Sample records for bulldozers

  1. A comparative study on zero tillage with bulldozing as land ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study on zero tillage and bulldozing, as land preparations for oil palm seedling transplanted into the field was conducted at Ayip Eku Oil Palm Estate between 1993 and 1997. The experimental site was a five-year fallow land in which Panicum maximum (Guinea grass) and Centresoma pubescence were ...

  2. Environmental damages of forest road construction by bulldozer on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 15, 2009 ... region in Turkey. The objective of the study was to evaluate cross sections constructed by bulldozer along the forest road alignment and to determine the differences between the fill-slope and cut-slope formations in the cross sections in terms of environmental damages. Maximum length and minimum ...

  3. The bulldozer and the ballet dancer: aspects of nurses' caring approaches in acute psychiatric intensive care. (United States)

    Björkdahl, A; Palmstierna, T; Hansebo, G


    Demanding conditions in acute psychiatric wards inhibit provision of safe, therapeutic care and leave nurses torn between humanistic ideals and the harsh reality of their daily work. The aim of this study was to describe nurses' caring approaches within this context. Data were collected from interviews with nurses working in acute psychiatric intensive care. Data were analysed using qualitative analysis, based on interpretive description. Results revealed a caring-approach continuum on which two approaches formed the main themes: the bulldozer and the ballet dancer. The bulldozer approach functioned as a shield of power that protected the ward from chaos. The ballet dancer approach functioned as a means of initiating relationships with patients. When examining the data from a theoretical perspective of caring and uncaring encounters in nursing, the ballet dancer approach was consistent with a caring approach, while the bulldozer approach was more complex and somewhat aligned with uncaring approaches. Conclusions drawn from the study are that although the bulldozer approach involves a risk for uncaring and harming actions, it also brings a potential for caring. This potential needs to be further explored and nurses should be encouraged to reflect on how they integrate paternalistic nursing styles with person-centred care.

  4. Research on the Multi-Energy Management Strategy of the Electric Drive System of a Tracked Bulldozer

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    Ming Pan


    Full Text Available The multi-energy management strategy of electric drive system of tracked bulldozer was researched. Firstly, based on power requirement of typical working condition of a tracked bulldozer, the power distribution strategy for three energy sources in the front power chain was proposed by using wavelet theory and fuzzy control theory. Secondly, the electric drive system simulation platform was built in MATLAB/Simulink. At last, a driver-controller based HILS (hardware-in-the-loop simulation platform was built and the multi-energy management strategy was verified. The HILS result shows that front power chain’s power output can meet the back power chain’s requirement, the engine-generator set works near the best fuel consumption curve, and the battery pack’s charge-discharge frequency and current are low. Thus the designed multi-energy management strategy can be used in real-time control of electric drive bulldozer.

  5. E3 - A user's interface for quantifying total cost, diesel consumption, and emissions from bulldozers and its comparison to field data (United States)

    Hajji, Apif M.; Lewis, Michael P.; Larasati, Aisyah


    The use of bulldozer in construction projects determines a vast number of diesel consumption, emissions and the portion of total cost of the project. Construction equipment operators need a method that can be utilized to predict and quantify not only the cost, but also the diesel consumption and emissions of construction projects, particularly for bulldozer's activities. The main purpose of this paper is to propose an E3, the predicting tool for the economic, energy, and environmental impact of the use of bulldozer. The tool was developed by using the productivity rate model of bulldozer to the US EPA's NONROAD model. The results show that the bulldozer's productivity model can be used as the platform for predicting the total cost and diesel consumption that will be required and the total expected emissions for the project.

  6. Lightweight Bulldozer Attachment for Construction and Excavation on the Lunar Surface (United States)

    Mueller, Robert; Wilkinson, R. Allen; Gallo, Christopher A.; Nick, Andrew J.; Schuler, Jason M.; King, Robert H.


    A lightweight bulldozer blade prototype has been designed and built to be used as an excavation implement in conjunction with the NASA Chariot lunar mobility platform prototype. The combined system was then used in a variety of field tests in order to characterize structural loads, excavation performance and learn about the operational behavior of lunar excavation in geotechnical lunar simulants. The purpose of this effort was to evaluate the feasibility of lunar excavation for site preparation at a planned NASA lunar outpost. Once the feasibility has been determined then the technology will become available as a candidate element in the NASA Lunar Surface Systems Architecture. In addition to NASA experimental testing of the LANCE blade, NASA engineers completed analytical work on the expected draft forces using classical soil mechanics methods. The Colorado School of Mines (CSM) team utilized finite element analysis (FEA) to study the interaction between the cutting edge of the LANCE blade and the surface of soil. FEA was also used to examine various load cases and their effect on the lightweight structure of the LANCE blade. Overall it has been determined that a lunar bulldozer blade is a viable technology for lunar outpost site preparation, but further work is required to characterize the behavior in 1/6th G and actual lunar regolith in a vacuum lunar environment.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KROL R. N.


    Full Text Available Raising of problem. A bulldozer work at trench refilings is conducted by cyclic, machine shuttle motions that increases a right-of-way; increasing of time charges, fuel and labour by the side of the continuous refilling method. Besides the indicated defects gets worse also the quality of the trench refilling: the uneven soil output into a trench with large portions results the damages of pipes isolation and emptinesses formation, in consequence  settling and washing of soil. A bulldozer with the screw intensifier (SI, is deprived lacks of an odinary bulldozer  moving along a trench, it moves the loose soil that does not fall on a pipeline, but rolles on it. Thus the circuitous speed of a cutting edge of SI exceeds the speed of the base machine moving that provides the strong soil treatment (before dispersion before output into a trench. Purpose. The algorithm development of the rotational moment determination on the SI driveshaft, the consumable energy, the energy intensity and the working process productivity of the reverse trench refillings depending on physical and mechanical properties of soil, geometrical parameters of SI and bulldozer optimal speed. Conclusion. The developed algorithm allows to define that at the fixed value of the rotational speed the rotational moment and indicated efficiency of SI at the optimum speed increasing of the base machine change on a linear law; the optimum speed change of the base machine practically does not influence on the energy intensity at the considered change of the rotational speed .

  8. Modelling and Bi-objective Optimization of Soil Cutting and Pushing Process for Bulldozer and its Blade (United States)

    Barakat, Nada; Sharma, Deepak


    Bulldozer is an earth moving machine, which is mainly used for cutting and pushing soil. The process of soil cutting and pushing involves various decisions making to make it optimum. The decisions are generally made based on the experience of practitioners that may not be optimum for different working conditions. In this paper, a bi-objective optimization problem is modelled so that the optimum values of decision variables can be determined. The objective functions are proposed to make the process economic and productive by minimizing the cutting force on a bulldozer blade and maximizing the blade capacity. A constraint is also developed on the power requirement from a bulldozer to overcome resistance. The problem is solved using ɛ-constraint method and multi-objective genetic algorithm. The approximate Pareto-optimal solutions and their perturbation analysis are presented. Various relationships are evolved from the post-optimal analysis that can be used for making guidelines for decision making for the process. The originality of this paper lies in developing the bi-objective formulation and in presenting various relationships by the post-optimal analysis, which has sparingly done in the domain literature.

  9. Combining Off-the-Job Productivity Regression Model with EPA’s NONROAD Model in Estimating CO2 Emissions from Bulldozer

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    Apif M. Hajji


    Full Text Available Heavy duty diesel (HDD construction equipment which includes bulldozer is important in infrastructure development. This equipment consumes large amount of diesel fuel and emits high level of carbon dioxide (CO2. The total emissions are dependent upon the fuel use, and the fuel use is dependent upon the productivity of the equipment. This paper proposes a methodology and tool for estimating CO2 emissions from bulldozer based on the productivity rate. The methodology is formulated by using the result of multiple linear regressions (MLR of CAT’s data for obtaining the productivity model and combined with the EPA’s NONROAD model. The emission factors from NONROAD model were used to quantify the CO2 emissions. To display the function of the model, a case study and sensitivity analysis for a bulldozer’s activity is also presented. MLR results indicate that the productivity model generated from CAT’s data can be used as the basis for quantifying the total CO2 emissions for an earthwork activity.


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    Full Text Available The neoichnology of the freshwater mussel Anodonta (Sinanodonta woodiana (Lea, 1834 is examined herein in some continental environments of Umbria (central Italy, such as lake-margin and river dam-margin settings. This study, based on analysis of about 200 traces, reveals that this mussel burrows employing two types of behaviours: bulldozing which produces horizontal meanders to straight bilobate traces, often filled with peloidal faecal pellets (pseudofaeces and backfill, and resting (vertical stationary into substrate while filter feeding. A new type of very soft substrate, the ‘cloudground’ is proposed. It is placed at the water-sediment interface, above the soupground. After four years of observation, the cloudground was buried with shells and traces, preserving through the fossilization barrier about 20% of the Anodonta traces. This bivalve activity is a useful tool to recognize preservation of mud in quiet environments and parallels ichnological evidence of unknown epichnial trace fossils in the continental realm. Cloudground with resting traces must be investigated also in modern marine basin floor environments where cloud of mud dominates and considered also in geological record.

  11. Bulldozing Your Way Through Projectile Motion. (United States)

    Lamb, William G.


    Presents two models and two demonstrations targeted at student understanding of projectile motion as the sum of two independent, perpendicular vectors. Describes materials required, construction, and procedures used. Includes a discussion of teaching points appropriate to each demonstration or model. (JM)

  12. Squatting to end domicide? Resisting bulldozer urbanism in contemporary Shanghai

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    Zhang, Yunpeng


    Full Text Available For millions of Shanghainese on the lower rung of society, the history of the great urban transformation in the city since the 1990s is written with their tears for the loss of their homes, communities and livelihood. In this paper, I argue for squatting as a straightforward, effective and potentially radical strategy to redress the displacees’ suffering, to take a more active and progressive control of the violent accumulation process and to challenge the hegemonic discourse of private homeownership that underpins the rapid transformation of Shanghai’s urban landscape. The argument is built upon an in-depth study of a family evicted by the World Expo 2010 and squatted in a resettlement apartment. Their framing of justice and entitlement, embedded in local cultural and moral universes, not only lends legitimacy to their squatting but also mobilises popular sympathy, both of which are conducive to effective resistance.

  13. Growth and development of planted northern red oak on bulldozed skidroads after clearcutting in Appalachian hardwoods (United States)

    James N. Kochenderfer; Mary Beth Adams; Gary W. Miller; Frederica Wood


    Artificial regeneration of northern red oak in Appalachian clearcuts on mesic sites is hindered by accessibility and competition from developing vegetation. The use of skidroads as a planting medium was evaluated on two clearcuts with contrasting aspects in north central West Virginia. Stratified acorns were planted in tree shelters at three positions (cut, middle,...

  14. Sledgehammers, cranes and bulldozers: restoring dunes and marshes by removing buildings and soil


    Herrier, J.-L.; Van Nieuwenhuyse, H.; Deboeuf, C.; Deruyter, S.; Leten, M


    Flanders has the most urbanised coastline of Europe, north of the Pyrenees and the Alps. During the 20th century seaside resorts grew to one another to finally form one urban agglomeration from the Dutch to the French border, only locally interrupted by some rather small not built up areas of dunes. However even the remaining and legally protected 'natural areas' often include buildings, roads or even dredging sludge dumps. In this situation of an extremely damaged and fragmented natural env...

  15. The bulldozer herbivore: how animals benefit from elephant modifying an African savanna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohi, E.


    Herbivore-vegetation interactions are important structuring forces in savanna that modify the availability and quality of forage resources. Elephant for example, are known for their ability to change the vegetation structure through toppling trees, uprooting, snapping, debarking and breaking

  16. The Snowmastodon Project: cutting-edge science on the blade of a bulldozer (United States)

    Pigati, Jeffery S.; Miller, Ian M.; Johnson, Kirk R.


    Cutting-edge science happens at a variety of scales, from the individual and intimate to the large-scale and collaborative. The publication of a special issue of Quaternary Research in Nov. 2014 dedicated to the scientific findings of the “Snowmastodon Project” highlights what can be done when natural history museums, governmental agencies, and academic institutions work toward a common goal.

  17. HIV prevention while the bulldozers roll: exploring the effect of the demolition of Goa's red-light area. (United States)

    Shahmanesh, Maryam; Wayal, Sonali; Andrew, Gracy; Patel, Vikram; Cowan, Frances M; Hart, Graham


    Interventions targeting sex-workers are pivotal to HIV prevention in India. Community mobilisation is considered by the National AIDS Control Programme to be an integral component of this strategy. Nevertheless societal factors, and specifically policy and legislation around sex-work, are potential barriers to widespread collectivisation and empowerment of sex-workers. Between November 2003 and December 2005 we conducted participatory observation and rapid ethnographic mapping with several hundred brief informant interviews, in addition to 34 semi-structured interviews with key-informants, 16 in-depth interviews with female sex-workers, and 3 focus-group-discussions with clients and mediators. This provides a detailed examination of the demolition of Baina, one of India's large red-light areas, in 2004, and one of the first accounts of the effect of dismantling the red-light area on the organisation of sex-work and sex-workers' sexual risk. The results suggest that the concentrated and homogeneous brothel-based sex-work environment rapidly evolved into heterogeneous, clandestine and dispersed modes of operation. The social context of sex-work that emerged from the dust of the demolition was higher risk and less conducive to HIV prevention. The demolition acted as a negative structural intervention; a catastrophic event that fragmented sex-workers' collective identity and agency and rendered them voiceless and marginalised. The findings suggest that an abolitionist approach to sex-work and legislation or policy that either criminalises this large group of women, or renders them as invisible victims, will increase the stigma and exclusion they experience. For the targeted HIV prevention approaches advocated by the National AIDS Control Programme to be effective, there is a need for legislation and policy that supports sex-workers' agency and self-organisation and enables them to create a safer working environment for themselves.

  18. Comparisons of environmental effects and productivity by road ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Aug 2, 2010 ... In this study, forest road construction techniques, environmental damages, cross sections and productivity by using hydraulic excavator and bulldozer were investigated in forested lands in Antalya and Eskisehir region in Turkey. Maximum length of fill slope for bulldozer and excavator were found 17.

