WorldWideScience

Sample records for bull trout enumeration

  1. Monitor and Protect Wigwam River Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir; White River Bull Trout Enumeration Project Summary, Progress Report 2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cope, R.

    2004-02-01

    This report summarizes the first year of a three-year bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) enumeration project on the White River and is a co-operative initiative of the British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land, and Air Protection and Bonneville Power Administration. The White River has been identified as an important bull trout spawning tributary of the upper Kootenay River in southeastern British Columbia. The objective was to collect information on the returning adult spawning population to the White River through the use of a fish fence and traps, and to conduct redd surveys at the conclusion of spawning to provide an index of spawning escapement and distribution. The fence was installed on September 9th, 2003 and was operated continuously (i.e. no high-water or breaching events) until the fence was removed on October 9th, 2003. Estimation of the spawning population of White River bull trout was incomplete. This was due to a larger and more protracted out-migration than expected. As a result, the bull trout spawning population of the White River was estimated to be somewhere above 899 fish. In comparison, this represents approximately one third the population estimate of the 2003 Wigwam River bull trout spawning population. Based on redd index data, the number of bull trout per redd was over twice that of the Wigwam River or Skookumchuck Creek. This was expected as the index sites on the Wigwam River and Skookumchuck Creek cover the majority of the spawning area. This is not true on the White River. From previous redd counts, it is known that there are approximately twice as many redds in Blackfoot Creek as there are in the index site. Additionally, given the large size of the White River watershed and in particular, the large number of tributaries, there is a high likelihood that important bull trout spawning areas remain unidentified. Both floy tag and radio-telemetry data for the White River bull trout have identified extensive life history migrations

  2. Bull Trout Spawning Surveys: Kootenai National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bull trout are listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act and Myrtle Creek was designated as critical habitat for bull trout this year. Myrtle Creek...

  3. Status of Oregon's Bull Trout.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, David V.; Hanson, Mary L.; Hooton, Robert M.

    1997-10-01

    Limited historical references indicate that bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in Oregon were once widely spread throughout at least 12 basins in the Klamath River and Columbia River systems. No bull trout have been observed in Oregon's coastal systems. A total of 69 bull trout populations in 12 basins are currently identified in Oregon. A comparison of the 1991 bull trout status (Ratliff and Howell 1992) to the revised 1996 status found that 7 populations were newly discovered and 1 population showed a positive or upgraded status while 22 populations showed a negative or downgraded status. The general downgrading of 32% of Oregon's bull trout populations appears largely due to increased survey efforts and increased survey accuracy rather than reduced numbers or distribution. However, three populations in the upper Klamath Basin, two in the Walla Walla Basin, and one in the Willamette Basin showed decreases in estimated population abundance or distribution.

  4. Wigwam River juvenile bull trout and fish habitat monitoring program : 2001 data report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Wigwam River juvenile bull trout and fish habitat monitoring program is a co-operative initiative of the British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land, and Air Protection and Bonneville Power Administration. The Wigwam River has been characterized as the single most important bull trout spawning stream in the Kootenay Region. This report provides a summary of results obtained during the second year (2001) of the juvenile bull trout enumeration and fish habitat assessment program. This project was commissioned in planning for fish habitat protection and forest development within the upper Wigwam River valley. The broad intent is to develop a better understanding of juvenile bull trout and Westslope cutthroat trout recruitment and the ongoing hydrologic and morphologic processes in the upper Wigwam River, especially as they relate to spawning and rearing habitat quality. Five permanent sampling sites were established August 2000 in the Wigwam river drainage (one site on Bighorn Creek and four sites on the mainstem Wigwam River). At each site, juvenile (0(sup+), 1(sup+) and 2(sup+) age classes) fish densities and stream habitat conditions were measured over two stream meander wavelengths. Bull trout represented 95.1% of the catch and the mean density of juvenile bull trout was estimated to be 20.7 fish/100m(sup 2) (range 0.9 to 24.0 fish/100m(sup 2)). This compares to 17.2 fish/100m(sup 2) (+20%) for the previous year. Fry (0(sup+)) dominated the catch and this was a direct result of juvenile bull trout ecology and habitat partitioning among life history stages. Site selection was biased towards sample sites which favored high bull trout fry capture success. Comparison of fry density estimates replicated across both the preliminary survey (1997) and the current study (Cope and Morris 2001) illustrate the stable nature of these high densities. Bull trout populations have been shown to be extremely susceptible to habitat degradation and over-harvest and are ecologically

  5. Are brown trout replacing or displacing bull trout populations in a changing climate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Schmetterling, David A.; Clancy, Chris; Saffel, Pat; Kovach, Ryan; Nyce, Leslie; Liermann, Brad; Fredenberg, Wade A.; Pierce, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how climate change may facilitate species turnover is an important step in identifying potential conservation strategies. We used data from 33 sites in western Montana to quantify climate associations with native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and non-native brown trout (Salmo trutta) abundance and population growth rates (λ). We estimated λ using exponential growth state space models and delineated study sites based on bull trout use for either Spawning and Rearing (SR) or Foraging, Migrating, and Overwintering (FMO) habitat. Bull trout abundance was negatively associated with mean August stream temperatures within SR habitat (r = -0.75). Brown trout abundance was generally highest at temperatures between 12 and 14°C. We found bull trout λ were generally stable at sites with mean August temperature below 10°C but significantly decreasing, rare, or extirpated at 58% of the sites with temperatures exceeding 10°C. Brown trout λ were highest in SR and sites with temperatures exceeding 12°C. Declining bull trout λs at sites where brown trout were absent suggests brown trout are likely replacing bull trout in a warming climate.

  6. Bull Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for BULL TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  7. Effects of roads on bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), a federally threatened species

    OpenAIRE

    Teachout, Emily; Quan, Jennifer

    2001-01-01

    The bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) is federally listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. Bull trout are apex predators requiring a large prey base and a large home range, and are known to move throughout and between basins in search of prey. However, bull trout are dependent upon very cold, clean waters for spawning (below 9 degrees Celsius) and are typically characterized as spawning in the upper-most reaches of watersheds. Bull trout have four life history forms: resident...

  8. Malheur River Basin cooperative bull trout/redband trout research project, annual report FY 1999; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to document the seasonal distribution of adult/sub-adult bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Malheur River basin. Due to the decline of bull trout in the Columbia Basin, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service listed bull trout as a threatened species in June 1998. Past land management activities; construction of dams; and fish eradication projects in the North Fork and Middle Fork Malheur River by poisoning have worked in concert to cumulatively impact native species in the Malheur Basin (Bowers et. al. 1993). Survival of the remaining bull trout populations is severely threatened (Buchanan 1997). 1999 Research Objects are: (1) Document the migratory patterns of adult/sub-adult bull trout in the North Fork Malheur River; (2) Determine the seasonal bull trout use of Beulah Reservoir and bull trout entrainment; and (3) Timing and location of bull trout spawning in the North Fork Malheur River basin. The study area includes the Malheur basin from the mouth of the Malheur River located near Ontario, Oregon to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur River (Map 1). All fish collected and most of the telemetry effort was done on the North Fork Malheur River subbasin (Map 2). Fish collection was conducted on the North Fork Malheur River at the tailwaters of Beulah Reservoir (RK 29), Beulah Reservoir (RK 29-RK 33), and in the North Fork Malheur River at Crane Crossing (RK 69) to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur. Radio telemetry was done from the mouth of the Malheur River in Ontario, Oregon to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur. This report will reflect all migration data collected from 3/1/99 to 12/31/99

  9. Demographic characteristics of an adfluvial bull trout population in Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbins, Jonathan L; Hansen, Michael J.; DosSantos, Joseph M; Dux, Andrew M

    2016-01-01

    Introductions of nonnative species, habitat loss, and stream fragmentation have caused the Bull Trout Salvelinus confluentus to decline throughout much of its native distribution. Consequently, in June 1998, the Bull Trout was listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act as threatened. The Bull Trout has existed in Lake Pend Oreille and its surrounding tributaries since the last ice age, and the lake once supported a world-renowned Bull Trout fishery. To quantify the current status of the Bull Trout population in Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, we compared the mean age, growth, maturity, and abundance with reports in a study conducted one decade earlier. Abundance was estimated by mark–recapture for Bull Trout caught in trap nets and gill nets set in Lake Pend Oreille during ongoing suppression netting of Lake Trout S. namaycushin 2007–2008. Bull Trout sampled in 2006–2008 were used to estimate age structure, survival, growth, and maturity. Estimated Bull Trout abundance was similar to that estimated one decade earlier in Lake Pend Oreille. Bull Trout residing in Lake Pend Oreille between 2006 and 2008 were between ages 4 and 14 years; their growth was fastest between ages 1 and 2 and slowed thereafter. Male and female Bull Trout matured at a similar age, but females grew faster than males, thereby maturing at a larger size. Our findings suggest that management has effectively addressed current threats to increase the likelihood of long-term persistence of the Bull Trout population in Lake Pend Oreille.

  10. Bull Trout Life History, Genetics, Habitat Needs, and Limiting Factors in Central and Northeast Oregon. Annual Report 1996.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellerud, Blane L.; Gunckel, Stephanie; Hemmingsen, Alan R.; Buchanan, David V.; Howell, Philip J.

    1997-10-01

    This study is part of a multi-year research project studying aspects of bull trout life history, ecology and genetics. This report covers the activities of the project in 1996. Results and analysis are presented in the following five areas: (1) analysis of the genetic structure of Oregon bull trout populations; (2) distribution and habitat use of bull trout and brook trout in streams containing both species; (3) bull trout spawning surveys; (4) summary and analysis of historical juvenile bull trout downstream migrant trap catches in the Grande Ronde basin; and (5) food habits and feeding behavior of bull trout alone and in sympatry with brook trout.

  11. Multiscale hydrogeomorphic influences on bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) spawning habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Jared R; Wilcox, Andrew C.; Woessner, William W; Muhlfeld, Clint C.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated multiscale hydrogeomorphic influences on the distribution and abundance of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) spawning in snowmelt-dominated streams of the upper Flathead River basin, northwestern Montana. Within our study reaches, bull trout tended to spawn in the finest available gravel substrates. Analysis of the mobility of these substrates, based on one-dimensional hydraulic modeling and calculation of dimensionless shear stresses, indicated that bed materials in spawning reaches would be mobilized at moderate (i.e., 2-year recurrence interval) high-flow conditions, although the asynchronous timing of the fall–winter egg incubation period and typical late spring – early summer snowmelt high flows in our study area may limit susceptibility to redd scour under current hydrologic regimes. Redd occurrence also tended to be associated with concave-up bedforms (pool tailouts) with downwelling intragravel flows. Streambed temperatures tracked stream water diurnal temperature cycles to a depth of at least 25 cm, averaging 6.1–8.1 °C in different study reaches during the spawning period. Ground water provided thermal moderation of stream water for several high-density spawning reaches. Bull trout redds were more frequent in unconfined alluvial valley reaches (8.5 versus 5.0 redds·km−1 in confined valley reaches), which were strongly influenced by hyporheic and groundwater – stream water exchange. A considerable proportion of redds were patchily distributed in confined valley reaches, however, emphasizing the influence of local physical conditions in supporting bull trout spawning habitat. Moreover, narrowing or “bounding” of these alluvial valley segments did not appear to be important. Our results suggest that geomorphic, thermal, and hydrological factors influence bull trout spawning occurrence at multiple spatial scales.

  12. Temporary Restoration of Bull Trout Passage at Albeni Falls Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paluch, Mark; Scholz, Allan; McLellan, Holly [Eastern Washington University Department of Biology; Olson, Jason [Kalispel Tribe of Indians Natural Resources Department

    2009-07-13

    This study was designed to monitor movements of bull trout that were provided passage above Albeni Falls Dam, Pend Oreille River. Electrofishing and angling were used to collect bull trout below the dam. Tissue samples were collected from each bull trout and sent to the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service Abernathy Fish Technology Center Conservation Genetics Lab, Washington. The DNA extracted from tissue samples were compared to a catalog of bull trout population DNA from the Priest River drainage, Lake Pend Oreille tributaries, and the Clark Fork drainage to determine the most probable tributary of origin. A combined acoustic radio or radio tag was implanted in each fish prior to being transported and released above the dam. Bull trout relocated above the dam were able to volitionally migrate into their natal tributary, drop back downstream, or migrate upstream to the next dam. A combination of stationary radio receiving stations and tracking via aircraft, boat, and vehicle were used to monitor the movement of tagged fish to determine if the spawning tributary it selected matched the tributary assigned from the genetic analysis. Seven bull trout were captured during electrofishing surveys in 2008. Of these seven, four were tagged and relocated above the dam. Two were tagged and left below the dam as part of a study monitoring movements below the dam. One was immature and too small at the time of capture to implant a tracking tag. All four fish released above the dam passed by stationary receivers stations leading into Lake Pend Oreille and no fish dropped back below the dam. One of the radio tags was recovered in the tributary corresponding with the results of the genetic test. Another fish was located in the vicinity of its assigned tributary, which was impassable due to low water discharge at its mouth. Two fish have not been located since entering the lake. Of these fish, one was immature and not expected to enter its natal tributary in the fall of 2008. The other

  13. Bull Trout Population Assessment in the Columbia River Gorge : Annual Report 2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, Jim; McPeak, Ron

    2001-02-01

    We summarized existing knowledge regarding the known distribution of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) across four sub-basins in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington. The Wind River, Little White Salmon River, White Salmon River, and the Klickitat River sub-basins were analyzed. Cold water is essential to the survival, spawning, and rearing of bull trout. We analyzed existing temperature data, installed Onset temperature loggers in the areas of the four sub-basins where data was not available, and determined that mean daily water temperatures were <15 C and appropriate for spawning and rearing of bull trout. We snorkel surveyed more than 74 km (46.25 mi.) of rivers and streams in the four sub-basins (13.8 km at night and 60.2 km during the day) and found that night snorkeling was superior to day snorkeling for locating bull trout. Surveys incorporated the Draft Interim Protocol for Determining Bull Trout Presence (Peterson et al. In Press). However, due to access and safety issues, we were unable to randomly select sample sites nor use block nets as recommended. Additionally, we also implemented the Bull Trout/Dolly Varden sampling methodology described in Bonar et al. (1997). No bull trout were found in the Wind River, Little White Salmon, or White Salmon River sub-basins. We found bull trout in the West Fork Klickitat drainage of the Klickitat River Sub-basin. Bull trout averaged 6.7 fish/100m{sup 2} in Trappers Creek, 2.6 fish/100m{sup 2} on Clearwater Creek, and 0.4 fish/100m{sup 2} in Little Muddy Creek. Bull trout was the only species of salmonid encountered in Trappers Creek and dominated in Clearwater Creek. Little Muddy Creek was the only creek where bull trout and introduced brook trout occurred together. We found bull trout only at night and typically in low flow regimes. A single fish, believed to be a bull trout x brook trout hybrid, was observed in the Little Muddy Creek. Additional surveys are needed in the West Fork Klickitat and mainstem

  14. Thermal regimes, nonnative trout, and their influences on native Bull Trout in the Upper Klamath River Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Joseph R.; Heltzel, Jeannie; Dunham, Jason; Heck, Michael; Banish, Nolan P.

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of fish species may be strongly influenced by a stream’s thermal regime (magnitude, frequency, variation, and timing). For instance, magnitude and frequency provide information about sublethal temperatures, variability in temperature can affect behavioral thermoregulation and bioenergetics, and timing of thermal events may cue life history events, such as spawning and migration. We explored the relationship between thermal regimes and the occurrences of native Bull Trout Salvelinus confluentus and nonnative Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis and Brown Trout Salmo trutta across 87 sites in the upper Klamath River basin, Oregon. Our objectives were to associate descriptors of the thermal regime with trout occurrence, predict the probability of Bull Trout occurrence, and estimate upper thermal tolerances of the trout species. We found that each species was associated with a different suite of thermal regime descriptors. Bull Trout were present at sites that were cooler, had fewer high-temperature events, had less variability, and took longer to warm. Brook Trout were also observed at cooler sites with fewer high-temperature events, but the sites were more variable and Brook Trout occurrence was not associated with a timing descriptor. In contrast, Brown Trout were present at sites that were warmer and reached higher temperatures faster, but they were not associated with frequency or variability descriptors. Among the descriptors considered, magnitude (specifically June degree-days) was the most important in predicting the probability of Bull Trout occurrence, and model predictions were strengthened by including Brook Trout occurrence. Last, all three trout species exhibited contrasting patterns of tolerating longer exposures to lower temperatures. Tolerance limits for Bull Trout were lower than those for Brook Trout and Brown Trout, with contrasts especially evident for thermal maxima. Our results confirm the value of exploring a suite of thermal

  15. Adaptive Management of Bull Trout Populations in the Lemhi Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, James T.; Tyre, Andrew J.; Converse, Sarah J.; Bogich, Tiffany L.; Miller, Damien; Post van der Burg, Max; Thomas, Carmen; Thompson, Ralph J.; Wood, Jeri; Brewer, Donna; Runge, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    The bull trout Salvelinus confluentus, a stream-living salmonid distributed in drainages of the northwestern United States, is listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act because of rangewide declines. One proposed recovery action is the reconnection of tributaries in the Lemhi Basin. Past water use policies in this core area disconnected headwater spawning sites from downstream habitat and have led to the loss of migratory life history forms. We developed an adaptive management framework to analyze which types of streams should be prioritized for reconnection under a proposed Habitat Conservation Plan. We developed a Stochastic Dynamic Program that identified optimal policies over time under four different assumptions about the nature of the migratory behavior and the effects of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis on subpopulations of bull trout. In general, given the current state of the system and the uncertainties about the dynamics, the optimal policy would be to connect streams that are currently occupied by bull trout. We also estimated the value of information as the difference between absolute certainty about which of our four assumptions were correct, and a model averaged optimization assuming no knowledge. Overall there is little to be gained by learning about the dynamics of the system in its current state, although in other parts of the state space reducing uncertainties about the system would be very valuable. We also conducted a sensitivity analysis; the optimal decision at the current state does not change even when parameter values are changed up to 75% of the baseline values. Overall, the exercise demonstrates that it is possible to apply adaptive management principles to threatened and endangered species, but logistical and data availability constraints make detailed analyses difficult.

  16. Kootenai River Fisheries Investigations; Rainbow and Bull Trout Recruitment, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, Jody P.

    2004-01-01

    Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss provide the most important sport fishery in the Kootenai River, Idaho, but densities and catch rates are low. Low recruitment is one possible factor limiting the rainbow trout population. Bull trout Salvelinus confluentus also exist in the Kootenai River, but little is known about this population. Research reported here addresses the following objectives for the Kootenai River, Idaho: increase rainbow trout recruitment, identify rainbow and bull trout spawning tributaries and migration timing, establish baseline data on bull trout redd numbers in tributaries, and improve the rainbow trout population size structure. Six adult rainbow trout were moved to spawning habitat upstream of a potential migration barrier on Caboose Creek, but numbers of redds and age-0 out-migrants did not appear to increase relative to a reference stream. Measurements taken on the Moyie River indicated the gradient is inadequate to deliver suitable flows to a proposed rainbow trout spawning channel. Summer water temperatures measured in the Deep Creek drainage sometimes exceeded 24 C, higher than those reported as suitable for rainbow trout. Radio-tagged rainbow trout were located in Boulder Creek during the spring spawning season, and bull trout were located in the Moyie River and O'Brien Creek, Montana in the fall. Bull trout spawning migration timing was related to increases in Kootenai River flows. Bull trout redd surveys documented 19 redds on Boulder Creek and North and South Callahan creeks. Fall 2002 electrofishing showed that the Kootenai River rainbow trout proportional stock density was 54, higher than prior years when more liberal fishing regulations were in effect. Boulder Creek produces the highest number of age-0 rainbow trout out-migrants upstream of Bonners Ferry, but the survival rate of these out-migrants upon reaching the Kootenai River is unknown. Determining juvenile survival rates and sources of mortality could aid management

  17. Sprint swimming performance of wild bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, M.G.; Phelps, J.; Weiland, L.K.

    2008-01-01

    We conducted laboratory experiments to determine the sprint swimming performance of wild juvenile and adult bull trout Salvelinus confluentus. Sprint swimming speeds were estimated using high-speed digital video analysis. Thirty two bull trout were tested in sizes ranging from about 10 to 31 cm. Of these, 14 fish showed at least one motivated, vigorous sprint. When plotted as a function of time, velocity of fish increased rapidly with the relation linear or slightly curvilinear. Their maximum velocity, or Vmax, ranged from 1.3 to 2.3 m/s, was usually achieved within 0.8 to 1.0 s, and was independent of fish size. Distances covered during these sprints ranged from 1.4 to 2.4 m. Our estimates of the sprint swimming performance are the first reported for this species and may be useful for producing or modifying fish passage structures that allow safe and effective passage of fish without overly exhausting them. ?? 2008 by the Northwest Scientific Association. All rights reserved.

  18. Bull Trout Life History, Genetics, Habitat Needs, and Limiting Fact in Central and Northeast Oregon. Annual Report 1999.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmingsen, Alan R.; Gunckel, Stephanie L.; Howell, Philip J.

    2001-08-01

    This section describes work accomplished in 1999 that continued to address two objectives of this project. These objectives are (1) determine the distribution of juvenile and adult bull trout Salvelinus confluentus and habitats associated with that distribution, and (2) determine fluvial and resident bull trout life history patterns. Completion of these objectives is intended through studies of bull trout in the Grande Ronde, Walla Walla, and John Day basins. These basins were selected because they provide a variety of habitats, from relatively degraded to pristine, and bull trout populations were thought to vary from relatively depressed to robust. In all three basins we used radio telemetry to determine the seasonal movements of bull trout. In the John Day and Walla Walla basins we also used traps to capture migrant bull trout. With these traps, we intended to determine the timing of bull trout movements both upstream and downstream, determine the relative abundance, size and age of migrant fish, and capture bull trout to be implanted with radio transmitters. In the John Day basin, we captured adult and juvenile bull trout from the upper John Day River and its tributaries, Call Creek, Reynolds Creek, and Roberts Creek. In the Walla Walla basin, we captured adult and juvenile bull trout from Mill Creek.

  19. Development and evaluation of a bioenergetics model for bull trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, Matthew G.; Welland, Lisa K.; Christiansen, Helena E.; Sauter, Sally T.; Beauchamp, David A.

    2013-01-01

    We conducted laboratory experiments to parameterize a bioenergetics model for wild Bull Trout Salvelinus confluentus, estimating the effects of body mass (12–1,117 g) and temperature (3–20°C) on maximum consumption (C max) and standard metabolic rates. The temperature associated with the highest C max was 16°C, and C max showed the characteristic dome-shaped temperature-dependent response. Mass-dependent values of C max (N = 28) at 16°C ranged from 0.03 to 0.13 g·g−1·d−1. The standard metabolic rates of fish (N = 110) ranged from 0.0005 to 0.003 g·O2·g−1·d−1 and increased with increasing temperature but declined with increasing body mass. In two separate evaluation experiments, which were conducted at only one ration level (40% of estimated C max), the model predicted final weights that were, on average, within 1.2 ± 2.5% (mean ± SD) of observed values for fish ranging from 119 to 573 g and within 3.5 ± 4.9% of values for 31–65 g fish. Model-predicted consumption was within 5.5 ± 10.9% of observed values for larger fish and within 12.4 ± 16.0% for smaller fish. Our model should be useful to those dealing with issues currently faced by Bull Trout, such as climate change or alterations in prey availability.

  20. Kootenai River Fisheries Investigations; Rainbow and Bull Trout Recruitment, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, Jody P.

    2005-08-01

    Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss provide the most important sport fishery in the Kootenai River, Idaho, but densities and catch rates are low. Low recruitment is one possible factor limiting the rainbow trout population. Bull trout Salvelinus confluentus also exist in the Kootenai River, but little is known about this population. Research reported here addresses the following objectives for the Kootenai River, Idaho: identify sources of rainbow and bull trout recruitment, monitor the rainbow trout population size structure to evaluate regulation changes initiated in 2002, and identify factors potentially limiting rainbow trout recruitment. A screw trap was used to estimate juvenile redband and bull trout out-migration from the Callahan Creek drainage, and electrofishing was conducted to estimate summer densities of bull trout rearing in the Idaho portion of the drainage. An estimated 1,132 juvenile redband trout and 68 juvenile bull trout out-migrated from Callahan Creek to the Kootenai River from April 7 through July 15, 2003. Densities of bull trout {ge} age-1 in North and South Callahan creeks ranged from 1.6 to 7.7 fish/100m{sup 2} in August. Bull trout redd surveys were conducted in North and South Callahan creeks, Boulder Creek, and Myrtle Creek. Thirty-two bull trout redds were located in North Callahan Creek, while 10 redds were found in South Callahan Creek. No redds were found in the other two streams. Modeling of culverts in the Deep Creek drainage identified two as upstream migration barriers, preventing rainbow trout from reaching spawning and rearing habitat. Water temperature monitoring in Deep Creek identified two sites where maximum temperatures exceeded those suitable for rainbow trout. Boulder Creek produces the most rainbow trout recruits to the Kootenai River in Idaho upstream of Deep Creek, but may be below carrying capacity for rearing rainbow trout due to nutrient limitations. Monthly water samples indicate Boulder Creek is nutrient limited

  1. Kootenai River Fisheries Investigations; Rainbow and Bull Trout Recruitment, 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, Jody P.; Downs, Christopher C.

    2001-08-01

    Our 1999 objectives were to determine sources of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and bull trout Salvelinus confluentus spawning and recruitment in the Idaho reach of the Kootenai River. We used a rotary-screw trap to capture juvenile trout to determine age at out-migration and to estimate total out-migration from the Boundary Creek drainage to the Kootenai River. The out-migrant estimate for March through August 1999 was 1,574 (95% C. I. = 825-3,283) juvenile rainbow trout. Most juveniles out-migrated at age-2 and age-3. No out-migrating bull trout were caught. Five of 17 rainbow trout radio-tagged in Idaho migrated upstream into Montana waters during the spawning season. Five bull trout originally radio-tagged in O'Brien Creek, Montana in early October moved downstream into Idaho and British Columbia by mid-October. Annual angler exploitation for the rainbow trout population upstream of Bonners Ferry, Idaho was estimated to be 58%. Multi-pass depletion estimates for index reaches of Caboose, Curley, and Debt creeks showed 0.20, 0.01, and 0.13 rainbow trout juveniles/m{sup 2}, respectively. We estimated rainbow trout (180-415 mm TL) standing stock of 1.6 kg/ha for the Hemlock Bar reach (29.4 ha) of the Kootenai River, similar to the 1998 estimate. Recruitment of juvenile rainbow and bull trout from Idaho tributaries is not sufficient to be the sole source of subsequent older fish in the mainstem Kootenai River. These populations are at least partly dependent on recruitment from Montana waters. The low recruitment and high exploitation rate may be indicators of a rainbow trout population in danger of further decline.

  2. Investigations of Bull Trout (Salvelinus Confluentus), Steelhead Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss), and Spring Chinook Salmon (O. Tshawytscha) Interactions in Southeast Washington Streams. Final Report 1992.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Underwood, Keith D.

    1995-01-01

    The goal of this two year study was to determine if supplementation with hatchery reared steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) negatively impacted wild native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) through competitive interactions. Four streams with varying levels of fish supplementation activity were sampled in Southeast Washington. Tasks performed during this study were population density, relative abundance, microhabitat utilization, habitat availability, diet analysis, bull trout spawning ground surveys, radio telemetry of adult bull trout, and growth analysis. Results indicate that bull trout overlapped geographically with the supplemented species in each of the study streams suggesting competition among species was possible. Within a stream, bull trout and the supplemented species utilized dissimilar microhabitats and microhabitat utilization by each species was the same among streams suggesting that there was no shifts in microhabitat utilization among streams. The diet of bull trout and O. mykiss significantly overlapped in each of the study streams. The stream most intensely supplemented contained bull trout with the slowest growth and the non-supplemented stream contained bull trout with the fastest growth. Conversely, the stream most intensely supplemented contain steelhead with the fastest growth and the non-supplemented stream contained steelhead with the slowest growth. Growth indicated that bull trout may have been negatively impacted from supplementation, although other factors may have contributed. At current population levels, and current habitat quantity and quality, no impacts to bull trout as a result of supplementation with hatchery reared steelhead trout and spring chinook salmon were detected. Project limitations and future research recommendations are discussed.

  3. Investigations of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) interactions in Southeast Washington streams. Final report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this two year study was to determine if supplementation with hatchery reared steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) negatively impacted wild native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) through competitive interactions. Four streams with varying levels of fish supplementation activity were sampled in Southeast Washington. Tasks performed during this study were population density, relative abundance, microhabitat utilization, habitat availability, diet analysis, bull trout spawning ground surveys, radio telemetry of adult bull trout, and growth analysis. Results indicate that bull trout overlapped geographically with the supplemented species in each of the study streams suggesting competition among species was possible. Within a stream, bull trout and the supplemented species utilized dissimilar microhabitats and microhabitat utilization by each species was the same among streams suggesting that there was no shifts in microhabitat utilization among streams. The diet of bull trout and O. mykiss significantly overlapped in each of the study streams. The stream most intensely supplemented contained bull trout with the slowest growth and the non-supplemented stream contained bull trout with the fastest growth. Conversely, the stream most intensely supplemented contain steelhead with the fastest growth and the non-supplemented stream contained steelhead with the slowest growth. Growth indicated that bull trout may have been negatively impacted from supplementation, although other factors may have contributed. At current population levels, and current habitat quantity and quality, no impacts to bull trout as a result of supplementation with hatchery reared steelhead trout and spring chinook salmon were detected. Project limitations and future research recommendations are discussed

  4. Bull Trout Life History, Genetics, Habitat Needs, and Limiting Factors in Central and Northeast Oregon, Annual Report 2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmingsen, Alan R.; Gunckel, Stephanie L.; Sankovich, Paul M.; Howell, Philip J.

    2001-11-01

    This section describes work accomplished in 2000 that continued to address two objectives of this project. These objectives are (1) determine the distribution of juvenile and adult bull trout Salvelinus confluentus and habitats associated with that distribution, and (2) determine fluvial and resident bull trout life history patterns. Completion of these objectives is intended through studies of bull trout in the Grande Ronde, Walla Walla, and John Day basins. These basins were selected because they provide a variety of habitats, from relatively degraded to pristine, and bull trout populations were thought to vary from relatively depressed to robust. In all three basins we continued to monitor the movements of bull trout with radio transmitters applied in 1998 (Hemmingsen, Bellerud, Gunckel and Howell 2001) and 1999 (Hemmingsen, Gunckel and Howell 2001). No new radio transmitters were applied to bull trout of the upper John Day River subbasin, Mill Creek (Walla Walla Basin), or the Grande Ronde Basin in 2000. We did implant radio transmitters in two bull trout incidentally captured in the John Day River near the confluence of the North Fork John Day River. In Mill Creek, we used traps to capture migrant bull trout to obtain data for the third successive year in this stream. With these traps, we intended to determine the timing of bull trout movements both upstream and downstream, and to determine the relative abundance, size and age of migrant fish. Because we captured migrant bull trout with traps for three years in the upper John Day River and its tributaries (Hemmingsen, Bellerud, Buchanan, Gunckel, Shappart and Howell 2001; Hemmingsen, Bellerud, Gunckel and Howell 2001; Hemmingsen, Gunckel and Howell 2001) and traps were no longer needed to capture bull trout for radio-tagging, no traps were operated in the John Day Basin in 2000.

  5. Marine Habitat Use by Anadromous Bull Trout from the Skagit River, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Michael C.; Rubin, Steve P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald; Goetz, Fred A.; Jeanes, Eric; McBride, Aundrea

    2011-01-01

    Acoustic telemetry was used to describe fish positions and marine habitat use by tagged bull trout Salvelinus confluentus from the Skagit River, Washington. In March and April 2006, 20 fish were captured and tagged in the lower Skagit River, while 15 fish from the Swinomish Channel were tagged during May and June. Sixteen fish tagged in 2004 and 2005 were also detected during the study. Fish entered Skagit Bay from March to May and returned to the river from May to August. The saltwater residency for the 13 fish detected during the out-migration and return migration ranged from 36 to 133 d (mean ± SD, 75 ± 22 d). Most bull trout were detected less than 14 km (8.5 ± 4.4 km) from the Skagit River, and several bay residents used the Swinomish Channel while migrating. The bull trout detected in the bay were associated with the shoreline (distance from shore, 0.32 ± 0.27 km) and occupied shallow-water habitats (mean water column depth, Zostera sp.) vegetation classes made up more than 70% of the area used by bull trout. Our results will help managers identify specific nearshore areas that may require further protection to sustain the unique anadromous life history of bull trout.

  6. Bull Trout Population Assessment in the White Salmon and Klickitat Rivers, Columbia River Gorge, Washington, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiesfeld, Steven L.; McPeak, Ronald H.; McNamara, Brian S. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife); Honanie, Isadore (Confederated Tribes and Bands, Yakama Nation)

    2002-01-01

    We utilized night snorkeling and single pass electroshocking to determine the presence or absence of bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in 26 stream reaches (3,415 m) in the White Salmon basin and in 71 stream reaches (9,005 m) in the Klickitat River basin during summer and fall 2001. We did not find any bull trout in the White Salmon River basin. In the Klickitat River basin, bull trout were found only in the West Fork Klickitat River drainage. We found bull trout in two streams not previously reported: Two Lakes Stream and an unnamed tributary to Fish Lake Stream (WRIA code number 30-0550). We attempted to capture downstream migrant bull trout in the West Fork Klickitat River by fishing a 1.5-m rotary screw trap at RM 4.3 from July 23 through October 17. Although we caught other salmonids, no bull trout were captured. The greatest limiting factor for bull trout in the West Fork Klickitat River is likely the small amount of available habitat resulting in a low total abundance, and the isolation of the population. Many of the streams are fragmented by natural falls, which are partial or complete barriers to upstream fish movement. To date, we have not been able to confirm that the occasional bull trout observed in the mainstem Klickitat River are migrating upstream into the West Fork Klickitat River.

  7. Evaluate Bull Trout Movements in the Tucannon and Lower Snake Rivers, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faler, Michael P. (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Fishery Resource Office, Ahsahka, ID); Mendel, Glen W.; Fulton, Carl (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Fish Management Division, Dayton, WA)

    2004-04-01

    We collected 279 adult bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Tucannon River during the Spring and Fall of 2003. Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags were inserted in 191 of them, and we detected existing PIT tags in an additional 31bull trout. Thirty five of these were also surgically implanted with radio-tags, and we monitored the movements of these fish throughout the year. Fourteen radio-tags were recovered shortly after tagging, and as a result, 21 remained in the river through December 31, 2003. Four bull trout that were radio-tagged in spring 2002 were known to survive and carry their tags through the spring and/or summer of 2003. One of these fish spent the winter near river mile (RM) 13.0; the other 3 over-wintered in the vicinity of the Tucannon Hatchery between RM 34 and 36. Twenty-one radio tags from bull trout tagged in 2002 were recovered during the spring and summer, 2003. These tags became stationary the winter of 2002/2003, and were recovered between RM 11 and 55. We were unable to recover the remaining 15 tags from 2002. During the month of July, radio-tagged bull trout exhibited a general upstream movement into the upper reaches of the Tucannon subbasin. We observed some downstream movements of radio-tagged bull trout in mid to late September and throughout October. By late November and early December, radio tagged bull trout were relatively stationary, and were distributed from the headwaters downstream to river mile 6.4, near Lower Monumental Pool. As in 2002, we did not conduct work associated with objectives 2, 3, or 4 of this study, because we were unable to monitor migratory movement of radio-tagged bull trout into the Federal hydropower system on the mainstem Snake River. Transmission tests of submerged ATS model F1830 radio-tags in Lower Granite Pool showed that audible detection and individual tag identification was possible at depths of 20 and 30 ft. Tests were conducted using an ATS R-4000 Receiver equipped with an &apos

  8. Bull Trout life History, Genetics, Habitat Needs, and Limiting Factors in Central and Northeast Oregon, Annual Report 1995.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmingsen, Alan R.; Buchanan, David V.; Howell, Philip J.

    1996-03-01

    To fulfill one objective of the present study, genetic characteristics of Oregon bull trout will be determined by analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. During 1995, the authors collected and sampled a total of 1,217 bull trout from 46 streams in the Columbia River Basin. DNA analysis of those samples will be conducted at University of Montana. They primarily sampled juvenile fish near natal areas to increase the likelihood of identifying discrete populations while minimizing risk of injury to large spawners. Fork lengths of all fish sampled ranged from 2.6 to 60.5 cm with a median of 12 cm. Eighty-four percent of all bull trout sampled were less than 19 cm while two percent were larger than 27 cm. Bull trout were collected by several methods, mostly by electrofishing. Eighty-six percent of all bull trout sampled were collected by electrofishing with a programmable waveform electrofisher. They observed injuries caused by electrofishing to 8% of that proportion. Based on preliminary analysis, no waveform combination used appeared less injurious than others. Highest voltages appeared less injurious than some that were lower. Frequency of electrofishing injury was significantly correlated to fork length over the range-from 4 to 26 cm. There were indications for substantial risk for such injury to bull trout larger than 26 cm. Other species found in association with bull trout included chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, mountain whitefish Prosopium williamsoni, rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, sculpins Cottus spp., cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki, non-native brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, and tailed frogs Ascaphus truei. Rainbow trout was the species most frequently associated with bull trout. No injury or mortality was observed for any of the associated species captured.

  9. Bull Trout Life History, Genetics, Habitat Needs, and Limiting Factors in Central and Northeast Oregon, Annual Report 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmingsen, Alan R.; Gunckel, Stephanie L.; Sankovich, Paul M.; Howell, Philip J.

    2002-12-01

    Bull trout Salvelinus confluentus exhibit a number of life history strategies. Stream-resident bull trout complete their life cycle in their natal tributaries. Migratory bull trout spawn in tributary streams where juvenile fish usually spend from one to four years before migrating to either a larger river (fluvial) or lake (adfluvial) where they rear before returning to the tributary stream to spawn (Fraley and Shepard 1989). These migratory forms occur where conditions allow movement from spawning locations to downstream waters that provide greater foraging opportunities (Dunham and Rieman 1999). Resident and migratory forms may occur together, and either form can produce resident or migratory offspring (Rieman and McIntyre 1993). The ability to migrate is important to the persistence of local bull trout populations (Rieman and McIntyre 1993). The identification of migratory corridors can help focus habitat protection efforts. Determining the life history form(s) that comprise local populations, the timing of seasonal movements, and the geographic extent of these movements are critical to bull trout protection and recovery efforts. This section describes work accomplished in 2001 that continued to address two objectives of this project. These objectives are (1) determine the distribution of juvenile and adult bull trout and habitats associated with that distribution, and (2) determine fluvial and resident bull trout life history patterns. Completion of these objectives is intended through studies of bull trout in the Grande Ronde, Walla Walla, and John Day basins. These basins were selected because they provide a variety of habitats, from relatively degraded to pristine, and bull trout populations were thought to vary from relatively depressed to robust. In the Grande Ronde and Walla Walla basins, we continued to monitor the movements of bull trout with radio transmitters applied in 1998 (Hemmingsen, Bellerud, Gunckel and Howell 2001) and 1999 (Hemmingsen, Gunckel

  10. Evaluate Bull Trout Movements in the Tucannon and Lower Snake Rivers, 2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faler, Michael P. (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Fishery Resource Office, Ahsahka, ID); Mendel, Glen W.; Fulton, Carl (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Fish Management Division, Dayton, WA)

    2005-11-01

    We sampled and released 313 bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) from the Tucannon River in 2004. Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags were inserted in 231 of these individuals, and we detected existing PIT tags in an additional 44 bull trout. Twenty-five of these were also surgically implanted with radio-tags, and we monitored the movements of these fish throughout the year. Ten bull trout that were radio-tagged in 2003 were known to survive and carry their tags through the spring of 2004. One of these fish outmigrated into the Snake River in the fall, and remained undetected until February, when it's tag was located near the confluence of Alkali Flat Creek and the Snake River. The remaining 9 fish spent the winter between Tucannon River miles 2.1 (Powers Road) and 36.0 (Tucannon Fish Hatchery). Seven of these fish retained their tags through the summer, and migrated to known spawning habitat prior to September 2004. During June and July, radio-tagged bull trout again exhibited a general upstream movement into the upper reaches of the Tucannon subbasin. As in past years, we observed some downstream movements of radio-tagged bull trout in mid to late September and throughout October, suggesting post spawning outmigrations. By late November and early December, radio tagged bull trout were relatively stationary, and were distributed from river mile 42 at Camp Wooten downstream to river mile 17, near the Highway 12 bridge. As in previous years, we did not collect data associated with objectives 2, 3, or 4 of this study, because we were unable to monitor migratory movement of radio-tagged bull trout into the vicinity of the hydropower dams on the main stem Snake River. Transmission tests of submerged Lotek model NTC-6-2 nano-tags in Lower Granite Pool showed that audible detection and individual tag identification was possible at depths of 20, 30, and 40 ft. We were able to maintain tag detection and code separation at all depths from both a boat and 200 ft

  11. Assessing the feasibility of native fish reintroductions: a framework and example applied to bull trout in the Clackamas River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Jason B.; Gallo, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    In a species conservation context, translocations can be an important tool, but they frequently fail to successfully establish new populations. We consider the case of reintroductions for bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), a federally-listed threatened species with a widespread but declining distribution in western North America. Our specific objectives in this work were to: 1) develop a general framework for assessing the feasibility of reintroduction for bull trout, 2) provide a detailed example of implementing this framework to assess the feasibility of reintroducing bull trout in the Clackamas River, Oregon, and 3) discuss the implications of this effort in the more general context of fish reintroductions as a conservation tool. Review of several case histories and our assessment of the Clackamas River suggest that an attempt to reintroduce bull trout could be successful, assuming adequate resources are committed to the subsequent stages of implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.

  12. An ecological risk assessment of the acute and chronic toxicity of the herbicide picloram to the threatened bull trout (salvelinus confluentus) and the rainbow trout (onchorhyncus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, J.F.; Feltz, K.P.; Sappington, L.C.; Allert, A.L.; Nelson, K.J.; Valle, J.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted acute and chronic toxicity studies of the effects of picloram acid on the threatened bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and the standard coldwater surrogate rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Juvenile fish were chronically exposed for 30 days in a proportional flow-through diluter to measured concentrations of 0, 0.30, 0.60, 1.18, 2.37, and 4.75 mg/L picloram. No mortality of either species was observed at the highest concentration. Bull trout were twofold more sensitive to picloram (30-day maximum acceptable toxic concentration of 0.80 mg/L) compared to rainbow trout (30-day maximum acceptable toxic concentration of 1.67 mg/L) based on the endpoint of growth. Picloram was acutely toxic to rainbow trout at 36 mg/L (96-h ALC50). The acute:chronic ratio for rainbow trout exposed to picloram was 22. The chronic toxicity of picloram was compared to modeled and measured environmental exposure concentrations (EECs) using a four-tiered system. The Tier 1, worst-case exposure estimate, based on a direct application of the current maximum use rate (1.1 kg/ha picloram) to a standardized aquatic ecosystem (water body of 1-ha area and 1-m depth), resulted in an EEC of 0.73 mg/L picloram and chronic risk quotients of 0.91 and 0.44 for bull trout and rainbow trout, respectively. Higher-tiered exposure estimates reduced chronic risk quotients 10-fold. Results of this study indicate that picloram, if properly applied according to the manufacturer's label, poses little risk to the threatened bull trout or rainbow trout in northwestern rangeland environments on either an acute or a chronic basis. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  13. Evaluation of Bull Trout Movements in the Tucannon and Lower Snake Rivers, 2002-2006 Project Completion Summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faler, Michael P. [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; Mendel, Glen; Fulton, Carl [Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife

    2008-11-20

    The Columbia River Distinct Population Segment of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) was listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 1998. One of the identified major threats to the species is fragmentation resulting from dams on over-wintering habitats of migratory subpopulations. A migratory subgroup in the Tucannon River appeared to utilize the Snake River reservoirs for adult rearing on a seasonal basis. As a result, a radio telemetry study was conducted on this subgroup from 2002-2006, to help meet Reasonable and Prudent Measures, and Conservation Recommendations associated with the lower Snake River dams in the FCRPS Biological Opinion, and to increase understanding of bull trout movements within the Tucannon River drainage. We sampled 1,109 bull trout in the Tucannon River; 124 of these were surgically implanted with radio tags and PIT tagged, and 681 were only PIT tagged. The remaining 304 fish were either recaptures, or released unmarked. Bull trout seasonal movements within the Tucannon River were similar to those described for other migratory bull trout populations. Bull trout migrated upstream in spring and early summer to the spawning areas in upper portions of the Tucannon River watershed. They quickly moved off the spawning areas in the fall, and either held or continued a slower migration downstream through the winter until early the following spring. During late fall and winter, bull trout were distributed in the lower half of the Tucannon River basin, down to and including the mainstem Snake River below Little Goose Dam. We were unable to adequately radio track bull trout in the Snake River and evaluate their movements or interactions with the federal hydroelectric dams for the following reasons: (1) none of our radio-tagged fish were detected attempting to pass a Snake River dam, (2) our radio tags had poor transmission capability at depths greater than 12.2 m, and (3) the sample size of fish that actually entered the Snake River

  14. Influences of body size and environmental factors on autumn downstream migration of bull trout in the Boise River, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnot, L.; Dunham, J.B.; Hoem, T.; Koetsier, P.

    2008-01-01

    Many fishes migrate extensively through stream networks, yet patterns are commonly described only in terms of the origin and destination of migration (e.g., between natal and feeding habitats). To better understand patterns of migration in bull trout,Salvelinus confluentus we studied the influences of body size (total length [TL]) and environmental factors (stream temperature and discharge) on migrations in the Boise River basin, Idaho. During the autumns of 2001-2003, we tracked the downstream migrations of 174 radio-tagged bull trout ranging in size from 21 to 73 cm TL. The results indicated that large bull trout (>30 cm) were more likely than small fish to migrate rapidly downstream after spawning in headwater streams in early autumn. Large bull trout also had a higher probability of arriving at the current terminus of migration in the system, Arrowrock Reservoir. The rate of migration by small bull trout was more variable and individuals were less likely to move into Arrowrock Reservoir. The rate of downstream migration by all fish was slower when stream discharge was greater. Temperature was not associated with the rate of migration. These findings indicate that fish size and environmentally related changes in behavior have important influences on patterns of migration. In a broader context, these results and other recent work suggest, at least in some cases, that commonly used classifications of migratory behavior may not accurately reflect the full range of behaviors and variability among individuals (or life stages) and environmental conditions. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  15. Assessing the impacts of river regulation on native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) habitats in the upper Flathead River, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Jones, Leslie A.; Kotter, D.; Miller, William J.; Geise, Doran; Tohtz, Joel; Marotz, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Hungry Horse Dam on the South Fork Flathead River, Montana, USA, has modified the natural flow regimen for power generation, flood risk management and flow augmentation for anadromous fish recovery in the Columbia River. Concern over the detrimental effects of dam operations on native resident fishes prompted research to quantify the impacts of alternative flow management strategies on threatened bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) habitats. Seasonal and life‐stage specific habitat suitability criteria were combined with a two‐dimensional hydrodynamic habitat model to assess discharge effects on usable habitats. Telemetry data used to construct seasonal habitat suitability curves revealed that subadult (fish that emigrated from natal streams to the river system) bull trout move to shallow, low‐velocity shoreline areas at night, which are most sensitive to flow fluctuations. Habitat time series analyses comparing the natural flow regimen (predam, 1929–1952) with five postdam flow management strategies (1953–2008) show that the natural flow conditions optimize the critical bull trout habitats and that the current strategy best resembles the natural flow conditions of all postdam periods. Late summer flow augmentation for anadromous fish recovery, however, produces higher discharges than predam conditions, which reduces the availability of usable habitat during this critical growing season. Our results suggest that past flow management policies that created sporadic streamflow fluctuations were likely detrimental to resident salmonids and that natural flow management strategies will likely improve the chances of protecting key ecosystem processes and help to maintain and restore threatened bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout populations in the upper Columbia River Basin.

  16. Cooperative Recovery Initiative: Bull Trout Restoration: Restoring Cold, Clean, Complex and Connected Habitat in the Blackfoot River Watershed of Montana Interim Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Habitat degradation and the effects of climate change are the biggest threats to bull trout in the Blackfoot River watershed of Montana. Montana Fish, Wildlife...

  17. A framework for assessing the feasibility of native fish conservation translocations: Applications to threatened Bull Trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Benjamin T.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Guy, Christopher S.; Downs, Christopher C.; Fredenberg, Wade A.

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need to consider more aggressive and direct interventions for the conservation of freshwater fishes that are threatened by invasive species, habitat loss, and climate change. Conservation introduction (moving a species outside its indigenous range to other areas where conditions are predicted to be more suitable) is one type of translocation strategy that fisheries managers can use to establish new conservation populations in areas of refugia. To date, however, there are few examples of successful conservation-based introductions. Many attempts fail to establish new populations-in part because environmental factors that might influence success are inadequately evaluated before the translocation is implemented. We developed a framework to assess the feasibility of rescuing threatened fish populations through translocation into historically unoccupied stream and lake habitats. The suitability of potential introduction sites was evaluated based on four major components: the recipient habitat, recipient community, donor population, and future threats. Specific questions were then developed to evaluate each major component. The final assessment was based on a scoring system that addressed each question by using criteria developed from characteristics representative of highly suitable habitats and populations. This framework was used to evaluate the proposed within-drainage translocation of three Bull Trout Salvelinus confluentus populations in Glacier National Park, Montana. Our results indicated that within-drainage translocation is a feasible strategy for conserving locally adapted populations of Bull Trout through the creation of new areas of refugia in Glacier National Park. The framework provides a flexible platform that can help managers make informed decisions for moving threatened fishes into new areas of refugia for conservation and recovery programs.

  18. A framework for assessing the feasibility of native fish conservation translocations: Applications to threatened bull trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Benjamin T.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Guy, Christopher S.; Downs, Christopher C.; Fredenberg, Wade A.

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need to consider more aggressive and direct interventions for the conservation of freshwater fishes that are threatened by invasive species, habitat loss, and climate change. Conservation introduction (moving a species outside its indigenous range to other areas where conditions are predicted to be more suitable) is one type of translocation strategy that fisheries managers can use to establish new conservation populations in areas of refugia. To date, however, there are few examples of successful conservation-based introductions. Many attempts fail to establish new populations—in part because environmental factors that might influence success are inadequately evaluated before the translocation is implemented. We developed a framework to assess the feasibility of rescuing threatened fish populations through translocation into historically unoccupied stream and lake habitats. The suitability of potential introduction sites was evaluated based on four major components: the recipient habitat, recipient community, donor population, and future threats. Specific questions were then developed to evaluate each major component. The final assessment was based on a scoring system that addressed each question by using criteria developed from characteristics representative of highly suitable habitats and populations. This framework was used to evaluate the proposed within-drainage translocation of three Bull Trout Salvelinus confluentus populations in Glacier National Park, Montana. Our results indicated that within-drainage translocation is a feasible strategy for conserving locally adapted populations of Bull Trout through the creation of new areas of refugia in Glacier National Park. The framework provides a flexible platform that can help managers make informed decisions for moving threatened fishes into new areas of refugia for conservation and recovery programs.

  19. Bull Trout (Salvelinus Confluentus) Population and Habitat Surveys in the McKenzie and Middle Fork Willamette Basins, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Greg

    2000-11-28

    Prior to 1978, Dolly Varden Salvelinus malma were classified into an anadromous and interior form. Cavender (1978) classified the interior form as a distinct species, Salvelinus confluentus, the bull trout. Bull trout are large char weighing up to 18 kg and growing to over one meter in length (Goetz 1989). They are distinguished by a broad flat head, large downward curving maxillaries that extend beyond the eye, a well developed fleshy knob and a notch in the lower terminus of the snout, and light colored spots normally smaller than the pupil of the eye (Cavender 1978). Bull trout are found throughout northwestern North America from lat. 41{sup o}N to lat. 60{sup o}N. In Oregon, bull trout were once distributed throughout 12 basins in the Klamath and Columbia River systems including the Clackamas, Santiam, McKenzie and Middle Fork Willamette sub-basins west of the Cascades (Buchanan et al. 1997). However, it is believed bull trout have been extirpated from west of the Cascades with the exception of the McKenzie sub-basin. Before 1963, bull trout in the McKenzie sub-basin were a contiguous population from the mouth to Tamolitch Falls. Following the construction of Cougar and Trail Bridge Reservoirs there are three isolated populations: (1) mainstem McKenzie and tributaries from the mouth to Trail Bridge Reservoir. (2) mainstem McKenzie and tributaries above Trail Bridge Reservoir to Tamolitch Falls. (3) South Fork McKenzie and tributaries above Cougar Reservoir. The study area includes the three aforementioned McKenzie populations, and the Middle Fork Willamette and tributaries above Hills Creek Reservoir. We monitored bull trout populations in the McKenzie and Middle Fork Willamette basins using a combination of sampling techniques including: spawning surveys, standard pool counts, juvenile trapping, radio tracking, electronic fish counters, and a modified Hankin and Reeves protocol to estimate juvenile abundance and density. In addition, we continued to

  20. Evaluation of the Life History of Native Salmonids in the Malheur River Basin; Cooperative Bull Trout/Redband Trout Research Project, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Alan; Soupir, Jim (US Forest Service, Prairie City Ranger District, Prairie City, OR); Schwabe, Lawrence (Burns Paiute Tribe, Department of Fish and Wildlife, Burns, OR)

    2003-08-01

    The Malheur River is a 306-kilometer tributary to the Snake River, which drains 12,950 square kilometers. The Malheur River originates in the Blue Mountains and flows into the Snake River near Ontario, Oregon. The climate of the basin is characterized by hot dry summers, occasionally exceeding 38 C, and cold winters that may drop below -29 C. Average annual precipitation is 30 centimeters in the lower reaches. Wooded areas consist primarily of mixed fir and pine forest in the higher elevations. Sagebrush and grass communities dominate the flora in the lower elevations. Efforts to document salmonid life histories, water quality, and habitat conditions have continued in fiscal year 2002. Bull trout Salvelinus confluentus are considered to be cold water species and are temperature-dependant. Due to the interest of bull trout from various state and Federal agencies, a workgroup was formed to develop project objectives related to bull trout. Table 1 lists individuals that participated in the 2002 work group. This report will reflect work completed during the Bonneville Power Administration contract period starting April 1, 2002, and ending March 31, 2003. All tasks were conducted within this timeframe, and a more detailed timeframe may be referred to in each individual report.

  1. Assessing the feasibility of native fish reintroductions: a framework applied to threatened bull trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Jason B.; Gallo, Kirsten; Shively, Dan; Allen, Chris; Goehring, Brad

    2011-01-01

    Translocations to recover native fishes have resulted in mixed success. One reason for the failure of these actions is inadequate assessments of their feasibility prior to implementation. Here, we provide a framework developed to assess the feasibility of one type of translocation-reintroduction. The framework was founded on two simple components of feasibility: the potential for recipient habitats to support a reintroduction and the potential of available donor populations to support a reintroduction. Within each component, we developed a series of key questions. The final assessment was based on a scoring system that incorporated consideration of uncertainty in available information. The result was a simple yet transparent system for assessing reintroduction feasibility that can be rapidly applied in practice. We applied this assessment framework to the potential reintroduction of threatened bull trout Salvelinus confluentus into the Clackamas River, Oregon. In this case, the assessment suggested that the degree of feasibility for reintroduction was high based on the potential of recipient habitats and available donor populations. The assessment did not provide a comprehensive treatment of all possible factors that would drive an actual decision to implement a reintroduction,

  2. Evaluation of the Life History of Native Salmonids in the Malheur River Basin; Cooperative Bull Trout/Redband Trout Research Project, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, Dan; Schwabe, Lawrence; Wenick, Jess (Burns Paiute Tribe, Department of Fish and Wildlife, Burns, OR)

    2001-08-01

    The Malheur basin lies within southeastern Oregon. The Malheur River is a tributary to the Snake River, entering at about River Kilometer (RK) 595. The hydrological drainage area of the Malheur River is approximately 12,950 km{sup 2} and is roughly 306 km in length. The headwaters of the Malheur River originate in the Blue Mountains at elevations of 6,500 to 7,500 feet, and drops to an elevation of 2000 feet at the confluence with the Snake River near Ontario, Oregon. The climate of the Malheur basin is characterized by hot dry summers, occasionally exceeding 38 C and cold winters that may drop below -29 C. Average annual precipitation is 300 centimeters and ranges from 100 centimeters in the upper mountains to less than 25 centimeters in the lower reaches (Gonzalez 1999). Wooded areas consist primarily of mixed fir and pine forest in the higher elevations. Sagebrush and grass communities dominate the flora in the lower elevations. Efforts to document salmonid life histories, water quality, and habitat conditions have continued in fiscal year 2000. The Burns Paiute Tribe (BPT), United States Forest Service (USFS), and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), have been working cooperatively to achieve this common goal. Bull trout ''Salvenlinus confluentus'' have specific environmental requirements and complex life histories making them especially susceptible to human activities that alter their habitat (Howell and Buchanan 1992). Bull trout are considered to be a cold-water species and are temperature dependent. This presents a challenge for managers, biologists, and private landowners in the Malheur basin. Because of the listing of bull trout under the Endangered Species Act as threatened and the current health of the landscape, a workgroup was formed to develop project objectives related to bull trout. This report will reflect work completed during the Bonneville Power contract period starting 1 April 2000 and ending 31 March 2001. The

  3. Using accelerated life testing procedures to compare the relative sensitivity of rainbow trout and the federally listed threatened bull trout to three commonly used rangeland herbicides (picloram, 2,4-D, and clopyralid)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, J.F.; Allert, A.; Sappington, L.S.; Nelson, K.J.; Valle, J.

