WorldWideScience

Sample records for bulldozers

  1. Bulldozing of granular material

    OpenAIRE

    Sauret, A.; Balmforth, N. J.; Caulfield, C. P.; McElwaine, J. N.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the bulldozing motion of a granular sandpile driven forwards by a vertical plate. The problem is set up in the laboratory by emplacing the pile on a table rotating underneath a stationary plate; the continual circulation of the bulldozed material allows the dynamics to be explored over relatively long times, and the variation of the velocity with radius permits one to explore the dependence on bulldozing speed within a single experiment. We measure the time-dependent surface sh...

  2. Bulldozing of granular material

    CERN Document Server

    Sauret, A; Caulfield, C P; McElwaine, J N

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the bulldozing motion of a granular sandpile driven forwards by a vertical plate. The problem is set up in the laboratory by emplacing the pile on a table rotating underneath a stationary plate; the continual circulation of the bulldozed material allows the dynamics to be explored over relatively long times, and the variation of the velocity with radius permits one to explore the dependence on bulldozing speed within a single experiment. We measure the time-dependent surface shape of the dune for a range of rotation rates, initial volumes and radial positions, for four granular materials, ranging from glass spheres to irregularly shaped sand. The evolution of the dune can be separated into two phases: a rapid initial adjustment to a state of quasi-steady avalanching perpendicular to the blade, followed by a much slower phase of lateral spreading and radial migration. The quasi-steady avalanching sets up a well-defined perpendicular profile with a nearly constant slope. This profile can be scale...

  3. Bulldozer: o valor da aleatoriedade

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Valter; Silva, Telmo; Santos, Frederico

    1999-01-01

    O Micro-Rato Bulldozer, foi construído, tanto no seu hardware, como sofware, de forma que seja simples e eficaz. Em particular é utilizada uma função aleatória para determinar o sentido da reacção perante obstáculos. Esta aleatoriedade aumenta a robustez do comportamento do robot, permitindo evitar situações de ciclos viciosos causados por determinadas configurações de obstáculos. Neste artigo serão brevemente explicados os seguintes aspectos: · O hardware construí...

  4. Bulldozer: um robô que reconhece o seu passado

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Valter; Santos, Frederico

    2001-01-01

    Este artigo descreve o robô Bulldozer IV vencedor do concurso Micro-Rato 2001. Trata-se de uma evolução das versões anteriores do Bulldozer, tendo sido adicionado um novo micro-controlador, uma bússola electrónica e um rato óptico de computador. Todo o software e hardware existente foi aproveitado, existindo apenas pequenos ajustes. Serão descritos ao longo do artigo alguns aspectos importantes, tanto na construção do hardware, como do desenvolvimento do software. É da...

  5. FRACTOGRAPHY OF OPERATION FAILURE OF THE LITING GEAR OF BULLDOZER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakovleva S. P.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The nature and causes of operational failure of the all-metal hydraulic cylinder rod of a bulldozer were studied. It is shown that the main mechanism of failure was evolving in time metal fatigue, initiated by defects of the heat treatment for chromizing

  6. FRACTOGRAPHY OF OPERATION FAILURE OF THE LITING GEAR OF BULLDOZER

    OpenAIRE

    Yakovleva S. P.; Makharova S. N.

    2013-01-01

    The nature and causes of operational failure of the all-metal hydraulic cylinder rod of a bulldozer were studied. It is shown that the main mechanism of failure was evolving in time metal fatigue, initiated by defects of the heat treatment for chromizing

  7. A Computational Model of Soil Adhesion and Resistance for a Non-smooth Bulldozing Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Wei-ping; Ren Lu-quan; Tian Li-mei

    2005-01-01

    Adhesive forces exist between soil and the surfaces of soil-engaging components; they increase working resistance and energy consumption. This paper tries to find an approach to reduce the adhesion and resistance of bulldozing plate. A simplified mechanical model of adhesion and resistance between soil and a non-smooth bulldozing plate is proposed. The interaction force between moist soil and a non-smooth bulldozing plate is analyzed. The pressure and friction distribution on the bulldozing plate are computed, and the anti-adhesive effect of a corrugated bulldozing plate is simulated numerically.Numerical results show that the wavy bulldozing plate achieves an effective drag reduction in moist soil. The optimal wavy shape of the corrugated bulldozing plate with the minimal resistance is designed. The basic principle of reducing soil adhesion of the non-smooth surface is discovered.

  8. Smoothing out sandpiles: rotational bulldozing of granular material

    OpenAIRE

    Sauret, Alban

    2013-01-01

    We investigate experimentally the bulldozing motion of a granular sandpile lying on a rotating table. Time-measurements of the topography of the dune are provided for different granular media which properties vary significantly. The dynamic of the gran- ular media can be separated in two mechanisms: the sandpile is carried perpendicularly to the blade adopting a well-defined profile and by the same time it spreads laterally along the blade in a longer timescale. An analytical model, based on ...

  9. Monitoring and Evaluation During the Bulldozer Initiative - 50 Investment Climate Reforms in 150 Days

    OpenAIRE

    Herzberg, Benjamin

    2007-01-01

    The bulldozer initiative in Bosnia and Herzegovina is an example of a public-private dialogue that successfully overcame the lack of political will and capacity at the government level through a bottom-up approach. The initiative mobilized the local business community to "bulldoze" business environment barriers by identifying concrete legislative changes and advocating for their implementa...

  10. Investment climate reform - going the last mile : the bulldozer initiative in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    OpenAIRE

    Herzberg, Benjamin

    2004-01-01

    The author examines the Bulldozer Initiative in Bosnia and Herzegovina, an innovative reform methodology that successfully overcame the lack of political will and capacity at the government level through a bottom-up approach. Using an innovative grassroots and public awareness methodology, the initiative mobilized the local business community to bulldoze barriers by identifying concrete le...

  11. Study on dragline-bulldozer operation with variations in coal seam thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Zhou; Qing-xiang Cai; Shu-zhao Chen [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China). School of Mining and Safety Engineering

    2007-09-15

    The dragline is one of the most promising surface mining machines in China. This paper studies the interaction between the working bench advancing speed and the stripping volume with variation in coal seam thickness. Adjusting the bulldozing volume (depth) and/or changing the dragline bench height are proposed as means to ensure a smooth and economical mining operation. When the coal seam is getting thicker it is recommended to reduce the bulldozing volume (depth) for a higher dragline efficiency. When the coal seam is getting thinner it is recommended to increase the bulldozing volume (depth) to ensure the dragline can work at the proper bench height. 7 refs., 1 tab.

  12. Impact of Bulldozer's Engine Load Factor on Fuel Consumption, CO2 Emission and Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kecojevic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Bulldozers consume a large amount of diesel fuel and consequently produce a significant quantity of CO2. Environmental and economic cost issues related to fuel consumption and CO2 emission represent a substantial challenge to the mining industry. Approach: Impact of engine load conditions on fuel consumption and the subsequent CO2 emission and cost was analyzed for Caterpillar bulldozers. Results were compared with the data on bulldozers' fuel consumption from an operating coal surface mine in the United States. Results: There is a strong linear correlation among power, fuel consumption and engine load factor. Reduction in load factor by 15% may significantly reduce the fuel consumption and the CO2 emission. Conclusion/Recommendation: Application of appropriate bulldozer's load factor may help mine operators manage fuel consumption, cost and environmental burden.

  13. Impact of Bulldozer's Engine Load Factor on Fuel Consumption, CO2 Emission and Cost

    OpenAIRE

    V. Kecojevic; D. Komljenovic

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Bulldozers consume a large amount of diesel fuel and consequently produce a significant quantity of CO2. Environmental and economic cost issues related to fuel consumption and CO2 emission represent a substantial challenge to the mining industry. Approach: Impact of engine load conditions on fuel consumption and the subsequent CO2 emission and cost was analyzed for Caterpillar bulldozers. Results were compared with the data on bulldozers' fuel consu...

  14. Design of Stress-Strain Measuring System for Bulldozing Plate Based on Virtual Instrument Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil is a kind of discrete, multiphase compound that is composed of soil particles, liquid and air. When soil is disturbed by bulldozing plate, the mechanical behavior of the soil will become very complex. Based on the law of action and reaction, the dynamic mechanical behavior of disturbed soil was indirectly analyzed by measuring and studying the forces on the bulldozing plate by soil currently, so a stress-strain virtual measuring system for bulldozing plate, which was designed by the graphical programming language DASYLab, was used to measure the horizontal force Fz acting on the bulldozing plate. In addition, during the course of design, the experimental complexities and the interferential factors influencing on signal logging were analyzed when bulldozing plate worked, so the anti-jamming methods of hardware and software technology were adopted correlatively. In the end, the horizontal force Fz was analyzed with Error Theory, the result shown that the quantificational analysis of Fz were identical to the qualitative results of soil well, and the error of the whole test system is under 5 percent, so the tress-strain virtual measuring system was stable and credible

  15. Design of Stress-Strain Measuring System for Bulldozing Plate Based on Virtual Instrument Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, S. C.; Li, J. Q.; Zhang, R.

    2006-10-01

    Soil is a kind of discrete, multiphase compound that is composed of soil particles, liquid and air. When soil is disturbed by bulldozing plate, the mechanical behavior of the soil will become very complex. Based on the law of action and reaction, the dynamic mechanical behavior of disturbed soil was indirectly analyzed by measuring and studying the forces on the bulldozing plate by soil currently, so a stress-strain virtual measuring system for bulldozing plate, which was designed by the graphical programming language DASYLab, was used to measure the horizontal force Fz acting on the bulldozing plate. In addition, during the course of design, the experimental complexities and the interferential factors influencing on signal logging were analyzed when bulldozing plate worked, so the anti-jamming methods of hardware and software technology were adopted correlatively. In the end, the horizontal force Fz was analyzed with Error Theory, the result shown that the quantificational analysis of Fz were identical to the qualitative results of soil well, and the error of the whole test system is under 5 percent, so the tress-strain virtual measuring system was stable and credible.

  16. The bulldozer and the ballet dancer: aspects of nurses' caring approaches in acute psychiatric intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkdahl, A; Palmstierna, T; Hansebo, G

    2010-08-01

    Demanding conditions in acute psychiatric wards inhibit provision of safe, therapeutic care and leave nurses torn between humanistic ideals and the harsh reality of their daily work. The aim of this study was to describe nurses' caring approaches within this context. Data were collected from interviews with nurses working in acute psychiatric intensive care. Data were analysed using qualitative analysis, based on interpretive description. Results revealed a caring-approach continuum on which two approaches formed the main themes: the bulldozer and the ballet dancer. The bulldozer approach functioned as a shield of power that protected the ward from chaos. The ballet dancer approach functioned as a means of initiating relationships with patients. When examining the data from a theoretical perspective of caring and uncaring encounters in nursing, the ballet dancer approach was consistent with a caring approach, while the bulldozer approach was more complex and somewhat aligned with uncaring approaches. Conclusions drawn from the study are that although the bulldozer approach involves a risk for uncaring and harming actions, it also brings a potential for caring. This potential needs to be further explored and nurses should be encouraged to reflect on how they integrate paternalistic nursing styles with person-centred care. PMID:20633078

  17. Virtual reality exposure therapy for the treatment of PTSD following a bulldozer attack on civilians in Jerusalem

    OpenAIRE

    Freedman, S; A. Garcia-Palacios; P. L Weiss; H. G Hoffman

    2009-01-01

    In a 2008, a Palestinian construction worker attacked a woman and infant in a car, ramming the plow of his bulldozer into their windshield, decapitating the 54 year old female driver with his plow. He subsequently used his bulldozer to lift two public buses loaded with civilian passengers onto their sides, trapping the passengers inside, and went on to crush several more cars. This case report presents the first results of treatment utilizingCognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) + virtual reali...

  18. Research on the Multi-Energy Management Strategy of the Electric Drive System of a Tracked Bulldozer

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Ming; Yan, Jun; Tu, Qunzhang; Jiang, Chengming

    2016-01-01

    The multi-energy management strategy of electric drive system of tracked bulldozer was researched. Firstly, based on power requirement of typical working condition of a tracked bulldozer, the power distribution strategy for three energy sources in the front power chain was proposed by using wavelet theory and fuzzy control theory. Secondly, the electric drive system simulation platform was built in MATLAB/Simulink. At last, a driver-controller based HILS (hardware-in-the-loop simulation) plat...

  19. Theoretical study of backfilling trenches bulldozer equipped with a screw intensifier

    OpenAIRE

    de Krol, R. van

    2015-01-01

    The advantages of a bulldozer with a screw intensifier when the backfilling of trenches, compared with the traditional method of filling. Shows cross-sectional shapes of the soil in the inter-track space screw intensifier and formulas for their determination. Given the method of determining the angular velocity of the screw in the intensifier nezabivanii dump coil and balancing the soil is above the auger intensifier.

  20. Lightweight Bulldozer Attachment for Construction and Excavation on the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert; Wilkinson, R. Allen; Gallo, Christopher A.; Nick, Andrew J.; Schuler, Jason M.; King, Robert H.

    2009-01-01

    A lightweight bulldozer blade prototype has been designed and built to be used as an excavation implement in conjunction with the NASA Chariot lunar mobility platform prototype. The combined system was then used in a variety of field tests in order to characterize structural loads, excavation performance and learn about the operational behavior of lunar excavation in geotechnical lunar simulants. The purpose of this effort was to evaluate the feasibility of lunar excavation for site preparation at a planned NASA lunar outpost. Once the feasibility has been determined then the technology will become available as a candidate element in the NASA Lunar Surface Systems Architecture. In addition to NASA experimental testing of the LANCE blade, NASA engineers completed analytical work on the expected draft forces using classical soil mechanics methods. The Colorado School of Mines (CSM) team utilized finite element analysis (FEA) to study the interaction between the cutting edge of the LANCE blade and the surface of soil. FEA was also used to examine various load cases and their effect on the lightweight structure of the LANCE blade. Overall it has been determined that a lunar bulldozer blade is a viable technology for lunar outpost site preparation, but further work is required to characterize the behavior in 1/6th G and actual lunar regolith in a vacuum lunar environment.

  1. From keys to bulldozers: expanding roles for winged helix domains in nucleic-acid-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harami, Gábor M; Gyimesi, Máté; Kovács, Mihály

    2013-07-01

    The winged helix domain (WHD) is a widespread nucleic-acid-binding protein structural element found in all kingdoms of life. Although the overall structure of the WHD is conserved, its functional properties and interaction profiles are extremely versatile. WHD-containing proteins can exploit nearly the full spectrum of nucleic acid structural features for recognition and even covalent modification or noncovalent rearrangement of target molecules. WHD functions range from sequence-recognizing keys in transcription factors and bulldozer-like strand-separating wedges in helicases to mediators of protein-protein interactions (PPIs). Further investigations are needed to understand the contribution of WHD structural dynamics to nucleic-acid-modifying enzymatic functions. PMID:23768997

  2. Emission factors for fugitive dust from bulldozers working on a coal pile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Stephen F; Mallard, Jonathan W; Mao, Qi; Shaw, Stephanie L

    2015-01-01

    A study of a Powder River Basin (PRB) coal pile found that fugitive emissions from natural and human activity each produced similar levels of downwind fine + coarse (i.e., smaller than 10 µm, or PM10) particle mass concentrations. Natural impacts were statistically removed from downwind measurements to estimate emission factor Ev for bulldozers working on the pile. The Ev determined here was similar in magnitude to emission factors (EFs) computed using a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) formulation for unpaved surfaces at industrial sites, even though the latter was not based on data for coal piles. EF formulations from this study and those in the EPA guidance yield values of similar magnitude but differ in the variables used to compute Ev variations. EPA studies included effects of surface silt fraction and vehicle weight, while the present study captured the influence of coal moisture. Our data indicate that the relationship between PRB coal fugitive dust Ev (expressed as mass of PM10 emitted per minute of bulldozer operation) and coal moisture content Mc (in percent) at the study site is best expressed as Ev =10(f(Mc())) where f(Mc) is a function of moisture. This function was determined by statistical regression between log10(Ev) and Mc where both Ev and Mc are expressed as daily averages of observations based on 289 hours sampled during 44 days from late June through mid-November of 2012. A methodology is described that estimates Mc based on available meteorological data (precipitation amount and solar radiation flux). An example is given of computed variations in daily Ev for an entire year. This illustrates the sensitivity of the daily average particulate EF to meteorological variability at one location. Finally, a method is suggested for combining the moisture-sensitive formulation for Ev with the EPA formulation to accommodate a larger number of independent variables that influence fugitive emissions. PMID:25946955

  3. Ripper Design of Large-size Bulldozers%大型推土机松土器的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明月; 侯文军

    2012-01-01

    针对大型推土机松土器工作的特点,介绍并分析了大型推土机松土器的合理结构,提出了松土器的设计思路及计算方法.%There are two types of basic structure in parallelogram ripper to the tractor (bulldozer) that one of them is in a fixed pitch of ripping angle, and the other is in variable pitch. The variable one is featured in applicability as an attachment to large sized bulldozer. The text further introduces and analyzes concepts and structural selections, plus how to compute the main data.

  4. Comparing Hydraulic Excavator and Bulldozer in Construction of Forest Road Standarad Cross Section in Different Slope Classes (Lattalar, Mazandaran Province)

    OpenAIRE

    S.A. Hosseini; M Lotfalian; A Parsakho; H. Jalilvand

    2009-01-01

    Forest roads must be constructed according to technical standards and guidelines which have been published by the scientific and operational organizations. Recently, hydraulic excavators have been used beside the bulldozer for excavating the forest roads. Thus, it is necessary that their ability in construct of standard cross sections be compared. This study was conducted in Lattalar forest which is located south of Sari city (Mazandaran Province). 60 cross section samples were randomly selec...

  5. Agent-based human-robot interaction of a combat bulldozer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granot, Reuven; Feldman, Maxim

    2004-09-01

    A small-scale supervised autonomous bulldozer in a remote site was developed to experience agent based human intervention. The model is based on Lego Mindstorms kit and represents combat equipment, whose job performance does not require high accuracy. The model enables evaluation of system response for different operator interventions, as well as for a small colony of semiautonomous dozers. The supervising human may better react than a fully autonomous system to unexpected contingent events, which are a major barrier to implement full autonomy. The automation is introduced as improved Man Machine Interface (MMI) by developing control agents as intelligent tools to negotiate between human requests and task level controllers as well as negotiate with other elements of the software environment. Current UGVs demand significant communication resources and constant human operation. Therefore they will be replaced by semi-autonomous human supervisory controlled systems (telerobotic). For human intervention at the low layers of the control hierarchy we suggest a task oriented control agent to take care of the fluent transition between the state in which the robot operates and the one imposed by the human. This transition should take care about the imperfections, which are responsible for the improper operation of the robot, by disconnecting or adapting them to the new situation. Preliminary conclusions from the small-scale experiments are presented.

  6. Prolonged exposure and virtual reality-enhanced imaginal exposure for PTSD following a terrorist bulldozer attack: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Sara A; Hoffman, Hunter G; Garcia-Palacios, Azucena; Tamar Weiss, Patrice L; Avitzour, Sara; Josman, Naomi

    2010-02-01

    In this case study, virtual reality was used to augment imaginal exposure in a protocol based on prolonged exposure. A 29-year-old male patient developed posttraumatic stress disorder after surviving a deadly terrorist bulldozer attack on two civilian buses and several cars in Jerusalem; the traumas witnessed by the survivor included a decapitation. The crowded bus in which the patient was riding was pushed over onto its side by the terrorist, injuring, trapping, and terrifying the passengers and causing gasoline to leak. Guided by his therapist, the patient entered an immersive computer-generated virtual world to go "back" to the scene of the traumatic event to help him gain access to his memories of the event, process and reduce the intensity of the emotions (fear/anger) associated with his pathological memories, and change unhealthy thought patterns. Traumatic memories of childhood abuse and traumatic memories of the bulldozer terrorist attack were treated using imaginal exposure while the patient was in the virtual environment BusWorld. The patient showed large posttreatment reductions in PTSD symptoms, and his Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) scores dropped from 79 pretreatment to zero immediately posttreatment, and CAPS was still at zero 6 months later. Although case studies are inconclusive by nature, these encouraging preliminary results suggest that further exploration of the use of virtual reality during modified prolonged exposure for PTSD is warranted. As terrorist attacks increase in frequency and severity worldwide, research is needed on how to minimize the psychological consequences of terrorism. PMID:20528299

  7. Structural changes in and the wear of the rock cutting element of a bulldozer during operation under the North conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinokurov, G. G.; Yakovleva, S. P.; Kychkin, A. K.; Vasil'Eva, M. I.; Struchkov, N. F.; Fedorov, M. V.

    2009-10-01

    The phenomenon of accelerated wear of a ripper crown in a digging machine (bulldozer) under the North operating conditions is studied. The elemental composition, microstructure, microhardness of the crown metal and the wear surface relief characteristics are determined. It is found that, under complex heat-force conditions of loading during the exploitation of cryolite rocks, the metal in the active surface of the rock cutting element undergoes intense softening as a result of the formation of a secondary structure, namely, frictioninduced sorbite. As a result of an insufficient level of the wear resistance of the crown metal and its plasticization, the traces of abrasive wear become deeper and plastic impact-abrasive wear takes place.

  8. Deformation of an early Preboreal deposit at Nykvarn (SE Sweden) as a result of the bulldozing effect of a grounding iceberg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fard, Amir Mokhtari; van Loon, A. J.(Tom)

    2004-03-01

    An early Preboreal glaciomarine deposit near Nykvarn (SE Sweden) consists, from bottom to top, of a submarine outwash fan, a full (glacio)marine deposit, and a near-coast marine unit of poorly sorted ice-rafted debris. The top part of the succession shows soft-sediment deformations that have the same characteristics as material moved forward by a bulldozer. These deformation structures are interpreted as being due to grounding of an eastward-moving iceberg. This caused detachment of the lower part of the succession, in the way that sand is pushed forward by a bulldozer. The iceberg most likely calved off the retreating ice front (which extended into sea) due to a sudden subglacial discharge of meltwater (jökulhlaup), which event seems related to the breakthrough of an ice dam that could no longer withstand the pressure of a growing water volume produced by increased ice melting.

  9. Wind tunnel investigation of aerodynamic characteristics of a scale model of a D5 bulldozer and an M109 self-propelled 155 mm Howitzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laub, G. H.; Kodani, H. M.

    1974-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were conducted on a scale model of a D5 bulldozer and an M109 self-propelled 155 MM howitzer to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of these typical externally-suspended heavy lift helicopter cargo configurations. Tests were made over a large range of pitch and yaw attitudes at a nominal Reynolds number per unit length of 1.5 x 10 to the 6th power.

  10. 履带式推土机的维护与保养%Care and Maintenance of the Bulldozer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任洪涛

    2012-01-01

    With the extension of service time of track-type tractors, there will be a variety of faults. If faults can not be solved timely, it will affect the use of crawler tractors. Therefore, the care and maintenance of crawler bulldozer is particularly important. In this paper, how to effectively strengthen the care and maintenance of the track-type tractors is in-depth discussed and put forward the suggestions and opinions.%随着履带式推土机使用时间的延长,会出现多种故障,故障如果不能及时解决,那么会影响到履带式推土机的使用。因此,履带式推土机的维护与保养就显得尤为重要。本文就如何有效加强履带式推土机的维护与保养进行了深入的探讨,提出了建议和看法。

  11. Construção de um sistema de auto-localização para o robô Bulldozer IV

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Frederico; Silva, Valter; Almeida, Luís

    2002-01-01

    Este artigo descreve um sistema de localização de baixo custo para pequenos robôs autónomos e móveis. Este sistema foi desenvolvido para aplicação no robô Bulldozer IV, vencedor do concurso Micro-Rato 2001. O sistema combina informação azimutal absoluta com informação odométrica relativa e permite ao robô, após atingir uma zona alvo no interior de um labirinto desconhecido, regressar ao ponto de partida. No caso particular do desempenho no concurso, refira-se que este ...

  12. Roll out the Bulldozers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    Describes the evolution of the heavy equipment operation course at the Prosser School of Technology in New Albany, Indiana, and discusses how obstacles were overcome to implement the program. Includes a form used to solicit business support for the program. (JOW)

  13. BULLDOZING AND RESTING TRACES OF FRESHWATER MUSSEL ANODONTA WOODIANA AND SUBSTRATE CHARACTERISTICS IN LAKE-MARGIN AND RIVER SETTINGS OF UMBRIA, ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAOLO MONACO

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The neoichnology of the freshwater mussel Anodonta (Sinanodonta woodiana (Lea, 1834 is examined herein in some continental environments of Umbria (central Italy, such as lake-margin and river dam-margin settings. This study, based on analysis of about 200 traces, reveals that this mussel burrows employing two types of behaviours: bulldozing which produces horizontal meanders to straight bilobate traces, often filled with peloidal faecal pellets (pseudofaeces and backfill, and resting (vertical stationary into substrate while filter feeding. A new type of very soft substrate, the ‘cloudground’ is proposed. It is placed at the water-sediment interface, above the soupground. After four years of observation, the cloudground was buried with shells and traces, preserving through the fossilization barrier about 20% of the Anodonta traces. This bivalve activity is a useful tool to recognize preservation of mud in quiet environments and parallels ichnological evidence of unknown epichnial trace fossils in the continental realm. Cloudground with resting traces must be investigated also in modern marine basin floor environments where cloud of mud dominates and considered also in geological record.

  14. Auto-localização em pequenos robôs móveis e autónomos: o caso do robô Bulldozer IV

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Frederico; Silva, Valter; Almeida, Luís

    2002-01-01

    Este artigo descreve um sistema de localização de baixo custo para pequenos robôs autónomos e móveis. Este sistema foi desenvolvido para aplicação no robô Bulldozer IV, vencedor do concurso Micro-Rato 2001. O sistema combina informação azimutal absoluta com informação odométrica relativa e permite ao robô, após atingir uma zona alvo no interior de um labirinto desconhecido, regressar ao ponto de partida. No caso particular do desempenho no concurso, refira-se que este ...

  15. Bulldozing Biodiversity: The Economics of Optimal Extinction

    OpenAIRE

    Clive L Spash

    2015-01-01

    Many conservationists have become enamoured with mainstream economic concepts and approaches, described as pragmatic replacements for appeals to ethics and direct regulation. Trading biodiversity using offsets is part of the resulting push for market governance that is promoted as a more efficient means of Nature conservation. In critically evaluationg this position I start by explaining the assumptions behind biodiversity and ecosystem valuation and how economic logic legitimi...

  16. BULLDOZER BLANDER BLUNTING AND ITS INFLUENCE ON MACHINE PRODUCTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    Demishkan, V.

    2007-01-01

    In the article the interaction of blunting surface with soil has been considered, the influence of cutting depth change on the way of cutting has been determined and the reduction of productivity with the growth of wear surface size has been determined.

  17. THEORETICAL BASIS OF CALCULATING BULLDOZER WITH AUGER-TYPE INTENSIFIER

    OpenAIRE

    Khmara, L.; de Krol, R. van

    2007-01-01

    New methods of calculating absolute speed of soil particle transported by auger-type intensifier, determination of cutoff frequency of the latter and methods of determining absolute speed of soil particle considering the speed of utility tractor are presented

  18. Bulldozers or Chairs? Gifted Students Describe Their Ideal Teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Judith Forman

    1982-01-01

    Groups of students (grades 3 through 7) in the Virginia Beach Program for the Gifted and Talented participated in a series of group process activities designed to elicit and codify the characteristics they felt were essential to the successful teacher of the gifted. (SB)

  19. Robots, Bulldozers, and Other Map Activities for the Primary Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Sandra F.

    1984-01-01

    Described are activities which will increase fluency in the use of north, south, east, west, up, and down; reinforce the proper positioning of the cardinal directions on a map grid; relate map symbols to familiar surface features; give practice in identifying map symbols; and provide an opportunity to construct maps. (RM)

  20. Squatting to end domicide? Resisting bulldozer urbanism in contemporary Shanghai

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yunpeng

    2015-01-01

    For millions of Shanghainese on the lower rung of society, the history of the great urban transformation in the city since the 1990s is written with their tears for the loss of their homes, communities and livelihood. In this paper, I argue for squatting as a straightforward, effective and potentially radical strategy to redress the displacees’ suffering, to take a more active and progressive control of the violent accumulation process and to challenge the hegemonic discourse of private homeo...