  19. 拆迁普店街:二十世纪末中国都市小说中摧毁和复兴主题的含混 (Bulldozing Pudian Street: Destruction or Renewal? Ambiguities in Big City Novels in Late 20th Century Chinese Literature

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    Xia Li


    Full Text Available There is little doubt that the most cogent literary representation of the experience of modernity has been realised in big city fiction and cinematographic masterpieces such as Fritz Lang's Metropolis (1926. Despite the formal and aesthetic incompatability of early twentieth century (predominantly Western works of this literary genre and more recent ones, East and West, the underlying dialectic tension between progressive optimism and disorientation, existential up-rootedness, alienation and angst (Rilke's loss of soul as archetypal manifestation of mega-city reality and its social structure and organisation, constitutes a generic hallmark, regardless of time and place. Significantly, the relevance of this problem is reinforced, theoretically and practically, by the eminent scholar and architect Rem Koolhaas whose reflections have China as a principal reference point of the global "out-of-control process of modernisation". This paper focuses on the literary representation of the complexity and universality of the problem and the social implications of the blurred and ambiguous vision of urban reality with particular reference to contemporary Chinese literature.

  20. 77 FR 23745 - Proposed Low-Effect Habitat Conservation Plan for the Bay Checkerspot Butterfly and Serpentine... (United States)


    ... (including, but not limited to, bulldozers, cement trucks, water trucks, and backhoes) Erosion control... to the project site only, or to existing paved roads, Removal of all food-related trash every 3 days...

  1. Comparisons of environmental effects and productivity by road ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The costs of forest roads for bulldozer and excavator were calculated to be 21.8 US dollars/m and 8.5 US dollars/m, respectively. Productivity of bulldozer and excavator were found to be 105.8 and 66.2 m3/h, respectively. The types of environmental damages on trees were determined and found to be wounded, bending ...

  2. Environmental Impacts of Forest Road Construction on Mountainous Terrain

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    Erhan Caliskan


    Full Text Available Forest roads are the base infrastructure foundation of forestry operations. These roads entail a complex engineering effort because they can cause substantial environmental damage to forests and include a high-cost construction. This study was carried out in four sample sites of Giresun, Trabzon(2 and Artvin Forest Directorate, which is in the Black Sea region of Turkey. The areas have both steep terrain (30-50% gradient and very steep terrain (51-80% gradient. Bulldozers and hydraulic excavators were determined to be the main machines for forest road construction, causing environmental damage and cross sections in mountainous areas.As a result of this study, the percent damage to forests was determined as follows: on steep terrain, 21% of trees were damaged by excavators and 33% of trees were damaged by bulldozers during forest road construction, and on very steep terrain, 27% of trees were damaged by excavators and 44% of trees were damaged by bulldozers during forest road construction. It was also determined that on steep terrain, when excavators were used, 12.23% less forest area was destroyed compared with when bulldozers were used and 16.13% less area was destroyed by excavators on very steep terrain. In order to reduce the environmental damage on the forest ecosystem, especially in steep terrains, hydraulic excavators should replace bulldozers in forest road construction activities.

  3. Dynamic Modeling and Control Strategy Optimization for a Hybrid Electric Tracked Vehicle

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    Hong Wang


    Full Text Available A new hybrid electric tracked bulldozer composed of an engine generator, two driving motors, and an ultracapacitor is put forward, which can provide high efficiencies and less fuel consumption comparing with traditional ones. This paper first presents the terramechanics of this hybrid electric tracked bulldozer. The driving dynamics for this tracked bulldozer is then analyzed. After that, based on analyzing the working characteristics of the engine, generator, and driving motors, the power train system model and control strategy optimization is established by using MATLAB/Simulink and OPTIMUS software. Simulation is performed under a representative working condition, and the results demonstrate that fuel economy of the HETV can be significantly improved.

  4. A Mean Wink at Authenticity: Chinese Images in Disney's "Mulan." (United States)

    Mo, Weimin; Shen, Wenju


    Offers a critique from two Chinese educators with regard to the historical, cultural, linguistic, and artistic authenticity of Disney's animated film "Mulan." Argues that the filmmakers robbed the original story of its soul and "ran over Chinese culture with the Disney bulldozer," imposing mainstream cultural beliefs and…

  5. 29 CFR 1910.217 - Mechanical power presses. (United States)


    ... this section. (5) Excluded machines. Press brakes, hydraulic and pneumatic power presses, bulldozers..., or loosening and falling or release of mechanical energy (i.e. broken springs). (2) Brakes. Friction... pneumatic system of the press. A means of air lubrication shall be provided when needed. (11) Hydraulic...

  6. An experimental prescribed burn to reduce fuel hazard in chaparral (United States)

    Lisle R. Green


    The feasibility of reducing fuel hazard in chaparral during safe weather conditions was studied in an experimental prescribed burn in southern California. Burning was done under fuel and weather conditions when untreated brush would not bum readily. Preparatory treatment included smashing of brush on strips with a bulldozer, and reduction of moisture content of leaves...

  7. 40 CFR 1068.30 - What definitions apply to this part? (United States)


    ... itself and performing another function (such as garden tractors, off-highway mobile cranes and bulldozers... storage areas or facilities, times during which people other than custodians and security personnel are at... manufacturing includes, for example, converting automotive engines for use in industrial applications, or land...

  8. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 333 ... Vol 4, No 2 (2005), A comparative study on zero tillage with bulldozing as land preparations on oil palm growth, and nutrient status after 5 years of planting ... Vol 6, No 2 (2007), An assessment of sources and utilization of credit by small scale farmers in Benin metropolis of Edo State, Nigeria, Abstract.

  9. Diesel Engine Technician (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2010


    Diesel engine technicians maintain and repair the engines that power transportation equipment such as heavy trucks, trains, buses, and locomotives. Some technicians work mainly on farm machines, ships, compressors, and pumps. Others work mostly on construction equipment such as cranes, power shovels, bulldozers, and paving machines. This article…

  10. 29 CFR 1926.600 - Equipment. (United States)


    ... cars being worked, enter a building, work or traffic area. (b) Specific requirements. ..., adjacent to a highway in normal use, or adjacent to construction areas where work is in progress, shall... prevent falling or shifting before employees are permitted to work under or between them. Bulldozer and...

  11. 29 CFR 1926.602 - Material handling equipment. (United States)


    ... Industrial Trucks. (vi) All industrial trucks in use shall meet the applicable requirements of design... wheel tractors, bulldozers, off-highway trucks, graders, agricultural and industrial tractors, and... agricultural and light industrial tractors shall meet the seat belt requirements of Society of Automotive...

  12. The informal sector in urban Nigeria: Reflections from almost four ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for small-scale fisheries in Nigeria. Lagos: Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research (NIOMAR). AJULO, S. 1996. Tears as cement market fall to bulldozer. The Guardian (Nigeria),. 29th July, p. 9. AKINBINU, A.F. 1998. Liberalization policies and technological capability in the informal sector: A case study.

  13. The Persian Complex: A Centuries-Old Quest for Respect. Political Cultural and Religious Antecedents of the Iranian Worldview (United States)


    of Achaemenid power was the administrative capital at Persepolis begun by Darius and completed by his son, Xerxes. The symbolism of Persepolis party at Persepolis in 1971 to celebrate 2,500 years of dynastic rule in Iran. However, following the Islamic Revolution of 1979, the...elements of Iran’s pre-Islamic past from the national conscious- ness. One of Khomenei’s aides even sought to have Persepolis bulldozed, an action that

  14. Restoring nature: continuing the conversation (United States)

    Paul H. Gobster; R. Bruce Hull


    In the course of our lives we are sometimes confronted by events that jolt us out of our everyday experience. These events can be positive-the birth of a child, a move to a new region or country, the rediscovery of a species thought to be lost from an ecosystem. Such events can also be negative-the death of a loved one, a lost political battle, the bulldozing of a...

  15. Obtención de ecuaciones de correlación para estimar las velocidades de las ondas de corte en los suelos de la ciudad de Guayaquil


    Ramirez Calderon, Jenny; Tandazo Ortega, Eddie; Vera Grunauer, Xavier


    La presente tesis establece un aporte a los ingenieros consultores y diseñadores, proporcionándoles ecuaciones semiempíricas para la estimación de la velocidad de la onda de corte, adaptadas para los suelos de la ciudad de Guayaquil. Para la realización y obtención del perfil de velocidad de onda de corte se llevó a cabo una campaña de medición de las ondas de superficie generadas por una fuente activa (martillos, bulldozers) de vibraciones aleatorias de alta y baja frecuenc...

  16. Soil compaction in topsoil replacement during mining reclamation. (United States)

    Barry Phelps, L; Holland, L


    Current U.S. mining regulations require revegetation in reclaiming surface mines. Excessive soil compaction can be an impediment to successful revegetation in poor soil conditions common to Eastern U.S. coal mine sites. A field study was performed to determine the bulk densities of soils that had been spread by either bulldozers or scrapers at a strip mine site. Moisture-density relationships for the soils were determined from the field samples. These were compared with samples compacted by the Standard Proctor compaction test. The results of the study indicate that the degree of compaction, could be lessened through proper soil handling procedures.

  17. Unexploded Ordnance Site Investigation of US Military Ranges in Panama: Empire, Balboa West and Pina Ranges (United States)


    Process, UXO Detection Technologies, and Detector Reference Area. Table 1-1 UXO Site Investigation Report Components Aiko ik ogai6Componehp - Sect"on Site...200.0 C2 Suspect impact area of Range 6 09 97 482 17 645 592 929.9 D FP- 11 Firing Fan 0995639 17648673 369.0 E FP-15 Firing Fan 0997194 17645735 326.5 K ...bulldozer was brought in to grade and level the area. The transect was surveyed with a hand held EM61 locator starting off the K -6 road about 1.000

  18. The Proposed U.S.-Colombia Free Trade Agreement: Economic and Political Implications (United States)


    most populous country in Latin America, after Brazil and Mexico . Colombia’s economy, the fifth-largest economy in Latin America, is quite small when... Mexico , and Brazil. Colombia accounts for a very small percentage of U.S. trade (0.8% in 2009). Colombia ranks 22nd among U.S. export markets and...coal products 1,079.0 10% Corn ( maize ) 219.4 3% Gold 1,026.8 9% Self-propelled bulldozers and related products 204.8 2% Coffee and coffee

  19. Post-disturbance plant community dynamics following a rare natural-origin fire in a Tsuga canadensis forest.

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    Bryan D Murray

    Full Text Available Opportunities to directly study infrequent forest disturbance events often lead to valuable information about vegetation dynamics. In mesic temperate forests of North America, stand-replacing crown fire occurs infrequently, with a return interval of 2000-3000 years. Rare chance events, however, may have profound impacts on the developmental trajectories of forest ecosystems. For example, it has been postulated that stand-replacing fire may have been an important factor in the establishment of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis stands in the northern Great Lakes region. Nevertheless, experimental evidence linking hemlock regeneration to non-anthropogenic fire is limited. To clarify this potential relationship, we monitored vegetation dynamics following a rare lightning-origin crown fire in a Wisconsin hemlock-hardwood forest. We also studied vegetation in bulldozer-created fire breaks and adjacent undisturbed forest. Our results indicate that hemlock establishment was rare in the burned area but moderately common in the scarified bulldozer lines compared to the reference area. Early-successional, non-arboreal species including Rubus spp., Vaccinium angustifolium, sedges (Carex spp., grasses, Epilobium ciliatum, and Pteridium aquilinium were the most abundant post-fire species. Collectively, our results suggest that competing vegetation and moisture stress resulting from drought may reduce the efficacy of scarification treatments as well as the usefulness of fire for preparing a suitable seedbed for hemlock. The increasing prevalence of growing-season drought suggests that silvicultural strategies based on historic disturbance regimes may need to be reevaluated for mesic species.

  20. Influence of grounding ice on the Arctic shelf of Alaska (United States)

    Reimnitz, E.; Barnes, P.; Forgatsch, T.; Rodeick, C.


    Alaska's Beaufort Sea shelf is characterized by small-scale relief with an average amplitude of 1-2 m and wavelength of 50-100 m. Diving observations confirm that much of the bottom roughness reflects the action of grounded ice. Except for areas in the shadow of islands, bars, and offshore bathymetric highs, the entire shelf surface from the beach to at least the 75-m contour is now or has been modified by ice gouging. Ice contact with the bottom is more common, and rates of sedimentation higher on the inner shelf than on the outer shelf; the density of gouge features is about equal in both areas. Therefore, the chances are that an area of gouging on the inner shelf contains younger gouges than a similar area on the outer shelf. When ice grounds, it becomes an important agent in the sedimentary and morphologic environment of the Arctic shelf, directly by deforming bottom deposits and secondarily by affecting the current regime near the sediment/ice contact. While bulldozing action and rafting do not seem to contribute significantly to the direct transport of sediment, re-suspension of bottom material during bulldozing, which makes sediment available for transport, may be significant. ?? 1972.

  1. Consideraciones sobre las máquinas de neumáticos y cadenas (Parte I

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    Chinchilla, M.


    Full Text Available The continued development of machinery takes place usually in a sustained and progressive manner. However, occasionally new possibilities emerge, which open up new fields and require entirely new techniques, both in the use, construction and design of the new equipment. A particular case is the adoption of wheels with pneumatic tyres on bulldozers, as a result of their use in loading units. The changes that have occurred in these last ten years have been so important that it may well be said that until recently the use of pneumatic tyres on bulldozers and loaders had not been clearly defined, in terms of their functions. At present the main characteristics that differentiate machines of the same type using tyres and those using caterpillars can be definitely enunciated. One of the main factors is that machinery using tyres must be limited to very specific tasks, whilst equipment using continuous tracks can carry out bulldozing and loading jobs under highly varied conditions.La evolución de la maquinaria se realiza normalmente de una forma continuada y progresiva. De vez en cuando aparecen, sin embargo, posibilidades nuevas que abren campos diferentes y que requieren técnicas distintas, tanto en el empleo como en la construcción y diseño de estos tipos de maquinaria. Uno de estos casos concretos, lo ha sido la aparición de las ruedas neumáticas en las máquinas topadoras, como consecuencia de su empleo en las unidades cargadoras. Los cambios sufridos en estos últimos diez años han sido tan grandes, que puede decirse que hasta hace muy poco el empleo de los neumáticos en las máquinas topadoras y cargadoras no ha quedado bien delimitado en cuanto a sus requerimientos y sus posibilidades. De todas formas, ya pueden enunciarse las principales características que diferencian las máquinas de cadenas y neumáticos, de la misma clase; una de estas características es la particularización que requieren las máquinas de neumáticos en su

  2. Comparison of ISRU Excavation System Model Blade Force Methodology and Experimental Results (United States)

    Gallo, Christopher A.; Wilkinson, R. Allen; Mueller, Robert P.; Schuler, Jason M.; Nick, Andrew J.