    2008-01-01

    We conducted 96-h static acute toxicity studies to evaluate the relative sensitivity of juveniles of the threatened bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and the standard cold-water surrogate rainbow trout (Onchorhyncus mykiss) to three rangeland herbicides commonly used for controlling invasive weeds in the northwestern United States. Relative species sensitivity was compared using three procedures: standard acute toxicity testing, fractional estimates of lethal concentrations, and accelerated life testing chronic estimation procedures. The acutely lethal concentrations (ALC) resulting in 50% mortality at 96 h (96-h ALC50s) were determined using linear regression and indicated that the three herbicides were toxic in the order of picloram acid > 2,4-D acid > clopyralid acid. The 96-h ALC50 values for rainbow trout were as follows: picloram, 41 mg/L; 2.4-D, 707 mg/L; and clopyralid, 700 mg/L. The 96-h ALC50 values for bull trout were as follows: picloram, 24 mg/L; 2.4-D, 398 mg/L; and clopyralid, 802 mg/L. Fractional estimates of safe concentrations, based on 5% of the 96-h ALC50, were conservative (overestimated toxicity) of regression-derived 96-h ALC5 values by an order of magnitude. Accelerated life testing procedures were used to estimate chronic lethal concentrations (CLC) resulting in 1% mortality at 30 d (30-d CLC1) for the three herbicides: picloram (1 mg/L rainbow trout, 5 mg/L bull trout), 2,4-D (56 mg/L rainbow trout, 84 mg/L bull trout), and clopyralid (477 mg/L rainbow trout; 552 mg/L bull trout). Collectively, the results indicated that the standard surrogate rainbow trout is similar in sensitivity to bull trout. Accelerated life testing procedures provided cost-effective, statistically defensible methods for estimating safe chronic concentrations (30-d CLC1s) of herbicides from acute toxicity data because they use statistical models based on the entire mortality:concentration: time data matrix. ?? 2008 SETAC.

  4. Seasonal movement and distribution of fluvial adult bull trout in selected watersheds in the mid-Columbia River and Snake River basins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J Starcevich

    Full Text Available From 1997 to 2004, we used radio telemetry to investigate movement and distribution patterns of 206 adult fluvial bull trout (mean, 449 mm FL from watersheds representing a wide range of habitat conditions in northeastern Oregon and southwestern Washington, a region for which there was little previous information about this species. Migrations between spawning and wintering locations were longest for fish from the Imnaha River (median, 89 km and three Grande Ronde River tributaries, the Wenaha (56 km and Lostine (41 km rivers and Lookingglass Creek (47 km. Shorter migrations were observed in the John Day (8 km, Walla Walla (20 km and Umatilla river (22 km systems, where relatively extensive human alterations of the riverscape have been reported. From November through May, fish displayed station-keeping behavior within a narrow range (basin medians, 0.5-6.2 km. Prespawning migrations began after snowmelt-driven peak discharge and coincided with declining flows. Most postspawning migrations began by late September. Migration rates of individuals ranged from 0.1 to 10.7 km/day. Adults migrated to spawning grounds in consecutive years and displayed strong fidelity to previous spawning areas and winter locations. In the Grande Ronde River basin, most fish displayed an unusual fluvial pattern: After exiting the spawning tributary and entering a main stem river, individuals moved upstream to wintering habitat, often a substantial distance (maximum, 49 km. Our work provides additional evidence of a strong migratory capacity in fluvial bull trout, but the short migrations we observed suggest adult fluvial migration may be restricted in basins with substantial anthropogenic habitat alteration. More research into bull trout ecology in large river habitats is needed to improve our understanding of how adults establish migration patterns, what factors influence adult spatial distribution in winter, and how managers can protect and enhance fluvial populations.

  5. Sampling large geographic areas for rare species using environmental DNA: a study of bull trout Salvelinus confluentus occupancy in western Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, K S; Young, M K; Knotek, W L; Carim, K J; Wilcox, T M; Padgett-Stewart, T M; Schwartz, M K

    2016-03-01

    This study tested the efficacy of environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling to delineate the distribution of bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in headwater streams in western Montana, U.S.A. Surveys proved fast, reliable and sensitive: 124 samples were collected across five basins by a single crew in c. 8 days. Results were largely consistent with past electrofishing, but, in a basin where S. confluentus were known to be scarce, eDNA samples indicated that S. confluentus were more broadly distributed than previously thought.

  6. Extensive feeding on sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka smolts by bull trout Salvelinus confluentus during initial outmigration into a small, unregulated and inland British Columbia river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furey, N B; Hinch, S G; Lotto, A G; Beauchamp, D A

    2015-01-01

    Stomach contents were collected and analysed from 22 bull trout Salvelinus confluentus at the edge of the Chilko Lake and Chilko River in British Columbia, Canada, during spring outmigration of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka smolts. Twenty of the 22 (>90%) stomachs contained prey items, virtually all identifiable prey items were outmigrant O. nerka smolts and stomach contents represented a large portion (0·0-12·6%) of estimated S. confluentus mass. The results demonstrate nearly exclusive and intense feeding by S. confluentus on outmigrant smolts, and support recent telemetry observations of high disappearance rates of O. nerka smolts leaving large natural lake systems prior to entering high-order unregulated river systems. PMID:25494841

  7. Relationships between water temperatures and upstream migration, cold water refuge use, and spawning of adult bull trout from the Lostine River, Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, P.J.; Dunham, J.B.; Sankovich, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding thermal habitat use by migratory fish has been limited by difficulties in matching fish locations with water temperatures. To describe spatial and temporal patterns of thermal habitat use by migratory adult bull trout, Salvelinus confluentus, that spawn in the Lostine River, Oregon, we employed a combination of archival temperature tags, radio tags, and thermographs. We also compared temperatures of the tagged fish to ambient water temperatures to determine if the fish were using thermal refuges. The timing and temperatures at which fish moved upstream from overwintering areas to spawning locations varied considerably among individuals. The annual maximum 7-day average daily maximum (7DADM) temperatures of tagged fish were 16-18 ??C and potentially as high as 21 ??C. Maximum 7DADM ambient water temperatures within the range of tagged fish during summer were 18-25 ??C. However, there was no evidence of the tagged fish using localized cold water refuges. Tagged fish appeared to spawn at 7DADM temperatures of 7-14 ??C. Maximum 7DADM temperatures of tagged fish and ambient temperatures at the onset of the spawning period in late August were 11-18 ??C. Water temperatures in most of the upper Lostine River used for spawning and rearing appear to be largely natural since there has been little development, whereas downstream reaches used by migratory bull trout are heavily diverted for irrigation. Although the population effects of these temperatures are unknown, summer temperatures and the higher temperatures observed for spawning fish appear to be at or above the upper range of suitability reported for the species. Published 2009. This article is a US Governmentwork and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. Collective Enumeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Bahador; Didino, Daniele; Frith, Chris; Butterworth, Brian; Rees, Geraint

    2013-01-01

    Many joint decisions in everyday life (e.g., Which bar is less crowded?) depend on approximate enumeration, but very little is known about the psychological characteristics of counting together. Here we systematically investigated collective approximate enumeration. Pairs of participants made individual and collective enumeration judgments in a…

  9. Enumerating molecules.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visco, Donald Patrick, Jr. (, . Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, TN); Faulon, Jean-Loup Michel; Roe, Diana C.

    2004-04-01

    This report is a comprehensive review of the field of molecular enumeration from early isomer counting theories to evolutionary algorithms that design molecules in silico. The core of the review is a detail account on how molecules are counted, enumerated, and sampled. The practical applications of molecular enumeration are also reviewed for chemical information, structure elucidation, molecular design, and combinatorial library design purposes. This review is to appear as a chapter in Reviews in Computational Chemistry volume 21 edited by Kenny B. Lipkowitz.

  10. Bimonotone enumeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisermann, Michael

    2009-03-01

    Solutions of a diophantine equation f(a,b) = g(c,d) , with a,b,c,d in some finite range, can be efficiently enumerated by sorting the values of f and g in ascending order and searching for collisions. This article considers functions f \\colon mathbb{N} times mathbb{N}to mathbb{Z} that are bimonotone in the sense that f(a,b) le f(a',b') whenever a le a' and b le b' . A two-variable polynomial with non-negative coefficients is a typical example. The problem is to efficiently enumerate all pairs (a,b) such that the values f(a,b) appear in increasing order. We present an algorithm that is memory-efficient and highly parallelizable. In order to enumerate the first n values of f , the algorithm only builds up a priority queue of length at most sqrt{2n}+1 . In terms of bit-complexity this ensures that the algorithm takes time O( n log^2 n ) and requires memory O( sqrt{n} log n ) , which considerably improves on the memory bound Theta( n log n ) provided by a naive approach, and extends the semimonotone enumeration algorithm previously considered by R.L.Ekl and D.J.Bernstein.

  11. Bull trout in the Boundary System: managing connectivity and the feasibility of a reintroduction in the lower Pend Oreille River, northeastern Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Jason B.; Taylor, Eric B.; Allendorf, Fred W.

    2014-01-01

    Many of the World’s rivers are influenced by large dams (>15 m high) most of which have fragmented formerly continuous habitats, and significantly altered fish passage, natural flow, temperature, and sediment fluxes (Nilsson and others, 2005; Arthington, 2012; Liermann and others, 2012). In the Pacific Northwest, dams on major rivers have been a major focus for fishery managers, primarily in regard to passage of anadromous salmonids (principally Pacific salmon and steelhead trout [Oncorhynchus mykiss], for example, Ferguson and others, 2011), but more recently other species, such as Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus) and resident (non-anadromous) salmonids, are receiving more attention (Neraas and Spruell, 2001; Moser and others, 2002; Muhlfeld and others, 2012). In the case of resident salmonids, fish can adopt a wide range of migratory behaviors that often bring them into mainstem rivers where they can come into direct contact with large dams. When this occurs, some of the most important direct effects of dams on salmonids include barriers to upstream and downstream movement and mortality associated with entrainment within the dam or spill over dams. Biologically, these direct impacts can lead to (1) disruption of natural historical (pre-dam) genetic and demographic connectivity among local populations, (2) loss of access to historically used migratory destinations, (3) loss of individuals to the population through mortality associated with entrainment.

  12. Red Bull Crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Additives make Red Bull the first company to test China’s new Food Safety Law "Drink Red Bull when you feel sleepy or tired" is a famous advertising slogan well-known to Chinese. But a recent German

  13. Role of climate and invasive species in structuring trout distributions in the interior Columbia River Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Seth J.; Isaak, Daniel J.; Dunham, Jason B.; Fausch, Kurt D.; Luce, Charles H.; Neville, Helen M.; Rieman, Bruce E.; Young, Michael K.; Nagel, David E.; Horan, Dona L.; Chandler, Gwynne L.

    2011-01-01

    Recent and projected climate warming trends have prompted interest in impacts on coldwater fishes. We examined the role of climate (temperature and flow regime) relative to geomorphology and land use in determining the observed distributions of three trout species in the interior Columbia River Basin, USA. We considered two native species, cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii) and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), as well as nonnative brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). We also examined the response of the native species to the presence of brook trout. Analyses were conducted using multilevel logistic regression applied to a geographically broad database of 4165 fish surveys. The results indicated that bull trout distributions were strongly related to climatic factors, and more weakly related to the presence of brook trout and geomorphic variables. Cutthroat trout distributions were weakly related to climate but strongly related to the presence of brook trout. Brook trout distributions were related to both climate and geomorphic variables, including proximity to unconfined valley bottoms. We conclude that brook trout and bull trout are likely to be adversely affected by climate warming, whereas cutthroat trout may be less sensitive. The results illustrate the importance of considering species interactions and flow regime alongside temperature in understanding climate effects on fish.

  14. Adapting Bulls to Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    The adaptation of bulls used for natural breeding purposes to the Gulf Coast region of the United States including all of Florida is an important topic. Nearly 40% of the U.S. cow/calf population resides in the Gulf Coast and Southeast. Thus, as A.I. is relatively rare, the number of bulls used for ...

  15. Quantum shadow enumerators

    CERN Document Server

    Rains, E M

    1996-01-01

    In a recent paper [quant-ph/9610040], Shor and Laflamme define two ``weight enumerators'' for quantum error correcting codes, connected by a MacWilliams transform, and use them to give a linear-programming bound for quantum codes. We extend their work by introducing another enumerator, based on the classical theory of shadow codes, that tightens their bounds significantly. In particular, nearly all of the codes known to be optimal among additive quantum codes (codes derived from orthogonal geometry ([quant-ph/9608006])) can be shown to be optimal among all quantum codes. We also use the shadow machinery to extend a bound on self-dual additive codes (E. Rains, N. Sloane, manuscript in preparation) to general codes, obtaining as a consequence that any pure code of length n can correct at most floor((n+1)/6) errors.

  16. Analysis and enumeration algorithms for biological graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Marino, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    In this work we plan to revise the main techniques for enumeration algorithms and to show four examples of enumeration algorithms that can be applied to efficiently deal with some biological problems modelled by using biological networks: enumerating central and peripheral nodes of a network, enumerating stories, enumerating paths or cycles, and enumerating bubbles. Notice that the corresponding computational problems we define are of more general interest and our results hold in the case of arbitrary graphs. Enumerating all the most and less central vertices in a network according to their eccentricity is an example of an enumeration problem whose solutions are polynomial and can be listed in polynomial time, very often in linear or almost linear time in practice. Enumerating stories, i.e. all maximal directed acyclic subgraphs of a graph G whose sources and targets belong to a predefined subset of the vertices, is on the other hand an example of an enumeration problem with an exponential number of solutions...

  17. Conjectured enumeration of Vassiliev invariants

    CERN Document Server

    Broadhurst, D J

    1997-01-01

    These conjectures are motivated by successful enumerations of irreducible Euler sums. Predictions for $\\beta_{15,10}$, $\\beta_{16,12}$ and $\\beta_{19,16}$ suggest that the action of sl and osp Lie algebras, on baguette diagrams with ladder insertions, fails to detect an invariant in each case.

  18. Estimation of Bull.s Gene Effects for Milk Amount

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Rimac

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we tried to estimate gene effects of three bulls that are mated with five populations of half-sisters by sire line for milk amount. We wanted to fortify whether the order of bull.s gene effects was unchangeable or it was modified. Totally we analyzed 2824 lactation. Investigation was made on two different generations of Holstein cows (mothers and daughters. Analysis of results for milk production of mothers showed that between different populations of mothers exist significant differences (P<0.05 and P<0.01.It was fortified that order of bulls wasn.t same i.e. that their breeding value (like sum of all present genes in one individual was various on the different populations of cows.

  19. Danish holsteins favor bull offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Kirkeby, Carsten; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose;

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study from 2014 it was found that US Holstein cows that gave birth to heifer calves produced more milk than cows having bull calves. We wanted to assess whether this is also true for Danish cattle. Data from 578 Danish Holstein herds were analysed with a mixed effect model...... and contrary to the findings in the US, we found that cows produced higher volumes of milk if they had a bull calf compared to a heifer calf. We found a significantly higher milk production of 0.28% in the first lactation period for cows giving birth to a bull calf, compared to a heifer calf. This difference...... with no farmer assistance or with veterinary assistance during the most recent calving produced less milk. There were also indications that dams would favor a bull fetus by decreasing milk production during the second pregnancy if the calf born in the first parity was a heifer. We hypothesize that size of calves...

  20. An epizootic among rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    1953-01-01

    An epizootic among rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii) in a private trout farm, resulting from a species of Ichthyosporidium that caused very high mortality rates in all ages of trout, reported from the State of Washington.

  1. Breeding soundness evaluation of young beef bulls

    OpenAIRE

    Persson, Ylva

    2007-01-01

    The overall aims were to learn more about factors affecting fertility in Swedish beef sires in general and in yearling beef bulls in particular, focusing mainly on sexual maturity and hind limb health finding useful tools in order to be able to routinely perform a complete bull breeding soundness evaluations in Swedish beef bulls. Semen was collected from yearling beef bulls, postmortem, and the sperm morphology was evaluated. Using a strict definition, based on sperm morphology, we could dem...

  2. The 1000 bull genome project

    Science.gov (United States)

    To meet growing global demands for high value protein from milk and meat, rates of genetic gain in domestic cattle must be accelerated. At the same time, animal health and welfare must be considered. The 1000 bull genomes project supports these goals by providing annotated sequence variants and ge...

  3. Examining indirect effects of lake trout recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the recovery of lake trout populations in Lake Superior, there are indications of decreased forage fish abundance and density-dependence in lake trout. In Lake Superior, lean lake trout historically occupied depths trout occupied depths > 60 m...

  4. Enumerations deciding the weak Lefschetz property

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, David

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a natural correspondence between artinian monomial almost complete intersections in three variables and punctured hexagons. We use this correspondence to investigate the algebras for the presence of the weak Lefschetz property. In particular, we relate the field characteristics in which such an algebra fails to have the weak Lefschetz property to the prime divisors of the enumeration of signed lozenge tilings of the associated punctured hexagonal region. On the one side this allows us to establish the weak Lefschetz property in many new cases. On the other side, we can determine some of the prime divisors of the enumerations by means of an algebraic argument. For numerous classes of punctured hexagonal regions we find closed formulae for the enumerations of signed lozenge tilings and, thus, the field characteristics in which the associated algebras fail to the have the weak Lefschetz property. Further, we offer a conjecture for a closed formula for the enumerations of signed lozenge tilings of sy...

  5. Selective enumeration of probiotic microorganisms in cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Reza; Mortazavian, Amir M; Amiri-Rigi, Atefeh

    2012-02-01

    Cheese is a dairy product which has a good potential for delivery of probiotic microorganisms into the human intestine. To be considered to offer probiotic health benefits, probiotics must remain viable in food products above a threshold level (e.g., 10(6) cfu g(-1)) until the time of consumption. In order to ensure that a minimal number of probiotic bacteria is present in the cheese, reliable methods for enumeration are required. The choice of culture medium for selective enumeration of probiotic strains in combination with starters depends on the product matrix, the target group and the taxonomic diversity of the bacterial background flora in the product. Enumeration protocol should be designed as a function of the target microorganism(s) to be quantified in the cheese. An overview of some series of culture media for selective enumeration of commercial probiotic cultures is presented in this review.

  6. Epidermal response of rainbow trout to Ichthyobodo necator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Kuhn, Jesper Andreas; Mohammad, Rezkar Jaafar;

    2014-01-01

    Infections with the parasitic flagellate Ichthyobodo necator (Henneguy, 1883) cause severe skin and gill disease in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792) juveniles. The epidermal disturbances including hyperplasia and mucous cell exhaustion caused by parasitization are known, but no...... experimental infection of juvenile rainbow trout. The course of infection was followed by sampling for parasite enumeration, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) on days 0, 5, 9 and 14 post-infection. IHC showed a significant increase in the occurrence of IgM-positive cells in the skin of the...

  7. Neuroretinitis following bull ant sting

    OpenAIRE

    Ullrich, Katja; Saha, Niladri; Lake, Stewart

    2012-01-01

    Cat scratch disease causes the majority of cases of neuroretinitis. Neuroretinitis is characterised by clinical features of papillitis, macular oedema and macular star. We report a case study of infection with Bartonella henselae most likely transmitted by a bull ant sting. The patient presented with blurred vision and reduced visual acuity after being stung by an ant in her garden some 7 days earlier. Further testing revealed positive serology to B henselae and the patient improved with appr...

  8. Trout Stream Special Regulations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This layer shows Minnesota trout streams that have a special regulation as described in the 2006 Minnesota Fishing Regulations. Road crossings were determined using...

  9. Modulo computably enumerable degrees by cupping partners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Cupping partners of an element in an upper semilattice with a greatest element 1 are those joining the element to 1. We define a congruence relation on such an upper semilattice by considering the elements having the same cupping partners as equivalent. It is interesting that this congruence relation induces a non-dense quotient structure of computably enumerable Turing degrees. Another main interesting phenomenon in this article is that on the computably enumerable degrees, this relation is different from that modulo the noncuppable ideal, though they define a same equivalent class for the computable Turing degree.

  10. Management and Breeding Soundness of Mature Bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Colin W

    2016-07-01

    Mature bulls must be fed a balanced ration, vaccinated appropriately, and undergo a breeding soundness evaluation to ensure they meet what is required of a short, but intense breeding season. To be classified as a satisfactory potential breeder, minimum standards for physical soundness, scrotal circumference, sperm motility, and sperm morphology must be achieved using an accepted bull-breeding soundness evaluation format. Sperm production requires approximately 70 days. Heat and stress are the most common insults to spermatogenesis, causing an increase in morphologic abnormalities with obesity-associated scrotal fat accumulation being the most frequent cause of elevated testicular temperature in mature bulls.

  11. Circulating Tumor Cells, Enumeration and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Mei Hou

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The detection and enumeration of circulating tumor cells (CTCs has shown significant clinical utility with respect to prognosis in breast, colorectal and prostate cancers. Emerging studies show that CTCs can provide pharmacodynamic information to aid therapy decision making. CTCs as a ‘virtual and real-time biopsy’ have clear potential to facilitate exploration of tumor biology, and in particular, the process of metastasis. The challenge of profiling CTC molecular characteristics and generating CTC signatures using current technologies is that they enrich rather than purify CTCs from whole blood; we face the problem of looking for the proverbial ‘needle in the haystack’. This review summarizes the current methods for CTC detection and enumeration, focuses on molecular characterization of CTCs, unveils some aspects of CTC heterogeneity, describes attempts to purify CTCs and scans the horizon for approaches leading to comprehensive dissection of CTC biology.

  12. Circulating Tumor Cells, Enumeration and Beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detection and enumeration of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) has shown significant clinical utility with respect to prognosis in breast, colorectal and prostate cancers. Emerging studies show that CTCs can provide pharmacodynamic information to aid therapy decision making. CTCs as a ‘virtual and real-time biopsy’ have clear potential to facilitate exploration of tumor biology, and in particular, the process of metastasis. The challenge of profiling CTC molecular characteristics and generating CTC signatures using current technologies is that they enrich rather than purify CTCs from whole blood; we face the problem of looking for the proverbial ‘needle in the haystack’. This review summarizes the current methods for CTC detection and enumeration, focuses on molecular characterization of CTCs, unveils some aspects of CTC heterogeneity, describes attempts to purify CTCs and scans the horizon for approaches leading to comprehensive dissection of CTC biology

  13. Construction and Enumerating of Resilient—Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WENQiaoyan; YANGYixian

    2003-01-01

    This paper discussed construction and enumeration of resilient functions,which have widely applications in the fault-tolerant distributed computing,quantum-cryptographic key distribution,and random sequence generation for stream ciphers.It turned out that resilient functions are special case of unbiased multi-value correlation-immune functions.Resilient functions are constructed by recursive construction of orthogonal matrices and the exact number of them is found for some special cases.

  14. Rapid enumeration of phage in monodisperse emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjhung, Katrina F; Burnham, Sean; Anany, Hany; Griffiths, Mansel W; Derda, Ratmir

    2014-06-17

    Phage-based detection assays have been developed for the detection of viable bacteria for applications in clinical diagnosis, monitoring of water quality, and food safety. The majority of these assays deliver a positive readout in the form of newly generated progeny phages by the bacterial host of interest. Progeny phages are often visualized as plaques, or holes, in a lawn of bacteria on an agar-filled Petri dish; however, this rate-limiting step requires up to 12 h of incubation time. We have previously described an amplification of bacteriophages M13 inside droplets of media suspended in perfluorinated oil; a single phage M13 in a droplet yields 10(7) copies in 3-4 h. Here, we describe that encapsulation of reporter phages, both lytic T4-LacZ and nonlytic M13, in monodisperse droplets can also be used for rapid enumeration of phage. Compartmentalization in droplets accelerated the development of the signal from the reporter enzyme; counting of "positive" droplets yields accurate enumeration of phage particles ranging from 10(2) to 10(6) pfu/mL. For enumeration of T4-LacZ phage, the fluorescent signal appeared in as little as 90 min. Unlike bulk assays, quantification in emulsion is robust and insensitive to fluctuations in environmental conditions (e.g., temperature). Power-free emulsification using gravity-driven flow in the absence of syringe pumps and portable fluorescence imaging solutions makes this technology promising for use at the point of care in low-resource environments. This droplet-based phage enumeration method could accelerate and simplify point-of-care detection of the pathogens for which reporter bacteriophages have been developed.

  15. Trout in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Trout in the Classroom (TIC) is a conservation-oriented environmental education program for elementary, middle, and high school students. During the year each teacher tailors the program to fit his or her curricular needs. Therefore, each TIC program is unique. TIC has interdisciplinary applications in science, social studies, mathematics, language arts, fine arts, and physical education. In the program, students and teachers raise trout from fertilized eggs supplied by Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries (VGIF) hatcheries, in aquariums equipped with special chillers designed to keep the water near 50 degrees F. The students make daily temperature measurements, and monitor pH, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, and ammonia levels. They record their data, plot trends, and make sure that the water quality is sufficient to support trout development. The fingerlings, which hatch in late October, are almost an inch and a half long by mid-January. And towards the end of the school year, students will release the fry into VGIF approved watersheds. TIC programs have been in place all across the country for more than 20 years, and are the result of numerous collaborations between teachers, volunteers, government agencies, and local organizations like Trout Unlimited. The programs were designed specifically for teachers who wanted to incorporate more environmental education into their curriculum. While the immediate goal of Trout in the Classroom is to increase student knowledge of water quality and cold water conservation, its long-term goal is to reconnect an increasingly urbanized population of youth to the system of streams, rivers, and watersheds that sustain them. Successful programs have helped: connect students to their local environments and their local watersheds; teach about watershed health and water quality, and; get students to care about fish and the environment. In Virginia, the TIC program is now in its 8th year. Over the past year, the program

  16. The Sea Trout Year 1985

    OpenAIRE

    Fahy, E

    1986-01-01

    The wet year of 1985 yielded good catches to the rod and to commercial engines. Salmon were taken in reasonable numbers in the drift nets although only small numbers of sea trout were captured by this method. The wet angling season is thought to have provided productive fishing conditions contributing largely to a 22% increase over the previous year's landings of sea trout.

  17. Dense module enumeration in biological networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of large networks is a central topic in various research fields including biology, sociology, and web mining. Detection of dense modules (a.k.a. clusters) is an important step to analyze the networks. Though numerous methods have been proposed to this aim, they often lack mathematical rigorousness. Namely, there is no guarantee that all dense modules are detected. Here, we present a novel reverse-search-based method for enumerating all dense modules. Furthermore, constraints from additional data sources such as gene expression profiles or customer profiles can be integrated, so that we can systematically detect dense modules with interesting profiles. We report successful applications in human protein interaction network analyses.

  18. Detection and enumeration of airborne biocontaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetzenbach, Linda D; Buttner, Mark P; Cruz, Patricia

    2004-06-01

    The sampling and analysis of airborne microorganisms has received attention in recent years owing to concerns with mold contamination in indoor environments and the threat of bioterrorism. Traditionally, the detection and enumeration of airborne microorganisms has been conducted using light microscopy and/or culture-based methods; however, these analyses are time-consuming, laborious, subjective and lack sensitivity and specificity. The use of molecular methods, such as quantitative polymerase chain reaction amplification, can enhance monitoring strategies by increasing sensitivity and specificity, while decreasing the time required for analysis.

  19. Enumeration of Cylindric Plane Partitions - part I

    CERN Document Server

    Langer, Robin

    2012-01-01

    Cylindric plane partitions may be thought of as a natural generalization of reverse plane partitions. A generating series for the enumeration of cylindric plane partitions was recently given by Borodin. The first result of this paper is a $(q,t)$-analog of Borodin's identity which extends previous work by Okada in the reverse plane partition case. Our proof uses commutation relations for $(q,t)$-vertex operators acting on Macdonald polynomials as given by Garsia, Haiman and Tesla. The second result of this paper is an explicit combinatorial interpreation of the $(q,t)$-Macdonald weight in terms of a non-intersecting lattice path model on the cylinder.

  20. Embryotoxicity of an extract from Great Lakes lake trout to rainbow trout and lake trout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, P.J.; Tillitt, D.E. [National Biological Service, Columbia, MO (United States). Midwest Science Center

    1995-12-31

    Aquatic ecosystems such as the Great Lakes are known to be contaminated with chemicals that are toxic to fish. However, the role of these contaminants in reproductive failures of fishes, such as lake trout recruitment, has remained controvertible. It was the objective to evaluate dioxin-like embryotoxicity of a complex mixture of chemicals and predict their potential to cause the lack of recruitment in Great Lakes lake trout. Graded doses of a complex environmental extract were injected into eggs of both rainbow trout and lake trout. The extract was obtained from whole adult lake trout collected from Lake Michigan in 1988. The extract was embryotoxic in rainbow trout, with LD50 values for Arlee strain and Erwin strain of 33 eggEQ and 14 eggEQ respectively. The LOAEL for hemorrhaging, yolk-sac edema, and craniofacial deformities in rainbow trout were 2, 2, and 4 eggEQ, respectively. Subsequent injections of the extract into lake trout eggs were likewise embryotoxic, with an LD50 value of 7 eggEQ. The LOAEL values for the extract in lake trout for hemorrhaging, yolk-sac edema, and craniofacial deformities were 0.1, 1, and 2 eggEQ, respectively. The current levels of contaminants in lake trout eggs are above the threshold for hemorrhaging and yolk-sac edema. The results also support the use of an additive model of toxicity to quantify PCDDs, PCDFs, Non-o-PCBs, and Mono-o-PCBs in relation to early life stage mortality in Lake Michigan lake trout.

  1. Evaluating pathway enumeration algorithms in metabolic engineering case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Filipe; Vilaça, Paulo; Rocha, I; Rocha, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The design of cell factories for the production of compounds involves the search for suitable heterologous pathways. Different strategies have been proposed to infer such pathways, but most are optimization approaches with specific objective functions, not suited to enumerate multiple pathways. In this work, we analyze two pathway enumeration algorithms based on graph representations: the Solution Structure Generation and the Find Path algorithms. Both are capable of enumerating exhaustively ...

  2. Plump Cutthroat Trout and Thin Rainbow Trout in a Lentic Ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Courtney, Joshua; Abbott, Jessica; Schmidt, Kerri; Courtney, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Background: Much has been written about introduced rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) interbreeding and outcompeting cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii). However, the specific mechanisms by which rainbow trout and their hybrids outcompete cutthroat trout have not been thoroughly explored, and the published data is limited to lotic ecosystems. Materials and Methods: Samples of rainbow trout and cutthroat trout were obtained from a lentic ecosystem by angling. The total length and weight of...

  3. Brand image and identity of Red Bull

    OpenAIRE

    Kubátová, Karolína

    2009-01-01

    The thesis is focused on a comparison of the image perception and brand identity of Red Bull. The theoretical part explains the difference between the concepts of identity and brand image, how the brand sees itself and how it is perceived from the perspective of consumers. Further information is also given in the context of the topic. This analysis yields a comparison between the brand's identity and the inaccuracies in the perceptions of the brand image, and reveals the real image of Red Bull.

  4. Broad-scale patterns of Brook Trout responses to introduced Brown Trout in New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna Jr, James E.; Slattery, Michael T.; Kean M. Clifford

    2013-01-01

    Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis and Brown Trout Salmo trutta are valuable sport fish that coexist in many parts of the world due to stocking introductions. Causes for the decline of Brook Trout within their native range are not clear but include competition with Brown Trout, habitat alteration, and repetitive stocking practices. New York State contains a large portion of the Brook Trout's native range, where both species are maintained by stocking and other management actions. We used artificial neural network models, regression, principal components analysis, and simulation to evaluate the effects of Brown Trout, environmental conditions, and stocking on the distribution of Brook Trout in the center of their native range. We found evidence for the decline of Brook Trout in the presence of Brown Trout across many watersheds; 22% of sampled reaches where both species were expected to occur contained only Brown Trout. However, a model of the direct relationship between Brook Trout and Brown Trout abundance explained less than 1% of data variation. Ordination showed extensive overlap of Brook Trout and Brown Trout habitat conditions, with only small components of the hypervolume (multidimensional space) being distinctive. Subsequent analysis indicated higher abundances of Brook Trout in highly forested areas, while Brown Trout were more abundant in areas with relatively high proportions of agriculture. Simulation results indicated that direct interactions and habitat conditions were relatively minor factors compared with the effects of repeated stocking of Brown Trout into Brook Trout habitat. Intensive annual stocking of Brown Trout could eliminate resident Brook Trout in less than a decade. Ecological differences, harvest behavior, and other habitat changes can exacerbate Brook Trout losses. Custom stocking scenarios with Brown Trout introductions at relatively low proportions of resident Brook Trout populations may be able to sustain healthy populations of both

  5. Dworshak Reservoir Investigations: Trout, Bass and Forage Species, 1987 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Statler, David P.

    1988-05-01

    Dworshak Dam and Reservoir is a Corps of Engineers facility located on the North Fork Clearwater River 3.2 km upstream from the Mainstem Clearwater confluence. Since initial filling in 1971, conversion of 87 km of river habitat to a 6644 hectare impoundment has had a profound influence on resident fisheries. The Nez Perce Tribe and the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) entered into separate intergovernmental agreements with the Bonneville Power Administration in a cooperative effort to study these impacts. The kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka assessment is included in the IDFG agreement, and is not addressed in this report. This project pertains primarily to rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri, smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui), and forage species. For the period November 1987 through February 1988, an estimated 4339 angler-hours were expended to catch 430 rainbow trout. An estimated 20 bull trout Salvelinus confluentus, 4 smallmouth bass, and 4 suckers Catostomus spp. were also caught. Catch rates were generally poor through the period, at .091 fish per hour for all species combined (excluding kokanee). Shasta strain hatchery rainbow trout were dominant in the creel, comprising 53.9 percent of the catch, although this strain was last planted in the reservoir in June 1986. Bank anglers caught a higher percentage (93.5 percent) of the total catch of Shasta strain rainbows than Kamloops strain rainbows (33.3 percent). 11 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Enumeration of petroleum hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In-situ biological treatment is one among a number of emerging technologies that may be applied to the remediation of contaminated soils and groundwater. In 1985, a surface spill of 1,500 gallons of dielectric transformer oil at the Sandia National Laboratories (HERMES II facility) resulted in contamination of soil up to depths of 160 feet. The extent of contamination and site characteristics favored the application of in-situ bioremediation as a potential remedial technology. The purpose of this research was to enumerate indigenous microbial populations capable of degrading petroleum hydrocarbons. Microbial enumeration and characterization methods suitably adapted for hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria were used as an indicator of the presence of viable microbial consortia in excavated oil samples with hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations ranging from 300 to 26,850 ppm. Microbial activity was quantified by direct and streak plating soil samples on silica gel media. Effects of toxicity and temperature were studied using batch cultures of hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria (selectively isolated in an enrichment medium), at temperatures of 20 and 35 C. It was concluded from this study that it is possible to isolate native microorganisms from contaminated soils from depths of 60 to 160 feet, and with oil concentration ranging from 300 to 26,850 ppm. About 62% of the microorganisms isolated form the contaminated soil were capable of using contaminant oil as a substrate for growth and metabolism under aerobic conditions. Growth rates were observed to be 50% higher for the highest contaminant concentration at 20 C. Resistance to toxicity to contaminant oil was also observed to be greater at 20 C than at 35 C

  7. On the effective and automatic enumeration of polynomial permutation classes

    OpenAIRE

    Homberger, Cheyne; Vatter, Vince

    2013-01-01

    We describe an algorithm, implemented in Python, which can enumerate any permutation class with polynomial enumeration from a structural description of the class. In particular, this allows us to find formulas for the number of permutations of length n which can be obtained by a finite number of block sorting operations (e.g., reversals, block transpositions, cut-and-paste moves).

  8. Primary mandibular hemangiosarcoma in a bull

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Keith P.; McSloy, Alexandra C.; Perrier, Melanie; Prichard, Michael A.; Steinberg, Howard; Semrad, Susan D.

    2008-01-01

    Disseminated pulmonary and subcutaneous-muscular hemangiosarcoma at the left hemimandible was diagnosed postmortem in a 2-year-old Jersey bull that presented with a 7-day history of facial swelling from suspected traumatic injury. Hemangiosarcoma is uncommon in cattle and has never been reported to affect the bones of the skull. PMID:19043489

  9. Primary mandibular hemangiosarcoma in a bull

    OpenAIRE

    Poulsen, Keith P; McSloy, Alexandra C.; Perrier, Melanie; Prichard, Michael A.; Steinberg, Howard; Semrad, Susan D.

    2008-01-01

    Disseminated pulmonary and subcutaneous-muscular hemangiosarcoma at the left hemimandible was diagnosed postmortem in a 2-year-old Jersey bull that presented with a 7-day history of facial swelling from suspected traumatic injury. Hemangiosarcoma is uncommon in cattle and has never been reported to affect the bones of the skull.

  10. Do Rainbow Trout and Their Hybrids Outcompete Cutthroat Trout in a Lentic Ecosystem?

    OpenAIRE

    Courtney, Joshua M.; Courtney, Amy C.; Courtney, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    Much has been written about introduced rainbow trout interbreeding and outcompeting native cutthroat trout. However, specific mechanisms have not been thoroughly explored, and most data is limited to lotic ecosystems. Samples of Snake River cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii bouvieri), the rainbow-cutthroat hybrid, the cutbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss x clarkii), and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), were obtained from a lentic ecosystem (Eleven Mile Reservoir, Colorado) by creel surv...

  11. Viral quasispecies assembly via maximal clique enumeration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Töpfer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Virus populations can display high genetic diversity within individual hosts. The intra-host collection of viral haplotypes, called viral quasispecies, is an important determinant of virulence, pathogenesis, and treatment outcome. We present HaploClique, a computational approach to reconstruct the structure of a viral quasispecies from next-generation sequencing data as obtained from bulk sequencing of mixed virus samples. We develop a statistical model for paired-end reads accounting for mutations, insertions, and deletions. Using an iterative maximal clique enumeration approach, read pairs are assembled into haplotypes of increasing length, eventually enabling global haplotype assembly. The performance of our quasispecies assembly method is assessed on simulated data for varying population characteristics and sequencing technology parameters. Owing to its paired-end handling, HaploClique compares favorably to state-of-the-art haplotype inference methods. It can reconstruct error-free full-length haplotypes from low coverage samples and detect large insertions and deletions at low frequencies. We applied HaploClique to sequencing data derived from a clinical hepatitis C virus population of an infected patient and discovered a novel deletion of length 357±167 bp that was validated by two independent long-read sequencing experiments. HaploClique is available at https://github.com/armintoepfer/haploclique. A summary of this paper appears in the proceedings of the RECOMB 2014 conference, April 2-5.

  12. 33 CFR 117.337 - Trout River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trout River. 117.337 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.337 Trout River. The draw of the CSX Railroad Bridge across the Trout River, mile 0.9 at Jacksonville, operates as follows: (a) The bridge is...

  13. ECONOMICS OF PURCHASING GENETICALLY SUPERIOR BEEF BULLS

    OpenAIRE

    Clary, Gregory M.; Jordan, Johnny W.; Thompson, Carl Eugene

    1984-01-01

    Net present value analysis is used to derive the marginal bid price for a beef herd sire from after-tax net revenues and cash flow influenced by genetic improvements. Marginal bid price represents the additional amount a producer could pay, above the present value of the current beef herd sire, for a sire expected to exhibit superior performance as reflected by increased average weaning weights of offspring. An analysis of the profitability of purchasing a breeding bull for a commercial beef ...

  14. Infertility of the breeding bull in insemination technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predojević Mirko R.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of very strict breeding bull selection, especialy for A.I programes their infertility is a very serius problem in everyday practice. Especially bull semen has been marked as the main factor for unsatisfied cow fertility in the A.I.programme. The reason could be the bull semen which really may play as the spreading factor of the specific or non-specific reproductive infective disoders – IBR, IPV, BVD, Campylobacter-Vibrio fetus, brucellosis leptospirosis, tuberculosis and other reproductive diseases. Secondarily, the percentage of vitality, motility, penetration abilities, and immonological properties of bull spermatozoa also have an important role in unsuccessful bovine fecundation. That is, why it is necessary to secure professional health care for breedig bull in AI centres, becase only healthy bulls can ensure good bovine genetic transmission and progress in cattle production for today's growing population.

  15. National Plan and Provider Enumeration System (NPPES) Downloadable File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Plan and Provider Enumeration System (NPPES) downloadable file (also referred to as the NPI Downloadable File) contains FOIA-disclosable NPPES health...

  16. Effects of arsenic on bull trout: An investigation of mine cleanup practices in the Pacific Northwest

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study evaluated the effects of arsenic and heavy metals on individual salmonids and the aquatic community within Gold Creek, Idaho. Gold Creek is a tributary...

  17. Infertility of the breeding bull in insemination technology

    OpenAIRE

    Predojević Mirko R.; Marinković Miroslav; Jovičin Milovan; Prka Igor

    2004-01-01

    In spite of very strict breeding bull selection, especialy for A.I programes their infertility is a very serius problem in everyday practice. Especially bull semen has been marked as the main factor for unsatisfied cow fertility in the A.I.programme. The reason could be the bull semen which really may play as the spreading factor of the specific or non-specific reproductive infective disoders – IBR, IPV, BVD, Campylobacter-Vibrio fetus, brucellosis leptospirosis, tuberculosis and other reprod...

  18. Debunking the Effects of Taurine in Red Bull Energy Drink

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Woojae

    2003-01-01

    Red Bull is a carbonated beverage that initially gained wide popularity in the U.S. during the late nineties. Taking root amongst college campuses, it appeared throughout underground clubs and eventually entered mainstream pop-culture. The manufactures claim that drinking Red Bull enhances physical endurance, concentration and reaction speed (1,6). The main ingredients of Red Bull include sugar, taurine, glucuronolactone and caffeine. It is hypothesized that the combinatorial influences o...

  19. Selective enumeration of bifidobacterial species in food and food supplements

    OpenAIRE

    Jehličková, Tereza

    2013-01-01

    This work "Selective enumeration of bifidobacterial species in food and food supplements" in the first part deals with the general characteristics of functional foods and food supplements, subsequently food supplements containing bacteria of the genus Bifidobacterium and their enumeration. Nowadays, the functional food is very popular, as well as food supplements, with which they are often mixed up. Probiotics, which is usually used in the form of capsules or bulk powder, in the form of o...

  20. Effect of zeranol on sexual development of crossbred bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, R W; Randel, R D; Rouquette, F M

    1989-07-01

    Three groups of 1/2 Simmental X 1/4 Brahman X 1/4 Hereford bull calves were used during two different years to study effects of zeranol on sexual development. At 154 d of age, half the calves were implanted with 36 mg zeranol and half, not implanted, served as controls. Implanted calves were reimplanted at 90-d intervals throughout the trial (9 mo) each year. Trial 1 was conducted with 24 calves and Trial 2 was conducted the following year with 10 bulls. Twenty-four days after weaning (200 d of age) and at 28-d intervals thereafter, bulls in drylot in Trial 1 were weighted, scrotal circumference (SC) was measured and an ejaculate of semen was collected by electroejaculation to determine puberty. At these times, bulls were given 200 micrograms of GnRH i.m. and blood was collected at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 h after GnRH. Serum concentrations of LH and testosterone (TEST) were determined. At slaughter, testis weight, length and circumference and pubertal status were recorded. Bulls implanted with zeranol had smaller SC than control bulls during the entire 9-mo period (P less than .0001). More control bulls reached puberty than did implanted bulls (82.4 vs 23.5%, respectively; P less than .001). Control bulls had larger testis measurements at slaughter (P less than .0001). Implants did not alter total weight gain or ADG (P greater than .10).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2768123

  1. Effect of zeranol on sexual development of crossbred bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, R W; Randel, R D; Rouquette, F M

    1989-07-01

    Three groups of 1/2 Simmental X 1/4 Brahman X 1/4 Hereford bull calves were used during two different years to study effects of zeranol on sexual development. At 154 d of age, half the calves were implanted with 36 mg zeranol and half, not implanted, served as controls. Implanted calves were reimplanted at 90-d intervals throughout the trial (9 mo) each year. Trial 1 was conducted with 24 calves and Trial 2 was conducted the following year with 10 bulls. Twenty-four days after weaning (200 d of age) and at 28-d intervals thereafter, bulls in drylot in Trial 1 were weighted, scrotal circumference (SC) was measured and an ejaculate of semen was collected by electroejaculation to determine puberty. At these times, bulls were given 200 micrograms of GnRH i.m. and blood was collected at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 h after GnRH. Serum concentrations of LH and testosterone (TEST) were determined. At slaughter, testis weight, length and circumference and pubertal status were recorded. Bulls implanted with zeranol had smaller SC than control bulls during the entire 9-mo period (P less than .0001). More control bulls reached puberty than did implanted bulls (82.4 vs 23.5%, respectively; P less than .001). Control bulls had larger testis measurements at slaughter (P less than .0001). Implants did not alter total weight gain or ADG (P greater than .10).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. A STUDY ON TROUT BREEDING IN DUZCE PROVINCE

    OpenAIRE

    Akbulut, Süleyman; KETEN, Akif

    2009-01-01

    In this study, trout breeding facilities of Duzce Province, a suitable place for trout breeding, were evaluated. As a result of this evaluation, current status, capacities, and problems of trout breeding facilities were determined. Some suggestions were provided to solve these problems and increase the capacity of trout breeding facilities. Keywords: Duzce, Trout Breeding.

  3. The effect of mature elephant bull introductions on ranging patterns of resident bulls: Phinda Private Game Reserve, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heleen Druce

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing popularity of wildlife viewing has resulted in a rapid increase in small, enclosed reserves in South Africa. The African elephant is one of the many species that has been reintroduced into these reserves for eco-tourism. These elephant populations were established as young (smaller that 10 years old orphans from prior Kruger National Park culling operations. Consequently, this abnormal sex and age structure of these introduced populations has influenced their behavioural and spatial ecology. In Pilanesberg National Park, this abnormal behaviour was corrected by introducing older bulls and culling certain problem elephants. In July 2003, three older bulls (29–41 years old were introduced into Phinda Private Game Reserve, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa in order to normalise the bull age structure. These introduced bulls were monitored intensively after release, as was the resident bull population, both before and after introduction of the older bulls. The introduced bulls settled into restricted ranges separate from the family groups. All the resident bulls decreased their home ranges at first, with most increasing their home ranges a year later. The resident bulls’ change in ranging patterns was due more to ecological factors than to the influence of the mature bull introduction. This study indicates that the introduction of older male elephants into small populations does not pose major risks or animal welfare concerns.

  4. SEMEN COLLECTION AND CONSERVATION OF BULLS SEMEN PODOL TYPE CATTLE

    OpenAIRE

    Premzl, B.; Božić, P.; Viduč, D.; Dejanović, Dubravka; Geceg, I.

    1994-01-01

    Semen collection, artificial vagina, electro-ejaculation, freeze semen We tray to collection ejaculates from bulls Podol Type Cattle with artificial vagina. Fantoms for collecting were cows in heat from the same herd or from another herd. We were not successafuly. With electro-ejaculation we collected ejaculates from bulls Podol Type Cattle and freeze semen in our Institute or in field.

  5. Factors affecting daughters distribution among progeny testing Holstein bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino Cassandro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate factors influencing the number of daughters of Holstein bulls during the progeny testing using data provided by the Italian Holstein Friesian Cattle Breeders Association. The hypothesis is that there are no differences among artificial insemination studs (AIS on the daughters distribution among progeny testing bulls. For each bull and beginning from 21 months of age, the distribution of daughters over the progeny testing period was calculated. Data were available on 1973 bulls born between 1986 and 2004, progeny tested in Italy and with at least 4 paternal half-sibs. On average, bulls exited the genetic centre at 11.3±1.1 months and reached their first official genetic proof at 58.0±3.1 months of age. An analysis of variance was performed on the cumulative frequency of daughters at 24, 36, 48, and 60 months. The generalized linear model included the fixed effects of year of birth of the bull (18 levels, artificial insemination stud (4 levels and sire of bull (137 levels. All effects significantly affected the variability of studied traits. Artificial insemination stud was the most important source of variation, followed by year of birth and sire of bull. Significant differences among AI studs exist, probably reflecting different strategies adopted during progeny testing.

  6. Radio-transmitted electromyogram signals as indicators of swimming speed in lake trout and brown trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorstad, E.B.; Økland, F.; Koed, Anders;

    2000-01-01

    Swimming speed and average electromyogram (EMG) pulse intervals were highly correlated in individual lake trout Salvelinus namaycush (r(2)=0.52-0.89) and brown trout Salmo trutta (r(2)=0.45-0.96). High correlations were found also for pooled data in both lake trout (r(2)=0.90) and brown trout...... of the Ema stock (r(2)=0.96) and Laerdal stock (r(2)=0.96). The linear relationship between swimming speed and average EMG pulse intervals differed significantly among lake trout and the brown trout stocks. This successful calibration of EMGs to swimming speed opens the possibility of recording swimming...... speed of free swimming lake trout and brown trout in situ. EMGs can also be calibrated to oxygen consumption to record energy expenditure. (C) 2000 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles...

  7. Survival of Trout Strains as Affected by Limnological Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Wurtsbaugh, Wayne A.

    1988-01-01

    Prior work at East Canyon Reservoir, Utah indicated that adult trout are important predators of stocked juvenile rainbow trout. Brown trout, in particular, were exclusively piscivorous when th~y exceeded 185 mm standard length. Fish became increasingly important in the diet of cutthroat trout greater than 330 mm. The purpose of this study was to further document the effect of adult trout on survival of juvenile rainbow trout in mid-elevation reservoirs. Causey Reservoir was chosen because it ...

  8. Homeopathic treatment for infertility in a prize Nelore bull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobreiro, J

    2007-01-01

    Treatments for infertility in bulls are not described in homeopathic literature. A few treatments, such as changing the protein content of the diet, giving extra minerals, etc have been proposed. This case report describes homeopathic treatment for infertility in a prize bull. A Nelore bull, considered infertile for 3 years, was treated with homeopathic Pulsatilla nigricans 200 CH. Decreased total sperm defects, increased sperm motility and a very impressive increased number of doses of semen produced were observed. The bull relapsed after treatment was withdrawn, but again responded when it was resumed. Since only one animal was observed one cannot assume that the observed changes were due only to this treatment. Further studies may establish the real benefits of a homeopathic medicine in bull infertility. PMID:17227749

  9. Testicular Histomorphometric Evaluation of Zebu Bull Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Antônio Terrabuio Andreussi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the quantitative histology and testicular biometrics in zebu bulls of different breeds. Testicular fragments of Nelore (n=10, Polled Nelore (n=6, Gir (n=5, Guzerat (n=5 and Tabapuã bulls (n=5 were used. The fragments were perfusion-fixed in Karnovsky solution, embedded in glycol methacrylate and stained with toluidine blue-1% sodium borate. The Nelore animals had a higher tubular volumetric proportion (85.2% and greater height of the seminiferous epithelium (73.2 µm than the Gir, Guzerat and Tabapuã breeds. The Nelore animals also had a higher volumetric proportion of Leydig cells (5.2% than the Guzerat and Tabapuã breeds. There was no significant difference for any of these parameters between the Nelore and Polled Nelore breeds. The gonadosomatic index, seminiferous tubule diameter, cross-sectional area of the seminiferous tubule and tubule length (total length and length per gram of testicular parenchyma did not vary among the breeds studied. The morphometric parameters evaluated suggested that the genetic selection applied to the Nelore and Polled Nelore breeds improved the efficiency of spermatogenesis in these breeders.

  10. Copper uptake across rainbow trout gills: mechanisms of apical entry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosell, Martin Hautopp; Wood, C. M.

    2002-01-01

    Copper, Homeostasis, sodium uptake, copper/sodium interactions, gill, rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss......Copper, Homeostasis, sodium uptake, copper/sodium interactions, gill, rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss...

  11. Larger eggs in resident brown trout living in sympatry with anadromous brown trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olofsson, H.; Mosegaard, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    Freshwater resident brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) in the stream Jorlandaan (southwestern Sweden) had larger eggs (range of actual mean egg wet weights, 65.9-108.5 mg) than both sympatric migratory trout (76.8-84.2 mg) and trout from five other Swedish streams with allopatric resident (23.7-80.1 mg...

  12. A blood chemistry profile for lake trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edsall, Carol Cotant

    1999-01-01

    A blood chemistry profile for lake trout Salvelinus namaycush was developed by establishing baseline ranges for several clinical chemistry tests (glucose, total protein, amylase, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, calcium, and magnesium). Measurements were made accurately and rapidly with a Kodak Ektachem DT60 Analyzer and the Ektachem DTSC Module. Blood serum was collected from both laboratory-reared lake trout (1978 and 1986 year-classes) and feral spawning trout from Lake Michigan and then analyzed in the laboratory. No clinically significant differences were found between samples analyzed fresh and those frozen for 1 or 6 weeks. The ranges in chemistry variables for feral lake trout were generally wider than those for laboratory-reared lake trout, and significant differences existed between male and female feral lake trout for several tests. Blood chemistry profiles also varied seasonally on fish sampled repeatedly.

  13. An ecological risk assessment of the acute and chronic effects of the herbicide clopyralid to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, J.F.; Allert, A.L.; Feltz, K.P.; Nelson, K.J.; Valle, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Clopyralid (3,6-dichloro-2-pyridinecarboxylic acid) is a pyridine herbicide frequently used to control invasive, noxious weeds in the northwestern United States. Clopyralid exhibits low acute toxicity to fish, including the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and the threatened bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus). However, there are no published chronic toxicity data for clopyralid and fish that can be used in ecological risk assessments. We conducted 30-day chronic toxicity studies with juvenile rainbow trout exposed to the acid form of clopyralid. The 30-day maximum acceptable toxicant concentration (MATC) for growth, calculated as the geometric mean of the no observable effect concentration (68 mg/L) and the lowest observable effect concentration (136 mg/L), was 96 mg/L. No mortality was measured at the highest chronic concentration tested (273 mg/L). The acute:chronic ratio, calculated by dividing the previously published 96-h acutely lethal concentration (96-h ALC50; 700 mg/L) by the MATC was 7.3. Toxicity values were compared to a four-tiered exposure assessment profile assuming an application rate of 1.12 kg/ha. The Tier 1 exposure estimation, based on direct overspray of a 2-m deep pond, was 0.055 mg/L. The Tier 2 maximum exposure estimate, based on the Generic Exposure Estimate Concentration model (GEENEC), was 0.057 mg/L. The Tier 3 maximum exposure estimate, based on previously published results of the Groundwater Loading Effects of Agricultural Management Systems model (GLEAMS), was 0.073 mg/L. The Tier 4 exposure estimate, based on published edge-of-field monitoring data, was estimated at 0.008 mg/L. Comparison of toxicity data to estimated environmental concentrations of clopyralid indicates that the safety factor for rainbow trout exposed to clopyralid at labeled use rates exceeds 1000. Therefore, the herbicide presents little to no risk to rainbow trout or other salmonids such as the threatened bull trout. ?? 2009 US Government.

  14. Fertility management of bulls to improve beef cattle productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thundathil, Jacob C; Dance, Alysha L; Kastelic, John P

    2016-07-01

    Global demand for animal proteins is increasing, necessitating increased efficiency of global food production. Improving reproductive efficiency of beef cattle, especially bull fertility, is particularly critical, as one bull can breed thousands of females (by artificial insemination). Identifying the genetic basis of male reproductive traits that influence male and female fertility, and using this information for selection, would improve herd fertility. Early-life selection of elite bulls by genomic approaches and feeding them to optimize postpubertal reproductive potential are essential for maximizing profitability. Traditional bull breeding soundness evaluation, or systematic analysis of frozen semen, eliminates bulls or semen samples that are grossly abnormal. However, semen samples classified as satisfactory on the basis of traditional approaches differ in fertility. Advanced sperm function assays developed for assessing compensatory and noncompensatory (submicroscopic) sperm traits can predict such variations in bull fertility. New knowledge on epigenetic modulations of sperm DNA, messenger RNA, and proteins is fundamental to refine and expand sperm function assays. Sexed semen, plus advanced reproductive technologies (e.g., ovum pickup and in vitro production of embryos) can maximize the efficiency of beef cattle production. This review is focused on genetic considerations for bull selection, physiology of reproductive development, breeding soundness evaluation, recent advances in assessing frozen semen, and existing and emerging uses of sexed semen in beef cattle production. PMID:27173954

  15. Use of similar habitat by cutthroat trout and brown trout in a regulated river during winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dare, M.R.; Hubert, W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Few differences in habitat use were observed between cutthroat trout and brown trout during winter in the Shoshone River, a regulated river in northwestern Wyoming. Radio-tagged fish of 20-30 cm total length were found in pool habitat five to six times more frequently than would be expected if they were using pools in proportion to pool availability. Nevertheless, run habitat was most frequently used by both species. The microhabitat characteristics at locations of each species were similar when in both pools and runs, however, habitat use was variable suggesting that a variety of microhabitats were suitable over-wintering habitat. Brown trout were more frequently associated with boulder cover than were cutthroat trout. Cutthroat trout used large pools that provided refuge from high water velocities more frequently that brown trout. Cutthroat trout and brown trout were found at similar distances from the bank except in late February when cutthroat trout were farther from the bank. Both species moved frequently during the winter, but cutthroat trout showed a greater propensity than brown trout to move long distances. This study suggests that during a mild winter in a stable environment, these species were able to overwinter successfully in a variety of habitats.

  16. Patterns of hybridization among cutthroat trout and rainbow trout in northern Rocky Mountain streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, Kevin S; Young, Michael K; Wilcox, Taylor M; Bingham, Daniel M; Pilgrim, Kristine L; Schwartz, Michael K

    2016-02-01

    Introgressive hybridization between native and introduced species is a growing conservation concern. For native cutthroat trout and introduced rainbow trout in western North America, this process is thought to lead to the formation of hybrid swarms and the loss of monophyletic evolutionary lineages. Previous studies of this phenomenon, however, indicated that hybrid swarms were rare except when native and introduced forms of cutthroat trout co-occurred. We used a panel of 86 diagnostic, single nucleotide polymorphisms to evaluate the genetic composition of 3865 fish captured in 188 locations on 129 streams distributed across western Montana and northern Idaho. Although introgression was common and only 37% of the sites were occupied solely by parental westslope cutthroat trout, levels of hybridization were generally low. Of the 188 sites sampled, 73% contained ≤5% rainbow trout alleles and 58% had ≤1% rainbow trout alleles. Overall, 72% of specimens were nonadmixed westslope cutthroat trout, and an additional 3.5% were nonadmixed rainbow trout. Samples from seven sites met our criteria for hybrid swarms, that is, an absence of nonadmixed individuals and a random distribution of alleles within the sample; most (6/7) were associated with introgression by Yellowstone cutthroat trout. In streams with multiple sites, upstream locations exhibited less introgression than downstream locations. We conclude that although the widespread introduction of nonnative trout within the historical range of westslope cutthroat trout has increased the incidence of introgression, sites containing nonadmixed populations of this taxon are common and broadly distributed.

