WorldWideScience

Sample records for bull trout distribution

  1. Factors influencing the distribution of native bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout in western Glacier National Park, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Vincent S.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.

    2013-01-01

    The widespread declines of native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) populations prompted researchers to investigate factors influencing their distribution and status in western Glacier National Park, Montana. We evaluated the association of a suite of abiotic factors (stream width, elevation, gradient, large woody debris density, pool density, August mean stream temperature, reach surface area) with the occurrence (presence or absence) of bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout in 79 stream reaches in five sub-drainages containing glacial lakes. We modeled the occurrence of each species using logistic regression and evaluated competing models using an information theoretic approach. Westslope cutthroat trout were widely distributed (47 of 79 reaches), and there appeared to be no restrictions on their distribution other than physical barriers. Westslope cutthroat trout were most commonly found in relatively warm reaches downstream of lakes and in headwater reaches with large amounts of large woody debris and abundant pools. By contrast, bull trout were infrequently detected (10 of 79 reaches), with 7 of the 10 (70%) detections in sub-drainages that have not been compromised by non-native lake trout (S. namaycush). Bull trout were most often found in cold, low-gradient reaches upstream of glacial lakes. Our results indicate that complex stream habitats in sub-drainages free of non-native species are important to the persistence of native salmonids in western Glacier National Park. Results from this study may help managers monitor and protect important habitats and populations, inform conservation and recovery programs, and guide non-native species suppression efforts in Glacier National Park and elsewhere.

  2. Bull trout distribution and abundance in the waters on and bordering the Warm Springs Indian Reservation: 2001 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, Christopher V.; Dodson, Rebekah D.

    2002-01-01

    of the total habitat. Multiple pass spawning ground surveys were conducted during late August through October in the Warm Springs R. and Shitike Cr. The number of redds enumerated in the Warm Springs R. declined substantially from 1998-2000 observations. Total redds recorded in Shitike Cr. was higher than 2000, but fewer than observed in 1998-1999. Spatial and temporal distribution in spawning within Warm Springs R. and Shitike Cr. is discussed. Juvenile emigration was monitored in Shitike Cr. The number of emigrants was the highest recorded since 1996. As in past years both a spring and fall migration period was observed. Adult escapement was monitored in the Warm Spring R. and Shitike Cr. The number of adults recorded passing the Warm Springs National Fish Hatchery weir was the second highest recorded since 1995. An adult trap was successfully operated in Shitike Cr. Eighty adult bull trout were enumerated during 2001

  3. Demographic and habitat requirements for conservation of bull trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce E. Rieman; John D. Mclntyre

    1993-01-01

    Elements in bull trout biology, population dynamics, habitat, and biotic interactions important to conservation of the species are identified. Bull trout appear to have more specific habitat requirements than other salmonids, but no critical thresholds of acceptable habitat condition were found. Size, temporal variation, and spatial distribution are likely to influence...

  4. Status of Oregon's Bull Trout.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, David V.; Hanson, Mary L.; Hooton, Robert M.

    1997-10-01

    Limited historical references indicate that bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in Oregon were once widely spread throughout at least 12 basins in the Klamath River and Columbia River systems. No bull trout have been observed in Oregon's coastal systems. A total of 69 bull trout populations in 12 basins are currently identified in Oregon. A comparison of the 1991 bull trout status (Ratliff and Howell 1992) to the revised 1996 status found that 7 populations were newly discovered and 1 population showed a positive or upgraded status while 22 populations showed a negative or downgraded status. The general downgrading of 32% of Oregon's bull trout populations appears largely due to increased survey efforts and increased survey accuracy rather than reduced numbers or distribution. However, three populations in the upper Klamath Basin, two in the Walla Walla Basin, and one in the Willamette Basin showed decreases in estimated population abundance or distribution.

  5. Spawning and rearing behavior of bull trout in a headwaterlake ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora B. Tennant,; Gresswell, Bob; Guy, Christopher S.; Michael H. Meeuwig,

    2015-01-01

    Numerous life histories have been documented for bull trout Salvelinus confluentus. Lacustrine-adfluvial bull trout populations that occupy small, headwater lake ecosystems and migrate short distances to natal tributaries to spawn are likely common; however, much of the research on potamodromous bull trout has focused on describing the spawning and rearing characteristics of bull trout populations that occupy large rivers and lakes and make long distance spawning migrations to natal headwater streams. This study describes the spawning and rearing characteristics of lacustrine-adfluvial bull trout in the Quartz Lake drainage, Glacier National Park, USA, a small headwater lake ecosystem. Many spawning and rearing characteristics of bull trout in the Quartz Lake drainage are similar to potamodromous bull trout that migrate long distances. For example, subadult bull trout distribution was positively associated with slow-water habitat unit types and maximum wetted width, and negatively associated with increased stream gradient. Bull trout spawning also occurred when water temperatures were between 5 and 9 °C, and redds were generally located in stream segments with low stream gradient and abundant gravel and cobble substrates. However, this study also elucidated characteristics of bull trout biology that are not well documented in the literature, but may be relatively widespread and have important implications regarding general characteristics of bull trout ecology, use of available habitat by bull trout, and persistence of lacustrine-adfluvial bull trout in small headwater lake ecosystems.

  6. Bull trout life history, genetics, habitat needs, and limiting factors in Central and Northeast Oregon. Annual report 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellerud, B.L.; Gunkel, S.; Hemmingsen, A.R.; Buchanan, D.V.; Howell, P.J.

    1997-10-01

    This study is part of a multi-year research project studying aspects of bull trout life history, ecology and genetics. This report covers the activities of the project in 1996. Results and analysis are presented in the following five areas: (1) analysis of the genetic structure of Oregon bull trout populations; (2) distribution and habitat use of bull trout and brook trout in streams containing both species; (3) bull trout spawning surveys; (4) summary and analysis of historical juvenile bull trout downstream migrant trap catches in the Grande Ronde basin; and (5) food habits and feeding behavior of bull trout alone and in sympatry with brook trout

  7. Bull Trout Life History, Genetics, Habitat Needs, and Limiting Factors in Central and Northeast Oregon. Annual Report 1996.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellerud, Blane L.; Gunckel, Stephanie; Hemmingsen, Alan R.; Buchanan, David V.; Howell, Philip J.

    1997-10-01

    This study is part of a multi-year research project studying aspects of bull trout life history, ecology and genetics. This report covers the activities of the project in 1996. Results and analysis are presented in the following five areas: (1) analysis of the genetic structure of Oregon bull trout populations; (2) distribution and habitat use of bull trout and brook trout in streams containing both species; (3) bull trout spawning surveys; (4) summary and analysis of historical juvenile bull trout downstream migrant trap catches in the Grande Ronde basin; and (5) food habits and feeding behavior of bull trout alone and in sympatry with brook trout.

  8. Demographic characteristics of an adfluvial bull trout population in Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbins, Jonathan L; Hansen, Michael J.; DosSantos, Joseph M; Dux, Andrew M

    2016-01-01

    Introductions of nonnative species, habitat loss, and stream fragmentation have caused the Bull Trout Salvelinus confluentus to decline throughout much of its native distribution. Consequently, in June 1998, the Bull Trout was listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act as threatened. The Bull Trout has existed in Lake Pend Oreille and its surrounding tributaries since the last ice age, and the lake once supported a world-renowned Bull Trout fishery. To quantify the current status of the Bull Trout population in Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, we compared the mean age, growth, maturity, and abundance with reports in a study conducted one decade earlier. Abundance was estimated by mark–recapture for Bull Trout caught in trap nets and gill nets set in Lake Pend Oreille during ongoing suppression netting of Lake Trout S. namaycushin 2007–2008. Bull Trout sampled in 2006–2008 were used to estimate age structure, survival, growth, and maturity. Estimated Bull Trout abundance was similar to that estimated one decade earlier in Lake Pend Oreille. Bull Trout residing in Lake Pend Oreille between 2006 and 2008 were between ages 4 and 14 years; their growth was fastest between ages 1 and 2 and slowed thereafter. Male and female Bull Trout matured at a similar age, but females grew faster than males, thereby maturing at a larger size. Our findings suggest that management has effectively addressed current threats to increase the likelihood of long-term persistence of the Bull Trout population in Lake Pend Oreille.

  9. Malheur River Basin cooperative bull trout/redband trout research project, annual report FY 1999; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwabe, Lawrence; Tiley, Mark

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to document the seasonal distribution of adult/sub-adult bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Malheur River basin. Due to the decline of bull trout in the Columbia Basin, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service listed bull trout as a threatened species in June 1998. Past land management activities; construction of dams; and fish eradication projects in the North Fork and Middle Fork Malheur River by poisoning have worked in concert to cumulatively impact native species in the Malheur Basin (Bowers et. al. 1993). Survival of the remaining bull trout populations is severely threatened (Buchanan 1997). 1999 Research Objects are: (1) Document the migratory patterns of adult/sub-adult bull trout in the North Fork Malheur River; (2) Determine the seasonal bull trout use of Beulah Reservoir and bull trout entrainment; and (3) Timing and location of bull trout spawning in the North Fork Malheur River basin. The study area includes the Malheur basin from the mouth of the Malheur River located near Ontario, Oregon to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur River (Map 1). All fish collected and most of the telemetry effort was done on the North Fork Malheur River subbasin (Map 2). Fish collection was conducted on the North Fork Malheur River at the tailwaters of Beulah Reservoir (RK 29), Beulah Reservoir (RK 29-RK 33), and in the North Fork Malheur River at Crane Crossing (RK 69) to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur. Radio telemetry was done from the mouth of the Malheur River in Ontario, Oregon to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur. This report will reflect all migration data collected from 3/1/99 to 12/31/99

  10. Bull Trout Population Assessment in the Columbia River Gorge : Annual Report 2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, Jim; McPeak, Ron

    2001-02-01

    We summarized existing knowledge regarding the known distribution of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) across four sub-basins in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington. The Wind River, Little White Salmon River, White Salmon River, and the Klickitat River sub-basins were analyzed. Cold water is essential to the survival, spawning, and rearing of bull trout. We analyzed existing temperature data, installed Onset temperature loggers in the areas of the four sub-basins where data was not available, and determined that mean daily water temperatures were <15 C and appropriate for spawning and rearing of bull trout. We snorkel surveyed more than 74 km (46.25 mi.) of rivers and streams in the four sub-basins (13.8 km at night and 60.2 km during the day) and found that night snorkeling was superior to day snorkeling for locating bull trout. Surveys incorporated the Draft Interim Protocol for Determining Bull Trout Presence (Peterson et al. In Press). However, due to access and safety issues, we were unable to randomly select sample sites nor use block nets as recommended. Additionally, we also implemented the Bull Trout/Dolly Varden sampling methodology described in Bonar et al. (1997). No bull trout were found in the Wind River, Little White Salmon, or White Salmon River sub-basins. We found bull trout in the West Fork Klickitat drainage of the Klickitat River Sub-basin. Bull trout averaged 6.7 fish/100m{sup 2} in Trappers Creek, 2.6 fish/100m{sup 2} on Clearwater Creek, and 0.4 fish/100m{sup 2} in Little Muddy Creek. Bull trout was the only species of salmonid encountered in Trappers Creek and dominated in Clearwater Creek. Little Muddy Creek was the only creek where bull trout and introduced brook trout occurred together. We found bull trout only at night and typically in low flow regimes. A single fish, believed to be a bull trout x brook trout hybrid, was observed in the Little Muddy Creek. Additional surveys are needed in the West Fork Klickitat and mainstem

  11. Bull trout population assessment in the Columbia River Gorge/annual report fy2000; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, Jim; McPeak, Ron

    2001-01-01

    We summarized existing knowledge regarding the known distribution of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) across four sub-basins in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington. The Wind River, Little White Salmon River, White Salmon River, and the Klickitat River sub-basins were analyzed. Cold water is essential to the survival, spawning, and rearing of bull trout. We analyzed existing temperature data, installed Onset temperature loggers in the areas of the four sub-basins where data was not available, and determined that mean daily water temperatures were and lt;15 C and appropriate for spawning and rearing of bull trout. We snorkel surveyed more than 74 km (46.25 mi.) of rivers and streams in the four sub-basins (13.8 km at night and 60.2 km during the day) and found that night snorkeling was superior to day snorkeling for locating bull trout. Surveys incorporated the Draft Interim Protocol for Determining Bull Trout Presence (Peterson et al. In Press). However, due to access and safety issues, we were unable to randomly select sample sites nor use block nets as recommended. Additionally, we also implemented the Bull Trout/Dolly Varden sampling methodology described in Bonar et al. (1997). No bull trout were found in the Wind River, Little White Salmon, or White Salmon River sub-basins. We found bull trout in the West Fork Klickitat drainage of the Klickitat River Sub-basin. Bull trout averaged 6.7 fish/100m(sup 2) in Trappers Creek, 2.6 fish/100m(sup 2) on Clearwater Creek, and 0.4 fish/100m(sup 2) in Little Muddy Creek. Bull trout was the only species of salmonid encountered in Trappers Creek and dominated in Clearwater Creek. Little Muddy Creek was the only creek where bull trout and introduced brook trout occurred together. We found bull trout only at night and typically in low flow regimes. A single fish, believed to be a bull trout x brook trout hybrid, was observed in the Little Muddy Creek. Additional surveys are needed in the West Fork Klickitat and mainstem

  12. Development of bull trout sampling protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. F. Thurow; J. T. Peterson; J. W. Guzevich

    2001-01-01

    This report describes results of research conducted in Washington in 2000 through Interagency Agreement #134100H002 between the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the U.S. Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station (RMRS). The purpose of this agreement is to develop a bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) sampling protocol by integrating...

  13. Multiscale hydrogeomorphic influences on bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) spawning habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Jared R; Wilcox, Andrew C.; Woessner, William W.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated multiscale hydrogeomorphic influences on the distribution and abundance of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) spawning in snowmelt-dominated streams of the upper Flathead River basin, northwestern Montana. Within our study reaches, bull trout tended to spawn in the finest available gravel substrates. Analysis of the mobility of these substrates, based on one-dimensional hydraulic modeling and calculation of dimensionless shear stresses, indicated that bed materials in spawning reaches would be mobilized at moderate (i.e., 2-year recurrence interval) high-flow conditions, although the asynchronous timing of the fall–winter egg incubation period and typical late spring – early summer snowmelt high flows in our study area may limit susceptibility to redd scour under current hydrologic regimes. Redd occurrence also tended to be associated with concave-up bedforms (pool tailouts) with downwelling intragravel flows. Streambed temperatures tracked stream water diurnal temperature cycles to a depth of at least 25 cm, averaging 6.1–8.1 °C in different study reaches during the spawning period. Ground water provided thermal moderation of stream water for several high-density spawning reaches. Bull trout redds were more frequent in unconfined alluvial valley reaches (8.5 versus 5.0 redds·km−1 in confined valley reaches), which were strongly influenced by hyporheic and groundwater – stream water exchange. A considerable proportion of redds were patchily distributed in confined valley reaches, however, emphasizing the influence of local physical conditions in supporting bull trout spawning habitat. Moreover, narrowing or “bounding” of these alluvial valley segments did not appear to be important. Our results suggest that geomorphic, thermal, and hydrological factors influence bull trout spawning occurrence at multiple spatial scales.

  14. Thermal regimes, nonnative trout, and their influences on native Bull Trout in the Upper Klamath River Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Joseph R.; Heltzel, Jeannie; Dunham, Jason B.; Heck, Michael; Banish, Nolan P.

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of fish species may be strongly influenced by a stream’s thermal regime (magnitude, frequency, variation, and timing). For instance, magnitude and frequency provide information about sublethal temperatures, variability in temperature can affect behavioral thermoregulation and bioenergetics, and timing of thermal events may cue life history events, such as spawning and migration. We explored the relationship between thermal regimes and the occurrences of native Bull Trout Salvelinus confluentus and nonnative Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis and Brown Trout Salmo trutta across 87 sites in the upper Klamath River basin, Oregon. Our objectives were to associate descriptors of the thermal regime with trout occurrence, predict the probability of Bull Trout occurrence, and estimate upper thermal tolerances of the trout species. We found that each species was associated with a different suite of thermal regime descriptors. Bull Trout were present at sites that were cooler, had fewer high-temperature events, had less variability, and took longer to warm. Brook Trout were also observed at cooler sites with fewer high-temperature events, but the sites were more variable and Brook Trout occurrence was not associated with a timing descriptor. In contrast, Brown Trout were present at sites that were warmer and reached higher temperatures faster, but they were not associated with frequency or variability descriptors. Among the descriptors considered, magnitude (specifically June degree-days) was the most important in predicting the probability of Bull Trout occurrence, and model predictions were strengthened by including Brook Trout occurrence. Last, all three trout species exhibited contrasting patterns of tolerating longer exposures to lower temperatures. Tolerance limits for Bull Trout were lower than those for Brook Trout and Brown Trout, with contrasts especially evident for thermal maxima. Our results confirm the value of exploring a suite of thermal

  15. Bull Trout Life History, Genetics, Habitat Needs, and Limiting Fact in Central and Northeast Oregon. Annual Report 1999.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmingsen, Alan R.; Gunckel, Stephanie L.; Howell, Philip J.

    2001-08-01

    This section describes work accomplished in 1999 that continued to address two objectives of this project. These objectives are (1) determine the distribution of juvenile and adult bull trout Salvelinus confluentus and habitats associated with that distribution, and (2) determine fluvial and resident bull trout life history patterns. Completion of these objectives is intended through studies of bull trout in the Grande Ronde, Walla Walla, and John Day basins. These basins were selected because they provide a variety of habitats, from relatively degraded to pristine, and bull trout populations were thought to vary from relatively depressed to robust. In all three basins we used radio telemetry to determine the seasonal movements of bull trout. In the John Day and Walla Walla basins we also used traps to capture migrant bull trout. With these traps, we intended to determine the timing of bull trout movements both upstream and downstream, determine the relative abundance, size and age of migrant fish, and capture bull trout to be implanted with radio transmitters. In the John Day basin, we captured adult and juvenile bull trout from the upper John Day River and its tributaries, Call Creek, Reynolds Creek, and Roberts Creek. In the Walla Walla basin, we captured adult and juvenile bull trout from Mill Creek.

  16. Bull trout life history, genetics, habitat needs, and limiting fact in central and northeast Oregon/1999; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemmingsen, A.R.; Gunckel, S.L.; Howell, P.J.

    2001-01-01

    This section describes work accomplished in 1999 that continued to address two objectives of this project. These objectives are (1) determine the distribution of juvenile and adult bull trout Salvelinus confluentus and habitats associated with that distribution, and (2) determine fluvial and resident bull trout life history patterns. Completion of these objectives is intended through studies of bull trout in the Grande Ronde, Walla Walla, and John Day basins. These basins were selected because they provide a variety of habitats, from relatively degraded to pristine, and bull trout populations were thought to vary from relatively depressed to robust. In all three basins we used radio telemetry to determine the seasonal movements of bull trout. In the John Day and Walla Walla basins we also used traps to capture migrant bull trout. With these traps, we intended to determine the timing of bull trout movements both upstream and downstream, determine the relative abundance, size and age of migrant fish, and capture bull trout to be implanted with radio transmitters. In the John Day basin, we captured adult and juvenile bull trout from the upper John Day River and its tributaries, Call Creek, Reynolds Creek, and Roberts Creek. In the Walla Walla basin, we captured adult and juvenile bull trout from Mill Creek

  17. Bull Trout Life History, Genetics, Habitat Needs, and Limiting Factors in Central and Northeast Oregon, Annual Report 2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmingsen, Alan R.; Gunckel, Stephanie L.; Sankovich, Paul M.; Howell, Philip J.

    2001-11-01

    This section describes work accomplished in 2000 that continued to address two objectives of this project. These objectives are (1) determine the distribution of juvenile and adult bull trout Salvelinus confluentus and habitats associated with that distribution, and (2) determine fluvial and resident bull trout life history patterns. Completion of these objectives is intended through studies of bull trout in the Grande Ronde, Walla Walla, and John Day basins. These basins were selected because they provide a variety of habitats, from relatively degraded to pristine, and bull trout populations were thought to vary from relatively depressed to robust. In all three basins we continued to monitor the movements of bull trout with radio transmitters applied in 1998 (Hemmingsen, Bellerud, Gunckel and Howell 2001) and 1999 (Hemmingsen, Gunckel and Howell 2001). No new radio transmitters were applied to bull trout of the upper John Day River subbasin, Mill Creek (Walla Walla Basin), or the Grande Ronde Basin in 2000. We did implant radio transmitters in two bull trout incidentally captured in the John Day River near the confluence of the North Fork John Day River. In Mill Creek, we used traps to capture migrant bull trout to obtain data for the third successive year in this stream. With these traps, we intended to determine the timing of bull trout movements both upstream and downstream, and to determine the relative abundance, size and age of migrant fish. Because we captured migrant bull trout with traps for three years in the upper John Day River and its tributaries (Hemmingsen, Bellerud, Buchanan, Gunckel, Shappart and Howell 2001; Hemmingsen, Bellerud, Gunckel and Howell 2001; Hemmingsen, Gunckel and Howell 2001) and traps were no longer needed to capture bull trout for radio-tagging, no traps were operated in the John Day Basin in 2000.

  18. Bull trout life history, genetics, habitat needs, and limiting fact in central and northeast Oregon, annual report 2000.; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemmingsen, Alan R.

    2001-01-01

    This section describes work accomplished in 2000 that continued to address two objectives of this project. These objectives are (1) determine the distribution of juvenile and adult bull trout Salvelinus confluentus and habitats associated with that distribution, and (2) determine fluvial and resident bull trout life history patterns. Completion of these objectives is intended through studies of bull trout in the Grande Ronde, Walla Walla, and John Day basins. These basins were selected because they provide a variety of habitats, from relatively degraded to pristine, and bull trout populations were thought to vary from relatively depressed to robust. In all three basins we continued to monitor the movements of bull trout with radio transmitters applied in 1998 (Hemmingsen, Bellerud, Gunckel and Howell 2001) and 1999 (Hemmingsen, Gunckel and Howell 2001). No new radio transmitters were applied to bull trout of the upper John Day River subbasin, Mill Creek (Walla Walla Basin), or the Grande Ronde Basin in 2000. We did implant radio transmitters in two bull trout incidentally captured in the John Day River near the confluence of the North Fork John Day River. In Mill Creek, we used traps to capture migrant bull trout to obtain data for the third successive year in this stream. With these traps, we intended to determine the timing of bull trout movements both upstream and downstream, and to determine the relative abundance, size and age of migrant fish. Because we captured migrant bull trout with traps for three years in the upper John Day River and its tributaries (Hemmingsen, Bellerud, Buchanan, Gunckel, Shappart and Howell 2001; Hemmingsen, Bellerud, Gunckel and Howell 2001; Hemmingsen, Gunckel and Howell 2001) and traps were no longer needed to capture bull trout for radio-tagging, no traps were operated in the John Day Basin in 2000

  19. Spatial and temporal distribution of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus)-size fish near the floating surface collector in the North Fork Reservoir, Oregon, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Noah S.; Smith, Collin D.

    2017-06-26

    Acoustic cameras were used to assess the behavior and abundance of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus)-size fish at the entrance to the North Fork Reservoir juvenile fish floating surface collector (FSC). The purpose of the FSC is to collect downriver migrating juvenile salmonids at the North Fork Dam, and safely route them around the hydroelectric projects. The objective of the acoustic camera component of this study was to assess the behaviors of bull trout-size fish observed near the FSC, and to determine if the presence of bull trout-size fish influenced the collection or abundance of juvenile salmonids. Acoustic cameras were deployed near the surface and floor of the entrance to the FSC. The acoustic camera technology was an informative tool for assessing abundance and spatial and temporal behaviors of bull trout-size fish near the entrance of the FSC. Bull trout-size fish were regularly observed near the entrance, with greater abundances on the deep camera than on the shallow camera. Additionally, greater abundances were observed during the hours of sunlight than were observed during the night. Behavioral differences also were observed at the two depths, with surface fish traveling faster and straighter with more directed movement, and fish observed on the deep camera generally showing more milling behavior. Modeling potential predator-prey interactions and influences using collected passive integrated transponder (PIT) -tagged juvenile salmonids proved largely unpredictable, although these fish provided relevant timing and collection information. Overall, the results indicate that bull trout-size fish are present near the entrance of the FSC, concomitant with juvenile salmonids, and their abundances and behaviors indicate that they may be drawn to the entrance of the FSC because of the abundance of prey-sized fish.

  20. Adaptive Management of Bull Trout Populations in the Lemhi Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, James T.; Tyre, Andrew J.; Converse, Sarah J.; Bogich, Tiffany L.; Miller, Damien; Post van der Burg, Max; Thomas, Carmen; Thompson, Ralph J.; Wood, Jeri; Brewer, Donna; Runge, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    The bull trout Salvelinus confluentus, a stream-living salmonid distributed in drainages of the northwestern United States, is listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act because of rangewide declines. One proposed recovery action is the reconnection of tributaries in the Lemhi Basin. Past water use policies in this core area disconnected headwater spawning sites from downstream habitat and have led to the loss of migratory life history forms. We developed an adaptive management framework to analyze which types of streams should be prioritized for reconnection under a proposed Habitat Conservation Plan. We developed a Stochastic Dynamic Program that identified optimal policies over time under four different assumptions about the nature of the migratory behavior and the effects of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis on subpopulations of bull trout. In general, given the current state of the system and the uncertainties about the dynamics, the optimal policy would be to connect streams that are currently occupied by bull trout. We also estimated the value of information as the difference between absolute certainty about which of our four assumptions were correct, and a model averaged optimization assuming no knowledge. Overall there is little to be gained by learning about the dynamics of the system in its current state, although in other parts of the state space reducing uncertainties about the system would be very valuable. We also conducted a sensitivity analysis; the optimal decision at the current state does not change even when parameter values are changed up to 75% of the baseline values. Overall, the exercise demonstrates that it is possible to apply adaptive management principles to threatened and endangered species, but logistical and data availability constraints make detailed analyses difficult.

  1. Bioenergetic evaluation of diel vertical migration by bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in a thermally stratified reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckmann, Madeleine; Dunham, Jason B.; Connor, Edward J.; Welch, Carmen A.

    2018-01-01

    Many species living in deeper lentic ecosystems exhibit daily movements that cycle through the water column, generally referred to as diel vertical migration (DVM). In this study, we applied bioenergetics modelling to evaluate growth as a hypothesis to explain DVM by bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in a thermally stratified reservoir (Ross Lake, WA, USA) during the peak of thermal stratification in July and August. Bioenergetics model parameters were derived from observed vertical distributions of temperature, prey and bull trout. Field sampling confirmed that bull trout prey almost exclusively on recently introduced redside shiner (Richardsonius balteatus). Model predictions revealed that deeper (>25 m) DVMs commonly exhibited by bull trout during peak thermal stratification cannot be explained by maximising growth. Survival, another common explanation for DVM, may have influenced bull trout depth use, but observations suggest there may be additional drivers of DVM. We propose these deeper summertime excursions may be partly explained by an alternative hypothesis: the importance of colder water for gametogenesis. In Ross Lake, reliance of bull trout on warm water prey (redside shiner) for consumption and growth poses a potential trade-off with the need for colder water for gametogenesis.

  2. Are brown trout replacing or displacing bull trout populations in a changing climate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Schmetterling, David A.; Clancy, Chris; Saffel, Pat; Kovach, Ryan; Nyce, Leslie; Liermann, Brad; Fredenberg, Wade A.; Pierce, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how climate change may facilitate species turnover is an important step in identifying potential conservation strategies. We used data from 33 sites in western Montana to quantify climate associations with native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and non-native brown trout (Salmo trutta) abundance and population growth rates (λ). We estimated λ using exponential growth state space models and delineated study sites based on bull trout use for either Spawning and Rearing (SR) or Foraging, Migrating, and Overwintering (FMO) habitat. Bull trout abundance was negatively associated with mean August stream temperatures within SR habitat (r = -0.75). Brown trout abundance was generally highest at temperatures between 12 and 14°C. We found bull trout λ were generally stable at sites with mean August temperature below 10°C but significantly decreasing, rare, or extirpated at 58% of the sites with temperatures exceeding 10°C. Brown trout λ were highest in SR and sites with temperatures exceeding 12°C. Declining bull trout λs at sites where brown trout were absent suggests brown trout are likely replacing bull trout in a warming climate.

  3. Trophic ontogeny of fluvial Bull Trout and seasonal predation on Pacific Salmon in a riverine food web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Erin D.; Beauchamp, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Bull Trout Salvelinus confluentus are typically top predators in their host ecosystems. The Skagit River in northwestern Washington State contains Bull Trout and Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytschapopulations that are among the largest in the Puget Sound region and also contains a regionally large population of steelhead O. mykiss (anadromous Rainbow Trout). All three species are listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Our objective was to determine the trophic ecology of Bull Trout, especially their role as predators and consumers in the riverine food web. We seasonally sampled distribution, diets, and growth of Bull Trout in main-stem and tributary habitats during 2007 and winter–spring 2008. Consumption rates were estimated with a bioenergetics model to (1) determine the annual and seasonal contributions of different prey types to Bull Trout energy budgets and (2) estimate the potential impacts of Bull Trout predation on juvenile Pacific salmon populations. Salmon carcasses and eggs contributed approximately 50% of the annual energy budget for large Bull Trout in main-stem habitats, whereas those prey types were largely inaccessible to smaller Bull Trout in tributary habitats. The remaining 50% of the energy budget was acquired by eating juvenile salmon, resident fishes, and immature aquatic insects. Predation on listed Chinook Salmon and steelhead/Rainbow Trout was highest during winter and spring (January–June). Predation on juvenile salmon differed between the two study years, likely due to the dominant odd-year spawning cycle for Pink Salmon O. gorbuscha. The population impact on ocean- and stream-type Chinook Salmon was negligible, whereas the impact on steelhead/Rainbow Trout was potentially very high. Due to the ESA-listed status of Bull Trout, steelhead, and Chinook Salmon, the complex trophic interactions in this drainage provide both challenges and opportunities for creative adaptive management strategies.

  4. Influences of temperature and environmental variables on the distribution of bull trout within streams at the southern margin of its range

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Dunham; B. Rieman; G. Chandler

    2003-01-01

    The bull trout Salvelinus confluentus is believed to be among the most thermally sensitive species in coldwater habitats in western North America. We conducted a comprehensive field assessment of thermal habitat associations throughout the southern margin of the species' range. We developed models of thermal habitat associations using two data sets representing a...

  5. Genetic Inventory of Bull Trout and Westslope Cutthroat Trout in the Pend Oreille Subbasin, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maroney, Joseph R. (Kalispel Tribe of Indians, Usk, WA); Shaklee, James B.; Young, Sewall F. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2003-10-01

    In 2002, the Kalispel Natural Resource Department (KNRD) collected tissue samples for genetic analysis from 280 bull trout and 940 westslope cutthroat. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife developed and applied microsatellite DNA screening protocols for the analysis of bull trout at 13 loci and 24 loci for cutthroat trout. This project will continue collection and analysis of additional samples for the next 2 years. At that time, a final annual report will be compiled for the three-year study that will describe the genetic characteristics for bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout. The extent of hybridization of bull trout (with brook trout) and westslope cutthroat trout (with Yellowstone cutthroat trout and rainbow trout) in the Priest Lake and Lower Pend Oreille subbasins will also be examined.

  6. Evaluate Bull Trout Movements in the Tucannon and Lower Snake Rivers, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faler, Michael P. (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Fishery Resource Office, Ahsahka, ID); Mendel, Glen W.; Fulton, Carl (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Fish Management Division, Dayton, WA)

    2003-06-01

    We collected, radio-tagged, and PIT-tagged 41 bull trout at the Tucannon River Hatchery trap from May 17, through June 14, 2002. An additional 65 bull trout were also collected and PIT tagged by June 24, at which time we ceased PIT tagging operations because water temperatures were reaching 16.0 C or higher on a regular basis. Six radio-tags were recovered shortly after tagging, and as a result, 35 remained in the river through November 30, 2002. During the month of July, radio-tagged bull trout exhibited a general upstream movement into the upper reaches of the Tucannon Subbasin. We began to observe some downstream movements of radio-tagged bull trout in mid to late September and throughout October. These movements appeared to be associated with post spawning migrations. As of November 30, radio tagged bull trout were relatively stationary, and distributed from the headwaters downstream to river mile 11.3, near Pataha Creek. None of the radio-tagged bull trout left the Tucannon Subbasin and entered the federal hydropower system on the mainstem Snake River. We conducted some initial transmission tests of submerged radio tags at depths of 25, 35, 45, and 55 ft. in Lower Monumental Pool to test our capability of detection at these depths. Equipment used included Lotek model MCFT-3A transmitters, an SRX 400 receiver, a 4 element Yagi antenna, and a Lotek ''H'' antenna. Test results indicated that depth transmission of these tags was poor; only the transmitter placed at 25 ft. was audibly detectable.

  7. Evaluate Bull Trout Movements in the Tucannon and Lower Snake Rivers, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faler, Michael P. (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Fishery Resource Office, Ahsahka, ID); Mendel, Glen W.; Fulton, Carl (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Fish Management Division, Dayton, WA)

    2004-04-01

    We collected 279 adult bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Tucannon River during the Spring and Fall of 2003. Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags were inserted in 191 of them, and we detected existing PIT tags in an additional 31bull trout. Thirty five of these were also surgically implanted with radio-tags, and we monitored the movements of these fish throughout the year. Fourteen radio-tags were recovered shortly after tagging, and as a result, 21 remained in the river through December 31, 2003. Four bull trout that were radio-tagged in spring 2002 were known to survive and carry their tags through the spring and/or summer of 2003. One of these fish spent the winter near river mile (RM) 13.0; the other 3 over-wintered in the vicinity of the Tucannon Hatchery between RM 34 and 36. Twenty-one radio tags from bull trout tagged in 2002 were recovered during the spring and summer, 2003. These tags became stationary the winter of 2002/2003, and were recovered between RM 11 and 55. We were unable to recover the remaining 15 tags from 2002. During the month of July, radio-tagged bull trout exhibited a general upstream movement into the upper reaches of the Tucannon subbasin. We observed some downstream movements of radio-tagged bull trout in mid to late September and throughout October. By late November and early December, radio tagged bull trout were relatively stationary, and were distributed from the headwaters downstream to river mile 6.4, near Lower Monumental Pool. As in 2002, we did not conduct work associated with objectives 2, 3, or 4 of this study, because we were unable to monitor migratory movement of radio-tagged bull trout into the Federal hydropower system on the mainstem Snake River. Transmission tests of submerged ATS model F1830 radio-tags in Lower Granite Pool showed that audible detection and individual tag identification was possible at depths of 20 and 30 ft. Tests were conducted using an ATS R-4000 Receiver equipped with an &apos

  8. Assessing the feasibility of native fish reintroductions: a framework and example applied to bull trout in the Clackamas River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Jason B.; Gallo, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    In a species conservation context, translocations can be an important tool, but they frequently fail to successfully establish new populations. We consider the case of reintroductions for bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), a federally-listed threatened species with a widespread but declining distribution in western North America. Our specific objectives in this work were to: 1) develop a general framework for assessing the feasibility of reintroduction for bull trout, 2) provide a detailed example of implementing this framework to assess the feasibility of reintroducing bull trout in the Clackamas River, Oregon, and 3) discuss the implications of this effort in the more general context of fish reintroductions as a conservation tool. Review of several case histories and our assessment of the Clackamas River suggest that an attempt to reintroduce bull trout could be successful, assuming adequate resources are committed to the subsequent stages of implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.

  9. Use of cover habitat by bull trout Salvelinus confluentus and lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in a laboratory environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeuwig, Michael H.; Guy, Christopher S.; Fredenberg, Wade A.

    2011-01-01

    Lacustrine-adfluvial bull trout, Salvelinus confluentus, migrate from spawning and rearing streams to lacustrine environments as early as age 0. Within lacustrine environments, cover habitat pro- vides refuge from potential predators and is a resource that is competed for if limiting. Competitive inter- actions between bull trout and other species could result in bull trout being displaced from cover habitat, and bull trout may lack evolutionary adaptations to compete with introduced species, such as lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush. A laboratory experiment was performed to examine habitat use and interactions for cover by juvenile (i.e., habitat, with bull trout using cover and bottom habitats more than lake trout. Habitat selection ratios indicated that bull trout avoided water column habitat in the presence of lake trout and that lake trout avoided bottom habitat. Intraspecific and interspecific agonistic interactions were infrequent, but approximately 10 times greater for intraspecific inter- actions between lake trout. Results from this study provide little evidence that juvenile bull trout and lake trout compete for cover, and that species-specific differences in habitat use and selection likely result in habitat partitioning between these species.

  10. Evaluation of the Life History of Native Salmonids in the Malheur River Basin; Cooperative Bull Trout/Redband Trout Research Project, 1999-2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwabe, Lawrence; Tiley, Mark (Burns Paiute Tribe, Department of Fish and Wildlife, Burns, OR); Perkins, Raymond R. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Ontario, OR)

    2000-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to document the seasonal distribution of adult/sub-adult bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Malheur River basin. Due to the decline of bull trout in the Columbia Basin, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service listed bull trout as a threatened species in June 1998. Past land management activities; construction of dams; and fish eradication projects in the North Fork and Middle Fork Malheur River by poisoning have worked in concert to cumulatively impact native species in the Malheur Basin (Bowers et. al. 1993). Survival of the remaining bull trout populations is severely threatened (Buchanan 1997). 1999 Research Objects are: (1) Document the migratory patterns of adult/sub-adult bull trout in the North Fork Malheur River; (2) Determine the seasonal bull trout use of Beulah Reservoir and bull trout entrainment; and (3) Timing and location of bull trout spawning in the North Fork Malheur River basin. The study area includes the Malheur basin from the mouth of the Malheur River located near Ontario, Oregon to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur River (Map 1). All fish collected and most of the telemetry effort was done on the North Fork Malheur River subbasin (Map 2). Fish collection was conducted on the North Fork Malheur River at the tailwaters of Beulah Reservoir (RK 29), Beulah Reservoir (RK 29-RK 33), and in the North Fork Malheur River at Crane Crossing (RK 69) to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur. Radio telemetry was done from the mouth of the Malheur River in Ontario, Oregon to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur. This report will reflect all migration data collected from 3/1/99 to 12/31/99.

  11. Temporary Restoration of Bull Trout Passage at Albeni Falls Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paluch, Mark; Scholz, Allan; McLellan, Holly [Eastern Washington University Department of Biology; Olson, Jason [Kalispel Tribe of Indians Natural Resources Department

    2009-07-13

    This study was designed to monitor movements of bull trout that were provided passage above Albeni Falls Dam, Pend Oreille River. Electrofishing and angling were used to collect bull trout below the dam. Tissue samples were collected from each bull trout and sent to the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service Abernathy Fish Technology Center Conservation Genetics Lab, Washington. The DNA extracted from tissue samples were compared to a catalog of bull trout population DNA from the Priest River drainage, Lake Pend Oreille tributaries, and the Clark Fork drainage to determine the most probable tributary of origin. A combined acoustic radio or radio tag was implanted in each fish prior to being transported and released above the dam. Bull trout relocated above the dam were able to volitionally migrate into their natal tributary, drop back downstream, or migrate upstream to the next dam. A combination of stationary radio receiving stations and tracking via aircraft, boat, and vehicle were used to monitor the movement of tagged fish to determine if the spawning tributary it selected matched the tributary assigned from the genetic analysis. Seven bull trout were captured during electrofishing surveys in 2008. Of these seven, four were tagged and relocated above the dam. Two were tagged and left below the dam as part of a study monitoring movements below the dam. One was immature and too small at the time of capture to implant a tracking tag. All four fish released above the dam passed by stationary receivers stations leading into Lake Pend Oreille and no fish dropped back below the dam. One of the radio tags was recovered in the tributary corresponding with the results of the genetic test. Another fish was located in the vicinity of its assigned tributary, which was impassable due to low water discharge at its mouth. Two fish have not been located since entering the lake. Of these fish, one was immature and not expected to enter its natal tributary in the fall of 2008. The other

  12. Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) suppression for bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) recovery in Flathead Lake, Montana, North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Michael J.; Hansen, Barry S; Beauchamp, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Non-native lake trout Salvelinus namaycush displaced native bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in Flathead Lake, Montana, USA, after 1984, when Mysis diluviana became abundant following its introduction in upstream lakes in 1968–1976. We developed a simulation model to determine the fishing mortality rate on lake trout that would enable bull trout recovery. Model simulations indicated that suppression of adult lake trout by 75% from current abundance would reduce predation on bull trout by 90%. Current removals of lake trout through incentivized fishing contests has not been sufficient to suppress lake trout abundance estimated by mark-recapture or indexed by stratified-random gill netting. In contrast, size structure, body condition, mortality, and maturity are changing consistent with a density-dependent reduction in lake trout abundance. Population modeling indicated total fishing effort would need to increase 3-fold to reduce adult lake trout population density by 75%. We conclude that increased fishing effort would suppress lake trout population density and predation on juvenile bull trout, and thereby enable higher abundance of adult bull trout in Flathead Lake and its tributaries.