  1. Squatting to end domicide? Resisting bulldozer urbanism in contemporary Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang, Yunpeng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available For millions of Shanghainese on the lower rung of society, the history of the great urban transformation in the city since the 1990s is written with their tears for the loss of their homes, communities and livelihood. In this paper, I argue for squatting as a straightforward, effective and potentially radical strategy to redress the displacees’ suffering, to take a more active and progressive control of the violent accumulation process and to challenge the hegemonic discourse of private homeownership that underpins the rapid transformation of Shanghai’s urban landscape. The argument is built upon an in-depth study of a family evicted by the World Expo 2010 and squatted in a resettlement apartment. Their framing of justice and entitlement, embedded in local cultural and moral universes, not only lends legitimacy to their squatting but also mobilises popular sympathy, both of which are conducive to effective resistance.

  2. Restoration of forest soils after bulldozer site preparation in the Ore Mountains over 20 years development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Podrázský, V.; Kapička, Aleš; Kouba, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 3 (2010), s. 281-289. ISSN 1335-342X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/07/0941 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : immission areas * soil degradation * trace elements Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  3. Research of working equipmentof bulldozers for sorting out of obstructions on roads

    OpenAIRE

    SHATOV S. V.

    2015-01-01

    Problem statement. Technogenic catastrophes, failures or natural calamities, lead to destruction of buildings and buildings and transport ways. In the presence of intact motorways, there are wreckages of destructed buildings which form obstructions and hinder motion of technique and workers to the object of implementation of works.  Sorting out of obstructions is done with machines and mechanisms which do not meet the requirements of these works, that predetermines implementation of rescue or...

  4. The bulldozer herbivore: how animals benefit from elephant modifying an African savanna

    OpenAIRE

    Kohi, E.

    2013-01-01

    Herbivore-vegetation interactions are important structuring forces in savanna that modify the availability and quality of forage resources. Elephant for example, are known for their ability to change the vegetation structure through toppling trees, uprooting, snapping, debarking and breaking branches. Controlling the number of elephant is a common response of wildlife managers who think that the increase of elephant will further destroy the habitat and hence cause loss of biodiversity. Howeve...

  5. The Snowmastodon Project: cutting-edge science on the blade of a bulldozer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigati, Jeffery S.; Miller, Ian M.; Johnson, Kirk R.

    2015-01-01

    Cutting-edge science happens at a variety of scales, from the individual and intimate to the large-scale and collaborative. The publication of a special issue of Quaternary Research in Nov. 2014 dedicated to the scientific findings of the “Snowmastodon Project” highlights what can be done when natural history museums, governmental agencies, and academic institutions work toward a common goal.

  6. OLD MAN AND BULLDOZER, OR TWO GREAT SUBVERTER OF THE XX CENTURY IN RUSSIA IN LIFE AND IN ACADEMIC LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. PETROVICH

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article seeks to uncover the milestones of the modern period in history of our country through the figure of the first President of the Russian Federation B.N. Yeltsin. Made more than a century of insight into history and a comparative analysis of the life and work of two of the most controversial figures in Russian history of the XX century – V.I. Ulyanov (Lenin and B.N. Yeltsin. Clarified the reasons for both historical characters to fight with the existing system of power. Tracked key milestones of this struggle. On the basis of extensive historical material is characterized by the contribution of each of them in the history of Russia are historical Parallels in the role of B.N. Yeltsin and V.I. Ulyanov (Lenin as destroyers existed before them political order and economic system of the state. In the spirit of the requirements of the historical and cultural standard are analyzed literary sources on the contribution of V.I. Ulyanov (Lenin and B.N. Yeltsin in Russia's development. Alternative options considered the history of modern Russia, based on conflicting character traits B.N. Yeltsin. Analyzed several national history textbooks used in schools across the country in the early XXI century, the examples of the lighting considered in the paper problems in history textbooks, admitted to Russian schools in 2016 and the respective historical-cultural standard. Provides an overview of opinions about the identity of B.N. Yeltsin expressed his contemporaries and associates. Data from sociological studies reflecting the opinion of Russians about these historical figures. The conclusion reveals the more tolerant attitude of Russians to the figure of V.I. Ulyanov (Lenin compared to B.N. Yeltsin.

  7. "A Rainforest in Front of a Bulldozer": The Literacy Practices of Teacher Candidates Committed to Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Janet D.

    2012-01-01

    This critical ethnographic study explores how two teacher candidates in English education used specific and varied literacy practices to enact their social justice priorities at a troubled high school in a high-need district. Data include interviews before and after the student teaching experience; observations of teaching, blogs, journals, and…

  8. At the Heart of the Vietnam War: Herbicides, Napalm and Bulldozers Against the A Lưới Mountains

    OpenAIRE

    Robert, Amélie

    2016-01-01

    In the western part of the Thừa Thiên Huế province in Central Vietnam, the A Lưới Mountains were strongly affected by the Vietnam War (1961-1975). They were a refuge area for the Việt Cộng and crossed by the Hồ Chí Minh trail, which served as a strategic axis for them. Numerous herbicide sprayings and bombings, including napalm, struck the mountains and had a greater intensity than was the case in other landscape units. The US-South Vietnamese troops, which committed these practices, conducte...

  9. Bulldozers, mental models, and aerial photography: Geographies of long-term private restoration on semi-arid rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Private efforts to restore degraded Southwestern desert grasslands have been under way at least since the 1920s, but their effects are little studied and poorly understood. Most are considered simply to have failed, or to have been swamped by the effects of climate and fire suppression. These judgme...

  10. OLD MAN AND BULLDOZER, OR TWO GREAT SUBVERTER OF THE XX CENTURY IN RUSSIA IN LIFE AND IN ACADEMIC LITERATURE

    OpenAIRE

    V. G. PETROVICH

    2016-01-01

    The article seeks to uncover the milestones of the modern period in history of our country through the figure of the first President of the Russian Federation B.N. Yeltsin. Made more than a century of insight into history and a comparative analysis of the life and work of two of the most controversial figures in Russian history of the XX century – V.I. Ulyanov (Lenin) and B.N. Yeltsin. Clarified the reasons for both historical characters to fight with the existing system of power. Tracked key...

  11. HIV prevention while bulldozers roll: developing evidence based HIV prevention intervention for female sex workers following the demolition of Goa’s redlight area

    OpenAIRE

    Shahmanesh, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Interventions targeting female sex workers (FSWs) are pivotal to HIV prevention in India. Societal factors and legislation around sex-work are potential barriers to achieving this. In recent years several high profile closures of red-light areas and dance bars in India have occurred. In this thesis I describe the effects of the demolition of Goa’s red-light area on the organsiation of sex-work, HIV risk environment, and implications for evidence-based HIV prevention...

  12. T140型系列推土机后置悬挂铧犁装置%Rear-mounted Plough Attachment on Series Model T140 Bulldozer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩毓文; 王步云

    2003-01-01

    @@ 推土机后置铧犁装置是为满足市场需求而开发设计的一种新的工作装置,该装置的开发为推土机多功能作业开辟了新的思路.这种装置在国内较为少见,但在国外早有开发,如德国利勃海尔(Lieb-herr)公司PR732静液压履带式推土机就带有此类装置,即在后部设置悬挂犁用于农业作业.

  13. 36 CFR 228.4 - Plan of operations-notice of intent-requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... bulldozers or backhoes, or the cutting of trees, unless those operations otherwise might cause a significant... as bulldozers or backhoes, or the cutting of trees, unless those operations otherwise will...

  14. 26 CFR 48.6421-4 - Meaning of terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., bulldozers, and earthmovers; and (iv) Gasoline used by a nonhighway vehicle in connection with the trade or... gallons, 6,000 were used in nonhighway vehicles, such as tractors and bulldozers, and 2,000 gallons...

  15. 26 CFR 1.263A-11 - Accumulated production expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., bulldozers, and buildings. A taxpayer apportions the adjusted basis of an asset used in the production of... is allocated on the basis of time: Example. In 1995, X uses a bulldozer exclusively to clear the land... bulldozer among the three projects on the basis of time. At the end of the first quarter of 1995,...

  16. Au cœur de la guerre du Việt Nam : herbicides, napalm et bulldozers contre les montagnes d’A Lưới

    OpenAIRE

    Robert, Amélie

    2016-01-01

    Situées dans la partie occidentale de la province de Thừa Thiên Huế (Centre-Việt Nam), les montagnes d’A Lưới ont été lourdement affectées par la guerre du Việt Nam (1961-1975). Zone refuge pour les Việt Cộng, traversées par la piste Hồ Chí Minh – axe stratégique pour ces derniers –, elles subissent de nombreux épandages d’herbicides et bombardements, y compris au napalm, avec une intensité plus grande que dans les autres unités paysagères. Ces pratiques sont perpétrées par les troupes améric...

  17. Dynamic Modeling and Control Strategy Optimization for a Hybrid Electric Tracked Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Hong Wang; Qiang Song; Shengbo Wang; Pu Zeng

    2015-01-01

    A new hybrid electric tracked bulldozer composed of an engine generator, two driving motors, and an ultracapacitor is put forward, which can provide high efficiencies and less fuel consumption comparing with traditional ones. This paper first presents the terramechanics of this hybrid electric tracked bulldozer. The driving dynamics for this tracked bulldozer is then analyzed. After that, based on analyzing the working characteristics of the engine, generator, and driving motors, the power tr...

  18. ТЕОРЕТИЧЕСКИЕ ИССЛЕДОВАНИЯ ПРОЦЕССА РАЗРАБОТКИ ГРУНТА РАБОЧИМ ОРГАНОМ ЗЕМЛЕРОЙНОЙ МАШИНЫ С ВЫСТУПАЮЩИМ НОЖОМ ТРАПЕЦИЕВИДНОЙ ФОРМЫ

    OpenAIRE

    Хмара, Л.; Талалай, В.

    2007-01-01

    Theoretical research of earth moving process by blades of trapezoidal form with different parameters is considered in this work. The analysis of interaction of bulldozer working organ with soil, whose blade system is equipped with projecting blade of trapezoidal form, is given. Practicability of giving trapezoidal form to bulldozer working organ blades is proved.

  19. РАБОЧИЙ ОРГАН ЗЕМЛЕРОЙНОЙ МАШИНЫ С ВЫСТУПАЮЩИМ НОЖОМ ТРАПЕЦИЕВИДНОЙ ФОРМЫ

    OpenAIRE

    Хмара, Л.; Талалай, В.; Белинский, А.

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of bulldozer working part interaction with soil is considered in the article. It is proved that trapezoidal shape is advisable for cutting blades of bulldozer working parts. Design of elaborate working part with blade system equipped with prominent central blade is offered.

  20. 拆迁普店街:二十世纪末中国都市小说中摧毁和复兴主题的含混 (Bulldozing Pudian Street: Destruction or Renewal? Ambiguities in Big City Novels in Late 20th Century Chinese Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Li

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available There is little doubt that the most cogent literary representation of the experience of modernity has been realised in big city fiction and cinematographic masterpieces such as Fritz Lang's Metropolis (1926. Despite the formal and aesthetic incompatability of early twentieth century (predominantly Western works of this literary genre and more recent ones, East and West, the underlying dialectic tension between progressive optimism and disorientation, existential up-rootedness, alienation and angst (Rilke's loss of soul as archetypal manifestation of mega-city reality and its social structure and organisation, constitutes a generic hallmark, regardless of time and place. Significantly, the relevance of this problem is reinforced, theoretically and practically, by the eminent scholar and architect Rem Koolhaas whose reflections have China as a principal reference point of the global "out-of-control process of modernisation". This paper focuses on the literary representation of the complexity and universality of the problem and the social implications of the blurred and ambiguous vision of urban reality with particular reference to contemporary Chinese literature.

  1. DESTRUCTION CONDITIONS WHEN DITTING HOMOGENEOUS GROUND AND GROUND WITH INCLUSION

    OpenAIRE

    Nichke, V.; Demishkan, V.

    2005-01-01

    On the base of analyses strained state the strong a ground with inclusion, and take into account a bigger traction effort of a modern bulldozers, was shoved as destroyed a rocks ground, a ground with inclusion, homogeneous a ground.

  2. 44 CFR 204.42 - Eligible costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... under State law and procedure and complying with 44 CFR part 13. (b) Equipment and supplies. Eligible... the firefighting effort or activities. This includes minimal repairs to bulldozer lines, camps,...

  3. Simple Machines Simply Put.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, James J.

    1994-01-01

    Students explore the workings of the lever, wheel and axle, and the inclined plane as they build simple toys--a bulldozer and a road grader. The project takes four weeks. Diagrams and procedures are included. (PR)

  4. ВЫБОР МАТЕРИАЛА И МЕТОДА ПОВЫШЕНИЯ ИЗНОСОСТОЙКОСТИ РЕЖУЩИХ ЭЛЕМЕНТОВ БУЛЬДОЗЕРОВ

    OpenAIRE

    Мощенок, Василий; Тарабанова, Валентина; Лалазарова, Наталья; Проскурня, Н.

    2007-01-01

    High-strength spheroid-graphite cast iron has been offered as a material for bulldozer knives. In order to improve its mechanical properties and wear resistance, cast-iron is subjected to various types of hardening

  5. Environmental impacts of forest road construction on mountainous terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Forest roads are the base infrastructure foundation of forestry operations. These roads entail a complex engineering effort because they can cause substantial environmental damage to forests and include a high-cost construction. This study was carried out in four sample sites of Giresun, Trabzon(2) and Artvin Forest Directorate, which is in the Black Sea region of Turkey. The areas have both steep terrain (30-50% gradient) and very steep terrain (51-80% gradient). Bulldozers and hydraulic excavators were determined to be the main machines for forest road construction, causing environmental damage and cross sections in mountainous areas. As a result of this study, the percent damage to forests was determined as follows: on steep terrain, 21% of trees were damaged by excavators and 33% of trees were damaged by bulldozers during forest road construction, and on very steep terrain, 27% of trees were damaged by excavators and 44% of trees were damaged by bulldozers during forest road construction. It was also determined that on steep terrain, when excavators were used, 12.23% less forest area was destroyed compared with when bulldozers were used and 16.13% less area was destroyed by excavators on very steep terrain. In order to reduce the environmental damage on the forest ecosystem, especially in steep terrains, hydraulic excavators should replace bulldozers in forest road construction activities. PMID:23497078

  6. Environmental Impacts of Forest Road Construction on Mountainous Terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan Caliskan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Forest roads are the base infrastructure foundation of forestry operations. These roads entail a complex engineering effort because they can cause substantial environmental damage to forests and include a high-cost construction. This study was carried out in four sample sites of Giresun, Trabzon(2 and Artvin Forest Directorate, which is in the Black Sea region of Turkey. The areas have both steep terrain (30-50% gradient and very steep terrain (51-80% gradient. Bulldozers and hydraulic excavators were determined to be the main machines for forest road construction, causing environmental damage and cross sections in mountainous areas.As a result of this study, the percent damage to forests was determined as follows: on steep terrain, 21% of trees were damaged by excavators and 33% of trees were damaged by bulldozers during forest road construction, and on very steep terrain, 27% of trees were damaged by excavators and 44% of trees were damaged by bulldozers during forest road construction. It was also determined that on steep terrain, when excavators were used, 12.23% less forest area was destroyed compared with when bulldozers were used and 16.13% less area was destroyed by excavators on very steep terrain. In order to reduce the environmental damage on the forest ecosystem, especially in steep terrains, hydraulic excavators should replace bulldozers in forest road construction activities.

  7. Environmental impacts of forest road construction on mountainous terrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliskan, Erhan

    2013-01-01

    Forest roads are the base infrastructure foundation of forestry operations. These roads entail a complex engineering effort because they can cause substantial environmental damage to forests and include a high-cost construction. This study was carried out in four sample sites of Giresun, Trabzon(2) and Artvin Forest Directorate, which is in the Black Sea region of Turkey. The areas have both steep terrain (30-50% gradient) and very steep terrain (51-80% gradient). Bulldozers and hydraulic excavators were determined to be the main machines for forest road construction, causing environmental damage and cross sections in mountainous areas.As a result of this study, the percent damage to forests was determined as follows: on steep terrain, 21% of trees were damaged by excavators and 33% of trees were damaged by bulldozers during forest road construction, and on very steep terrain, 27% of trees were damaged by excavators and 44% of trees were damaged by bulldozers during forest road construction. It was also determined that on steep terrain, when excavators were used, 12.23% less forest area was destroyed compared with when bulldozers were used and 16.13% less area was destroyed by excavators on very steep terrain. In order to reduce the environmental damage on the forest ecosystem, especially in steep terrains, hydraulic excavators should replace bulldozers in forest road construction activities. PMID:23497078

  8. The assessment of environmentally sensitive forest road construction in Calabrian pine forest areas of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunay, Metin

    2006-07-01

    Forest road construction by bulldozers in Calabrian Pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) forests on mountainous terrain of Turkey causes considerable damage to the environment and the forest standing alongside the road. This situation obliges a study of environmentally sound road construction in Turkey. This study was carried out in 4 sample sites of Antalya Forest Directorate in steep (34-50% gradient) and very steep terrain (51-70% gradient) conditions with bulldozer and excavator machine and direct damages to forest during road construction was determined, including forest area losses and damages to downhill trees in mountainous areas. It was determined that in steep terrain when excavators were used, less forest area (22.16%) was destroyed compared to bulldozers and 26.54% less area in very steep terrain. The proportion of damage on trees where bulldozer worked was nearly twofold higher than excavator was used. The results of this research show that the environmentally sensitive techniques applied for the road construction projects are considerably superior to the traditional use of bulldozers on steep slopes. The environmentally sound forest road construction by use of excavator must be considered an appropriate and reliable solution for mountainous terrain where areas of sensitive forest ecosystems are to be opened up. PMID:17402245

  9. Dynamic Modeling and Control Strategy Optimization for a Hybrid Electric Tracked Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new hybrid electric tracked bulldozer composed of an engine generator, two driving motors, and an ultracapacitor is put forward, which can provide high efficiencies and less fuel consumption comparing with traditional ones. This paper first presents the terramechanics of this hybrid electric tracked bulldozer. The driving dynamics for this tracked bulldozer is then analyzed. After that, based on analyzing the working characteristics of the engine, generator, and driving motors, the power train system model and control strategy optimization is established by using MATLAB/Simulink and OPTIMUS software. Simulation is performed under a representative working condition, and the results demonstrate that fuel economy of the HETV can be significantly improved.

  10. Sistema económico de localização relativa para robôs móveis e autónomos

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Valter; Santos, Frederico

    2002-01-01

    Este artigo descreve o robô Bulldozer IV vencedor do concurso Micro-Rato 2001. Trata-se de uma evolução das versões anteriores do Bulldozer, tendo sido adicionado um novo micro-controlador, uma bússola electrónica e um rato óptico de computador. Todo o software e hardware existente foi aproveitado, existindo apenas pequenos ajustes. Serão descritos ao longo do artigo alguns aspectos importantes, tanto na construção do hardware, como do desenvolvimento do software. É dada especial ...

  11. Managing the exploitation life of the mining machinery for a limited duration of time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujić Slobodan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the theoretical concept and illustrates the practical application of models with limited interval based on dynamic programming, suitable for optimization of exploitation life of mining machinery that have a shorter life cycle such as: bulldozers, scrapers, dumpers, excavators equipped by a smaller capacity operating element, as well as some others machinery.

  12. DEM study on the interaction between wet cohesive granular materials and tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Takuya; Matsui, Yu; Nakagawa, Yuta; Kadono, Yuuichi; Tanaka, Toshitsugu

    2013-06-01

    A model based on discrete element method has been developed for the interaction between wet cohesive granular materials and mechanical tools with complex geometry. To obtain realistic results, the motion of 52.5 million particles has been simulated and the formation of multiple shear bands during an excavation process by a bulldozer blade was observed.

  13. Diesel Engine Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Diesel engine technicians maintain and repair the engines that power transportation equipment such as heavy trucks, trains, buses, and locomotives. Some technicians work mainly on farm machines, ships, compressors, and pumps. Others work mostly on construction equipment such as cranes, power shovels, bulldozers, and paving machines. This article…

  14. A Mean Wink at Authenticity: Chinese Images in Disney's "Mulan."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Weimin; Shen, Wenju

    2000-01-01

    Offers a critique from two Chinese educators with regard to the historical, cultural, linguistic, and artistic authenticity of Disney's animated film "Mulan." Argues that the filmmakers robbed the original story of its soul and "ran over Chinese culture with the Disney bulldozer," imposing mainstream cultural beliefs and values. (SR)

  15. Unstoppable: Cindy Eubank--Granby Library, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library Journal, 2005

    2005-01-01

    On June 4, 2004, a crazed man rammed an unstoppable, armor-plated bulldozer into eight buildings in Granby, Colorado. The library was one of them. Three days later, Cindy Eubank and other volunteers salvaged what they could from the wrecked building. The collection had also suffered rain damage, so this was a grubby labor of love for the…

  16. Worlds Apart: One City, Two Libraries, and Ten Years of Watching Inequality Grow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Susan B.; Celano, Donna C.

    2012-01-01

    Like a bright beacon on the hill, the Lillian Marrero public library rises majestically above the deserted buildings and bulldozed voids below on Germantown Avenue. Here in the heart of what is known as the Philadelphia Badlands, makeshift garbage dumps line the sidewalks. The tall grass that surrounds abandoned lots does nothing to obscure the…

  17. 75 FR 49429 - Metal and Nonmetal Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... haul truck, one in a bulldozer, and two in a pickup truck, were carried down-slope with the slide. One miner injured his back running from the pickup but the others were not injured. The dam was designed by... escaped in a pickup truck. The dam, built without being designed by an engineer, had a weak...

  18. 77 FR 42509 - Notice of Inventory Completion: The University of Montana, Missoula, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-19

    ... removed from within the city limits of Missoula, MT. This notice is published as part of the National Park..., represented only by several vertebrae, was also elderly, but exact age and sex cannot be determined. No known... bulldozer from an historical Indian burial in the city of Missoula, MT. This burial site location is...

  19. ЭКОЛОГИЧНОСТЬ МЕТОДОВ И СРЕДСТВ ТУШЕНИЯ ЛЕСНЫХ ПОЖАРОВ (ОЦЕНКИ И РЕКОМЕНДАЦИИ)

    OpenAIRE

    ТЕЛИЦЫН Г.П.; ОСТРОШЕНКО В.В.

    2008-01-01

    Ecological assessment of existing techniques for forest fire suppression is given. Water-based methods are admitted most ecologically suitable. Chemical water solutions pollute both the forest floor and water receptors. Bulldozer lines are not ecologically admissible and their use for forest fire suppression must be restricted.

  20. Урахування характеру зношування опорних котків при його дослідженні в лабораторних умовах

    OpenAIRE

    Перемітько, Валерій

    2013-01-01

    The bench experiments of existing track rollers at typical bulldozer operating conditions have been conducted for the adequate selection of coating materials during the reduction technologies development. An original design of the device to test samples for the wear under the conditions close to real has been proposed.

  1. ИССЛЕДОВАНИЕ НАКОПИТЕЛЬНОЙ СПОСОБНОСТИ ОТВАЛА БУЛЬДОЗЕРА С БОКОВЫМИ ОГРАНИЧИВАЮЩИМИ ЭЛЕМЕНТАМИ

    OpenAIRE

    Хмара, Л.; Басий, В.; Деревянчук, М.; Максюк, А.

    2005-01-01

    The results of experimental researches on the decision of influencing of geometrical parameters of lateral limiting elements on the size of prism of the soil accumulated before the nepolnopovorotnim dump of bulldozer are resulted. Practical recommendations on the choice of basic parameters of limiting elements are formulated.

  2. Experimental modelling of radon exhalation in the process of ground works under decontamination of the objects '802' and 'Western'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental modelling of ground works on scrapping he ground from the sections contaminated with uranium ore in the territory of the objects '802' and 'Western' in Brest-town was carried out. The presence of radon-222 in the air at working places of the personnel (drivers, bulldozer operators) will not be of radiation danger when fulfilling the pointed-above works. (Authors)

  3. SHANTUI Fushun base:Go ahead under adverse market%山推抚起 在市场逆流中奋进——对话山推首席设计师叶文彪博士

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾泽辉

    2012-01-01

    As we all known,SHANTUI bulldozer sales leading global. With 32 years history of the new SHANTUI,today in other fields has also made a figure. As the most outstanding bulldozer manufacturers in domestic construction machinery industry,SHANTUI develops diversified products in accordance with the "internationalized vision diversified SHANTUI" strategic subject.At present SHANTUI has become complete engineering machinery manufacturers containing with combination excavator and hauler,road machinery,concrete machinery,aerial work machinery,piling machinery,industrial trucks,the core components of the product category. As the diversity of the new engine of SHANTUI, Fushun Industrial Park of SHANTUI play an important role in the production and business are advance steadily.

  4. More Durable Tracks for Heavy Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Earl R., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Tie bars instead of threaded fasteners make track throwing less likely. Proposed undercarriage for tank or bulldozer has flanged edges to prevent rocks and other road debris from getting caught in track drive and damaging or casting off track. Improved track has no threaded fasteners to be loosened by road shock and vibration. Continuous chain of floating guide bars articulated at web junctions. Pins replace bolted connections. Guide bars and flanges on vehicle keep out stones.

  5. Differential characteristics of photochemical acclimation to cold in two contrasting sweet sorghum hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegada-Lizarazu, Walter; Fernando Luna, Dario; Monti, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Sweet sorghum has a photosynthetic system which is highly sensitive to cold stress and hence strongly limits its development in temperate environments; therefore, the identification of key exploitable cold tolerance traits is imperative. From a preliminary field trial, two dissimilar sweet sorghum hybrids (ICSSH31 and Bulldozer), in terms of early vigor and productivity, were selected for a controlled-environment trial aiming at identifying useful traits related to acclimation mechanisms to cold stress. The higher cold tolerance of Bulldozer was partially related to a more efficient photochemical regulation mechanism of the incoming light energy: the higher tolerance of photosystem II (PSII) to photo-inactivation was because of a more effective dissipation capacity of the excess of energy and to a more balanced diversion of the absorbed energy into alternative energy sinks. ICSSH31 increased the dissipation and accumulation of a large amount of xanthophylls, as in Bulldozer, but, at the same time, inactivated the oxygen evolving complex and the re-synthesis of chlorophyll (Chl) a and b, thus, leading to an overproduction of CO2 fixation enzymes after re-warming. In summary, in Bulldozer, the acclimation adjustments of the photosynthetic apparatus occurred through an efficient control of energy transfer toward the reaction centers, and this likely allowed a more successful seedling establishment; ICSSH31, conversely, exhibited a fast re-synthesis of Chl pigments, which appears to divert photosynthates from dry matter accumulation. Such broad acclimation traits may constitute a source for selecting higher genetic gain traits relevant for enlarging the growing season of promising biomass sorghum ideotypes in temperate climates. PMID:26867791

  6. Transport powered by bacterial turbulence

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiser, Andreas; Peshkov, Anton; Sokolov, Andrey; ten Hagen, Borge; Löwen, Hartmut; Aranson, Igor S.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate that collective turbulent-like motion in a bacterial bath can power and steer directed transport of mesoscopic carriers through the suspension. In our experiments and simulations, a microwedge-like "bulldozer" draws energy from a bacterial bath of varied density. We obtain that a maximal transport speed is achieved in the turbulent state of the bacterial suspension. This apparent rectification of random motion of bacteria is caused by polar ordered bacteria inside the cusp regi...

  7. Spatial variability of soil chemical properties after coffee tree removal Variabilidade espacial dos atributos químicos do solo após remoção de cafezal

    OpenAIRE

    Sidney Rosa Vieira; Osvaldo Guedes Filho; Márcio Koiti Chiba; Heitor Cantarella

    2009-01-01

    Assessing the spatial variability of soil chemical properties has become an important aspect of soil management strategies with a view to higher crop yields with minimal environmental degradation. This study was carried out at the Centro Experimental of the Instituto Agronomico, in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. The aim was to characterize the spatial variability of chemical properties of a Rhodic Hapludox on a recently bulldozer-cleaned area after over 30 years of coffee cultivation. Soil samp...

  8. Effectiveness of the GAEC standard of cross compliance Prohibition of performing unauthorized land levelling on soil erosion control

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Bazzoffi; Pier Carlo Tesi

    2011-01-01

    The GAEC standard land levelling under authorization of cross compliance prohibits farmers from levelling land through bulldozing without a specific permission issued by the proper territorial authority. The aim of the standard is to ensure the protection of soil from accelerated erosion that almost always occurs when land is levelled without conservative criteria. Land levelling prior to planting or replanting specialized crops, especially orchards, is indicated by agronomists as essential t...