  17. Testicle size as indicator of fertility in bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prka Igor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Male calves from the high value parents, bull fathers and bull dams, enter the selection for artificial insemination. After laboratory tests, the calves are taken to the center for artificial insemination, and after a stay in quarantine the are moved to a test station. At the age of twelve months they are measured for assessing the value of each calf exterior. One of the measures recorded was the testicle scope. On the basis of testicle size, it is possible to predict sperm production potential. For the determination of testicle size (testicular biometry, tapes or rulers were used. The aim of this work was to investigate the possible effect of testicle size on sperm production in young bulls used for artificial insemination. For that purpose there were used the data on circumference of testicles of one year old bulls just starting production of sperm, and then compared with certain semen quality parameters such as: volume of ejaculate and concentration and percentage of alive and progressively mobile spermatozoa. The investigation included all young bulls that started production in the period from 2010. to 2012., that is 36 bulls of various breeds (Simmental, Holstein Friesian, Montafon. After the testicle scope measuring in these bulls, there were observed the parameters of the sperm quality during the following one year period. The obtained results showed that the increased testicle size was followed by the increased average ejaculate quantity, in other words: 3.7 ml in group of bulls with testicle circumference below 30 cm, to 6.7 ml in bulls whose testicle circumference was over 40 cm. Also, the results showed that there was a correlation between the increased testicle size and the increased spermatozoa concentration. The values grow to testicle scope of 36 cm, and above that they were still high but with some oscillations. When it came to relation between testicle scope and the percentage of alive and progressively mobile spermatozoa, the

  18. Comparison of media for enumeration of Clostridium perfringens from foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, A.E.I. de; Eijhusen, G.P.; Brouwer-Post, E.J.F.; Grand, M.; Johansson, T.; Kärkkäinen, T.; Marugg, J.; Veld, P.H. in 't; Warmerdam, F.H.M.; Wörner, G.; Zicavo, A.; Rombouts, F.M.; Beumer, R.R.

    2003-01-01

    Many media have been developed to enumerate Clostridium perfringens from foods. In this study, six media [iron sulfite (IS) agar, tryptose sulfite cycloserine (TSC) agar, Shahidi Ferguson perfringens (SFP) agar, sulfite cycloserine azide (SCA), differential clostridial agar (DCA), and oleandomycin p

  19. Efficient enumeration of non-isomorphic processing trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waas, F.

    1998-01-01

    Enumeration of search spaces belonging to join queries, so far comprises large sets of isomorphic processing trees, i.e. trees that can be equalized by only commutative exchange of the input relations to the operators. Since these differences can be handled effectively by the costing method it is su

  20. An efficient method for enumerating oral spirochetes using flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Rebecca; O'Brien-Simpson, Neil; Dashper, Stuart; Walsh, Katrina; Reynolds, Eric

    2010-02-01

    Spirochetes, such as Treponema denticola, are thin walled, helical, motile bacteria. They are notoriously difficult to enumerate due to their thinness and the difficulties associated with culturing them. Here we have developed a modified oral bacterial growth medium (OBGM) that significantly improves the cultivation of T. denticola compared with a previously published growth medium. Three methods for the enumeration of T. denticola, semi-solid growth medium colony-forming unit (CFU) counts, DNA analysis and flow cytometry, are described and compared. Enumeration of T. denticola using the semi-solid agar method resulted in a positive linear relationship with absorbance of the culture (R(2)=0.9423). However, the semi-solid agar method was found to consistently underestimate (by 50 fold) the T. denticola cell density compared to previously published data. DNA analysis of T. denticola cultures reliably and consistently resulted in a positive linear relationship with absorbance (R(2)=0.9360), giving a calculated cell density of 6.9 x 10(8)cells/mL at an absorbance of 0.2 at 650 nm. Flow cytometry was also found to result in a positive linear relationship with absorbance (R(2)=0.9874), giving a calculated cell density of 6.6 x 10(8)cells/mL at an absorbance of 0.2 at 650 nm. In comparing all of these enumeration methods, the flow cytometry method was found to have distinct advantages, as it is accurate, rapid, and could distinguish between live and dead bacteria. Thus flow cytometry is a recommended means for the rapid and reliable enumeration of viable spirochetes from culture.

  1. Stream life of spawning pink salmon and the method of escapement enumeration by aerial survey: Draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Aerial surveys are currently used as the method tor escapement enumeration of pink salmon throughout Alaska. Other escapement enumeration methods cannot be...

  2. Rainbow Trout Innate Immunity against Flavobacterium psychrophilum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum infection is associated with significant loss of rainbow trout production in the U.S. and other parts of the world. In 2005, a selective breeding program was initiated at the National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture to improve rainbow trout innate resistance ...

  3. Farming of Freshwater Rainbow Trout in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokumsen, Alfred; Svendsen, Lars Moeslund

    Textbook on Farming of Freshwater Rainbow Trout in Denmark. Danish edition with the title: Opdræt af regnbueørred i Danmark......Textbook on Farming of Freshwater Rainbow Trout in Denmark. Danish edition with the title: Opdræt af regnbueørred i Danmark...

  4. Bull Mountain Basin Boundary from 1999 National Coal Resource Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This ArcView shapefile contains a polygon representing the extent of the Bull Mountain coal basin boundary. This theme was created specifically for the National...

  5. On the Performance and Pruning Power of Different Join Enumeration Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Viktor Leis

    2016-01-01

    To find the optimal join order two different generative join enumeration strategies have been proposed. The most commonly used one is dynamic programming which proceeds bottom-up. The alternative is top down enumeration with memoization. For both strategies algorithms exist that enumerate only solutions without cartesian products, which is a commonly used heuristics. With top-down enumeration it is possible to further improve optimization time by pruning the search space while still obtaining...

  6. Bath vaccination of rainbow trout against yersiniosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raida, Martin Kristian; Buchmann, Kurt

    2007-01-01

    Studies have been conducted on the temperature-dependent effect of bath vaccination of rainbow trout against Yersinia ruckeri O1. Protection of rainbow trout fry against challenge, following bath vaccination with a bacterin of Yersinia ruckeri O1, the bacterial pathogen causing enteric red mouth...... disease (ERM), was investigated at 5, 15 and 25° C. Rainbow trout fry were kept at controlled temperatures for two month before they were immersed in a commercial Yersinia ruckeri O1 bacterin for 10 minutes. Control groups were sham vaccinated using pure water. Fish were challenged with Yersinia ruckeri O......1 one and two month post vaccination at the three temperatures. Protection of vaccinated fish was seen one and two month post vaccination in rainbow trout reared at 15° C. There was no effect of vaccination in rainbow trout reared at 5 and 25° C. Spleen tissue was sampled from 5 vaccinated and 5...

  7. SPERM DNA INTEGRITY IN BUFFALO, BULL AND STALLION

    OpenAIRE

    Serafini, Rosanna

    2015-01-01

    The interest in sperm DNA integrity evaluation and its relationship to subfertility and infertility loaded to development of several sperm DNA assays. The aim of this study was to compare several sperm DNA assays in buffaloes, bulls and stallions, and to identify the relationships between those DNA assays and traditional sperm features. In Italian Mediterranean Buffalo (IMB) bulls traditional sperm features (motility, viability, acrosome integrity and morphology), sperm DNA integrity (neutral...

  8. Preparation of teaser bulls by dorsal scrotal penile deflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jillella, D; Baker, A A; Eaton, R J

    1978-07-01

    A simple, quick and reliable technique of preparing teaser bulls has been developed. Four Bos indicus aged between 1 year 6 months and 2 years were subjected to this method by deflecting their penes backwards about 2 to 3 cm posterior and dorsal to the attachment of the scrotum. No serious postoperative complications were recorded. The sexual behaviour and libido of the bulls did not change after subjecting them to this technique. PMID:708335

  9. Interactions Between Trout and Sculpin: Consequences of Trout Introductions for a Native Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry Zimmerman, J. K.; Vondracek, B.

    2005-05-01

    We examined interactions between a native (brook) and a nonnative (brown) trout with native slimy sculpin, to test whether introductions of a nonnative salmonid has an effect on growth and diet of sculpin where a native trout was present. Enclosures (1m2) were stocked with fish (five treatments: juvenile brown trout with sculpin, juvenile brook trout with sculpin, and single species controls) at three densities. Replicates of each treatment were placed in Valley Creek, MN, and fish growth rates were measured over six 38-day experiments, conducted over three years. We examined growth of each species in combined-species treatments versus growth of each species alone. We did not find evidence of competition between brook trout and sculpin, regardless of density or fish size. However, we observed competition between brown trout and sculpin, which depended on initial mass of each species. Sculpin gained greater mass when alone than with brown trout when sculpin size was large (>17g). Likewise, brown trout gained greater mass alone than with sculpin when brown trout size was large (>26g). We suggest that differences in morphology and foraging modes between the two native species allow them to coexist without competition, whereas nonnative brown trout compete with sculpin.

  10. Causes of rejection of beef bulls in breeding soundness evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Renato Oliveira Menegassi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the rates of rejection in the different steps of the breeding soundness evaluation of beef bulls in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The breeding soundness of 22,113 young and mature bulls of 14 beef breeds, participating in the Program of Reproductive Evaluation (PARTO was evaluated in the experiment. Data concerning to the causes of rejection in the four steps of the breeding soundness evaluation (general physical examination, genital tract examination, semen evaluation and sexual behavior assessment were analyzed by the Chi-square test and univariate regression analysis. According to year, general physical examination, genital tract examination and semen evaluation determined the rejection of 0.9% to 2.5%, 5.1% to 7.7%, 1.8% to 5.3%; and 4.2% to 6.7%, 7.3 to 9.3%, and 2.5% to 5.5% of young and mature bulls, respectively. Mature bulls presented higher chances of rejection than young bulls in the general physical examination in every year evaluated; as to the genital tract examination, their chances of rejection were higher in years I and II, but not in year III. In the semen evaluation, there was no difference between the ages assessed in any of the three years evaluated. Sexual behavior assessment accounted for the rejection of 1.9 to 6.0% of the young bulls and 2.9% to 3.9% of mature bulls, in accordance with the years evaluated; in years I and II, mature bulls presented higher rejection rates than young bulls. These results confirm the importance of performing all steps of the breeding soundness evaluation, including the sexual behavior assessment as a work routine, rather than an additional, optional stage of the evaluation, which should be carried out before the breeding season. The results indicate the relationship between bull age and rejection rate in the breeding soundness evaluation.

  11. Enumeration of non-crossing pairings on bit strings

    CERN Document Server

    Kemp, Todd; Rattan, Amarpreet; Smyth, Clifford

    2009-01-01

    A non-crossing pairing on a bitstring matches 1s and 0s in a manner such that the pairing diagram is nonintersecting. By considering such pairings on arbitrary bitstrings $1^{n_1} 0^{m_1} ... 1^{n_r} 0^{m_r}$, we generalize classical problems from the theory of Catalan structures. In particular, it is very difficult to find useful explicit formulas for the enumeration function $\\phi(n_1, m_1, ..., n_r, m_r)$, which counts the number of pairings as a function of the underlying bitstring. We determine explicit formulas for $\\phi$, and also prove general upper bounds in terms of Fuss-Catalan numbers by relating non-crossing pairings to other generalized Catalan structures (that are in some sense more natural). This enumeration problem arises in the theory of random matrices and free probability.

  12. Enumeration of absolute cell counts using immunophenotypic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandy, F; Brando, B

    2001-05-01

    Absolute counting of cells or cell subsets has a number of significant clinical applications: monitoring the disease status of HIV-infected patients, enumerating residual white blood cells in leukoreduced blood products, and assessing immunodeficiency in a variety of situations. The single-platform method (flow cytometry alone) has emerged as the method of choice for absolute cell enumeration. This technology counts only the cells of interest in a precisely determined blood volume. Exact cell identification is accomplished by a logical electronic gating algorithm capable of identifying lineage-specific immunofluorescent markers. Exclusion of unwanted cells is automatic. This extensive and detailed unit presents protocols for both volumetric and flow-rate determination of residual white blood cells and of leukocyte subsets. PMID:18770719

  13. Fundamental normal surfaces and the enumeration of Hilbert bases

    CERN Document Server

    Burton, Benjamin A

    2011-01-01

    Normal surfaces are a key tool in computational knot theory and 3-manifold topology, and have featured in significant computational breakthroughs in recent years. Despite this, there has been little practical progress on algorithms that use fundamental normal surfaces, which are described in terms of a Hilbert basis for a pointed rational cone on a high-dimensional integer lattice. In this paper we develop and implement several algorithms to enumerate fundamental normal surfaces, by merging domain-specific techniques from normal surface theory with classical Hilbert basis algorithms. The most successful of these combines a maximal admissible face decomposition with the primal Hilbert basis algorithm of Bruns, Ichim and Koch, and in many cases can solve 168-dimensional enumeration problems (based on 24-tetrahedron knot complements) in a matter of hours. As an application, we use this new algorithm to compute 164 previously unknown crosscap numbers in the KnotInfo database of knot invariants.

  14. Retracing circulating tomour cells for biomarker characterization after enumeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Anders S.; Fabisiewicz, Anna; Jagiello-Gruszfeld, Agnieszka;

    2015-01-01

    to map and retrace individual CTCs from breast-cancer patients and nucleated cells from healthy blood donors using the CytoTrack platform. For proof of the retracing concept, CTC HER2 characterization by immunofluorescence was tested. Results: CTCs were detected and enumerated in three of four blood...... samples from breast-cancer patients and the locations of each individual CTCs were mapped on the discs. Nucleated cells were retraced on seven discs with 96.6%±8.5% recovery on five fields of view on each disc. Shifting of field of view for retracing was measured to 4-29 μm. In a blood sample from a HER2......-positive breast-cancer patient, CTC enumeration and mapping was followed by HER2 characterization and retracing to demonstrate downstream immunofluorescence analysis of the CTC. Conclusion: Mapping and retracing of CTCs enables downstream analysis of individual CTCs for existing and future cancer genotypic...

  15. Planar articulated mechanism design by graph theoretical enumeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawamoto, A; Bendsøe, Martin P.; Sigmund, Ole

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with design of articulated mechanisms using a truss-based ground-structure representation. By applying a graph theoretical enumeration approach we can perform an exhaustive analysis of all possible topologies for a test example for which we seek a symmetric mechanism. This guaran......This paper deals with design of articulated mechanisms using a truss-based ground-structure representation. By applying a graph theoretical enumeration approach we can perform an exhaustive analysis of all possible topologies for a test example for which we seek a symmetric mechanism....... This guarantees that one can identify the global optimum solution. The result underlines the importance of mechanism topology and gives insight into the issues specific to articulated mechanism designs compared to compliant mechanism designs....

  16. An ecological risk assessment of the exposure and effects of 2,4-D acid to rainbow trout (Onchorhyncus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, J.F.; Feltz, K.P.; Allert, A.L.; Sappington, L.C.; Nelson, K.J.; Valle, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    30-day safety factor of 559 (e.g., 76/0.163). Assessment of the exposure and response data presented herein indicates that use of 2,4-D acid for invasive weed control in aquatic and terrestrial habitats poses no substantial risk to growth or survival of rainbow trout or other salmonids, including the threatened bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus). ?? 2009 US Government.

  17. Molecular recognition in a lattice model: An enumeration study

    CERN Document Server

    Bogner, T; Schmid, F; Bogner, Thorsten; Degenhard, Andreas; Schmid, Friederike

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the mechanisms underlying selective molecular recognition of single heteropolymers at chemically structured planar surfaces. To this end, we study systems with two-letter (HP) lattice heteropolymers by exact enumeration techniques. Selectivity for a particular surface is defined by an adsorption energy criterium. We analyze the distributions of selective sequences and the role of mutations. A particularly important factor for molecular recognition is the small-scale structure on the polymers.

  18. Catalan Number and Enumeration of Maximal Outerplanar Graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Catalan number is an important class of combinatorial numbers. The maximal outerplanar graphs are important in graph theory. In this paper some formulas to enumerate the numbers of maximal outerplanar graphs by means of the compressing graph and group theory method are given first. Then the relationships between Catalan numbers and the numbers of labeled and unlabeled maximal outerplanar graphs are presented. The computed results verified these formulas.

  19. An Algebraic Representation of Graphs and Applications to Graph Enumeration

    OpenAIRE

    Ângela Mestre

    2013-01-01

    We give a recursion formula to generate all the equivalence classes of connected graphs with coefficients given by the inverses of the orders of their groups of automorphisms. We use an algebraic graph representation to apply the result to the enumeration of connected graphs, all of whose biconnected components have the same number of vertices and edges. The proof uses Abel’s binomial theorem and generalizes Dziobek’s induction proof of Cayley’s formula.

  20. An Algebraic Representation of Graphs and Applications to Graph Enumeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Mestre

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We give a recursion formula to generate all the equivalence classes of connected graphs with coefficients given by the inverses of the orders of their groups of automorphisms. We use an algebraic graph representation to apply the result to the enumeration of connected graphs, all of whose biconnected components have the same number of vertices and edges. The proof uses Abel’s binomial theorem and generalizes Dziobek’s induction proof of Cayley’s formula.

  1. Characterization and Enumeration of Good Punctured Polynomials over Finite Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somphong Jitman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A family of good punctured polynomials is introduced. The complete characterization and enumeration of such polynomials are given over the binary field F2. Over a nonbinary finite field Fq, the set of good punctured polynomials of degree less than or equal to 2 are completely determined. For n≥3, constructive lower bounds of the number of good punctured polynomials of degree n over Fq are given.

  2. Evaluation of Enterolert for enumeration of enterococci in recreational waters.

    OpenAIRE

    Budnick, G E; Howard, R T; Mayo, D R

    1996-01-01

    Enterolert (IDEXX Laboratories Inc., Westbrook, Maine), a semiautomated, most probable number method for enumeration of enterococci, was compared with the standard membrane filter method by parallel testing of 138 marine and freshwater recreational bathing water samples. No statistically significant difference and a strong linear correlation were found between methods. Culturing of 501 Enterolert test wells resulted in false-positive and false-negative rates of 5.1 and 0.4%, respectively. Les...

  3. Patterns of hybridization among cutthroat trout and rainbow trout in northern Rocky Mountain streams

    OpenAIRE

    McKelvey, Kevin S.; Young, Michael K.; Taylor M Wilcox; Bingham, Daniel M.; Pilgrim, Kristine L.; Schwartz, Michael K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introgressive hybridization between native and introduced species is a growing conservation concern. For native cutthroat trout and introduced rainbow trout in western North America, this process is thought to lead to the formation of hybrid swarms and the loss of monophyletic evolutionary lineages. Previous studies of this phenomenon, however, indicated that hybrid swarms were rare except when native and introduced forms of cutthroat trout co‐occurred. We used a panel of 86 diagnost...

  4. Adrenal involvement in the biostimulatory effect of bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berardinelli James G

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective was to evaluate if cortisol concentrations are associated with the resumption of luteal activity in postpartum, primiparous cows exposed to bulls. The hypotheses were that 1 interval from start of exposure to resumption of luteal activity; 2 proportions of cows that resumed luteal function during the exposure period; and 3 cortisol concentrations do not differ among cows exposed or not exposed to bulls (Exp. 1, and cows continuously exposed to bull or steer urine (Exp. 2. Methods In Exp. 1, 28 anovular cows were exposed (BE; n = 13 or not exposed (NE; n = 15 to bulls for 30 d at 58 d after calving. In Exp. 2, 38 anovular cows were fitted with a controlled urine delivery device at 45 d after calving and exposed continuously (24 h/d to bull (BUE; n = 19 or steer (SUE; n = 19 urine. Length of exposure was ~64 d. Blood samples were collected from each cow on D 0 and every 3 d throughout exposure periods in both experiments and assayed for progesterone. Cortisol was assayed in samples collected on D 0, 8, 16, and 24 in Exp. 1; and, D 0, 19, 38, and 57 in Exp. 2. Results In Exp. 1, interval from the start of exposure to resumption of luteal activity was shorter (P Conclusion We conclude that the physical presence of bulls stimulates resumption of luteal activity and is coincident with increased cortisol concentrations, and hypothesize a possible association between adrenal activation and the biostimulatory effect of bulls.

  5. Seasonal Variations in Relative Weight of Lake Trout (Salvelinus namaycush), Kokanee Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), Rainbow Trout (Onocorhynchus mykiss), and Brown Trout (Salmo trutta) in Blue Mesa Reservoir, Colorado

    OpenAIRE

    Midas, Madeline; Williams, Asia; Cooper, Cindy; Courtney, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Blue Mesa Reservoir is the largest body of water in Colorado and is located on the western slope of the Rocky Mountains at an elevation of 7520 feet. Blue Mesa Reservoir contains recreationally important populations of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), kokanee salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), rainbow trout (Onocorhynchus mykiss), and brown trout (Salmo trutta). A management challenge in recent years has been the overpopulation of lake trout, which has led to a steep decline in abundance of kokan...

  6. Evaluating bull fertility based on non-return method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prka Igor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the results of reproductive cows and heifers, different parameters of fertility are used, such as the service period, insemination index, intercalving time and others, and of the breeding bulls the values obtained through non-return. An ejaculate is taken up for further processing by veterinary centres only provided it meets the prescribed quality parameters. Rating semen parameters includes a macroscopic (volume, colour, consistency, smell and pH and a microscopic evaluation (mobility, density, percentage of live sperm and abnormal and damaged sperm. In addition to sperm quality and the fertility of the female animal, the results of the non-return method are also influenced by a number of exogenous causes (season, age, race, insemination techniques that have no small impact on the end result of insemination - pregnancy. In order to obtain more objective results of the fertility of bulls the following tasks were undertaken, namely: 1. to calculate with the non-return method the fertility of bulls in over 10,000 cows inseminated for the first time during a period of 6 years; and 2. to analyze the impact of semen quality, season, age of cow and bull, and the bull breed on the results of fertility.

  7. OPTIMIZATION OF FEED RATIONS FOR FATTENING BULLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tritjak J. A.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The food supply has a great influence on the development of animal husbandry. It is its basis. Health of animals, quality and quantity of the made production are dependent not only on the amount of the prepared forages, but also to a greater extent on their quality and balance. The quality of the prepared forages has an impact on their consumption and digestibility. Therefore, the more qualitative the forages are, the higher the level of the productivity of animals is. High level of the organization of the balanced diets reduces costs of forages per unit of production by 1,5-2 times in comparison with unbalanced diets. This fact once again proves the importance and necessity of biologically full-fledged diet of feeding animals. The full-fledged diet should contain the optimal quantity of digestible protein, fodder units and other nutrients. Indeed, owing to full feeding, the productivity of animals increases and the body weight increases as well that, in turn, has a positive impact on the economic condition of the subject. However, rational use of forages requires determination of their quality and energetic and protein nutritiousness. To produce optimum diets in which all above-named criteria are considered, special programs for optimization of diets can be used that allow to provide animals with forages containing all the necessary nutrients at minimum expenses. These programs are based on the methods of linear programming, which lie in finding optimum plans for the problems with linear structure. For the solution of linear programming problems the simplex method is usually used which in a general view means that with the help of a complex of consecutive procedures the solution of a problem that meets an optimality condition is found. In this article, the problem of minimizing the cost of a diet for bulls will be solved with the use of the program named Optim V 2.0

  8. Hydrography - Class A Wild Trout Streams - points

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Class A streams are streams that support a population of wild (natural reproduction) trout of sufficient size and abundance to support a long-term and rewarding...

  9. Hydrography - Class A Wild Trout Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Class A streams are streams that support a population of wild (natural reproduction) trout of sufficient size and abundance to support a long-term and rewarding...

  10. A Vegetation Survey of Trout Brook Flowage

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Trout Brook structure was started in 1963 under the Accelerated Public Works Program and finished in the summer of 1965. There is a 200 foot earthdike, a metal...

  11. Longevity of Lake Superior lake trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schram, Stephen T.; Fabrizio, Mary C.

    1998-01-01

    The age structure of mature lake trout Salvelinus namaycush from the Wisconsin waters of Lake Superior increased following a population recovery that has taken place since the 1960s. As the population aged, it became apparent that scales were unreliable aging structures. Beginning in 1986, we examined both scale and sagittal otolith ages from tagged fish with a known period at liberty. We found large discrepancies in scale and sagittal otolith ages of mature fish, such that scale ages were biased low. We estimated lake trout living up to 42 years, which is greater than previously reported from Lake Superior. Investigators studying lake trout population dynamics in the Great Lakes should be aware that lake trout can live longer than previously thought.

  12. Effects of Dietary Zilpaterol Hydrochloride on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, and Serum Compositions of Hanwoo Bulls

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jong Kyoo; Chung, Ki Yong; Kim, Hyeong Cheol; Lee, Eun Mi; Chang, Sun Sik; Kwon, Eung Gi; Johnson, Bradley J.; Gotoh, Takafumi; Goto, Takafumi

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on the growth performance and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo bulls. Twenty Hanwoo bulls (653 ± 22.1) were randomly assigned by body weight (BW) to determine the effects of feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride (Ten bulls with 8.3 mg/kg ZH and ten bulls without ZH) on the ultrasound measurement, carcass traits, and serum compositions. Treatments comprised diets with and without ZH supplemented for 20 days prior to...

  13. Movement and survival of brown trout and rainbow trout in an ozark tailwater river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, J.W.; Kwak, T.J.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the movement of adult brown trout Salmo trutta and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in relation to a catch-andrelease area in the White River downstream from Beaver Dam, Arkansas. Nine fish of each species were implanted with radio transmitters and monitored from July 1996 to July 1997. The 1.5- km river length of a catch-and-release area (closed to angler harvest) was greater than the total linear range of 72% of the trout (13 of 18 fish), but it did not include two brown trout spawning riffles, suggesting that it effectively protects resident fish within the catch-and-release area except during spawning. The total detected linear range of movement varied from 172 to 3,559 m for brown trout and from 205 to 3,023mfor rainbow trout. The movements of both species appeared to be generally similar to that in unregulated river systems. The annual apparent survival of both trout species was less than 0.40, and exploitation was 44%.Management to protect fish on spawning riffles may be considered if management for wild brown trout becomes a priority. ?? American Fisheries Society 2011.

  14. Does the introduced brook trout ( Salvelinus fontinalis) affect growth of the native brown trout ( Salmo trutta)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsu, Kai; Huusko, Ari; Muotka, Timo

    2009-03-01

    Non-native brook trout have become widely established in North European streams. We combined evidence from an artificial-stream experiment and drainage-scale field surveys to examine whether brook trout suppressed the growth of the native brown trout (age 0 to age 2). Our experimental results demonstrated that brown trout were unaffected by the presence of brook trout but that brook trout showed reduced growth in the presence of brown trout. However, the growth reduction only appeared in the experimental setting, indicating that the reduced spatial constraint of the experimental system may have forced the fish to unnaturally intense interactions. Indeed, in the field, no effect of either species on the growth of the putative competitor was detected. These results caution against uncritical acceptance of findings from small-scale experiments because they rarely scale up to more complex field situations. This and earlier work suggest that the establishment of brook trout in North European streams has taken place mainly because of the availability of unoccupied (or underutilized) niche space, rather than as a result of species trait combinations or interspecific competition per se.

  15. Path enumeration program (ENUMPTH) for physical protection effectiveness evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, R.C.

    1978-10-01

    Descriptions are presented of the structure and of ENUMPTH, a program for enumerating paths which an adversary might follow in attempting defeat of physical protection systems. The paths are evaluated in terms of the probability of detecting and then interrupting the adversary as the paths are traversed. The program is intended to be practical in orientation, selecting all paths which meet some specified minimum criteria. The nature of the physical protection issue suggests that all such paths may be of equal interest to analysts who are concerned with a total facility. An example is given to demonstrate the program's applicability to practical problems.

  16. Error Probability for Convolutional Codes with Weight Enumerating Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tianyi Zhang; Yongtao Liu

    2013-01-01

    The paper introduces the state reduction algorithm and accelerated state reduction algorithm are used to compute the distance weight enumerator (transfer function) T[x,y] of convolutional codes.Next use computer simulation to compare upper bound on the bit error probability on an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) for maximum free distance (MFD) codes of previously found and optimum distance spectrum (ODS) codes with rate 1/4,overall constraint length are 5 and 7,respectively. Finally,a method of how to search for good convolutional codes is given.

  17. Evaluation of Enterolert for enumeration of enterococci in recreational waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budnick, G E; Howard, R T; Mayo, D R

    1996-10-01

    Enterolert (IDEXX Laboratories Inc., Westbrook, Maine), a semiautomated, most probable number method for enumeration of enterococci, was compared with the standard membrane filter method by parallel testing of 138 marine and freshwater recreational bathing water samples. No statistically significant difference and a strong linear correlation were found between methods. Culturing of 501 Enterolert test wells resulted in false-positive and false-negative rates of 5.1 and 0.4%, respectively. Less time for setup, incubation (24 versus 48 h), and reading of Enterolert permits more efficient monitoring of recreational bathing areas. PMID:8837446

  18. The bull as a source of trichomonosis and lumpy skin disease: An African perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Irons, P.C.

    2007-01-01

    The use of bulls in breeding herds is regarded as a practical, labour-efficient way of producing a calf crop. However, the risks of a poor crop due to unsatisfactory performance of bulls are significant. The causes of sub- or infertility of the bull are classified under the headings Impotentia gener

  19. Resazurin reduction and other tests of semen quality and fertility of bulls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RobertH.Foote

    1999-01-01

    Aim: This study was undertaken to compare the reduction in color of two dyes methylene blue (MBRT) anddye (RRT) with other tests of bull semen quality and to examine their relationship to fertility. Methods: One hundredsixty-four ejaculates from 59 bulls were examined, processed, fertility, and semen from these bulls averaged

  20. Whole-genome sequencing of 234 bulls facilitates mapping of monogenic and complex traits in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daetwyler, Hans D; Capitan, Aurélien; Pausch, Hubert;

    2014-01-01

    The 1000 bull genomes project supports the goal of accelerating the rates of genetic gain in domestic cattle while at the same time considering animal health and welfare by providing the annotated sequence variants and genotypes of key ancestor bulls. In the first phase of the 1000 bull genomes p...

  1. Brown Trout removal effects on short-term survival and movement of Myxobolus cerebralis-resistant rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetherman, Eric R.; Winkelman, Dana L.; Bailey, Larissa L.; Schisler, George J.; Davies, K.

    2015-01-01

    Following establishment of Myxobolus cerebralis (the parasite responsible for salmonid whirling disease) in Colorado, populations of Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykissexperienced significant declines, whereas Brown Trout Salmo trutta densities increased in many locations across the state, potentially influencing the success of M. cerebralis-resistant Rainbow Trout reintroductions. We examined the effects of Brown Trout removal on the short-term (3-month) survival and movement of two crosses of reintroduced, M. cerebralis-resistant Rainbow Trout in the Cache la Poudre River, Colorado. Radio frequency identification passive integrated transponder tags and antennas were used to track movements of wild Brown Trout and stocked Rainbow Trout in reaches where Brown Trout had or had not been removed. Multistate mark–recapture models were used to estimate tagged fish apparent survival and movement in these sections 3 months following Brown Trout removal. A cross between the German Rainbow Trout and Colorado River Rainbow Trout strains exhibited similar survival and movement probabilities in the reaches, suggesting that the presence of Brown Trout did not affect its survival or movement. However, a cross between the German Rainbow Trout and Harrison Lake Rainbow Trout exhibited less movement from the reach in which Brown Trout had been removed. Despite this, the overall short-term benefits of the removal were equivocal, suggesting that Brown Trout removal may not be beneficial for the reintroduction of Rainbow Trout. Additionally, the logistical constraints of conducting removals in large river systems are substantial and may not be a viable management option in many rivers.

  2. BRUCELLOSIS IN BULLS: AN OVERVIEW OF THE DISEASE IN BRAZIL, EMPHASIZING DIAGNOSES IN BULLS AND ITS IMPORTANCE IN AGRIBUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MÁRCIO GARCIA RIBEIRO

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Bovine brucellosis, caused by Brucella abortus, is recognized as a chronical evolution disease with zoonotic potential what causes great loss in cattle herd due to abortion, impaired births, early animal discarding, reduction on milk and meat production as well as restriction within animal product international trade which is of high importance for national agribusiness. In bulls the disease is restricted to genital tract, characterized by seminal vesiculite and inflamation of accessory glands of the male reproductive system. Unlike cows, in bulls infection by B. abortus induces low levels or absence of serum antibodies what makes it difficult serodiagnosis by conventional methods. This paper reviewed the main aspects of brucellosis in bulls in Brazil, emphasizing diagnosis methodology and its importance to agribusiness.

  3. Survival of Trout Strains as Affected by Limnological Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Wurtsbaugh, Wayne A.; Modde, Timothy; Luecke, Chris; Courtney, Cheryl

    1990-01-01

    Juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. (ca. 80 mm S.L.) stocked into mid-elevation reservoirs in Utah are vulnerable to predation from piscivorous fish and birds. I determined how effectively juvenile trout used cover to avoid these predators by using direct observations (snorkel transects) on habitat selection in two reservoirs. Observations of juvenile trout were conducted within five weeks of stocking in 1988 and 1989. During the day juvenile trout were abundant in complex inshore hab...

  4. Comparison of Selective Media for the Enumeration of Probiotic Enterococci from Animal Feed

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, Agnes; Domig, Konrad Johann; Kneifel, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    The project »Methods for the Official Control of Probiotics Used as Feed Additives« has been undertaken to develop and validate methods for the selective enumeration and strain identification of six probiotic microorganism genera (enterococci, lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, pediococci, bacilli and yeast). A diversity of media has been used for the detection, isolation and enumeration of enterococci. Aiming at the selective enumeration of enterococci (mainly Enterococcus faecium) present in pro...

  5. Enumeration of islets by nuclei counting and light microscopic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisania, Anna; Papas, Klearchos K; Powers, Daryl E; Rappel, Michael J; Omer, Abdulkadir; Bonner-Weir, Susan; Weir, Gordon C; Colton, Clark K

    2010-11-01

    Islet enumeration in impure preparations by conventional dithizone staining and visual counting is inaccurate and operator dependent. We examined nuclei counting for measuring the total number of cells in islet preparations, and we combined it with morphological analysis by light microscopy (LM) for estimating the volume fraction of islets in impure preparations. Cells and islets were disrupted with lysis solution and shear, and accuracy of counting successively diluted nuclei suspensions was verified with (1) visual counting in a hemocytometer after staining with crystal violet, and automatic counting by (2) aperture electrical resistance measurement and (3) flow cytometer measurement after staining with 7-aminoactinomycin-D. DNA content averaged 6.5 and 6.9 pg of DNA per cell for rat and human islets, respectively, in agreement with literature estimates. With pure rat islet preparations, precision improved with increasing counts, and samples with about ≥160 islets provided a coefficient of variation of about 6%. Aliquots of human islet preparations were processed for LM analysis by stereological point counting. Total nuclei counts and islet volume fraction from LM analysis were combined to obtain the number of islet equivalents (IEs). Total number of IE by the standard method of dithizone staining/manual counting was overestimated by about 90% compared with LM/nuclei counting for 12 freshly isolated human islet research preparations. Nuclei counting combined with islet volume fraction measurements from LM is a novel method for achieving accurate islet enumeration. PMID:20697375

  6. Mupirocin-mucin agar for selective enumeration of Bifidobacterium bifidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechar, Radko; Rada, Vojtech; Parafati, Lucia; Musilova, Sarka; Bunesova, Vera; Vlkova, Eva; Killer, Jiri; Mrazek, Jakub; Kmet, Vladimir; Svejstil, Roman

    2014-11-17

    Bifidobacterium bifidum is a bacterial species exclusively found in the human intestinal tract. This species is becoming increasingly popular as a probiotic organism added to lyophilized products. In this study, porcine mucin was used as the sole carbon source for the selective enumeration of B. bifidum in probiotic food additives. Thirty-six bifidobacterial strains were cultivated in broth with mucin. Only 13 strains of B. bifidum utilized the mucin to produce acids. B. bifidum was selectively enumerated in eight probiotic food supplements using agar (MM agar) containing mupirocin (100 mg/L) and mucin (20 g/L) as the sole carbon source. MM agar was fully selective if the B. bifidum species was presented together with Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, Bifidobacterium breve, and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum species and with lactic acid bacteria (lactobacilli, streptococci). Isolated strains of B. bifidum were identified using biochemical, PCR, MALDI-TOF procedures and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The novel selective medium was also suitable for the isolation of B. bifidum strains from human fecal samples.

  7. Linear algorithm for lexicographic enumeration of CFG parse trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG YunMei

    2009-01-01

    We study CFG parse tree enumeration in this paper. By dividing the set of all parse trees into infinite hierarchies according to height of parse tree, the hierarchical lexicographic order on the set of parse trees is established. Then grammar-based algorithms for counting and enumerating CFG parse trees in this order are presented. To generate a parse tree of height n, the time complexity is O(n). If τ is a lowest parse tree for its yield, then O(n) =O(‖τ‖ +1), where ‖τ‖ is the length of the sentence (yield) generated by τ. The sentence can be obtained as a by-product of the parse tree. To compute sentence from its parse tree (needn't be lowest one), the time complexity is O(node)+O(‖τ‖ +1), where node is the number of non-leaf nodes of parse tree τ. To generate both a complete lowest parse tree and its yield at the same time, the time complexity is O(‖τ‖ +1).

  8. Movement and mortality of stocked brown trout in a stream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Kim; Jepsen, Niels; Koed, Anders;

    2005-01-01

    The movement and mortality of stocked brown trout Salmo trutta were investigated using radio telemetry. Four brown trout left the study area whereas the remaining fish were stationary. After 5 weeks, 13 out of 50 tagged brown trout were still alive in the stream. Surviving fish had a significantly...

  9. Factors influencing the spawning migration of female anadromous brown trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jon Christian; Koed, Anders; Aarestrup, Kim

    2004-01-01

    Radio telemetry was employed to study movements of adult female anadromous brown trout Salmo trutta (sea trout) during upstream spawning migration and following spawning in a stream with tributaries. Sea trout were monitored by manual tracking and by automatic listening stations. The latter...

  10. Consequences of hazardous dietary calcium deficiency for fattening bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Näkki Päivi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deficient mineral supplementation on a feedlot farm resulted in severe clinical manifestations in fattening bulls. Animals mistakenly received only 60–70% of the recommended calcium intake, while simultaneously receiving twice the amount of phosphorus recommended. Thus, the dietary Ca/P ratio was severely distorted. After approximately six months on such a diet, four fattening bulls were euthanized because of severe lameness and 15% of other animals on the farm were having clinical leg problems. Veterinary consultation revealed the mistake in mineral supplementation. Methods Fattening bulls were divided into three groups depending on the time of their arrival to the farm. This enabled the effect of mineral imbalance at different growth phases to be examined. After slaughtering, the bones of both front and hind limbs were macroscopically evaluated. Results Over 80% of the animals with a calcium-deficient diet had at least one severe osteoarthritic lesion. The economic impact of the calcium deficiency was statistically significant. Conclusion Calcium deficiency with distorted Ca/P ratio yielded a severe outbreak of osteoarthritis in fattening bulls. Calcium deficiency caused a more serious lesions in age group 5–12 months than age group 12–18 months. Besides causing obvious economic losses osteoarthritis is also a welfare issue for feedlot animals.

  11. NUTRIENT UTILIZATION IN BUFFALO BULLS FED CROP RESIDUE BASED RATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. VENKATESWARLU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In 4 x 4 LSD, four graded Murrah buffalo bulls (6 yrs; 353 ± 8.26 kg were fed four iso-nitrogenous complete rations comprising of jowar stover (CR1, maize stover (CR2, red gram straw (CR3 and black gram straw (CR4 as roughage source and concentrate mixture in 60:40 proportion, to study the effect of feeding complete rations on nutrient utilization. The DM intake (kg/d was similar in all the groups. The digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, CP, EE, CF, NDF, ADF, Cellulose and Hemi-cellulose were significantly (P<0.01 higher in buffalo bulls fed CR2 while NFE digestibility was higher (P<0.05 in CR3 when compared to those fed other complete rations. All the animals were in positive N, Ca and P balances. Further, the % DCP and % TDN were significantly higher (P<0.01 in buffalo bulls fed CR2. It could be concluded that maize stover compared to other crop residues could be a superior roughage source for inclusion in complete rations for feeding buffalo bulls.

  12. The White Bull effect: abusive coauthorship and publication parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, L S

    2005-09-01

    Junior researchers can be abused and bullied by unscrupulous senior collaborators. This article describes the profile of a type of serial abuser, the White Bull, who uses his academic seniority to distort authorship credit and who disguises his parasitism with carefully premeditated deception. Further research into the personality traits of such perpetrators is warranted.

  13. The effect of selected staining techniques on bull sperm morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaszewska, Dorota; Andraszek, Katarzyna; Czubaszek, Magdalena; Biesiada-Drzazga, Barbara

    2015-08-01

    Sperm morphometry has some value as an indicator of reproductive capacity in males. In laboratory practice a variety of slide-staining methods are used during morphological evaluation of semen to predict male fertility. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of staining of semen using four different techniques on the morphometry of the bull sperm cell. The material for the study consisted of semen collected from test bulls of the Black-and-White variety of Holstein-Friesians. The results obtained in the study indicate differences in the dimensions of bull sperm heads when different slide staining techniques were used. The most similar results for sperm head dimensions were obtained in the case of SpermBlue(®) and eosin+gentian violet complex, although statistically significant differences were found between all the staining techniques. Extreme values were noted for the other staining techniques - lowest for the Papanicolaou and highest for silver nitrate, which may indicate more interference in the cell by the reagents used in the staining process. However, silver nitrate staining was best at identifying the structures of the sperm cell. Hence it is difficult to determine which of the staining methods most faithfully reveals the dimensions and shape of the bull sperm.

  14. Exploring Essential Conditions: A Commentary on Bull et al. (2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borthwick, Arlene; Hansen, Randall; Gray, Lucy; Ziemann, Irina

    2008-01-01

    The editorial by Bull et al. (2008) on connections between informal and formal learning made explicit one element of solving what Koehler and Mishra (2008) termed a "wicked problem." This wicked (complex, ill-structured) problem involves working with teachers for effective integration of technology in support of student learning. The…

  15. Dynamics of microRNAs in bull spermatozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govindaraju Aruna

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression and thus play important roles in mammalian development. However, the comprehensive lists of microRNAs, as well as, molecular mechanisms by which microRNAs regulate gene expression during gamete and embryo development are poorly defined. The objectives of this study were to determine microRNAs in bull sperm and predict their functions. Methods To accomplish our objectives we isolated miRNAs from sperm of high and low fertility bulls, conducted microRNA microarray experiments and validated expression of a panel of microRNAs using real time RT-PCR. Bioinformatic approaches were carried out to identify regulated targets. Results We demonstrated that an abundance of microRNAs were present in bovine spermatozoa, however, only seven were differentially expressed; hsa-aga-3155, -8197, -6727, -11796, -14189, -6125, -13659. The abundance of miRNAs in the spermatozoa and the differential expression in sperm from high vs. low fertility bulls suggests that the miRNAs possibly play important functions in the regulating mechanisms of bovine spermatozoa. Conclusion Identification of specific microRNAs expressed in spermatozoa of bulls with different fertility phenotypes will help better understand mammalian gametogenesis and early development.

  16. Use of microsatellite markers for identification of indigenous brown trout in a geographical region heavily influenced by stocked domesticated trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritzner, Niels G.; Møller Hansen, Michael; Madsen, Steffen;

    2001-01-01

    Based on estimates of genetic differentiation between populations, assignment tests and analysis of isolation by distance, stocked populations of brown trout Salmo trutta of Funen Island, Denmark, had been genetically affected by domesticated trout, whereas the stocking of wild exogenous trout...

  17. Snorkeling as an alternative to depletion electrofishing for assessing cutthroat trout and brown trout in stream pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, M.P.; Hubert, W.A.

    2003-01-01

    We compared abundance and length structure estimates of cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) of 15 cm total length or greater obtained by snorkeling in stream pools with estimates obtained by depletion electrofishing. We sampled 12 pools in each of two streams formed by large springs in the Salt River Valley of western Wyoming. Snorkeling counts provided a relatively accurate index of depletion electrofishing estimates of abundance of cutthroat trout, but not brown trout. Linear regression analysis showed that snorkeling counts were significantly related to depletion electrofishing estimates for both cutthroat trout (P brown trout (P = 0.002), but the coefficient of determination for brown trout (r2 = 0.33) was low compared to cutthroat trout (r2 = 0.95). Frequencies of fish in three length classes observed by snorkeling and depletion electrofishing were close to being significantly different for cutthroat trout (P = 0.066) and substantially different for brown trout (P = 0.005). Snorkeling frequently failed to observe fish in the shortest length class (15-29 cm total length) of both cutthroat trout and brown trout.

  18. Use of microsatellite markers for identification of indigenous brown trout in a geographical region heavily influenced by stocked domesticated trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritzner, N.G.; Hansen, Michael Møller; Madsen, S.S.;

    2001-01-01

    Based on estimates of genetic differentiation between populations, assignment tests and analysis of isolation by distance, stocked populations of brown trout Salmo trutta of Funen Island, Denmark, had been genetically affected by domesticated trout, whereas the stocking of wild exogenous trout into...

  19. Diel resource partitioning among juvenile Atlantic Salmon, Brown Trout, and Rainbow Trout during summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James H.; McKenna Jr, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Interspecific partitioning of food and habitat resources has been widely studied in stream salmonids. Most studies have examined resource partitioning between two native species or between a native species and one that has been introduced. In this study we examine the diel feeding ecology and habitat use of three species of juvenile salmonids (i.e., Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar, Brown Trout Salmo trutta, and Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss) in a tributary of Skaneateles Lake, New York. Subyearling Brown Trout and Rainbow Trout fed more heavily from the drift than the benthos, whereas subyearling Atlantic Salmon fed more from the benthos than either species of trout. Feeding activity of Atlantic Salmon and Rainbow Trout was similar, with both species increasing feeding at dusk, whereas Brown Trout had no discernable feeding peak or trough. Habitat availability was important in determining site-specific habitat use by juvenile salmonids. Habitat selection was greater during the day than at night. The intrastream, diel, intraspecific, and interspecific variation we observed in salmonid habitat use in Grout Brook illustrates the difficulty of acquiring habitat use information for widespread management applications.

  20. FAT TISSUE DISTRIBUTION BETWEEN SUBCUTANEOUS AND INTERMUSCULAR FAT TISSUE IN SIMMENTAL AND BROWN BULLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Žgur

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Simmental and Brown bulls from progeny testing station were used to evaluate the effect of breed on fat tissue partition between subcutaneous and intermuscular fat. Bulls (37 Brown and 34 Simmental breed were slaughtered at the same degree of fatness. After slaughter carcasses were first cut into different carcass cuts and further on into lean meat, fat, bones and tendons. Fat was divided up into subcutaneous and intermuscular. Simmental bulls were heavier (average cold carcass side weight from Simmental bulls was 167 kg vs 147 kg from Brown bulls at the same percentage of total carcass fat (10.5 %. Breed has no effect on percentage of subcutaneous and intermuscular fat tissue nor on percentage of subcutaneous fat from total carcass fat. Simmental bulls had higher (p<0.05 subcutaneous fat percentage (subcutaneous fat in the cut / total fat in the cut in brisket and flank and lower (p<0.05 in shoulder than Brown bulls.

  1. Brown trout and food web interactions in a Minnesota stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, J.K.H.; Vondracek, B.

    2007-01-01

    1. We examined indirect, community-level interactions in a stream that contained non-native brown trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus), native brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis Mitchill) and native slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus Richardson). Our objectives were to examine benthic invertebrate composition and prey selection of fishes (measured by total invertebrate dry mass, dry mass of individual invertebrate taxa and relative proportion of invertebrate taxa in the benthos and diet) among treatments (no fish, juvenile brook trout alone, juvenile brown trout alone, sculpin with brook trout and sculpin with brown trout). 2. We assigned treatments to 1 m2 enclosures/exclosures placed in riffles in Valley Creek, Minnesota, and conducted six experimental trials. We used three designs of fish densities (addition of trout to a constant number of sculpin with unequal numbers of trout and sculpin; addition of trout to a constant number of sculpin with equal numbers of trout and sculpin; and replacement of half the sculpin with an equal number of trout) to investigate the relative strength of interspecific versus intraspecific interactions. 3. Presence of fish (all three species, alone or in combined-species treatments) was not associated with changes in total dry mass of benthic invertebrates or shifts in relative abundance of benthic invertebrate taxa, regardless of fish density design. 4. Brook trout and sculpin diets did not change when each species was alone compared with treatments of both species together. Likewise, we did not find evidence for shifts in brown trout or sculpin diets when each species was alone or together. 5. We suggest that native brook trout and non-native brown trout fill similar niches in Valley Creek. We did not find evidence that either species had an effect on stream communities, potentially due to high invertebrate productivity in Valley Creek. ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Enumeration and activity of nitrifying bacteria in zeoponic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGilloway, Robyn Leigh

    Regenerative life-support systems are needed for long-term space missions. One component of a proposed life-support system is the use of zeoponic growth substrates, which slowly release NH4 into 'soil' solution for the production of plants. Nitrifying bacteria that convert NH4 to NO3 are among the important microbial components of these systems. Some evidence suggests that a balance between NH4 and NO3 is desirable in promoting plant growth and seed development. Therefore, enumeration of nitrifying bacteria and evaluation of the kinetics of nitrification in zeoponic substrates warrants investigation. A method for rapid detection and enumeration of a commercial inoculum of nitrifying bacteria in a zeoponic substrate was developed using a most probable number (MPN)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach, and a TaqMan probe-based assay. The detection limit of the MPN-PCR methodology was 2,000 cells per assay. Detection sensitivity for the TaqMan assay was determined to be 60 cells. The quantitative assay demonstrated that the zeoponic substrate was capable of supporting 105 to 107 Nitrobacter cells g-1 substrate. The MPN-PCR method and TaqMan probe-based assay can be effective and rapid approaches to enumerate nitrifying bacteria in zeoponic substrates. Column studies and a growth chamber study were conducted to evaluate the production of NO2 and NO3, and nitrifier populations in zeoponic substrates. The zeoponic substrate provided a readily available source of NH4, and nitrifying bacteria were active in the substrate. Quantities of NH4 oxidized, 10 mug N g-1 h-1, to NO2 and NO3 in inoculated zeoponic substrate were in excess of plant uptake. Acidification as a result of NH4 oxidation resulted in decline of pH to 5.5. The zeoponic substrate showed limited pH buffering capacity. Survival of nitrifying bacteria during periods of desiccation was evaluated, as the zeoponic substrate would likely be stored in an air-dry state between croppings. Substrate was enriched for

  3. Immunity to VHS virus in rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Niels; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Koch, C.

    1999-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is the rhabdovirus that causes most disease problems in farmed rainbow trout in Europe. Survivors of infection are usually immune to reinfection but as with other fish viruses, development of a modern recombinant vaccine has been complicated by the limited...... knowledge of the immune mechanisms and antigens involved in induction of immunity. Neutralizing and protective monoclonal antibodies recognize the envelope glycoprotein (G protein) which is the only viral protein known to be present on the surface of the virus particle. Immunoblotting analyses...... with monoclonal antibodies as well as with sera from immunized trout have indicated that protein conformation plays an important role in neutralization epitopes. The virus neutralizing activity often found in sera from convalescent trout is highly dependent on a poorly defined complementing activity in normal...

  4. Construction and enumeration of Boolean functions with maximum algebraic immunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG WenYing; WU ChuanKun; LIU XiangZhong

    2009-01-01

    Algebraic immunity is a new cryptographic criterion proposed against algebraic attacks. In order to resist algebraic attacks, Boolean functions used in many stream ciphers should possess high algebraic immunity. This paper presents two main results to find balanced Boolean functions with maximum algebraic immunity. Through swapping the values of two bits, and then generalizing the result to swap some pairs of bits of the symmetric Boolean function constructed by Dalai, a new class of Boolean functions with maximum algebraic immunity are constructed. Enumeration of such functions is also given. For a given function p(x) with deg(p(x)) < [n/2], we give a method to construct functions in the form p(x)+q(x) which achieve the maximum algebraic immunity, where every term with nonzero coefficient in the ANF of q(x) has degree no less than [n/2].

  5. Stratification and enumeration of Boolean functions by canalizing depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qijun; Macauley, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Boolean network models have gained popularity in computational systems biology over the last dozen years. Many of these networks use canalizing Boolean functions, which has led to increased interest in the study of these functions. The canalizing depth of a function describes how many canalizing variables can be recursively "picked off", until a non-canalizing function remains. In this paper, we show how every Boolean function has a unique algebraic form involving extended monomial layers and a well-defined core polynomial. This generalizes recent work on the algebraic structure of nested canalizing functions, and it yields a stratification of all Boolean functions by their canalizing depth. As a result, we obtain closed formulas for the number of n-variable Boolean functions with depth k, which simultaneously generalizes enumeration formulas for canalizing, and nested canalizing functions.

  6. Lattice enumeration for inverse molecular design using the signature descriptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Shawn

    2012-07-23

    We describe an inverse quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) framework developed for the design of molecular structures with desired properties. This framework uses chemical fragments encoded with a molecular descriptor known as a signature. It solves a system of linear constrained Diophantine equations to reorganize the fragments into novel molecular structures. The method has been previously applied to problems in drug and materials design but has inherent computational limitations due to the necessity of solving the Diophantine constraints. We propose a new approach to overcome these limitations using the Fincke-Pohst algorithm for lattice enumeration. We benchmark the new approach against previous results on LFA-1/ICAM-1 inhibitory peptides, linear homopolymers, and hydrofluoroether foam blowing agents. Software implementing the new approach is available at www.cs.otago.ac.nz/homepages/smartin. PMID:22657105

  7. Stratification and enumeration of Boolean functions by canalizing depth

    CERN Document Server

    He, Qijun

    2015-01-01

    Boolean network models have gained popularity in computational systems biology over the last dozen years. Many of these networks use canalizing Boolean functions, which has led to increased interest in the study of these functions. The canalizing depth of a function describes how many canalizing variables can be recursively picked off, until a non-canalizing function remains. In this paper, we show how every Boolean function has a unique algebraic form involving extended monomial layers and a well-defined core polynomial. This generalizes recent work on the algebraic structure of nested canalizing functions, and it yields a stratification of all Boolean functions by their canalizing depth. As a result, we obtain closed formulas for the number of n-variable Boolean functions with depth k, which simultaneously generalizes enumeration formulas for canalizing, and nested canalizing functions.

  8. Orderly Algorithm to Enumerate Central Groupoids and Their Graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tim BOYKETT

    2007-01-01

    A graph has the unique path property UPPn if there is a unique path of length n between any ordered pair of nodes. This paper reiterates Royle and MacKay's technique for constructing orderly algorithms. We wish to use this technique to enumerate all UPP2 graphs of small orders 32 and 42. We attempt to use the direct graph formalism and find that the algorithm is inefficient. We introduce a generalised problem and derive algebraic and combinatoric structures with appro-priate structure. Then we are able to design an orderly algorithm to determine all UPP2 graphs of order 32, which runs fast enough. We hope to be able to determine the UPP2 graphs of order 42 in the near future.

  9. Enumeration and Quasipolynomiality of Chip-Firing Configurations

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Jon

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we explore enumeration problems related to the number of reachable configurations in a chip-firing game on a finite connected graph G. We define an auxiliary notion of debt-reachability and prove that the number of debt-reachable configurations from an initial configuration with c chips on one vertex is a quasipolynomial in c. For the cycle graph C_n, we apply these results to compute a near explicit formula for the number of debt-reachable configurations. We then derive polynomial asymptotic bounds for the number of debt-reachable and reachable configurations, and finally provide evidence for a quasipolynomiality conjecture regarding the number of reachable configurations.

  10. Simple method for correct enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haaber, J.; Cohn, M. T.; Petersen, A.;

    2016-01-01

    culture. When grown in such liquid cultures, the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is characterized by its aggregation of single cells into clusters of variable size. Here, we show that aggregation during growth in the laboratory standard medium tryptic soy broth (TSB) is common among clinical...... and laboratory S. aureus isolates and that aggregation may introduce significant bias when applying standard enumeration methods on S. aureus growing in laboratory batch cultures. We provide a simple and efficient sonication procedure, which can be applied prior to optical density measurements to give...... an accurate estimate of cellular numbers in liquid cultures of S. aureus regardless of the aggregation level of the given strain. We further show that the sonication procedure is applicable for accurate determination of cell numbers using agar plate counting of aggregating strains....

  11. Enumerating secondary structures and structural moieties for circular RNAs

    CERN Document Server

    Cuesta, José A

    2016-01-01

    A quantitative characterization of the relationship between molecular sequence and structure is essential to improve our understanding of how function emerges. This particular genotype-phenotype map has been often studied in the context of RNA sequences, with the folded configurations standing as a proxy for the phenotype. Here, we count the secondary structures of circular RNAs of length $n$ and calculate the asymptotic distributions of different structural moieties, such as stems or hairpin loops, by means of symbolic combinatorics. Circular RNAs differ in essential ways from their linear counterparts. From the mathematical viewpoint, the enumeration of the corresponding secondary structures demands the use of combinatorial techniques additional to those used for linear RNAs. The asymptotic number of secondary structures for circular RNAs grows as $a^nn^{-5/2}$, with a depending on particular constraints applied to the secondary structure. The abundance of any structural moiety is normally distributed in th...

  12. Laboratory evaluation of a lake trout bioenergetics model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; O'Connor, Daniel V.

    1999-01-01

    Lake trout Salvelinus namaycush, aged 3 and 6 years and with average weights of 700 and 2,000 g, were grown in laboratory tanks for up to 407 d under a thermal regime similar to that experienced by lake trout in nearshore Lake Michigan. Lake trout were fed alewifeAlosa pseudoharengus and rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax, prey typical of lake trout in Lake Michigan. Of the 120 lake trout used in the experiment, 40 were fed a low ration (0.25% of their body weight per day), 40 were fed a medium ration (0.5% of their body weight per day), and 40 were fed a high ration (ad libitum). We measured consumption and growth, and we compared observed consumption with that predicted by the Wisconsin bioenergetics model. For lake trout fed the medium ration, model predictions for monthly consumption were unbiased. Moreover, predicted cumulative consumption by medium-ration lake trout for the entire experiment (320 d for smaller lake trout and 407 d for larger lake trout) agreed quite well with observed cumulative consumption; predictions were as close as within 0.1 to 5.2% of observed cumulative consumption. Even so, the model consistently overestimated consumption by low-ration fish and underestimated consumption by high-ration fish. The bias was significant in both cases, but was more severe for the low-ration trout. Because the low-ration and high-ration regimes were probably unrealistic for lake trout residing in Lake Michigan and because the model fit our laboratory data rather well for medium-ration trout, we conclude that applying the Wisconsin bioenergetics model to the Lake Michigan lake trout population in order to estimate the amount of prey fish consumed by lake trout each year is appropriate.

