and more recently elaborated in such concepts as eco-industrialism...

  10. Radio-X ray observations at cluster shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gennaro, Gabriella; van Weeren, Reinout; Forman, William; Jones, Christine; Rottgering, Huub; Andrade-Santos, Felipe

    2018-01-01

    Galaxy clusters form by accretion of gas and by mergers with other clusters and galaxy groups. They reveal their presence by means of diffuse radio emission (i.e. relics and halos) and disturbed X-ray morphologies. Despite recent progress our understanding of the physics behind these collisions, there are still many open questions regarding the nature of the (re-)acceleration mechanisms, the thermodynamic properties of the hot plasma, and the dynamic of the merger scenarios. Here we present a new deep Chandra observation (400 ks) of ZwCl0008.8+5215, for which we found a clear presence of X-ray discontinuities and a “comet head” being a well-defined sub-cluster core, similar to the one seen in the Bullet Cluster. Moreover, a double radio relic has been detected at cluster shocks, in west and east direction. The western relic does not trace the full extent of the shock, which is challenging for the current (re-)acceleration mechanisms.

  11. Transformation by Bovine Papillomavirus Type 1 E6 Requires Paxillin▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Ramon; Brimer, Nicole; Vande Pol, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Papillomavirus E6 proteins are adapters that change the function of cellular regulatory proteins. The bovine papillomavirus type 1 E6 (BE6) binds to LXXLL peptide sequences termed LD motifs (consensus sequence LDXLLXXL) on the cellular protein paxillin that is a substrate of Src and focal adhesion kinases. Anchorage-independent transformation induced by BE6 required both paxillin and BE6-binding LD motifs on paxillin but was independent of the major tyrosine phosphorylation sites of paxillin. The essential role of paxillin in transformation by BE6 highlights the role of paxillin in the transduction of cellular signals that result in anchorage-independent cell proliferation. PMID:18385245

  12. DC superimposed AC high voltage: A new strategy for transferring stable He atmospheric pressure cold plasma bullets through long dielectric tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siadati, S. N.; Sohbatzadeh, F.; Valinataj Omran, Azadeh

    2017-06-01

    This study developed a stable transfer of He atmospheric pressure cold plasma bullets in a large dielectric tube with a length of 70 cm and an inner diameter of 0.4-1.6 cm. DC superimposed AC voltage was used for this purpose. The DC component of the applied voltage generated corona ionization through the tube, which helped in the ignition and transfer of the plasma as a pre-ionization background. The bullets followed the frequency of the AC component; therefore, very high applied energy was not required to ignite this large-scale plasma. To our knowledge, this is the first time such a complex waveform has been reported for the transfer of a plasma bullet. The characteristics of the transferring plasma bullet, such as the power, charge, propagation speed, resistance, AC electrical field (EF) of the plasma, and electrostatic field on the tube surface, were measured. The influence of the tube diameter on these characteristics was investigated. The results showed that the power applied, charge, and power deposited on the target increased as the tube diameter increased. Less plasma resistance and radiation were observed using larger diameters. The root mean square (RMS) values of the axial AC EF of the bullet along the jet axis were higher for the larger diameters, but no special relation between the propagation speed, radial AC EF, and static surface field and tube diameter was observed.

  13. Fuzzy Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berks, G.; Keyserlingk, Diedrich Graf von; Jantzen, Jan

    2000-01-01

    and clustering are the basic concerns in medicine. Classification depends on definitions of the classes and their required degree of participant of the elements in the cases' symptoms. In medicine imprecise conditions are the rule and therefore fuzzy methods are much more suitable than crisp ones. Fuzzy c...

  14. Aging evaluation of class 1E batteries: Seismic testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edson, J.L. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

    1990-08-01

    This report presents the results of a seismic testing program on naturally aged class 1E batteries obtained from a nuclear plant. The testing program is a Phase 2 activity resulting from a Phase 1 aging evaluation of class 1E batteries in safety systems of nuclear power plants, performed previously as a part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program and reported in NUREG/CR-4457. The primary purpose of the program was to evaluate the seismic ruggedness of naturally aged batteries to determine if aged batteries could have adequate electrical capacity, as determined by tests recommended by IEEE Standards, and yet have inadequate seismic ruggedness to provide needed electrical power during and after a safe shutdown earthquake (SSE) event. A secondary purpose of the program was to evaluate selected advanced surveillance methods to determine if they were likely to be more sensitive to the aging degradation that reduces seismic ruggedness. The program used twelve batteries naturally aged to about 14 years of age in a nuclear facility and tested them at four different seismic levels representative of the levels of possible earthquakes specified for nuclear plants in the United States. Seismic testing of the batteries did not cause any loss of electrical capacity. 19 refs., 29 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1E1EA-2RGMB [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1E1EB-2RGMB [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1E1EB-2RGMB 1E1E 2RGM B B QNGVQMLSPSEIPQRDWFPSDFTFGAATSAYQIEGAWNEDGKGESNWDHFCHNHPE...RILDGSNSDIGANSYHMYKTDVRLLKEMGMDAYRFSISWPRILPKGTKEGGINPDGIKYYRNLINLLLENGIEPYVTIFHWDVPQALEEKYGGFLDKSHK...A --------WLGGLSRAAFPKRFVFGTVTSAYQVEGMAASGGRGPSIWDAFAHT-PGNVAGNQNGDVATDQYHRYKEDVNLMKSLN...TPTSYSADWQVTYVFAK-NGKPIGPQANSNWLYIVPWGMYGCVNYIKQKYGNPTVVITENGMDQPAN----LSRDQYLRDTTRVHFYRSYLTQLKKAIDE... 2RGM B 2RGMB

  17. Direct measuring of single-cycle mid-IR light bullets path length in LiF by the laser coloration method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekalin, Sergey; Kompanets, Victor; Kuznetsov, Andrey; Dormidonov, Alexander; Kandidov, Valerii

    2017-10-01

    A colour-centre structure formed in a LiF crystal under filamentation of a femtosecond mid-IR laser pulse with a power slightly exceeding the critical power for self-focusing has been experimentally and theoretically investigated. A single-cycle light bullet was recorded for the first time by observation of strictly periodic oscillations for the density of the color centers induced in an isotropic LiF crystal under filamentation of a laser beam with a wavelength tuned in the range from 2600 to 3900 nm, which is due to the periodic change in the light field amplitude in the light bullet formed under filamentation under propagation in dispersive medium. The light bullet path length was not more than one millimeter.

  18. Direct measuring of single-cycle mid-IR light bullets path length in LiF by the laser coloration method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chekalin Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A colour-centre structure formed in a LiF crystal under filamentation of a femtosecond mid-IR laser pulse with a power slightly exceeding the critical power for self-focusing has been experimentally and theoretically investigated. A single-cycle light bullet was recorded for the first time by observation of strictly periodic oscillations for the density of the color centers induced in an isotropic LiF crystal under filamentation of a laser beam with a wavelength tuned in the range from 2600 to 3900 nm, which is due to the periodic change in the light field amplitude in the light bullet formed under filamentation under propagation in dispersive medium. The light bullet path length was not more than one millimeter.

  19. Bullet-induced synovitis as a cause of secondary osteoarthritis of the hip joint: A case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehman Muhammad A

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With increasing prevalence of gunshot injuries we are seeing more patients with retained bullet fragments lodged in their bodies. Embedded lead bullets are usually considered inert after their kinetic energy has dissipated hence these are not removed routinely. However, exposure of any foreign body to synovial fluid may lead to rapid degradation and hence result in systemic absorption, causing local and systemic symptoms. We present the case of a thirty year old man who came to our out patient department with a history of progressive, severe hip pain ten years after a gun shot injury to his right hip. Conclusion The common belief that intraarticular bullets should not be removed has no benefit and may result in unwanted long term complications.

  20. Dodging silver bullets: good CRISPR gene-drive design is critical for eradicating exotic vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prowse, Thomas A A; Cassey, Phillip; Ross, Joshua V; Pfitzner, Chandran; Wittmann, Talia A; Thomas, Paul

    2017-08-16

    Self-replicating gene drives that can spread deleterious alleles through animal populations have been promoted as a much needed but controversial 'silver bullet' for controlling invasive alien species. Homing-based drives comprise an endonuclease and a guide RNA (gRNA) that are replicated during meiosis via homologous recombination. However, their efficacy for controlling wild populations is threatened by inherent polymorphic resistance and the creation of resistance alleles via non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ)-mediated DNA repair. We used stochastic individual-based models to identify realistic gene-drive strategies capable of eradicating vertebrate pest populations (mice, rats and rabbits) on islands. One popular strategy, a sex-reversing drive that converts heterozygous females into sterile males, failed to spread and required the ongoing deployment of gene-drive carriers to achieve eradication. Under alternative strategies, multiplexed gRNAs could overcome inherent polymorphic resistance and were required for eradication success even when the probability of NHEJ was low. Strategies causing homozygotic embryonic non-viability or homozygotic female sterility produced high probabilities of eradication and were robust to NHEJ-mediated deletion of the DNA sequence between multiplexed endonuclease recognition sites. The latter two strategies also purged the gene drive when eradication failed, therefore posing lower long-term risk should animals escape beyond target islands. Multiplexing gRNAs will be necessary if this technology is to be useful for insular extirpation attempts; however, precise knowledge of homing rates will be required to design low-risk gene drives with high probabilities of eradication success. © 2017 The Author(s).

  1. Potential Hazard to Human Health from Exposure to Fragments of Lead Bullets and Shot in the Tissues of Game Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain, Deborah J.; Cromie, Ruth L.; Newth, Julia; Brown, Martin J.; Crutcher, Eric; Hardman, Pippa; Hurst, Louise; Mateo, Rafael; Meharg, Andrew A.; Moran, Annette C.; Raab, Andrea; Taggart, Mark A.; Green, Rhys E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Lead is highly toxic to animals. Humans eating game killed using lead ammunition generally avoid swallowing shot or bullets and dietary lead exposure from this source has been considered low. Recent evidence illustrates that lead bullets fragment on impact, leaving small lead particles widely distributed in game tissues. Our paper asks whether lead gunshot pellets also fragment upon impact, and whether lead derived from spent gunshot and bullets in the tissues of game animals could pose a threat to human health. Methodology/Principal Findings Wild-shot gamebirds (6 species) obtained in the UK were X-rayed to determine the number of shot and shot fragments present, and cooked using typical methods. Shot were then removed to simulate realistic practice before consumption, and lead concentrations determined. Data from the Veterinary Medicines Directorate Statutory Surveillance Programme documenting lead levels in raw tissues of wild gamebirds and deer, without shot being removed, are also presented. Gamebirds containing ≥5 shot had high tissue lead concentrations, but some with fewer or no shot also had high lead concentrations, confirming X-ray results indicating that small lead fragments remain in the flesh of birds even when the shot exits the body. A high proportion of samples from both surveys had lead concentrations exceeding the European Union Maximum Level of 100 ppb w.w. (0.1 mg kg−1 w.w.) for meat from bovine animals, sheep, pigs and poultry (no level is set for game meat), some by several orders of magnitude. High, but feasible, levels of consumption of some species could result in the current FAO/WHO Provisional Weekly Tolerable Intake of lead being exceeded. Conclusions/Significance The potential health hazard from lead ingested in the meat of game animals may be larger than previous risk assessments indicated, especially for vulnerable groups, such as children, and those consuming large amounts of game. PMID:20436670

  2. Combat-related intradural gunshot wound to the thoracic spine: significant improvement and neurologic recovery following bullet removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louwes, Thijs M; Ward, William H; Lee, Kendall H; Freedman, Brett A

    2015-02-01

    The vast majority of combat-related penetrating spinal injuries from gunshot wounds result in severe or complete neurological deficit. Treatment is based on neurological status, the presence of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistulas, and local effects of any retained fragment(s). We present a case of a 46-year-old male who sustained a spinal gunshot injury from a 7.62-mm AK-47 round that became lodged within the subarachnoid space at T9-T10. He immediately suffered complete motor and sensory loss. By 24-48 hours post-injury, he had recovered lower extremity motor function fully but continued to have severe sensory loss (posterior cord syndrome). On post-injury day 2, he was evacuated from the combat theater and underwent a T9 laminectomy, extraction of the bullet, and dural laceration repair. At surgery, the traumatic durotomy was widened and the bullet, which was laying on the dorsal surface of the spinal cord, was removed. The dura was closed in a water-tight fashion and fibrin glue was applied. Postoperatively, the patient made a significant but incomplete neurological recovery. His stocking-pattern numbness and sub-umbilical searing dysthesia improved. The spinal canal was clear of the foreign body and he had no persistent CSF leak. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging of the spine revealed contusion of the spinal cord at the T9 level. Early removal of an intra-canicular bullet in the setting of an incomplete spinal cord injury can lead to significant neurological recovery following even high-velocity and/or high-caliber gunshot wounds. However, this case does not speak to, and prior experience does not demonstrate, significant neurological benefit in the setting of a complete injury.

  3. DOE-2 supplement: Version 2.1E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkelmann, F.C.; Birdsall, B.E.; Buhl, W.F.; Ellington, K.L.; Erdem, A.E. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Hirsch, J.J.; Gates, S. [Hirsch (James J.) and Associates, Camarillo, CA (United States)

    1993-11-01

    This publication updates the DOE-2 Supplement form version 2.1D to version to 2.1E. It contains detailed discussions and instructions for using the features and enhancements introduced into the 2.1B, 2.1C, 2.1D, and 2.1E versions of the program. The building description section contains information on input functions in loads and systems, hourly report frequencies, saving files of hourly output for post processing, sharing hourly report data among program modules, the metric option, and input macros and general library features. The loads section contains information on sunspaces, sunspace modeling, window management and solar radiation, daylighting, trombe walls, fixed shades, fins and overhangs, shade schedules, self shades, heat distribution from lights, the Sherman-Grimsrud infiltrations method. terrain and height modification to wind speed, floor multipliers and interior wall types, improved exterior infrared radiation loss calculation, improved outside air film conductance calculation, window library, window frames, and switchable glazing. The systems section contains information on energy end use and meters, powered induction units, a packaged variable volume -- variable temperature system, a residential variable volume -- variable temperature system, air source heat pump enhancements, water loop heat pump enhancements, variable speed electric heat pump, gas heat pumps, hot water heaters, evaporative cooling, total gas solid-desiccant systems, add on desiccant cooling, water cooled condensers, evaporative precoolers outside air economizer control, optimum fan start, heat recovery from refrigerated case work, night ventilation, baseboard heating, moisture balance calculations, a residential natural ventilation algorithm, improved cooling coil model, system sizing and independent cooling and heating sizing ratios. The plant section contains information on energy meters, gas fired absorption chillers, engine driven compressor chillers, and ice energy storage.

  4. Cluster Headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvesen

    1999-11-01

    The care of patients with cluster headache has at least two goals: 1) immediately abolishing an ongoing attack and 2) stopping or shortening a bout (a cluster period). The fierceness and the relative brevity of the attacks dictate the use of a fast-acting agent. There are probably three agents fulfilling these criteria: sumatriptan (by subcutaneous injection), oxygen (inhaled through a face mask), and ergotamines (by injection or, perhaps, sublingual tablets). An abundance of data from controlled studies as well as recent clinical experience probably favors sumatriptan as the most effective alternative, the most significant drawback being its high cost. Oxygen inhalation is free of side effects and may be effective but is inconvenient to use. Ergotamines in tablet form act less rapidly, and there are more contraindications to their use. In short-term prophylaxis, however, ergotamine may still be a drug of choice if the timing of the attacks allows planned use of the drug shortly before the attack. If the timing is more irregular, steroids may at least temporarily break a cycle (eg, prednisolone, 60 or 80 mg/d, gradually tapered to zero in 3 to 4 weeks). If more long-lasting prophylaxis is needed or expected, lithium carbonate, 900 mg/d, or verapamil, 360 mg/d, both have reasonable response rates. As for chronic cluster headache, lithium probably will still be the drug of choice. For a very limited group of patients with chronic cluster headache, surgery may be a last resort. The best surgical options are probably radiofrequency rhizotomy or microvascular decompression of the trigeminal nerve.

  5. Utilization of the Safe Surgical Dislocation Approach of the Hip to Retrieve a Bullet from the Femoral Head

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Delaney

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Retained intra-articular missiles from low-velocity handguns can lead to mechanical arthritis, synovitis, and lead toxicity. Various surgical approaches have been described to extract such foreign bodies from the hip joint. We present the case of a 17-year-old male in which the surgical dislocation approach was utilized to retrieve a bullet from the femoral head with a good short-term outcome. This case represents a rare application of the surgical hip dislocation approach for an unusual trauma.

  6. Water in low-mass star-forming regions with Herschel (WISH-LM). High-velocity H2O bullets in L1448-MM observed with HIFI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, L. E.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Tafalla, M.; Bachiller, R.; Nisini, B.; Liseau, R.; Yıldız, U. A.

    2011-07-01

    Herschel-HIFI observations of water in the low-mass star-forming object L1448-MM, known for its prominent outflow, are presented, as obtained within the "Water in star-forming regions with Herschel" (WISH) key programme. Six H216O lines are targeted and detected (Eup/kB ~ 50-250 K), as is CO J = 10-9 (Eup/kB ~ 305 K), and tentatively H218O 110-101 at 548 GHz. All lines show strong emission in the "bullets" at |3| > 50 km s-1 from the source velocity, in addition to a broad, central component and narrow absorption. The bullets are seen much more prominently in H2O than in CO with respect to the central component, and show little variation with excitation in H2O profile shape. Excitation conditions in the bullets derived from CO lines imply a temperature >150 K and density >105 cm-3, similar to that of the broad component. The H2O/CO abundance ratio is similar in the "bullets" and the broad component, ~0.05-1.0, in spite of their different origins in the molecular jet and the interaction between the outflow and the envelope. The high H2O abundance indicates that the bullets are H2 rich. The H2O cooling in the "bullets" and the broad component is similar and higher than the CO cooling in the same components. These data illustrate the power of Herschel-HIFI to disentangle different dynamical components in low-mass star-forming objects and determine their excitation and chemical conditions. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Appendices and Tables 2 and 3 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  7. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1E43A-2DIEA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1E4WH-2ATKA [Confc[Archive

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. Regional Innovation Clusters

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — The Regional Innovation Clusters serve a diverse group of sectors and geographies. Three of the initial pilot clusters, termed Advanced Defense Technology clusters,...

  11. Combination of natural fiber Boehmeria nivea (ramie) with matrix epoxide for bullet proof vest body armor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anggoro, Didi Dwi, E-mail: anggorophd@gmail.com; Kristiana, Nunung, E-mail: nuna.c631@gmail.com [Master of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University Jln. Prof. Sudharto, Tembalang, Semarang, 50239 (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    Ballistic protection equipment, such as a bulletproof vest, is a soldier’s most important means of preserving life and survivability in extreme combat conditions. The bulletproof vests are designed to protect the user’s chest from injury without disturbing the ability to perform his duties. Aromatic polyamide or aramid fibers known under the trade name Kevlar, Trawon and so is synthetic fiber materials commonly used in the manufacture of bulletproof vests. This synthetic fibers have high tensile strength and ductility. Kevlar is expensive and imported material. In this study, will introduce local natural raw materials, ramie fiber (Boehmeria nivea) which is cheaper and environmentally friendly. It has enough tenacity and tensile strength as a bulletproof vest. This experiment uses two panels, there are Panel A as front surface of Panel B. Panel A is a combination of ramie and epoxide matrix, while panel B is only ramie. From several variations of experimental combinations between Panel A and Panel B, optimal combination obtained with 16 layers of panel A and 31-34 layers of panel B which is able to protect againts cal. 7.65 mm × 17 mm (.32 ACP) bullet fired through pistol .32 Pindad from a distance of 20 meters. Panel with a size of 20 cm × 20 cm has a total thickness between 12,922 to13,745 mm and a total weight between 506,26 to 520,926gram. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations indicated that the porosity and surface area of the ramie fiber is smooth, fiber surfaces showed topography with micropores. SEM also showed well-arranged structure of fibers bonding. Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis indicated 100 % carbon contents in ramie fiber. Test result indicates that panel from composite ramie-epoxide can reach the level 1of International Standard of NIJ - 010104. Compared to panel from polyester fiber, the panel from composite ramie-epoxide (0,50-0,52 kg) is lighter weight than panel polyester fiber (1,642 kg)

  12. Combination of natural fiber Boehmeria nivea (ramie) with matrix epoxide for bullet proof vest body armor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggoro, Didi Dwi; Kristiana, Nunung

    2015-12-01

    Ballistic protection equipment, such as a bulletproof vest, is a soldier's most important means of preserving life and survivability in extreme combat conditions. The bulletproof vests are designed to protect the user's chest from injury without disturbing the ability to perform his duties. Aromatic polyamide or aramid fibers known under the trade name Kevlar, Trawon and so is synthetic fiber materials commonly used in the manufacture of bulletproof vests. This synthetic fibers have high tensile strength and ductility. Kevlar is expensive and imported material. In this study, will introduce local natural raw materials, ramie fiber (Boehmeria nivea) which is cheaper and environmentally friendly. It has enough tenacity and tensile strength as a bulletproof vest. This experiment uses two panels, there are Panel A as front surface of Panel B. Panel A is a combination of ramie and epoxide matrix, while panel B is only ramie. From several variations of experimental combinations between Panel A and Panel B, optimal combination obtained with 16 layers of panel A and 31-34 layers of panel B which is able to protect againts cal. 7.65 mm × 17 mm (.32 ACP) bullet fired through pistol .32 Pindad from a distance of 20 meters. Panel with a size of 20 cm × 20 cm has a total thickness between 12,922 to13,745 mm and a total weight between 506,26 to 520,926gram. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations indicated that the porosity and surface area of the ramie fiber is smooth, fiber surfaces showed topography with micropores. SEM also showed well-arranged structure of fibers bonding. Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis indicated 100 % carbon contents in ramie fiber. Test result indicates that panel from composite ramie-epoxide can reach the level 1of International Standard of NIJ - 010104. Compared to panel from polyester fiber, the panel from composite ramie-epoxide (0,50-0,52 kg) is lighter weight than panel polyester fiber (1,642 kg).

  13. Wound ballistics: Minié ball vs. full metal jacketed bullets--a comparison of Civil War and Spanish-American War firearms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Paul Joseph; Eidt, Herbert Collins

    2009-04-01

    The advent of the full metal jacketed bullet in the late nineteenth century was thought to cause less severe battlefield wounds. This study compares the wounding characteristics of a reproduction rifle from the American Civil War to one of the Spanish-American War using the wound profile method. A 0.58 caliber rifled musket using Minié balls and a 0.30 caliber Krag-Jorgenson rifle using full metal jacketed bullets were fired into calibrated 10% ordnance gelatin blocks at a distance of 3 meters. Measured parameters included maximum temporary cavity, muzzle velocity, and the permanent track. Maximum temporary cavities were significantly larger using the musket, averaging 121 mm (+/- 5.4) vs. 38.6 mm (+/- 8.8) (p < 0.001). Bullet weights were also significantly larger, totaling 29.7 grams (+/- 1.3) for the musket vs. 14.18 grams (+/- 0.01) for the rifle (p < 0.01). Using grains, bullet weights were 458.3 grains (+/- 20 grains; range 435.2-486.1) vs. 218.8 grains (+/- 0.15; range 218.7-219). Muzzle velocities of the musket were significantly less when compared with the rifle, averaging 944 fps (+/- 116) vs. 1852 fps (+/- 22.5), respectively (p < 0.001). The rifled musket produced more severe wounds when compared to the Krag-Jorgenson rifle, as was clinically apparent to observers at the time of the Spanish-American War.

  14. Railway-faster, quieter and more comfortable-paradim of high speed bullet train of 21st century; 21 seiki no kosoku Shinkansen no paradaimu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, K. [JR West Japan Railway Co., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-05-05

    Operation speed of new 500 series bullet train of Japan is realized 300 km/h in equal with World super fast TGV train. Development of new 500 series and new generation bullet trains is explained in this paper. Environmental protection and solution of comfortable riding are considered as key problems in 500 series car. New 500 series` output and strength are increased to 1.5 times of 300 series and its component weight is controlled and is equal to 300 series. With this improvement, rapid traveling is realized for 500 series bullet trains. Traveling resistance reduction for 500 series is achieved approximately 30 % in 300 series at the same speed by solving various aerodynamic problems. Comfortable riding is realized by making use of active suspension which usually reduces shaking half. Regarding new generation`s bullet train, aiming operation speed above 350 km/h, development is progressing with low cost point of view. By carrying out 21st century railway`s survey, it is reported that speed increase considering existing route`s use and low cost new line is occupied main part in high speed. 3 figs.

  15. Exact localisation of a bullet embolus in the middle lobe pulmonary artery with CT and curved reconstruction on the advantage-windows-console; Projektilembolus in der rechten Pulmonalarterie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoepf, R.; Lungenschmid, D.; Hagen, D. [Radiologische Praxis, Landeck (Austria)

    1998-07-01

    We report about a bullet embolus in the middle lobe pulmonary artery (a patient who was sent for a routine-chest-film preoperatively). The patient, 74 years old, was hit by a bullet in localization of the left masseteric region during world war II. The bullet entered the left Vena jugularis and was embolised into the middle lobe pulmonary artery (shock-position). By the means of CT-curved-reformations we could localize the bullet (2 x 0,7 cm) in the middle lobe pulmonary artery and diagnosed a lobar fibrosis as a sequel of the focal hypoxemia. (orig.) [Deutsch] Wir berichten ueber einen Projektilembolus in der rechten Pulmonalarterie bei einem 74jaehrigen Patienten, welcher an uns routinemaessig zu einer praeoperativen Thoraxaufnahme verwiesen wurde. Das Projektil hatten den Patienten waehrend des Zweiten Weltkrieges in der Region des linken Unterkiefers getroffen, trat in die linke Vena jugularis ein und wurde in der rechten Pulmonalarterie embolisiert (Schockposition). Mittels einiger CT-Schichten wurde das Projektil (2 x 0,7 cm) in der rechten Pulmonalarterie geortet und eine lobaere Fibrose als Folge der fokalen Hypoxaemie diagnostiziert. (orig.)

  16. The abundance of galaxy clusters in modified Newtonian dynamics: cosmological simulations with massive neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, G. W.; Diaferio, Antonaldo

    2011-10-01

    We present a new particle mesh cosmological N-body code for accurately solving the modified Poisson equation of the quasi-linear formulation of modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND). We generate initial conditions for the Angus cosmological model, which is identical to Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) except that the CDM is switched for a single species of thermal sterile neutrinos. We set the initial conditions at z= 250 for a (512 Mpc h-1)3 box with 2563 particles, and we evolve them down to z= 0. We clearly demonstrate the ability of MOND to develop the large-scale structure in a hot dark matter cosmology and contradict the naive expectation that MOND cannot form galaxy clusters. We find that the correct order of magnitude of X-ray clusters (with TX > 4.5 keV) can be formed, but that we overpredict the number of very rich clusters and seriously underpredict the number of lower mass clusters. We present evidence that suggests the density profiles of our simulated clusters are compatible with those of the observed X-ray clusters in MOND. As a last test, we computed the relative velocity between pairs of haloes within 10 Mpc and find that pairs with velocities larger than 3000 km s-1, like the bullet cluster, can form without difficulty.

  17. Implications for wildlife and humans of dietary exposure to lead from fragments of lead rifle bullets in deer shot in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knott, Jeff, E-mail: jeff.knott@rspb.org.uk [Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, The Lodge, Sandy, Bedfordshire SG19 2DL (United Kingdom); Gilbert, Jo; Hoccom, David G. [Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, The Lodge, Sandy, Bedfordshire SG19 2DL (United Kingdom); Green, Rhys E. [Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, The Lodge, Sandy, Bedfordshire SG19 2DL (United Kingdom); Conservation Science Group, Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-01

    Lead poisoning caused by ingested spent lead shotgun pellets has long been known to be a cause of unnecessary mortality in waterfowl and has led to legislation limiting its use in many countries. Recent evidence has shown that the problem extends to terrestrial ecosystems and to fragmented rifle bullets eaten by scavengers as well as shotgun pellets. Dietary exposure of human consumers to lead from spent ammunition in game meat also poses potential risks to human health. To assess the degree of fragmentation of lead bullets used to kill wild deer, twelve deer were shot in the thorax using copper-jacketed lead-cored bullets, as part of planned deer management operations. The thoracic region of the eviscerated carcasses and the abdominal viscera of each deer were X-rayed. An average of 356 metal fragments was visible on radiographs of the carcass and 180 fragments in the viscera. The weight of fragments was estimated by reference to an X-rayed scale of fragments of known weight. The average total weight of metal fragments, likely to be mostly lead, was estimated to be 1.2 g for the carcass and 0.2 g for the viscera. The total estimated weight of fragments in the entire carcass was estimated to be 17% of the weight of the bullet. Most fragments were small in size, with those in the viscera being smaller than those in the carcass. Metal fragments in the viscera were sufficiently small that at least 80% of the metallic bullet-derived lead in the viscera would be expected to be ingested by scavenging birds, such as buzzards and eagles, which feed on them.

  18. Heavy hitters via cluster-preserving clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Green; Nelson, Jelani; Nguyen, Huy L.

    2016-01-01

    , providing correctness whp. In fact, a simpler version of our algorithm for p = 1 in the strict turnstile model answers queries even faster than the "dyadic trick" by roughly a log n factor, dominating it in all regards. Our main innovation is an efficient reduction from the heavy hitters to a clustering...... problem in which each heavy hitter is encoded as some form of noisy spectral cluster in a much bigger graph, and the goal is to identify every cluster. Since every heavy hitter must be found, correctness requires that every cluster be found. We thus need a "cluster-preserving clustering" algorithm......, that partitions the graph into clusters with the promise of not destroying any original cluster. To do this we first apply standard spectral graph partitioning, and then we use some novel combinatorial techniques to modify the cuts obtained so as to make sure that the original clusters are sufficiently preserved...