  13. Genetic diversity is related to climatic variation and vulnerability in threatened bull trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovach, Ryan; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Wade, Alisa A.; Hand, Brian K.; Whited, Diane C.; DeHaan, Patrick W.; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Luikart, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how climatic variation influences ecological and evolutionary processes is crucial for informed conservation decision-making. Nevertheless, few studies have measured how climatic variation influences genetic diversity within populations or how genetic diversity is distributed across space relative to future climatic stress. Here, we tested whether patterns of genetic diversity (allelic richness) were related to climatic variation and habitat features in 130 bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) populations from 24 watersheds (i.e., ~4–7th order river subbasins) across the Columbia River Basin, USA. We then determined whether bull trout genetic diversity was related to climate vulnerability at the watershed scale, which we quantified on the basis of exposure to future climatic conditions (projected scenarios for the 2040s) and existing habitat complexity. We found a strong gradient in genetic diversity in bull trout populations across the Columbia River Basin, where populations located in the most upstream headwater areas had the greatest genetic diversity. After accounting for spatial patterns with linear mixed models, allelic richness in bull trout populations was positively related to habitat patch size and complexity, and negatively related to maximum summer temperature and the frequency of winter flooding. These relationships strongly suggest that climatic variation influences evolutionary processes in this threatened species and that genetic diversity will likely decrease due to future climate change. Vulnerability at a watershed scale was negatively correlated with average genetic diversity (r = −0.77;P bull trout and other imperiled species. Genetic diversity is already depressed where climatic vulnerability is highest; it will likely erode further in the very places where diversity may be most needed for future persistence.

  14. Consequences of actively managing a small Bull Trout population in a fragmented landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Moran, Sean; McHugh, Peter; Bernall, Shana; Fredenberg, Wade; DosSantos, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation, which affects many native salmonid species, is one of the major factors contributing to the declines in distribution and abundance of Bull Trout Salvelinus confluentus. Increasingly, managers are considering options to maintain and enhance the persistence of isolated local populations through active management strategies. Understanding the ecological consequences of such actions is a necessary step in conservation planning. We used an individual-based model to evaluate the consequences of an ongoing management program aimed at mitigating the anthropogenic fragmentation of the lower Clark Fork River in Montana. Under this program juvenile Bull Trout are trapped and transported from small, headwater source populations to Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, for rearing, and adults are subsequently recaptured in their upstream migration and returned to the natal population for spawning. We examined one of these populations and integrated empirical estimates of demographic parameters to simulate different management scenarios where moderate (n = 4) and high (n = 8) numbers of age-2, age-3, or age-4 Bull Trout were removed for transport with variable return rates under both demographic stochasticity and environmental perturbations. Our results indicated the risks from removal with no returns increased substantially when removal totals and age of Bull Trout removed from the simulated population increased. Specifically, removing eight age-3 or age-4 individuals resulted in 26% and 62% reductions in average adult population size, respectively, across simulations. We found the risks of transport were not likely alleviated with low (3%) or moderate (6%) return rates, and there were considerable risks of declines for the source population even when return rates were extremely high (>12%). Our simulations indicated little risk of declines for the source population with removals of age-2 Bull Trout, and any risks were alleviated with low return rates. However, we

  15. Monitor and Protect Wigwam River Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir : Summary of the Skookumchuck Creek Bull Trout Enumeration Project Final Report 2000-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Jeremy; Baxter, James S.

    2002-12-01

    This report summarizes the third and final year of a bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) enumeration project on Skookumchuck Creek in southeastern British Columbia. The fence and traps were operated from September 6th to October 11th 2002 in order to enumerate post-spawning bull trout. During the study period a total of 309 bull trout were captured at the fence. In total, 16 fish of undetermined sex, 114 males and 179 females were processed at the fence. Length and weight data, as well as recapture information, were collected for these fish. An additional 41 bull trout were enumerated upstream of the fence by snorkeling prior to fence removal. Coupled with the fence count, the total bull trout enumerated during the project was 350 individuals. Several fish that were tagged in the lower Bull River were recaptured in 2002, as were repeat and alternate year spawners previously enumerated in past years at the fence. A total of 149 bull trout redds were enumerated on the ground in 2002, of which 143 were in the 3.0 km index section (river km 27.5-30.5) that has been surveyed over the past six years. The results of the three year project are summarized, and population characteristics are discussed.

  16. Evaluation of Bull Trout Movements in the Tucannon and Lower Snake Rivers, 2002-2006 Project Completion Summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faler, Michael P. [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; Mendel, Glen; Fulton, Carl [Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife

    2008-11-20

    The Columbia River Distinct Population Segment of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) was listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 1998. One of the identified major threats to the species is fragmentation resulting from dams on over-wintering habitats of migratory subpopulations. A migratory subgroup in the Tucannon River appeared to utilize the Snake River reservoirs for adult rearing on a seasonal basis. As a result, a radio telemetry study was conducted on this subgroup from 2002-2006, to help meet Reasonable and Prudent Measures, and Conservation Recommendations associated with the lower Snake River dams in the FCRPS Biological Opinion, and to increase understanding of bull trout movements within the Tucannon River drainage. We sampled 1,109 bull trout in the Tucannon River; 124 of these were surgically implanted with radio tags and PIT tagged, and 681 were only PIT tagged. The remaining 304 fish were either recaptures, or released unmarked. Bull trout seasonal movements within the Tucannon River were similar to those described for other migratory bull trout populations. Bull trout migrated upstream in spring and early summer to the spawning areas in upper portions of the Tucannon River watershed. They quickly moved off the spawning areas in the fall, and either held or continued a slower migration downstream through the winter until early the following spring. During late fall and winter, bull trout were distributed in the lower half of the Tucannon River basin, down to and including the mainstem Snake River below Little Goose Dam. We were unable to adequately radio track bull trout in the Snake River and evaluate their movements or interactions with the federal hydroelectric dams for the following reasons: (1) none of our radio-tagged fish were detected attempting to pass a Snake River dam, (2) our radio tags had poor transmission capability at depths greater than 12.2 m, and (3) the sample size of fish that actually entered the Snake River

  17. Monitor and Protect Wigwam River Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir : Summary of the Skookumchuck Creek Bull Trout Enumeration Project, Annual Report 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, James S.; Baxter, Jeremy

    2002-03-01

    This report summarizes the second year of a bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) enumeration project on Skookumchuck Creek in southeastern British Columbia. An enumeration fence and traps were installed on the creek from September 6th to October 12th 2001 to enable the capture of post-spawning bull trout emigrating out of the watershed. During the study period, a total of 273 bull trout were sampled through the enumeration fence. Length and weight were determined for all bull trout captured. In total, 39 fish of undetermined sex, 61 males and 173 females were processed through the fence. An additional 19 bull trout were observed on a snorkel survey prior to the fence being removed on October 12th. Coupled with the fence count, the total bull trout enumerated during this project was 292 fish. Several other species of fish were captured at the enumeration fence including westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi), Rocky Mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni), and kokanee (O. nerka). A total of 143 bull trout redds were enumerated on the ground in two different locations (river km 27.5-30.5, and km 24.0-25.5) on October 3rd. The majority of redds (n=132) were observed in the 3.0 km index section (river km 27.5-30.5) that has been surveyed over the past five years. The additional 11 redds were observed in a 1.5 km section (river km 24.0-25.5). Summary plots of water temperature for Bradford Creek, Sandown Creek, Buhl Creek, and Skookumchuck Creek at three locations suggested that water temperatures were within the temperature range preferred by bull trout for spawning, egg incubation, and rearing.

  18. Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) telemetry and associated habitat data collected in a geodatabase from the upper Boise River, southwestern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCoy, Dorene E.; Shephard, Zachary M.; Benjamin, Joseph R.; Vidergar, Dmitri T.; Prisciandaro, Anthony F.

    2017-03-23

    Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act, are among the more thermally sensitive of coldwater species in North America. The Boise River upstream of Arrowrock Dam in southwestern Idaho (including Arrowrock Reservoir) provides habitat for one of the southernmost populations of bull trout. The presence of the species in Arrowrock Reservoir poses implications for dam and reservoir operations. From 2011 to 2014, the Bureau of Reclamation and the U.S. Geological Survey collected fish telemetry data to improve understanding of bull trout distribution and movement in Arrowrock Reservoir and in the upper Boise River tributaries. The U.S. Geological Survey compiled the telemetry (fish location) data, along with reservoir elevation, river discharge, precipitation, and water-quality data in a geodatabase. The geodatabase includes metadata compliant with Federal Geographic Data Committee content standards. The Bureau of Reclamation plans to incorporate the data in a decision‑support tool for reservoir management.

  19. Wigwam River juvenile bull trout and fish habitat monitoring program: 2000 data report; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cope, R.S.; Morris, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    The Wigwam River bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and fish habitat monitoring program is a trans-boundary initiative implemented by the British Columbia Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks (MOE), in cooperation with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The Wigwam River is an important fisheries stream located in southeastern British Columbia that supports healthy populations of both bull trout and Westslope cutthroat trout (Figure 1.1). This river has been characterized as the single most important bull trout spawning stream in the Kootenay Region (Baxter and Westover 2000, Cope 1998). In addition, the Wigwam River supports some of the largest Westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) in the Kootenay Region. These fish are highly sought after by anglers (Westover 1999a, 1999b). Bull trout populations have declined in many areas of their range within Montana and throughout the northwest including British Columbia. Bull trout were blue listed as vulnerable in British Columbia by the B.C. Conservation Data Center (Cannings 1993) and although there are many healthy populations of bull trout in the East Kootenays they remain a species of special concern. Bull trout in the United States portion of the Columbia River were listed as threatened in 1998 under the Endangered Species Act by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The upper Kootenay River is within the Kootenai sub-basin of the Mountain Columbia Province, one of the eleven Eco-provinces that make up the Columbia River Basin. MOE applied for and received funding from BPA to assess and monitor the status of wild, native stocks of bull trout in tributaries to Lake Koocanusa (Libby Reservoir) and the upper Kootenay River. This task is one of many that was undertaken to ''Monitor and Protect Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir'' (BPA Project Number 2000-04-00)

  20. Wigwam River Juvenile Bull Trout and Fish Habitat Monitoring Program : 2002 Data Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cope, R.S. [Westslope Fisheries, Cranbrook, BC, Canada

    2003-03-01

    The Wigwam River bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and fish habitat monitoring program is a trans-boundary initiative implemented by the British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land, and Air Protection (MWLAP), in cooperation with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The Wigwam River is an important fisheries stream located in southeastern British Columbia that supports healthy populations of both bull trout and Westslope cutthroat trout (Figure 1). This river has been characterized as the single most important bull trout spawning stream in the Kootenay Region (Baxter and Westover 2000, Cope 1998). In addition, the Wigwam River supports some of the largest Westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) in the Kootenay Region. These fish are highly sought after by anglers (Westover 1999a, 1999b). Bull trout populations have declined in many areas of their range within Montana and throughout the northwest including British Columbia. Bull trout were blue listed as vulnerable in British Columbia by the B.C. Conservation Data Center (Cannings 1993) and although there are many healthy populations of bull trout in the East Kootenay they remain a species of special concern. Bull trout in the United States portion of the Columbia River were listed as threatened in 1998 under the Endangered Species Act by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The upper Kootenay River is within the Kootenai sub-basin of the Mountain Columbia Province, one of the eleven Eco-provinces that make up the Columbia River Basin. MWLAP applied for and received funding from BPA to assess and monitor the status of wild, native stocks of bull trout in tributaries to Lake Koocanusa (Libby Reservoir) and the upper Kootenay River. This task is one of many that were undertaken to ''Monitor and Protect Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir'' (BPA Project Number 2000-04-00).

  1. Temporary Restoration of Bull Trout Passage at Albeni Falls Dam, 2008 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellgraph, Brian J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2009-03-31

    The goal of this project is to provide temporary upstream passage of bull trout around Albeni Falls Dam on the Pend Oreille River, Idaho. Our specific objectives are to capture fish downstream of Albeni Falls Dam, tag them with combination acoustic and radio transmitters, release them upstream of Albeni Falls Dam, and determine if genetic information on tagged fish can be used to accurately establish where fish are located during the spawning season. In 2007, radio receiving stations were installed at several locations throughout the Pend Oreille River watershed to detect movements of adult bull trout; however, no bull trout were tagged during that year. In 2008, four bull trout were captured downstream of Albeni Falls Dam, implanted with transmitters, and released upstream of the dam at Priest River, Idaho. The most-likely natal tributaries of bull trout assigned using genetic analyses were Grouse Creek (N = 2); a tributary of the Pack River, Lightning Creek (N = 1); and Rattle Creek (N = 1), a tributary of Lightning Creek. All four bull trout migrated upstream from the release site in Priest River, Idaho, were detected at monitoring stations near Dover, Idaho, and were presumed to reside in Lake Pend Oreille from spring until fall 2008. The transmitter of one bull trout with a genetic assignment to Grouse Creek was found in Grouse Creek in October 2008; however, the fish was not found. The bull trout assigned to Rattle Creek was detected in the Clark Fork River downstream from Cabinet Gorge Dam (approximately 13 km from the mouth of Lightning Creek) in September but was not detected entering Lightning Creek. The remaining two bull trout were not detected in 2008 after detection at the Dover receiving stations. This report details the progress by work element in the 2008 statement of work, including data analyses of fish movements, and expands on the information reported in the quarterly Pisces status reports.

  2. Summary of the Skookumchuck Creek bull trout enumeration project 2001.; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, James S.; Baxter, Jeremy

    2002-01-01

    This report summarizes the second year of a bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) enumeration project on Skookumchuck Creek in southeastern British Columbia. An enumeration fence and traps were installed on the creek from September 6th to October 12th 2001 to enable the capture of post-spawning bull trout emigrating out of the watershed. During the study period, a total of 273 bull trout were sampled through the enumeration fence. Length and weight were determined for all bull trout captured. In total, 39 fish of undetermined sex, 61 males and 173 females were processed through the fence. An additional 19 bull trout were observed on a snorkel survey prior to the fence being removed on October 12th. Coupled with the fence count, the total bull trout enumerated during this project was 292 fish. Several other species of fish were captured at the enumeration fence including westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi), Rocky Mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni), and kokanee (O. nerka). A total of 143 bull trout redds were enumerated on the ground in two different locations (river km 27.5-30.5, and km 24.0-25.5) on October 3rd. The majority of redds (n=132) were observed in the 3.0 km index section (river km 27.5-30.5) that has been surveyed over the past five years. The additional 11 redds were observed in a 1.5 km section (river km 24.0-25.5). Summary plots of water temperature for Bradford Creek, Sandown Creek, Buhl Creek, and Skookumchuck Creek at three locations suggested that water temperatures were within the temperature range preferred by bull trout for spawning, egg incubation, and rearing

  3. Monitor and Protect Wigwam River Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir; Skookumchuck Creek Juvenile Bull Trout and Fish Habitat Monitoring Program, Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cope, R.

    2003-06-01

    The Skookumchuck Creek juvenile bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and fish habitat-monitoring program is a co-operative initiative of the British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land, and Air Protection and Bonneville Power Administration. This project was commissioned in planning for fish habitat protection and forest development within the Skookumchuck Creek watershed and was intended to expand upon similar studies initiated within the Wigwam River from 2000 to 2002. The broad intent is to develop a better understanding of juvenile bull trout and Westslope cutthroat trout recruitment and the ongoing hydrologic and morphologic processes, especially as they relate to spawning and rearing habitat quality. The 2002 project year represents the first year of a long-term bull trout-monitoring program with current studies focused on collecting baseline information. This report provides a summary of results obtained to date. Bull trout represented 72.4% of the catch. Fry dominated the catch because site selection was biased towards electrofishing sample sites which favored high bull trout fry capture success. The mean density of all juvenile bull trout was estimated to be 6.6 fish/100m{sup 2}. This represents one-half the densities reported for the 2002 Wigwam River enumeration program, even though enumeration of bull trout redds was an order of magnitude higher for the Wigwam River. Typically, areas with combined fry and juvenile densities greater than 1.5 fish per 100 m{sup 2} are cited as critical rearing areas. Trends in abundance appeared to be related to proximity to spawning areas, bed material size, and water depth. Cover components utilized by juvenile and adult bull trout and cutthroat trout were interstices, boulder, depth, overhead vegetation and LWD. The range of morphological stream types encompass the stable and resilient spectrum (C3(1), C3 and B3c). The Skookumchuck can be generalized as a slightly entrenched, meandering, riffle-pool, cobble dominated

  4. Investigations of Bull Trout (Salvelinus Confluentus), Steelhead Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss), and Spring Chinook Salmon (O. Tshawytscha) Interactions in Southeast Washington Streams : 1991 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Steven W.

    1992-07-01

    Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) are native to many tributaries of the Snake River in southeast Washington. The Washington Department of Wildlife (WDW) and the American Fisheries Society (AFS) have identified bull trout as a species of special concern which means that they may become threatened or endangered by relatively, minor disturbances to their habitat. Steelhead trout/rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and spring chinook salmon (O.tshawytscha) are also native to several tributaries of the Snake river in southeast Washington. These species of migratory fishes are depressed, partially due to the construction of several dams on the lower Snake river. In response to decreased run size, large hatchery program were initiated to produce juvenile steelhead and salmon to supplement repressed tributary stocks, a practice known as supplementation. There is a concern that supplementing streams with artificially high numbers of steelhead and salmon may have an impact on resident bull trout in these streams. Historically, these three species of fish existed together in large numbers, however, the amount of high-quality habitat necessary for reproduction and rearing has been severely reduced in recent years, as compared to historic amounts. The findings of the first year of a two year study aimed at identifying species interactions in southeast Washington streams are presented in this report. Data was collected to assess population dynamics; habitat utilization and preference, feeding habits, fish movement and migration, age, condition, growth, and the spawning requirements of bull trout in each of four streams. A comparison of the indices was then made between the study streams to determine if bull trout differ in the presence of the putative competitor species. Bull trout populations were highest in the Tucannon River (supplemented stream), followed by Mill Creek (unsupplemented stream). Young of the year bull trout utilized riffle and cascade habitat the most in all

  5. Development and evaluation of a bioenergetics model for bull trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, Matthew G.; Welland, Lisa K.; Christiansen, Helena E.; Sauter, Sally T.; Beauchamp, David A.

    2013-01-01

    We conducted laboratory experiments to parameterize a bioenergetics model for wild Bull Trout Salvelinus confluentus, estimating the effects of body mass (12–1,117 g) and temperature (3–20°C) on maximum consumption (C max) and standard metabolic rates. The temperature associated with the highest C max was 16°C, and C max showed the characteristic dome-shaped temperature-dependent response. Mass-dependent values of C max (N = 28) at 16°C ranged from 0.03 to 0.13 g·g−1·d−1. The standard metabolic rates of fish (N = 110) ranged from 0.0005 to 0.003 g·O2·g−1·d−1 and increased with increasing temperature but declined with increasing body mass. In two separate evaluation experiments, which were conducted at only one ration level (40% of estimated C max), the model predicted final weights that were, on average, within 1.2 ± 2.5% (mean ± SD) of observed values for fish ranging from 119 to 573 g and within 3.5 ± 4.9% of values for 31–65 g fish. Model-predicted consumption was within 5.5 ± 10.9% of observed values for larger fish and within 12.4 ± 16.0% for smaller fish. Our model should be useful to those dealing with issues currently faced by Bull Trout, such as climate change or alterations in prey availability.

  6. Kootenai River fisheries investigations: rainbow and bull trout recruitment: annual progress report 1999; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, Jody P.; Downs, Christopher Charles

    2001-01-01

    Our 1999 objectives were to determine sources of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and bull trout Salvelinus confluentus spawning and recruitment in the Idaho reach of the Kootenai River. We used a rotary-screw trap to capture juvenile trout to determine age at out-migration and to estimate total out-migration from the Boundary Creek drainage to the Kootenai River. The out-migrant estimate for March through August 1999 was 1,574 (95% C. I.= 825-3,283) juvenile rainbow trout. Most juveniles out-migrated at age-2 and age-3. No out-migrating bull trout were caught. Five of 17 rainbow trout radio-tagged in Idaho migrated upstream into Montana waters during the spawning season. Five bull trout originally radio-tagged in O'Brien Creek, Montana in early October moved downstream into Idaho and British Columbia by mid-October. Annual angler exploitation for the rainbow trout population upstream of Bonners Ferry, Idaho was estimated to be 58%. Multi-pass depletion estimates for index reaches of Caboose, Curley, and Debt creeks showed 0.20, 0.01, and 0.13 rainbow trout juveniles/m(sup 2), respectively. We estimated rainbow trout (180-415 mm TL) standing stock of 1.6 kg/ha for the Hemlock Bar reach (29.4 ha) of the Kootenai River, similar to the 1998 estimate. Recruitment of juvenile rainbow and bull trout from Idaho tributaries is not sufficient to be the sole source of subsequent older fish in the mainstem Kootenai River. These populations are at least partly dependent on recruitment from Montana waters. The low recruitment and high exploitation rate may be indicators of a rainbow trout population in danger of further decline

  7. Investigations of Bull Trout (Salvelinus Confluentus), Steelhead Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss), and Spring Chinook Salmon (O. Tshawytscha) Interactions in Southeast Washington Streams. Final Report 1992.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Underwood, Keith D.

    1995-01-01

    The goal of this two year study was to determine if supplementation with hatchery reared steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) negatively impacted wild native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) through competitive interactions. Four streams with varying levels of fish supplementation activity were sampled in Southeast Washington. Tasks performed during this study were population density, relative abundance, microhabitat utilization, habitat availability, diet analysis, bull trout spawning ground surveys, radio telemetry of adult bull trout, and growth analysis. Results indicate that bull trout overlapped geographically with the supplemented species in each of the study streams suggesting competition among species was possible. Within a stream, bull trout and the supplemented species utilized dissimilar microhabitats and microhabitat utilization by each species was the same among streams suggesting that there was no shifts in microhabitat utilization among streams. The diet of bull trout and O. mykiss significantly overlapped in each of the study streams. The stream most intensely supplemented contained bull trout with the slowest growth and the non-supplemented stream contained bull trout with the fastest growth. Conversely, the stream most intensely supplemented contain steelhead with the fastest growth and the non-supplemented stream contained steelhead with the slowest growth. Growth indicated that bull trout may have been negatively impacted from supplementation, although other factors may have contributed. At current population levels, and current habitat quantity and quality, no impacts to bull trout as a result of supplementation with hatchery reared steelhead trout and spring chinook salmon were detected. Project limitations and future research recommendations are discussed.

  8. Investigations of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) interactions in Southeast Washington streams. Final report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, K.D.; Martin, S.W.; Schuck, M.L.; Scholz, A.T.

    1995-01-01

    The goal of this two year study was to determine if supplementation with hatchery reared steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) negatively impacted wild native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) through competitive interactions. Four streams with varying levels of fish supplementation activity were sampled in Southeast Washington. Tasks performed during this study were population density, relative abundance, microhabitat utilization, habitat availability, diet analysis, bull trout spawning ground surveys, radio telemetry of adult bull trout, and growth analysis. Results indicate that bull trout overlapped geographically with the supplemented species in each of the study streams suggesting competition among species was possible. Within a stream, bull trout and the supplemented species utilized dissimilar microhabitats and microhabitat utilization by each species was the same among streams suggesting that there was no shifts in microhabitat utilization among streams. The diet of bull trout and O. mykiss significantly overlapped in each of the study streams. The stream most intensely supplemented contained bull trout with the slowest growth and the non-supplemented stream contained bull trout with the fastest growth. Conversely, the stream most intensely supplemented contain steelhead with the fastest growth and the non-supplemented stream contained steelhead with the slowest growth. Growth indicated that bull trout may have been negatively impacted from supplementation, although other factors may have contributed. At current population levels, and current habitat quantity and quality, no impacts to bull trout as a result of supplementation with hatchery reared steelhead trout and spring chinook salmon were detected. Project limitations and future research recommendations are discussed

  9. Investigations of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) interactions in Southeast Washington streams. Final report 1992; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, K.D.; Martin, S.W.; Schuck, M.L.; Scholz, A.T.

    1995-01-01

    The goal of this two year study was to determine if supplementation with hatchery reared steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) negatively impacted wild native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) through competitive interactions. Four streams with varying levels of fish supplementation activity were sampled in Southeast Washington. Tasks performed during this study were population density, relative abundance, microhabitat utilization, habitat availability, diet analysis, bull trout spawning ground surveys, radio telemetry of adult bull trout, and growth analysis. Results indicate that bull trout overlapped geographically with the supplemented species in each of the study streams suggesting competition among species was possible. Within a stream, bull trout and the supplemented species utilized dissimilar microhabitats and microhabitat utilization by each species was the same among streams suggesting that there was no shifts in microhabitat utilization among streams. The diet of bull trout and O. mykiss significantly overlapped in each of the study streams. The stream most intensely supplemented contained bull trout with the slowest growth and the non-supplemented stream contained bull trout with the fastest growth. Conversely, the stream most intensely supplemented contain steelhead with the fastest growth and the non-supplemented stream contained steelhead with the slowest growth. Growth indicated that bull trout may have been negatively impacted from supplementation, although other factors may have contributed. At current population levels, and current habitat quantity and quality, no impacts to bull trout as a result of supplementation with hatchery reared steelhead trout and spring chinook salmon were detected. Project limitations and future research recommendations are discussed

  10. Wigwam River juvenile bull trout and fish habitat monitoring program : 2001 data report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cope, R.S.; Morris, K.J.; Bisset, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    The Wigwam River juvenile bull trout and fish habitat monitoring program is a co-operative initiative of the British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land, and Air Protection and Bonneville Power Administration. The Wigwam River has been characterized as the single most important bull trout spawning stream in the Kootenay Region. This report provides a summary of results obtained during the second year (2001) of the juvenile bull trout enumeration and fish habitat assessment program. This project was commissioned in planning for fish habitat protection and forest development within the upper Wigwam River valley. The broad intent is to develop a better understanding of juvenile bull trout and Westslope cutthroat trout recruitment and the ongoing hydrologic and morphologic processes in the upper Wigwam River, especially as they relate to spawning and rearing habitat quality. Five permanent sampling sites were established August 2000 in the Wigwam river drainage (one site on Bighorn Creek and four sites on the mainstem Wigwam River). At each site, juvenile (0(sup+), 1(sup+) and 2(sup+) age classes) fish densities and stream habitat conditions were measured over two stream meander wavelengths. Bull trout represented 95.1% of the catch and the mean density of juvenile bull trout was estimated to be 20.7 fish/100m(sup 2) (range 0.9 to 24.0 fish/100m(sup 2)). This compares to 17.2 fish/100m(sup 2) (+20%) for the previous year. Fry (0(sup+)) dominated the catch and this was a direct result of juvenile bull trout ecology and habitat partitioning among life history stages. Site selection was biased towards sample sites which favored high bull trout fry capture success. Comparison of fry density estimates replicated across both the preliminary survey (1997) and the current study (Cope and Morris 2001) illustrate the stable nature of these high densities. Bull trout populations have been shown to be extremely susceptible to habitat degradation and over-harvest and are ecologically

  11. Structured decision making for conservation of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in Long Creek, Klamath River Basin, south-central Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Joseph R.; McDonnell, Kevin; Dunham, Jason B.; Brignon, William R.; Peterson, James T.

    2017-06-21

    With the decline of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), managers face multiple, and sometimes contradictory, management alternatives for species recovery. Moreover, effective decision-making involves all stakeholders influenced by the decisions (such as Tribal, State, Federal, private, and non-governmental organizations) because they represent diverse objectives, jurisdictions, policy mandates, and opinions of the best management strategy. The process of structured decision making is explicitly designed to address these elements of the decision making process. Here we report on an application of structured decision making to a population of bull trout believed threatened by high densities of nonnative brook trout (S. fontinalis) and habitat fragmentation in Long Creek, a tributary to the Sycan River in the Klamath River Basin, south-central Oregon. This involved engaging stakeholders to identify (1) their fundamental objectives for the conservation of bull trout, (2) feasible management alternatives to achieve their objectives, and (3) biological information and assumptions to incorporate in a decision model. Model simulations suggested an overarching theme among the top decision alternatives, which was a need to simultaneously control brook trout and ensure that the migratory tactic of bull trout can be expressed. More specifically, the optimal management decision, based on the estimated adult abundance at year 10, was to combine the eradication of brook trout from Long Creek with improvement of downstream conditions (for example, connectivity or habitat conditions). Other top decisions included these actions independently, as well as electrofishing removal of brook trout. In contrast, translocating bull trout to a different stream or installing a barrier to prevent upstream spread of brook trout had minimal or negative effects on the bull trout population. Moreover, sensitivity analyses suggested that these actions were consistently identified as optimal across

  12. Rearing environment influences boldness and prey acquisition behavior, and brain and lens development of bull trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignon, William R.; Pike, Martin M.; Ebbesson, Lars O.E.; Schaller, Howard A.; Peterson, James T.; Schreck, Carl B.

    2018-01-01

    Animals reared in barren captive environments exhibit different developmental trajectories and behaviors than wild counterparts. Hence, the captive phenotypes may influence the success of reintroduction and recovery programs for threatened and endangered species. We collected wild bull trout embryos from the Metolius River Basin, Oregon and reared them in differing environments to better understand how captivity affects the bull trout Salvelinus confluentusphenotype. We compared the boldness and prey acquisition behaviors and development of the brain and eye lens of bull trout reared in conventional barren and more structurally complex captive environments with that of wild fish. Wild fish and captive reared fish from complex habitats exhibited a greater level of boldness and prey acquisition ability, than fish reared in conventional captive environments. In addition, the eye lens of conventionally reared bull trout was larger than complex reared captive fish or same age wild fish. Interestingly, we detected wild fish had a smaller relative cerebellum than either captive reared treatment. Our results suggest that rearing fish in more complex captive environments can create a more wild-like phenotype than conventional rearing practices. A better understanding of the effects of captivity on the development and behavior of bull trout can inform rearing and reintroduction programs though prediction of the performance of released individuals.

  13. Bull Trout Population Assessment in the White Salmon and Klickitat Rivers, Columbia River Gorge, Washington, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiesfeld, Steven L.; McPeak, Ronald H.; McNamara, Brian S. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife); Honanie, Isadore (Confederated Tribes and Bands, Yakama Nation)

    2002-01-01

    We utilized night snorkeling and single pass electroshocking to determine the presence or absence of bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in 26 stream reaches (3,415 m) in the White Salmon basin and in 71 stream reaches (9,005 m) in the Klickitat River basin during summer and fall 2001. We did not find any bull trout in the White Salmon River basin. In the Klickitat River basin, bull trout were found only in the West Fork Klickitat River drainage. We found bull trout in two streams not previously reported: Two Lakes Stream and an unnamed tributary to Fish Lake Stream (WRIA code number 30-0550). We attempted to capture downstream migrant bull trout in the West Fork Klickitat River by fishing a 1.5-m rotary screw trap at RM 4.3 from July 23 through October 17. Although we caught other salmonids, no bull trout were captured. The greatest limiting factor for bull trout in the West Fork Klickitat River is likely the small amount of available habitat resulting in a low total abundance, and the isolation of the population. Many of the streams are fragmented by natural falls, which are partial or complete barriers to upstream fish movement. To date, we have not been able to confirm that the occasional bull trout observed in the mainstem Klickitat River are migrating upstream into the West Fork Klickitat River.

  14. Incorporating movement patterns to improve survival estimates for juvenile bull trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, Tracy; Budy, Phaedra

    2012-01-01

    Populations of many fish species are sensitive to changes in vital rates during early life stages, but our understanding of the factors affecting growth, survival, and movement patterns is often extremely limited for juvenile fish. These critical information gaps are particularly evident for bull trout Salvelinus confluentus, a threatened Pacific Northwest char. We combined several active and passive mark–recapture and resight techniques to assess migration rates and estimate survival for juvenile bull trout (70–170 mm total length). We evaluated the relative performance of multiple survival estimation techniques by comparing results from a common Cormack–Jolly–Seber (CJS) model, the less widely used Barker model, and a simple return rate (an index of survival). Juvenile bull trout of all sizes emigrated from their natal habitat throughout the year, and thereafter migrated up to 50 km downstream. With the CJS model, high emigration rates led to an extreme underestimate of apparent survival, a combined estimate of site fidelity and survival. In contrast, the Barker model, which allows survival and emigration to be modeled as separate parameters, produced estimates of survival that were much less biased than the return rate. Estimates of age-class-specific annual survival from the Barker model based on all available data were 0.218±0.028 (estimate±SE) for age-1 bull trout and 0.231±0.065 for age-2 bull trout. This research demonstrates the importance of incorporating movement patterns into survival analyses, and we provide one of the first field-based estimates of juvenile bull trout annual survival in relatively pristine rearing conditions. These estimates can provide a baseline for comparison with future studies in more impacted systems and will help managers develop reliable stage-structured population models to evaluate future recovery strategies.

  15. Bull trout life history, genetics, habitat needs, and limiting factors in central and northeast Oregon, Annual Report 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemmingsen, A.R.; Buchanan, D.V.; Howell, P.J.

    1996-03-01

    To fulfill one objective of the present study, genetic characteristics of Oregon bull trout will be determined by analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. During 1995, the authors collected and sampled a total of 1,217 bull trout from 46 streams in the Columbia River Basin. DNA analysis of those samples will be conducted at University of Montana. They primarily sampled juvenile fish near natal areas to increase the likelihood of identifying discrete populations while minimizing risk of injury to large spawners. Fork lengths of all fish sampled ranged from 2.6 to 60.5 cm with a median of 12 cm. Eighty-four percent of all bull trout sampled were less than 19 cm while two percent were larger than 27 cm. Bull trout were collected by several methods, mostly by electrofishing. Eighty-six percent of all bull trout sampled were collected by electrofishing with a programmable waveform electrofisher. They observed injuries caused by electrofishing to 8% of that proportion. Based on preliminary analysis, no waveform combination used appeared less injurious than others. Highest voltages appeared less injurious than some that were lower. Frequency of electrofishing injury was significantly correlated to fork length over the range-from 4 to 26 cm. There were indications for substantial risk for such injury to bull trout larger than 26 cm. Other species found in association with bull trout included chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, mountain whitefish Prosopium williamsoni, rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, sculpins Cottus spp., cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki, non-native brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, and tailed frogs Ascaphus truei. Rainbow trout was the species most frequently associated with bull trout. No injury or mortality was observed for any of the associated species captured

  16. Role of climate and invasive species in structuring trout distributions in the interior Columbia River Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Seth J.; Isaak, Daniel J.; Dunham, Jason B.; Fausch, Kurt D.; Luce, Charles H.; Neville, Helen M.; Rieman, Bruce E.; Young, Michael K.; Nagel, David E.; Horan, Dona L.; Chandler, Gwynne L.

    2011-01-01

    Recent and projected climate warming trends have prompted interest in impacts on coldwater fishes. We examined the role of climate (temperature and flow regime) relative to geomorphology and land use in determining the observed distributions of three trout species in the interior Columbia River Basin, USA. We considered two native species, cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii) and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), as well as nonnative brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). We also examined the response of the native species to the presence of brook trout. Analyses were conducted using multilevel logistic regression applied to a geographically broad database of 4165 fish surveys. The results indicated that bull trout distributions were strongly related to climatic factors, and more weakly related to the presence of brook trout and geomorphic variables. Cutthroat trout distributions were weakly related to climate but strongly related to the presence of brook trout. Brook trout distributions were related to both climate and geomorphic variables, including proximity to unconfined valley bottoms. We conclude that brook trout and bull trout are likely to be adversely affected by climate warming, whereas cutthroat trout may be less sensitive. The results illustrate the importance of considering species interactions and flow regime alongside temperature in understanding climate effects on fish.

  17. Sources and magnitude of sampling error in redd counts for bull trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason B. Dunham; Bruce Rieman

    2001-01-01

    Monitoring of salmonid populations often involves annual redd counts, but the validity of this method has seldom been evaluated. We conducted redd counts of bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in two streams in northern Idaho to address four issues: (1) relationships between adult escapements and redd counts; (2) interobserver variability in redd...

  18. Models to predict suitable habitat for juvenile bull trout in Washington state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason B. Dunham; G. L. Chandler

    2001-01-01

    This report describes results of research conducted in 2000 to develop models of suitable habitat for juvenile bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in Washington State. The research is associated with a cooperative agreement (Agreement #134100H001) between U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the U.S. Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research...

  19. Climate change and vulnerability of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus ) in a fire-prone landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey A. Falke; Rebecca L. Flitcroft; Jason B. Dunham; Kristina M. McNyset; Paul F. Hessburg; Gordon H. Reeves; C. Tara Marshall

    2015-01-01

    Linked atmospheric and wildfire changes will complicate future management of native coldwater fishes in fire-prone landscapes, and new approaches to management that incorporate uncertainty are needed to address this challenge. We used a Bayesian network (BN) approach to evaluate population vulnerability of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Wenatchee River...

  20. Effects of fine sediment, hyporheic flow, and spawning site characteristics on survival and development of bull trout embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, Tracy; Neilson, Bethany; Budy, Phaedra

    2014-01-01

    Successful spawning is imperative for the persistence of salmonid populations, but relatively little research has been conducted to evaluate factors affecting early life-stage survival for bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), a threatened char. We conducted a field experiment to assess the relationship between site-specific environmental factors and bull trout embryo survival and fry emergence timing. Survival from egg to hatch was negatively related to percent fine sediment (construction and selection of spawning sites with strong downwelling appear to enhance hyporheic flow rates and bull trout egg survival, but early life-stage success may ultimately be limited by intrusion of fine sediment into the incubation environment.

  1. Effects of fine sediment, hyporheic flow, and spawning site characteristics on survival and development of bull trout embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, Tracy; Neilson, Bethany; Budy, Phaedra

    2014-01-01

    Successful spawning is imperative for the persistence of salmonid populations, but relatively little research has been conducted to evaluate factors affecting early life-stage survival for bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), a threatened char. We conducted a field experiment to assess the relationship between site-specific environmental factors and bull trout embryo survival and fry emergence timing. Survival from egg to hatch was negatively related to percent fine sediment (bull trout egg survival, but early life-stage success may ultimately be limited by intrusion of fine sediment into the incubation environment.

  2. Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) movement in relation to water temperature, season, and habitat features in Arrowrock Reservoir, Idaho, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maret, Terry R.; Schultz, Justin E.

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic telemetry was used to determine spring to summer (April–August) movement and habitat use of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in Arrowrock Reservoir (hereafter “Arrowrock”), a highly regulated reservoir in the Boise River Basin of southwestern Idaho. Water management practices annually use about 86 percent of the reservoir water volume to satisfy downstream water demands. These practices might be limiting bull trout habitat and movement patterns. Bull trout are among the more thermally sensitive coldwater species in North America, and the species is listed as threatened throughout the contiguous United States under the Endangered Species Act. Biweekly water-temperature and dissolved-oxygen profiles were collected by the Bureau of Reclamation at three locations in Arrowrock to characterize habitat conditions for bull trout. Continuous streamflow and water temperature also were measured immediately upstream of the reservoir on the Middle and South Fork Boise Rivers, which influence habitat conditions in the riverine zones of the reservoir. In spring 2012, 18 bull trout ranging in total length from 306 to 630 millimeters were fitted with acoustic transmitters equipped with temperature and depth sensors. Mobile boat tracking and fixed receivers were used to detect released fish. Fish were tagged from March 28 to April 20 and were tracked through most of August. Most bull trout movements were detected in the Middle Fork Boise River arm of the reservoir. Fifteen individual fish were detected at least once after release. Water surface temperature at each fish detection location ranged from 6.0 to 16.2 degrees Celsius (°C) (mean=10.1°C), whereas bull trout body temperatures were colder, ranging from 4.4 to 11.6°C (mean=7.3°C). Bull trout were detected over deep-water habitat, ranging from 8.0 to 42.6 meters (m) (mean=18.1 m). Actual fish depths were shallower than total water depth, ranging from 0.0 to 24.5 m (mean=6.7 m). The last bull trout was

  3. Evaluating trade-offs in bull trout reintroduction strategies using structured decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignon, William R.; Peterson, James T.; Dunham, Jason B.; Schaller, Howard A.; Schreck, Carl B.

    2018-01-01

    Structured decision making allows reintroduction decisions to be made despite uncertainty by linking reintroduction goals with alternative management actions through predictive models of ecological processes. We developed a decision model to evaluate the trade-offs between six bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) reintroduction decisions with the goal of maximizing the number of adults in the recipient population without reducing the donor population to an unacceptable level. Sensitivity analyses suggested that the decision identity and outcome were most influenced by survival parameters that result in increased adult abundance in the recipient population, increased juvenile survival in the donor and recipient populations, adult fecundity rates, and sex ratio. The decision was least sensitive to survival parameters associated with the captive-reared population, the effect of naivety on released individuals, and juvenile carrying capacity of the reintroduced population. The model and sensitivity analyses can serve as the foundation for formal adaptive management and improved effectiveness, efficiency, and transparency of bull trout reintroduction decisions.

  4. Climate change and vulnerability of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in a fire-prone landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falke, Jeffrey A.; Flitcroft, Rebecca L; Dunham, Jason B.; McNyset, Kristina M.; Hessburg, Paul F.; Reeves, Gordon H.