  13. Microsatellite analyses of the trout of northwest Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, J.L.; Sage, G.K.

    2001-01-01

    The trout of northwest Mexico represent an undescribed group of fish considered part of the Oncorhynchus mykiss (Pacific trout) complex of species and subspecies. Recent genetic studies have shown these fish to have important genetic diversity and a unique evolutionary history when compared to coastal rainbow trout. Increased levels of allelic diversity have been found in this species at the southern extent of its range. In this study we describe the trout in the Sierra Madre Occidental from the rios Yaqui, Mayo, Casas Grandes and de Bavispe, and their relationship to the more southern distribution of Mexican golden trout (O. chrysogaster) using 11 microsatellite loci. Microsatellite allelic diversity in Mexican trout was high with a mean of 6.6 alleles/locus, average heterozygosity = 0.35, and a mean Fst = 0.43 for all loci combined. Microsatellite data were congruent with previously published mtDNA results showing unique panmictic population structure in the Rio Yaqui trout that differs from Pacific coastal trout and Mexican golden trout. These data also add support for the theory of headwaters transfer of trout across the Continental Divide from tributaries of the Rio de Bavispe into the Rio Casas Grandes. Rio Mayo trout share a close genetic relationship to trout in Rio Yaqui, but sample sizes from the Rio Mayo prevent significant comparisons in this study. Microsatellite analyses show significant allelic frequency differences between Rio Yaqui trout and O. chrysogaster in Sinaloa and Durango Mexico, adding further support for a unique evolutionary status for this group of northwestern Mexican trout.

  14. New enumeration formulas for alternating sign matrices and square ice partition functions

    CERN Document Server

    Ayyer, Arvind

    2012-01-01

    The refined enumeration of alternating sign matrices (ASMs) of given order having prescribed behavior near one or more of their boundary edges has been the subject of extensive study, starting with the Refined Alternating Sign Matrix Conjecture of Mills-Robbins-Rumsey, its proof by Zeilberger, and more recent work on doubly-refined and triply-refined enumeration by several authors. In this paper we extend the previously known results on this problem by deriving explicit enumeration formulas for the "top-left-bottom" (triply-refined) and "top-left-bottom-right" (quadruply-refined) enumerations. The latter case solves the problem of computing the full boundary correlation function for ASMs. The enumeration formulas are proved by deriving new representations, which are of independent interest, for the partition function of the square ice model with domain wall boundary conditions at the "combinatorial point" two pi over three.

  15. Concentrate levels of crossbred bulls slaughtered at 16 or 22 months: performance and carcass characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pinto

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to assess the animal performance of 97 bulls, ½ Purunã vs. ½ Canchim, that were slaughtered at 16 (16M or 22 (22M months with three concentrate levels (0.8, 1.2, and 1.6% of body weight (BW. The initial body weight was lower for the 16M bulls. The final body weight and hot carcass weights were similar between the two slaughter ages. The hot carcass dressing was higher for 22M bulls. The average daily gain was higher for 16M bulls. The feed intake and dry matter feed conversion were similar between 16 and 22M bulls. The carcass length, marbling, and bone percentage were lower for 16M bulls. However, the Longissimus dorsi muscle area was higher for 16M bulls. The leg length, cushion thickness, fat thickness, conformation, colour, texture, muscle percent, and fat percent were similar between 16 and 22M bulls. The final and hot carcass weights were lower for bulls that were fed with 0.8% of BW. The carcass dressing was similar for the three concentrate levels. The average daily gain was higher for bulls that were fed with 1.6% of BW of concentrate and lower for those that were fed with 0.8%. The concentrate levels had no effect on carcass characteristics, feed intake, and dry matter conversion.

  16. THE PERFORMANCE OF JAVA AND ONGOLE CROSSBRED BULL UNDER INTENSIVE FEEDING MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M.S. Lestari

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was set up to evaluate the performance of Java and Ongole Crossbred (OC bulls fed concentrate and rice straw. A total of four Java bulls and four OC bulls were used in this experiment. The bulls were fed concentrates (50% of the total dry matter feed requirement and rice straw (ad libitum. The concentrates were consisted of rice bran, beer waste product, copra meal, minerals, with crude protein (CP and total digestible nutrients (TDN contents of 15.32% and 73.09%, respectively. The average daily gain (ADG, dry matter intake (DMI, protein and energy intake, and feed conversion ratio (FCR were observed. The results of this study showed that the ADG, DMI, CP and TDN intake, and FCR were not significantly different (p> 0.05. The ADG of Java and OC bulls were 0.58 kg and 0.78 kg, respectively. The averages of DMI, CP and TDN intake were 6.59 kg (2.09% of BW, 0.81 kg and 4.34 kg for Java bulls whereas for OC bulls were 6.42 kg (2.11% of BW, 0.78 kg, and 4.20 kg, respectively. The FCR of Java bulls was 11.49 and those of OC bulls was 9.21. It can be concluded that Java and OC bulls raised intensively and fed concentrate and rice straw had the similar performance.

  17. Do native brown trout and non-native brook trout interact reproductively?

    OpenAIRE

    Cucherousset, Julien; Aymes, J.-C.; Poulet, Nicolas; Santoul, Frédéric; Céréghino, Régis

    2008-01-01

    International audience Reproductive interactions between native and non-native species of fish have received little attention compared to other types of interactions such as predation or competition for food and habitat. We studied the reproductive interactions between non-native brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and native brown trout (Salmo trutta) in a Pyrenees Mountain stream (SW France). We found evidence of significant interspecific interactions owing to consistent spatial and temp...

  18. Ultrasound Imaging of Testes and Epididymides of Normal and Infertile Breeding Bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Mahmood Ali, Nazir Ahmad*, Nafees Akhtar, Shujait Ali, Maqbool Ahmad and Muhammad Younis1

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Echotexture of testes and epididymides from 10 slaughtered male buffaloes was studied. Diameter of testis and mediastinum testis was measured by ultrasound and compared with respective values taken by calipers. Testes and epididymides of another 10 fertile and 10 infertile breeding bulls were examined in vivo through manual palpation and ultrasound imaging. Semen quality of these bulls was also monitored. There were significant (P<0.01 positive correlations between ultrasound and calipers values of all parameters. The testicular parenchyma of fertile bulls was uniformly homogeneous and moderately echogenic. Epididymal tail was more heterogeneous and less echogenic, while epididymal head was homogeneous and less echogenic, than the testicular parenchyma. The epididymal body appeared as hypoechoic structure with echogenic margin. Among 10 infertile bulls, nine had poor semen quality, while one bull failed to give any ejaculate. On ultrasonography, six bulls showed abnormalities in their scrotal echotexture. Among these, one had an abundance of hyperechoic areas scattered in the testicular parenchyma, some of these showed acoustic shadowing, showing testicular degenerations with mineralization. The second bull showed many anechoic areas in the testes and epididymal head, demarcated from the rest of the organ by well defined margins. In the third bull, three-fourth of the right testis showed hyperechoic areas, suspected of testicular degeneration with mineralization. The fourth bull had two anechoic areas in one testis assumed to represent dilated blood vessel. The fifth bull showed small hyperechoic areas within the testicular parenchyma. The sixth bull showed an anechoic area with distinct hyperechogenic margin below the testicular tunics. The remaining four bulls had normal echogenicity of testes and epididymides in spite of poor semen quality. In conclusion, diagnostic ultrasound may be included in breeding soundness examination of breeding

  19. Analysis of High Reproductivity on Wild Yak Bull

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆仲璘

    2005-01-01

    Sperm concentration of wild yak bull is 2. 13 billion per milliliter. Survival time at 0-4 ℃ is 57hrs. After thawing survival time at 37 ℃ is 12 hrs. Resistance coefficient is 144,000. Abnormal sperm rate and acrosomal integrated rate of post-thawing is 9.17% and 87.53% respectively. Moving viscosity is 1. 169 cp. Total nitrogen is 1 437.7 mg/100 ml. Head of sperm is significantly shorter and end piece is significantly longer than that of domestic yak and yellow cattle. Activity of hyaluronidase is highly stronger than the domestic yak,and the activity of LDH is higher than the domestic yak by 48 %. Hence,the fertility of the wild yak bull is powerful and the artificial inseminated rate with domestic yak and yellow cattle is 88.9% and 71.58% respectively.

  20. Noise in the surrounding farms for fattening bulls.

    OpenAIRE

    KRAJÍČEK, Karel

    2011-01-01

    This Bachelor Thesis studies the Noise Pollution Issue in the surrounding of a Bull Farm. In Theoretical Part there are explained the basic noise concepts, its circumscription, sources, effects on Human health and basic prevention and antinoise protective agents. There is a brief introduction of the examined Farm and Livestock as well. In Practical Part there are indicated measurement procedures, their subsequent evaluation and assessment according to relevant standards and regulations.

  1. COMPARISON OF MEAT QUALITY IN BULLS AND COWS

    OpenAIRE

    Jozef Mojto; Kvetoslav Zaujec; Martina Gondeková

    2012-01-01

    Comparison of quality and sensorial evaluation of meat was performed in two categories of animals: cows (n=69) and bulls (n=52). We found highly significant differences between the categories in basic characteristics of animals. The greatest differences were found in age, weight of carcass, conformation, fatness and marbling of meat. Observation of meat quality in these categories showed approximately the same qualitative parameters in both categories. Significant results were noticed in the ...

  2. Computing mating bull fertility from DHI nonreturn data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, J S; McDaniel, B T

    2001-05-01

    Animal model methodology was used to compute yearly measures of relative fertility of Holstein AI mating bulls based upon 70-d nonreturn of first breedings as reported to U.S. DHIA from 1988 through 1997. Estimated Relative Conception Rates (ERCR) were computed for bulls with a minimum of 50 first breedings in a single year using variance ratios 45.5 for mating bull, 45.5 for animal genetic effects, and 31 for permanent environment. The model assumed repeatability across lactations of 0.05 and included fixed effects of herd-year-month bred and classes of parity, early lactation energy-corrected milk and days open when bred. Estimates of fertility were greater for breedings to cows that were young, had low early lactation production, and were in late stages of lactation. ERCR were expressed as difference in nonreturn from the average AI mating bull of herdmates. Values ranged from -18 to +13. For ERCR computed from a minimum of 1000 breedings, 90% were within four units of zero. Early ERCR computed from a few breedings in a single year were tested for ability to predict later ERCR computed from a minimum of 1000 different breedings. Early ERCR computed from 300 or more matings accurately predicted later independent ERCR. For yearly estimates each based upon a minimum of 1000 breedings, 8% changed more than three units, and 4% declined more than three units. Correlations between ERCR and predicted transmitting abilities protein and type production index were significant but accounted for little variance. Correlations between ERCR and other traits were not significant.

  3. Lake trout in northern Lake Huron spawn on submerged drumlins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Stephen C.; Binder, Thomas; Wattrus, Nigel J.; Faust, Matthew D.; Janssen, John; Menzies, John; Marsden, J. Ellen; Ebener, Mark P.; Bronte, Charles R.; He, Ji X.; Tucker, Taaja R.; Hansen, Michael J.; Thompson, Henry T.; Muir, Andrew M.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2014-01-01

    Recent observations of spawning lake trout Salvelinus namaycush near Drummond Island in northern Lake Huron indicate that lake trout use drumlins, landforms created in subglacial environments by the action of ice sheets, as a primary spawning habitat. From these observations, we generated a hypothesis that may in part explain locations chosen by lake trout for spawning. Most salmonines spawn in streams where they rely on streamflows to sort and clean sediments to create good spawning habitat. Flows sufficient to sort larger sediment sizes are generally lacking in lakes, but some glacial bedforms contain large pockets of sorted sediments that can provide the interstitial spaces necessary for lake trout egg incubation, particularly if these bedforms are situated such that lake currents can penetrate these sediments. We hypothesize that sediment inclusions from glacial scavenging and sediment sorting that occurred during the creation of bedforms such as drumlins, end moraines, and eskers create suitable conditions for lake trout egg incubation, particularly where these bedforms interact with lake currents to remove fine sediments. Further, these bedforms may provide high-quality lake trout spawning habitat at many locations in the Great Lakes and may be especially important along the southern edge of the range of the species. A better understanding of the role of glacially-derived bedforms in the creation of lake trout spawning habitat may help develop powerful predictors of lake trout spawning locations, provide insight into the evolution of unique spawning behaviors by lake trout, and aid in lake trout restoration in the Great Lakes.

  4. Infectious pancreatic necrosis the trout farmers' dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisot, T.J.

    1965-01-01

    Induction of the innate immune pathways is critical for early anti-viral defense but there is limited understanding of how teleost fish recognize viral molecules and activate these pathways. In mammals, Toll-like receptors (TLR) 7 and 8 bind single-stranded RNA of viral origin and are activated by synthetic anti-viral imidazoquinoline compounds. Herein, we identify and describe the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) TLR7 and TLR8 gene orthologs and their mRNA expression. Two TLR7/8 loci were identified from a rainbow trout bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library using DNA fingerprinting and genetic linkage analyses. Direct sequencing of two representative BACs revealed intact omTLR7and omTLR8a1 open reading frames (ORFs) located on chromosome 3 and a second locus on chromosome 22 that contains an omTLR8a2 ORF and a putative TLR7pseudogene. We used the omTLR8a1/2 nomenclature for the two trout TLR8 genes as phylogenetic analysis revealed that they and all the other teleost TLR8 genes sequenced to date are similar to the zebrafish TLR8a, but are distinct from the zebrafish TLR8b. The duplicated trout loci exhibit conserved synteny with other fish genomes extending beyond the tandem of TLR7/8 genes. The trout TLR7 and 8a1/2 genes are composed of a single large exon similar to all other described TLR7/8 genes. The omTLR7 ORF is predicted to encode a 1049 amino acid (aa) protein with 84% similarity to the Fugu TLR7and a conserved pattern of predicted leucine-rich repeats (LRR). The omTLR8a1 andomTLR8a2 are predicted to encode 1035- and 1034-aa proteins, respectively, and have 86% similarity to each other. omTLR8a1 is likely the ortholog of the only Atlantic salmonTLR8 gene described to date as they have 95% aa sequence similarity. The tissue expression profiles of omTLR7, omTLR8a1 and omTLR8a2 in healthy trout were highest in spleen tissue followed by anterior and then posterior kidney tissues. Rainbow trout anterior kidney leukocytes produced elevated levels of

  5. FAT TISSUE DISTRIBUTION BETWEEN SUBCUTANEOUS AND INTERMUSCULAR FAT TISSUE IN SIMMENTAL AND BROWN BULLS

    OpenAIRE

    Silvester Žgur; Marko Čepon

    2007-01-01

    Simmental and Brown bulls from progeny testing station were used to evaluate the effect of breed on fat tissue partition between subcutaneous and intermuscular fat. Bulls (37 Brown and 34 Simmental breed) were slaughtered at the same degree of fatness. After slaughter carcasses were first cut into different carcass cuts and further on into lean meat, fat, bones and tendons. Fat was divided up into subcutaneous and intermuscular. Simmental bulls were heavier (average cold carcass side weight ...

  6. Joint disorder; a contributory cause to reproductive failure in beef bulls?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekman Stina

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The lame sire, unsound for breeding, can cause substantial economic loss due to reduced pregnancies in the beef-producing herd. To test the hypothesis that joint disorder is a possible cause of infertility in beef sires, right and left hind limb bones from 34 beef sires were examined postmortem to identify lesions in the femorotibial, femoropatellar (stifle, tarsocrural, talocalcaneus, and proximal intertarsal (tarsal joints. The bulls were slaughtered during or after the breeding season due to poor fertility results. Aliquots of the cauda epididymal contents taken postmortem from 26 bulls were used for sperm morphology evaluation. As a control, hind limbs (but no semen samples from 11 beef bulls with good fertility results were included. Almost all infertile bulls (30/34 had lesions in at least one joint. Twenty-eight bulls (28/30, 93% had lesions in the stifle joint, and 24 (24/28, 86% of these were bilateral. Fourteen bulls (14/30, 47% had lesions in the tarsal joint, and 10 (10/14, 71% of these were bilateral. Four bulls (4/34, 12% had no lesions, three bulls (3/34, 9% had mild osteoarthritis (OA, 5 (5/34, 15% moderate OA, 17 (17/34, 50% severe OA and 5 (5/34, 15% deformed OA. Almost all OA lesions (97% were characterized as lesions secondary to osteochondrosis dissecans. All the bulls with satisfactory sperm morphology (n = 12/34 had joint lesions, with mostly severe or deformed bilateral lesions (83%. Consequently, the most likely cause of infertility in these 12 bulls was joint disease. Almost all control bulls (10/11 had OA lesions, but most of them were graded as mild (55% or moderate (36%. None of the control bulls had severe lesions or deformed OA. We suggest that joint lesions should be taken into consideration as a contributory cause of reproductive failure in beef sires without symptoms of lameness.

  7. Fixation of femoral capital physeal fractures with 7.0 mm cannulated screws in five bulls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salter-Harris type I fractures of the femoral capital physis were repaired in five Holstein bulls with three 7.0 mm cannulated screws placed in lag fashion. Radiographically at months 7 to 10, the fractures were healed and there was periarticular bone production on the femoral necks and the dorsal acetabular rims. Four bulls had normal gaits, and one bull had muscle atrophy and barely detectable lameness

  8. Enumeration of Golomb Rulers and Acyclic Orientations of Mixed Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, Matthias; Pham, Tu

    2011-01-01

    A \\emph{Golomb ruler} is a sequence of distinct integers (the \\emph{markings} of the ruler) whose pairwise differences are distinct. Golomb rulers can be traced back to additive number theory in the 1930s and have attracted recent research activities on existence problems, such as the search for \\emph{optimal} Golomb rulers (those of minimal length given a fixed number of markings). Our goal is to enumerate Golomb rulers in a systematic way: we study [g_m(t) := # {\\x \\in \\Z^{m+1} : \\, 0 = x_0 < x_1 < ... < x_{m-1} < x_m = t, \\text{all} x_j - x_k \\text{distinct}},] the number of Golomb rulers with $m+1$ markings and length $t$. Our main result is that $g_m(t)$ is a quasipolynomial in $t$ which satisfies a combinatorial reciprocity theorem: $(-1)^{m-1} g_m(-t)$ equals the number of rulers $\\x$ of length $t$ with $m+1$ markings, each counted with its \\emph{Golomb multiplicity}, which measures how many combinatorially different Golomb rulers are in a small neighborhood of $\\x$. Our reciprocity theorem...

  9. Using pattern enumeration to accelerate process development and ramp yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Linda; Pang, Jenny; Xu, Jessy; Tsai, Mengfeng; Wang, Amy; Zhang, Yifan; Sweis, Jason; Lai, Ya-Chieh; Ding, Hua

    2016-03-01

    During a new technology node process setup phase, foundries do not initially have enough product chip designs to conduct exhaustive process development. Different operational teams use manually designed simple test keys to set up their process flows and recipes. When the very first version of the design rule manual (DRM) is ready, foundries enter the process development phase where new experiment design data is manually created based on these design rules. However, these IP/test keys contain very uniform or simple design structures. This kind of design normally does not contain critical design structures or process unfriendly design patterns that pass design rule checks but are found to be less manufacturable. It is desired to have a method to generate exhaustive test patterns allowed by design rules at development stage to verify the gap of design rule and process. This paper presents a novel method of how to generate test key patterns which contain known problematic patterns as well as any constructs which designers could possibly draw based on current design rules. The enumerated test key patterns will contain the most critical design structures which are allowed by any particular design rule. A layout profiling method is used to do design chip analysis in order to find potential weak points on new incoming products so fab can take preemptive action to avoid yield loss. It can be achieved by comparing different products and leveraging the knowledge learned from previous manufactured chips to find possible yield detractors.

  10. Sensing and enumerating rare circulating cells with diffuse light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettergren, Eric; Vickers, Dwayne; Niedre, Mark

    2011-02-01

    Detection and quantification of circulating cells in live animals is a challenging and important problem in many areas of biomedical research. Current methods involve extraction of blood samples and counting of cells ex-vivo. Since only small blood volumes are analyzed at specific time points, monitoring of changes in cell populations over time is difficult and rare cells often escape detection. The goal of this research is to develop a method for enumerating very rare circulating cells in the bloodstream non-invasively. This would have many applications in biomedical research, including monitoring of cancer metastasis and tracking of hematopoietic stem cells. In this work we describe the optical configuration of our instrument which allows fluorescence detection of single cells in diffusive media at the mesoscopic scale. Our instrument design consists of two continuous wave laser diode sources and an 8-channel fiber coupled multi-anode photon counting PMT. Fluorescence detector fibers were arranged circularly around the target in a miniaturized ring configuration. Cell-simulating fluorescent microspheres and fluorescently-labeled cells were passed through a limb mimicking phantom with similar optical properties and background fluorescence as a limb of a mouse. Our data shows that we are able to successfully detect and count these with high quantitative accuracy. Future work includes characterization of our instrument using fluorescently labeled cells in-vivo. If successful, this technique would allow several orders of magnitude in vivo detection sensitivity improvement versus current approaches.

  11. Enhanced early-life nutrition promotes hormone production and reproductive development in Holstein bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dance, Alysha; Thundathil, Jacob; Wilde, Randy; Blondin, Patrick; Kastelic, John

    2015-02-01

    Holstein bull calves often reach artificial insemination centers in suboptimal body condition. Early-life nutrition is reported to increase reproductive performance in beef bulls. The objective was to determine whether early-life nutrition in Holstein bulls had effects similar to those reported in beef bulls. Twenty-six Holstein bull calves were randomly allocated into 3 groups at approximately 1 wk of age to receive a low-, medium-, or high-nutrition diet, based on levels of energy and protein, from 2 to 31 wk of age. Calves were on their respective diets until 31 wk of age, after which they were all fed a medium-nutrition diet. To evaluate secretion profiles and concentrations of blood hormones, a subset of bulls was subjected to intensive blood sampling every 4 wk from 11 to 31 wk of age. Testes of all bulls were measured once a month; once scrotal circumference reached 26cm, semen collection was attempted (by electroejaculation) every 2 wk to confirm puberty. Bulls were maintained until approximately 72 wk of age and then slaughtered at a local abattoir. Testes were recovered and weighed. Bulls fed the high-nutrition diet were younger at puberty (high=324.3 d, low=369.3 d) and had larger testes for the entire experimental period than bulls fed the low-nutrition diet. Bulls fed the high-nutrition diet also had an earlier and more substantial early rise in LH than those fed the low-nutrition diet and had increased concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) earlier than the bulls fed the low-nutrition diet. Furthermore, we detected a temporal association between increased IGF-I concentrations and an early LH rise in bulls fed the high-nutrition diet. Therefore, we inferred that IGF-I had a role in regulating the early gonadotropin rise (in particular, LH) and thus reproductive development of Holstein bulls. Overall, these results support our hypothesis that Holstein bull calves fed a high-nutrition diet reach puberty earlier and have larger testes than

  12. Effect of behaviour of Holstein Friesian and Simmental bulls on semen quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Adamczyk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between the behaviour of Holstein-Friesian and Simmental bulls and the quality of their semen. A total of 76 breeding bulls of the Holstein-Friesian and dual-purpose Simmental breeds were investigated. Analysis was made of the response of bulls to humans and other bulls, facial hair whorl position and length, scrotal circumference, and semen characteristics (mean ejaculate volume, mean sperm concentration, and sperm wave motion. The age and breed of the bulls had a statistically significant effect on semen quality, scrotal circumference and the animals response to an unfamiliar human (Plt,0.05, Plt,0.01. The coefficients of correlation between the bull s response to a handler and to other bulls averaged 0.73. In general, only weak correlations were found between behavioural traits of the bulls and quality of their semen. It is worth noting a good correlation (r=0.50; Plt;0.05 between hair whorl position and sperm concentration in Simmental bulls.

  13. Concentrate levels of crossbred bulls slaughtered at 16 or 22 months: performance and carcass characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Pinto; Rodrigo Augusto Cortêz Passetti; Ana Guerrero; Dayane Cristina Rivaroli; Daniel Perotto; Ivanor Nunes do Prado

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to assess the animal performance of 97 bulls, ½ Purunã vs. ½ Canchim, that were slaughtered at 16 (16M) or 22 (22M) months with three concentrate levels (0.8, 1.2, and 1.6%) of body weight (BW). The initial body weight was lower for the 16M bulls. The final body weight and hot carcass weights were similar between the two slaughter ages. The hot carcass dressing was higher for 22M bulls. The average daily gain was higher for 16M bulls. The feed intake and dry matter fe...

  14. THE PERFORMANCE OF JAVA AND ONGOLE CROSSBRED BULL UNDER INTENSIVE FEEDING MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    C.M.S. Lestari; R. Adiwinarti; M Arifin; A. Purnomoadi

    2011-01-01

    This study was set up to evaluate the performance of Java and Ongole Crossbred (OC) bulls fed concentrate and rice straw. A total of four Java bulls and four OC bulls were used in this experiment. The bulls were fed concentrates (50% of the total dry matter feed requirement) and rice straw (ad libitum). The concentrates were consisted of rice bran, beer waste product, copra meal, minerals, with crude protein (CP) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) contents of 15.32% and 73.09%, respectively...

  15. THE PERFORMANCE OF JAVA AND ONGOLE CROSSBRED BULL UNDER INTENSIVE FEEDING MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M.S. Lestari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was set up to evaluate the performance of Java and Ongole Crossbred (OC bulls fedconcentrate and rice straw. A total of four Java bulls and four OC bulls were used in this experiment. Thebulls were fed concentrates (50% of the total dry matter feed requirement and rice straw (ad libitum.The concentrates were consisted of rice bran, beer waste product, copra meal, minerals, with crudeprotein (CP and total digestible nutrients (TDN contents of 15.32% and 73.09%, respectively. Theaverage daily gain (ADG, dry matter intake (DMI, protein and energy intake, and feed conversion ratio(FCR were observed. The results of this study showed that the ADG, DMI, CP and TDN intake, andFCR were not significantly different (p> 0.05. The ADG of Java and OC bulls were 0.58 kg and 0.78kg, respectively. The averages of DMI, CP and TDN intake were 6.59 kg (2.09% of BW, 0.81 kg and4.34 kg for Java bulls whereas for OC bulls were 6.42 kg (2.11% of BW, 0.78 kg, and 4.20 kg,respectively. The FCR of Java bulls was 11.49 and those of OC bulls was 9.21. It can be concluded thatJava and OC bulls raised intensively and fed concentrate and rice straw had the similar performance.

  16. Tarsal lameness of dairy bulls housed at two artificial insemination centers: 24 cases (1975-1987).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargai, U; Cohen, R

    1992-10-01

    Degenerative joint disease of the tarsi was diagnosed in 20 of 24 Holstein bulls with tarsal lameness at 2 artificial insemination centers from 1975 to 1987. Each of the 2 centers housed about 100 bulls/yr. Of the 24 bulls with tarsal lameness, 22 were from the artificial insemination center designated as A, and 2 were from the center designated as B. Examination of the housing and management procedures revealed that center A had concrete floors with cuboidal-shaped yards, whereas center B had deep sand flooring, with long, narrow yards. The only other difference between the 2 centers was that center A used 1- and 2-year-old bulls as teasers for older, heavier bulls to mount, whereas center B used bulls that were at least 6 years old to withstand the stress placed on their hind limbs by the weight of bulls undergoing semen collection. Radiographic lesions of tarsi of bulls from both centers ranged from distention of the tibiotarsal joint pouch to hypertrophic degenerative osteoarthritis of the distal, intertarsal, and tarsometatarsal joints. It was concluded that the concrete flooring and the semen collecting practices were responsible for the high prevalence of tarsal lameness and degenerative joint disease of the tarsi in bulls housed at center A.

  17. DENMARK – EUROPEAN CHAMPION IN ORGANIC RAINBOW TROUT

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Erling P.; Nielsen, Max; Larsen, Villy J.; Jokumsen, Alfred

    2016-01-01

    In 2014 Denmark was the biggest producer of organic rainbow trout in Europe with a total amount of 1,080 tons. The producers of the organic trout had a better economic earning than the conventional producers, measured per unit produced. The value wason average 8 % higher per unit than for the conventional producers. The solvency ratio was in 2012 an average of 28 %, which was higher than the traditional trout producers’ solvency ratio (solvency ratio measure an enterprises ability to meet its...

  18. Sensitivity of Trout to Chronic Acute Exposure to Selenium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunnar Gissel; Nielsen, M. Gissel

    1978-01-01

    Trout were exposed to selenite (Na2SeO3) solutions of varying concentrations (0.1-100 ppm Se) for periods of up to 4 wk. A chronic exposure to 0.1 ppm Se or less is non-lethal to trout. Lethality at higher concentrations depends on the length of exposure. Trout that survive for 10 days in tap-water...

  19. TROUT STEAKS: CONSUMER PERCEPTIONS OF A NEW FOOD ITEM

    OpenAIRE

    Dasgupta, Siddhartha; Foltz, John C.; Jacobsen, Bonnie

    2000-01-01

    Water quality standards and a limited water supply have dramatically restricted the expansion of the U.S. trout industry. Faced with production restrictions, producers have turned to value-added products to strengthen the economic growth of the industry. In the near future, trout steaks could surface in retail outlets as a new revenue source for the mature trout industry. A telephone survey of consumers in Chicago and Los Angeles was conducted by the University of Idaho in the spring of 1997 ...

  20. CONSUMER PERCEPTIONS OF TROUT AS A FOOD ITEM

    OpenAIRE

    Foltz, John C.; Dasgupta, Siddhartha; Devadoss, Stephen

    1999-01-01

    The impacts of socioeconomic/demographic characteristics, experiences and preferences of consumers on trout purchasing decisions were estimated using Probit and Ordered Probit regression techniques. Data from a survey of consumer purchasing behavior and personal attributes were used to deduce factors that led to either a high or low likelihood of purchasing trout products. Analysis of data pertaining to whole trout and value-added products yielded consistently different characteristics of con...

  1. Growth and reproductive development from weaning through 20 months of age among breeds of bulls in subtropical Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, C C; Chenoweth, P J; Larsen, R E; Olson, T A; Hammond, A C; Menchaca, M A; Randel, R D

    1997-02-01

    To determine the effect of breed on growth and reproductive development, weaned bulls in each of 2 yr were managed as a single group for approximately a year. In Year 1, the study group consisted of 24 Angus, 24 Brahman, 20 Hereford and 14 Senepol bulls, while in Year 2, it contained 25 Angus, 17 Brahman. 13 Romosinuano and 9 Nellore x Brahman bulls. Body and testicular growth measurements were recorded at 6-wk intervals. At approximately 1 yr of age and quarterly thereafter (4 periods), bulls were evaluated for libido, pubertal status, and GnRH-induced LH and testosterone secretion. Significant breed-by-age interactions occurred for most growth measurements. Brahman bulls (Bos indicus ) were (P Senepol and Romosinuano bulls (Bos taurus ). Libido scores were lowest for Brahman and Nell ore x Brahman bulls (Bos indicus ). highest for Angus and Hereford bulls (temperate Bos taurus breeds) and intermediate for Senepol and Romosinuano bulls (tropical Bos taurus breeds; P Brahman, Senepol, Romosinuano and Nellore x Brahman bulls (tropical breeds). In conclusion, reproductive development of Senepol and Romosinuano bulls (tropical Bos taurus breeds) was more similar to Angus and Hereford bulls (temperate Bos taurus breeds) than to Brahman and Nellore x Brahman bulls (Bos indicus ). PMID:16728024

  2. Influence of Genotype and Diet on the Characteristics of Semitendinosus Muscle in Crossbred Young Bulls Derived from Brown Swiss Cow and Double Muscled Bulls

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Bittante; Rina Verdiglione

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of genotype and diet on the characteristics of muscle fibers and adipocytes of the semitendinosus muscle in crossbred young bulls derived from Brown Swiss cows (B) and double-muscled Piemontese (PI) or Belgian Blue (BB) bulls. For this purpose 24 young bulls divided in 6 groups fed 3 diets have been used: a control diet without supplementation of rumen protected CLA (rpCLA), two other diets added with 8 or 80 g/d of a supplement of rpCLA. Th...

  3. Weak invertibility of linear finite automata (I)——Classification and enumeration of transfer functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴宗铎; 叶顶峰

    1996-01-01

    Let 3V denote the set of all possible transfer function matrices of weakly invertible linear finite automata over a given finite field F. A classification and an enumeration on the infinite set are given.

  4. 21 CFR 866.4700 - Automated fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) enumeration systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... detection and enumeration of FISH signals in interphase nuclei of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human.... This device is intended for in vitro diagnostic use with FISH assays as an aid in the...

  5. Landscape-scale evaluation of asymmetric interactions between Brown Trout and Brook Trout using two-species occupancy models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Tyler; Jefferson T. Deweber; Jason Detar; John A. Sweka

    2013-01-01

    Predicting the distribution of native stream fishes is fundamental to the management and conservation of many species. Modeling species distributions often consists of quantifying relationships between species occurrence and abundance data at known locations with environmental data at those locations. However, it is well documented that native stream fish distributions can be altered as a result of asymmetric interactions between dominant exotic and subordinate native species. For example, the naturalized exotic Brown Trout Salmo trutta has been identified as a threat to native Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis in the eastern United States. To evaluate large-scale patterns of co-occurrence and to quantify the potential effects of Brown Trout presence on Brook Trout occupancy, we used data from 624 stream sites to fit two-species occupancy models. These models assumed that asymmetric interactions occurred between the two species. In addition, we examined natural and anthropogenic landscape characteristics we hypothesized would be important predictors of occurrence of both species. Estimated occupancy for Brook Trout, from a co-occurrence model with no landscape covariates, at sites with Brown Trout present was substantially lower than sites where Brown Trout were absent. We also observed opposing patterns for Brook and Brown Trout occurrence in relation to percentage forest, impervious surface, and agriculture within the network catchment. Our results are consistent with other studies and suggest that alterations to the landscape, and specifically the transition from a forested catchment to one that contains impervious surface or agriculture, reduces the occurrence probability of wild Brook Trout. Our results, however, also suggest that the presence of Brown Trout results in lower occurrence probability of Brook Trout over a range of anthropogenic landscape characteristics, compared with streams where Brown Trout were absent.

  6. SEMEN PRODUCTION AND PRODUCTIVE LIFE OF SAHIWAL BULLS: RELATIONSHIP WITH GENETIC WORTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. KHAN, A. A. BHATTI, S. A. BHATTI1 AND M. ASHIQ2

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective of the present study was to document the semen producing ability, productive life and genetic ability for lactation milk yield of Sahiwal bulls used for artificial insemination (AI in Punjab and to find the impact of AI bulls on the improvement of Sahiwal cattle. Data from Semen Production Unit (SPU, Qadirabad, Sahiwal, Pakistan were used for this purpose. A repeatability animal model was used for estimation of breeding values for lactation milk yield. Productive life of a bull was calculated as a difference between culling age and the age at first ejaculation. Number of bulls brought to SPU varied from 9 to 102 for any year. Average number of doses of semen produced by any bull for a year varied from 724 to 5745. On the average, 238 bulls produced 17143 ± 1164 semen doses during their average stay of 5.4 ± 0.2 years. About 50% of the bulls stayed for less than four years at the SPU; with a maximum range of 14 years. Progeny tested bulls (n=90 produced 5000 and 10000 semen doses (Y in three and four years of stay (X, respectively (Y = 24.8 + 2.3635 X - 0.0112 X2. To produce 20,000 doses, it is predicted that bulls need to stay for six and a half years at the SPU. There was no association between breeding values for lactation milk yield estimated under a repeatability animal model (EBVs and number of semen doses produced (r = 0.17 and EBVs and number of daughters. Lack of genetic superiority of bulls used indicated that AI did not bring desired genetic improvement in Sahiwal cattle in the present situation. Modifications for judicious utilization of bulls are suggested along with improvements in data recording.

  7. Enumeration and phylogenetic analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading marine bacteria from Puget sound sediments.

    OpenAIRE

    Geiselbrecht, A D; Herwig, R P; Deming, J. W.; Staley, J T

    1996-01-01

    Naphthalene- and phenanthrene-degrading bacteria in Puget Sound sediments were enumerated by most-probable-number enumeration procedures. Sediments from a creosote-contaminated Environmental Protection Agency Superfund Site (Eagle Harbor) contained from 10(4) to 10(7) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading bacteria g (dry weight) of sediment-1, whereas the concentration at an uncontaminated site ranged from 10(3) to 10(4) g of sediment(-1). Isolates of PAH-degrading bacteria were obt...

  8. Exact enumeration of conformations for two and three dimensional lattice proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silpaja Chandrasekar, K.; Sangaranarayanan, M. V.

    2016-02-01

    We report an efficient methodology for exactly enumerating conformations of lattice proteins, taking into account the self-avoiding nature. These self-avoiding walks in square and simple cubic lattices take into account, the detailed paths by which a destination site can be reached from a starting site. The strategy employing JAVA programming enables the exact enumeration for very large lattice sizes. The estimation of these conformations is helpful in designing the protein sequences pertaining to Hydrophobic-Polar models.

  9. Enumeration and Biomass Estimation of Bacteria in Aquifer Microcosm Studies by Flow Cytometry

    OpenAIRE

    DeLeo, P. C.; Baveye, P

    1996-01-01

    Flow cytometry was used to enumerate and characterize bacteria from a sand column microcosm simulating aquifer conditions. Pure cultures of a species of Bacillus isolated from subsurface sediments or Bacillus megaterium were first evaluated to identify these organisms' characteristic histograms. Counting was then carried out with samples from the aquifer microcosms. Enumeration by flow cytometry was compared with more-traditional acridine orange direct counting. These two techniques gave stat...

  10. Linear Programming Bounds for Entanglement-Assisted Quantum Error-Correcting Codes by Split Weight Enumerators

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Ching-Yi; Ashikhmin, Alexei

    2016-01-01

    Linear programming approaches have been applied to derive upper bounds on the size of classical codes and quantum codes. In this paper, we derive similar results for general quantum codes with entanglement assistance, including nonadditive codes, by considering a type of split weight enumerators. After deriving the MacWilliams identities for these split weight enumerators, we are able to prove algebraic linear programming bounds, such as the Singleton bound, the Hamming bound, and the first l...

  11. THE MATRIX ITERATION ALGORITHM SOLVING AN ENUMERATION PROBLEM ON BACTERIAL COMPLETE GENOMES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Huakang; HUANG Chengxiang; WEN Xiaowei

    2004-01-01

    Given an alphabet ∑ and a finite minimal set B of forbidden words, a combinatorial enumeration problem on bacterial complete genomes is transformed to enumerating strings of a given length which do not contain any string in B as their substrings. From the fact that a string in the language is equivalent to a path in the corresponding graph,we have obtained a polynomial time algorithm by modifying the power of the adjacency matrix in the graph.

  12. A trial of two trouts: Comparing the impacts of rainbow and brown trout on a native galaxiid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, K.A.; Dunham, J.B.; Stephenson, J.F.; Terreau, A.; Thailly, A.F.; Gajardo, G.; de Leaniz, C. G.

    2010-01-01

    Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and brown trout Salmo trutta are the world's two most widespread exotic fishes, dominate the fish communities of most cold-temperate waters in the southern hemisphere and are implicated in the decline and extirpation of native fish species. Here, we provide the first direct comparison of the impacts of rainbow and brown trout on populations of a native fish by quantifying three components of exotic species impact: range, abundance and effect. We surveyed 54 small streams on the island of Chilo?? in Chilean Patagonia and found that the rainbow trout has colonized significantly more streams and has a wider geographic range than brown trout. The two species had similar post-yearling abundances in allopatry and sympatry, and their abundances depended similarly on reach-level variation in the physical habitat. The species appeared to have dramatically different effects on native drift-feeding Aplochiton spp., which were virtually absent from streams invaded by brown trout but shared a broad sympatric range with rainbow trout. Within this range, the species' post-yearling abundances varied independently before and after controlling for variation in the physical habitat. In the north of the island, Aplochiton spp. inhabited streams uninvaded by exotic trouts. Our results provide a context for investigating the mechanisms responsible for apparent differences in rainbow and brown trout invasion biology and can help inform conservation strategies for native fishes in Chilo?? and elsewhere. ?? 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation ?? 2010 The Zoological Society of London.

  13. Comparison of biochemical parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) reared in two different trout farms'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Tayfun

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare biochemical parameters of cultured rainbow trouts (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum, 1972) reared in two different trout farms' (Agri and Erzurum). The average weights of fish were 150±10gr for first station (Agri), 230±10gr for second station (Erzurum). Fishes used in research were randomly caught from pools, and fifteen pieces were used for each group. Fishes were fed with commercial trout feed with 45-50% crude protein twice a day. The levels of AST, ALT, LDL, total cholesterol and triglyceride in the second station (Erzurum) were found to be higher (pLDL, triglyceride may be associated with size, sex, sexual maturity and environmental conditions (temperature, pH, hardness and dissolved oxygen).

  14. Do native brown trout and non-native brook trout interact reproductively?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucherousset, J.; Aymes, J. C.; Poulet, N.; Santoul, F.; Céréghino, R.

    2008-07-01

    Reproductive interactions between native and non-native species of fish have received little attention compared to other types of interactions such as predation or competition for food and habitat. We studied the reproductive interactions between non-native brook trout ( Salvelinus fontinalis) and native brown trout ( Salmo trutta) in a Pyrenees Mountain stream (SW France). We found evidence of significant interspecific interactions owing to consistent spatial and temporal overlap in redd localizations and spawning periods. We observed mixed spawning groups composed of the two species, interspecific subordinate males, and presence of natural hybrids (tiger trout). These reproductive interactions could be detrimental to the reproduction success of both species. Our study shows that non-native species might have detrimental effects on native species via subtle hybridization behavior.

  15. The complete mitochondrial DNA of the bull shark (Carcharhinus leucas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Jaimes, Pindaro; Uribe-Alcocer, Manuel; Hinojosa-Alvarez, Silvia; Sandoval-Laurrabaquio, Nadia; Adams, Douglas H; García De León, Francisco J

    2016-01-01

    The bull shark mitochondrial structure is similar to that of other elasmobranchs; it has a total length of 16,100 bp, the base composition of the genomes was as follows: A (31.35%), T (31.35%), C (24.38%) and G (12.90%). It contains 13 protein-coding genes and 23 tRNA genes. The tRNA genes range from 70-72 bp. Gene order is the same as in other vertebrates and teleosts. PMID:24810063

  16. "Buzz marketing" : estudo de caso da marca Red Bull

    OpenAIRE

    Conceição, Miguel David

    2012-01-01

    Este relatório é baseado no estágio efetuado na agência de publicidade Ogilvy & Mather e é dedicado à temática do Buzz Marketing. De modo a poder explorar a fundo as dinâmicas deste tema foi feita uma análise à estratégia de marketing da marca Red Bull, considerada como um dos principais estudos de caso no âmbito do Buzz Marketing. Este tema pode ser definido como uma estratégia de marketing inovadora cujo objetivo principal é a criação de conversas entre os consumidores, colocando-os a falar...

  17. Factors influencing brown trout reproductive success in Ozark tailwater rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pender, D.R.; Kwak, T.J.

    2002-01-01

    The reproductive success of brown trout Salmo trutta in White River, Arkansas, tailwater reaches is highly variable, resulting in the need for supplemental stocking. A better understanding of the physical and biotic factors affecting reproduction and survival would enhance the contribution of wild fish. We compared fecundity, reproductive chronology, physical habitat, water quality, trout density, food availability, diet, predation, and competitive interactions among four tailwater reaches to identify factors influencing brown trout reproductive success. The fecundity and condition factor of prespawning brown trout were significantly lower at Beaver Tailwater, a reach known for reproductive failure, than at other sites, among which no differences were found. Brown trout spawning was observed from 11 October to 23 November 1996, and juvenile emergence began on 28 February 1997. Significant among-site differences were detected for spawning and juvenile microhabitat variables, but the variables fell within or near suitable or optimal ranges reported in the literature for this species. Age-0 brown trout density differed significantly among sites, but growth and condition did not. Predation by Ozark sculpin Cottus hypselurus on trout eggs or age-0 trout of any species was not observed among the 418 stomachs examined. Ozark sculpin density and diet overlap with age-0 brown trout were highest and invertebrate food availability and water fertility were lowest at Beaver Tailwater relative to the other reaches. Our findings indicate that differences in trophic conditions occur among tailwater reaches, and a lower system productive capacity was identified at Beaver Tailwater. We suggest that management efforts include refining the multispecies trout stocking regime to improve production efficiency, enhancing flow regulation, and increasing habitat complexity to increase invertebrate and fish productivity. Such efforts may lead to improved natural reproduction and the

  18. Does bovine besnoitiosis affect the sexual function of chronically infected bulls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Gil, A; Jacquiet, P; Florentin, S; Decaudin, A; Berthelot, X; Ronsin, P; Grisez, C; Prevot, F; Alzieu, J P; Marois, M; Corboz, N; Peglion, M; Vilardell, C; Liénard, E; Bouhsira, E; Castillo, J A; Franc, M; Picard-Hagen, N

    2016-09-15

    Bovine besnoitiosis is a reemerging disease in Europe. The clinically Besnoitia besnoiti infection in bulls is characterized by fever, nasal discharge, and orchitis in the acute phase and by scleroderma in the chronic phase. However, in many bulls, B besnoiti infection remains at a subclinical stage. Bull infertility is an economically relevant consequence of besnoitiosis infection. It is not clear, however, if semen quality returns to normal levels when infected animals have clinically recovered. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between chronic besnoitiosis and bull sexual function in a region of eastern France, where the disease is reemerging, by comparing semen quality and genital lesions in 11 uninfected, 17 subclinically infected, and 12 clinically infected bulls. The presence of anti-B besnoiti antibodies was detected by Western blot test. Semen was collected by electroejaculation. Bulls clinically infected with B besnoiti showed significantly more genital tract alterations than uninfected or subclinically infected bulls. No relationship was evidenced between besnoitiosis infectious status and semen quality, whereas a significant relationship was noted between genital lesions and semen score. This means that in the absence of moderate to severe genital lesions, chronic bovine besnoitiosis is unlikely to alter semen quality. However, as the presence of infected animals could lead to spread of the disease, culling or separation of clinically infected bulls from the remaining healthy animals is strongly recommended. PMID:27264738

  19. Effects of pedigree and exotic genetic inheritance on semen production traits of dairy bulls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VijethaBajjalliThippeswamy; SiddarthaShankar Layek; ArumugamKumaresan; TusharKumar Mohanty; Ashok Kumar Gupta; Atish Kumar Chakravarty; Ayyasamy Manimaran; Shiv Prasad

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study the effects of different levels of exotic inheritance on ejaculate quality in bulls and its passage through different generations.Methods:Data on semen production traits and ejaculate quality were obtained for38 crossbred bulls and grandsire-sire-progeny relationship in relation to semen quality was studied.The bulls were classified into three groups based on the level of exotic inheritance viz.F1,50.0%-62.5% exotic germplasm and >75% exotic germplasm.Results:Results of the present study indicated that about40% of the ejaculates obtained from the crossbred bulls were rejected from further processing due to poor ejaculate quality.TheF1 bulls produced significantly higher proportions(57.00±10.00) of poor quality ejaculates compared to the interse mated bulls.The age at first semencollection in crossbred bulls ranged from567 to1010 days with an average of738.89±18.18 days while the mean age at first semen freezing was865.72±34.60 days.Conclusions:It may be inferred that the“acceptable quality semen producing ability” decreased from grandsire through sire to male progeny and among the increasing exotic genetic levels ofCB cattle,F1 bulls produced significantly higher“low grade ejaculates” that were unfit for cryopreservation.

  20. Brook trout passage performance through culverts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerig, Elsa; Castro-Santos, Theodore R.; Bergeron, Normand

    2016-01-01

    Culverts can restrict access to habitat for stream-dwelling fishes. We used passive integrated transponder telemetry to quantify passage performance of >1000 wild brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) attempting to pass 13 culverts in Quebec under a range of hydraulic and environmental conditions. Several variables influenced passage success, including complex interactions between physiology and behavior, hydraulics, and structural characteristics. The probability of successful passage was greater through corrugated metal culverts than through smooth ones, particularly among smaller fish. Trout were also more likely to pass at warmer temperatures, but this effect diminished above 15 °C. Passage was impeded at higher flows, through culverts with steep slopes, and those with deep downstream pools. This study provides insight on factors influencing brook trout capacity to pass culverts as well as a model to estimate passage success under various conditions, with an improved resolution and accuracy over existing approaches. It also presents methods that could be used to investigate passage success of other species, with implications for connectivity of the riverscape.

  1. The effects of varied densities on the growth and emigration of adult cutthroat trout and brook trout in fenced stream enclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buys, D.J.; Hilderbrand, R.H.; Kershner, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of various density treatments on adult fish growth and emigration rates between Bonneville cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki utah and brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in stream enclosures in Beaver Creek, Idaho, We used 3 density treatments (low, ambient, and high fish densities) to evaluate density-related effects and to ensure a response. Intraspecific ambient-density tests using cutthroat trout only were also performed. Results indicated an absence of cage effects in the stream enclosures and no differences in fish growth between ambient-density stream-enclosure fish and free-range fish. Brook trout outgrew and moved less than cutthroat trout in the stream enclosures, especially as density increased, In all 3 density treatments, brook trout gained more weight than cutthroat trout, with brook trout gaining weight in each density treatment and cutthroat trout losing weight at the highest density. At high densities, cutthroat trout attempted to emigrate more frequently than brook trout in sympatry and allopatry. We observed a negative correlation between growth and emigration for interspecific cutthroat trout, indicating a possible competitive response due to the presence of brook trout. We observed similar responses for weight and emigration in trials of allopatric cutthroat trout, indicating strong intraspecific effects as density increased. While cutthroat trout showed a response to experimental manipulation with brook trout at different densities, there has been long-term coexistence between these species in Beaver Creek, This system presents a unique opportunity to study the mechanisms that lead cutthroat trout to coexist with rather than be replaced by nonnative brook trout.

  2. SuchThatCast Episode 3: J.D. Trout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Søraker, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    SuchThatCast goes mobile in the third episode, as I interview J.D. Trout on the appr. 2 hour train ride between Enschede and Schiphol airport. Trout received his PhD in Philosophy at Cornell University and is currently Professor of Philosophy and Psychology at Loyola University Chicago. He was recen

  3. The Effects of Acute Stress on Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    OpenAIRE

    KUBİLAY, Ayşegül

    2002-01-01

    The physiological effects of acute stressors (transport, handling, netting and confinement) on rainbow trout in an aquaculture system were investigated. Serum cortisol level, serum glucose and lysozyme activity were determined in rainbow trout stressed by acute stressors, and compared with those of unstressed (control) fish. Serum cortisol, glucose levels and lysozyme activity were significantly higher(P

  4. Some Direct Gillnet Selectivity Tests for Brown Trout Populations

    OpenAIRE

    O Grady, M. F.

    1981-01-01

    Direct gillnet selectivity tests for introduced brown trout populations in three Irish lakes are outlined. The net gangs and netting procedure utilised are described. Data indicates that the gear used was capable of capturing a random cross section of a trout stock in the length frequency range 19.8 to 47.7 centimetres.

  5. Challenge models for RTFS in rainbow trout fry (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Maya Maria Mihályi; Madsen, Lone; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2011-01-01

    The fish pathogen Flavobacterium psychrophilum is one of the main causes of mortality in fry of farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and other salmonid fish. The disease following infection is often called bacterial coldwater disease (BCWD) in USA and rainbow trout fry syndrome (RTFS) in...

  6. Growth, puberty, and carcass characteristics of Brahman-, Senepol-, and Tuli-sired F1 Angus bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, C C; Chenoweth, P J; Larsen, R E; Hammond, A C; Olson, T A; West, R L; Johnson, D D

    2001-08-01

    Postweaning growth, sexual development, libido, and carcass data were collected from two consecutive calf crops using 31 Brahman x Angus (B x A), 41 Senepol x Angus (S x A), and 38 Tuli x Angus (T x A) F1 bulls. Following weaning (by mid-September) and preconditioning, at the start of the study (late September) bulls were fed concentrate (three times each week at a rate equivalent to 4.5 kg/d) on bahiagrass pasture for approximately 250 d. At the start of the study and at 28-d intervals, BW, hip height, and scrotal circumference (SC) were measured. Concurrently at 28-d intervals, when the SC of a bull was > or = 23 cm, semen collection was attempted using electroejaculation. Ejaculates were evaluated for presence of first spermatozoa (FS), 50 x 10(6) sperm with at least 10% motility (PU), and 500 x 10(6) sperm with at least 50% motility (PP). After all bulls reached PP they were subjected to two libido tests. Carcass data were collected on all bulls (n = 110) and Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) force values were assessed on a subset (n = 80). For both years, B x A bulls were heavier (P 0.10) gain in BW or hip height during the study. Scrotal circumference of T x A bulls was larger (P 0.10) of breed type by the end of the study. At PU and PP, B x A bulls were older (P yield grade than T x A bulls but greatest (P 0.10) USDA quality grade. In conclusion, tropically adapted F1 bulls produced from Senepol (Bos taurus) and Tuli (Sanga) sires bred to Angus cows in Florida had lighter BW, shorter hip heights, and smaller carcasses than those from Brahman sires but reached puberty earlier and had higher libido scores and lower WBS force values.

  7. Growth, puberty, and carcass characteristics of Brahman-, Senepol-, and Tuli-sired F1 Angus bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, C C; Chenoweth, P J; Larsen, R E; Hammond, A C; Olson, T A; West, R L; Johnson, D D

    2001-08-01

    Postweaning growth, sexual development, libido, and carcass data were collected from two consecutive calf crops using 31 Brahman x Angus (B x A), 41 Senepol x Angus (S x A), and 38 Tuli x Angus (T x A) F1 bulls. Following weaning (by mid-September) and preconditioning, at the start of the study (late September) bulls were fed concentrate (three times each week at a rate equivalent to 4.5 kg/d) on bahiagrass pasture for approximately 250 d. At the start of the study and at 28-d intervals, BW, hip height, and scrotal circumference (SC) were measured. Concurrently at 28-d intervals, when the SC of a bull was > or = 23 cm, semen collection was attempted using electroejaculation. Ejaculates were evaluated for presence of first spermatozoa (FS), 50 x 10(6) sperm with at least 10% motility (PU), and 500 x 10(6) sperm with at least 50% motility (PP). After all bulls reached PP they were subjected to two libido tests. Carcass data were collected on all bulls (n = 110) and Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) force values were assessed on a subset (n = 80). For both years, B x A bulls were heavier (P 0.10) gain in BW or hip height during the study. Scrotal circumference of T x A bulls was larger (P 0.10) of breed type by the end of the study. At PU and PP, B x A bulls were older (P carcass traits; B x A bulls had the heaviest (P carcass weight, greatest (P 0.10) USDA quality grade. In conclusion, tropically adapted F1 bulls produced from Senepol (Bos taurus) and Tuli (Sanga) sires bred to Angus cows in Florida had lighter BW, shorter hip heights, and smaller carcasses than those from Brahman sires but reached puberty earlier and had higher libido scores and lower WBS force values.

  8. Innate immune responses of young bulls to a novel environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzuoli, Elisabetta; Olzi, Emilio; Calà, Pietro; Cafazzo, Simona; Magnani, Diego; Vitali, Andrea; Lacetera, Nicola; Archetti, Laura; Lazzara, Fabrizio; Ferrari, Angelo; Nanni Costa, Leonardo; Amadori, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    Animal welfare during transportation has been investigated in several studies, as opposed to post-transportation phases. In this study, we evaluated the effect of a novel environment after transportation on 26 Friesian bulls, 242 ± 42 day-old, from ten different dairy farms. Animals were shipped to a breeding center in different seasons, and selected parameters of innate immunity (serum bactericidal activity, hemolytic complement, serum albumin, α, β, and γ-globulins, interleukin-6, TNF-α) were monitored before and after the arrival at days--4/0/4/15/30. Our results showed significant differences of IL-6 and TNF-α protein levels at destination in December (94 ± 1.3 pg/ml) and June (+788 pg/ml), respectively. Moreover, the serum levels of these cytokines increased between days 0 and 15 after the arrival, the modulation of IL-6 being in agreement with established models of physical and/or psychological stress. Concerning the modulation of albumin, alpha and beta-globulins, the highest levels were detected in April, whereas a significant decrease was observed between day 15 and 30 after arrival; on the contrary, γ-globulin levels significantly increased after day 15. The results of this study highlight the occurrence of innate immune responses of young bulls to the combined effects of climate (season) and novel farming conditions.

  9. Otter ( Lutra lutra ) predation on stocked brown trout ( Salmo trutta ) in two Danish lowland rivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lene

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate otter predation on stocked trout. Large hatchery-reared trout (16-30 cm) were stocked into two Danish rivers with different fish populations. Otter diet before and after trout stocking was determined by analysing 685 spraints, collected regularly during the 35-day study...... period. Fish composition in the rivers before stocking was assessed by electrofishing. In River Trend, a typical trout river, the proportion of trout in the otter diet increased from 8% before stocking to 33% a few days after stocking. Moreover, trout lengths in the diet changed significantly towards the...... lengths of stocked trout, indicating that newly stocked trout were preferred to wild trout. In River Skals, dominated by cyprinids, there was no change in otter diet after stocking of hatchery trout, i.e., these were ignored by otter. Otter predation should be taken into account together with fish and...

  10. Metals-contaminated benthic invertebrates in the Clark Fork River, Montana: Effects on age-0 brown trout and rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Daniel F.; Farag, Aïda M.; Bergman, Harold L.; Delonay, Aaron J.; Little, Edward E.; Smiths, Charlie E.; Barrows, Frederic T.

    1995-01-01

    Benthic organisms in the upper Clark Fork River have recently been implicated as a dietary source of metals that may be a chronic problem for young-of-the-year rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). In this present study, early life stage brown trout (Salmo trutta) and rainbow trout were exposed for 88 d to simulated Clark Fork River water and a diet of benthic invertebrates collected from the river. These exposures resulted in reduced growth and elevated levels of metals in the whole body of both species. Concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, and Pb increased in whole brown trout; in rainbow trout, As and Cd increased in whole fish, and As also increased in liver. Brown trout on the metals-contaminated diets exhibited constipation, gut impaction, increased cell membrane damage (lipid peroxidation), decreased digestive enzyme production (zymogen), and a sloughing of intestinal mucosal epithelial cells. Rainbow trout fed the contaminated diets exhibited constipation and reduced feeding activity. We believe that the reduced standing crop of trout in the Clark Fork River results partly from chronic effects of metals contamination in benthic invertebrates that are important as food for young-of-the-year fish.