  9. Soil loss and displacement by heavy equipment in forest road subgrading projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aidin PARSAKHOO; Seyed Ataollah HOSSEINI; Majid LOTFALIAN; Hamid JALILVAND

    2009-01-01

    Forest soil is an important component of the natural environment, and is a primary medium for many biological activities. In this study, soil loss and displacement by excavator and bulldozer (heavy equipments) were measured on cut and fills slopes of forest roads located in Mazandaran province,Iran. The volumes of soil losses were estimated by prismoidal analyses of cut and fill slopes deformation between two time treatments (under subgrading and two years later) in slope classes of 30-50% and 50-70%. Weights of soil losses were calculated by multiplying the volumes of soil losses (cm3) to the general bulk density (1.3g/cm3). Soil displaced area by heavy equipment was evaluated according to earth working width. Results indicated that heavy equipment has significant effect on deformation of cut slope gradient and fill slope length (p<0.0001). During the two-year period, the cut (p<0.0002) and fill (p<0.0001) slope gradients were significantly deformed in different slope classes.The average soil loss by excavator and bulldozer were 160.35 t/ha.yr and 429.09 t/ha.yr, respectively.Moreover, the soil displaced area during the subgrading process by bulldozer was greater than excavator in both two slope classes (p<0.05). Soil loss and displacement in forest roads can be reduced by applying powerful excavators in subgrading project, especially in steep terrains.

  10. Influence of grading intensity on ground cover establishment, erosion, and tree establishment on steep slopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1991, a 5-year study was established in eastern Kentucky to evaluate the effect of surface grading intensity on ground cover development, erosion, and tree establishment. The study included three grading treatments. The moderately graded treatment consisted of backfilling a 40% slope and back-blading with a Caterpillar D-9 bulldozer to create a smooth slope. The intensively graded treatment involved additional back-blading passes, followed by tracking-in with D-9 bulldozers. The roughly graded treatment was created by ripping plots with a 36-in ripping bar pulled directly downslope with a D-9 bulldozer. Each plot was installed on the slope, with a level area at the base of each plot. Five species of trees were planted in each plot (white pine, loblolly pine, sycamore, sweetgum, and yellow-poplar), and the entire area was hydroseeded with a tree-compatible ground cover. Erosion was measured monthly using erosion rods. Ground cover was measured along a transect after the first growing season. Total ground cover averaged 82% after 3 years and was not affected by grading treatment, although there was a significantly higher amount of legume cover on the roughly graded plots. Erosion was highest on intensively graded plots. Tree survival varied by species. Average survival was best for sycamore and poorest for white pine. Growth of sycamore and loblolly pine was significantly reduced by the intensive grading treatment

  11. [Evaluation of health risk in machine operators exposed to whole body vibration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langauer-Lewowicka, H; Harazin, B; Brzozowska, I; Szłapa, P

    1996-01-01

    A total of 45 machine operators employed at the same power station were examined with special emphasis put on the musculoskeletal system. A group of 15 bulldozer operators, 19 engine operators and 11 tractor drives were exposed to the whole-body vibration with average vertical equivalent acceleration ranging from 0.2 mg-2 to 0.5 ms-2 r.m.s. The incidence of low back complaints over a period of 12 months was similar to that observed in the occupational study groups. However, back pains combined with other health disorders were most common in bulldozer operators (80%) while the lowest percentage (36%) of such cases was observed among tractor drivers. The analysis of lifetime exposure to the whole body vibration in both groups showed that bulldozer operators worked only 5 years longer, on average, but they spent twice as many hours at work as tractor drivers. The study indicates that individual lifetime exposure to the whole-body vibration may play an important part in the evaluation of health effects. PMID:8657008

  12. Countering postural posteffects following prolonged exposure to whole-body vibration: a sensorimotor treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oullier, Olivier; Kavounoudias, Anne; Duclos, Cyril; Albert, Frédéric; Roll, Jean-Pierre; Roll, Régine

    2009-01-01

    Postural stability of bulldozer operators after a day of work is investigated. When operators are no longer exposed to whole-body vibration (WBV) generated by their vehicle, their sensorimotor coordination and body representation remain altered. A sensorimotor treatment based on a set of customized voluntary movements is tested to counter and prevent potential post-work accidents due to prolonged exposure to WBV. This treatment includes muscle stretching, joint rotations, and plantar pressures, all known to minimize the deleterious effects of prolonged exposure to mechanical vibrations. The postural stability of participants (drivers; N = 12) was assessed via the area of an ellipse computed from the X and Y displacements of the center-of-pressure (CoP) in the horizontal plane when they executed a simple balance task before driving, after driving, and after driving and having performed the sensorimotor treatment. An ancillary experiment is also reported in which a group of non-driver participants (N = 12) performed the same postural task three times during the same day but without exposure to WBV or the sensorimotor treatment. Prolonged exposure to WBV significantly increased postural instability in bulldozer drivers after they operated their vehicle compared to prior to their day of work. The sensorimotor treatment allowed postural stability to return to a level that was not significantly different from that before driving. The results reveal that (1) the postural system remains perturbed after prolonged exposure to WBV due to operating a bulldozer and (2) treatment immediately after driving provides a "sensorimotor recalibration" and a significant decrease in WBV-induced postural instability. If confirmed in different contexts, the postural re-stabilizing effect of the sensorimotor treatment would constitute a simple, rapid, inexpensive, and efficient means to prevent post-work accidents due to balance-related issues. PMID:18974996

  13. Transport Powered by Bacterial Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Andreas; Peshkov, Anton; Sokolov, Andrey; ten Hagen, Borge; Löwen, Hartmut; Aranson, Igor S.

    2014-04-01

    We demonstrate that collective turbulentlike motion in a bacterial bath can power and steer the directed transport of mesoscopic carriers through the suspension. In our experiments and simulations, a microwedgelike "bulldozer" draws energy from a bacterial bath of varied density. We obtain that an optimal transport speed is achieved in the turbulent state of the bacterial suspension. This apparent rectification of random motion of bacteria is caused by polar ordered bacteria inside the cusp region of the carrier, which is shielded from the outside turbulent fluctuations.

  14. 液压机械传动在大功率履带拖拉机上的应用与分析%Applications of HMT on Large Crawler Tractors and its Construction Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田全忠

    2001-01-01

    液压机械传动(HMT)是一种新型的无级变速装置。主要介绍了它的组成结构、基本原理以及国内外在大功率履带拖拉机、推土机上的应用与分析。%HMT (The hydraulic and mechanical transmission) is a new type stepless transmission. Its construction and primary principle are analysed. The application on large crawler tractors and bulldozers have been introduced.

  15. Defending Home

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI LI

    2010-01-01

    @@ Television audiences around the country were shocked on November 21,2009, when national broadcaster China Central Television showed clips of two families violently fighting lawenforcement officials who were evicting them from their homes. The first incident being broadcast happened in June 2008, when Pan Rong and her husband stood on the roof of their four-story house to confront a demolition crew that consisted of police officers, firefighters and a bulldozer. Their family home stood in the way of a Shanghai Hongqiao Airport expansion project. Pan shouted into a loudspeaker,"If you don't have a court verdict, you are violating our property rights."

  16. Transport powered by bacterial turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Andreas; Peshkov, Anton; Sokolov, Andrey; ten Hagen, Borge; Löwen, Hartmut; Aranson, Igor S

    2014-04-18

    We demonstrate that collective turbulentlike motion in a bacterial bath can power and steer the directed transport of mesoscopic carriers through the suspension. In our experiments and simulations, a microwedgelike "bulldozer" draws energy from a bacterial bath of varied density. We obtain that an optimal transport speed is achieved in the turbulent state of the bacterial suspension. This apparent rectification of random motion of bacteria is caused by polar ordered bacteria inside the cusp region of the carrier, which is shielded from the outside turbulent fluctuations. PMID:24785075

  17. En jämförelse mellan ramverk för att utveckla hybridapplikationer

    OpenAIRE

    Hansson, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Syftet med undersökningen är att jag ska samla kunskap om olika ramverk för att ta fram hybridapplikationer och undersöka hur dessa ramverk presterar mot kriterier som tagits fram tillsammans med Bulldozer kommunikationsbyrå. Med hjälp av en samling kriterier är målet med undersökningen att komma fram till vilket som är det “bästa” ramverket för att ta fram en hybridapplikation för en webbutvecklare som saknar kompetens för att utveckla plattformsspecifika applikationer. Resulta...

  18. Heavy construction equipment noise study using dosimetry and time-motion studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Ellsworth R.; Yantek, David S.

    2005-09-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss continues to afflict workers in many occupational settings despite longstanding recognition of the problems and well-known methods of prevention and regulations. Sound levels associated with heavy construction equipment range from 80 to 120 dB(A) and power tools commonly used in construction produce sound levels up to 115 dB(A). The focus of the research was to determine the noise exposures of heavy construction equipment operators while documenting the workers' tasks, (i.e., hauling, moving, and/or pushing construction material). Time-motion studies were performed at the construction sites and were used to correlate the noise dosage with the work performed by equipment operators. The cumulative dose for the operator was then plotted with references to work tasks, to identify the tasks that caused the greatest noise exposure. Three construction sites were examined and located in the western Pennsylvania and eastern Ohio areas. The types of construction equipment studied included asphalt pavers, backhoes, bulldozers, compaction equipment, excavators, haul trucks, telehandlers, and wheeled loaders. The results showed that bulldozer operators consistently had the highest noise exposures, ranging from a NIOSH REL (Recommended Exposure Limit) dose of 844% to 25836% and an OSHA PEL (Permissible Exposure Limit) dose of 139% to 1397%.

  19. Estimated radiation doses resulting if an exploratory borehole penetrates a pressurized brine reservoir assumed to exist below the WIPP repository horizon: a single hole scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiation dose consequence analysis has been performed for a postulated scenario in which an exploratory gas or oil well-bore penetrates the repository and intercepts a brine reservoir in the Castile formation. The brine, corings and drilling mud are contained in a one acre holding pond on the surface. Upon the completion of drilling activities the dried holding pond area is reclaimed with a bulldozer to its original topographic conformation. The estimated radiation bone dose commitments to (1) a bulldozer operator, and (2) a member of a farm family 500 meters down wind are summarized for three penetration event times. The highest estimated 50 year bone dose commitment to an individual reclaiming the contaminated holding pond area was determined to be 590 mrem from the inhalation of CH-TRU wastes resuspended into the atmosphere at an event time of 100 years post-closure. A second dose model using a specific activity approach is developed in Appendix C for this same individual where an upper 50 year dose commitment of 450 mrem is calculated. Both of these derived estimates may be compared to the 5800 mrem to bone surfaces which may be expected from natural background radiation to an individual in the United States over a fifty year period

  20. Post-disturbance plant community dynamics following a rare natural-origin fire in a Tsuga canadensis forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan D Murray

    Full Text Available Opportunities to directly study infrequent forest disturbance events often lead to valuable information about vegetation dynamics. In mesic temperate forests of North America, stand-replacing crown fire occurs infrequently, with a return interval of 2000-3000 years. Rare chance events, however, may have profound impacts on the developmental trajectories of forest ecosystems. For example, it has been postulated that stand-replacing fire may have been an important factor in the establishment of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis stands in the northern Great Lakes region. Nevertheless, experimental evidence linking hemlock regeneration to non-anthropogenic fire is limited. To clarify this potential relationship, we monitored vegetation dynamics following a rare lightning-origin crown fire in a Wisconsin hemlock-hardwood forest. We also studied vegetation in bulldozer-created fire breaks and adjacent undisturbed forest. Our results indicate that hemlock establishment was rare in the burned area but moderately common in the scarified bulldozer lines compared to the reference area. Early-successional, non-arboreal species including Rubus spp., Vaccinium angustifolium, sedges (Carex spp., grasses, Epilobium ciliatum, and Pteridium aquilinium were the most abundant post-fire species. Collectively, our results suggest that competing vegetation and moisture stress resulting from drought may reduce the efficacy of scarification treatments as well as the usefulness of fire for preparing a suitable seedbed for hemlock. The increasing prevalence of growing-season drought suggests that silvicultural strategies based on historic disturbance regimes may need to be reevaluated for mesic species.

  1. Fuel breaks affect nonnative species abundance in Californian plant communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriam, K.E.; Keeley, J.E.; Beyers, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the abundance of nonnative plants on fuel breaks and in adjacent untreated areas to determine if fuel treatments promote the invasion of nonnative plant species. Understanding the relationship between fuel treatments and nonnative plants is becoming increasingly important as federal and state agencies are currently implementing large fuel treatment programs throughout the United States to reduce the threat of wildland fire. Our study included 24 fuel breaks located across the State of California. We found that nonnative plant abundance was over 200% higher on fuel breaks than in adjacent wildland areas. Relative nonnative cover was greater on fuel breaks constructed by bulldozers (28%) than on fuel breaks constructed by other methods (7%). Canopy cover, litter cover, and duff depth also were significantly lower on fuel breaks constructed by bulldozers, and these fuel breaks had significantly more exposed bare ground than other types of fuel breaks. There was a significant decline in relative nonnative cover with increasing distance from the fuel break, particularly in areas that had experienced more numerous fires during the past 50 years, and in areas that had been grazed. These data suggest that fuel breaks could provide establishment sites for nonnative plants, and that nonnatives may invade surrounding areas, especially after disturbances such as fire or grazing. Fuel break construction and maintenance methods that leave some overstory canopy and minimize exposure of bare ground may be less likely to promote nonnative plants. ?? 2006 by the Ecological Society of America.

  2. Post-disturbance plant community dynamics following a rare natural-origin fire in a Tsuga canadensis forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Bryan D; Holmes, Stacie A; Webster, Christopher R; Witt, Jill C

    2012-01-01

    Opportunities to directly study infrequent forest disturbance events often lead to valuable information about vegetation dynamics. In mesic temperate forests of North America, stand-replacing crown fire occurs infrequently, with a return interval of 2000-3000 years. Rare chance events, however, may have profound impacts on the developmental trajectories of forest ecosystems. For example, it has been postulated that stand-replacing fire may have been an important factor in the establishment of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) stands in the northern Great Lakes region. Nevertheless, experimental evidence linking hemlock regeneration to non-anthropogenic fire is limited. To clarify this potential relationship, we monitored vegetation dynamics following a rare lightning-origin crown fire in a Wisconsin hemlock-hardwood forest. We also studied vegetation in bulldozer-created fire breaks and adjacent undisturbed forest. Our results indicate that hemlock establishment was rare in the burned area but moderately common in the scarified bulldozer lines compared to the reference area. Early-successional, non-arboreal species including Rubus spp., Vaccinium angustifolium, sedges (Carex spp.), grasses, Epilobium ciliatum, and Pteridium aquilinium were the most abundant post-fire species. Collectively, our results suggest that competing vegetation and moisture stress resulting from drought may reduce the efficacy of scarification treatments as well as the usefulness of fire for preparing a suitable seedbed for hemlock. The increasing prevalence of growing-season drought suggests that silvicultural strategies based on historic disturbance regimes may need to be reevaluated for mesic species. PMID:22928044

  3. Penerapan Reduced Impact Logging Menggunakan Monocable Winch (Pancang Tarik (Implementing Reduced Impact Logging with Monocable Winch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosep Ruslim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest harvesting still encounters many problems especially concerning impact to the residual stand  and environmental damage. Implementing the reduced impact monocable winch and planning of good skid trails should have a positive impact on work efficiency as well as, reducing damage to the residual stand and soil during felling and skidding activities. Reduced impact logging (RIL with a monocable winch (Pancang Tarik system has been tried in several IUPHHKs and it can be concluded that RIL monocable winch system could be applied practically and reduce impact on residual stand and soil damage. Using this technology has many advantages, among others: cost efficiency, locally made, environmental friendly, and high local community participation. Application of  the monocable winch  system in reduced impact logging is an effort to reduce economical and environment  damages when compared to conventional system of ground based skidding with bulldozer system. The aim of this research is to verify the efficiency (operational cost, effectiveness (productivity and  time consumption of monocable winch system. The results  indicate that the implementation monocable winch system, has reduced the soil damage as much as 8% ha-1.  The skidding cost  with monocable system is Rp95.000 m-3. This figure is significantly cheaper if compare with ground base skidding with bulldozer system in which the skidding cost around Rp165.000 m-3.Keywords: mononocable winch, productivity,  skidding cost, reduced impact logging, local community

  4. University of Otago 1998 field school excavations at Shag Point, North Otago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During late 1997, discussions with Gerard O'Regan, representing Te Runanga O Moeraki, lead to combining the needs of cultural resource management, teaching and research at the Shag Point archaeological site, situated about an hour's drive north from the University of Otago. In late 1996, a car park (ca. 20 by 40 m) was bulldozed on Department of Conservation land just inland from Shag Point. Unfortunately, the north-east portion of the site, as well as cultural deposits along newly graded access roads, were destroyed. Te Runanga O Moeraki requested that I conduct archaeological survey and excavations at Shag Point to determine the extent of site destruction and to recover a sample of cultural material in the bulldozer spoil dirt. In addition to these cultural resource management objectives, it was necessary, from a research point of view, to determine: (1) the site area; (2) dates of site use; (3) the nature of occupation, subsistence practices and stone-tool technology; (4) evidence of interaction through analysis of imported artefacts; and (5) relationship of the Shag Point site to the major prehistoric village at Shag River mouth, located less than 1 km south. (author). 2 refs., 2 figs

  5. Demolitions of the Savannah River Site's concentrator and finishing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has produced Special Nuclear Materials (SNMs) starting in the early 1950's to the mid 1970's for the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and from the mid 1970's to the present for the Department of Energy (DOE). In that time, over 1,000 facilities have been built in the sixteen operational areas of the eight hundred square kilometer site. Over the years, many of the facilities have been dispositioned by the DOE as inactive. In FY-03, DOE identified two hundred and forty-seven (inactive or soon to be inactive) facilities that required demolition. Demolition work was scheduled to start in FY-04 and be completed in the first quarter of FY-07. Two-hundred and thirty-nine of these facilities have been demolished employing Routine demolition techniques. This presentation reviews and discusses two of the eight Non-Routine demolitions Facilities, 420-D 'The Concentrator Facility', and 421-D 'The Finishing Facility'. Facilities 420-D and 421-D were toppled by attaching rigging from the structural steel building frame to bulldozers and toppling the facilities over. The greatest advantage of this method is that it employs equipment that is on hand at SRS, saving time on locating and leasing offsite equipment as well as operator training. In addition, although the toppled structure does not land in the original facilities footprint, it does land in a contained area that is easily barricaded to prevent access during the operation. There are several disadvantages. First, there must be adequate area for the structure to topple into. Also if the wire rope size required to topple the structure is larger than two in., the ropes become extremely difficult to work with. Lastly, the yield strength of steel members is guaranteed by the manufacturer as a minimum strength, so its ultimate strength is unknown. This requires extremely conservative specifications sizing the bulldozers and any rigging equipment employed. Two hundred and forty-seven facilities have

  6. Polychaetes as indicators of environmental disturbance on subarctic tidal flats, Iqaluit, Baffin Island, Nunavut Territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, G M

    2001-09-01

    The polychaetes of the tidal flats near the town of Iqaluit, Baffin Island were analysed along gradients of environmental disturbance resulting from human activity. Sources of environmental disturbance include a sewage lagoon, garbage sites; and an area of the tidal flat that is cleared by bulldozer. Sampling of the tidal flats included 300 biological sediment cores taken from 75 sites along seven transects. Environmental disturbance has resulted in four zones of polychaete communities with increasing distance. The heavily disturbed zone is closest to the disturbances and is devoid of polychaetes. The disturbed zone follows and is characterized by low diversity the result of increased densities of a few opportunistic species such as, Capitella 'capitata' sp. The moderately disturbed zone is characterized by increased species diversity due to organic enrichment from the disturbances. The undisturbed zone, located the furthest from the sources of disturbance, is characterized by moderate levels of diversity compared to the other three zones. PMID:11585065

  7. Automatic target classification of man-made objects in synthetic aperture radar images using Gabor wavelet and neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasuki, Perumal; Roomi, S. Mohamed Mansoor

    2013-01-01

    Processing of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images has led to the development of automatic target classification approaches. These approaches help to classify individual and mass military ground vehicles. This work aims to develop an automatic target classification technique to classify military targets like truck/tank/armored car/cannon/bulldozer. The proposed method consists of three stages via preprocessing, feature extraction, and neural network (NN). The first stage removes speckle noise in a SAR image by the identified frost filter and enhances the image by histogram equalization. The second stage uses a Gabor wavelet to extract the image features. The third stage classifies the target by an NN classifier using image features. The proposed work performs better than its counterparts, like K-nearest neighbor (KNN). The proposed work performs better on databases like moving and stationary target acquisition and recognition against the earlier methods by KNN.

  8. Comprehensive work plan for the Well Driller's Steam Cleaning Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Comprehensive Work Plan is to address the history of the site as well as the scope, roles and responsibilities, documentation, training, environmental compliance requirements, and field actions needed to close the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Well Driller's Steam Cleaning Facility, hereinafter referred to as the Facility. The Facility was constructed in 1989 to provide a central area suitable to conduct steam cleaning operations associated with cleaning drilling equipment, containment boxes, and related accessories. Three basins were constructed of crushed stone (with multiple plastic and fabric liners) over a soil foundation to collect drill cuttings and wastewater generated by the cleaning activities. The scope of this task will be to demolish the Facility by using a bulldozer and backhoe to recontour and dismantle the area

  9. Heavy impact-destructive pneumatic hammers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgiev, G.; Vasilev, V.; Dachev, L.; Kralev, I.; Gradishki, Kh.; Koev, S.

    1987-08-01

    Describes technical features of heavy impact-destructive pneumatic hammers, manufactured in the USSR, FRG, Japan, Belgium, France and the USA. The drawbacks and advantages of foreign pneumatic hammers were envaluated by Bulgarian specialists. Bulgarian mining and construction industries make little use of foreign heavy and pneumatic hammers. Units of the Soniet PN-1300 and PN-1700 were manufactured in 1978 by workshops of the Minstroi enterprise. The Probivna Technika laboratory developed an impact-destructive heavy pneumatic hammer - the BP-1801, which was followed by three further types - the LPT-520.1, LPT-520.2, and LPT-520.3, all of which may be attached to L.P.T. hydraulic excavators, bulldozers or loaders weighing more than 8 tons. A scheme of pneumatic hammer design is given and basic parameters are described. Hammers made in Bulgaria are of valveless construction, allowing for simplicity, mechanical effectiveness and reliability. Five prototypes were successfully tested in 1985. 2 refs.

  10. Sub-scour soil deformation and the development of ideas from field work in the last decade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodworth-Lynas, C.M.T. [PETRA International, Cupids, NF (Canada)

    1998-11-01

    The forces and deformation mechanisms experienced by different soils during ice scouring events are discussed. A series of modeling studies have been conducted at C-CORE for the past seven years to help in the design of offshore pipelines that must withstand scouring forces. The Pressure Ridge Ice Scour Experiments (PRISE) are a series of physical model studies conducted in a geotechnical centrifuge at accelerations of 75 to 200 g. They have helped in understanding scour induced failure mechanisms in a variety of different soil types and conditions. Another study, the Dynamics of Iceberg Grounding and Scouring (DIGS), has shown that horizontal bulldozing, although important, is not the only mechanism at work during ice/seabed interaction. 31 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Comparison of ISRU Excavation System Model Blade Force Methodology and Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Christopher A.; Wilkinson, R. Allen; Mueller, Robert P.; Schuler, Jason M.; Nick, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    An Excavation System Model has been written to simulate the collection and transportation of regolith on the Moon. The calculations in this model include an estimation of the forces on the digging tool as a result of excavation into the regolith. Verification testing has been performed and the forces recorded from this testing were compared to the calculated theoretical data. A prototype lunar vehicle built at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) was tested with a bulldozer type blade developed at the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) attached to the front. This is the initial correlation of actual field test data to the blade forces calculated by the Excavation System Model and the test data followed similar trends with the predicted values. This testing occurred in soils developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) which are a mixture of different types of sands and whose soil properties have been well characterized. Three separate analytical models are compared to the test data.

  12. Gozāreš-e nahā’ī-ye kāvoš-e bāstān-šenāḫtī gūrestān-e Lamā, Yāsūj - Kohgīlūye va Boyer Aḥmad / Final Report of the Archaeological excavations at Lamā Cemetery, Yasudj - Kohgilouye va Boyer Ahmad. Tehrān, Pažūhešgāh-e mīrā

    OpenAIRE

    Boucharlat, Rémy

    2010-01-01

    Fouilles de sauvetage entreprises entre 2000 et 2005 sur une nécropole située près du village de Lamā à 50 km au nord de Yasuj. À part plusieurs tombes détruites par un bulldozer, 58 autres ont été fouillées par une mission archéologique. La plupart ont des parois élevées en moellons et la couverture est constituée de dalles disposées en bâtière, ou parfois posées à plat. Squelettes et dépôts d’objets ont été très endommagés par les infiltrations d’eau, car les tombes sont proches de la surfa...

  13. Moderní plánovací algoritmy

    OpenAIRE

    Binko, Petr

    2010-01-01

    Tato práce popisuje algoritmy graphplan, satplan a real-time adaptive A*. Na implementaci těchto algoritmů  je otestována jejich funkčnost a předpokládané vlastnosti (real-time výpočet, paralelismus), v netriviálních doménách.    Graphplan a satplan jsou testovány v doménách block-world, tire-worl a bulldozer. Výsledky těchto  algoritmů jsou porovnány a vykresleny do grafu.    Real-time adaptive A* je testován v doméně tire-world. Dosažené výsledky jsou srovnány&...

  14. « Les “vues” de l’esprit ». Une introduction à l’anthropologie des sciences et des techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Latour, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Nous voudrions bien comprendre ce qui fait la différence entre les sciences et les autres activités, entre nos sociétés scientifiques et celles, préscientifiques, qui les ont précédées. Mais nous souhaiterions aussi trouver des explications qui soient les plus légères possibles. En appeler à des changement dans le cerveau, ou dans l’esprit, ou dans les relations sociales, ou dans les infrastructure économiques, voilà qui est trop lourd ; c’est prendre un bulldozer pour dépoter un géranium. Un...

  15. Enhancement factors for resuspended aerosol radioactivity: Effects of topsoil disturbance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The enhancement factor for airborne radionuclides resuspended by wind is defined as the ratio of the activity density (Bq g-1) in the aerosol to the activity density in the underlying surface of contaminated soil. Enhancement factors are useful for assessment of worst-case exposure scenarios and transport conditions, and are one of the criteria for setting environmental standards for radioactivity in soil. This paper presents results of experimental studies where resuspension of 239Pu was measured when air concentrations were equilibrated to the soil surface. Enhancement factors were observed for several types of man-made disturbances (bulldozer-blading, soil raking, vacuum-cleaning) and natural disturbances (springtime thaw, soil-drying, wildfire). For some cases, enhancement factors are compared over range of geographical locations (Bikini Atoll, California, Nevada, and South Carolina). The particle-size distributions of aerosol activity are compared to particle-size distributions of the underlying soil

  16. Spreading granular material with a blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressaire, Emilie; Singh, Vachitar; Grimaldi, Emma; Sauret, Alban

    2015-11-01

    The spreading of a complex fluid with a blade is encountered in applications that range from the bulldozing of granular material in construction projects to the coating of substrates with fluids in industrial applications. This spreading process is also present in everyday life, when we use a knife to turn a lump of peanut butter into a thin layer over our morning toast. In this study, we rely on granular media in a model experiment to describe the three-dimensional spreading of the material. Our experimental set-up allows tracking the spreading of a sandpile on a translating flat surface as the blade remains fixed. We characterize the spreading dynamics and the shape of the spread fluid layer when varying the tilt of the blade, its spacing with the surface and its speed. Our findings suggest that it is possible to tune the spreading parameters to optimize the coating.

  17. Tethyan, Mediterranean, and Pacific analogues for the Neoproterozoic Paleozoic birth and development of peri-Gondwanan terranes and their transfer to Laurentia and Laurussia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keppie, J. Duncan; Nance, R. Damian; Murphy, J. Brendan; Dostal, J.