    An Excavation System Model has been written to simulate the collection and transportation of regolith on the Moon. The calculations in this model include an estimation of the forces on the digging tool as a result of excavation into the regolith. Verification testing has been performed and the forces recorded from this testing were compared to the calculated theoretical data. A prototype lunar vehicle built at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) was tested with a bulldozer type blade developed at the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) attached to the front. This is the initial correlation of actual field test data to the blade forces calculated by the Excavation System Model and the test data followed similar trends with the predicted values. This testing occurred in soils developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) which are a mixture of different types of sands and whose soil properties have been well characterized. Three separate analytical models are compared to the test data.

  3. full on riot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Iten


    Full Text Available “hey moses full on riot in lawson st the station’s on fire! been going since 4. molotov and more. full on,” reads an SMS message received on the backseat of a Tasmanian bus. What follows is a journey through the landscape of a Gunavidji, whose brothers have all gone to the land of the dead; metallic scraping in the glass cases of the Hobart Museum; a Palestinian woman giving up on her people; land-snails exposing cultural inaccuracies; photographing Australia’s war zone; entering the St Peter’s Basilica of Rome with bulldozers - all in the name of preparing to interview prominent Israeli writer Etgar Keret.

  4. Improving machine operation management efficiency via improving the vehicle park structure and using the production operation information database (United States)

    Koptev, V. Yu


    The work represents the results of studying basic interconnected criteria of separate equipment units of the transport network machines fleet, depending on production and mining factors to improve the transport systems management. Justifying the selection of a control system necessitates employing new methodologies and models, augmented with stability and transport flow criteria, accounting for mining work development dynamics on mining sites. A necessary condition is the accounting of technical and operating parameters related to vehicle operation. Modern open pit mining dispatching systems must include such kinds of the information database. An algorithm forming a machine fleet is presented based on multi-variation task solution in connection with defining reasonable operating features of a machine working as a part of a complex. Proposals cited in the work may apply to mining machines (drilling equipment, excavators) and construction equipment (bulldozers, cranes, pile-drivers), city transport and other types of production activities using machine fleet.

  5. System catalytic neutralization control of combustion engines waste gases in mining technologies (United States)

    Korshunov, G. I.; Solnitsev, R. I.


    The paper presents the problems solution of the atmospheric air pollution with the exhaust gases of the internal combustion engines, used in mining technologies. Such engines are used in excavators, bulldozers, dump trucks, diesel locomotives in loading and unloading processes and during transportation of minerals. NOx, CO, CH emissions as the waste gases occur during engine operation, the concentration of which must be reduced to the standard limits. The various methods and means are used for the problem solution, one of which is neutralization based on platinum catalysts. A mathematical model of a controlled catalytic neutralization system is proposed. The simulation results confirm the increase in efficiency at start-up and low engine load and the increase in the catalyst lifetime.

  6. Regional baseline geochemistry and environmental effects of gold placer mining operations on the Fortymile River, eastern Alaska: A section in Geologic studies in Alaska by the U.S. Geological Survey, 1998 (United States)

    Wanty, Richard B.; Wang, Bronwen; Vohden, Jim; Briggs, Paul H.; Meier, Allen L.


    A systematic water-quality study of the Fortymile River and many of its major tributaries in eastern Alaska was conducted in June of 1997 and 1998. Surface-water samples were collected for chemical analyses to establish regional baseline geochemistry values and to evaluate the possible environmental effects of suction-dredge placer gold mining and bulldozer-operated placer gold mining (commonly referred to as “cat mining”). In general, the water quality of the Fortymile River is very good, with low total dissolved solids and only two cases in which the concentration of any element exceeded primary or secondary drinking-water quality standards. In both cases, iron exceeded secondary drinking-water limits. At the time this work was conducted, only a handful of suction dredges were operating on the lower Fortymile River, and cat mining was being conducted along Uhler Creek and Canyon Creek, two major tributaries to the river. Based on the water-quality and turbidity data, the suction dredges have no apparent impact on the Fortymile River system, although possible effects on biota have not been evaluated in this study. In contrast, the cat-mining operations in Canyon Creek appear to have a dramatic impact on water quality and stream-bed morphology, based on the field water-quality and turbidity measurements, on comparisons to adjacent unmined drainages, and on field observations of stream-bed morphology. The cat mining in Uhler Creek appears to have had less impact, perhaps because the main stream channel was not as heavily disrupted by the bulldozers, and the stability of the channel was mostly preserved.

  7. A 20th century miracle in a 19th century village--infant Part II. (United States)

    Araki, M


    Sawauchi Village (Wage District, Iwate Prefecture) in Japan once had the reputation of being a place of poverty, sickness, and heavy snowfalls. These conditions have changed thanks to the efforts of the late Mr. Masao Fukazawa who became the Village Mayor in 1967. Fukazawa put special emphasis on public health administration, first, by buying bulldozers to clear the village's roads in the winter. This action enabled access to the hospitals. The bulldozers that cleared the snow in winter displayed their usefulness in summer as well. The machines turned uncultivated land into farmland and reinforced the irrigation systems. Fukazawa hammered out various concrete measures in health administration, including the establishment of a Health Committee, the appointment of the Committee members as well as 2 public health nurses, the initiation of regular health examination for babies, and a 10-year plan to reduce infant mortality to half the level of the past. The Committee, which became the Council on Community Health in 1975, became famous throughout Japan in 1977 when it started complete examinations for degenerative diseases. The overall physical examination is given to all residents within the 35-39 age group, in addition to those who wish to be examined. Dr. Susumu Masuda, Director of the Sawauchi Village Hospital, has greatly contributed to health care improvement in Sawauchi Village, which is known to be 1 of the first villages in Japan that succeeded in reducing the infant mortality rate to zero. It is also famous for its maternal and child health activities. Sawauchi Village, which once suffered from a high birth rate just as today's developing nations, is now anticipating a lower birth rate and an aging society, an inevitable outcome of the village's development.

  8. Drifting blooms of the endemic filamentous brown alga Hincksia sordida at Noosa on the subtropical east Australian coast. (United States)

    Phillips, Julie A


    Since 2002, the usually uncommon endemic filamentous brown alga Hincksia sordida (Harvey) Silva (Ectocarpales, Phaeophyta) has formed nuisance blooms annually during spring/early summer at Main Beach, Noosa on the subtropical east Australian coast. The Hincksia bloom coincides with the normally intensive recreational use of the popular bathing beach by the local population and tourists. The alga forms dense accumulations in the surf zone at Main Beach, giving the seawater a distinct brown coloration and deterring swimmers from entering the water. Decomposing algae stranded by receding tides emit a nauseating sulphurous stench which hangs over the beach. The stranded algal biomass is removed from the beach by bulldozers. During blooms, the usually crowded Main Beach is deserted, bathers preferring to use the many unaffected beaches on the Sunshine Coast to the south of Main Beach. The bloom worsens with north-easterly winds and is cleared from Noosa by south easterly winds, observations which have prompted the untenable proposal by local authorities that the bloom is forming offshore of Fraser Island in the South Pacific Ocean. The Noosa River estuarine system/Laguna Bay is the more probable source of the bloom and the nutrient inputs into this system must be substantial to generate the high bloom biomass. Current mitigation procedures of removing the blooming alga off the beach with bulldozers treat the symptom, not the cause and are proving ineffective. Environmental management must be based on science and the Noosa bloom would benefit greatly from the accurate ecological data on which to base management options.

  9. Sounds and vibrations in the frozen Beaufort Sea during gravel island construction. (United States)

    Greene, Charles R; Blackwell, Susanna B; McLennan, Miles Wm


    Underwater and airborne sounds and ice-borne vibrations were recorded from sea-ice near an artificial gravel island during its initial construction in the Beaufort Sea near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska. Such measurements are needed for characterizing the properties of island construction sounds to assess their possible impacts on wildlife. Recordings were made in February-May 2000 when BP Exploration (Alaska) began constructing Northstar Island about 5 km offshore, at 12 m depth. Activities recorded included ice augering, pumping sea water to flood the ice and build an ice road, a bulldozer plowing snow, a Ditchwitch cutting ice, trucks hauling gravel over an ice road to the island site, a backhoe trenching the sea bottom for a pipeline, and both vibratory and impact sheet pile driving. For all but one sound source (underwater measurements of pumping) the strongest one-third octave band was under 300 Hz. Vibratory and impact pile driving created the strongest sounds. Received levels of sound and vibration, as measured in the strongest one-third octave band for different construction activities, reached median background levels sounds, sounds, and <10 km away for in-ice vibrations.

  10. Dynamic Modeling and Soil Mechanics for Path Planning of the Mars Exploration Rovers (United States)

    Trease, Brian; Arvidson, Raymond; Lindemann, Randel; Bennett, Keith; Zhou, Feng; Iagnemma, Karl; Senatore, Carmine; Van Dyke, Lauren


    To help minimize risk of high sinkage and slippage during drives and to better understand soil properties and rover terramechanics from drive data, a multidisciplinary team was formed under the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) project to develop and utilize dynamic computer-based models for rover drives over realistic terrains. The resulting tool, named ARTEMIS (Adams-based Rover Terramechanics and Mobility Interaction Simulator), consists of the dynamic model, a library of terramechanics subroutines, and the high-resolution digital elevation maps of the Mars surface. A 200-element model of the rovers was developed and validated for drop tests before launch, using MSC-Adams dynamic modeling software. Newly modeled terrain-rover interactions include the rut-formation effect of deformable soils, using the classical Bekker-Wong implementation of compaction resistances and bull-dozing effects. The paper presents the details and implementation of the model with two case studies based on actual MER telemetry data. In its final form, ARTEMIS will be used in a predictive manner to assess terrain navigability and will become part of the overall effort in path planning and navigation for both Martian and lunar rovers.

  11. Central treating location solves logistics and environmental problems. [Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, D.; Miller, D.; Bonner, H.W.


    Use of a central treating location, or pad, has provided a method for economic development of leases in a densely wooded, hilly area near Titusville and Oil City in W. Pennsylvania. The pad concept makes it possible to stimulate more than 100 shallow wells in the area from a single location at a savings of nearly $3000 and 2 to 3 days of time per well. The pad eliminates the time required for hooking up, tearing down, and transporting stimulation equipment to each individual well site. It eliminates the added cost of clearing a suitable work area at each well site, as well as the use of a bulldozer to pull in all the various pieces of equipment during harsh weather. The concept also is endorsed by the Pennsylvania State Game Commission, since it conserves valuable forest area. There are 2 pads in the area, one on the Jeanerett lease and one on the Masters lease. Both leases are new production and each will contain more than 100 wells when development is complete.

  12. Dynamic Modeling and Soil Mechanics for Path Planning of the Mars Exploration Rovers (United States)

    Trease, Brian


    To help minimize risk of high sinkage and slippage during drives and to better understand soil properties and rover terramechanics from drive data, a multidisciplinary team was formed under the Mars Exploration Rover project to develop and utilize dynamic computer-based models for rover drives over realistic terrains. The resulting system, named ARTEMIS (Adams-based Rover Terramechanics and Mobility Interaction System), consists of the dynamic model, a library of terramechanics subroutines, and the high-resolution digital elevation maps of the Mars surface. A 200-element model of the rovers was developed and validated for drop tests before launch, using Adams dynamic modeling software. The external library was built in Fortran and called by Adams to model the wheel-soil interactions include the rut-formation effect of deformable soils, lateral and longitudinal forces, bull-dozing effects, and applied wheel torque. The paper presents the details and implementation of the system. To validate the developed system, one study case is presented from a realistic drive on Mars of the Opportunity rover. The simulation results match well from the measurement of on-board telemetry data. In its final form, ARTEMIS will be used in a predictive manner to assess terrain navigability and will become part of the overall effort in path planning and navigation for both Martian and lunar rovers.

  13. Disturbance, biological legacies and community development in stream mesocosms. (United States)

    Ledger, Mark E; Harris, Rebecca M L; Milner, Alexander M; Armitage, Patrick D


    Disturbances reduce the biota in stream ecosystems, and leave biological legacies, including remnant species, which potentially influence post-disturbance community development but are poorly understood. We investigated whether three remnant species, the snail Radix peregra, the mayfly Serratella ignita and the freshwater shrimp Gammarus pulex, affected community development in mesocosms that mimicked disturbed habitat patches in streams. Following 21 days of colonisation, we found that the occurrence of legacy effects depended on the identity of the remnant species. Radix had the strongest effect. By bulldozing epilithon, the snails acted as ecological engineers that promoted settlement of filter feeders (Simuliidae) and invertebrate predators (especially Pentaneura and Aphelocheirus) and strongly deterred settlement of non-predatory chironomids (e.g. Heterotrissocladius and Microtendipes). Gammarus increased in density (by 665%) where remnant, probably through rapid reproduction. Baetis and Pentaneura were scarce, and Asellus absent, in remnant Gammarus treatments, as a consequence of interference and/or predation by the amphipods. In contrast, Serratella tolerated the colonisation of immigrant species and did not affect the structure of the developing benthic community. Despite the observed effects on the presence and abundance of benthos, remnant fauna had no significant effect on assemblage taxon richness, or that of any specific trophic group. The contrasting effects of remnant species on immigrant colonisation echoed differences in their life-history traits and foraging behaviours. Our results indicate that biota can generate spatial patchiness of epilithon and benthic invertebrates in stream ecosystems.