  19. Cluster headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ducros Anne

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cluster headache (CH is a primary headache disease characterized by recurrent short-lasting attacks (15 to 180 minutes of excruciating unilateral periorbital pain accompanied by ipsilateral autonomic signs (lacrimation, nasal congestion, ptosis, miosis, lid edema, redness of the eye. It affects young adults, predominantly males. Prevalence is estimated at 0.5–1.0/1,000. CH has a circannual and circadian periodicity, attacks being clustered (hence the name in bouts that can occur during specific months of the year. Alcohol is the only dietary trigger of CH, strong odors (mainly solvents and cigarette smoke and napping may also trigger CH attacks. During bouts, attacks may happen at precise hours, especially during the night. During the attacks, patients tend to be restless. CH may be episodic or chronic, depending on the presence of remission periods. CH is associated with trigeminovascular activation and neuroendocrine and vegetative disturbances, however, the precise cautive mechanisms remain unknown. Involvement of the hypothalamus (a structure regulating endocrine function and sleep-wake rhythms has been confirmed, explaining, at least in part, the cyclic aspects of CH. The disease is familial in about 10% of cases. Genetic factors play a role in CH susceptibility, and a causative role has been suggested for the hypocretin receptor gene. Diagnosis is clinical. Differential diagnoses include other primary headache diseases such as migraine, paroxysmal hemicrania and SUNCT syndrome. At present, there is no curative treatment. There are efficient treatments to shorten the painful attacks (acute treatments and to reduce the number of daily attacks (prophylactic treatments. Acute treatment is based on subcutaneous administration of sumatriptan and high-flow oxygen. Verapamil, lithium, methysergide, prednisone, greater occipital nerve blocks and topiramate may be used for prophylaxis. In refractory cases, deep-brain stimulation of the

  20. The Dream About the Magic Silver Bullet – the Complexity of Designing for Tablet-Mediated Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahnke, Isa; Svendsen, Niels Vandel; Johansen, Simon Kristoffer

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we report three cases of the integration of technology, such as web-enabled media tablets in Scandinavian schools. Both qualitative and quantitative data have been applied. A daily challenge for teachers is to coordinate their group of students in a way that enables collaborative...... learning. We report the gaps and interrelations between the dreams and the practice of the teachers. They dream about an interconnected praxis – the magic silver bullet – and establish their visions of inter- connectivity because of their breakdown experiences of media tablets aiding complexity instead...... of reducing it. The teachers must learn how to navigate during the breakdowns before media tablets reduce complexity and reach a state in which the tablets take part in the classroom ecology as functional organs. The teachers have to deal with complex situations during class in situ. In order to be able...

  1. Development of a biosensor protein bullet as a fluorescent method for fast detection of Escherichia coli in drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-del-Río, Ignacio; Marín, Laura; Fernández, Javier; Álvarez San Millán, María; Ferrero, Francisco Javier; Valledor, Marta; Campo, Juan Carlos; Cobián, Natalia; Méndez, Ignacio

    2018-01-01

    Drinking water can be exposed to different biological contaminants from the source, through the pipelines, until reaching the final consumer or industry. Some of these are pathogenic bacteria and viruses which may cause important gastrointestinal or systemic diseases. The microbiological quality of drinking water relies mainly in monitoring three indicator bacteria of faecal origin, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Clostridium perfringens, which serve as early sentinels of potential health hazards for the population. Here we describe the analysis of three chimeric fluorescent protein bullets as biosensor candidates for fast detection of E. coli in drinking water. Two of the chimeric proteins (based on GFP-hadrurin and GFP-pb5 chimera proteins) failed with respect to specificity and/or sensitivity, but the GFP-colS4 chimera protein was able to carry out specific detection of E. coli in drinking water samples in a procedure encompassing about 8 min for final result and this biosensor protein was able to detect in a linear way between 20 and 103 CFU of this bacterium. Below 20 CFU, the system cannot differentiate presence or absence of the target bacterium. The fluorescence in this biosensor system is provided by the GFP subunit of the chimeric protein, which, in the case of the better performing sensor bullet, GFP-colS4 chimera, is covalently bound to a flexible peptide bridge and to a bacteriocin binding specifically to E. coli cells. Once bound to the target bacteria, the excitation step with 395 nm LED light causes emission of fluorescence from the GFP domain, which is amplified in a photomultiplier tube, and finally this signal is converted into an output voltage which can be associated with a CFU value and these data distributed along mobile phone networks, for example. This method, and the portable fluorimeter which has been developed for it, may contribute to reduce the analysis time for detecting E. coli presence in drinking water. PMID:29304041

  2. Development of a biosensor protein bullet as a fluorescent method for fast detection of Escherichia coli in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Del-Río, Ignacio; Marín, Laura; Fernández, Javier; Álvarez San Millán, María; Ferrero, Francisco Javier; Valledor, Marta; Campo, Juan Carlos; Cobián, Natalia; Méndez, Ignacio; Lombó, Felipe

    2018-01-01

    Drinking water can be exposed to different biological contaminants from the source, through the pipelines, until reaching the final consumer or industry. Some of these are pathogenic bacteria and viruses which may cause important gastrointestinal or systemic diseases. The microbiological quality of drinking water relies mainly in monitoring three indicator bacteria of faecal origin, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Clostridium perfringens, which serve as early sentinels of potential health hazards for the population. Here we describe the analysis of three chimeric fluorescent protein bullets as biosensor candidates for fast detection of E. coli in drinking water. Two of the chimeric proteins (based on GFP-hadrurin and GFP-pb5 chimera proteins) failed with respect to specificity and/or sensitivity, but the GFP-colS4 chimera protein was able to carry out specific detection of E. coli in drinking water samples in a procedure encompassing about 8 min for final result and this biosensor protein was able to detect in a linear way between 20 and 103 CFU of this bacterium. Below 20 CFU, the system cannot differentiate presence or absence of the target bacterium. The fluorescence in this biosensor system is provided by the GFP subunit of the chimeric protein, which, in the case of the better performing sensor bullet, GFP-colS4 chimera, is covalently bound to a flexible peptide bridge and to a bacteriocin binding specifically to E. coli cells. Once bound to the target bacteria, the excitation step with 395 nm LED light causes emission of fluorescence from the GFP domain, which is amplified in a photomultiplier tube, and finally this signal is converted into an output voltage which can be associated with a CFU value and these data distributed along mobile phone networks, for example. This method, and the portable fluorimeter which has been developed for it, may contribute to reduce the analysis time for detecting E. coli presence in drinking water.

  3. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1E4XH-2ATKA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1E4XH-2ATKA 1E4X 2ATK H A QVQLQQPGAELVKPGASVKLSCKASGFTFTNYWMHWVKQ...RPGQGLEWIGEILPSNGRTNYNEKFKTKATLTVDKSSNTAYMQLSSLTSEDSAVYYCARSPS----DYWGQGTTLTVSSAKTTAPSVYPLAPVCGDTTGSSVTLGCLV... 272 2ATK A 2ATKA ARERGDGYFAVWGA EEE

  4. Measurements of Deviation from 1/E Distribution in Epi-Cadmium Neutron Spectrum

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    INOUE, Kazuhiko; KATORI, Kenji

    1964-01-01

    Although the neutron spectra in the epi-thermal region in thermal reactors are usually assumed to be of 1/E distribution, it is important in some cases to consider the deviation of the distrtribution from the 1/E shape...

  5. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1E4LB-2RGMA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1E4LB-2RGMA 1E4L 2RGM B A MLSPSEIPQRDWFPSDFTFGAATSAYQIEGAWNEDGKGESNWDHFCHNHPERILDG...SNSDIGANSYHMYKTDVRLLKEMGMDAYRFSISWPRILPKGTKEGGINPDGIKYYRNLINLLLENGIEPYVTIFHWDVPQALEEKYGGFLDKSHKSIVED...KEFNTA ---WLGGLSRAAFPKRFVFGTVTSAYQVEGMAASGGRGPSIWDAFAHT-PGNVAGNQNGDVATDQYHRYKEDVNLMKSLN...TPTSYSADWQVTYVFAK-NGKPIGPQANSNWLYIVPWGMYGCVNYIKQKYGNPTVVITENGMDQPAN----LSRDQYLRDTTRVHFYRSYLTQLKKAIDE... 2RGM A 2RGMA

  6. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1E4LB-2RGMB [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1E4LB-2RGMB 1E4L 2RGM B B MLSPSEIPQRDWFPSDFTFGAATSAYQIEGAWNEDGKGESNWDHFCHNHPERILDG...SNSDIGANSYHMYKTDVRLLKEMGMDAYRFSISWPRILPKGTKEGGINPDGIKYYRNLINLLLENGIEPYVTIFHWDVPQALEEKYGGFLDKSHKSIVED...KEFNTA ---WLGGLSRAAFPKRFVFGTVTSAYQVEGMAASGGRGPSIWDAFAHT-PGNVAGNQNGDVATDQYHRYKEDVNLMKSLN...TPTSYSADWQVTYVFAK-NGKPIGPQANSNWLYIVPWGMYGCVNYIKQKYGNPTVVITENGMDQPAN----LSRDQYLRDTTRVHFYRSYLTQLKKAIDE... 2RGM B 2RGMB

  7. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1E4LA-2RGMB [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1E4LA-2RGMB 1E4L 2RGM A B MLSPSEIPQRDWFPSDFTFGAATSAYQIEGAWNEDGKGESNWDHFCHNHPERILDG...SNSDIGANSYHMYKTDVRLLKEMGMDAYRFSISWPRILPKGTKEGGINPDGIKYYRNLINLLLENGIEPYVTIFHWDVPQALEEKYGGFLDKSHKSIVED...KEFNTA ---WLGGLSRAAFPKRFVFGTVTSAYQVEGMAASGGRGPSIWDAFAHT-PGNVAGNQNGDVATDQYHRYKEDVNLMKSLN...TPTSYSADWQVTYVFAK-NGKPIGPQANSNWLYIVPWGMYGCVNYIKQKYGNPTVVITENGMDQPAN----LSRDQYLRDTTRVHFYRSYLTQLKKAIDE... 2RGM B 2RGMB

  8. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1E14L-2GMRM [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1E14L-2GMRM 1E14 2GMR L M ----------------ALLSFERKYRVPGG--TLVGGNLFDFWVGPFYVGFFGVAT...WWQWWVKLPWWANIPGGING QNIFSQVQVRGPADLGMTEDVNLANRSGVGPFSTLLGWFGNAQLGPIYLGSLGVLSLFSGLMWFFT...FSLEPPAPEYGLSFAAPLKEGGLWLIASFFMFVAVWSWWGRTYLRAQALGMGKHTAWAFLSAIWLWMVLGFIRPILMGSWSEAVPYGIFSHLDWTNNFSL... 2GMR M 2GMRM 2GMR M 2GMRM

  9. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1E14M-2GMRL [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1E14M-2GMRL 1E14 2GMR M L AEYQNIFSQVQVRGPADLGMTEDVNLANRSGVGPFSTLLGWFGNAQLGPIYLGSLG...FSLEPPAPEYGLSFAAPLKEGGLWLIASFFMFVAVWSWWGRTYLRAQALGMGKHTAWAFLSAIWLWMVLGFIRPILMGSWSEAVPYGIFSHLDWTNNFSL...NATMEGIHRWAIWMAVLVTLTGGIGILLSGTVVDN------WYVWGQNHGM------- -------------------ALLSFERKY... 2GMR L 2GMRL 1 2GMR L 2GMRL

  10. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1E14L-1AIGM [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1E14L-1AIGM 1E14 1AIG L M -----------------ALLSFERKYRVPGG--TLVGGNLFDFWVGPFYVGFFGVA...WQWWVKLPWWANIPGGING YQNIFSQVQVRGPADLGMTEDVNLANRSGVGPFSTLLGWFGNAQLGPIYLGSLGVLSLFSGLMWFFT...FSLEPPAPEYGLSFAAPLKEGGLWLIASFFMFVAVWSWWGRTYLRAQALGMGKHTAWAFLSAIWLWMVLGFIRPILMGSWSEAVPYGIFSHLDWTNNFSL...1AIG M 1AIGM RSGVGPFSTLLG...1AIG M 1AIGM YGLSFAAPLKE

  11. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1E6DL-2GMRM [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1E6DL-2GMRM 1E6D 2GMR L M ----------------ALLSFERKYRVPGG--TLVGGNLFDFWVGPFYVGFFGVAT...WWQWWVKLPWWANIPGGING QNIFSQVQVRGPADLGMTEDVNLANRSGVGPFSTLLGWFGNAQLGPIYLGSLGVLSLFSGLMWFFT...FSLEPPAPEYGLSFAAPLKEGGLWLIASFFMFVAVWSWWGRTYLRAQALGMGKHTAWAFLSAIWLWMVLGFIRPILMGSWSEAVPYGIFSHLDWTNNFSL... 2GMR M 2GMRM 2GMR M 2GMRM

  12. Partitional clustering algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book summarizes the state-of-the-art in partitional clustering. Clustering, the unsupervised classification of patterns into groups, is one of the most important tasks in exploratory data analysis. Primary goals of clustering include gaining insight into, classifying, and compressing data. Clustering has a long and rich history that spans a variety of scientific disciplines including anthropology, biology, medicine, psychology, statistics, mathematics, engineering, and computer science. As a result, numerous clustering algorithms have been proposed since the early 1950s. Among these algorithms, partitional (nonhierarchical) ones have found many applications, especially in engineering and computer science. This book provides coverage of consensus clustering, constrained clustering, large scale and/or high dimensional clustering, cluster validity, cluster visualization, and applications of clustering. Examines clustering as it applies to large and/or high-dimensional data sets commonly encountered in reali...

  13. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1E5FA-1QGNF [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1E5FA-1QGNF 1E5F 1QGN A F -----ERMTPATACIHAN---PQKDQFGAAIPPIYQTST...HHHHHH EEE HHHHH EEEEEEE HHHHHHHH EEE HHHHH EEEEEE HHHHHHHHHHHH - ...EVID>EVID> 0 1E5F A ...hain> 1QGN F 1QGNF AIHAGERLGRGIV 3.866503953933716 EVID> 1

  14. Mixture model modal clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Chacón, José E.

    2016-01-01

    The two most extended density-based approaches to clustering are surely mixture model clustering and modal clustering. In the mixture model approach, the density is represented as a mixture and clusters are associated to the different mixture components. In modal clustering, clusters are understood as regions of high density separated from each other by zones of lower density, so that they are closely related to certain regions around the density modes. If the true density is indeed in the as...

  15. Unsupervised ensemble minority clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzàlez Pellicer, Edgar; Turmo Borras, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Cluster analysis lies at the core of most unsupervised learning tasks. However, the majority of clustering algorithms depend on the all-in assumption, in which all objects belong to some cluster, and perform poorly on minority clustering tasks, in which a small fraction of signal data stands against a majority of noise. The approaches proposed so far for minority clustering are supervised: they require the number and distribution of the foreground and background clusters. In supervised learni...

  16. Investigation about the influence of the mechanical properties of lead core and brass jacket of a NATO 7.62 mm ball bullet in numerical simulations of ballistic impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scapin M.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present work a validated numerical approach has been used in order to build a robust and reliable FE model of the impact of a NATO 7.62 mm ball bullet, against an aluminium transmission shaft. The bullet is a full metal jacket type, with a lead alloy core and a brass jacket. Target shaft is made by an Al6061-T6 aluminium alloy. According to the soft core (lead alloy of the bullet, most effort has been spent in order to evaluate the effect of bullet materials mechanical properties on the numerical results. Numerical analyses, carried out using the non-linear dynamic finite element solver Abaqus∖Explicit 6.10, have been performed focusing on core and jacket material behaviour (target material, Al6061-T6, has been previously calibrated by the authors. Thus numerical analyses have been performed considering for the mechanical behaviour of the bullet both a simplified approach (as reported in literature and new material data (with strain rate effect obtained by means of experimental tests on the two materials (lead and brass with specimens cut directly from the bullet. Finally the results of the analyses have been compared with real experimental ballistic tests.

  17. The analysis of gun-cleaning oil as long-distance gunshot residue and its implications for chemical tags on bullets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendrihem, Stacey A; Pyle, Robyn; Allison, John

    2013-01-01

    Using a BB gun, it was shown that a gun-cleaning oil (GCO) can be wiped from the barrel by a projectile and carried much longer distances than those usually associated with solid gunshot residue (GSR). Analysis of GCO subsequently deposited on a target was performed using pentane extraction and gas chromatography. (Hoppe's GCO was used here as a model.) When a 0.45 caliber handgun was used, analysis reveals that most of the GCO wiped from the barrel does not survive, owing to the elevated temperatures encountered. However, two components of the GCO, a long-chain fatty acid and its ethyl ester, do survive and can be detected in the bullet wipe. This suggests that GCO may be considered as GSR, uniquely detectable at long distances, and that other chemical compounds could either be added to a GCO or directly to bullets, to serve as identifying chemical tags. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. [The possibilities for the expert diagnostics of the influence of the glance of a bullet on the character of the injuries inflicted by shooting a hunting weapon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, I Yu; Galkina, A M; Kinle, A F; Fetisov, V A

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to study and analyze the available data concerning the influence of the glance of a bullet on the character of the injuries inflicted by shooting certain types of hunting weapons. This review gives evidence of the possibility of the objective diagnostics of the injuries inflicted by gunshots using the rifle-bore weapons. However, we have failed to find information about the diagnostic criteria for the evaluation of the wounds inflicted by the bullets shot from smooth-bore hunting rifles after their glance from various surfaces in the available special literature publications. Such situation creates the prerequisites for the erroneous conclusions from the results of forensic medical expertise of the after-penetration blunt wounds.

  19. Laser filamentation in air via Mathieu modulation: ranging from trajectory-predesigned curved filament to quasi-soliton and ring light bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuze; Nie, Jinsong

    2017-06-26

    We propose theoretically various kinds of filaments via the Mathieu modulation. Our results indicate curved filaments, in-phase and out-of-phase quasi-solitons and nonlinear light bullets can be formed successfully in air. Through calculated initial Mathieu accelerating beam (MAB), curved filament is able to propagate along a predesigned elliptical trajectory. By transforming the MAB into an axial symmetrical structure with in-phase and out-of-phase modulations, we obtain two kinds of quasi-solitons in air, respectively. The latter case can even propagate in a breathing fashion. With a ring structure of MAB, we successfully form a light bullet in air that generates a chain of intensity peaks over extended distances. These unique filaments can offer significant advantages for numerous applications, such as micro engineering of materials, THz radiation generation and attosecond physics.

  20. Management of cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tfelt-Hansen, Peer C; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2012-01-01

    and agitation. Patients may have up to eight attacks per day. Episodic cluster headache (ECH) occurs in clusters of weeks to months duration, whereas chronic cluster headache (CCH) attacks occur for more than 1 year without remissions. Management of cluster headache is divided into acute attack treatment...

  1. Clustering of correlated networks

    OpenAIRE

    Dorogovtsev, S. N.

    2003-01-01

    We obtain the clustering coefficient, the degree-dependent local clustering, and the mean clustering of networks with arbitrary correlations between the degrees of the nearest-neighbor vertices. The resulting formulas allow one to determine the nature of the clustering of a network.

  2. Cluster knockout reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-04-07

    Apr 7, 2014 ... 2 fm) N–N interaction enhances clustering in the low density surface region of the nuclei. Therefore, to study the clustering aspect of the nuclei, one has to have high projectile energies but has to choose kinematics which probes the low momentum component of the bound clusters. While the cluster pickup ...

  3. Cluster knockout reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-04-07

    Apr 7, 2014 ... Cluster knockout reactions are expected to reveal the amount of clustering (such as that of , d and even of heavier clusters such as 12C, 16O etc.) in the target nucleus. In simple terms, incident medium high-energy nuclear projectile interacts strongly with the cluster (present in the target nucleus) as if it ...

  4. THE BURST CLUSTER: DARK MATTER IN A CLUSTER MERGER ASSOCIATED WITH THE SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURST, GRB 050509B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahle, H. [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029, Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Sarazin, C. L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Lopez, L. A. [MIT-Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, 37-664H, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Kouveliotou, C. [Space Science Office, ZP12, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Patel, S. K. [Optical Sciences Corporation, 6767 Old Madison Pike, Suite 650, Huntsville, AL 35806 (United States); Rol, E.; Van der Horst, A. J.; Wijers, R. A. M. J. [Astronomical Institute ' Anton Pannekoek' , University of Amsterdam, Kruislaan 403, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Fynbo, J.; Michalowski, M. J. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Burrows, D. N.; Grupe, D. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Gehrels, N. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Ramirez-Ruiz, E., E-mail: hdahle@astro.uio.no [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95060 (United States)

    2013-07-20

    We have identified a merging galaxy cluster with evidence of two distinct subclusters. The X-ray and optical data suggest that the subclusters are presently moving away from each other after closest approach. This cluster merger was discovered from observations of the first well-localized short-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB), GRB 050509B. The Swift/Burst Alert Telescope error position of the source is coincident with a cluster of galaxies ZwCl 1234.0+02916, while the subsequent Swift/X-Ray Telescope localization of the X-ray afterglow found the GRB coincident with 2MASX J12361286+2858580, a giant red elliptical galaxy in the cluster. Deep multi-epoch optical images were obtained in this field to constrain the evolution of the GRB afterglow, including a total of 27,480 s exposure in the F814W band with Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys, among the deepest imaging ever obtained toward a known galaxy cluster in a single passband. We perform a weak gravitational lensing analysis based on these data, including mapping of the total mass distribution of the merger system with high spatial resolution. When combined with Chandra X-ray Observatory Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer and Swift/XRT observations, we are able to investigate the dynamical state of the merger to better understand the nature of the dark matter component. Our weak gravitational lensing measurements reveal a separation of the X-ray centroid of the western subcluster from the center of the mass and galaxy light distributions, which is somewhat similar to that of the famous 'Bullet cluster', and we conclude that this 'Burst cluster' adds another candidate to the previously known merger systems for determining the nature of dark matter, as well as for studying the environment of a short GRB. Finally, we discuss potential connections between the cluster dynamical state and/or matter composition, and compact object mergers, which is currently the leading model for the

  5. Hybrid treatment of bullet embolism at the abdominal aortic bifurcation, complicated with thoracoabdominal aorta pseudoaneurysm and common iliac artery occlusion: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Bastos Metzger

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Embolization due to a firearm projectile entering the bloodstream is a rare event that is unlikely to be suspected during initial treatment of trauma patients. We describe and discuss a case of bullet embolism of the abdominal aortic bifurcation, complicated by a pseudoaneurysm of the thoracoabdominal aorta and occlusion of the right common iliac artery, but successfully treated using a combination of endovascular methods and conventional surgery.

  6. Clustering in analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drab, Klaudia; Daszykowski, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Data clustering plays an important role in the exploratory analysis of analytical data, and the use of clustering methods has been acknowledged in different fields of science. In this paper, principles of data clustering are presented with a direct focus on clustering of analytical data. The role of the clustering process in the analytical workflow is underlined, and its potential impact on the analytical workflow is emphasized.

  7. ESO's VLT Helps ESA's Rosetta Spacecraft Prepare to Ride on a Cosmic Bullet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-02-01

    (about 6 million times fainter than what can be perceived with the unaided eye). These observations have now confirmed that - at the same distance from the Sun at which the landing will take place (about 450 million km from the Sun) - the activity on Wirtanen is very low, cf. PR Photo 06a/02 . This is very good news for the mission, because it means that there will not be so much dust near the nucleus as to make the landing dramatically difficult . Landing on a 1-km snowball Cometary nuclei are small frozen bodies made of ice and dust ('dirty snowballs'). When they get close to the Sun the heat causes ices on the surface to 'evaporate'. Gas and dust grains are ejected into the surrounding space forming the comet's atmosphere (coma) and the tail. In addition to dropping a lander on Wirtanen's nucleus for detailed in-situ observations, Rosetta's task is to investigate the evolution of the comet on its way to the Sun: in fact, Rosetta will keep orbiting around Wirtanen up to the end of the mission in July 2013, at which time the comet is at its closest approach to the Sun, at about 160 million km from it. These and earlier VLT observations have also provided Rosetta mission planners with an accurate measurement of their target's size: Wirtanen's nucleus is only 1.2 km in diameter, a true cosmic bullet . "Rosetta is certainly a very challenging space mission. No one has ever tried to land on a comet before," says Gerhard Schwehm , Rosetta's Project Scientist. "We need to learn as much as possible about our target. The new VLT data will allow us to improve our models and make decisions once we get there." "It is a pleasure to help our colleagues at ESA", says ESO astronomer and comet specialist Hermann Boehnhardt . "We will continue to keep an eye on this comet, in particular when Rosetta is approaching its target. We can then provide the spacecraft controllers and the astronomers with very useful, regular updates, e.g., about the 'cometary weather' at the time of arrival

  8. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1E3DC-1YRQB [Confc[Archive

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  11. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1E3DC-1YRQG [Confc[Archive

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  12. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1E3DA-3CURB [Confc[Archive

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  13. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1E3DC-3CUSC [Confc[Archive

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  14. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1E3DC-3CURC [Confc[Archive

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  15. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1E3DC-3CUSA [Confc[Archive

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  16. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1E3DA-1YRQB [Confc[Archive

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  17. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1E3DC-1YQWA [Confc[Archive

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  18. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1E3DC-1YQWB [Confc[Archive

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  19. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1E3DA-1YRQD [Confc[Archive

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  20. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1E3DC-3CURB [Confc[Archive

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  1. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1E3DA-3CUSB [Confc[Archive

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  2. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1E3DA-3CURA [Confc[Archive

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  3. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1E3DA-1YQWA [Confc[Archive

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  4. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1E3DA-3CUSA [Confc[Archive

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  5. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1E3DA-3CUSC [Confc[Archive

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  6. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1E3DA-1YRQA [Confc[Archive

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  7. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1E3DC-1YRQA [Confc[Archive

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  8. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1E3DA-3CURC [Confc[Archive

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  9. Light bullets in the spatiotemporal nonlinear Schroedinger equation with a variable negative diffraction coefficient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong Weiping [Department of Electronic and Information Engineering, Shunde Polytechnic, Guangdong Province, Shunde 528300 (China); Belic, Milivoj [Texas A and M University at Qatar, 23874 Doha (Qatar); Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, P. O. Box 68, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Assanto, Gaetano [NooEL, Nonlinear Optics and OptoElectronics Lab, University of Rome ' ' Roma Tre,' ' I-00146 Rome (Italy); Malomed, Boris A. [Department of Physical Electronics, School of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, E-08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Huang, Tingwen [Texas A and M University at Qatar, 23874 Doha (Qatar)

    2011-10-15

    We report approximate analytical solutions to the (3+1)-dimensional spatiotemporal nonlinear Schroedinger equation, with the uniform self-focusing nonlinearity and a variable negative radial diffraction coefficient, in the form of three-dimensional solitons. The model may be realized in artificial optical media, such as left-handed materials and photonic crystals, with the anomalous sign of the group-velocity dispersion (GVD). The same setting may be realized through the interplay of the self-defocusing nonlinearity, normal GVD, and positive variable diffraction. The Hartree approximation is utilized to achieve a suitable separation of variables in the model. Then, an inverse procedure is introduced, with the aim to select a suitable profile of the modulated diffraction coefficient supporting desirable soliton solutions (such as dromions, single- and multilayer rings, and multisoliton clusters). The validity of the analytical approximation and stability of the solutions is tested by means of direct simulations.

  10. What Makes Clusters Decline?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Christian Richter; Park, Eun Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Most studies on regional clusters focus on identifying factors and processes that make clusters grow. However, sometimes technologies and market conditions suddenly shift, and clusters decline. This paper analyses the process of decline of the wireless communication cluster in Denmark....... The longitudinal study on the high-tech cluster reveals that technological lock-in and exit of key firms have contributed to decline. Entrepreneurship has a positive effect on the cluster’s adaptive capabilities, while multinational companies have contradicting effects by bringing in new resources to the cluster...

  11. Comprehensive cluster analysis with Transitivity Clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittkop, Tobias; Emig, Dorothea; Truss, Anke; Albrecht, Mario; Böcker, Sebastian; Baumbach, Jan

    2011-03-01

    Transitivity Clustering is a method for the partitioning of biological data into groups of similar objects, such as genes, for instance. It provides integrated access to various functions addressing each step of a typical cluster analysis. To facilitate this, Transitivity Clustering is accessible online and offers three user-friendly interfaces: a powerful stand-alone version, a web interface, and a collection of Cytoscape plug-ins. In this paper, we describe three major workflows: (i) protein (super)family detection with Cytoscape, (ii) protein homology detection with incomplete gold standards and (iii) clustering of gene expression data. This protocol guides the user through the most important features of Transitivity Clustering and takes ∼1 h to complete.

  12. Molecular analysis of the rat MHC. II. Isolation of genes that map to the RT1.E-grc region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassett, A L; Locker, J; Rupp, G; Kunz, H W; Gill, T J

    1989-03-15

    An initial mapping analysis of growth and reproduction complex (grc) and grc+ genomic DNA identified several restriction fragment length polymorphisms specific for the grc region of the MHC. To analyze further the genomic organization and structure of the grc, a cosmid library was constructed from a grc+-bearing strain (R21). One cosmid cluster, encompassing 41.4 kb of DNA, contained four, or possibly five, class I genes that mapped to the RT1.E-grc region Two unique non-class I fragments were isolated from certain cosmids within this cluster. These fragments were hybridized to genomic DNA derived from five rat strains (BIL/2, R18, R21, R22, and BIL/1), and the results showed that grc-bearing rats have a deletion of at least 3.1 kb of DNA in the region immediately adjacent to the MHC. The loss of the genes in this region is probably the cause of the growth and reproductive defects in these animals and probably also of their increased susceptibility to chemical carcinogens.

  13. Subcellular targeting: a new frontier for drug-loaded pharmaceutical nanocarriers and the concept of the magic bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Gerard G M; Weissig, Volkmar

    2009-11-01

    The ability of a pharmacologically active molecule selectively to find its target is closely linked with its potential as a successful therapeutic drug. It has become increasingly evident that there are several pharmacologically active molecules that exert their action on molecular targets inside cell organelles. In the case of a drug molecule with no defined specificity for a particular organelle, the molecule would either need to have sufficiently long metabolic stability to allow for random interaction with the organelle to occur, or a targeting strategy for the intended subcellular compartment would need to be devised in order to potentiate therapeutic effect. In the case of molecules with a stronger affinity for a non-target subcellular compartment, there exists even greater need for the ability to control subcellular disposition. Subcellular or organelle-specific targeting has thus emerged as a new frontier in drug delivery. In this review selected examples of recent work are discussed that the authors believe might eventually lead to the application of pharmaceutical nanocarriers to create the next generation of 'magic bullets' that are capable of delivering a drug payload to a molecular target at a subcellular location.

  14. Combined Peptidomic and Proteomic Analysis of Electrically Stimulated and Manually Dissected Venom from the South American Bullet Ant Paraponera clavata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aili, Samira R; Touchard, Axel; Petitclerc, Frédéric; Dejean, Alain; Orivel, Jérôme; Padula, Matthew P; Escoubas, Pierre; Nicholson, Graham M

    2017-03-03

    Ants have evolved venoms rich in peptides and proteins used for predation, defense, and communication. However, they remain extremely understudied due to the minimal amount of venom secreted by each ant. The present study investigated the differences in the proteome and peptidome of the venom from the bullet ant, Paraponera clavata. Venom samples were collected from a single colony either by manual venom gland dissection or by electrical stimulation and were compared using proteomic methods. Venom proteins were separated by 2D-PAGE and identified by nanoLC-ESI-QTOF MS/MS. Venom peptides were initially separated using C18 reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, then analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS. The proteomic analysis revealed numerous proteins that could be assigned a biological function (total 94), mainly as toxins, or roles in cell regulation and transport. This investigation found that ca. 73% of the proteins were common to venoms collected by the two methods. The peptidomic analysis revealed a large number of peptides (total 309) but with ant colonies. These findings demonstrate the rich composition and variability of P. clavata venom.