  11. Effects of water temperature and fish size on predation vulnerability of juvenile humpback chub to rainbow trout and brown trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, David L.; Morton-Starner, Rylan

    2015-01-01

    Predation on juvenile native fish by introduced Rainbow Trout and Brown Trout is considered a significant threat to the persistence of endangered Humpback Chub Gila cypha in the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon. Diet studies of Rainbow Trout and Brown Trout in Glen and Grand canyons indicate that these species do eat native fish, but impacts are difficult to assess because predation vulnerability is highly variable, depending on prey size, predator size, and the water temperatures under which the predation interactions take place. We conducted laboratory experiments to evaluate how short-term predation vulnerability of juvenile native fish changes in response to fish size and water temperature using captivity-reared Humpback Chub, Bonytail, and Roundtail Chub. Juvenile chub 45–90 mm total length (TL) were exposed to adult Rainbow and Brown trouts at 10, 15, and 20°C to measure predation vulnerability as a function of water temperature and fish size. A 1°C increase in water temperature decreased short-term predation vulnerability of Humpback Chub to Rainbow Trout by about 5%, although the relationship is not linear. Brown Trout were highly piscivorous in the laboratory at any size > 220 mm TL and at all water temperatures we tested. Understanding the effects of predation by trout on endangered Humpback Chub is critical in evaluating management options aimed at preserving native fishes in Grand Canyon National Park.

  12. Admixture analysis of stocked brown trout populations using mapped microsatellite DNA markers: indigenous trout persist in introgressed populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Mensberg, Karen-Lise Dons

    2009-01-01

    , but resolution is low if genetic differentiation is weak. Here, we analyse stocked brown trout populations represented by historical (1943-1956) and contemporary (2000s) samples, where genetic differentiation between wild populations and stocked trout is weak (pair-wise F-ST of 0.047 and 0.053). By...

  13. Growth rate differences between resident native brook trout and non-native brown trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, S.M.; Hendry, A.P.; Letcher, B.H.

    2007-01-01

    Between species and across season variation in growth was examined by tagging and recapturing individual brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and brown trout Salmo trutta across seasons in a small stream (West Brook, Massachusetts, U.S.A.). Detailed information on body size and growth are presented to (1) test whether the two species differed in growth within seasons and (2) characterize the seasonal growth patterns for two age classes of each species. Growth differed between species in nearly half of the season- and age-specific comparisons. When growth differed, non-native brown trout grew faster than native brook trout in all but one comparison. Moreover, species differences were most pronounced when overall growth was high during the spring and early summer. These growth differences resulted in size asymmetries that were sustained over the duration of the study. A literature survey also indicated that non-native salmonids typically grow faster than native salmonids when the two occur in sympatry. Taken together, these results suggest that differences in growth are not uncommon for coexisting native and non-native salmonids. ?? 2007 The Authors.

  14. Diurnal stream habitat use of juvenile Atlantic salmon, brown trout and rainbow trout in winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J.H.; Douglass, K.A.

    2009-01-01

    The diurnal winter habitat of three species of juvenile salmonids was examined in a tributary of Skaneateles Lake, NY to compare habitat differences among species and to determine if species/age classes were selecting specific habitats. A total of 792 observations were made on the depth, velocity, substrate and cover (amount and type) used by sympatric subyearling Atlantic salmon, subyearling brown trout and subyearling and yearling rainbow trout. Subyearling Atlantic salmon occurred in shallower areas with faster velocities and less cover than the other salmonid groups. Subyearling salmon was also the only group associated with substrate of a size larger than the average size substrate in the study reach during both winters. Subyearling brown trout exhibited a preference for vegetative cover. Compared with available habitat, yearling rainbow trout were the most selective in their habitat use. All salmonid groups were associated with more substrate cover in 2002 under high flow conditions. Differences in the winter habitat use of these salmonid groups have important management implications in terms of both habitat protection and habitat enhancement.

  15. Effects of herd origin, AI stud and sire identification on genetic evaluation of Holstein Friesian bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Bittante

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to estimate the effects of herd origin of bull, AI stud and sire identification number (ID  on official estimated breeding values (EBV for production traits of Holstein Friesian proven bulls. The data included 1,005  Italian Holstein-Friesian bulls, sons of 76 sires, born in 100 herds and progeny tested by 10 AI studs. Bulls were required  to have date of first proof between September 1992 and September 1997, to be born in a herd with at least one other  bull and to have sire and dam with official EBV when bull was selected for progeny testing. Records of sires with only one  son were also discarded. The dependent variable analyzed was the official genetic evaluation for a “quantity and quality  of milk” index (ILQ. The linear model to predict breeding values of bulls included the fixed class effects of herd origin of  bull, AI testing organization, birth year of bull, and estimated breeding values of sire and dam, both as linear covariates.  The R2of the model was 45% and a significant effect was found for genetic merit of sire (P   for herd origin of bull (P   nificant. The range of herd origin effect was 872 kg of ILQ. However, in this study, the causes of this result were not  clear; it may be due to numerous factors, one of which may be preferential treatment on dams of bulls. Analyses of resid-  uals on breeding value of proven bulls for ILQ showed a non significant effect of sire ID, after adjusting for parent aver-  age, herd origin effect and birth year effect. Although the presence of bias in genetic evaluation of dairy bulls is not evi-  dent, further research is recommended firstly to understand the reasons of the significant herd origin effect, secondly to  monitor and guarantee the greatest accuracy and reliability of genetic evaluation procedures. 

  16. Enumeration of fungi in fruits by the most probable number method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Maiko; Tsutsumi, Fumiyuki; Lee, Ken-ichi; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Kumagai, Susumu; Takatori, Kosuke; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko; Konuma, Hirotaka

    2010-01-01

    In this study, enumeration methods for fungi in foods were evaluated using fruits that are often contaminated by fungi in the field and rot because of fungal contaminants. As the test methods, we used the standard most probable number (MPN) method with liquid medium in test tubes, which is traditionally used as the enumeration method for bacteria, and the plate-MPN method with agar plate media, in addition to the surface plating method as the traditional enumeration method for fungi. We tested 27 samples of 9 commercial domestic fruits using their surface skin. The results indicated that the standard MPN method showed slow recovery of fungi in test tubes and lower counts than the surface plating method and the plate-MPN method in almost all samples. The fungal count on the 4th d of incubation was approximately the same as on the 10th d by the surface plating method or the plate-MPN method, indicating no significant differences between the fungal counts by these 2 methods. This result indicated that the plate-MPN method had a number agreement with the traditional enumeration method. Moreover, the plate-MPN method has a little laborious without counting colonies, because fungal counts are estimated based on the number of plates with growing colonies. These advantages demonstrated that the plate-MPN method is a comparatively superior and rapid method for enumeration of fungi.

  17. Effect of some permeating cryoprotectants on CASA motility results in cryopreserved bull spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, M M

    2011-02-01

    Computer-assisted sperm analyzers (CASA) have become the standard tool for evaluating sperm motility because they provide objective results for thousands of mammalian spermatozoa. Mammalian spermatozoa experience osmotic stress when the glycerol is added to the cells prior to freezing and removal from the cells after thawing. In order to minimize osmotic damage, cryoprotectants having lower molecular weights and greater membrane permeability than glycerol, were evaluated to determine their effectiveness for cryopreserving bull spermatozoa. The aim of this study was to compare the cryopreservation effects of low molecular weight cryoprotectants (ethylene glycol and methanol) to glycerol, on post-thaw CASA sperm parameters. Bull semen was diluted with tris-egg yolk extender containing 3% glycerol, 3, 2 and 1% ethylene glycol or 3, 2 and 1% methanol. Bull semen was frozen in 0.5 straws. Bull spermatozoa exhibited higher percentages (p<0.01) for total (Mot, 72.4%) and progressively (Prog, 29.5%) motilities when frozen in extender containing 3% glycerol compared to 3, 2 and 1% ethylene glycol or 3, 2 and 1% methanol. In conclusion, no advantages were found in using ethylene glycol or methanol to replace glycerol in bull semen freezing. Glycerol provided the best sperm characteristics for bull spermatozoa after freezing and thawing. The possibility of using ethylene glycol or methanol as permeating cryoprotectants for bull semen deserves further investigation, and these cryoprotectants should also be evaluated in extenders that contain disaccharides or cholesterol.

  18. Associations between endotoxin-induced metabolic changes and temperament in Brahman bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick Sanchez, N C; Carroll, J A; Randel, R D; Vann, R C; Welsh, T H

    2014-02-01

    The influence of temperament on the alteration of metabolic parameters in response to a lipopolysaccharide(LPS) challenge was investigated. Brahman bulls were selected based on temperament score. Bulls (10 months; 211±5kg BW; n = 6, 8 and 7 for Calm, Intermediate and Temperamental groups, respectively) were fitted with indwelling jugular catheters to evaluate peripheral blood concentrations of glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN),non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), insulin, epinephrine and cortisol before and after LPS administration (0.5 μg/kg BW LPS). Feed intake was also recorded. Intermediate bulls consumed more feed than the Temperamental bulls during the challenge (p = 0.046). Pre-LPS glucose (p = 0.401) and BUN (p = 0.222) did not differ among the temperament groups. However, pre-LPS insulin (p = 0.023) was lower, whereas pre-LPS NEFA (p Brahman bulls following a provocative endotoxin challenge.Specifically, Temperamental bulls may preferentially utilize an alternate energy source (i.e. NEFA) to a greater degree than do bulls of Calm and Intermediate temperaments. The use of circulating NEFA from lipolysis may reduce the negative metabolic consequences of an immune response by allowing for a prompt answer to increasing energy demands required during immunological challenge, compared with the time required for glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. PMID:25225707

  19. Impact of maturity rate of daughters on genetic ranking of Holstein bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, H D; Wright, J R; Powell, R L; Vanraden, P M

    2005-09-01

    If genetic evaluations are calculated with a single-trait repeatability model, evaluation changes may be attributed in part to bulls that have daughters that deviate considerably from the typical response to aging. Differences in maturity rate of bull daughters were examined to determine whether they influence change in bull evaluations. Standardized milk records for Holsteins that first calved between 1960 and 1998 were used to calculate 12 tailored predicted transmitting abilities (PTA) for each bull. Predicted transmitting abilities were tailored from combinations of 4 annual cut-off dates and 3 parities. Date screening selected cows first calving before January of 1996, 1997, 1998, or 1999. Parity screening selected milk records from the first 1, 2, or 3 parities. Therefore, 4 evaluations (PTA1) included only first-parity records available for daughters and contemporaries prior to the respective years designated. Four more evaluations (PTA(1,2)) included the records from the first 2 parities for cows first calving prior to those same year cutoffs; likewise, the last 4 evaluations (PTA(1,2,3)) included records from the first 3 parities. Stability of bull evaluations (standard deviations of differences as well as correlations between bull evaluations) across time was compared. Bulls born after 1984 with > or =500 daughters were of interest because of the high precision of evaluations and recent activity. Tailored PTA of those bulls had more uniformity across years in mean records per daughter than did official USDA PTA. Standard deviation of differences in PTA1, PTA(1,2), and PTA(1,2,3) for milk between evaluation years 1996 and 1997 were 28, 28, and 27 kg compared with 63 kg for official evaluations; similarly, between 1996 and 1999, SD were 36, 32, and 32 kg compared with 80 kg. Results suggested that a modification to the current evaluation model to account for maturity rate should reduce fluctuations in individual bull PTA across time and may improve accuracy

  20. Rainbow Trout Haematology Coinciding with Metabolic Requirement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Nabi LONE

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss are an important aquaculture species yet there are few diagnostic tools available to assess their health. There is little published information regarding age-related changes in blood values of juvenile fish. It is important to evaluate juvenile fish, as this is the time they are raised in aquaculture settings. Determining age-related changes in the blood values of fishes would further develop clinical pathology as a diagnostic tool, enhancing both fish medicine and the aquaculture industry. The results of standard hematology and clinical chemistry analysis were evaluated in juvenile rainbow trout at 4, 6, 9, 15 and 19 months of age. Values for PCV and RBC indices were significantly lower, and plasma protein concentration was significantly higher in younger fish. Total WBC and lymphocyte counts were significantly higher in fish at 6 and 9 months of age, while neutrophil and monocyte counts were higher at 6, 9 and 15 months. Eosinophil counts were significantly higher in 9 month old fish. The majority of hematologic values fell within previously established reference intervals, indicating that only slight modification to the intervals is necessary for evaluating hematologic results of rainbow trout at different ages. The following analytes deviated sufficiently from adult reference intervals to warrant separate reference values: plasma protein concentration at 4 months, WBC and lymphocyte counts at 15 and 19 months, and thrombocyte-like-cells at 9 months of age. Values for most biochemical analytes were significantly different among age groups except for creatinine and potassium concentrations. Comparisons with reference intervals were not made for biochemical analytes, because established reference intervals were not available.

  1. An obscure disease of rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, R.R.; Yasutake, W.T.; Wedemeyer, G.

    1970-01-01

    An annul mortality among Rainbow Trout (Salmo gairdneri) has plagued the Shelton Hatchery of the Washington State Department of Game for the last several years. No infectious agent could be isolated from the moribund fish, but histopathologica1 changes in the liver of 1-month-old fish suggested the presence of a toxic substance. Scoliosis in 3-month-old fish suggested a possible deficiency in vitamin C. With this background in mind, we designed studies to determine the nature and source of possible toxicants and the role of vitamin C deficiency in the etiology of this disease.

  2. Taxonomy Icon Data: rainbow trout [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss Chordata/Vertebrata/Pisciformes Oncorhynchus_mykiss_L.png Oncorhynchus_my...kiss_NL.png Oncorhynchus_mykiss_S.png Oncorhynchus_mykiss_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Oncorhynchus+mykiss&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Oncorhynchus+my...kiss&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Oncorhynchus+my...kiss&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Oncorhynchus+mykiss&t=NS ...

  3. Mitochondrial genome of the bull shark Carcharhinus leucas (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Liu, Min; Peng, Zaiqing; Shi, Xiaofang

    2015-01-01

    The bull shark Carcharhinus leucas is a large elasmobranch species widespread in tropical and warm oceans, rivers and lakes. We first determine the complete mitogenome of C. leucas in this article. It is 16,704 bp in length, consists 37 genes and one control region with the typical gene order in vertebrates. The ND6 gene used the rare AGG as stop codon. The 22 tRNA genes ranged from 67 to 75 bp. The tRNA-Ser2 lacks the dihydrouridine arm and cannot form the typical cloverleaf structure. The control region is 1066 bp in length with high A+T and low G contents. PMID:24409857

  4. Re-evaluating the Contribution and Legacy of Hedley Bull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Maione Souza

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The article aims, in the first instance, to make a detailed analysis of the work of Hedley Bull, approaching the main themes and concepts developed by him. Secondly, it aims to re-evaluate the potential of the author’s contribution, given the new conditions of the post-Cold War period. With this in mind, the article critically analyses the most recent interpretations of this work, which seek to highlight its critical and normative potential, as well as to dissociate it from the realist tradition in international relations. These two facts differentiate the new commentators from older ones and reaffirm the continuing relevance of Hedley Bull’s work, the latter being the article’s chief conclusion.

  5. MEAT QUALITY FROM CHAROLAIS BULLS FED DIETS WITH DIFFERENT LEVELS OF CORN SILAGE INCLUSION

    OpenAIRE

    Giulio Cozzi; Alessandro Mazzenga

    2007-01-01

    A sample of 6 intensive beef farms was selected according to the feeding plan adopted during the fattening period of Charolais bulls. Two farms did not include any corn silage in the diet (CS0), while corn silage represented 22% of the dietary DM in the second group of 2 farms (CS22), and it raised up to 44% of the dietary DM in the last 2 farms (CS44). Five bulls were randomly selected from each farm to be slaughtered in the same abattoir. Bulls age was similar across treatments but the CS44...

  6. Duration Dependence in Stock Prices: An Analysis of Bull and Bear Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde, Asger; Timmermann, Allan

    2004-01-01

    This article studies time series dependence in the direction of stock prices by modeling the (instantaneous) probability that a bull or bear market terminates as a function of its age and a set of underlying state variables, such as interest rates. A random walk model is rejected both for bull...... and bear markets. Although it . ts the data better, a generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity model is also found to be inconsistent with the very long bull markets observed in the data. The strongest effect of increasing interest rates is found to be a lower bear market hazard rate...

  7. Chronological age and breed-type effects on carcass characteristics and palatability of bull beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, R R; Smith, G C; Cross, H R; Savell, J W; Long, C R; Cartwright, T C

    1986-01-01

    Bulls (n = 115) of four slaughter ages (9, 12, 15 or 18 months) and of 15 genotypes were studied. In this analysis, each bullock was assigned to one of four breed groups-British and British crosses, Brahman and Brahman crosses. Jersey and Jersey crosses or Holstein and Holstein crosses. Slaughter age had an (P Brahman-type bulls had higher shear force values (P Brahman-type carcasses were assigned the lowest numerical ratings for juiciness. Breed-type had a greater effect on tenderness of bull beef than did chronological age.

  8. Diel movement of brown trout in a southern Appalachian River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnell, D.B., Jr.; Isely, J.J.; Burrell, K.H.; Van Lear, D. H.

    1998-01-01

    Radio telemetry was used to monitor the diel movement of 22 brown trout Salmo trutta (268-446 mm in total length, TL) in the Chattooga River watershed. Forty-seven diel tracks, locating individuals once per hour for 24 consecutive hours, were collected for four consecutive seasons. High variability in movement both within and among individual brown trout resulted in similar seasonal means in total distance moved, diel range, and displacement. The majority of fish moved a total distance of less than 80 m within a diel range of less than 80 m and had a displacement of less than 10 m. Brown trout were more likely to occur in pool habitat independent of season or period of the day. Hourly movement patterns differed among seasons. During the winter and fall, trout moved only around sunrise; during the spring, they moved around sunrise, sunset, and intermittently throughout the night. Large brown trout (>375 mm, TL) were found to move greater total distances and establish wider diel ranges than small brown trout. Overall, most brown trout exhibited restricted diel movement within a single riffle-pool or run-pool sequence.

  9. Reevaluation of lake trout and lake whitefish bioenergetics models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Pothoven, Steve A.; Kao, Yu-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Using a corrected algorithm for balancing the energy budget, we reevaluated the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the laboratory and for lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in the laboratory and in the field. For lake trout, results showed that the bioenergetics model slightly overestimated food consumption by the lake trout when they were fed low and intermediate rations, whereas the model predicted food consumption by lake trout fed ad libitum without any detectable bias. The slight bias in model predictions for lake trout on restricted rations may have been an artifact of the feeding schedule for these fish, and we would therefore recommend application of the Wisconsin lake trout bioenergetics model to lake trout populations in the field without any revisions to the model. Use of the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for coregonids resulted in overestimation of food consumption by lake whitefish both in the laboratory and in the field by between 20 and 30%, on average. This overestimation of food consumption was most likely due to overestimation of respiration rate. We therefore adjusted the respiration component of the bioenergetics model to obtain a good fit to the observed consumption in our laboratory tanks. The adjusted model predicted the consumption in the laboratory and the field without any detectable bias. Until a detailed lake whitefish respiration study can be conducted, we recommend application of our adjusted version of the Wisconsin generalized coregonid bioenergetics model to lake whitefish populations in the field.

  10. The isolation, enumeration, and characterization of Rhizobium bacteria of the soil in Wamena Biological Garden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRI PURWANINGSIH

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The eleven soil samples have been isolated and characterized. The aims of the study were to get the pure culture and some data which described about enumeration and especially their characters in relation to the acids and bases reaction in their growth. The isolation of the bacteria use Yeast Extract Mannitol Agar medium (YEMA while the characterization by using YEMA medium mixed with Brom Thymol Blue and Congo Red indicators respectively. The results showed that eighteen isolates have been isolated which consisted of three low growing and fifteen fast growing bacteria. Two isolates were not indicated Rhizobium and sixteen were Rhizobium. Density of Rhizobium enumeration was varied which related to soil organic matter content. The enumeration bacteria in YEMA medium were in the range of 0.6 x 105 and 11.6 x 105 CFU /g soil. The highest population was found in soil sample of Wieb vegetation.

  11. MacWilliams type identities for some new $m$-spotty weight enumerators

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Amit K

    2011-01-01

    Past few years have seen an extensive use of high-density RAM chips with wide I/O data (e.g., 16, 32, 64 bits) in computer memory systems. These chips are highly vulnerable to a special type of byte error, called an $m$-spotty byte error, which can be effectively detected or corrected using byte error-control codes. In this paper, we present joint $m$-spotty weight enumerator and split $m$-spotty weight enumerator for byte error-control codes over the ring of integers modulo $\\ell$ ($\\ell \\geq 2$ is an integer) and over arbitrary finite fields. We also derive MacWilliams type identities for each of the aforementioned enumerators and discuss some of their applications.

  12. Automatic Generation of Theorems and Proofs on Enumerating Consecutive-Wilf classes

    CERN Document Server

    Baxter, Andrew; Zeilberger, Doron

    2011-01-01

    This article, dedicated to Herbert Saul Wilf on the occaison of his forthcoming 80-th birthday, describes two complementary approaches to enumeration, the "positive" and the "negative", each with its advantages and disadvantages. Both approaches are amenable to automation, and when applied to the currently active subarea, initiated in 2003 by Sergi Elizalde and Marc Noy, of enumerating consecutive-Wilf classes (i.e. consecutive pattern-avoidance) in permutations, were successfully pursued by DZ's two current PhD students, Andrew Baxter and Brian Nakamura. The Maple packages SERGI and ELIZALDE, implementing the algorithms enable the computer to "do research" by deriving, "all by itself", functional equations for the generating functions that enable polynomial-time enumeration for any set of patterns. In the case of ELIZALDE (the "negative" approach), these functional equations can be sometimes (automatically!) simplified, and imply "explicit" formulas, that previously were derived by humans using ad-hoc method...

  13. Spurious automated platelet count. Enumeration of yeast forms as platelets by the cell-DYN 4000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Shahnila; Veillon, Diana M; Brown, Donald; Kaltenbach, Jenny; Curry, Sherry; Linscott, Andrea J; Oberle, Arnold; Cotelingam, James D

    2003-12-01

    We recently encountered a patient with thrombocytopenia secondary to multiple drug therapy, disseminated prostatic adenocarcinoma, and sepsis who had a sudden decrease in his platelet count as enumerated by the Cell-DYN 4000 hematology analyzer (Abbott Diagnostics, Santa Clara, CA). A manual platelet count performed thereafter was even lower. The etiology of the spurious platelet count was clarified when numerous yeast forms were observed on routine microscopy of the peripheral blood smear. Subsequently, these organisms were identified as Candida glabrata from a positive blood culture (BACTEC 9240, Becton Dickinson, Cockeysville, MD). To our knowledge, this is the first report of spurious enumeration of yeast forms as platelets in an automated hematology system. The principle underlying platelet enumeration by the Cell-DYN 4000 system and other hematology analyzers and the value of microscopy on peripheral smears with unexpected CBC count results are discussed. PMID:14671977

  14. Cupuassu cake in feeding feedlot Nellore young bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Azevedo Mota

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the intake, digestibility and feeding behavior of Nellore young bulls, fed with diets containing different levels of cupuassu cake. Five animals with an average body weight (BW of 186.8 ± 19.5 kg and approximately 13 months of age were used. The animals were divided into five treatments with different levels of cupuassu cake (CC: 0.0%; 5.0%; 10%; 15% and 20%, in substitution of corn and soybean meal and were subjected to the experiment 5 × 5 latin square, composed of five animals and five periods. Each of the five experimental periods lasted 15 days: 10 days for diet adaptation and five days for the assessment of nutrient digestibility. The feeding behavior (visual observation was measured at the end of each experimental period (15th day for 24 h. The dry matter (DMI, ether extract (EEI and crude protein intake (CPI, all expressed in kg/day and %BW, presented a quadratic effect (P<0.10 related to the inclusion of different levels of cupuassu cake, where it was observed that the major consumption of these fractions occurred in the treatment with 5% CC. For digestibility of dry matter (DMD; crude protein (DPB; ether extract (EED; neutral detergent fiber (NDFD; acid detergent fiber (ADFD; This study aimed to evaluate the intake, digestibility and feeding behavior of Nellore young bulls, fed with diets containing different levels of cupuassu cake. Five animals with an average body weight (BW of 186.8 ± 19.5 kg and approximately 13 months of age were used. The animals were divided into five treatments with different levels of cupuassu cake (CC: 0.0%; 5.0%; 10%; 15% and 20%, in substitution of corn and soybean meal and were subjected to the experiment 5 × 5 latin square, composed of five animals and five periods. Each of the five experimental periods lasted 15 days

  15. Seminal plasma proteome of electroejaculated Bos indicus bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rego, J P A; Crisp, J M; Moura, A A; Nouwens, A S; Li, Y; Venus, B; Corbet, N J; Corbet, D H; Burns, B M; Boe-Hansen, G B; McGowan, M R

    2014-07-01

    The present study describes the seminal plasma proteome of Bos indicus bulls. Fifty-six, 24-month old Australian Brahman sires were evaluated and subjected to electroejaculation. Seminal plasma proteins were separated by 2-D SDS-PAGE and identified by mass spectrometry. The percentage of progressively motile and morphologically normal sperm of the bulls were 70.4 ± 2.3 and 64 ± 3.2%, respectively. A total of 108 spots were identified in the 2-D maps, corresponding to 46 proteins. Binder of sperm proteins accounted for 55.8% of all spots detected in the maps and spermadhesins comprised the second most abundant constituents. Other proteins of the Bos indicus seminal plasma include clusterin, albumin, transferrin, metalloproteinase inhibitor 2, osteopontin, epididymal secretory protein E1, apolipoprotein A-1, heat shock 70 kDa protein, glutathione peroxidase 3, cathelicidins, alpha-enolase, tripeptidyl-peptidase 1, zinc-alpha-2-glycoprotein, plasma serine protease inhibitor, beta 2-microglobulin, proteasome subunit beta type-4, actin, cathepsins, nucleobinding-1, protein S100-A9, hemoglobin subunit alpha, cadherin-1, angiogenin-1, fibrinogen alpha and beta chain, ephirin-A1, protein DJ-1, serpin A3-7, alpha-2-macroglobulin, annexin A1, complement factor B, polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, seminal ribonuclease, ribonuclease-4, prostaglandin-H2 d-isomerase, platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase, and phosphoglycerate kinase 1. In conclusion, this work uniquely portrays the Bos indicus seminal fluid proteome, based on samples from a large set of animals representing the Brahman cattle of the tropical Northern Australia. Based on putative biochemical attributes, seminal proteins act during sperm maturation, protection, capacitation and fertilization. PMID:24889044

  16. Performance of continuous biodigestors supplied by young bull waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Monica Sarolli S. de M. [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil)], E-mail: monicas@unioeste.br; Lucas Junior, Jorge de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias; Pivetta, Laercio Augusto [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Marechal C. Rondon, PR (Brazil); Costa, Luiz A. de Mendonca

    2008-07-01

    The various systems of livestock farming in the industrial model promote physical and chemical changes on waste. In the fattening of cattle in the model of confinement for young bulls has been a reversal in the proportion between roughage and concentrate, or the animals receive a higher amount of protein compared to the traditional system of confinement. This change of the waste characteristics involves modification in the system of treatment used. In this work, it was aimed to evaluate the performance of batch biodigestors operated in continuous system, supplied by young bulls waste which received two differentiated diets by the proportion between roughage and concentrate, whether or not containing inoculum in the substrate composition and subjected to three levels of temperature (25, 35 and 40 deg C). The parameters evaluated were: reduction of total solids (TS) and volatile (VS), and the potential for biogas production. The results showed a reduction of TS higher in the treatment which was not used inoculum for diet 1 and 2 with the exception of the treatment which the substrate was referred to temperature of 40 deg C on diet 2. For the reduction of VS there was no interference from the use of inoculum on diet 1. On diet 2, the largest reductions were observed without the use of inoculum, with the exception of the 40 deg C temperature. For the potential for biogas production the treatment where they used waste derived from animals fed with diet 2, with the use of inoculum, in the temperature of 40 deg C showed the greatest value, or 0.53 m{sup 3} of biogas per kg TS added. (author)

  17. Identification of differentially expressed genes of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in response to Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa)

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Gokhlesh; Abd-Elfattah, Ahmed; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2015-01-01

    Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae Canning et al., 1999 (Myxozoa) is the causative agent of proliferative kidney disease in various species of salmonids in Europe and North America. We have shown previously that the development and distribution of the European strain of T. bryosalmonae differs in the kidney of brown trout (Salmo trutta) Linnaeus, 1758 and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Walbaum, 1792, and that intra-luminal sporogonic stages were found in brown trout but not in rainbow trout. ...

  18. Seasonal movement of brown trout in a southern appalachian river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, K.H.; Isely, J.J.; Bunnell, D.B., Jr.; Van Lear, D. H.; Dolloff, C.A.

    2000-01-01

    Radio telemetry was used to evaluate the seasonal movement, activity level, and home range size of adult brown trout Salmo trutta in the Chattooga River watershed, one of the southernmost coldwater stream systems in the United States. In all, 27 adult brown trout (262-452 mm total length) were successfully monitored from 16 November 1995 to 15 December 1996. During the day, adult brown trout were consistently found in small, well-established home ranges of less than 270 m in stream length. However, 8 of a possible 18 study fish made spawning migrations during a 2-week period in November 1996. The daytime locations of individual fish were restricted to a single pool or riffle-pool combination, and fish were routinely found in the same location over multiple sampling periods. Maximum upstream movement during spawning was 7.65 km, indicating that brown trout in the Chattooga River have the ability to move long distances. Spawning brown trout returned to their prespawning locations within a few days after spawning. Brown trout maintained larger home ranges in winter than in other seasons. When spawning-related movement was deleted from the analysis, brown trout moved more on a weekly basis in fall than in summer. Brown trout were more active in fall and winter than in spring and summer. Apart from spawning migrations, displacement from established home ranges was not observed for any fish in the study. Although summer water temperatures reached and exceeded reported upper thermal-preference levels, brown trout did not move to thermal refuge areas in nearby tributaries during the stressful summer periods.

  19. Introduced brown trout alter native acanthocephalan infections in native fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Rachel A; Townsend, Colin R; Poulin, Robert; Tompkins, Daniel M

    2011-09-01

    1. Native parasite acquisition provides introduced species with the potential to modify native host-parasite dynamics by acting as parasite reservoirs (with the 'spillback' of infection increasing the parasite burdens of native hosts) or sinks (with the 'dilution' of infection decreasing the parasite burdens of native hosts) of infection. 2. In New Zealand, negative correlations between the presence of introduced brown trout (Salmo trutta) and native parasite burdens of the native roundhead galaxias (Galaxias anomalus) have been observed, suggesting that parasite dilution is occurring. 3. We used a multiple-scale approach combining field observations, experimental infections and dynamic population modelling to investigate whether native Acanthocephalus galaxii acquisition by brown trout alters host-parasite dynamics in native roundhead galaxias. 4. Field observations demonstrated higher infection intensity in introduced trout than in native galaxias, but only small, immature A. galaxii were present in trout. Experimental infections also demonstrated that A. galaxii does not mature in trout, although parasite establishment and initial growth were similar in the two hosts. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that trout may serve as an infection sink for the native parasite. 5. However, dynamic population modelling predicts that A. galaxii infections in native galaxias should at most only be slightly reduced by dilution in the presence of trout. Rather, model exploration indicates parasite densities in galaxias are highly sensitive to galaxias predation on infected amphipods, and to relative abundances of galaxias and trout. Hence, trout presence may instead reduce parasite burdens in galaxias by either reducing galaxias density or by altering galaxias foraging behaviour. PMID:21426342

  20. A parallel method for enumerating amino acid compositions and masses of all theoretical peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nefedov Alexey V

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enumeration of all theoretically possible amino acid compositions is an important problem in several proteomics workflows, including peptide mass fingerprinting, mass defect labeling, mass defect filtering, and de novo peptide sequencing. Because of the high computational complexity of this task, reported methods for peptide enumeration were restricted to cover limited mass ranges (below 2 kDa. In addition, implementation details of these methods as well as their computational performance have not been provided. The increasing availability of parallel (multi-core computers in all fields of research makes the development of parallel methods for peptide enumeration a timely topic. Results We describe a parallel method for enumerating all amino acid compositions up to a given length. We present recursive procedures which are at the core of the method, and show that a single task of enumeration of all peptide compositions can be divided into smaller subtasks that can be executed in parallel. The computational complexity of the subtasks is compared with the computational complexity of the whole task. Pseudocodes of processes (a master and workers that are used to execute the enumerating procedure in parallel are given. We present computational times for our method executed on a computer cluster with 12 Intel Xeon X5650 CPUs (72 cores running Windows HPC Server. Our method has been implemented as a 32- and 64-bit Windows application using Microsoft Visual C++ and the Message Passing Interface. It is available for download at https://ispace.utmb.edu/users/rgsadygo/Proteomics/ParallelMethod. Conclusion We describe implementation of a parallel method for generating mass distributions of all theoretically possible amino acid compositions.

  1. Enumeration of Combinatorial Classes of Single Variable Complex Polynomial Vector Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Kealey

    A vector field in the space of degree d monic, centered single variable complex polynomial vector fields has a combinatorial structure which can be fully described by a combinatorial data set consisting of an equivalence relation and a marked subset on the integers mod 2d-2, satisfying certain...... in a valid way. We first enumerate all combinatorial classes with respect to degree d, and then we enumerate the combinatorial classes having a specific dimension q in parameter space. In both cases, a recursion equation and implicit expressions for the algebraic generating functions are calculated...

  2. Algorithms for enumerating and counting D2CS of some graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, P Venkata Subba

    2010-01-01

    A D2CS of a graph G is a set $S \\subseteq V(G)$ with $diam(G[S]) \\leq 2$. We study the problem of counting and enumerating D2CS of a graph. First we give an explicit formula for the number of D2CS in a complete k-ary tree, Fibonacci tree, binary Fibonacci tree and the binomial tree. Next we give an algorithm for enumerating and counting D2CS of a graph. We then give a linear time algorithm for finding all maximal D2CS in a strongly chordal graph.

  3. Development of radiation sterilized dip slides for enumerating lactic acid bacteria and total count in foodstuffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, E.; Padova, R.; Kirsch, E.; Weissman, Sh.; Hirshfeld, T.; Shenfeld, A.

    APT agar (APT) used for enumeration of lactic acid bacteria and Plate Count agar (PCA) applied for total count were sterilized by gamma radiation using radiation dose of 10-15 kGy. Radiosterilized PCA and APT modified by adding catalase prior to irradiation, or APT with increased content of yeast extract performed, as well as, the heat sterilized commercial media. Growth performance was evaluated on several strains of microorganisms, as well as, by enumeration of bacteria in food products. Radiosterilization of culture media in final packaging, can be applied to produce dip slide kits containing PCA or APT.

  4. Vertebral column deformities in farmed rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lone; Dalsgaard, Inger

    1999-01-01

    Farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were fed diets with either different levels of vitamin C, or diets enriched with glucan or chitin, from feeding start and 6 months onwards. At an average weight of 100 g, the trout were X-rayed to determine the deformity level. The investigations showed...... deformities (4.8%). In all groups examined, the deformities were spread over the whole vertebral column. The deformities in the group fed the low vitamin C diet were more severe than those found in the other groups. An outbreak of the disease rainbow trout fry syndrome (RTFS) caused by the bacterium...

  5. Acoustic estimates of abundance and distribution of spawning lake trout on Sheboygan Reef in Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, D.M.; Claramunt, R.M.; Janssen, J.; Jude, D.J.; Wattrus, N.

    2009-01-01

    Efforts to restore self-sustaining lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) populations in the Laurentian Great Lakes have had widespread success in Lake Superior; but in other Great Lakes, populations of lake trout are maintained by stocking. Recruitment bottlenecks may be present at a number of stages of the reproduction process. To study eggs and fry, it is necessary to identify spawning locations, which is difficult in deep water. Acoustic sampling can be used to rapidly locate aggregations of fish (like spawning lake trout), describe their distribution, and estimate their abundance. To assess these capabilities for application to lake trout, we conducted an acoustic survey covering 22 km2 at Sheboygan Reef, a deep reef (trout, that lake trout were 1–2 m above bottom, and that spawning took place over specific habitat. Lake trout density exhibited a high degree of spatial structure (autocorrelation) up to a range of ~190 m, and highest lake trout and egg densities occurred over rough substrates (rubble and cobble) at the shallowest depths sampled (36–42 m). Mean lake trout density in the area surveyed (~2190 ha) was 5.8 fish/ha and the area surveyed contained an estimated 9500–16,000 large lake trout. Spatial aggregation in lake trout densities, similarity of depths and substrates at which high lake trout and egg densities occurred, and relatively low uncertainty in the lake trout density estimate indicate that acoustic sampling can be a useful complement to other sampling tools used in lake trout restoration research.

  6. Spawning Behaviour and the Softmouth Trout Dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteve Manu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Morphological, ecological and molecular data sets do not completely agree on the phylogenetic placement of the softmouth trout, Salmo (Salmothymus obtusirostris (Heckel. Molecules posit that softmouths are closely related to brown trout, Salmo trutta L. while some morphological, ecological and life history traits place them in the most basal position of the Salmoninae subfamily between grayling (Thymallus and lenok (Brachymystax. Here we add an additional source of data, behavioural characters based on the first reported observations of softmouth spawning. During spawning softmouth females present three important behaviours not found in the other Salmo members: they continually abandon their nests, rarely staying on them for periods over nine minutes; they expel different batches of eggs at the same nest at intervals of several minutes; and they do not cover their eggs immediately after spawning. These three behaviours are intriguing for two reasons: 1 they are possible homologous to behaviours found in grayling females; 2 when coupled to the nest digging behaviour-widespread in all the salmonines, including softmouths, they seem to be mal-adaptive.

  7. Quality Traits of Meat from Young Limousin, Charolais and Hereford Bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Pogorzelska*, Jan Miciński, Halina Ostoja1, Ireneusz M. Kowalski2, Józef Szarek3 and Emilia Strzyżewska3

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of beef cattle breed and muscle type on the proximate chemical composition and quality traits of meat, including processing suitability. The experimental materials comprised samples of musculus longissimus dorsi (LD muscle and musculus semitendinosus (ST muscle collected from the carcasses of young Limousin, Charolais and Hereford bulls. The chemical composition, texture, hydration and color parameters of LD and ST muscles were determined. Meat from Limousin and Charolais bulls, characterized by higher body mass at slaughter contained more protein than meat from Hereford bulls. Meat from Hereford bulls had a higher fat content, compared with the other two breeds. Texture parameters, including hardness, gumminess and chewiness, varied depending on muscle type and cattle breed. An analysis of the maximum shear force values showed that the mechanical properties of beef also varied depending on cattle breed and muscle type.

  8. Physical examination of the reproductive organs of range beef bulls in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, A; Mackinnon, D; Mandlhate, F

    1986-03-01

    Physical examinations were performed on 3991 bulls reared in subtropical (75%) and tropical (25%) Mozambique. A culling rate of 16.3% (651 sires) was found. The range of culling rate between farms varied from 3 to 44%. The main culling reasons were a) epididymitis, b) atrophy and/or hypoplasia, and c) testicular fibrosis (contributing to 30.4, 20.9, and 15.2%, respectively, of the culled bulls). Epididymitis-vaginitis (epivag) syndrome was considered the main reason for the high incidence of epididymitis and testicular fibrosis. A highly significant difference (PSimmental (37.7%) and Brahman (13.1%) bulls was found. A more comprehensive investigation of culling rate of different breeds used in the country is needed, as well as a program for controlling epivag in the more affected areas. Examining the reproductive organs of the beef bulls in Mozambique before the breeding season is very important to improve fertility in the beef herds. PMID:16726130

  9. Longitudinal strain bull's eye plot patterns in patients with cardiomyopathy and concentric left ventricular hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Hu, Kai; Nordbeck, Peter; Ertl, Georg; Störk, Stefan; Weidemann, Frank

    2016-05-10

    Despite substantial advances in the imaging techniques and pathophysiological understanding over the last decades, identification of the underlying causes of left ventricular hypertrophy by means of echocardiographic examination remains a challenge in current clinical practice. The longitudinal strain bull's eye plot derived from 2D speckle tracking imaging offers an intuitive visual overview of the global and regional left ventricular myocardial function in a single diagram. The bull's eye mapping is clinically feasible and the plot patterns could provide clues to the etiology of cardiomyopathies. The present review summarizes the longitudinal strain, bull's eye plot features in patients with various cardiomyopathies and concentric left ventricular hypertrophy and the bull's eye plot features might serve as one of the cardiac workup steps on evaluating patients with left ventricular hypertrophy.

  10. Victims and offenders in a situation of bulling: who are they?

    OpenAIRE

    Ekimova V.I.; Zalaldinova A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Bulling is one of the most common form of violence in the school environment, adversely affecting the physical and mental health of all its members. The article provides a brief review of foreign studies of this phenomenon, the actual statistics of its prevalence and forms of manifestation. Research focuses on the General characteristics of the bulling participants – aggressors and victims of aggression. The article points to the descriptive character of the studies and contradictory results....

  11. Komunikační strategie značky Red Bull

    OpenAIRE

    Úblová, Tamara

    2012-01-01

    The thesis analyses current marketing strategy of Red Bull. The thesis examines the connection between specific marketing activities of Red Bull and their impact on energy drink's consumers. In the theoretical part of the thesis terms such as marketing communication concepts and their developing trends are coined and examined. The biggest part is focused on event marketing -- both from theoretical and practical point of view. The second part examines the competitive environment of the energy ...

  12. Who does Red Bull give wings to? Sensation seeking moderates sensitivity to subliminal advertisement

    OpenAIRE

    Bustin, Gaëlle M.; Jones, Daniel N.; Hansenne, Michel; Quoidbach, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed whether subliminal priming of a brand name of a drink can affect people’s choices for the primed brand, and whether this effect is moderated by personality traits. Participants with different levels of sensation seeking were presented subliminally with the words Red Bull or Lde Ublr. Results revealed that being exposed to Red Bull lead on average to small increases in participants’ preferences for the primed brand. However, this effect was twice as strong for participants ...

  13. EFFECT OF TWO DIFFERENT ANTIBIOTIC COMBINATIONS ON FERTILITY OF FROZEN BUFFALO AND SAHIW AL BULL SEMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M.H. Andrabi, N. Ahmad, A. Abbas and M. Anzar

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to identify the suitable antibiotic combinations in semen extender for improvement in fertility of frozen semen of buffalo and cow (Sahiwal bulls to obtain better pregnancy rate through artificial insemination (AI. For this study eight first ejaculates, four each from a buffalo and a cow (Sahiwal bull were used. The ejaculates were split-sampled and diluted with Tris-citric acid extender (at 37°C; 50x 106 spermatozoa/mI, containing either SP (streptomycin 1000 ~g/ml and penicillin 1000 IU/ml or GTLS (gentamycin 500 µg/ml, Tylosin 100 µg/ml and linco-spectin 300/600 µg/ml. There was no difference in post-thaw motility for these samples. Fertility test based on 75-days first service pregnancy rate was determined under field conditions. A total of 400 inseminations were recorded, 200 for each buffalo and cow (Sahiwal with J 00 of each antibiotic combination, respectively. Fertility rates for SP-based frozen semen of buffalo bull were 41.66% and were 55.2% for GTLS-containing frozen semen, respectively. The results for GTLS were higher (P<0.0001 than SP. Similarly, fertility rates were higher (P<0.0001 for GTLS-based frozen semen of Sahiwal bull (78.78% than SP-containing frozen semen (69.6% of the same specie. Fertility rates also differed due to species of donor bulls. They were better (P<0.0001 for the frozen Sahiwal bull semen than that of the buffalo bull in both SP and GTLS- based frozen semen samples, respectively. In conclusion. seminal quality measured by field fertility trial indicated GTLS combination of antibiotics added to the semen extender was better for improvement in the fertility of frozen buffalo and Sahiwal bull semen, by yielding better pregnancy rates through AI.

  14. Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular effects in response to red bull consumption combined with mental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasser, Erik Konrad; Dulloo, Abdul G; Montani, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-15

    The sale of energy drinks is often accompanied by a comprehensive and intense marketing with claims of benefits during periods of mental stress. As it has been shown that Red Bull negatively impacts human hemodynamics at rest, we investigated the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular consequences when Red Bull is combined with mental stress. In a randomized cross-over study, 20 young healthy humans ingested either 355 ml of a can Red Bull or water and underwent 80 minutes after the respective drink a mental arithmetic test for 5 minutes. Continuous cardiovascular and cerebrovascular recordings were performed for 20 minutes before and up to 90 minutes after drink ingestion. Measurements included beat-to-beat blood pressure (BP), heart rate, stroke volume, and cerebral blood flow velocity. Red Bull increased systolic BP (+7 mm Hg), diastolic BP (+4 mm Hg), and heart rate (+7 beats/min), whereas water drinking had no significant effects. Cerebral blood flow velocity decreased more in response to Red Bull than to water (-9 vs -3 cm/s, p <0.005). Additional mental stress further increased both systolic BP and diastolic BP (+3 mm Hg, p <0.05) and heart rate (+13 beats/min, p <0.005) in response to Red Bull; similar increases were also observed after water ingestion. In combination, Red Bull and mental stress increased systolic BP by about 10 mm Hg, diastolic BP by 7 mm Hg, and heart rate by 20 beats/min and decreased cerebral blood flow velocity by -7 cm/s. In conclusion, the combination of Red Bull and mental stress impose a cumulative cardiovascular load and reduces cerebral blood flow even under a mental challenge.

  15. Water bulls of Balkan and other world’s traditions: Origins of conception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trubarac-Matić Đorđina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The efforts to determine the origin of beliefs in the aquatic daimon called water bull (which are ethnographically attested in Serbia, Macedonia and Bulgaria, and for which there have not been found parallels in other Slavic traditions, led the scholarship to see it as a recidive from the Greco-Roman period. The two major hypotheses tried to link the stories about killing of the water bull with: 1 the Athenian bouphonia; 2 the mithraic scene of tauroctony. The paper discusses these hypotheses and their weaknesses, and proposes a new approach: shifting attention towards other worlds’ traditions in which the water bulls are attested - those of Yakuts, Mongols, Celts, Mapuche, Khoekhoe and San - with the aim to establish the level, and determine the type of the possible similarities between them. The results of the comparative analysis show a very high degree of overlapping of ideas - those that probably were parts of a pristine concept of a water bull. They concern: the appearance, habitat, characteristics, behavior, as well as a number of phenomena associated with water bulls (predictions, thunder, lightning, storm, medicine. This leads the author to conclude that the conception of the water bull is very archaic and probably originating from a same, although uncertain source, which cannot be explained by intercultural contacts. The beliefs and the religious and magical practice of the Khoisan show that water bulls operate functionally - with the fullness of their religious potential - in animistic type of religious traditions (where the origin of the concept should be looked for. This indicates that these animistic ideas might lie at the root of the bull-like features of the storm gods from the posterior polytheistic religions. Further investigation in this direction is proposed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47016: Interdisciplinarno istraživanje kulturnog i jezičkog nasleđa Srbije. Izrada multimedijalnog portala

  16. Effects of selection for scrotal circumference in Limousin bulls on reproductive and growth traits of progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, D W; Bertrand, J K; Benyshek, L L; McCann, M A; Kiser, T E

    1996-09-01

    Nine pairs of Limousin bulls from nine contemporary groups were acquired, with each pair consisting of one large scrotal circumference (SC) bull and one small SC bull. Average adjusted yearling scrotal circumferences were 36.3 cm (SD 1.6 cm) and 28.5 cm (SD .9 cm) for large SC (LP) and small SC (SP) bulls, respectively. In addition to the phenotypic grouping, non-parent SC EPD were used to group bulls into high (HE, > .53 cm), average (AE), and low (LE, Brangus x Hereford cows each yr for 1 to 3 yr. Birth weights, weaning and yearling weights and heights, and ultrasound measurements for backfat and ribeye measurements were taken on 407 progeny. Blood samples were collected on 210 heifer progeny when they averaged 11, 13, and 15 mo of age to determine whether they had reached puberty. When subjected to a breeding soundness exam (BSE), LP bulls scored higher (P < .01) for motility as well as total BSE score. The LP calves had heavier birth weights (P < .05) and greater testicular mass at weaning (P < .01) than SP calves. The HE and AE bull calves had greater (P < .02) testicular mass than did the LE bull calves. A greater (P < .05) percentage of HE heifers had reached puberty by the 11- and 13-mo measurements than either the AE or LE heifers. The HE heifers reached puberty at a younger age than AE (P < .01) or LE (P < .001) heifers. Selection using SC EPD was more effective than phenotypic selection in reducing age at puberty in daughters. PMID:8880405

  17. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ULTRASONIC ESTIMATES OF CARCASS TRAITS AND BODY MEASUREMENTS OF JAPANESE BLACK BULL

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Rachma, Aprilita Bugiwati

    2008-01-01

    This experiment was done at 292 head of Japanese black bull at Kagoshima and Miyazaki Prefectural Experimental Stations Japan to find out the relationship between ultrasonic estimates of carcass traits and body measurements as one of criteria to select Japanese black bull. The carcass traits of 20 months of age were predicted using the ultrasonic machine. The body dimensions were measured at the end of performance test (12 months of age) and 16 months of age. The ultrasonic evaluati...

  18. Environmental contaminants in brook trout from Aroostook National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In June 2012, four brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) were collected by angling from Chapman Pond and East Loring Lake at Aroostook NWR in northeast Maine. Two...

  19. Brook Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for BROOK TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  20. Yellowstone Cutthroat Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for YELLOWSTONE CUTTHROAT TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based...

  1. Rainbow Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for RAINBOW TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear...

  2. Redband Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for REDBAND TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear...

  3. Lahontan Cutthroat Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for LAHONTAN CUTTHROAT TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on...

  4. Species status assessment report for the Rio Grande cutthroat trout

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Rio Grande cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii virginalis) lives in high elevation, coldwater streams in New Mexico and southern Colorado. It is a subspecies...

  5. Brown Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for BROWN TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  6. Westslope Cutthroat Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for WESTSLOPE CUTTHROAT TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based...

  7. ERM booster vaccination of Rainbow trout using diluted bacterin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jacob Günther; Henriksen, Niels H.; Buchmann, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Enteric Red Mouth Disease ERM caused by Yersinia ruckeri infection is associated with morbidity and mortality in salmonid farming but immersion vaccination of fry may confer some protection for a number of months. Revaccination of rainbow trout, even by use of diluted ERM immersion vaccine, can...... under laboratory conditions extend the protection period. The present field study investigated the applicability of the method under practical farming conditions (freshwater earth ponds supplied by stream water). Primary immersion vaccination of trout (3–4 g) for 30 s in Y. ruckeri bacterin (diluted 1......:10) in April 2015 was followed 3 months later (July 2015) by 1 h bathing of rainbow trout in bacterin (diluted 1:650 or 1:1700) in order to evaluate if this time saving vaccination methodology can improve immunity and protection. Trout were subjected in farms to natural Y. ruckeri exposure in June and July...

  8. Great Smoky Mountains National Park Brook Trout Genetics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM) is committed to monitoring ecological and evolutionary functions and processes of park ecosystems. Brook trout...

  9. Are the Scaling Properties of Bull and Bear Markets Identical? Evidence from Oil and Gold Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samet Günay

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the scaling properties of the oil and gold return volatilities have been analyzed in the context of bull and bear periods. In the determination of bull and bear turning points, we used the Modified Bry-Boschan Quarterly (MBBQ algorithm. Results showed that the business cycle phase shapes of the bear periods in the oil market are almost linear, whereas the bull and bear periods of the gold and bull period of the oil market are convex. This means that there are sharper declines in the bear period of the oil market. Following the detection of bull and bear periods, scaling exponent H analysis was performed via the aggregated variance, Higuchi’s statistic, Peng’s statistic, rescaled range, boxed periodogram and wavelet fit models, which are from the time, frequency and wavelet domains. As there are conflicts about the credibility of these methods in the literature, we have used the shuffling procedure in order to determine the most robust methods. According to the results, bear periods have higher volatility persistency than bull periods.

  10. Growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of finishing bulls fed crude glycerin-supplemented diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Chaves Françozo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the performance, carcass characteristics and chemical composition of Longissimusmuscle (LM of the bulls. Twenty-four Nellore bulls were used in a complete randomised design. The bulls were randomly assigned to one of the three diets containing 0, 5 or 12% glycerin. Final BW and ADG were similar (P>0.05 between the bulls fed with 5 or 12% of glycerin but were higher (P0.05 by glycerin level. Hot carcass weight increased (P0.05 the conformation, colour, texture, marbling and pH. There was difference (P>0.05 for moisture, ashes and crude protein among glycerin levels. Bulls fed 12% glycerin present the highest (P<0.03 total lipids on LM. The percentage of saturated fatty acids (SFA, monounsaturated acids (MUFA, polyunsaturated acids (PUFA, n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and PUFA/SFA and n-6:n-3 ratios of the LM were similar among the diets. In conclusion, glycerin level did not affect the animal performance and carcass characteristics of Nellore bulls finished in feedlot.

  11. Concurrent testing of breeding bulls for bovine herpesvirus 1 infection (BHV-1 in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chintu Ravishankar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, sera from 65 breeding and 19 training bulls from Uttar Pradesh State in north India were tested for bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1 antibodies by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and virus neutralization test (VNT. The VNT test could detect 56 (86.15% and 9 (47.37% of the samples from breeding and training bulls as positive for BHV-1 antibodies whereas in ELISA 63 (96.92% and 10 (52.63% were found positive, respectively. Semen samples from the breeding bulls were simultaneously tested by the Taqman based real time PCR (qPCR. Of the 65 samples screened, only 40 (61.54% were found to contain BHV-1 DNA indicating that all the seropositive bulls are not shedding the virus in semen. When the RT-PCR positive samples were subjected to virus isolation on Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK cells, no virus isolates could be obtained. The advantages of concomitant testing of serum and semen of breeding bulls and measures for control of BHV-1 infections in bull farms are discussed.

  12. Comparison of selective media for detection and enumeration of naturally occurring Campylobacter spp. on poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Campylobacter spp. are known to be among the most common bacteria to cause diarrheal illness, with poultry being linked as the primary source of contamination related to foodborne illness. Enumeration and detection of low numbers of naturally occurring Campylobacter spp. on poultry pro...

  13. BACTERIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF MARINE WATER IN ADRIATIC FISH FARMS: ENUMERATION OF HETEROTROPHIC BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin Teskeredžić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture is currently one of the fastest growing food production sectors in the world. Increase in nutrients and organic wastes lead to general deterioration of water quality. The problem of water quality is associated with both physical and chemical factors, as well as microbiological water quality. Heterotrophic bacteria play an important role in the process of decomposition of organic matter in water environment and indicate eutrophication process. Here we present our experience and knowledge on bacterial properties of marine water in the Adriatic fish farms with European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L., 1758, with an emphasis on enumeration of heterotrophic bacteria in marine water. We applied two temperatures of incubation, as well as two methods for enumeration of heterotrophic bacteria: substrate SimPlate® test and spread plate method on conventional artificial media (Marine agar and Tryptic Soy agar with added NaCl. The results of analysis of bacteriological properties of marine water in the Adriatic fish farms showed that enumeration of heterotrophic bacteria in marine water depends on the applied incubation temperature and media for enumeration. At the same time, the incubation temperature of 22C favours more intense growth of marine heterotrophic bacteria, whereas a SimPlate test gives higher values of heterotrophic bacteria. Volatile values of heterotrophic bacteria during this research indicate a possible deterioration of microbiological water quality in the Adriatic fish farms and a need for regular monitoring of marine water quality.

  14. Enumeration versus Multiple Object Tracking: The Case of Action Video Game Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, C. S.; Bavelier, D.

    2006-01-01

    Here, we demonstrate that action video game play enhances subjects' ability in two tasks thought to indicate the number of items that can be apprehended. Using an enumeration task, in which participants have to determine the number of quickly flashed squares, accuracy measures showed a near ceiling performance for low numerosities and a sharp drop…

  15. A biclustering algorithm based on a Bicluster Enumeration Tree: application to DNA microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayadi Wassim

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a number of domains, like in DNA microarray data analysis, we need to cluster simultaneously rows (genes and columns (conditions of a data matrix to identify groups of rows coherent with groups of columns. This kind of clustering is called biclustering. Biclustering algorithms are extensively used in DNA microarray data analysis. More effective biclustering algorithms are highly desirable and needed. Methods We introduce BiMine, a new enumeration algorithm for biclustering of DNA microarray data. The proposed algorithm is based on three original features. First, BiMine relies on a new evaluation function called Average Spearman's rho (ASR. Second, BiMine uses a new tree structure, called Bicluster Enumeration Tree (BET, to represent the different biclusters discovered during the enumeration process. Third, to avoid the combinatorial explosion of the search tree, BiMine introduces a parametric rule that allows the enumeration process to cut tree branches that cannot lead to good biclusters. Results The performance of the proposed algorithm is assessed using both synthetic and real DNA microarray data. The experimental results show that BiMine competes well with several other biclustering methods. Moreover, we test the biological significance using a gene annotation web-tool to show that our proposed method is able to produce biologically relevant biclusters. The software is available upon request from the authors to academic users.

  16. Methods and algorithms for cell enumeration in low-cost cytometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coumans, Frank A.W.; Greve, Jan; Modica, Frank P.; Terstappen, Leon W.M.M.; Tibbe, Arjan G.J.; Verrant, John A.

    2010-01-01

    The enumeration of cells in fluids by flow cytometry is widely used across many disciplines such as assessment of leukocyte subsets in different bodily fluids or of bacterial contamination in environmental samples, food products and bodily fluids. For many applications the cost, size and complexity

  17. Sample handling factors affecting the enumeration of lactobacilli and cellulolytic bacteria in equine feces

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives were to compare media types and evaluate the effects of fecal storage time and temperature on the enumeration of cellulolytic bacteria and lactobacilli from horses. Fecal samples were collected from horses (n = 3) and transported to the lab (CO2, 37 ºC, 0.5 h). The samples were assign...

  18. An Immunological Assay for Detection and Enumeration of Thermophilic Biomining Microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Amaro, Ana M.; Hallberg, Kevin B.; Lindström, E. Börje; Jerez, Carlos A.