  14. Negotiating Time: Design as Historical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Lin


    Full Text Available In North Jakarta, the bulldozed remnants of the April 11 (2016 eviction of Kampung Pasar Ikan presented a site of radical transformation and urban planning. The eviction was in part motivated by a Dutch-Indonesian alliance, to construct a 40 billion USD sea wall and reclaimed islands to prevent the city from slowly sinking. In this text we start by asking, how are people living in Pasar Ikan responding to and enacting their own futures through repair? What does repair in a landscape of complete disrepair look like? And how is history both erased and enacted in this process? We then move to West Kalimantan where a DIY drone collective makes aerial drone technology and trains groups to map land that they say is vulnerable to incursions by resource developers. We ask, how is the forest located, recognized and constituted by these and other cartographic practices? Whose time and in what time are forest boundaries set and reset by mapping techniques in West Kalimantan? How do these cartographies become artifacts that travel and influence how history is thought and practiced?

  15. Metaphor and the 'Emergent Property' Problem: A Relevance-Theoretic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn Carston


    Full Text Available The interpretation of metaphorical utterances often results in the attribution of emergent properties; these are properties which are neither standardly associated with the individual constituents of the utterance in isolation nor derivable by standard rules of semantic composition. For example, an utterance of ‘Robert is a bulldozer’ may be understood as attributing to Robert such properties as single-mindedness, insistence on having things done in his way, and insensitivity to the opinions/feelings of others, although none of these is included in the encyclopaedic information associated with bulldozers (earth-clearing machines. An adequate pragmatic account of metaphor interpretation must provide an explanation of the processes through which emergent properties are derived. In this paper, we attempt to develop an explicit account of the derivation process couched within the framework of relevance theory. The key features of our account are: (a metaphorical language use is taken to lie on a continuum with other cases of loose use, including hyperbole; (b metaphor interpretation is a wholly inferential process, which does not require associative mappings from one domain (e.g. machines to another (e.g. human beings; (c the derivation of emergent properties involves no special interpretive mechanisms not required for the interpretation of ordinary, literal utterances.

  16. Spatial variability of soil chemical properties after coffee tree removal Variabilidade espacial dos atributos químicos do solo após remoção de cafezal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Rosa Vieira


    Full Text Available Assessing the spatial variability of soil chemical properties has become an important aspect of soil management strategies with a view to higher crop yields with minimal environmental degradation. This study was carried out at the Centro Experimental of the Instituto Agronomico, in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. The aim was to characterize the spatial variability of chemical properties of a Rhodic Hapludox on a recently bulldozer-cleaned area after over 30 years of coffee cultivation. Soil samples were collected in a 20 x 20 m grid with 36 sampling points across a 1 ha area in the layers 0.0-0.2 and 0.2-0.4 m to measure the following chemical properties: pH, organic matter, K+, P, Ca2+, Mg2+, potential acidity, NH4-N, and NO3-N. Descriptive statistics were applied to assess the central tendency and dispersion moments. Geostatistical methods were applied to evaluate and to model the spatial variability of variables by calculating semivariograms and kriging interpolation. Spatial dependence patterns defined by spherical model adjusted semivariograms were made for all cited soil properties. Moderate to strong degrees of spatial dependence were found between 31 and 60 m. It was still possible to map soil spatial variability properties in the layers 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm after plant removal with bulldozers.A avaliação da variabilidade espacial dos atributos químicos do solo tem se tornado importante ferramenta na determinação de estratégias de manejo que visam aumentar a produtividade agrícola com menor degradação ambiental. O presente trabalho foi realizado no Centro Experimental Central do Instituto Agronômico, localizado em Campinas/SP, com o objetivo de caracterizar a variabilidade espacial dos atributos químicos de um Latossolo Vermelho após a remoção de um cafezal, cultivado por mais de 30 anos, com trator de esteira. As amostras de solo foram coletadas em grade georreferenciada de 20 x 20 m, totalizando 36 pontos nas camadas de 0

  17. Conceptual design for a land decontamination robot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, G.P.


    This study investigates the development of a machine for the cleanup and/or treatment of land areas contaminated by a nuclear accident. This system of hardware components could remove radioactive, fallout-type contamination from rolling terrain, such as agricultural farm. This mobile system is remotely operable. This system could be referred to as a land decontamination robot.'' A survey of vendors has identified a set of hardware components which are commercially available and not special development items. These components include a large vacuum loader unit, a vehicle for moving the unit around the contaminated area, an industrial robot arm for moving the vacuum nozzle over the contaminated surface, an electronic remote control system, and a position determination system to assist with steering the vehicle on subsequent passes around the contaminated area. Cost estimates were developed for each component. Two versions of the decontamination robot'' were considered: (1) a truck-mounted vacuum loader unit, and (2) a trailer-mounted unit pulled by a bulldozer-type crawler. The costs of the hardware components for the truck-mounted unit are about $450,000; the trailer-mounted unit is about 10% more expensive. These costs are only the hardware costs; the costs associated with integrating this hardware into an operating decontamination system have not been included. Also not included are the costs of programming the sweeping motion of the robot arm and of any computer equipment or software necessary to process and display information relating to the vehicle's position within the contaminated area. It is assumed that these costs will at least equal the cost of the hardware and will thus move the total cost for the complete land decontamination robot system to a minimum of $1,000,000. 25 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. The Clearing: Heidegger’s Lichtung and The Big Scrub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Garbutt


    Full Text Available Clearings make settlement possible. Whether on a small scale using an axe and other hand implements to make way for a dwelling and a garden, or on a large scale with a chain strung between two D9 bulldozers in preparation for a major agribusiness development, the process of clearing creates spaces for installing something new. This paper uses the idea of (the clearing, as practice, process, outcome and metaphor, to examine the installation of the locals in a settler society. Using Lismore on the far-north coast of New South Wales, Australia, as a case example, the particular work of clearing that is discussed here is a practice that enables a form of colonisation and settlement that distances itself from its history of migration. This is a history of settler locals who were 'always here', and a colonial form of clearing clears the land and the mind of troubling pasts and of troubling presences. For the locals within a place, then, clearing manages and simplifies a complex set of social and material relations, histories and identities. Using Anthony Appiah's concept the 'space clearing gesture', the paper concludes with a reflection on the space in which the idea of "the clearing" and this paper appears. Do places, in this instance rural places, provide a type of clearing in which certain ideas might appear that may not appear elsewhere? If situatedness matters then the diversity of places where thinking is done is important for our ecology of thought, and in connection with this, perhaps what 'rural cultural studies' does is clear a particular type of space for thinking.

  19. Site acquisition and successful landowner relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardke, G.S.; Susman, H.E. [Hillyer & Irwin, San Diego, CA (United States)


    It is now quite some time ago in this industry that the objections of a landowner to the granting of an easement for a new road could be overcome by the use of a bulldozer. The attitude sometimes was build first, negotiate later. That attitude, of course, was not appropriate then, and it is not now. As one of the long term (perhaps longest term) {open_quotes}partners{close_quotes} in project development and operation, the owner of the land under a project site must be dealt with fairly, reasonably, and in a way which will minimize or avoid disputes. Here, we present a few suggestions for starting the relationship with the landowner off on the right track. In establishing the legal form of the deal, whether by easement or lease, the goal should be to seek stability, not advantage. There will be too many times when each party will need the consent of the other to allow the development of a situation where on each such occasion, the consenting party will expect some sort of tribute or consideration. For example, one common type of consent is that by the landowner to minor elements of project finance requirements. And no matter how carefully the terms of the lease or easement are negotiated, lenders and their counsel will want changes. If the relationship with the landowner is established on the basis of long term cooperation, it should be no trouble to obtain these consents. If, on the other hand, the developer attempts to gain its project profit margin at the expense of the landowner, it can count on giving the landowner his {open_quotes}pound of flesh{close_quotes} every time the developer or operator needs something from him.

  20. Herbivore-Alga Interaction Strength Influences Spatial Heterogeneity in a Kelp-Dominated Intertidal Community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés A Aguilera

    Full Text Available There is a general consensus that marine herbivores can affect algal species composition and abundance, but little empirical work exists on the role of herbivores as modifiers of the spatial structure of resource assemblages. Here, we test the consumption/bulldozing effects of the molluscan grazer Enoplochiton niger and its influence on the spatial structure of a low intertidal community dominated by the bull kelp Durvillaea antarctica and the kelp Lessonia spicata. Through field experiments conducted at a rocky intertidal shore in north-central Chile (~30°-32°S, the edge of the grazer and algae geographic distributions, we estimated the strength and variability of consumptive effects of the grazer on different functional group of algae. We also used data from abundance field surveys to evaluate spatial co-occurrence patterns of the study species. Exclusion-enclosure experiments showed that E. niger maintained primary space available by preventing algal colonization, even of large brown algae species. The grazing activity of E. niger also reduced spatial heterogeneity of the ephemeral algal species, increasing bare space availability and variability through time in similar ways to those observed for the collective effect with other grazers. Overall, our result suggests that E. niger can be considered an important modifier of the spatial structure of the large brown algae-dominated community. Effects of E. niger on resource variability seem to be directly related to its foraging patterns, large body size, and population densities, which are all relevant factors for management and conservation of the large brown algae community. Our study thus highlights the importance of considering functional roles and identity of generalist consumers on spatial structure of the entire landscape.

  1. Phase 1 archaeological investigation, cultural resources survey, Hawaii Geothermal Project, Makawao and Hana districts, south shore of Maui, Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erkelens, C. [International Archaeological Research Inst., Inc., Honolulu, HI (United States)


    This report details the archaeological investigation of a 200 foot wide sample corridor extending approximately 9 miles along the southern portion of Maui within the present districts of Hana and Makawao. The survey team documented a total of 51 archaeological sites encompassing 233 surface features. Archaeological sites are abundant throughout the region and only become scarce where vegetation has been bulldozed for ranching activities. At the sea-land transition points for the underwater transmission cable, both Ahihi Bay and Huakini Bay are subjected to seasonal erosion and redeposition of their boulder shorelines. The corridor at the Ahihi Bay transition point runs through the Maonakala Village Complex which is an archaeological site on the State Register of Historic Places within a State Natural Area Reserve. Numerous other potentially significant archaeological sites lie within the project corridor. It is likely that rerouting of the corridor in an attempt to avoid known sites would result in other undocumented sites located outside the sample corridor being impacted. Given the distribution of archaeological sites, there is no alternative route that can be suggested that is likely to avoid encountering sites. Twelve charcoal samples were obtained for potential taxon identification and radiocarbon analysis. Four of these samples were subsequently submitted for dating and species identification. Bird bones from various locations within a lava tube were collected for identification. Sediment samples for subsequent pollen analysis were obtained from within two lava tubes. With these three sources of information it is hoped that paleoenvironmental data can be recovered that will enable a better understanding of the setting for Hawaiian habitation of the area.

  2. Managing away bad habits. (United States)

    Waldroop, J; Butler, T


    We've all worked with highly competent people who are held back by a seemingly fatal personality flaw. One person takes on too much work; another sees the downside in every proposed change; a third pushes people out of the way. At best, people with these "bad habits" create their own glass ceilings, which limit their success and their contributions to the company. At worst, they destroy their own careers. Although the psychological flaws of such individuals run deep, their managers are not helpless. In this article, James Waldroop and Timothy Butler--both psychologists--examine the root causes of these flaws and suggest concrete tactics they have used to help people recognize and correct the following six behavior patterns: The hero, who always pushes himself--and subordinates--too hard to do too much for too long. The meritocrat, who believes that the best ideas can and will be determined objectively and ignores the politics inherent in most situations. The bulldozer, who runs roughshod over others in a quest for power. The pessimist, who always worries about what could go wrong. The rebel, who automatically fights against authority and convention. And the home run hitter, who tries to do too much too soon--he swings for the fences before he's learned to hit singles. Helping people break through their self-created glass ceilings is the ultimate win-win scenario: both the individual and the organization are rewarded. Using the tactics introduced in this article, managers can help their brilliantly flawed performers become spectacular achievers.

  3. Houdini{trademark}: Reconfigurable in-tank mobile robot. Final report, June 1995--January 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, B.; Slifko, A.


    This report details the development of a reconfigurable in-tank robotic cleanup system called Houdini{trademark}. Driven by the general need to develop equipment for the removal of radioactive waste from hundreds of DOE waste storage tanks and the specific needs of DOE sites such as Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Fernald, Houdini{trademark} represents one of the possible tools that can be used to mobilize and retrieve this waste material for complete remediation. Houdini{trademark} is a hydraulically powered, track driven, mobile work vehicle with a collapsible frame designed to enter underground or above ground waste tanks through existing 24 inch riser openings. After the vehicle has entered the waste tank, it unfolds and lands on the waste surface or tank floor to become a remotely operated mini-bulldozer. Houdini{trademark} utilizes a vehicle mounted plow blade and 6-DOF manipulator to mobilize waste and carry other tooling such as sluicing pumps, excavation buckets, and hydraulic shears. The complete Houdini{trademark} system consists of the tracked vehicle and other support equipment (e.g., control console, deployment system, hydraulic power supply, and controller) necessary to deploy and remotely operate this system at any DOE site. Inside the storage tanks, the system is capable of performing heel removal, waste mobilization, waste size reduction, and other tank waste retrieval and decommissioning tasks. The first Houdini{trademark} system was delivered on September 24, 1996 to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The system acceptance test was successfully performed at a cold test facility at ORNL. After completion of the cold test program and the training of site personnel, ORNL will deploy the system for clean-up and remediation of the Gunite storage tanks.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce Thompson; Adam Slifko


    This report details the development of a reconfigurable in-tank robotic cleanup systems called Houdini{trademark}. Driven by the general need to develop equipment for the removal of radioactive waste from hundreds of DOE waste storage tanks and the specific needs of DOE sites such as Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Fernald, Houdini{trademark} represents one of the possible tools that can be used to mobilize and retrieve this waste material for complete remediation. Houdini{trademark} is a hydraulically powered, track driven, mobile work vehicle with a collapsible frame designed to enter underground or above ground waste tanks through existing 24 inch riser openings. After the vehicle has entered the waste tank, it unfolds and lands on the waste surface or tank floor to become a remotely operated mini-bulldozer. Houdini{trademark} utilizes a vehicle mounted plow blade and 6-DOF manipulator to mobile waste and carry other tooling such as sluicing pumps, excavation buckets, and hydraulic shears. The complete Houdini{trademark} system consists of the tracked vehicle and other support equipment (e.g., control console, deployment system, hydraulic power supply, and controller) necessary to deploy and remotely operate this system at any DOE site. Inside the storage tanks, the system is capable of performing heel removal, waste mobilization, waste size reduction, and other tank waste retrieval and decommissioning tasks. The first Houdini{trademark} system was delivered on September 24, 1996 to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The system acceptance test was successfully performed at a cold test facility at ORNL. After completion of the cold test program and the training of site personnel, ORNL will deploy the system for clean-up and remediation of the Gunite storage tanks.