  15. Fast Constrained Spectral Clustering and Cluster Ensemble with Random Projection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wenfen Liu; Mao Ye; Jianghong Wei; Xuexian Hu

    2017-01-01

    Constrained spectral clustering (CSC) method can greatly improve the clustering accuracy with the incorporation of constraint information into spectral clustering and thus has been paid academic attention widely...

  16. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1E1CA-3BICA [Confc[Archive

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  18. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1E3JA-8ADHA [Confc[Archive

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  19. Physicochemical and biological characterization of 1E10 Anti-Idiotype vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado Yoan J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 1E10 monoclonal antibody is a murine anti-idiotypic antibody that mimics N-glycolyl-GM3 gangliosides. This antibody has been tested as an anti-idiotypic cancer vaccine, adjuvated in Al(OH3, in several clinical trials for melanoma, breast, and lung cancer. During early clinical development this mAb was obtained in vivo from mice ascites fluid. Currently, the production process of 1E10 is being transferred from the in vivo to a bioreactor-based method. Results Here, we present a comprehensive molecular and immunological characterization of 1E10 produced by the two different production processes in order to determine the impact of the manufacturing process in vaccine performance. We observed differences in glycosylation pattern, charge heterogeneity and structural stability between in vivo-produced 1E10 and bioreactor-obtained 1E10. Interestingly, these modifications had no significant impact on the immune responses elicited in two different animal models. Conclusions Changes in 1E10 primary structure like glycosylation; asparagine deamidation and oxidation affected 1E10 structural stability but did not affect the immune response elicited in mice and chickens when compared to 1E10 produced in mice.

  20. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1E0WA-2CNCA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1E0WA-2CNCA 1E0W 2CNC A A AESTLGAAAAQSGRYFGTAIASGR--LSDSTYTSIAGRE...> SER CA 191 THR CA 244 2CNC... A 2CNCA LNATIASGADERILE CA 468 2CNC A 2CNC...>CYS CA 412 LEU CA 412 GLY CA 476 2CNC

  1. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1E4XL-1MCCA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1E4XL-1MCCA 1E4X 1MCC L A DIQMTQTPSSLSASLGDRVTISCRAS---QDISHYLNWF...dbChain>A 1MCCA YYCSSYEGSDN ALA CA 288 1MCC A 1MCCA...hain>A 1MCCA PSKQS-NNKYA ...pdbChain> 1MCCA QVTHE--GSTVE EEEE --

  2. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1E0WA-2DEPA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1E0WA-2DEPA 1E0W 2DEP A A AESTLGAAAAQSGRYFGTAIASGRLSDSTYTSIAGREFNMVTAENEMKIDATEPQR...2DEP A 2DEPA SPWYQITGTEY ...2DEP A 2DEPA ALKENKDIVSA ...2DEP A 2DEPA PGYTT-GQIAE ...2DEP A 2DEPA NTDDP--VKRDI

  3. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1E0XA-2DEPA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1E0XA-2DEPA 1E0X 2DEP A A AESTLGAAAAQSGRYFGTAIASGRLSDSTYTSIAGREFNMVTAENEMKIDATEPQR...2DEP A 2DEPA SPWYQITGTEY ...2DEP A 2DEPA ATREAGGSDIK ...2DEP A 2DEPA ALKENKDIVSA ...2DEP A 2DEPA PGYTT-GQIAE

  4. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1BGAA-1E4LA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1BGAA-1E4LA 1BGA 1E4L A A --------TIFQFPQDFMWGTATAAYQIEGAYQEDGRGL...GYMAWSLLDNFEWAEGYNMRFGMIHVDFRT-QVRTPKESYYWYRNVVSNNWLETRR MLSPSEIPQRDWFPSDFTFGAATSAYQIEGAWNEDGKG...D> 0 1BGA A 1BGAA 1 1BGA A 1BGAA 1BGA A 1BGAA RELGT--SG

  5. Clustering high dimensional data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assent, Ira

    2012-01-01

    High-dimensional data, i.e., data described by a large number of attributes, pose specific challenges to clustering. The so-called ‘curse of dimensionality’, coined originally to describe the general increase in complexity of various computational problems as dimensionality increases, is known...... for clustering are required. Consequently, recent research has focused on developing techniques and clustering algorithms specifically for high-dimensional data. Still, open research issues remain. Clustering is a data mining task devoted to the automatic grouping of data based on mutual similarity. Each cluster...... groups objects that are similar to one another, whereas dissimilar objects are assigned to different clusters, possibly separating out noise. In this manner, clusters describe the data structure in an unsupervised manner, i.e., without the need for class labels. A number of clustering paradigms exist...

  6. Pulsars in Globular Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Camilo, Fernando; Rasio, Frederic A.

    2005-01-01

    More than 100 radio pulsars have been detected in 24 globular clusters. The largest observed samples are in Terzan 5 and 47 Tucanae, which together contain 45 pulsars. Accurate timing solutions, including positions in the cluster, are known for many of these pulsars. Here we provide an observational overview of some properties of pulsars in globular clusters, as well as properties of the globular clusters with detected pulsars. The many recent detections also provide a new opportunity to re-e...

  7. Cluster Physics with Merging Galaxy Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandor M. Molnar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Collisions between galaxy clusters provide a unique opportunity to study matter in a parameter space which cannot be explored in our laboratories on Earth. In the standard LCDM model, where the total density is dominated by the cosmological constant ($Lambda$ and the matter density by cold dark matter (CDM, structure formation is hierarchical, and clusters grow mostly by merging.Mergers of two massive clusters are the most energetic events in the universe after the Big Bang,hence they provide a unique laboratory to study cluster physics.The two main mass components in clusters behave differently during collisions:the dark matter is nearly collisionless, responding only to gravity, while the gas is subject to pressure forces and dissipation, and shocks and turbulenceare developed during collisions. In the present contribution we review the different methods used to derive the physical properties of merging clusters. Different physical processes leave their signatures on different wavelengths, thusour review is based on a multifrequency analysis. In principle, the best way to analyze multifrequency observations of merging clustersis to model them using N-body/HYDRO numerical simulations. We discuss the results of such detailed analyses.New high spatial and spectral resolution ground and space based telescopeswill come online in the near future. Motivated by these new opportunities,we briefly discuss methods which will be feasible in the near future in studying merging clusters.

  8. Clustering of Galaxy Clusters at Intermediate Redshifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postman, Marc; Lauer, Tod R.; Oegerle, William

    2001-02-01

    We propose to continue a redshift survey of 141 objectively selected galaxy clusters to measure their clustering properties and constrain models of the formation of structure in the universe. This is the first redshift survey to probe cluster correlations on comoving scales of ~ 50h_75^-1 Mpc at z ~ 0.5 and will thus provide an original and important constraint on the evolution of large-scale structure. The cluster sample comes from our deep (I_AB ≤ 24), contiguous 16 deg^2 I-band KPNO 4-m survey. The proposed observations distinguish themselves from other ongoing distant cluster redshift work in that this survey will be able to provide meaningful constraints on the large-scale spatial distribution of moderate redshift clusters owing to the large angular area and contiguous geometry of the parent survey. The availability of the HET/LRS provides a highly efficient solution to the acquisition of redshifts for the 80 cluster candidates with 0.6 ≤ z_est ≤ 0.7. The systems with z_est > 0.6 are needed to assure complete sampling of the cluster population at z_obs ~ 0.5. The survey declination (52+/-2°) and observational strategy are extremely well-suited to the initial capabilities and queue observing mode of the HET. The 4m/RCSP is well suited to completing the survey of the z_est data. This survey began using the KPNO 4m to obtain redshifts for the 0.3 ≤ z_est < 0.6 sample. So far, we have observed 31 clusters and we're presently ~25% complete with the z_est < 0.6 observations (75% complete for z_est < 0.4). We have discovered at least 2 superclusters at z=0.23 and z=0.50.

  9. Marketing research cluster analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Nebojša

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available One area of applications of cluster analysis in marketing is identification of groups of cities and towns with similar demographic profiles. This paper considers main aspects of cluster analysis by an example of clustering 12 cities with the use of Minitab software.

  10. The Durban Auto Cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Jochen; Robbins, Glen; Barnes, Justin

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the formation of the Durban Auto Cluster in the context of trade liberalization. It argues that the improvement of operational competitiveness of firms in the cluster is prominently due to joint action. It tests this proposition by comparing the gains from cluster activities...

  11. Cosmology with cluster surveys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Surveys of clusters of galaxies provide us with a powerful probe of the density and nature of the dark energy. The red-shift distribution of detected clusters is highly sensitive to the dark energy equation of state parameter . Upcoming Sunyaev–Zel'dovich (SZ) surveys would provide us large yields of clusters to very high ...

  12. Cosmology with cluster surveys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cosmology with cluster surveys. SUBHABRATA MAJUMDAR. CITA, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H8, Canada. E-mail: subha@cita.utoronto.ca. Abstract. Surveys of clusters of galaxies provide us with a powerful probe of the den- sity and nature of the dark energy. The red-shift distribution of detected clusters is.

  13. Formation of stellar clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smilgys, Romas; Bonnell, Ian A.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the triggering of star formation and the formation of stellar clusters in molecular clouds which form as the interstellar medium passes through spiral shocks. The spiral shock compresses gas into an ∼100 pc long main star formation ridge, where clusters form every 5-10 pc along the merger ridge. We use a gravitational potential-based cluster finding algorithm, which extracts individual clusters, calculates their physical properties and traces cluster evolution over multiple time-steps. Final cluster masses at the end of simulation range between 1000 and 30 000 M⊙ with their characteristic half-mass radii between 0.1 and 2 pc. These clusters form by gathering material from 10-20 pc size scales. Clusters also show a mass-specific angular momentum relation, where more massive clusters have larger specific angular momentum due to the larger size scales, and hence angular momentum from which they gather their mass. The evolution shows that more massive clusters experience hierarchical merging process, which increases stellar age spreads up to 2-3 Myr. Less massive clusters appear to grow by gathering nearby recently formed sinks, while more massive clusters with their large global gravitational potentials are increasing their mass growth from gas accretion.

  14. Relational aspects of clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerding, Allan Næs

    The present paper is the first preliminary account of a project being planned for 2013, focussing on the development of the biomedico cluster in North Denmark. The project focusses on the relational capabilities of the cluster in terms of a number of organizational roles which are argued...... to be necessary for the development and growth of the upcoming cluster in question....

  15. Structures of Mn clusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The geometries of several Mn clusters in the size range Mn13–Mn23 are studied via the generalized gradient approximation to density functional theory. For the 13- and 19-atom clusters, the icosahedral structures are found to be most stable, while for the 15-atom cluster, the bcc structure is more favoured.

  16. Structures of Mn clusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. The geometries of several Mn clusters in the size range Mn13–Mn23 are studied via the generalized gradient approximation to density functional theory. For the 13- and 19-atom clusters, the icosahedral struc- tures are found to be most stable, while for the 15-atom cluster, the bcc structure is more favoured.

  17. Evolutionary analysis of rubella viruses in mainland China during 2010–2012: endemic circulation of genotype 1E and introductions of genotype 2B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhen; Rivailler, Pierre; Abernathy, Emily; Cui, Aili; Zhang, Yan; Mao, Naiyin; Xu, Songtao; Zhou, Shujie; Lei, Yue; Wang, Yan; Zheng, Huanying; He, Jilan; Chen, Ying; Li, Chongshan; Bo, Fang; Zhao, Chunfang; Chen, Meng; Lu, Peishan; Li, Fangcai; Gu, Suyi; Gao, Hui; Guo, Yu; Chen, Hui; Feng, Daxing; Wang, Shuang; Tang, Xiaomin; Lei, Yake; Feng, Yan; Deng, Lili; Gong, Tian; Fan, Lixia; Xu, Wenbo; Icenogle, Joseph; Chen, Xia; Tian, Hong; Ma, Yan; Liu, Leng; Liu, Li; Liu, Jianfeng; Fu, Hong; Yang, Yuying; Ma, Yujie; Zhao, Hua; Huang, Fang; Hu, Ying; Zhang, Hong; Tian, Xiaoling; Du, Hui; Ma, Xuemin; Zhang, Zhenying; Xu, Jin; Zhou, Jianhui; Ye, Xufang; Li, Jing; Lu, Yiyu; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Yanni; Zhao, Shengcang; Ba, Zhuoma

    2015-01-01

    Rubella remains a significant burden in mainland China. In this report, 667 viruses collected in 24 of 31 provinces of mainland China during 2010–2012 were sequenced and analyzed, significantly extending previous reports on limited numbers of viruses collected before 2010. Only viruses of genotypes 1E and 2B were found. Genotype 1E viruses were found in all 24 provinces. Genotype 1E viruses were likely introduced into mainland China around 1997 and endemic transmission of primarily one lineage became established. Viruses reported here from 2010–2012 are largely in a single cluster within this lineage. Genotype 2B viruses were rarely detected in China prior to 2010. This report documents a previously undetected 2B lineage, which likely became endemic in eastern provinces of China between 2010 and 2012. Bayesian analyses were performed to estimate the evolutionary rates and dates of appearance of the genotype 1E and 2B viral linages in China. A skyline plot of viral population diversity did not provide evidence of reduction of diversity as a result of vaccination, but should be useful as a baseline for such reductions as vaccination programs for rubella become widespread in mainland China. PMID:25613734

  18. Evolutionary analysis of rubella viruses in mainland China during 2010-2012: endemic circulation of genotype 1E and introductions of genotype 2B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhen; Rivailler, Pierre; Abernathy, Emily; Cui, Aili; Zhang, Yan; Mao, Naiyin; Xu, Songtao; Zhou, Shujie; Lei, Yue; Wang, Yan; Zheng, Huanying; He, Jilan; Chen, Ying; Li, Chongshan; Bo, Fang; Zhao, Chunfang; Chen, Meng; Lu, Peishan; Li, Fangcai; Gu, Suyi; Gao, Hui; Guo, Yu; Chen, Hui; Feng, Daxing; Wang, Shuang; Tang, Xiaomin; Lei, Yake; Feng, Yan; Deng, Lili; Gong, Tian; Fan, Lixia; Xu, Wenbo; Icenogle, Joseph

    2015-01-23

    Rubella remains a significant burden in mainland China. In this report, 667 viruses collected in 24 of 31 provinces of mainland China during 2010-2012 were sequenced and analyzed, significantly extending previous reports on limited numbers of viruses collected before 2010. Only viruses of genotypes 1E and 2B were found. Genotype 1E viruses were found in all 24 provinces. Genotype 1E viruses were likely introduced into mainland China around 1997 and endemic transmission of primarily one lineage became established. Viruses reported here from 2010-2012 are largely in a single cluster within this lineage. Genotype 2B viruses were rarely detected in China prior to 2010. This report documents a previously undetected 2B lineage, which likely became endemic in eastern provinces of China between 2010 and 2012. Bayesian analyses were performed to estimate the evolutionary rates and dates of appearance of the genotype 1E and 2B viral linages in China. A skyline plot of viral population diversity did not provide evidence of reduction of diversity as a result of vaccination, but should be useful as a baseline for such reductions as vaccination programs for rubella become widespread in mainland China.

  19. Cluster analysis for applications

    CERN Document Server

    Anderberg, Michael R

    1973-01-01

    Cluster Analysis for Applications deals with methods and various applications of cluster analysis. Topics covered range from variables and scales to measures of association among variables and among data units. Conceptual problems in cluster analysis are discussed, along with hierarchical and non-hierarchical clustering methods. The necessary elements of data analysis, statistics, cluster analysis, and computer implementation are integrated vertically to cover the complete path from raw data to a finished analysis.Comprised of 10 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to the subject o

  20. Spatial cluster modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Lawson, Andrew B

    2002-01-01

    Research has generated a number of advances in methods for spatial cluster modelling in recent years, particularly in the area of Bayesian cluster modelling. Along with these advances has come an explosion of interest in the potential applications of this work, especially in epidemiology and genome research. In one integrated volume, this book reviews the state-of-the-art in spatial clustering and spatial cluster modelling, bringing together research and applications previously scattered throughout the literature. It begins with an overview of the field, then presents a series of chapters that illuminate the nature and purpose of cluster modelling within different application areas, including astrophysics, epidemiology, ecology, and imaging. The focus then shifts to methods, with discussions on point and object process modelling, perfect sampling of cluster processes, partitioning in space and space-time, spatial and spatio-temporal process modelling, nonparametric methods for clustering, and spatio-temporal ...

  1. Modeling Clustered Data with Very Few Clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeish, Daniel; Stapleton, Laura M

    2016-01-01

    Small-sample inference with clustered data has received increased attention recently in the methodological literature, with several simulation studies being presented on the small-sample behavior of many methods. However, nearly all previous studies focus on a single class of methods (e.g., only multilevel models, only corrections to sandwich estimators), and the differential performance of various methods that can be implemented to accommodate clustered data with very few clusters is largely unknown, potentially due to the rigid disciplinary preferences. Furthermore, a majority of these studies focus on scenarios with 15 or more clusters and feature unrealistically simple data-generation models with very few predictors. This article, motivated by an applied educational psychology cluster randomized trial, presents a simulation study that simultaneously addresses the extreme small sample and differential performance (estimation bias, Type I error rates, and relative power) of 12 methods to account for clustered data with a model that features a more realistic number of predictors. The motivating data are then modeled with each method, and results are compared. Results show that generalized estimating equations perform poorly; the choice of Bayesian prior distributions affects performance; and fixed effect models perform quite well. Limitations and implications for applications are also discussed.

  2. Clusters and how to make it work : Cluster strategy toolkit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anu Manickam; Karel van Berkel

    2014-01-01

    Clusters are the magic answer to regional economic development. Firms in clusters are more innovative; cluster policy dominates EU policy; ‘top-sectors’ and excellence are the choice of national policy makers; clusters are ‘in’. But, clusters are complex, clusters are ‘messy’; there is no clear

  3. Marriage à-la-MOND: Baryonic dark matter in galaxy clusters and the cooling flow puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgrom, Mordehai

    2008-05-01

    I start with a brief introduction to MOND phenomenology and its possible roots in cosmology—a notion that may turn out to be the most far reaching aspect of MOND. Next I discuss the implications of MOND for the dark matter (DM) doctrine: MOND's successes imply that baryons determine everything. For DM this would mean that the puny tail of leftover baryons in galaxies wags the hefty DM dog. This has to occur in many intricate ways, and despite the haphazard construction history of galaxies—a very tall order. I then concentrate on galaxy clusters in light of MOND, which still requires some yet undetected cluster dark matter, presumably in some baryonic form (CBDM). This CBDM might contribute to the heating of the X-ray emitting gas and thus alleviate the cooling flow puzzle. MOND, qua theory of dynamics, does not directly enter the microphysics of the gas; however, it does force a new outlook on the role of DM in shaping the cluster gas dynamics: MOND tells us that the cluster DM is not cold dark matter, is not so abundant, and is not expected in galaxies; it is thus not subject to constraints on baryonic DM in galaxies. The mass in CBDM required in a whole cluster is, typically, similar to that in hot gas, but is rather more centrally concentrated, totally dominating the core. The CBDM contribution to the baryon budget in the universe is thus small. Its properties, deduced for isolated clusters, are consistent with the observations of the "bullet cluster". Its kinetic energy reservoir is much larger than that of the hot gas in the core, and would suffice to keep the gas hot for many cooling times. Heating can be effected in various ways depending on the exact nature of the CBDM, from very massive black holes to cool, compact gas clouds.

  4. A comparison of surface topography characterization technologies for use in comparing spent bullet and cartridge case signatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batishko, C.R.; Hickman, B.J.; Cuta, F.M.

    1992-11-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory was tasked by the US Department of Energy to provide technical assistance to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in evaluating and ranking technologies potentially useful in high-speed comparison of unique spent bullet and cartridge case surface signatures. Information sources included vendor input, current relevant literature, vendor phone contacts, other FBI resources, relevant PNL reports, and personal contact with numerous PNL technical staff. A comprehensive list of technologies was reduced to a list of 38 by grouping very similar methodologies, and further reduced to a short list of six by applying a set of five minimum functional requirements. A total of 14 primary criteria, many having secondary criteria, were subsequently used to evaluate each technology. The ranked short list results are reported and supported in this document, and their scores normalized to a hypothetical ideal system are as follows: (1) confocal microscopy 82.13; (2) laser dynamic focusing 72.04; (3)moire interferometry V70.94; (4)fringe field capacitance;(5)laser triangulation 66.18; (6)structured/sectioned light 65.55. Information available within the time/budget constraints which was used for the evaluation and ranking was not sufficiently detailed to evaluate specific implementations of the technologies. Each of the technologies in the short list was judged potentially capable of meeting the minimum requirements. Clever, novel engineering solutions resulting in a more cost-effective system, or a closer fit to the ``ideal system,`` could result in a reordering of the short list when actual technical proposals are evaluated. Therefore, it is recommended that a Request for Proposal not be limited to only the highest ranked technology, but include all six technologies in the short list.

  5. A comparison of surface topography characterization technologies for use in comparing spent bullet and cartridge case signatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batishko, C.R.; Hickman, B.J.; Cuta, F.M.

    1992-11-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory was tasked by the US Department of Energy to provide technical assistance to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in evaluating and ranking technologies potentially useful in high-speed comparison of unique spent bullet and cartridge case surface signatures. Information sources included vendor input, current relevant literature, vendor phone contacts, other FBI resources, relevant PNL reports, and personal contact with numerous PNL technical staff. A comprehensive list of technologies was reduced to a list of 38 by grouping very similar methodologies, and further reduced to a short list of six by applying a set of five minimum functional requirements. A total of 14 primary criteria, many having secondary criteria, were subsequently used to evaluate each technology. The ranked short list results are reported and supported in this document, and their scores normalized to a hypothetical ideal system are as follows: (1) confocal microscopy 82.13; (2) laser dynamic focusing 72.04; (3)moire interferometry V70.94; (4)fringe field capacitance;(5)laser triangulation 66.18; (6)structured/sectioned light 65.55. Information available within the time/budget constraints which was used for the evaluation and ranking was not sufficiently detailed to evaluate specific implementations of the technologies. Each of the technologies in the short list was judged potentially capable of meeting the minimum requirements. Clever, novel engineering solutions resulting in a more cost-effective system, or a closer fit to the ideal system,'' could result in a reordering of the short list when actual technical proposals are evaluated. Therefore, it is recommended that a Request for Proposal not be limited to only the highest ranked technology, but include all six technologies in the short list.

  6. On moving targets and magic bullets: Can the UK lead the way with responsible data linkage for health research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie, G; Ainsworth, J; Cunningham, J; Dobbs, C; Jones, K H; Kalra, D; Lea, N C; Sethi, N

    2015-11-01

    To provide an overview of essential elements of good governance of data linkage for health-related research, to consider lessons learned so far and to examine key factors currently impeding the delivery of good governance in this area. Given the considerable hurdles which must be overcome and the changing landscape of health research and data linkage, a principled, proportionate, risk-based approach to governance is advocated. In light of the considerable value of data linkage to health and well-being, the United Kingdom aspires to design and deliver good governance in health-related research. A string of projects have been asking: what does good governance look like in data linkage for health research? It is argued here that considerable progress can and must be made in order to develop the UK's contribution to future health and wealth economies, particularly in light of mis-start initiatives such as care.data in NHS England. Discussion centres around lessons learned from previous successful health research initiatives, identifying those governance mechanisms which are essential to achieving good governance. This article suggests that a crucial element in any step-increase of research capability will be the adoption of adaptive governance models. These must recognise a range of approaches to delivering safe and effective data linkage, while remaining responsive to public and research user expectations and needs as these shift and change with time and experience. The targets are multiple and constantly moving. There is not--nor should we seek--a single magic bullet in delivering good governance in health research. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  7. A current perspective on cancer immune therapy: step-by-step approach to constructing the magic bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Errico, Gabriele; Machado, Heather L; Sainz, Bruno

    2017-12-01

    Immunotherapy is the new trend in cancer treatment due to the selectivity, long lasting effects, and demonstrated improved overall survival and tolerance, when compared to patients treated with conventional chemotherapy. Despite these positive results, immunotherapy is still far from becoming the perfect magic bullet to fight cancer, largely due to the facts that immunotherapy is not effective in all patients nor in all cancer types. How and when will immunotherapy overcome these hurdles? In this review we take a step back to walk side by side with the pioneers of immunotherapy in order to understand what steps need to be taken today to make immunotherapy effective across all cancers. While early scientists, such as Coley, elicited an unselective but effective response against cancer, the search for selectivity pushed immunotherapy to the side in favor of drugs focused on targeting cancer cells. Fortunately, the modern era would revive the importance of the immune system in battling cancer by releasing the brakes or checkpoints (anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1/PD-L1) that have been holding the immune system at bay. However, there are still many hurdles to overcome before immunotherapy becomes a universal cancer therapy. For example, we discuss how the redundant and complex nature of the immune system can impede tumor elimination by teeter tottering between different polarization states: one eliciting anti-cancer effects while the other promoting cancer growth and invasion. In addition, we highlight the incapacity of the immune system to choose between a fight or repair action with respect to tumor growth. Finally we combine these concepts to present a new way to think about the immune system and immune tolerance, by introducing two new metaphors, the "push the accelerator" and "repair the car" metaphors, to explain the current limitations associated with cancer immunotherapy.

  8. Body models in forensic ballistics: reconstruction of a gunshot injury to the chest by bullet fragmentation after shooting through a finger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thali, M J; Kneubuehl, B P; Dirnhofer, R; Zollinger, U

    2001-11-15

    Forensic science uses substitutes to reconstruct injury patterns in order to answer questions regarding the dynamic formation of unusual injuries. Using a case study, an experimental simulation of a finger was designed, for the first time with a combination of hard wood and glycerin soap. With this model as an intermediate target simulation, it was possible not only to demonstrate the "bullet-body (finger) interaction", but also to recreate the wound pattern found in the victim. This case demonstrates that by using ballistic models and body-part substitutes, gunshot cases can be reproduced simply and economically, without coming into conflict with ethical guidelines.

  9. Use of echocardiographic subxiphoid five-sixth area length (bullet method in evaluation of adequacy of borderline left ventricle in hypoplastic left heart complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin T Tretter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Indexed left ventricular end-diastolic volume (ILVEDV is commonly used in evaluating "borderline left ventricle (LV" in hypoplastic left heart complex (HLHC to determine if the LV can sustain adequate systemic cardiac output. Commonly used quantification methods include biplane Simpson or the traditional five-sixth area length "bullet" methods, which have been shown to underestimate true LV volumes, when septal position is mildly abnormal. Subxiphoid five-sixth area length method is proposed as a more accurate estimate of true LV volume in the evaluation of borderline LV.

  10. Open source clustering software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hoon, M J L; Imoto, S; Nolan, J; Miyano, S

    2004-06-12

    We have implemented k-means clustering, hierarchical clustering and self-organizing maps in a single multipurpose open-source library of C routines, callable from other C and C++ programs. Using this library, we have created an improved version of Michael Eisen's well-known Cluster program for Windows, Mac OS X and Linux/Unix. In addition, we generated a Python and a Perl interface to the C Clustering Library, thereby combining the flexibility of a scripting language with the speed of C. The C Clustering Library and the corresponding Python C extension module Pycluster were released under the Python License, while the Perl module Algorithm::Cluster was released under the Artistic License. The GUI code Cluster 3.0 for Windows, Macintosh and Linux/Unix, as well as the corresponding command-line program, were released under the same license as the original Cluster code. The complete source code is available at http://bonsai.ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp/mdehoon/software/cluster. Alternatively, Algorithm::Cluster can be downloaded from CPAN, while Pycluster is also available as part of the Biopython distribution.

  11. Agricultural Clusters in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, M.A.; Heijman, W.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Michael Porter was the first to use the term cluster in an economic context. He introduced the term in The Competitive Advantage of Nations (1990). The term cluster is also known as business cluster, industry cluster, competitive cluster or Porterian cluster. This article aims at determining and

  12. Crystal structure of human CD1e reveals a groove suited for lipid-exchange processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Alles, Luis F.; Giacometti, Gaelle; Versluis, Cees; Maveyraud, Laurent; de Paepe, Diane; Guiard, Julie; Tranier, Samuel; Gilleron, Martine; Prandi, Jacques; Hanau, Daniel; Heck, Albert J. R.; Mori, Lucia; De Libero, Gennaro; Puzo, Germain; Mourey, Lionel; de la Salle, Henri

    2011-01-01

    CD1e is the only human CD1 protein existing in soluble form in the late endosomes of dendritic cells, where it facilitates the processing of glycolipid antigens that are ultimately recognized by CD1b-restricted T cells. The precise function of CD1e remains undefined, thus impeding efforts to predict the participation of this protein in the presentation of other antigens. To gain insight into its function, we determined the crystal structure of recombinant CD1e expressed in human cells at 2.90-Å resolution. The structure revealed a groove less intricate than in other CD1 proteins, with a significantly wider portal characterized by a 2 Å-larger spacing between the α1 and α2 helices. No electron density corresponding to endogenous ligands was detected within the groove, despite the presence of ligands unequivocally established by native mass spectrometry in recombinant CD1e. Our structural data indicate that the water-exposed CD1e groove could ensure the establishment of loose contacts with lipids. In agreement with this possibility, lipid association and dissociation processes were found to be considerably faster with CD1e than with CD1b. Moreover, CD1e was found to mediate in vitro the transfer of lipids to CD1b and the displacement of lipids from stable CD1b–antigen complexes. Altogether, these data support that CD1e could have evolved to mediate lipid-exchange/editing processes with CD1b and point to a pathway whereby the repertoire of lipid antigens presented by human dendritic cells might be expanded. PMID:21788486

  13. Evolution of the ubiquitin-activating enzyme Uba1 (E1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Douglas C.; Phillips, J. C.

    2017-10-01

    Ubiquitin tags diseased proteins and initiates an enzyme conjugation cascade, which has three stages. The first-stage enzyme Uba1 (E1) has evolved only modestly from slime mold to humans, and is > 14 times larger than Ub. Here we use critical point thermodynamic scaling theory to connect Uba1 (E1) evolution from yeast and slime mold to fruit flies and humans to subtle changes in its amino acid sequences.

  14. Disentangling Porterian Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagtfelt, Tue

    This dissertation investigates the contemporary phenomenon of industrial clusters based on the work of Michael E. Porter, the central progenitor and promoter of the cluster notion. The dissertation pursues two central questions: 1) What is a cluster? and 2) How could Porter’s seemingly fuzzy...... to his membership on the Commission on Industrial Competitiveness, and that the cluster notion found in his influential book, Nations, represents a significant shift in his conception of cluster compared with his early conceptions. This shift, it is argued, is a deliberate attempt by Porter to create......, contested theory become so widely disseminated and applied as a normative and prescriptive strategy for economic development? The dissertation traces the introduction of the cluster notion into the EU’s Lisbon Strategy and demonstrates how its inclusion originates from Porter’s colleagues: Professor Örjan...