    2003-04-01

    Modern Tethyan, Mediterranean, and Pacific analogues are considered for several Appalachian, Caledonian, and Variscan terranes (Carolina, West and East Avalonia, Oaxaquia, Chortis, Maya, Suwannee, and Cadomia) that originated along the northern margin of Neoproterozoic Gondwana. These terranes record a protracted geological history that includes: (1) ˜1 Ga (Carolina, Avalonia, Oaxaquia, Chortis, and Suwannee) or ˜2 Ga (Cadomia) basement; (2) 750-600 Ma arc magmatism that diachronously switched to rift magmatism between 590 and 540 Ma, accompanied by development of rift basins and core complexes, in the absence of collisional orogenesis; (3) latest Neoproterozoic-Cambrian separation of Avalonia and Carolina from Gondwana leading to faunal endemism and the development of bordering passive margins; (4) Ordovician transport of Avalonia and Carolina across Iapetus terminating in Late Ordovician-Early Silurian accretion to the eastern Laurentian margin followed by dispersion along this margin; (5) Siluro-Devonian transfer of Cadomia across the Rheic Ocean; and (6) Permo-Carboniferous transfer of Oaxaquia, Chortis, Maya, and Suwannee during the amalgamation of Pangea. Three potential models are provided by more recent tectonic analogues: (1) an "accordion" model based on the orthogonal opening and closing of Alpine Tethys and the Mediterranean; (2) a "bulldozer" model based on forward-modelling of Australia during which oceanic plateaus are dispersed along the Australian plate margin; and (3) a "Baja" model based on the Pacific margin of North America where the diachronous replacement of subduction by transform faulting as a result of ridge-trench collision has been followed by rifting and the transfer of Baja California to the Pacific Plate. Future transport and accretion along the western Laurentian margin may mimic that of Baja British Columbia. Present geological data for Avalonia and Carolina favour a transition from a "Baja" model to a "bulldozer" model. By

  18. Tabletop Tectonics: Diverse Mountain Ranges Using Flour and Graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, D. M.

    2006-12-01

    It has been recognized for some time that the frontal deformation zones where plates converge (foreland fold- and-thrust belts on continents and accretionary wedges at subduction zones) involve shortening over a decoupling layer, or decollement. A simple but successful way of explaining many aspects of their behavior is called the critical Coulomb wedge model, which regards these contractional wedges as analogous to the wedge-shaped mass of soil accreted in front of a bulldozer, or the wedge of snow that piles up in front of a snow plow. The shape and deformation history of the accreted wedge of soil or snow will depend upon the frictional strength of the material being plowed up and the surface over which it is being plowed. The same is true of `bulldozer' wedges consisting of many km thick piles of sediment at convergent plate margins. Using flour (or powdered milk), sandpaper, graphite, transparency sheets, and athletic field marker chalk, manipulated with sieves, brushes, pastry bags and blocks and sheets of wood, it is possible to demonstrate a wide variety of processes and tectonic styles observed at convergent plate boundaries. Model fold-and-thrust belts that behave like natural examples with a decollement that is strong (e.g., in rock without high pore fluid pressure) or weak (e.g., in a salt horizon or with elevated pore fluid pressure) can be generated simply by placing wither sandpaper or graphite beneath the flour that is pushed across the tabletop using a block of wood (the strong basement and hiterland rocks behind the fold-thrust belt). Depending upon the strength of the decollement, the cross-sectional taper of the deforming wedge will be thin or broad, the internal deformation mild or intense, and the structures either close to symmetric or strongly forward-vergent, just as at the analogous natural fold-thrust belts. Including a horizontal sheet of wood or Plexiglas in front of the pushing block allows generation of an accretionary wedge, outer

  19. Ice marginal dynamics during surge activity, Kuannersuit Glacier, Disko Island, West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David H.; Yde, Jacob C.; Knudsen, N. Tvis; Long, Antony J.; Lloyd, Jerry M.

    2009-02-01

    The Kuannersuit Glacier surged 11 km between 1995 and 1998. The surge resulted in the formation of an ice cored thrust moraine complex constructed by subglacial and proglacial glaciotectonic processes. Four main thrust zones are evident in the glacier snout area with phases of compressional folding and thrusting followed by hydrofracture in response to the build-up of compressional stresses and the aquicludal nature of submarginal permafrost and naled. Various types of stratified debris-rich ice facies occur within the marginal zone: The first (Facies I) comprises laterally continuous strata of ice with sorted sediment accumulations, and is reworked and thrust naled ice. The second is laterally discontinuous stratified debris-rich ice with distinct tectonic structures, and is derived through subglacial extensional deformation and localised regelation (Facies II), whilst the third type is characterised by reworked and brecciated ice associated with the reworking and entrainment of meteoric ice (Facies III). Hydrofracture dykes and sills (Facies IV) cross-cut the marginal ice cored thrust moraines, with their sub-vertically frozen internal contact boundaries and sedimentary structures, suggesting supercooling operated as high-pressure evacuation of water occurred during thrusting, but this is not related to the formation of basal stratified debris-rich ice. Linear distributions of sorted fines transverse to ice flow, and small stratified sediment ridges that vertically cross-cut the ice surface up-ice of the thrust zone relate to sediment migration along crevasse traces and fluvial infilling of crevasses. From a palaeoglaciological viewpoint, marginal glacier tectonics, ice sediment content and sediment delivery mechanisms combine to control the development of this polythermal surge valley landsystem. The bulldozing of proglacial sediments and the folding and thrusting of naled leads to the initial development of the outer zone of the moraine complex. This becomes

  20. Deformation Structures associated with the emplacement of high level intrusions: A study of Trachyte Mesa Intrusion, Henry Mountains, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, P. I. R.; McCaffrey, K. J. W.; Jarvis, I.; Murphy, P.; Davidson, J. P.

    2012-04-01

    Most studies of sill and laccolith complexes have focused on the internal architecture and thermal effects of these intrusions, while few have looked in detail at host rock deformation structures associated with their emplacement. Various sill and laccolith emplacement mechanisms have been proposed (e.g. radial growth/ bulldozing, and two-stage growth), each with their own distinct deformation style. Compressional structures likely dominate during radial growth (bulldozing) emplacement, while extensional structures are more likely to form during two-stage growth emplacement. In this study we focus on deformation structures (faults, deformation bands and joints) associated with emplacement of Tertiary sills and laccolith intrusions in the Henry Mountains, Utah. Trachyte Mesa, the most distal satellite intrusion to the Mt. Hilliers intrusive centre, is an elongate (NE-SW) laccolith concordant with the Entrada sandstone it intrudes. The intrusion is comprised of multiple, stacked intrusive sheets. Two structural transects across the northwest lateral margin have identified distinct structural domains within the host rock that reflect both temporal and kinematic variations in deformation. Three deformation phases are identified, interpreted to be pre-, syn- and late-emplacement structures. A background set of deformation bands (phase 1), trending oblique to the intrusion margin, is apparent across the entire area. A second set of deformation bands (phase 2) overprint the early phase. These are characterised by conjugate deformation bands that parallel the intrusion margin, and increase in intensity and spacing towards the intrusion. Within this same zone a series of calcite filled normal faults, striking parallel and perpendicular to the intrusion margin, are apparent. Due to their spatial, kinematic and overprinting relationships we interpret these to be linked to the emplacement of the intrusive body. Overprinting all other structures, are two sets of tensile joints

  1. Identification of potential hazards associated with new residential construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methner, M M

    2000-02-01

    There were several advantages and limitations of this observational study. The most important advantage of this study was the opportunity to observe residential construction workers performing their jobs. By observing work practices, valuable information was gathered about specific trades and their potential exposure to various chemical and physical agents. This information will be useful in guiding subsequent exposure assessments. Probably the greatest limitation of this study was the lack of participation by homebuilders. Ideally, observations of construction processes would have been more objective if the study included the participation of more than one homebuilder. Aside from one worker who was observed to wear safety glasses, leather gloves, and a dust mask, virtually no personal protective equipment (PPE) was observed onsite. Often small contractors do not have the financial resources necessary to procure the appropriate PPE and issue these items to the workers. Based on hazard prevalence, professional judgement, and the degree of hazardous product use, potential exposures that warrant quantitative sampling efforts during Phase 2 of this study are: bulldozer/backhoe operators--noise, vibration, diesel exhaust; concrete workers--naphtha, mineral spirits, Portland cement; asphalt workers--petroleum hydrocarbons, asphalt, mineral spirits; plumbers--methylethyl ketone, acetone, tetrahydrofuran, cyclohexanone; drywall finishers--total and respirable dust, hexane, acetone; painters--ethylene glycol, VOCs; masons--dust (during the preparation of mortar); floor preparation technicians--total and respirable dust; and ceramic tile installers--toluene, naphtha, silica (from grout powder). PMID:10675976

  2. "Arc-continent collision" of the Aleutian-Komandorsky arc into Kamchatka: Insight into Quaternary tectonic segmentation through Pleistocene marine terraces and morphometric analysis of fluvial drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedoja, K.; Authemayou, C.; Pinegina, T.; Bourgeois, J.; Nexer, M.; Delcaillau, B.; Regard, V.

    2013-07-01

    At the NW corner of the Pacific region, just south of the Kamchatsky Peninsula, the northern tip of the Pacific plate subduction and associated volcanic arc interacts with the western end of the Aleutian-Komandorsky dextral transform plate boundary and associated arc. Study of both Holocene and Pleistocene sequences of uplifted marine terraces and also of fluvial drainage patterns on the Kamchatsky Peninsula allows us to highlight active tectonics produced by complex plate interaction. Our results show that the central eastern coast of the peninsula is currently divided into four different zones consisting in uplifted blocks associated with various uplift rates in front of a fold-and-thrust zone to the west. Our main tectonic benchmark—the altitude of the shoreline correlated to the Last Interglacial Maximum (Marine Isotopic Stage 5e)—yields late Pleistocene uplift rates ranging from 0.2 to 2.74 mm/yr. One of the main active faults bounding the coastal blocks is dextral and is interpreted as a prolongation of an offshore fault of the Aleutian-Komandorsky dextral transform plate boundary. We suggest that structures on the Kamchatsky Peninsula accommodate a part of the transform motion, but that mainly, the arc-continent collision of the Aleutian arc against Kamchatka produces a "bulldozer" effect on the Kamchatsky Peninsula.

  3. Nature of crystalline particle assembly in ring shaped colloidal stains from concentrated dispersions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Fenfen; Huynh, Trang [Laboratory for Optics and Applied Mechanics, Monash University, Clayton VIC 3800 (Australia); Somers, Anthony [Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University, 221 Burwood Highway, Burwood VIC 3125 Australia (Australia); Liu, Boyin; Fu, Jing [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Monash University, Clayton VIC 3800 (Australia); Muradoglu, Murat [Laboratory for Optics and Applied Mechanics, Monash University, Clayton VIC 3800 (Australia); Ng, Tuck Wah, E-mail: engngtw@gmail.com [Laboratory for Optics and Applied Mechanics, Monash University, Clayton VIC 3800 (Australia)

    2014-05-15

    The drying of colloidal droplet suspensions is important in many realms of practical application and has sustained the interest of researchers over two decades. The arrangements of polystyrene and silica beads, both of diameter 1 μm, 10% by volume of solid deposited on normal glass (hydrophilic), and silicone (hydrophobic) surfaces evaporated from a suspension volume of 3 μL, were investigated. Doughnut shape depositions were found, imputing the influence of strong central circulation flows that resulted in three general regions. In the central region which had strong particle build-up, the top most layers of particle arrangement was confirmed to be disordered using power spectrum and radial distribution function analysis. On closer examination, this appeared more like frustrated attempts to crystallize into larger grains rather than beads arranging in a disordered fashion throughout the piling process. With an adapted micro-bulldozing operation to progressively remove layers of particles from the heap, we found that the later efforts to crystallize through lateral capillary inter-particle forces were liable to be undone once the particles contacted the disorganized particles underneath, which were formed out of the jamming of fast particles arriving at the surface.

  4. Sounds and vibrations in the frozen Beaufort Sea during gravel island construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Charles R; Blackwell, Susanna B; McLennan, Miles Wm

    2008-02-01

    Underwater and airborne sounds and ice-borne vibrations were recorded from sea-ice near an artificial gravel island during its initial construction in the Beaufort Sea near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska. Such measurements are needed for characterizing the properties of island construction sounds to assess their possible impacts on wildlife. Recordings were made in February-May 2000 when BP Exploration (Alaska) began constructing Northstar Island about 5 km offshore, at 12 m depth. Activities recorded included ice augering, pumping sea water to flood the ice and build an ice road, a bulldozer plowing snow, a Ditchwitch cutting ice, trucks hauling gravel over an ice road to the island site, a backhoe trenching the sea bottom for a pipeline, and both vibratory and impact sheet pile driving. For all but one sound source (underwater measurements of pumping) the strongest one-third octave band was under 300 Hz. Vibratory and impact pile driving created the strongest sounds. Received levels of sound and vibration, as measured in the strongest one-third octave band for different construction activities, reached median background levels <7.5 km away for underwater sounds, <3 km away for airborne sounds, and <10 km away for in-ice vibrations. PMID:18247873

  5. Aerial photography in peat production technology; Lentokuvaus turveteknologiassa, varastointihaevioeiden minimointi sekae ympaeristoen valvonta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tervo, M. [Oulu Univ. (Finland). Research Inst. of Northern Finland; Maekikorttila, J. [Kemira Oy, Oulu (Finland)

    1998-07-01

    In this project, possibilities of using aerial photography in peat technology were studied experimentally, the frequency of self-heating in peat stockpiles was surveyed and the effect of compacting on the inner temperature in a self-heated milled peat stockpile was studied. Air photographs can be used in several sub-fields of the peat production. On the basis of these photos it is possible to draw conclusions from the environmental impacts of peat production, from conditions in the peat field, and from qualitative and moisture differences of surface peat. In addition, aerial photography can be utilised in updating bog maps. On the basis of aerial thermal photography in autumns 1987 - 1993, 29 % of milled peat stockpiles, and 4 % of sod peat stockpiles were found to be self-heated. The susceptibility to self-heating varied at different peatlands. The effect of compacting with a bulldozer was studied at three self-heated test stock-piles, two of which were compacted. The inner temperatures in the test stockpiles decreased significantly over the three-month monitoring period. The falls in the inner temperature of all three stockpiles were identical. Compacting did not have any significant effect on the temperature fall or on the rate of fall. The number of test stockpiles (3) is insufficient to give any statistical reliability. (orig.)

  6. Aerial photography in peat production technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this project, possibilities of using aerial photography in peat technology were studied experimentally, the frequency of self-heating in peat stockpiles was surveyed and the effect of compacting on the inner temperature in a self-heated milled peat stockpile was studied. Air photographs can be used in several sub-fields of the peat production. On the basis of these photos it is possible to draw conclusions from the environmental impacts of peat production, from conditions in the peat field, and from qualitative and moisture differences of surface peat. In addition, aerial photography can be utilised in updating bog maps. On the basis of aerial thermal photography in autumns 1987 - 1993, 29 % of milled peat stockpiles, and 4 % of sod peat stockpiles were found to be self-heated. The susceptibility to self-heating varied at different peatlands. The effect of compacting with a bulldozer was studied at three self-heated test stock-piles, two of which were compacted. The inner temperatures in the test stockpiles decreased significantly over the three-month monitoring period. The falls in the inner temperature of all three stockpiles were identical. Compacting did not have any significant effect on the temperature fall or on the rate of fall. The number of test stockpiles (3) is insufficient to give any statistical reliability. (orig.)

  7. Aerial photography in peat production technology; Lentokuvaus turveteknologiassa, varastointihaevioeiden minimointi sekae ympaeristoen valvonta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tervo, M. [Oulu Univ. (Finland). Research Inst. of Northern Finland; Maekikorttila, J. [Kemira Oy, Oulu (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    In this project, possibilities of using aerial photography in peat technology were studied experimentally, the frequency of self-heating in peat stockpiles was surveyed and the effect of compacting on the inner temperature in a self-heated milled peat stockpile was studied. Air photographs can be used in several sub-fields of the peat production. On the basis of these photos it is possible to draw conclusions from the environmental impacts of peat production, from conditions in the peat field, and from qualitative and moisture differences of surface peat. In addition, aerial photography can be utilised in updating bog maps. On the basis of aerial thermal photography in autumns 1987 - 1993, 29 % of milled peat stockpiles, and 4 % of sod peat stockpiles were found to be self-heated. The susceptibility to self-heating varied at different peatlands. The effect of compacting with a bulldozer was studied at three self-heated test stock-piles, two of which were compacted. The inner temperatures in the test stockpiles decreased significantly over the three-month monitoring period. The falls in the inner temperature of all three stockpiles were identical. Compacting did not have any significant effect on the temperature fall or on the rate of fall. The number of test stockpiles (3) is insufficient to give any statistical reliability. (orig.)

  8. Greenhouse Gas Assessment and Compensation on Brazilian Low Volume Rural Roads Using CarbonROAD—The Santa Rosa de Lima Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reus Salini

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The “Santa Catarina Rural” is a Program co-funded by The World Bank for improvements on 1300 km of low volume rural roads on Southern Brazil. The pioneer project under the program was on the municipality of Santa Rosa de Lima, where the greenhouse gas (GHG emissions resulting from the road improvement activities as well as the regular traffic were assessed on an experimental basis using the CarbonROAD software application. Here, we show details of the CarbonROAD software application and the construction emissions assessment procedure as well as the mitigating effect of the plants used for compensation. It was found that most of the emissions come from the road improvement work. This includes earthworks, fuel for motor graders, bulldozers and other machines, and materials and gravel extraction, industrialization and transportation, etc. Only a smaller portion comprises regular road traffic. The accumulated emission balance shows that the carbon absorption is larger than construction emissions after just 15 months. The potential for price appraisal of the generated carbon credits is explored.

  9. Bioenergy recovery from landfill gas: A case study in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei WANG; Yuxiang LUO; Zhou DENG

    2009-01-01

    Landfill gas (LFG) utilization which means a synergy between environmental protection and bioenergy recovery was investigated in this study. Pressure swing adsorption technology was used in LFG purification, and laboratory experiment, pilot-scale test, and on-site demon-stration were carried out in Shenzhen, China. In the laboratory experiment, A-type carbon molecular sieve was selected as the adsorbent by comparison of several other adsorbents. The oPtimal adsorption pressure and adsorp-tion time were 0.25 MPa and 2 min, respectively, under which the product generation rate was 4.5 m3/h and the methane concentration was above 90%. The process and optimization of the pilot-scale test were also reported in the paper. The product gas was of high quality compared with the National Standard of Compressed Natural Gas as Vehicle Fuel (GB 18047-2000), when the air concentration in feed gas was under 10.96%. The demonstration project was composed of a collection system, production system,and utilization system. The drive performance, environ-mental protection performance, and economic feasibility of the product gas -- as alternative fuel in passenger car,truck, and bulldozer-were tested, showing the feasibility technology for LFG utilization.

  10. Metaphor and the 'Emergent Property' Problem: A Relevance-Theoretic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn Carston

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The interpretation of metaphorical utterances often results in the attribution of emergent properties; these are properties which are neither standardly associated with the individual constituents of the utterance in isolation nor derivable by standard rules of semantic composition. For example, an utterance of ‘Robert is a bulldozer’ may be understood as attributing to Robert such properties as single-mindedness, insistence on having things done in his way, and insensitivity to the opinions/feelings of others, although none of these is included in the encyclopaedic information associated with bulldozers (earth-clearing machines. An adequate pragmatic account of metaphor interpretation must provide an explanation of the processes through which emergent properties are derived. In this paper, we attempt to develop an explicit account of the derivation process couched within the framework of relevance theory. The key features of our account are: (a metaphorical language use is taken to lie on a continuum with other cases of loose use, including hyperbole; (b metaphor interpretation is a wholly inferential process, which does not require associative mappings from one domain (e.g. machines to another (e.g. human beings; (c the derivation of emergent properties involves no special interpretive mechanisms not required for the interpretation of ordinary, literal utterances.

  11. Dynamic Modeling and Soil Mechanics for Path Planning of the Mars Exploration Rovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trease, Brian; Arvidson, Raymond; Lindemann, Randel; Bennett, Keith; Zhou, Feng; Iagnemma, Karl; Senatore, Carmine; Van Dyke, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    To help minimize risk of high sinkage and slippage during drives and to better understand soil properties and rover terramechanics from drive data, a multidisciplinary team was formed under the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) project to develop and utilize dynamic computer-based models for rover drives over realistic terrains. The resulting tool, named ARTEMIS (Adams-based Rover Terramechanics and Mobility Interaction Simulator), consists of the dynamic model, a library of terramechanics subroutines, and the high-resolution digital elevation maps of the Mars surface. A 200-element model of the rovers was developed and validated for drop tests before launch, using MSC-Adams dynamic modeling software. Newly modeled terrain-rover interactions include the rut-formation effect of deformable soils, using the classical Bekker-Wong implementation of compaction resistances and bull-dozing effects. The paper presents the details and implementation of the model with two case studies based on actual MER telemetry data. In its final form, ARTEMIS will be used in a predictive manner to assess terrain navigability and will become part of the overall effort in path planning and navigation for both Martian and lunar rovers.

  12. Automatic control technique for construction of work; Kensetsu koji seko ni okeru jidoka gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, T. [Ministry of Agriculture Forestry and Fisheries, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-03-01

    In this article, the history of development of construction technology in Japan after the Second World War is outlined, in addition, automation of work and supervision in the latest construction works is explained relatively in detail, and the trend of automated and manpower saving works in the future is shown. Regarding the development of construction technology after the war in Japan, it started with the introduction of new construction methods, etc. of the U.S.A. and the Netherland for business of restoration immediately after the war and also the mechanized technology such as bulldozers was studied. After that, technology concerning reclamation, construction of dams and irrigation channels and construction of tunnels and bridges progressed. Regarding the latest construction works, explanations are given on the two fields, namely automation and manpower saving of construction works and automation and manpower saving of construction supervision. Concerning the former field, automation of works laying dam concrete, automation of treatment of joint between laid dam concrete, mechanization of removal work of the core surface water, etc. are described and regarding the latter, supervision of compacting banking, photo supervision with digital cameras, etc. are referred to. The article also hints the trend in the future. 4 refs., 5 figs..

  13. Indirect estimation of emission factors for phosphate surface mining using air dispersion modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartakovsky, Dmitry; Stern, Eli; Broday, David M

    2016-06-15

    To date, phosphate surface mining suffers from lack of reliable emission factors. Due to complete absence of data to derive emissions factors, we developed a methodology for estimating them indirectly by studying a range of possible emission factors for surface phosphate mining operations and comparing AERMOD calculated concentrations to concentrations measured around the mine. We applied this approach for the Khneifiss phosphate mine, Syria, and the Al-Hassa and Al-Abyad phosphate mines, Jordan. The work accounts for numerous model unknowns and parameter uncertainties by applying prudent assumptions concerning the parameter values. Our results suggest that the net mining operations (bulldozing, grading and dragline) contribute rather little to ambient TSP concentrations in comparison to phosphate processing and transport. Based on our results, the common practice of deriving the emission rates for phosphate mining operations from the US EPA emission factors for surface coal mining or from the default emission factor of the EEA seems to be reasonable. Yet, since multiple factors affect dispersion from surface phosphate mines, a range of emission factors, rather than only a single value, was found to satisfy the model performance. PMID:26971219

  14. Aeolian sediment transport and landforms in managed coastal systems: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Nancy L.; Nordstrom, Karl F.

    2011-11-01

    Humans modify beaches and dunes and aeolian transport potential by building structures, walking or driving, extracting resources, accommodating recreation, increasing levels of protection, removing storm deposits, or restoring landforms and habitats. The effects of human adjustments are reviewed here in terms of cross-shore zones because humans tend to compartmentalize landforms and habitats through their actions and regulations. Common human modifications in the beach zone include nourishing beaches, constructing shore protection structures and raking to remove litter. Modifications affecting the dune zone include altering the location, size and stability of dunes using sand-trapping fences, vegetation plantings and bulldozers or replacing dunes with shore-parallel structures. Modifications affecting the landward zone include buildings, roads, and parking lots. Landform and habitat resilience requires levels of dynamism and geomorphic complexity not often found in managed systems. Preserving or enhancing dynamism and complexity requires emphasis on innovative designs rooted in geomorphological and aeolian research. Future studies are suggested for: (1) quantifying the effect of small and large scale beach nourishment designs and sediment characteristics on dune initiation, development, and evolution; (2) quantifying the extent to which size and spacing of human structures and landform alterations inhibit sediment transfers alongshore or onshore; (3) identifying the advantages or disadvantages of "niche" dunes formed by structures; (4) providing quantitative data on the effects of raking or driving on the beach; (5) identifying the role of aeolian landforms on private properties; and (6) identifying alternative ways of employing sand fences and vegetation plantings to increase topographic and habitat diversity.

  15. Bio-mechanical removing of contaminated soils: A field experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If, in spite of safety precautions, a major nuclear accident would occur, countermeasures should be taken to attenuate the impact of radioactive deposits. The European RESSAC program (Rehabilitation of Soils and Surfaces after an Accident) aims at studying actions for normal life return in contaminated zones. One of them, called the Decontaminating Vegetal Network (D.V.N) associates the biological action of turfing plants, producing a dense root-network capable to trap the top contaminated soil particles, and the mechanical efficiency of a turf harvester which can remove only I cm of soil. This performance, not associated with other techniques of soil removal such as scrapers or bulldozers, leads to minimize the waste production. The D.V.N is a vegetal cover spread over the contaminated soil, using the hydro-seeding technique. The growing plants are forming a pleasant lawn which may have a positive impact on the public opinion compared to techniques using bitumen mixtures to cover the soil. Field experiments involving labelling solutions of stable molybdenum salts simulating the contamination of the soil have shown that this technique can be applied as well on homogeneous cultivated soil surfaces as on roughly ploughed soils. (author)

  16. MaMiCo: Software design for parallel molecular-continuum flow simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Philipp; Flohr, Hanno; Arora, Rahul; Jarmatz, Piet; Tchipev, Nikola; Bungartz, Hans-Joachim

    2016-03-01

    The macro-micro-coupling tool (MaMiCo) was developed to ease the development of and modularize molecular-continuum simulations, retaining sequential and parallel performance. We demonstrate the functionality and performance of MaMiCo by coupling the spatially adaptive Lattice Boltzmann framework waLBerla with four molecular dynamics (MD) codes: the light-weight Lennard-Jones-based implementation SimpleMD, the node-level optimized software ls1 mardyn, and the community codes ESPResSo and LAMMPS. We detail interface implementations to connect each solver with MaMiCo. The coupling for each waLBerla-MD setup is validated in three-dimensional channel flow simulations which are solved by means of a state-based coupling method. We provide sequential and strong scaling measurements for the four molecular-continuum simulations. The overhead of MaMiCo is found to come at 10%-20% of the total (MD) runtime. The measurements further show that scalability of the hybrid simulations is reached on up to 500 Intel SandyBridge, and more than 1000 AMD Bulldozer compute cores.

  17. Trace fossils from Eocene turbiditic deposits: A case study from the Slovak-Moravian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starek Dušan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Well exposed, poorly bioturbated turbiditic sandstones of the Kýčera Beds (Zlín Formation; Eocene in the Bieščary Quarry contain the deep-sea Nereites ichnofacies. The trace fossils Ophiomorpha rudis, Halopoa annulata and Scolicia strozzii are mainly common in thick-bedded sandstone packages. They represent the Ophiomorpha rudis ichnosubfacies. Paleodiction strozzii, Nereites irregularis, and Zoophycos brianteus occur in a series of thin- to medium bedded fine grained turbiditic sandstones intercalated with mudstone shales. They belong to the Paleodictyon–Nereites ichnosubfacies. The sedimentological interpretation of the turbidity facies and the distribution of the trace fossils suggest that the recognized ichnosubfacies probably express a non-bathymetric facies trend from channel axis, levee to overbank or inter-channel/interlobe areas of a deep sea fan. The distribution and preservation of trace fossils depend mostly on lithology, sedimentation rate, erosion and amalgamation of beds in the proximal mid fan areas, bulldozing effect during colonization as well as on the hardly quantified effect of bottom oxygenation and supply of nutrients.

  18. Negotiating Time: Design as Historical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Lin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In North Jakarta, the bulldozed remnants of the April 11 (2016 eviction of Kampung Pasar Ikan presented a site of radical transformation and urban planning. The eviction was in part motivated by a Dutch-Indonesian alliance, to construct a 40 billion USD sea wall and reclaimed islands to prevent the city from slowly sinking. In this text we start by asking, how are people living in Pasar Ikan responding to and enacting their own futures through repair? What does repair in a landscape of complete disrepair look like? And how is history both erased and enacted in this process? We then move to West Kalimantan where a DIY drone collective makes aerial drone technology and trains groups to map land that they say is vulnerable to incursions by resource developers. We ask, how is the forest located, recognized and constituted by these and other cartographic practices? Whose time and in what time are forest boundaries set and reset by mapping techniques in West Kalimantan? How do these cartographies become artifacts that travel and influence how history is thought and practiced?