    1994-01-01

    A specific, fast, and sensitive nonradioactive immunobinding assay for the detection and enumeration of the moderate thermophile Thiobacillus caldus and the thermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius was developed. It employs enhanced chemiluminescence or peroxidase-conjugated immunoglobulins in a dot or slot blotting system and is very convenient for monitoring thermophilic bioleaching microorganisms in effluents from industrial bioleaching processes.

  19. Validation and comparison of methods for enumeration of faecal coliforms and Escherichia coli in bivalve molluscs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooijman KA; Poelman M; Stegeman H; Warmerdam C; Teunis PFM; Roda Husman AM de; RIKILT; MGB

    2007-01-01

    The main result of the validation study to show the equivalence of two methods for the enumeration of faecal coliforms in bivalve molluscs is that the plate count method on Mac Conkey agar was indeed found to be equivalent to the MPN method. Meaning that the Netherlands fulfilled the demands as stat

  20. A note on two identities arising from enumeration of convex polyominoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Victor J. W.; Zeng, Jiang

    2005-08-01

    Motivated by some binomial coefficients identities encountered in our approach to the enumeration of convex polyominoes, we prove some more general identities of the same type, one of which turns out to be related to a strange evaluation of of Gessel and Stanton.

  1. Food Intake and Feed Conversion Ratios in Abant Trout (Salmo trutta abanticus T., 1954) and Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss W., 1792) in Pond Culture

    OpenAIRE

    UYSAL, İrfan

    2002-01-01

    This study was carried out at DSI-Gölköy Fish Production Station in Bolu and lasted for 350 days. Food consumption (FC) and feed conversion ratios (FCR) in Abant and rainbow trout in pond culture were compared. Abant trout larvae obtained from eggs of wild Abant trout broodstocks in Lake Abant and rainbow trout larvae obtained from eggs of the cultured broodstocks in Gölköy Fish Production Station were used in this study. Trial I involved 4 groups (2 Abant and rainbow trout experimental gr...

  2. Comparison of the Growth Performance and Mortality in Abant Trout (Salmo trutta abanticus Tortonese, 1954) and Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792) under Farming Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    UYSAL, İrfan

    2002-01-01

    This experiment was conducted between 15th February 2000 (day 1) and 31st January 2001 (day 350) at the DSI-Gölköy Fish Production Station, Bolu (Turkey). Abant trout larvae obtained from eggs of wild Abant trout broodstocks in Lake Abant and rainbow trout larvae obtained from eggs of the hatchery broodstocks in Gölköy Fish Production Station were used. Trials I and II involved eight groups (four Abant and rainbow trout experimental groups, and four Abant and rainbow trout parallel groups). A...

  3. Effects of trout bradykinin on the motility of the trout stomach and intestine: evidence for a receptor distinct from mammalian B1 and B2 subtypes

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Jorgen; J. Michael Conlon

    1997-01-01

    Trout bradykinin ([Arg0,Trp5,Leu8]-bradykinin; trout BK), recently isolated from kallikrein-treated trout plasma, produced sustained and concentration-dependent contractions of isolated longitudinal muscle from rainbow trout stomach (pD2=7.01±0.03) and proximal small intestine (pD2=7.37±0.07). The maximum responses were 85±2% (stomach) and 101±35% (intestine) of the corresponding responses to 10−5 M acetylcholine. Strips of circular smooth muscle from trout stomach and intestine did not contr...

  4. Eggs Incubation, Early Development and growth in Frys of Brown Trout (Salmo trutta macrostigma) and Black Sea Trout (Salmo trutta labrax)

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet ALP; Erer, Mesut; KAMALAK, Adem

    2010-01-01

    Some of the embryonic development stages and growth of the frys of brown trout (Salmo trutta macrostigma) and Black Sea trout (Salmo trutta labrax) were examined. The first eye pigmentation in the brown trout eggs were realised on the 35 days (244 day-degree) at 7.23°C and 31 days (260 day-degree) at 8.21°C post fertilisation. First eye pigmentation of the Black Sea trout eggs were seen on day 25 (215 day-degree) at 8.21°C. Brown trout larvae were hatched on day 56 (387 day-degree) at 7.23°C ...

  5. SuchThatCast Episode 3: J.D. Trout

    OpenAIRE

    Søraker, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    SuchThatCast goes mobile in the third episode, as I interview J.D. Trout on the appr. 2 hour train ride between Enschede and Schiphol airport. Trout received his PhD in Philosophy at Cornell University and is currently Professor of Philosophy and Psychology at Loyola University Chicago. He was recently awarded the prestigious Phi Beta Kappa Romanell Professorship for 2012-13. His chief interests include the nature of scientific explanation, the psychology of human judgment, scientific realism...

  6. Evolutionary Genetics of Rainbow Trout, Parasalmo gairdnerii (Richardson)

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, William J.

    1987-01-01

    Starch-gel electrophoresis was used to obtain allozyme data from 114 populations of rainbow-series trout. Seventy-three alleles were segregating at 24 genetic loci. An additional seven loci were monomorphic in all populations. Eight genetically discrete intraspecific population-groups were identified and formal nomenclatural recognition of their subspecific status was suggested. The widespread coastal rainbow trout subspecies, Parasalmo gairdnerii gairdnerii was found to have higher levels of...

  7. Virulence of Flavobacterium columnare genomovars in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenhuis, Jason P; LaFrentz, Benjamin R

    2016-08-01

    Flavobacterium columnare is the causative agent of columnaris disease and is responsible for significant economic losses in aquaculture. F. columnare is a Gram-negative bacterium, and 5 genetic types or genomovars have been described based on restriction fragment length polymorphism of the 16S rRNA gene. Previous research has suggested that genomovar II isolates are more virulent than genomovar I isolates to multiple species of fish, including rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. In addition, improved genotyping methods have shown that some isolates previously classified as genomovar I, and used in challenge experiments, were in fact genomovar III. Our objective was to confirm previous results with respect to genomovar II virulence, and to determine the susceptibility of rainbow trout to other genomovars. The virulence of 8 genomovar I, 4 genomovar II, 3 genomovar II-B, and 5 genomovar III isolates originating from various sources was determined through 3 independent challenges in rainbow trout using an immersion challenge model. Mean cumulative percent mortality (CPM) of ~49% for genomovar I isolates, ~1% for genomovar II, ~5% for the II-B isolates, and ~7% for the III isolates was observed. The inability of genomovar II isolates to produce mortalities in rainbow trout was unanticipated based on previous studies, but may be due to a number of factors including rainbow trout source and water chemistry. The source of fish and/or the presence of sub-optimal environment may influence the susceptibility of rainbow trout to different F. columnare genomovars. PMID:27503917

  8. Seasonal movement of brown trout in the Clinch River, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettinger, J.M.; Bettoli, P.W.

    2004-01-01

    We used radiotelemetry to monitor the seasonal movements of trophy-size brown trout Salmo trutta in the Clinch River below Norris Dam, Tennessee, to determine whether establishing a special-regulation reach to reduce fishing mortality was a viable management option. Fifteen brown trout (size range, 430-573 mm total length) collected from the river were implanted with radio transmitters between November 1997 and May 1998. Forty-seven percent of these fish died or expelled their transmitters within 50 d postsurgery. The range of movement for surviving brown trout was significantly larger in fall (geometric mean range = 5,111 m) than in any other season. Four brown trout that were monitored for more than 1 year exhibited a limited range of movement (5 km) during the fall season, presumably to spawn. Brown trout also moved more during the fall than in any other season. Harvest restrictions applied to a specific reach of the Clinch River would reduce the exploitation of brown trout in that reach for most of the year but not during the fall, when many fish undertake extensive spawning migrations.

  9. Predation on lake trout eggs and fry: A modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, Jacqueline F.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Fabrizio, Mary C.; Bowen, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    A general model was developed to examine the effects of multiple predators on survival of eggs and fry of lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, associated with spawning reefs. Three kinds of predation were simulated: epibenthic egg predators consuming eggs on the substrate surface during spawning, interstitial egg predators that can move in rocky substrate and consume incubating eggs, and fry predators. Also simulated was the effect of water temperature on predation rates. The model predicted that interstitial predation on eggs accounted for most (76 to 81%) of the predation on early life history stages of lake trout; epibenthic egg predation (12 to 19%) and fry predation (0 to 12%) had less effect on lake trout survival. Initial predation conditions chosen for the model were: epibenthic egg predation peaked at 2 eggs/mA?/d over 30 d, insterstitial egg predation at 2 eggs/mA?/d over 180 d, and fry predation at 1 fry/mA?/d over 60 d. With a starting egg density of 100 eggs/mA? and initial predation conditions, no lake trout were estimated to survive to swim-up. At egg densities of 250 eggs/mA?, 36% of the lake trout survived. At the highest egg densities examined, 500 to 1,000 eggs/mA?, estimated survival increased to about 70 to 80%. Simulated survival rates of lake trout decreased dramatically as predation rate increased but were not as sensitive to increases in the duration of predation.

  10. Conservation of native Pacific trout diversity in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penaluna, Brooke E.; Abadía-Cardoso, Alicia; Dunham, Jason; García de León, Francisco J; Gresswell, Robert E.; Luna, Arturo Ruiz; Taylor, Eric B.; Shepard, Bradley B.; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Bestgen, Kevin R.; Rogers, Kevin H.; Escalante, Marco A; Keeley, Ernest R; Temple, Gabriel; Williams, Jack E.; Matthews, Kathleen; Pierce, Ron; Mayden, Richard L.; Kovach, Ryan; Garza, John Carlos; Fausch, Kurt D.

    2016-01-01

    Pacific trout Oncorhynchus spp. in western North America are strongly valued in ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural views, and have been the subject of substantial research and conservation efforts. Despite this, the understanding of their evolutionary histories, overall diversity, and challenges to their conservation is incomplete. We review the state of knowledge on these important issues, focusing on Pacific trout in the genus Oncorhynchus. Although most research on salmonid fishes emphasizes Pacific salmon, we focus on Pacific trout because they share a common evolutionary history, and many taxa in western North America have not been formally described, particularly in the southern extent of their ranges. Research in recent decades has led to the revision of many hypotheses concerning the origin and diversification of Pacific trout throughout their range. Although there has been significant success at addressing past threats to Pacific trout, contemporary and future threats represented by nonnative species, land and water use activities, and climate change pose challenges and uncertainties. Ultimately, conservation of Pacific trout depends on how well these issues are understood and addressed, and on solutions that allow these species to coexist with a growing scope of human influences.

  11. Fate of Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa) after infection of brown trout Salmo trutta and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Gokhlesh; Abd-Elfattah, Ahmed; Saleh, Mona; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2013-01-01

    Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa) is the causative agent of proliferative kidney disease in salmonids. We assessed differences in intensity of T. bryosalmonae infection between brown trout Salmo trutta and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss from the clinical phase of infection onwards. Specific pathogen-free fish were exposed to T. bryosalmonae spores under controlled laboratory conditions and sampled at 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 17 wk post exposure (wpe), and the transmission of T. bryosalm...

  12. Reproductive isolation and genetic differentiation of ferox trout from sympatric brown trout in Loch Aweand Loch Laggan, Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Duguid, A.; Prodohl, Paulo; Ferguson, A.

    2006-01-01

    Molecular marker studies reported here, involving allozymes, mitochondrial DNA and microsatellites, demonstrate that ferox brown trout Salmo trutta in Lochs Awe and Laggan, Scotland, are reproductively isolated and genetically distinct from co-occurring brown trout. Ferox were shown to spawn primarily, and possibly solely, in a single large river in each lake system making them particularly vulnerable to environmental changes. Although a low level of introgression seems to have occurred with ...

  13. Factors influencing the distribution of brown trout (Salmo trutta) in a mountain stream: Implications for brown trout invasion success

    OpenAIRE

    Meredith, Christy

    2012-01-01

    Brown trout (Salmo trutta), one of the world’s most successful introduced species, negatively impacts native aquatic communities through predation, competition, and ecosystemlevel effects. Thus, there is a need to understand factors controlling the distribution of exotic brown trout in river systems, in order to prioritize and develop conservation and management strategies. Within the context of invasion success, I investigated how the physical template of the Logan River influences the distr...

  14. Exposure of prepubertal beef bulls to cycling females does not enhance sexual development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, N A; Fike, K E

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether continuous, long-term, fenceline exposure of prepubertal beef bulls to cycling beef females reduced age at puberty and influenced the percentage of bulls that passed an initial breeding soundness examination (BSE). Bulls (Angus, n = 37; Simmental, n = 22; Hereford, n = 10; Simmental × Angus, n = 8) at an average age of 202 ± 21.5 days were given either continuous fenceline and visual exposure to cycling females (exposed, n = 41) or no exposure (control, n = 36). Estrus was induced in cycling beef females so at least three females were in standing estrus each week during the 182 days of exposure to bulls. Scrotal circumference (SC), body weight, and blood samples were collected every 28 days. When bulls had SC of 26 cm or more, semen samples were obtained monthly via electroejaculation until puberty was achieved (≥50 × 10(6) sperm/mL with at least 10% progressive motility). Behavioral observations were conducted twice monthly: once when females were in estrus and once during diestrus. Homosexual mounting, flehmen responses, and number of times near penned females were recorded for each observation period. Breeding soundness examinations were conducted when the average age of bulls was 364 ± 21.5 days. Normal sperm morphology of at least 70% and sperm motility of at least 30% were required to pass the BSE. Age, body weight, and SC at puberty did not differ between exposed and control bulls (320 ± 28 and 311 ± 29 days; 466.2 ± 12.2 and 437.7 ± 13.5 kg; and 34.4 ± 2.5 and 34.9 ± 2.5 cm, respectively). Percentage of bulls passing their initial BSE did not differ between treatments (exposed, 87.8%; control, 75.0%). Treatment, month, and female estrous stage interacted (P = 0.05) to affect the number of mount attempts and flehmen responses. Exposed bulls entered the cow area more times (P < 0.001) during estrus than diestrus in Months 1, 2, and 3. We concluded that bulls given continuous, long

  15. AEROMONAS SALMONICIDA INFECTION IN VACCINATED RAINBOW TROUT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Skov, Jakob; Mohammad, Rezkar Jaafar;

    to that of the commercial vaccine with lower side effects as observed by the Speilberg scoring system. Gene expression analysis did not show a clear trend for Th1 or Th2 response in the vaccinated fish. Exposure of fish to saltwater increased the IgT production. Overall, the immune response in vaccinated fish, the side......In vivo testing of any candidate vaccine is influenced by the choice of challenge method and the external environmental conditions. In the present study, a comparative challenge study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of different vaccines against the bacterial pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida...... causing furunculosis. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were vaccinated with two trivalent adjuvanted experimental vaccines containing formalin-killed A. salmonicida, Vibrio anguillarum O1 and O2a and a commercial corresponding vaccine (Alpha Ject 3000). Fish were challenged by i.p. injection...

  16. Vaccination against GnRH may suppress aggressive behaviour and musth in African elephant (Loxodonta africana) bulls - a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    H. M. De Nys; H.J. Bertschinger; J. A. Turkstra; B. Colenbrander; Palme, R; A. M. Human

    2010-01-01

    Aggressive behaviour and musth are constant problems in captive and sometimes in free-ranging African elephant bulls. Aggressive bulls are difficult and musth bulls almost impossible to manage without severely restricting their movement either by leg-chaining or using tranquillisers. This study investigated the relationship between faecal androgen metabolites (FAM) and faecal cortisol metabolites (FCM) concentrations and aggressive behaviour and tested a GnRH vaccine as a means of down-regula...

  17. Improved assay for measuring heparin binding to bull sperm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The binding of heparin to sperm has been used to study capacitation and to rank relative fertility of bulls. Previous binding assays were laborious, used 107 sperm per assay point, and required large amounts of radiolabeled heparin. A modified heparin-binding assay is described that used only 5 x 104 cells per incubation well and required reduced amounts of [3H] heparin. The assay was performed in 96-well Millititer plates, enabling easy incubation and filtering. Dissociation constants and concentrations of binding sites did not differ if analyzed by Scatchard plots, Woolf plots, or by log-logit transformed weighted nonlinear least squares regression, except in the case of outliers. In such cases, Scatchard analysis was more sensitive to outliers. Nonspecific binding was insignificant using nonlinear logistic fit regression and a proportion graph. The effects were tested of multiple free-thawing of sperm in either a commercial egg yolk extender, 40 mM Tris buffer with 8% glycerol, or 40 mM Tris buffer without glycerol. Freeze-thawing in extender did not affect the dissociation constant or the concentration of binding sites. However, freeze-thawing three times in 40 mM Tris reduced the concentration of binding sites and lowered the dissociation constant (raised the affinity). The inclusion of glycerol in the 40 mM Tris did not significantly affect the estimated dissociation constant or the concentration of binding sites as compared to 40 mM Tris without glycerol

  18. DAG defect in Murrah buffalo bulls in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.G. Vale

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Dag defect sperms have an abnormal tail coiled morphology are totally or almost totally immotile and have severe abnormalities on the fibers in the axial filament. This defect in bovine was shown to be due an autosomal recessive gene. In the present study 23 buffalo bulls age 18-34 months examined for BSE (Breeding Soundness Examination showed sperm motility varied between 0 to 70% accomplished with 10 a 65% of sperm pathology with or not a predominance of strong coiled tails with or without persistence of droplet. In Brazil Murrah breed have had only eight female PO (pure of origin - India gave origin of the herd and not more than four males where also imported from India, although in the last two decades some quantity of frozen semen were introduced in the country imported from India. As in the other domestic species inbreed seems to be the main cause of this abnormalities in different breeds. The knowledge and further study of such abnormalities is the only way to overcome a problem that if not controlled will tend to spread out without control causing in the future more problem for development of some herds.

  19. Behaviour and meat quality of Podolian young bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Napolitano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available From April to August 2008, twelve Podolian subjects, aged about 11 months at the beginning of the experimental period, were used to evaluate the effect of rearing system (Confined vs. Freerange and season (spring vs. summer on their behaviour and meat quality. Nine sessions of behavioural observations were performed. During a 6-h period, the behaviour of a focal animal, was continuously monitored. In each session a different animal was chosen. All the animals were slaughtered at 18 months of age. Walking (P<0.001 and standing (P<0.05 were lower in summer, whereas inactivity was higher (P<0.05. Free-range bulls spent more time walking (P<0.05, feeding (P<0.001 and standing (P<0.01 and showed a lower number of agonistic (P<0.05 and non-agonistic social interaction than confined animals (P<0.01. Self- and allo-grooming were not affected by rearing system, whereas season influenced self-grooming with higher values in spring (P<0.05. Confined animals showed higher final weights (P<0.05 and a lighter meat (P<0.05, whereas no differences between groups were observed for average daily gains, carcass yield, water holding capacity and a* and b* indexes. Confinement markedly affected the behaviour of the animals, whereas free-ranging had only minor negative effects on meat lightness.

  20. Micro-scale distribution of brown trout: an opportunity for kin selection?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsson, J.; Carlsson, J.E.L.

    2002-01-01

    Fourteen microsatellite loci were used to analyse the degree of relatedness between and within cohorts of stream-living brown trout (Salmo trutta L.). Differences in degree of relatedness were found between cohorts with mature and older having the highest intracohort relatedness. The higher genetic...... relatedness among the mature and older trout is interpreted as indications of clustering of related mature and older trout prior to spawning in the vicinity of spawning grounds. Young-of-the-year trout showed a lower degree of association with related trout of the same cohort than did mature and older trout....... It is argued that the clustering of mature and older trout may facilitate kin selection and that the low degree of association among related young-of-the-year trout could be explained by juvenile fish avoiding competition for territories with related individuals...

  1. Intracellular diffusion restrictions in isolated cardiomyocytes from rainbow trout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birkedal Rikke

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Restriction of intracellular diffusion of adenine nucleotides has been studied intensively on adult rat cardiomyocytes. However, their cause and role in vivo is still uncertain. Intracellular membrane structures have been suggested to play a role. We therefore chose to study cardiomyocytes from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, which are thinner and have fewer intracellular membrane structures than adult rat cardiomyocytes. Previous studies suggest that trout permeabilized cardiac fibers also have diffusion restrictions. However, results from fibers may be affected by incomplete separation of the cells. This is avoided when studying permeabilized, isolated cardiomyocytes. The aim of this study was to verify the existence of diffusion restrictions in trout cardiomyocytes by comparing ADP-kinetics of mitochondrial respiration in permeabilized fibers, permeabilized cardiomyocytes and isolated mitochondria from rainbow trout heart. Experiments were performed at 10, 15 and 20°C in the absence and presence of creatine. Results Trout cardiomyocytes hypercontracted in the solutions used for mammalian cardiomyocytes. We developed a new solution in which they retained their shape and showed stable steady state respiration rates throughout an experiment. The apparent ADP-affinity of permeabilized cardiomyocytes was different from that of fibers. It was higher, independent of temperature and not increased by creatine. However, it was still about ten times lower than in isolated mitochondria. Conclusions The differences between fibers and cardiomyocytes suggest that results from trout heart fibers were affected by incomplete separation of the cells. However, the lower ADP-affinity of cardiomyocytes compared to isolated mitochondria indicate that intracellular diffusion restrictions are still present in trout cardiomyocytes despite their lower density of intracellular membrane structures. The lack of a creatine effect indicates that

  2. Breeding soundness evaluation of bulls by semen analysis, testicular fine needle aspiration cytology and trans-scrotal ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chapwanya A

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of trans-scrotal ultrasonography and testicular fine needle aspiration cytology in assessing bulls for breeding suitability. These two techniques were also compared with semen analysis. Bulls presented for breeding soundness evaluation were assessed using all three techniques. The findings of each technique were compared. There was agreement in classification of fertile bulls using all three techniques, suggesting that the combined use of these techniques enhances routine breeding soundness examination. Use of the three techniques also enhances detailed investigation of suspected sub-fertile bulls while accurately identifying testicular cause(s of sire sub-fertility.

  3. Natural or artificial? Habitat-use by the bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan M Werry

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite accelerated global population declines due to targeted and illegal fishing pressure for many top-level shark species, the impacts of coastal habitat modification have been largely overlooked. We present the first direct comparison of the use of natural versus artificial habitats for the bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas, an IUCN 'Near-threatened' species--one of the few truly euryhaline sharks that utilises natural rivers and estuaries as nursery grounds before migrating offshore as adults. Understanding the value of alternate artificial coastal habitats to the lifecycle of the bull shark is crucial for determining the impact of coastal development on this threatened but potentially dangerous species. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: We used longline surveys and long-term passive acoustic tracking of neonate and juvenile bull sharks to determine the ontogenetic value of natural and artificial habitats to bull sharks associated with the Nerang River and adjoining canals on the Gold Coast, Australia. Long-term movements of tagged sharks suggested a preference for the natural river over artificial habitat (canals. Neonates and juveniles spent the majority of their time in the upper tidal reaches of the Nerang River and undertook excursions into adjoining canals. Larger bull sharks ranged further and frequented the canals closer to the river mouth. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our work suggests with increased destruction of natural habitats, artificial coastal habitat may become increasingly important to large juvenile bull sharks with associated risk of attack on humans. In this system, neonate and juvenile bull sharks utilised the natural and artificial habitats, but the latter was not the preferred habitat of neonates. The upper reaches of tidal rivers, often under significant modification pressure, serve as nursery sites for neonates. Analogous studies are needed in similar systems elsewhere to assess the spatial and temporal generality of

  4. The Effect of Production System on Fatty Acid Composition in Beef Meat of Cika Young Bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Simčič

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine chemical and fatty acid composition in meat of Cika bulls fattened in two production systems. Eight bulls were semi-intensively fattened with a total mix ratio (TMR, while ten were grazed without cereals supplementation. Housed bulls were slaughtered at the age of 20.0 months while grazed bulls were slaughtered at the age of 23.5 months. Samples of M. longissimus dorsi located between the 7th and 8th rib were used to determine the chemical and fatty acid composition. Data were analysed using the GLM procedure of the SAS/ STAT. Model 1 was used to test the effect of production system on the chemical composition of meat. Model 2 was used to test the effects of production system and the intramuscular fat content nested within the production system as linear regression on the fatty acid composition. Significant differences were determined in intramuscular fat (14.54 vs. 8.57 g/kg, P = 0.015 and in dry matter content (231.85 vs. 239.49 g/kg, P = 0.032 in beef meat of TMR fed and in grazed bulls, respectively. Beef meat of grazed bulls contained significantly lower palmitic acid (19.87 vs. 21.03 wt.%, P = 0.002, oleic acid (26.18 vs. 30.01 wt.%, P = 0.007 and MUFA (29.88 vs. 33.80 wt.%, P = 0.010 and higher α-linolenic (3.33 vs. 1.45 wt.%, P = 0.014, EPA (1.40 vs. 0.57 wt.%, P = 0.002, DPA (1.84 vs. 1.06 wt.%, P = 0.001, PUFA (21.42 vs. 19.43 wt.%, P = 0.047 and n-3PUFA (6.80 vs. 3.24 wt.%, P = 0.001 compared to TMR fed bulls.

  5. Heavy metal contamination and hepatic toxicological responses in brown trout (Salmo trutta) from the Kerguelen Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Jaffal, Ali; Betoulle, Stéphane; Biagianti-Risbourg, Sylvie; Terreau, Alexandre; Sanchez, Wilfried; Paris-Palacios, Séverine

    2015-01-01

    The Kerguelen Islands include various species of freshwater fish such as brown trout (Salmo trutta). These trout are among the most isolated from direct anthropogenic impact worldwide. This study was designed to analyse cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) concentrations in the liver of Kerguelen brown trout, and to assess the possible impacts of these metals on hepatic histopathology and oxidative stress parameters (superoxide dismutase and catalase activity and glutathione levels). Trout were caugh...

  6. Spatial and temporal movement dynamics of brook Salvelinus fontinalis and brown trout Salmo trutta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, L.A.; Wagner, Tyler; Barton, Meredith L.

    2015-01-01

    Native eastern brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and naturalized brown trout Salmo trutta occur sympatrically in many streams across the brook trout’s native range in the eastern United States. Understanding within- among-species variability in movement, including correlates of movement, has implications for management and conservation. We radio tracked 55 brook trout and 45 brown trout in five streams in a north-central Pennsylvania, USA watershed to quantify the movement of brook trout and brown trout during the fall and early winter to (1) evaluate the late-summer, early winter movement patterns of brook trout and brown trout, (2) determine correlates of movement and if movement patterns varied between brook trout and brown trout, and (3) evaluate genetic diversity of brook trout within and among study streams, and relate findings to telemetry-based observations of movement. Average total movement was greater for brown trout (mean ± SD = 2,924 ± 4,187 m) than for brook trout (mean ± SD = 1,769 ± 2,194 m). Although there was a large amount of among-fish variability in the movement of both species, the majority of movement coincided with the onset of the spawning season, and a threshold effect was detected between stream flow and movement: where movement increased abruptly for both species during positive flow events. Microsatellite analysis of brook trout revealed consistent findings to those found using radio-tracking, indicating a moderate to high degree of gene flow among brook trout populations. Seasonal movement patterns and the potential for relatively large movements of brook and brown trout highlight the importance of considering stream connectivity when restoring and protecting fish populations and their habitats.

  7. The role of environmental transfer of macro-elements in the Brown trout Salmo trutta

    OpenAIRE

    Baszyński, Jędrzej; Kamiński, Piotr; Koim-Puchowska, Beata

    2015-01-01

    In natural habitat of river Słupia researchers observe the fall condition among Brown trouts and their morbidity on ulcerative dermal necrosis. Trout's shape is strictly connected with elemental economy. In recent study we analyse the macroelements economy (Na, Mg, K, Ca, P) in trout's organism on different growth stages: young and adult individuals, inside trout's organs (muscles, gills, liver, fins), in periods of 2006-2007 and 2011-2012. We analyse the concentrations of chosen chemical ele...

  8. Novel method based on chromogenic media for discrimination and selective enumeration of lactic acid bacteria in fermented milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galat, Anna; Dufresne, Jérôme; Combrisson, Jérôme; Thépaut, Jérôme; Boumghar-Bourtchai, Leyla; Boyer, Mickaël; Fourmestraux, Candice

    2016-05-01

    Microbial analyses of fermented milk products require selective methods to discriminate between close species simultaneously present in high amounts. A culture-based method combining novel chromogenic agar media and appropriate incubation conditions was developed to enumerate lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains in fermented milk. M1 agar, containing two chromogenic substrates, allowed selective enumeration of Lactobacillus rhamnosus, two strains of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei and Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus based on differential β-galactosidase and β-glucosidase activities. Depending on the presence of some or all of the above strains, M1 agar was supplemented with L-rhamnose or vancomycin and incubations were carried out at 37 °C or 44 °C to increase selectivity. A second agar medium, M2, containing one chromogenic substrates was used to selectively enumerate β-galactosidase producing Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus at 47 °C. By contrast with the usual culture media, the chromogenic method allowed unambiguous enumeration of each species, including discrimination between the two L. paracasei, up to 10(9) CFU/g of fermented milk. In addition, the relevance of the method was approved by enumerating reference ATCC strains in pure cultures and fermented milk product. The method could also be used for enumerations on non-Danone commercial fermented milk products containing strains different from those used in this study, showing versatility of the method. To our knowledge, this is the first description of a chromogenic culture method applied to selective enumeration of LAB.

  9. Comparison of methods for the enumeration of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli from veal hides and carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon E Luedtke

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The increased association of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC with veal calves has led the United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service to report results of veal meat contaminated with the Top 7 serogroups separately from beef cattle. However, detection methods that can also provide concentration for determining the prevalence and abundance of EHEC associated with veal are lacking. Here we compared the ability of qPCR and a molecular based most probable number assay (MPN to detect and enumerate EHEC from veal hides at the abattoir and the resulting pre-intervention carcasses. In addition, digital PCR (dPCR was used to analyze select samples. The qPCR assay was able to enumerate total EHEC in 32% of the hide samples with a range of approximately 34 to 91,412 CFUs/100 cm2 (95% CI 4-113,460 CFUs/100 cm2. Using the MPN assay, total EHEC was enumerable in 48% of the hide samples and ranged from approximately 1 to greater than 17,022 CFUs/100 cm2 (95% CI 0.4-72,000 CFUs/100 cm2. The carcass samples had lower amounts of EHEC with a range of approximately 4 to 275 CFUs/100 cm2 (95% CI 3-953 CFUs/100 cm2 from 17% of samples with an enumerable amount of EHEC by qPCR. For the MPN assay, the carcass samples ranged from 0.1 to 1 CFUs/100 cm2 (95% CI 0.02-4 CFUs/100 cm2 from 29% of the samples. The correlation coefficient between the qPCR and MPN enumeration methods indicated a moderate relation (R2=0.39 for the hide samples while the carcass samples had no relation (R2=0.002, which was likely due to most samples having an amount of total EHEC below the reliable limit of quantification for qPCR. Interestingly, after enrichment, 81% of the hide samples and 94% of the carcass samples had a detectable amount of total EHEC by qPCR. From our analysis, the MPN assay provided a higher percentage of enumerable hide and carcass samples, however determining an appropriate dilution range and the limited throughput offer additional

  10. Comparison of methods for the enumeration of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli from veal hides and carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luedtke, Brandon E; Bosilevac, Joseph M

    2015-01-01

    The increased association of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) with veal calves has led the United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service to report results of veal meat contaminated with the Top 7 serogroups separately from beef cattle. However, detection methods that can also provide concentration for determining the prevalence and abundance of EHEC associated with veal are lacking. Here we compared the ability of qPCR and a molecular based most probable number assay (MPN) to detect and enumerate EHEC from veal hides at the abattoir and the resulting pre-intervention carcasses. In addition, digital PCR (dPCR) was used to analyze select samples. The qPCR assay was able to enumerate total EHEC in 32% of the hide samples with a range of approximately 34 to 91,412 CFUs/100 cm(2) (95% CI 4-113,460 CFUs/100 cm(2)). Using the MPN assay, total EHEC was enumerable in 48% of the hide samples and ranged from approximately 1 to greater than 17,022 CFUs/100 cm(2) (95% CI 0.4-72,000 CFUs/100 cm(2)). The carcass samples had lower amounts of EHEC with a range of approximately 4-275 CFUs/100 cm(2) (95% CI 3-953 CFUs/100 cm(2)) from 17% of samples with an enumerable amount of EHEC by qPCR. For the MPN assay, the carcass samples ranged from 0.1 to 1 CFUs/100 cm(2) (95% CI 0.02-4 CFUs/100 cm(2)) from 29% of the samples. The correlation coefficient between the qPCR and MPN enumeration methods indicated a moderate relation (R (2) = 0.39) for the hide samples while the carcass samples had no relation (R (2) = 0.002), which was likely due to most samples having an amount of total EHEC below the reliable limit of quantification for qPCR. Interestingly, after enrichment, 81% of the hide samples and 94% of the carcass samples had a detectable amount of total EHEC by qPCR. From our analysis, the MPN assay provided a higher percentage of enumerable hide and carcass samples, however determining an appropriate dilution range and the limited throughput offer

  11. Nucléation, ascension et éclatement d'une bulle de champagne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liger-Belair, G.

    2006-03-01

    People have long been fascinated by bubbles and foams dynamics, and since the pioneering work of Leonardo da Vinci in the early 16th century, this subject has generated a huge bibliography. However, only quite recently, much interest was devoted to bubbles in Champagne wines and carbonated beverages. Since the time of the benedictine monk dom Pierre Perignon (1638-1715), champagne is the wine of celebration. This fame is largely linked to the elegance of its effervescence and foaming properties. In this book, the latest results about the chemical physics behind the bubbling properties of Champagne and sparkling wines are collected and fully illustrated. The first chapter is devoted to the history of champagne and to a presentation of the tools of the physical chemistry of interfaces needed for a whole comprehension of the book. Then, the three main steps of a fleeting champagne bubble's life are presented in chronological order, that is, the bubble nucleation on the glass wall (Chap.2), the bubble ascent and growth through the liquid matrix (Chap.3), and the bursting of bubbles at the liquid surface (Chap.4), which constitutes the most intriguing, functional, and visually appealing step. L'objectif général de ce travail consacré à l'étude des processus physicochimiques liés à l'effervescence des vins de Champagne était de décortiquer les différentes étapes de la vie d'une bulle de champagne en conditions réelles de consommation, dans une flûte. Nous résumons ci-après les principaux résultats obtenus pour chacune des étapes de la vie de la bulle, depuis sa naissance sur les parois d'une flûte, jusqu'à son éclatement en surface. Nucléation À l'aide d'une caméra rapide munie d'un objectif de microscope, nous avons pu mettre à mal une idée largement répandue. Ce ne sont pas les anfractuosités de la surface du verre ou de la flûte qui sont responsable de la nucléation hétérogène des bulles, mais des particules adsorbées sur les parois du

  12. Exploring trends, causes, and consequences of declining lipids in Lake Superior lake trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of lake trout to forage in deepwater habitats is facilitated by high lipid content, which affords buoyancy. In Lake Superior, lean lake trout historically occupied depths < 80 m, and siscowet lake trout occupied depths > 80 m. Siscowets have been known f...

  13. Effect of age on spermiogram of Holstein Friesian × Sahiwal crossbred bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, D K; Kumar, M; Tyagi, S

    2010-04-01

    This study was conducted on 94 Frieswal (5/8 Holstein Friesian 3/8 Sahiwal) crossbred bulls of three different grades, categorized based on their semen freezability visualising Group 1 (consistently freezable semen producer bulls, N = 11), Group 2 (inconsistent freezable, N = 16) and Group 3 (Non freezable, N = 67). Each group was further divided into two classes that is young (up to 30 months) and adult (31 to 70 months) bulls depending upon their age. Sperm morphology was studied by using the eosin-nigrosin staining technique. Bulls age significantly (P stage (6.69 ± 0.64, 3.82 ± 0.32, 9.14 ± 0.64 and 19.66 ± 1.31, respectively). Significant reduction (P stage. In bulls of consistent freezing category, abnormal sperm heads significantly decreased from 4.40 ± 0.31% to 3.28 ± 0.02% on maturity. Similarly, in inconsistent freezing grade bulls sperm head abnormality (9.28 ± 0.75% to 5.13 ± 1.20%) and total abnormal sperm percent (24.89 ± 1.43 to 18.73 ± 3.40) was decreased over the age. On the contrary, in non-freezing category bulls' sperm morphology did not show significant (P > 0.05) improvement with age advancement, rather some abnormalities like long slender head, under developed/deformed head, abaxial implantation of mid piece, double mid piece, stump tail and distal protoplasmic droplets tend to increased significantly (P stage, where as, in poor quality (non-freezing) semen producer bulls neither the morphology nor the semen quality showed any improvement with maturity. It was recommended that crossbred bulls producing more than 25% morphologically abnormal sperms in young age (below 30 months) along with poor progressive motility (<50%) and low sperm concentration (<1000 million/ml) need immediate culling with out any expectation of further improvement in semen quality with age advancement. PMID:22444047

  14. Effects of dietary energy on sexual maturation and sperm production in Holstein bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harstine, B R; Maquivar, M; Helser, L A; Utt, M D; Premanandan, C; DeJarnette, J M; Day, M L

    2015-06-01

    In prepubertal bulls and heifers of dairy and beef breeds, puberty can be induced to occur earlier than typical with targeted high-energy diets due to precocious activation of the endocrine mechanisms that regulate puberty. Precocious activation of puberty in bulls intended for use in the AI industry has the potential to hasten and perhaps increase sperm production. It was hypothesized that feeding bulls a high-energy diet beginning at 8 wk of age would advance the prepubertal rise in LH and lead to advanced testicular maturation and age at puberty. From 58 to 230 ± 0.3 d of age, Holstein bulls received either a high-energy diet (HE;n = 9; targeted ADG 1.5 kg/d) or a control diet (CONT;n = 10; targeted ADG 0.75 kg/d). Thereafter, all bulls were fed a similar diet. The HE treatment increased LH secretion at 125 d of age, testosterone concentrations from 181 to 210 d, and scrotal circumference (SC) from 146 to 360 d of age relative to the CONT treatment. Beginning at 241 ± 5 d of age, semen collection (artificial vagina) was attempted every 14 d in bulls from the HE (n = 8) and CONT (n = 7) treatment until each bull attained puberty (ejaculate containing 50 × 10 spermatozoa with 10% motility). To assess semen production as mature bulls, semen was collected thrice weekly beginning at 541 ± 5 d of age until slaughter at 569 ± 5 d of age. After slaughter, epididymal and testicular measurements were collected and testicular tissue was fixed to determine seminiferous tubule diameter. Age at puberty did not differ between treatments (310 ± 35 d). Although testis and epididymal weight and testis volume were greater (P treatment, sperm production of mature bulls did not differ between treatments. Diameter of seminiferous tubules also did not differ between treatments. We conclude that the HE advanced aspects of sexual maturation and increased testes size, but this was not reflected in hastened puberty or sperm production in the present experiment. PMID:26115263

  15. 77 FR 62500 - Peabody Trout Creek Reservoir LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Peabody Trout Creek Reservoir LLC; Notice of Intent To File License...: Peabody Trout Creek Reservoir LLC. e. Name of Project: Trout Creek Reservoir Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: On Trout Creek, 15 miles southwest of Steamboat Springs, Colorado. The project occupies 4.3...

  16. Daughter performance based buffalo bull ranking for boosting milk production in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghaffar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The first lactation milk yield records of 2329 daughters of 180 bulls, (11 batches during 1983-2005 were used in this study. BLUP breeding values for male and female were computed using DFREML. The fixed effects like herd-year-season and batch number of bulls had significant effect on milk yield as determined by HARVEY Model-1. In addition to these fixed effects, age at first calving was included in the model as covariate to estimate the BLUP breeding values (EBV for milk yield. The year-wise least square means of milk yield for Nili Ravi buffaloes showed a sharp increase from 1984 to 1989 and then a significant yearly variation with the slight decrease in overall milk production under field conditions at private farmers door step. Among these candidate bulls 92 bulls were positive for milk yield EBV. The overall milk production was (Mean±S.E 2481.82±493.33 Kg. The heritability of milk yield was 0.15. There is wide variation over the years making the over all regression line (Y = - 146944 + 74.349X for milk yield negative. This emphasizes to review the policy of semen usage and production of candidate young bulls for future generations. Recently born male calves had better breeding values showing the positive regression line ( Y = 142.77 + 22.065X.

  17. Enumeration of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Outbreak-Associated Beef Patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Alexander; Huszczynski, George

    2016-07-01

    An outbreak of five cases of Escherichia coli O157 infection that occurred in Canada in 2012 was linked to frozen beef patties seasoned with garlic and peppercorn. Unopened retail packs of beef patties from the implicated production lot were recovered and analyzed to enumerate E. coli O157, other E. coli strains, and total coliforms. E. coli O157 was not recovered by direct enumeration on selective agar media. E. coli O157 in the samples was estimated at 3.1 most probable number per 140 g of beef patty, other E. coli was 11 CFU/g, and coliforms were 120 CFU/g. These results indicate that the presence of E. coli O157 in ground beef at levels below 0.1 CFU/g may cause outbreaks. However, the roles of temperature abuse, undercooking, and crosscontamination in amplifying the risk are unknown.

  18. A rapid method for the nonselective enumeration of Yersinia enterocolitica, a foodborne pathogen associated with pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haoran; Palmer, Jon; Flint, Steve

    2016-03-01

    An impedance method was developed as a rapid, convenient method to enumerate pure culture of Yersinia enterocolitica. Cultures were incubated in trypticase soy broth (TSB) at 30°C. The BacTrac™ 4000 microorganism growth analyser was used to detect impedance change of TSB representing bacteria cell numbers in the samples. Good correlations with standard plate counts were obtained (r(2)>0.95). This method is also reliable to enumerate Y. enterocolitica growing in biofilms attached to stainless steel. Compared with a standard plate count which involves dislodging biofilms from surfaces, this method is more convenient saving both time and effort. Therefore, it will be useful to study the conditions required for the biofilm growth and control of Y. enterocolitica that could be applied to the pork industry.

  19. RatBot: anti-enumeration peer-to-peer botnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Guanhua [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Eidenbenz, Stephan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chen, Songqing [GEORGE MASON UNIV.

    2010-01-01

    Botnets have emerged as one of the most severe cyber threats in recent years. To obtain high resilience against a single point of failure, the new generation of botnets have adopted the peer-to-peer (P2P) structure. One critical question regarding these P2P botnets is: how big are they indeed? To address this question, researchers have proposed both actively crawling and passively monitoring methods to enumerate existing P2P botnets. In this work, we go further to explore the potential strategies that botnets may have to obfuscate their true sizes. Towards this end, this paper introduces RatBot, a P2P botnet that applies some statistical techniques to defeat existing P2P botnet enumeration methods. The key ideas of RatBot are two-fold: (1) there exist a fraction of bots that are indistinguishable from their fake identities, which are spoofing IP addresses they use to hide themselves; (2) we use a heavy-tailed distribution to generate the number of fake identities for each of these bots so that the sum of observed fake identities converges only slowly and thus has high variation. We use large-scale high-fidelity simulation to quantify the estimation errors under diverse settings, and the results show that a naive enumeration technique can overestimate the sizes of P2P botnets by one order of magnitude. We believe that our work reveals new challenges of accurately estimating the sizes of P2P botnets, and hope that it will raise the awareness of security practitioners with these challenges. We further suggest a few countermeasures that can potentially defeat RatBot's anti-enumeration scheme.

  20. Enumeration versus multiple object tracking: the case of action video game players

    OpenAIRE

    Green, C.S.; Bavelier, D.

    2005-01-01

    Here, we demonstrate that action video game play enhances subjects’ ability in two tasks thought to indicate the number of items that can be apprehended. Using an enumeration task, in which participants have to determine the number of quickly flashed squares, accuracy measures showed a near ceiling performance for low numerosities and a sharp drop in performance once a critical number of squares was reached. Importantly, this critical number was higher by about two items in video game players...

  1. A biclustering algorithm based on a Bicluster Enumeration Tree: application to DNA microarray data

    OpenAIRE

    Ayadi Wassim; Elloumi Mourad; Hao Jin-Kao

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background In a number of domains, like in DNA microarray data analysis, we need to cluster simultaneously rows (genes) and columns (conditions) of a data matrix to identify groups of rows coherent with groups of columns. This kind of clustering is called biclustering. Biclustering algorithms are extensively used in DNA microarray data analysis. More effective biclustering algorithms are highly desirable and needed. Methods We introduce BiMine, a new enumeration algorithm for biclust...

  2. Quantitative PCR for Detection and Enumeration of Genetic Markers of Bovine Fecal Pollution▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Shanks, Orin C.; Atikovic, Emina; Blackwood, A. Denene; Lu, Jingrang; Noble, Rachel T.; Domingo, Jorge Santo; Seifring, Shawn; Sivaganesan, Mano; Haugland, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    Accurate assessment of health risks associated with bovine (cattle) fecal pollution requires a reliable host-specific genetic marker and a rapid quantification method. We report the development of quantitative PCR assays for the detection of two recently described bovine feces-specific genetic markers and a method for the enumeration of these markers using a Markov chain Monte Carlo approach. Both assays exhibited a range of quantification from 25 to 2 × 106 copies of target DNA, with a coeff...

  3. An example of geometric origami design with benefit of graph enumeration algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Dureisseix, David

    2016-01-01

    This article is concerned with an example of complex planar geometry arising from flat origami challenges. The complexity of solution algorithms is illustrated, depending on the depth of the initial analysis of the problem, starting from brute force enumeration, up to the equivalence to a dedicated problem in graph theory. This leads to algorithms starting from an untractable case on modern computers, up to a run of few seconds on a portable personal computer. This emphasizes the need for a p...

  4. Enumeration and Characterization of Acidophilic Microorganisms Isolated from a Pilot Plant Stirred-Tank Bioleaching Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Okibe, Naoko; Gericke, Mariekie; Hallberg, Kevin B.; Johnson, D. Barrie

    2003-01-01

    Microorganisms were enumerated and isolated on selective solid media from a pilot-scale stirred-tank bioleaching operation in which a polymetallic sulfide concentrate was subjected to biologically accelerated oxidation at 45°C. Four distinct prokaryotes were isolated: three bacteria (an Acidithiobacillus caldus-like organism, a thermophilic Leptospirillum sp., and a Sulfobacillus sp.) and one archaeon (a Ferroplasma-like isolate). The relative numbers of these prokaryotes changed in the three...

  5. Specific Dot-Immunobinding Assay for Detection and Enumeration of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans

    OpenAIRE

    Arredondo, Renato; Jerez, Carlos A.

    1989-01-01

    A specific and very sensitive dot-immunobinding assay for the detection and enumeration of the bioleaching microorganism Thiobacillus ferrooxidans was developed. Nitrocellulose spotted with samples was incubated with polyclonal antisera against whole T. ferrooxidans cells and then in 125I-labeled protein A or 125I-labeled goat antirabbit immunoglobulin G; incubation was followed by autoradiography. Since a minimum of 103 cells per dot could be detected, the method offers the possibility of si...

  6. Evaluation of Methods for Sampling, Recovery, and Enumeration of Bacteria Applied to the Phylloplane

    OpenAIRE

    Donegan, Katherine; Matyac, Carl; Seidler, Ramon; Porteous, Arlene

    1991-01-01

    Determining the fate and survival of genetically engineered microorganisms released into the environment requires the development and application of accurate and practical methods of detection and enumeration. Several experiments were performed to examine quantitative recovery methods that are commonly used or that have potential applications. In these experiments, Erwinia herbicola and Enterobacter cloacae were applied in greenhouses to Blue Lake bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and Cayuse oa...

  7. Diagnostic Accuracy of Rectoanal Mucosal Swab of Feedlot Cattle for Detection and Enumeration of Salmonella enterica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agga, Getahun E; Arthur, Terrance M; Schmidt, John W; Wang, Rong; Brichta-Harhay, Dayna M

    2016-04-01

    Cattle are noted carriers of the foodborne pathogen Salmonella enterica. The perceived need to decrease the potential human health risk posed by excretion of this pathogen has resulted in numerous studies examining the factors that influence Salmonella shedding in cattle. Fecal grab (FG) samples have been the predominant method used to identify cattle colonized or infected with Salmonella; however, FG sampling can be impractical in certain situations, and rectoanal mucosal swabs (RAMS) are a more convenient sample type to collect. Despite a lack of studies comparing FG and RAMS for the detection and enumeration of Salmonella fecal shedding, RAMS is perceived as less sensitive because a smaller amount of feces is cultured. In a cross-sectional study to address these concerns, paired RAMS and FG samples were collected from 403 adult feedlot cattle approximately 90 days prior to harvest. Samples were processed for Salmonella enumeration (direct plating) and detection (enrichment and immunomagnetic separation). In all, 89.6% of RAMS and 98.8% of FG samples were positive for Salmonella, and concordant prevalence outcomes were observed for 90.8% of samples. Mean enumeration values were 3.01 and 3.12 log CFU/ml for RAMS and FG, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of RAMS were 91% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 87.5 to 93%) and 100% (95% CI: 48 to 100%), respectively, for Salmonella detection. Furthermore, RAMS Salmonella enumeration was substantially concordant (ρc = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.86 to 0.91) with FG values. We conclude that RAMS are a reliable alternative to FG for assessing cattle Salmonella fecal shedding status, especially for cattle shedding high levels of Salmonella. PMID:27052855

  8. Evaluation of an Unsuccessful Brook Trout Electrofishing Removal Project in a Small Rocky Mountain Stream.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Kevin A.; Lamansky, Jr., James A.; Schill, Daniel J.

    2006-01-26

    In the western United States, exotic brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis frequently have a deleterious effect on native salmonids, and biologists often attempt to remove brook trout from streams by means of electrofishing. Although the success of such projects typically is low, few studies have assessed the underlying mechanisms of failure, especially in terms of compensatory responses. A multiagency watershed advisory group (WAG) conducted a 3-year removal project to reduce brook trout and enhance native salmonids in 7.8 km of a southwestern Idaho stream. We evaluated the costs and success of their project in suppressing brook trout and looked for brook trout compensatory responses, such as decreased natural mortality, increased growth, increased fecundity at length, and earlier maturation. The total number of brook trout removed was 1,401 in 1998, 1,241 in 1999, and 890 in 2000; removal constituted an estimated 88% of the total number of brook trout in the stream in 1999 and 79% in 2000. Although abundance of age-1 and older brook trout declined slightly during and after the removals, abundance of age-0 brook trout increased 789% in the entire stream 2 years after the removals ceased. Total annual survival rate for age-2 and older brook trout did not decrease during the removals, and the removals failed to produce an increase in the abundance of native redband trout Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri. Lack of a meaningful decline and unchanged total mortality for older brook trout during the removals suggest that a compensatory response occurred in the brook trout population via reduced natural mortality, which offset the removal of large numbers of brook trout. Although we applaud WAG personnel for their goal of enhancing native salmonids by suppressing brook trout via electrofishing removal, we conclude that their efforts were unsuccessful and suggest that similar future projects elsewhere over such large stream lengths would be costly, quixotic enterprises.

  9. Evaluation of confocal laser scanning microscopy for enumeration of virus-like particles in aquatic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agis, Martin; Luef, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Abundances of virus-like particles (VLPs, mostly bacteriophages) are high in aquatic environments; therefore, techniques for precise enumeration are essential in ecological monitoring. VLPs were determined after staining with SYBR Gold by conventional epifluorescence microscopy and compared to enumerations performed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). In order to assess the potential of CLSM for viral direct counts (VDCs), we processed samples from different freshwater and marine systems. Optical sectioning by CLSM and production of an overlay picture of multiple scans enables the often uneven whole investigated filter area to be brought to the plane of focus. This allows for subsequent image analysis of digitally created high-quality images. Another advantage using the CLSM was that the short spot excitation of the stain via laser beam minimized fading of the stain. The VDC results show that there is no significant difference between the two methods. Regarding the known difficulties of viral abundance estimates on particulate material, CLSM was further applied to enumerate VLPs on a small set of marine transparent exopolymeric particles sampled from the Atlantic Ocean. Our data suggest that CLSM is a useful tool to count viruses in water samples as well as attached to certain types of aquatic aggregates. PMID:23108709

  10. BIOMASS AND DENSITY OF BROWN AND RAINBOW TROUT IN NEW MEXICO STREAMS

    OpenAIRE

    Srečko Lainer

    1995-01-01

    Mean stream numerical density of the brown trout (Salmo trutta m. fario Linnaeus, 1758) and the rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792) was 0.090 fish/m2 of which brown trout averaged 69% (72% in total biomass) in 15 high-elevation New Mexico streams (1,661-2,560 m above sea level). Total trout density varied from 0.008/m2 in 1988 and 1989. Mean trout density ranged between 0.023-0.121 fish/m2 at site s open to public fishing. Considerably higher densities (0.142-0.409 fish/m2) wer...

  11. Effect of a β-agonist on meat quality and myofibrillar protein fragmentation in bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiems, L O; Buts, B; Boucqué, C V; Demeyer, D I; Cottyn, B G

    1990-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to study the effect of cimaterol on meat quality and myofibrillar protein fragmentation of the Longissimus dorsi muscle. In two experiments (Experiments 1 and 2), conducted with 16 double-muscled Belgian white-blue bulls and 15 Charolais bulls, respectively, half of the animals received 60 μg cimaterol daily per kg liveweight in the diet, during 135 and 93 days, respectively. In a third experiment, 46 normal Belgian white-blue bulls received no or 4 ppm cimaterol in the diet for 246, 127 or 71 days on average. A withdrawal period of 6 days was always applied for cimaterol-treated animals. Ultimate pH, colour and waterholding capacity were not significantly affected. The effect of cimaterol on moisture content was variable, while protein content was increased and fat was reduced. Warner-Bratzler shear force values were increased by cimaterol P meat quality. PMID:22055115

  12. Production and quality of beef from young bulls fed diets supplemented with peanut cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, B R; Carvalho, G G P; Oliveira, R L; Pires, A J V; Ribeiro, O L; Silva, R R; Leão, A G; Simionato, J I; Carvalho, B M A

    2016-08-01

    Peanut cake is a biodiesel byproduct that has been tested as an alternative feed additive for use in cattle production. This study aimed to assess the importance of dietary peanut cake inclusion for young bull growth rate, beef production, and beef quality. In total, 32 Nellore young bulls individually housed in stalls with a mean initial body weight of 390±43.5kg were distributed in a completely randomized design for the experiment. The animals were fed Tifton 85 hay and one of four concentrate mixtures with 0, 33, 66 or 100% peanut cake instead of soybean meal. There was a linear reduction (Pcake at levels up to 100% in the diet of feedlot-finished young bulls promotes a beneficial increase in the levels of PUFAs and the following nutraceutical compounds: conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and Ω3 and Ω6 fatty acids.

  13. The Effect of Sperm Morphology and Sire Fertility on Calving Rate of Finnish Ayrshire AI Bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, S; Katila, T; Andersson, M

    2016-02-01

    Good-quality semen is a prerequisite for successful and profitable artificial insemination (AI) of modern dairy cattle. Fertility of the bulls is evaluated with andrological examinations and semen analyses, such as morphology. However, little attention has been paid to the inheritance of bull fertility. In this study, we correlated sperm morphology, birth year and station of 695 AI bulls with calving rate (CR). Sperm morphology was clearly associated with CR underlining the usefulness of morphological examination in the assessment of fertility. The correlation between the proportion of normal spermatozoa and CR was significant (p sires to study the inheritance of fertility. Sire's CR did not correlate with the CR of the sons (p = 0.218). This result indicates that at least when sires of acceptable CR are used to produce sons for use in AI the inheritance of CR is not significantly correlated. PMID:26660630

  14. Production and quality of beef from young bulls fed diets supplemented with peanut cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, B R; Carvalho, G G P; Oliveira, R L; Pires, A J V; Ribeiro, O L; Silva, R R; Leão, A G; Simionato, J I; Carvalho, B M A

    2016-08-01

    Peanut cake is a biodiesel byproduct that has been tested as an alternative feed additive for use in cattle production. This study aimed to assess the importance of dietary peanut cake inclusion for young bull growth rate, beef production, and beef quality. In total, 32 Nellore young bulls individually housed in stalls with a mean initial body weight of 390±43.5kg were distributed in a completely randomized design for the experiment. The animals were fed Tifton 85 hay and one of four concentrate mixtures with 0, 33, 66 or 100% peanut cake instead of soybean meal. There was a linear reduction (Pcake at levels up to 100% in the diet of feedlot-finished young bulls promotes a beneficial increase in the levels of PUFAs and the following nutraceutical compounds: conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and Ω3 and Ω6 fatty acids. PMID:27050756

  15. SEASONAL INFLUENCE ON SEMINAL PATTERN AND FREEZABILITY OF PANTANEIRO BULL SEMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia Hack Moreira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to investigate the effect of the season of the year on testicular morphology, fresh and frozen/thawed semen quality from Pantaneiro bulls bred in Brasilia, DF. Six bulls were submitted, once a month for one year, to evaluation of testicular measurements, semen collection using an artificial vagina and cryopreserved with medium containing Tris-based, egg  yolk and glycerol. The testicular length and volume were greater (P 0.05. In conclusion, Pantaneiro bulls, bred in the Midwest region of Brazil, can be used in natural mating programs in all seasons. Aiming to improve the Brazilian Animal Germplasm Bank with a higher number of samples collected, we suggest that the freezing of the semen is done between June and August, although there will be no losses of semen quality at any time. Keywords: bovine; conservation; cryopreservation; reproduction; seasonality.

  16. DETECTION OF RECESSIVE MUTATIONS (CVM, BLAD AND RED FACTOR INHOLSTEIN BULLS IN SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betka LOGAR

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Detection of recessive mutations that causes complex vertebral malformation (CVM and bovine leukocyte adhesion defi ciency (BLAD in Holstein cattle is especially required for bulls, which are used for artifi cial insemination (A.I.; these enable elimination of carriers from the A.I. programs and therefore prevent transmission of unwanted mutations to a large number of offspring. Some breeders are also interested in the identifi cation of carriers of recessive allele for red and white coat colour (Red factor. Here, we performed genetic tests for detection of mutations associated with CVM, BLAD and Red factor using methods previously reported or modifi ed methods. Analysis of Holstein bulls, which were recommended for A.I in Slovenia in the years 2007 and 2008, revealed four (10 % carriers of CVM, and two (5.4 % carriers of red gene, while all bulls were non-carriers of BLAD.