  15. From collisions to clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loukonen, Ville; Bork, Nicolai; Vehkamaki, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    The clustering of sulphuric acid with base molecules is one of the main pathways of new-particle formation in the Earth's atmosphere. First step in the clustering process is likely the formation of a (sulphuric acid)1(base)1(water)n cluster. Here, we present results from direct first......-principles molecular dynamics collision simulations of (sulphuric acid)1(water)0, 1 + (dimethylamine) → (sulphuric acid)1(dimethylamine)1(water)0, 1 cluster formation processes. The simulations indicate that the sticking factor in the collisions is unity: the interaction between the molecules is strong enough...... to overcome the possible initial non-optimal collision orientations. No post-collisional cluster break up is observed. The reasons for the efficient clustering are (i) the proton transfer reaction which takes place in each of the collision simulations and (ii) the subsequent competition over the proton...

  16. Clustering by Local Gravitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Yu, Zhiwen; Chen, C L Philip; You, Jane; Gu, Tianlong; Wong, Hau-San; Zhang, Jun

    2017-05-02

    The objective of cluster analysis is to partition a set of data points into several groups based on a suitable distance measure. We first propose a model called local gravitation among data points. In this model, each data point is viewed as an object with mass, and associated with a local resultant force (LRF) generated by its neighbors. The motivation of this paper is that there exist distinct differences between the LRFs (including magnitudes and directions) of the data points close to the cluster centers and at the boundary of the clusters. To capture these differences efficiently, two new local measures named centrality and coordination are further investigated. Based on empirical observations, two new clustering methods called local gravitation clustering and communication with local agents are designed, and several test cases are conducted to verify their effectiveness. The experiments on synthetic data sets and real-world data sets indicate that both clustering approaches achieve good performance on most of the data sets.

  17. Convex Discriminative Multitask Clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Lei

    2015-01-01

    Multitask clustering tries to improve the clustering performance of multiple tasks simultaneously by taking their relationship into account. Most existing multitask clustering algorithms fall into the type of generative clustering, and none are formulated as convex optimization problems. In this paper, we propose two convex Discriminative Multitask Clustering (DMTC) objectives to address the problems. The first one aims to learn a shared feature representation, which can be seen as a technical combination of the convex multitask feature learning and the convex Multiclass Maximum Margin Clustering (M3C). The second one aims to learn the task relationship, which can be seen as a combination of the convex multitask relationship learning and M3C. The objectives of the two algorithms are solved in a uniform procedure by the efficient cutting-plane algorithm and further unified in the Bayesian framework. Experimental results on a toy problem and two benchmark data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.

  18. Cluster Management Institutionalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Normann, Leo; Agger Nielsen, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    This article explores a new management form – cluster management – in Danish public sector day care. Although cluster management has been widely adopted in Danish day care at the municipality level, it has attracted only sparse research attention. We use theoretical insights from Scandinavian...... institutionalism together with a longitudinal case-based inquiry into how cluster management has entered and penetrated the management practices of day care in Denmark. We demonstrate how cluster management became widely adopted in the day care field not only because of its intrinsic properties but also because...... of how it was legitimized as a “ready-to-use” management model. Further, our account reveals how cluster management translated into considerably different local variants as it travelled into specific organizations. However, these processes have not occurred sequentially with cluster management first...

  19. Active cluster crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfau, Jean-Baptiste; López, Cristóbal; Hernández-García, Emilio

    2017-09-01

    We study the appearance and properties of cluster crystals (solids in which the unit cell is occupied by a cluster of particles) in a two-dimensional system of self-propelled active Brownian particles with repulsive interactions. Self-propulsion deforms the clusters by depleting particle density inside, and for large speeds it melts the crystal. Continuous field descriptions at several levels of approximation allow us to identify the relevant physical mechanisms.

  20. Percolation in clustered networks

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Joel C

    2009-01-01

    The social networks that infectious diseases spread along are typically clustered. Because of the close relation between percolation and epidemic spread, the behavior of percolation in such networks gives insight into infectious disease dynamics. A number of authors have studied clustered networks, but the networks often contain preferential mixing between high degree nodes. We introduce a class of random clustered networks and another class of random unclustered networks with the same prefer...

  1. Cluster Symmetries and Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freer Martin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many light nuclei display behaviour that indicates that rather than behaving as an A-body systems, the protons and neutrons condense into clusters. The α-particle is the most obvious example of such clustering. This contribution examines the role of such α-clustering on the structure, symmetries and dynamics of the nuclei 8Be, 12C and 16O, recent experimental measurements and future perspectives.

  2. Data Mining with Clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Klímek, Petr

    2008-01-01

    One of the oppotunities in data mining is a use of clustering analysis. Clustering analysis belongs to unsupervised methods of data mining. We put here a focus on this method. Some basic principles are described in the second part of this paper. This method is examined on two examples from the marketing field. In the first example is used software Statgraphics 5.0Plus to solve clustering problem (nearest neighbour algorithm and Eucleidian distance); and in the second example is used Statistic...

  3. Spatial Scan Statistic: Selecting clusters and generating elliptic clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Andersen, Jens Strodl

    2004-01-01

    The spatial scan statistic is widely used to search for clusters. This paper shows that the usually applied elimination of overlapping clusters to find secondary clusters is sensitive to smooth changes in the shape of the clusters. We present an algorithm for generation of set of confocal elliptic clusters. In addition, we propose a new way to present the information in a given set of clusters based on the significance of the clusters.

  4. Spatial Scan Statistic: Selecting clusters and generating elliptic clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Andersen, Jens Strodl

    2004-01-01

    The spatial scan statistic is widely used to search for clusters. This paper shows that the usually applied elimination of overlapping clusters to find secondary clusters is sensitive to smooth changes in the shape of the clusters. We present an algorithm for generation of set of confocal elliptic...... clusters. In addition, we propose a new way to present the information in a given set of clusters based on the significance of the clusters....

  5. 15th Cluster workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Laakso, Harri; Escoubet, C. Philippe; The Cluster Active Archive : Studying the Earth’s Space Plasma Environment

    2010-01-01

    Since the year 2000 the ESA Cluster mission has been investigating the small-scale structures and processes of the Earth's plasma environment, such as those involved in the interaction between the solar wind and the magnetospheric plasma, in global magnetotail dynamics, in cross-tail currents, and in the formation and dynamics of the neutral line and of plasmoids. This book contains presentations made at the 15th Cluster workshop held in March 2008. It also presents several articles about the Cluster Active Archive and its datasets, a few overview papers on the Cluster mission, and articles reporting on scientific findings on the solar wind, the magnetosheath, the magnetopause and the magnetotail.

  6. Metal Cluster Topology. 1. Osmium Carbonyl Clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-29

    AD-A164 372 NETAL CLUSTER TOPOLOGY I OSNIUM CARDONYI. CLUSTERS(U) i ’ GEORGIA IiNIY ATHENS DEPT OF CHENISTRY R 8 KING UCr S 29 JAN 86 TR-15 NSSSI4-S5...to distinguish between globally delocalized (D) and edge-localized (L) polyhedra. Treatment of globally delocalized polyhedra leads clearly to the same...of five internal orbitals for two of the six vertex atoms will make the pair of edge-fused tetrahedra unfavorable except for some of the heavy

  7. Super Star Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, R. W.

    1994-05-01

    Super star clusters represent an extreme in the star formation process. They are very luminous, compact objects with L_V > 10(6) L_{V,sun} and diameters = 100 times higher than normal OB associations and clusters in ``giant H II regions''. Prior to HST about a dozen such objects had been identified in nearby galaxies, but at ground-based resolution they are nearly point sources. We review recent HST observations of individual super star clusters in NGC 1140, 1569, and 1705. They have half-light radii of only 2--3.5 pc, and some show evidence of substructure which should be resolvable with the repaired HST. After allowing for age differences, the surface brightness of NGC 1569-A is over 65 times higher than the core of 30 Doradus in the LMC and 1200 times higher than the mean rich LMC star cluster. In some cases, the energy released by the clusters into their surroundings is sufficient to drive galaxy-wide winds. Their properties make super star clusters good analogues of young globular clusters. In some, though not all, cases super star clusters appear to form in the aftermath of a merger or accretion event. The most impressive examples are the clusters detected by HST in NGC 1275 and 7252, one of which has the extraordinary luminosity ~ 6 times 10(8) L_{V,sun}. M82 affords a nearby view of a post-interaction system. HST imaging has identified over 80 super star clusters in its central regions with mean luminosities of ~ 3 times 10(6) L_{V,sun}. Their close packing and signs of interaction with the well-known supernova-driven wind suggest that they do not evolve independently. Super cluster evolution in starbursts is probably a collective phenomenon.

  8. Facile green fabrication of nanostructure ZnO plates, bullets, flower, prismatic tip, closed pine cone: Their antibacterial, antioxidant, photoluminescent and photocatalytic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, H. R.; Sharma, S. C.; Udayabhanu; Suresh, D.; Vidya, Y. S.; Nagabhushana, H.; Rajanaik, H.; Anantharaju, K. S.; Prashantha, S. C.; Sadananda Maiya, P.

    2016-01-01

    Green synthesis of multifunctional Zinc oxide nanoparticles (NPs) with a variety of morphologies were achieved by low temperature solution combustion route employing neem (Azadirachta indica) extract as fuel. The nanoparticles were characterized by PXRD, FTIR, XPS, Raman and UV-Visible spectroscopic studies. The Morphologies were studied by SEM and TEM analysis. The NPs were subjected for photoluminescence, photocatalytic, antibacterial and antioxidant activity studies. PXRD pattern confirmed the hexagonal wurtzite structure of the product. SEM images indicated the transformation of mushroom like hexagonal disks to bullets, buds, cones, bundles and closed pine cone structured NPs with increase in the concentration of neem extract in reaction mixture. The NPs exhibited prominent green emission due to the presence of intrinsic defect centers. The as-formed bullet shaped ZnO with 4 ml of neem extract was found to decolorize Methylene blue (MB) under Sunlight and UV light irradiation. The antibacterial studies indicated that ZnO NPs of concentration 500, 750 and 1000 μg resulted in significant antibacterial activity on Klebsiella aerogenes and Staphylococcus aureus but not against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in agar well diffusion method. Further, ZnO NPs exhibited significant antioxidant activity against scavenging DPPH free radicals. The current investigation demonstrated green engineering method for the synthesis of multifunctional ZnO NPs with interesting morphologies using neem extract.

  9. Use of a "silver bullet" to resolve crystal lattice dislocation disorder: a cobalamin complex of Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagautriere, Thomas; Bashiri, Ghader; Baker, Edward N

    2015-02-01

    The use of small molecules as "silver bullets" that can bind to generate crosslinks between protein molecules has been advanced as a powerful means of enhancing success in protein crystallization (McPherson and Cudney, 2006). We have explored this approach in attempts to overcome an order-disorder phenomenon that complicated the structural analysis of the enzyme Δ(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (P5CDH, Mtb-PruA). Using the Silver Bullets Bio screen, we obtained new crystal packing using cobalamin as a co-crystallization agent. This crystal form did not display the order-disorder phenomenon previously encountered. Solution of the crystal structure showed that cobalamin molecules are present in the crystal contacts. Although the cobalamin binding probably does not have physiological relevance, it reflects similarities in the nucleotide-binding region of Mtb-PruA, with the nucleotide loop of cobalamin sharing the binding site for the adenine moiety of NAD(+). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The effect of helmet materials and simulated bone and tissue layers on bullet behaviour in a gelatine model of overmatch penetrating head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Peter F; Carr, Debra J; Miller, David; Teagle, Michael

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this work was to simulate an overmatch ballistic event against a head wearing a helmet. The experiments were designed to understand how layers of bone (or synthetic bone), synthetic skin and currently used helmet materials influence the behaviour of full metal jacket mild steel core (FMJ MSC) 7.62 × 39 mm bullets, impacting on targets with a mean velocity of 650 m/s. Bullet behaviour within 10% (by mass) gelatine blocks was assessed by measurements made of the temporary cavity within the blocks using high-speed video and of the permanent cavity by dissecting blocks post firing. While ANOVA did not find significant difference at the 0.05 level in the mean values of most of the measurements, there was a significant difference in neck length within the gelatine blocks. The addition of material layers did produce greater variability in the temporary cavity measurements under some of the conditions. One of the synthetic bone polymers with a synthetic skin layer produced similar results within the gelatine blocks to the horse scapulae (with residual tissue) and may be suitable for future ballistic experiments.

  11. Statistical properties of convex clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Kean Ming; Witten, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    In this manuscript, we study the statistical properties of convex clustering. We establish that convex clustering is closely related to single linkage hierarchical clustering and $k$-means clustering. In addition, we derive the range of the tuning parameter for convex clustering that yields a non-trivial solution. We also provide an unbiased estimator of the degrees of freedom, and provide a finite sample bound for the prediction error for convex clustering. We compare convex clustering to so...

  12. Nonlocalized clustering and evolution of cluster structure in nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, H.

    2017-06-01

    It is shown that the THSR (Tohsaki-Horiuchi-Schuck-Roepke) wave function describe well not only cluster-gas like structures but also ordinary cluster structures with spatial localization of clusters. Based on this fact, the container model has been proposed as a new model of cluster dynamics. For better description of cluster dynamics, extended version of container model has been introduced. The container model of cluster dynamics teaches us how is the evolution of cluster structure which starts from the ground state having shell-model structure to many kinds of cluster states up to the cluster-gas states.

  13. Cooperative Transformation and Coexpression of Bovine Papillomavirus Type 1 E5 and E7 Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohl, Joanna; Hull, Bruce; Vande Pol, Scott B.

    2001-01-01

    Productively infected bovine fibropapillomas were examined for bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) E7 localization. BPV-1 E7 was observed in the cytoplasm of basal and lower spinous epithelial cells, coexpressed in the cytoplasm of basal cells with the E5 oncoprotein. E7 was also observed in nucleoli throughout the basal and spinous layers but not in the granular cell layer. Ectopic expression of E7 in cultured epithelial cells gave rise to localization similar to that seen in productive fibropapillomas, with cytoplasmic and nucleolar expression observed. Consistent with the coexpression of E7 and E5 in basal keratinocytes, BPV-1 E7 cooperated with E5 as well as E6 in an anchorage independence transformation assay. While E5 is expressed in both basal and superficial differentiating keratinocytes, BPV-1 E7 is only observed in basal and lower spinous epithelial cells. Therefore, BPV-1 E7 may serve to modulate the cellular response of basal epithelial cells to E5 expression. PMID:11119620

  14. Fine tuning by human CD1e of lipid-specific immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facciotti, Federica; Cavallari, Marco; Angénieux, Catherine; Garcia-Alles, Luis F; Signorino-Gelo, François; Angman, Lena; Gilleron, Martine; Prandi, Jacques; Puzo, Germain; Panza, Luigi; Xia, Chengfeng; Wang, Peng George; Dellabona, Paolo; Casorati, Giulia; Porcelli, Steven A; de la Salle, Henri; Mori, Lucia; De Libero, Gennaro

    2011-08-23

    CD1e is a member of the CD1 family that participates in lipid antigen presentation without interacting with the T-cell receptor. It binds lipids in lysosomes and facilitates processing of complex glycolipids, thus promoting editing of lipid antigens. We find that CD1e may positively or negatively affect lipid presentation by CD1b, CD1c, and CD1d. This effect is caused by the capacity of CD1e to facilitate rapid formation of CD1-lipid complexes, as shown for CD1d, and also to accelerate their turnover. Similar results were obtained with antigen-presenting cells from CD1e transgenic mice in which lipid complexes are assembled more efficiently and show faster turnover than in WT antigen-presenting cells. These effects maximize and temporally narrow CD1-restricted responses, as shown by reactivity to Sphingomonas paucimobilis-derived lipid antigens. CD1e is therefore an important modulator of both group 1 and group 2 CD1-restricted responses influencing the lipid antigen availability as well as the generation and persistence of CD1-lipid complexes.

  15. Securing Personal Network Clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jehangir, A.; Heemstra de Groot, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    A Personal Network is a self-organizing, secure and private network of a user’s devices notwithstanding their geographic location. It aims to utilize pervasive computing to provide users with new and improved services. In this paper we propose a model for securing Personal Network clusters. Clusters

  16. Neurostimulation in cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jeppe L; Barloese, Mads; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neurostimulation has emerged as a viable treatment for intractable chronic cluster headache. Several therapeutic strategies are being investigated including stimulation of the hypothalamus, occipital nerves and sphenopalatine ganglion. The aim of this review is to provide...... effective strategy must be preferred as first-line therapy for intractable chronic cluster headache....

  17. Cauchy cluster process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghorbani, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we introduce an instance of the well-know Neyman–Scott cluster process model with clusters having a long tail behaviour. In our model the offspring points are distributed around the parent points according to a circular Cauchy distribution. Using a modified Cramér-von Misses test...

  18. Cluster Synchronization Algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, Weiguo; Cao, Ming

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents two approaches to achieving cluster synchronization in dynamical multi-agent systems. In contrast to the widely studied synchronization behavior, where all the coupled agents converge to the same value asymptotically, in the cluster synchronization problem studied in this paper,

  19. Mixed-Initiative Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yifen

    2010-01-01

    Mixed-initiative clustering is a task where a user and a machine work collaboratively to analyze a large set of documents. We hypothesize that a user and a machine can both learn better clustering models through enriched communication and interactive learning from each other. The first contribution or this thesis is providing a framework of…

  20. Reflections on cluster policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakman, Steven; van Marrewijk, Charles

    Economic activity tends to cluster. This results in productivity gains. For policy makers this offers an opportunity to formulate and promote policies that foster clustering of economic activity. Paradoxically, although agglomeration rents are often found in empirical research, a rationale for

  1. Calixarene-supported clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Stephanie M.; McIntosh, Ruaraidh D.; Piligkos, Stergios

    2012-01-01

    A combination of complementary cluster ligands results in the formation of a new calixarene-supported ferromagnetic [Mn(5)] cage that displays the characteristic bonding modes of each support.......A combination of complementary cluster ligands results in the formation of a new calixarene-supported ferromagnetic [Mn(5)] cage that displays the characteristic bonding modes of each support....

  2. Detecting clusters of mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Zhou

    Full Text Available Positive selection for protein function can lead to multiple mutations within a small stretch of DNA, i.e., to a cluster of mutations. Recently, Wagner proposed a method to detect such mutation clusters. His method, however, did not take into account that residues with high solvent accessibility are inherently more variable than residues with low solvent accessibility. Here, we propose a new algorithm to detect clustered evolution. Our algorithm controls for different substitution probabilities at buried and exposed sites in the tertiary protein structure, and uses random permutations to calculate accurate P values for inferred clusters. We apply the algorithm to genomes of bacteria, fly, and mammals, and find several clusters of mutations in functionally important regions of proteins. Surprisingly, clustered evolution is a relatively rare phenomenon. Only between 2% and 10% of the genes we analyze contain a statistically significant mutation cluster. We also find that not controlling for solvent accessibility leads to an excess of clusters in terminal and solvent-exposed regions of proteins. Our algorithm provides a novel method to identify functionally relevant divergence between groups of species. Moreover, it could also be useful to detect artifacts in automatically assembled genomes.

  3. Negotiating Cluster Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacomin, Valeria

    2017-01-01

    Palm oil was introduced to Malay(si)a as an alternative to natural rubber, inheriting its cluster organizational structure. In the late 1960s, Malaysia became the world’s largest palm oil exporter. Based on archival material from British colonial institutions and agency houses, this paper focuses...... on the governance dynamics that drove institutional change within this cluster during decolonization. The analysis presents three main findings: (i) cluster boundaries are defined by continuous tug-of-war style negotiations between public and private actors; (ii) this interaction produces institutional change...... within the cluster, in the form of cumulative ‘institutional rounds’ – the correction or disruption of existing institutions or the creation of new ones; and (iii) this process leads to a broader inclusion of local actors in the original cluster configuration. The paper challenges the prevalent argument...

  4. Mathematical classification and clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Mirkin, Boris

    1996-01-01

    I am very happy to have this opportunity to present the work of Boris Mirkin, a distinguished Russian scholar in the areas of data analysis and decision making methodologies. The monograph is devoted entirely to clustering, a discipline dispersed through many theoretical and application areas, from mathematical statistics and combina­ torial optimization to biology, sociology and organizational structures. It compiles an immense amount of research done to date, including many original Russian de­ velopments never presented to the international community before (for instance, cluster-by-cluster versions of the K-Means method in Chapter 4 or uniform par­ titioning in Chapter 5). The author's approach, approximation clustering, allows him both to systematize a great part of the discipline and to develop many in­ novative methods in the framework of optimization problems. The optimization methods considered are proved to be meaningful in the contexts of data analysis and clustering. The material presented in ...

  5. Cool Cluster Correctly Correlated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varganov, Sergey Aleksandrovich [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Atomic clusters are unique objects, which occupy an intermediate position between atoms and condensed matter systems. For a long time it was thought that physical and chemical properties of atomic dusters monotonically change with increasing size of the cluster from a single atom to a condensed matter system. However, recently it has become clear that many properties of atomic clusters can change drastically with the size of the clusters. Because physical and chemical properties of clusters can be adjusted simply by changing the cluster's size, different applications of atomic clusters were proposed. One example is the catalytic activity of clusters of specific sizes in different chemical reactions. Another example is a potential application of atomic clusters in microelectronics, where their band gaps can be adjusted by simply changing cluster sizes. In recent years significant advances in experimental techniques allow one to synthesize and study atomic clusters of specified sizes. However, the interpretation of the results is often difficult. The theoretical methods are frequently used to help in interpretation of complex experimental data. Most of the theoretical approaches have been based on empirical or semiempirical methods. These methods allow one to study large and small dusters using the same approximations. However, since empirical and semiempirical methods rely on simple models with many parameters, it is often difficult to estimate the quantitative and even qualitative accuracy of the results. On the other hand, because of significant advances in quantum chemical methods and computer capabilities, it is now possible to do high quality ab-initio calculations not only on systems of few atoms but on clusters of practical interest as well. In addition to accurate results for specific clusters, such methods can be used for benchmarking of different empirical and semiempirical approaches. The atomic clusters studied in this work contain from a few atoms

  6. Galaxy cluster's rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolopoulou, M.; Plionis, M.

    2017-03-01

    We study the possible rotation of cluster galaxies, developing, testing, and applying a novel algorithm which identifies rotation, if such does exist, as well as its rotational centre, its axis orientation, rotational velocity amplitude, and, finally, the clockwise or counterclockwise direction of rotation on the plane of the sky. To validate our algorithms we construct realistic Monte Carlo mock rotating clusters and confirm that our method provides robust indications of rotation. We then apply our methodology on a sample of Abell clusters with z ≲ 0.1 with member galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR10 spectroscopic data base. After excluding a number of substructured clusters, which could provide erroneous indications of rotation, and taking into account the expected fraction of misidentified coherent substructure velocities for rotation, provided by our Monte Carlo simulation analysis, we find that ∼23 per cent of our clusters are rotating under a set of strict criteria. Loosening the strictness of the criteria, on the expense of introducing spurious rotation indications, we find this fraction increasing to ∼28 per cent. We correlate our rotation indicators with the cluster dynamical state, provided either by their Bautz-Morgan type or by their X-ray isophotal shape and find for those clusters showing rotation within 1.5 h^{-1}_{70} Mpc that the significance of their rotation is related to the dynamically younger phases of cluster formation but after the initial anisotropic accretion and merging has been completed. Finally, finding rotational modes in galaxy clusters could lead to the necessity of correcting the dynamical cluster mass calculations.

  7. Studies in clustering theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stell, George

    In recent years the properties of percolation models have been studied intensively. The purpose of our project was to develop a general theory of percolation and clustering between particles of arbitrary size and shape, with arbitrary correlations between them. The goal of such a theory includes the treatment of continuum percolation as well as a novel treatment of lattice percolation. We made substantial progress toward this goal. The quantities basic to a description of clustering, the mean cluster size, mean number of clusters, etc., were developed. Concise formulas were given for the terms in such series, and proved, at least for sufficiently low densities, that the series are absolutely convergent. These series can now be used to construct Pade approximants that will allow one to probe the percolation transition. A scaled-particle theory of percolation was developed which gives analytic approximants for the mean number of clusters in a large class of two and three dimensional percolation models. Although this quantity is essential in many applications, e.g., explaining colligative properties, and interpreting low-angle light-scattering data, no systematic studies of it have been done before this work. Recently carried out detailed computer simulations show that the mean number of clusters is given to high accuracy by several of there approximations. Extensions of this work will allow calculation of the complete cluster size distribution.

  8. Document clustering methods, document cluster label disambiguation methods, document clustering apparatuses, and articles of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio [Richland, WA; Calapristi, Augustin J [West Richland, WA; Crow, Vernon L [Richland, WA; Hetzler, Elizabeth G [Kennewick, WA; Turner, Alan E [Kennewick, WA

    2009-12-22

    Document clustering methods, document cluster label disambiguation methods, document clustering apparatuses, and articles of manufacture are described. In one aspect, a document clustering method includes providing a document set comprising a plurality of documents, providing a cluster comprising a subset of the documents of the document set, using a plurality of terms of the documents, providing a cluster label indicative of subject matter content of the documents of the cluster, wherein the cluster label comprises a plurality of word senses, and selecting one of the word senses of the cluster label.

  9. Introduction to cluster dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhard, Paul-Gerhard

    2008-01-01

    Clusters as mesoscopic particles represent an intermediate state of matter between single atoms and solid material. The tendency to miniaturise technical objects requires knowledge about systems which contain a ""small"" number of atoms or molecules only. This is all the more true for dynamical aspects, particularly in relation to the qick development of laser technology and femtosecond spectroscopy. Here, for the first time is a highly qualitative introduction to cluster physics. With its emphasis on cluster dynamics, this will be vital to everyone involved in this interdisciplinary subje

  10. The concept of cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Lea Louise Holst; Møller, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    villages in order to secure their future. This paper will address the concept of cluster-villages as a possible approach to strengthen the conditions of contemporary Danish villages. Cluster-villages is a concept that gather a number of villages in a network-structure where the villages both work together...... to forskellige positioner ser vi en ny mulighed for landsbyudvikling, som vi kalder Clustervillages. In order to investigate the potentials and possibilities of the cluster-village concept the paper will seek to unfold the concept strategically; looking into the benefits of such concept. Further, the paper seeks...

  11. Partially supervised speaker clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hao; Chu, Stephen Mingyu; Hasegawa-Johnson, Mark; Huang, Thomas S

    2012-05-01

    Content-based multimedia indexing, retrieval, and processing as well as multimedia databases demand the structuring of the media content (image, audio, video, text, etc.), one significant goal being to associate the identity of the content to the individual segments of the signals. In this paper, we specifically address the problem of speaker clustering, the task of assigning every speech utterance in an audio stream to its speaker. We offer a complete treatment to the idea of partially supervised speaker clustering, which refers to the use of our prior knowledge of speakers in general to assist the unsupervised speaker clustering process. By means of an independent training data set, we encode the prior knowledge at the various stages of the speaker clustering pipeline via 1) learning a speaker-discriminative acoustic feature transformation, 2) learning a universal speaker prior model, and 3) learning a discriminative speaker subspace, or equivalently, a speaker-discriminative distance metric. We study the directional scattering property of the Gaussian mixture model (GMM) mean supervector representation of utterances in the high-dimensional space, and advocate exploiting this property by using the cosine distance metric instead of the euclidean distance metric for speaker clustering in the GMM mean supervector space. We propose to perform discriminant analysis based on the cosine distance metric, which leads to a novel distance metric learning algorithm—linear spherical discriminant analysis (LSDA). We show that the proposed LSDA formulation can be systematically solved within the elegant graph embedding general dimensionality reduction framework. Our speaker clustering experiments on the GALE database clearly indicate that 1) our speaker clustering methods based on the GMM mean supervector representation and vector-based distance metrics outperform traditional speaker clustering methods based on the “bag of acoustic features” representation and statistical

  12. Raspberry Pi super cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Dennis, Andrew K

    2013-01-01

    This book follows a step-by-step, tutorial-based approach which will teach you how to develop your own super cluster using Raspberry Pi computers quickly and efficiently.Raspberry Pi Super Cluster is an introductory guide for those interested in experimenting with parallel computing at home. Aimed at Raspberry Pi enthusiasts, this book is a primer for getting your first cluster up and running.Basic knowledge of C or Java would be helpful but no prior knowledge of parallel computing is necessary.

  13. Spanning Tree Based Attribute Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yifeng; Jorge, Cordero Hernandez

    2009-01-01

    inconsistent edges from a maximum spanning tree by starting appropriate initial modes, therefore generating stable clusters. It discovers sound clusters through simple graph operations and achieves significant computational savings. We compare the Star Discovery algorithm against earlier attribute clustering...

  14. Tune Your Brown Clustering, Please

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derczynski, Leon; Chester, Sean; Bøgh, Kenneth Sejdenfaden

    2015-01-01

    Brown clustering, an unsupervised hierarchical clustering technique based on ngram mutual information, has proven useful in many NLP applications. However, most uses of Brown clustering employ the same default configuration; the appropriateness of this configuration has gone predominantly...

  15. Cosmology based on f(R) gravity admits 1 eV sterile neutrinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motohashi, Hayato; Starobinsky, Alexei A; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi

    2013-03-22

    It is shown that the tension between recent neutrino oscillation experiments, favoring sterile neutrinos with masses of the order of 1 eV, and cosmological data which impose stringent constraints on neutrino masses from the free streaming suppression of density fluctuations, can be resolved in models of the present accelerated expansion of the Universe based on f(R) gravity.

  16. Production of recombinant proteins GST L1, E6 and E7 tag HPV 16 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-02-04

    1*, Ben Younes, R.1, Kochbati, L.2, Kahla, S.1, Zeghal, D.3, Maalej, M.2, Zouari, F.3 ... Key words: T-antigen, LUMINEX, cervical cancer, HPV type 16, L1, E6 and E7. ... skin or mucosa and induce proliferative diseases. HPV.

  17. Production of recombinant proteins GST L1, E6 and E7 tag HPV 16 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-02-04

    Feb 4, 2009 ... Data showed that the lysates were stable for detection and they were used in Luminex for detection of antibodies in female ... Key words: T-antigen, LUMINEX, cervical cancer, HPV type 16, L1, E6 and E7. INTRODUCTION. On a global level, human papillomavirus (HPV) is estimated to cause almost half a ...