  19. Bio-mechanical removing of contaminated soils: a field experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If, in spite of safety precautions, a major nuclear accident would occur, countermeasures should be taken to attenuate the impact of radioactive deposits. The European RESSAC program (REhabilitation of Soils and Surfaces after an ACcident) aims at studying actions for normal life return in contaminated zones. One of them, called the Decontaminating Vegetal Network (D.V.N.) associates the biological action of turfing plants, producing a dense root-network capable to trap the top contaminated soil particles, and the mechanical efficiency of a turf harvester which can remove only 1 cm of soil. This performance, not associated with other techniques of soil removal such as scrapers or bulldozers, leads to minimize the waste production. The D.V.N is a vegetal cover spread over the contaminated soil, using the hydro-seeding technique. The growing plants are forming a pleasant lawn which may have a positive impact on the public opinion compared to techniques using bitumen mixtures to cover the soil. Field experiments involving labelling solutions of stable molybdenum salts simulating the contamination of the soil have shown that this technique can be applied as well on homogeneous cultivated soil surfaces as on roughly ploughed soils. 4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Uranium Yellow Cake accident - Wichita, Kansas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A tractor and semi trailer containing Uranium Yellow Cake, had overturned on I-235, Wichita, Kansas on Thursday, March 22, 1979. The truck driver and passenger were transported, with unknown injuries, to the hospital by ambulance. The shipment consisted of 54 drums of Uranium Ore Concentrate Powder. Half of the drums were damaged or had their lids off. Since it was raining at the time of the accident, plastic was used to cover the barrels and spilled material in an attempt to contain the yellow cake. A bulldozer was used to construct a series of dams in the median and the ditch to contain the run-off water from the contaminated area. Adverse and diverse weather conditions hampered the clean up operations over the next several days. The contaminated water and soil were shipped back to the mine for reintroduction into the milling process. The equipment was decontaminated prior to being released from the site. The clean up personnel wore protective clothing and respiratory protection equipment, if necessary. All individuals were surveyed and decontaminated prior to exiting the area

  1. Spatial variability of soil chemical properties after coffee tree removal Variabilidade espacial dos atributos químicos do solo após remoção de cafezal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Rosa Vieira

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the spatial variability of soil chemical properties has become an important aspect of soil management strategies with a view to higher crop yields with minimal environmental degradation. This study was carried out at the Centro Experimental of the Instituto Agronomico, in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. The aim was to characterize the spatial variability of chemical properties of a Rhodic Hapludox on a recently bulldozer-cleaned area after over 30 years of coffee cultivation. Soil samples were collected in a 20 x 20 m grid with 36 sampling points across a 1 ha area in the layers 0.0-0.2 and 0.2-0.4 m to measure the following chemical properties: pH, organic matter, K+, P, Ca2+, Mg2+, potential acidity, NH4-N, and NO3-N. Descriptive statistics were applied to assess the central tendency and dispersion moments. Geostatistical methods were applied to evaluate and to model the spatial variability of variables by calculating semivariograms and kriging interpolation. Spatial dependence patterns defined by spherical model adjusted semivariograms were made for all cited soil properties. Moderate to strong degrees of spatial dependence were found between 31 and 60 m. It was still possible to map soil spatial variability properties in the layers 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm after plant removal with bulldozers.A avaliação da variabilidade espacial dos atributos químicos do solo tem se tornado importante ferramenta na determinação de estratégias de manejo que visam aumentar a produtividade agrícola com menor degradação ambiental. O presente trabalho foi realizado no Centro Experimental Central do Instituto Agronômico, localizado em Campinas/SP, com o objetivo de caracterizar a variabilidade espacial dos atributos químicos de um Latossolo Vermelho após a remoção de um cafezal, cultivado por mais de 30 anos, com trator de esteira. As amostras de solo foram coletadas em grade georreferenciada de 20 x 20 m, totalizando 36 pontos nas camadas de 0

  2. 森林火灾扑救消防车装备的种类及使用技术%Kinds of Fire Engines and Technology Used in Forest Fire Suppression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高仲亮; 王秋华; 舒立福; 张明远

    2014-01-01

    森林消防车作为大型森林消防设备,包括森林消防推土机、森林消防越野车和森林消防指挥车,是扑救中高强度火和控制大面积森林火灾的主力。森林消防推土机能开辟通道和防火隔离带,扑救地下火;森林消防越野车具备良好的越野性能,能承载数吨水或灭火剂扑救中高强度的火灾;森林消防指挥车能实现多种通信方式互联,完成高清图像和视频的实时传输,辅助指挥人员进行扑火指挥调度和决策,提高扑火效率,保障扑火人员安全。森林消防车在火灾扑救中发挥了优越的响应性能、灭火性能、运载性能、越野性能和行车清障性能以及通信性能。高新技术和新型材料的应用,以及多功能、全地形森林消防车的研制将进一步提高森林消防车的技术性能。%As large forest firefighting equipment, forest engines consist of forest fire bulldozers, off-road vehicles and com-mand vehicles, which are the main force for suppressing medium-high strength fire and controlling large area forest fire. For-est fire bulldozers can open up channels and fire breaks, and rescue ground fire. Forest fire off-road vehicles have good cross-country equipment, and can carry tons of water or fire extinguishing agent to suppress medium-high strength fire. For-est fire command vehicles can also achieve interconnection of many communication ways, transmission of high-definition im-ages and real-time videos, and assist commanders to blaze scheduling command and make decisions,which can improve the efficiency of fire suppression and ensure safety of fire personnel. Forest engines bring out excellent performance in terms of response, fire suppression, delivery, cross-country, road block removal and communication. The application of advanced technology and new materials and the development of multifunctional and all-terrain forest engines will improve the perfor-mance of forest engines in

  3. A method for assessing the physical recovery of Antarctic desert pavements following human-induced disturbances: a case study in the Ross Sea region of Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Tanya A; Balks, Megan R; López-Martínez, Jerónimo; McWhirter, Judi L

    2012-12-15

    With increasing visitor numbers an understanding of the impacts of human activities in Antarctic terrestrial environments has become important. The objective of this study was to develop a means for assessing recovery of the ground surface desert pavement following physical disturbance. A set of 11 criteria were identified to assess desert pavement recovery. Assessed criteria were: embeddedness of surface clasts; impressions of removed clasts; degree of clast surface weathering; % overturned clasts; salt on underside of clasts; development of salt coatings; armouring per m(2); colour contrast; evidence of subsidence/melt out; accumulation of salt on cut surfaces; and evidence of patterned ground development. Recovery criteria were assigned a severity/extent rating on a scale from zero to four, zero being highly disturbed, and four being undisturbed. A relative % recovery for each criteria was calculated for each site by comparison with a nearby undisturbed control area, and an overall Mean Recovery Index (MRI) was assigned to each pavement surface. To test the method, 54 sites in the Ross Sea region of Antarctica were investigated including areas disturbed by: bulldozer scraping for road-fill, contouring for infrastructure, geotechnical investigations, and experimental treading trial sites. Disturbances had occurred at timescales ranging from one week to 50 years prior to assessment. The extent of desert pavement recovery at the sites investigated in this study was higher than anticipated. Fifty of the 54 sites investigated were in an intermediate, or higher, stage of desert pavement recovery, 30 sites were in an advanced stage of recovery, and four sites were indistinguishable from adjacent control sites (MRI = 100%). It was found that active surfaces, such as the gravel beach deposits at the Greenpeace World Park Base site at Cape Evans, the aeolian sand deposits at Bull Pass, and the alluvial fan deposits of the Loop Moraine field campsite, recovered relatively

  4. Test of self-organization in beach cusp formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coco, Giovanni; Burnet, T. K.; Werner, B. T.; Elgar, Steve

    2003-03-01

    Field observations of swash flow patterns and morphology change are consistent with the hypothesis that beach cusps form by self-organization, wherein positive feedback between swash flow and developing morphology causes initial development of the pattern and negative feedback owing to circulation of flow within beach cusp bays causes pattern stabilization. The self-organization hypothesis is tested using measurements from three experiments on a barrier island beach in North Carolina. Beach cusps developed after the beach was smoothed by a storm and after existing beach cusps were smoothed by a bulldozer. Swash front motions were recorded on video during daylight hours, and morphology was measured by surveying at 3-4 hour intervals. Three signatures of self-organization were observed in all experiments. First, time lags between swash front motions in beach cusp bays and horns increase with increasing relief, representing the effect of morphology on flow. Second, differential erosion between bays and horns initially increases with increasing time lag, representing the effect of flow on morphology change because positive feedback causes growth of beach cusps. Third, after initial growth, differential erosion decreases with increasing time lag, representing the onset of negative feedback that stabilizes beach cusps. A numerical model based on self-organization, initialized with measured morphology and alongshore-uniform distributions of initial velocities and positions of the swash front at the beginning of a swash cycle, reproduces the measurements, except for parts of one experiment, where limited surveys and a significant low-frequency component to swash motions might have caused errors in model initialization.

  5. Bedload exports in a forest catchment following wildfire and terracing, north-central Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Martinho A. S.; Machado, Ana I.; Serpa, Dalila; Prats, Sergio A.; Faria, Sílvia R.; Varela, María E. T.; González-Pelayo, Óscar; Keizer, J. Jacob

    2014-05-01

    In Portugal, the occurrences of wildfires are frequently, on average, affects some 100.000 ha of rural lands each year, but in extreme years such as 2003 and 2005 the burnt areas can go over 300.000 ha. Studies in various parts of the world, including Portugal, have well-documented a strong and sometimes extreme response in overland flow generation and associated soil losses following wildfire. Over the last two decades, the construction of terraces in preparation of a new eucalypt plantation has become increasingly common in the mountain areas of north-central Portugal, including in recently burnt areas. Terraces are traditionally viewed as a soil conservation technique, however, the present authors have measured high splash and inter-rill erosion on recent terraces and have frequently observed gully formation connecting the terraces over the full hill slope length, as well as within the adjacent unsealed roads. The present study was carried out in a forest catchment in the north-central Portugal that was burnt by a wildfire during the summer of 2010 and logged and then terraced with a bulldozer during the winter 2010. The burnt catchment of roughly 25 ha was instrumented with two subsequent flumes with maximum discharge capacities of 120 and 1700 l sec-1. The bed load that deposited in the smallest flume was removed and weighted in the field at regular intervals during the subsequent three years. The records are being now analyzed, nonetheless preliminary results suggested that, besides the wildfire effects, also post-fire land management played an important role on bedload exports.

  6. Probability mapping of contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exhaustive characterization of a contaminated site is a physical and practical impossibility. Descriptions of the nature, extent, and level of contamination, as well as decisions regarding proposed remediation activities, must be made in a state of uncertainty based upon limited physical sampling. The probability mapping approach illustrated in this paper appears to offer site operators a reasonable, quantitative methodology for many environmental remediation decisions and allows evaluation of the risk associated with those decisions. For example, output from this approach can be used in quantitative, cost-based decision models for evaluating possible site characterization and/or remediation plans, resulting in selection of the risk-adjusted, least-cost alternative. The methodology is completely general, and the techniques are applicable to a wide variety of environmental restoration projects. The probability-mapping approach is illustrated by application to a contaminated site at the former DOE Feed Materials Production Center near Fernald, Ohio. Soil geochemical data, collected as part of the Uranium-in-Soils Integrated Demonstration Project, have been used to construct a number of geostatistical simulations of potential contamination for parcels approximately the size of a selective remediation unit (the 3-m width of a bulldozer blade). Each such simulation accurately reflects the actual measured sample values, and reproduces the univariate statistics and spatial character of the extant data. Post-processing of a large number of these equally likely statistically similar images produces maps directly showing the probability of exceeding specified levels of contamination (potential clean-up or personnel-hazard thresholds)

  7. Phase 1 archaeological investigation, cultural resources survey, Hawaii Geothermal Project, Makawao and Hana districts, south shore of Maui, Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erkelens, C. [International Archaeological Research Inst., Inc., Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1995-04-01

    This report details the archaeological investigation of a 200 foot wide sample corridor extending approximately 9 miles along the southern portion of Maui within the present districts of Hana and Makawao. The survey team documented a total of 51 archaeological sites encompassing 233 surface features. Archaeological sites are abundant throughout the region and only become scarce where vegetation has been bulldozed for ranching activities. At the sea-land transition points for the underwater transmission cable, both Ahihi Bay and Huakini Bay are subjected to seasonal erosion and redeposition of their boulder shorelines. The corridor at the Ahihi Bay transition point runs through the Maonakala Village Complex which is an archaeological site on the State Register of Historic Places within a State Natural Area Reserve. Numerous other potentially significant archaeological sites lie within the project corridor. It is likely that rerouting of the corridor in an attempt to avoid known sites would result in other undocumented sites located outside the sample corridor being impacted. Given the distribution of archaeological sites, there is no alternative route that can be suggested that is likely to avoid encountering sites. Twelve charcoal samples were obtained for potential taxon identification and radiocarbon analysis. Four of these samples were subsequently submitted for dating and species identification. Bird bones from various locations within a lava tube were collected for identification. Sediment samples for subsequent pollen analysis were obtained from within two lava tubes. With these three sources of information it is hoped that paleoenvironmental data can be recovered that will enable a better understanding of the setting for Hawaiian habitation of the area.

  8. Lithology, fault displacement, and origin of secondary calcium carbonate and opaline silica at Trenches 14 and 14D on the Bow Ridge Fault at Exile Hill, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yucca Mountain, a proposed site for a high-level nuclear-waste repository, is located in southern Nevada, 20 km east of Beatty, and adjacent to the southwest comer of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) (fig. 1). Yucca Mountain is located within the Basin and Range province of the western United States. The climate is semiarid, and the flora is transitional between that of the Mojave Desert to the south and the Great Basin Desert to the north. As part of the evaluation, hydrologic conditions, especially water levels, of Yucca Mountain and vicinity during the Quaternary, and especially the past 20,000 years, are being characterized. In 1982, the US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy (under interagency agreement DE-A104-78ET44802), excavated twenty-six bulldozer and backhoe trenches in the Yucca Mountain region to evaluate the nature and frequency of Quaternary faulting (Swadley and others, 1984). The trenches were oriented perpendicular to traces of suspected Quaternary faults and across projections of known bedrock faults into Quaternary deposits. Trench 14 exposes the Bow Ridge Fault on the west side of Exile Hill. Although the original purpose of the excavation of trench 14 was to evaluate the nature and frequency of Quaternary faulting on the Bow Ridge Fault, concern arose as to whether or not the nearly vertical calcium carbonate (the term ''carbonate'' in this study refers to calcium carbonate) and opaline silica veins in the fault zone were deposited by ascending waters (ground water). These veins resemble in gross morphology veins commonly formed by hydrothermal processes

  9. Renewed mining and reclamation: Imapacts on bats and potential mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, P.E. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Berry, R.D. [Brown-Berry Biological Consulting, Bishop, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Historic mining created new roosting habitat for many bat species. Now the same industry has the potential to adversely impact bats. Contemporary mining operations usually occur in historic districts; consequently the old workings are destroyed by open pit operations. Occasionally, underground techniques are employed, resulting in the enlargement or destruction of the original workings. Even during exploratory operations, historic mine openings can be covered as drill roads are bulldozed, or drills can penetrate and collapse underground workings. Nearby blasting associated with mine construction and operation can disrupt roosting bats. Bats can also be disturbed by the entry of mine personnel to collect ore samples or by recreational mine explorers, since the creation of roads often results in easier access. In addition to roost disturbance, other aspects of renewed mining can have adverse impacts on bat populations, and affect even those bats that do not live in mines. Open cyanide ponds, or other water in which toxic chemicals accumulate, can poison bats and other wildlife. The creation of the pits, roads and processing areas often destroys critical foraging habitat, or change drainage patterns. Finally, at the completion of mining, any historic mines still open may be sealed as part of closure and reclamation activities. The net result can be a loss of bats and bat habitat. Conversely, in some contemporary underground operations, future roosting habitat for bats can be fabricated. An experimental approach to the creation of new roosting habitat is to bury culverts or old tires beneath waste rock. Mining companies can mitigate for impacts to bats by surveying to identify bat-roosting habitat, removing bats prior to renewed mining or closure, protecting non-impacted roost sites with gates and fences, researching to identify habitat requirements and creating new artificial roosts.

  10. Decontamination and Decommissioning of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Perry; J. Chrzanowski; K. Rule; M. Viola; M. Williams; R. Strykowsky

    1999-11-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) is a one-of-a-kind, tritium-fueled fusion research reactor that ceased operation in April 1997. The Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) of the TFTR is scheduled to occur over a period of three years beginning in October 1999. This is not a typical Department of Energy D and D Project where a facility is isolated and cleaned up by ''bulldozing'' all facility and hardware systems to a greenfield condition. The mission of TFTR D and D is to: (a) surgically remove items which can be re-used within the DOE complex, (b) remove tritium contaminated and activated systems for disposal, (c) clear the test cell of hardware for future reuse, (d) reclassify the D-site complex as a non-nuclear facility as defined in DOE Order 420.1 (Facility Safety) and (e) provide data on the D and D of a large magnetic fusion facility. The 100 cubic meter volume of the donut-shaped reactor makes it the second largest fusion reactor in the world. The record-breaking deuterium-tritium experiments performed on TFTR resulted in contaminating the vacuum vessel with tritium and activating the materials with 14 Mev neutrons. The total tritium content within the vessel is in excess of 7,000 Curies while dose rates approach 75 mRem/hr. These radiological hazards along with the size and shape of the Tokamak present a unique and challenging task for dismantling.

  11. Non-linear interactions between consumers and flow determine the probability of plant community dominance on Maine rocky shores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R Silliman

    Full Text Available Although consumers can strongly influence community recovery from disturbance, few studies have explored the effects of consumer identity and density and how they may vary across abiotic gradients. On rocky shores in Maine, recent experiments suggest that recovery of plant- or animal- dominated community states is governed by rates of water movement and consumer pressure. To further elucidate the mechanisms of consumer control, we examined the species-specific and density-dependent effects of rocky shore consumers (crabs and snails on community recovery under both high (mussel dominated and low flow (plant dominated conditions. By partitioning the direct impacts of predators (crabs and grazers (snails on community recovery across a flow gradient, we found that grazers, but not predators, are likely the primary agent of consumer control and that their impact is highly non-linear. Manipulating snail densities revealed that herbivorous and bull-dozing snails (Littorina littorea alone can control recovery of high and low flow communities. After ∼1.5 years of recovery, snail density explained a significant amount of the variation in macroalgal coverage at low flow sites and also mussel recovery at high flow sites. These density-dependent grazer effects were were both non-linear and flow-dependent, with low abundance thresholds needed to suppress plant community recovery, and much higher levels needed to control mussel bed development. Our study suggests that consumer density and identity are key in regulating both plant and animal community recovery and that physical conditions can determine the functional forms of these consumer effects.

  12. HOUDINI: RECONFIGURABEL IN-TANK ROBOT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report details the development of a reconfigurable in-tank robotic cleanup systems called Houdini(trademark). Driven by the general need to develop equipment for the removal of radioactive waste from hundreds of DOE waste storage tanks and the specific needs of DOE sites such as Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Fernald, Houdini(trademark) represents one of the possible tools that can be used to mobilize and retrieve this waste material for complete remediation. Houdini(trademark) is a hydraulically powered, track driven, mobile work vehicle with a collapsible frame designed to enter underground or above ground waste tanks through existing 24 inch riser openings. After the vehicle has entered the waste tank, it unfolds and lands on the waste surface or tank floor to become a remotely operated mini-bulldozer. Houdini(trademark) utilizes a vehicle mounted plow blade and 6-DOF manipulator to mobile waste and carry other tooling such as sluicing pumps, excavation buckets, and hydraulic shears. The complete Houdini(trademark) system consists of the tracked vehicle and other support equipment (e.g., control console, deployment system, hydraulic power supply, and controller) necessary to deploy and remotely operate this system at any DOE site. Inside the storage tanks, the system is capable of performing heel removal, waste mobilization, waste size reduction, and other tank waste retrieval and decommissioning tasks. The first Houdini(trademark) system was delivered on September 24, 1996 to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The system acceptance test was successfully performed at a cold test facility at ORNL. After completion of the cold test program and the training of site personnel, ORNL will deploy the system for clean-up and remediation of the Gunite storage tanks

  13. Evaluation of Management of Water Releases for Painted Rocks Rexervoir, Bitterroot River, Montana, 1985 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lere, Mark E. (Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Missoula, MT)

    1985-12-01

    The Bitterroot River, located in western Montana, is an important and heavily used resource, providing water for agriculture and a source for diversified forms of recreation. Water shortages in the river, however, have been a persistent problem for both irrigators and recreational users. Five major diversions and numerous smaller canals remove substantial quantities of water from the river during the irrigation season. Historically, the river has been severely dewatered between the towns of Hamilton and Stevensville as a result of these withdrawals. Demands for irrigation water from the Bitterroot River have often conflicted with the instream flow needs for trout. Withdrawals of water can decrease suitable depths, velocities, substrates and cover utilized by trout (Stalnaker and Arnette 1976, Wesche 1976). Losses in habitat associated with dewatering have been shown to diminish the carrying capacities for trout populations (Nelson 1980). Additionally, dewatering of the Bitterroot River has forced irrigators to dike or channelize the streambed to obtain needed flows. These alterations reduce aquatic habitat and degrade channel stability. Odell (personal communication) found a substantial reduction in the total biomass of aquatic insects within a section of the Bitterroot River that had been bulldozed for irrigation purposes. The Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks (MDFWP) has submitted a proposal to the Northwest Power Planning Council for the purchase of 10,000 acre-feet (AF) of stored water in Painted Rocks Reservoir to augment low summer flows in the Bitterroot River. This supplemental water potentially would enhance the fishery in the river and reduce degradation of the channel due to diversion activities. The present study was undertaken to: (1) develop an implementable water management plan for supplemental releases from Painted Rocks Reservoir which would provide optimum benefits to the river: (2) gather fisheries and habitat information to

  14. Surface radiological investigations at the proposed SWSA 7 Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenzie, S.P.; Murray, M.E.; Uziel, M.S.

    1995-08-01

    A surface radiological investigation was conducted intermittently from June 1994 to June 1995 at the proposed site for Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 7. The stimulus for this survey was the observation in June 1992 of a man`s trousers became contaminated with {sup 9O}Sr while he was reviewing work on top of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) cooling tower. Radiation surveys identified {sup 9O}Sr on the roofs of older buildings at the HFIR site. Since no {sup 9O}Sr was found on buildings built between 1988 and 1990, the {sup 9O}Sr was thought to have been deposited prior to 1988. Later in 1992, beta particles were identified on a bulldozer that had been used in a wooded area southwest of the Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR) Access Road. More recently in April 1995, {sup 9O}Sr particles were identified on the top side of ceiling tiles in the overhead area of a building in the HFIR Complex. Considering that the proposed SWSA 7 site was located between the HFIR complex and the HPRR Access Road, it was deemed prudent to investigate the possibility that beta particles might also be present at the SWSA 7 site. A possible explanation for the presence of these particles has been provided by long-time ORNL employees and retirees. Strontium-90 as the titanate was developed in the early 1960s as part of the Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power (SNAP) Program. Strontium titanate ({sup 90}SrTiO{sub 3}) was produced at the Fission Product Development Laboratory (Building 3517) in the ORNL main plant area. Waste from the process was loaded into a 1-in. lead-lined dumpster, which was transferred to SWSA 5 where it was dumped into a trench. Dumping allowed some articles to become airborne.

  15. The Clearing: Heidegger’s Lichtung and The Big Scrub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Garbutt

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Clearings make settlement possible. Whether on a small scale using an axe and other hand implements to make way for a dwelling and a garden, or on a large scale with a chain strung between two D9 bulldozers in preparation for a major agribusiness development, the process of clearing creates spaces for installing something new. This paper uses the idea of (the clearing, as practice, process, outcome and metaphor, to examine the installation of the locals in a settler society. Using Lismore on the far-north coast of New South Wales, Australia, as a case example, the particular work of clearing that is discussed here is a practice that enables a form of colonisation and settlement that distances itself from its history of migration. This is a history of settler locals who were 'always here', and a colonial form of clearing clears the land and the mind of troubling pasts and of troubling presences. For the locals within a place, then, clearing manages and simplifies a complex set of social and material relations, histories and identities. Using Anthony Appiah's concept the 'space clearing gesture', the paper concludes with a reflection on the space in which the idea of "the clearing" and this paper appears. Do places, in this instance rural places, provide a type of clearing in which certain ideas might appear that may not appear elsewhere? If situatedness matters then the diversity of places where thinking is done is important for our ecology of thought, and in connection with this, perhaps what 'rural cultural studies' does is clear a particular type of space for thinking.

  16. Houdini{trademark}: Reconfigurable in-tank mobile robot. Final report, June 1995--January 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, B.; Slifko, A.

    1998-12-31

    This report details the development of a reconfigurable in-tank robotic cleanup system called Houdini{trademark}. Driven by the general need to develop equipment for the removal of radioactive waste from hundreds of DOE waste storage tanks and the specific needs of DOE sites such as Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Fernald, Houdini{trademark} represents one of the possible tools that can be used to mobilize and retrieve this waste material for complete remediation. Houdini{trademark} is a hydraulically powered, track driven, mobile work vehicle with a collapsible frame designed to enter underground or above ground waste tanks through existing 24 inch riser openings. After the vehicle has entered the waste tank, it unfolds and lands on the waste surface or tank floor to become a remotely operated mini-bulldozer. Houdini{trademark} utilizes a vehicle mounted plow blade and 6-DOF manipulator to mobilize waste and carry other tooling such as sluicing pumps, excavation buckets, and hydraulic shears. The complete Houdini{trademark} system consists of the tracked vehicle and other support equipment (e.g., control console, deployment system, hydraulic power supply, and controller) necessary to deploy and remotely operate this system at any DOE site. Inside the storage tanks, the system is capable of performing heel removal, waste mobilization, waste size reduction, and other tank waste retrieval and decommissioning tasks. The first Houdini{trademark} system was delivered on September 24, 1996 to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The system acceptance test was successfully performed at a cold test facility at ORNL. After completion of the cold test program and the training of site personnel, ORNL will deploy the system for clean-up and remediation of the Gunite storage tanks.

  17. Hydraulic manipulator design, analysis, and control at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Robotics and Process Systems Div.; Love, L.J. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States); Basher, A.M.H. [South Carolina State Univ., Orangeburg, SC (United States)

    1996-09-01

    To meet the increased payload capacities demanded by present-day tasks, manipulator designers have turned to hydraulics as a means of actuation. Hydraulics have always been the actuator of choice when designing heavy-life construction and mining equipment such as bulldozers, backhoes, and tunneling devices. In order to successfully design, build, and deploy a new hydraulic manipulator (or subsystem) sophisticated modeling, analysis, and control experiments are usually needed. To support the development and deployment of new hydraulic manipulators Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has outfitted a significant experimental laboratory and has developed the software capability for research into hydraulic manipulators, hydraulic actuators, hydraulic systems, modeling of hydraulic systems, and hydraulic controls. The hydraulics laboratory at ORNL has three different manipulators. First is a 6-Degree-of-Freedom (6-DoF), multi-planer, teleoperated, flexible controls test bed used for the development of waste tank clean-up manipulator controls, thermal studies, system characterization, and manipulator tracking. Finally, is a human amplifier test bed used for the development of an entire new class of teleoperated systems. To compliment the hardware in the hydraulics laboratory, ORNL has developed a hydraulics simulation capability including a custom package to model the hydraulic systems and manipulators for performance studies and control development. This paper outlines the history of hydraulic manipulator developments at ORNL, describes the hydraulics laboratory, discusses the use of the equipment within the laboratory, and presents some of the initial results from experiments and modeling associated with these hydraulic manipulators. Included are some of the results from the development of the human amplifier/de-amplifier concepts, the characterization of the thermal sensitivity of hydraulic systems, and end-point tracking accuracy studies. Experimental and analytical

  18. The Clearing : Heidegger’s Lichtung and the big scrub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garbutt, Rob

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Clearings make settlement possible. Whether on a small scale using an axe and other hand implements to make way for a dwelling and a garden, or on a large scale with a chain strung between two D9 bulldozers in preparation for a major agribusiness development, the process of clearing creates spaces for installing something new. This paper uses the idea of (the clearing, as practice, process, outcome and metaphor, to examine the installation of the locals in a settler society. Using Lismore on the far-north coast of New South Wales, Australia, as a case example, the particular work of clearing that is discussed here is a practice that enables a form of colonisation and settlement that distances itself from its history of migration. This is a history of settler locals who were 'always here', and a colonial form of clearing clears the land and the mind of troubling pasts and of troubling presences. For the locals within a place, then, clearing manages and simplifies a complex set of social and material relations, histories and identities.Using Anthony Appiah's concept the 'space clearing gesture', the paper concludes with a reflection on the space in which the idea of "the clearing" and this paper appears. Do places, in this instance rural places, provide a type of clearing in which certain ideas might appear that may not appear elsewhere? If situatedness matters then the diversity of places where thinking is done is important for our ecology of thought, and in connection with this, perhaps what 'rural cultural studies' does is clear a particular type of space for thinking.