    2015-01-01

    Linked atmospheric and wildfire changes will complicate future management of native coldwater fishes in fire-prone landscapes, and new approaches to management that incorporate uncertainty are needed to address this challenge. We used a Bayesian network (BN) approach to evaluate population vulnerability of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Wenatchee River basin, Washington, USA, under current and future climate and fire scenarios. The BN was based on modeled estimates of wildfire, water temperature, and physical habitat prior to, and following, simulated fires throughout the basin. We found that bull trout population vulnerability depended on the extent to which climate effects can be at least partially offset by managing factors such as habitat connectivity and fire size. Moreover, our analysis showed that local management can significantly reduce the vulnerability of bull trout to climate change given appropriate management actions. Tools such as our BN that explicitly integrate the linked nature of climate and wildfire, and incorporate uncertainty in both input data and vulnerability estimates, will be vital in effective future management to conserve native coldwater fishes.

  5. Influences of body size and environmental factors on autumn downstream migration of bull trout in the Boise River, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnot, L.; Dunham, J.B.; Hoem, T.; Koetsier, P.

    2008-01-01

    Many fishes migrate extensively through stream networks, yet patterns are commonly described only in terms of the origin and destination of migration (e.g., between natal and feeding habitats). To better understand patterns of migration in bull trout,Salvelinus confluentus we studied the influences of body size (total length [TL]) and environmental factors (stream temperature and discharge) on migrations in the Boise River basin, Idaho. During the autumns of 2001-2003, we tracked the downstream migrations of 174 radio-tagged bull trout ranging in size from 21 to 73 cm TL. The results indicated that large bull trout (>30 cm) were more likely than small fish to migrate rapidly downstream after spawning in headwater streams in early autumn. Large bull trout also had a higher probability of arriving at the current terminus of migration in the system, Arrowrock Reservoir. The rate of migration by small bull trout was more variable and individuals were less likely to move into Arrowrock Reservoir. The rate of downstream migration by all fish was slower when stream discharge was greater. Temperature was not associated with the rate of migration. These findings indicate that fish size and environmentally related changes in behavior have important influences on patterns of migration. In a broader context, these results and other recent work suggest, at least in some cases, that commonly used classifications of migratory behavior may not accurately reflect the full range of behaviors and variability among individuals (or life stages) and environmental conditions. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  6. Bull trout population assessment in the White Salmon and Klickitat Rivers, Columbia River Gorge, Washington; ANNUAL fiscal year 2001 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiesfield, Steven L.

    2002-01-01

    We utilized night snorkeling and single pass electroshocking to determine the presence or absence of bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in 26 stream reaches (3,415 m) in the White Salmon basin and in 71 stream reaches (9,005 m) in the Klickitat River basin during summer and fall 2001. We did not find any bull trout in the White Salmon River basin. In the Klickitat River basin, bull trout were found only in the West Fork Klickitat River drainage. We found bull trout in two streams not previously reported: Two Lakes Stream and an unnamed tributary to Fish Lake Stream (WRIA code number 30-0550). We attempted to capture downstream migrant bull trout in the West Fork Klickitat River by fishing a 1.5-m rotary screw trap at RM 4.3 from July 23 through October 17. Although we caught other salmonids, no bull trout were captured. The greatest limiting factor for bull trout in the West Fork Klickitat River is likely the small amount of available habitat resulting in a low total abundance, and the isolation of the population. Many of the streams are fragmented by natural falls, which are partial or complete barriers to upstream fish movement. To date, we have not been able to confirm that the occasional bull trout observed in the mainstem Klickitat River are migrating upstream into the West Fork Klickitat River

  7. Assessing the impacts of river regulation on native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) habitats in the upper Flathead River, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Jones, Leslie A.; Kotter, D.; Miller, William J.; Geise, Doran; Tohtz, Joel; Marotz, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Hungry Horse Dam on the South Fork Flathead River, Montana, USA, has modified the natural flow regimen for power generation, flood risk management and flow augmentation for anadromous fish recovery in the Columbia River. Concern over the detrimental effects of dam operations on native resident fishes prompted research to quantify the impacts of alternative flow management strategies on threatened bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) habitats. Seasonal and life‐stage specific habitat suitability criteria were combined with a two‐dimensional hydrodynamic habitat model to assess discharge effects on usable habitats. Telemetry data used to construct seasonal habitat suitability curves revealed that subadult (fish that emigrated from natal streams to the river system) bull trout move to shallow, low‐velocity shoreline areas at night, which are most sensitive to flow fluctuations. Habitat time series analyses comparing the natural flow regimen (predam, 1929–1952) with five postdam flow management strategies (1953–2008) show that the natural flow conditions optimize the critical bull trout habitats and that the current strategy best resembles the natural flow conditions of all postdam periods. Late summer flow augmentation for anadromous fish recovery, however, produces higher discharges than predam conditions, which reduces the availability of usable habitat during this critical growing season. Our results suggest that past flow management policies that created sporadic streamflow fluctuations were likely detrimental to resident salmonids and that natural flow management strategies will likely improve the chances of protecting key ecosystem processes and help to maintain and restore threatened bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout populations in the upper Columbia River Basin.

  8. Factors affecting daughters distribution among progeny testing Holstein bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino Cassandro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate factors influencing the number of daughters of Holstein bulls during the progeny testing using data provided by the Italian Holstein Friesian Cattle Breeders Association. The hypothesis is that there are no differences among artificial insemination studs (AIS on the daughters distribution among progeny testing bulls. For each bull and beginning from 21 months of age, the distribution of daughters over the progeny testing period was calculated. Data were available on 1973 bulls born between 1986 and 2004, progeny tested in Italy and with at least 4 paternal half-sibs. On average, bulls exited the genetic centre at 11.3±1.1 months and reached their first official genetic proof at 58.0±3.1 months of age. An analysis of variance was performed on the cumulative frequency of daughters at 24, 36, 48, and 60 months. The generalized linear model included the fixed effects of year of birth of the bull (18 levels, artificial insemination stud (4 levels and sire of bull (137 levels. All effects significantly affected the variability of studied traits. Artificial insemination stud was the most important source of variation, followed by year of birth and sire of bull. Significant differences among AI studs exist, probably reflecting different strategies adopted during progeny testing.

  9. A framework for assessing the feasibility of native fish conservation translocations: Applications to threatened bull trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Benjamin T.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Guy, Christopher S.; Downs, Christopher C.; Fredenberg, Wade A.

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need to consider more aggressive and direct interventions for the conservation of freshwater fishes that are threatened by invasive species, habitat loss, and climate change. Conservation introduction (moving a species outside its indigenous range to other areas where conditions are predicted to be more suitable) is one type of translocation strategy that fisheries managers can use to establish new conservation populations in areas of refugia. To date, however, there are few examples of successful conservation-based introductions. Many attempts fail to establish new populations—in part because environmental factors that might influence success are inadequately evaluated before the translocation is implemented. We developed a framework to assess the feasibility of rescuing threatened fish populations through translocation into historically unoccupied stream and lake habitats. The suitability of potential introduction sites was evaluated based on four major components: the recipient habitat, recipient community, donor population, and future threats. Specific questions were then developed to evaluate each major component. The final assessment was based on a scoring system that addressed each question by using criteria developed from characteristics representative of highly suitable habitats and populations. This framework was used to evaluate the proposed within-drainage translocation of three Bull Trout Salvelinus confluentus populations in Glacier National Park, Montana. Our results indicated that within-drainage translocation is a feasible strategy for conserving locally adapted populations of Bull Trout through the creation of new areas of refugia in Glacier National Park. The framework provides a flexible platform that can help managers make informed decisions for moving threatened fishes into new areas of refugia for conservation and recovery programs.

  10. Evaluation of the Life History of Native Salmonids in the Malheur River Basin; Cooperative Bull Trout/Redband Trout Research Project, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Alan; Soupir, Jim (US Forest Service, Prairie City Ranger District, Prairie City, OR); Schwabe, Lawrence (Burns Paiute Tribe, Department of Fish and Wildlife, Burns, OR)

    2003-08-01

    The Malheur River is a 306-kilometer tributary to the Snake River, which drains 12,950 square kilometers. The Malheur River originates in the Blue Mountains and flows into the Snake River near Ontario, Oregon. The climate of the basin is characterized by hot dry summers, occasionally exceeding 38 C, and cold winters that may drop below -29 C. Average annual precipitation is 30 centimeters in the lower reaches. Wooded areas consist primarily of mixed fir and pine forest in the higher elevations. Sagebrush and grass communities dominate the flora in the lower elevations. Efforts to document salmonid life histories, water quality, and habitat conditions have continued in fiscal year 2002. Bull trout Salvelinus confluentus are considered to be cold water species and are temperature-dependant. Due to the interest of bull trout from various state and Federal agencies, a workgroup was formed to develop project objectives related to bull trout. Table 1 lists individuals that participated in the 2002 work group. This report will reflect work completed during the Bonneville Power Administration contract period starting April 1, 2002, and ending March 31, 2003. All tasks were conducted within this timeframe, and a more detailed timeframe may be referred to in each individual report.

  11. Evaluation of the Life History of Native Salmonids in the Malheur River Basin; Cooperative Bull Trout/Redband Trout Research Project, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, Dan; Schwabe, Lawrence; Wenick, Jess (Burns Paiute Tribe, Department of Fish and Wildlife, Burns, OR)

    2001-08-01

    The Malheur basin lies within southeastern Oregon. The Malheur River is a tributary to the Snake River, entering at about River Kilometer (RK) 595. The hydrological drainage area of the Malheur River is approximately 12,950 km{sup 2} and is roughly 306 km in length. The headwaters of the Malheur River originate in the Blue Mountains at elevations of 6,500 to 7,500 feet, and drops to an elevation of 2000 feet at the confluence with the Snake River near Ontario, Oregon. The climate of the Malheur basin is characterized by hot dry summers, occasionally exceeding 38 C and cold winters that may drop below -29 C. Average annual precipitation is 300 centimeters and ranges from 100 centimeters in the upper mountains to less than 25 centimeters in the lower reaches (Gonzalez 1999). Wooded areas consist primarily of mixed fir and pine forest in the higher elevations. Sagebrush and grass communities dominate the flora in the lower elevations. Efforts to document salmonid life histories, water quality, and habitat conditions have continued in fiscal year 2000. The Burns Paiute Tribe (BPT), United States Forest Service (USFS), and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), have been working cooperatively to achieve this common goal. Bull trout ''Salvenlinus confluentus'' have specific environmental requirements and complex life histories making them especially susceptible to human activities that alter their habitat (Howell and Buchanan 1992). Bull trout are considered to be a cold-water species and are temperature dependent. This presents a challenge for managers, biologists, and private landowners in the Malheur basin. Because of the listing of bull trout under the Endangered Species Act as threatened and the current health of the landscape, a workgroup was formed to develop project objectives related to bull trout. This report will reflect work completed during the Bonneville Power contract period starting 1 April 2000 and ending 31 March 2001. The

  12. Using accelerated life testing procedures to compare the relative sensitivity of rainbow trout and the federally listed threatened bull trout to three commonly used rangeland herbicides (picloram, 2,4-D, and clopyralid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, James F; Allert, Ann; Sappington, Linda S; Nelson, Karen J; Valle, Janet

    2008-03-01

    We conducted 96-h static acute toxicity studies to evaluate the relative sensitivity of juveniles of the threatened bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and the standard cold-water surrogate rainbow trout (Onchorhyncus mykiss) to three rangeland herbicides commonly used for controlling invasive weeds in the northwestern United States. Relative species sensitivity was compared using three procedures: standard acute toxicity testing, fractional estimates of lethal concentrations, and accelerated life testing chronic estimation procedures. The acutely lethal concentrations (ALC) resulting in 50% mortality at 96 h (96-h ALC50s) were determined using linear regression and indicated that the three herbicides were toxic in the order of picloram acid > 2,4-D acid > clopyralid acid. The 96-h ALC50 values for rainbow trout were as follows: picloram, 41 mg/L; 2.4-D, 707 mg/L; and clopyralid, 700 mg/L. The 96-h ALC50 values for bull trout were as follows: picloram, 24 mg/L; 2.4-D, 398 mg/L; and clopyralid, 802 mg/L. Fractional estimates of safe concentrations, based on 5% of the 96-h ALC50, were conservative (overestimated toxicity) of regression-derived 96-h ALC5 values by an order of magnitude. Accelerated life testing procedures were used to estimate chronic lethal concentrations (CLC) resulting in 1% mortality at 30 d (30-d CLC1) for the three herbicides: picloram (1 mg/L rainbow trout, 5 mg/L bull trout), 2,4-D (56 mg/L rainbow trout, 84 mg/L bull trout), and clopyralid (477 mg/L rainbow trout; 552 mg/L bull trout). Collectively, the results indicated that the standard surrogate rainbow trout is similar in sensitivity to bull trout. Accelerated life testing procedures provided cost-effective, statistically defensible methods for estimating safe chronic concentrations (30-d CLC1s) of herbicides from acute toxicity data because they use statistical models based on the entire mortality:concentration:time data matrix.

  13. Movement of bull trout in the upper Jarbidge River watershed, Idaho and Nevada, 2008-09--A supplement to Open-File Report 2010-1033

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munz, Carrie S.; Allen, M. Brady; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    We monitored bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in 2008 and 2009 as a continuation of our work in 2006 and 2007, which involved the tagging of 1,536 bull trout with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags in the East Fork Jarbidge River and West Fork Jarbidge River and their tributaries in northeastern Nevada and southern Idaho. We installed PIT tag interrogation systems (PTISs) at established locations soon after ice-out, and maintained the PTISs in order to collect information on bull trout movements through December of each year. We observed a marked increase of movement in 2008 and 2009. Bull trout tagged in the uppermost portions of the East Fork Jarbidge River at altitudes greater than 2,100 meters moved to the confluence of the East Fork Jarbidge River and West Fork Jarbidge River in summer and autumn. Ten bull trout tagged upstream of the confluence of Pine Creek and the West Fork Jarbidge River moved downstream and then upstream in the East Fork Jarbidge River, and then past the PTIS at Murphy Hot Springs (river kilometer [rkm] 4.1). Two of these fish ascended Dave Creek, a tributary of the East Fork Jarbidge River, past the PTIS at rkm 0.4. One bull trout that was tagged at rkm 11 in Dave Creek on June 28, 2007 moved downstream to the confluence of the East Fork Jarbidge River and West Fork Jarbidge River (rkm 0) on July 28, 2007, and it was then detected in the West Fork Jarbidge River moving past our PTIS at rkm 15 on May 4, 2008. Combined, the extent and types of bull trout movements observed indicated that the primarily age-1 and age-2 bull trout that we tagged in 2006 and 2007 showed increased movement with age and evidence of a substantial amount of fluvial life history. The movements suggest strong connectivity between spawning areas and downstream mainstem areas, as well as between the East Fork Jarbidge River and West Fork Jarbidge River.

  14. An expert panel approach to assessing potential effects of bull trout reintroduction on federally listed salmonids in the Clackamas River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce G. Marcot; Chris S. Allen; Steve Morey; Dan Shively; Rollie. White

    2012-01-01

    The bull trout Salvelinus confluentus is an apex predator in native fish communities in the western USA and is listed as threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). Restoration of this species has raised concerns over its potential predatory impacts on native fish fauna. We held a five-person expert panel to help determine potential...

  15. Brook Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for BROOK TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  16. Brown Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for BROWN TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  17. Westslope Cutthroat Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for WESTSLOPE CUTTHROAT TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on...

  18. Rainbow Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for RAINBOW TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear...

  19. Redband Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for REDBAND TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear...

  20. Combining inferences from models of capture efficiency, detectability, and suitable habitat to classify landscapes for conservation of threatened bull trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, J.; Dunham, J.B.

    2003-01-01

    Effective conservation efforts for at-risk species require knowledge of the locations of existing populations. Species presence can be estimated directly by conducting field-sampling surveys or alternatively by developing predictive models. Direct surveys can be expensive and inefficient, particularly for rare and difficult-to-sample species, and models of species presence may produce biased predictions. We present a Bayesian approach that combines sampling and model-based inferences for estimating species presence. The accuracy and cost-effectiveness of this approach were compared to those of sampling surveys and predictive models for estimating the presence of the threatened bull trout ( Salvelinus confluentus ) via simulation with existing models and empirical sampling data. Simulations indicated that a sampling-only approach would be the most effective and would result in the lowest presence and absence misclassification error rates for three thresholds of detection probability. When sampling effort was considered, however, the combined approach resulted in the lowest error rates per unit of sampling effort. Hence, lower probability-of-detection thresholds can be specified with the combined approach, resulting in lower misclassification error rates and improved cost-effectiveness.

  1. Estimating thermal regimes of bull trout and assessing the potential effects of climate warming on critical habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Leslie A.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Marshall, Lucy A.; McGlynn, Brian L.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the vulnerability of aquatic species and habitats under climate change is critical for conservation and management of freshwater systems. Climate warming is predicted to increase water temperatures in freshwater ecosystems worldwide, yet few studies have developed spatially explicit modelling tools for understanding the potential impacts. We parameterized a nonspatial model, a spatial flow-routed model, and a spatial hierarchical model to predict August stream temperatures (22-m resolution) throughout the Flathead River Basin, USA and Canada. Model comparisons showed that the spatial models performed significantly better than the nonspatial model, explaining the spatial autocorrelation found between sites. The spatial hierarchical model explained 82% of the variation in summer mean (August) stream temperatures and was used to estimate thermal regimes for threatened bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) habitats, one of the most thermally sensitive coldwater species in western North America. The model estimated summer thermal regimes of spawning and rearing habitats at <13 C° and foraging, migrating, and overwintering habitats at <14 C°. To illustrate the useful application of such a model, we simulated climate warming scenarios to quantify potential loss of critical habitats under forecasted climatic conditions. As air and water temperatures continue to increase, our model simulations show that lower portions of the Flathead River Basin drainage (foraging, migrating, and overwintering habitat) may become thermally unsuitable and headwater streams (spawning and rearing) may become isolated because of increasing thermal fragmentation during summer. Model results can be used to focus conservation and management efforts on populations of concern, by identifying critical habitats and assessing thermal changes at a local scale.

  2. Global climate change and fragmentation of native brook trout distribution in the southern Appalachian Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia A. Flebbe

    1997-01-01

    Current distributions of native brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in the Southern Appalachians are restricted to upper elevations by multiple factors, including habitat requirements, introduced rainbow (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brown (Salmo trutta) trout, and other human activities. Present-day distribution of brook trout habitat is already fragmented. Increased...

  3. Stream pH as an abiotic gradient influencing distributions of trout in Pennsylvania streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocovsky, P.M.; Carline, R.F.

    2005-01-01

    Elevation and stream slope are abiotic gradients that limit upstream distributions of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and brown trout Salmo trutta in streams. We sought to determine whether another abiotic gradient, base-flow pH, may also affect distributions of these two species in eastern North America streams. We used historical data from the Pennsylvania Fish and Boat Commission's fisheries management database to explore the effects of reach elevation, slope, and base-flow pH on distributional limits to brook trout and brown trout in Pennsylvania streams in the Appalachian Plateaus and Ridge and Valley physiographic provinces. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) was used to calculate a canonical axis that separated allopatric brook trout populations from allopatric brown trout populations and allowed us to assess which of the three independent variables were important gradients along which communities graded from allopatric brook trout to allopatric brown trout. Canonical structure coefficients from DFA indicated that in both physiographic provinces, stream base-flow pH and slope were important factors in distributional limits; elevation was also an important factor in the Ridge and Valley Province but not the Appalachian Plateaus Province. Graphs of each variable against the proportion of brook trout in a community also identified apparent zones of allopatry for both species on the basis of pH and stream slope. We hypothesize that pH-mediated interspecific competition that favors brook trout in competition with brown trout at lower pH is the most plausible mechanism for segregation of these two species along pH gradients. Our discovery that trout distributions in Pennsylvania are related to stream base-flow pH has important implications for brook trout conservation in acidified regions. Carefully designed laboratory and field studies will be required to test our hypothesis and elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the partitioning of brook trout and

  4. Extensive feeding on sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka smolts by bull trout Salvelinus confluentus during initial outmigration into a small, unregulated and inland British Columbia river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furey, Nathan B.; Hinch, Scott G.; Lotto, A.G.; Beauchamp, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Stomach contents were collected and analysed from 22 bull trout Salvelinus confluentus at the edge of the Chilko Lake and Chilko River in British Columbia, Canada, during spring outmigration of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka smolts. Twenty of the 22 (>90%) stomachs contained prey items, virtually all identifiable prey items were outmigrant O. nerka smolts and stomach contents represented a large portion (0·0–12·6%) of estimated S. confluentus mass. The results demonstrate nearly exclusive and intense feeding by S. confluentus on outmigrant smolts, and support recent telemetry observations of high disappearance rates of O. nerka smolts leaving large natural lake systems prior to entering high-order unregulated river systems.

  5. Relationships between water temperatures and upstream migration, cold water refuge use, and spawning of adult bull trout from the Lostine River, Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, P.J.; Dunham, J.B.; Sankovich, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding thermal habitat use by migratory fish has been limited by difficulties in matching fish locations with water temperatures. To describe spatial and temporal patterns of thermal habitat use by migratory adult bull trout, Salvelinus confluentus, that spawn in the Lostine River, Oregon, we employed a combination of archival temperature tags, radio tags, and thermographs. We also compared temperatures of the tagged fish to ambient water temperatures to determine if the fish were using thermal refuges. The timing and temperatures at which fish moved upstream from overwintering areas to spawning locations varied considerably among individuals. The annual maximum 7-day average daily maximum (7DADM) temperatures of tagged fish were 16-18 ??C and potentially as high as 21 ??C. Maximum 7DADM ambient water temperatures within the range of tagged fish during summer were 18-25 ??C. However, there was no evidence of the tagged fish using localized cold water refuges. Tagged fish appeared to spawn at 7DADM temperatures of 7-14 ??C. Maximum 7DADM temperatures of tagged fish and ambient temperatures at the onset of the spawning period in late August were 11-18 ??C. Water temperatures in most of the upper Lostine River used for spawning and rearing appear to be largely natural since there has been little development, whereas downstream reaches used by migratory bull trout are heavily diverted for irrigation. Although the population effects of these temperatures are unknown, summer temperatures and the higher temperatures observed for spawning fish appear to be at or above the upper range of suitability reported for the species. Published 2009. This article is a US Governmentwork and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. Tissue astaxanthin and canthaxanthin distribution in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, G I; Davies, S J

    2006-01-01

    A comparative investigation of tissue carotenoid distribution between rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, was undertaken to identify the relative efficiency of utilization of astaxanthin and canthaxanthin. Higher apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) (96% in trout vs. 28-31% in salmon; Ptrout vs. 5.5% in salmon; Ptrout. Astaxanthin deposition was higher than canthaxanthin in rainbow trout, while the reverse was true for Atlantic salmon, suggesting species-specificity in carotenoid utilization. The white muscle (95% in trout vs. 93% in salmon) and kidneys (0.5% in trout vs. 0.2% in salmon) represented higher proportions of the total body carotenoid pool in rainbow trout than in Atlantic salmon (Ptrout; Ptrout. Liver catabolism is suspected to be a critical determinant in carotenoid clearance, with higher catabolism expected in Atlantic salmon than in rainbow trout.

  7. Quantifying the distribution of nanodiamonds in pre-Younger Dryas to recent age deposits along Bull Creek, Oklahoma Panhandle, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bement, Leland C.; Madden, Andrew S.; Carter, Brian J.; Simms, Alexander R.; Swindle, Andrew L.; Alexander, Hanna M.; Fine, Scott; Benamara, Mourad

    2014-02-01

    High levels of nanodiamonds (nds) have been used to support the transformative hypothesis that an extraterrestrial (ET) event (comet explosion) triggered Younger Dryas changes in temperature, flora and fauna assemblages, and human adaptations [Firestone RB, et al. (2007) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104(41):16016-16021]. We evaluate this hypothesis by establishing the distribution of nds within the Bull Creek drainage of the Beaver River basin in the Oklahoma panhandle. The earlier report of an abundance spike of nds in the Bull Creek I Younger Dryas boundary soil is confirmed, although no pure cubic diamonds were identified. The lack of hexagonal nds suggests Bull Creek I is not near any impact site. Potential hexagonal nds at Bull Creek were found to be more consistent with graphene/graphane. An additional nd spike is found in deposits of late Holocene through the modern age, indicating nds are not unique to the Younger Dryas boundary. Nd distributions do not correlate with depositional environment, pedogenesis, climate perturbations, periods of surface stability, or cultural activity.

  8. Quantifying the distribution of nanodiamonds in pre-Younger Dryas to recent age deposits along Bull Creek, Oklahoma panhandle, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bement, Leland C; Madden, Andrew S; Carter, Brian J; Simms, Alexander R; Swindle, Andrew L; Alexander, Hanna M; Fine, Scott; Benamara, Mourad

    2014-02-04

    High levels of nanodiamonds (nds) have been used to support the transformative hypothesis that an extraterrestrial (ET) event (comet explosion) triggered Younger Dryas changes in temperature, flora and fauna assemblages, and human adaptations [Firestone RB, et al. (2007) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104(41):16016-16021]. We evaluate this hypothesis by establishing the distribution of nds within the Bull Creek drainage of the Beaver River basin in the Oklahoma panhandle. The earlier report of an abundance spike of nds in the Bull Creek I Younger Dryas boundary soil is confirmed, although no pure cubic diamonds were identified. The lack of hexagonal nds suggests Bull Creek I is not near any impact site. Potential hexagonal nds at Bull Creek were found to be more consistent with graphene/graphane. An additional nd spike is found in deposits of late Holocene through the modern age, indicating nds are not unique to the Younger Dryas boundary. Nd distributions do not correlate with depositional environment, pedogenesis, climate perturbations, periods of surface stability, or cultural activity.

  9. Distribution and dynamic habitat use of young bull sharks Carcharhinus leucas in a highly stratified northern Gulf of Mexico estuary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Marcus Drymon

    Full Text Available Understanding how animals alter habitat use in response to changing abiotic conditions is important for effective conservation management. For bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas, habitat use has been widely examined in the eastern and western Gulf of Mexico; however, knowledge of their movements and the factors influencing them is lacking for populations in the more temperate north-central Gulf of Mexico. To examine how changes in hydrographic conditions affected the presence of young bull sharks in Mobile Bay, Alabama, thirty-five sharks were fitted with internal acoustic transmitters and monitored with an acoustic monitoring array consisting of thirty-three receivers between June 2009 and December 2010. Tagged sharks ranged in size from 60 to 114 cm fork length and were detected between the upper and lower portions of Mobile Bay. Despite a variety of freshwater sources associated with this highly productive estuary, sharks were most consistently detected at the largest input to the system--the Mobile and Tensaw Rivers. Our findings suggest a combination of hydrographic factors interact to influence the distribution of juvenile bull sharks in Mobile Bay. The factors affecting the probability of detecting at least one bull shark varied both temporally (2009 vs 2010 and spatially (upper vs lower bay. Electivity analysis demonstrated that bull sharks showed highest affinity for warm water (29-32 °C, moderate salinities (10-11 psu and normoxic waters (5-7 mg/l, although these patterns were not consistent between regions or across years. We suggest future studies coupling telemetry and hydrographic variables should, when possible, consider the interactions of multiple environmental parameters when defining the dynamic factors explaining the spatial distribution of coastal sharks.

  10. Distribution and dynamic habitat use of young bull sharks Carcharhinus leucas in a highly stratified northern Gulf of Mexico estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drymon, J Marcus; Ajemian, Matthew J; Powers, Sean P

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how animals alter habitat use in response to changing abiotic conditions is important for effective conservation management. For bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas), habitat use has been widely examined in the eastern and western Gulf of Mexico; however, knowledge of their movements and the factors influencing them is lacking for populations in the more temperate north-central Gulf of Mexico. To examine how changes in hydrographic conditions affected the presence of young bull sharks in Mobile Bay, Alabama, thirty-five sharks were fitted with internal acoustic transmitters and monitored with an acoustic monitoring array consisting of thirty-three receivers between June 2009 and December 2010. Tagged sharks ranged in size from 60 to 114 cm fork length and were detected between the upper and lower portions of Mobile Bay. Despite a variety of freshwater sources associated with this highly productive estuary, sharks were most consistently detected at the largest input to the system--the Mobile and Tensaw Rivers. Our findings suggest a combination of hydrographic factors interact to influence the distribution of juvenile bull sharks in Mobile Bay. The factors affecting the probability of detecting at least one bull shark varied both temporally (2009 vs 2010) and spatially (upper vs lower bay). Electivity analysis demonstrated that bull sharks showed highest affinity for warm water (29-32 °C), moderate salinities (10-11 psu) and normoxic waters (5-7 mg/l), although these patterns were not consistent between regions or across years. We suggest future studies coupling telemetry and hydrographic variables should, when possible, consider the interactions of multiple environmental parameters when defining the dynamic factors explaining the spatial distribution of coastal sharks.

  11. Population status, distribution and potential threats of the Blue Bull Boselaphus tragocamelus (Mammalia: Cetartiodactyla: Bovidae along the Tinau River of Rupandehi District, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Aryal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The status and conservation of the Blue Bull Boselaphus tragocamelus is becoming one of the prominent discourses of wildlife research.  The study was carried out along the Tinau River at Rupandehi District in western Nepal to ascertain the population status, distribution and potential threats to the Blue Bull.  The study was conducted along six transect lines in the forest.  A total of 40 Blue Bulls were recorded in different transects.  The average group size was five.  The average population density was 0.228 Blue Bulls per ha and the sex ratio was 1 male: 3 females.  The potential threats of the Blue Bull along the Tinau River were habitat destruction, overgrazing, conflict, flooding and accident.  

  12. Biomagnification and tissue distribution of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in market-size rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeritz, Ina; Falk, Sandy; Stahl, Thorsten; Schäfers, Christoph; Schlechtriem, Christian

    2013-09-01

    The present study investigated the biomagnification potential as well as the substance and tissue-specific distribution of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in market-size rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Rainbow trout with an average body weight of 314 ± 21 g were exposed to perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) in the diet for 28 d. The accumulation phase was followed by a 28-d depuration phase, in which the test animals were fed with nonspiked trout feed. On days 0, 7, 14, 28, 31, 35, 42, and 56 of the present study, fish were sampled from the test basin for PFAS analysis. Biomagnification factors (BMFs) for all test compounds were determined based on a kinetic approach. Distribution factors were calculated for each test compound to illustrate the disposition of PFASs in rainbow trout after 28 d of exposure. Dietary exposure of market-size rainbow trout to PFASs did not result in biomagnification; BMF values were calculated as 0.42 for PFOS, >0.23 for PFNA, >0.18 for PFHxS, >0.04 for PFOA, and >0.02 for PFBS, which are below the biomagnification threshold of 1. Liver, blood, kidney, and skin were identified as the main target tissues for PFASs in market-size rainbow trout. Evidence was shown that despite relative low PFAS contamination, the edible parts of the fish (the fillet and skin) can significantly contribute to the whole-body burden. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  13. Tissue distribution and elimination of rotenone in rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    The fate of a single i.v. dose (120 μg/kg) of the piscicide [14C]rotenone was evaluated in rainbow trout for periods up to 72 h after dosing. Rotenone was rapidly cleared from the plasma; less than 2% of the dose remained in the plasma compartment after 20 min. The highest concentrations of rotenone residues (% dose/g tissue) were in the hepatobiliary system, bile, intestine, and in heart, lateral line swimming muscle, and posterior kidney; tissues that are highly dependent on oxidative metabolism. Although rotenone activity was present in all cell fractions examined, greater than 40% was associated with the mitochondrial fraction of liver, kidney, and muscle. More than 85% of the activity extracted from these tissues, except the liver, was parent rotenone. Elimination from whole body and major tissue depots conformed to simple first-order kinetics; the estimated half-life from whole body was 68.5 h. Branchial elimination accounted for 5% of the injected dose over a 4-h period, and urinary elimination was less than 2% over a 48-h period. Rotenone was eliminated essentially unchanged across the gills; however, parent rotenone was not found in either urine or bile. More than 80% of the activity in both urine and bile eluted from HPLC chromatographs as a highly polar fraction that was not hydrolyzed by incubation with either β-glucuronidase or sulfatase. The results imply that hepatobiliary excretion is the major route of elimination for rotenone residues in the trout and that metabolism to a more polar form is a prerequisite for elimination in both the bile and the urine

  14. Geographic variability in elevation and topographic constraints on the distribution of native and nonnative trout in the Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Dana R.; Dunham, Jason B.; Hockman-Wert, David

    2014-01-01

    Understanding local and geographic factors influencing species distributions is a prerequisite for conservation planning. Our objective in this study was to model local and geographic variability in elevations occupied by native and nonnative trout in the northwestern Great Basin, USA. To this end, we analyzed a large existing data set of trout presence (5,156 observations) to evaluate two fundamental factors influencing occupied elevations: climate-related gradients in geography and local constraints imposed by topography. We applied quantile regression to model upstream and downstream distribution elevation limits for each trout species commonly found in the region (two native and two nonnative species). With these models in hand, we simulated an upstream shift in elevation limits of trout distributions to evaluate potential consequences of habitat loss. Downstream elevation limits were inversely associated with latitude, reflecting regional gradients in temperature. Upstream limits were positively related to maximum stream elevation as expected. Downstream elevation limits were constrained topographically by valley bottom elevations in northern streams but not in southern streams, where limits began well above valley bottoms. Elevation limits were similar among species. Upstream shifts in elevation limits for trout would lead to more habitat loss in the north than in the south, a result attributable to differences in topography. Because downstream distributions of trout in the north extend into valley bottoms with reduced topographic relief, trout in more northerly latitudes are more likely to experience habitat loss associated with an upstream shift in lower elevation limits. By applying quantile regression to relatively simple information (species presence, elevation, geography, topography), we were able to identify elevation limits for trout in the Great Basin and explore the effects of potential shifts in these limits that could occur in response to changing

  15. Bioaccumulation, distribution and retention of 63Ni2+ in the brown trout (Salmo trutta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjaelve, Hans; Gottofrey, James; Borg, Kathleen

    1988-01-01

    Brown trout, Salmo trutta, were exposed to water containing 0.1 or 10 μgl -1 of 63 Ni 2+ for 1 or 3 weeks. Additional trout were exposed to 0.1 or 10 μgl -1 of 63 Ni 2+ during 3 weeks followed by a 1- or 3-week period without exposure to the metal. At termination of the experimental periods the uptake and distribution of the 63 Ni 2+ in the fishes were determined by whole-body autoradiography and liquid scintillation spectrometry. The average whole-fish concentration of 63 Ni 2+ in the fishes was about 3 times higher than the concentration of 6 Ni 2+ in the water after 1 week's exposure and about 7-8 times higher than in the water after three weeks' exposure. Our results show that there is a moderate bioaccumulation of nickel by fishes from the water. (author)

  16. Brook trout distributional response to unconventional oil and gas development: Landscape context matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriam, Eric R.; Petty, J. Todd; Maloney, Kelly O.; Young, John A.; Faulkner, Stephen; Slonecker, Terry; Milheim, Lesley E.; Hailegiorgis, Atesmachew; Niles, Jonathan M.

    2018-01-01

    We conducted a large-scale assessment of unconventional oil and gas (UOG) development effects on brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) distribution. We compiled 2231 brook trout collection records from the Upper Susquehanna River Watershed, USA. We used boosted regression tree (BRT) analysis to predict occurrence probability at the 1:24,000 stream-segment scale as a function of natural and anthropogenic landscape and climatic attributes. We then evaluated the importance of landscape context (i.e., pre-existing natural habitat quality and anthropogenic degradation) in modulating the effects of UOG on brook trout distribution under UOG development scenarios. BRT made use of 5 anthropogenic (28% relative influence) and 7 natural (72% relative influence) variables to model occurrence with a high degree of accuracy [Area Under the Receiver Operating Curve (AUC) = 0.85 and cross-validated AUC = 0.81]. UOG development impacted 11% (n = 2784) of streams and resulted in a loss of predicted occurrence in 126 (4%). Most streams impacted by UOG had unsuitable underlying natural habitat quality (n = 1220; 44%). Brook trout were predicted to be absent from an additional 26% (n = 733) of streams due to pre-existing non-UOG land uses (i.e., agriculture, residential and commercial development, or historic mining). Streams with a predicted and observed (via existing pre- and post-disturbance fish sampling records) loss of occurrence due to UOG tended to have intermediate natural habitat quality and/or intermediate levels of non-UOG stress. Simulated development of permitted but undeveloped UOG wells (n = 943) resulted in a loss of predicted occurrence in 27 additional streams. Loss of occurrence was strongly dependent upon landscape context, suggesting effects of current and future UOG development are likely most relevant in streams near the probability threshold due to pre-existing habitat degradation.

  17. Variation in angler distribution and catch rates of stocked rainbow trout in a small reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Brian S.; Martin, Dustin R.; Chizinski, Christopher J.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the spatial and temporal relationship of catch rates and angler party location for two days following a publicly announced put-and-take stocking of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Catch rates declined with time since stocking and distance from stocking. We hypothesized that opportunity for high catch rates would cause anglers to fish near the stocking location and disperse with time, however distance between angler parties and stocking was highly variable at any given time. Spatially explicit differences in catch rates can affect fishing quality. Further research could investigate the variation between angler distribution and fish distribution within a waterbody.

  18. Influence of a CIDR prior to bull breeding on pregnancy rates and subsequent calving distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, G C; Dahlen, C R; Vonnahme, K A; Hansen, G R; Arseneau, J D; Perry, G A; Walker, R S; Clement, J; Arthington, J D

    2008-11-01

    We determined whether insertion of a CIDR for 7 days prior to the breeding season enhanced pregnancy rates and altered the date of conception in suckled beef cows mated naturally. Suckled beef cows (n=2033) from 15 locations were randomly assigned to one of two treatments: (1) cows received a CIDR 7 days prior to the breeding season for 7 days (CIDR; n=999); (2) cows received no treatment (Control; n=1034). On the first day of the breeding season bulls were introduced to herds at a rate of 15-25 cows per yearling bull or 20-30 cows per mature bull. Pregnancy status and the date of conception were determined via transrectal ultrasonography at 56 and 120 days after initiation of the breeding season. Overall pregnancy rates ranged from 59.3 to 98.9% among the 15 locations. The percentage of cows becoming pregnant during the first 30 days of the breeding season was similar between CIDR (68.2%) and Control (66.7%) cows, and overall pregnancy rates were similar between CIDR (88.9%) and Control (88.6%) cows. The average day of conception after initiation of the breeding season was shorter (Pbody condition score and nor parity affected pregnancy rates or days to conception, whereas pregnancy rates and days to conception were affected (Pconception were greater for cows that calved within 40 days (31.6+/-1.2 days) of initiation of the breeding season compared to cows calving between 40 and 50 days (25.3+/-1.2 days) prior to initiation of the breeding season, which were greater than those cows calving between 50-60 days (20.0+/-0.8 days) and 60-70 days (21.3+/-1.0 days) prior to initiation of the breeding season. Cows calving greater than 70 days (17.3+/-1.5 days) from initiation of the breeding season had the shortest interval to conception. We concluded that insertion of a CIDR prior to the breeding season failed to increase overall pregnancy rates, but did influence the average day of conception.

  19. Histochemical distribution of zinc in the brain of the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchos myciss. I. The telencephalon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piñuela, C; Baatrup, E; Geneser, F A

    1992-01-01

    was mainly confined to the neuropil, but both moderately and intensely stained nerve cell bodies were of common occurrence. Stained fibers were never observed. The staining revealed a specific distribution pattern which could easily be correlated with the telencephalic nuclei defined on the basis......The present paper which describes the distribution of zinc in the telencephalon of the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchos myciss, is the first report on the distribution of a heavy metal in the fish brain. Zinc was demonstrated histochemically by silver enhancement using the Neo-Timm method. The staining...... of cytoarchitectural features. However, the telencephalon stained much more weakly than the rest of the brain, in striking contrast to the situation in the reptilian, mammalian, and avian brain. In these classes, high staining intensities are observed almost exclusively in the telencephalon. The staining...

  20. Bull trout in the Boundary System: managing connectivity and the feasibility of a reintroduction in the lower Pend Oreille River, northeastern Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Jason B.; Taylor, Eric B.; Allendorf, Fred W.

    2014-01-01

    Many of the World’s rivers are influenced by large dams (>15 m high) most of which have fragmented formerly continuous habitats, and significantly altered fish passage, natural flow, temperature, and sediment fluxes (Nilsson and others, 2005; Arthington, 2012; Liermann and others, 2012). In the Pacific Northwest, dams on major rivers have been a major focus for fishery managers, primarily in regard to passage of anadromous salmonids (principally Pacific salmon and steelhead trout [Oncorhynchus mykiss], for example, Ferguson and others, 2011), but more recently other species, such as Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus) and resident (non-anadromous) salmonids, are receiving more attention (Neraas and Spruell, 2001; Moser and others, 2002; Muhlfeld and others, 2012). In the case of resident salmonids, fish can adopt a wide range of migratory behaviors that often bring them into mainstem rivers where they can come into direct contact with large dams. When this occurs, some of the most important direct effects of dams on salmonids include barriers to upstream and downstream movement and mortality associated with entrainment within the dam or spill over dams. Biologically, these direct impacts can lead to (1) disruption of natural historical (pre-dam) genetic and demographic connectivity among local populations, (2) loss of access to historically used migratory destinations, (3) loss of individuals to the population through mortality associated with entrainment.