  18. Gender difference in NASH susceptibility: Roles of hepatocyte Ikkβ and Sult1e1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Noriko; Hassanein, Mohamed T.; Martinez-Clemente, Marcos; Lazaro, Raul; French, Samuel W.; Xie, Wen; Lai, Keane; Karin, Michael; Tsukamoto, Hidekazu

    2017-01-01

    Myeloid cell and hepatocyte IKKβ may mediate the genesis of obesity and insulin resistance in mice fed high fat diet. However, their gender-specific roles in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are not known. Here we demonstrate myeloid IKKβ deficiency prevents Western diet-induced obesity and visceral adiposity in females but not in males, and attenuates hyperglycemia, global IR, and NASH in both genders. In contrast, all metabolic sequela including NASH are aggravated by hepatocyte IKKβ deficiency (IkbkbΔhep) in male but not female mice. Gene profiling identifies sulfotransferase family 1E (Sult1e1), which encodes a sulfotransferase E1 responsible for inactivation of estrogen, as a gene upregulated in NASH in both genders and most conspicuously in male IkbkbΔhep mice having worst NASH and lowest plasma estradiol levels. LXRα is enriched to LXRE on Sult1e1 promoter in male WT and IkbkbΔhep mice with NASH, and a Sult1e1 promoter activity is increased by LXRα and its ligand and augmented by expression of a S32A mutant of IκBα. These results demonstrate striking gender differences in regulation by IKKβ of high cholesterol saturated fat diet-induced metabolic changes including NASH and suggest hepatocyte IKKβ is protective in male due at least in part to its ability to repress LXR-induced Sult1e1. Our findings also raise a caution for systemic IKK inhibition for the treatment of NASH as it may exacerbate the disease in male patients. PMID:28797077

  19. Gender difference in NASH susceptibility: Roles of hepatocyte Ikkβ and Sult1e1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko Matsushita

    Full Text Available Myeloid cell and hepatocyte IKKβ may mediate the genesis of obesity and insulin resistance in mice fed high fat diet. However, their gender-specific roles in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH are not known. Here we demonstrate myeloid IKKβ deficiency prevents Western diet-induced obesity and visceral adiposity in females but not in males, and attenuates hyperglycemia, global IR, and NASH in both genders. In contrast, all metabolic sequela including NASH are aggravated by hepatocyte IKKβ deficiency (IkbkbΔhep in male but not female mice. Gene profiling identifies sulfotransferase family 1E (Sult1e1, which encodes a sulfotransferase E1 responsible for inactivation of estrogen, as a gene upregulated in NASH in both genders and most conspicuously in male IkbkbΔhep mice having worst NASH and lowest plasma estradiol levels. LXRα is enriched to LXRE on Sult1e1 promoter in male WT and IkbkbΔhep mice with NASH, and a Sult1e1 promoter activity is increased by LXRα and its ligand and augmented by expression of a S32A mutant of IκBα. These results demonstrate striking gender differences in regulation by IKKβ of high cholesterol saturated fat diet-induced metabolic changes including NASH and suggest hepatocyte IKKβ is protective in male due at least in part to its ability to repress LXR-induced Sult1e1. Our findings also raise a caution for systemic IKK inhibition for the treatment of NASH as it may exacerbate the disease in male patients.

  20. Galaxy clusters and cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    White, S

    1994-01-01

    Galaxy clusters are the largest coherent objects in Universe. It has been known since 1933 that their dynamical properties require either a modification of the theory of gravity, or the presence of a dominant component of unseen material of unknown nature. Clusters still provide the best laboratories for studying the amount and distribution of this dark matter relative to the material which can be observed directly -- the galaxies themselves and the hot,X-ray-emitting gas which lies between them.Imaging and spectroscopy of clusters by satellite-borne X -ray telescopes has greatly improved our knowledge of the structure and composition of this intergalactic medium. The results permit a number of new approaches to some fundamental cosmological questions,but current indications from the data are contradictory. The observed irregularity of real clusters seems to imply recent formation epochs which would require a universe with approximately the critical density. On the other hand, the large baryon fraction observ...

  1. CSR in Industrial Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Pillay, Renginee G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The paper seeks to review the literature on CSR in industrial clusters in developing countries, identifying the main strengths, weaknesses, and gaps in this literature, pointing to future research directions and policy implications in the area of CSR and industrial cluster development....... Design/methodology/approach – A literature review is conducted of both academic and policy-oriented writings that contain the keywords “industrial clusters” and “developing countries” in combination with one or more of the following terms: corporate social responsibility, environmental management, labor...... in this field and their comments incorporated in the final version submitted to Corporate Governance. Findings – The article traces the origins of the debate on industrial clusters and CSR in developing countries back to the early 1990s when clusters began to be seen as an important vehicle for local economic...

  2. Evolution of clustered storage

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Van de Vyvre, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    The session actually featured two presentations: * Evolution of clustered storage by Lance Hukill, Quantum Corporation * ALICE DAQ - Usage of a Cluster-File System: Quantum StorNext by Pierre Vande Vyvre, CERN-PH the second one prepared at short notice by Pierre (thanks!) to present how the Quantum technologies are being used in the ALICE experiment. The abstract to Mr Hukill's follows. Clustered Storage is a technology that is driven by business and mission applications. The evolution of Clustered Storage solutions starts first at the alignment between End-users needs and Industry trends: * Push-and-Pull between managing for today versus planning for tomorrow * Breaking down the real business problems to the core applications * Commoditization of clients, servers, and target devices * Interchangeability, Interoperability, Remote Access, Centralized control * Oh, and yes, there is a budget and the "real world" to deal with This presentation will talk through these needs and trends, and then ask the question, ...

  3. How Clusters Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology innovation clusters are geographic concentrations of interconnected companies, universities, and other organizations with a focus on environmental technology. They play a key role in addressing the nation’s pressing environmental problems.

  4. Air void clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Air void clustering around coarse aggregate in concrete has been identified as a potential source of : low strengths in concrete mixes by several Departments of Transportation around the country. Research was : carried out to (1) develop a quantitati...

  5. Clustering of Emerging Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzmaikin, A.

    1997-01-01

    Observations show that newly emerging flux tends to appear on the Solar surface at sites where there is flux already. This results in clustering of solar activity. Standard dynamo theories do not predict this effect.

  6. Globular clusters with Gaia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancino, E.; Bellazzini, M.; Giuffrida, G.; Marinoni, S.

    2017-05-01

    The treatment of crowded fields in Gaia data will only be a reality in a few years from now. In particular, for globular clusters, only the end-of-mission data (public in 2022-2023) will have the necessary full crowding treatment and will reach sufficient quality for the faintest stars. As a consequence, the work on the deblending and decontamination pipelines is still ongoing. We describe the present status of the pipelines for different Gaia instruments, and we model the end-of-mission crowding errors on the basis of available information. We then apply the nominal post-launch Gaia performances, appropriately worsened by the estimated crowding errors, to a set of 18 simulated globular clusters with different concentration, distance and field contamination. We conclude that there will be 103-104 stars with astrometric performances virtually untouched by crowding (contaminated by <1 mmag) in the majority of clusters. The most limiting factor will be field crowding, not cluster crowding: the most contaminated clusters will only contain 10-100 clean stars. We also conclude that (i) the systemic proper motions and parallaxes will be determined to 1 per cent or better up to ≃15 kpc, and the nearby clusters will have radial velocities to a few km s-1; (ii) internal kinematics will be of unprecedented quality, cluster masses will be determined to ≃10 per cent up to 15 kpc and beyond, and it will be possible to identify differences of a few km s-1 or less in the kinematics (if any) of cluster sub-populations up to 10 kpc and beyond; (iii) the brightest stars (V ≃ 17 mag) will have space-quality, wide-field photometry (mmag errors), and all Gaia photometry will have 1-3 per cent errors on the absolute photometric calibration.

  7. Structure of Silicon Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Jun; Bahel, Atul; Ramakrishna, Mushti V.

    1995-01-01

    We determined the structures of silicon clusters in the 11-14 atom size range using the tight-binding molecular dynamics method. These calculations reveal that \\Si{11} is an icosahedron with one missing cap, \\Si{12} is a complete icosahedron, \\Si{13} is a surface capped icosahedron, and \\Si{14} is a 4-4-4 layer structure with two caps. The characteristic feature of these clusters is that they are all surface.

  8. Determination of atomic cluster structure with cluster fusion algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obolensky, Oleg I.; Solov'yov, Ilia; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2005-01-01

    We report an efficient scheme of global optimization, called cluster fusion algorithm, which has proved its reliability and high efficiency in determination of the structure of various atomic clusters.......We report an efficient scheme of global optimization, called cluster fusion algorithm, which has proved its reliability and high efficiency in determination of the structure of various atomic clusters....

  9. [The role of the comprehensive approach for the characteristic of the destructive effect of a non-lethal cartridge with two rubber bullets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stragis, V B; Makarov, I Yu; Karelin, V V; Shevchuk, D Yu; Chechenin, E S

    2017-01-01

    This article was designed to report the results of forensic medical, criminalistics, and comprehensive expertise of the subject who suffered from a non-perforating shotgun wound affecting the soft tissues and blood vessels in the femoral region. It was shown that only the scrutinous comprehensive full-scale expert examination of the injured site in the framework of forensic medical expertise makes it possible to exclude the probability of the expert error and formulate the reliable and substantiated conclusion as regards the fact and the conditions of the shotgun injury by a concrete type of the cartridge (e.g. having a caliber equal to 410/76 Stopper-2) with two spherical rubber bullets fired from a known weapon (Saiga-410S hunting carbine).

  10. Cluster fusion algorithm: application to Lennard-Jones clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Solov'yov, Andrey V.; Greiner, Walter

    2006-01-01

    We present a new general theoretical framework for modelling the cluster structure and apply it to description of the Lennard-Jones clusters. Starting from the initial tetrahedral cluster configuration, adding new atoms to the system and absorbing its energy at each step, we find cluster growing...... paths up to the cluster size of 150 atoms. We demonstrate that in this way all known global minima structures of the Lennard-Jones clusters can be found. Our method provides an efficient tool for the calculation and analysis of atomic cluster structure. With its use we justify the magic number sequence...... for the clusters of noble gas atoms and compare it with experimental observations. We report the striking correspondence of the peaks in the dependence of the second derivative of the binding energy per atom on cluster size calculated for the chain of the Lennard-Jones clusters based on the icosahedral symmetry...

  11. Superoxide generation is diminished during glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in INS-1E cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ježek, Petr; Hlavatá, Lydie; Špaček, Tomáš

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 275, Suppl.1 (2008), s. 310-310 ISSN 1742-464X. [FEBS Congress /33./ and IUBMB Conference /11./. 28.06.2008-03.07.2008, Athens] R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NR7917; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : cpo1 * superoxide production * glucose-stimulated insulin secretion * INS-1E cells Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  12. Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c knockdown protected INS-1E cells from lipotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J; Liu, X; Ran, X; Chen, J; Li, X; Wu, W; Huang, H; Huang, H; Long, Y; Liang, J; Cheng, J; Tian, H

    2010-01-01

    The reduction in insulin secretory capacity and beta-cell mass has been attributed, at least partially, to lipotoxicity, which may contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes. Chronic free fatty acids (FFA) exposure impairs pancreatic beta-cell function and induces beta-cell apoptosis. This study is to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms. We exposed INS-1E pancreatic beta-cell line to palmitate or oleate, and measured the glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). The effect of FFA on sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c lipogenic pathway, and expression of genes involved in beta-cell functions, including AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase), UCP-2 (uncoupling protein-2), IRS-2 (insulin receptor substrate-2), PDX-1 (pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1), GLUT-2 (glucose transporter-2) and B cell lymphoma/leukaemia-2 (Bcl-2) were investigated. Apoptosis of these exposed cells was determined by MitoCapture, Annexin V-Cy3 or terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay. Cell lipid accumulation was measured by oil red O staining or TG extraction. Also SREBP-1c expression knockdown were used. FFA treatment resulted in SREBP-1c overexpression, impaired GSIS, lipid accumulation, apoptosis of INS-1E cells. In addition, the expression of lipogenic genes and UCP-2 were upregulated, but AMPK, IRS-2, PDX-1, GLUT-2 and Bcl-2 were downregulated in the exposed cells. However, these lipotoxic effects of FFA were largely prevented by induction of a SREBP-1c small interfering RNA. These data suggest a strong correlation between FFA treatment and SREBP-1c activation in INS-1E cells. SREBP-1c might be a major factor responsible for beta-cell lipotoxicity, and SREBP-1c knockdown could protect INS-1E cells from lipotoxicity, which is implicating a therapeutic potential for treating diabetes related to lipotoxicity.

  13. Containment of c0 and l1 in 1(E, F)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    By Grothendiéck–Pietsch Dominated Theorem [1], forT ∈ 1(E,F)there exists a regular probability measure µ defined on BE∗ (with its weak ..... [6] Grothendiéck A, Résume des la théorie métriqe des produits tensorials topologique, Bol. Soc. Mat. Sâo Paolo 8 (1956) 1–79. [7] Ryan A, Complemented copies of c0 in injective ...

  14. Biocontrol of Salmonella Typhimurium in RTE foods with the virulent bacteriophage FO1-E2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, Susanne; Herzig, Oliver; Fieseler, Lars; Klumpp, Jochen; Loessner, Martin J

    2012-03-01

    Foodborne Salmonella infections are a major public health concern worldwide. Bacteriophages offer highly specific and effective biocontrol of such pathogens. We evaluated the broad host range, virulent phage FO1-E2 for reduction of Salmonella Typhimurium in different RTE foods. Samples were spiked with 1×10³ Salmonella cells and treated with 3×10⁸ pfu/g phage, and incubated for 6 days at 8 °C or 15 °C. At 8 °C, no viable cells remained following FO1-E2 application, corresponding to a more than 3 log₁₀ unit reduction. At 15 °C, application of phage lowered S. Typhimurium counts by 5 log units on turkey deli meat and in chocolate milk, and by 3 logs on hot dogs and in seafood. In egg yolk, an effect was observed only after 2 days, but not after 6 days. Phage particles retained their infectivity, although they were readily immobilized by the food matrix, resulting in loss of their ability to diffuse and infect target cells. At the end of the incubation period, phage-resistant Salmonella strains appeared which, however, were not able to compensate for the initial killing effect. Altogether, our data show that virulent phages such as FO1-E2 offer an effective biocontrol measure for Salmonella in foods. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Neutronic analysis of the 1D and 1E banks reflux detection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-12-21

    Two H Canyon neutron monitoring systems for early detection of postulated abnormal reflux conditions in the Second Uranium Cycle 1E and 1D Mixer-Settle Banks have been designed and built. Monte Carlo neutron transport simulations using the general purpose, general geometry, n-particle MCNP code have been performed to model expected response of the monitoring systems to varying conditions.The confirmatory studies documented herein conclude that the 1E and 1D neutron monitoring systems are able to achieve adequate neutron count rates for various neutron source and detector configurations, thereby eliminating excessive integration count time. Neutron count rate sensitivity studies are also performed. Conversely, the transport studies concluded that the neutron count rates are statistically insensitive to nitric acid content in the aqueous region and to the transition region length. These studies conclude that the 1E and 1D neutron monitoring systems are able to predict the postulated reflux conditions for all examined perturbations in the neutron source and detector configurations. In the cases examined, the relative change in the neutron count rates due to postulated transitions from normal {sup 235}U concentration levels to reflux levels remain satisfactory detectable.

  16. Security 1E10 anti-idiotypic vaccine in patients with tumors of different locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Viada

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a leading cause of death in Cuba and the world. Lung cancer is the leading cause of death, breast cancer is the second leading cause of death and colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of death. The 1E10 anti-idiotype vaccine is a new immunotherapeutic agent, registered for lung cancer by the Center for Molecular Immunology (CIM. You want to evaluate the safety of this vaccine in the treatment of various cancer sites. To determine the safety adverse events occurred in six clinical trials (one stage I lung, 3 phase II in breast, colon and lung, 1 phase II-III and program expanded use, both in lung were evaluated. 656 patients were studied. Demographic variables, the characteristics of the disease and adverse events were measured. The studies were balanced with respect to baseline characteristics. The most common adverse events were local reactions associated with 1E10 anti-idiotype vaccine and systemic reactions of mild or moderate intensity that were not related to the administration of the vaccine under study. The 1E10 anti-idiotype vaccine is safe for the low frequency and intensity of adverse events reported.

  17. Subspace K-means clustering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, Marieke E.; Ceulemans, Eva; De Roover, Kim; Van Leeuwen, Karla

    2013-01-01

    To achieve an insightful clustering of multivariate data, we propose subspace K-means. Its central idea is to model the centroids and cluster residuals in reduced spaces, which allows for dealing with a wide range of cluster types and yields rich interpretations of the clusters. We review the

  18. FINDCLUS : Fuzzy INdividual Differences CLUStering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giordani, Paolo; Kiers, Henk A. L.

    ADditive CLUStering (ADCLUS) is a tool for overlapping clustering of two-way proximity matrices (objects x objects). In Simple Additive Fuzzy Clustering (SAFC), a variant of ADCLUS is introduced providing a fuzzy partition of the objects, that is the objects belong to the clusters with the so-called

  19. Cluster Implantation and Deposition Apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanif, Muhammad; Popok, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    In the current report, a design and capabilities of a cluster implantation and deposition apparatus (CIDA) involving two different cluster sources are described. The clusters produced from gas precursors (Ar, N etc.) by PuCluS-2 can be used to study cluster ion implantation in order to develop...... contributions to the theory of cluster stopping in matter as well as for practical applications requiring ultra-shallow implantation and modification of surfaces on the nanoscale. Metal clusters from the magnetron cluster source are of interest for the production of optical sensors to detect specific biological...

  20. Globular Clusters - Guides to Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Richtler, Tom; Joint ESO-FONDAP Workshop on Globular Clusters

    2009-01-01

    The principal question of whether and how globular clusters can contribute to a better understanding of galaxy formation and evolution is perhaps the main driving force behind the overall endeavour of studying globular cluster systems. Naturally, this splits up into many individual problems. The objective of the Joint ESO-FONDAP Workshop on Globular Clusters - Guides to Galaxies was to bring together researchers, both observational and theoretical, to present and discuss the most recent results. Topics covered in these proceedings are: internal dynamics of globular clusters and interaction with host galaxies (tidal tails, evolution of cluster masses), accretion of globular clusters, detailed descriptions of nearby cluster systems, ultracompact dwarfs, formations of massive clusters in mergers and elsewhere, the ACS Virgo survey, galaxy formation and globular clusters, dynamics and kinematics of globular cluster systems and dark matter-related problems. With its wide coverage of the topic, this book constitute...

  1. Clustering Game Behavior Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauckhage, C.; Drachen, Anders; Sifa, Rafet

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have seen a deluge of behavioral data from players hitting the game industry. Reasons for this data surge are many and include the introduction of new business models, technical innovations, the popularity of online games, and the increasing persistence of games. Irrespective...... of the causes, the proliferation of behavioral data poses the problem of how to derive insights therefrom. Behavioral data sets can be large, time-dependent and high-dimensional. Clustering offers a way to explore such data and to discover patterns that can reduce the overall complexity of the data. Clustering...... and other techniques for player profiling and play style analysis have, therefore, become popular in the nascent field of game analytics. However, the proper use of clustering techniques requires expertise and an understanding of games is essential to evaluate results. With this paper, we address game data...

  2. Exotic cluster structures on

    CERN Document Server

    Gekhtman, M; Vainshtein, A

    2017-01-01

    This is the second paper in the series of papers dedicated to the study of natural cluster structures in the rings of regular functions on simple complex Lie groups and Poisson-Lie structures compatible with these cluster structures. According to our main conjecture, each class in the Belavin-Drinfeld classification of Poisson-Lie structures on \\mathcal{G} corresponds to a cluster structure in \\mathcal{O}(\\mathcal{G}). The authors have shown before that this conjecture holds for any \\mathcal{G} in the case of the standard Poisson-Lie structure and for all Belavin-Drinfeld classes in SL_n, n<5. In this paper the authors establish it for the Cremmer-Gervais Poisson-Lie structure on SL_n, which is the least similar to the standard one.

  3. Farnesoid X receptor regulates SULT1E1 expression through inhibition of PGC1α binding to HNF4α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai; Yuan, Xue; Lu, Danyi; Guo, Lianxia; Wu, Baojian

    2017-12-01

    Sulfotransferase 1E1 (SULT1E1, also known as estrogen sulfotransferase) plays an important role in metabolism and detoxification of many endogenous and exogenous compounds (e.g., estrogens and flavonoids). Here we aimed to assess the effects of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) activation on SULT1E1 expression, and to determine the mechanism thereof. Treatment with specific FXR agonists (i.e., GW4064 and CDCA) significantly decreased both mRNA and protein levels of SULT1E1 in HepG2 cells. This was accompanied by a decrease in the enzymatic activity. The inhibitory effect was potentiated by FXR overexpression but attenuated by FXR knockdown, confirming FXR-dependent regulation of SULT1E1. Surprisingly, direct regulation of SULT1E1 by FXR was unlikely because FXR did not bind to SULT1E1 promoter or enhancer as revealed by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). Interestingly, SULT1E1 regulation was abolished when HNF4α (hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α, a known activator of SULT1E1) was silenced, supporting a critical role for HNF4α in FXR regulation of SULT1E1. Furthermore, a combination of ChIP, luciferase reporter and co-immunoprecipitation assays showed that FXR inhibited HNF4α transactivation of SULT1E1 by suppressed binding of the co-activator PGC1α (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α) to HNF4α. In conclusion, FXR transcriptionally regulates SULT1E1 through inhibition of PGC1α binding to HNF4α. Targeting the FXR-SULT1E1 axis may represent a promising approach for management of estrogen-related diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Refractory chronic cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitsikostas, Dimos D; Edvinsson, Lars; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2014-01-01

    Chronic cluster headache (CCH) often resists to prophylactic pharmaceutical treatments resulting in patients' life damage. In this rare but pragmatic situation escalation to invasive management is needed but framing criteria are lacking. We aimed to reach a consensus for refractory CCH definition...... for clinical and research use. The preparation of the final consensus followed three stages. Internal between authors, a larger between all European Headache Federation members and finally an international one among all investigators that have published clinical studies on cluster headache the last five years...

  5. Clustering via Kernel Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Have, Anna Szynkowiak; Girolami, Mark A.; Larsen, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Methods for spectral clustering have been proposed recently which rely on the eigenvalue decomposition of an affinity matrix. In this work it is proposed that the affinity matrix is created based on the elements of a non-parametric density estimator. This matrix is then decomposed to obtain...... posterior probabilities of class membership using an appropriate form of nonnegative matrix factorization. The troublesome selection of hyperparameters such as kernel width and number of clusters can be obtained using standard cross-validation methods as is demonstrated on a number of diverse data sets....

  6. Emergence of regional clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Michael S.; Østergaard, Christian Richter; Dalum, Bent

    2010-01-01

    The literature on regional clusters has increased considerably during the last decade. The emergence and growth patterns are usually explained by such factors as unique local culture, regional capabilities, tacit knowledge or the existence of location-specific externalities (knowledge spillovers......, networks, labour market pooling and specialised suppliers). However, these factors are not sufficient to explain the early formation of clusters. The dominant theories focus more on explaining ex-post dynamics than their early development. This chapter focuses on the early phase and uses an alternative...

  7. South Asian Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Sergiu Pirju

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at presenting the South Asian cluster composed of India, Indonesia, Iran and Malaysia, the intercultural values that characterizes it, the supported leadership style and tracing the main macroeconomic considerations which characterizes them. The research is synchronic, analysing the contemporary situation of these countries without reference to their evolution in time, by using the positivist paradigm that explains the reality at one point. It will be analysed the overall cluster with the existing interactions between the countries that composes it, while the article being one of information will avoid building recommendation, or new theories.

  8. Equilibrium configurations of 11 eV sterile neutrinos in MONDian galaxy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, G. W.; Famaey, B.; Diaferio, A.

    2010-02-01

    Modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) can fit a broad range of galaxy kinematic data, but struggles with clusters of galaxies. MONDian clusters need dark matter (DM), and here we test the 11 eVc-2 sterile neutrino (SN) - used to fit the first three acoustic peaks of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) - by investigating their equilibrium distributions in 30 groups and clusters over a wide range of temperatures. We do this by first taking the known SN density, necessary for hydrostatic equilibrium of the intracluster medium (or to produce the observed lensing map). Then, we solve for the SN velocity dispersion (VD), needed for their own hydrostatic equilibrium, through the equation of state for a partially degenerate neutrino gas. The VD is a unique, continuous function of radius determined by the density and mass of the SN particles. Knowing both the SN density and VD tells us the Tremaine-Gunn phase-space limit at all radii. We find that all 30 systems serendipitously reach the Tremaine-Gunn limit by the centre, which means a portion of the dynamical mass must always be covered by the brightest cluster galaxy. Interestingly, the typical fitted K-band mass-to-light ratio is unity and at most 1.2, which is very consistent - although leaving no margin for error - with stellar population synthesis models. Amidst the sample there are several special cases including the Coma cluster (for which DM was first proposed), NGC 720 (where geometrical evidence for DM was found) and the bullet cluster (where DM - of some kind - in clusters was directly proven to exist). We demonstrate that 11 eVc-2 SNs are unlikely to influence spiral galaxy rotation curves, as they do not influence even some very massive early-types (NGC 4125 and NGC 6482). Finally, we conclude that it is intriguing that the minimum mass of SN particle that can match the CMB is the same as the minimum mass found here to be consistent with equilibrium configurations of MONDian clusters of galaxies.

  9. Large Crater Clustering tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura, Jason; Skinner, James A.; Hunter, Marc A.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper we present the Large Crater Clustering (LCC) tool set, an ArcGIS plugin that supports the quantitative approximation of a primary impact location from user-identified locations of possible secondary impact craters or the long-axes of clustered secondary craters. The identification of primary impact craters directly supports planetary geologic mapping and topical science studies where the chronostratigraphic age of some geologic units may be known, but more distant features have questionable geologic ages. Previous works (e.g., McEwen et al., 2005; Dundas and McEwen, 2007) have shown that the source of secondary impact craters can be estimated from secondary impact craters. This work adapts those methods into a statistically robust tool set. We describe the four individual tools within the LCC tool set to support: (1) processing individually digitized point observations (craters), (2) estimating the directional distribution of a clustered set of craters, back projecting the potential flight paths (crater clusters or linearly approximated catenae or lineaments), (3) intersecting projected paths, and (4) intersecting back-projected trajectories to approximate the local of potential source primary craters. We present two case studies using secondary impact features mapped in two regions of Mars. We demonstrate that the tool is able to quantitatively identify primary impacts and supports the improved qualitative interpretation of potential secondary crater flight trajectories.

  10. doped stable clusters a

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ABHIJIT DUTTA

    2018-01-30

    ., showed that Ru-doped. Rh6 cluster is a better catalyst for the activation of methanol compared to pure Rh6. It may be noted that methanol activation occurs via O–H bond dissociation rather than C–H bond.25 Rhodium nano ...

  11. Greedy subspace clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    We consider the problem of subspace clustering: given points that lie on or near the union of many low-dimensional linear subspaces, recover the subspaces. To this end, one first identifies sets of points close to the same subspace and uses the sets ...

  12. Cluster - Smart Specialization Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Popa

    2016-01-01

    The paper refers to the relationship that is created in the regional economic space, between thecluster phenomenon and that of the strategy of smart specialization; in the process oftransformation of the regional economy, the smart specialization strategies take over clusters’policies and clusters integrate activities specific to areas of technological knowledge.

  13. Detecting alternative graph clusterings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandala, Supreet; Kumara, Soundar; Yao, Tao

    2012-07-01

    The problem of graph clustering or community detection has enjoyed a lot of attention in complex networks literature. A quality function, modularity, quantifies the strength of clustering and on maximization yields sensible partitions. However, in most real world networks, there are an exponentially large number of near-optimal partitions with some being very different from each other. Therefore, picking an optimal clustering among the alternatives does not provide complete information about network topology. To tackle this problem, we propose a graph perturbation scheme which can be used to identify an ensemble of near-optimal and diverse clusterings. We establish analytical properties of modularity function under the perturbation which ensures diversity. Our approach is algorithm independent and therefore can leverage any of the existing modularity maximizing algorithms. We numerically show that our methodology can systematically identify very different partitions on several existing data sets. The knowledge of diverse partitions sheds more light into the topological organization and helps gain a more complete understanding of the underlying complex network.

  14. Cluster Decline and Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Christian Richter; Park, Eun Kyung

    -2011. Our longitudinal study reveals that technological lock-in and exit of key firms have contributed to impairment of the cluster’s resilience in adapting to disruptions. Entrepreneurship has a positive effect on cluster resilience, while multinational companies have contradicting effects by bringing...

  15. Clustering of resting state networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan H Lee

    Full Text Available The goal of the study was to demonstrate a hierarchical structure of resting state activity in the healthy brain using a data-driven clustering algorithm.The fuzzy-c-means clustering algorithm was applied to resting state fMRI data in cortical and subcortical gray matter from two groups acquired separately, one of 17 healthy individuals and the second of 21 healthy individuals. Different numbers of clusters and different starting conditions were used. A cluster dispersion measure determined the optimal numbers of clusters. An inner product metric provided a measure of similarity between different clusters. The two cluster result found the task-negative and task-positive systems. The cluster dispersion measure was minimized with seven and eleven clusters. Each of the clusters in the seven and eleven cluster result was associated with either the task-negative or task-positive system. Applying the algorithm to find seven clusters recovered previously described resting state networks, including the default mode network, frontoparietal control network, ventral and dorsal attention networks, somatomotor, visual, and language networks. The language and ventral attention networks had significant subcortical involvement. This parcellation was consistently found in a large majority of algorithm runs under different conditions and was robust to different methods of initialization.The clustering of resting state activity using different optimal numbers of clusters identified resting state networks comparable to previously obtained results. This work reinforces the observation that resting state networks are hierarchically organized.

  16. Clustering: a neural network approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, K-L

    2010-01-01

    Clustering is a fundamental data analysis method. It is widely used for pattern recognition, feature extraction, vector quantization (VQ), image segmentation, function approximation, and data mining. As an unsupervised classification technique, clustering identifies some inherent structures present in a set of objects based on a similarity measure. Clustering methods can be based on statistical model identification (McLachlan & Basford, 1988) or competitive learning. In this paper, we give a comprehensive overview of competitive learning based clustering methods. Importance is attached to a number of competitive learning based clustering neural networks such as the self-organizing map (SOM), the learning vector quantization (LVQ), the neural gas, and the ART model, and clustering algorithms such as the C-means, mountain/subtractive clustering, and fuzzy C-means (FCM) algorithms. Associated topics such as the under-utilization problem, fuzzy clustering, robust clustering, clustering based on non-Euclidean distance measures, supervised clustering, hierarchical clustering as well as cluster validity are also described. Two examples are given to demonstrate the use of the clustering methods.