  5. Geomorphology of the Elwha River and its Delta: Chapter 3 in Coastal habitats of the Elwha River, Washington--biological and physical patterns and processes prior to dam removal (United States)

    Warrick, Jonathan A.; Draut, Amy E.; McHenry, Michael L.; Miller, Ian M.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Beirne, Matthew M.; Stevens, Andrew Stevens; Logan, Joshua B.; Duda, Jeffrey J.; Warrick, Jonathan A.; Magirl, Christopher S.


    The removal of two dams on the Elwha River will introduce massive volumes of sediment to the river, and this increase in sediment supply in the river will likely modify the shapes and forms of the river and coastal landscape downstream of the dams. This chapter provides the geologic and geomorphologic background of the Olympic Peninsula and the Elwha River with emphasis on the present river and shoreline. The Elwha River watershed was formed through the uplift of the Olympic Mountains, erosion and movement of sediment throughout the watershed from glaciers, and downslope movement of sediment from gravitational and hydrologic forces. Recent alterations to the river morphology and sediment movement through the river include the two large dams slated to be removed in 2011, but also include repeated bulldozing of channel boundaries, construction and maintenance of flood plain levees, a weir and diversion channel for water supply purposes, and engineered log jams to help enhance river habitat for salmon. The shoreline of the Elwha River delta has changed in location by several kilometers during the past 14,000 years, in response to variations in the local sea-level of approximately 150 meters. Erosion of the shoreline has accelerated during the past 80 years, resulting in landward movement of the beach by more than 200 meters near the river mouth, net reduction in the area of coastal wetlands, and the development of an armored low-tide terrace of the beach consisting primarily of cobble. Changes to the river and coastal morphology during and following dam removal may be substantial, and consistent, long-term monitoring of these systems will be needed to characterize the effects of the dam removal project.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. I. Zhdanovich


    Full Text Available Dependence of tractor wheel torque on theoretical tractor motion speed has been used for comparison of tractor operation with electromechanical transmission with installation of energy accumulating mechanism and without its installation. In this case a traction asynchronous electric motor is operating under nominal and limit conditions. The paper also considers dependence diagrams of actual input power for the traction asynchronous electric motor and its losses due to theoretical tractor motion speed. Tractor wheel torque is limited during the operation of the traction asynchronous electric motor with energy accumulating mechanisms by the following factors: maximum electric motor torque at the given frequency of supply voltage; maximum value of internal combustion motor output which can be transferred to the traction asynchronous electric motor; grip of the wheels. During the operation of the traction asynchronous electric motor with energy accumulating mechanisms there is a possibility for short power consumption without regard to the second limitation because it is possible to use power not only of internal combustion motor but also the power which is stored in the energy accumulating mechanisms. Comparison of characteristics has been made when a tractor is operating at high gear and when it is operating at all gears (that is two gears. Operation of the 5th class tractors has been analyzed for all possible cases (operation with energy accumulating mechanisms and without the mechanisms while being operated at all gears and various types of work: tilling, sowing, cultivation, bulldozing work, transport mode. In this case equipment has been used which is aggregated with the 5th class tractor. 

  7. Lithology, fault displacement, and origin of secondary calcium carbonate and opaline silica at Trenches 14 and 14D on the Bow Ridge Fault at Exile Hill, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, E.M.; Huckins, H.E.


    Yucca Mountain, a proposed site for a high-level nuclear-waste repository, is located in southern Nevada, 20 km east of Beatty, and adjacent to the southwest comer of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) (fig. 1). Yucca Mountain is located within the Basin and Range province of the western United States. The climate is semiarid, and the flora is transitional between that of the Mojave Desert to the south and the Great Basin Desert to the north. As part of the evaluation, hydrologic conditions, especially water levels, of Yucca Mountain and vicinity during the Quaternary, and especially the past 20,000 years, are being characterized. In 1982, the US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy (under interagency agreement DE-A104-78ET44802), excavated twenty-six bulldozer and backhoe trenches in the Yucca Mountain region to evaluate the nature and frequency of Quaternary faulting (Swadley and others, 1984). The trenches were oriented perpendicular to traces of suspected Quaternary faults and across projections of known bedrock faults into Quaternary deposits. Trench 14 exposes the Bow Ridge Fault on the west side of Exile Hill. Although the original purpose of the excavation of trench 14 was to evaluate the nature and frequency of Quaternary faulting on the Bow Ridge Fault, concern arose as to whether or not the nearly vertical calcium carbonate (the term ``carbonate`` in this study refers to calcium carbonate) and opaline silica veins in the fault zone were deposited by ascending waters (ground water). These veins resemble in gross morphology veins commonly formed by hydrothermal processes.

  8. Hydraulic manipulator design, analysis, and control at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Robotics and Process Systems Div.; Love, L.J. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States); Basher, A.M.H. [South Carolina State Univ., Orangeburg, SC (United States)


    To meet the increased payload capacities demanded by present-day tasks, manipulator designers have turned to hydraulics as a means of actuation. Hydraulics have always been the actuator of choice when designing heavy-life construction and mining equipment such as bulldozers, backhoes, and tunneling devices. In order to successfully design, build, and deploy a new hydraulic manipulator (or subsystem) sophisticated modeling, analysis, and control experiments are usually needed. To support the development and deployment of new hydraulic manipulators Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has outfitted a significant experimental laboratory and has developed the software capability for research into hydraulic manipulators, hydraulic actuators, hydraulic systems, modeling of hydraulic systems, and hydraulic controls. The hydraulics laboratory at ORNL has three different manipulators. First is a 6-Degree-of-Freedom (6-DoF), multi-planer, teleoperated, flexible controls test bed used for the development of waste tank clean-up manipulator controls, thermal studies, system characterization, and manipulator tracking. Finally, is a human amplifier test bed used for the development of an entire new class of teleoperated systems. To compliment the hardware in the hydraulics laboratory, ORNL has developed a hydraulics simulation capability including a custom package to model the hydraulic systems and manipulators for performance studies and control development. This paper outlines the history of hydraulic manipulator developments at ORNL, describes the hydraulics laboratory, discusses the use of the equipment within the laboratory, and presents some of the initial results from experiments and modeling associated with these hydraulic manipulators. Included are some of the results from the development of the human amplifier/de-amplifier concepts, the characterization of the thermal sensitivity of hydraulic systems, and end-point tracking accuracy studies. Experimental and analytical

  9. The effects of beach nourishment on benthic invertebrates in eastern Australia: impacts and variable recovery. (United States)

    Schlacher, Thomas A; Noriega, Rocio; Jones, Alan; Dye, Theresa


    Beach erosion is likely to accelerate, driven by predicted consequences of climate change and coastal development. Erosion is increasingly combated by beach nourishment, adding sand to eroding shores. Because a range of engineering techniques exists to nourish beaches, and because these techniques differ in their environmental effects, assessments of ecological impacts need to be tailored and specific. Here we report on impacts and recovery of benthic invertebrates impacted by beach nourishment operations undertaken at Palm Beach (SE Queensland, Australia). Assessments are made based on a beyond-BACI design, where samples were taken once before nourishment and twice afterwards at the impact and two control sites. Because almost all of the sand was deposited on the upper beach and later moved with bulldozers down-shore, we specifically examined whether the effects of nourishment varied at different heights of the beach-a little-studied question which has management implications. Impacts on the fauna were massive on the upper and middle levels of the beach: samples collected two days after the conclusion of nourishment were entirely devoid of all invertebrate life ('azoic'), whereas weaker effects of nourishment were detectable on the lower shore. Recovery after five months also varied between shore levels. The sediment of the upper level near the dunes remained azoic, the fauna of the middle shore had recovered partially, and the lower level had recovered in most respects. These findings indicate that the height and position of sand placement are important. For example, rather than depositing fill sand on the intertidal beach, it could be placed in the shallow subtidal zone, followed by slow up-shore accretion driven by hydrodynamic forces. Alternatively, techniques that spread the fill sand in thin layers (to minimize mortality by burial) and leave unfilled intertidal refuge islands (to provide colonists) may minimize the ecological impacts of beach nourishment

  10. Field evaluations of hearing protection devices at surface mining environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    A study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of circumaural hearing protection devices and their predictability when they were being worn by mine employees performing normal work duties. The method employed relied on a physical measurement of the noise reduction of the hearing protectors by utilizing two FM-wireless transmitting and receiving systems. One system measured the outside hearing protector noise level, the second system measured the inside hearing protector noise level. The noise level data of both systems was transmitted back to the corresponding receivers and was recorded onto a two-channel tape recorder. Three methods of evaluating hearing protector performance were explored and compared to the Environmental Protection Agency, Noise Reduction Rating (EPA NRR) values. They were, (1) predicted National Institute for occupational Safety and Health`s (NIOSH) method No. 1 values, (2) field-calculated NIOSH No. 1 values, and (3) measured dBA reduction values, which was the arithmetic A-weighted differences between both microphone locations. The majority of the data was obtained on operators of mobile strip equipment, such as bulldozers, front-end-loaders, and overburden drills. A total of 107 individual tests were conducted using 11 different hearing protectors. The results indicate that the amount of protection, which can vary significantly, is related either to the spectrum shape of the noise, or the C-weighted minus the A-weighted (C-A) value. This is consistent with other researchers. The field measured noise reductions were equivalent to the EPA NRR values when the C-A values were negative or approaching zero. When the C-A values increased, the measured noise reductions significantly decreased.

  11. Understanding three decades of land use changes and a cloudburst in Phewa Lake Watershed, Western Nepal (United States)

    Sudmeier-Rieux, Karen; Tonini, Marj; Vulliez, Cindy; Sanjaya, Devkota; Derron, Marc-Henri; Jaboyedoff, Michel


    This paper details an extreme rainfall event, or cloudburst (315 mm/ 24 hours) which occurred on July 29-30, 2015 in the Phewa Lake Watershed, Western Nepal, three months after the April 25, 2015 Gorkha Earthquake. The event triggered over 170 landslides and debris flows, caused 8 deaths and considerable damage to livelihoods. The fatal debris flow started from one of the numerous rural roads, which have proliferated exponentially over the past decades. In addition to mapping landslides due to this extreme rainfall event, our study sought to document and analyze underlying natural and human land use factors that may have impacted the occurrence of landsliding (Vulliez et al submitted). To do so, our study analyzed land cover/ land use changes for the period 1979-2016 based on an interpretation of aerial photos and satellite images, combined with ground truthing. We studied how land use / land cover changes have resulted in a shift of active erosion zones from overgrazing around streams and forests to an exponential number of small failures along unplanned earthen rural roads, or "bulldozer roads". With several hundred small failures documented along roadsides (Leibundgut et al., 2016) as compared to only 14 landslides prior to 2015 extreme rainfall event - and none triggered by the 2015 earthquake - roads are thus a major driver of active erosion zones and small failures in the watershed. More effective management of the current unsustainable mode of rural road construction is required to reduce further environmental and economic impacts on vulnerable populations in Nepal. Leibundgut, G., Sudmeier-Rieux, K. Devkota, S., Jaboyedoff, M., Derron, M-H., Penna, I. Nguyen, L. (2016). Rural earthen roads impact assessment in Phewa watershed, Western region, Nepal. Geoenvironmental Disasters (2016) 3:13. DOI 10.1186/s40677-016-0047-8 Vulliez, C, Tonini, M., Sudmeier-Rieux, K. Devkota, S., Derron, M-H, Jaboyedoff, M. (submitted) Land use changes, landslides and roads in the

  12. Effectiveness of the GAEC standard of cross compliance Prohibition of performing unauthorized land levelling on soil erosion control

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    Paolo Bazzoffi


    Full Text Available The GAEC standard land levelling under authorization of cross compliance prohibits farmers from levelling land through bulldozing without a specific permission issued by the proper territorial authority. The aim of the standard is to ensure the protection of soil from accelerated erosion that almost always occurs when land is levelled without conservative criteria. Land levelling prior to planting or replanting specialized crops, especially orchards, is indicated by agronomists as essential to the full mechanization of cultivation and harvesting operations and the success of economic investment. Land levelling leads to a deep modification of the hill slopes, so it may produce serious damage to the environment if carried out in the absence of a carefully planned design. In other words, a design that takes the aspects of soil conservation into account, especially for steep hill slopes where the insite and offsite environmental impacts of soil erosion may be more pronounced. With regard to the areas involved, land levelling plays a key role on a national scale, one only needs to think of the vineyards planted on the country’s hill slopes, which in 1970 covered an area of 793,000 hectares. Moreover, despite the continued reduction in areas planted with vines, from 1990 to 2002 the area devoted to DOC and DOCG wines increased by about 29% and the average size of vineyards has also increased. This is a clear sign of the current trend, with the transition from the family model to the industrial model of orchard management, with extensive use of machinery and thus the use of bulldozers for levelling. The authorization topic, on which the standard of compliance is based, is analysed in detail. In summary we can say that, according to law, the permit required by the GAEC standard is currently mandatory only for those areas subject to the Hydrogeological constraint (Royal decree 30 December 1923 No. 3267 and for parks or other areas for which the

  13. Analysis of recurring sinking events of armored tracked vehicles along dirt roads in the agricultural periphery of the Gaza Strip (United States)

    Roskin, Joel


    The second (Al-Aqsa) intifada (Arab violent uprising) which erupted across Israel in 2000 eventually led the Israel Defense Forces to deploy armored tracked vehicles (ATVs) (tanks, armored personal carriers, and D-9 bulldozers) within Israel's agricultural periphery of the Gaza Strip, following daily attempts by Arab terrorists and guerillas to penetrate Israel. Combat movement of the ATVs was mainly concentrated to dirt roads, between agricultural fields, wherever possible. As a result of semi-arid Mediterranean (climate) winter rains, annually averaging 250 - 350 mm, it was reported that ATVs often sank in muddy terrain. This study investigated what caused ATVs to sink. The main data collected concerning the types of vehicles that sank related to: land-use characteristics, soil type, and daily rainfall. Interviews with commanders were also conducted for additional details. Between the fall and spring, surveys and weekly / bi-weekly field soil cone penetrometer tests were conducted at ten sites with different pedological and land-use characteristics. The loess soils, especially in agricultural fields, were generally found to be conducive to ATV traffic, even shortly after rainstorms of 10-30 mm. However, following several rainfall events exceeding 10 mm, ATVs and tanks regularly sank into local topographic depressions in the undulating landscape. These consisted of short segments of dirt roads where runoff and suspended sediment collected. After the early rains in late fall, tank ruts fossilize and become conduits of concentrated runoff and fine particles eroded by ATV activity during the summer months. Tank track ruts that formed in mud, compacted the soil, drastically altered drainage patterns by directing significant surface flow, and suspended sediment into these depressions, creating "tank-traps" whose trafficability ranged from "untrafficable" to "trafficable with constraints." This study shows that intense, routine, defensive military activity operated

  14. An evolving research agenda for human-coastal systems (United States)

    Lazarus, Eli D.; Ellis, Michael A.; Brad Murray, A.; Hall, Damon M.