  1. Effects of diet composition and ultrasound treatment on particle size distribution and carbon bioavailability in feces of rainbow trout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meriac, A.; Tilburg, van T.; Eding, E.H.; Kamstra, A.; Schrama, J.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of a high and low non-starch polysaccharide diet (HNSP and LNSP diet) and ultrasound treatment on particle size distribution and carbon bioavailability in fecal waste of rainbow trout (Oncorynchus mykiss) was studied. Feces were collected from four flow-through fish tanks, two tanks fed

  2. Distribution and Dynamic Habitat Use of Young Bull Sharks Carcharhinus leucas in a Highly Stratified Northern Gulf of Mexico Estuary

    OpenAIRE

    Drymon, J. Marcus; Ajemian, Matthew J.; Powers, Sean P.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how animals alter habitat use in response to changing abiotic conditions is important for effective conservation management. For bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas), habitat use has been widely examined in the eastern and western Gulf of Mexico; however, knowledge of their movements and the factors influencing them is lacking for populations in the more temperate north-central Gulf of Mexico. To examine how changes in hydrographic conditions affected the presence of young bull sha...

  3. Variability of kokanee and rainbow trout food habits, distribution, and population dynamics, in an ultraoligotrophic lake with no manipulative management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buktenica, M.W.; Girdner, S.F.; Larson, G.L.; McIntire, C.D.

    2007-01-01

    Crater Lake is a unique environment to evaluate the ecology of introduced kokanee and rainbow trout because of its otherwise pristine state, low productivity, absence of manipulative management, and lack of lotic systems for fish spawning. Between 1986 and 2004, kokanee displayed a great deal of variation in population demographics with a pattern that reoccurred in about 10 years. We believe that the reoccurring pattern resulted from density dependent growth, and associated changes in reproduction and abundance, driven by prey resource limitation that resulted from low lake productivity exacerbated by prey consumption when kokanee were abundant. Kokanee fed primarily on small-bodied prey from the mid-water column; whereas rainbow trout fed on large-bodied prey from the benthos and lake surface. Cladoceran zooplankton abundance may be regulated by kokanee. And kokanee growth and reproductive success may be influenced by the availability of Daphnia pulicaria, which was absent in zooplankton samples collected annually from 1990 to 1995, and after 1999. Distribution and diel migration of kokanee varied over the duration of the study and appeared to be most closely associated with prey availability, maximization of bioenergetic efficiency, and fish density. Rainbow trout were less abundant than were kokanee and exhibited less variation in population demographics, distribution, and food habits. There is some evidence that the population dynamics of rainbow trout were in-part related to the availability of kokanee as prey. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  4. Distribution of sex chromosomes (XY) in lymphocyte metaphase spreads of dairy bulls

    OpenAIRE

    Kotikalapudi Rosaiah; Patel Rajesh Kumar; Medidi Hemanth; Sugali Nagaraju Naik

    2013-01-01

    Position of autosome and sex chromosomes in metaphase spreads is grate concerned of Cytogeneticians worldwide to understand cell biology. A few isolated studies have been conducted for the distribution of chromosomes in metaphase spread. Our studies reveal that most sex chromosomes (XY) remain on periphery and semi-periphery, 84.16% for X and 86.97% for Y respectively, in round metaphase spreads. The application of sex chromosome position in metaphase sprea...

  5. Summer temperature metrics for predicting brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) distribution in streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Donna; Butryn, Ryan S.; Rizzo, Donna M.

    2012-01-01

    We developed a methodology to predict brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) distribution using summer temperature metrics as predictor variables. Our analysis used long-term fish and hourly water temperature data from the Dog River, Vermont (USA). Commonly used metrics (e.g., mean, maximum, maximum 7-day maximum) tend to smooth the data so information on temperature variation is lost. Therefore, we developed a new set of metrics (called event metrics) to capture temperature variation by describing the frequency, area, duration, and magnitude of events that exceeded a user-defined temperature threshold. We used 16, 18, 20, and 22°C. We built linear discriminant models and tested and compared the event metrics against the commonly used metrics. Correct classification of the observations was 66% with event metrics and 87% with commonly used metrics. However, combined event and commonly used metrics correctly classified 92%. Of the four individual temperature thresholds, it was difficult to assess which threshold had the “best” accuracy. The 16°C threshold had slightly fewer misclassifications; however, the 20°C threshold had the fewest extreme misclassifications. Our method leveraged the volumes of existing long-term data and provided a simple, systematic, and adaptable framework for monitoring changes in fish distribution, specifically in the case of irregular, extreme temperature events.

  6. The distribution of [14C]acrylamide in rainbow trout studied by whole-body autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waddell, W.J.; Lech, J.J.; Marlowe, C.; Kleinow, K.M.; Friedman, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    The distribution of [2,3- 14 C]acrylamide was studied in fingerling rainbow trout by whole-body autoradiography. Fish weighing approximately 7 g were injected ip with 3.2 mg/kg [ 14 C]acrylamide (0.1 microCi/g). One group of fish was kept in a fresh flowing water tank and frozen in dry ice/hexane 22 hr after injection; another group was placed in a separate tank of fresh flowing water and frozen 120 hr after treatment. A third group of fish served as nontreated controls. The autoradiographs of the fish at 22 hr show the highest concentration of radioactivity in the kidney, urinary bladder, blood, gallbladder, intestinal contents, and lens of eye. Lesser amounts of radioactivity are seen in the CNS, liver, and gills. Very low concentrations are seen in muscle. By 120 hr the only high concentrations are seen in gallbladder and lens of the eye. Lesser amounts are seen in the sclera, vertebrae, CNS, kidney, wall of intestine, and discrete spots in subcutaneous tissue presumed to be chromatophores. Low amounts are seen in muscle, the tissue usually consumed by man

  7. Distribution of T Cells in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Skin and Responsiveness to Viral Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Esther; Granja, Aitor G.; Zarza, Carlos; Tafalla, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Although the skin constitutes the first line of defense against waterborne pathogens, there is a great lack of information regarding the skin associated lymphoid tissue (SALT) and whether immune components of the skin are homogeneously distributed through the surface of the fish is still unknown. In the current work, we have analyzed the transcription of several immune genes throughout different rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) skin areas. We found that immunoglobulin and chemokine gene transcription levels were higher in a skin area close to the gills. Furthermore, this skin area as well as other anterior sections also transcribed significantly higher levels of many different immune genes related to T cell immunity such as T cell receptor α (TCRα), TCRγ, CD3, CD4, CD8, perforin, GATA3, Tbet, FoxP3, interferon γ (IFNγ), CD40L and Eomes in comparison to posterior skin sections. In agreement with these results, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that anterior skin areas had a higher concentration of CD3+ T cells and flow cytometry analysis confirmed that the percentage of CD8+ T lymphocytes was also higher in anterior skin sections. These results demonstrate for the first time that T cells are not homogeneously distributed throughout the teleost skin. Additionally, we studied the transcriptional regulation of these and additional T cell markers in response to a bath infection with viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). We found that VHSV regulated the transcription of several of these T cell markers in both the skin and the spleen; with some differences between anterior and posterior skin sections. Altogether, our results point to skin T cells as major players of teleost skin immunity in response to waterborne viral infections. PMID:26808410

  8. Preparation and anatomical distribution study of 67Ga-alginic acid nanoparticles for SPECT purposes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidarieh Marzieh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ergosan contains 1% alginic acid extracted from two brown sea weeds. Little is known about the target organs and anatomical distribution of Ergosan (alginic acid in fish. Therefore, feasibility of developing alginic acid nanoparticles to detect target organ in rainbow trout is interesting. To make nanoparticles, Ergosan extract (alginic acid was irradiated at 30 kGy in a cobalt-60 irradiator and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Results from TEM images showed that particle sizes of irradiated alginic acid ranged from 30 to 70 nm. The FTIR results indicated that gamma irradiation had no significant influence on the basic structure of alginic acid. Later, alginic acid nanoparticles were successively labelled with 67Ga-gallium chloride. The biodistribution of irradiated Ergosan in normal rainbow trout showed highest uptake in intestine and kidney and then in liver and kidney at 4- and 24-h post injection, respectively. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT images also demonstrated target specific binding of the tracer at 4- and 24-h post injection. In conclusion, the feed supplemented with alginic acid nanoparticles enhanced SPECT images of gastrointestinal morphology and immunity system in normal rainbow trout.

  9. Broad-scale patterns of Brook Trout responses to introduced Brown Trout in New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, James E.; Slattery, Michael T.; Kean M. Clifford,

    2013-01-01

    Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis and Brown Trout Salmo trutta are valuable sport fish that coexist in many parts of the world due to stocking introductions. Causes for the decline of Brook Trout within their native range are not clear but include competition with Brown Trout, habitat alteration, and repetitive stocking practices. New York State contains a large portion of the Brook Trout's native range, where both species are maintained by stocking and other management actions. We used artificial neural network models, regression, principal components analysis, and simulation to evaluate the effects of Brown Trout, environmental conditions, and stocking on the distribution of Brook Trout in the center of their native range. We found evidence for the decline of Brook Trout in the presence of Brown Trout across many watersheds; 22% of sampled reaches where both species were expected to occur contained only Brown Trout. However, a model of the direct relationship between Brook Trout and Brown Trout abundance explained less than 1% of data variation. Ordination showed extensive overlap of Brook Trout and Brown Trout habitat conditions, with only small components of the hypervolume (multidimensional space) being distinctive. Subsequent analysis indicated higher abundances of Brook Trout in highly forested areas, while Brown Trout were more abundant in areas with relatively high proportions of agriculture. Simulation results indicated that direct interactions and habitat conditions were relatively minor factors compared with the effects of repeated stocking of Brown Trout into Brook Trout habitat. Intensive annual stocking of Brown Trout could eliminate resident Brook Trout in less than a decade. Ecological differences, harvest behavior, and other habitat changes can exacerbate Brook Trout losses. Custom stocking scenarios with Brown Trout introductions at relatively low proportions of resident Brook Trout populations may be able to sustain healthy populations of both

  10. Uptake, distribution, and incorporation of 59Fe in tissue and blood of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, R.L.

    1975-01-01

    A study was designed to evaluate the storage iron facilities in various tissues and to trace the distribution of radioiron in tissues and blood following an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 59 Fe. Iron deficiency anemia was induced in an experimental group of rainbow trout in order to measure its effect on red blood cell production and mobilization of storage iron. Most of the 59 Fe was absorbed from the peritoneal cavity within 24 hrs. after the i.p. injection. Equilibrium between the plasma 59 Fe pool and that of the tissue was established by day 8. Experimental fish RBC 59 Fe content increased to 70 to 80 percent of the initial injected dose by day 16 compared to 50 percent in the controls. This was attributed to the difference in reticulocyte count which was 10 to 12 percent for the bled and 2 to 3 percent for control fish. The rate that iron is incorporated into hemoglobin by immature red cells is much slower (about half) than the rate of RBC 59 Fe uptake, thus, iron is temporarily stored in the cytoplasm. The iron for hemoglobin formation was obtained from liver iron stores which dropped from 12 percent to less than 1 percent of the initial injected dose by day 16. Total iron concentration in liver decreased from 200 to less than 100 μg Fe/g. The decrease in liver iron may have stimulated iron absorption by the intestine and pyloric caeca. There is evidence for a feedback mechanism mediated by transferrin

  11. BullsEye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted; Kristensen, Janus Bager; Bagge, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    implemented primarily in shaders on the GPU. The techniques are realized in the BullsEye computer vision software. We demonstrate experimentally that BullsEye provides sub-pixel accuracy down to a tenth of a pixel, which is a significant improvement compared to the commonly used reacTIVision software....

  12. Using observed load distributions with a simple model to analyse the epidemiology of sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on sea trout (Salmo trutta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Alexander G

    2002-06-01

    Sea lice are ectoparasites of salmonids that have been associated with the recent decline in sea trout numbers in north-west Europe. Observed patterns of louse load distribution between sea trout in the seas surrounding the UK, Ireland and Norway and a simple model have been used to analyse the epidemiology of lice. Loads are aggregated and deviate strongly from the Poisson distribution, although less than is observed with many other parasites. The louse numbers on fish from offshore sites are slightly less variable than for fish from coastal sites with comparable mean loads. Analysis of louse development stages and sexes shows that selection between hosts by sea lice plays a limited role. If host selection is absent, then associated poor condition would be caused by, not the cause of, high louse burdens; however the absence of such selection is not proved. Scenarios with infection that is patchy in space and time best generate the aggregated load patterns observed; these patches accord with observed swarms of copepodids. Prevalence patterns may indicate the movement of trout between environments. Control of copepodids in infection 'hot spots', either directly or through control of louse egg production in their catchment, may reduce louse loads on wild sea trout and, in particular, extreme and damaging loads.

  13. Chromosomal characteristics and distribution of rDNA sequences in the brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill, 1814).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliwińska-Jewsiewicka, A; Kuciński, M; Kirtiklis, L; Dobosz, S; Ocalewicz, K; Jankun, Malgorzata

    2015-08-01

    Brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill, 1814) chromosomes have been analyzed using conventional and molecular cytogenetic techniques enabling characteristics and chromosomal location of heterochromatin, nucleolus organizer regions (NORs), ribosomal RNA-encoding genes and telomeric DNA sequences. The C-banding and chromosome digestion with the restriction endonucleases demonstrated distribution and heterogeneity of the heterochromatin in the brook trout genome. DNA sequences of the ribosomal RNA genes, namely the nucleolus-forming 28S (major) and non-nucleolus-forming 5S (minor) rDNAs, were physically mapped using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and primed in situ labelling. The minor rDNA locus was located on the subtelo-acrocentric chromosome pair No. 9, whereas the major rDNA loci were dispersed on 14 chromosome pairs, showing a considerable inter-individual variation in the number and location. The major and minor rDNA loci were located at different chromosomes. Multichromosomal location (3-6 sites) of the NORs was demonstrated by silver nitrate (AgNO3) impregnation. All Ag-positive i.e. active NORs corresponded to the GC-rich blocks of heterochromatin. FISH with telomeric probe showed the presence of the interstitial telomeric site (ITS) adjacent to the NOR/28S rDNA site on the chromosome 11. This ITS was presumably remnant of the chromosome rearrangement(s) leading to the genomic redistribution of the rDNA sequences. Comparative analysis of the cytogenetic data among several related salmonid species confirmed huge variation in the number and the chromosomal location of rRNA gene clusters in the Salvelinus genome.

  14. Bull Moose Tube Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against the Bull Moose Tube Company, a business located at 1819 Clarkson Road, Chesterfield, MO, 63017, for alleged violations at the facility located at 406 East Industrial Drive,

  15. Distribution and elimination of [14C]octachlorostyrene in cod (Gadus morhua), rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), and blue mussel (Mytilus edulis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingebrigtsen, K.; Solbakken, J.E.; Norheim, G.; Nafstad, I.

    1988-01-01

    Cod (Gadus morhua) and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) were given a single oral dose of 100 microCi/kg b.w. of [ 14 C]octachlorostyrene [( 14 C]OCS) in peanut oil. Blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) was exposed to [ 14 C]OCS in water. The distribution and elimination of the compound was studied by liquid scintillation counting and whole-body autoradiography. The highest degree of radioactivity in the cod and rainbow trout was measured in the liver and the visceral fat, respectively. The degree of radioactivity in the brain of cod exceeded that of the rainbow trout by a factor between 2 and 4 at all survival times. In addition to bile excretion of [ 14 C]OCS-derived radioactivity, a possible excretion over the intestinal mucosa was suggested. The rate of elimination was slow in both species, and substantial amounts of radioactivity remained in the tissues 90 d after administration. In the blue mussel, the highest degree of radioactivity was found in the hepatopancreas. Substantial amounts of radioactivity were present in the mussel tissues 60 d after administration

  16. Distribution of individual inbreeding coefficients, relatedness and influence of stocking on native anadromous brown trout ( Salmo trutta ) population structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzzante, D.E.; Hansen, Michael Møller; Meldrup, Dorte

    2001-01-01

    inbreeding coefficients do not differ among locations within rivers. Relatedness varies between sites within rivers indicating varied local dynamics at a very small geographical scale. Relatedness is sometimes lower than expected among an equal number of simulated individuals with randomized genotypes......, the proportion of locally assigned trout correlates with the populations' stocking histories, with rivers presently subjected to stocking (hatchery trout) showing low mean similar to0.73), and rivers where stocking was discontinued showing high (mean similar to0.84) proportions of local fish, probably reflecting...

  17. Effects of some chelating agents on the uptake and distribution of 54Mn(II) in the brown trout (Salmo trutta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouleau, C.; Tjaelve, H.; Pelletier, E.; Gottofrey, J.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of humic acids, which are natural metal-complexing compounds, and potassium ethylxanthate, sodium diethyldithiophosphate, sodium dimethyldithicarbamate, which are sulphur-containing man-made chelating agents, on the uptake and tissue distribution of 54 Mn(II) were studied in brown trout (Salmo trutta). Fish were exposed for 7 days to 0.1 μg Mn(II)x. -2 as NmCl 2 (l μCia 54 Mnxl -1 ) with or without chelat agents. Examination of the partition of Mn between octanol and a Tris-HCl buffer in the presence of these compounds was also performed. Humic acids had only small effects on Mn uptake and distribution in trout, probably because of the low stability of Mn-humate complexes. Partition of Mn in the presence of potassium ethylxanthate, sodium diethyldithiophosphate, sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate, and sodium diethyldithiocarbamate between octanol and Tris-HCl buffer showed formation of lipophilic complex with the latter two compounds, but not with the former. However, these four chelating agents all decreased Mn uptake in the trout by 40-45%. These substances also changed the distribution of Mn within the fish, with a higher proportion of the metal being present in some visceral organs and a smaller proportion being localized in some non-parenchymateous tissues, such as skin, fins and bones. The mechanisms underlying these effects are not known. however, the interaction of chelating agents with the Mn, although weak, may have partially withdrawn the metal from the uptake process inthe gills. The redistribution of Mn in the fish may be due to the binding of the metal to complexing compounds which have reached the intestinal lumen. Previous studies with other metals have shown increased or unchanged metal levels in tissues of fish at exposure together with potasium ethylxanthate, sodium diethyldithiophosphate, sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate, and sodium diethyldithiocarbamate, but decreased metal levels have not been observed before. (au) (37 refs.)

  18. Detection of myocardial 123I-BMIPP distribution abnormality in patients with ischemic heart disease based on normal data file in Bull's-eye polar map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Nobukazu; Ishida, Yoshio; Hirose, Yoshiaki; Kawano, Shigeo; Fukuoka, Syuji; Hayashida, Kohei; Takamiya, Makoto; Nonogi, Hiroshi

    1995-01-01

    Visual interpretation of 123 I-BMIPP (BMIPP) myocardial images has difficulties in detecting mild reduction in tracer uptake. We studied the significance of the objective assessment of myocardial BMIPP maldistributions at rest by using a Bull's-eye map and its normal data file for detecting ischemic heart disease. Twenty nine patients, 15 with prior myocardial infarction and 14 with effort angina were studied. The initial 15-min BMIPP image was evaluated by visual analysis and by generating the extent Bull's-eye map which exhibits regions with reduced % uptake under mean-2SD of 10 normal controls. The sensitivity for determining coronary lesions in non-infarcted myocardial regions with the extent map was superior to that with visual analysis (67% vs. 33%). In the regions supplied by the stenotic coronary artery, those which showed visually negative but positive in the map and which showed positive in both had higher incidence of wall motion abnormalities and severe coronary stenosis than those with normal findings in both. These results suggest that the objective assessment based on the normal data file in a Bull's-eye polar map is clinically important for improving the limitation or the visual interpretation in 123 I-BMIPP imaging. (author)

  19. Garter snakes distributions in high elevation aquatic ecosystems: Is there a link with declining amphibian populations and nonnative trout introductions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.R. Matthews; R.A. Knapp; K.L. Pope

    2002-01-01

    ABSTRACT.—The dramatic amphibian population declines reported worldwide likely have important effects on their predators. In the Sierra Nevada, where amphibian declines are well documented and some are closely tied to the introduction of nonnative trout, the mountain garter snake, Thamnophis elegans elegans, preys predominately on amphibians. We surveyed 2103 high-...

  20. Brook trout use of thermal refugia and foraging habitat influenced by brown trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitt, Nathaniel P.; Snook, Erin; Massie, Danielle L.

    2017-01-01

    The distribution of native brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in eastern North America is often limited by temperature and introduced brown trout (Salmo trutta), the relative importance of which is poorly understood but critical for conservation and restoration planning. We evaluated effects of brown trout on brook trout behavior and habitat use in experimental streams across increasing temperatures (14–23 °C) with simulated groundwater upwelling zones providing thermal refugia (6–9 °C below ambient temperatures). Allopatric and sympatric trout populations increased their use of upwelling zones as ambient temperatures increased, demonstrating the importance of groundwater as thermal refugia in warming streams. Allopatric brook trout showed greater movement rates and more even spatial distributions within streams than sympatric brook trout, suggesting interference competition by brown trout for access to forage habitats located outside thermal refugia. Our results indicate that removal of introduced brown trout may facilitate native brook trout expansion and population viability in downstream reaches depending in part on the spatial configuration of groundwater upwelling zones.

  1. 29 CFR 1918.84 - Bulling cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bulling cargo. 1918.84 Section 1918.84 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.84 Bulling cargo. (a) Bulling cargo shall be done with the bull line led directly from the heel block. However, bulling may be done from the...

  2. Prediction of bull fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utt, Matthew D

    2016-06-01

    Prediction of male fertility is an often sought-after endeavor for many species of domestic animals. This review will primarily focus on providing some examples of dependent and independent variables to stimulate thought about the approach and methodology of identifying the most appropriate of those variables to predict bull (bovine) fertility. Although the list of variables will continue to grow with advancements in science, the principles behind making predictions will likely not change significantly. The basic principle of prediction requires identifying a dependent variable that is an estimate of fertility and an independent variable or variables that may be useful in predicting the fertility estimate. Fertility estimates vary in which parts of the process leading to conception that they infer about and the amount of variation that influences the estimate and the uncertainty thereof. The list of potential independent variables can be divided into competence of sperm based on their performance in bioassays or direct measurement of sperm attributes. A good prediction will use a sample population of bulls that is representative of the population to which an inference will be made. Both dependent and independent variables should have a dynamic range in their values. Careful selection of independent variables includes reasonable measurement repeatability and minimal correlation among variables. Proper estimation and having an appreciation of the degree of uncertainty of dependent and independent variables are crucial for using predictions to make decisions regarding bull fertility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Danish holsteins favor bull offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Kirkeby, Carsten; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study from 2014 it was found that US Holstein cows that gave birth to heifer calves produced more milk than cows having bull calves. We wanted to assess whether this is also true for Danish cattle. Data from 578 Danish Holstein herds were analysed with a mixed effect model and contr......In a previous study from 2014 it was found that US Holstein cows that gave birth to heifer calves produced more milk than cows having bull calves. We wanted to assess whether this is also true for Danish cattle. Data from 578 Danish Holstein herds were analysed with a mixed effect model...... and contrary to the findings in the US, we found that cows produced higher volumes of milk if they had a bull calf compared to a heifer calf. We found a significantly higher milk production of 0.28% in the first lactation period for cows giving birth to a bull calf, compared to a heifer calf. This difference...... was even higher when cows gave birth to another bull calf, so having two bull calves resulted in a difference of 0.52% in milk production compared to any other combination of sex of the offspring. Furthermore, we found that farmer assisted calvings were associated with a higher milk yield. Cows...

  4. Fine-scale population structure and riverscape genetics of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) distributed continuously along headwater channel networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Yoichiro; Vokoun, Jason C.; Letcher, Benjamin H.

    2011-01-01

    Linear and heterogeneous habitat makes headwater stream networks an ideal ecosystem in which to test the influence of environmental factors on spatial genetic patterns of obligatory aquatic species. We investigated fine-scale population structure and influence of stream habitat on individual-level genetic differentiation in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) by genotyping eight microsatellite loci in 740 individuals in two headwater channel networks (7.7 and 4.4 km) in Connecticut, USA. A weak but statistically significant isolation-by-distance pattern was common in both sites. In the field, many tagged individuals were recaptured in the same 50-m reaches within a single field season (summer to fall). One study site was characterized with a hierarchical population structure, where seasonal barriers (natural falls of 1.5–2.5 m in height during summer base-flow condition) greatly reduced gene flow and perceptible spatial patterns emerged because of the presence of tributaries, each with a group of genetically distinguishable individuals. Genetic differentiation increased when pairs of individuals were separated by high stream gradient (steep channel slope) or warm stream temperature in this site, although the evidence of their influence was equivocal. In a second site, evidence for genetic clusters was weak at best, but genetic differentiation between individuals was positively correlated with number of tributary confluences. We concluded that the population-level movement of brook trout was limited in the study headwater stream networks, resulting in the fine-scale population structure (genetic clusters and clines) even at distances of a few kilometres, and gene flow was mitigated by ‘riverscape’ variables, particularly by physical barriers, waterway distance (i.e. isolation-by-distance) and the presence of tributaries.

  5. Microsatellite analyses of the trout of northwest Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, J.L.; Sage, G.K.

    2001-01-01

    The trout of northwest Mexico represent an undescribed group of fish considered part of the Oncorhynchus mykiss (Pacific trout) complex of species and subspecies. Recent genetic studies have shown these fish to have important genetic diversity and a unique evolutionary history when compared to coastal rainbow trout. Increased levels of allelic diversity have been found in this species at the southern extent of its range. In this study we describe the trout in the Sierra Madre Occidental from the rios Yaqui, Mayo, Casas Grandes and de Bavispe, and their relationship to the more southern distribution of Mexican golden trout (O. chrysogaster) using 11 microsatellite loci. Microsatellite allelic diversity in Mexican trout was high with a mean of 6.6 alleles/locus, average heterozygosity = 0.35, and a mean Fst = 0.43 for all loci combined. Microsatellite data were congruent with previously published mtDNA results showing unique panmictic population structure in the Rio Yaqui trout that differs from Pacific coastal trout and Mexican golden trout. These data also add support for the theory of headwaters transfer of trout across the Continental Divide from tributaries of the Rio de Bavispe into the Rio Casas Grandes. Rio Mayo trout share a close genetic relationship to trout in Rio Yaqui, but sample sizes from the Rio Mayo prevent significant comparisons in this study. Microsatellite analyses show significant allelic frequency differences between Rio Yaqui trout and O. chrysogaster in Sinaloa and Durango Mexico, adding further support for a unique evolutionary status for this group of northwestern Mexican trout.

  6. Toxicity of potassium cyanide to trout. [Salmo gairdneri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbert, D W.M.; Merkens, J C

    1952-01-01

    The toxicity of KCN was tested on 50 rainbow trout using a flow through bioassay system. The system was designed to allow water conditions to remain constant throughout the test rather than change through metabolic activities of the fish. Results show: cyanide causes fish to loose equilibrium; cyanide resistance increases if the trout are allowed to acclimate to test temperatures before cyanides is added; young trout are more resistant to cyanide; and the distribution of trout survival times to cyanide concentration approximates a normal distribution. (14 references, 5 figures, 6 tables.

  7. Distribution and mobility of omega 3 fatty acids in rainbow trout fed varying levels and types of dietary lipid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castledine, A J; Buckley, J T

    1980-04-01

    The availability of essential fatty acids in fish neutral lipid to tissue phospholipids was determined under conditions of adequate and inadequate essential fatty acid intake as well as during fasting. Juvenile rainbow trout were fed a semi-purified diet containing varying levels of cod liver oil, with or without supplementary olein. Fatty acid analysis indicated that in all treatments the neutral lipid pool was not turned over during feeding but was enhanced by exogenous or endogenously synthesized fatty acids. Fish that received diets devoid of essential fatty acids maintained virtually all of the docosahexenoic acid originally present in each lipid pool. Fish fed diets containing essential fatty acids deposited them in proportion to the dietary levels. After a 4-week fast, no change was noted in the relative levels of fatty acids in neutral lipid indicating that all fatty acids in neutral lipid were catabolized equally--including essential fatty acids. During fasting there was a selective retention of docosahexenoic and linoleic acids in the phospholipid pool.

  8. Mink predation on brown trout in a Black Hills stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jacob L.; Wilhite, Jerry W.; Chipps, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    In the early 2000’s, declines in the brown trout (Salmo trutta) fishery in Rapid Creek, South Dakota, caused concern for anglers and fisheries managers. We conducted a radio telemetry study in 2010 and 2011 to identify predation mortality associated with mink, using hatchery-reared (2010) or wild (2011) brown trout. Estimated predation rates by mink (Mustela vison) on radio-tagged brown trout were 30% for hatchery fish and 32% for wild fish. Size frequency analysis revealed that the size distribution of brown trout lost to predation was similar to that of other, radio-tagged brown trout. In both years, a higher proportion of predation mortality (83–92%) occurred during spring, consistent with seasonal fish consumption by mink. Predation by mink appeared to be a significant source of brown trout mortality in our study.

  9. Landscape-scale evaluation of asymmetric interactions between Brown Trout and Brook Trout using two-species occupancy models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Tyler; Jefferson T. Deweber,; Jason Detar,; John A. Sweka,

    2013-01-01

    Predicting the distribution of native stream fishes is fundamental to the management and conservation of many species. Modeling species distributions often consists of quantifying relationships between species occurrence and abundance data at known locations with environmental data at those locations. However, it is well documented that native stream fish distributions can be altered as a result of asymmetric interactions between dominant exotic and subordinate native species. For example, the naturalized exotic Brown Trout Salmo trutta has been identified as a threat to native Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis in the eastern United States. To evaluate large-scale patterns of co-occurrence and to quantify the potential effects of Brown Trout presence on Brook Trout occupancy, we used data from 624 stream sites to fit two-species occupancy models. These models assumed that asymmetric interactions occurred between the two species. In addition, we examined natural and anthropogenic landscape characteristics we hypothesized would be important predictors of occurrence of both species. Estimated occupancy for Brook Trout, from a co-occurrence model with no landscape covariates, at sites with Brown Trout present was substantially lower than sites where Brown Trout were absent. We also observed opposing patterns for Brook and Brown Trout occurrence in relation to percentage forest, impervious surface, and agriculture within the network catchment. Our results are consistent with other studies and suggest that alterations to the landscape, and specifically the transition from a forested catchment to one that contains impervious surface or agriculture, reduces the occurrence probability of wild Brook Trout. Our results, however, also suggest that the presence of Brown Trout results in lower occurrence probability of Brook Trout over a range of anthropogenic landscape characteristics, compared with streams where Brown Trout were absent.

  10. Pemanfaatan kulit kodok (bull frog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muchtar Lutfie

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to measure the tensile strength and the elongation of finished leather made from Bull Frog skin, so that the utilization of that leather can be specified. The samples used were twenty pieces of wet salted Bull Frog skin from East Java which have been processed to finished leather using chromosal B. and Irgatan LV as the tanning agents. Laboratory tests shawed that the average tensile strength was 177,675 Kg/Cm2 and the average elongation was 89,9%. Based on those results, it can be concluded that Bull Frog leather was suitable for leather goods such as bag, wallet, etc. so it can be used as substitute for Glace leather.

  11. Identification and tissue distribution of mRNAs encoding salmon-type calcitonins-IV and -V in the rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidaka, Yoshie; Suzuki, Masakazu

    2004-06-01

    Four types of calcitonin are produced in salmonid fish, although their functional diversity is almost unknown. To explore the significance of these isoforms, we have characterized salmon-type calcitonin (sCT) mRNAs in the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and examined their tissue distribution. In addition to the previously isolated sCT-I cDNAs, two new forms of sCT cDNA were cloned from the ultimobranchial gland, and one of them (sCT-IV cDNA) was predicted to encode an N-terminal peptide of 80 amino acid residues, a putative cleavage site Lys-Arg, sCT-IV, a cleavage and amidation sequence Gly-Lys-Lys-Arg, and a C-terminal peptide of 18 amino acids. The sCT-IV precursor was 78% identical with the rainbow trout sCT-I precursors. The other cloned cDNA encoded a precursor for a novel CT, sCT-V. The sCT-V peptide was different from sCT-IV by only one amino acid residue: Val at position 8 in the latter was replaced by Met. The sCT-V precursor had 80 and 90% identity with the sCT-I and -IV precursors respectively. No cDNA clones were obtained for sCTs-II or -III.Tissue distribution of sCT-I, -IV and -V mRNAs was examined by RT-PCR and specific cleavage with restriction enzymes. An amplified fragment from sCT-I mRNA was detected not only in the ultimobranchial gland, but also in the gills, testis and ovary. RT-PCR analysis coupled to restriction digestion further revealed that sCT-IV mRNA was expressed in both the testis and the ultimobranchial gland. The expression sites of sCT-IV mRNA were localized to the Leydig cells of the testis and to the parenchymal cells of the ultimobranchial gland, by in situ hybridization histochemistry. Although the amino acid sequence of sCT-V peptide was nearly the same as that of sCT-IV, the sCT-V gene showed a much wider pattern of expression: the band amplified by RT-PCR was detected in all the tissues examined except the kidney, gills and blood cells. The sCT-V mRNA was shown to be localized in the parenchymal cells of the

  12. Bulling among yearling feedlot steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, R E; Jensen, R; Braddy, P M; Horton, D P; Christie, R M

    1976-09-01

    In a survey to determine the cause of illness and deaths among yearling feedlot cattle, bulling was found to be one of the major problems. During the years 1971-1974, 54,913 (2.88%) steers became bullers and represented an annual loss of around +325,000. Some of the causes of bulling were found to be hormones, either as implants or in the feed. In 1974, from 1,988 necropsies, it was determined that 83 steers died from riding injuries.

  13. Greenback cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii stomias): A technical conservation assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael K. Young

    2009-01-01

    Greenback cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii stomias) was once presumably distributed throughout the colder waters of the South Platte and Arkansas River basins in Colorado and southeastern Wyoming. Primarily a fluvial species, greenback cutthroat trout may have occupied 10,614 to 13,231 km of streams above 1,800 m in these basins. Nevertheless,...

  14. The 1000 bull genome project

    Science.gov (United States)

    To meet growing global demands for high value protein from milk and meat, rates of genetic gain in domestic cattle must be accelerated. At the same time, animal health and welfare must be considered. The 1000 bull genomes project supports these goals by providing annotated sequence variants and ge...

  15. Effects of some chelating agents on the uptake and distribution of 203Hg2+ in the brown trout (Salmo trutta): Studies on ethyl- and isopropylxanthate diethyl- and diisopropyldithiophosphate, dimethyl- and diethyldithiocarbamate and pyridinethione

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, K.; Gottofrey, J.; Tjaelve, H.

    1988-01-01

    Brown trout, Salmo trutta, were exposed to water containing 0.1 μg/l 203 Hg 2+ , alone or with potassium ethylxanthate (PEX), sodium isopropylxanthate (SIX), sodium diethyldithiophosphate (SEP), sodium diisopropyldithiophosphate (SIP), sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate (SMC), sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (SEC) or sodium pyridinethione (SPyr), respectively. After 1 week the uptake and distribution of the 203 Hg 2+ in the fish were examined by gamma spectrometry, SIX, SIP, SMC, SEC and SPyr induced 2-3 times higher 203 Hg 2+ concentrations in most tissues in comparison with trout exposed to 203 Hg 2+ only. In the trout exposed to PEX slightly enhanced 203 Hg 2+ levels were found only in some tissues, and after exposure to SEP a few tissues showed decreased 203 Hg 2+ concentrations. Determinations of chloroform/water partition coefficients showed that lipophilic chelates are formed between all the examined substances and the 203 Hg 2+ . However, SIX, SIP, SMC, SEC and SPyr, which induced markedly increased tissue levels of the metal, formed 203 Hg 2+ complexes with higher lipophilicities than SEX and SEP. A facilitated penetration of the lipophilic 203 Hg 2+ complexes over the gill membranes may underly the increment in the tissue levels of the metal, and the relative lipophilicity of the complexes may be of importance for this effect. In some instances, as with SEP, the 203 Hg 2+ chelated in complexes with low lipophilicity may even be less able to acumulate in some tissues than the non-complexed metal. (orig.)

  16. Distribution of ascorbate-2-sulfate and distribution, half-life and turnover rates of [1-14C]ascorbic acid in rainbow trout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucker, B.W.; Halver, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    Rainbow trout (250 g) were maintained at 15 degrees C for 3 months on a low ascorbic acid diet, given [1- 14 C]ascorbic acid by gavage, then fed the NAS/NRC requirement 12 times per week. Total urine, fecal water and branchial water were collected daily from five fish placed in metabolism chambers for four successive 5-day periods. Tissue samples were analyzed for 14 C, ascorbic acid (C1) and ascorbate-2-sulfate (C2). Excretion analysis indicated t1/2 . 42 days. After 20 days, the feeding schedule was changed to 3 times per week. Fish fed 14 C were sampled after 1, 2, 3 and 4 months. The half-life in each organ except brain was inversely proportional to the dietary level of ascorbate. Concentrations of C1 and C2 in the various tissues reflected dietary intake of vitamin C. Total C (CT . C1 + C2) levels were maintained in the liver even with the low vitamin C diet. Estimates of body pool for C1 are 27-29 mg/kg. At the higher ascorbate intake CT was 92-114 mg/kg, but decreased by 34% at the lower feeding rate to 51-62 mg/kg. Data indicate that there are two or more body pools that include a store of C2, which is readily interconverted in metabolizing tissues to and from C1. Since air and water stable C2 is antiscorbutic for fish, it is the preferred form of ascorbate for fish feeds

  17. Cytosolic distributions of highly toxic metals Cd and Tl and several essential elements in the liver of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) analyzed by size exclusion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragun, Zrinka; Krasnići, Nesrete; Kolar, Nicol; Filipović Marijić, Vlatka; Ivanković, Dušica; Erk, Marijana

    2018-05-15

    Cytosolic distributions of nonessential metals Cd and Tl and seven essential elements among compounds of different molecular masses were studied in the liver of brown trout (Salmo trutta) from the karstic Krka River in Croatia. Analyses were done by size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography and high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Common feature of Cd and Tl, as highly toxic elements, was their distribution within only two narrow peaks. The increase of cytosolic Cd concentrations was reflected in marked increase of Cd elution within low molecular mass peak (maximum at ∼15 kDa), presumably containing metallothioneins (MTs), which indicated successful Cd detoxification in brown trout liver under studied exposure conditions. Contrary, the increase of cytosolic Tl concentrations was reflected in marked increase of Tl elution within high molecular mass peak (maximum at 140 kDa), which probably indicated incomplete Tl detoxification. Common feature of the majority of studied essential elements was their distribution within more peaks, often broad and not well resolved, which is consistent with their numerous physiological functions. Among observed associations of essential metals/nonmetal to proteins, the following could be singled out: Cu and Zn association to MTs, Fe association to storage protein ferritin, and Se association to compounds of very low molecular masses (<5 kDa). The obtained results present the first step towards identification of metal-binding compounds in hepatic cytosol of brown trout, and thus a significant contribution to better understanding of metal fate in the liver of that important bioindicator species. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Trout Stream Special Regulations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This layer shows Minnesota trout streams that have a special regulation as described in the 2006 Minnesota Fishing Regulations. Road crossings were determined using...

  19. Clinical usefulness of myocardial iodine-123-15-(p-iodophenyl)-3(R,S)-methyl-pentadecanoic acid distribution abnormality in patients with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy based on normal data file in bull's-eye polar map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Nobukazu; Mitani, Isao; Sumita, Shinichi

    1998-01-01

    Visual interpretation of iodine-123-beta-15-(p-iodophenyl)-3(R,S)-methyl-pentadecanoic acid ( 123 I-BMIPP) myocardial images cannot easily detect mild reduction in tracer uptake. Objective assessment of myocardial 123 I-BMIPP maldistributions at rest was attempted using a bull's-eye map and its normal data file for detecting myocardial damage in patients with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy. Six patients, two with Kearns-Sayre syndrome and four with mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and strokelike episodes (MELAS), and 10 normal subjects were studied. Fractional myocardial uptake of 1 23 I-BMIPP was also measured by dynamic static imaging to assess the global myocardial free fatty acid. These data were compared with the cardiothoracic ratio measured by chest radiography and left ventricular ejection fraction assessed by echocardiography. Abnormal cardiothoracic ratio and lower ejection fraction were detected in only one patient with Kearns-Sayre syndrome. Abnormal fractional myocardial uptake was detected in two patients (1.61%, 1.91%), whereas abnormal regional 123 I-BMIPP uptake assessed by the bull's-eye map was detected in five patients (83%). All patients showed abnormal uptake in the anterior portion, and one showed progressive atrioventricular conduction abnormality and systolic dysfunction with extended 123 I-BMIPP abnormal uptake. The results suggest that assessment based on the normal data file in a bull's-eye polar map is clinically useful for detection of myocardial damage in patients with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy. (author)

  20. Pedigree Analysis of Holstein Bulls in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Pavlík

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the genetic diversity in Holstein bulls population in Slovakia by the methods of pedigree analysis. The population was represented by the bulls with reserve of frozen semen doses in AI centers. Whole reference population consisted of 169 bulls born from 1997 to 2009. For calculation of diversity parameters the program Endog v.4.8 (Gutiérrez, Goyache, 2005 was used. An average maximal number of generations traced was 9.35, 3.06 complete generations and equivalent number of generations traced was 5.71. An average coefficient of inbreeding was 2.48%, individual increase in inbreeding was 0.53% and average relatedness was 2.72%. The 167 bulls from 169 were inbred (98.82%. An average number of offsprings per bull was 107.70 with maximal number 1,641 offsprings. The effective population size computed via individual increase in inbreeding was 94.50. The effective number of founders was 88, effective number of ancestors 31 and only 13 ancestors described 50% of diversity. From these results we can conclude that the diversity of Holstein bulls is reduced by more factors (inbreeding, high relatedness, bottlenecks. Obtained results point out the need to use new outbred bull lines for mating cows.