  17. Transformation by bovine papillomavirus type 1 E6 is independent of transcriptional activation by E6.

    OpenAIRE

    Ned, R; Allen, S.; Vande Pol, S

    1997-01-01

    We have generated mutants of bovine papillomavirus type 1 E6 (BE6) that are defective for transcriptional activation and have analyzed these mutants for transformation of contact-inhibited cells and association with the mammalian protein E6-AP. These BE6 mutants demonstrate that transformation by BE6 does not require transcriptional activation and that association of BE6 with E6-AP is a function separable from transcriptional activation by BE6. Association of BE6 with E6-AP appears to be nece...

  18. Suzaku Observation of AXP 1E 1841-045 in SNR Kes 73

    OpenAIRE

    Morii, M.; Kitamoto, S; Shibazaki, N.; Takei, D.; Kawai, N; Arimoto, M.; Ueno, M.; Terada, Y; Kohmura, T.; Yamauchi, S.

    2007-01-01

    Anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) are thought to be magnetars, which are neutron stars with ultra strong magnetic field of $10^{14}$-- $10^{15}$ G. Their energy spectra below $\\sim$10 keV are modeled well by two components consisting of a blackbody (BB) ($\\sim$0.4 keV) and rather steep power-law (POW) function (photon index $\\sim$2-4). Kuiper et al.(2004) discovered hard X-ray component above $\\sim$10 keV from some AXPs. Here, we present the Suzaku observation of the AXP 1E 1841-045 at the cente...

  19. Data clustering algorithms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, Charu C

    2013-01-01

    Research on the problem of clustering tends to be fragmented across the pattern recognition, database, data mining, and machine learning communities. Addressing this problem in a unified way, Data Clustering: Algorithms and Applications provides complete coverage of the entire area of clustering, from basic methods to more refined and complex data clustering approaches. It pays special attention to recent issues in graphs, social networks, and other domains.The book focuses on three primary aspects of data clustering: Methods, describing key techniques commonly used for clustering, such as fea

  20. The Ssr protein (T1E_1405) from Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E enables oligonucleotide-based recombineering in platform strain P. putida EM42

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aparicio, Tomás; Ingemann Jensen, Sheila; Nielsen, Alex Toftgaard

    2016-01-01

    of reference strain KT2440) is still a time-consuming endeavor. In this work we have investigated the in vivo activity of the Ssr protein encoded by the open reading frame T1E_1405 from Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E, a plausible functional homologue of the β protein of the Red recombination system of λ phage...

  1. Separation of Transformers for Class 1E Systems in Nuclear Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hyun Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to supply electric power to the safety related loads, safety and reliability of onsite power have to be ensured for the safety function performance in nuclear power plants. Even though the existing electric power system of APR1400 meets the requirements of codes regarding Class 1E system, there is a room for improvement in the design margin against the voltage drop and short circuit current. This paper discusses the amount that the voltage drop and short circuit current occur in the existing electric power system of APR1400. Additionally, this paper studies with regard to the improved model that has the extra margin against the high voltage drop and short circuit current by separation of unit auxiliary transformer (UAT and standby auxiliary transformer (SAT for the Class 1E loads. The improved model of the electric power system by separation of UAT and SAT has been suggested through this paper. Additionally, effects of reliability and cost caused by the electric power system modification are considered.

  2. Induction of temporally dissociated morphological and physiological differentiation of N1E-115 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, C; Cobbett, P

    1991-07-01

    Clonal cells derived from neural tumors have been widely used to study the processes of neuronal differentiation in vitro. The murine neuroblastoma clone N1E-115 has recently been shown to differentiate morphologically in response to removal of serum from the culture medium. In the present study, the nature and time course of electrophysiological differentiation of N1E-115 cells maintained in serum-free medium was examined. Differentiated cells had a higher resting potential and lower input conductance than nondifferentiated cells. Differentiated but not nondifferentiated cells generated current evoked action potentials, and differentiated cells fired spontaneous, repetitive action potentials after 13 days in serum-free medium. The rate of potential change during the depolarizing and repolarizing phases of the action potential became faster as the duration of maintenance of cells in serum-free medium increased. Remarkably, morphological differentiation appeared to be complete after exposure to serum-free medium for 5 days but electrophysiological differentiation was not complete until 13 days in this medium.

  3. Proposal to Search for Magnetically Charged Particles with Magnetic Charge 1e

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Michael K. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fryberger, David [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-11-02

    A model for composite elementary Standard Model (SM) particles based upon magnetically bound vorton pairs, we briefly introduce here, predicts the existence of a complete family of magnetically charged particles, as well as their neutral isotopic partners (all counterparts to the SM elementary particles), in which the lowest mass (charged) particle would be an electrically neutral stable lepton, but which carries a magnetic charge equivalent to 1e. This new particle, which we call a magneticon (a counterpart to the electron) would be pair produced at all e+e- colliders at an Ecm above twice its mass. In addition, PP and PPbar colliders should also be able to produce these new particles through the Drell-Yan process. To our knowledge, no monopole search experiment has been sensitive to such a low-charged magnetic monopole above a particle mass of about 5 GeV/c2. Hence, we propose that a search for such a stable particle of magnetic charge 1e should be undertaken. We have taken the ATLAS detector at the LHC as an example in which this search might be done. To this end, we modeled the magnetic fields and muon trigger chambers of this detector. We show results from a simple Monte Carlo simulation program to indicate how these particles might look in the detector and describe how one might search for these new particles in the ATLAS data stream.

  4. Mutagenic Potential ofBos taurus Papillomavirus Type 1 E6 Recombinant Protein: First Description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pinheiro Araldi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine papillomavirus (BPV is considered a useful model to study HPV oncogenic process. BPV interacts with the host chromatin, resulting in DNA damage, which is attributed to E5, E6, and E7 viral oncoproteins activity. However, the oncogenic mechanisms of BPV E6 oncoprotein per se remain unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the mutagenic potential of Bos taurus papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1 E6 recombinant oncoprotein by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMNA and comet assay (CA. Peripheral blood samples of five calves were collected. Samples were subjected to molecular diagnosis, which did not reveal presence of BPV sequences. Samples were treated with 1 μg/mL of BPV-1 E6 oncoprotein and 50 μg/mL of cyclophosphamide (positive control. Negative controls were not submitted to any treatment. The samples were submitted to the CBMNA and CA. The results showed that BPV E6 oncoprotein induces clastogenesis per se, which is indicative of genomic instability. These results allowed better understanding the mechanism of cancer promotion associated with the BPV E6 oncoprotein and revealed that this oncoprotein can induce carcinogenesis per se. E6 recombinant oncoprotein has been suggested as a possible vaccine candidate. Results pointed out that BPV E6 recombinant oncoprotein modifications are required to use it as vaccine.

  5. Mutagenic Potential ofBos taurus Papillomavirus Type 1 E6 Recombinant Protein: First Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araldi, Rodrigo Pinheiro; Mazzuchelli-de-Souza, Jacqueline; Modolo, Diego Grando; de Souza, Edislane Barreiros; de Melo, Thatiana Corrêa; Spadacci-Morena, Diva Denelle; Magnelli, Roberta Fiusa; de Carvalho, Márcio Augusto Caldas Rocha; de Sá Júnior, Paulo Luis; de Carvalho, Rodrigo Franco; Beçak, Willy; Stocco, Rita de Cassia

    2015-01-01

    Bovine papillomavirus (BPV) is considered a useful model to study HPV oncogenic process. BPV interacts with the host chromatin, resulting in DNA damage, which is attributed to E5, E6, and E7 viral oncoproteins activity. However, the oncogenic mechanisms of BPV E6 oncoprotein per se remain unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the mutagenic potential of Bos taurus papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) E6 recombinant oncoprotein by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMNA) and comet assay (CA). Peripheral blood samples of five calves were collected. Samples were subjected to molecular diagnosis, which did not reveal presence of BPV sequences. Samples were treated with 1 μg/mL of BPV-1 E6 oncoprotein and 50 μg/mL of cyclophosphamide (positive control). Negative controls were not submitted to any treatment. The samples were submitted to the CBMNA and CA. The results showed that BPV E6 oncoprotein induces clastogenesis per se, which is indicative of genomic instability. These results allowed better understanding the mechanism of cancer promotion associated with the BPV E6 oncoprotein and revealed that this oncoprotein can induce carcinogenesis per se. E6 recombinant oncoprotein has been suggested as a possible vaccine candidate. Results pointed out that BPV E6 recombinant oncoprotein modifications are required to use it as vaccine.

  6. Ionization of large homogeneous and heterogeneous clusters generated in acetylene-Ar expansions: cluster ion polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kočišek, J; Lengyel, J; Fárník, M

    2013-03-28

    Pure acetylene and mixed Ar-acetylene clusters are formed in supersonic expansions of acetylene/argon mixtures and analysed using reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer with variable electron energy ionization source. Acetylene clusters composed of more than a hundred acetylene molecules are generated at the acetylene concentration of ≈8%, while mixed species are produced at low concentrations (≈0.7%). The electron energy dependence of the mass spectra revealed the ionization process mechanisms in clusters. The ionization above the threshold for acetylene molecule of 11.5 eV results in the main ionic fragment progression (C2H2)n(+). At the electron energies ≥21.5 eV above the CH+CH(+) dissociative ionization limit of acetylene the fragment ions nominally labelled as (C2H2)nCH(+), n ≥ 2, are observed. For n ≤ 7 these fragments correspond to covalently bound ionic structures as suggested by the observed strong dehydrogenation [(C2H2)n - k × H](+) and [(C2H2)nCH - k × H](+). The dehydrogenation is significantly reduced in the mixed clusters where evaporation of Ar instead of hydrogen can stabilize the nascent molecular ion. The C3H3(+) ion was previously assigned to originate from the benzene molecular ion; however, the low appearance energy of ≈13.7 eV indicates that a less rigid covalently bound structure of C6H6(+) ion must also be formed upon the acetylene cluster electron ionization. The appearance energy of Arn(C2H2)(+) fragments above ≈15.1 eV indicates that the argon ionization is the first step in the fragment ion production, and the appearance energy of Arn≥2(C2H2)m≥2(+) at ≈13.7 eV is discussed in terms of an exciton transfer mechanism.

  7. Release of copper from embedded solid copper bullets into muscle and fat tissues of fallow deer (Dama dama), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), and wild boar (Sus scrofa) and effect of copper content on oxidative stability of heat-processed meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhmann-Irschik, I; Sager, M; Paulsen, P; Tichy, A; Bauer, F

    2015-10-01

    When venison with embedded copper bullets was subjected to different culinary processing procedures, the amount of copper released from the embedded bullet was affected more by the retention period of the bullet in the meat during cool storage, than by the different heating protocols. The presence of copper fragments had no significant effect on levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Conversely, TBARS in lean meat (fallow deer, wild boar, roe deer) were significantly affected by culinary treatment (higher TBARS in boiled and boiled-stored meat than in meat barbecued or boiled in brine). In pork-beef patties doped with up to 28mg/kg Cu, TBARS increased after dry-heating and subsequently storing the meat patties. The amount of copper doping had no effect on TBARS for 0 and 7days of storage, but a significant effect at day 14 (fat oxidation retarded at higher Cu doses). Evidence is presented that wild boar meat may be more sensitive to fat oxidation than pork-beef. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Single-cluster dynamics for the random-cluster model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, Y.; Qian, X.; Blöte, H.W.J.

    We formulate a single-cluster Monte Carlo algorithm for the simulation of the random-cluster model. This algorithm is a generalization of the Wolff single-cluster method for the q-state Potts model to noninteger values q>1. Its results for static quantities are in a satisfactory agreement with those

  9. Single-cluster dynamics for the random-cluster model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, Y.; Qian, X.; Blöte, H.W.J.

    2009-01-01

    We formulate a single-cluster Monte Carlo algorithm for the simulation of the random-cluster model. This algorithm is a generalization of the Wolff single-cluster method for the q-state Potts model to noninteger values q>1. Its results for static quantities are in a satisfactory agreement with those

  10. Cluster forest based fuzzy logic for massive data clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmar, Ines; Ben Ayed, Abdelkarim; Ben Halima, Mohamed; Alimi, Adel M.

    2017-03-01

    This article is focused in developing an improved cluster ensemble method based cluster forests. Cluster forests (CF) is considered as a version of clustering inspired from Random Forests (RF) in the context of clustering for massive data. It aggregates intermediate Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) clustering results via spectral clustering since pseudo-clustering results are presented in the spectral space in order to classify these data sets in the multidimensional data space. One of the main advantages is the use of FCM, which allows building fuzzy membership to all partitions of the datasets due to the fuzzy logic whereas the classical algorithms as K-means permitted to build just hard partitions. In the first place, we ameliorate the CF clustering algorithm with the integration of fuzzy FCM and we compare it with other existing clustering methods. In the second place, we compare K-means and FCM clustering methods with the agglomerative hierarchical clustering (HAC) and other theory presented methods using data benchmarks from UCI repository.

  11. Eclipsing binaries in open clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, John; Clausen, J.V.

    2006-01-01

    Stars: fundamental parameters - Stars : binaries : eclipsing - Stars: Binaries: spectroscopic - Open clusters and ass. : general Udgivelsesdato: 5 August......Stars: fundamental parameters - Stars : binaries : eclipsing - Stars: Binaries: spectroscopic - Open clusters and ass. : general Udgivelsesdato: 5 August...

  12. Galaxy clusters: Falling into line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sifón, Cristóbal

    2017-07-01

    Analysis of Hubble Space Telescope observations shows that the well-known alignment between the central galaxy of a galaxy cluster and its host cluster has been in place for at least ten billion years.

  13. Dynamical Cluster Approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotso, H.; Yang, S.; Chen, K.; Pathak, S.; Moreno, J.; Jarrell, M.; Mikelsons, K.; Khatami, E.; Galanakis, D.

    The dynamical cluster approximation (DCA) is a method which systematically incorporates nonlocal corrections to the dynamical mean-field approximation. Here we present a pedagogical discussion of the DCA by describing it as a Φ-derivable coarse-graining approximation in k-space, which maps an infinite lattice problem onto a periodic finite-sized cluster embedded in a self-consistently determined effective medium. We demonstrate the method by applying it to the two-dimensional Hubbard model. From this application, we show evidences of the presence of a quantum critical point (QCP) at a finite doping underneath the superconducting dome. The QCP is associated with the second-order terminus of a line of first order phase separation transitions. This critical point is driven to zero temperature by varying the band parameters, generating the QCP. The effect of the proximity of the QCP to the superconducting dome is also discussed.

  14. A parallel sampling based clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Sastry, Aditya AV; Netti, Kalyan

    2014-01-01

    The problem of automatically clustering data is an age old problem. People have created numerous algorithms to tackle this problem. The execution time of any of this algorithm grows with the number of input points and the number of cluster centers required. To reduce the number of input points we could average the points locally and use the means or the local centers as the input for clustering. However since the required number of local centers is very high, running the clustering algorithm ...

  15. Massive star clusters in galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, William E

    2010-02-28

    The ensemble of all star clusters in a galaxy constitutes its star cluster system. In this review, the focus of the discussion is on the ability of star clusters, particularly the systems of old massive globular clusters (GCs), to mark the early evolutionary history of galaxies. I review current themes and key findings in GC research, and highlight some of the outstanding questions that are emerging from recent work.

  16. [Cluster analysis in biomedical researches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akopov, A S; Moskovtsev, A A; Dolenko, S A; Savina, G D

    2013-01-01

    Cluster analysis is one of the most popular methods for the analysis of multi-parameter data. The cluster analysis reveals the internal structure of the data, group the separate observations on the degree of their similarity. The review provides a definition of the basic concepts of cluster analysis, and discusses the most popular clustering algorithms: k-means, hierarchical algorithms, Kohonen networks algorithms. Examples are the use of these algorithms in biomedical research.

  17. Clustering signatures classify directed networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahnert, S. E.; Fink, T. M. A.

    2008-09-01

    We use a clustering signature, based on a recently introduced generalization of the clustering coefficient to directed networks, to analyze 16 directed real-world networks of five different types: social networks, genetic transcription networks, word adjacency networks, food webs, and electric circuits. We show that these five classes of networks are cleanly separated in the space of clustering signatures due to the statistical properties of their local neighborhoods, demonstrating the usefulness of clustering signatures as a classifier of directed networks.

  18. The Assembly of Galaxy Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrier, Joel C.; Stewart, Kyle R.; Bullock, James S.; Purcell, Chris W.; Barton, Elizabeth J.; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2008-05-16

    We study the formation of fifty-three galaxy cluster-size dark matter halos (M = 10{sup 14.0-14.76} M{sub {circle_dot}}) formed within a pair of cosmological {Lambda}CDM N-body simulations, and track the accretion histories of cluster subhalos with masses large enough to host {approx} 0.1L{sub *} galaxies. By associating subhalos with cluster galaxies, we find the majority of galaxies in clusters experience no 'pre-processing' in the group environment prior to their accretion into the cluster. On average, {approx} 70% of cluster galaxies fall into the cluster potential directly from the field, with no luminous companions in their host halos at the time of accretion; and less than {approx} 12% are accreted as members of groups with five or more galaxies. Moreover, we find that cluster galaxies are significantly less likely to have experienced a merger in the recent past ({approx}< 6 Gyr) than a field halo of the same mass. These results suggest that local, cluster processes like ram-pressure stripping, galaxy harassment, or strangulation play the dominant role in explaining the difference between cluster and field populations at a fixed stellar mass; and that pre-evolution or past merging in the group environment is of secondary importance for setting cluster galaxy properties for most clusters. The accretion times for z = 0 cluster members are quite extended, with {approx} 20% incorporated into the cluster halo more than 7 Gyr ago and {approx} 20% within the last 2 Gyr. By comparing the observed morphological fractions in cluster and field populations, we estimate an approximate time-scale for late-type to early-type transformation within the cluster environment to be {approx} 6 Gyr.

  19. Clusters and entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Mercedes Delgado; Porter, Michael E.; Scott Stern

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the role of regional clusters in regional entrepreneurship. We focus on the distinct influences of convergence and agglomeration on growth in the number of start-up firms as well as in employment in these new firms in a given region-industry. While reversion to the mean and diminishing returns to entrepreneurship at the region-industry level can result in a convergence effect, the presence of complementary economic activity creates externalities that enhance incentives and...

  20. South Asian Cluster

    OpenAIRE

    Ionel Sergiu Pirju

    2014-01-01

    This article aims at presenting the South Asian cluster composed of India, Indonesia, Iran and Malaysia, the intercultural values that characterizes it, the supported leadership style and tracing the main macroeconomic considerations which characterizes them. The research is synchronic, analysing the contemporary situation of these countries without reference to their evolution in time, by using the positivist paradigm that explains the reality at one point. It will be analysed th...

  1. Cosmology, Clusters and Calorimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali

    2005-01-01

    I will review the current state of Cosmology with Clusters and discuss the application of microcalorimeter arrays to this field. With the launch of Astro-E2 this summer and a slew of new missions being developed, microcalorimeters are the next big thing in x-ray astronomy. I will cover the basics and not-so-basic concepts of microcalorimeter designs and look at the future to see where this technology will go.

  2. On clusters and clustering from atoms to fractals

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, PJ

    1993-01-01

    This book attempts to answer why there is so much interest in clusters. Clusters occur on all length scales, and as a result occur in a variety of fields. Clusters are interesting scientifically, but they also have important consequences technologically. The division of the book into three parts roughly separates the field into small, intermediate, and large-scale clusters. Small clusters are the regime of atomic and molecular physics and chemistry. The intermediate regime is the transitional regime, with its characteristics including the onset of bulk-like behavior, growth and aggregation, a

  3. Polarizability effect in metallic clusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Metallic clusters are one such cluster type, investigations of which go back to Knight et al's experiments [1]. After observing .... Accounting for theoretical studies [16–19] where the dynamical effect of the ... The essential question to investigate now is: how does the fragmentation take place and how does it depend on cluster ...

  4. Recovery Rate of Clustering Algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Fajie; Klette, Reinhard; Wada, T; Huang, F; Lin, S

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a simple and general way for defining the recovery rate of clustering algorithms using a given family of old clusters for evaluating the performance of the algorithm when calculating a family of new clusters. Under the assumption of dealing with simulated data (i.e., known old

  5. Clustering objects from multiple collections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollink, V.; van Someren, M.; de Boer, V.

    2009-01-01

    Clustering methods cluster objects on the basis of a similarity measure between the objects. In clustering tasks where the objects come from more than one collection often part of the similarity results from features that are related to the collections rather than features that are relevant for the

  6. Geographic Projection of Cluster Composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nerbonne, J.; Bosveld-de Smet, L.M.; Kleiweg, P.; Blackwell, A.; Marriott, K.; Shimojima, A.

    2004-01-01

    A composite cluster map displays a fuzzy categorisation of geographic areas. It combines information from several sources to provide a visualisation of the significance of cluster borders. The basic technique renders the chance that two neighbouring locations are members of different clusters as the

  7. Subspace K-means clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerman, Marieke E; Ceulemans, Eva; De Roover, Kim; Van Leeuwen, Karla

    2013-12-01

    To achieve an insightful clustering of multivariate data, we propose subspace K-means. Its central idea is to model the centroids and cluster residuals in reduced spaces, which allows for dealing with a wide range of cluster types and yields rich interpretations of the clusters. We review the existing related clustering methods, including deterministic, stochastic, and unsupervised learning approaches. To evaluate subspace K-means, we performed a comparative simulation study, in which we manipulated the overlap of subspaces, the between-cluster variance, and the error variance. The study shows that the subspace K-means algorithm is sensitive to local minima but that the problem can be reasonably dealt with by using partitions of various cluster procedures as a starting point for the algorithm. Subspace K-means performs very well in recovering the true clustering across all conditions considered and appears to be superior to its competitor methods: K-means, reduced K-means, factorial K-means, mixtures of factor analyzers (MFA), and MCLUST. The best competitor method, MFA, showed a performance similar to that of subspace K-means in easy conditions but deteriorated in more difficult ones. Using data from a study on parental behavior, we show that subspace K-means analysis provides a rich insight into the cluster characteristics, in terms of both the relative positions of the clusters (via the centroids) and the shape of the clusters (via the within-cluster residuals).

  8. E1, M1, E2 transition energies and probabilities of W$^{54+}$ ions

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Xiao-bin; Liu, Jia-xin; Koike, Fumihiro; Murakami, Izumi; Kato, Daiji; Sakaue, Hiroyuki A; Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Dong, Chen-zhong

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive theoretical study of the E1, M1, E2 transitions of Ca-like tungsten ions is presented. Using multi-configuration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) method with a restricted active space treatment, the wavelengths and probabilities of the M1 and E2 transitions between the multiplets of the ground state configuration ([Ne]3s$^{2}$3p$^{6}$3d$^{2}$) and of the E1 transitions between [Ne]3s$^{2}$3p$^{5}$3d$^{3}$ and [Ne]3s$^{2}$3p$^{6}$3d$^{2}$ have been calculated. The results are in reasonable agreement with available experimental data. The present E1 and M1 calculations are compared with previous theoretical values. For E2 transitions, the importance of electron correlation from 3s and 3p orbitals is pointed out. Several strong E1 transitions are predicted, which have potential advantage for plasma diagnostics.

  9. Pulsed γ-ray emission from magnetar 1E 2259+586

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Hung Kit Wu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs are thought to be magnetars which are young isolated neutron stars with extremely strong magnetic fields of >1014 Gauss. Their tremendous magnetic fields inferred from the spin parameters provide a huge energy reservoir to power the observed X-ray emission. High-energy emission above 0.3 MeV has never been detected despite intensive search. Here, we present the possible Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT detection of γ-ray pulsations above 200 MeV from the AXP, 1E 2259+586, which puts the current theoretical models of γ-ray emission mechanisms of magnetars into challenge. We speculate that the high-energy γ-rays originate from the outer magnetosphere of the magnetar.

  10. Support Policies in Clusters: Prioritization of Support Needs by Cluster Members According to Cluster Life Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulcin Salıngan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Economic development has always been a moving target. Both the national and local governments have been facing the challenge of implementing the effective and efficient economic policy and program in order to best utilize their limited resources. One of the recent approaches in this area is called cluster-based economic analysis and strategy development. This study reviews key literature and some of the cluster based economic policies adopted by different governments. Based on this review, it proposes “the cluster life cycle” as a determining factor to identify the support requirements of clusters. A survey, designed based on literature review of International Cluster support programs, was conducted with 30 participants from 3 clusters with different maturity stage. This paper discusses the results of this study conducted among the cluster members in Eskişehir- Bilecik-Kütahya Region in Turkey on the requirement of the support to foster the development of related clusters.

  11. Holocaust With(out Bullets: The Public and Property of the Jewish People from Šabac and the Kladovo Transport 1941–1944

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Petrović Todosijević

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to illustrate the role the municipal authorities in Šabac, which were headed by wartime mayor Branko Petrović, and which were part of Milan Aćimović’s collaborationist administration and Milan Nedić’s government, played in the process of usurping the right to property of the Jewish people from Šabac and from the Kladovo Transport, initially through the Committee for Registration and Evaluation of Jewish Property, and later through the Commissariat for Jewish Property.   Article received: May 2, 2017; Article accepted: May 8, 2017; Published online: September 15, 2017 Original scholarly paper How to cite this article: Petrović Todosijević, Sanja. "Holocaust With(out Bullets: The Public and Property of the Jewish People from Šabac and the Kladovo Transport 1941–1944." AM Journal of Art and Media Studies 13 (2017: 5-15. doi: 10.25038/am.v0i13.181

  12. Statistics of sunspot group clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getko Ryszarda

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Zubrzycki method is utilized to find all sunspot groups which are close to each other during each Carrington rotation. The sunspot group areas and their positions for the years 1874–2008 are used. The descending, the ascending and the maximum phases of solar cycles for each solar hemisphere are considered separately. To establish the size of the region D where the clusters are searched, the correlation function dependent on the distance between two groups is applied. The method estimates the weighted area of each cluster. The weights dependent on the correlation function of distances between sunspot groups created each cluster. For each cluster the weighted position is also evaluated. The weights dependent on the areas of sunspot groups created a given cluster. The number distribution of the sunspot groups created each cluster and the cluster statistics within different phases of the 11-year cycle and within all considered solar cycles are also presented.

  13. E1^E4-mediated keratin phosphorylation and ubiquitylation: a mechanism for keratin depletion in HPV16-infected epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Pauline B.; Laskey, Peter; Sullivan, Kate; Davy, Clare; Wang, Qian; Jackson, Deborah J.; Griffin, Heather M.; Doorbar, John

    2010-01-01

    The keratin IF network of epidermal keratinocytes provides a protective barrier against mechanical insult, it is also a major player in absorbing stress in these cells. The human papilloma virus (HPV) type 16 E1^E4 protein accumulates in the upper layers of HPV16-infected epithelium and is known to associate with and reorganise the keratin IF network in cells in culture. Here, we show that this function is conserved amongst a number of HPV alpha-group E1^E4 proteins and that the differentiation-dependent keratins are also targeted. Using time-lapse microscopy, HPV16 E1^E4 was found to effect a dramatic cessation of keratin IF network dynamics by associating with both soluble and insoluble keratin. Network disruption was accompanied by keratin hyperphosphorylation at several sites, including K8 S73, which is typically phosphorylated in response to stress stimuli. Keratin immunoprecipitated from E1^E4-expressing cells was also found to be ubiquitylated, indicating that it is targeted for proteasomal degradation. Interestingly, the accumulation of hyperphosphorylated, ubiquitylated E1^E4-keratin structures was found to result in an impairment of proteasomal function. These observations shed new light on the mechanism of keratin IF network reorganisation mediated by HPV16 E1^E4 and provide an insight into the depletion of keratin co-incident with E1^E4 accumulation observed in HPV-infected epithelium. PMID:20663917

  14. Fast Constrained Spectral Clustering and Cluster Ensemble with Random Projection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfen Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Constrained spectral clustering (CSC method can greatly improve the clustering accuracy with the incorporation of constraint information into spectral clustering and thus has been paid academic attention widely. In this paper, we propose a fast CSC algorithm via encoding landmark-based graph construction into a new CSC model and applying random sampling to decrease the data size after spectral embedding. Compared with the original model, the new algorithm has the similar results with the increase of its model size asymptotically; compared with the most efficient CSC algorithm known, the new algorithm runs faster and has a wider range of suitable data sets. Meanwhile, a scalable semisupervised cluster ensemble algorithm is also proposed via the combination of our fast CSC algorithm and dimensionality reduction with random projection in the process of spectral ensemble clustering. We demonstrate by presenting theoretical analysis and empirical results that the new cluster ensemble algorithm has advantages in terms of efficiency and effectiveness. Furthermore, the approximate preservation of random projection in clustering accuracy proved in the stage of consensus clustering is also suitable for the weighted k-means clustering and thus gives the theoretical guarantee to this special kind of k-means clustering where each point has its corresponding weight.

  15. Convex Clustering: An Attractive Alternative to Hierarchical Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gary K.; Chi, Eric C.; Ranola, John Michael O.; Lange, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal in cluster analysis is to discover natural groupings of objects. The field of cluster analysis is crowded with diverse methods that make special assumptions about data and address different scientific aims. Despite its shortcomings in accuracy, hierarchical clustering is the dominant clustering method in bioinformatics. Biologists find the trees constructed by hierarchical clustering visually appealing and in tune with their evolutionary perspective. Hierarchical clustering operates on multiple scales simultaneously. This is essential, for instance, in transcriptome data, where one may be interested in making qualitative inferences about how lower-order relationships like gene modules lead to higher-order relationships like pathways or biological processes. The recently developed method of convex clustering preserves the visual appeal of hierarchical clustering while ameliorating its propensity to make false inferences in the presence of outliers and noise. The solution paths generated by convex clustering reveal relationships between clusters that are hidden by static methods such as k-means clustering. The current paper derives and tests a novel proximal distance algorithm for minimizing the objective function of convex clustering. The algorithm separates parameters, accommodates missing data, and supports prior information on relationships. Our program CONVEXCLUSTER incorporating the algorithm is implemented on ATI and nVidia graphics processing units (GPUs) for maximal speed. Several biological examples illustrate the strengths of convex clustering and the ability of the proximal distance algorithm to handle high-dimensional problems. CONVEXCLUSTER can be freely downloaded from the UCLA Human Genetics web site at http://www.genetics.ucla.edu/software/ PMID:25965340

  16. Convex clustering: an attractive alternative to hierarchical clustering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary K Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal in cluster analysis is to discover natural groupings of objects. The field of cluster analysis is crowded with diverse methods that make special assumptions about data and address different scientific aims. Despite its shortcomings in accuracy, hierarchical clustering is the dominant clustering method in bioinformatics. Biologists find the trees constructed by hierarchical clustering visually appealing and in tune with their evolutionary perspective. Hierarchical clustering operates on multiple scales simultaneously. This is essential, for instance, in transcriptome data, where one may be interested in making qualitative inferences about how lower-order relationships like gene modules lead to higher-order relationships like pathways or biological processes. The recently developed method of convex clustering preserves the visual appeal of hierarchical clustering while ameliorating its propensity to make false inferences in the presence of outliers and noise. The solution paths generated by convex clustering reveal relationships between clusters that are hidden by static methods such as k-means clustering. The current paper derives and tests a novel proximal distance algorithm for minimizing the objective function of convex clustering. The algorithm separates parameters, accommodates missing data, and supports prior information on relationships. Our program CONVEXCLUSTER incorporating the algorithm is implemented on ATI and nVidia graphics processing units (GPUs for maximal speed. Several biological examples illustrate the strengths of convex clustering and the ability of the proximal distance algorithm to handle high-dimensional problems. CONVEXCLUSTER can be freely downloaded from the UCLA Human Genetics web site at http://www.genetics.ucla.edu/software/.