  19. Managing away bad habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldroop, J; Butler, T

    2000-01-01

    We've all worked with highly competent people who are held back by a seemingly fatal personality flaw. One person takes on too much work; another sees the downside in every proposed change; a third pushes people out of the way. At best, people with these "bad habits" create their own glass ceilings, which limit their success and their contributions to the company. At worst, they destroy their own careers. Although the psychological flaws of such individuals run deep, their managers are not helpless. In this article, James Waldroop and Timothy Butler--both psychologists--examine the root causes of these flaws and suggest concrete tactics they have used to help people recognize and correct the following six behavior patterns: The hero, who always pushes himself--and subordinates--too hard to do too much for too long. The meritocrat, who believes that the best ideas can and will be determined objectively and ignores the politics inherent in most situations. The bulldozer, who runs roughshod over others in a quest for power. The pessimist, who always worries about what could go wrong. The rebel, who automatically fights against authority and convention. And the home run hitter, who tries to do too much too soon--he swings for the fences before he's learned to hit singles. Helping people break through their self-created glass ceilings is the ultimate win-win scenario: both the individual and the organization are rewarded. Using the tactics introduced in this article, managers can help their brilliantly flawed performers become spectacular achievers. PMID:11143157

  20. Effects of habitat disturbance on survival rates of softshell turtles (Apalone spinifera) in an urban stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, M.V.; Krementz, D.G.; Powell, L.A.; Mills, N.E.

    2008-01-01

    We monitored Spiny Softshell Turtles (Apalone spinifera) using mark-recapture during 1994-2005 in Gin Creek, Searcy, Arkansas. In 1997-2000 the creek bed and riparian zone were bulldozed in an effort to remove debris and improve water flow. This disturbance appeared to reduce the quantity and quality of turtle habitat. We tested for the potential effect of this habitat disturbance on the survival rates of marked turtles. We estimated annual survival rates for the population using models that allowed for variation in survival by state of maturation, year, and effects of the disturbance; we evaluated two different models of the disturbance impact. The first disturbance model incorporated a single change in survival rates, following the disturbance, whereas the second disturbance model incorporated three survival rates: pre- and postdisturbance, as well as a short-term decline during the disturbance. We used a state-transition model for our mark-recapture analysis, as softshells transition from juveniles to adults in a variable period of time. Our analysis indicated that survival varied by maturation state and was independent of a time trend or the disturbance. Annual survival rates were lower for juveniles (S?? = 0.717, SE = 0.039) than for adults (S?? = 0.836, SE = 0.025). Despite the dramatic habitat disturbance, we found no negative effects on survival rates. Our results demonstrate that, like a few other freshwater turtle species known to thrive in urban environments, populations of A. spinifera are resilient and can persist in urban environments despite periodic habitat disturbances. Copyright 2008 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  1. Deep India meets deep Asia: a seismological view of lithospheric slab interactions under Hindu Kush and Pamir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurr, Bernd; Kufner, Sofia; Sippl, Christian; Schneider, Felix; Yuan, Xiaohui; Ratschbacher, Lothar; Mechie, James

    2016-04-01

    It is part of the plate-tectonic paradigm that buoyant continental lithosphere subducts only in tow of a sinking oceanic plate after continent collision and that large deep (> 100 km) earthquakes occur exclusively in subducted oceanic lithosphere. Yet under the Pamir in Central Asia, far away from any (paleo-)ocean basins, continental lithosphere appears to subduct by itself and the Pamir-Hindu Kush seismic zone is one of the most active intermediate (100-300 km) depth earthquake zones globally. We show that large-scale indentation of cratonic Asia by a promontory of the Indian plate is causing subduction of continental lithosphere under the Pamir and that the Hindu Kush earthquakes are due to detachment of a narrow plate sliver. New precise earthquake hypocenters, a large number of source mechanisms and detailed receiver function sections and tomographic images allow us to distinguish an arcuate, stretched and partly torn slab of Asian lithosphere beneath the Pamir and a piece of Indian lithosphere beneath the deepest Hindu Kush earthquakes. This peculiar double subduction zone arises by contrasting modes of convergence under Pamir and Hindu Kush imposed by the different mechanical properties of the three types of lithosphere involved: We suggest that the buoyant northwestern salient of (1) Cratonic India bulldozes into (2) Cratonic Asia forcing delamination and rollback of its lithosphere. At the same time (3) India's thinned margin tears off from Cratonic India and subducts under Asia. The narrow swath of the subducted Indian continental margin forms a prominent high-velocity anomaly down to the mantle transition zone. Its uppermost section is thinned or already severed and intermediate depth earthquakes cluster at the final neck connecting it to the deeper slab. These images provide a rare glimpse of the ephemeral process of slab break-off.

  2. Hydraulic manipulator design, analysis, and control at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To meet the increased payload capacities demanded by present-day tasks, manipulator designers have turned to hydraulics as a means of actuation. Hydraulics have always been the actuator of choice when designing heavy-life construction and mining equipment such as bulldozers, backhoes, and tunneling devices. In order to successfully design, build, and deploy a new hydraulic manipulator (or subsystem) sophisticated modeling, analysis, and control experiments are usually needed. To support the development and deployment of new hydraulic manipulators Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has outfitted a significant experimental laboratory and has developed the software capability for research into hydraulic manipulators, hydraulic actuators, hydraulic systems, modeling of hydraulic systems, and hydraulic controls. The hydraulics laboratory at ORNL has three different manipulators. First is a 6-Degree-of-Freedom (6-DoF), multi-planer, teleoperated, flexible controls test bed used for the development of waste tank clean-up manipulator controls, thermal studies, system characterization, and manipulator tracking. Finally, is a human amplifier test bed used for the development of an entire new class of teleoperated systems. To compliment the hardware in the hydraulics laboratory, ORNL has developed a hydraulics simulation capability including a custom package to model the hydraulic systems and manipulators for performance studies and control development. This paper outlines the history of hydraulic manipulator developments at ORNL, describes the hydraulics laboratory, discusses the use of the equipment within the laboratory, and presents some of the initial results from experiments and modeling associated with these hydraulic manipulators. Included are some of the results from the development of the human amplifier/de-amplifier concepts, the characterization of the thermal sensitivity of hydraulic systems, and end-point tracking accuracy studies. Experimental and analytical

  3. Did the emergence of animals have an impact on the carbon cycle of the ocean floor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meysman, Filip; Maire, Olivier; Bockelmann, Frank; van Oevelen, Dick; Glud, Ronnie

    2010-05-01

    The first animals appeared at or near the ocean floor, and paleontologists have suggested that the ensuing Cambrian explosion resulted in a regime shift in the biogeochemical functioning of the ocean floor. The newly evolved animals rapidly adopted a burrowing lifestyle, and as result, sediments became mixed and reworked, thus "bulldozing" the microbial mats that had covered the ocean floor in the Precambrian. Sedimentary redox conditions also changed, as burrow networks were flushed with oxygenated overlying water. But did the emergence of large burrowing fauna truly have an impact on the carbon cycle of the ocean? Here, we try to answer this question by looking at the present-day situation, that is, we estimate how large the impact is of large burrowing fauna on organic carbon processing in the ocean floor. We addressed this by a global synthesis and model analysis of the in situ oxygen uptake rate in marine sediments, where the oxygen uptake is used as a proxy for organic carbon mineralization. The total oxygen uptake can be split into a diffusive oxygen uptake, linked to oxygen supply by diffusion across the sediment water interface, and a faunal mediated uptake, linked to faunal respiration and bio-irrigation. Our results show that the faunal mediated contribution to the total oxygen uptake is about 20% for the global ocean floor and 45% for the global continental shelves. About 25% of this faunal mediated contribution is explained by direct respiration of macrofauna and meiofauna, the other 75% is linked to the stimulation of microbial decomposition through bio-irrigation. Overall, our analysis suggests a large imprint of benthic fauna on the sedimentary processing of organic carbon, particularly in continental shelves and coastal sediments. This then suggests that the evolution of large burrowing fauna may have had a substantial impact on the rate of mineralization and sequestration of organic matter in marine sediments.

  4. Mucking about : robot takes the risk out of sample collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, L.

    2010-05-15

    According to Directive 74 of the Alberta Energy Resources Conservation Board, oilsands mine operators must take regular samples of tailings to monitor the reduction of fluid tailings. The tailings are a mixture of water, clay, sand and residual bitumen. Soft tailings tend to have the consistency of toothpaste, often with a surface crust. Most of the sampling is currently performed by people in boats or in vehicles. However, a group of mechanical engineering students at the University of Alberta have developed a robot that can perform the risky task of taking soil samples from partially dried oil sands tailings ponds to help determine their degree of stability. The all-tailings rover can navigate on soft tailings and take measurements to characterize the deposits. The robot measures soil strength using a penetrometer, a cone-tipped probe that is pushed about a metre into the ground. The force used indicates strength of soil up to about 20 kilopascals. The all-tailings rover looks like a small dune buggy, about one metre long. It has a gas motor with a hydraulic system that actuates the drive wheels. It also has onboard microprocessor control, a navigation unit including a global positioning satellite system and other sensors to navigate on soft ground. An onboard computer plans the trajectory or takes trajectory commands that have been sent by radio. Status information can be sent by radio to a separate computer. The robot can be hooked up to a satellite phone and operated remotely. A future model will do a dynamic penetrometer test that can mimic the vibrations of heavy equipment so that operators can determine if the deposit can support a bulldozer. Another prototype might penetrate as far down as 5 metres. 1 ref., 3 figs.

  5. РАСЧЕТ СОПРОТИВЛЕНИЯ ДВИЖЕНИЮ КОЛЕСНЫХ МАШИН ПО СНЕГУ

    OpenAIRE

    Донато, И.

    2007-01-01

    Рассмотрено сопротивление движению колесных машин по снегу с учетом экскавационно-бульдозерных эффектов; сил сопротивления, обусловленных вертикальной деформацией снега и трением днища корпуса или элементов шасси о поверхность снежного полотна пути.Resistance of wheel cars in motion on a snow road path in view of excavator bulldozer effects, resistance forces caused by vertical strain of snow and abrasion of the car underside or chassis elements of surface is examined....

  6. Self-organization of bacterial biofilms is facilitated by extracellular DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloag, Erin S; Turnbull, Lynne; Huang, Alan; Vallotton, Pascal; Wang, Huabin; Nolan, Laura M; Mililli, Lisa; Hunt, Cameron; Lu, Jing; Osvath, Sarah R; Monahan, Leigh G; Cavaliere, Rosalia; Charles, Ian G; Wand, Matt P; Gee, Michelle L; Prabhakar, Ranganathan; Whitchurch, Cynthia B

    2013-07-01

    Twitching motility-mediated biofilm expansion is a complex, multicellular behavior that enables the active colonization of surfaces by many species of bacteria. In this study we have explored the emergence of intricate network patterns of interconnected trails that form in actively expanding biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We have used high-resolution, phase-contrast time-lapse microscopy and developed sophisticated computer vision algorithms to track and analyze individual cell movements during expansion of P. aeruginosa biofilms. We have also used atomic force microscopy to examine the topography of the substrate underneath the expanding biofilm. Our analyses reveal that at the leading edge of the biofilm, highly coherent groups of bacteria migrate across the surface of the semisolid media and in doing so create furrows along which following cells preferentially migrate. This leads to the emergence of a network of trails that guide mass transit toward the leading edges of the biofilm. We have also determined that extracellular DNA (eDNA) facilitates efficient traffic flow throughout the furrow network by maintaining coherent cell alignments, thereby avoiding traffic jams and ensuring an efficient supply of cells to the migrating front. Our analyses reveal that eDNA also coordinates the movements of cells in the leading edge vanguard rafts and is required for the assembly of cells into the "bulldozer" aggregates that forge the interconnecting furrows. Our observations have revealed that large-scale self-organization of cells in actively expanding biofilms of P. aeruginosa occurs through construction of an intricate network of furrows that is facilitated by eDNA. PMID:23798445

  7. Houdini trademark: Reconfigurable in-tank mobile robot. Final report, June 1995 - January 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report details the development of a reconfigurable in-tank robotic cleanup system called Houdini trademark. Driven by the general need to develop equipment for the removal of radioactive waste from hundreds of DOE waste storage tanks and the specific needs of DOE sites such as Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Fernald, Houdini trademark represents one of the possible tools that can be used to mobilize and retrieve this waste material for complete remediation. Houdini trademark is a hydraulically powered, track driven, mobile work vehicle with a collapsible frame designed to enter underground or above ground waste tanks through existing 24 inch riser openings. After the vehicle has entered the waste tank, it unfolds and lands on the waste surface or tank floor to become a remotely operated mini-bulldozer. Houdini trademark utilizes a vehicle mounted plow blade and 6-DOF manipulator to mobilize waste and carry other tooling such as sluicing pumps, excavation buckets, and hydraulic shears. The complete Houdini trademark system consists of the tracked vehicle and other support equipment (e.g., control console, deployment system, hydraulic power supply, and controller) necessary to deploy and remotely operate this system at any DOE site. Inside the storage tanks, the system is capable of performing heel removal, waste mobilization, waste size reduction, and other tank waste retrieval and decommissioning tasks. The first Houdini trademark system was delivered on September 24, 1996 to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The system acceptance test was successfully performed at a cold test facility at ORNL. After completion of the cold test program and the training of site personnel, ORNL will deploy the system for clean-up and remediation of the Gunite storage tanks

  8. Esforços tratórios no arrancamento de cafeeiros Power requirement for coffee plant uprooting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamor Fujiwara

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Um método alternativo para arrancamento de cafeeiros é apresentado neste trabalho: consiste ele em uma garra arrancadora presa ao cafeeiro e tracionada por trator. Determinações realizadas no Centro Experimental de Campinas, em latossolo roxo, em fevereiro de 1984, demonstraram que o esforço médio requerido foi de 2.127 kgf por planta para C. canephora L. cv. Robusta e de 1.158 kgf por planta para C. arabica L. cv. Mundo Novo. Dentre os sistemas utilizados, o mais indicado foi o arrancamento de três cafeeiros sucessivamente, alinhados no sentido tratório em esforços independentes, numa só operação. Sua utilização propiciou menor movimento de solo do que no uso de trator com lâmina. Foi possível o emprego de um trator de pneus de potência de 100 cv.A new method for removing perennial plants is presented in this paper. It consists of using a clamp type of tool that is attached to a plant and pulled by a tractor. A study was conducted in Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil, in February of 1984 with a 12 year old coffee plantation on Dusk Red Latosol. The average effort required for coffee plants uprooting was 2,127kgf/plant for C. canephora L. cv. Robusta and 1,158kgf/plant for C. arabica L. cv. Mundo Novo. Among the several systems tested, the best was the use of three clamps applying individual effort in a successive remotion of three plants in one unique operation. This system had the advantage of smaller soil movement than the traditional use of bulldozer. The use of a 100hp wheel tractor was feasible for this system, and it presented a good performance of operation.

  9. The face of things to come

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saving of the Franklin River in Tasmania, from inundation beneath a hydro-electric dam is chronicled. The movement to save the river begun in 1972 when Lake Pedder, an exquisite alpine lake in the rugged Tasmanian southwest wilderness, disappeared under the rising flood waters of the Serpentine Dam which, while adding only 42 MW of power to Tasmania's electricity grid, ripped the heart and soul out of the wilderness. The tragic loss of Lake Pedder laid the foundation for a new environmental movement in Australia, inspiring a whole generation of wilderness activists, gave rise to the world's first Green Party and paved the way for the success of the Franklin campaign. In the largest civil disobedience action ever witnessed in Australia, six thousand people negotiated the perilous but exhilarating course of the Franklin River Blockade travelling to the dam site to stand in front of the bulldozers. Over 1,000 people were arrested and went to jail for their beliefs. The blockade of the river was a huge logistical undertaking and generated an astounding degree of public mass action. People marched on the street in every state capital and major regional city across Australia. When the federal government refused to intervene and stop the construction of the dam, the environment movement resorted to political action by enlisting tens of thousands of sympathizers to wage a campaign against the incumbent Liberal government in the next federal election. The campaign was successful, defeating the Liberals and removing them from power. The incoming Labour government declared that the dam would not be built. In a subsequent confrontation with the Tasmania state government in the High Court of Australia, the Franklin River was saved by the narrow margin of 4 votes to 3. The campaign set the tone for future conservation campaigns everywhere

  10. Characteristics of recessional moraines at a temperate glacier in SE Iceland: Insights into patterns, rates and drivers of glacier retreat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Benjamin M. P.; Evans, David J. A.; Roberts, David H.

    2016-03-01

    Icelandic glaciers are sensitive to climate variability on short-term timescales owing to their North Atlantic maritime setting, and have been undergoing ice-marginal retreat since the mid-1990s. Recent patterns, rates and drivers of ice-frontal retreat at Skálafellsjökull, SE Iceland, are examined using small-scale recessional moraines as a geomorphological proxy. These small-scale recessional moraines exhibit distinctive sawtooth planform geometries, and are constructed by a range of genetic processes associated with minor ice-margin re-advance, including (i) combined push/squeeze mechanisms, (ii) bulldozing of pre-existing proglacial material, and (iii) submarginal freeze-on. Remote-sensing investigations and lichenometric dating highlight sequences of annually-formed recessional moraines on the northern and central parts of the foreland. Conversely, moraines are forming on a sub-annual timescale at the southeastern Skálafellsjökull margin. Using annual moraine spacing as a proxy for annual ice-margin retreat rates (IMRRs), we demonstrate that prominent periods of glacier retreat at Skálafellsjökull are coincident with those at other Icelandic outlet glaciers, as well as those identified at Greenlandic outlet glaciers. Analysis of IMRRs and climate data suggests summer air temperature, sea surface temperature and the North Atlantic Oscillation have an influence on IMRRs at Skálafellsjökull, with the glacier appearing to be most sensitive to summer air temperature. On the basis of further climate data analyses, we hypothesise that sea surface temperature may drive air temperature changes in the North Atlantic region, which in turn forces IMRRs. The increase in sea surface temperature over recent decades may link to atmospheric-driven variations in North Atlantic subpolar gyre dynamics.

  11. Effectiveness of the GAEC standard of cross compliance Prohibition of performing unauthorized land levelling on soil erosion control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Bazzoffi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The GAEC standard land levelling under authorization of cross compliance prohibits farmers from levelling land through bulldozing without a specific permission issued by the proper territorial authority. The aim of the standard is to ensure the protection of soil from accelerated erosion that almost always occurs when land is levelled without conservative criteria. Land levelling prior to planting or replanting specialized crops, especially orchards, is indicated by agronomists as essential to the full mechanization of cultivation and harvesting operations and the success of economic investment. Land levelling leads to a deep modification of the hill slopes, so it may produce serious damage to the environment if carried out in the absence of a carefully planned design. In other words, a design that takes the aspects of soil conservation into account, especially for steep hill slopes where the insite and offsite environmental impacts of soil erosion may be more pronounced. With regard to the areas involved, land levelling plays a key role on a national scale, one only needs to think of the vineyards planted on the country’s hill slopes, which in 1970 covered an area of 793,000 hectares. Moreover, despite the continued reduction in areas planted with vines, from 1990 to 2002 the area devoted to DOC and DOCG wines increased by about 29% and the average size of vineyards has also increased. This is a clear sign of the current trend, with the transition from the family model to the industrial model of orchard management, with extensive use of machinery and thus the use of bulldozers for levelling. The authorization topic, on which the standard of compliance is based, is analysed in detail. In summary we can say that, according to law, the permit required by the GAEC standard is currently mandatory only for those areas subject to the Hydrogeological constraint (Royal decree 30 December 1923 No. 3267 and for parks or other areas for which the

  12. Ice-load induced tectonics controlled tunnel valley evolution - instances from the southwestern Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Hseinat, M.; Hübscher, C.

    2014-08-01

    Advancing ice sheets have a strong impact on the earth's topography. For example, they leave behind an erosional unconformity, bulldozer the underlying strata and form tunnel valleys, primarily by subglacial melt-water erosion and secondarily by direct glacial erosion. The conceptual models of the reactivation of faults within the upper crust, due to the ice sheets' load, are also established. However, this phenomenon is also rather under-explored. Here, we propose a causal link between ice-load induced tectonics, the generation of near-vertical faults in the upper crust above an inherited deep-rooted fault and the evolution of tunnel valleys. The Kossau tunnel valley in the southeastern Bay of Kiel has been surveyed by means of high-resolution multi-channel seismic and echosounder data. It strikes almost south to north and can be mapped over a distance of ca 50 km. It is 1200-8000 m wide with a valley of up to 200 m deep. Quaternary deposits fill the valley and cover the adjacent glaciogenic unconformity. A near-vertical fault system with an apparent dip angle of >80°, which reaches from the top Zechstein upwards into the Quaternary, underlies the valley. The fault partially pierces the seafloor and growth is observed within the uppermost Quaternary strata only. Consequently, the fault evolved in the Late Quaternary. The fault is associated with an anticline that is between 700 and 3000 m wide and about 20-40 m high. The fault-anticline assemblage neither resembles any typical extensional, compressional or strike-slip deformation pattern, nor is it related to salt tectonics. Based on the observed position and deformation pattern of the fault-anticline assemblage, we suggest that these structures formed as a consequence of the differential ice-load induced tectonics above an inherited deep-rooted sub-salt fault related to the Glückstadt Graben. Lateral variations in the ice-load during the ice sheet's advance caused differential subsidence, thus rejuvenating the

  13. Paleoseismology in Venezuela: Objectives, methods, applications, limitations and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audemard M., Franck A.

    2005-10-01

    The privileged location of Venezuela along an active interplate deformation belt, despite of being a "so-called" developing country, has led to a long paleoseismic tradition as attested by 45 trench assessments since 1968. Since then, a first 2-trench study was carried out by the American Woodward-Clyde company across the Oca fault at Sinamaica. Since 1980, all further paleoseismic studies have been performed by FUNVISIS and the Uribante-Caparo hydroelectric project (southern Mérida Andes) became their first assessment where 22 huge trenches were bulldozer-dug. Except for these Compañía Anónima de Administración y Fomento Eléctrico (CADAFE) financed trenches and two others, all other assessments were for Petróleos de Venezuela S. A. -PDVSA-. In this paper, geographic and geologic factors, as well as logistic limitations, conditioning success in paleoseismic studies by trenching, shall be discussed based on the Venezuelan experience developed over the years. The scientific contribution of this approach refer to: confirmation of Holocene fault activity, slip-per-event and average slip rate of a given fault (or segment), seismic potential (repeat of maximum credible earthquakes) of known faults, fault segmentation, fault interaction as consequence of stress loading by stick-slip on contiguous faults, time-space distribution of seismic activity along a given tectonic feature, seismotectonic association of historical earthquakes and landscape evolution on the short term and its implications on the long-term evolution (poorly discussed since this is really part of the field of Neotectonics). In recent years (since 1999), a new approach has been introduced in Venezuela consisting in complementing the seismic history derived from trenching studies with the evaluation of seismically induced perturbations in the continuous Quaternary sedimentary record of (either active or fossil) lakes. The future of this discipline in Venezuela heads to more trenching and lake

  14. Characterisation of carbonate rocks from near-surface cross-hole and reflection GPR investigations - A case study from southeast Zealand, Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Lars; Looms, Majken C.; Hansen, Thomas M.; Cordua, Knud S.; Stemmerik, Lars

    2010-05-01

    Carbonates found in the near-surface of southeast Zealand, eastern Denmark, are analogous to deposits serving as groundwater and hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Danish region. The study site is located in the Boesdal limestone quarry. A 20 by 20 m area of the bottom of the quarry was levelled using a bulldozer, and a grid of 100 MHz and 250 Mhz reflection profiles were collected to facilitate geological interpretation of structures in the uppermost part of the subsurface. Secondly, four 15 m deep boreholes were drilled in a square geometry with side lengths of 5 m. Core material was recovered from the boreholes for lithological control and to facilitate laboratory measurements of porosity and permeability. Cross-hole GPR data were collected between boreholes with 100 MHz Sensors&Software antennae. The distance between source and receiver antenna positions in the boreholes was set to 0.25 m. Mounded features observed in the upper ca. 7 m of the subsurface imaged by the reflection GPR data are interpreted to represent bryozoan mounds similar to mounds mapped by others along cliff and quarry profiles close to our study site. Below the base of the mounds, the reflection signals become too weak to facilitate deeper imaging of the carbonates. The section studied with the cross-hole data is water-saturated. Simple 1D modelling of the cross-hole data indicates a strong drop in GPR velocity at 7 to 8 m depth. Different 2D inversion strategies are tested for fine scale resolution of the inter-borehole heterogeneity. Sequential simulation strategies seem to be successful with respect to extracting well-defined correlation lengths and variance estimates of the velocity fluctuations. A strategy in which the intervals above and below 8 m depth are treated as separate heterogeneous media appears to be more successful in generating well-defined statistical parameters for the GPR velocity field of the subsurface than the typical strategy in which the total rock section covered by the

  15. Investigation of gravitational mass transport processes using numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhn, K.; Kock, I.

    2003-12-01

    settled under gravity on top of a shelf surface and they are transported progressively by a bulldozer to the upper slope. In both experiments, we observe a similar relationship between friction distribution and mass flow behavior. However, experiment settings (b) produce more natural process behavior.

  16. Paleoseismicity and Morphotectonic aspects of the Yedisu Seismic Gap of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabci, C.; Akyuz, H. S.; Sancar, T.; Karabacak, V.; Altunel, E.; Yalciner, C. C.