  17. Genomic Prediction from Whole Genome Sequence in Livestock: The 1000 Bull Genomes Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayes, Benjamin J; MacLeod, Iona M; Daetwyler, Hans D;

    Advantages of using whole genome sequence data to predict genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) include better persistence of accuracy of GEBV across generations and more accurate GEBV across breeds. The 1000 Bull Genomes Project provides a database of whole genome sequenced key ancestor bulls......, for imputing sequence variant genotypes into reference sets for genomic prediction. Run 3.0 included 429 sequences, with 31.8 million variants detected. BayesRC, a new method for genomic prediction, addresses some challenges associated with using the sequence data, and takes advantage of biological...... information. In a dairy data set, predictions using BayesRC and imputed sequence data from 1000 Bull Genomes were 2% more accurate than with 800k data. We could demonstrate the method identified causal mutations in some cases. Further improvements will come from more accurate imputation of sequence variant...

  18. Manipulation of extraordinary acoustic transmission by a tunable bull's eye structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extraordinary acoustic transmission (EAT) has been investigated in a tunable bull's eye structure. We demonstrate that the transmission coefficient of acoustic waves can be modulated by a grating structure. When the grating is located at a distance of 0.5 mm from the base plate, the acoustic transmission shows an 8.77-fold enhancement compared to that by using a traditional bull's eye structure. When the distance increases to 1.5 mm, the transmission approaches zero, indicating a total reflection. Thus, we can make an efficient modulation of acoustic transmission from 0 to 877%. The EAT effects have been ascribed to the coupling of structure-induced resonance with the diffractive wave and the waveguide modes, as well as the Fabry-Perot resonances. As a potential application, the modulation of far-field collimation is illustrated in the proposed bull's eye structure. (rapid communication)

  19. Estimating the long-term effects of stocking domesticated trout into wild brown trout ( Salmo trutta ) populations : an approach using microsatellite DNA analysis of historical and contemporary samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller

    2002-01-01

    Indigenous salmonid fish gene pools are affected by domesticated conspecifics, derived from aquaculture escapes and deliberate releases. Variability was examined at nine microsatellite loci in order to assess the long-term impact of stocking domesticated trout in two brown trout populations. The ...... of stocked trout, could explain the observed introgression. Few nonadmixed individuals remained in the introgressed population, and I discuss how individual admixture analysis can be used to identify and conserve nonintrogressed remains of the population....... study was based on analysis of two historical samples (194556), represented by old scale collections, and seven contemporary samples (1986-2000). In one population historical and contemporary samples were remarkably genetically similar despite more than a decade of intense stocking. Estimation of...... admixture proportions showed a small genetic contribution from domesticated trout (approximately 6%), and individual admixture analysis demonstrated a majority of nonadmixed individuals. The expected genetic contribution by domesticated trout was 64%, assessed from the number of stocked trout and assuming...

  20. Comparison of the macroparasite communities of stocked and wild trout (Salmo trutta) from the West of Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    HOLLAND, CELIA

    2002-01-01

    PUBLISHED The aim of the present study was to compare the helminth infra and component communities of wild and stocked brown trout in Lough Feeagh, in the west of Ireland, and also to examine the establishment and development of helminth communities in stocked brown trout. Fish were sampled in May, August and November 1997 and 1998 and an additional sample of wild brown trout was examined in April 1997. In total 217 wild trout and 122 stocked trout were examined. The acanthocephalans Acant...

  1. Evidence of salmon lice-induced mortality of anadromous brown trout (Salmo trutta) in the Hardangerfjord, Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Skaala, Øystein; Kålås, Steinar; Borgstrøm, Reidar

    2013-01-01

    The Hardangerfjord, western Norway, is an area with a high concentration of salmon farms, high levels of infection of salmon lice in anadromous brown trout, and declining trout populations. This study assessed the marine survival rate of anadromous trout from the River Guddalselva, in the central part of the fjord, and tested the hypothesis that trout populations in this area are depressed by salmon lice infection. From 2001 to 2011, all descending smolts and trout returning from the fjord we...

  2. Ultrastructural changes in the hepatocytes of juvenile rainbow trout and mature brown trout exposed to copper or zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leland, H.V.

    1983-01-01

    Morphological changes in hepatocytes of mature brown trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus) and juvenile rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri Richardson), accompanying chronic exposures to copper and zinc, were examined by transmission electron microscopy. At a concentration of copper not inhibitory to the final stages of gonadal development or spawning of brown trout, structural alterations included contraction of mitochondria and a tendency for nuclei to be slightly enlarged. Concentrations of copper or zinc lethal to a small fraction (10% and 4%, respectively) of a population of juvenile rainbow trout exposed for 42 d during larval and early juvenile development caused hepatocyte changes in survivors indicative of a reduction in ability to maintain intracellular water and cation balance and possible intranuclear metal sequestering. Specific structural alterations included increased vesiculation of rough endoplasmic reticulum, an increase in the abundance of electron-dense particles in the nucleus, increases in the numbers of multilaminar and globular inclusions, pooling of glycogen, increased autophagocytic activity and an increase in the number of necrotic cells. At advanced stages of toxicosis (concentrations of copper or zinc lethal to approximately 50% of the juveniles exposed for 42 d during development), loss in integrity of mitochondrial membranes, rupturing of plasma and nuclear membranes, separation of granular and fibrillar nuclear components, fragmentation of endoplasmic reticulum, and extensive autophagic vacuolization were significant features of hepatocytes of surviving juvenile rainbow trout. ?? 1983.

  3. Effects of slaughter weight and carcass electrical stimulation on the quality and palatability of beef from young purebred bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, M B; West, R L; Hentges, J F

    1986-12-01

    Seventy-eight purebred Angus and Brahman bulls (10 to 18 mo at slaughter) were used to determine the effects of slaughter weight (60, 80, 90 or 100% of the average mature-cow weight for the respective breed) and carcass electrical stimulation (500 V, 20 2-s impulses on the right side) on carcass and meat characteristics. Angus bulls grazed summer forage (millet) after weaning, while Brahman bulls were fed to stimulate gains achieved on forage by Angus bulls. Bulls were then placed in the feedlot for finishing to their designated slaughter weight (293, 381, 412 and 463 kg for Angus and 316, 420, 463 and 516 kg for Brahman). Coarse dark band formation and lean color problems normally associated with bullock carcasses were either eliminated or reduced by stimulation. Increasing slaughter weight from 60 to 90% was associated with an increase in panel tenderness scores for loin steaks. However, increasing slaughter weight from 90 to 100% little change was detected. On the other hand, shear values for loin steaks decreased with increasing slaughter weight. Stimulation increased the tenderness of loin steaks as determined by both panel scores and shear values, and of bottom round steaks (shear-force values). The data from this study suggest that meat from the bulls slaughtered at lighter weights was generally tough, but was improved when bulls were fed to heavier, yet acceptable weights. This research encourages implementation of electrical stimulation on carcasses from young bulls to improve quality-indicating factors. PMID:3818464

  4. 76 FR 68523 - Utah Southern Railroad Company, LLC-Change in Operators Exemption-Iron Bull Railroad Company, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... Surface Transportation Board Utah Southern Railroad Company, LLC--Change in Operators Exemption--Iron Bull Railroad Company, LLC Utah Southern Railroad Company, LLC (USRC), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to change operators from Iron Bull Railroad Company (IBRC) to...

  5. Effects of slaughter weight and carcass electrical stimulation on the quality and palatability of beef from young purebred bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, M B; West, R L; Hentges, J F

    1986-12-01

    Seventy-eight purebred Angus and Brahman bulls (10 to 18 mo at slaughter) were used to determine the effects of slaughter weight (60, 80, 90 or 100% of the average mature-cow weight for the respective breed) and carcass electrical stimulation (500 V, 20 2-s impulses on the right side) on carcass and meat characteristics. Angus bulls grazed summer forage (millet) after weaning, while Brahman bulls were fed to stimulate gains achieved on forage by Angus bulls. Bulls were then placed in the feedlot for finishing to their designated slaughter weight (293, 381, 412 and 463 kg for Angus and 316, 420, 463 and 516 kg for Brahman). Coarse dark band formation and lean color problems normally associated with bullock carcasses were either eliminated or reduced by stimulation. Increasing slaughter weight from 60 to 90% was associated with an increase in panel tenderness scores for loin steaks. However, increasing slaughter weight from 90 to 100% little change was detected. On the other hand, shear values for loin steaks decreased with increasing slaughter weight. Stimulation increased the tenderness of loin steaks as determined by both panel scores and shear values, and of bottom round steaks (shear-force values). The data from this study suggest that meat from the bulls slaughtered at lighter weights was generally tough, but was improved when bulls were fed to heavier, yet acceptable weights. This research encourages implementation of electrical stimulation on carcasses from young bulls to improve quality-indicating factors.

  6. 75 FR 25794 - Regulated Navigation Area: Red Bull Air Race World Championship, Upper New York Bay, Lower Hudson...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA08 Regulated Navigation Area: Red Bull Air Race World... State Park, New Jersey and Ellis Island, New Jersey and New York for the Red Bull Air Race World..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a...

  7. The effects of Red Bull energy drink compared with caffeine on cycling time-trial performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlivan, Alannah; Irwin, Christopher; Grant, Gary D; Anoopkumar-Dukie, Sheilandra; Skinner, Tina; Leveritt, Michael; Desbrow, Ben

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the ergogenic effects of a commercial energy drink (Red Bull) or an equivalent dose of anhydrous caffeine in comparison with a noncaffeinated control beverage on cycling performance. Eleven trained male cyclists (31.7 ± 5.9 y 82.3 ± 6.1 kg, VO2max = 60.3 ± 7.8 mL · kg-1 · min-1) participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover-design study involving 3 experimental conditions. Participants were randomly administered Red Bull (9.4 mL/kg body mass [BM] containing 3 mg/kg BM caffeine), anhydrous caffeine (3 mg/kg BM given in capsule form), or a placebo 90 min before commencing a time trial equivalent to 1 h cycling at 75% peak power output. Carbohydrate and fluid volumes were matched across all trials. Performance improved by 109 ± 153 s (2.8%, P = .039) after Red Bull compared with placebo and by 120 ± 172 s (3.1%, P = .043) after caffeine compared with placebo. No significant difference (P > .05) in performance time was detected between Red Bull and caffeine treatments. There was no significant difference (P > .05) in mean heart rate or rating of perceived exertion among the 3 treatments. This study demonstrated that a moderate dose of caffeine consumed as either Red Bull or in anhydrous form enhanced cycling time-trial performance. The ergogenic benefits of Red Bull energy drink are therefore most likely due to the effects of caffeine, with the other ingredients not likely to offer additional benefit.

  8. MEAT QUALITY FROM CHAROLAIS BULLS FED DIETS WITH DIFFERENT LEVELS OF CORN SILAGE INCLUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Cozzi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A sample of 6 intensive beef farms was selected according to the feeding plan adopted during the fattening period of Charolais bulls. Two farms did not include any corn silage in the diet (CS0, while corn silage represented 22% of the dietary DM in the second group of 2 farms (CS22, and it raised up to 44% of the dietary DM in the last 2 farms (CS44. Five bulls were randomly selected from each farm to be slaughtered in the same abattoir. Bulls age was similar across treatments but the CS44 bulls had a lower carcass weight (396 kg than the other two treatments (436 and 446 kg for CS0 and CS22, respectively. Carcass fleshiness (SEUROP and fatness scores were not affected by the level of corn silage in the diet. Meat quality was evaluated on a joint sample of the m. Longissimus thoracis, excised from the 5th to the 9th rib of each right half carcass 24 h post-mortem, after an ageing period of 10 d vacuum packaged at 4°C. Meat chemical analysis showed no variations in pH, DM, intramuscular fat and protein content due to the different silage inclusion in the diet. Only the cholesterol content was progressively reduced in the meat of bulls fed increasing quantities of corn silage according to a significant negative linear trend. Meat colour, cooking losses and shear force values were not affected by the diet. Therefore, based on these findings there are no substantial arguments against the use of a large amount of corn silage in the fattening diets of Charolais bulls.

  9. Effect of preputial washing on bacterial load and preservability of semen in Murrah buffalo bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Meena

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the effect of preputial washing on bacterial load, preservability and semen quality in Murrah buffalo bulls Materials and Methods: A total of 36 collections of three Murrah buffalo bulls maintained at Artificial Breeding Research Centre, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, were collected at weekly intervals from each bull without preputial washing and latter ejaculates from same bull with preputial washing by infusing normal saline (0.85%, KMnO4 (0.02% and savlon (2.0% to first, second and third bull, respectively. The microbial load and semen quality were evaluated during different hours of storage at refrigerated temperature (0, 24 and 48 h and after thrawing of cryopreserved (at −196°C semen. Results: The results of preservation of semen at refrigerated temperature showed that bacterial load was markedly lower in ejaculates of bulls subjected to preputial washing. Semen preserved at refrigerator temperature and cryopreserved, the effect of washing solution was significant for individual motility (IM, non-eosiniphilic count, hypo-osmotic swelling reactivity (HOST, total plate count (TPC and acrosome integrity. KMnO4 was found to be the best in lowering bacterial load, sperm abnormalities and in improving semen quality such as motility, non-eosinophilic count, HOST and acrosome integrity even up to 48 h of preservation and cryopreserved semen. Effect of duration of preservation and stage of cryopreservation was also significant for IM, non-eosiniphilic count, HOST, sperm abnormalities and acrosome integrity. Conclusion: Overall the results suggested that preputial washing with KMnO4 solution improved the semen quality and reduced microbial load of Murrah buffalo bull’s semen preserved at refrigerated temperature and cryopreservation.

  10. The marine life of sea trout (Salmo trutta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Villar, Diego

    -smolts as well as on the fish returning to freshwater after the marine stage. The results of my experiments increase the current knowledge of specific behavioural traits that sea trout displays during their marine life. Additionally, it provides new information on the early and late marine survival which......During my PhD. research project I have studied the marine migratory behaviour and survival of wild sea trout (Salmo trutta L.) juveniles when moving from freshwater to saltwater (i.e. smolts/post-smolts) in two different fjord systems. These studies are focused on the initial marine stage of post...... is needed for comprehensive management of sea trout populations in the area. The principal method used was telemetry (acoustic and PIT-telemetry) which enable studying migratory patterns of fish in the fjord (i.e. acoustic telemetry) and detecting the transitions from the marine to the riverine environments...

  11. Radiocaesium turnover in Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) in a Norwegian lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactivity of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) and Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus (L.)) was monitored in a Norwegian lake from 1986 to 1989. A distinct difference was observed between brown trout and Arctic charr in the accumulation of radiocaesium (134Cs and 137Cs) from the Chernobyl fallout, and the study focused on the understanding of this difference. Brown trout had a large food consumption and a corresponding high intake of radiocaesium. Excretion was 20% faster in brown trout than Arctic charr as brown trout lived at high temperatures in epilimnic water. Arctic charr had a lower food consumption (less than one-third of trout) and lived in colder meta-and hypolimnic water. Arctic charr therefore had a lower intake and slower excretion of radiocaesium. Brown trout an Arctic charr had different diets. For brown trout zoobenthos was the dominant food item, whereas Artic charr mainly fed on zooplankton. The radioactivity in the stomach contents of the two species was different in 1986, but similar for the rest of the period. Higher levels of radiocaesium in brown trout than Arctic charr in 1986 were due to a higher food consumption and more radioactive food items in its diet. The parallel development in accumulated radiocaesium through summer 1987 was probably formed by brown trout balancing a higher intake with a faster excretion. The ecological half-lives of radiocaesium in brown trout (357 days) and Arctic charr (550 days) from Lake Hoeysjoeen indicated a slow removal of the isotopes from the food webs. (author)

  12. Life+ Trout Project (LIFE12 NAT/IT/0000940) for the recovery and conservation of Mediterranean trout (Salmo trutta complex) in the central Apennines (Italy).

    OpenAIRE

    Vincenzo Caputo Barucchi; Antonella Carosi

    2015-01-01

    The Mediterranean brown trout (Salmo trutta complex) is one of the freshwater fish species complex at greater risk of extinction in the Mediterranean area. The introduction of alien invasive species and their interaction with the native fauna represent some of the major threats to the survival of this species (Caputo et al., 2004). Currently, the genetic integrity of the Mediterranean trout is being compromised by the introgressive hybridization with the Atlantic trout. This hybridization, wh...

  13. Movement Patterns and Multi-Scale Factors That Influence Exotic Brook Trout And Endemic Bonneville Cutthroat Trout Distribution And Abundance In The Mill Creek Drainage, Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Nadolski, Benjamin Keith

    2008-01-01

    Introduced brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) are implicated as a primary factor leading to the decline in distribution and abundance of native cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii). However, not all introductions are successful, suggesting local conditions influence the success of invasions. Therefore, I sought to determine the multi-scale factor(s) that influence brook trouts’ invasion success of native Bonneville cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii utah) habitats in Mill Creek, Utah. I...

  14. Chromosome rearrangements, recombination suppression, and limited segregation distortion in hybrids between Yellowstone cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii bouvieri) and rainbow trout (O. mykiss)

    OpenAIRE

    Carl O Ostberg; Hauser, Lorenz; Pritchard, Victoria L; Garza, John C; Naish, Kerry A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Introgressive hybridization is an important evolutionary process that can lead to the creation of novel genome structures and thus potentially new genetic variation for selection to act upon. On the other hand, hybridization with introduced species can threaten native species, such as cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii) following the introduction of rainbow trout (O. mykiss). Neither the evolutionary consequences nor conservation implications of rainbow trout introgression in cu...

  15. Utilisation of brown trout by Acanthocephalus clavula (Acanthocephala) in brown trout (Salmo trutta) in an Irish lake: is this evidence of a host shift?

    OpenAIRE

    HOLLAND, CELIA

    2004-01-01

    PUBLISHED The population biology of the fish acanthocephalan Acanthocephalus clavula was described from 161 wild brown trout, Salmo trutta sampled over a two-year period in Clogher Lake in the west of Ireland. Overall prevalence of the parasite was 86% and the mean abundance was 53 worms per fish. Despite the presence of large numbers of worms in the trout very few females (2%) attained full reproductive maturity. This suggests that trout is an accidental host. A sample of yellow eels, Ang...

  16. Breed and other effects on reproductive traits and breeding soundness categorization in young beef bulls in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenoweth, P J; Chase, C C; Thatcher, M J; Wilcox, C J; Larsen, R E

    1996-11-01

    Yearling, grass-fed, beef bulls at the USDA Subtropical Agricultural Research Station, Brooksville, Florida, were assessed for physical and semen traits in January, April, July and October of 1991 (Trial 1) and 1992 (Trial 2). Bulls were given a breeding soundness evaluation (BSE) using revised semen and scrotal circumference (SC) criteria. In Trial 1, the bulls consisted of Angus (n = 15), Brahman (n = 14), Hereford (n = 15) and Senepol (n = 14). In Trial 2, the breeds were Angus (n = 15), Brahman (n = 16), Romosinuano (n = 13) and Nellore x Brahman (n = 9). Trial bulls generally showed delayed growth compared with grain-fed bulls in temperate environments. Breed influenced semen traits (percentage sperm motility, normal spermatozoa and those with primary abnormalities) in both trials. Temperate Bos taurus breeds (Angus, Hereford) were generally superior to Bos indicus breeds (Brahman, Nellore x Brahman). Tropically-adapted Bos taurus breeds (Senepol, Romosinuano) were intermediate for those traits tested. In general, tropically-adapted Bos taurus breeds were more similar in reproductive development to temperate Bos taurus than to Bos indicus breeds. Breed by test period interactions occurred and were mainly influenced by delayed sexual maturity of Bos indicus bulls. Qualitative semen traits increased with bull age, particularly from 12 to 18 mo. Scrotal circumference development was slower in the Bos indicus breeds. Bulls of satisfactory BSE status at 18.1 to 22 mo of age were 73.9% in Trial 1 and 58.5% in Trial 2. Brahman bulls had the least satisfactory BSE scores in both years (Trial 1, 44.4%; Trial 2, 22.2%). Most bulls failed to achieve satisfactory BSE status due to a small SC relative to age (Trial 1, 66%; Trial 2, 72%). The most efficacious use of the BSE was > or = 15 mo in Bos taurus bulls and > 18 mo for Bos indicus bulls. Although the BSE has proven to be useful for the assessment of young, pasture-raised bulls in semi-tropical environments, use of SC

  17. The effect of paternal bull on milk fat composition of dairy cows of different breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Kirchnerová

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Intake of milk fat in human nutrition is important because of unsaturated and especially essential fatty acids (FAs, linoleic and α-linolenic acid, and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, which is found only in meat and milk of ruminants. The objective of our study was to investigate the effect of paternal bulls on fatty acids composition in milk fat of dairy cows of different breeds. The milk samples were taken in total from 299 dairy cows from 11 dairy farms. In experiment Holstein (H, n = 105, Red Holstein (R, n = 120 and Pinzgau (P, n = 74 breeds originated from different bulls were used. Individual milk samples were analyzed for fatty acids in milk fat using gas chromatography (apparatus GC Varian 3800, Techtron, USA, using FID detector in capillary column Omegawax 530; 30 m. In the chromatography records there were identified 54 fatty acids inclusive of particular isomers. Their relative proportions were expressed in percent's (%. Among the studied breeds, the highest content of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA - 0.67%, essential FAs (EFA - 2.98%, monounsaturated FAs (MUFA - 25.84% and the lowest atherogenic index (AI - 3.10 was at breed P. Within this breed there was high variability and daughters of bull COS1 achieved significant above-average values of CLA content 1.07%, EFA 3.71%, MUFA 29.93% and under breed average AI = 2.40. The group of daughters of NOB3 was significant lower in CLA, 0.50% as compared with an average of P breed. . From the breed H bull MTY2 showed significantly higher value of 0.62% CLA, EFA 3.42%, 34.29% MUFA and lower value of AI, 1.9 as compared to H breed average. Statistically significantly lower levels of CLA 0.29% and 21.46% MUFA and higher AI 3.72 in milk fat of his daughters, bull STY3 may be considered as potential worser of these properties. At the breed R bull MOR506 showed in compar to the breed average significantly higher value of the EFA 3.80% and also the higher content of CLA 0.50% and MUFA 25

  18. Larval density and the Charnov–Bull model of adaptive environmental sex determination in a copepod

    OpenAIRE

    Voordouw, Maarten J.; Robinson, H. Eve; Stebbins, Gabe; Albert, Arianne Y. K.; Anholt, Bradley R

    2011-01-01

    Charnov et Bull avancent que la variation de la taille adulte induite par le milieu en combinaison avec les différences sexuelles de fitness peut sélectionner l'évolution de la détermination sexuelle adaptative due au milieu (ESD). Dans notre étude, nous déterminons si la densité larvaire affecte la détermination sexuelle chez le copépode Tigriopus californicus (Baker, 1912) comme le prédisent Charnov et Bull. Les individus élevés à densités faibles se développent plus rapidement et sont sign...

  19. Growth and carcass traits of young bulls sired by Charolais and Limousin

    OpenAIRE

    Silvester Žgur; Marko Čepon; Mojca Simčič

    2010-01-01

    A brown cattle is dual purpose cattle in Slovenia mainly used for milk production. This study included 90 crossbred young bulls of two genotypes, 70 Brown x Limousin (BRxLIM) and 20 Brown x Charolais (BRxCHA). The aim of this study was to determine some growth and carcass characteristics of crossbred young bulls. Data were analysed by GLM procedure considering sire breed and year nested within sire breed as fixed effects and slaughter age as linear regression. Sire breed statistically signifi...

  20. Viability of bull spermatozoa collected from the epididymis stored at 18-20°C

    OpenAIRE

    Melina Andrea Formighieri Bertol; Romildo Romualdo Weiss; Vanete Thomaz-Soccol; Luiz Ernandes Kozicki; Aline Silva Fujita; Renata Azevedo de Abreu; Kerriel Thandile Green

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the viability of bull spermatozoa collected from the cauda epididymis stored at 18-20°C, which were compared with semen collected by electro-ejaculation method and preserved at 5°C. Ten pairs of testes from Tabapuã bulls were removed by orchiectomy and stored for 6 (G6), 12 (G12), 18 (G18), 24 (G24) and 30 (G30) h at room temperature (18-20°C). Seven days before orchiectomy, semen was collected by electro-ejaculation method. The sperm parameters evaluated...

  1. Victims and offenders in a situation of bulling: who are they?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekimova V.I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bulling is one of the most common form of violence in the school environment, adversely affecting the physical and mental health of all its members. The article provides a brief review of foreign studies of this phenomenon, the actual statistics of its prevalence and forms of manifestation. Research focuses on the General characteristics of the bulling participants – aggressors and victims of aggression. The article points to the descriptive character of the studies and contradictory results. It also draws attention to the scarcity of diagnostic tools and a lack of understanding of the psychological component of the problem

  2. Quantitative Histology Studies on the Test in Hybrid Bull of Wild and Domestic Yak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎萍

    2005-01-01

    The testicular tissue of three types of yak bull (1/2 wild yak,cross 1/2 wild yak and domestic yak) were studied quantitatively at 6,12,18 and 24 months old. The results showed that the average values changed from breed to breed at the same age. But there were no significant difference. The volume density and the height of seminiferous tubule and epithelium increased with the age and testicular weight. The capacity rate of the testicular seminiferous tubule in three types were 78.71% ,75.78% and 78.58% respectively, which nearly reached the level of mature bull.

  3. A register-based study of the antimicrobial usage in Danish veal calves and young bulls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Mette Ely; Toft, Nils; Martin, Henrik Læssøe;

    2016-01-01

    High antimicrobial usage and multidrug resistance have been reported in veal calves in Europe. This may be attributed to a high risk of disease as veal calves are often purchased from numerous dairy herds, exposed to stress related to the transport and commingling of new animals, and fed a new...... ration. In this study, we used national register data to characterize the use of antimicrobials registered for large Danish veal calf and young bull producing herds in 2014. A total of 325 herds with veal calf and potentially young bull production were identified from the Danish Cattle database...

  4. Insights into the Mechanism of ADP Action on Flagellar Motility Derived from Studies on Bull Sperm

    OpenAIRE

    Lesich, Kathleen A.; Pelle, Dominic W.; Lindemann, Charles B.

    2008-01-01

    Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is known to have interesting effects on flagellar motility. Permeabilized and reactivated bull sperm exhibit a marked reduction in beating frequency and a greatly increased beat amplitude in the presence of 1–4 mM ADP. In this study we examined the force production of sperm reactivated with 0.1 mM ATP with and without 1 mM ADP and found that there is little or no resulting change in the stalling force produced by a bull sperm flagella in response to ADP. Because bu...

  5. BACTERIAL FLORA OF RAINBOW TROUT LARVAE AND FRY (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Kapetanović

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available There are no information in available literature about the structure of bacterial flora in rainbow trout larvae and fry in the first days of their lives. The objective of our work has been to follow bacteroflora between the third and the eighth week of their lives. During 35 days of experiment bacteroflora of rainbow trout has been examined, along with following physico–chemical characteristics of water quality as well as it’s influence on health. Samples for bacteriological examination were taken from gill, heart and kidney areas and innoculated on the plates. Bacterial colonies were examined macroscopically, slides with Gram staining, and afterwords biochemical tests were performed. For identification, APILAB Plus programme (bio Mérieux, France was used. Bacterial population of rainbow trout larvae and fry changed in dependence with their age. Physico–chemical characteristics of water ranged within optimal values. Most of bacterial colonies originated from gill isolates (64,4 %, than from heart (21,8 % and kidney areas (13,8 %. The bacterial flora of larvae in incubator was composed mostly of Gram–positive bacteria (75,1 %, genera: Renibacterium (25 %, Lactobacillus (16,7 %, Staphilococcus (16,7 % and Corynebacterium (16,7 %. The transfer of larvae from incubator into the pools resulted in reducing bacterial flora (–66,7 % after 45 minute stay in the pool. Gram–negative bacteria, which have been represented in larvae in incubator with low percent (24, 9 %, after the transfer of larvae to the pools became dominant and represented more than 95 % of rainbow trout larvae and fry bacterial flora. Flavobacterium, Acinetobacter and Yersinia were the predominant Gram–negative genera in larvae in incubator, whereas Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium and Pasteurella were the main isolates from rainbow trout larvae and fry until the end of experiment. Bacterial flora of larvae in incubator mostly consists of Gram–positive bacteria

  6. A first generation integrated map of the rainbow trout genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabet-Canale Kamila

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss are the most-widely cultivated cold freshwater fish in the world and an important model species for many research areas. Coupling great interest in this species as a research model with the need for genetic improvement of aquaculture production efficiency traits justifies the continued development of genomics research resources. Many quantitative trait loci (QTL have been identified for production and life-history traits in rainbow trout. An integrated physical and genetic map is needed to facilitate fine mapping of QTL and the selection of positional candidate genes for incorporation in marker-assisted selection (MAS programs for improving rainbow trout aquaculture production. Results The first generation integrated map of the rainbow trout genome is composed of 238 BAC contigs anchored to chromosomes of the genetic map. It covers more than 10% of the genome across segments from all 29 chromosomes. Anchoring of 203 contigs to chromosomes of the National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture (NCCCWA genetic map was achieved through mapping of 288 genetic markers derived from BAC end sequences (BES, screening of the BAC library with previously mapped markers and matching of SNPs with BES reads. In addition, 35 contigs were anchored to linkage groups of the INRA (French National Institute of Agricultural Research genetic map through markers that were not informative for linkage analysis in the NCCCWA mapping panel. The ratio of physical to genetic linkage distances varied substantially among chromosomes and BAC contigs with an average of 3,033 Kb/cM. Conclusions The integrated map described here provides a framework for a robust composite genome map for rainbow trout. This resource is needed for genomic analyses in this research model and economically important species and will facilitate comparative genome mapping with other salmonids and with model fish species. This resource will also

  7. Comparative bioenergetics modeling of two Lake Trout morphotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepler, Megan V.; Wagner, Tyler; Sweka, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Efforts to restore Lake Trout Salvelinus namaycush in the Laurentian Great Lakes have been hampered for decades by several factors, including overfishing and invasive species (e.g., parasitism by Sea Lampreys Petromyzon marinus and reproductive deficiencies associated with consumption of Alewives Alosa pseudoharengus). Restoration efforts are complicated by the presence of multiple body forms (i.e., morphotypes) of Lake Trout that differ in habitat utilization, prey consumption, lipid storage, and spawning preferences. Bioenergetics models constitute one tool that is used to help inform management and restoration decisions; however, bioenergetic differences among morphotypes have not been evaluated. The goal of this research was to investigate bioenergetic differences between two actively stocked morphotypes: lean and humper Lake Trout. We measured consumption and respiration rates across a wide range of temperatures (4–22°C) and size-classes (5–100 g) to develop bioenergetics models for juvenile Lake Trout. Bayesian estimation was used so that uncertainty could be propagated through final growth predictions. Differences between morphotypes were minimal, but when present, the differences were temperature and weight dependent. Basal respiration did not differ between morphotypes at any temperature or size-class. When growth and consumption differed between morphotypes, the differences were not consistent across the size ranges tested. Management scenarios utilizing the temperatures presently found in the Great Lakes (e.g., predicted growth at an average temperature of 11.7°C and 14.4°C during a 30-d period) demonstrated no difference in growth between the two morphotypes. Due to a lack of consistent differences between lean and humper Lake Trout, we developed a model that combined data from both morphotypes. The combined model yielded results similar to those of the morphotype-specific models, suggesting that accounting for morphotype differences may

  8. Evaluation of the petrifilm aerobic count plate for enumeration of aerobic marine bacteria from seawater and Caulerpa lentillifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudaka, Jun; Horii, Toru; Tamanaha, Koji; Itokazu, Kiyomasa; Nakamura, Masaji; Taira, Katsuya; Nidaira, Minoru; Okano, Sho; Kitahara, Akio

    2010-08-01

    The enumeration and evaluation of the activity of marine bacteria are important in the food industry. However, detection of marine bacteria in seawater or seafood has not been easy. The Petrifilm aerobic count plate (ACP) is a ready-to-use alternative to the traditional enumeration media used for bacteria associated with food. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a simple detection and enumeration method utilizing the Petrifilm ACP for enumeration of aerobic marine bacteria from seawater and an edible seaweed, Caulerpa lentillifera. The efficiency of enumeration of total aerobic marine bacteria on Petrifilm ACP was compared with that using the spread plate method on marine agar with 80 seawater and 64 C. lentillifera samples. With sterile seawater as the diluent, a close correlation was observed between the method utilizing Petrifilm ACP and that utilizing the conventional marine agar (r=0.98 for seawater and 0.91 for C. lentillifera). The Petrifilm ACP method was simpler and less time-consuming than the conventional method. These results indicate that Petrifilm ACP is a suitable alternative to conventional marine agar for enumeration of marine microorganisms in seawater and C. lentillifera samples.

  9. Sea growth of anadromous brown trout ( Salmo trutta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, J. J.; ter Hofstede, R.; Winter, H. V.

    2007-08-01

    Sea growth rates were studied in anadromous brown trout caught in Lake IJsselmeer, The Netherlands. Growth in the first year at sea was estimated at 26 cm from length-frequency distributions, and at 21 cm from back-calculated growth rates from scale readings. These estimates are considerably higher than sea growth rates observed in populations at higher latitudes (Norway, Sweden), but compare well with the limited information on sea growth rates estimated for anadromous trout in the River Rhine and rivers in Normandy (France).

  10. Study of rainbow trout neoplasia in the region of Haraz

    OpenAIRE

    Notash, Shahab

    2006-01-01

    This study was carried out in order to determine neoplasia presence in rainbow trout in Haraz area. Neoplasia in various species of fishes including freshwater, brackish water and marine fishes was reported in other countries. But up to now there is no documented report of rainbow trout neoplasia in Iran. The study was performed in 20 farms of Haraz area during 2004-2005. All fishes of each farm firstly were observed in order to any abnormal mass which is suspicious to neoplasia. Besides in o...

  11. Animal welfare in brown trout farming: hematological results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Forneris

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of stress resulting from fish farming has received considerable attention in this last period and fish welfare in aquaculture is a relevant topic, very important for the future of aquaculture (Watson et al., 2004; Klinger et al., 1996; Peres et al., 2004; Ron et al., 1995;Wagner et al., 1995;Watson et al., 1998. Brown trout farming is less developed then rainbow trout farming, but this kind of fish farming is increasing, mainly for fish conservation and restocking aquaculture.

  12. Immunity to rhabdoviruses in rainbow trout: the antibody response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Niels; Lapatra, S.E.

    1999-01-01

    occasional detrimental effect on rainbow trout farming. Research efforts have been focused on understanding the mechanisms involved in protective immunity. Several specific and nonspecific cellular and humoral parameters are believed to be involved, but only the antibody response has been characterised in......, have demonstrated that rainbow trout can produce specific and highly functional antibodies that are able to neutralise virus pathogenicity in vitro as well as in vivo. The apparently more restricted antibody response to IHNV and VHSV antigens in fish compared to mammals could possibly be explained by...

  13. Marine Model Trout Farms: developments in marine RAS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

    2011-01-01

    . This development and demonstration unit in commercial scale will during the next four years hopefully provide scientific and practical basis and support for further development in coming generations of Marine Model Trout Farms for large salmonids. The unit consist in the recirculation loop of one large fish tank...... will be focussed on rainbow trout production, mimicking the typical Danish net cage farming cycle, where the cages are stocked with fish of 750 – 1,000 g in April/May and all harvested before Christmas weighing some 4 kg/pcs. During these two years important production parameters such as growth-rate, feed...

  14. Vaccination against GnRH may suppress aggressive behaviour and musth in African elephant (Loxodonta africana bulls - a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. De Nys

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive behaviour and musth are constant problems in captive and sometimes in free-ranging African elephant bulls. Aggressive bulls are difficult and musth bulls almost impossible to manage without severely restricting their movement either by leg-chaining or using tranquillisers. This study investigated the relationship between faecal androgen metabolites (FAM and faecal cortisol metabolites (FCM concentrations and aggressive behaviour and tested a GnRH vaccine as a means of down-regulating aggressive behaviour and musth in 1 free-ranging and 5 captive elephant bulls. The bulls were non-aggressive (n = 3, aggressive (n = 2 or in musth (n = 1 at the onset of the study. The bulls were injected with a GnRH vaccine-adjuvant combination 3 or 4 times at 3- to 7-week intervals. Behaviour, FAM and FCM concentrations were measured during every week prior to vaccination until 4 months after the last vaccination. FAM concentrations were positively correlated with aggressive behaviour before the 1st vaccination. Androgen production, as reflected by FAM concentrations, was down-regulated in 3 of the 6 immunised bulls. At least 2 bulls and possibly a 3rd showed behavioural improvement following GnRH vaccination and in all 3 temporal gland secretion ceased. No further aggressive behaviour was observed until the end of the study in any of the bulls. The results of this 1st GnRH immunisation study suggest that it could be a useful method to control aggressive behaviour and musth in African elephant bulls.

  15. Influence of Genotype and Diet on the Characteristics of Semitendinosus Muscle in Crossbred Young Bulls Derived from Brown Swiss Cow and Double Muscled Bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Bittante

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of genotype and diet on the characteristics of muscle fibers and adipocytes of the semitendinosus muscle in crossbred young bulls derived from Brown Swiss cows (B and double-muscled Piemontese (PI or Belgian Blue (BB bulls. For this purpose 24 young bulls divided in 6 groups fed 3 diets have been used: a control diet without supplementation of rumen protected CLA (rpCLA, two other diets added with 8 or 80 g/d of a supplement of rpCLA. The histochemical methods (succinic dehydrogenase and mATPase pointed out the presence of three fiber types: type I, type IIA and type IIX. Results demonstrated that genotype affected both fiber type number and size. While there was no significant difference among the percentages of type I fibers (PI×B 12.73%, BB×B 12.95%, the difference was significant (P<0.05 for IIA fiber type (PI×B 23.03%, BB×B 29.13% and for IIX fiber type (PI×B 64.53%, BB×B 57.84%. All the fiber types of the BB×B genotype had a significantly bigger size (P<0.05 than the fibers of PI×B genotype. The adipocytes analyses showed a significant effect (P<0.05 of genotype on the adipocytes total surface. The level of CLA addition did not affected neither muscle fiber nor adipocytes characteristics.

  16. Body composition and deposition efficiency of protein and energy in grazing young bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriton Egidio Lisboa Valente

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of supplementation with different protein: carbohydrate ratios on body composition, carcass characteristics and protein and energy deposition efficiency of young were assessed. Twenty-four Nellorecalves (132.5 ± 5.5 kgand 90-150 days of age were kept on pasture for a 430 day experimental period. The treatments were: Control = mineral mixture only; HPHC = high-protein and high-carbohydrate supplement; HPLC = high-protein and low-carbohydrate supplement; LPHC = low-protein and high-carbohydrate supplement; LPLC = low-protein and low-carbohydrate supplement. Four animals at begning and 20 animal at end of experiment were slaughtered to evaluate the carcass composition. Control bulls had the lowest (p 0.05 between supplemented bulls (13 Mcal day-1. Although non-supplemented bulls had less (p 0.05 between supplemented bulls. High-carbohydrate supplements were associated with more (p 0.05 in the energy efficiency between the groups. Therefore, supplementation increases the intake and retention of protein and energy without changing the retention efficiency.

  17. Improvement of parameters of freezing medium and freezing protocol for bull sperm using two osmotic supports.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaveiro, A.; Machado, A.L.; Frijters, A.; Engel, B.; Woelders, H.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to improve the freezing protocol of bull sperm, by investigating the influence on sperm viability after freeze/thawing of different freezing medium components, as well as the effect of cooling rates in the different stages of the cooling protocol, in single factor experimen

  18. The complete amino acid sequence of the basic nuclear protein of bull spermatozoa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coelingh, J.P.; Monfoort, Cornelis H.; Rozijn, Thomas H.; Gevers Leuven, Jan A.; Schiphof, R.; Steyn-Parvé, Elizabeth P.; Braunitzer, Gerhard; Schrank, Barbara; Ruhfus, Annette

    1972-01-01

    The complete amino acid sequence of the basic nuclear protein of bull spermatozoa has been established. The sequence was partially deduced by characterization of peptides isolated from thermolysine and chymotryptic digests of the reduced and S-aminoethylated protein. The complete sequence of the fir

  19. Toxic and photodynamic effects of toluidine blue on living bull spermatoza

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijn, C. van

    1962-01-01

    1. 1. The effects of vital staining with toluidine blue on the total number of bull spermatozoa moving normally and on their mean velocity and velocity frequency distributions have been investigated with Rikmenspoel's photoelectric method. 2. 2. A significant decrease of the mean half-life period of

  20. Evaluation of carcass traits and meat characteristics of Guzerat-crossbred bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Frederico B; Villela, Severino D J; Mourthé, Mário H F; Paulino, Pedro V R; Boari, Cleube A; Ribeiro, Julimar S; Barroso, Jorge A; Pires, Aldrin V; Martins, Paulo G M A

    2016-02-01

    Our objective was to evaluate carcass and meat characteristics of Guzerat-crossbred bulls finished in feedlot. Carcasses from 18 bulls, randomly selected from a larger group of 36 bulls, consisting of F1 Guzerat×Holstein ("Guzholstein"); F1 Guzerat×Nellore ("Guzonell"); and 1/2 Simmental+1/4 Guzerat+1/4 Nellore (Three-Cross; n=6 each group) were used. Cold carcass weight was greater (P=0.01) for Three-Cross compared with "Guzonell" and "Guzholstein". Three-Cross carcasses had greater (P0.05) among groups, but depth was greater (P<0.01) for Three-Cross compared with other groups. "Guzholtein" had lesser (P=0.05) shear force compared with "Guzonell", with Three-Cross being intermediate. We conclude that "Guzholstein" is an adequate option for producers willing to finish this kind of genetic group, as it is comparable or better than Bos indicus crosses and B. indicus×Bos taurus bulls. PMID:26546913

  1. Viimane valik / Malcolm Bull ; tõlk. Märt Väljataga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bull, Malcolm

    2006-01-01

    Genotsiidi mõistest ja teostamisest. Rets. rmt.: Michael Mann. The dark side of democracy: explaining ethnic cleansing. Cambridge, 2005; Marc Levene. Genocide in the age of the nation state. Volume I: The meaning of genocide; Volume II: The rise of the West and the coming of genocide. Tauris, 2005. Lisa: Malcolm Bull

  2. Candidate causative mutation on BTA18 associated with calving and conformation traits in Holstein bulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Complementing quantitative methods with sequence data analysis is a major goal of the post-genome era of biology. In this study, we analyzed Illumina HiSeq sequence data derived from 11 US Holstein bulls in order to identify putative causal mutations associated with calving and conformation traits. ...

  3. Feeding behavior of feedlot-finished young bulls fed diets containing peanut cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Bráulio Rocha; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; Pires, Aureliano José Viera; Ribeiro, Ossival Lolato; Silva, Robério Rodrigues; Leão, André Gustavo; Rodrigues, Carlindo Santos

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the feeding behavior of feedlot-finished young bulls fed diets containing peanut cake instead of soybean meal. A total of 32 Nellore young bulls with an initial body weight of 390 ± 43.5 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design. The animals were individually housed in stalls and fed Tifton 85 hay with four concentrate mixtures containing 0, 33, 66, or 100% peanut cake substituting for soybean meal. The diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous (with 15% crude protein) and isocaloric (with 65% total digestible nutrients), with a 40:60 forage:concentrate ratio, in the form of total mixed diet. The experimental period was 90 days, and data were collected every 28 days. Feeding behavior was assessed by means of observation and recording of the daily time spent feeding, ruminating, and idling, quantification of the periods and calculation of variables related to mastication characteristics as well as feeding and rumination efficiencies. Substitution of soybean meal for peanut cake in the diets caused a linear decrease in the intake of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber but did not affect the behavioral activities of the young bulls. Peanut cake may therefore replace up to 100% of soybean meal in the diet of feedlot-finished young Nellore bulls because it does not affect the feeding behavior of these animals.

  4. The use of integer programming to select bulls across breeding companies with volume price discounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnel, M B; Galligan, D T

    2004-10-01

    Optimization programs are currently used to aid in the selection of bulls to be used in herd breeding programs. While these programs offer a systematic approach to the problem of semen selection, they ignore the impact of volume discounts. Volume discounts are discounts that vary depending on the number of straws purchased. The dynamic nature of volume discounts means that, in order to be adequately accounted for, they must be considered in the optimization routine. Failing to do this creates a missed economic opportunity because the potential benefits of optimally selecting and combining breeding company discount opportunities are not captured. To address these issues, an integer program was created which used binary decision variables to incorporate the effects of quantity discounts into the optimization program. A consistent set of trait criteria was used to select a group of bulls from 3 sample breeding companies. Three different selection programs were used to select the bulls, 2 traditional methods and the integer method. After the discounts were applied using each method, the integer program resulted in the lowest cost portfolio of bulls. A sensitivity analysis showed that the integer program also resulted in a low cost portfolio when the genetic trait goals were changed to be more or less stringent. In the sample application, a net benefit of the new approach over the traditional approaches was a 12.3 to 20.0% savings in semen cost. PMID:15377634

  5. The effect of streptomycin, oxytetracycline, tilmicosin and phenylbutazone on spermatogenesis in bulls.

    OpenAIRE

    Barth, A D; Wood, M R

    1998-01-01

    To determine whether declining semen quality associated with health problems may be due to certain antibiotic or anti-inflammatory treatments, semen was collected 3 times per week for up to 42 d from 6 normal bulls after treatment with oxytetracycline, tilmicosin, dihydrostreptomycin, or phenylbutazone. No adverse effects on semen quality were observed.

  6. On the occurrence of the Bull Ray Pteromylaeus bovinus (Chondrichthyes: Myliobatidae in the Amvrakikos Gulf, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. ZOGARIS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We document in this note the occurrence of the Bull Ray Pteromylaeus bovinus (Geoffroy St-Hilaire, 1817 (Chondrichthyes: Myliobatidae in the Amvrakikos Gulf (eastern Ionian Sea, within a recently designated Wetlands National Park. Although distributional data for this species are scant, there is circumstantial evidence depicting the species as rare in Greece and the Mediterranean.

  7. Chronological age and breed-type effects on carcass characteristics and palatability of bull beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, R R; Smith, G C; Cross, H R; Savell, J W; Long, C R; Cartwright, T C

    1986-01-01

    Bulls (n = 115) of four slaughter ages (9, 12, 15 or 18 months) and of 15 genotypes were studied. In this analysis, each bullock was assigned to one of four breed groups-British and British crosses, Brahman and Brahman crosses. Jersey and Jersey crosses or Holstein and Holstein crosses. Slaughter age had an (P carcasses with the thickest subcutaneous fat, the highest marbling score and the highest USDA quality grade while Jersey and Jersey cross bullocks yielded carcasses with the lowest weight, smallest longissimus muscle area and the lowest USDA quality grade of the four breed-type groups. Increases in chronological age (from 9 to 18 months) were generally associated with a decrease in USDA maturity score, and increases in marbling score, USDA quality grade, longissimus muscle area, subcutaneous fat thickness and USDA yield grade. Shear force values decreased as bulls matured from 9 to 18 months of age. The meat from Brahman-type bulls had higher shear force values (P carcasses received the highest numerical ratings for sustained juiciness and flavor while steaks from the Brahman-type carcasses were assigned the lowest numerical ratings for juiciness. Breed-type had a greater effect on tenderness of bull beef than did chronological age.

  8. Marketingová strategie firmy Red Bull ČR, s.r.o.

    OpenAIRE

    Janík, Dan

    2008-01-01

    Work consider theoretic information related to marketing strategy and brand marketing. There is description of Red Bull Czech Republic company and its organization in second part of work. In practical part of work is analyze of marketing research about influence of marketing activities and analyze of consumer preferences.

  9. No detection of Besnoitia besnoiti DNA in the semen of chronically infected bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Gil, A; Grisez, C; Prevot, F; Florentin, S; Decaudin, A; Picard-Hagen, N; Berthelot, X; Ronsin, P; Alzieu, J P; Marois, M; Corboz, N; Peglion, M; Vilardell, C; Liénard, E; Bouhsira, E; Castillo, J A; Franc, M; Jacquiet, P

    2014-06-01

    Bovine besnoitiosis is a chronic and debilitating disease observed in many European countries that may cause important economic losses in cattle. The recent widespread of the parasite in Europe had led the European Food Safety Authority to declare bovine besnoitiosis as a re-emerging disease in Europe. Many aspects of the epidemiology of bovine besnoitiosis such as the main routes of transmission are still unclear and need to be further studied. Among the different hypotheses, a sexual transmission has not yet been investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of Besnoitia besnoiti DNA in the semen of naturally infected bulls by using a highly sensitive method (real-time qPCR). Both pre-sperm and sperm fractions of 40 bulls, including seronegative (n = 11), seropositive subclinically (n = 17), and seropositive clinically (n = 12) infected animals, were collected by electroejaculation and analyzed by real-time qPCR. No B. besnoiti DNA was detected in 27 pre-sperm and 28 sperm fractions of the 40 examined bulls, suggesting that the transmission of B. besnoiti infection by the semen of chronically infected bulls is very unlikely. PMID:24802865

  10. EFFECT OF ANTIBIOTICS IN EXTENDER ON FERTILITY OF LIQUID BUFFALO BULL SEMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. AKHTER, M. SAJJAD, S. M. H. ANDRABI1, N. ULLAH1 AND M. QAYYUM

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine if a new antibiotic combination comprising of gentamycin, tylosin and linco-spectin (GTLS in extender is suitable for improvement in fertility of liquid buffalo bull semen through artificial insemination (AI. Two consecutive ejaculates per week (4 weeks were collected from three Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls of known fertility by using artificial vagina. The pooled ejaculates were split-sampled and diluted with skimmed milk extender (37oC; 10x106 motile spermatozoa/ml containing either SP (streptomycin 1000 μg/ml and penicillin 1000 iu/ml or GTLS (gentamycin 500 μg/ml, tylosin 100 μg/ml, lincomycin 300 μg/ml, and spectinomycin 600 μg/ml. Liquid semen was stored at 5°C for seven days. Fertility, based on 90-days first service pregnancy rate, was determined under field conditions. The fertility rates for SP-based vs. GTLS-containing liquid semen of buffalo bull were 58.55 and 60.00%, respectively, the difference was non significant. The fertility rates also did not differ (P>0.05 due to antibiotics at different days of storage of liquid semen at 5oC. In conclusion, GTLS, in skimmed milk extender compared to SP, did not significantly improve the fertility of chilled buffalo bull semen.

  11. A feed forward neural network for classification of bull's-eye myocardial perfusion images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Identification of hypoperfused areas in myocardial perfusion single-photon emission tomography studies can be aided by bull's-eye representation of raw counts, lesion extent and lesion severity, the latter two being produced by comparison of the raw bull's-eye data with a normal data base. An artificial intelligence technique which is presently becoming widely popular and which is particularly suitable for pattern recognition is that of artificial neural network. We have studied the ability of feed forward neural networks to extract patterns from bull's-eye data by assessing their capability to predict lesion presence without direct comparison with a normal data base. Studies were undertaken on both simulation data and on real stress-rest data obtained from 410 male patients undergoing routine thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. The ability of trained neural networks to predict lesion presence was quantified by calculating the areas under receiver operating characteristic curves. Figures as high as 0.96 for non-preclassified patient data were obtained, corresponding to an accuracy of 92%. The results demonstrate that neural networks can accurately classify patterns from bull's-eye myocardial perfusion images and detect the presence of hypoperfused areas without the need for comparison with a normal data base. Preliminary work suggests that this technique could be used to study perfusion patterns in the myocardium and their correlation with clinical parameters. (orig.)

  12. Increased conception rates in beef cattle inseminated with nanopurified bull semen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reproductive performance is of paramount importance to the cattle industry. Since recent progress has been achieved by optimizing estrus and ovulation synchronization protocols in cows, improvements are desired to increase the fertility of bulls enrolled in artificial insemination (AI) programs. Thi...

  13. Mechanistic identification of cutting force coefficients in bull-nose milling process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Ge; Wu Baohai; Zhang Dinghua; Luo Ming

    2013-01-01

    An improved method to determine cutting force coefficients for bull-nose cutters is proposed based on the semi-mechanistic cutting force model.Due to variations of cutting speed along the tool axis in bull-nose milling,they affect coefficients significantly and may bring remarkable discrepancies in the prediction of cutting forces.Firstly,the bull-nose cutter is regarded as a finite number of axial discs piled up along the tool axis,and the rigid cutting force model is exerted.Then through discretization along cutting edges,the cutting force related to each element is recalculated,which equals to differential force value between the current and previous elements.In addition,coefficient identification adopts the cubic polynomial fitting method with the slice elevation as its horizontal axis.By calculating relations of cutting speed and cutting depth,the influences of speed variations on cutting force can be derived.Thereby,several tests are conducted to calibrate the coefficients using the improved method,which are applied to later force predictions.Eventually,experimental evaluations are discussed to verify the effectiveness.Compared to the conventional method,the results are more accurate and show satisfactory consistency with the simulations.For further applications,the method is instructive to predict the cutting forces in bull-nose milling with lead or tilt angles and can be extended to the selection of cutting parameters.

  14. Relationship between sperm viability as determined by flow cytometry and nonreturn rate of dairy bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Preben; Boelling, Dorothee; Pedersen, Kurt Myrup; Korsgaard, Inge Riis; Jensen, Just

    2005-01-01

    A newly developed flow cytometric method for determination of sperm concentration and viability was tested in an insemination trial with cryopreserved bull sperm to establish the relationship between sperm viability and nonreturn rates. Semen for experimental inseminations was produced from 157 young sires (114 Holstein and 43 Jersey), each contributing 4 experimental semen collections. Straws containing approximately 15 x 10(6) motile sperm before freezing were used in 118,680 experimental inseminations performed by 254 artificial insemination technicians in 6352 Danish herds. Statistical analysis based on 44,946 experimental first inseminations showed that the major part (95.4%) of variation in the 56-day nonreturn rate (NRR56) was residual. Only 0.38% of the total variation in NRR56 was due to bulls and differences between ejaculate within bull. However, bulls were preselected, and a relatively high insemination dose was used. Correlations between sperm viability as assessed by flow cytometry and NRR56 was slightly lower than observed for microscopic assessment of sperm motility. However, flow cytometry makes it possible to achieve an objective and precise determination of sperm viability. It was therefore possible to calculate the effect on NRR56 provided selection of semen is based on the flow cytometric method. Three freezing extenders were used in this experiment, but a significant difference in NRR56 was not observed. Flow cytometric results for 1 extender (Biociphos Plus) indicated poorer sperm survival during postthaw incubation compared with Triladyl extender with whole and with clarified egg yolk.

  15. Schmallenberg virus detection in bovine semen after experimental infection of bulls.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, van der W.H.M.; Parlevliet, J.M.; Verstraten, E.R.A.M.; Kooi, E.A.; Hakze-van der Honing, van der R.W.; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N.

    2014-01-01

    To study Schmallenberg virus (SBV) excretion in bovine semen after experimental infection, two bulls were inoculated subcutaneously with a SBV isolate (1 ml Vero cell culture 106 TCID50). After inoculation (at day 0), semen was collected daily from both animals for 21 days and samples were tested fo

  16. Neurosurgical considerations after bull goring during festivities in Spain and Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiotta, Alejandro M; Matoses, Salvador Martorell

    2011-08-01

    Bullfighting is a highly popular activity during festivities in Spain and Latin America. A scientific society for bullfight injuries, Congreso Internacional de Cirugía Taurina, was founded on November 24, 1974, in recognition of the distinctive pattern of injury that results from bull goring, and a subspecialty of general surgical trauma with emphasis on the acute surgical management of bull-goring injuries has emerged. Injuries to the head and neck are less frequent than genitourinary, inguinal, and abdominal injuries, but are more severe and more likely to result in death. This report reviews the primary venues in which bull goring and associated injuries occur, including the bullfight and the running of the bulls. The biomechanics of the primary and secondary goring injuries are reviewed, with an emphasis on those with the potential to result in neurosurgical injuries. This results in a very unique and devastating pattern of injury that combines penetrating and blunt mechanisms and results in polytrauma. Neurosurgical expertise should be immediately available on-site in the event of a life-threatening neurological injury.

  17. Carcass and meat quality in double-muscled Belgian Blue bulls and cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiems, L O; De Campeneere, S; Van Caelenbergh, W; De Boever, J L; Vanacker, J M

    2003-03-01

    Carcass and meat quality of 37 bulls and 91 cows of the Belgian Blue breed (double-muscled type) were compared. Age at slaughter averaged 648±73 and 1820±689 days, respectively. Both groups of cattle were finished on maize silage supplemented with concentrate, and were slaughtered at about 750 kg live weight. Females had a lower (P=0.004) cold carcass weight (469.7 kg) in comparison with bulls (500.8 kg), due to a reduced dressing percentage (63.8 vs. 66.6; P waterholding capacity (P⩽0.063) and was slightly more tender (P=0.120) than the LT of bulls. Increasing parity reduced dressing percentage and increased LT lightness (L*-value) in cows. Several carcass (SEUROP-grading, composition, LT-area) and meat quality traits (protein and fat contents, drip and cooking losses, a*-value) were better correlated with carcass weight than parity. It is concluded that meat quality of the aged LT of cows is not negatively affected by age, while some carcass quality traits decreased with advancing age. Carcass quality traits adjusted for age at slaughter were better for bulls, but LT meat quality characteristics were at least as good for females as for males.

  18. HSP90 expression correlation with the freezing resistance of bull sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Wang, Yan-Feng; Wang, Hong; Wang, Chun-Wei; Zan, Lin-Sen; Hu, Jian-Hong; Li, Qing-Wang; Jia, Yong-Hong; Ma, Guo-Ji

    2014-05-01

    To date, there has been little improvement in cryopreservation of bull sperm due to lack of understanding of the freezing mechanisms. Therefore, this study set out to investigate expression levels of fertility-associated proteins in bull sperm, and in particular the relationship between the 90 kDa heat-shock protein (HSP90) and the sperm characteristics after freezing-thawing. Semen was collected from eight Holstein bulls by artificial vagina. Characteristics of these fresh semen, including sperm motility, morphology, viability and concentration, were evaluated. Sperm quality was also assessed after freezing-thawing. Eight ejaculates were divided into two groups based on freezing resistance and sperm motility. Sperm proteins were extracted and sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis and western blotting were performed. SDS-PAGE results showed that there was substantial diversity in 90 kDa proteins in the frozen-thawed sperm and HSP90 was confirmed as one of the 90 kDa proteins by western blot. This study indicated that HSP90 expression correlated positively with sperm quality. The amount of expressed 90 kDa proteins in the high freezing resistance (HFR) group was significantly higher than that in the low freezing resistance (LFR) group (P HSP90 could probably lead to the higher motility and freezing resistance of sperm found after freezing-thawing. Therefore, we concluded that level of HSP90 expression could be used to predict reliably and simply the freezing resistance of bull sperm. PMID:23506739

  19. Effects of pedigree and exotic genetic inheritance on semen production traits of dairy bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijetha Bajjalli Thippeswamy

    2014-03-01

    Conclusions: It may be inferred that the “acceptable quality semen producing ability” decreased from grandsire through sire to male progeny and among the increasing exotic genetic levels of CB cattle, F1 bulls produced significantly higher “low grade ejaculates” that were unfit for cryopreservation.