  17. Convex clustering: an attractive alternative to hierarchical clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gary K; Chi, Eric C; Ranola, John Michael O; Lange, Kenneth

    2015-05-01

    The primary goal in cluster analysis is to discover natural groupings of objects. The field of cluster analysis is crowded with diverse methods that make special assumptions about data and address different scientific aims. Despite its shortcomings in accuracy, hierarchical clustering is the dominant clustering method in bioinformatics. Biologists find the trees constructed by hierarchical clustering visually appealing and in tune with their evolutionary perspective. Hierarchical clustering operates on multiple scales simultaneously. This is essential, for instance, in transcriptome data, where one may be interested in making qualitative inferences about how lower-order relationships like gene modules lead to higher-order relationships like pathways or biological processes. The recently developed method of convex clustering preserves the visual appeal of hierarchical clustering while ameliorating its propensity to make false inferences in the presence of outliers and noise. The solution paths generated by convex clustering reveal relationships between clusters that are hidden by static methods such as k-means clustering. The current paper derives and tests a novel proximal distance algorithm for minimizing the objective function of convex clustering. The algorithm separates parameters, accommodates missing data, and supports prior information on relationships. Our program CONVEXCLUSTER incorporating the algorithm is implemented on ATI and nVidia graphics processing units (GPUs) for maximal speed. Several biological examples illustrate the strengths of convex clustering and the ability of the proximal distance algorithm to handle high-dimensional problems. CONVEXCLUSTER can be freely downloaded from the UCLA Human Genetics web site at http://www.genetics.ucla.edu/software/.

  18. Clustering of agricultural enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Beranová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural business is a very specific branch which is characterized by very low financial performance while this characteristic is given mainly by external factors as market pricing of agricultural commodities on one side, and production costs of agricultural commodities on the other side. This way, agricultural enterprises recognize negative values of gross margin in the Profit and Loss Statement but positive value of operating profit after even there are items of costs which are deducted. These results are derived from agricultural production subsidies which are recognized as income in the P/L Statement. In connection with this fact, the government subsidies are a substantial component of financial performance of agricultural enterprises.Primary research proceeded on the statistical sample of one hundred agricultural companies, has shown that also other specifics influencing financial performance of these businesses exist here. In order to determine the influences, the cluster analysis has been applied at using more than 10 variables. This approach has led to construction of clusters (groups of agricultural business entities with different characteristics of the group. The objective of this paper is to identify the main determinants of financial performance of agricultural enterprises and to determine their influences under different economic characteristics of these business entities. For this purpose, the regression analysis has been subsequently applied on the groups of companies coming out from the cluster analysis. Besides the operating profit which is the main driving force of financial performance measured with the economic value added (EVA in agricultural enterprises, also capital structure and cost of capital have been observed as very strong influences on financial performance but these factors have different directions of their influence on the economic value added under different financial characteristics of agricultural

  19. In the wake of dark giants: new signatures of dark matter self-interactions in equal-mass mergers of galaxy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Stacy Y.; Peter, Annika H. G.; Wittman, David

    2017-08-01

    Merging galaxy clusters have been touted as one of the best probes for constraining self-interacting dark matter, but few simulations exist to back up this claim. We simulate equal-mass mergers of 1015 M⊙ haloes, like the El Gordo and Sausage clusters, with cosmologically motivated halo and merger parameters, and with velocity-independent dark-matter self-interactions. Although the standard lore for merging clusters is that self-interactions lead to large separations between the galaxy and dark-matter distributions, we find that maximal galaxy-dark matter offsets of ≲20 kpc form for a self-interaction cross-section of σSI/mχ = 1 cm2 g-1. This is an order of magnitude smaller than those measured in observed equal-mass and near-equal-mass mergers, and is likely to be even smaller for lower mass systems. While competitive cross-section constraints are thus unlikely to emerge from offsets, we find other signatures of self-interactions that are more promising. Intriguingly, we find that after dark-matter haloes coalesce, the collisionless galaxies [and especially the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG)] oscillate around the centre of the merger remnant on stable orbits of 100 kpc for σSI/mχ = 1 cm2 g-1 for at least several Gyr, well after the clusters have relaxed. If BCG miscentring in relaxed clusters remains a robust prediction of self-interacting dark matter under the addition of gas physics, substructure, merger mass ratios (e.g. 10:1 like the Bullet Cluster) and complex cosmological merger histories, the observed BCG offsets may constrain σSI/mχ to ≲0.1 cm2 g-1 - the tightest constraint yet.

  20. Hadoop cluster deployment

    CERN Document Server

    Zburivsky, Danil

    2013-01-01

    This book is a step-by-step tutorial filled with practical examples which will show you how to build and manage a Hadoop cluster along with its intricacies.This book is ideal for database administrators, data engineers, and system administrators, and it will act as an invaluable reference if you are planning to use the Hadoop platform in your organization. It is expected that you have basic Linux skills since all the examples in this book use this operating system. It is also useful if you have access to test hardware or virtual machines to be able to follow the examples in the book.

  1. Globular clusters - FADS and fallacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Raymond E.

    1991-01-01

    The types of globular clusters observed in the Milky Way Galaxy are described together with their known characteristics, with special attention given to correcting the erroneous statements made earlier about globular clusters. Among these are the following statements: the Galaxy is surrounded by many hundreds of globular clusters; all globular clusters are located toward the Galactic center, all globular clusters are 'metal poor' and move about the Galaxy in highly elliptical paths; all globular clusters contain RR Lyrae-type variable stars, and the RR Lyrae stars found outside of globulars have come from cluster dissolution or ejection; all of the stars in a given cluster were born at the same time and have the same chemical composition; X-ray globulars are powered by central black holes; and the luminosity functions for globular clusters are well defined and well determined. Consideration is given to the fact that globular clusters in the Magellanic Clouds differ from those in the Milky Way by their age distribution and that the globulars of the SMC differ from those of the LMC.

  2. NuSTAR OBSERVATIONS OF THE MAGNETAR 1E 2259+586

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, Julia K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hascoët, Romain [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Kaspi, Victoria M. [Univ. of Montreal, Quebec (Canada); An, Hongjun [Univ. of Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Archibald, Robert [Univ. of Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Beloborodov, Andrei M. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Boggs, Steven E. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Christensen, Finn E. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark); Craig, William W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gotthelf, Eric V. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Grefenstette, Brian W. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Hailey, Charles J. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Harrison, Fiona A. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Kennea, Jamie A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States); Madsen, Kristin K. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Pivovaroff, Michael J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Stern, Daniel [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Zhang, William W. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    2014-07-01

    We report on new broad band spectral and temporal observations of the magnetar 1E 2259+586, which is located in the supernova remnant CTB 109. Our data were obtained simultaneously with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and Swift, and cover the energy range from 0.5-79 keV. We present pulse profiles in various energy bands and compare them to previous RXTE results. The NuSTAR data show pulsations above 20 keV for the first time and we report evidence that one of the pulses in the double-peaked pulse profile shifts position with energy. The pulsed fraction of the magnetar is shown to increase strongly with energy. Our spectral analysis reveals that the soft X-ray spectrum is well characterized by an absorbed double blackbody or blackbody plus power-law model in agreement with previous reports. Our new hard X-ray data, however, suggest that an additional component, such as a power law, is needed to describe the NuSTAR and Swift spectrum. We also fit the data with the recently developed coronal outflow model by Beloborodov for hard X-ray emission from magnetars. The outflow from a ring on the magnetar surface is statistically preferred over outflow from a polar cap.

  3. 1-eV GaInNAs solar cells for ultrahigh-frequency multijunction devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, D.J.; Geisz, J.F.; Kurtz, S.R.; Olson, J.M. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-09-01

    The authors demonstrate working prototypes of a GaInNAs-based solar cell lattice-matched to GaAs with photoresponse down to 1 eV. This device is intended for use as the third junction of future-generation ultrahigh-efficiency three- and four-junction devices. Under the AM1.5 direct spectrum with all the light higher in energy than the GaAs band gap filtered out, the prototypes have open-circuit voltages ranging from 0.35 to 0.44 V, short-circuit currents of 1.8 mA/cm{sup 2}, and fill factors from 61--66%. The short-circuit currents are of principal concern: the internal quantum efficiencies rise only to about 0.2. The authors discuss the short diffusion lengths which are the reason for this low photocurrent. As a partial workaround for the poor diffusion lengths, they demonstrate a depletion-width-enhanced variation of one of the prototype devices that grades off decreased voltage for increased photocurrent, with a short-circuit current of 6.5 mA/cm{sup 2} and an open-circuit voltage of 0.29 V.

  4. A cascading activity-based probe sequentially targets E1-E2-E3 ubiquitin enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Monique P C; Witting, Katharina; Berlin, Ilana; Pruneda, Jonathan N; Wu, Kuen-Phon; Chang, Jer-Gung; Merkx, Remco; Bialas, Johanna; Groettrup, Marcus; Vertegaal, Alfred C O; Schulman, Brenda A; Komander, David; Neefjes, Jacques; El Oualid, Farid; Ovaa, Huib

    2016-07-01

    Post-translational modifications of proteins with ubiquitin (Ub) and ubiquitin-like modifiers (Ubls), orchestrated by a cascade of specialized E1, E2 and E3 enzymes, control a wide range of cellular processes. To monitor catalysis along these complex reaction pathways, we developed a cascading activity-based probe, UbDha. Similarly to the native Ub, upon ATP-dependent activation by the E1, UbDha can travel downstream to the E2 (and subsequently E3) enzymes through sequential trans-thioesterifications. Unlike the native Ub, at each step along the cascade, UbDha has the option to react irreversibly with active site cysteine residues of target enzymes, thus enabling their detection. We show that our cascading probe 'hops' and 'traps' catalytically active Ub-modifying enzymes (but not their substrates) by a mechanism diversifiable to Ubls. Our founder methodology, amenable to structural studies, proteome-wide profiling and monitoring of enzymatic activity in living cells, presents novel and versatile tools to interrogate Ub and Ubl cascades.

  5. NuSTAR Observations of the Magnetar 1E 2259+586

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Julia K.; Hascoet, Romain; Kaspi, Victoria M.; An, Hongjun; Archibald, Robert; Beloborodov, Andrei M.; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Gotthelf, Eric V.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We report on new broad band spectral and temporal observations of the magnetar 1E 2259+586, which is located in the supernova remnant CTB 109. Our data were obtained simultaneously with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and Swift, and cover the energy range from 0.5-79 keV. We present pulse profiles in various energy bands and compare them to previous RXTE results. The NuSTAR data show pulsations above 20 keV for the first time and we report evidence that one of the pulses in the double-peaked pulse profile shifts position with energy. The pulsed fraction of the magnetar is shown to increase strongly with energy. Our spectral analysis reveals that the soft X-ray spectrum is well characterized by an absorbed double blackbody or blackbody plus power-law model in agreement with previous reports. Our new hard X-ray data, however, suggest that an additional component, such as a power law, is needed to describe the NuSTAR and Swift spectrum. We also fit the data with the recently developed coronal outflow model by Beloborodov for hard X-ray emission from magnetars. The outflow from a ring on the magnetar surface is statistically preferred over outflow from a polar cap.

  6. Large graph clustering using DCT-based graph clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Tsapanos, Nikolaos; Tefas, Anastasios; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos; Pitas, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    With the proliferation of the World Wide Web, graph structures have arisen on social network/media sites. Such graphs usually number several million nodes, i.e., they can be characterized as Big Data. Graph clustering is an important analysis tool for other graph related tasks, such as compression, community discovery and recommendation systems, to name a few. We propose a novel extension to a graph clustering algorithm, that attempts to cluster a graph, through the optimization ofselected te...

  7. A Generalized Affinity Propagation Clustering Algorithm for Nonspherical Cluster Discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Teng; Li, Yongjie

    2015-01-01

    Clustering analysis aims to discover the underlying clusters in the data points according to their similarities. It has wide applications ranging from bioinformatics to astronomy. Here, we proposed a Generalized Affinity Propagation (G-AP) clustering algorithm. Data points are first organized in a sparsely connected in-tree (IT) structure by a physically inspired strategy. Then, additional edges are added to the IT structure for those reachable nodes. This expanded structure is subsequently t...

  8. SPAK and OSR1 Sensitive Cell Membrane Protein Abundance and Activity of KCNQ1/E1 K+ Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernat Elvira

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: KCNQ1/E1 channels are expressed in diverse tissues and serve a variety of functions including endolymph secretion in the inner ear, cardiac repolarization, epithelial transport and cell volume regulation. Kinases involved in regulation of epithelial transport and cell volume include SPAK (SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase and OSR1 (oxidative stress-responsive kinase 1, which are under control of WNK (with-no-K[Lys] kinases. The present study explored whether KCNQ1/E1 channels are regulated by SPAK and/or OSR1. Methods: cRNA encoding KCNQ1/E1 was injected into Xenopus oocytes with or without additional injection of cRNA encoding wild-type SPAK, constitutively active T233ESPAK, WNK insensitive T233ASPAK, catalytically inactive D212ASPAK, wild-type OSR1, constitutively active T185EOSR1, WNK insensitive T185AOSR1 and catalytically inactive D164AOSR1. Voltage gated K+ channel activity was quantified utilizing dual electrode voltage clamp and KCNQ1/E1 channel protein abundance in the cell membrane utilizing chemiluminescence of KCNQ1/E1 containing an extracellular Flag tag epitope (KCNQ1-Flag/E1. Results: KCNQ1/E1 activity and KCNQ1-Flag/E1 protein abundance were significantly enhanced by wild-type SPAK and T233ESPAK, but not by T233ASPAK and D212ASPAK. Similarly, KCNQ1/E1 activity and KCNQ1-Flag/E1 protein abundance were significantly increased by wild-type OSR1 and T185EOSR1, but not by T185AOSR1 and D164AOSR1. Conclusions: SPAK and OSR1 participate in the regulation of KCNQ1/E1 protein abundance and activity.

  9. SPAK and OSR1 Sensitive Cell Membrane Protein Abundance and Activity of KCNQ1/E1 K+ Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvira, Bernat; Warsi, Jamshed; Fezai, Myriam; Munoz, Carlos; Lang, Florian

    2015-01-01

    KCNQ1/E1 channels are expressed in diverse tissues and serve a variety of functions including endolymph secretion in the inner ear, cardiac repolarization, epithelial transport and cell volume regulation. Kinases involved in regulation of epithelial transport and cell volume include SPAK (SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase) and OSR1 (oxidative stress-responsive kinase 1), which are under control of WNK (with-no-K[Lys]) kinases. The present study explored whether KCNQ1/E1 channels are regulated by SPAK and/or OSR1. cRNA encoding KCNQ1/E1 was injected into Xenopus oocytes with or without additional injection of cRNA encoding wild-type SPAK, constitutively active T233ESPAK, WNK insensitive T233ASPAK, catalytically inactive D212ASPAK, wild-type OSR1, constitutively active T185EOSR1, WNK insensitive T185AOSR1 and catalytically inactive D164AOSR1. Voltage gated K+ channel activity was quantified utilizing dual electrode voltage clamp and KCNQ1/E1 channel protein abundance in the cell membrane utilizing chemiluminescence of KCNQ1/E1 containing an extracellular Flag tag epitope (KCNQ1-Flag/E1). KCNQ1/E1 activity and KCNQ1-Flag/E1 protein abundance were significantly enhanced by wild-type SPAK and T233ESPAK, but not by T233ASPAK and D212ASPAK. Similarly, KCNQ1/E1 activity and KCNQ1-Flag/E1 protein abundance were significantly increased by wild-type OSR1 and T185EOSR1, but not by T185AOSR1 and D164AOSR1. SPAK and OSR1 participate in the regulation of KCNQ1/E1 protein abundance and activity. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. AKT1E17K Is Oncogenic in Mouse Lung and Cooperates with Chemical Carcinogens in Inducing Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanga, Donatella; Belmonte, Stefania; Colelli, Fabiana; Scarfò, Marzia; De Marco, Carmela; Oliveira, Duarte Mendes; Mirante, Teresa; Camastra, Caterina; Gagliardi, Monica; Rizzuto, Antonia; Mignogna, Chiara; Paciello, Orlando; Papparella, Serenella; Fagman, Henrik; Viglietto, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The hotspot AKT1E17K mutation in the pleckstrin homology domain of AKT1 occurs in approximately 0.6–2% of human lung cancers. Recently, we have demonstrated that AKT1E17K transforms immortalized human bronchial cells. Here by use of a transgenic Cre-inducible murine strain in the wild type Rosa26 (R26) locus (R26-AKT1E17K mice) we demonstrate that AKT1E17K is a bona-fide oncogene and plays a role in the development of lung cancer in vivo. In fact, we report that mutant AKT1E17K induces bronchial and/or bronchiolar hyperplastic lesions in murine lung epithelium, which progress to frank carcinoma at very low frequency, and accelerates tumor formation induced by chemical carcinogens. In conclusion, AKT1E17K induces hyperplasia of mouse lung epithelium in vivo and cooperates with urethane to induce the fully malignant phenotype. PMID:26859676

  11. Cluster Based Text Classification Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nizamani, Sarwat; Memon, Nasrullah; Wiil, Uffe Kock

    2011-01-01

    We propose a cluster based classification model for suspicious email detection and other text classification tasks. The text classification tasks comprise many training examples that require a complex classification model. Using clusters for classification makes the model simpler and increases...... the accuracy at the same time. The test example is classified using simpler and smaller model. The training examples in a particular cluster share the common vocabulary. At the time of clustering, we do not take into account the labels of the training examples. After the clusters have been created......, the classifier is trained on each cluster having reduced dimensionality and less number of examples. The experimental results show that the proposed model outperforms the existing classification models for the task of suspicious email detection and topic categorization on the Reuters-21578 and 20 Newsgroups...

  12. Privacy-preserving distributed clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erkin, Zekeriya; Veugen, Thijs; Toft, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Clustering is a very important tool in data mining and is widely used in on-line services for medical, financial and social environments. The main goal in clustering is to create sets of similar objects in a data set. The data set to be used for clustering can be owned by a single entity......, or in some cases, information from different databases is pooled to enrich the data so that the merged database can improve the clustering effort. However, in either case, the content of the database may be privacy sensitive and/or commercially valuable such that the owners may not want to share their data...... for distributed clustering that limits information leakage to the untrusted service provider that performs the clustering. To achieve this goal, we rely on cryptographic techniques, in particular homomorphic encryption, and further improve the state of the art of processing encrypted data in terms of efficiency...

  13. Quantum annealing for combinatorial clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vaibhaw; Bass, Gideon; Tomlin, Casey; Dulny, Joseph

    2018-02-01

    Clustering is a powerful machine learning technique that groups "similar" data points based on their characteristics. Many clustering algorithms work by approximating the minimization of an objective function, namely the sum of within-the-cluster distances between points. The straightforward approach involves examining all the possible assignments of points to each of the clusters. This approach guarantees the solution will be a global minimum; however, the number of possible assignments scales quickly with the number of data points and becomes computationally intractable even for very small datasets. In order to circumvent this issue, cost function minima are found using popular local search-based heuristic approaches such as k-means and hierarchical clustering. Due to their greedy nature, such techniques do not guarantee that a global minimum will be found and can lead to sub-optimal clustering assignments. Other classes of global search-based techniques, such as simulated annealing, tabu search, and genetic algorithms, may offer better quality results but can be too time-consuming to implement. In this work, we describe how quantum annealing can be used to carry out clustering. We map the clustering objective to a quadratic binary optimization problem and discuss two clustering algorithms which are then implemented on commercially available quantum annealing hardware, as well as on a purely classical solver "qbsolv." The first algorithm assigns N data points to K clusters, and the second one can be used to perform binary clustering in a hierarchical manner. We present our results in the form of benchmarks against well-known k-means clustering and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed techniques.

  14. Random matrix improved subspace clustering

    KAUST Repository

    Couillet, Romain

    2017-03-06

    This article introduces a spectral method for statistical subspace clustering. The method is built upon standard kernel spectral clustering techniques, however carefully tuned by theoretical understanding arising from random matrix findings. We show in particular that our method provides high clustering performance while standard kernel choices provably fail. An application to user grouping based on vector channel observations in the context of massive MIMO wireless communication networks is provided.

  15. Mixture Model Averaging for Clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Yuhong; McNicholas, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    In mixture model-based clustering applications, it is common to fit several models from a family and report clustering results from only the `best' one. In such circumstances, selection of this best model is achieved using a model selection criterion, most often the Bayesian information criterion. Rather than throw away all but the best model, we average multiple models that are in some sense close to the best one, thereby producing a weighted average of clustering results. Two (weighted) ave...

  16. Fuzzy Clustering in Parallel Universes

    OpenAIRE

    Wiswedel, Bernd; Berthold, Michael R.

    2005-01-01

    We propose a modified fuzzy c-means algorithm that operates on different feature spaces, so-called parallel universes, simultaneously. The method assigns membership values of patterns to different universes, which are then adopted throughout the training. This leads to better clustering results since patterns not contributing to clustering in a universe are (completely or partially) ignored. The outcome of the algorithm are clusters distributed over different parallel universes, each modeling...

  17. Water clusters in nonpolar cavities

    OpenAIRE

    Vaitheeswaran, Subramanian; Yin, Hao; Rasaiah, Jayendran C.; Hummer, Gerhard

    2004-01-01

    We explore the structure and thermodynamics of water clusters confined in nonpolar cavities. By calculating the grand-canonical partition function term by term, we show that small nonpolar cavities can be filled at equilibrium with highly structured water clusters. The structural and thermodynamic properties of these encapsulated water clusters are similar to those observed experimentally in the gas phase. Water filling is highly sensitive to the size of the cavity and the strength of the int...

  18. Decentralized clustering over adaptive networks

    OpenAIRE

    Khawatmi, Sahar; Zoubir, Abdelhak M.; Sayed, Ali H.

    2015-01-01

    Cooperation among agents across the network leads to better estimation accuracy. However, in many network applications the agents infer and track different models of interest in an environment where agents do not know beforehand which models are being observed by their neighbors. In this work, we propose an adaptive and distributed clustering technique that allows agents to learn and form clusters from streaming data in a robust manner. Once clusters are formed, cooperation among agents with ...

  19. Respostas Th1 e Th2 desencadeadas por Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulento em doentes com tuberculose pulmonar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane J. Ordway

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Analisaram-se as respostas Th1 e Th2 desencadeadas por Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulento em doentes com tuberculose pulmonar (TP e em dadores saudáveis vacinados pela BCG. Efectuaramse comparações entre a capacidade que as células T apresentavam para proliferar e para produzir IFN-γ e IL-5 em resposta aos derivados de proteíns purificada (PPD, M. tuberculosis H37Rv (Mtb, e M. tuberculosis H37Rv inactivado pelo calor (hk Mtb.Este estudo demoostrou que os individuos saudá-vels vacínados com BCG evidenciaram um máximo de proliferação e produção de IFN-γ em resposta ao painel de antigénios, e que Mtb vívo destencadeou uma resposta significativamente mais forte que a obtida pelo Mtb inactivado pelo calor. Embora os doentes com tuberculose pulmonary mostrassem respostas medias mais baxies de proliferação e produção de IFN-γ cm relação aos eontrolos saúdaveis, a resposta proliferativa ao PPD não foi significativamente reduzida, enquanto que a resposta ao Mtb e hk Mtb foram, significativas estatisticamitante. Em conclusão na tuberculose pulmonar a produção de IFN-γ pode estar reduzida sem um concomitante aumento de IL-5, confirmandose assim não existir uma mudança de resposta Th1 para Th2 na tuberculose pulmonar.REV PORT PNEUMOL 1998; IV (4:393-402 ABSTRACT: The contribution of Th1 and Th2 responses elicited by virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis was investigated, in healthy BCG vaccinated individuals and pulmonary tuberculosis patients. Comparisons were made between the T cell capacity to proliferate, produce IFN-γ and IL-5 in response to the soluable antigen purified protein derivative (PPD, live M. tuberculosis H37Rv (Mtb and heat killed M tuberculosis H37Rv (hk Mtb. These studies demonstrated that control individuals showed the strongest mean proliferative and IFN-γ responses towards the antigen antigen panel and Mth elicited a significantly

  20. Digging Deep in Pandora's Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, John P.; Alamo-Martinez, Karla; Toloba, Elisa; Barro, Guillermo; Peng, Eric W.

    2015-01-01

    Abell 2744, the first and nearest (z=0.31) of the Hubble Frontier Fields, is extraordinarily rich in the number and variety of galaxies it contains. Nicknamed "Pandora's Cluster," it exhibits multiple peaks in the dark matter, X-ray, and galaxy density distributions, suggesting an ongoing collision of several massive clusters. The exceptional depth of the Hubble Frontier Field imaging now makes it possible to throw open Pandora's cluster and peer deep inside. To do this, we first model and remove the stellar light of the cluster galaxies; underneath we find not only distant background galaxies, but (like the Hope that lay at the bottom of Pandora's box) a large population of globular star clusters and compact cluster members within Abell 2744 itself. Our earlier work on the massive lensing cluster Abell 1689 (Alamo-Martinez et al. 2013) revealed the largest known population of globular clusters, with a spatial profile intermediate between the galaxy light and the dark matter. Abell 2744 is similarly massive, but far less regular in its density distribution; we examine what implications this has for the copious globular clusters coursing through its multiple cores.

  1. Optical properties of cluster plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishimoto, Yasuaki; Tajima, Toshiki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Neyagawa, Osaka (Japan). Kansai Research Establishment; Downer, M.C.

    1998-03-01

    It is shown that unlike a gas plasma or an electron plasma in a metal, an ionized clustered material (`cluster plasma`) permits propagation below the plasma cut-off of electromagnetic (EM) waves whose phase velocity is close to but below the speed of light. This results from the excitation of a plasma oscillation mode (and/or polarization mode) through the cluster surface which does not exist in usual gaseous plasma. The existence of this new optical mode, cluster mode, is confirmed via numerical simulation. (author)

  2. Semi-supervised clustering methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Cluster analysis methods seek to partition a data set into homogeneous subgroups. It is useful in a wide variety of applications, including document processing and modern genetics. Conventional clustering methods are unsupervised, meaning that there is no outcome variable nor is anything known about the relationship between the observations in the data set. In many situations, however, information about the clusters is available in addition to the values of the features. For example, the cluster labels of some observations may be known, or certain observations may be known to belong to the same cluster. In other cases, one may wish to identify clusters that are associated with a particular outcome variable. This review describes several clustering algorithms (known as “semi-supervised clustering” methods) that can be applied in these situations. The majority of these methods are modifications of the popular k-means clustering method, and several of them will be described in detail. A brief description of some other semi-supervised clustering algorithms is also provided. PMID:24729830

  3. THE PERSPECTIVE OF INNOVATION CLUSTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion CERTAN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studied the perspective, particularities and advantages of innovation clusters, the impact of innovation clusters on the country economics. The successful examples of cluster formation on the global level are been considered. The paper indicated the necessities of conversion the economy of Republic of Moldova to the innovation way of development, the necessities of using scientific achievements in the real sector of economy, the necessities of science, technology and innovation. There are allocated perspective industries, which can be prospective for innovative enterprises in Republic of Moldova. The paper is identified priorities for the clusters creation in Moldova.

  4. Statistical significance for hierarchical clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimes, Patrick K; Liu, Yufeng; Neil Hayes, David; Marron, James Stephen

    2017-09-01

    Cluster analysis has proved to be an invaluable tool for the exploratory and unsupervised analysis of high-dimensional datasets. Among methods for clustering, hierarchical approaches have enjoyed substantial popularity in genomics and other fields for their ability to simultaneously uncover multiple layers of clustering structure. A critical and challenging question in cluster analysis is whether the identified clusters represent important underlying structure or are artifacts of natural sampling variation. Few approaches have been proposed for addressing this problem in the context of hierarchical clustering, for which the problem is further complicated by the natural tree structure of the partition, and the multiplicity of tests required to parse the layers of nested clusters. In this article, we propose a Monte Carlo based approach for testing statistical significance in hierarchical clustering which addresses these issues. The approach is implemented as a sequential testing procedure guaranteeing control of the family-wise error rate. Theoretical justification is provided for our approach, and its power to detect true clustering structure is illustrated through several simulation studies and applications to two cancer gene expression datasets. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.

  5. Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benacquista Matthew J.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The galactic population of globular clusters are old, dense star systems, with a typical cluster containing 10^4 - 10^7 stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss the theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution which lead to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Globular cluster evolution will focus on the properties that boost the production of hard binary systems and on the tidal interactions of the galaxy with the cluster, which tend to alter the structure of the globular cluster with time. The interaction of the components of hard binary systems alters the evolution of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct N-body integrations and Fokker-Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.

  6. Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benacquista Matthew

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The galactic population of globular clusters are old, dense star systems, with a typical cluster containing $10^4 - 10^6$ stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss the theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution which lead to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Globular cluster evolution will focus on the properties that boost the production of hard binary systems and on the tidal interactions of the galaxy with the cluster, which tend to alter the structure of the globular cluster with time. The interaction of the components of hard binary systems alters the evolution of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct $N$-body integrations and Fokker--Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.

  7. Integrative cluster analysis in bioinformatics

    CERN Document Server

    Abu-Jamous, Basel; Nandi, Asoke K

    2015-01-01

    Clustering techniques are increasingly being put to use in the analysis of high-throughput biological datasets. Novel computational techniques to analyse high throughput data in the form of sequences, gene and protein expressions, pathways, and images are becoming vital for understanding diseases and future drug discovery. This book details the complete pathway of cluster analysis, from the basics of molecular biology to the generation of biological knowledge. The book also presents the latest clustering methods and clustering validation, thereby offering the reader a comprehensive review o

  8. The Confucian Asian cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Sergiu Pirju

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Confucian Asian cluster consists of China, Hong Kong, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan. Confucian tradition countries were defined by achieving a consistent performance in the global economy, they still representing the major competitors in the EU and North American countries. Their progress is defined by a great national management that was able to influence beneficial management systems applied in organizations, these rules characterized by authority; aims to ensure the confidence in business. This article will present the intercultural values characterizing it, the leadership style and also tracing major macroeconomic considerations. The research is synchronic, analysing the contemporary situation of these countries, and the analysis will be interdisciplinary exploratory, identifying specific regional cultural elements.