    2009-04-01

    The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) is a 1500-km-long dextral strike-slip fault zone, which was ruptured as westward migration of large earthquake series, started by 1939 Erzincan event in the east and ended by 1999 Izmit and Duzce events in the west during the last century. There are only two unruptured segments, Marmara and Yedisu faults which create a high seismic risk for both the Marmara region and eastern Turkey. Last historical events are recorded to be 1766 AD and 1784 AD respectively in the earthquake catalogues on these faults. In the framework of TUBITAK project no 106Y174, we have studied the fault geometry and paleoseismicity of the Yedisu Seismic Gap by both aerial photo analysis and field observations. The Yedisu fault has a length of nearly 70 km with N110 strike between Avcilar, Erzincan (39.61N, 39.83E) and Yedisu, Bingol (39.43N, 40.54E). Fault strands show clear morphological features such as tectonic linearities, offset drainage patterns, shutter and pressure ridges, linear valleys, and a wedge-shaped basin, which are all characteristic features of a strike-slip fault. Three trenches were excavated at the western and eastern parts of the Yedisu fault to evaluate the seismic history of the region. Sarikaya trench (36.60N, 39.85E; located at the east of Avcilar village) points out clear stratification and structural relationships of two paleoevents, while another one, Karapolat trench (39.45N, 40.48E; located in the middle of the Yedisu basin) indicates two (possible three) paleoevents. Radiocarbon dates of samples taken from both trenches, gave relatively very old ages, which are most possibly signs of dated reworked material. After those, Tokmanik trench is excavated just two hundred meters east of Karapolat trench site in a new campaign. A bulldozer type excavation was done to reveal much older paleoevents on an alluvial fan deposits just next to an ~80 m offset stream. Stratification consists of fan deposits and related channels. Tilted bedding

  17. The Palestinian mammalian fauna acquired by the zoological gardens in the Gaza Strip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDEL FATTAH N. ABD RABOU

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abd Rabou AFN. 2011. The Palestinian mammalian fauna acquired by the zoological gardens in the Gaza Strip. Nusantara Bioscience 3: 82-91. The Gaza Strip, which is an arid strip of the Palestinian land along the southeastern Mediterranean, harbors a considerable number of mammalian fauna due to its eco-geo-strategic position. Prior to 2006, the establishment of zoological gardens in the Gaza Strip was a sort of imagination due to Israeli constraints. These constraints were nurtured by the total Israeli destruction and demolition of the Rafah and Gaza private zoological gardens in 2004 and 2009 respectively, using heavy tanks and bulldozers. The establishment of many zoological gardens following the Israeli evacuation from the Gaza Strip in late 2005 encouraged wildlife trading. Hence, the current study comes to document the Palestinian mammalian faunistic species acquired by the zoological gardens in the Gaza Strip through frequent visits to Gaza zoological gardens and meetings with local people, wildlife hunters and zoo owners. A total number of 17 Palestinian mammalian faunistic species belonging to 12 families and 5 orders was encountered in the zoological gardens throughout the study period. The encountered species represent a good mix of the families and sizes of mammals generally found in other parts of Palestine. Order Carnivora represents 52.94% of the caged mammals, while the orders Rodentia, Lagomorpha, Artiodactyla and Insectivora represent 47.06%. The study documented the first sight of the Greater Egyptian Gerbil Gerbillus pyramidis in the Gaza Strip. Local hunting, tunnel trade and delivery were the lonely sources of the mammals encountered in the zoological gardens. The economic deprivation under the current Israeli blockade and the poor implementation of environmental laws and legislations concerning wildlife protection have made wildlife trading as a common practice. Finally, The author recommends to improving the management

  18. Vertical stability of mercury in historic and prehistoric sediments from Clear Lake, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchanek, Thomas H; Richerson, Peter J; Zierenberg, Robert A; Slotton, Darell G; Mullen, Lauri H

    2008-12-01

    Clear Lake, California, USA, is the site of the Sulphur Bank Mercury Mine, now a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Superfund Site. Intermittent mining from 1873 to 1957 resulted in approximately 100 Mg of mercury (Hg) being deposited into the lake's ecosystem. Sediment cores to approximately 2.5 m depth (dated using 210Pb and 14C) represent approximately 3000 years of sedimentation. Clear Lake sediments have experienced Hg deposition from anthropogenic sources (mining) during historic times (to the mid-1900s) and geologic sources during prehistoric times (prior to the mid-1800s). This provides a unique opportunity to evaluate hypotheses relating to (1) the influence of the mine on Hg loading to the lake and (2) the potential upward mobilization of Hg by diagenetic processes proposed by some as an alternative explanation for increased Hg concentrations at the surface of the sediment column believed to be caused by increased global atmospheric deposition. Although Hg mining began in 1873, no significant evidence of anthropogenic Hg loading was detected in cores prior to open-pit mining ca. 1927, which also involved bulldozing mine waste rock and tailings into the lake. Exponential increases in total Hg (TotHg) and methylmercury (MeHg) were observed above the 1927 horizon, where estimated sedimentation rates were 2.2-20.4 mm/yr and peaks of both forms of Hg maintained vertical stability within the sediment column. Below the 1927 horizon, a slow increase in both TotHg and MeHg with depth was observed from approximately 1000 to 3000 years before present, where sedimentation rates ranged from approximately 0.6 to 2.0 mm/yr and elevated Hg profiles appear stable. Vertical stability of Hg in the shallow and deep sediment column suggests that both TotHg and MeHg do not undergo diagenetic upward mobilization within the sediment column under rapid or slow sedimentation rates. Because (1) these data were collected at a site with known anthropogenic and geologic sources and

  19. An evolving research agenda for human-coastal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Eli D.; Ellis, Michael A.; Brad Murray, A.; Hall, Damon M.

    2016-03-01

    Within the broad discourses of environmental change, sustainability science, and anthropogenic Earth-surface systems, a focused body of work involves the coupled economic and physical dynamics of developed shorelines. Rapid rates of change in coastal environments, from wetlands and deltas to inlets and dune systems, help researchers recognize, observe, and investigate coupling in natural (non-human) morphodynamics and biomorphodynamics. This same intrinsic quality of fast-paced change also makes developed coastal zones exemplars of observable coupling between physical processes and human activities. In many coastal communities, beach erosion is a natural hazard with economic costs that coastal management counters through a variety of mitigation strategies, including beach replenishment, groynes, revetments, and seawalls. As cycles of erosion and mitigation iterate, coastline change and economically driven interventions become mutually linked. Emergent dynamics of two-way economic-physical coupling is a recent research discovery. Having established a strong theoretical basis, research into coupled human-coastal systems has passed its early proof-of-concept phase. This paper frames three major challenges that need resolving in order to advance theoretical and empirical treatments of human-coastal systems: (1) codifying salient individual and social behaviors of decision-making in ways that capture societal actions across a range of scales (thus engaging economics, social science, and policy disciplines); (2) quantifying anthropogenic effects on alongshore and cross-shore sediment pathways and long-term landscape evolution in coastal zones through time, including direct measurement of cumulative changes to sediment cells resulting from coastal development and management practices (e.g., construction of buildings and artificial dunes, bulldozer removal of overwash after major storms); and (3) reciprocal knowledge and data exchange between researchers in coastal

  20. Relating rock avalanche morphology to emplacement processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufresne, Anja; Prager, Christoph; Bösmeier, Annette

    2015-04-01

    The morphology, structure and sedimentological characteristics of rock avalanche deposits reflect both internal emplacement processes and external influences, such as runout path characteristics. The latter is mainly predisposed by topography, substrate types, and hydrogeological conditions. Additionally, the geological setting at the source slope controls, e.g. the spatial distribution of accumulated lithologies and hence material property-related changes in morphology, or the maximum clast size and amount of fines of different lithological units. The Holocene Tschirgant rock avalanche (Tyrol, Austria) resulted from failure of an intensely deformed carbonate rock mass on the southeast face of a 2,370-m-high mountain ridge. The initially sliding rock mass rapidly fragmented as it moved towards the floor of the Inn River valley. Part of the 200-250 x 106 m3 (Patzelt 2012) rock avalanche debris collided with and moved around an opposing bedrock ridge and flowed into the Ötz valley, reaching up to 6.3 km from source. Where the Tschirgant rock avalanche spread freely it formed longitudinal ridges aligned along motion direction as well as smaller hummocks. Encountering high topography, it left runup ridges, fallback patterns (i.e. secondary collapse), and compressional morphology (successively elevated, transverse ridges). Further evidence for the mechanical landslide behaviour is given by large volumes of mobilized valley-fill sediments (polymict gravels and sands). These sediments indicate both shearing and compressional faulting within the rock avalanche mass (forming their own morphological units through, e.g. in situ bulldozing or as distinctly different hummocky terrain), but also indicate extension of the spreading landslide mass (i.e. intercalated/injected gravels encountered mainly in morphological depressions between hummocks). Further influences on its morphology are given by the different lithological units. E.g. the transition from massive dolomite

  1. Experimental constraints on the rheology and mechanical properties of lava erupted in the Holuhraun area during the 2014 rifting event at Bárðarbunga, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavallee, Yan; Kendrick, Jackie; Wall, Richard; von Aulock, Felix; Kennedy, Ben; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn

    2015-04-01

    A fissure eruption began at Holuhraun on 16 August 2014, following magma drainage from the Bárðarbunga volcanic system (Iceland). Extrusion initiated as fire fountaining along a segment of the fracture and rapidly localised to a series of small, aligned cones containing a lava lake that over spilled at both ends, feeding a large lava field. The lava composition and flow behaviour put some constraints on its rheology and mechanical properties. The lava erupted is a nearly aphyric basalt containing approximately 2-3% plagioclase with traces of olivine and pyroxene in a quenched groundmass composed of glass and 20-25% microlites. The transition from fire fountaining to lava flow leads to lava with variable vesicularities; pyroclasts expelled during fire fountaining reach up to 80% vesicles whilst the lava contain up to 45% vesicles. Textures in the lava vary from a'a to slabby pahoehoe, and flow thicknesses from several meters to few centimetres. Tension gashes, crease structures and shear zones in the upper lava carapace reveal the importance of both compressive and tensional stresses. In addition, occasional frictional marks at the base of the lava flow as well as bulldozing of sediments along the flow hint at the importance of frictional properties of the rocks during lava flow. Flow properties, textures and failure modes are strongly dependent on the material properties as well as the local conditions of stress and temperature. Here we expand our field observation with preliminary high-temperature experimental data on the rheological and mechanical properties of the erupted lava. Dilatometric measurements are used to constrain the thermal expansion coefficient of the lava important to constrain the dynamics of cooling of the flow. Micropenetration is further employed to determine the viscosity of the melt at super-liquidus temperature, which is compared to the temperature-dependence of viscosity as constrained by geochemistry. Lastly, uniaxial compression and

  2. Preparations for Retrieval of Buried Waste at Material Disposal Area B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Material Disposal Area B, a hazard category 3 nuclear facility, is scheduled for excavation and the removal of its contents. Wastes and excavated soils will be characterized for disposal at approved off-site waste disposal facilities. Since there were no waste disposal records, understanding the context of the historic operations at MDA B was essential to understanding what wastes were disposed of and what hazards these would pose during retrieval. The operational history of MDA B is tied to the earliest history of the Laboratory, the scope and urgency of World War II, the transition to the Atomic Energy Commission in January 1947, and the start of the cold war. A report was compiled that summarized the development of the process chemistry, metallurgy, and other research and production activities at the Laboratory during the 1944 to 1948 time frame that provided a perspective of the work conducted; the scale of those processes; and the handling of spent chemicals and contaminated items in lieu of waste disposal records. By 1947, all laboratories had established waste disposal procedures that required laboratory and salvage wastes to be boxed and sealed. Large items or equipment were to be wrapped with paper or placed in wooden crates. Most wastes were placed in cardboard boxes and were simply piled into the active trench. Bulldozers were used to cover the material with fill dirt on a weekly basis. No effort was made to separate waste types or loads, or to compact the wastes under the soil cover. Using the historical information and a statistical analysis of the plutonium inventory, LANL prepared a documented safety analysis for the waste retrieval activities at MDA B, in accordance with DOE Standard 1120-2005, Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health into Facility Disposition Activities, and the provisions of 29 CFR 1910.120, Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response. The selected hazard controls for the MDA B project consist of passive design

  3. The physical processes of seabed disturbance during iceberg grounding and scouring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth-Lynas, C. M. T.; Josenhans, H. W.; Barrie, J. V.; Lewis, C. F. M.; Parrott, D. R.

    1991-08-01

    Icebergs drifting in ocean currents over the Labrador continental shelf may contact and move through seabed sediments to create characteristically curvilinear features, commonly referred to as scours, which average 1-2 m in depth and about 30-40 m in width. Such scours may continue for several hundreds of metres or several kilometres. The period of seabed interaction may last from a few minutes to several months and results in modification of both the seabed sediments and the iceberg keel. When observed from submersible soon after their formation, scours exhibit morphological characteristics not seen in old, degraded scours. The scour trough, between two berm ridges, is generally flat-bottomed but is characterized by the presence of ridge-and-groove microtopography, with amplitudes up to 0.3 m developed parallel to the scour axis. These features are formed at the trailing edge of the keel by clastic material embedded in the ice and by open fissures in the ice. In places along the inner berm margins, ridges and grooves may be developed at an angle to the scour axis, reflecting lateral displacement of material towards the berm as the iceberg moves forward. Voids up to 1 m deep and 2 m wide occasionally truncate the ridges and grooves. Voids are formed following the dissolution of small (a few m 3) masses of debris-laden ice that are mechanically broken off from the base of the keel and pressed into the seabed by the scouring iceberg. Initially low areas within the scour trough may preserve seafloor that has not been affected by ice-seabed interaction. In these regions deposition of bulldozed sediment from the surcharge at the leading edge of the keel may partially fill the narrow spaces beneath the keel in areas of initially low seabed elevation. Scour berms consist of in situ fractured but intact blocks of material on the inner flanks, and disarticulated blocks 1-2 m high along the berm crest. The outer berm slopes generally consist of pieces of larger blocks

  4. Short term recovery of soil physical, chemical, micro- and mesobiological functions in a new vineyard under organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, E. A. C.; Agnelli, A. E.; Fabiani, A.; Gagnarli, E.; Mocali, S.; Priori, S.; Simoni, S.; Valboa, G.

    2014-12-01

    Deep earthwork activities carried out before vineyard plantation can severely upset soil profile properties. As a result, soil features in the root environment are often much more similar to those of the underlying substratum than those of the original profile. The time needed to recover the original soil functions is ecologically relevant and may strongly affect vine phenology and grape yield, particularly under organic viticulture. The general aim of this work was to investigate soil resilience after vineyard pre-planting earthworks. In particular, an old and a new vineyard, established on the same soil type, were compared over a five year period for soil chemical, physical, micro and mesobiological properties. The investigated vineyards (Vitis vinifera L., cv. Sangiovese) were located in the Chianti Classico district (Central Italy), on stony and calcareous soils and were not irrigated. The older vineyard was planted in 2000, after slope reshaping by bulldozing and back hoe ploughing down to about 0.8-1.0 m. The new vineyard was planted in 2011, after equivalent earthwork practices carried out in the summer of 2009. Both vineyards were organically managed and fertilized only with compost every autumn (1000 kg ha-1 per year). The new vineyard was cultivated by periodic tillage, while the old vineyard was managed with alternating grass-covered and tilled inter-rows. Soil samples were collected at 0-15 cm depth from the same plots of the new and old vineyards, during the springtime from 2010 to 2014. The old vineyard was sampled in both the tilled and the grass-covered swaths. According to the results from physical and chemical analyses, the new vineyard, during the whole 2010-2014 period, showed lower TOC, N, C/N and EC values, along with higher silt and total CaCO3 contents than the old vineyard, suggesting still evolving equilibrium conditions. The microarthropod analysis showed significantly different abundances and communities' structures, in relation to both

  5. New 3D bathymetry and sediment distribution in Lake Vostok: Implication for pre-glacial origin and numerical modeling of the internal processes within the lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filina, Irina Y.; Blankenship, Donald D.; Thoma, Malte; Lukin, Valery V.; Masolov, Valery N.; Sen, Mrinal K.

    2008-11-01

    A new distribution of water and unconsolidated sediments in subglacial Lake Vostok, East Antarctica was developed via inversion of airborne gravity data constrained by 60 seismic soundings. A model was developed for host rock with a density of 2550 kg/m 3 that was inferred from prior 2D modeling. Our 3D bathymetry model of Lake Vostok corresponds better with seismic data (RMS of 125 m) than two previous models based on the same gravity dataset. The good match in both water and sediment thicknesses between the gravity model and seismic measurements confirms two major facts about Lake Vostok: (1) the lake is hosted by sedimentary rocks, and (2) the bottom of the lake is covered with a layer of unconsolidated sediments that does not exceed 300 m in the southern basin and thickens almost to 400 m in the northern basin. Our new bathymetry model suggests much shallower water thicknesses (up to twice the previous estimates) in the middle and northern parts of the lake, while the water layer is thicker in the southern basin. Numerical modeling of the internal processes in the lake reveals the relevance of our new bathymetry model to the basal mass balance. A significant decrease in transport is observed in the shallower northern basin, as well as a decrease of 33% in the turbulent kinetic energy. However, only minor differences were observed in the distribution of the calculated freezing and melting zones compared to previous models. Estimates for the sedimentation rates for six possible mechanisms were made. Possible sedimentation mechanisms are: (1) fluvial and periglacial, i.e. those that are active prior to the establishment of a large subglacial lake; (2) deposition due to overlying ice sheet, including melting out of the ice, as well as bulldozering by the overriding ice; and (3) suspended sediments from subglacial water flow including those deposited by periodical subglacial outbursts. The estimates for these mechanisms show that unconsolidated sediments of the

  6. CO2lonialismo y geografías de esperanza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianne Hazlewood

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo nos lleva, más allá de la crisis económica, hacia el calentamiento global y nos advierte de un problema profundo: un defecto estructural en el capitalismo. Vinculando teóricamente cambio climático, colonialismo y capitalismo, se estudia a San Lorenzo como una frontera agrícola en la que el CO2lonialismo se despliega a través del cultivo de palma aceitera y la producción de agrocombustibles. Esta investigación resalta las prácticas culturales y espaciales a través de las cuales las comunidades afro-ecuatoriana, chachi, y awá construyen y sostienen “geografías de esperanza” en medio de bosques talados, ríos envenenados y conflictos sociales. A través de la exposición detallada de la deuda ecológica del Norte global con el Sur global, este artículo condena discursos y acciones que se enfocan en el mejoramiento del clima económico mientras arrasan los bosques húmedos, las prácticas culturales de vida de las comunidades y las soluciones reales al cambio climático.This paper takes us beyond the present economic crisis to where global warming warns of a much more profound problem: a structural flaw in capitalism. Theoretically linking relations between climate change, colonialism, and capitalism, San Lorenzo is investigated as an agricultural frontier where “CO2lonialism” unfolds in African oil palm cultivation and agrofuel production. This research highlights the cultural and spatial practices through which Afro-Ecuadorian, Chachi, and Awá communities construct and sustain “geographies of hope” amid landscapes of fallen forests, poisoned rivers and social conflicts. Expounding on the ecological debt of the Global North to the Global South, this paper condemns discourses and actions that solely focus on improving the economic climate while bulldozing rainforests, livelihoods, and real solutions to climate change.

  7. Suspended plutonium aerosols near a soil cleanup site on Johnston Atoll in 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plutonium aerosol monitoring was conducted for one month near the 1992 operation of a stationary sorting system used to open-quotes mineclose quotes contaminated soil on Johnston Atoll. Pairs of high volume cascade impactors and a high volume air sampler were located at each of three locations of the process stream: the open-quotes spoils pile close-quote that was the feedstock, the open-quotes plant areaclose quotes near the-hot soil gate of the sorter, and the open-quotes clean pileclose quotes conveyer area where sorted clean soil was moved. These locations were monitored only during the working hours, while air monitoring was also done at an upwind, uncontaminated open-quotes backgroundclose quotes area 24-hours per day. The three monitoring locations were extremely dusty, even though there were frequent rains during the period of operation. Total suspended particulate mass loadings were 178 μg/m3 at the spoils pile, 93 μg/m3 at the plant area, and 79 μg/m3 at the clean pile during this period, when background mass loadings were 41 μg/m3. There was no practical difference in the aerosol specific activity between the three locations, however, which had a median value of 3.64 pCi/g (135 Bq/kg). The aerosol specific activity is enhanced by a factor of 3 over the specific activity of the processed contaminant soil. This is about the same enhancement factor as found by other studies of road traffic, bulldozing, and agricultural operations. Specific activity of processed soil was 1.35 pCi/g (50 Bq/kg). The median mass-loading of the three downwind sites was 109 μg/m3 (uncorrected for the sea spray contribution), so that the median concentrations in air using the median aerosol specific activity was calculated to be 397 aCi/m3 (15 μBq/m3). Measured Pu concentrations ranged from 280 to 1508 aCi/m3 (10 to 56 μBq/m3)

  8. Analysis of recurring sinking events of armored tracked vehicles along dirt roads in the agricultural periphery of the Gaza Strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskin, Joel

    2013-04-01

    The second (Al-Aqsa) intifada (Arab violent uprising) which erupted across Israel in 2000 eventually led the Israel Defense Forces to deploy armored tracked vehicles (ATVs) (tanks, armored personal carriers, and D-9 bulldozers) within Israel's agricultural periphery of the Gaza Strip, following daily attempts by Arab terrorists and guerillas to penetrate Israel. Combat movement of the ATVs was mainly concentrated to dirt roads, between agricultural fields, wherever possible. As a result of semi-arid Mediterranean (climate) winter rains, annually averaging 250 - 350 mm, it was reported that ATVs often sank in muddy terrain. This study investigated what caused ATVs to sink. The main data collected concerning the types of vehicles that sank related to: land-use characteristics, soil type, and daily rainfall. Interviews with commanders were also conducted for additional details. Between the fall and spring, surveys and weekly / bi-weekly field soil cone penetrometer tests were conducted at ten sites with different pedological and land-use characteristics. The loess soils, especially in agricultural fields, were generally found to be conducive to ATV traffic, even shortly after rainstorms of 10-30 mm. However, following several rainfall events exceeding 10 mm, ATVs and tanks regularly sank into local topographic depressions in the undulating landscape. These consisted of short segments of dirt roads where runoff and suspended sediment collected. After the early rains in late fall, tank ruts fossilize and become conduits of concentrated runoff and fine particles eroded by ATV activity during the summer months. Tank track ruts that formed in mud, compacted the soil, drastically altered drainage patterns by directing significant surface flow, and suspended sediment into these depressions, creating "tank-traps" whose trafficability ranged from "untrafficable" to "trafficable with constraints." This study shows that intense, routine, defensive military activity operated

  9. Deep Vs Profiling Along the Top of Yucca Mountain Using a Vibroseis Source and Surface Waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was approved as the site for development of the geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel in the United States. The U.S. Department of Energy has been conducting studies to characterize the site and assess its future performance as a geologic repository. As part of these studies, a program of deep seismic profiling, to depths of 200 m, was conducted along the top of Yucca Mountain to evaluate the shear-wave velocity (Vs) structure of the repository block. The resulting Vs data were used as input into the development of ground motions for the preclosure seismic design of the repository and for postclosure performance assessment. The noninvasive spectral-analysis-of-surface-waves (SASW) method was employed in the deep profiling. Field measurements involved the use of a modified Vibroseis as the seismic source. The modifications allowed the Vibroseis to be controlled by a signal analyzer so that slow frequency sweeps could be performed while simultaneous narrow-band filtering was performed on the receiver outputs. This process optimized input energy from the source and signal analysis of the receiver outputs. Six deep Vs profiles and five intermediate-depth (about 100 m) profiles were performed along the top of Yucca Mountain over a distance of about 5 km. In addition, eleven shallower profiles (averaging about 45-m deep) were measured using a bulldozer source. The shallower profiles were used to augment the deeper profiles and to evaluate further the near-surface velocity structure. The Vs profiles exhibit a strong velocity gradient within 5 m of the surface, with the mean Vs value more than doubling. Below this depth, Vs gradually increases from a mean value of about 900 to 1000 m/s at a depth of 150 m. Between the depths of 150 and 210 m, Vs increases more rapidly to about 1350 m/s, but this trend is based on limited data. At depths less than 50 m, anisotropy in Vs was measured for surveys conducted parallel

  10. Vibration and shock exposure of maintenance-of-way vehicles in the railroad industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanning, Eckardt

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate and compare vibration and shock measurements of maintenance-of-way vehicles used in the railroad industry for track maintenance and construction. Following international standards (i.e., ISO 2631-1: 1997) and professional guidelines the frequency weighted root-mean-square (r.m.s.) acceleration for each measurement axis, the vector sum, the seat effective amplitude transmissibility (SEAT), the crest factor (CF), the maximum transient vibration value (MTVV), the vibration dose value (VDV), the ratio and the newly proposed shock risk estimation factor 'R' for spinal injury according to ISO 2631-5:2004 were measured and calculated for seven different maintenance-of-way vehicles during revenue service. Furthermore, a proposed alternative spinal injury prediction method, the VibRisk model, which incorporates different typical driver postures and operator physical characteristics was included for comparison with the ISO 2631-5 risk prediction. The results of the vibration exposure measurements depended on vehicle type, track/surface conditions and seat properties, with the tamper and bulldozer showing the highest r.m.s. vibration values. The vector sum (a(v)) results ranged from 0.37 to 0.99 (m/s(2)). Five of seven track maintenance vehicles would exceed the current Whole-body Vibration ACGIH-TLV(®) guideline for an 8 h exposure duration in the vertical axis recommended by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). The measured CF, MTVV/a(w) and VDV/(a(w)·T(1/4)) ratios were at or above the critical ratios in the majority of measurements given by the ISO 2631-1 (1997) and American industry guidelines by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH-TLV). Comparing both prediction models for vibration shock risk for parts of the lumbar spine, different risk predictions and inconsistencies were found. The VibRisk model generally suggests different and higher risk of vertebral

  11. TECTONIC POSITION OF MARBLE MELANGES IN THE EARLY PALEOZOIC ACCRETION-COLLISIONAL SYSTEM OF THE WESTERN PRIBAIKALIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Fedorovsky

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Early Paleozoic collisional system located in the Olkhon region at the western shores of Lake Baikal resulted from collision of the Siberian paleocontinent and a complex aggregate composed by fragments of a microcontinent, island arcs, back-arc structures and accretionary prisms. The main events were associated with complete manifestation of shear tectogenesis initiated by oblique collision. The current structure includes tectonically displaced components of ancient geodynamic systems that used to have been located dozens and hundreds of kilometres apart. Horizontal amplitudes of tectonic displacement seem to have been quite high; however, numerical data are still lacking to support this conclusion. Information about the structure of the upper crust in the Paleozoic is also lacking as only deep metamorphic rocks (varying from epidote-amphibolite to granulite facies are currently outcropped. Formations comprising the collisional collage are significantly different in composition and protoliths, and combinations of numerous shifted beds give evidence of a 'bulldozer' effect caused by the collisional shock followed by movements of crushed components of the ocean-continent zone along the margin of the Siberian paleocontinent. As evidenced by the recent cross-section, deep horizons of the Early Paleozoic crust comprise the collisional system between the Siberian craton and the Olkhon composite terrain. A permanent inclusion in the collisional combinations of rocks are unusual synmetamorphic injected bodies of carbonate rocks. Such rocks comprise two groups, marble melanges and crustal carbonate melted rocks. Obviously, carbonate rocks (that composed the original layers and horizons of stratified beds can become less viscous to a certain degree at some locations during the process of oblique collision and acquire unusual properties and can thus intrude into the surrounding rocks of silicate composition. Such carbonate rocks behave as protrusions

  12. Phase I Archaeological Investigation Cultural Resources Survey, Hawaii Geothermal Project, Makawao and Hana Districts, South Shore of Maui, Hawaii (DRAFT )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erkelens, Conrad

    1994-03-01

    This report details the archaeological investigation of a 200 foot wide sample corridor extending approximately 9 miles along the southern portion of Maui within the present districts of Hana and Makawao. A total of 51 archaeological sites encompassing 233 surface features were documented. A GPS receiver was used to accurately and precisely plot locations for each of the documented sites. Analysis of the locational information suggests that archaeological sites are abundant throughout the region and only become scarce where vegetation has been bulldozed for ranching activities. At the sea-land transition points for the underwater transmission cable, both Ahihi Bay and Huakini Bay are subjected to seasonal erosion and redeposition of their boulder shorelines. The corridor at the Ahihi Bay transition point runs through the Moanakala Village Complex which is an archaeological site on the State Register of Historic Places within a State Natural Area Reserve. Numerous other potentially significant archaeological sites lie within the project corridor. It is likely that rerouting of the corridor in an attempt to avoid known sites would result in other undocumented sites located outside the sample corridor being impacted. Given the distribution of archaeological sites, there is no alternative route that can be suggested that is likely to avoid encountering sites. A total of twelve charcoal samples were obtained for potential taxon identification and radiocarbon analysis. Four of these samples were subsequently submitted for dating and species identification. Bird bone from various locations within a lava tube were collected for identification. Sediment samples for subsequent pollen analysis were obtained from within two lava tubes. With these three sources of information it is hoped that paleoenvironmental data can be recovered that will enable a better understanding of the setting for Hawaiian habitation of the area. A small test unit was excavated at one habitation site

  13. Jocotitlan, Mexico and Shiveluch, Kamchatka: planetary analog volcanoes for debris avalanche deposits formed by edifice collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, M. F.; Farley, M.; Siebe, C.

    2001-12-01

    has locally cut through the deposits several important stratigraphic features are present: local sections consisting of several emplacement units, vertical size and textural gradations within units, ramp structures between units, preservation of a thin layer of organic material above an ash layer beneath the debris, and local erosion of older deposits. The mechanism for generation and emplacement of these deposits is progressive collapse of the edifice into large blocks that slide downslope. Trailing blocks come to rest more or less intact, but the leading materials progressively disintegrates into finer material. Lateral levees, ramp structures, tension gashes attest to the yield strength of the flowing materials. Rapid deceleration of the flow terminus is evidenced by local thrust faulting and vaulting of surficial blocks ahead of the flow and a bulldozer effect on underlying sediments.