  1. Identification of differentially expressed genes of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in response to Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gokhlesh; Abd-Elfattah, Ahmed; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2015-03-01

    Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae Canning et al., 1999 (Myxozoa) is the causative agent of proliferative kidney disease in various species of salmonids in Europe and North America. We have shown previously that the development and distribution of the European strain of T. bryosalmonae differs in the kidney of brown trout (Salmo trutta) Linnaeus, 1758 and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Walbaum, 1792, and that intra-luminal sporogonic stages were found in brown trout but not in rainbow trout. We have now compared transcriptomes from kidneys of brown trout and rainbow trout infected with T. bryosalmonae using suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH). The differentially expressed transcripts produced by SSH were cloned, transformed, and tested by colony PCR. Differential expression screening of PCR products was validated using dot blot, and positive clones having different signal intensities were sequenced. Differential screening and a subsequent NCBI-BLAST analysis of expressed sequence tags revealed nine clones expressed differently between both fish species. These differentially expressed genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR of kidney samples from both fish species at different time points of infection. Expression of anti-inflammatory (TSC22 domain family protein 3) and cell proliferation (Prothymin alpha) genes were upregulated significantly in brown trout but downregulated in rainbow trout. The expression of humoral immune response (immunoglobulin mu) and endocytic pathway (Ras-related protein Rab-11b) genes were significantly upregulated in rainbow trout but downregulated in brown trout. This study suggests that differential expression of host anti-inflammatory, humoral immune and endocytic pathway responses, cell proliferation, and cell growth processes do not inhibit the development of intra-luminal sporogonic stages of the European strain of T. bryosalmonae in brown trout but may suppress it in rainbow trout.

  2. Use of wild trout for PBDE assessment in freshwater environments: Review and summary of critical factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Ríos

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Certain wild animals represent sentinels to address issues related to environmental pollution, since they can provide integrative data on both pollutant exposure and biological effects. Despite their technological benefits, PBDEs are considered a threat to environmental health due to their persistence, toxicity, and capacity to be accumulated. These pollutants have been found geographically widespread in fish, particularly in predator species such as trout. The aim of this work is to critically review the applicability and usefulness of wild trout for assessing PBDEs in freshwater environments. Reviewed reports include data from highly industrialized areas as well as areas from remote regions with relatively low human activity, including European and North American great lakes and freshwater environments in Europe, Greenland, subarctic areas and Patagonia, respectively. A summary of relevant factors were grouped into organism-specific factors (food habits, age, size, lipid content, sex and reproduction, tissue type, mechanism of contaminant uptake and metabolism, and PBDE levels in the surrounding environment (sediment. Five wild trout species [rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, brown trout (Salmo trutta, lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush, arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus, and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis], collected worldwide within the 1994 to present time frame, were considered. Multivariate techniques (principal component analysis-PCA and mapping approach, showed clear differences in geographic distribution patterns of PBDE levels in trout depending on the region studied: wild trout from European and North American great lakes have the highest PBDE loads. This pattern could be due to high industrial activity at these locations. A correlational approach used to explore intraspecific relationships between PBDE levels and morphometry, showed positive relationships only for brown trout. Further, brown trout showed the highest trout

  3. 1,2-Dibromoethane and chloroform in the rainbow trout (salmo gairdneri): Studies on the distribution of nonvolatile and irreversibly bound metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darnerud, P.O.; Lund, B.O.; Brittebo, E.B.; Brandt, I.

    1989-01-01

    The disposition of metabolites from 14 C-labeled 1,2-dibromoethane (DBE) and chloroform (CF) in juvenile rainbow trout was studied by autoradiography and quantitation of tissue radioactivity. Whole-body autoradiography of heated tissue sections showed a considerable level of nonvolatile metabolites of DBE and CF in the liver and certain areas of the body kidney. A lower level of metabolites appeared in the gills, intestinal mucosa, and olfactory rosettes in trouts exposed to DBE- or CF-containing water. Unlike previous studies in rodents, no specific uptake or binding of DBE or CF occurred in the surface epithelia of the upper alimentary tract. Microautoradiography and exhaustive tissue extraction confirmed a high irreversible binding of DBE metabolites in the liver and in a proximal tubular segment of the body kidney in fish exposed to DBE-containing water. A high level of radioactivity in the bile indicated fecal excretion of metabolites from both compounds. The results suggest that there is marked metabolism of DBE and CF in the liver and kidney, whereas the metabolism in the surface epithelia is low. The liver and kidney are proposed to be target organs of toxicity in fish

  4. Hormonal profiles in buffalo bulls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwaraknath, P.K.; Agarwal, S.P.; Agarwal, V.K.; Dixit, N.K.; Sharma, I.J.

    1984-01-01

    Serum samples from male buffaloes were radioimmunoassayed for steroid and thyroid hormones to investigate circadian rhythms, the effect of growth and season. An evaluation of RIA of serum testosterone with and without extraction yielded unacceptably low recoveries in unextracted serum samples. Studies on temporal variations during the day revealed three peaks for testosterone, four peaks for cortisol and one peak each for T 4 and T 3 . In growing calves the testosterone levels were low (0.1 ng/mL) up to 15 months of age but exhibited peaks at puberty (0.4 ng/mL) and maturity (0.8 ng/mL). Cortisol, T 4 and T 3 also exhibited peaks at puberty and maturity. Progesterone and oestradiol remained at basal levels throughout growth and development. Breeding buffalo bulls exhibited significant seasonal variations in testosterone, progesterone and oestradiol but not in T 4 and T 3 . Semen quality and sexual behaviour did not vary between seasons. (author)

  5. Marine migration and habitat use of anadromous brown trout Salmo trutta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldøy, Sindre Håvarstein; Davidsen, Jan Grimsrud; Thorstad, Eva Bonsak

    2015-01-01

    The biology and ecology of anadromous brown trout (Salmo trutta) at sea is poorly understood. This study provided information on spatial and temporal distribution of sea trout in the ocean. The behaviour of 115 individuals (veteran migrants, 270–700 mm) was tracked by using acoustic telemetry...

  6. Bull's-eye map of myocardial perfusion MR imaging. Comparison with SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Yukihiro; Nanjo, Shuji; Yamazaki, Junichi; Yoshikawa, Kohki; Inoue, Yusuke

    2003-01-01

    When diagnosing heart disease, chest roentgenograms, ultrasonography, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and coronary arteriography are usually performed. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is not widely used for evaluating heart disease. Recent technological progress has allowed high quality images of the heart to be reliably obtained. A routine MR study taking about 30-40 minutes can provide a large amount of diagnostic information, such as cardiac structure, function, perfusion, and myocardial viability. The analysis software that can offer Bull's-eye maps from myocardial perfusion images has recently become commercially available. In this study, the characteristics of Bull's-eye mapping of MR imaging is compared with that of Bull's-eye mapping of SPECT using the same heart phantom. The difference in the image quality of the Bull's-eye maps was evaluated among the receiver coils of MR imaging. On Bull's-eye maps from both MR imaging and SPECT, decreased signal intensity was noted in the posterolateral wall. The degree of decrease in the signal of the MR imaging was more prominent than of SPECT. The decrease was severe for the general-purpose receive-only flexible (GPFLEX) coil, moderate for the cardiac and TORSO coil, and slight for the body coil. In the selection of a coil, it is necessary to take into consideration the trade-off between the distribution of signal intensity and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). (author)

  7. A Long-Term Comparison of Yellowstone Cutthroat Trout Abundance and Size Structure in Their Historical Range in Idaho.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Kevin A.; Schill, Daniel J.; Elle, F. Steven

    2002-05-23

    We compared estimates of population abundance and size structure for Yellowstone cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki bouvieri obtained by electrofishing 77 stream segments across southeastern Idaho in the 1980s and again in 1999-2000 to test whether populations of Yellowstone cutthroat trout had changed. Sites sampled in the 1980s were relocated in 1999-2000 by using maps and photographs or by finding original site-boundary stakes, so that the same reach of stream was sampled during both periods. Abundance of Yellowstone cutthroat trout longer than 10 cm did not change, averaging 41 fish/100 m of stream during both the 1980s and 1999-2000. The proportion of the total catch of trout composed of Yellowstone cutthroat trout also did not change, averaging 82% in the 1980s and 78% in 1999-2000. At the 48 sites where size structure could be estimated for both periods, the proportion of Yellowstone cutthroat trout that were 10-20 cm long declined slightly (74% versus 66%), but the change was due entirely to the shift in size structure at the Teton River sites. The number of sites that contained rainbow trout O. mykiss or cutthroat trout 3 rainbow trout hybrids rose from 23 to 37, but the average proportion of the catch composed of rainbow trout and hybrids did not increase (7% in both the 1980s and 1999-2000). Although the distribution and abundance of Yellowstone cutthroat trout have been substantially reduced in Idaho over the last century, our results indicate that Yellowstone cutthroat trout abundance and size structure in Idaho have remained relatively stable at a large number of locations for the last 10-20 years. The expanding distribution of rainbow trout and hybrids in portions of the upper Snake River basin, however, calls for additional monitoring and active management actions.

  8. [Influence of an elevation of the temperature of water on the digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen and energy of food distributed to the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri Rich)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubert, G; Fauconneau, B; Luquet, P

    1982-01-01

    Rainbow trout adapted to a water temperature of 10 degrees C were subjected to an abrupt rise in temperature (from 10 to 18 degrees C) in a 24-h period. Fish maintained in recirculated water were fed to satiation twice a day and their feed intakes were recorded. Changes in dry matter, nitrogen and energy digestibility were measured each day at 10 degrees C and during the course of acclimatation to 18 degrees C. Low water temperature (10 degrees C) was characterized by a feed intake of 1.84 g (DM)/fish/day; digestibility values were as follows: dry matter 62.15 p. 100, nitrogen 86.91 p. 100, energy 70.60 p. 100. High water temperature (18 degrees C) was characterized by a feed intake of 3.75 g (DM)/fish/day; digestibility values were as follows: dry matter 66.08 p. 100, nitrogen 89.57 p. 100, energy 73.52 p. 100. The daily patterns in digestibility were affected by the rise in temperature. The digestibility values were stabilized by day 7 after the positive thermal shock.

  9. Trout in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Trout in the Classroom (TIC) is a conservation-oriented environmental education program for elementary, middle, and high school students. During the year each teacher tailors the program to fit his or her curricular needs. Therefore, each TIC program is unique. TIC has interdisciplinary applications in science, social studies, mathematics, language arts, fine arts, and physical education. In the program, students and teachers raise trout from fertilized eggs supplied by Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries (VGIF) hatcheries, in aquariums equipped with special chillers designed to keep the water near 50 degrees F. The students make daily temperature measurements, and monitor pH, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, and ammonia levels. They record their data, plot trends, and make sure that the water quality is sufficient to support trout development. The fingerlings, which hatch in late October, are almost an inch and a half long by mid-January. And towards the end of the school year, students will release the fry into VGIF approved watersheds. TIC programs have been in place all across the country for more than 20 years, and are the result of numerous collaborations between teachers, volunteers, government agencies, and local organizations like Trout Unlimited. The programs were designed specifically for teachers who wanted to incorporate more environmental education into their curriculum. While the immediate goal of Trout in the Classroom is to increase student knowledge of water quality and cold water conservation, its long-term goal is to reconnect an increasingly urbanized population of youth to the system of streams, rivers, and watersheds that sustain them. Successful programs have helped: connect students to their local environments and their local watersheds; teach about watershed health and water quality, and; get students to care about fish and the environment. In Virginia, the TIC program is now in its 8th year. Over the past year, the program

  10. Plump Cutthroat Trout and Thin Rainbow Trout in a Lentic Ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Courtney, Joshua; Abbott, Jessica; Schmidt, Kerri; Courtney, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Background: Much has been written about introduced rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) interbreeding and outcompeting cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii). However, the specific mechanisms by which rainbow trout and their hybrids outcompete cutthroat trout have not been thoroughly explored, and the published data is limited to lotic ecosystems. Materials and Methods: Samples of rainbow trout and cutthroat trout were obtained from a lentic ecosystem by angling. The total length and weight of...

  11. Distribution of metals during digestion by cutthroat trout fed benthic invertebrates contaminated in the Clark Fork River, Montana and the Coeur d'Alene River, Idaho, U.S.A., and fed artificially contaminated Artemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, A.M.; Suedkamp, M.J.; Meyer, J.S.; Barrows, R.; Woodward, D.F.

    2000-01-01

    The concentrations of essential amino acids in three, undigested invertebrate diets collected from the Clark Fork River (CFR) for cutthroat trout were similar to each other, but were c. 25–75% less than Artemia that were exposed to a mixture of arsenic, copper, cadmium, lead and zinc in the laboratory. The Artemia diet appeared less palatable and the texture, quantity and appearance of the intestinal contents differed between fish fed the Artemia and CFR diets. The Pb% in the fluid fraction of the intestinal contents was greater for the Artemia (29%) than for the CFR diets (10–17%), and the Cu% in the amino acid plus metal fraction of the intestinal contents was greater for the Artemia (78%) than for two of the three CFR diets (67% and 70%). Intestinal contents of fish fed invertebrate diets collected from various sites on the Coeur d'Alene River (CDA), Idaho, were similar in texture, quantity, and appearance. For fish fed the CDA diets, differences in the distribution of metals among fractions of the digestive fluids appeared to be related to concentrations of metals in the invertebrate diets. Pb% was lowest of all metals in the fluid portion of the intestinal contents. However, >80% of all metals in the hind gut were associated with the particulate fraction where they may still be available for uptake through pinocytosis.

  12. Spatial segregation of spawning habitat limits hybridization between sympatric native Steelhead and Coastal Cutthroat Trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehrens, T.W.; Glasgow, J.; Ostberg, Carl O.; Quinn, T.P.

    2013-01-01

    Native Coastal Cutthroat Trout Oncorhynchus clarkii clarkii and Coastal Steelhead O. mykiss irideus hybridize naturally in watersheds of the Pacific Northwest yet maintain species integrity. Partial reproductive isolation due to differences in spawning habitat may limit hybridization between these species, but this process is poorly understood. We used a riverscape approach to determine the spatial distribution of spawning habitats used by native Coastal Cutthroat Trout and Steelhead as evidenced by the distribution of recently emerged fry. Molecular genetic markers were used to classify individuals as pure species or hybrids, and individuals were assigned to age-classes based on length. Fish and physical habitat data were collected in a spatially continuous framework to assess the relationship between habitat and watershed features and the spatial distribution of parental species and hybrids. Sampling occurred in 35 reaches from tidewaters to headwaters in a small (20 km2) coastal watershed in Washington State. Cutthroat, Steelhead, and hybrid trout accounted for 35%, 42%, and 23% of the fish collected, respectively. Strong segregation of spawning areas between Coastal Cutthroat Trout and Steelhead was evidenced by the distribution of age-0 trout. Cutthroat Trout were located farther upstream and in smaller tributaries than Steelhead were. The best predictor of species occurrence at a site was the drainage area of the watershed that contributed to the site. This area was positively correlated with the occurrence of age-0 Steelhead and negatively with the presence of Cutthroat Trout, whereas hybrids were found in areas occupied by both parental species. A similar pattern was observed in older juveniles of both species but overlap was greater, suggesting substantial dispersal of trout after emergence. Our results offer support for spatial reproductive segregation as a factor limiting hybridization between Steelhead and Coastal Cutthroat Trout.

  13. Organic contaminants in thermal plume resident brown trout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romberg, G.P.; Bourne, S.

    1978-01-01

    A pilot study was conducted to identify possible contaminants accumulated by thermal plume-resident fish in Lake Michigan. Brown trout were maintained in tanks receiving intake and discharge (less than or equal to 21 0 C) water from a power plant and were fed a diet of frozen alewife. Fish were sampled over a period of 127 days in order to estimate uptake rates and equilibrium levels for toxic organic and inorganic materials occurring in Lake Michigan fish and water. Experimental fish and natural samples were analyzed to determine the distribution of contaminants in various tissues and the corresponding pollutant levels in similar size brown trout from Lake Michigan. The quantitative analyses for the major organic contaminants are summarized. Without exception, the pyloric caecum of brown trout contained the highest concentration of lipids, PCB's, and chlorinated pesticides. Gill and kidney samples contained lower concentrations of contaminants than the caecum, while liver and muscle values were lowest

  14. Sea growth of anadromous brown trout (Salmo trutta)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, de J.J.; Hofstede, ter R.; Winter, H.V.

    2007-01-01

    Sea growth rates were studied in anadromous brown trout caught in Lake IJsselmeer, The Netherlands. Growth in the first year at sea was estimated at 26 cm from length-frequency distributions, and at 21 cm from back-calculated growth rates from scale readings. These estimates are considerably higher

  15. Colorado River cutthroat trout: a technical conservation assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael K. Young

    2008-01-01

    The Colorado River cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii pleuriticus) was once distributed throughout the colder waters of the Colorado River basin above the Grand Canyon. About 8 percent of its historical range is occupied by unhybridized or ecologically significant populations. It has been petitioned for listing under the Endangered Species Act...

  16. Impacts of Northern Pike on stocked Rainbow Trout in Pactola Reservoir, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibel, Natalie C.; Dembkowski, Daniel J.; Davis, Jacob L.; Chipps, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    Establishment of nonnative Northern Pike Esox lucius in Pactola Reservoir, South Dakota, has prompted concern among biologists about the influence of this species on the lake’s intensively managed salmonid fisheries. Ancedotal information suggests that catch rates of Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss have declined while mean size and abundance of Northern Pike has increased, although quantitative information on diet and growth of the Northern Pike population is lacking. To address potential interactions between Northern Pike and Rainbow Trout, we assessed size-dependent predation by Northern Pike on Rainbow Trout and determined the relative energetic contribution of stocked Rainbow Trout to Northern Pike growth using bioenergetics modeling. Stable isotopes combined with traditional diet analyses revealed that smaller Northern Pike (Trout contributed less than 10% to their annual energy consumption. In contrast, larger Northern Pike (≥600 mm TL) consumed primarily Rainbow Trout, which accounted for 56% of their annual energy consumption. Combining estimates of Northern Pike predation with production costs of catchable-size Rainbow Trout revealed that annual economic losses ranged from US$15,259 to $24,801 per year. Over its lifespan, an age-10 Northern Pike was estimated to consume ~117 Rainbow Trout worth approximately $340. Thus, Northern Pike predation substantially influences salmonid management initiatives and is likely a primary factor contributing to reduced Rainbow Trout abundance and return to anglers in Pactola Reservoir. Strategies for reducing Northern Pike predation on Rainbow Trout include increasing the size of stocked fish or altering the timing and spatial distribution of stocking events.

  17. Competition and predation as mechanisms for displacement of greenback cutthroat trout by brook trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. C. McGrath; W. M. Lewis

    2007-01-01

    Cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii frequently are displaced by nonnative brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, but the ecological mechanisms of displacement are not understood. Competition for food and predation between greenback cutthroat trout O. c. stomias and brook trout were investigated in montane streams of...

  18. Infertility of the breeding bull in insemination technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predojević Mirko R.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of very strict breeding bull selection, especialy for A.I programes their infertility is a very serius problem in everyday practice. Especially bull semen has been marked as the main factor for unsatisfied cow fertility in the A.I.programme. The reason could be the bull semen which really may play as the spreading factor of the specific or non-specific reproductive infective disoders – IBR, IPV, BVD, Campylobacter-Vibrio fetus, brucellosis leptospirosis, tuberculosis and other reproductive diseases. Secondarily, the percentage of vitality, motility, penetration abilities, and immonological properties of bull spermatozoa also have an important role in unsuccessful bovine fecundation. That is, why it is necessary to secure professional health care for breedig bull in AI centres, becase only healthy bulls can ensure good bovine genetic transmission and progress in cattle production for today's growing population.

  19. Quantifying long-term population growth rates of threatened bull trout: challenges, lessons learned, and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budy, Phaedra; Bowerman, Tracy; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Conner, Mary; Schaller, Howard

    2017-01-01

    Temporal symmetry models (TSM) represent advances in the analytical application of mark–recapture data to population status assessments. For a population of char, we employed 10 years of active and passive mark–recapture data to quantify population growth rates using different data sources and analytical approaches. Estimates of adult population growth rate were 1.01 (95% confidence interval = 0.84–1.20) using a temporal symmetry model (λTSM), 0.96 (0.68–1.34) based on logistic regressions of annual snorkel data (λA), and 0.92 (0.77–1.11) from redd counts (λR). Top-performing TSMs included an increasing time trend in recruitment (f) and changes in capture probability (p). There was only a 1% chance the population decreased ≥50%, and a 10% chance it decreased ≥30% (λMCMC; based on Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo procedure). Size structure was stable; however, the adult population was dominated by small adults, and over the study period there was a decline in the contribution of large adults to total biomass. Juvenile condition decreased with increasing adult densities. Utilization of these different information sources provided a robust weight-of-evidence approach to identifying population status and potential mechanisms driving changes in population growth rates.

  20. Patterns of hybridization of nonnative cutthroat trout and hatchery rainbow trout with native redband trout in the Boise River, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Helen M.; Dunham, Jason B.

    2011-01-01

    Hybridization is one of the greatest threats to native fishes. Threats from hybridization are particularly important for native trout species as stocking of nonnative trout has been widespread within the ranges of native species, thus increasing the potential for hybridization. While many studies have documented hybridization between native cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii and nonnative rainbow trout O. mykiss, fewer have focused on this issue in native rainbow trout despite widespread threats from introductions of both nonnative cutthroat trout and hatchery rainbow trout. Here, we describe the current genetic (i.e., hybridization) status of native redband trout O. mykiss gairdneri populations in the upper Boise River, Idaho. Interspecific hybridization was widespread (detected at 14 of the 41 sampled locations), but high levels of hybridization between nonnative cutthroat trout and redband trout were detected in only a few streams. Intraspecific hybridization was considerably more widespread (almost 40% of sampled locations), and several local populations of native redband trout have been almost completely replaced with hatchery coastal rainbow trout O. mykiss irideus; other populations exist as hybrid swarms, some are in the process of being actively invaded, and some are maintaining genetic characteristics of native populations. The persistence of some redband trout populations with high genetic integrity provides some opportunity to conserve native genomes, but our findings also highlight the complex decisions facing managers today. Effective management strategies in this system may include analysis of the specific attributes of each site and population to evaluate the relative risks posed by isolation versus maintaining connectivity, identifying potential sites for control or eradication of nonnative trout, and long-term monitoring of the genetic integrity of remaining redband trout populations to track changes in their status.

  1. The effect of mature elephant bull introductions on ranging patterns of resident bulls: Phinda Private Game Reserve, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heleen Druce

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing popularity of wildlife viewing has resulted in a rapid increase in small, enclosed reserves in South Africa. The African elephant is one of the many species that has been reintroduced into these reserves for eco-tourism. These elephant populations were established as young (smaller that 10 years old orphans from prior Kruger National Park culling operations. Consequently, this abnormal sex and age structure of these introduced populations has influenced their behavioural and spatial ecology. In Pilanesberg National Park, this abnormal behaviour was corrected by introducing older bulls and culling certain problem elephants. In July 2003, three older bulls (29–41 years old were introduced into Phinda Private Game Reserve, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa in order to normalise the bull age structure. These introduced bulls were monitored intensively after release, as was the resident bull population, both before and after introduction of the older bulls. The introduced bulls settled into restricted ranges separate from the family groups. All the resident bulls decreased their home ranges at first, with most increasing their home ranges a year later. The resident bulls’ change in ranging patterns was due more to ecological factors than to the influence of the mature bull introduction. This study indicates that the introduction of older male elephants into small populations does not pose major risks or animal welfare concerns.

  2. Multi-peak electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT)-like transmission from bull's-eye-shaped metamaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaeyoun; Soref, Richard; Buchwald, Walter R

    2010-08-16

    We investigate the electromagnetic response of the concentric multi-ring, or the bull's eye, structure as an extension of the dual-ring metamaterial which exhibits electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT)-like transmission characteristics. Our results show that adding inner rings produces additional EIT-like peaks, and widens the metamaterial's spectral range of operation. Analyses of the dispersion characteristics and induced current distribution further confirmed the peak's EIT-like nature. Impacts of structural and dielectric parameters are also investigated.

  3. Comparison of pigment cell ultrastructure and organisation in the dermis of marble trout and brown trout, and first description of erythrophore ultrastructure in salmonids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djurdjevič, Ida; Kreft, Mateja Erdani; Sušnik Bajec, Simona

    2015-11-01

    Skin pigmentation in animals is an important trait with many functions. The present study focused on two closely related salmonid species, marble trout (Salmo marmoratus) and brown trout (S. trutta), which display an uncommon labyrinthine (marble-like) and spot skin pattern, respectively. To determine the role of chromatophore type in the different formation of skin pigment patterns in the two species, the distribution and ultrastructure of chromatophores was examined with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The presence of three types of chromatophores in trout skin was confirmed: melanophores; xanthophores; and iridophores. In addition, using correlative microscopy, erythrophore ultrastructure in salmonids was described for the first time. Two types of erythrophores are distinguished, both located exclusively in the skin of brown trout: type 1 in black spot skin sections similar to xanthophores; and type 2 with a unique ultrastructure, located only in red spot skin sections. Morphologically, the difference between the light and dark pigmentation of trout skin depends primarily on the position and density of melanophores, in the dark region covering other chromatophores, and in the light region with the iridophores and xanthophores usually exposed. With larger amounts of melanophores, absence of xanthophores and presence of erythrophores type 1 and type L iridophores in the black spot compared with the light regions and the presence of erythrophores type 2 in the red spot, a higher level of pigment cell organisation in the skin of brown trout compared with that of marble trout was demonstrated. Even though the skin regions with chromatophores were well defined, not all the chromatophores were in direct contact, either homophilically or heterophilically, with each other. In addition to short-range interactions, an important role of the cellular environment and long-range interactions between chromatophores in promoting adult pigment pattern

  4. Genetic diversity in Chilean populations of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia B Cárcamo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, was first introduced in Chile between 1905 and 1920 and is currently widely distributed in Chile from Antofagasta (23°S to Patagonia (55°S. The broad range of the geographic and climatic distributions of this species in Chile offers a unique opportunity to study the effect of naturalization of an introduced species on its genetic variability. It is of particular importance to observe the genetic variability of populations in the northern range of this species distribution, in a transition zone where a Mediterranean-type climate changes to an arid climate. The present study analyzed allozymic variability and distribution within and between populations of O. mykiss from the river basins of Elqui and Limari rivers, and six culture strains, using starch-gel protein electrophoresis. Populations were found to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and the average values of He (0.045, polymorphism (13.9% and allele per locus (1.19 are similar to rainbow trout in its native distributional range. About 77.8% of the genetic variability was within population, similar to the variability reported for wild populations in the northern hemisphere. However, a marked genetic differentiation between wild populations was also found. This is likely to be the consequence of initial founder effects followed by subsequent introgression of resident populations caused by reseeding with trout of different origins in both basins.

  5. Testicular Histomorphometric Evaluation of Zebu Bull Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Antônio Terrabuio Andreussi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the quantitative histology and testicular biometrics in zebu bulls of different breeds. Testicular fragments of Nelore (n=10, Polled Nelore (n=6, Gir (n=5, Guzerat (n=5 and Tabapuã bulls (n=5 were used. The fragments were perfusion-fixed in Karnovsky solution, embedded in glycol methacrylate and stained with toluidine blue-1% sodium borate. The Nelore animals had a higher tubular volumetric proportion (85.2% and greater height of the seminiferous epithelium (73.2 µm than the Gir, Guzerat and Tabapuã breeds. The Nelore animals also had a higher volumetric proportion of Leydig cells (5.2% than the Guzerat and Tabapuã breeds. There was no significant difference for any of these parameters between the Nelore and Polled Nelore breeds. The gonadosomatic index, seminiferous tubule diameter, cross-sectional area of the seminiferous tubule and tubule length (total length and length per gram of testicular parenchyma did not vary among the breeds studied. The morphometric parameters evaluated suggested that the genetic selection applied to the Nelore and Polled Nelore breeds improved the efficiency of spermatogenesis in these breeders.

  6. Effect of Age and Bulls on Fresh Semen Quality and Frozen Semen Production of Holstein Bulls in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argiris, A.; Ondho, Y. S.; Santoso, S. I.; Kurnianto, E.

    2018-02-01

    Artificial Insemination is a compatible method of reproduction in an effort to increase dairy productivity. Artificial Insemination Center as a producer of frozen semen was required to maximize bulls in producing high quality frozen semen optimally. The purpose of this research was to determine effect of age and bulls on fresh semen quality and frozen semen production of Holstein bulls in Indonesia. The research was conducted at Lembang and Singosari AI Centers. The material used were 24.634 data of qualified fresh semen and frozen semen production from 81 Holstein Bulls aged 1-9 years that used as frozen semen producer in period of 2008 to 2016. The variables observed in this research were data of age of bulls, fresh semen volume (mL); sperm motility (%); mass movement; concentrations (million/mL) and frozen semen doses at each production at age of bulls. Nested design was applied to obtain and analyze data. Results showed that Age and bulls have significant effect (PAI Centre might adapt management of AI bulls to improve semen production.

  7. Radio-transmitted electromyogram signals as indicators of swimming speed in lake trout and brown trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorstad, E.B.; Økland, F.; Koed, Anders

    2000-01-01

    Swimming speed and average electromyogram (EMG) pulse intervals were highly correlated in individual lake trout Salvelinus namaycush (r(2)=0.52-0.89) and brown trout Salmo trutta (r(2)=0.45-0.96). High correlations were found also for pooled data in both lake trout (r(2)=0.90) and brown trout...... of the Ema stock (r(2)=0.96) and Laerdal stock (r(2)=0.96). The linear relationship between swimming speed and average EMG pulse intervals differed significantly among lake trout and the brown trout stocks. This successful calibration of EMGs to swimming speed opens the possibility of recording swimming...... speed of free swimming lake trout and brown trout in situ. EMGs can also be calibrated to oxygen consumption to record energy expenditure. (C) 2000 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles...

  8. Testicle size as indicator of fertility in bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prka Igor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Male calves from the high value parents, bull fathers and bull dams, enter the selection for artificial insemination. After laboratory tests, the calves are taken to the center for artificial insemination, and after a stay in quarantine the are moved to a test station. At the age of twelve months they are measured for assessing the value of each calf exterior. One of the measures recorded was the testicle scope. On the basis of testicle size, it is possible to predict sperm production potential. For the determination of testicle size (testicular biometry, tapes or rulers were used. The aim of this work was to investigate the possible effect of testicle size on sperm production in young bulls used for artificial insemination. For that purpose there were used the data on circumference of testicles of one year old bulls just starting production of sperm, and then compared with certain semen quality parameters such as: volume of ejaculate and concentration and percentage of alive and progressively mobile spermatozoa. The investigation included all young bulls that started production in the period from 2010. to 2012., that is 36 bulls of various breeds (Simmental, Holstein Friesian, Montafon. After the testicle scope measuring in these bulls, there were observed the parameters of the sperm quality during the following one year period. The obtained results showed that the increased testicle size was followed by the increased average ejaculate quantity, in other words: 3.7 ml in group of bulls with testicle circumference below 30 cm, to 6.7 ml in bulls whose testicle circumference was over 40 cm. Also, the results showed that there was a correlation between the increased testicle size and the increased spermatozoa concentration. The values grow to testicle scope of 36 cm, and above that they were still high but with some oscillations. When it came to relation between testicle scope and the percentage of alive and progressively mobile spermatozoa, the

  9. Brown trout as an invader: A synthesis of problems and perspectives in western North America: Chapter 20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budy, Phaedra; Gaeta, Jereme W.; Lobón-Cerviá, Javier; Sanz, Nuria

    2017-01-01

    Brown trout are one of the most pervasive and successful invaders worldwide and are ubiquitous across the Intermountain West, USA (IMW). This species is the foundation of extremely popular and economically significant sport fisheries despite well-established negative effects on native fishes and ecosystems, resulting in very challenging, and often opposing, conservation and management goals. Herein, we review the direct (e.g., competition and predation) and indirect (e.g., disease vectors) pathways through which brown trout across the IMW have posed a threat to native species. We discuss the importance of brown trout as economically and culturally important fisheries, especially in novel tailwater ecosystems created by damming. To this end, we surveyed 24 experts from eight states across the IMW to document the relevance of novel brown trout fisheries in 51 tailwaters and found brown trout are thriving in these novel ecosystems, which are often unsuitable for native fishes. We discuss the challenging interplay between protecting native species and managing novel brown trout fisheries. Notably, the future of exotic brown trout in the IMW is shifting as the prestige of native fisheries is growing and many non-native eradication efforts have occurred. The future of exotic brown trout in the IMW, will depend on the nexus of public sentiment and policy, the effectiveness of eradication efforts, and the effect of climate change on both the native fishes and exotic brown trout. Regardless, because brown trout are pervasive and have a broad distribution through the IMW, populations of this species will likely persist at least in some locations into the future.

  10. Growth, morphology, and developmental instability of rainbow trout, Yellowstone cutthroat trout, and four hybrid generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostberg, C.O.; Duda, J.J.; Graham, J.H.; Zhang, S.; Haywood, K. P.; Miller, B.; Lerud, T.L.

    2011-01-01

    Hybridization of cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii with nonindigenous rainbow trout O. mykiss contributes to the decline of cutthroat trout subspecies throughout their native range. Introgression by rainbow trout can swamp the gene pools of cutthroat trout populations, especially if there is little selection against hybrids. We used rainbow trout, Yellowstone cutthroat trout O. clarkii bouvieri, and rainbow trout × Yellowstone cutthroat trout F1 hybrids as parents to construct seven different line crosses: F1 hybrids (both reciprocal crosses), F2 hybrids, first-generation backcrosses (both rainbow trout and Yellowstone cutthroat trout), and both parental taxa. We compared growth, morphology, and developmental instability among these seven crosses reared at two different temperatures. Growth was related to the proportion of rainbow trout genome present within the crosses. Meristic traits were influenced by maternal, additive, dominant, overdominant, and (probably) epistatic genetic effects. Developmental stability, however, was not disturbed in F1 hybrids, F2 hybrids, or backcrosses. Backcrosses were morphologically similar to their recurrent parent. The lack of developmental instability in hybrids suggests that there are few genetic incompatibilities preventing introgression. Our findings suggest that hybrids are not equal: that is, growth, development, character traits, and morphology differ depending on the genomic contribution from each parental species as well as the hybrid generation.

  11. Genetic investigation of natural hybridization between rainbow and coastal cutthroat trout in the copper River Delta, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, I.; Reeves, G.H.; Graziano, S.L.; Nielsen, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    Molecular genetic methods were used to quantify natural hybridization between rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss or steelhead (anadromous rainbow trout) and coastal cutthroat trout O. clarkii clarkii collected in the Copper River delta, Southeast Alaska. Eleven locations were sampled to determine the extent of hybridization and the distribution of hybrids. Four diagnostic nuclear microsatellite loci and four species-specific simple sequence repeat markers were used in combination with restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses of NADH dehydrogenase 5/6 (ND5/6) mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to investigate the genetic structure of trout from both species and identify putative interspecific hybrids. Hybrids were found in 7 of the 11 streams sampled in the Copper River delta, the extent of hybridization across all streams varying from 0% to 58%. Hybrid trout distribution appeared to be nonrandom, most individuals of mixed taxonomic ancestry being detected in streams containing rainbow trout rather than in streams containing coastal cutthroat trout. Genotypic disequilibrium was observed among microsatellite loci in populations with high levels of hybridization. We found no significant correlation between unique stream channel process groups and the number of hybrid fish sampled. Eighty-eight percent of fish identified as first-generation hybrids (F1) in two populations contained coastal cutthroat trout mtDNA, suggesting directionality in hybridization. However, dominance of coastal cutthroat trout mtDNA was not observed at a third location containing F1 hybrids, indicating that interspecific mating behavior varied among locations. Backcrossed individuals were found in drainages lacking F1 hybrids and in populations previously thought to contain a single species. The extent and distribution of backcrossed individuals suggested that at least some hybrids are reproductively viable and backcrossed hybrid offspring move throughout the system.

  12. The role of groundwater in the effect of climatic warming on stream habitat of brook trout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meisner, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Freshwater fisheries are linked to climate through the variables of water temperature, water quality and water quantity. These three ecosystem linkages provide a basis for assessments of potential impacts of climate change on fisheries resources. A characteristic of fisheries resources, whether it be the size or distribution of fish populations, or a measure of yield, which can be related to climate through one or more of these linkages, is a useful tool with which to forecast the effects of climate change. A stream population of brook trout is a coldwater fisheries resource that is linked to climate by groundwater. Stream dwelling brook trout at low altitudes rely heavily on groundwater discharge in summer to maintain low stream temperature. Groundwater temperature tracks mean annual air temperature due to the insulative effect of the lower troposphere on the surface of the earth. The effect of elevated groundwater temperature on the stream habitat of brook trout was investigated in two brook trout streams north of Toronto, Ontario, with an energy balance stream temperature model, calibrated to both streams to simulate maximum water temperature observed in the brook trout zones. Simulated maximum summer temperatures from the Goddard Institute for Space Studies scenario reduced the brook trout zones by up to 42%. 17 refs., 2 figs

  13. John Pope - Failure at Second Battle of Bull Run

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morio, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Was the failure of the Army of Virginia at the Second Battle of Bull Run a result of General John Pope being a failure as a leader or were there other circumstances that helped him in his loss? Conclusion...

  14. Bull Moose Tube Company - Clean Water Act Public Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against the Bull Moose Tube Company, a business located at 1819 Clarkson Road, Chesterfield, MO, 63017, for alleged violations at the facility located at 406 East Industrial Drive,

  15. 22Na and 86Rb effluxes from bull spermatozoa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petzoldt, R.; Steffens, T.; Bernhardt, I.

    1986-01-01

    Active transport of sodium and potassium has been postulated for bull sperms by various authors. In the present paper the sodium and rubidium efflux was determined by tracer kinetics. For uninhibited sodium and rubidium efflux a rate constant of 8.9 +- 2.13/min and 13.9 +- 3.89 min, respectively, was found for a bull sperm suspension (20 vol.%, 310 K). After ouabain treatment (0.1 mM), a reduction of the rate constant of sodium efflux to 5.1 +- 1.06/min was found. After cryopreserving (pelletizing process) the majority of samples investigated did not exhibit any inhibition of sodium and rubidium efflux as compared with fresh bull sperms. The inhibition of sodium efflux observed in some cases corresponds to the reduction of the rate constant of sodium efflux caused by ouabain. At storage in seminal plasma (24 h, 278 K) the rate constant of sodium efflux is reduced to 2.7 +- 0.25/min. Both after ouabain treatment and after cryopreserving of sperms having a reduced rate constant the motility of bull sperms is reduced. It is concluded from the results that in bull sperms there exists an ouabain-sensitive sodium efflux, the inhibition of which reduces the rate constant of sodium efflux by 42%. The ouabain-sensitive sodium efflux is related to the motility of the bull sperm cell. (author)

  16. Compass cues used by a nocturnal bull ant, Myrmecia midas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freas, Cody A; Narendra, Ajay; Cheng, Ken

    2017-05-01

    Ants use both terrestrial landmarks and celestial cues to navigate to and from their nest location. These cues persist even as light levels drop during the twilight/night. Here, we determined the compass cues used by a nocturnal bull ant, Myrmecia midas , in which the majority of individuals begin foraging during the evening twilight period. Myrmecia midas foragers with vectors of ≤5   m when displaced to unfamiliar locations did not follow the home vector, but instead showed random heading directions. Foragers with larger home vectors (≥10   m) oriented towards the fictive nest, indicating a possible increase in cue strength with vector length. When the ants were displaced locally to create a conflict between the home direction indicated by the path integrator and terrestrial landmarks, foragers oriented using landmark information exclusively and ignored any accumulated home vector regardless of vector length. When the visual landmarks at the local displacement site were blocked, foragers were unable to orient to the nest direction and their heading directions were randomly distributed. Myrmecia midas ants typically nest at the base of the tree and some individuals forage on the same tree. Foragers collected on the nest tree during evening twilight were unable to orient towards the nest after small lateral displacements away from the nest. This suggests the possibility of high tree fidelity and an inability to extrapolate landmark compass cues from information collected on the tree and at the nest site to close displacement sites. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Normal SPECT thallium-201 bull's-eye display: gender differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisner, R.L.; Tamas, M.J.; Cloninger, K.