    Within the broad discourses of environmental change, sustainability science, and anthropogenic Earth-surface systems, a focused body of work involves the coupled economic and physical dynamics of developed shorelines. Rapid rates of change in coastal environments, from wetlands and deltas to inlets and dune systems, help researchers recognize, observe, and investigate coupling in natural (non-human) morphodynamics and biomorphodynamics. This same intrinsic quality of fast-paced change also makes developed coastal zones exemplars of observable coupling between physical processes and human activities. In many coastal communities, beach erosion is a natural hazard with economic costs that coastal management counters through a variety of mitigation strategies, including beach replenishment, groynes, revetments, and seawalls. As cycles of erosion and mitigation iterate, coastline change and economically driven interventions become mutually linked. Emergent dynamics of two-way economic-physical coupling is a recent research discovery. Having established a strong theoretical basis, research into coupled human-coastal systems has passed its early proof-of-concept phase. This paper frames three major challenges that need resolving in order to advance theoretical and empirical treatments of human-coastal systems: (1) codifying salient individual and social behaviors of decision-making in ways that capture societal actions across a range of scales (thus engaging economics, social science, and policy disciplines); (2) quantifying anthropogenic effects on alongshore and cross-shore sediment pathways and long-term landscape evolution in coastal zones through time, including direct measurement of cumulative changes to sediment cells resulting from coastal development and management practices (e.g., construction of buildings and artificial dunes, bulldozer removal of overwash after major storms); and (3) reciprocal knowledge and data exchange between researchers in coastal

  15. Paleoseismology in Venezuela: Objectives, methods, applications, limitations and perspectives (United States)

    Audemard M., Franck A.


    The privileged location of Venezuela along an active interplate deformation belt, despite of being a "so-called" developing country, has led to a long paleoseismic tradition as attested by 45 trench assessments since 1968. Since then, a first 2-trench study was carried out by the American Woodward-Clyde company across the Oca fault at Sinamaica. Since 1980, all further paleoseismic studies have been performed by FUNVISIS and the Uribante-Caparo hydroelectric project (southern Mérida Andes) became their first assessment where 22 huge trenches were bulldozer-dug. Except for these Compañía Anónima de Administración y Fomento Eléctrico (CADAFE) financed trenches and two others, all other assessments were for Petróleos de Venezuela S. A. -PDVSA-. In this paper, geographic and geologic factors, as well as logistic limitations, conditioning success in paleoseismic studies by trenching, shall be discussed based on the Venezuelan experience developed over the years. The scientific contribution of this approach refer to: confirmation of Holocene fault activity, slip-per-event and average slip rate of a given fault (or segment), seismic potential (repeat of maximum credible earthquakes) of known faults, fault segmentation, fault interaction as consequence of stress loading by stick-slip on contiguous faults, time-space distribution of seismic activity along a given tectonic feature, seismotectonic association of historical earthquakes and landscape evolution on the short term and its implications on the long-term evolution (poorly discussed since this is really part of the field of Neotectonics). In recent years (since 1999), a new approach has been introduced in Venezuela consisting in complementing the seismic history derived from trenching studies with the evaluation of seismically induced perturbations in the continuous Quaternary sedimentary record of (either active or fossil) lakes. The future of this discipline in Venezuela heads to more trenching and lake

  16. Relating rock avalanche morphology to emplacement processes (United States)

    Dufresne, Anja; Prager, Christoph; Bösmeier, Annette


    The morphology, structure and sedimentological characteristics of rock avalanche deposits reflect both internal emplacement processes and external influences, such as runout path characteristics. The latter is mainly predisposed by topography, substrate types, and hydrogeological conditions. Additionally, the geological setting at the source slope controls, e.g. the spatial distribution of accumulated lithologies and hence material property-related changes in morphology, or the maximum clast size and amount of fines of different lithological units. The Holocene Tschirgant rock avalanche (Tyrol, Austria) resulted from failure of an intensely deformed carbonate rock mass on the southeast face of a 2,370-m-high mountain ridge. The initially sliding rock mass rapidly fragmented as it moved towards the floor of the Inn River valley. Part of the 200-250 x 106 m3 (Patzelt 2012) rock avalanche debris collided with and moved around an opposing bedrock ridge and flowed into the Ötz valley, reaching up to 6.3 km from source. Where the Tschirgant rock avalanche spread freely it formed longitudinal ridges aligned along motion direction as well as smaller hummocks. Encountering high topography, it left runup ridges, fallback patterns (i.e. secondary collapse), and compressional morphology (successively elevated, transverse ridges). Further evidence for the mechanical landslide behaviour is given by large volumes of mobilized valley-fill sediments (polymict gravels and sands). These sediments indicate both shearing and compressional faulting within the rock avalanche mass (forming their own morphological units through, e.g. in situ bulldozing or as distinctly different hummocky terrain), but also indicate extension of the spreading landslide mass (i.e. intercalated/injected gravels encountered mainly in morphological depressions between hummocks). Further influences on its morphology are given by the different lithological units. E.g. the transition from massive dolomite

  17. CO2lonialismo y geografías de esperanza

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    Julianne Hazlewood


    Full Text Available Este artículo nos lleva, más allá de la crisis económica, hacia el calentamiento global y nos advierte de un problema profundo: un defecto estructural en el capitalismo. Vinculando teóricamente cambio climático, colonialismo y capitalismo, se estudia a San Lorenzo como una frontera agrícola en la que el CO2lonialismo se despliega a través del cultivo de palma aceitera y la producción de agrocombustibles. Esta investigación resalta las prácticas culturales y espaciales a través de las cuales las comunidades afro-ecuatoriana, chachi, y awá construyen y sostienen “geografías de esperanza” en medio de bosques talados, ríos envenenados y conflictos sociales. A través de la exposición detallada de la deuda ecológica del Norte global con el Sur global, este artículo condena discursos y acciones que se enfocan en el mejoramiento del clima económico mientras arrasan los bosques húmedos, las prácticas culturales de vida de las comunidades y las soluciones reales al cambio climático.This paper takes us beyond the present economic crisis to where global warming warns of a much more profound problem: a structural flaw in capitalism. Theoretically linking relations between climate change, colonialism, and capitalism, San Lorenzo is investigated as an agricultural frontier where “CO2lonialism” unfolds in African oil palm cultivation and agrofuel production. This research highlights the cultural and spatial practices through which Afro-Ecuadorian, Chachi, and Awá communities construct and sustain “geographies of hope” amid landscapes of fallen forests, poisoned rivers and social conflicts. Expounding on the ecological debt of the Global North to the Global South, this paper condemns discourses and actions that solely focus on improving the economic climate while bulldozing rainforests, livelihoods, and real solutions to climate change.

  18. Phase I Archaeological Investigation Cultural Resources Survey, Hawaii Geothermal Project, Makawao and Hana Districts, South Shore of Maui, Hawaii (DRAFT )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erkelens, Conrad


    This report details the archaeological investigation of a 200 foot wide sample corridor extending approximately 9 miles along the southern portion of Maui within the present districts of Hana and Makawao. A total of 51 archaeological sites encompassing 233 surface features were documented. A GPS receiver was used to accurately and precisely plot locations for each of the documented sites. Analysis of the locational information suggests that archaeological sites are abundant throughout the region and only become scarce where vegetation has been bulldozed for ranching activities. At the sea-land transition points for the underwater transmission cable, both Ahihi Bay and Huakini Bay are subjected to seasonal erosion and redeposition of their boulder shorelines. The corridor at the Ahihi Bay transition point runs through the Moanakala Village Complex which is an archaeological site on the State Register of Historic Places within a State Natural Area Reserve. Numerous other potentially significant archaeological sites lie within the project corridor. It is likely that rerouting of the corridor in an attempt to avoid known sites would result in other undocumented sites located outside the sample corridor being impacted. Given the distribution of archaeological sites, there is no alternative route that can be suggested that is likely to avoid encountering sites. A total of twelve charcoal samples were obtained for potential taxon identification and radiocarbon analysis. Four of these samples were subsequently submitted for dating and species identification. Bird bone from various locations within a lava tube were collected for identification. Sediment samples for subsequent pollen analysis were obtained from within two lava tubes. With these three sources of information it is hoped that paleoenvironmental data can be recovered that will enable a better understanding of the setting for Hawaiian habitation of the area. A small test unit was excavated at one habitation site

  19. Real-world emissions of in-use off-road vehicles in Mexico. (United States)

    Zavala, Miguel; Huertas, Jose Ignacio; Prato, Daniel; Jazcilevich, Aron; Aguilar, Andrés; Balam, Marco; Misra, Chandan; Molina, Luisa T


    Off-road vehicles used in construction and agricultural activities can contribute substantially to emissions of gaseous pollutants and can be a major source of submicrometer carbonaceous particles in many parts of the world. However, there have been relatively few efforts in quantifying the emission factors (EFs) and for estimating the potential emission reduction benefits using emission control technologies for these vehicles. This study characterized the black carbon (BC) component of particulate matter and NOx, CO, and CO2 EFs of selected diesel-powered off-road mobile sources in Mexico under real-world operating conditions using on-board portable emissions measurements systems (PEMS). The vehicles sampled included two backhoes, one tractor, a crane, an excavator, two front loaders, two bulldozers, an air compressor, and a power generator used in the construction and agricultural activities. For a selected number of these vehicles the emissions were further characterized with wall-flow diesel particle filters (DPFs) and partial-flow DPFs (p-DPFs) installed. Fuel-based EFs presented less variability than time-based emission rates, particularly for the BC. Average baseline EFs in working conditions for BC, NOx, and CO ranged from 0.04 to 5.7, from 12.6 to 81.8, and from 7.9 to 285.7 g/kg-fuel, respectively, and a high dependency by operation mode and by vehicle type was observed. Measurement-base frequency distributions of EFs by operation mode are proposed as an alternative method for characterizing the variability of off-road vehicles emissions under real-world conditions. Mass-based reductions for black carbon EFs were substantially large (above 99%) when DPFs were installed and the vehicles were idling, and the reductions were moderate (in the 20-60% range) for p-DPFs in working operating conditions. The observed high variability in measured EFs also indicates the need for detailed vehicle operation data for accurately estimating emissions from off

  20. The Palestinian mammalian fauna acquired by the zoological gardens in the Gaza Strip

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    Full Text Available Abd Rabou AFN. 2011. The Palestinian mammalian fauna acquired by the zoological gardens in the Gaza Strip. Nusantara Bioscience 3: 82-91. The Gaza Strip, which is an arid strip of the Palestinian land along the southeastern Mediterranean, harbors a considerable number of mammalian fauna due to its eco-geo-strategic position. Prior to 2006, the establishment of zoological gardens in the Gaza Strip was a sort of imagination due to Israeli constraints. These constraints were nurtured by the total Israeli destruction and demolition of the Rafah and Gaza private zoological gardens in 2004 and 2009 respectively, using heavy tanks and bulldozers. The establishment of many zoological gardens following the Israeli evacuation from the Gaza Strip in late 2005 encouraged wildlife trading. Hence, the current study comes to document the Palestinian mammalian faunistic species acquired by the zoological gardens in the Gaza Strip through frequent visits to Gaza zoological gardens and meetings with local people, wildlife hunters and zoo owners. A total number of 17 Palestinian mammalian faunistic species belonging to 12 families and 5 orders was encountered in the zoological gardens throughout the study period. The encountered species represent a good mix of the families and sizes of mammals generally found in other parts of Palestine. Order Carnivora represents 52.94% of the caged mammals, while the orders Rodentia, Lagomorpha, Artiodactyla and Insectivora represent 47.06%. The study documented the first sight of the Greater Egyptian Gerbil Gerbillus pyramidis in the Gaza Strip. Local hunting, tunnel trade and delivery were the lonely sources of the mammals encountered in the zoological gardens. The economic deprivation under the current Israeli blockade and the poor implementation of environmental laws and legislations concerning wildlife protection have made wildlife trading as a common practice. Finally, The author recommends to improving the management

  1. Short term recovery of soil physical, chemical, micro- and mesobiological functions in a new vineyard under organic farming (United States)

    Costantini, E. A. C.; Agnelli, A. E.; Fabiani, A.; Gagnarli, E.; Mocali, S.; Priori, S.; Simoni, S.; Valboa, G.