  14. Unusual gravitational failures on lava domes of Tatun Volcanic Group, Northern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belousov, Alexander; Belousova, Marina; Chen, Chang-Hwa; Zellmer, Georg

    2010-05-01

    the deposit bears features of both debris avalanches and lithic-rich block-and-ash flows. The avalanche was rather mobile (L~6 km; H~1 km; H/L~0.16), despite its small volume (0.02 km³). Its speed reached 40 m/s at a distance of 5 km from the source (based on 80 m high runup of the avalanche). The characteristics of the avalanche deposit indicate that crystallized, degassed, but still hot material of a newly extruded lava dome was involved in the collapse. Unusual low mobile debris avalanche was formed as a result of collapse of western slope of Mt. Cising. A former lava coulee, which was involved in the collapse, underwent only weak disintegration: debris avalanche deposit is represented by big boulders with few fine grained matrix. Leading snout of the landslide traveled only 2 km, while rear slide blocks stopped near the landslide source forming multiple narrow toreva blocks descending downslope. Volume of the collapse 0.05 km³; maximum dropped height 0.5 km, H/L 0.25. Around the distal snout of the avalanche a "bulldozer facies" is well developed. Dating of vegetation entrained into the deposit gave 14C calibrated age 6000-6080 BP. Mobility of the studied debris avalanches was twice smaller than the average mobility of volcanic debris avalanches. Relatively small volume of the collapses, the particular type of material involved (massive lava domes) and the fact that the collapses occurred long after the volcanoes stopped erupting may have played a role in the low mobility of the debris avalanches of the Tatun Group.

  15. Rangelands management in Spanish Natura 2000 sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando Gallego, A.; Tejera Gimeno, R.; Velázquez Saornil, J.; Núñez Martí, V.; Grande Vega, M.

    2009-04-01

    features such as vital functions, restoration, floral richness and structure. Finally, the implemented management plan proposes a sustainable solution to restore the habitat and maintain the livestock. Conversion by thinning on coppice forest to high forest is a popular recommendation by expert managers. It is proposed in high polewood (with B: inconvenient conservation status), sapling (A) and coppice tall shrubs (C) during the first fifteen years. Low-intensity thinning on sprouts, less than 35% of the basal area. Besides, the cattle will be led to these areas to control the sprouts. Low polewood (C) is left to grow with livestock and only the best trees will survive. Oak shrubland will be tested. The main purpose is avoiding the whole forest to become a coppice forest (C) without acorn regeneration. Therefore oak shrubland will be fenced and different measures tested (brush out, bulldozer scalping, intensive and medium thinning and no treatment) in order to choose the most suitable one for future management. In conclusion, the proposed selvicultural measures use the livestock as a part of the solution to ensure biodiversity.

  16. Long-term benthic infaunal monitoring at a deep-ocean dredged material disposal site off Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, James A.; Maciolek, Nancy J.; Ota, Allan Y.; Williams, Isabelle P.

    2009-09-01

    newly deposited sediments. Subtle year-to-year shifts in faunal assemblages were evident at stations on the boundary of SF-DODS. At these stations species richness and diversity remained high, but numerically dominant taxa differed, possibly due to changes in sediment grain size associated with the dredged material. However, some year-to-year changes appeared to be regional in nature. Large epifaunal organisms such as the elasapoid holothurian Scotoplanes globosa appeared to be locally important in modifying surficial sediments: it moves through the sediment like a bulldozer, disturbing the surface and disrupting resident infauna as it ingests sediment. Other deposit-feeding holothurians such as Ypsilothuria bitentaculata were found throughout the study area including sediments with fresh dredged material. A long, narrow-bodied tube-like agglutinated foraminiferan of the genus Bathysiphon is commonly found in sediments containing dredged material. This foraminiferan is poorly understood, but may be opportunistic on soft dredged material.

  17. Impact of land-levelling measures on gully and soil erosion analysed by rainfall simulation and UAV remote sensing data in the Souss Basin, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Klaus Daniel; d'Oleire-Oltmanns, Sebastian; Ries, Johannes B.; Marzolff, Irene; Hssaine, Ali Ait

    2013-04-01

    respectively) on levelled study sites compared to undisturbed sites. Consequently, the most active gullies with the highest gully erosion rates are also found on levelled test sites. For one of the test sites it can be stated that gully erosion accounts for up to 95 % of the total soil loss of the catchment. The surface area serves only as runoff source. The infilling of old gully systems is mostly done by transferring large amounts of soil material from the hillslopes into the channels. This may lower the soil surface in a gully catchment by about 10 cm on average. Runoff water often follows the old pathways. Thus, infilled gully systems tend to be re-activated very fast. The freshly provided soil material can easily be eroded. Additionally, the bulldozer furrows lead to parallel drainage network patterns in the development of new side gullies.

  18. A tale of two fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    conclusions reached by the Board led to the development of four primary judgments of need - managerial controls and safety measures required to minimise the probablity or severity of the recurrence of such an event. The judgments of need recommend that the DoE: (1) Evaluate existing emergency response processes related to Hanford events affecting state and national systems, as well as state and national events affecting Hanford systems. (2) Review and revise sitewide and protracted emergency and recovery operations, including emergency communications and resource readiness. (3) Assess the Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan for inclusion of independent radioactivity monitoring by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) during events and for limited deployment of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center whenever the EPA has been deployed. (4) Improve the corrective action management system to ensure that improvement actions are managed adequately. More than 900 firefighters from multiple agencies were involved in the event. They used 200 pieces of firefighting apparatus, including dozens of bulldozers, two helicopters and five air tankers. The efforts of hundreds of DoE and Hanford site contractor personnel focused on emergency response, radiological control and monitoring, and ensuring security and safety for site personnel and assets.

  19. Sustainability of land reclamation measures in erosional badlands: A comparative perspective on semi-arid landscapes of South Morocco and Central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzolff, Irene; Pani, Padmini; Mohapatra, Surya; Ghafrani, Hassan; Aït Hssaine, Ali

    2015-04-01

    Semi-arid regions around the world, where gully erosion is a major land-degradation process, are particularly vulnerable to the effects of population growth and land-use change. In regions with high pressure on land as a resource - either due to population pressure or to agricultural intensification or both - erosion-affected areas are increasingly being reclaimed as agricultural land in an endeavour to turn marginal or unused land into fields, plantations, greenhouses or even building ground. Depending on the severity and depth of the erosion processes, this may be done by ploughing (for ephemeral gullying), land-levelling with bulldozers (for permanent gullies and badlands) or infilling with ex situ material (for large and deep gullies and badlands). The success of such measures, which also depends on subsequent soil-erosion protection, varies strongly and is not yet well researched. The little developed part of Lower Chambal Valley (Madhya Pradesh) is one of the four regions most badly affected by gully and badland erosion in India. Around 80% of the rural population are dependent on agriculture, an estimated 5000 km² are affected by gullies and badlands as deep as 80 m. Various land reclamation measures have been conducted on widely different spatial scales both by governmental and non-governmental agencies and individual farmers. However, the reclamation strategies of rich and poor farmers also exhibit significant differences, and agricultural use that often is based on short-term economic needs of households leads to inefficient land-use practices particularly in land-levelled and reclaimed areas. Although set in rural surroundings as well, the Souss Valley (South Morocco) is characterized by highly dynamic land-use changes with transformations from traditional agriculture to vast agro-industrial plantations of citrus fruits, bananas and vegetables. These plantations, as well as other arable land, are threatened by gullies and other forms of soil erosion

  20. Nabarlek Traditional Owners' perspective on the current state of revegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    , which was then disposed through a tender process which in retrospect must be considered lacking in compulsion. But this is a more or less tractable matter compared to the revegetation strategy. Traditional Owners are of the view that the solution is much simpler than the re-establishment of vegetation on highly disturbed ground - essentially as simple as digging a pit and bulldozing the rubbish in. The NLC has stated that the success or failure of the present revegetation effort has not been satisfactorily determined. It is most unfortunate that the original operators of the minesite were not directly involved in the rehabilitation effort as this would have ensured a more continuous presence on the ground, and some of the apparent problems might not have arisen To Traditional Owners this transferral of responsibility is most unsatisfactory, the process off encumbrance has no ready counterpart, lines of responsibility relating to country are onerous and compelling and it confirms their perception of the inherent weakness of Western law. In their view, the responsible party is the company which conducted the mining. But in the end, it is a valid component of the Deed to which the NLC is party on their behalf, and a usual feature of commercial agreements. However, it is something that they will no doubt adjust to

  1. Numerical Modelling by FLAC on Coal Fires in North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusat, D.; Drebenstedt, C.

    2009-04-01

    coal mine with the backfill. A smaller fires can also be handled by taking out burning coal by bulldozing techniques described above are applicable to small fires, but they do not work well in extinction of large coal fires. References [1] http://www.coalfire.caf.dlr.de [2] Schalke, H.J.W.G.; Rosema, A.; Van Genderen, J.L. (1993): Environmental monitoring of coal fires in North China. Project Identification Mission Report. Report Remote Sensing Programme Board, Derft, the Netherlands. [3] Zhang, X.; Kroonenberg, S. B.; De Boer, C. B. (2004): Dating of coal fires in Xinjiang, north-west China. Terra Nova. Band 16, No 2, S. 68-74. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3121.2004.00532.x [4] Deng Jun, Hou Shuang, Li Huirong, e.t.c (2006): Oxidation Mechanism at Initial Stage of a Simulated Coal Molecule with -CH2O-[J]. Journal of Changchun University of Science and Technology, 29(2), P. 84-87. [5] Deng, Jun (2008): Presentation. Chinese Researches and Practical Experiences on Controlling Underground Coal Fires. The 2nd Australia-China Symposium on Science, Technology and Education. 15-18 October 2008, Courtyard Marriott, Surfers Paradise Beach, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia. [6] Itasca (2003): FLAC, Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua. Itasca Consultants Group, Inc., Minneapolis.

  2. Efeito da colheita seletiva de madeira sobre algumas características físicas de um latossolo amarelo sob floresta na Amazônia Central Effect of selective logging on some physical characteristics of a yellow latosol under rainforest in Central Amazonia State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walane Maria Pereira de Mello-Ivo

    2006-10-01

    objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of selective logging on some soil physical characteristics. The study area lies about 80 km north of Manaus and the vegetation is a humid tropical rainforest. Seven to ten trees/ha (DAP > 55 cm were felled and removed by a D6 bulldozer, in 1993. Six disturbance classes were defined in the logged plots, with three replicates each: tractor track, center of clearing, edge of clearing, edge of forest, remaining forest and control forest. Soil under tractor tracks represented 13.8 % of the exploited area, and showed higher values of bulk density, and penetration resistance, and lower macroporosity and available water for plants than the other disturbance classes. The other classes were less affected and no significant differences were observed between their soil properties and the control forest, indicating selective logging as a practice that causes less impact on soils of Amazon forest ecosystems.

  3. Microrover Nanokhod enhancing the scientific output of the ExoMars Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinkner, Sabine; Bernhardt, Bodo; Henkel, Hartmut; Rodionov, Daniel; Klingelhoefer, Goestar

    pressure. The sinkage is minimised reducing the bulldozing effect and increasing the traction. The central Payload Cabine has 2 (Degree of Freedom) DOF, allowing inherently robust deployment and precise payload positioning. The two drives for lifting and rotating the Payload Cabine (PLC) provides a robust and repetitive accuracy for a congruent positioning of all payload instruments on the same sample. Furthermore the PLC drives can be used for climbing and overcoming obstacles. The latest developments on the Nanokhod rover have prepared the concept for a mission scenario on the Mercury surface. The mechanical design of the Nanokhod rover was developed from a conceptual stage to an engineering model which is able to withstand the demanding conditions of the Mercury mission such as: Surface temperature of -180(°) °C, significant mass restrictions, limited power and energy supply, operational surface covered with fine dust, shock loads of 200g for 20ms and high Vacuum. With the building and testing of the engineering model the concept achieved a Technical Readiness Level (TRL) of 5 to 6, and solutions were found for a set of requirements with a high complexity. With these design requirements exceeding most mission conditions of the ExoMars lander, the current design is well-prepared for the Mars scenario.

  4. Structural, sedimentary and igneous evidence for the genesis and emplacement of the rifted continental margin of the Southern Neotethys, SE Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Alastair; Parlak, Osman; Dumitrica, Paulian; Tasli, Kemal; Yıldırım, Nail

    2014-05-01

    depleted mantle harzburgite, layered and massive gabbro, diabase and basaltic extrusives, are interleaved with the volcanic-sedimentary units to form a tectonic slice complex. In our working hypothesis, the Koçali Complex preserves the Late Triassic distal rifted margin of the Arabian continent. During Late Cretaceous accretion, crust that originally formed within the continent-ocean transition zone was preferentially preserved (proximal rifted margin crust is not exposed). The Koçali Complex accreted during Late Cretaceous northwards subduction, whereas MORB-type crust subducted. During subduction against the backstop (Koçali ophiolite), the sedimentary sequence on the incoming plate appears to have detached (delaminated) into a lower part (Triassic-Jurassic) that was sliced, folded and over-ridden, and an upper part that was bulldozed continentwards. Two scenarios are considered: 1. Two different successions are partially preserved, a relatively proximal slope/base-of-slope sequence (Karadat Complex) and a more distal volcanic-sedimentary sequence (Koçali Complex), with only parts of both original successions now being preserved. 2. The stratigraphically higher, Cretaceous levels of the Koçali volcanic-sedimentary sequence are now represented by the Karadut Complex. In this case, the Karadut Complex was emplaced beneath the Koçali Complex by out-sequence thrusting or re-thrusting. In either scenario, ophiolitic rocks, including sheared serpentinite and Mesozoic deep-sea pelagic/redeposited sediments locally advanced furthest to form the southernmost front of the allochthon (~Besni olistrostrome). The various allochthonous units were emplaced, subaerially exposed and partially eroded during the Maastrichtian, giving a precise timing for the emplacement of the S Neotethyan allochthonous units.

  5. MaMiCo: Software design for parallel molecular-continuum flow simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Neumann, Philipp

    2015-11-19

    The macro-micro-coupling tool (MaMiCo) was developed to ease the development of and modularize molecular-continuum simulations, retaining sequential and parallel performance. We demonstrate the functionality and performance of MaMiCo by coupling the spatially adaptive Lattice Boltzmann framework waLBerla with four molecular dynamics (MD) codes: the light-weight Lennard-Jones-based implementation SimpleMD, the node-level optimized software ls1 mardyn, and the community codes ESPResSo and LAMMPS. We detail interface implementations to connect each solver with MaMiCo. The coupling for each waLBerla-MD setup is validated in three-dimensional channel flow simulations which are solved by means of a state-based coupling method. We provide sequential and strong scaling measurements for the four molecular-continuum simulations. The overhead of MaMiCo is found to come at 10%-20% of the total (MD) runtime. The measurements further show that scalability of the hybrid simulations is reached on up to 500 Intel SandyBridge, and more than 1000 AMD Bulldozer compute cores. Program summary: Program title: MaMiCo. Catalogue identifier: AEYW_v1_0. Program summary URL: http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEYW_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen\\'s University, Belfast, N. Ireland. Licensing provisions: BSD License. No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 67905. No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1757334. Distribution format: tar.gz. Programming language: C, C++II. Computer: Standard PCs, compute clusters. Operating system: Unix/Linux. RAM: Test cases consume ca. 30-50 MB. Classification: 7.7. External routines: Scons (http:www.scons.org), ESPResSo, LAMMPS, ls1 mardyn, waLBerla. Nature of problem: Coupled molecular-continuum simulation for multi-resolution fluid dynamics: parts of the domain are resolved by molecular dynamics whereas large parts are covered by a CFD solver, e.g. a lattice Boltzmann automaton

  6. Short term recovery of soil biological functions in a new vineyard cultivated in organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Edoardo; Agnelli, Alessandro; Fabiani, Arturo; Gagnarli, Elena; Mocali, Stefano; Priori, Simone; Simoni, Sauro; Valboa, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    Deep earthwork activities carried out before vineyard plantation completely upset soil profile and characteristics. The resulting soil features are often much more similar to the underlying substratum than original soil profile. The time needed to recover soil functions is ecologically relevant and affects vine phenology and grape yield, particularly in organic viticulture. The general aim of this research work was to investigate the time needed to recover soil functions after the earthworks made before vine plantation. This study compared for a four years period physical and chemical properties, microbial and mesofauna communities, in new and old vineyards, cultivated on the same soil type. The experiment was conducted in a farm of the Chianti Classico district (Central Italy), on hills of high altitude (400-500 m a.s.l.) on clayey-calcareous flysches, with stony and calcareous soils (Haplic Cambisol (Calcaric, Skeletic)). The reference vine cultivar was Sangiovese. The older vineyard was planted in 2000, after slope reshaping by bulldozing and back hoe ploughing down to about 0.8-1.0 m. The new vineyard was planted in 2011 after an equivalent earthwork carried out in the summer of 2009. Both vineyards were organically managed and only compost at the rate of 1,000 kg ha-1 -a was added every year. The new vineyard was periodically cultivated by mechanical tillage, while the older only at alternate rows. Soil samples from the first 15 cm depth were collected in 4 replicates in the younger as well as in the older vineyard during the springtime of 2010-2013; in the older vineyard, two samples were from the periodically cultivated swaths and two under permanent grass cover. Samples were analysed for physical (particle size, field capacity, wilting point), chemical (pH, electrical conductivity, lime, active lime, organic carbon, total nitrogen), microbiological (soil respiration, microbial biomass, DGGE), and mesofauna features (abundance, taxa richness, BSQ index and

  7. Short-term recovery of soil physical, chemical, micro- and mesobiological functions in a new vineyard under organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, E. A. C.; Agnelli, A. E.; Fabiani, A.; Gagnarli, E.; Mocali, S.; Priori, S.; Simoni, S.; Valboa, G.

    2015-06-01

    Deep earthwork activities carried out before vineyard plantation can severely affect soil profile properties. As a result, soil features in the root environment are often much more similar to those of the underlying substratum than those of the original profile. The time needed to recover the original soil functions is ecologically relevant and may strongly affect vine phenology and grape yield, particularly under organic viticulture. The general aim of this work was to investigate soil resilience after vineyard pre-planting earthworks. In particular, an old and a new vineyard, established on the same soil type, were compared over a 5-year period for soil chemical, physical, micro- and mesobiological properties. The investigated vineyards (Vitis vinifera L., cv. Sangiovese) were located in the Chianti Classico district (central Italy), on stony and calcareous soils, and were not irrigated. The older vineyard was planted in 2000, after slope reshaping by bulldozing and back-hoe ploughing down to about 0.8-1.0 m. The new vineyard was planted in 2011, after equivalent earthwork practices carried out in the summer of 2009. Both vineyards were organically managed, and they were fertilized with compost only every autumn (1000 kg ha-1 per year). The new vineyard was cultivated by periodic tillage, while the old vineyard was managed with alternating grass-covered and tilled inter-rows. Soil samples were collected at 0-15 cm depth from fixed locations in each vineyard every spring from 2010 to 2014. The old vineyard was sampled in both tilled and grass-covered inter-rows. According to the results from physical and chemical analyses, the new vineyard, during the whole 2010-2014 period, showed lower total organic carbon, total nitrogen, carbon to nitrogen ratio and electrical conductivity, along with higher silt and total CaCO3 contents than the old vineyard, suggesting still-evolving equilibrium conditions. The microarthropod analysis showed significantly different

  8. Using tracer-based sediment budgets to quantify erosion and deposition within harvested forests in south-east NSW, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The total impact of forest operations on the store of soil material within harvested coupes can be difficult to quantify. A study was recently undertaken in a small (∼12 ha) basin near Bombala, south-east NSW to measure both the net amount of soil erosion from the basin, and the redistribution of eroded soils and sediments within it. The dry sclerophyll study area was divided into several distinct elements: log landings, snig tacks, general harvest area (GHA), cross banks, and the filter strip of native vegetation left adjacent to the major streamline Measurements of two radionuclide tracers (137Cs and 210Pb-excess) in each of these locations were then integrated into budgets describing the movement of soil within and between the various landscape elements. The 137Cs budget showed that no net loss of soil material had occurred from within the study area, with retention of 109 ± 14 %. Conversely, the 210Pb-excess budget showed a total retention of 78 ± 12 %. The deficit of 210Pb compared to that of 137Cs was explained by a combination of analytical and sampling uncertainties, losses of 210Pb associated with combustion and/or transport of litter and organic matter from the site, and some small loss of surface soil (to a depth of 2 mm). However, no evidence of surface-derived topsoil material was found in sediments currently being transported from the site. Both tracer budgets showed that a net loss of soil from the snig tracks and log landings had occurred. This was quantified to be 28 ± 13 mm and 48 ± 29 mm depth from these land forms respectively. Up to 30 % of this loss could be directly attributable to the creation of the cross banks by bulldozer blading. The remainder was associated with mechanical losses due to export on truck tyres and bark, dust during the dry summer harvesting phase, and losses associated with sheet and rill erosion during storm events over the intervening years. Soil material eroded from the log landings was accounted for

  9. Unplanned roads impacts assessment in Phewa Lake watershed, Western region, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibundgut, Geoffroy; Sudmeier-Rieux, Karen; Devkota, Sanjaya; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Penna, Ivanna; Adhikari, Anu; Khanal, Rajendra

    2015-04-01

    This work describes current research being conducted in the Phewa Lake watershed, near Pokhara in Nepal's Siwaliks/Middle hills, a moist sub-tropical zone with the highest amount of annual rainfall in Nepal (4,500 - 5,000 mm). The watershed lithology is mainly siltstone, sandstones and intensively weathered rocks, highly prone to erosion and shallow landslides (Agrawala et al., 2003). The main purpose of this study is to focus on the impact of unplanned earthen road construction in the Phewa Lake watershed as part of land use changes over 30 years in one of Nepal's most touristic regions. Over the past three decades, the road network has expanded exponentially and a majority of rural earthen roads are often funded by communities themselves, with some government subsidies. They are usually constructed using a local bulldozer contractor with no technical or geological expertise increasing erosion processes, slope instabilities risk and impacts to settlements, forests, water sources, agriculture lands, and infrastructure. Moreover, these human-induced phenomena are being compounded by increasingly intense monsoon rains, likely due to climate change (Petley, 2010). Research methods were interdisciplinary and based on a combination of remote sensing, field observations and discussions with community members. The study compared 30 year-old aerial photos with current high resolution satellite images to correlate changes in land use with erosion and slope instabilities. Secondly, most of the watershed's roads were surveyed in order to inventory and quantify slope instabilities and soil loss events. Using a failure-characteristics grid, their main features were measured (location, size, type and extension of damage areas, etc.) and a GIS data base was created. We then estimated economic impacts of these events in terms of agriculture lands losses and road maintenance, based on field observations and discussions with affected people. Field work investigations have shown that

  10. 羽毛球接发球不同处理方式的效果对比研究--以2014年全国团体赛广西第一女双的比赛为例%Comparison of Receiving Effect in the Women’s Doubles Badminton---A Case study on the Games of the First Pair of Guangxi Players in 2014 National ;Team Competition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈然; 于勇; 李霞; 邹金辉

    2015-01-01

    以2014年国羽毛球女子团体赛广西队第一双打对湖北队和福建队的两场比赛为例,对羽毛球女双接发球不同处理方式的优劣势效果进行对比分析,对广西球员实行录像回放指导方法干预,比较干预后的实战效果,探讨接发球技术使用的制胜规律,旨在为广西乃至全国羽毛球女双运动员的针对性训练提供参考。研究结果表明:接发球采用抢放、扑压、推平球的优势效果明显好于推高球、起高球。奥运会冠军、国家队队员在接发球处理的技术能力、战术意识明显强于省队队员,接发球多采用扑压、推平球、抢放等技术,处理方式更为积极,为本方取得主动局面,占据场上优势。录像回放和指导后运动员接发球处理取得优势效果的百分比大幅提高,说明此干预方法有助于强化年轻运动员的接发球抢网意识,改进其接发球处理方式。建议在训练和比赛中要贯彻“快、狠、准、活”的原则,加强身体素质训练,提高接发球的启动速度,保证抢网的效果;加强扑压球、平推球、抢放网的训练,加强抢网下压平推的战术意识,在比赛实战中敢于运用,在发接发的处理中争取主动。%Taking 2 games of the first pairs in Guangxi Vs Hubei, Guangxi Vs Fujian in 2014 national badminton women’s team competition for example, this paper com-pared and analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of the effect of diffrent treatment of receiving in women’s doubles badminton, using the intervention method in Guangxi players with video playback and guidance,com-pared the actual combat effect after intervention,discussed the winner rules of receiving technology, to provide the reference for the targeted training of the women’s doubles badminton athletes in Guangxi and even the whole coun-try. The research results show that the advantage effect of receiving with flapping,bulldozed ball is

  11. A New Perspective on Mount St. Helens - Dramatic Landform Change and Associated Hazards at the Most Active Volcano in the Cascade Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, David W.; Driedger, Carolyn L.; Schilling, Steve P.

    2008-01-01

    south of the 1980-86 lava dome. The erupting lava cleaved Crater Glacier in half and bulldozed it aside, causing thickening, crevassing, and rapid northward advance of the glacier?s east and west arms. Intermittent steam and ash explosions, some generating plumes that rose up to 11 kilometers, preceded and accompanied extrusion of the new lava dome, but ceased by early 2005. As the new dome grew, a series of large fins or spines of hot lava rose, some more than 100 meters high, and then crumbled producing sometimes spectacular rock falls. The largest of these rock falls generated dust or steam plumes that rose high above the crater rim. By February 2006, the new dome had grown to a volume similar to that of the 1980-86 lava dome; and by July 2007, the new dome had grown to a volume of 93 million cubic meters, exceeding the volume of the 1980-86 lava dome. The height of the new dome also exceeded that of the 1980-86 lava dome, and at its highest point (before collapse in 2005) reached to within 2 meters of the lowest point on the south crater rim. At this height, the new dome was taller than the Empire State Building in New York City. The new lava dome initially grew very quickly, at rates of 2 to 3 cubic meters (one small dump truck load) per second. If it had continued to grow at these rates for about 100 years, it would have replaced the volume of rock removed from the volcano during the May 18, 1980, eruption. However, the lava extrusion rate slowed throughout the eruption, and, by July 2007, it was oozing at a rate of 0.1 cubic meters per second. At that rate, it would take over 700 years to replace the volume of rock lost in 1980. Lava dome extrusion has continued into early 2008.

  12. Detailed sedimentology and geomorphology elucidate mechanisms of formation of modern and historical sequences of minor moraines in the European Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyshnytzky, Cianna; Lukas, Sven

    2016-04-01

    moraines here formed as push moraines in two groups separated by a former proglacial basin and are composed dominantly of pre-existing proglacial outwash gravel through efficient bulldozing of the glacier front (Lukas, 2012). These findings show a range of mechanisms responsible for moraine formation. Furthermore, basal freeze-on processes incorporating subglacial sediment (till) have not been recorded in high-mountain moraine formation, suggesting a commonality of seasonal climatic controls between the glacier dynamics of high-mountain glaciers and those in more lowland, maritime settings. References Andersen, J.L., and Sollid, J.L., 1971, Glacial Chronology and Glacial Geomorphology in the Marginal Zones of the Glaciers, Midtdalsbreen and Nigardsbreen, South Norway: Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift - Norwegian Journal of Geography, v. 25, no. 1, p. 1-38, doi: 10.1080/00291957108551908. Beedle, M.J., Menounos, B., Luckman, B.H., and Wheate, R., 2009, Annual push moraines as climate proxy: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 36, no. 20, p. L20501, doi: 10.1029/2009GL039533. Boulton, G.S., 1986, Push-moraines and glacier-contact fans in marine and terrestrial environments: Sedimentology, v. 33, p. 677-698. Evans, D.J.A., and Benn, D.I., 2004, A Practical Guide to the Study of Glacial Sediments: Hodder Education, London, United Kingdom. Hewitt, K., 1967, Ice-Front Deposition and the Seasonal Effect: A Himalayan Example: Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, v. 42, p. 93-106. Kjær, K.H., and Krüger, J., 2001, The final phase of dead-ice moraine development: processes and sediment architecture, Kötlujökull, Iceland: Sedimentology, v. 48, p. 935-952. Krüger, J., 1995, Origin, chronology and climatological significance of annual-moraine ridges at Myrdalsjökull, Iceland: The Holocene, v. 5, no. 4, p. 420-427. Lukas, S., 2012, Processes of annual moraine formation at a temperate alpine valley glacier: insights into glacier dynamics and climatic controls: Boreas, v