    1988-01-01

    The bull's-eye technique synthesizes three-dimensional information from single photon emission computed tomographic 201 TI images into two dimensions so that a patient's data can be compared quantitatively against a normal file. To characterize the normal database and to clarify differences between males and females, clinical data and exercise electrocardiography were used to identify 50 males and 50 females with less than 5% probability of coronary artery disease. Results show inhomogeneity of the 201 TI distributions at stress and delay: septal to lateral wall count ratios are less than 1.0 in both females and males; anterior to inferior wall count ratios are greater than 1.0 in males but are approximately equal to 1.0 in females. Washout rate is faster in females than males at the same peak exercise heart rate and systolic blood pressure, despite lower exercise time. These important differences suggest that quantitative analysis of single photon emission computed tomographic 201 TI images requires gender-matched normal files

  18. Review of potential interactions between stocked rainbow trout and listed Snake River sockeye salmon in Pettit Lake Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teuscher, D.

    1996-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if hatchery rainbow trout compete with or prey on juvenile Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka in Pettit Lake, Idaho. In 1995, a total of 8,570 age-0 sockeye and 4,000 hatchery rainbow trout were released in Pettit Lake. After releasing the fish, gillnets were set in the pelagic and littoral zones to collected diet and spatial distribution data. Interactions were assessed monthly from June 1995 through March 1996. Competition for food was discounted based on extremely low diet overlap results observed throughout the sample period. Conversely, predation interactions were more significant. A total of 119 rainbow trout stomachs were analyzed, two contained O. nerka. The predation was limited to one sample period, but when extrapolated to the whole rainbow trout populations results in significant losses. Total consumption of O. nerka by rainbow trout ranged from an estimated 10 to 23% of initial stocking numbers. Predation results contradict earlier findings that stocked rainbow trout do not prey on wild kokanee or sockeye in the Sawtooth Lakes. The contradiction may be explained by a combination of poorly adapted hatchery sockeye and a littoral release site that forced spatial overlap that was not occurring in the wild populations. Releasing sockeye in the pelagic zone may have reduced or eliminated predation losses to rainbow trout.

  19. Review of potential interactions between stocked rainbow trout and listed Snake River sockeye salmon in Pettit Lake Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teuscher, D.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if hatchery rainbow trout compete with or prey on juvenile Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka in Pettit Lake, Idaho. In 1995, a total of 8,570 age-0 sockeye and 4,000 hatchery rainbow trout were released in Pettit Lake. After releasing the fish, gillnets were set in the pelagic and littoral zones to collected diet and spatial distribution data. Interactions were assessed monthly from June 1995 through March 1996. Competition for food was discounted based on extremely low diet overlap results observed throughout the sample period. Conversely, predation interactions were more significant. A total of 119 rainbow trout stomachs were analyzed, two contained O. nerka. The predation was limited to one sample period, but when extrapolated to the whole rainbow trout populations results in significant losses. Total consumption of O. nerka by rainbow trout ranged from an estimated 10 to 23% of initial stocking numbers. Predation results contradict earlier findings that stocked rainbow trout do not prey on wild kokanee or sockeye in the Sawtooth Lakes. The contradiction may be explained by a combination of poorly adapted hatchery sockeye and a littoral release site that forced spatial overlap that was not occurring in the wild populations. Releasing sockeye in the pelagic zone may have reduced or eliminated predation losses to rainbow trout

  20. Cloning, expression, cellular distribution, and role in chemotaxis of a C5a receptor in rainbow trout: the first identification of a C5a receptor in a nonmammalian species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshra, Hani; Li, Jun; Peters, Rodney; Hansen, John; Matlapudi, Anjan; Sunyer, J. Oriol

    2004-01-01

    C3a, C4a, and C5a anaphylatoxins generated during complement activation play a key role in inflammation. C5a is the most potent of the three anaphylatoxins in eliciting biological responses. The effects of C5a are mediated by its binding to C5a receptor (C5aR, CD88). To date, C5aR has only been identified and cloned in mammalian species, and its evolutionary history remains ill-defined. To gain insights into the evolution, conserved structural domains, and functions of C5aR, we have cloned and characterized a C5aR in rainbow trout, a teleost fish. The isolated cDNA encoded a 350-aa protein that showed the highest sequence similarity to C5aR from other species. Genomic analysis revealed the presence of one continuous exon encoding the entire open reading frame. Northern blot analysis showed significant expression of the trout C5a receptor (TC5aR) message in PBLs and kidney. Flow cytometric analysis showed that two Abs generated against two different areas of the extracellular N-terminal region of TC5aR positively stained the same leukocyte populations from PBLs. B lymphocytes and granulocytes comprised the majority of cells recognized by the anti-TC5aR. More importantly, these Abs inhibited chemotaxis of PBLs toward a chemoattractant fraction purified from complement-activated trout serum. Our data suggest that the split between C5aR and C3aR from a common ancestral molecule occurred before the emergence of teleost fish. Moreover, we demonstrate that the overall structure of C5aR as well as its role in chemotaxis have remained conserved for >300 million years.

  1. Farming of Freshwater Rainbow Trout in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokumsen, Alfred; Svendsen, Lars Moeslund

    Textbook on Farming of Freshwater Rainbow Trout in Denmark. Danish edition with the title: Opdræt af regnbueørred i Danmark......Textbook on Farming of Freshwater Rainbow Trout in Denmark. Danish edition with the title: Opdræt af regnbueørred i Danmark...

  2. Simulating Spawning and Juvenile Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Habitat in Colorado River Based on High-Flow Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Yao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available High flow generates significant alterations in downstream river reaches, resulting in physical condition changes in the downstream regions of the river such as water depth, flow velocity, water temperature and river bed. These alterations will lead to change in fish habitat configuration in the river. This paper proposes a model system to evaluate the high flow effects on river velocity, water depth, substrates changes, temperature distribution and consequently assess the change in spawning and juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss habitats in the downstream region of the Glen Canyon Dam. Firstly, based on the 2 dimensional (2D depth-averaged CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics model and heat transfer equation applied for simulation, three indices were simulated, namely depth, flow velocity and temperature distribution. Then, the spawning and juvenile fish preference curves were obtained based on these three indices and substrates distribution. After that, the habitat model was proposed and used to simulate the high flow effects on juvenile and spawning rainbow trout habitat structure. Finally, the weighted usable area (WUA and overall suitability index (OSI of the spawning and juvenile fish species were quantitatively simulated to estimate the habitat sensitivity. The results illustrate that the high flow effect (HFE increased the juvenile rainbow trout habitat quality but decreased the spawning rainbow trout habitat quality. The juvenile trout were mainly affected by the water depth while the spawning rainbow trout were dominated by the bed elevation.

  3. Adrenal involvement in the biostimulatory effect of bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berardinelli James G

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective was to evaluate if cortisol concentrations are associated with the resumption of luteal activity in postpartum, primiparous cows exposed to bulls. The hypotheses were that 1 interval from start of exposure to resumption of luteal activity; 2 proportions of cows that resumed luteal function during the exposure period; and 3 cortisol concentrations do not differ among cows exposed or not exposed to bulls (Exp. 1, and cows continuously exposed to bull or steer urine (Exp. 2. Methods In Exp. 1, 28 anovular cows were exposed (BE; n = 13 or not exposed (NE; n = 15 to bulls for 30 d at 58 d after calving. In Exp. 2, 38 anovular cows were fitted with a controlled urine delivery device at 45 d after calving and exposed continuously (24 h/d to bull (BUE; n = 19 or steer (SUE; n = 19 urine. Length of exposure was ~64 d. Blood samples were collected from each cow on D 0 and every 3 d throughout exposure periods in both experiments and assayed for progesterone. Cortisol was assayed in samples collected on D 0, 8, 16, and 24 in Exp. 1; and, D 0, 19, 38, and 57 in Exp. 2. Results In Exp. 1, interval from the start of exposure to resumption of luteal activity was shorter (P Conclusion We conclude that the physical presence of bulls stimulates resumption of luteal activity and is coincident with increased cortisol concentrations, and hypothesize a possible association between adrenal activation and the biostimulatory effect of bulls.

  4. Hybridization dynamics between Colorado's native cutthroat trout and introduced rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Jessica L; Siegle, Matthew R; Martin, Andrew P

    2008-01-01

    Newly formed hybrid populations provide an opportunity to examine the initial consequences of secondary contact between species and identify genetic patterns that may be important early in the evolution of hybrid inviability. Widespread introductions of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) into watersheds with native cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii) have resulted in hybridization. These introductions have contributed to the decline of native cutthroat trout populations. Here, we examine the pattern of hybridization between introduced rainbow trout and 2 populations of cutthroat trout native to Colorado. For this study, we utilized 7 diagnostic, codominant nuclear markers and a diagnostic mitochondrial marker to investigate hybridization in a population of greenback cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii stomias) and a population of Colorado River cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii pleuriticus). We infer that cutthroat-rainbow trout hybrid swarms have formed in both populations. Although a mixture of hybrid genotypes was present, not all genotype combinations were detected at expected frequencies. We found evidence that mitochondrial DNA introgression in hybrids is asymmetric and more likely from rainbow trout than from cutthroat trout. A difference in spawning time of the 2 species or differences in the fitness between the reciprocal crosses may explain the asymmetry. Additionally, the presence of intraspecific cytonuclear associations found in both populations is concordant with current hypotheses regarding coevolution of mitochondrial and nuclear genomes.

  5. Intercohort density dependence drives brown trout habitat selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayllón, Daniel; Nicola, Graciela G.; Parra, Irene; Elvira, Benigno; Almodóvar, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Habitat selection can be viewed as an emergent property of the quality and availability of habitat but also of the number of individuals and the way they compete for its use. Consequently, habitat selection can change across years due to fluctuating resources or to changes in population numbers. However, habitat selection predictive models often do not account for ecological dynamics, especially density dependent processes. In stage-structured population, the strength of density dependent interactions between individuals of different age classes can exert a profound influence on population trajectories and evolutionary processes. In this study, we aimed to assess the effects of fluctuating densities of both older and younger competing life stages on the habitat selection patterns (described as univariate and multivariate resource selection functions) of young-of-the-year, juvenile and adult brown trout Salmo trutta. We observed all age classes were selective in habitat choice but changed their selection patterns across years consistently with variations in the densities of older but not of younger age classes. Trout of an age increased selectivity for positions highly selected by older individuals when their density decreased, but this pattern did not hold when the density of younger age classes varied. It suggests that younger individuals are dominated by older ones but can expand their range of selected habitats when density of competitors decreases, while older trout do not seem to consider the density of younger individuals when distributing themselves even though they can negatively affect their final performance. Since these results may entail critical implications for conservation and management practices based on habitat selection models, further research should involve a wider range of river typologies and/or longer time frames to fully understand the patterns of and the mechanisms underlying the operation of density dependence on brown trout habitat

  6. A Regional View of the Margin: Salmonid Abundance and Distribution in the Southern Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina and Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia A. Flebbe

    1994-01-01

    In the southern Appalachian Mountains, native brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and introduced rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and brown trout Salmo trutta are at the southern extremes of their distributions, an often overlooked kind of marginal habitat. At a regional scale composed of the states of Virginia...

  7. Evaluating bull fertility based on non-return method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prka Igor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the results of reproductive cows and heifers, different parameters of fertility are used, such as the service period, insemination index, intercalving time and others, and of the breeding bulls the values obtained through non-return. An ejaculate is taken up for further processing by veterinary centres only provided it meets the prescribed quality parameters. Rating semen parameters includes a macroscopic (volume, colour, consistency, smell and pH and a microscopic evaluation (mobility, density, percentage of live sperm and abnormal and damaged sperm. In addition to sperm quality and the fertility of the female animal, the results of the non-return method are also influenced by a number of exogenous causes (season, age, race, insemination techniques that have no small impact on the end result of insemination - pregnancy. In order to obtain more objective results of the fertility of bulls the following tasks were undertaken, namely: 1. to calculate with the non-return method the fertility of bulls in over 10,000 cows inseminated for the first time during a period of 6 years; and 2. to analyze the impact of semen quality, season, age of cow and bull, and the bull breed on the results of fertility.

  8. Breaking the speed limit--comparative sprinting performance of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and brown trout (Salmo trutta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Santos, Theodore; Sanz-Ronda, Francisco Javier; Ruiz-Legazpi, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Sprinting behavior of free-ranging fish has long been thought to exceed that of captive fish. Here we present data from wild-caught brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and brown trout (Salmo trutta), volitionally entering and sprinting against high-velocity flows in an open-channel flume. Performance of the two species was nearly identical, with the species attaining absolute speeds > 25 body lengths·s−1. These speeds far exceed previously published observations for any salmonid species and contribute to the mounting evidence that commonly accepted estimates of swimming performance are low. Brook trout demonstrated two distinct modes in the relationship between swim speed and fatigue time, similar to the shift from prolonged to sprint mode described by other authors, but in this case occurring at speeds > 19 body lengths·s−1. This is the first demonstration of multiple modes of sprint swimming at such high swim speeds. Neither species optimized for distance maximization, however, indicating that physiological limits alone are poor predictors of swimming performance. By combining distributions of volitional swim speeds with endurance, we were able to account for >80% of the variation in distance traversed by both species.

  9. Fall and winter survival of brook trout and brown trout in a north-central Pennsylvania watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweka, John A.; Davis, Lori A.; Wagner, Tyler

    2017-01-01

    Stream-dwelling salmonids that spawn in the fall generally experience their lowest survival during the fall and winter due to behavioral changes associated with spawning and energetic deficiencies during this time of year. We used data from Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis and Brown Trout Salmo trutta implanted with radio transmitters in tributaries of the Hunts Run watershed of north-central Pennsylvania to estimate survival from the fall into the winter seasons (September 2012–February 2013). We examined the effects that individual-level covariates (trout species, size, and movement rates) and stream-level covariates (individual stream and cumulative drainage area of a stream) have on survival. Brook Trout experienced significantly lower survival than Brown Trout, especially in the early fall during their peak spawning period. Besides a significant species effect, none of the other covariates examined influenced survival for either species. A difference in life history between these species, with Brook Trout having a shorter life expectancy than Brown Trout, is likely the primary reason for the lower survival of Brook Trout. However, Brook Trout also spawn earlier in the fall than Brown Trout and low flows during Brook Trout spawning may have resulted in a greater risk of predation for Brook Trout compared with Brown Trout, thereby also contributing to the observed differences in survival between these species. Our estimates of survival can aid parameterization of future population models for Brook Trout and Brown Trout through the spawning season and into winter.

  10. Relationship of nonreturn rates of dairy bulls to binding affinity of heparin to sperm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, J.L.; Ax, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    The binding of the glycosaminoglycan [ 3 H] heparin to bull spermatozoa was compared with nonreturn rates of dairy bulls. Semen samples from five bulls above and five below an average 71% nonreturn rate were used. Samples consisted of first and second ejaculates on a single day collected 1 d/wk for up to 5 consecutive wk. Saturation binding assays using [ 3 H] heparin were performed to quantitate the binding characteristics of each sample. Scatchard plot analyses indicated a significant difference in the binding affinity for [ 3 H] heparin between bulls of high and low fertility. Dissociation constants were 69.0 and 119.3 pmol for bulls of high and low fertility, respectively. In contrast, the number of binding sites for [ 3 H] heparin did not differ significantly among bulls. Differences in binding affinity of [ 3 H] heparin to bull sperm might be used to predict relative fertility of dairy bulls

  11. Phylogeographic study of brown trout from Serbia, based on mitochondrial DNA control region analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snoj Aleš

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to illuminate the phylogeography of brown trout (Salmo trutta populations in the Balkan state of Serbia, the 561 bp 5'-end of mtDNA control region of 101 individuals originating from upland tributaries of the Danubian, Aegean and Adriatic drainages were sequenced and compared to corresponding brown trout sequences obtained in previous studies. Among 15 haplotypes found, 14 were considered native, representing the Danubian and Adriatic lineages of the brown trout, while one haplotype (ATcs1, found only in two individuals originating from two stocked rivers, corresponded to the Atlantic lineage and was considered introduced. Native haplotypes exhibited a strong geographic pattern of distribution: the Danubian haplotypes were strictly confined to the Danubian drainage, while the Adriatic haplotypes dominated in the Aegean and Adriatic drainages; most of the total molecular variance (69% was attributed to differences among the drainages. Phylogenetic reconstruction, supplemented with seven haplotypes newly described in this study, suggested a sister position of the Atlantic-Danubian and Adriatic-Mediterranean-marmoratus ("southern" phylogenetic group, and pointed to the existence of a distinct clade, detected within the "southern" group. The data obtained confirmed our expectation of the existence of high genetic diversity in Balkan trout populations, and we recommend more widespread surveys covering trout stocks from the region.

  12. Status and conservation of interior Redband Trout in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Albeke, Shannon E.; Gunckel, Stephanie L; Writer, Benjamin J; Shepard, Bradley B.; May, Bruce E

    2015-01-01

    In this article we describe the current status and conservation of interior (potamodromous) Redband Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss sspp. throughout its range in the western United States using extant data and expert opinion provided by fish managers. Redband Trout historically occupied 60,295 km of stream habitat and 152 natural lakes. Currently, Redband Trout occupy 25,417 km of stream habitat (42% of their historical range) and 124 lakes or reservoirs. Nonhybridized populations are assumed to occupy 11,695 km (46%) of currently occupied streams; however, fish from only 4,473 km (18%) have been genetically tested. Approximately 47% of the streams occupied by Redband Trout occur on private land, 45% on government lands, and 8% in protected areas. A total of 210 Redband Trout populations, occupying 15,252 km of stream habitat (60% of the current distribution) and 95,158 ha of lake habitat (52%), are being managed as “conservation populations.” Most conservation populations have been designated as weakly to strongly connected metapopulations (125; 60%) and occupy much more stream length (14,112 km; 93%) than isolated conservation populations (1,141 km; 7%). The primary threats to Redband Trout include invasive species, habitat degradation and fragmentation, and climate change. Although the historical distribution of interior Redband Trout has declined dramatically, we conclude that the species is not currently at imminent risk of extinction because it is still widely distributed with many populations isolated by physical barriers and active conservation efforts are occurring for many populations. However, the hybridization status of many populations has not been well quantified, and introgression may be more prevalent than documented here. We recommend (1) collecting additional genetic data and estimating distribution and abundance by means of a more rigorous spatial sampling design to reduce uncertainties, (2) collecting additional information to assess and

  13. Subacute ruminal acidosis reduces sperm quality in beef bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, M J; McAuliffe, P; Rodgers, R J; Hernandez-Medrano, J; Perry, V E A

    2016-08-01

    Breeding bulls are commonly fed high-energy diets, which may induce subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA). In this experiment, 8 Santa Gertrudis bulls (age 20 ± 6 mo) were used to evaluate the extent and duration of effects of SARA on semen quality and the associated changes in circulating hormones and metabolites. The bulls were relocated and fed in yards with unrestricted access to hay and daily individual concentrate feeding for 125 d before SARA challenge. Semen was collected and assessed at 14-d intervals before the challenge to ensure acclimatization and the attainment of a stable spermiogram. The challenge treatments consisted of either a single oral dose of oligofructose (OFF; 6.5 g/kg BW) or an equivalent sham dose of water (Control). Locomotion, behavior, respiratory rate, and cardiovascular and gastrointestinal function were intensively monitored during the 24-h challenge period. Rumen fluid samples were retained for VFA, ammonia, and lactate analysis. After the challenge, semen was then collected every third day for a period of 7 wk and then once weekly until 12 wk, with associated blood collection for FSH, testosterone, inhibin, and cortisol assay. Percent normal sperm decreased in bulls dosed with OFF after the challenge period ( < 0.05) and continued to remain lower on completion of the study at 88 d after challenge. There was a corresponding increase in sperm defects commencing from 16 d after challenge. These included proximal cytoplasmic droplets ( < 0.001), distal reflex midpieces ( = 0.01), and vacuole and teratoid heads ( < 0.001). Changes in semen quality after challenge were associated with lower serum testosterone ( < 0.001) and FSH ( < 0.05). Serum cortisol in OFF bulls tended to be greater ( = 0.07) at 7 d after challenge. This study shows that SARA challenge causes a reduction in sperm quality sufficient to preclude bulls from sale as single sire breeding animals 3 mo after the event occurred.

  14. Effect of frozen storage temperature on quality-related changes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgaard, Maria Garver; Jørgensen, Bo M.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of frozen storage temperature on quality-related parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) muscle was studied in the interval from -10 to -80°C on samples stored for 1 to 18 months. The following quantities were measured: drip loss, water holding capacity and water distribution...

  15. Prospecting genomic regions associated with Columnaris disease in two commercially important rainbow trout breeding populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavbacterium Columnare, the causative agent of Columnaris disease (CD), is distributed around the world in fresh water sources, infecting freshwater finfish species. Recently it has been identified as an emerging problem for the rainbow trout aquaculture industry in the US. Two live-attenuated va...

  16. Toxicokinetics of the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imidacloprid (IMI) is the largest selling insecticide internationally. Little is known about the toxicokinetics of IMI in fish, however. In vivo time-course studies were conducted to study the distribution and elimination of IMI in rainbow trout. Animals confined to respiromet...

  17. Seasonal Variations in Relative Weight of Lake Trout (Salvelinus namaycush), Kokanee Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), Rainbow Trout (Onocorhynchus mykiss), and Brown Trout (Salmo trutta) in Blue Mesa Reservoir, Colorado

    OpenAIRE

    Midas, Madeline; Williams, Asia; Cooper, Cindy; Courtney, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Blue Mesa Reservoir is the largest body of water in Colorado and is located on the western slope of the Rocky Mountains at an elevation of 7520 feet. Blue Mesa Reservoir contains recreationally important populations of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), kokanee salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), rainbow trout (Onocorhynchus mykiss), and brown trout (Salmo trutta). A management challenge in recent years has been the overpopulation of lake trout, which has led to a steep decline in abundance of kokan...

  18. Diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphisms for identifying westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi), Yellowstone cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii bouvieri) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, S T; Novak, B J; Drinan, D P; Jennings, R deM; Vu, N V

    2011-03-01

    We describe 12 diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assays for use in species identification among rainbow and cutthroat trout: five of these loci have alleles unique to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), three unique to westslope cutthroat trout (O. clarkii lewisi) and four unique to Yellowstone cutthroat trout (O. clarkii bouvieri). These diagnostic assays were identified using a total of 489 individuals from 26 populations and five fish hatchery strains. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. On-farm welfare and estimated daily carcass gain of slaughtered bulls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herva, T.; Virtala, A.M.; Huuskonen, A.; Saatkamp, H.W.; Peltoniemi, O.

    2009-01-01

    Welfare of growing bulls was evaluated using on-farm scoring modified by well-described test theory methods. Production parameters of the bulls were collected at slaughter. A positive relationship was observed between on-farm welfare, using the full A-Index score, and daily carcass gain of bulls.

  20. Whole-genome sequencing of 234 bulls facilitates mapping of monogenic and complex traits in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daetwyler, Hans D; Capitan, Aurélien; Pausch, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    The 1000 bull genomes project supports the goal of accelerating the rates of genetic gain in domestic cattle while at the same time considering animal health and welfare by providing the annotated sequence variants and genotypes of key ancestor bulls. In the first phase of the 1000 bull genomes p...

  1. Toxicokinetics of PFOS in rainbow trout

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This ScienceHub entry was developed for the published paper: Consoer et al., 2016, Toxicokinetics of perfluorooctane sulfonate in rainow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss),...

  2. Bulls and bears: the stock market and clinical pathology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khong, T Y

    2009-09-01

    To analyse the level of funded research in clinical pathology in a recent bear and bull market to act as a predictor for future funding during the current global financial crisis. The level of funding for research published in three clinical pathology journals in 2005 and 2008 to coincide with the bear market of March 2000 to October 2002 and with the subsequent bull market to October 2007 was determined using a Medline query. Other parameters examined were the type of article, affiliation of the first author and the pathology subspecialty. Approximately 30% of publications were funded and did not differ between the 2 years studied. Original research papers were more likely to be funded than case reports or reviews. Research from university departments of pathology was more likely to be funded than from hospital pathology departments but there were more publications from hospital pathology departments. The proportion of research in the different subspecialties that was funded did not differ significantly between each other and between 2005 and 2008. Based on data from the previous bear market, which was the longest and deepest of the post 1950 era, and the subsequent bull market, which led to the all-time high in the Dow Jones Industrial Index, funding for clinical pathology research does not seem to be affected by bull or bear markets.

  3. Autumn feeding cycle of the bull-dog fish, Gnathonemus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rhythm may vary considerably due to habitat circumstances and generalizations must therefore be made with great caution. In order to evaluate the influence on the feeding cycle of the bull-dog fish, Gnathonemus macrolepidotus, a 24-hour study was undertaken in Loskop Dam, Transvaal, starting on 1 April 1970.

  4. Germ cell transplantation in an azoospermic Klinefelter bull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joerg, Hannes; Janett, Fredi; Schlatt, Stefan; Mueller, Simone; Graphodatskaya, Daria; Suwattana, Duangsmorn; Asai, Mika; Stranzinger, Gerald

    2003-12-01

    Germ cell transplantation is a technique that transfers donor testicular cells into recipient testes. A population of germ cells can colonize the recipient testis, initiate spermatogenesis, and produce sperm capable of fertilization. In the present study, a nonmosaic Klinefelter bull was used as a germ cell recipient. The donor cell suspension was introduced into the rete testis using ultrasound-guided puncture. A pulsatile administration of GnRH was performed to stimulate spermatogenesis. The molecular approach to detect donor cells was done by a quantitative polymerase chain reaction with allele discrimination based on a genetic mutation between donor and recipient. Therefore, a known genetic mutation, associated with coat-color phenotype, was used to calculate the ratio of donor to recipient cells in the biopsy specimens and ejaculates for 10 mo. After slaughtering, meiotic preparations were performed. The injected germ cells did not undergo spermatogenesis. Six months after germ cell transplantation, the donor cells were rejected, which indicates that the donor cells could not incorporate in the testis. The hormone stimulation showed that the testosterone-producing Leydig cells were functionally intact. Despite subfertility therapy, neither the recipient nor the donor cells underwent spermatogenesis. Therefore, nonmosaic Klinefelter bulls are not suitable as germ cell recipients. Future germ cell recipients in cattle could be mosaic Klinefelters, interspecies hybrids, bulls with Sertoli cell-only syndrome, or bulls with disrupted germ cell migration caused by RNA interference.

  5. Record Litter Size for the Bull Shark, Carcharhinus leucas (Muller ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the morning of 25 September 2013, a large female bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas, was landed in Port Victoria, Seychelles. It had been caught on an anchored long line set the previous evening, within 100 m of the main fishing quay. The female exhibited an unusually large girth for this heavy-set species. The shark ...

  6. Bulls, Goats, and Pedagogy: Engaging Students in Overseas Development Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, William F. S.

    2009-01-01

    This article illustrates the profound learning that occurs--for students and instructor alike--when a class on third-world development attempts to undertake foreign aid. With undergraduate, graduate, and departmental money, I purchased bulls and carts for farmers, and goats for widows, in two West African villages. Such experiential learning…

  7. The Case for Bull Dogs and Mother Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Bonnie; Neugebauer, Roger

    1996-01-01

    Describes traits of effective child care team members: instigator--develops ideas; day-dream believer--suggests solutions; jester--relieves tension; mother hen--ensures fair treatment; nervous Nellie--critiques ideas; keeper of the faith--focuses on center's mission; bull dog--keeps on task; compromiser--preserves unity; and mover and…

  8. Sensory characteristics and tenderness of meat from Ankole bulls ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Martina Muller

    2013-09-05

    Sep 5, 2013 ... Eating-quality attributes of meat from Ankole cattle and their Friesian and Boran crossbreds finished in different feeding ... palatable than steaks from supplemented and feedlot finished bulls. ... Phosphorus (g/kg DM). 4.2 ± 0.4.

  9. Training Tribal Lay Advocates at Sitting Bull College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelley, W. L.

    2015-01-01

    Students in Sitting Bull College's lay advocate program develop a well-rounded understanding of the law, enabling them to represent defendants in tribal courts. The program offers legal training for its students--and illustrates how American Indian nations can broaden legal representation for Native defendants in tribal courts. It is one of only…

  10. Does the introduced brook trout ( Salvelinus fontinalis) affect growth of the native brown trout ( Salmo trutta)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsu, Kai; Huusko, Ari; Muotka, Timo

    2009-03-01

    Non-native brook trout have become widely established in North European streams. We combined evidence from an artificial-stream experiment and drainage-scale field surveys to examine whether brook trout suppressed the growth of the native brown trout (age 0 to age 2). Our experimental results demonstrated that brown trout were unaffected by the presence of brook trout but that brook trout showed reduced growth in the presence of brown trout. However, the growth reduction only appeared in the experimental setting, indicating that the reduced spatial constraint of the experimental system may have forced the fish to unnaturally intense interactions. Indeed, in the field, no effect of either species on the growth of the putative competitor was detected. These results caution against uncritical acceptance of findings from small-scale experiments because they rarely scale up to more complex field situations. This and earlier work suggest that the establishment of brook trout in North European streams has taken place mainly because of the availability of unoccupied (or underutilized) niche space, rather than as a result of species trait combinations or interspecific competition per se.

  11. Movement and survival of brown trout and rainbow trout in an ozark tailwater river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, J.W.; Kwak, T.J.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the movement of adult brown trout Salmo trutta and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in relation to a catch-andrelease area in the White River downstream from Beaver Dam, Arkansas. Nine fish of each species were implanted with radio transmitters and monitored from July 1996 to July 1997. The 1.5- km river length of a catch-and-release area (closed to angler harvest) was greater than the total linear range of 72% of the trout (13 of 18 fish), but it did not include two brown trout spawning riffles, suggesting that it effectively protects resident fish within the catch-and-release area except during spawning. The total detected linear range of movement varied from 172 to 3,559 m for brown trout and from 205 to 3,023mfor rainbow trout. The movements of both species appeared to be generally similar to that in unregulated river systems. The annual apparent survival of both trout species was less than 0.40, and exploitation was 44%.Management to protect fish on spawning riffles may be considered if management for wild brown trout becomes a priority. ?? American Fisheries Society 2011.

  12. Tritrichomonas foetus in bulls in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júnior Mário Baltazar de Oliveira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. de Oliveira J.M.B., Batista Filho A.F.B., Borges J. de M., Soares L.B.F., Ortega-Mora L.M., Brandespim D.F., Mota R.A. & Pinheiro Júnior J.W. Tritrichomonas foetus in bulls in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. [Tritrichomonas foetus em touros no estado de Pernambuco, Brasil.] Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(4:449-453, 2016. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Sanidade e Reprodução de Ruminantes. Unidade Acadêmica de Garanhuns, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Av. Bom Pastor s/n, Boa Vista, Garanhuns, Pernambuco, 55296-901, Brazil. E-mail: juniormariobaltazar@gmail.com The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of Tritrichomonas foetus in bulls in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. In total, 105 samples of preputial smegma were collected from bulls in service belonging to different herds (n=63 and slaughterhouses (n=42. Genomic DNA extraction from collected samples was carried out to identify the agent in the samples and they were also submitted to the polymerase chain reaction. A frequency of 6.6% (2.7 - 13.2%; C.I. 95% was found for T. foetus. None of the slaughterhouse samples were positive. With regards to the number of foci, 21.8% (7/32 of the properties contained animals that were positive for T. foetus. In conclusion, T. foetus infection occurred in bulls in this way, this agent should be included in the diagnosis in animal health control programs. Therefore, as the removal of infected bulls and their replacement by younger animals, should be implemented in order to avoid the dissemination of the agent in herds.

  13. Brown Trout removal effects on short-term survival and movement of Myxobolus cerebralis-resistant rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetherman, Eric R.; Winkelman, Dana L.; Bailey, Larissa L.; Schisler, George J.; Davies, K.

    2015-01-01

    Following establishment of Myxobolus cerebralis (the parasite responsible for salmonid whirling disease) in Colorado, populations of Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykissexperienced significant declines, whereas Brown Trout Salmo trutta densities increased in many locations across the state, potentially influencing the success of M. cerebralis-resistant Rainbow Trout reintroductions. We examined the effects of Brown Trout removal on the short-term (3-month) survival and movement of two crosses of reintroduced, M. cerebralis-resistant Rainbow Trout in the Cache la Poudre River, Colorado. Radio frequency identification passive integrated transponder tags and antennas were used to track movements of wild Brown Trout and stocked Rainbow Trout in reaches where Brown Trout had or had not been removed. Multistate mark–recapture models were used to estimate tagged fish apparent survival and movement in these sections 3 months following Brown Trout removal. A cross between the German Rainbow Trout and Colorado River Rainbow Trout strains exhibited similar survival and movement probabilities in the reaches, suggesting that the presence of Brown Trout did not affect its survival or movement. However, a cross between the German Rainbow Trout and Harrison Lake Rainbow Trout exhibited less movement from the reach in which Brown Trout had been removed. Despite this, the overall short-term benefits of the removal were equivocal, suggesting that Brown Trout removal may not be beneficial for the reintroduction of Rainbow Trout. Additionally, the logistical constraints of conducting removals in large river systems are substantial and may not be a viable management option in many rivers.

  14. Scale-dependent seasonal pool habitat use by sympatric Wild Brook Trout and Brown Trout populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Lori A.; Wagner, Tyler

    2016-01-01

    Sympatric populations of native Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis and naturalized Brown Trout Salmo truttaexist throughout the eastern USA. An understanding of habitat use by sympatric populations is of importance for fisheries management agencies because of the close association between habitat and population dynamics. Moreover, habitat use by stream-dwelling salmonids may be further complicated by several factors, including the potential for fish to display scale-dependent habitat use. Discrete-choice models were used to (1) evaluate fall and early winter daytime habitat use by sympatric Brook Trout and Brown Trout populations based on available residual pool habitat within a stream network and (2) assess the sensitivity of inferred habitat use to changes in the spatial scale of the assumed available habitat. Trout exhibited an overall preference for pool habitats over nonpool habitats; however, the use of pools was nonlinear over time. Brook Trout displayed a greater preference for deep residual pool habitats than for shallow pool and nonpool habitats, whereas Brown Trout selected for all pool habitat categories similarly. Habitat use by both species was found to be scale dependent. At the smallest spatial scale (50 m), habitat use was primarily related to the time of year and fish weight. However, at larger spatial scales (250 and 450 m), habitat use varied over time according to the study stream in which a fish was located. Scale-dependent relationships in seasonal habitat use by Brook Trout and Brown Trout highlight the importance of considering scale when attempting to make inferences about habitat use; fisheries managers may want to consider identifying the appropriate spatial scale when devising actions to restore and protect Brook Trout populations and their habitats.

  15. Factors influencing the spawning migration of female anadromous brown trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jon Christian; Koed, Anders; Aarestrup, Kim

    2004-01-01

    Radio telemetry was employed to study movements of adult female anadromous brown trout Salmo trutta (sea trout) during upstream spawning migration and following spawning in a stream with tributaries. Sea trout were monitored by manual tracking and by automatic listening stations. The latter...... suggested that initiation of upstream migration was positively correlated with stream discharge. Individual sea trout performed repeated upstream migration 'initiations' (visits) to areas where they were detected by the automatic listening stations. The first and subsequent upstream migration 'initiations...

  16. Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) agent Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae in brown trout populations in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Megha; Vasemägi, Anti

    2014-05-13

    Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) caused by the myxozoan parasite Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae is a serious parasitic disease threatening both farmed and wild salmonid populations, but very little is currently known about the distribution of the parasite in the Baltic Sea region. In this study we (1) report the development of a novel multiplex PCR method for fast and reliable screening of T. bryosalmonae; (2) use this multiplex PCR method to show that the PKD agent T. bryosalmonae is widespread in natural brown trout Salmo trutta L. populations in Estonia; (3) evaluate monthly and yearly variation of T. bryosalmonae prevalence in juvenile trout; (4) assess T. bryosalmonae prevalence in different age-classes of fish (0+ vs. 1+ and older) and report the presence of the PKD agent in the kidneys of returning sea trout spawners; and (5) suggest the freshwater bryozoan Plumatella fungosa as a putative invertebrate host of T. bryosalmonae in Estonia. Our results demonstrate a highly heterogeneous distribution of T. bryosalmonae at the micro-geographic scale, indicating that PKD could have an important negative effect on recruitment in Estonian brown trout populations.

  17. Sensitivity of Trout to Chronic Acute Exposure to Selenium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunnar Gissel; Nielsen, M. Gissel

    1978-01-01

    Trout were exposed to selenite (Na2SeO3) solutions of varying concentrations (0.1-100 ppm Se) for periods of up to 4 wk. A chronic exposure to 0.1 ppm Se or less is non-lethal to trout. Lethality at higher concentrations depends on the length of exposure. Trout that survive for 10 days in tap...

  18. Evaluation of dietary soy sensitivity in snake river cutthroat trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatchery-cultured cutthroat trout fed some commercially available rainbow trout feeds display slow growth and increased mortality. Feed characteristics such as buoyancy and texture alter feed acceptance in some fish species but their effects have not been adequately addressed in cutthroat trout. Th...

  19. Movement and mortality of stocked brown trout in a stream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Kim; Jepsen, Niels; Koed, Anders

    2005-01-01

    The movement and mortality of stocked brown trout Salmo trutta were investigated using radio telemetry. Four brown trout left the study area whereas the remaining fish were stationary. After 5 weeks, 13 out of 50 tagged brown trout were still alive in the stream. Surviving fish had a significantly...

  20. Biology and management of threatened and endangered western trouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. J. Behnke; Mark Zarn

    1976-01-01

    Discusses taxonomy, reasons for decline, life history and ecology, and suggestions for preservation and management of six closely related trouts native to western North America: Colorado River cutthroat, Salmo clarki pleuriticus; greenback trout, S. c. stomias; Lahontan cutthroat, S. c. henshawi; Paiute trout,...

  1. THE ESTIMATION OF CARCASS TRAITS OF BALI BULLS USING ULTRASOUND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Sri Rachma

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to collect information on Bali bulls carcass traits estimation as one of theselection criteria using ultrasound. Ultrasonic estimation of carcass traits such as M. longissimusthoracis area (MLTA, Subcutaneous Fat Thickness (SFT, Inter Muscular Fat Thickness (IMFT, RibThickness (RT and Beef Marbling Score (BMS were obtained from 92 head of bulls at Barru districtand 74 head of bulls at Bone district, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. The carcass traits estimation werescanned between the 6th - 7th ribs using ultrasound. The ultrasound is made of Fujihira Super-Eye FHK,Co. Meat. Ltd. with B-Mode and electronic linear probe, which used frequency of 2 MHz. The carcasstraits estimation photos were printed by video-copy machine (Aloka Co. Ltd., SSZ-300S. The dataobtained were analyzed using basic statistic and was discussed descriptively. The averages of all carcasstraits estimation of the Bali bull at Bone district at 12, 18 and 24 months of ages were higher than thoseat Barru district. The MLTA estimation of Bali bulls at Bone and Barru districts were 18.0 cm2, 24.3cm2, 23.8 cm2 Vs 16.6 cm2, 18.5 cm2, 23.3 cm2, respectively; the BMS estimated were 0.14, 0.24 and0.20 Vs 0.00, 0.15 and 0.17, respectively; the SFT estimation were 0.26 mm, 0.33 mm, 0.34 mm Vs0.28 mm, 0.26 mm, 0.34 mm, respectively; the IMFT estimation were 1.13 mm, 1.24 mm, 1.31 mm Vs0.97 mm, 1.06 mm, 1.14 mm, respectively; the RT estimation were 2.04 mm, 2.52 mm, 2.72 mm Vs1.19 mm, 2.12 mm, 2.30 mm, respectively. The growth of MLTA, SFT, IMFT, RT and BMS of thebulls of Bali cattle at the 12, 18 and 24 months of age were not reaching the optimally performances,yet. Therefore the selection process of the bulls of Bali cattle to be candidate of sire based on theestimation of carcass traits should be done after since 4 years of age.

  2. Color, sensory and physicochemical attributes of beef burger made using meat from young bulls fed levels of licuri cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gouvêa, Ana Al; Oliveira, Ronaldo L; Leão, André G; Assis, Dallyson Yc; Bezerra, Leilson R; Nascimento Júnior, Nilton G; Trajano, Jaqueline S; Pereira, Elzania S

    2016-08-01

    Licuri cake is a biodiesel byproduct and has been tested as an alternative feed additive for use in cattle production. This study analyzed the color, sensory and chemical attributes of burger meat from bovines. Thirty-two young Nellore bulls were used, housed in individual pens and distributed in a randomized experimental design with four treatments: no addition or the addition of 7, 14 or 21% (w/w) licuri cake in the dry matter of the diet. Interactions between the licuri cake level and the physicochemical variables (P > 0.05) were observed. Additionally, an interaction was observed between the licuri cake level and the burger beef color parameter lightness index (L*) (P = 0.0305). The L* value was positively and linearly correlated with the proportion of licuri cake in the diet of young bulls. The level of inclusion of licuri cake did not affect (P > 0.05) the sensory characteristics; the variables were graded between 6 and 7, indicating good overall acceptance. Up to 21% (w/w) licuri cake can be included in the diet of young bulls without negatively impacting on beef burger quality. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Genetic analysis of body weights of individually fed beef bulls in South Africa using random regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selapa, N W; Nephawe, K A; Maiwashe, A; Norris, D

    2012-02-08

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for body weights of individually fed beef bulls measured at centralized testing stations in South Africa using random regression models. Weekly body weights of Bonsmara bulls (N = 2919) tested between 1999 and 2003 were available for the analyses. The model included a fixed regression of the body weights on fourth-order orthogonal Legendre polynomials of the actual days on test (7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63, 70, 77, and 84) for starting age and contemporary group effects. Random regressions on fourth-order orthogonal Legendre polynomials of the actual days on test were included for additive genetic effects and additional uncorrelated random effects of the weaning-herd-year and the permanent environment of the animal. Residual effects were assumed to be independently distributed with heterogeneous variance for each test day. Variance ratios for additive genetic, permanent environment and weaning-herd-year for weekly body weights at different test days ranged from 0.26 to 0.29, 0.37 to 0.44 and 0.26 to 0.34, respectively. The weaning-herd-year was found to have a significant effect on the variation of body weights of bulls despite a 28-day adjustment period. Genetic correlations amongst body weights at different test days were high, ranging from 0.89 to 1.00. Heritability estimates were comparable to literature using multivariate models. Therefore, random regression model could be applied in the genetic evaluation of body weight of individually fed beef bulls in South Africa.