    Deep earthwork activities carried out before vineyard plantation can severely upset soil profile properties. As a result, soil features in the root environment are often much more similar to those of the underlying substratum than those of the original profile. The time needed to recover the original soil functions is ecologically relevant and may strongly affect vine phenology and grape yield, particularly under organic viticulture. The general aim of this work was to investigate soil resilience after vineyard pre-planting earthworks. In particular, an old and a new vineyard, established on the same soil type, were compared over a five year period for soil chemical, physical, micro and mesobiological properties. The investigated vineyards (Vitis vinifera L., cv. Sangiovese) were located in the Chianti Classico district (Central Italy), on stony and calcareous soils and were not irrigated. The older vineyard was planted in 2000, after slope reshaping by bulldozing and back hoe ploughing down to about 0.8-1.0 m. The new vineyard was planted in 2011, after equivalent earthwork practices carried out in the summer of 2009. Both vineyards were organically managed and fertilized only with compost every autumn (1000 kg ha-1 per year). The new vineyard was cultivated by periodic tillage, while the old vineyard was managed with alternating grass-covered and tilled inter-rows. Soil samples were collected at 0-15 cm depth from the same plots of the new and old vineyards, during the springtime from 2010 to 2014. The old vineyard was sampled in both the tilled and the grass-covered swaths. According to the results from physical and chemical analyses, the new vineyard, during the whole 2010-2014 period, showed lower TOC, N, C/N and EC values, along with higher silt and total CaCO3 contents than the old vineyard, suggesting still evolving equilibrium conditions. The microarthropod analysis showed significantly different abundances and communities' structures, in relation to both

  2. Structural Architecturing of the Western Khisor Range, North of Saiyiduwali: Implications for Hydrocarbon Prospects, KPK, Pakistan

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    Iftikhar Alam


    Full Text Available Western Khisor Range segment of the Trans-Indus ranges is a south-vergent, east-west trending foldthrust belt that protrudes southward into Himalayan foreland deep. The frontal flanks of range are characterized by east-west trending parallel to enechelon, plunging local anticlines and synclines structures. General structural style of folds was observed asymmetric to overturn and dominantly south vergent. The frontal outskirts of the study area is demarcated by a youngest partly emergent thrust fault named as Khisor Thrust. Outcrops projection to subsurface of the structural features suggests a thin-skinned tectonic mechanism for growth of the western Khisor Range where gliding surface for the frontal thrust sheet being located within the Cambrian rocks of Jhelum Group at a maximum depth of 4km. The structural evolution of the western Khisor Range is generally ascribed to southward directed thrust transferral system along the basal décollement being observed at base of the Cambrian Khewra Sandstone. Along this detachment horizon the Khewra Sandstone emplaced over the Recent alluvium and boulder bed deposits. The Khisor Thrust fault bulldozed the fore limb of the Saiyiduwali Anticline and demarcates the north-western proximity of the Punjab Foredeep. The Khisor Thrust sheet is predominantly comprised of the shallow marine rocks of Paleozoic to Mesozoic, laterally extended along the range. The stratigraphic framework of the western Khisor Range is considerably related and correlative to the eastern Trans-Indus and Salt ranges. Cambrian strata of the western Khisor Range comprise of Jhelum Group where its apex is underlain by the Permian Nilawahan and Zaluch groups rocks, consists of the Sardhai and Amb formations. The Sardhai Formation was observed 50m thick and consists of dark gray to blackish gray and black carbonaceous shale while the lower constituents of the Amb Formation contains dark gray carbonaceous and calcareous shale up to 30m thick

  3. Sustainability of land reclamation measures in erosional badlands: A comparative perspective on semi-arid landscapes of South Morocco and Central India (United States)

    Marzolff, Irene; Pani, Padmini; Mohapatra, Surya; Ghafrani, Hassan; Aït Hssaine, Ali


    Semi-arid regions around the world, where gully erosion is a major land-degradation process, are particularly vulnerable to the effects of population growth and land-use change. In regions with high pressure on land as a resource - either due to population pressure or to agricultural intensification or both - erosion-affected areas are increasingly being reclaimed as agricultural land in an endeavour to turn marginal or unused land into fields, plantations, greenhouses or even building ground. Depending on the severity and depth of the erosion processes, this may be done by ploughing (for ephemeral gullying), land-levelling with bulldozers (for permanent gullies and badlands) or infilling with ex situ material (for large and deep gullies and badlands). The success of such measures, which also depends on subsequent soil-erosion protection, varies strongly and is not yet well researched. The little developed part of Lower Chambal Valley (Madhya Pradesh) is one of the four regions most badly affected by gully and badland erosion in India. Around 80% of the rural population are dependent on agriculture, an estimated 5000 km² are affected by gullies and badlands as deep as 80 m. Various land reclamation measures have been conducted on widely different spatial scales both by governmental and non-governmental agencies and individual farmers. However, the reclamation strategies of rich and poor farmers also exhibit significant differences, and agricultural use that often is based on short-term economic needs of households leads to inefficient land-use practices particularly in land-levelled and reclaimed areas. Although set in rural surroundings as well, the Souss Valley (South Morocco) is characterized by highly dynamic land-use changes with transformations from traditional agriculture to vast agro-industrial plantations of citrus fruits, bananas and vegetables. These plantations, as well as other arable land, are threatened by gullies and other forms of soil erosion

  4. The past, present and future of tsunami field surveys post-Samoa, 2009 (United States)

    Borrero, J. C.; Synolakis, C.; Okal, E.; Liu, P.; Titov, V. V.; Jaffe, B. E.; Fritz, H. M.


    During the past 17 years, field surveys following significant tsunamis have aimed to accurately document tsunami effects by gathering runup, inundation and sediment data while providing outreach and education to affected populations. Field observations have led to insights on tsunami dynamics which are now largely taken for granted, such as the existence of leading depression N-waves, the importance of beach topography to first order, underwater landslides as a tsunami source, and the value of public education in reducing deaths. For these surveys, an ad-hoc, interdisciplinary group of scientists under the banner of the International Tsunami Survey Team (ITST) aims to begin work in affected areas after search and rescue operations have ceased but before significant cleanup work begins. Time is of the essence in these efforts; in East Java 1994, bulldozers were cleaning up almost immediately, while in Samoa, after one week, a robust cleanup effort in some areas had left almost no evidence of the catastrophe. Eyewitness accounts, often used to provide input on wave kinematics, tend to rapidly converge on a common story rather than an individual's direct observation. The team works to quell rumors of impending tsunamis by organizing educational talks where the natural phenomenon is explained and simple steps for self-evacuation are repeated. When invited, debriefings are provided to local authorities (i.e. Nicaragua 1992, Mindoro 1994, PNG 1998, Vanuatu 1999, Peru 2001/2007, Sumatra 2004, Solomon 2007), and local scientists are engaged to be part of the survey team and generally included as coauthors on subsequent publications (i.e. Peru 2001/2007, PNG 2002, Sri Lanka 2005, Java 2006, Bengkulu 2007). In past surveys, logistics have ranged from difficult to nearly impossible (i.e. Somalia, 2005), yet outreach remains a priority; whether it is educating village chiefs in Vanuatu, relief managers in PNG, government ministers in the Maldives or assuring tribes in the


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariia Sadova


    of roads is impossible without the organization of effective operation of the road for mechanical engineering – heavy construction and earthmoving machinery. Currently in our country present its own engineering manufacturers of road construction equipment (among large – JSC "Kredmash", however, the domestic production of road is significantly inferior in terms of domestic consumption of products of foreign manufacturers of the road. Despite the fact that the price of domestic producers less than of imported ones an average in three times, including bulldozers, scrapers, cranes, crawler cars more than 50% (Komatsu, Hitachi, Mitsubishi and others.. Practical implications. The practical significance of the results of the study identifies opportunities to improve the efficiency of traffic control products quality enterprises construction and road engineering. Value/originality. Implementation of the proposed methods and approaches to the formation of the quality of the machine-building enterprise management strategy for road construction will improve the efficiency of quality control processes and the level of enterprise competitiveness.

  6. Impact of land-levelling measures on gully and soil erosion analysed by rainfall simulation and UAV remote sensing data in the Souss Basin, Morocco (United States)

    Peter, Klaus Daniel; d'Oleire-Oltmanns, Sebastian; Ries, Johannes B.; Marzolff, Irene; Hssaine, Ali Ait


    respectively) on levelled study sites compared to undisturbed sites. Consequently, the most active gullies with the highest gully erosion rates are also found on levelled test sites. For one of the test sites it can be stated that gully erosion accounts for up to 95 % of the total soil loss of the catchment. The surface area serves only as runoff source. The infilling of old gully systems is mostly done by transferring large amounts of soil material from the hillslopes into the channels. This may lower the soil surface in a gully catchment by about 10 cm on average. Runoff water often follows the old pathways. Thus, infilled gully systems tend to be re-activated very fast. The freshly provided soil material can easily be eroded. Additionally, the bulldozer furrows lead to parallel drainage network patterns in the development of new side gullies.

  7. MaMiCo: Software design for parallel molecular-continuum flow simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Neumann, Philipp


    The macro-micro-coupling tool (MaMiCo) was developed to ease the development of and modularize molecular-continuum simulations, retaining sequential and parallel performance. We demonstrate the functionality and performance of MaMiCo by coupling the spatially adaptive Lattice Boltzmann framework waLBerla with four molecular dynamics (MD) codes: the light-weight Lennard-Jones-based implementation SimpleMD, the node-level optimized software ls1 mardyn, and the community codes ESPResSo and LAMMPS. We detail interface implementations to connect each solver with MaMiCo. The coupling for each waLBerla-MD setup is validated in three-dimensional channel flow simulations which are solved by means of a state-based coupling method. We provide sequential and strong scaling measurements for the four molecular-continuum simulations. The overhead of MaMiCo is found to come at 10%-20% of the total (MD) runtime. The measurements further show that scalability of the hybrid simulations is reached on up to 500 Intel SandyBridge, and more than 1000 AMD Bulldozer compute cores. Program summary: Program title: MaMiCo. Catalogue identifier: AEYW_v1_0. Program summary URL: Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen\\'s University, Belfast, N. Ireland. Licensing provisions: BSD License. No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 67905. No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1757334. Distribution format: tar.gz. Programming language: C, C++II. Computer: Standard PCs, compute clusters. Operating system: Unix/Linux. RAM: Test cases consume ca. 30-50 MB. Classification: 7.7. External routines: Scons (, ESPResSo, LAMMPS, ls1 mardyn, waLBerla. Nature of problem: Coupled molecular-continuum simulation for multi-resolution fluid dynamics: parts of the domain are resolved by molecular dynamics whereas large parts are covered by a CFD solver, e.g. a lattice Boltzmann automaton

  8. Numerical Modelling by FLAC on Coal Fires in North China (United States)

    Gusat, D.; Drebenstedt, C.


    coal mine with the backfill. A smaller fires can also be handled by taking out burning coal by bulldozing techniques described above are applicable to small fires, but they do not work well in extinction of large coal fires. References [1] [2] Schalke, H.J.W.G.; Rosema, A.; Van Genderen, J.L. (1993): Environmental monitoring of coal fires in North China. Project Identification Mission Report. Report Remote Sensing Programme Board, Derft, the Netherlands. [3] Zhang, X.; Kroonenberg, S. B.; De Boer, C. B. (2004): Dating of coal fires in Xinjiang, north-west China. Terra Nova. Band 16, No 2, S. 68-74. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3121.2004.00532.x [4] Deng Jun, Hou Shuang, Li Huirong, e.t.c (2006): Oxidation Mechanism at Initial Stage of a Simulated Coal Molecule with -CH2O-[J]. Journal of Changchun University of Science and Technology, 29(2), P. 84-87. [5] Deng, Jun (2008): Presentation. Chinese Researches and Practical Experiences on Controlling Underground Coal Fires. The 2nd Australia-China Symposium on Science, Technology and Education. 15-18 October 2008, Courtyard Marriott, Surfers Paradise Beach, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia. [6] Itasca (2003): FLAC, Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua. Itasca Consultants Group, Inc., Minneapolis.

  9. Rangelands management in Spanish Natura 2000 sites. (United States)

    Hernando Gallego, A.; Tejera Gimeno, R.; Velázquez Saornil, J.; Núñez Martí, V.; Grande Vega, M.


    features such as vital functions, restoration, floral richness and structure. Finally, the implemented management plan proposes a sustainable solution to restore the habitat and maintain the livestock. Conversion by thinning on coppice forest to high forest is a popular recommendation by expert managers. It is proposed in high polewood (with B: inconvenient conservation status), sapling (A) and coppice tall shrubs (C) during the first fifteen years. Low-intensity thinning on sprouts, less than 35% of the basal area. Besides, the cattle will be led to these areas to control the sprouts. Low polewood (C) is left to grow with livestock and only the best trees will survive. Oak shrubland will be tested. The main purpose is avoiding the whole forest to become a coppice forest (C) without acorn regeneration. Therefore oak shrubland will be fenced and different measures tested (brush out, bulldozer scalping, intensive and medium thinning and no treatment) in order to choose the most suitable one for future management. In conclusion, the proposed selvicultural measures use the livestock as a part of the solution to ensure biodiversity.