  9. Sleep in cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barloese, M C J; Jennum, P J; Lund, N T

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cluster headache (CH) is a primary headache disorder characterized by severe attacks of unilateral pain following a chronobiological pattern. There is a close connection with sleep as most attacks occur during sleep. Hypothalamic involvement and a particular association...... with rapid eye movement (REM) sleep have been suggested. Sleep in a large, well-characterized population of CH patients was investigated. METHODS: Polysomnography (PSG) was performed on two nights in 40 CH patients during active bout and one night in 25 age, sex and body mass index matched controls...... in hospital. Macrostructure and other features of sleep were analyzed and related to phenotype. Clinical headache characterization was obtained by semi-structured interview. RESULTS: Ninety-nine nights of PSG were analyzed. Findings included a reduced percentage of REM sleep (17.3% vs. 23.0%, P = 0...

  10. Expression and identification of the ADF-linker-3-1E gene of Eimeria acervulina of chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuelan, Zhao; Yiwei, Liu; Liyuan, Liu; Yue, Zhao; Wenbo, Cao; Yongzhan, Bao; Jianhua, Qin

    2016-04-01

    Coccidiosis is a widely distributed disease with higher mortality and morbidity, which is caused by several species of protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Eimeria and recognized as a serious challenge for the poultry industry. This research was conducted to construct the recombinant plasmid pET32a(+)-ADF-linker-3-1E of Eimeria acervulina (E. acervulina) of the chicken and test the bioactivity of the ADF-linker-3-1E protein. The ADF-linker-3-1E gene of E. acervulina of the chicken was cloned by splicing by overlap extension by the polymerase chain reaction (SOE-PCR) and then inserted into the pET32a(+) to construct the recombinant plasmid pET32a(+)-ADF-linker-3-1E. The recombinant plasmid was transformed into Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3) competent cells and then induced by IPTG (0.6 mmol/L). The expressed product in the culture medium was identified by the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The bioactivity of the ADF-linker-3-1E protein was tested by Western blotting. The result showed that the amplified ADF-linker-3-1E gene was about 1346 bp. The PCR amplification with the recombinant plasmid pET-32a(+)-ADF-linker-3-1E as a template resulted in a special band of 1346 bp. The digested products resulted in two fragments of 1346 bp target fragment and 5.9 kb pET-32a(+)-vector fragment. The results indicated that the ADF-linker3-1E gene was successfully inserted into the pET-32a(+)-vector. The expressed products in the culture medium resulted in a single band of approximately 54.8 kDa by SDS-PAGE. Western blotting analysis indicated that the recombinant protein could be reacted specifically with His-Tag(2A8) Mouse mAb. This study indicated that the ADF-linker-3-1E protein with good bioactivity was successfully obtained, which laid a foundation for the exploitation of the nuclear vaccine by using the ADF-linker-3-1E protein.

  11. A possible role of transglutaminase 2 in the nucleus of INS-1E and of cells of human pancreatic islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sileno, Sara; D'Oria, Valentina; Stucchi, Riccardo; Alessio, Massimo; Petrini, Stefania; Bonetto, Valentina; Maechler, Pierre; Bertuzzi, Federico; Grasso, Valeria; Paolella, Katia; Barbetti, Fabrizio; Massa, Ornella

    2014-01-16

    Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is a multifunctional protein with Ca(2+)-dependent transamidating and G protein activity. Previously we reported that the role of TG2 in insulin secretion may involve cytoplasmic actin remodeling and a regulative action on other proteins during granule movement. The aim of this study was to gain a better insight into the role of TG2 transamidating activity in mitochondria and in the nucleus of INS-1E rat insulinoma cell line (INS-1E) during insulin secretion. To this end we labeled INS-1E with an artificial donor (biotinylated peptide), in basal condition and after stimulus with glucose for 2, 5, and 8min. Biotinylated proteins of the nuclear/mitochondrial-enriched fraction were analyzed using two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Many mitochondrial proteins involved in Ca(2+) homeostasis (e.g. voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein, prohibitin and different ATP synthase subunits) and many nuclear proteins involved in gene regulation (e.g. histone H3, barrier to autointegration factor and various heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein) were identified among a number of transamidating substrates of TG2 in INS-1E. The combined results provide evidence that a temporal link exists between glucose-stimulation, first phase insulin secretion and the action of TG on histone H3 both in INS-1E and human pancreatic islets. Research into the role of transglutaminase 2 during insulin secretion in INS-1E rat insulinoma cellular model is depicting a complex role for this enzyme. Transglutaminase 2 acts in the different INS-1E compartments in the same way: catalyzing a post-translational modification event of its substrates. In this work we identify some mitochondrial and nuclear substrates of INS-1E during first phase insulin secretion. The finding that TG2 interacts with nuclear proteins that include BAF and histone H3 immediately after (2-5min) glucose stimulus of INS-1E suggests that TG2 may be involved not only in insulin

  12. Firing distance estimation through the analysis of the gunshot residue deposit pattern around the bullet entrance hole by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Agostinho; Magalhães, Teresa; Vieira, Duarte Nuno; Almeida, Agostinho A; Sousa, António V

    2007-03-01

    The use of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in the study of gunshot residues (GSR) is relatively recent, and only a few studies have been published on the subject. In the present paper, this instrumental technique has been used to study the deposit pattern of the GSR around the bullet entrance hole, through the analysis of antimony (Sb), barium (Ba), and lead (Pb). The data obtained were used to establish a mathematical model for estimating the firing distance. Test shots using a 6.35-mm pistol were made against a target of cotton tissue, and the amounts of Sb, Ba, and Pb deposited in quadrangular pieces of the target, cut from 4 radial positions, were determined by ICP-MS. In these experimental conditions, it was possible to estimate the firing distance on the interval [20-80] cm. The best linear correlation between ln m and d, where m is the mass of Sb, Ba, or Pb in the samples, expressed in mug/g of target tissue, and d the firing distance, was obtained at radial distances between 3.5 cm and 4.5 cm from the entrance hole. The best regression curve which adjusted to the data was a linear multiple regression between the firing distance and the logarithm of the mass of each element: d = a + b(1)X(1) + b(2)X(2) + b(3)X(3), where X(1) = ln m (Sb), X(2) = ln m(Ba) and X(3) = ln m (Pb). The accuracy of firing distance estimation using only 1 or 2 elements was not significantly different from the one obtained with the 3 elements.

  13. No Magic Bullet: A Theory-Based Meta-Analysis of Markov Transition Probabilities in Studies of Service Systems for Persons With Mental Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leff, Hugh Stephen; Chow, Clifton M; Graves, Stephen C

    2017-03-01

    A random-effects meta-analysis of studies that used Markov transition probabilities (TPs) to describe outcomes for mental health service systems of differing quality for persons with serious mental illness was implemented to improve the scientific understanding of systems performance, to use in planning simulations to project service system costs and outcomes over time, and to test a theory of how outcomes for systems varying in quality differ. Nineteen systems described in 12 studies were coded as basic (B), maintenance (M), and recovery oriented (R) on the basis of descriptions of services provided. TPs for studies were aligned with a common functional-level framework, converted to a one-month time period, synthesized, and compared with theory-based expectations. Meta-regression was employed to explore associations between TPs and characteristics of service recipients and studies. R systems performed better than M and B systems. However, M systems did not perform better than B systems. All systems showed negative as well as positive TPs. For approximately one-third of synthesized TPs, substantial interstudy heterogeneity was noted. Associations were found between TPs and service recipient and study variables Conclusions: Conceptualizing systems as B, M, and R has potential for improving scientific understanding and systems planning. R systems appear more effective than B and M systems, although there is no "magic bullet" system for all service recipients. Interstudy heterogeneity indicates need for common approaches to reporting service recipient states, time periods for TPs, service recipient attributes, and service system characteristics. TPs found should be used in Markov simulations to project system effectiveness and costs of over time.

  14. Herd Clustering: A synergistic data clustering approach using collective intelligence

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Kachun

    2014-10-01

    Traditional data mining methods emphasize on analytical abilities to decipher data, assuming that data are static during a mining process. We challenge this assumption, arguing that we can improve the analysis by vitalizing data. In this paper, this principle is used to develop a new clustering algorithm. Inspired by herd behavior, the clustering method is a synergistic approach using collective intelligence called Herd Clustering (HC). The novel part is laid in its first stage where data instances are represented by moving particles. Particles attract each other locally and form clusters by themselves as shown in the case studies reported. To demonstrate its effectiveness, the performance of HC is compared to other state-of-the art clustering methods on more than thirty datasets using four performance metrics. An application for DNA motif discovery is also conducted. The results support the effectiveness of HC and thus the underlying philosophy. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  15. GibbsCluster: unsupervised clustering and alignment of peptide sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreatta, Massimo; Alvarez, Bruno; Nielsen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Receptor interactions with short linear peptide fragments (ligands) are at the base of many biological signaling processes. Conserved and information-rich amino acid patterns, commonly called sequence motifs, shape and regulate these interactions. Because of the properties of a receptor......-ligand system or of the assay used to interrogate it, experimental data often contain multiple sequence motifs. GibbsCluster is a powerful tool for unsupervised motif discovery because it can simultaneously cluster and align peptide data. The GibbsCluster 2.0 presented here is an improved version incorporating...... insertion and deletions accounting for variations in motif length in the peptide input. In basic terms, the program takes as input a set of peptide sequences and clusters them into meaningful groups. It returns the optimal number of clusters it identified, together with the sequence alignment and sequence...

  16. Qualidade de vida em adultos com diabetes tipo 1 e validade do DQOL-Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Brasil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi estabelecer validade de critério e construto, e também, avaliar qualitativamente a versão brasileira do Questionário de Medida da Qualidade de Vida em Diabetes (DQOL-Brasil, quando utilizado em pacientes adultos com diabete melito (DM tipo 1. O DQOL-Brasil foi autoadministrado a 150 indivíduos (63,3% mulheres com tempo diagnóstico médio de DM tipo 1 de 14,17 anos e na faixa etária de 18 a 56 anos. O escore médio obtido foi de 2,46 (IC 95% 2,35 - 2,56. Entre os itens, os melhores e piores escores foram obtidos nos domínios de impacto da doença e preocupações com o DM, respectivamente. O instrumento como um todo apresentou elevada consistência interna, alfa de Cronbach = 0,94. Constatou-se validade convergente ao se co-administrar o questionário genérico de avaliação da qualidade de vida: Perfil de Saúde de Nottingham. O DQOL-Brasil foi readministrado a 52 pacientes em um intervalo médio de 98,25 dias, e constatou-se reprodutibilidade aceitável, através de coeficientes de correlação intraclasse superiores a 0,7. Entretanto, a análise fatorial comprovou deficiências. Deste modo, o DQOL-Brasil é válido para medida da qualidade de vida em pacientes adultos com DM tipo 1 e útil para aplicação em pesquisas e comparações com dados internacionais. Porém, para a prática clínica, recomenda-se seleção criteriosa dos itens do instrumento que sejam mais relacionados às características específicas da enfermidade em brasileiros; uma seleção ponderada de itens provavelmente seria útil às versões do DQOL traduzidas e validadas em outras nações.

  17. Plumbism due to a bullet retained in a joint Intoxicación plúmbica por heridad de bala en una articulación: presentación de un caso y revisión del tema

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Benavides; Alvaro Villa; Carlos A Botero

    1990-01-01

    We report on the case of a 32 year-old man with no laboral exposure to lead but who received a gunshot, seven years before, in the right coxofemoral joint; he developed classic manifestations of plumbism and had a blood lead level of 99 119/dl. This value decreased and the clinical and laboratory abnormalities improved after surgical removal of the retained bullet. We discuss the sparse literature available on t...

  18. Cluster-based tangible programming

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, Andrew C

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Clustering is the act of grouping items that belong together. In this paper we explore clustering as a means to construct tangible program logic, and specifically as a means to use multiple tangible objects collectively as a single tangible program...

  19. The Nordic Mobile Telecommunication Cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2000-01-01

    A study of the historic role of the Nordic mobile telephone and telecommunications cluster and its background in both coordinated innovation policies and societal developments in Scandinavia.......A study of the historic role of the Nordic mobile telephone and telecommunications cluster and its background in both coordinated innovation policies and societal developments in Scandinavia....

  20. Variation in verb cluster interruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Lotte

    2014-01-01

    Except for finite verbs in main clauses, verbs in Standard Dutch cluster together in a clause-final position. In certain Dutch dialects, non-verbal material can occur within this verb cluster (Verhasselt 1961; Koelmans 1965, among many others). These dialects vary with respect to which types of

  1. Two generalizations of Kohonen clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezdek, James C.; Pal, Nikhil R.; Tsao, Eric C. K.

    1993-01-01

    The relationship between the sequential hard c-means (SHCM), learning vector quantization (LVQ), and fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering algorithms is discussed. LVQ and SHCM suffer from several major problems. For example, they depend heavily on initialization. If the initial values of the cluster centers are outside the convex hull of the input data, such algorithms, even if they terminate, may not produce meaningful results in terms of prototypes for cluster representation. This is due in part to the fact that they update only the winning prototype for every input vector. The impact and interaction of these two families with Kohonen's self-organizing feature mapping (SOFM), which is not a clustering method, but which often leads ideas to clustering algorithms is discussed. Then two generalizations of LVQ that are explicitly designed as clustering algorithms are presented; these algorithms are referred to as generalized LVQ = GLVQ; and fuzzy LVQ = FLVQ. Learning rules are derived to optimize an objective function whose goal is to produce 'good clusters'. GLVQ/FLVQ (may) update every node in the clustering net for each input vector. Neither GLVQ nor FLVQ depends upon a choice for the update neighborhood or learning rate distribution - these are taken care of automatically. Segmentation of a gray tone image is used as a typical application of these algorithms to illustrate the performance of GLVQ/FLVQ.

  2. Myo1e impairment results in actin reorganization, podocyte dysfunction, and proteinuria in zebrafish and cultured podocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Mao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Podocytes serve as an important constituent of the glomerular filtration barrier. Recently, we and others identified Myo1e as a key molecular component of the podocyte cytoskeleton. RESULTS: Myo1e mRNA and protein was expressed in human and mouse kidney sections as determined by Northern blot and reverse transcriptase PCR, and its expression was more evident in podocytes by immunofluorescence. By specific knock-down of MYO1E in zebrafish, the injected larvae exhibited pericardial edema and pronephric cysts, consistent with the appearance of protein in condensed incubation supernate. Furthermore, specific inhibition of Myo1e expression in a conditionally immortalized podocyte cell line induced morphological changes, actin cytoskeleton rearrangement, and dysfunction in cell proliferation, migration, endocytosis, and adhesion with the glomerular basement membrane. CONCLUSIONS: Our results revealed that Myo1e is a key component contributing to the functional integrity of podocytes. Its impairment may cause actin cytoskeleton re-organization, alteration of cell shape, and membrane transport, and podocyte drop-out from the glomerular basement membrane, which might eventually lead to an impaired glomerular filtration barrier and proteinuria.

  3. Effects of solvation shells and cluster size on the reaction of aluminum clusters with water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Mou

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Reaction of aluminum clusters, Aln (n = 16, 17 and 18, with liquid water is investigated using quantum molecular dynamics simulations, which show rapid production of hydrogen molecules assisted by proton transfer along a chain of hydrogen bonds (H-bonds between water molecules, i.e. Grotthuss mechanism. The simulation results provide answers to two unsolved questions: (1 What is the role of a solvation shell formed by non-reacting H-bonds surrounding the H-bond chain; and (2 whether the high size-selectivity observed in gas-phase Aln-water reaction persists in liquid phase? First, the solvation shell is found to play a crucial role in facilitating proton transfer and hence H2 production. Namely, it greatly modifies the energy barrier, generally to much lower values (< 0.1 eV. Second, we find that H2 production by Aln in liquid water does not depend strongly on the cluster size, in contrast to the existence of magic numbers in gas-phase reaction. This paper elucidates atomistic mechanisms underlying these observations.

  4. Theoretical characterization of four distinct isomer types in hydrated-electron clusters, and proposed assignments for photoelectron spectra of water cluster anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Leif D; Herbert, John M

    2011-12-14

    Water cluster anions, (H(2)O)(N)(-), are examined using mixed quantum/classical molecular dynamics based on a one-electron pseudopotential model that incorporates many-body polarization and predicts vertical electron detachment energies (VDEs) with an accuracy of ~0.1 eV. By varying the initial conditions under which the clusters are formed, we are able to identify four distinct isomer types that exhibit different size-dependent VDEs. On the basis of a strong correlation between the electron's radius of gyration and its optical absorption maximum, and extrapolating to the bulk limit (N → ∞), our analysis supports the assignment of the "isomer Ib" data series, observed in photoelectron spectra of very cold clusters, as arising from cavity-bound (H(2)O)(N)(-) cluster isomers. The "isomer I" data reported in warmer experiments are assigned to surface-bound isomers in smaller clusters, transitioning to partially embedded isomers in larger clusters. The partially embedded isomers are characterized by a partially formed solvent cavity at the cluster surface, and they are spectroscopically quite similar to internalized cavity isomers. These assignments are consistent with various experimental data, and our theoretical characterization of these isomers sheds new light on a long-standing assignment problem. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  5. Semantic Based Cluster Content Discovery in Description First Clustering Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD WASEEM KHAN

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the field of data analytics grouping of like documents in textual data is a serious problem. A lot of work has been done in this field and many algorithms have purposed. One of them is a category of algorithms which firstly group the documents on the basis of similarity and then assign the meaningful labels to those groups. Description first clustering algorithm belong to the category in which the meaningful description is deduced first and then relevant documents are assigned to that description. LINGO (Label Induction Grouping Algorithm is the algorithm of description first clustering category which is used for the automatic grouping of documents obtained from search results. It uses LSI (Latent Semantic Indexing; an IR (Information Retrieval technique for induction of meaningful labels for clusters and VSM (Vector Space Model for cluster content discovery. In this paper we present the LINGO while it is using LSI during cluster label induction and cluster content discovery phase. Finally, we compare results obtained from the said algorithm while it uses VSM and Latent semantic analysis during cluster content discovery phase.

  6. Structure stability and spectroscopy of metal clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    Theory based on self-consistent field-linear combinations of atomic orbitals-molecular orbital theory was applied to clusters. Four areas were covered: electronic structure, equilibrium geometries, and stability of charged clusters, interaction of metal clusters with H and halogen atoms, thermal stability of isolated clusters, and stability and optical properties of hetero-atomic clusters. (DLC)

  7. E1^E4-mediated keratin phosphorylation and ubiquitylation: a mechanism for keratin depletion in HPV16-infected epithelium

    OpenAIRE

    McIntosh, Pauline B.; Laskey, Peter; Sullivan, Kate; Davy, Clare; Wang, Qian; Jackson, Deborah J.; Griffin, Heather M.; Doorbar, John

    2010-01-01

    The keratin IF network of epidermal keratinocytes provides a protective barrier against mechanical insult, it is also a major player in absorbing stress in these cells. The human papilloma virus (HPV) type 16 E1^E4 protein accumulates in the upper layers of HPV16-infected epithelium and is known to associate with and reorganise the keratin IF network in cells in culture. Here, we show that this function is conserved amongst a number of HPV alpha-group E1^E4 proteins and that the differentiati...

  8. A possibilistic approach to clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnapuram, Raghu; Keller, James M.

    1993-01-01

    Fuzzy clustering has been shown to be advantageous over crisp (or traditional) clustering methods in that total commitment of a vector to a given class is not required at each image pattern recognition iteration. Recently fuzzy clustering methods have shown spectacular ability to detect not only hypervolume clusters, but also clusters which are actually 'thin shells', i.e., curves and surfaces. Most analytic fuzzy clustering approaches are derived from the 'Fuzzy C-Means' (FCM) algorithm. The FCM uses the probabilistic constraint that the memberships of a data point across classes sum to one. This constraint was used to generate the membership update equations for an iterative algorithm. Recently, we cast the clustering problem into the framework of possibility theory using an approach in which the resulting partition of the data can be interpreted as a possibilistic partition, and the membership values may be interpreted as degrees of possibility of the points belonging to the classes. We show the ability of this approach to detect linear and quartic curves in the presence of considerable noise.

  9. THE EXTENDED VIRGO CLUSTER CATALOG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Suk; Rey, Soo-Chang; Lee, Youngdae; Chung, Jiwon; Pak, Mina; Yi, Wonhyeong; Lee, Woong [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Jerjen, Helmut [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Lisker, Thorsten [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg (ZAH), Mönchhofstraße 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Sung, Eon-Chang [Korea Astronomy and Space Science institute, 776 Daedeokdae-ro, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-01

    We present a new catalog of galaxies in the wider region of the Virgo cluster, based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7. The Extended Virgo Cluster Catalog (EVCC) covers an area of 725 deg{sup 2} or 60.1 Mpc{sup 2}. It is 5.2 times larger than the footprint of the classical Virgo Cluster Catalog (VCC) and reaches out to 3.5 times the virial radius of the Virgo cluster. We selected 1324 spectroscopically targeted galaxies with radial velocities less than 3000 km s{sup –1}. In addition, 265 galaxies that have been overlooked in the SDSS spectroscopic survey but have available redshifts in the NASA Extragalactic Database are also included. Our selection process secured a total of 1589 galaxies, 676 of which are not included in the VCC. The certain and possible cluster members are defined by means of redshift comparison with a cluster infall model. We employed two independent and complementary galaxy classification schemes: the traditional morphological classification based on the visual inspection of optical images and a characterization of galaxies from their spectroscopic features. SDSS u, g, r, i, and z passband photometry of all EVCC galaxies was performed using Source Extractor. We compare the EVCC galaxies with the VCC in terms of morphology, spatial distribution, and luminosity function. The EVCC defines a comprehensive galaxy sample covering a wider range in galaxy density that is significantly different from the inner region of the Virgo cluster. It will be the foundation for forthcoming galaxy evolution studies in the extended Virgo cluster region, complementing ongoing and planned Virgo cluster surveys at various wavelengths.

  10. A Clustering Graph Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winlaw, Manda [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); De Sterck, Hans [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sanders, Geoffrey [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-26

    In very simple terms a network can be de ned as a collection of points joined together by lines. Thus, networks can be used to represent connections between entities in a wide variety of elds including engi- neering, science, medicine, and sociology. Many large real-world networks share a surprising number of properties, leading to a strong interest in model development research and techniques for building synthetic networks have been developed, that capture these similarities and replicate real-world graphs. Modeling these real-world networks serves two purposes. First, building models that mimic the patterns and prop- erties of real networks helps to understand the implications of these patterns and helps determine which patterns are important. If we develop a generative process to synthesize real networks we can also examine which growth processes are plausible and which are not. Secondly, high-quality, large-scale network data is often not available, because of economic, legal, technological, or other obstacles [7]. Thus, there are many instances where the systems of interest cannot be represented by a single exemplar network. As one example, consider the eld of cybersecurity, where systems require testing across diverse threat scenarios and validation across diverse network structures. In these cases, where there is no single exemplar network, the systems must instead be modeled as a collection of networks in which the variation among them may be just as important as their common features. By developing processes to build synthetic models, so-called graph generators, we can build synthetic networks that capture both the essential features of a system and realistic variability. Then we can use such synthetic graphs to perform tasks such as simulations, analysis, and decision making. We can also use synthetic graphs to performance test graph analysis algorithms, including clustering algorithms and anomaly detection algorithms.

  11. FunGeneClusterS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Tammi Camilla; Brandl, Julian; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam

    2016-01-01

    and industrial biotechnology applications. We have previously published a method for accurate prediction of clusters from genome and transcriptome data, which could also suggest cross-chemistry, however, this method was limited both in the number of parameters which could be adjusted as well as in user......Secondary metabolites of fungi are receiving an increasing amount of interest due to their prolific bioactivities and the fact that fungal biosynthesis of secondary metabolites often occurs from co-regulated and co-located gene clusters. This makes the gene clusters attractive for synthetic biology...

  12. Light cluster production at NICA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastian, N.U. [University of Wroclaw, Wroclaw (Poland); Batyuk, P.; Rogachevsky, O. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Blaschke, D. [University of Wroclaw, Wroclaw (Poland); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University (MEPhI), Moscow (Russian Federation); Danielewicz, P. [Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Ivanov, Yu.B. [National Research Nuclear University (MEPhI), Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Centre ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Karpenko, Iu. [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kiev (Ukraine); INFN, Sezione di Firenze, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Roepke, G. [National Research Nuclear University (MEPhI), Moscow (Russian Federation); University of Rostock, Rostock (Germany); Wolter, H.H. [Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    Light cluster production at the NICA accelerator complex offers unique possibilities to use these states as ''rare probes'' of in-medium characteristics such as phase space occupation and early flow. In order to explain this statement, in this contribution theoretical considerations from the nuclear statistical equilibrium model and from a quantum statistical model of cluster production are supplemented with a discussion of a transport model for light cluster formation and with results from hydrodynamic simulations combined with the coalescence model. (orig.)

  13. On a correlational clustering of integers

    OpenAIRE

    Aszalós, László; Hajdu, Lajos; Pethő, Attila

    2016-01-01

    Correlation clustering is a concept of machine learning. The ultimate goal of such a clustering is to find a partition with minimal conflicts. In this paper we investigate a correlation clustering of integers, based upon the greatest common divisor.

  14. Clusters and how to make it work : Toolkit for cluster strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karel van Berkel; Anu Manickam

    2013-01-01

    Clusters are the magic answer to regional economic development. Firms in clusters are more innovative; cluster policy dominates EU policy; ‘top-sectors’ and excellence are the choice of national policy makers; clusters are ‘in’. But, clusters are complex, clusters are ‘messy’; there is no clear

  15. The Relationship between Eating Disorders and ICAM-1, E-selection and Ghrelin Resting Level in Overweight People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Sharifi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction There is an agreement that eating disorder is related to psychological characteristics and on the other hand, level of ghrelin hormone, Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 and E-selection also change during eating disorders. We aimed to study the relationship between eating disorders and rest levels, ICAM-1, E-selection, and ghrelin hormone in obese people. Materials and Methods  In this quasi-experimental study, 120 obese men (25-30 years old were purposefully selected. Then the data about their eating disorders gathered with eating attitudes test (EAT-26 questionnaire. In the next phase in the rest condition and after overnight fasting, blood samples are collected for measurement of rest levels, ICAM-1, E-selection, and ghrelin hormone. Finally the data were analyzed with appropriate statistical tests in SPSS version 18. Results Mean and deviation of rest levels, ICAM-1, E-selection, and ghrelin hormone were respectively 3064.19, 61.5±19.7, and 2.5±1.5 and there was not any statistical significance relationship between eating disorders ICAM-1, E-selection, and ghrelin hormone in obese men (P

  16. Polymorphisms in CACNA1E and Camk2d are associated with seizure susceptibility of Sprague-Dawley rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkers, K.; Mescheriakova, J.; Majoie, M.; Lemmens, E.; Wijk, X.M.R. van; Philippens, M.; Kranen-Mastenbroek, V.H. van; Schijns, O.; Vles, J.; Hoogland, G.

    2010-01-01

    Seizures are associated with high intracellular calcium levels. However, conditions characterized by high intracellular calcium levels, such as stroke or traumatic brain injury, do not always evoke epilepsy. We hypothesized that polymorphisms in calcium-related genes CACNA1E and Camk2d contribute to

  17. Tandem Swift and INTEGRAL Data to Revisit the Orbital and Superorbital Periods of 1E 1740.7-2942

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecchini, Paulo Eduardo; Castro, Manuel; Jablonski, Francisco; D'Amico, Flavio; Braga, João

    2017-07-01

    The black hole candidate 1E 1740.7-2942 is one of the strongest hard X-ray sources in the Galactic Center region. No counterparts in longer wavelengths have been identified for this object yet. The presence of characteristic timing signatures in the flux history of X-ray sources has been shown to be an important diagnostic tool for the properties of these systems. Using simultaneous data from NASA’s Swift and ESA’s INTEGRAL missions, we have found two periodic signatures at 12.61 ± 0.06 days and 171.1 ± 3.0 days in long-term hard X-ray light curves of 1E 1740.7-2942. We interpret those as the orbital and superorbital periods of the object, respectively. The reported orbital period is in good agreement with previous studies of 1E 1740.7-2942 using NASA’s RXTE data. We present here the first firm evidence of a superorbital period for 1E 1740.7-2942, which has important implications for the nature of the binary system.

  18. Development of Thermal Stress Test Profile for Class 1E Equipment in Main Control Room of a Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Seung Ki; Park, Je Yun; Park, Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Hee Jun [Daewoo Engineering and Construction Co, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The primary objective of an equipment qualification (EQ) is to demonstrate with reasonable assurance that Class 1E equipment for which a qualified life or condition has been established can perform its safety function without experiencing common-cause failures before, during, and after applicable design basis events (DBEs). For the environmental test of Class 1E equipment installed in the main control room (MCR) of a research reactor, the thermal stress test profile should be developed based on normal and abnormal environmental conditions of the MCR. A thermal stress test profile for Class 1E equipment located in the MCR of a research reactor is developed based on an engineering justification. A set of thermal stress test conditions including temperature, test duration, and number of test cycles is defined considering the specific characteristics of the targeted research reactor. The method used in this study can be applied to develop a thermal stress test profile used for the EQ test to qualify Class 1E equipment installed in the MCR of various research reactors.

  19. Pump power loss and heat generation in a pivot bearing-supported Gyro centrifugal pump (C1E3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takami, Y; Nakazawa, T; Makinouchi, K; Glueck, J; Ohara, Y; Benkowski, R J; Nosé, Y

    1996-07-01

    Pump power loss is defined as input power that is not used for the output work of the pump. Less pump power loss means a higher pump efficiency. A common opinion is that the pump power loss is closely related to heat generation of the pump, which may affect not only the endurance of pump materials, but also blood damage in a blood pump. In this study, the relationship between pump power loss and heat generation in centrifugal blood pumps was investigated using the pivot-bearing supported Gyro C1E3 pump (C1E3) and Bio-Medicus pump (BP-80) under four different total pressure heat/flow conditions. A single special torque measuring driver motor was used for operating both the C1E3 and BP-80 in the four conditions. The pump power loss was calculated from the measured motor torque and hydraulic power. The changes in blood temperature were measured while the pump was operated at room temperature (25 degrees C) to obtain the following findings: First, the C1E3 caused less pump power loss and less temperature increase in blood than the BP-80 in all clinical simulated conditions that were tested; and second, the pump power loss and heat generation had a linear correlation with temperature rise from 22 to 25 degrees C in both the C1E3 and BP-80. During this period, approximately 30% of the pump power loss was transformed to heat, independent of the centrifugal blood pump type, provided that heat conduction through the pump housing and tubing was negligible during this particular period.

  20. Hierarchical clustering for graph visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Clémençon, Stéphan; Rossi, Fabrice; Tran, Viet Chi

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a graph visualization methodology based on hierarchical maximal modularity clustering, with interactive and significant coarsening and refining possibilities. An application of this method to HIV epidemic analysis in Cuba is outlined.