  20. 77 FR 60302 - Special Local Regulations; Red Bull Flugtag Miami, Biscayne Bay; Miami, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Regulatory History and Information The... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Red Bull Flugtag Miami, Biscayne Bay; Miami, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard...

  1. 78 FR 40079 - Special Local Regulations; Red Bull Flugtag Miami, Biscayne Bay; Miami, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Public... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Red Bull Flugtag...

  2. Impact of nutritional programming on the growth, health, and sexual development of bull calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollwein, H; Janett, F; Kaske, M

    2016-07-01

    The growth, health, and reproductive performance of bull calves are important prerequisites for a successful cattle breeding program. Therefore, several attempts have been made to improve these parameters via nutritional programming. Although an increase in energy uptake during the postweaning period (7-8 mo of age) of the calves leads to a faster growing rate, it has no positive effects on sexual development. In contrast, a high-nutrition diet during the prepubertal period (8-20 wk of age) reduced the age at puberty of the bulls and increased the size and/or weight of the testis and the epididymal sperm reserves. This faster sexual development is associated with an increased transient LH peak, which seems to be mediated by an increase in serum IGF-I concentrations. However, the exact mechanisms responsible for the interaction between nutrition and the subsequent development of the calves are not clear. The sexual development of bull calves depends not only on the nutrition of the calves after birth but also on the feed intake of their mothers during pregnancy. In contrast to the effects of the feed intake of the bull calves, a high-nutrition diet fed to the mother during the first trimester has negative effects on the reproductive performance of their offspring. In conclusion, it has been clearly demonstrated that growth, health, and reproductive performance can be improved by nutritional programming, but further studies are necessary to obtain a better understanding about the mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon.

  3. Interspecific interactions between brown trout and slimy sculpin in stream enclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruetz, C. R., III; Hurford, A.L.; Vondracek, B.

    2003-01-01

    We conducted a 30-d manipulative experiment in Valley Creek, Minnesota, to examine interspecific interactions between juvenile brown trout Salmo trutta and adult slimy sculpin Cottus cognatus. We measured the instantaneous growth of each species in the presence and absence of the other in 1-m2 enclosures. We tested single-species (three slimy sculpins/m2 or three brown trout/m2) and combined-species (three sculpins/m2 and three trout/m2) combinations in each of six riffles. We placed a clay tile in each enclosure to evaluate the effects of fish combinations on benthic macroinvertebrates. Growth of brown trout was unaffected by the presence of slimy sculpins (P = 0.647, power [to detect 50% increase in growth] = 0.92), whereas slimy sculpin growth was less in the presence of brown trout (P = 0.038). Densities of total benthic macroinvertebrates, Chironomidae, Trichoptera, and Physa did not differ among fish combinations (P > 0.3). However, densities of Gammarus pseudolimnaeus were significantly less in the presence of brown trout irrespective of the presence of slimy sculpins (P = 0.024), which could be a causal factor underlying the interaction between brown trout and slimy sculpins. We found asymmetrical competition between brown trout and slimy sculpins in stream enclosures, with brown trout being the superior competitor. Nevertheless, the size of enclosures may have biased our results, making it more likely to detect an effect of brown trout on slimy sculpins than vice versa.

  4. BIOMASS AND DENSITY OF BROWN AND RAINBOW TROUT IN NEW MEXICO STREAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srečko Lainer

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available Mean stream numerical density of the brown trout (Salmo trutta m. fario Linnaeus, 1758 and the rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792 was 0.090 fish/m2 of which brown trout averaged 69% (72% in total biomass in 15 high-elevation New Mexico streams (1,661-2,560 m above sea level. Total trout density varied from 0.008/m2 in 1988 and 1989. Mean trout density ranged between 0.023-0.121 fish/m2 at site s open to public fishing. Considerably higher densities (0.142-0.409 fish/m2 were observed at sites closed for fishing. In the seven selected streams shared by both species, brown trout density exceeded rainbow trout density except at the two sites closed to fishing. Brown trout were stocked only as fingerlings (average 7,000 fish/stream/year while rainbow trout were stocked only in harvestable sizes (11,000 fish/stream/year. Reported total trout yield rates exceeded the total number of fish estimated to be in the stream by 1.01 to 11.63 in most small streams open to fishing. The proportional stock density (PSD ranged between O and 50 percent. Streams with low to moderate intensities of fishing had the highest PSD.

  5. Development of a colony hybridization method for the enumeration of total and potentially enteropathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suffredini, Elisabetta; Cozzi, Loredana; Ciccaglioni, Gianni; Croci, Luciana

    2014-09-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a marine microorganism, recognized as cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks associated with seafood consumption. In this study the development and the in-house validation of a colony hybridization method for the enumeration of total and potentially pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus is reported. The method included a set of three controls (process, hybridization and detection control) for the full monitoring of the analytical procedure. Four digoxigenin-labeled probes were designed for pathogenic strains enumeration (tdh1, tdh2, trh1 and trh2 probes) and one for total V. parahaemolyticus count (toxR probe). Probes were tested on a panel of 70 reference strains and 356 environmental, food and clinical isolates, determining the inclusivity (tdh: 96.7%, trh: 97.8%, toxR: 99.4%) and the exclusivity (100% for all probes). Accuracy and linearity of the enumeration were evaluated on pure and mixed cultures: slopes of the regression lines ranged from 0.957 to 1.058 depending on the target gene and R(2) was greater than or equal to 0.989 for all reactions. Evaluation was also carried on using four experimentally contaminated seafood matrices (shellfish, finfish, crustaceans and cephalopods) and the slopes of the curves varied from 0.895 (finfish) to 0.987 (cephalopods) for the counts of potentially pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus (R(2)≥0.965) and from 0.965 to 1.073 for total V. parahaemolyticus enumeration (R(2)≥0.981). Validation was performed on 104 naturally contaminated shellfish samples, analyzed in parallel by colony hybridization, ISO/TS 21872-1 and MPN enumeration. Colony hybridization and ISO method showed a relative accuracy of 86.7%, and a statistically significant correlation was present between colony hybridization enumeration and MPN results (r=0.744, pmethod for the enumeration of total and potentially pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus in seafood.

  6. An insight into the isolation, enumeration and molecular detection of Listeria monocytogenes in food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi Woan-Fei Law

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes, a foodborne pathogen that can cause listeriosis through the consumption of food contaminated with this pathogen. The ability of L. monocytogenes to survive in extreme conditions and cause food contaminations have become a major concern. Hence, routine microbiological food testing is necessary to prevent food contamination and outbreaks of foodborne illness. This review provides insight into the methods for cultural detection, enumeration and molecular identification of L. monocytogenes in various food samples. There are a number of enrichment and plating media that can be used for the isolation of L. monocytogenes from food samples. Enrichment media such as buffered Listeria Enrichment Broth (BLEB, Fraser broth and University of Vermont Medium (UVM Listeria enrichment broth are recommended by regulatory agencies such as FDA-BAM, USDA-FSIS and ISO. Many plating media are available for the isolation of L. monocytogenes, for instance, PALCAM, Oxford and other chromogenic media. Besides, reference methods like FDA-BAM, ISO 11290 method and USDA-FSIS method are usually applied for the cultural detection or enumeration of L. monocytogenes. MPN technique is applied for the enumeration of L. monocytogenes in the case of low level contamination. Molecular methods including polymerase chain reaction (PCR, multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR, real-time/quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR, nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP, DNA microarray and Next Generation Sequencing (NGS technology for the detection and identification of L. monocytogenes are discussed in this review. Overall, molecular methods are rapid, sensitive, specific, time- and labour-saving. In future, there are chances for the development of new techniques for the detection and identification of foodborne with improved features.

  7. Development of an alternative culture medium for the selective enumeration of Lactobacillus casei in fermented milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Monique; de Oliveira, Aline Evelyn Zimmermann; de Carvalho, Antonio Fernandes; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2014-05-01

    Monitoring the populations of probiotic strains of the species Lactobacillus casei in food is required by food industries in order to assure that a minimum concentration of these organisms will be ingested by consumers. In this context, Petrifilm™ AC plates can be used along with selective culture media to allow the enumeration of specific groups of lactic acid bacteria. The present study aimed to assess chemical substances as selective agents for Lb. casei in order to propose a selective culture medium to be used with Petrifilm™ AC plates as an alternative protocol for the enumeration of probiotic strains of this species in fermented milk. Twenty-six probiotic and starter cultures (including six strains of Lb. casei) were plated on de Man Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) agar with distinct concentrations of nalidixic acid, bile, lithium chloride, metronidazole, sodium propionate, and vancomycin. Vancomycin at 10 mg/L demonstrated selective activity for Lb. casei. In addition, 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chlorine was identified as a compound that did not inhibit Lb. casei, and Petrifilm™ AC plates used with MRS and vancomycin at 10 mg/L (MRS-V) demonstrated more colonies of this organism when incubated under anaerobic conditions than aerobic conditions. Acidophilus milk and yoghurt were prepared, added to Lb. casei strains, and stored at 4 °C. Lb. casei populations were monitored using MRS-V and MRTLV by conventional plating and associated with Petrifilm™ AC plates. All correlation indices between counts obtained by conventional plating and Petrifilm™ AC were significant (p enumeration of Lb. casei strains in fermented milk. However, the selective potential of this culture medium must be evaluated considering the specific strains of Lb. casei and the starter cultures inoculated in the fermented milk that requires monitoring.

  8. On Enumerating Frequent Closed Patterns with Key in Multi-relational Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Hirohisa; Honda, Yuya; Nagano, Shinya

    We study the problem of mining closed patterns in multi-relational databases. Garriga et al. (IJCAI'07) proposed an algorithm RelLCM2 for mining closed patterns (i.e., conjunctions of literals) in multi-relational data, which is an extension of LCM, an efficient enumeration algorithm for frequent closed itemsets mining proposed in the seminal paper by Uno et al. (DS'04). We assume that a database considered contains a special predicate called key (or target), which determines the entities of interest and what is to be counted. We introduce a notion of closed patterns with key (key-closedness for short), where variables in a pattern other than the one in a key predicate are considered to be existentially quantified, and they are linked to a given target object. We then define a closure operation (key-closure) for computing key-closed patterns, and show that the difference between the semantics of key-closed patterns and that of the closed patterns in RelLCM2 implies different properties of the closure operations; in particular, the uniqueness of closure does not hold for key-closure. Nevertheless, we show that we can enumerate key-closed patterns using the technique of ppc-extensions à la LCM, thereby making the enumeration possible without storage space for previously generated patterns. We also propose a literal order designed for mining key-closed patterns, which will require less search space. The correctness of our algorithm is shown, and its computational complexity is discussed. Some preliminary experimental results are also given.

  9. Enumeration of virtual libraries of combinatorial modular macrocyclic (bracelet, necklace) architectures and their linear counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Masahiko; Du, Hai; Lindsey, Jonathan S

    2013-09-23

    A wide variety of cyclic molecular architectures are built of modular subunits and can be formed combinatorially. The mathematics for enumeration of such objects is well-developed yet lacks key features of importance in chemistry, such as specifying (i) the structures of individual members among a set of isomers, (ii) the distribution (i.e., relative amounts) of products, and (iii) the effect of nonequal ratios of reacting monomers on the product distribution. Here, a software program (Cyclaplex) has been developed to determine the number, identity (including isomers), and relative amounts of linear and cyclic architectures from a given number and ratio of reacting monomers. The program includes both mathematical formulas and generative algorithms for enumeration; the latter go beyond the former to provide desired molecular-relevant information and data-mining features. The program is equipped to enumerate four types of architectures: (i) linear architectures with directionality (macroscopic equivalent = electrical extension cords), (ii) linear architectures without directionality (batons), (iii) cyclic architectures with directionality (necklaces), and (iv) cyclic architectures without directionality (bracelets). The program can be applied to cyclic peptides, cycloveratrylenes, cyclens, calixarenes, cyclodextrins, crown ethers, cucurbiturils, annulenes, expanded meso-substituted porphyrin(ogen)s, and diverse supramolecular (e.g., protein) assemblies. The size of accessible architectures encompasses up to 12 modular subunits derived from 12 reacting monomers or larger architectures (e.g. 13-17 subunits) from fewer types of monomers (e.g. 2-4). A particular application concerns understanding the possible heterogeneity of (natural or biohybrid) photosynthetic light-harvesting oligomers (cyclic, linear) formed from distinct peptide subunits.

  10. Genetic Structure of Pacific Trout at the Extreme Southern End of Their Native Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadía-Cardoso, Alicia; Garza, John Carlos; Mayden, Richard L; García de León, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    Salmonid fishes are cold water piscivores with a native distribution spanning nearly the entire temperate and subarctic northern hemisphere. Trout in the genus Oncorhynchus are the most widespread salmonid fishes and are among the most important fish species in the world, due to their extensive use in aquaculture and valuable fisheries. Trout that inhabit northwestern Mexico are the southernmost native salmonid populations in the world, and the least studied in North America. They are unfortunately also facing threats to their continued existence. Previous work has described one endemic species, the Mexican golden trout (O. chrysogaster), and one endemic subspecies, Nelson's trout (O. mykiss nelsoni), in Mexico, but previous work indicated that there is vastly more biodiversity in this group than formally described. Here we conducted a comprehensive genetic analysis of this important group of fishes using novel genetic markers and techniques to elucidate the biodiversity of trout inhabiting northwestern Mexico, examine genetic population structure of Mexican trout and their relationships to other species of Pacific trout, and measure introgression from non-native hatchery rainbow trout. We confirmed substantial genetic diversity and extremely strong genetic differentiation present in the Mexican trout complex, not only between basins but also between some locations within basins, with at least four species-level taxa present. We also revealed significant divergence between Mexican trout and other trout species and found that introgression from non-native rainbow trout is present but limited, and that the genetic integrity of native trout is still maintained in most locations. This information will help to guide effective conservation strategies for this important group of fishes. PMID:26509445

  11. Selective breeding of food sized rainbow trout against Flavobacteriosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selective breeding of rainbow trout is an important component of an integrated fish health management program. The current goals of our selective breeding program are to improve disease resistance, growth and survival in a reuse water environment. To improve these traits, data are recorded on thousa...

  12. Selective breeding of food size rainbow trout against Flavobacteriosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selective breeding of rainbow trout is an important component of an integrated fish health management program. The current goals of our selective breeding program are to improve disease resistance, growth and survival in a reuse water environment. To improve these traits, data are recorded on thousa...

  13. Estrogenic response of bisphenol A in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Christian; Pedersen, Knud Ladegaard; Pedersen, Søren Nørby

    2000-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) previously shown to possess xenoestrogenic activities was administered to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) through a continuos flow system. The estrogenic response expressed as the induction of vitellogenin (VTG) synthesis was measured during 12 days of exposure, using a direct...

  14. Genomic analysis of the rainbow trout response to crowding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomic analyses have the potential to impact selective breeding programs by identifying markers as proxies for traits which are expensive or difficult to measure. One such set of traits is the physiological responses of rainbow trout to the stresses of the aquaculture environment. Typical stresso...

  15. Genetics of growth reaction norms in farmed rainbow trout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sae-Lim, P.; Mulder, H.A.; Gjerde, B.; Koskinen, H.; Lillehammer, M.; Kause, A.

    2015-01-01

    Rainbow trout is farmed globally under diverse uncontrollable environments. Fish with low macroenvironmental sensitivity (ES) of growth is important to thrive and grow under these uncontrollable environments. The ES may evolve as a correlated response to selection for growth in one environment when

  16. Toxicokinetics of perfluorooctane sulfonate in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) confined to respirometer-metabolism chambers were dosed with perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) by intra-arterial injection and sampled to obtain concentration time-course data for plasma, and either urine or expired water. The data were then an...

  17. Sea growth of anadromous brown trout (Salmo trutta)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, de J.J.; Hofstede, ter R.; Winter, H.V.

    2007-01-01

    Sea growth rates were studied in anadromous brown trout caught in Lake IJsselmeer, The Netherlands. Growth in the first year at sea was estimated at 26 cm from length-frequency distributions, and at 21 cm from back-calculated growth rates from scale readings. These estimates are considerably higher

  18. Halogenated contaminants in farmed salmon, trout, tilapia, pangasius, and shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, S P J; van Velzen, M J M; Swart, C P; van der Veen, I; Traag, W A; de Boer, J

    2009-06-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-p-furans (PCDD/Fs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane diastereomers (HBCDs), and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were analyzed in popular farmed fish such as salmon, trout, tilapia, and pangasius and in farmed shrimp. The samples originated from southeast Asia, Europe, and South America. Results show the following: (i) Carnivorous species contained higher contaminant concentrations than omnivorous species. (ii) Contaminant concentrations generally decreased per species in the following order of salmon > trout > tilapia approximately equal to pangasius approximately equal to shrimp. (iii) Most contaminant concentrations decreased in the following order of PCBs approximately equal to dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs) > hexachlorobenzene approximately equal to pentachlorobenzene approximately equal to dieldrin approximately equal to PBDEs approximately equal to alpha-HBCD approximately equal to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) > World Health Organization toxic equivalents (WHO-TEQ) [PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like (dl)-PCBs]. (iv) Contaminant concentrations were very low (mostly <1 ng/g wet weight) and far below the European and Dutch legislative limits. (v) Contaminant concentrations in farmed shrimp, pangasius, and tilapia were lower than those in wild fish, whereas contaminant concentrations in farmed salmon and trout were higher than those in lean wild marine fish. From the five species investigated, salmon is predominantly responsible (97%) for human exposure to the sum of the investigated contaminants. The contribution of trout, tilapia, pangasius, and shrimp is small (3%) because contaminant concentrations and consumption volumes were much lower. PMID:19569323

  19. Rainbow trout offspring with different resistance to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slierendrecht, W.J.; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Juul-Madsen, H.R.;

    2001-01-01

    To study immunological and immunogenetical parameters related to resistance against viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS), attempts to make gynogenetic strains of rainbow trout selected for high and low resistance to VHS were initiated in 1988. The first gynogenetic generation of inbreeding resulted...

  20. Lake Michigan lake trout PCB model forecast post audit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scenario forecasts for total PCBs in Lake Michigan (LM) lake trout were conducted using the linked LM2-Toxics and LM Food Chain models, supported by a suite of additional LM models. Efforts were conducted under the Lake Michigan Mass Balance Study and the post audit represents th...

  1. Quantitative evaluation of macrophage aggregates in brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwindt, Adam R.; Truelove, Nathan; Schreck, Carl B.; Fournie, John W.; Landers, Dixon H.; Kent, Michael L.

    2006-01-01

    Macrophage aggregates (MAs) occur in various organs of fishes, especially the kidney, liver and spleen, and contain melanin, ceroid/lipofuscin and hemosiderin pigments. They have been used as indicators of a number of natural and anthropogenic stressors. Macrophage aggregates occur in salmonids but are poorly organized, irregularly shaped, and are generally smaller than those in derived teleosts. These features complicate quantification, and thus these fishes have seldom been used in studies correlating MAs with environmental stressors. To alleviate these complications, we developed color filtering algorithms for use with the software package ImagePro Plus® (Media Cybernetics) that select and quantify pigmented area (i.e. colors ranging from gold to brown to black) in tissue sections. Image analysis results compared well with subjective scoring when tested on brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss captured from high-elevation lakes or hatcheries. Macrophage aggregate pigments correlated positively with age and negatively with condition factor. Within individual fish, pigmentation correlated positively among organs, suggesting that the kidney, liver or spleen are suitable indicator organs. In age-matched fishes, MA pigments were not different between hatcheries and lakes in the organs examined. Between lakes, differences in pigments were observed in the kidney and spleen, but were not explained by age, condition factor, sex or maturation state. Our results indicate that quantification of the area occupied by MA pigments is an efficient and accurate means of evaluating MAs in salmonid organs and that organ pigmentation correlates with age and condition factor, as seen in studies with more derived fishes. 

  2. The enumeration of Bacteroides fragilis group organisms from sewage and natural waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allsop, K; Stickler, D J

    1984-02-01

    A membrane filtration technique has been developed for the enumeration of Bacteroides fragilis group (BFG) organisms from sewage and natural waters. The method uses the agar medium of Wilkins and Chalgren supplemented with gentamicin, penicillin, aesculin and ferric ammonium citrate. Membrane filters with 0.22 micron pores were significantly more efficient than those with 0.45 micron pores in the isolation of BFG. A preliminary incubation period of 4 h at 30 degrees C prior to 44 h at 37 degrees C yielded significantly higher numbers of BFG than direct incubation at 37 degrees C for 48 h.

  3. Enumeration and stability analysis of simple periodic orbits in β-Fermi Pasta Ulam lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonone, Rupali L., E-mail: vaidehisonone@gmail.com; Jain, Sudhir R., E-mail: vaidehisonone@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune-411007, India and Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai - 400085 (India)

    2014-04-24

    We study the well-known one-dimensional problem of N particles with a nonlinear interaction. The special case of quadratic and quartic interaction potential among nearest neighbours is the β-Fermi-Pasta-Ulam model. We enumerate and classify the simple periodic orbits for this system and find the stability zones, employing Floquet theory. Such stability analysis is crucial to understand the transition of FPU lattice from recurrences to globally chaotic behavior, energy transport in lower dimensional system, dynamics of optical lattices and also its impact on shape parameter of bio-polymers such as DNA and RNA.

  4. Specific dot-immunobinding assay for detection and enumeration of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A specific and very sensitive dot-immunobinding assay for the detection and enumeration of the bioleaching microorganism Thiobacillus ferrooxidans was developed. Nitrocellulose spotted with samples was incubated with polyclonal antisera against whole T. ferrooxidans cells and then in 125I-labeled protein A or 125I-labeled goat antirabbit immunoglobulin G; incubation was followed by autoradiography. Since a minimum of 103 cells per dot could be detected, the method offers the possibility of simultaneous processing of numerous samples in a short time to monitor the levels of T. ferrooxidans in bioleaching operations

  5. Godel-Rosser's Incompleteness Theorems for Non-Recursively Enumerable Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Salehi, Saeed; Seraji, Payam

    2015-01-01

    Godel's First Incompleteness Theorem is generalized to definable theories, which are not necessarily recursively enumerable, by using a couple of syntactic-semantic notions; one is the consistency of a theory with the set of all true $\\Pi_n$-sentences or equivalently the $\\Sigma_n$-soundness of the theory, and the other is $n$-consistency the restriction of $\\omega$-consistency to the $\\Sigma_n$-formulas. It is also shown that Rosser's Incompleteness Theorem does not generally hold for defina...

  6. Simultaneous enumeration of diatom, protozoa and meiobenthos from marine sediments using Ludox-QPS method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Yongfen; XU Kuidong; LEI Yanli

    2009-01-01

    The Ludox-QPS method is a newly developed technique, which combines the Ludox HS 40 density centrifugation and quantitative protargol stain, to enumerate marine ciliates with good taxonomic resolution. We tested the method for simultaneous enumeration of diatoms, protozoa and meiobenthos and compared its extraction efficiency for meiobenthos with that of the routine Ludox-TM centrifugation and a modified protocol using Ludox HS 40. We conducted the evaluation with a sample size of 8.3 ml each from sandy, muddy-sand and muddy sediments collected from the intertidal area of the Yellow Sea in summer 2006 and spring 2007. The Ludox-QPS method not only produced high extraction efficiencies of 97±1.3% for diatoms and 97.6±0.8% for ciliates, indicating a reliable enumeration for eukaryotic microbenthos, but also produced excellent extraction efficiencies of on average 97.3% for total meiobenthos, 97.9% for nematodes and 97.8% for copepods from sands, muddy sands and mud. By contrast, the routine Ludox-TM centrifugation obtained only about 74% of total meiobenthos abundance with one extraction cycle, and the modified Ludox HS 40 centrifugation yielded on average 93% of total meiobenthos: 89.4±2.0% from sands, 93±4.1% from muddy sands and 97.1±3.0% from mud. Apart from the sediment type, sample volume was another important factor affecting the extraction efficiency for meiobenthos. The extraction rate was increased to about 96.4% when using the same modified Ludox centrifugation for a 4 ml sediment sample. Besides the excellent extraction efficiency, the Ludox-QPS method obtained higher abundances of meiobenthos, in particular nematodes, than the routine Ludox centrifugation, which frequently resulted in an uncertain loss of small meiobenthos during the sieving process. Statistical analyses demonstrated that there were no significant differences between the meiobenthos communities revealed by the Ludox-QPS method and the modified Ludox HS 40 centrifugation, showing the

  7. Comparative study of some factors affecting enumeration of moulds using dilution plate techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragulat, M R; Abarca, M L; Bruguera, M T; Cabañes, F J

    1992-11-01

    The influence of dilution plating technique, nature of diluent, culture media and incubation period on the enumeration of moulds have been studied. Three new culture media containing Auramine, Gentian Violet and Malachite Green respectively have been induced in this study. No significant differences were observed between results obtained after 3, 5 and 7 days of incubation. Significantly higher recoveries were obtained using the surface-spread method than pour plate method. Using the first technique no effect of diluent was observed, and among the different culture media studied higher counts were obtained with medium containing Auramine.

  8. Joint modeling of constrained path enumeration and path choice behavior: a semi-compensatory approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2010-01-01

    A behavioural and a modelling framework are proposed for representing route choice from a path set that satisfies travellers’ spatiotemporal constraints. Within the proposed framework, travellers’ master sets are constructed by path generation, consideration sets are delimited according...... to spatiotemporal constraints, and travellers’ route choices are represented from consideration sets. A semi-compensatory model represents the constrained path enumera-tion with joint hazard-based and ordered probit models, and the path choice with a path size correction logit. Results show that spatiotemporal...... constraints are related to travellers’ socio-economic characteristics and that path choice is related to minimizing time and avoiding congestion....

  9. Effects of Basella alba and Hibiscus macranthus extracts on testosterone production of adult rat and bull Leydig cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paul F. Moundipa; Nathalie Sara E. Beboy; Fabien Zelefack; Silvère Ngouela; Etienne Tsamo; Wolf-Bernhard Schill; Thomas K. Monsees

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To determine the androgenic effects of Basella alba and Hibiscus macranthus extracts in the rat and the bull,and to develop a novel in vitro test system using Leydig cells from bull testes. Methods: The effect of methanol extracts from both plants on testosterone production in isolated Leydig cells from the rat and the bull was analyzed using 125I-radioimmunoassay (125I-RIA). Rat Leydig cells were obtained by common methods, whereas a novel technique was used to purify Leydig cells from bull testes. Results: Bull testes from the slaughter house were a cheap source of pure Leydig cells. In culture, these cells produced testosterone for 5-6 days, which can be stimulated by human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG). Basella alba extracts significantly enhanced testosterone production in bull and rat Leydig cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Hibiscus macranthus showed no androgenic effect but was shown to inhibit testosterone production at higher concentrations. Conclusion: Leydig cells purified from bull testes can be used as an alternative tool in experimental animal research. Certain fractions of Basella alba extract demonstrated androgenic potential whereas Hibiscus macranthus extracts did not.

  10. Breeding soundness evaluations of 3,648 yearling beef bulls using the 1993 Society for Theriogenology guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, S P; Spitzer, J C; Hopkins, F M; Higdon, H L; Bridges, W C

    2002-09-01

    Our objective was to perform a retrospective analysis of breeding soundness evaluations (BSEs) as classified by the 1993 Society for Theriogenology (SFT) guidelines [Chenoweth et al., Guidelines for using the bull breeding soundness evaluation form, in: Theriogenology Handbook, 1993, pp. B-10]. Data included BSE information obtained from five performance-testing stations in South Carolina (SC1, SC2, SC3) and Tennessee (TN1, TN2) from 1986 through 1999 on 3648 Angus, Brangus, Charolais, Chianina, Gelbvieh, Limousin, Polled Hereford, Santa Gertrudis, Simbrah, and Simmental bulls. Analyses were simplified by classifying all bulls as either satisfactory or unsatisfactory potential breeders. Of the 3648 bulls evaluated, 76.2% were classified as satisfactory potential breeders. Of all bulls evaluated, 4.0% were unsatisfactory due to inadequate spermatozoal motility, 7.0% due to inadequate spermatozoal morphology and 2.6% due to a combination of inadequate motility and morphology. Unsatisfactory classifications due to non-spermatozoal parameters out of all bulls were 10.2%, with 7.1% for inadequate scrotal circumference and 3.1% for physical abnormalities. For satisfactory and unsatisfactory bulls, respectively, means and standard deviations were 35.8 +/- 2.7 and 33.0 +/- 4.1 cm (P < 0.001) for scrotal circumference, 63 +/- 18 and 35 +/- 24% (P < 0.001) for percent motility, and 86 +/- 7 and 63 +/- 21% (P < 0.001) for percent normal morphology.

  11. Breeding soundness evaluations of 3,648 yearling beef bulls using the 1993 Society for Theriogenology guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, S P; Spitzer, J C; Hopkins, F M; Higdon, H L; Bridges, W C

    2002-09-01

    Our objective was to perform a retrospective analysis of breeding soundness evaluations (BSEs) as classified by the 1993 Society for Theriogenology (SFT) guidelines [Chenoweth et al., Guidelines for using the bull breeding soundness evaluation form, in: Theriogenology Handbook, 1993, pp. B-10]. Data included BSE information obtained from five performance-testing stations in South Carolina (SC1, SC2, SC3) and Tennessee (TN1, TN2) from 1986 through 1999 on 3648 Angus, Brangus, Charolais, Chianina, Gelbvieh, Limousin, Polled Hereford, Santa Gertrudis, Simbrah, and Simmental bulls. Analyses were simplified by classifying all bulls as either satisfactory or unsatisfactory potential breeders. Of the 3648 bulls evaluated, 76.2% were classified as satisfactory potential breeders. Of all bulls evaluated, 4.0% were unsatisfactory due to inadequate spermatozoal motility, 7.0% due to inadequate spermatozoal morphology and 2.6% due to a combination of inadequate motility and morphology. Unsatisfactory classifications due to non-spermatozoal parameters out of all bulls were 10.2%, with 7.1% for inadequate scrotal circumference and 3.1% for physical abnormalities. For satisfactory and unsatisfactory bulls, respectively, means and standard deviations were 35.8 +/- 2.7 and 33.0 +/- 4.1 cm (P < 0.001) for scrotal circumference, 63 +/- 18 and 35 +/- 24% (P < 0.001) for percent motility, and 86 +/- 7 and 63 +/- 21% (P < 0.001) for percent normal morphology. PMID:12212894

  12. Characterization of cattle of a five-breed diallel. III. Puberty in bulls and heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, T S; Long, C R; Cartwright, T C

    1980-05-01

    Pubertal characters of bulls and heifers produced in a diallel mating of Angus, Brahman, Hereford, Holstein and Jersey cattle were analyzed. Ninety-one heifers and 138 bulls in individual pens adn 286 bulls in drylots were fed a 72% TDN diet ad libitum; another 384 heifers were placed on pasture with supplemental feed. Puberty in heifers was defined as time of first ovulatory estrus; in bulls, as first detection of sperm cells in an electroejaculate. Breed type least-squares means, adjusted for birth month, were estimated within sex-nutrition-management groups and then decomposed into breed effects, average heterosis (h), general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) by diallel analysis techniques. Breed effects were a significant source of variation for all characters studied. Heterosis (h, GCA, SCA) was not significant for pubertal age of bulls or heifers receiving complete diets in pens, a rather high nutritional plane. However, on pasture, crossbred heifers reached puberty at a younger age (P less than .05) than straightbreds. Average heterosis was significant (P less than .05) for increased weight and hip height at puberty and ratios involving these characters for both sexes. Specific combining abilities were not statistically significant for the majority of the pubertal characters, yet large differences among estimates of combining abilities were expressed. Ad libitum feeding of the penned heifers tended to decrease pubertal age and increase pubertal size as compared to pubertal age and size of pastured heifers. The breed type x management interactions within both sexes indicated a different ranking of the breed types for each management regimen. PMID:7390940

  13. Growth and muscle development characteristics of purebred Angus and Brahman bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, M B; West, R L; Hentges, J F

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-eight purebred bulls (10 to 17 mo of age) were used to determine the effects of breed (Angus or Brahman) and slaughter weight (60, 80, 90 or 100% of the average mature dam's weight for the respective breed) on growth and muscle development characteristics. Angus bulls grazed summer forage after weaning whereas Brahman bulls were fed to simulate gains achieved on forage by Angus. Bulls were then placed in a confinement feedlot for finishing to their appropriate slaughter weight (293, 369, 411, and 469 kg for Angus and 307, 427, 464 and 520 kg for Brahman). No major differences due to breed were found for predicted carcass composition. The LD muscle from Brahman bulls contained more total DNA (2.27 v. 1.19 g), more total protein (768.22 v. 593.59 g) and generally less total lipid (70.56 v. 101.26 g) when expressed on a total muscle (wet tissue) basis. The percentages and areas for all three muscle fiber types were not affected by breed. As carcass weight increased, muscle weights, total protein, lipid, protein:DNA and muscle fiber size for the three fiber types increased. Total DNA content increased only up to the 90% weight group and then leveled off. The percentage of alpha R fibers decreased while the percentage of alpha W fibers increased with increasing carcass weight. These data suggest that slaughtering animals based on a percentage of their dam's mature weight seems to be a practical method for making comparisons of animals on an equivalent compositional basis. Moreover, it appears that histochemical and biochemical evaluations of skeletal muscle can successfully identify what point in the growth cycle an animal is in.

  14. Carcass Composition and Cuts of Bulls and Steers Fed with Three Concentrate Levels in the Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Prado, Ivanor Nunes; Passetti, Rodrigo Augusto Cortêz; Rivaroli, Dayane Cristina; Ornaghi, Mariana Garcia; de Souza, Kennyson Alves; Carvalho, Camila Barbosa; Perotto, Daniel; Moletta, José Luiz

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, weight, carcass dressing, weights of the primary cuts, weights of the physical components of the primary cuts, and weights of the main commercial cuts of 66 Purunã animals, of which 33 were bulls and 33 were steers were evaluated. These animals, with an average age of 19 months at the beginning of the experiment, were finished in a feedlot system during 116 days, and were fed with diets containing three levels of concentrate (0.8%, 1.1%, and 1.4% of body weight). The concentrate was formulated with 25% soybean meal, 73% ground corn grain, 1% of a mineral mix, and 1% of limestone. The interaction between sexual groups and the concentrate level was not significant for any of the variables. Likewise, no effect of the concentrate level was detected on the same variable traits. The bulls demonstrated higher hot carcass weights (265.1 vs 221.7 kg) and a higher proportion of forequarter (38.4% vs 36.1%) however the steers presented with higher proportions of side (19.7% vs 18.5%) and hindquarter (44.2% vs 43.1%). The bulls produced higher yields of muscle in the three primary cuts, there by resulting in higher yields of edible portions of the carcass. The bulls also produced higher weights of tenderloin, knuckle, topside, flat, eye round, rump, and rump cover. The finishing of young bulls in feedlot is to be recommended, since the animals produce carcasses with higher amounts of edible meat and higher yields of commercial cuts, thus allowing for a better price for the carcass. Low concentrate level could be used due to the lower cost of production for farmers. PMID:26194216

  15. Growth and muscle development characteristics of purebred Angus and Brahman bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, M B; West, R L; Hentges, J F

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-eight purebred bulls (10 to 17 mo of age) were used to determine the effects of breed (Angus or Brahman) and slaughter weight (60, 80, 90 or 100% of the average mature dam's weight for the respective breed) on growth and muscle development characteristics. Angus bulls grazed summer forage after weaning whereas Brahman bulls were fed to simulate gains achieved on forage by Angus. Bulls were then placed in a confinement feedlot for finishing to their appropriate slaughter weight (293, 369, 411, and 469 kg for Angus and 307, 427, 464 and 520 kg for Brahman). No major differences due to breed were found for predicted carcass composition. The LD muscle from Brahman bulls contained more total DNA (2.27 v. 1.19 g), more total protein (768.22 v. 593.59 g) and generally less total lipid (70.56 v. 101.26 g) when expressed on a total muscle (wet tissue) basis. The percentages and areas for all three muscle fiber types were not affected by breed. As carcass weight increased, muscle weights, total protein, lipid, protein:DNA and muscle fiber size for the three fiber types increased. Total DNA content increased only up to the 90% weight group and then leveled off. The percentage of alpha R fibers decreased while the percentage of alpha W fibers increased with increasing carcass weight. These data suggest that slaughtering animals based on a percentage of their dam's mature weight seems to be a practical method for making comparisons of animals on an equivalent compositional basis. Moreover, it appears that histochemical and biochemical evaluations of skeletal muscle can successfully identify what point in the growth cycle an animal is in. PMID:3732867

  16. THE EFFECT OF THE SECOND GRAZING PERIOD ON THE FATTY ACID COMPOSITION IN MEAT OF INDIGENOUS CIKA AND SIMMENTAL BULLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Voljč

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine fatty acid composition in meat of Cika and Simmental bulls from two different fattening technologies. The herd of 39 young bulls was housed during the winter time and fed the same total mixed ration diet (TMR based on corn and grass silage with a limited amount of concentrates. In the spring bulls of both breeds were divided into two subgroups. Bulls in the first subgroup (10 Cika, 9 Simmental; S-INT were fattened indoors with the semi-intensive TMR. Bulls in the second subgroup (10 Cika, 10 Simmental; G+S-INT were put on all-day grazing in the pasture. After grazing period bulls were housed under the same conditions as the first subgroup. Samples of M. longissimus dorsi were collected from the right carcass side to determine the total fat content and the fatty acid composition. The breed significantly influenced fatty acid composition in meat. The beef of Simmental bulls resulted in higher percentage of PUFA and lower percentage of SFA and MUFA. Higher percentage of n-3 and n-6 PUFA was determined in meat of Simmental bulls but the n-6/n-3 ratio was lower in Cika bulls meat. The fattening technology had less effect on FA composition in meat. The second grazing period produced higher percentage of SFA, beneficially lower values of n-6/n-3 ratio and higher values of long-chain C20-22n-3 PUFA. Higher CLA percentage was determined in beef from S-INT group.

  17. A comparison of spatial and movement patterns between sympatric predators: bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas and Atlantic tarpon (Megalops atlanticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Hammerschlag

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Predators can impact ecosystems through trophic cascades such that differential patterns in habitat use can lead to spatiotemporal variation in top down forcing on community dynamics. Thus, improved understanding of predator movements is important for evaluating the potential ecosystem effects of their declines. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We satellite-tagged an apex predator (bull sharks, Carcharhinus leucas and a sympatric mesopredator (Atlantic tarpon, Megalops atlanticus in southern Florida waters to describe their habitat use, abundance and movement patterns. We asked four questions: (1 How do the seasonal abundance patterns of bull sharks and tarpon compare? (2 How do the movement patterns of bull sharks and tarpon compare, and what proportion of time do their respective primary ranges overlap? (3 Do tarpon movement patterns (e.g., straight versus convoluted paths and/or their rates of movement (ROM differ in areas of low versus high bull shark abundance? and (4 Can any general conclusions be reached concerning whether tarpon may mitigate risk of predation by sharks when they are in areas of high bull shark abundance? CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite similarities in diet, bull sharks and tarpon showed little overlap in habitat use. Bull shark abundance was high year-round, but peaked in winter; while tarpon abundance and fishery catches were highest in late spring. However, presence of the largest sharks (>230 cm coincided with peak tarpon abundance. When moving over deep open waters (areas of high shark abundance and high food availability tarpon maintained relatively high ROM in directed lines until reaching shallow structurally-complex areas. At such locations, tarpon exhibited slow tortuous movements over relatively long time periods indicative of foraging. Tarpon periodically concentrated up rivers, where tracked bull sharks were absent. We propose that tarpon trade-off energetic costs of both food assimilation and

  18. Effect of supplementation of butylated hydroxytoluene on post-thaw sperm viability, motility and membrane integrity of Hariana bulls

    OpenAIRE

    Akhil Patel; Atul Saxena; Dilip Kumar Swain; Dushyant Yadav; Sanjay Singh Yadav; Abhishek Kumar; Anuj Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was aimed to see the beneficial effect of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) as a semen additive of Hariana bull semen. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in Hariana bulls. Twenty-four ejaculates from two bulls were used for this study. Each ejaculate was extended with standard glycerolated egg yolk tris extender and supplemented with BHT at two concentrations as 0.5 mM (T1) and 1.0 mM (T2). After dilution, equilibration and 24 h of cryopreservation, the samples w...

  19. Effect of supplementation of feed with Flaxseed (Linumusitatisimum) oil on libido and semen quality of Nilli-Ravi buffalo bulls

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Syed Mazhar Hussain; Ali, Shujait; Zubair, Muhammad; Jamil, Huma; Ahmad, Nazir

    2016-01-01

    Background The current study was designed to investigate the effect of supplementation of Flaxseed (Linumusitatisimum) oil on libido and semen quality of Nilli-Ravi buffalo bulls. Methods In this study, 12 adult healthy bulls kept at the Semen Production Unit, Qadirabad district Sahiwal, were used. These bulls were divided into three equal groups, A, B and C. Group A was kept as control, while in groups B and C supplementation of feed was provided by using flaxseed oil @125 ml/day and 250 ml/...

  20. Effect of exposure to stress conditions on propidium monoazide (PMA)-qPCR based Campylobacter enumeration in broiler carcass rinses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, A; Botteldoorn, N; Coucke, W; Denayer, S; Dierick, K; Uyttendaele, M

    2015-06-01

    Campylobacter quantification by qPCR is unable to distinguish viable vs. dead cells in contrast to the culture-based ISO 10272-2 reference method. Propidium monoazide (PMA) has been used to overcome this disadvantage. A Campylobacter PMA-qPCR enumeration method was evaluated for its consistency and compared to the culture-based enumeration for both artificially and natural contaminated broiler carcass rinses. The PMA effect was further evaluated on stressed cells. Five conditions, commonly encountered during the slaughter process and storage (acid, heat, cold, oxidation and freezing), were inflicted to the broiler carcass rinses artificially contaminated with Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli. A better correlation between the reference method and the qPCR enumeration was obtained when PMA was used. The two cultured-based methods used showed a significant CFU reduction for heat, cold and acid stresses although the PMA-qPCR enumeration showed that viable bacteria were underestimated. Freezing showed the highest reduction effect, while the reduction extend was also overestimated by the microbiological enumeration procedure. Exposure to a mild oxidative stress was the only stress condition applied at temperatures permitting adaptation of Campylobacter and did not lead to either reduction in CFU nor in the PMA-qPCR signal.

  1. Yakima River Radio-Telemetry Study, Rainbow Trout, 1993 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hockersmith, Eric E.

    1995-04-01

    Rainbow trout populations in the upper Yakima River Basin have increased due to reduced competition from declining populations of steelhead, chinook salmon, and coho salmon. Changing population abundances have increased the potential for interactions between rainbow trout and steelhead. In 1993, NMFS, in cooperation with WDW, proposed a 1-year radio-telemetry study to determine the spawning distribution, timing, and behavior of rainbow trout in the upper Yakima River Basin. Specific objectives were to: (1) Determine the spatial and temporal spawning distributions of rainbow trout in the upper Yakima River Basin. (2) Describe post-spawning behavior of rainbow trout in the upper Yakima River Basin. (3) Determine the magnitude and causes of mortalities to rainbow trout that were radio- tagged.

  2. Body conditions and stomach contents of subadult trout during fall and winter in three Wyoming tailwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebdon, J.L.; Hubert, W.A.

    2001-01-01

    We studied three tailwaters in Wyoming from October 1997 through February 1998 to determine whether body conditions of stocked, subadult rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss or cutthroat trout O. clarki declined from fall through winter and to assess whether lack of food in stomachs might be related to any declines. Body conditions of rainbow trout in two tailwaters remained high through the winter. Body conditions of cutthroat trout in a third tailwater declined between October and February but not to levels anticipated to affect the overwinter survival of the fish. Trout with substantial amounts of food in their stomachs were found throughout the fall and winter in all three tailwaters. In no subadult trout in any of the three tailwaters did we observe rapid declines in body conditions during fall or continuous declines in body conditions to very low levels by the end of winter in association with low biomass of food in stomachs.

  3. Development and application of efficient pathway enumeration algorithms for metabolic engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F; Vilaça, P; Rocha, I; Rocha, M

    2015-02-01

    Metabolic Engineering (ME) aims to design microbial cell factories towards the production of valuable compounds. In this endeavor, one important task relates to the search for the most suitable heterologous pathway(s) to add to the selected host. Different algorithms have been developed in the past towards this goal, following distinct approaches spanning constraint-based modeling, graph-based methods and knowledge-based systems based on chemical rules. While some of these methods search for pathways optimizing specific objective functions, here the focus will be on methods that address the enumeration of pathways that are able to convert a set of source compounds into desired targets and their posterior evaluation according to different criteria. Two pathway enumeration algorithms based on (hyper)graph-based representations are selected as the most promising ones and are analyzed in more detail: the Solution Structure Generation and the Find Path algorithms. Their capabilities and limitations are evaluated when designing novel heterologous pathways, by applying these methods on three case studies of synthetic ME related to the production of non-native compounds in E. coli and S. cerevisiae: 1-butanol, curcumin and vanillin. Some targeted improvements are implemented, extending both methods to address limitations identified that impair their scalability, improving their ability to extract potential pathways over large-scale databases. In all case-studies, the algorithms were able to find already described pathways for the production of the target compounds, but also alternative pathways that can represent novel ME solutions after further evaluation. PMID:25580014

  4. The effect of farmed trout on cardiovascular risk markers in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallund, Jesper; Madsen, Birgitte Overgaard; Bügel, Susanne H.;

    2010-01-01

    meal with 150 g farmed trout raised on either marine or vegetable-based feed, or a reference meal containing 150 g chicken. Twenty-four hour BP, pulse wave velocity, augmentation index, fatty acid composition of erythrocyte (RBC), and concentrations of TAG, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, glucose...... risk markers after daily consumption of trout with high or low n-3 LCPUFA content. However, trout raised on vegetable-based feed had less pronounced impact on RBC n-3 LCPUFA status....

  5. Relationships between trout stocking and amphibians in British Columbia's Southern Interior lakes

    OpenAIRE

    Hirner, Joanna Lynne McGarvie

    2006-01-01

    Stocking lakes with non-native trout to encourage recreational fishing causes changes in lake ecosystems that can negatively affect biodiversity. I examined associations between rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and amphibians in small lakes of British Columbia’s Southern Interior by comparing abundance, growth, and probability of presence of aquatic breeding amphibians between lakes with and without trout. My evidence suggests that abundance of long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum...

  6. Proliferative kidney disease in brown trout – infection level, pathology and mortality under field conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt-Posthaus, Heike; Hirschi, Regula; Schneider, Ernst

    2015-01-01

    Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) is an emerging disease threatening wild salmonid populations. In temperature-controlled aquaria, PKD can cause mortality rates of up to 85% in rainbow trout. So far, no data about PKD-related mortality in wild brown trout Salmo trutta fario are available. The aim of this study was to investigate mortality rates and pathology in brown trout kept in a cage within a natural river habitat known to harbor Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae. Young-of-the-year (YOY) ...

  7. Survival of intragravel stages of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) in Teesdale

    OpenAIRE

    Ottaway, E.M.; Clarke, A.

    1981-01-01

    A study has been undertaken on several streams in Teesdale (UK)in order to examine survival rates of intragravel stages of brown trout and the factors influencing survival. Although all the becks contained brown trout spawning areas, some were utilised by more spawning trout than others. The best spawning sites as judged by this criterion were Thorsgill and Great Eggleshope becks where the research effort was therefore concentrated. There were two different spawning areas in Eggleshope, namel...

  8. Phylogeographic study of brown trout from Serbia, based on mitochondrial DNA control region analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Snoj Aleš; Simonović Predrag; Sušnik Simona; Marić Saša

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In order to illuminate the phylogeography of brown trout (Salmo trutta) populations in the Balkan state of Serbia, the 561 bp 5'-end of mtDNA control region of 101 individuals originating from upland tributaries of the Danubian, Aegean and Adriatic drainages were sequenced and compared to corresponding brown trout sequences obtained in previous studies. Among 15 haplotypes found, 14 were considered native, representing the Danubian and Adriatic lineages of the brown trout, while one ...

  9. Brown trout demogenetics in the Belgian Ardennes : an individual-based modelling approach

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Béatrice

    2012-01-01

    The brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) is one of the vertebrate species presenting the highest degree of intraspecific biological diversity. Human activities are threatening this biodiversity, and many endemic populations now face a medium-term risk of extinction. An individual-based model called DemGenTrout was developed to improve the management of these populations, by providing (i) a descriptive tool to study the functioning of a brown trout population at the stream scale, (ii) a predictive to...

  10. Genetic characterization of broodstock brown trout from Bled fish-farm, Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Marić, Saša; Simonović, Predrag; Razpet, Andrej

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Due to environmental and economic concerns, Bled fish-farm is interested in establishing broodstocks of native brown trout (Salmo trutta L.). Progeny would be reared and released into rivers managed by the Fishing Club Bled. In this study was performed genetic characterization of broodstock from Bled fish-farm in order to assess hybridization of native brown trout of Danubian phylogeographic lineage with trout of the allochtonous Atlantic lineage. Material and Meth...

  11. Molecular epidemiology of zoonotic streptococcosis/lactococcosis in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) aquaculture in Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsidani, S. Haghighi; Soltani, M.; Nikbakhat-Brojeni, G.;

    2010-01-01

    ."nMaterials and Methods: 108 Gram positive cocci isolates were obtained from diseased trout in seven provinces with major trout production during 2008 till 2009. These bacterial isolates were characterized using phenotypic and molecular studies. The isolates were also analysed phylogeneticaly and compared...... similarity values with all other recorded strains."nConculsion: The results of this study clearly show that trout farming in Iran is severely affected by both species of S. iniae and L. garvieae and requires serious preventive criteria....

  12. First evidence of successful natural reproduction by planted lake trout in Lake Huron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nester, Robert T.; Poe, Thomas P.

    1984-01-01

    Twenty-two lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) swim-up fry, 24-27 mm long, were captured with emergent fry traps and a tow net in northwestern Lake Huron on a small nearshore reef off Alpena, Michigan, between May 10 and June 1, 1982. These catches represent the first evidence of successful production of swim-up fry by planted, hatchery-reared lake trout in Lake Huron since the lake trout rehabilitation program began in 1973.

  13. The Movements of Ferox Trout, Salmo trutta, in a Scottish Highland Freshwater Loch

    OpenAIRE

    Thorne, Alastair; MacDonald, Alisdair; Thorley, Joseph; Johnstone, Alastair

    2015-01-01

    Ferox trout (Salmo trutta) are the top fish predators in many Scottish lochs feeding on smaller trout and Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) – their main prey species. Although once considered a separate species, ferox trout are brown trout which have switched to a mainly piscivorous diet. The diet switch not only boosts growth (the current UK rod caught record weight is 14.4kg), but also adds to longevity (the oldest confirmed UK ferox was 23 years old). The main aim of the study d...

  14. The Impact of Rainbow Trout Farm Effluents on Water Quality of Karasu Stream, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    *(1), Serap Pulatsu; (2), Ferit Rad; (1), Gülten Köksal; (1), Fikri Aydın; (1), A.Ç. Karasu Benli; (1), Akasya Topçu

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the potential impact of trout farm effluents on water quality of Karasu stream (Bozüyük-Turkey) where a ring of five trout farms are localized and to estimate the phosphorus load of the farms. Monthly samples were taken from upstream (1. station) and the last trout farm effluents (downstream- 2. station) for 11 months. Trout farms had a significant impact on dissolved oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand (BOD5), NO2-N, NO3-N and total phosphorus (TP) conce...

  15. Spawning trout Salmo trutta L. populations in the Cummeragh System, Co. Kerry

    OpenAIRE

    Fahy, E

    1982-01-01

    Concentrations totalling more than 300 spawning trout from five sites at three parts of the Cummeragh system were examined in 1980. The majority of the fish were sea trout but some brown trout and precocious males occurred at every site. Of the various physical characteristics of the sites, numbers of fish displayed the most consistent relationship with the volume of water in the pools where they occurred. Trout ranged from 22cm to 68cm fork length and maiden fish of two sea summers comprised...

  16. Regulation of an unexploited brown trout population in Spruce Creek, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carline, R.F.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the annual variations in the density of an unexploited population of lotic brown trout Salmo trutta that has been censused annually for 19 years and to explore the importance of density-independent and density-dependent processes in regulating population size. Brown trout density and indices of stream discharge and water temperature were related to annual variations in natural mortality, recruitment, and growth. Annual mortality of age-1 and older (age-1+) brown trout ranged from 0.30 to 0.75 and was best explained by discharge during spring and by brown trout density. Recruitment to age 1 varied fivefold. Density of age-1 brown trout was inversely related to spawner density and positively related to discharge during the fall spawning period. The median length of age-1 brown trout was positively related to discharge during summer and fall. Relative weight was inversely related to the density of age-2+ brown trout. The interactive effects of discharge and brown trout density accounted for most of the annual variation in mortality, recruitment, and growth during the first year of life. Annual trends in the abundance of age-1+ brown trout were largely dictated by natural mortality. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2006.

  17. EFFECT OF BULL AND SPERM PREPARATION METHOD ON IN VITRO FERTILIZATION OF BUFFALO OOCYTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. JAMIL, H. A. SAMAD, Z. I. QURESHI, N. REHMAN AND L. A. LODHI

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to compare fertilization rates following oocyte exposure to spermatozoa from different buffalo bulls, using three sperm preparation methods i.e. percoll density gradient, swim-up (modified Ca2 free Tyrode’s medium and TALP medium and sodium citrate washing prior to co-incubation with oocytes. Buffalo oocytes were aspirated from ovarian follicles within 1.5 to 2 hours after slaughter. They were matured in TCM-199 supplemented with 20% oestrus buffalo serum drops under mineral oil in CO2 incubator at 39C for 24 hours. Matured oocytes were transferred to the fertilization droplets and inseminated with 1x106 capacitated sperms prepared by different experimental methods. Data collected on recovered sperm motility immediately after treatment and 24 hours after incubation (at 37C and cleavage rate of co-incubated oocytes were subjected to statistical analysis. The percentage of motile spermatozoa was significantly higher (P<0.05 in semen samples prepared by swim-up method in Ca2 free Tyrode’s medium compared to other experimental techniques. Bull wise comparison showed significantly higher (P<0.05 motility in bull B1 (50.50 ± 5.92%, followed by bull B2 (46.46 ± 5.99% and B3 (45.96 ± 5.79%. Fertilization rate was also significantly (P<0.05 higher for spermatozoa prepared by Swim-up method in Ca2 free Tyrode’s medium (63.75 ± 2.81%, followed by sodium citrate (26.70 ± 5.08%, swim-up TALP (29.14 ± 3.74% and Percoll gradient density (23.89 ± 3.88%. Fertilization rate was significantly higher (P<0.05 in oocytes inseminated with semen from bull B1 (43.43 ± 8.59%, followed by B2 (33.38 ± 9.95% and B3 (30.80 ± 9.56%. The results of present study indicate that bulls and sperm preparation methods differ in their contribution to in vitro fertilization rate. Further studies are suggested to ascertain the factors responsible for such specific effects.

  18. Carcass and meat quality characteristics of Brahman cross bulls and steers finished on tropical pastures in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Julio; Unruh, John; Villarreal, Milton; Murillo, Olger; Rojas, Sailim; Camacho, Jorge; Jaeger, John; Reinhardt, Chris

    2014-03-01

    Forty-eight male calves (3/4 Brahman×1/4 Charolais) were used to determine carcass cutability and meat tenderness of Longissimus lumborum (LL), Gluteus medius (GM), Semitendinosus (ST) and Psoas major (PM) steaks from lighter weight carcasses of bulls and steers castrated at 3, 7, or 12 mo of age grown under tropical pasture conditions. Steaks from steers had lower (more tender) LL Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values than those from bulls. Steaks from steers castrated at 3 mo had lower GM WBSF than those from bulls. For PM steaks, those aged 28 d had lower WBSF than those aged 2d. Steaks aged 28 d had the lowest LL and GM WBSF and steaks aged 2d had the highest LL, GM, and ST WBSF. Castration at younger ages is recommended because it provides improvement in LL and GM tenderness over bulls with no differences in carcass traits or subprimal yields. PMID:24342184

  19. Influence of stall finishing of Podolian young bulls raised on pasture on fatty acid composition and oxidative status of meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Scerra

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen Podolian young bulls were used to study the effects of two different feeding systems on fatty acids composition and oxidative stability of meat: C group, eight young bulls were kept indoors and fed with commercial concentrate for all experimental period (260 days; PC group, eight young bulls were allowed to graze a pasture for 200 days and shifted indoor, fed with concentrate, 60 days before being slaughtered. Meat from young bulls that were allowed, before stall finishing with concentrate, to graze a natural pasture showed lower levels of some n-6 PUFA and higher levels of some n-3 PUFA than meat from animals that were offered only concentrate for the whole experimental period. Lipid oxidation was not affected by the dietary treatment. After a period of 60-day-indoor finishing with concentrate, meat retained part of the health benefits, with regard to fatty acid composition, occurring from grazing.

  20. Carcass and meat quality characteristics of Brahman cross bulls and steers finished on tropical pastures in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Julio; Unruh, John; Villarreal, Milton; Murillo, Olger; Rojas, Sailim; Camacho, Jorge; Jaeger, John; Reinhardt, Chris

    2014-03-01

    Forty-eight male calves (3/4 Brahman×1/4 Charolais) were used to determine carcass cutability and meat tenderness of Longissimus lumborum (LL), Gluteus medius (GM), Semitendinosus (ST) and Psoas major (PM) steaks from lighter weight carcasses of bulls and steers castrated at 3, 7, or 12 mo of age grown under tropical pasture conditions. Steaks from steers had lower (more tender) LL Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values than those from bulls. Steaks from steers castrated at 3 mo had lower GM WBSF than those from bulls. For PM steaks, those aged 28 d had lower WBSF than those aged 2d. Steaks aged 28 d had the lowest LL and GM WBSF and steaks aged 2d had the highest LL, GM, and ST WBSF. Castration at younger ages is recommended because it provides improvement in LL and GM tenderness over bulls with no differences in carcass traits or subprimal yields.