  10. Unplanned roads impacts assessment in Phewa Lake watershed, Western region, Nepal (United States)

    Leibundgut, Geoffroy; Sudmeier-Rieux, Karen; Devkota, Sanjaya; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Penna, Ivanna; Adhikari, Anu; Khanal, Rajendra


    This work describes current research being conducted in the Phewa Lake watershed, near Pokhara in Nepal's Siwaliks/Middle hills, a moist sub-tropical zone with the highest amount of annual rainfall in Nepal (4,500 - 5,000 mm). The watershed lithology is mainly siltstone, sandstones and intensively weathered rocks, highly prone to erosion and shallow landslides (Agrawala et al., 2003). The main purpose of this study is to focus on the impact of unplanned earthen road construction in the Phewa Lake watershed as part of land use changes over 30 years in one of Nepal's most touristic regions. Over the past three decades, the road network has expanded exponentially and a majority of rural earthen roads are often funded by communities themselves, with some government subsidies. They are usually constructed using a local bulldozer contractor with no technical or geological expertise increasing erosion processes, slope instabilities risk and impacts to settlements, forests, water sources, agriculture lands, and infrastructure. Moreover, these human-induced phenomena are being compounded by increasingly intense monsoon rains, likely due to climate change (Petley, 2010). Research methods were interdisciplinary and based on a combination of remote sensing, field observations and discussions with community members. The study compared 30 year-old aerial photos with current high resolution satellite images to correlate changes in land use with erosion and slope instabilities. Secondly, most of the watershed's roads were surveyed in order to inventory and quantify slope instabilities and soil loss events. Using a failure-characteristics grid, their main features were measured (location, size, type and extension of damage areas, etc.) and a GIS data base was created. We then estimated economic impacts of these events in terms of agriculture lands losses and road maintenance, based on field observations and discussions with affected people. Field work investigations have shown that

  11. Short-term recovery of soil physical, chemical, micro- and mesobiological functions in a new vineyard under organic farming (United States)

    Costantini, E. A. C.; Agnelli, A. E.; Fabiani, A.; Gagnarli, E.; Mocali, S.; Priori, S.; Simoni, S.; Valboa, G.


    Deep earthwork activities carried out before vineyard plantation can severely affect soil profile properties. As a result, soil features in the root environment are often much more similar to those of the underlying substratum than those of the original profile. The time needed to recover the original soil functions is ecologically relevant and may strongly affect vine phenology and grape yield, particularly under organic viticulture. The general aim of this work was to investigate soil resilience after vineyard pre-planting earthworks. In particular, an old and a new vineyard, established on the same soil type, were compared over a 5-year period for soil chemical, physical, micro- and mesobiological properties. The investigated vineyards (Vitis vinifera L., cv. Sangiovese) were located in the Chianti Classico district (central Italy), on stony and calcareous soils, and were not irrigated. The older vineyard was planted in 2000, after slope reshaping by bulldozing and back-hoe ploughing down to about 0.8-1.0 m. The new vineyard was planted in 2011, after equivalent earthwork practices carried out in the summer of 2009. Both vineyards were organically managed, and they were fertilized with compost only every autumn (1000 kg ha-1 per year). The new vineyard was cultivated by periodic tillage, while the old vineyard was managed with alternating grass-covered and tilled inter-rows. Soil samples were collected at 0-15 cm depth from fixed locations in each vineyard every spring from 2010 to 2014. The old vineyard was sampled in both tilled and grass-covered inter-rows. According to the results from physical and chemical analyses, the new vineyard, during the whole 2010-2014 period, showed lower total organic carbon, total nitrogen, carbon to nitrogen ratio and electrical conductivity, along with higher silt and total CaCO3 contents than the old vineyard, suggesting still-evolving equilibrium conditions. The microarthropod analysis showed significantly different

  12. Short term recovery of soil biological functions in a new vineyard cultivated in organic farming (United States)

    Costantini, Edoardo; Agnelli, Alessandro; Fabiani, Arturo; Gagnarli, Elena; Mocali, Stefano; Priori, Simone; Simoni, Sauro; Valboa, Giuseppe


    Deep earthwork activities carried out before vineyard plantation completely upset soil profile and characteristics. The resulting soil features are often much more similar to the underlying substratum than original soil profile. The time needed to recover soil functions is ecologically relevant and affects vine phenology and grape yield, particularly in organic viticulture. The general aim of this research work was to investigate the time needed to recover soil functions after the earthworks made before vine plantation. This study compared for a four years period physical and chemical properties, microbial and mesofauna communities, in new and old vineyards, cultivated on the same soil type. The experiment was conducted in a farm of the Chianti Classico district (Central Italy), on hills of high altitude (400-500 m a.s.l.) on clayey-calcareous flysches, with stony and calcareous soils (Haplic Cambisol (Calcaric, Skeletic)). The reference vine cultivar was Sangiovese. The older vineyard was planted in 2000, after slope reshaping by bulldozing and back hoe ploughing down to about 0.8-1.0 m. The new vineyard was planted in 2011 after an equivalent earthwork carried out in the summer of 2009. Both vineyards were organically managed and only compost at the rate of 1,000 kg ha-1 -a was added every year. The new vineyard was periodically cultivated by mechanical tillage, while the older only at alternate rows. Soil samples from the first 15 cm depth were collected in 4 replicates in the younger as well as in the older vineyard during the springtime of 2010-2013; in the older vineyard, two samples were from the periodically cultivated swaths and two under permanent grass cover. Samples were analysed for physical (particle size, field capacity, wilting point), chemical (pH, electrical conductivity, lime, active lime, organic carbon, total nitrogen), microbiological (soil respiration, microbial biomass, DGGE), and mesofauna features (abundance, taxa richness, BSQ index and

  13. Cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al exposure ages of tors and erratics, Cairngorm Mountains, Scotland: Timescales for the development of a classic landscape of selective linear glacial erosion (United States)

    Phillips, W.M.; Hall, A.M.; Mottram, R.; Fifield, L.K.; Sugden, D.E.


    The occurrence of tors within glaciated regions has been widely cited as evidence for the preservation of relic pre-Quaternary landscapes beneath protective covers of non-erosive dry-based ice. Here, we test for the preservation of pre-Quaternary landscapes with cosmogenic surface exposure dating of tors. Numerous granite tors are present on summit plateaus in the Cairngorm Mountains of Scotland where they were covered by local ice caps many times during the Pleistocene. Cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al data together with geomorphic relationships reveal that these landforms are more dynamic and younger than previously suspected. Many Cairngorm tors have been bulldozed and toppled along horizontal joints by ice motion, leaving event surfaces on tor remnants and erratics that can be dated with cosmogenic nuclides. As the surfaces have been subject to episodic burial by ice, an exposure model based upon ice and marine sediment core proxies for local glacial cover is necessary to interpret the cosmogenic nuclide data. Exposure ages and weathering characteristics of tors are closely correlated. Glacially modified tors and boulder erratics with slightly weathered surfaces have 10Be exposure ages of about 15 to 43 ka. Nuclide inheritance is present in many of these surfaces. Correction for inheritance indicates that the eastern Cairngorms were deglaciated at 15.6 ?? 0.9 ka. Glacially modified tors with moderate to advanced weathering features have 10Be exposure ages of 19 to 92 ka. These surfaces were only slightly modified during the last glacial cycle and gained much of their exposure during the interstadial of marine Oxygen Isotope Stage 5 or earlier. Tors lacking evidence of glacial modification and exhibiting advanced weathering have 10Be exposure ages between 52 and 297 ka. Nuclide concentrations in these surfaces are probably controlled by bedrock erosion rates instead of discrete glacial events. Maximum erosion rates estimated from 10Be range from 2.8 to 12.0 mm/ka, with

  14. A New Perspective on Mount St. Helens - Dramatic Landform Change and Associated Hazards at the Most Active Volcano in the Cascade Range (United States)

    Ramsey, David W.; Driedger, Carolyn L.; Schilling, Steve P.


    south of the 1980-86 lava dome. The erupting lava cleaved Crater Glacier in half and bulldozed it aside, causing thickening, crevassing, and rapid northward advance of the glacier?s east and west arms. Intermittent steam and ash explosions, some generating plumes that rose up to 11 kilometers, preceded and accompanied extrusion of the new lava dome, but ceased by early 2005. As the new dome grew, a series of large fins or spines of hot lava rose, some more than 100 meters high, and then crumbled producing sometimes spectacular rock falls. The largest of these rock falls generated dust or steam plumes that rose high above the crater rim. By February 2006, the new dome had grown to a volume similar to that of the 1980-86 lava dome; and by July 2007, the new dome had grown to a volume of 93 million cubic meters, exceeding the volume of the 1980-86 lava dome. The height of the new dome also exceeded that of the 1980-86 lava dome, and at its highest point (before collapse in 2005) reached to within 2 meters of the lowest point on the south crater rim. At this height, the new dome was taller than the Empire State Building in New York City. The new lava dome initially grew very quickly, at rates of 2 to 3 cubic meters (one small dump truck load) per second. If it had continued to grow at these rates for about 100 years, it would have replaced the volume of rock removed from the volcano during the May 18, 1980, eruption. However, the lava extrusion rate slowed throughout the eruption, and, by July 2007, it was oozing at a rate of 0.1 cubic meters per second. At that rate, it would take over 700 years to replace the volume of rock lost in 1980. Lava dome extrusion has continued into early 2008.

  15. Detailed sedimentology and geomorphology elucidate mechanisms of formation of modern and historical sequences of minor moraines in the European Alps (United States)

    Wyshnytzky, Cianna; Lukas, Sven


    moraines here formed as push moraines in two groups separated by a former proglacial basin and are composed dominantly of pre-existing proglacial outwash gravel through efficient bulldozing of the glacier front (Lukas, 2012). These findings show a range of mechanisms responsible for moraine formation. Furthermore, basal freeze-on processes incorporating subglacial sediment (till) have not been recorded in high-mountain moraine formation, suggesting a commonality of seasonal climatic controls between the glacier dynamics of high-mountain glaciers and those in more lowland, maritime settings. References Andersen, J.L., and Sollid, J.L., 1971, Glacial Chronology and Glacial Geomorphology in the Marginal Zones of the Glaciers, Midtdalsbreen and Nigardsbreen, South Norway: Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift - Norwegian Journal of Geography, v. 25, no. 1, p. 1-38, doi: 10.1080/00291957108551908. Beedle, M.J., Menounos, B., Luckman, B.H., and Wheate, R., 2009, Annual push moraines as climate proxy: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 36, no. 20, p. L20501, doi: 10.1029/2009GL039533. Boulton, G.S., 1986, Push-moraines and glacier-contact fans in marine and terrestrial environments: Sedimentology, v. 33, p. 677-698. Evans, D.J.A., and Benn, D.I., 2004, A Practical Guide to the Study of Glacial Sediments: Hodder Education, London, United Kingdom. Hewitt, K., 1967, Ice-Front Deposition and the Seasonal Effect: A Himalayan Example: Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, v. 42, p. 93-106. Kjær, K.H., and Krüger, J., 2001, The final phase of dead-ice moraine development: processes and sediment architecture, Kötlujökull, Iceland: Sedimentology, v. 48, p. 935-952. Krüger, J., 1995, Origin, chronology and climatological significance of annual-moraine ridges at Myrdalsjökull, Iceland: The Holocene, v. 5, no. 4, p. 420-427. Lukas, S., 2012, Processes of annual moraine formation at a temperate alpine valley glacier: insights into glacier dynamics and climatic controls: Boreas, v

  16. The coral reef of South Moloka'i, Hawai'i - Portrait of a sediment-threatened fringing reef (United States)

    Field, Michael E.; Cochran, Susan A.; Logan, Joshua; Storlazzi, Curt D.


    finally washed out of the system—and that only happens if there is no more new mud washing onto the reef.I saw this myself a few years ago in Pila‘a Bay on Kaua‘i, where a bulldozed hillside of abandoned sugar cane fields had slumped right on top of a coral reef following exceptional rains. Years later, the algae species were zoned in a way that clearly mapped the distribution of nutrients washed into the bay, most likely from fertilizers bound to the eroded soils. That pattern closely mimics, on a small scale, that shown in Moloka‘i in this volume, where the inner reef is covered with algae, zoned by species in a way that points to land-based sources of nutrients, while the outermost reef slope is still coral dominated, and the deep algae seem to indicate deep-water nutrient upwelling.What of the future? The Hawaiian Islands have been exceptionally fortunate to be spared the worst coral heatstroke death from high temperatures, at least to date. So far, the worst global warming impacts have luckily been small in this region, and the small number of people on Moloka‘i has kept population densities, and sewage pollution, low compared to the more developed islands. Nutrients from years of sugar and pineapple fertilization, and the washing of this soil onto the reefs, show clear influences on the pattern of algae on the reef. Even at very low levels of nutrients, well below that which drives algae to smother and kill coral reefs, more algae is present. Soil erosion control is therefore the key to better management of both nutrients and turbidity on Moloka‘i reefs. To that end land management actions mentioned in this book, such as suppressing wild fires and eliminating wild goats and pigs, could be made even more effective if supplemented by active erosion control using plants whose roots bind the soil effectively in place. Through all of these efforts, Hina and the people of Moloka‘i could be happy again!

  17. Response of roseate tern to a shoreline protection project on Falkner Island, Connecticut (United States)

    Rogers, C.J.; Spendelow, J.A.; Guilfoyle, Michael P.; Fischer, Richard A.; Pashley, David N.; Lott, Casey A.


    Construction was initiated following the 2000 tern breeding season for Phase 1 of a planned two-phase ?Shoreline Protection and Erosion Control Project? at the Falkner Island Unit of the USFWS Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge located in Long Island Sound off the coast of Guilford, CT. When the Common Tern (Sterna hirundo) and federally endangered Roseate Tern (S. dougallii) arrived in spring 2001, they encountered several major habitat changes from what had existed in previous years. These changes included: a rock revetment covering most of the former nesting habitat on the beach from the northwestern section around the northern tip and covering about 60% of the eastern side; an elevated 60- ? 4-m shelf covering the beach and lower bank of the southwestern section; and about 2,000 sq m of devegetated areas on top of the island on the northeast side above the revetment, and about one-third of the southern half of the island. The southwest shelf was created by bulldozing and compacting extra construction fill and in situ materials. This shelf differed in internal structure from the main revetment on the north and eastern sections of the island because it lacked the deep internal crevices of the revetment. The deep internal crevices were created from the large stones and boulders (up to 2 tons) used in the construction of the main revetment. Small rock and gravel was used to fill the crevices to within 3 feet (0.9 m) of the surface of the revetment. Because half-buried tires and nest boxes for the six Roseate Tern (Sterna dougallii) sub-colony areas were deployed in similar patterns on the remaining beach, and nest boxes were placed on the newly elevated shelf areas several meters above previous locations on the now-covered beach areas, the distribution of Roseate Tern nests did not change much from 2000 to 2001. However, the movements of Roseate Tern chicks ? in many cases led by their parents towards traditional hiding places ? into the labyrinth of