  4. Brown trout and food web interactions in a Minnesota stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, J.K.H.; Vondracek, B.

    2007-01-01

    1. We examined indirect, community-level interactions in a stream that contained non-native brown trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus), native brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis Mitchill) and native slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus Richardson). Our objectives were to examine benthic invertebrate composition and prey selection of fishes (measured by total invertebrate dry mass, dry mass of individual invertebrate taxa and relative proportion of invertebrate taxa in the benthos and diet) among treatments (no fish, juvenile brook trout alone, juvenile brown trout alone, sculpin with brook trout and sculpin with brown trout). 2. We assigned treatments to 1 m2 enclosures/exclosures placed in riffles in Valley Creek, Minnesota, and conducted six experimental trials. We used three designs of fish densities (addition of trout to a constant number of sculpin with unequal numbers of trout and sculpin; addition of trout to a constant number of sculpin with equal numbers of trout and sculpin; and replacement of half the sculpin with an equal number of trout) to investigate the relative strength of interspecific versus intraspecific interactions. 3. Presence of fish (all three species, alone or in combined-species treatments) was not associated with changes in total dry mass of benthic invertebrates or shifts in relative abundance of benthic invertebrate taxa, regardless of fish density design. 4. Brook trout and sculpin diets did not change when each species was alone compared with treatments of both species together. Likewise, we did not find evidence for shifts in brown trout or sculpin diets when each species was alone or together. 5. We suggest that native brook trout and non-native brown trout fill similar niches in Valley Creek. We did not find evidence that either species had an effect on stream communities, potentially due to high invertebrate productivity in Valley Creek. ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Diel resource partitioning among juvenile Atlantic Salmon, Brown Trout, and Rainbow Trout during summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James H.; McKenna, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Interspecific partitioning of food and habitat resources has been widely studied in stream salmonids. Most studies have examined resource partitioning between two native species or between a native species and one that has been introduced. In this study we examine the diel feeding ecology and habitat use of three species of juvenile salmonids (i.e., Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar, Brown Trout Salmo trutta, and Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss) in a tributary of Skaneateles Lake, New York. Subyearling Brown Trout and Rainbow Trout fed more heavily from the drift than the benthos, whereas subyearling Atlantic Salmon fed more from the benthos than either species of trout. Feeding activity of Atlantic Salmon and Rainbow Trout was similar, with both species increasing feeding at dusk, whereas Brown Trout had no discernable feeding peak or trough. Habitat availability was important in determining site-specific habitat use by juvenile salmonids. Habitat selection was greater during the day than at night. The intrastream, diel, intraspecific, and interspecific variation we observed in salmonid habitat use in Grout Brook illustrates the difficulty of acquiring habitat use information for widespread management applications.

  6. Ultrasound Imaging of Testes and Epididymides of Normal and Infertile Breeding Bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Mahmood Ali, Nazir Ahmad*, Nafees Akhtar, Shujait Ali, Maqbool Ahmad and Muhammad Younis1

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Echotexture of testes and epididymides from 10 slaughtered male buffaloes was studied. Diameter of testis and mediastinum testis was measured by ultrasound and compared with respective values taken by calipers. Testes and epididymides of another 10 fertile and 10 infertile breeding bulls were examined in vivo through manual palpation and ultrasound imaging. Semen quality of these bulls was also monitored. There were significant (P<0.01 positive correlations between ultrasound and calipers values of all parameters. The testicular parenchyma of fertile bulls was uniformly homogeneous and moderately echogenic. Epididymal tail was more heterogeneous and less echogenic, while epididymal head was homogeneous and less echogenic, than the testicular parenchyma. The epididymal body appeared as hypoechoic structure with echogenic margin. Among 10 infertile bulls, nine had poor semen quality, while one bull failed to give any ejaculate. On ultrasonography, six bulls showed abnormalities in their scrotal echotexture. Among these, one had an abundance of hyperechoic areas scattered in the testicular parenchyma, some of these showed acoustic shadowing, showing testicular degenerations with mineralization. The second bull showed many anechoic areas in the testes and epididymal head, demarcated from the rest of the organ by well defined margins. In the third bull, three-fourth of the right testis showed hyperechoic areas, suspected of testicular degeneration with mineralization. The fourth bull had two anechoic areas in one testis assumed to represent dilated blood vessel. The fifth bull showed small hyperechoic areas within the testicular parenchyma. The sixth bull showed an anechoic area with distinct hyperechogenic margin below the testicular tunics. The remaining four bulls had normal echogenicity of testes and epididymides in spite of poor semen quality. In conclusion, diagnostic ultrasound may be included in breeding soundness examination of breeding

  7. Utilization of dietary urea in rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, S J; Dabrowski, K R; Dabrowska, H; Olah, E; Luquet, P

    1983-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine the potential utilization of dietary urea by rainbow trout. A control diet and two diets supplemented with 1 and 3% of urea were fed to fish. Postprandial levels of urea and ammonia in blood plasma, and postprandial excretion of these metabolites were followed during 24 h. Apparent digestibility of urea in rainbow trout was very high (greater than 98%). Maximum values of urea levels in plasma were reached 6 h (32.3 +/- 10.2 micrograms/ml) after a meal in the control fish and respectively 6 h (83.4 +/- 18.4 micrograms/ml) and 8 h (250.3 +/- 96.1 micrograms/ml) after a meal in trout fed 1 and 3% urea diets. Peaks of urea excretion rates appeared 7-9 h after meal, coinciding with the highest circulating urea concentration. Total daily urea excretion amounted to 5.53, 10.43 and 33.80 mg urea N/100 mg N intake in trout fed the control, 1 and 3% urea diets, respectively. It is concluded that the dietary urea is readily absorbed in the digestive tract of trout but is totally excreted thus leading to no beneficial effect on nitrogen balance. This excretion of urea also takes place passively without any increase in energy demands.

  8. The trout fishery in Shenandoah National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Robert E.

    1961-01-01

    Populations of brook trout in streams of Shenandoah National Park were reduced drastically early in the past decade by a succession of unusually severe droughts and floods. The drying of stream beds, predation, and scouring were principal factors in the loss of fish. The park was closed to fishing in 1954 and 1955 to protect survivors. The small numbers of survivors quickly repopulated the streams after drought conditions abated. The stocking of hatchery-reared fingerling trout in selected waters failed to augment the recovery of populations. Survival and growth of young, wild trout were especially good. Their redistribution through miles of previously dry streams was rapid. The park was opened again to fishing in 1956 under regulations which restrict the take but afford an increase in sporting opportunity. Two streams were placed under fishing-for-fun-only regulations in 1961.The welfare of the trout populations is dependent mostly on the weather cycle . Fish may be abundant in wet years but very scarc e in dry ones. Thus, the stream must be managed a s marginal for trout.

  9. Assessment of semen quality in pure and crossbred Jersey bulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Umesh; Gawande, Ajay P.; Sahatpure, Sunil K.; Patil, Manoj S.; Lakde, Chetan K.; Bonde, Sachin W.; Borkar, Pradnyankur L.; Poharkar, Ajay J.; Ramteke, Baldeo R.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To compare the seminal attributes of neat, pre-freeze (at equilibration), and post-freeze (24 h after freezing) semen in pure and crossbred Jersey bulls. Materials and Methods: Total 36 ejaculates (3 ejaculates from each bull) were collected from 6 pure Jersey and 6 crossbred Jersey bulls and evaluated for various seminal attributes during neat, pre-freeze, and post-freeze semen. Results: The mean (±standard error [SE]) values of neat semen characteristics in pure and crossbred Jersey bulls were recorded such as volume (ml), color, consistency, mass activity (scale: 0-5), and sperm concentration (millions/ml). The extended semen was further investigated at pre-freeze and post-freeze stages and the mean (±SE) values recorded at neat, pre-freeze, and post-freeze semen were compared between pure and crossbred Jersey bulls; sperm motility (80.55±1.70%, 62.77±1.35%, 46.11±1.43% vs. 80.00±1.80%, 65.00±1.66%, 47.22±1.08%), live sperm count (83.63±1.08%, 71.72±1.09%, 58.67±1.02% vs. 80.00±1.08%, 67.91±1.20%, 51.63±0.97%), total abnormal sperm count (8.38±0.32%, 12.30±0.39%, 16.75±0.42% vs. 9.00±0.45%, 12.19±0.48%, 18.11±0.64%), hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) reacted spermatozoa (71.88±0.77%, 62.05±0.80%, 47.27±1.05% vs. 72.77±1.02%, 62.11±0.89%, 45.94±1.33%), acrosome integrity (89.05±0.83%, 81.33±0.71%, 71.94±0.86% vs. 86.55±0.57%, 78.66±0.42%, 69.38±0.53%), and DNA integrity (99.88±0.07%, 100, 99.66±0.11% vs. 99.94±0.05%, 100, 99.44±0.18%,). The volume, color, consistency, sperm concentration, and initial motility in pure and crossbred Jersey bulls did not differ significantly (p>0.05). The mass activity was significantly (p0.05) was observed in abnormal sperm; HOS reacted spermatozoa and DNA integrity percentage among breeds. Conclusion: It may be concluded that the quality of pure Jersey bull semen was comparatively better than the crossbred Jersey bulls. PMID:27047028

  10. Symmetry breaking in a bull and bear financial market model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sushko, Iryna; Tramontana, Fabio; Westerhoff, Frank; Avrutin, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    We investigate bifurcation structures in the parameter space of a one-dimensional piecewise linear map with two discontinuity points. This map describes endogenous bull and bear market dynamics arising from a simple asset-pricing model. An important feature of our model is that some speculators only enter the market if the price is sufficiently distant to its fundamental value. Our analysis starts with the investigation of a particular case in which the map is symmetric with respect to the origin, associated with equal market entry thresholds in the bull and bear market. We then generalize our analysis by exploring how novel bifurcation structures may emerge when the map’s symmetry is broken.

  11. Nutrient intake, digestibility and rumen metabolites in bulls fed rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrient intake, digestibility and rumen metabolites were determined in rumen - cannulated bulls fed rice straw or straw supplemented with urea, groundnut hay or cotton seed cake. Total dry matter intake (DMI) ranged from 7.55 Lo 8.29kg/d or 3.66 to 4.04% of liveweight and from 6.48 to 7. 21 kg/d for organic matter.

  12. Inquisitorial bulls : Ad Abolendam (1184 and Vergentis in Senium (1199

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Duarte Rust

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present two important medieval documents, the decretals Ad Abolendam (1184 and Vergentis in Senium (1199, in a bilingual edition, Latin-Portuguese. Usually described as "the founding texts of Inquisition", these bulls record the political scene at the end of the 12th century. Unpublished in Portuguese, the translation comes to public with a brief introductory text and some notes for historical information.

  13. Genetic variability of muscle biological characteristics of young limousin bulls

    OpenAIRE

    Renand, Gilles; Jurie, Catherine; Robelin, Jacques; Picard, Brigitte; Geay, Y.; Menissier, Francois

    1995-01-01

    Genetic parameters of 4 muscle biological characteristics (protein to DNA ratio (Pro/DNA), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) activity and the proportion of type I myosin heavy chains (MHC I)), in the Semitendinosus and the Longissimus thoracis, were estimated simultaneously with average daily gain (ADG), 480-d final weight (FW), carcass lean and fat contents (CL% and CF% respectively) in a sample of young Limousin bulls tested in station. The data came f...

  14. Fate of Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa) after infection of brown trout Salmo trutta and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gokhlesh; Abd-Elfattah, Ahmed; Saleh, Mona; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2013-11-25

    Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa) is the causative agent of proliferative kidney disease in salmonids. We assessed differences in intensity of T. bryosalmonae infection between brown trout Salmo trutta and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss from the clinical phase of infection onwards. Specific pathogen-free fish were exposed to T. bryosalmonae spores under controlled laboratory conditions and sampled at 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 17 wk post exposure (wpe), and the transmission of T. bryosalmonae from infected fish to the bryozoan Fredericella sultana was observed. Parasite load was determined in fish kidneys by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and parasite stages were detected in kidney, liver, and spleen tissues at different time points by immunohistochemistry. T. bryosalmonae was successfully transmitted from infected brown trout to F. sultana colonies but not from infected rainbow trout. Body length and weight of infected brown trout did not differ significantly from control brown trout during all time points, while length and weight of infected rainbow trout differed significantly compared to controls from 10 to 17 wpe. qRT-PCR revealed that parasite load was significantly higher in kidneys of brown trout compared with rainbow trout. Immunohistochemistry showed high numbers of intra-luminal stages (sporogonic stages) in kidneys of brown trout with low numbers of pre-sporogonic stages. Sporogonic stages were not seen in kidneys of rainbow trout; only high numbers of pre-sporogonic stages were detected. Numbers of pre-sporogonic stages were low in the spleen and liver of brown trout but high in rainbow trout. These data confirmed that there are differences in the development and infection progress of T. bryosalmonae between brown trout and rainbow trout.

  15. Fate of Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa) after infection of brown trout Salmo trutta and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gokhlesh; Abd-Elfattah, Ahmed; Saleh, Mona; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2014-01-01

    Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa) is the causative agent of proliferative kidney disease in salmonids. We assessed differences in intensity of T. bryosalmonae infection between brown trout Salmo trutta and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss from the clinical phase of infection onwards. Specific pathogen-free fish were exposed to T. bryosalmonae spores under controlled laboratory conditions and sampled at 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 17 wk post exposure (wpe), and the transmission of T. bryosalmonae from infected fish to the bryozoan Fredericella sultana was observed. Parasite load was determined in fish kidneys by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and parasite stages were detected in kidney, liver, and spleen tissues at different time points by immunohistochemistry. T. bryosalmonae was successfully transmitted from infected brown trout to F. sultana colonies but not from infected rainbow trout. Body length and weight of infected brown trout did not differ significantly from control brown trout during all time points, while length and weight of infected rainbow trout differed significantly compared to controls from 10 to 17 wpe. qRT-PCR revealed that parasite load was significantly higher in kidneys of brown trout compared with rainbow trout. Immunohistochemistry showed high numbers of intra-luminal stages (sporogonic stages) in kidneys of brown trout with low numbers of pre-sporogonic stages. Sporogonic stages were not seen in kidneys of rainbow trout; only high numbers of pre-sporogonic stages were detected. Numbers of pre-sporogonic stages were low in the spleen and liver of brown trout but high in rainbow trout. These data confirmed that there are differences in the development and infection progress of T. bryosalmonae between brown trout and rainbow trout. PMID:24270019

  16. Summer habitat use by Columbia River redband trout in the Kootenai River drainage, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Bennett, David H.

    2001-01-01

    The reported decline in the abundance, distribution, and genetic diversity of Columbia River redband trout Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri (a rainbow trout subspecies) has prompted fisheries managers to investigate their habitat requirements, identify critical habitat, and develop effective conservation and recovery programs. We analyzed the microhabitat, mesohabitat, and macrohabitat use and distribution of Columbia River redband trout by means of snorkel surveys in two watersheds in the Kootenai River drainage, Montana and Idaho, during the summers of 1997 and 1998. Juvenile (36–125 mm total length, TL) and adult (>=126 mm TL) fish preferred deep microhabitats (>=0.4 m) with low to moderate velocities (thalweg. Conversely, age-0 (<=35 mm) fish selected slow water (<=0.1 m/s) and shallow depths (<=0.2 m) located in lateral areas of the channel. Age-0, juvenile, and adult fish strongly selected pool mesohabitats and avoided riffles; juveniles and adults generally used runs in proportion to their availability. At the macrohabitat scale, density of Columbia River redband trout (35 mm) was positively related to the abundance of pools and negatively related to stream gradient. The pool: riffle ratio, gradient, and stream size combined accounted for 80% of the variation in density among 23 stream reaches in five streams. Our results demonstrate that low-gradient, medium-elevation reaches with an abundance of complex pools are critical areas for the production of Columbia River redband trout. These data will be useful in assessing the impacts of land-use practices on the remaining populations and may assist with habitat restoration or enhancement efforts.

  17. A mechanistic assessment of seasonal microhabitat selection by drift-feeding rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in a southwestern headwater stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalb, Bradley W.; Huntsman, Brock M.; Caldwell, Colleen A.; Bozek, Michael A.

    2018-01-01

    The positioning of fishes within a riverscape is dependent on the proximity of complementary habitats. In this study, foraging and non-foraging habitat were quantified monthly over an entire year for a rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) population in an isolated, headwater stream in southcentral New Mexico. The stream follows a seasonal thermal and hydrologic pattern typical for a Southwestern stream and was deemed suitable for re-introduction of the native and close relative, Rio Grande cutthroat trout (O. clarkii virginalis). However, uncertainty associated with limited habitat needed to be resolved if repatriation of the native fish was to be successful. Habitat was evaluated using resource selection functions with a mechanistic drift-foraging model to explain trout distributions. Macroinvertebrate drift was strongly season- and temperature-dependent (lower in winter and spring, higher in summer and fall). Models identified stream depth as the most limiting factor for habitat selection across seasons and size-classes. Additionally, positions closer to cover were selected during the winter by smaller size-classes (0, 1, 2), while net energy intake was important during the spring for most size-classes (0, 1, 2, 3). Drift-foraging models identified that 81% of observed trout selected positions that could meet maintenance levels throughout the year. Moreover, 40% of selected habitats could sustain maximum growth. Stream positions occupied by rainbow trout were more energetically profitable than random sites regardless of season or size-class. Larger size-classes (3, 4+) were energetically more limited throughout the year than were smaller size-classes. This research suggests that habitat in the form of deep pools is of paramount importance for rainbow trout or native cutthroat trout.

  18. Fractional parentage analysis and a scale-free reproductive network of brown trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyano, Hitoshi; Serbezov, Dimitar; Kishino, Hirohisa; Schweder, Tore

    2013-11-07

    In this study, we developed a method of fractional parentage analysis using microsatellite markers. We propose a method for calculating parentage probability, which considers missing data and genotyping errors due to null alleles and other causes, by regarding observed alleles as realizations of random variables which take values in the set of alleles at the locus and developing a method for simultaneously estimating the true and null allele frequencies of all alleles at each locus. We then applied our proposed method to a large sample collected from a wild population of brown trout (Salmo trutta). On analyzing the data using our method, we found that the reproductive success of brown trout obeyed a power law, indicating that when the parent-offspring relationship is regarded as a link, the reproductive system of brown trout is a scale-free network. Characteristics of the reproductive network of brown trout include individuals with large bodies as hubs in the network and different power exponents of degree distributions between males and females. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Use of microsatellite markers for identification of indigenous brown trout in a geographical region heavily influenced by stocked domesticated trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritzner, N.G.; Hansen, Michael Møller; Madsen, S.S.

    2001-01-01

    Based on estimates of genetic differentiation between populations, assignment tests and analysis of isolation by distance, stocked populations of brown trout Salmo trutta of Funen Island, Denmark, had been genetically affected by domesticated trout, whereas the stocking of wild exogenous trout...... into one of the rivers had little or no impact. At the same time, there were clear indications of remaining indigenous gene pools in the Funen populations. The management implications of these findings are discussed and changes in trout release activity are recommended to avoid further mixing of trout gene...

  20. Immunity to VHS virus in rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Niels; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Koch, C.

    1999-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is the rhabdovirus that causes most disease problems in farmed rainbow trout in Europe. Survivors of infection are usually immune to reinfection but as with other fish viruses, development of a modern recombinant vaccine has been complicated by the limited...... knowledge of the immune mechanisms and antigens involved in induction of immunity. Neutralizing and protective monoclonal antibodies recognize the envelope glycoprotein (G protein) which is the only viral protein known to be present on the surface of the virus particle. Immunoblotting analyses...... with monoclonal antibodies as well as with sera from immunized trout have indicated that protein conformation plays an important role in neutralization epitopes. The virus neutralizing activity often found in sera from convalescent trout is highly dependent on a poorly defined complementing activity in normal...

  1. The study of myocardial ischemic quality with weighted-subtraction-bull's-eye analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Wuduan; Tian Jiahe; Hou Qingtian

    1993-01-01

    Weighted-Subtraction-Bull's-eye analysis was studied in 33 normal subjects and 58 patients with coronary artery disease after dipyridamole 99m Tc-MIBI myocardial SPECT imaging. Two kinds of Bull's-eye were produced: (1) subtract rest from 1.2 times dipyridamole from 1.2 times rest Bull's-eye; (2) subtract dipyridamole Bull's-eye. The results showed that the weighted-subtraction-Bull's-eye could clearly displayed the location and puality of ischemic myocardium. And also 74% segments showed so called combined ischemic i.e the blood perfusion reduced, increased and sustained simultaneously after dipyridamole. Therefore weighted-subtraction-Bull's-eye analysis had provided a new method for determination of the quality of ischemia

  2. The effects of overwinter flowson the spring condition of rainbow and brown trout size classes in the Green River downstream of Flaming Gorge Dam, Utah.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnusson, A. K.; LaGory, K. E.; Hayse, J. W.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-06-25

    Flaming Gorge Dam, a hydroelectric facility operated by the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), is located on the Green River in Daggett County, northeastern Utah. Until recently, and since the early 1990s, single daily peak releases or steady flows have been the operational pattern of the dam during the winter period. However, releases from Flaming Gorge Reservoir followed a double-peak pattern (two daily flow peaks) during the winters of 2006-2007 and 2008-2009. Because there is little recent long-term history of double-peaking at Flaming Gorge Dam, the potential effects of double-peaking operations on trout body condition in the dam's tailwater are not known. A study plan was developed that identified research activities to evaluate potential effects from winter double-peaking operations (Hayse et al. 2009). Along with other tasks, the study plan identified the need to conduct a statistical analysis of historical trout condition and macroinvertebrate abundance to evaluate the potential effects of hydropower operations. The results from analyses based on the combined size classes of trout (85-630 mm) were presented in Magnusson et al. (2008). The results of this earlier analysis suggested possible relationships between trout condition and flow, but concern that some of the relationships resulted from size-based effects (e.g., apparent changes in condition may have been related to concomitant changes in size distribution, because small trout may have responded differently to flow than large trout) prompted additional analysis of within-size class relationships. This report presents the results of analyses of three different size classes of trout (small: 200-299 mm, medium: 300-399 mm, and large: {ge}400 mm body length). We analyzed historical data to (1) describe temporal patterns and relationships among flows, benthic macroinvertebrate abundance, and condition of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the tailwaters of Flaming

  3. The effects of overwinter flows on the spring condition of rainbow and brown trout size classes in the Green River downstream of Flaming Gorge Dam, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, A.K.; LaGory, K.E.; Hayse, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    Flaming Gorge Dam, a hydroelectric facility operated by the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), is located on the Green River in Daggett County, northeastern Utah. Until recently, and since the early 1990s, single daily peak releases or steady flows have been the operational pattern of the dam during the winter period. However, releases from Flaming Gorge Reservoir followed a double-peak pattern (two daily flow peaks) during the winters of 2006-2007 and 2008-2009. Because there is little recent long-term history of double-peaking at Flaming Gorge Dam, the potential effects of double-peaking operations on trout body condition in the dam's tailwater are not known. A study plan was developed that identified research activities to evaluate potential effects from winter double-peaking operations (Hayse et al. 2009). Along with other tasks, the study plan identified the need to conduct a statistical analysis of historical trout condition and macroinvertebrate abundance to evaluate the potential effects of hydropower operations. The results from analyses based on the combined size classes of trout (85-630 mm) were presented in Magnusson et al. (2008). The results of this earlier analysis suggested possible relationships between trout condition and flow, but concern that some of the relationships resulted from size-based effects (e.g., apparent changes in condition may have been related to concomitant changes in size distribution, because small trout may have responded differently to flow than large trout) prompted additional analysis of within-size class relationships. This report presents the results of analyses of three different size classes of trout (small: 200-299 mm, medium: 300-399 mm, and large: (ge)400 mm body length). We analyzed historical data to (1) describe temporal patterns and relationships among flows, benthic macroinvertebrate abundance, and condition of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the tailwaters of Flaming

  4. Inconsistent identification of pit bull-type dogs by shelter staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, K R; Levy, J K; Norby, B; Crandall, M M; Broadhurst, J E; Jacks, S; Barton, R C; Zimmerman, M S

    2015-11-01

    Shelter staff and veterinarians routinely make subjective dog breed identification based on appearance, but their accuracy regarding pit bull-type breeds is unknown. The purpose of this study was to measure agreement among shelter staff in assigning pit bull-type breed designations to shelter dogs and to compare breed assignments with DNA breed signatures. In this prospective cross-sectional study, four staff members at each of four different shelters recorded their suspected breed(s) for 30 dogs; there was a total of 16 breed assessors and 120 dogs. The terms American pit bull terrier, American Staffordshire terrier, Staffordshire bull terrier, pit bull, and their mixes were included in the study definition of 'pit bull-type breeds.' Using visual identification only, the median inter-observer agreements and kappa values in pair-wise comparisons of each of the staff breed assignments for pit bull-type breed vs. not pit bull-type breed ranged from 76% to 83% and from 0.44 to 0.52 (moderate agreement), respectively. Whole blood was submitted to a commercial DNA testing laboratory for breed identification. Whereas DNA breed signatures identified only 25 dogs (21%) as pit bull-type, shelter staff collectively identified 62 (52%) dogs as pit bull-type. Agreement between visual and DNA-based breed assignments varied among individuals, with sensitivity for pit bull-type identification ranging from 33% to 75% and specificity ranging from 52% to 100%. The median kappa value for inter-observer agreement with DNA results at each shelter ranged from 0.1 to 0.48 (poor to moderate). Lack of consistency among shelter staff indicated that visual identification of pit bull-type dogs was unreliable. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Fixation of femoral capital physeal fractures with 7.0 mm cannulated screws in five bulls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.G.; Crawford, W.H.; Stone, W.C.; Frampton, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    Salter-Harris type I fractures of the femoral capital physis were repaired in five Holstein bulls with three 7.0 mm cannulated screws placed in lag fashion. Radiographically at months 7 to 10, the fractures were healed and there was periarticular bone production on the femoral necks and the dorsal acetabular rims. Four bulls had normal gaits, and one bull had muscle atrophy and barely detectable lameness

  6. Joint disorder; a contributory cause to reproductive failure in beef bulls?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekman Stina

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The lame sire, unsound for breeding, can cause substantial economic loss due to reduced pregnancies in the beef-producing herd. To test the hypothesis that joint disorder is a possible cause of infertility in beef sires, right and left hind limb bones from 34 beef sires were examined postmortem to identify lesions in the femorotibial, femoropatellar (stifle, tarsocrural, talocalcaneus, and proximal intertarsal (tarsal joints. The bulls were slaughtered during or after the breeding season due to poor fertility results. Aliquots of the cauda epididymal contents taken postmortem from 26 bulls were used for sperm morphology evaluation. As a control, hind limbs (but no semen samples from 11 beef bulls with good fertility results were included. Almost all infertile bulls (30/34 had lesions in at least one joint. Twenty-eight bulls (28/30, 93% had lesions in the stifle joint, and 24 (24/28, 86% of these were bilateral. Fourteen bulls (14/30, 47% had lesions in the tarsal joint, and 10 (10/14, 71% of these were bilateral. Four bulls (4/34, 12% had no lesions, three bulls (3/34, 9% had mild osteoarthritis (OA, 5 (5/34, 15% moderate OA, 17 (17/34, 50% severe OA and 5 (5/34, 15% deformed OA. Almost all OA lesions (97% were characterized as lesions secondary to osteochondrosis dissecans. All the bulls with satisfactory sperm morphology (n = 12/34 had joint lesions, with mostly severe or deformed bilateral lesions (83%. Consequently, the most likely cause of infertility in these 12 bulls was joint disease. Almost all control bulls (10/11 had OA lesions, but most of them were graded as mild (55% or moderate (36%. None of the control bulls had severe lesions or deformed OA. We suggest that joint lesions should be taken into consideration as a contributory cause of reproductive failure in beef sires without symptoms of lameness.

  7. Larger eggs in resident brown trout living in sympatry with anadromous brown trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olofsson, H.; Mosegaard, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    Freshwater resident brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) in the stream Jorlandaan (southwestern Sweden) had larger eggs (range of actual mean egg wet weights, 65.9-108.5 mg) than both sympatric migratory trout (76.8-84.2 mg) and trout from five other Swedish streams with allopatric resident (23.7-80.1 mg......) or migratory populations (44.5-121.9 mg), after accounting for differences in body size. In Jorlandaan, some resident females even had a larger absolute mean egg weight than any of the migratory females found in the stream Resident trout had low absolute fecundity, and our data suggest that resident females...... in Jorlandan produce large eggs at the expense of their fecundity The extremely large relative egg size in resident Jorlandaan females suggests that the production of large offspring enhances fitness, possibly through increased fry survival....

  8. Erosion of interspecific reproductive barriers resulting from hatchery supplementation of rainbow trout sympatric with cutthroat trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docker, Margaret F; Dale, Angie; Heath, Daniel D

    2003-12-01

    The frequency of hybridization between cutthroat (Onchorhynchus clarki clarki) and rainbow (O. mykiss irideus) trout from coastal habitats in British Columbia, Canada, was examined in seven populations where the two species are sympatric with no history of rainbow trout stocking and compared with areas where native rainbow trout populations have been supplemented with hatchery fish (three populations). Four nuclear markers were used to identify each species and interspecific hybrids and one mitochondrial marker showed the direction of gene exchange between species. The frequency of hybrids was significantly higher (Fisher exact test, P < 0.001) in river systems where hatchery rainbow trout have been introduced (50.6% hybrids) than in populations where the two species naturally co-occur without supplementation (9.9% hybrids).

  9. Effect of behaviour of Holstein Friesian and Simmental bulls on semen quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Adamczyk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between the behaviour of Holstein-Friesian and Simmental bulls and the quality of their semen. A total of 76 breeding bulls of the Holstein-Friesian and dual-purpose Simmental breeds were investigated. Analysis was made of the response of bulls to humans and other bulls, facial hair whorl position and length, scrotal circumference, and semen characteristics (mean ejaculate volume, mean sperm concentration, and sperm wave motion. The age and breed of the bulls had a statistically significant effect on semen quality, scrotal circumference and the animals response to an unfamiliar human (Plt,0.05, Plt,0.01. The coefficients of correlation between the bull s response to a handler and to other bulls averaged 0.73. In general, only weak correlations were found between behavioural traits of the bulls and quality of their semen. It is worth noting a good correlation (r=0.50; Plt;0.05 between hair whorl position and sperm concentration in Simmental bulls.

  10. Quick cytogenetic screening of breeding bulls using flow cytometric sperm DNA histogram analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Szabolcs; Polgár, Péter J; Andersson, Magnus; Kovács, András

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the FXCycle PI/RNase kit for routine DNA analyses in order to detect breeding bulls and/or insemination doses carrying cytogenetic aberrations. In a series of experiments we first established basic DNA histogram parameters of cytogenetically healthy breeding bulls by measuring the intraspecific genome size variation of three animals, then we compared the histogram profiles of bulls carrying cytogenetic defects to the baseline values. With the exception of one case the test was able to identify bulls with cytogenetic defects. Therefore, we conclude that the assay could be incorporated into the laboratory routine where flow cytometry is applied for semen quality control.

  11. Effects of herd origin, AI stud and sire identification on genetic evaluation of Holstein Friesian bulls

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Bittante; Paolo Carnier; Luigi Gallo Gallo; Riccardo Dal Zotto; Martino Cassandro

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the effects of herd origin of bull, AI stud and sire identification number (ID)  on official estimated breeding values (EBV) for production traits of Holstein Friesian proven bulls. The data included 1,005  Italian Holstein-Friesian bulls, sons of 76 sires, born in 100 herds and progeny tested by 10 AI studs. Bulls were required  to have date of first proof between September 1992 and September 1997, to be born in a herd with at least on...

  12. The problem of sampling families rather than populations: Relatedness among individuals in samples of juvenile brown trout Salmo trutta L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Mensberg, Karen-Lise Dons

    1997-01-01

    In species exhibiting a nonrandom distribution of closely related individuals, sampling of a few families may lead to biased estimates of allele frequencies in populations. This problem was studied in two brown trout populations, based on analysis of mtDNA and microsatellites. In both samples mt......DNA haplotype frequencies differed significantly between age classes, and in one sample 17 out of 18 individuals less than 1 year of age shared one particular mtDNA haplotype. Estimates of relatedness showed that these individuals most likely represented only three full-sib families. Older trout exhibiting...

  13. Internal redistribution of radiolabelled silver among tissues of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and European eel (Anguilla anguilla)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hogstrand, C.; Grosell, M.; Wood, C.M.

    2003-01-01

    chloride water). Contents and concentrations of Ag-110m(l) in tissues and body fluids were then monitored over a 67-day post-exposure period in Ag(I)-free water of the same chloride levels. Changing the speciation of Ag(l) in the water had no effect on the whole body load of Ag-110m(I), but did result......(I) through the 67-day period, whereas the body burden of Ag-110m(I) in eel was reduced to half initial values by day 67. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....... in differences in internal distribution. In trout, changing water Ag(I) speciation significantly altered elimination or accumulation of Ag(I) in several body compartments. Notably, trout exposed to AgClaq eliminated Ag-110m(l) from the kidney more quickly than trout exposed to Ag(l) primarily as Ag...

  14. [Digestive utilization of purified cellulose in the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) and the common carp (Cyprinus carpio)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergot, F

    1981-01-01

    A semi-purified diet containing 22 p. 100 of a wood cellulose extract without lignin but still containing 22 p. 100 of hemicelluloses was distributed for one month to rainbow trout and common carp reared at 17 and 20 degrees C, respectively. The digestibility of the main dietary constituents was determined by an indirect method using chrome oxide as an inert tracer. The feces were recovered by a continuous automatic collector which rapidly removed them from the water, minimizing alteration by leaching. The cellulose content was estimated by the Weende (crude fiber) and the Van Soest (neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber) methods. The digestibility coefficients obtained for trout as well as for carp indicate that cellulose and hemicelluloses were not digested. In both species, volatile fatty acid concentration in the different segments of the digestive tract was low (less than 10 mM/l). These results lead us to suggest that trout and carp cannot degrade purified cellulose.

  15. 3D visualization of the initial Yersinia ruckeri infection route in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by optical projection tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otani, Maki; Villumsen, Kasper Rømer; Kragelund Strøm, Helene

    2014-01-01

    , optical projection tomography (OPT), a novel three-dimensional (3D) bio-imaging technique, was applied. OPT not only enables the visualization of Y. ruckeri on mucosal surfaces but also the 3D spatial distribution in whole organs, without sectioning. Rainbow trout were infected by bath challenge exposure...

  16. Ranking site vulnerability to increasing temperatures in southern Appalachian brook trout streams in Virginia: An exposure-sensitivity approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradly A. Trumbo; Keith H. Nislow; Jonathan Stallings; Mark Hudy; Eric P. Smith; Dong-Yun Kim; Bruce Wiggins; Charles A. Dolloff

    2014-01-01

    Models based on simple air temperature–water temperature relationships have been useful in highlighting potential threats to coldwater-dependent species such as Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis by predicting major losses of habitat and substantial reductions in geographic distribution. However, spatial variability in the relationship between changes...

  17. Lake trout in northern Lake Huron spawn on submerged drumlins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Stephen C.; Binder, Thomas; Wattrus, Nigel J.; Faust, Matthew D.; Janssen, John; Menzies, John; Marsden, J. Ellen; Ebener, Mark P.; Bronte, Charles R.; He, Ji X.; Tucker, Taaja R.; Hansen, Michael J.; Thompson, Henry T.; Muir, Andrew M.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2014-01-01

    Recent observations of spawning lake trout Salvelinus namaycush near Drummond Island in northern Lake Huron indicate that lake trout use drumlins, landforms created in subglacial environments by the action of ice sheets, as a primary spawning habitat. From these observations, we generated a hypothesis that may in part explain locations chosen by lake trout for spawning. Most salmonines spawn in streams where they rely on streamflows to sort and clean sediments to create good spawning habitat. Flows sufficient to sort larger sediment sizes are generally lacking in lakes, but some glacial bedforms contain large pockets of sorted sediments that can provide the interstitial spaces necessary for lake trout egg incubation, particularly if these bedforms are situated such that lake currents can penetrate these sediments. We hypothesize that sediment inclusions from glacial scavenging and sediment sorting that occurred during the creation of bedforms such as drumlins, end moraines, and eskers create suitable conditions for lake trout egg incubation, particularly where these bedforms interact with lake currents to remove fine sediments. Further, these bedforms may provide high-quality lake trout spawning habitat at many locations in the Great Lakes and may be especially important along the southern edge of the range of the species. A better understanding of the role of glacially-derived bedforms in the creation of lake trout spawning habitat may help develop powerful predictors of lake trout spawning locations, provide insight into the evolution of unique spawning behaviors by lake trout, and aid in lake trout restoration in the Great Lakes.

  18. Dietary acidification enhances phosphorus digestibility but decreases H+/K+-ATPase expression in rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Shozo H; Roy, Prabir K; Ferraris, Ronaldo P

    2006-10-01

    Oxynticopeptic cells of fish stomach are thought to secrete less acid than the specialized parietal cells of mammalian stomach. Gastric acidity, however, has not been directly compared between fish and mammals. We therefore fed rainbow trout and rats the same meal, and found that the lowest postprandial pH of trout stomach was 2.7, which was only transiently sustained for 1 h, whereas that of rat stomach was 1.3, which was sustained for 3 h. Postprandial pH of the small intestine was slightly higher in trout (approximately 8.0) than in rats (approximately 7.6), but pH of the large intestine was similar (approximately 8.0). Addition of acids to fish feeds, in an attempt to aid the weak acidity of fish stomach, has been known to improve phosphorus digestibility, but its physiological effect on fish stomach is not known. Exogenous acids did improve phosphorus digestibility but also decreased steady-state mRNA expression of trout H(+)/K(+)-ATPase (ATP4A, the proton pump) as well as Na(+)/bicarbonate cotransporter (NBC), and had no effect on gastrin-like mRNA and somastostatin (SST) mRNA abundance. Gastrin-like mRNA and SST-2 mRNA were equally distributed between corpus and antrum. ATP4A mRNA and NBC mRNA were in the corpus, whereas SST-1 mRNA was in the antrum. Trout gastrin-like EST had modest homology to halibut and pufferfish gastrin, whereas trout ATP4A mRNA had > or = 95% amino acid homology with mammalian, Xenopus and flounder ATP4A. Although ATP4A seems highly conserved among vertebrates, gastric acidity is much less in trout than in rats, explaining the low digestibility of bone phosphorus, abundant in fish diets. Dietary acidification does not reduce acidity enough to markedly improve phosphorus digestibility, perhaps because exogenous acids may inhibit endogenous acid production.

  19. Molecular characterization of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Molecular Genetics Laboratory, Directorate of Coldwater Fisheries Research, Bhimtal 263 ... Mir J. I., Ali S., Patiyal R. S. and Singh A. K. 2015 Molecular characterization of rainbow trout, ..... 5 × 106 MCMC repeats for final sampling of data. .... enhancing aquaculture productivity in the coldwater regions. ... simulation study.

  20. Bath vaccination of rainbow trout against yersiniosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raida, Martin Kristian; Buchmann, Kurt

    2007-01-01

    disease (ERM), was investigated at 5, 15 and 25° C. Rainbow trout fry were kept at controlled temperatures for two month before they were immersed in a commercial Yersinia ruckeri O1 bacterin for 10 minutes. Control groups were sham vaccinated using pure water. Fish were challenged with Yersinia ruckeri O...

  1. Molecular characterization of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 94; Online resources. Molecular characterization of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792) stocks in India. Ashoktaru Barat Prabhati K. Sahoo Rohit Kumar Javaid I. Mir Shahnawaz Ali Rabindar S. Patiyal Atul K. Singh. Volume 94 Online resources 2015 pp e13- ...

  2. Demographic changes following mechanical removal of exotic brown trout in an Intermountain West (USA), high-elevation stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, W. Carl; Budy, Phaedra E.; Thiede, Gary P.

    2015-01-01

    Exotic species present a great threat to native fish conservation; however, eradicating exotics is expensive and often impractical. Mechanical removal can be ineffective for eradication, but nonetheless may increase management effectiveness by identifying portions of a watershed that are strong sources of exotics. We used mechanical removal to understand processes driving exotic brown trout (Salmo trutta) populations in the Logan River, Utah. Our goals were to: (i) evaluate the demographic response of brown trout to mechanical removal, (ii) identify sources of brown trout recruitment at a watershed scale and (iii) evaluate whether mechanical removal can reduce brown trout densities. We removed brown trout from 2 km of the Logan River (4174 fish), and 5.6 km of Right Hand Fork (RHF, 15,245 fish), a low-elevation tributary, using single-pass electrofishing. We compared fish abundance and size distributions prior to, and after 2 years of mechanical removal. In the Logan River, immigration to the removal reach and high natural variability in fish abundances limited the response to mechanical removal. In contrast, mechanical removal in RHF resulted in a strong recruitment pulse, shifting the size distribution towards smaller fish. These results suggest that, before removal, density-dependent mortality or emigration of juvenile fish stabilised adult populations and may have provided a source of juveniles to the main stem. Overall, in sites demonstrating strong density-dependent population regulation, or near sources of exotics, short-term mechanical removal has limited effects on brown trout populations but may help identify factors governing populations and inform large-scale management of exotic species.

  3. Cost-effectiveness analysis of treatment alternatives for beef bulls with preputial prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasari, T R; McGrann, J M; Hooper, R N

    1997-10-01

    To develop an economic model for comparing cost-effectiveness of medical and surgical treatment versus replacement of beef bulls with preputial prolapse. Economic analysis. Estimates determined from medical records of bulls treated for preputial prolapse at our hospital and from information about treatment of bulls published elsewhere. Annual depreciation cost for treatment (ADC(T)) and replacement (ADC(R)) were calculated. Total investment for an injured bull equaled the sum of salvage value, maintenance cost, and expected cost of the treatment option under consideration. Total investment for a replacement bull was purchase price. Net present value of cost was calculated for each year of bull use. Sensitivity analyses were constructed to determine the value that would warrant treatment of an injured bull. The decision to treat was indicated when ADC(T) was less than ADC(R). In our example, it was more cost-effective for owners to cull an injured bull. The ADC(R) was $97 less than ADC(T) for medical treatment ($365 vs $462) and $280 less than ADC(T) for surgical treatment ($365 vs $645). Likewise, net present value of cost values indicated that it was more cost-effective for owners to cull an injured bull. Sensitivity analysis indicated treatment decisions were justified on the basis of replacement value or planned number of breeding seasons remaining for the bull. The model described here can be used by practitioners to provide an objective basis to guide decision making of owners who seek advice on whether to treat or replace bulls with preputial prolapse.

  4. SEMEN PRODUCTION AND PRODUCTIVE LIFE OF SAHIWAL BULLS: RELATIONSHIP WITH GENETIC WORTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. KHAN, A. A. BHATTI, S. A. BHATTI1 AND M. ASHIQ2

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective of the present study was to document the semen producing ability, productive life and genetic ability for lactation milk yield of Sahiwal bulls used for artificial insemination (AI in Punjab and to find the impact of AI bulls on the improvement of Sahiwal cattle. Data from Semen Production Unit (SPU, Qadirabad, Sahiwal, Pakistan were used for this purpose. A repeatability animal model was used for estimation of breeding values for lactation milk yield. Productive life of a bull was calculated as a difference between culling age and the age at first ejaculation. Number of bulls brought to SPU varied from 9 to 102 for any year. Average number of doses of semen produced by any bull for a year varied from 724 to 5745. On the average, 238 bulls produced 17143 ± 1164 semen doses during their average stay of 5.4 ± 0.2 years. About 50% of the bulls stayed for less than four years at the SPU; with a maximum range of 14 years. Progeny tested bulls (n=90 produced 5000 and 10000 semen doses (Y in three and four years of stay (X, respectively (Y = 24.8 + 2.3635 X - 0.0112 X2. To produce 20,000 doses, it is predicted that bulls need to stay for six and a half years at the SPU. There was no association between breeding values for lactation milk yield estimated under a repeatability animal model (EBVs and number of semen doses produced (r = 0.17 and EBVs and number of daughters. Lack of genetic superiority of bulls used indicated that AI did not bring desired genetic improvement in Sahiwal cattle in the present situation. Modifications for judicious utilization of bulls are suggested along with improvements in data recording.

  5. B cell signatures of BCWD-resistant and susceptible lines of rainbow trout: a shift towards more EBF-expressing progenitors and fewer mature B cells in resistant animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwollo, Patty; Ray, Jocelyn C; Sestito, Michael; Kiernan, Elizabeth; Wiens, Gregory D; Kaattari, Steve; StJacques, Brittany; Epp, Lidia

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) is a chronic disease of rainbow trout, and is caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Flavobacterium psychrophilum (Fp), a common aquaculture pathogen. The National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture has bred two genetic lines of rainbow trout: a line of Fp-resistant trout (ARS-Fp-R or R-line trout) and a line of susceptible trout (ARS-Fp-S, or S-line). Little is known about how phenotypic selection alters immune response parameters or how such changes relate to genetic disease resistance. Herein, we quantify interindividual variation in the distribution and abundance of B cell populations (B cell signatures) and examine differences between genetic lines of naive animals. There are limited trout-specific cell surface markers currently available to resolve B cell subpopulations and thus we developed an alternative approach based on detection of differentially expressed transcription factors and intracellular cytokines. B cell signatures were compared between R-line and S-line trout by flow cytometry using antibodies against transcription factors early B cell factor-1 (EBF1) and paired domain box protein Pax5, the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β, and the immunoglobulin heavy chain mu. R-line trout had higher percentages of EBF(+) B myeloid/ progenitor and pre-B cells in PBL, anterior and posterior kidney tissues compared to S-line trout. The opposite pattern was detected in more mature B cell populations: R-line trout had lower percentages of both IgM(+) mature B cells and IgM-secreting cells in anterior kidney and PBL compared to S-line trout. In vitro LPS-activation studies of PBL and spleen cell cultures revealed no significant induction differences between R-line and S-line trout. Together, our findings suggest that selective resistance to BCWD may be associated with shifts in naive animal developmental lineage commitment that result in decreased B lymphopoiesis and increased myelopoiesis in BCWD resistant trout relative

  6. Infectious pancreatic necrosis the trout farmers' dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisot, T.J.

    1965-01-01

    Induction of the innate immune pathways is critical for early anti-viral defense but there is limited understanding of how teleost fish recognize viral molecules and activate these pathways. In mammals, Toll-like receptors (TLR) 7 and 8 bind single-stranded RNA of viral origin and are activated by synthetic anti-viral imidazoquinoline compounds. Herein, we identify and describe the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) TLR7 and TLR8 gene orthologs and their mRNA expression. Two TLR7/8 loci were identified from a rainbow trout bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library using DNA fingerprinting and genetic linkage analyses. Direct sequencing of two representative BACs revealed intact omTLR7and omTLR8a1 open reading frames (ORFs) located on chromosome 3 and a second locus on chromosome 22 that contains an omTLR8a2 ORF and a putative TLR7pseudogene. We used the omTLR8a1/2 nomenclature for the two trout TLR8 genes as phylogenetic analysis revealed that they and all the other teleost TLR8 genes sequenced to date are similar to the zebrafish TLR8a, but are distinct from the zebrafish TLR8b. The duplicated trout loci exhibit conserved synteny with other fish genomes extending beyond the tandem of TLR7/8 genes. The trout TLR7 and 8a1/2 genes are composed of a single large exon similar to all other described TLR7/8 genes. The omTLR7 ORF is predicted to encode a 1049 amino acid (aa) protein with 84% similarity to the Fugu TLR7and a conserved pattern of predicted leucine-rich repeats (LRR). The omTLR8a1 andomTLR8a2 are predicted to encode 1035- and 1034-aa proteins, respectively, and have 86% similarity to each other. omTLR8a1 is likely the ortholog of the only Atlantic salmonTLR8 gene described to date as they have 95% aa sequence similarity. The tissue expression profiles of omTLR7, omTLR8a1 and omTLR8a2 in healthy trout were highest in spleen tissue followed by anterior and then posterior kidney tissues. Rainbow trout anterior kidney leukocytes produced elevated levels of

  7. Polymyxin B effects on motility parameters of cryopreserved bull semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Rashedi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of adding different values of polymyxin B (PMB to bull semen on various motility parameters of post-thawed semen such as total motility, progressive motility and velocity parameters using kinetic parameters of sperm by Computer Assisted Sperm Analysis.Methods: Gram negative bacteria release lipopolysaccharide, which induces the apoptotic pathway. Antibiotics are added to semen in order to prevent bacterial contaminations in bovine semen. These antibiotics kill the bacteria especially gram negative bacteria. Therefore, their endotoxins are released during bacteriolysis and bind to the head region and midpiece of sperm. PMB is a bactericidal antibiotic against multidrug resistant gram-negative bacteria and is able to neutralize the toxic effects of the released endotoxin. This study was performed on 3-year old Taleshi bulls.Results: The results showed both positive and negative significant effects of PMB on semen quality. Total motility and progressive motility were significantly increased (P<0.000 1 by 100 μg per mL of PMB (55.2% and 48.8% respectively against the control groups (43.5% and 37.7%, respectively. Moreover, they were significantly decreased (P<0.000 1 by 1 000 μg per mL of PMB (35.2% and 28.8% respectively against the control groups (43.5% and 37.7% respectively in above-mentioned parameters. In Computer Assisted Semen Analyzer, parameter VAP was significantly decreased (P<0.04 in 1 000 μg (69.6 μm/s against the control group (78.7 μm/s. Finally, using PMB in processing cryopreserved bull semen is advised, but before using it, the rate of endotoxins must be measured.Conclusions: We advise using PMB after measuring endotoxin concentration; In vitro, in vivo and in field fertilization, adding other sperm evaluation factors such as acrosomal integrity, DNA integrity, mitochondrial function to PMB treated semen.

  8. "Buzz marketing" : estudo de caso da marca Red Bull

    OpenAIRE

    Conceição, Miguel David

    2012-01-01

    Este relatório é baseado no estágio efetuado na agência de publicidade Ogilvy & Mather e é dedicado à temática do Buzz Marketing. De modo a poder explorar a fundo as dinâmicas deste tema foi feita uma análise à estratégia de marketing da marca Red Bull, considerada como um dos principais estudos de caso no âmbito do Buzz Marketing. Este tema pode ser definido como uma estratégia de marketing inovadora cujo objetivo principal é a criação de conversas entre os consumidores, colocando-os a falar...

  9. Detection of copy number variations and their effects in Chinese bulls

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Liangzhi

    2014-06-17

    Background: Copy number variations (CNVs) are a main source of genomic structural variations underlying animal evolution and production traits. Here, with one pure-blooded Angus bull as reference, we describe a genome-wide analysis of CNVs based on comparative genomic hybridization arrays in 29 Chinese domesticated bulls and examined their effects on gene expression and cattle growth traits.Results: We identified 486 copy number variable regions (CNVRs), covering 2.45% of the bovine genome, in 24 taurine (Bos taurus), together with 161 ones in 2 yaks (Bos grunniens) and 163 ones in 3 buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). Totally, we discovered 605 integrated CNVRs, with more " loss" events than both " gain" and " both" ones, and clearly clustered them into three cattle groups. Interestingly, we confirmed their uneven distributions across chromosomes, and the differences of mitochondrion DNA copy number (gain: taurine, loss: yak & buffalo). Furthermore, we confirmed approximately 41.8% (253/605) and 70.6% (427/605) CNVRs span cattle genes and quantitative trait loci (QTLs), respectively. Finally, we confirmed 6 CNVRs in 9 chosen ones by using quantitative PCR, and further demonstrated that CNVR22 had significantly negative effects on expression of PLA2G2D gene, and both CNVR22 and CNVR310 were associated with body measurements in Chinese cattle, suggesting their key effects on gene expression and cattle traits.Conclusions: The results advanced our understanding of CNV as an important genomic structural variation in taurine, yak and buffalo. This study provides a highly valuable resource for Chinese cattle\\'s evolution and breeding researches. 2014 Zhang et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  10. Repeatability of number of progeny born to bulls used in group mating of cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The group mating of bulls in pasture situations is a management practice that might be more efficient if an individual bull’s ability to sire calves could be predicted. Retrospective data on numbers of progeny born to bulls from 4 populations (Angus and 3 composite breeds) in 4 consecutive years of...

  11. Intra-operative hyperthermia in a young Angus bull with a fatal outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Skelding, Alicia; Valverde, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    A healthy, 9-month-old black Angus bull was presented for elective penile-preputial translocation and caudal epididymectomy. After premedication and induction, general anesthesia was maintained with inhalant anesthetic. Over an hour into the anesthetic period the bull developed severe hyperthermia and hypercapnia that resulted in fatality despite treatment efforts.

  12. Intra-operative hyperthermia in a young Angus bull with a fatal outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelding, Alicia; Valverde, Alexander

    2017-06-01

    A healthy, 9-month-old black Angus bull was presented for elective penile-preputial translocation and caudal epididymectomy. After premedication and induction, general anesthesia was maintained with inhalant anesthetic. Over an hour into the anesthetic period the bull developed severe hyperthermia and hypercapnia that resulted in fatality despite treatment efforts.

  13. A comparison of the performance of Holstein and Friesian bulls in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance of 92 Holstein-Friesian bulls, which were accepted for progeny testing ander the South African National Dairy Animal Performance and Progeny Testing Scheme during 1982, 1983 and 1984, was compared. Bulls which were locally bred for more than one generation were not entered under the Scheme.

  14. Use of NMR and NMR Prediction Software to Identify Components in Red Bull Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Andre J.; Shirzadi, Azadeh; Burrow, Timothy E.; Dicks, Andrew P.; Lefebvre, Brent; Corrin, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    A laboratory experiment designed as part of an upper-level undergraduate analytical chemistry course is described. Students investigate two popular soft drinks (Red Bull Energy Drink and sugar-free Red Bull Energy Drink) by NMR spectroscopy. With assistance of modern NMR prediction software they identify and quantify major components in each…

  15. Does bovine besnoitiosis affect the sexual function of chronically infected bulls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Gil, A; Jacquiet, P; Florentin, S; Decaudin, A; Berthelot, X; Ronsin, P; Grisez, C; Prevot, F; Alzieu, J P; Marois, M; Corboz, N; Peglion, M; Vilardell, C; Liénard, E; Bouhsira, E; Castillo, J A; Franc, M; Picard-Hagen, N

    2016-09-15

    Bovine besnoitiosis is a reemerging disease in Europe. The clinically Besnoitia besnoiti infection in bulls is characterized by fever, nasal discharge, and orchitis in the acute phase and by scleroderma in the chronic phase. However, in many bulls, B besnoiti infection remains at a subclinical stage. Bull infertility is an economically relevant consequence of besnoitiosis infection. It is not clear, however, if semen quality returns to normal levels when infected animals have clinically recovered. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between chronic besnoitiosis and bull sexual function in a region of eastern France, where the disease is reemerging, by comparing semen quality and genital lesions in 11 uninfected, 17 subclinically infected, and 12 clinically infected bulls. The presence of anti-B besnoiti antibodies was detected by Western blot test. Semen was collected by electroejaculation. Bulls clinically infected with B besnoiti showed significantly more genital tract alterations than uninfected or subclinically infected bulls. No relationship was evidenced between besnoitiosis infectious status and semen quality, whereas a significant relationship was noted between genital lesions and semen score. This means that in the absence of moderate to severe genital lesions, chronic bovine besnoitiosis is unlikely to alter semen quality. However, as the presence of infected animals could lead to spread of the disease, culling or separation of clinically infected bulls from the remaining healthy animals is strongly recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 7 CFR 59.102 - Mandatory daily reporting for cows and bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mandatory daily reporting for cows and bulls. 59.102... (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Cattle Reporting § 59.102 Mandatory daily reporting for cows and bulls. (a) In General. The corporate officers or officially designated representatives of each cow and...

  17. Fate of the isoprenoid hydrocarbon, pristane, in rainbow trout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Bon, A.M.; Cravedi, J.P.; Tulliez, J.

    1987-01-01

    The excretion routes and tissue distribution of [ 3 H]pristane were measured in rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri, after a single intragastric dose (0.1 mg). This branched-alkane was quickly and largely absorbed. The balance study showed that the major routes of excretion were fecal (40.4% of the dose) and branchial (39.6%). In feces radioactivity was exclusively due to [ 3 H]pristane, whereas 3 H resulting from gill excretion was principally associated with tritiated water. Only 2.6% of the radioactivity was cleared via the kidneys and found in the urine as metabolites. After 48 hr, no hydrocarbon accumulation was observed in gall bladder, while in liver and fat, respectively, 69 and 34% of the radioactivity originated from pristane, the rest of the labeling being mostly associated with lipid components

  18. Cod and rainbow trout as freeze-chilled meal elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard; Nielsen, Jette; Jørgensen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Meal elements' are elements of a meal, e.g. portions of pre-fried meat, sauces, frozen fish or pre-processed vegetables typically prepared industrially. The meal elements are distributed to professional satellite kitchens, where the staff can combine them into complete meals. Freeze......-chilling is a process consisting of freezing and frozen storage followed by thawing and chilled storage. Combining the two would enable the manufacturer to produce large quantities of frozen meal elements to be released into the chill chain according to demand. We have studied the influence of freeze...... days of chilled storage, and the corresponding time for rainbow trout was 10 days. After this period the sensory quality decreased and chemical indicators of spoilage were seen to increase. CONCLUSION: The consistent quality during storage and the high-quality shelf life are practically applicable...

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyl reduction in lake trout by irradiation and broiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cichy, R.F.; Zabik, M.E.; Weaver, C.M.

    1979-01-01

    The Great Lakes Environmental contaminants surveys (1974-1975) have concluded that excessive concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are present in a specific species of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). Over 30 ppM of PCBs have been detected in the edible fillet of this fat trout. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of gamma irradiation combined with broiling on the levels of PCBs in lake trout fillets

  20. Reversible bull's-eye maculopathy associated with intravitreal fomivirsen therapy for cytomegalovirus retinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, T W; Jaffe, G J

    2000-08-01

    To report two cases in which a bull's eye maculopathy developed after intravitreal injection of fomivirsen. Case reports. A 50-year-old man with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and refractory cytomegalovirus retinitis developed bull's-eye pigmentary changes in the macula of the right eye after initiating therapy with fomivirsen (Vitravene; CIBA Vision, Atlanta, Georgia) intravitreal injections. These pigmentary changes resolved upon cessation of treatment. A 36-year-old man with AIDS and refractory bilateral cytomegalovirus retinitis developed bull's-eye pigmentary changes in both eyes during bilateral intravitreal treatment with fomivirsen. Vision was not affected. These changes resolved after treatment with fomivirsen was stopped. Fomivirsen, a new medication for the treatment of refractory cytomegalovirus retinitis, may cause a bull's-eye maculopathy in some patients. The bull's-eye maculopathy is reversible and does not appear to affect vision.

  1. Ureaplasma diversum in bull semen in Australia: its detection and potential effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, N; Chousalkar, K K; Chenoweth, P J

    2013-11-01

    The primary objective of this study was to confirm the infection status of Ureaplasma diversum in Australian bulls and to identify morphological changes of sperm from U. diversum-positive bulls. Fresh semen samples were taken from 29 sexually active beef bulls from suspect herds in the Riverina/Upper Murray region. U. diversum was identified using PCR analyses and culture of the organism. Nine of the bulls were PCR-positive for U. diversum but none of these had genital lesions. Sperm from infected bulls showed increased incidence of abnormal tails (bent and coiled), as well as surface abnormalities (i.e. small protuberances or lumps). The results suggest impairment of sperm function and possibly fertility. Further investigations into the potential role of U. diversum as a pathogen for Australian cattle are warranted. © 2013 Australian Veterinary Association.

  2. Plasma kinetics of 14C-uric acid in bulls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetinkaya, N.

    1999-01-01

    Plasma kinetics of uric acid were followed by 14C labelled uric acid to measure the effects of feed intake upon kinetic parameters. Two bulls (average L W 346±79 kg) were given an intravenous administration of a tracer (8-14C-uric acid, 250μCi/50 ml) by single injection via a jugular catheter. Animals were fed a mixed diet containing 30% wheat straw and 70% compounded feed as 95 and 60 % of the voluntary intake. Voluntary intakes were 8 kg/d as fed for two bulls. Blood samples, were collected at 0, 0.5,1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 24 and 28 h after tracer administration. Fractional rates of clearance from the blood and pool size of compartments in the blood were estimated using plasma 8-14C-counts, following the method proposed by Chen and Franklin. The mean values of fractional rates (K 2,1 , K 1,2 ) and compartments pool size (V 1 , V 2 ) and the total pool size of compartments I and 2 at 60% and 95% feeding level were 1.97 and 1.44, 1.06 and 0.78; 76.9 L and 94.5 L, 137.01 L and 163.51 L; 214.0 L and 250.3 L respectively. Plasma kinetic parameters of 14C-uric acid were not affected at different feed intakes

  3. Production and evaluation of YY-male Brook Trout to eradicate nonnative wild brook trout populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Patrick; Schill, Daniel J.; Meyer, Kevin A.; Campbell, Matthew R.; Vu, Ninh V.; Hansen, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Nonnative Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis were introduced throughout western North America in the early 1900s, resulting in widespread self-sustaining populations that are difficult to eradicate and often threaten native salmonid populations. A novel approach for their eradication involves use of YY male (MYY) Brook Trout (created in the hatchery by feminizing XY males and crossing them with normal XY males). If MYY Brook Trout survive after stocking, and reproduce successfully with wild females, in theory this could eventually drive the sex ratio of the wild population to 100% males, at which point the population would not be able to reproduce and would be eradicated. This study represents the first successful development of a FYY and MYY salmonid broodstock, which was produced in four years at relatively low cost. Field trials demonstrated that stocked hatchery MYY Brook Trout survived and produced viable MYY offspring in streams, although reproductive fitness appeared to have been lower than their wild conspecifics. Even if reduced fitness is the norm in both streams and alpine lakes, our population simulations suggest that eradication can be achieved in reasonable time periods under some MYY stocking scenarios, especially when wild Brook Trout are simultaneously suppressed in the population.

  4. A trial of two trouts: Comparing the impacts of rainbow and brown trout on a native galaxiid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, K.A.; Dunham, J.B.; Stephenson, J.F.; Terreau, A.; Thailly, A.F.; Gajardo, G.; de Leaniz, C. G.

    2010-01-01

    Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and brown trout Salmo trutta are the world's two most widespread exotic fishes, dominate the fish communities of most cold-temperate waters in the southern hemisphere and are implicated in the decline and extirpation of native fish species. Here, we provide the first direct comparison of the impacts of rainbow and brown trout on populations of a native fish by quantifying three components of exotic species impact: range, abundance and effect. We surveyed 54 small streams on the island of Chilo?? in Chilean Patagonia and found that the rainbow trout has colonized significantly more streams and has a wider geographic range than brown trout. The two species had similar post-yearling abundances in allopatry and sympatry, and their abundances depended similarly on reach-level variation in the physical habitat. The species appeared to have dramatically different effects on native drift-feeding Aplochiton spp., which were virtually absent from streams invaded by brown trout but shared a broad sympatric range with rainbow trout. Within this range, the species' post-yearling abundances varied independently before and after controlling for variation in the physical habitat. In the north of the island, Aplochiton spp. inhabited streams uninvaded by exotic trouts. Our results provide a context for investigating the mechanisms responsible for apparent differences in rainbow and brown trout invasion biology and can help inform conservation strategies for native fishes in Chilo?? and elsewhere. ?? 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation ?? 2010 The Zoological Society of London.

  5. Assessment of ranges plasma indices in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss reared under conditions of intensive aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Kopp

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma parameters in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss from three various trout farms in the Czech Republic were assessed using automated blood plasma analyser. Non-haemolysed serum from the heart of 48 healthy, randomly selected fish (standard length, mean ± SD = 247.3 ± 24.2 mm; body mass, mean ± SD = 262.18 ± 87.28 g was analysed for the following plasma parameters: alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, total protein, cholinesterase, amylase, glucose, lactate, albumin, urea, cholesterol, triglycerides, lipase, Ca, Mg, P, Fe, Na, K and Cl. All data were analysed statistically such as normality assessment by means of Kolmogorov–Smirnov test and adequate statistical testing using various parametric and non-parametric tests for each variable. With regard to data distribution, 19 indices out of 23 (aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, total protein, amylase, glucose, lactate, albumin, urea, cholesterol, triglycerides, Ca, Mg, P, Fe, Na, K and Cl were normally distributed. The indices were affected by handling time and, accordingly to the physical and chemical properties of water. Estimates obtained were compared with previously reported ranges. The blood automated analyser proved to be a valuable and reliable instrument for the estimation of plasma parameters determining normal ranges in rainbow trout.

  6. Genetic variation in brown trout Salmo trutta across the Danube, Rhine, and Elbe headwaters: a failure of the phylogeographic paradigm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerceteau-Köhler, Estelle; Schliewen, Ulrich; Kopun, Theodora; Weiss, Steven

    2013-08-26

    Brown trout Salmo trutta have been described in terms of five major mtDNA lineages, four of which correspond to major ocean basins, and one, according to some authors, to a distinct taxon, marbled trout Salmo marmoratus. The Atlantic and Danubian lineages of brown trout meet in a poorly documented contact zone in Central Europe. The natural versus human mediated origin of the Atlantic lineage in the upper Danube is a question of both theoretical and practical importance with respect to conservation management. We provide a comprehensive population genetic analysis of brown trout in the region with the aim of evaluating the geographic distribution and genetic integrity of these two lineages in and around their contact zone. Genetic screening of 114 populations of brown trout across the Danube/Rhine/Elbe catchments revealed a counter-intuitive phylogeographic structure with near fixation of the Atlantic lineage in the sampled portions of the Bavarian Danube. Along the Austrian Danube, phylogeographic informative markers revealed increasing percentages of Danube-specific alleles with downstream distance. Pure Danube lineage populations were restricted to peri-alpine isolates within previously glaciated regions. Both empirical data and simulated hybrid comparisons support that trout in non-glaciated regions north and northeast of the Alps have an admixed origin largely based on natural colonization. In contrast, the presence of Atlantic basin alleles south and southeast of the Alps stems from hatchery introductions and subsequent introgression. Despite extensive stocking of the Atlantic lineage, little evidence of first generation stocked fish or F1 hybrids were found implying that admixture has been established over time. A purely phylogeographic paradigm fails to describe the distribution of genetic lineages of Salmo in Central Europe. The distribution pattern of the Atlantic and Danube lineages is extremely difficult to explain without invoking very strong

  7. Residency Patterns and Migration Dynamics of Adult Bull Sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) on the East Coast of Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Ryan; Smale, Malcolm J.; Cowley, Paul D.; Froneman, Pierre W.

    2014-01-01

    Bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) are globally distributed top predators that play an important ecological role within coastal marine communities. However, little is known about the spatial and temporal scales of their habitat use and associated ecological role. In this study, we employed passive acoustic telemetry to investigate the residency patterns and migration dynamics of 18 adult bull sharks (195–283 cm total length) tagged in southern Mozambique for a period of between 10 and 22 months. The majority of sharks (n = 16) exhibited temporally and spatially variable residency patterns interspersed with migration events. Ten individuals undertook coastal migrations that ranged between 433 and 709 km (mean  = 533 km) with eight of these sharks returning to the study site. During migration, individuals exhibited rates of movement between 2 and 59 km.d−1 (mean  = 17.58 km.d−1) and were recorded travelling annual distances of between 450 and 3760 km (mean  = 1163 km). Migration towards lower latitudes primarily took place in austral spring and winter and there was a significant negative correlation between residency and mean monthly sea temperature at the study site. This suggested that seasonal change is the primary driver behind migration events but further investigation is required to assess how foraging and reproductive activity may influence residency patterns and migration. Results from this study highlight the need for further understanding of bull shark migration dynamics and suggest that effective conservation strategies for this vulnerable species necessitate the incorporation of congruent trans-boundary policies over large spatial scales. PMID:25295972

  8. Effects of herd origin, AI stud and sire identification on genetic evaluation of Holstein Friesian bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Bittante

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to estimate the effects of herd origin of bull, AI stud and sire identification number (ID  on official estimated breeding values (EBV for production traits of Holstein Friesian proven bulls. The data included 1,005  Italian Holstein-Friesian bulls, sons of 76 sires, born in 100 herds and progeny tested by 10 AI studs. Bulls were required  to have date of first proof between September 1992 and September 1997, to be born in a herd with at least one other  bull and to have sire and dam with official EBV when bull was selected for progeny testing. Records of sires with only one  son were also discarded. The dependent variable analyzed was the official genetic evaluation for a “quantity and quality  of milk” index (ILQ. The linear model to predict breeding values of bulls included the fixed class effects of herd origin of  bull, AI testing organization, birth year of bull, and estimated breeding values of sire and dam, both as linear covariates.  The R2of the model was 45% and a significant effect was found for genetic merit of sire (P   for herd origin of bull (P   nificant. The range of herd origin effect was 872 kg of ILQ. However, in this study, the causes of this result were not  clear; it may be due to numerous factors, one of which may be preferential treatment on dams of bulls. Analyses of resid-  uals on breeding value of proven bulls for ILQ showed a non significant effect of sire ID, after adjusting for parent aver-  age, herd origin effect and birth year effect. Although the presence of bias in genetic evaluation of dairy bulls is not evi-  dent, further research is recommended firstly to understand the reasons of the significant herd origin effect, secondly to  monitor and guarantee the greatest accuracy and reliability of genetic evaluation procedures. 

  9. Do native brown trout and non-native brook trout interact reproductively?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucherousset, J.; Aymes, J. C.; Poulet, N.; Santoul, F.; Céréghino, R.

    2008-07-01

    Reproductive interactions between native and non-native species of fish have received little attention compared to other types of interactions such as predation or competition for food and habitat. We studied the reproductive interactions between non-native brook trout ( Salvelinus fontinalis) and native brown trout ( Salmo trutta) in a Pyrenees Mountain stream (SW France). We found evidence of significant interspecific interactions owing to consistent spatial and temporal overlap in redd localizations and spawning periods. We observed mixed spawning groups composed of the two species, interspecific subordinate males, and presence of natural hybrids (tiger trout). These reproductive interactions could be detrimental to the reproduction success of both species. Our study shows that non-native species might have detrimental effects on native species via subtle hybridization behavior.

  10. Breed differences of bull frozen-thawed semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntemka, A; Tsousis, G; Brozos, C; Kiossis, E; Boscos, C M; Tsakmakidis, I A

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the quality of frozen-thawed semen from different bull breeds. Commercial frozen-thawed bull semen samples (26 per breed, 130 totally) of five breeds (Holstein [Η], Brown Swiss [BS], Limousin [L], Belgian Blue [BB], Blonde d' Aquitaine [BA]) were used. After thawing, each semen sample was subjected to thermal resistance test (TR) for 0.5 and 1 hr at 38°C and hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST) for 1 hr at 150 mOsm at 37°C. Additionally, all samples were evaluated at times 0 hr (thawing), 0.5 hr (TR), 1 hr (TR) for kinetics by CASA [progressive, immotile, rapid, medium, slow moving spermatozoa, curvilinear velocity (VCL), average path velocity (VAP), straight line velocity (VSL), linearity (LIN), straightness (STR), beat cross-frequency (BCF), amplitude of lateral head displacement (ALH), wobble (WOB)]. Moreover, directly after thawing, all semen samples were evaluated for morphometry, morphology, viability and DNA fragmentation. Statistical analysis was conducted using a mixed model for repeated measures. The results showed (a) higher VCL after thawing in H, L breeds compared to BB and BA, (b) higher VAP after thawing in L compared to BB, BA, (c) higher values of progressive spermatozoa after TR in H, BS compared to BB, BA, (d) higher values of rapid spermatozoa after thawing and 0.5 hr of TR in H, BS, L compared to BB, BA, (e) lower viability in BA after thawing compared to H, BS, BB, (f) lower morphological abnormalities in H compared to L, BB, (g) higher head length in Η compared to BB. No significant differences were observed in the results from HOST and DNA fragmentation between breeds. In conclusion, quality characteristics of frozen-thawed bull semen are dependent on the breed. Frozen semen from BB and BA breeds should be handled more carefully after thawing, as it is more sensitive to stress. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Brook trout passage performance through culverts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerig, Elsa; Castro-Santos, Theodore R.; Bergeron, Normand

    2016-01-01

    Culverts can restrict access to habitat for stream-dwelling fishes. We used passive integrated transponder telemetry to quantify passage performance of >1000 wild brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) attempting to pass 13 culverts in Quebec under a range of hydraulic and environmental conditions. Several variables influenced passage success, including complex interactions between physiology and behavior, hydraulics, and structural characteristics. The probability of successful passage was greater through corrugated metal culverts than through smooth ones, particularly among smaller fish. Trout were also more likely to pass at warmer temperatures, but this effect diminished above 15 °C. Passage was impeded at higher flows, through culverts with steep slopes, and those with deep downstream pools. This study provides insight on factors influencing brook trout capacity to pass culverts as well as a model to estimate passage success under various conditions, with an improved resolution and accuracy over existing approaches. It also presents methods that could be used to investigate passage success of other species, with implications for connectivity of the riverscape.

  12. The effects of varied densities on the growth and emigration of adult cutthroat trout and brook trout in fenced stream enclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buys, D.J.; Hilderbrand, R.H.; Kershner, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of various density treatments on adult fish growth and emigration rates between Bonneville cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki utah and brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in stream enclosures in Beaver Creek, Idaho, We used 3 density treatments (low, ambient, and high fish densities) to evaluate density-related effects and to ensure a response. Intraspecific ambient-density tests using cutthroat trout only were also performed. Results indicated an absence of cage effects in the stream enclosures and no differences in fish growth between ambient-density stream-enclosure fish and free-range fish. Brook trout outgrew and moved less than cutthroat trout in the stream enclosures, especially as density increased, In all 3 density treatments, brook trout gained more weight than cutthroat trout, with brook trout gaining weight in each density treatment and cutthroat trout losing weight at the highest density. At high densities, cutthroat trout attempted to emigrate more frequently than brook trout in sympatry and allopatry. We observed a negative correlation between growth and emigration for interspecific cutthroat trout, indicating a possible competitive response due to the presence of brook trout. We observed similar responses for weight and emigration in trials of allopatric cutthroat trout, indicating strong intraspecific effects as density increased. While cutthroat trout showed a response to experimental manipulation with brook trout at different densities, there has been long-term coexistence between these species in Beaver Creek, This system presents a unique opportunity to study the mechanisms that lead cutthroat trout to coexist with rather than be replaced by nonnative brook trout.

  13. Characteristics of beef from intensively fed western Baggara bulls and heifers: quality attributes and chemical composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M.A. Sharaf Eldin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen samples of L. dorsi muscles were taken from western Baggara cattle, one sample from each of seven bulls and seven heifers randomly selected for slaughter at the end of an experimental feedlot feeding which lasted for 16 weeks at Kuku Research Station, Khartoum North, Sudan, to study sex effects on meat chemical composition and quality attributes. Moisture content of beef was higher in bulls meat than in heifers meat. Protein and ash content were significantly (P<0.001 higher in bulls meat, whereas fat content was significantly (P<0.001 higher in heifers meat than in bulls meat. Cooking loss of bulls meat was significantly (P<0.001 lower and water-holding capacity was also significantly (P<0.01 lower in the bulls meat than in heifers meat. Bull’s meat colour had low lightness (L and high redness (a and yellowness (b, as determined by Hunter Lab. Tristimulus colorimeter, as compared with heifers meat. Sensory panelist scores were higher for colour darkness and flavour intensity and lower for tenderness, juiciness and overall acceptability of bulls meat as compared with heifers meat.

  14. Influence of waterfalls on patterns of association between trout and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to establish whether waterfalls in the uKhahlamba Drakensberg Park, South Africa, are seasonally important in conserving indigenous Natal cascade frog Hadromophryne natalensis tadpole populations from the threat of predation by alien rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and brown trout Salmo ...

  15. Landsat satellite evidence of the decline of northern California bull kelp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, A.; Houskeeper, H. F.; Kudela, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    Bull kelp (Nereocystis luetkeana), a species of canopy-forming brown macroalga dominant in the Pacific Northwest of North America, provides critical ecological services such as habitat for a diverse array of marine species, nutrient regulation, photosynthesis, and regional marine carbon cycling. Starting around 2014, annual aerial surveys of bull kelp forests along California's northern coastline conducted by the California Department of Fish and Wildlife (CDFW) have reported a sudden 93% reduction in bull kelp canopy area. Remote sensing using satellite imagery is a robust, highly accurate tool for detecting and quantifying the abundance of the canopy-forming giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera; however, it has not been successfully applied to measuring northern bull kelp forests. One of the main difficulties associated with bull kelp detection via satellite is the small surface area of bull kelp canopies. As a result, bull kelp beds often only constitute part of a satellite pixel, making it difficult to obtain a kelp reflectance signal significantly different than water's reflectance signal. As part of the NASA Student Airborne Research Program (SARP), we test a novel method for assessing bull kelp canopy using a multiple endmember spectral mixing analysis (MESMA) applied to Landsat 5 and Landsat 8 imagery from 2003-2016. Water and kelp spectral endmembers are selected along the northern California coastline from Havens Neck cape to Point Arena. MESMA results are ground truthed with the CDFW aerial multispectral imagery data. This project will present a satellite-based time series of bull kelp canopy area and evaluate canopy change in a northern California kelp ecosystem.

  16. Otter ( Lutra lutra ) predation on stocked brown trout ( Salmo trutta ) in two Danish lowland rivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lene

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate otter predation on stocked trout. Large hatchery-reared trout (16-30 cm) were stocked into two Danish rivers with different fish populations. Otter diet before and after trout stocking was determined by analysing 685 spraints, collected regularly during the 35-day study...... period. Fish composition in the rivers before stocking was assessed by electrofishing. In River Trend, a typical trout river, the proportion of trout in the otter diet increased from 8% before stocking to 33% a few days after stocking. Moreover, trout lengths in the diet changed significantly towards...... the lengths of stocked trout, indicating that newly stocked trout were preferred to wild trout. In River Skals, dominated by cyprinids, there was no change in otter diet after stocking of hatchery trout, i.e., these were ignored by otter. Otter predation should be taken into account together with fish...

  17. Re-evaluating the Contribution and Legacy of Hedley Bull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Maione Souza

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The article aims, in the first instance, to make a detailed analysis of the work of Hedley Bull, approaching the main themes and concepts developed by him. Secondly, it aims to re-evaluate the potential of the author’s contribution, given the new conditions of the post-Cold War period. With this in mind, the article critically analyses the most recent interpretations of this work, which seek to highlight its critical and normative potential, as well as to dissociate it from the realist tradition in international relations. These two facts differentiate the new commentators from older ones and reaffirm the continuing relevance of Hedley Bull’s work, the latter being the article’s chief conclusion.

  18. Mitochondrial genome of the bull shark Carcharhinus leucas (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Liu, Min; Peng, Zaiqing; Shi, Xiaofang

    2015-01-01

    The bull shark Carcharhinus leucas is a large elasmobranch species widespread in tropical and warm oceans, rivers and lakes. We first determine the complete mitogenome of C. leucas in this article. It is 16,704 bp in length, consists 37 genes and one control region with the typical gene order in vertebrates. The ND6 gene used the rare AGG as stop codon. The 22 tRNA genes ranged from 67 to 75 bp. The tRNA-Ser2 lacks the dihydrouridine arm and cannot form the typical cloverleaf structure. The control region is 1066 bp in length with high A+T and low G contents.

  19. Nucleotide variation in the mitochondrial genome provides evidence for dual routes of postglacial recolonization and genetic recombination in the northeastern brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, B L; Perry, R C; Barron, J L; Marshall, H D

    2012-09-26

    Levels and patterns of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation were examined to investigate the population structure and possible routes of postglacial recolonization of the world's northernmost native populations of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), which are found in Labrador, Canada. We analyzed the sequence diversity of a 1960-bp portion of the mitochondrial genome (NADH dehydrogenase 1 gene and part of cytochrome oxidase 1) of 126 fish from 32 lakes distributed throughout seven regions of northeastern Canada. These populations were found to have low levels of mtDNA diversity, a characteristic trait of populations at northern extremes, with significant structuring at the level of the watershed. Upon comparison of northeastern brook trout sequences to the publicly available brook trout whole mitochondrial genome (GenBank AF154850), we infer that the GenBank sequence is from a fish whose mtDNA has recombined with that of Arctic charr (S. alpinus). The haplotype distribution provides evidence of two different postglacial founding groups contributing to present-day brook trout populations in the northernmost part of their range; the evolution of the majority of the haplotypes coincides with the timing of glacier retreat from Labrador. Our results exemplify the strong influence that historical processes such as glaciations have had on shaping the current genetic structure of northern species such as the brook trout.

  20. Performance of continuous biodigestors supplied by young bull waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Monica Sarolli S. de M. [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil)], E-mail: monicas@unioeste.br; Lucas Junior, Jorge de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias; Pivetta, Laercio Augusto [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Marechal C. Rondon, PR (Brazil); Costa, Luiz A. de Mendonca

    2008-07-01

    The various systems of livestock farming in the industrial model promote physical and chemical changes on waste. In the fattening of cattle in the model of confinement for young bulls has been a reversal in the proportion between roughage and concentrate, or the animals receive a higher amount of protein compared to the traditional system of confinement. This change of the waste characteristics involves modification in the system of treatment used. In this work, it was aimed to evaluate the performance of batch biodigestors operated in continuous system, supplied by young bulls waste which received two differentiated diets by the proportion between roughage and concentrate, whether or not containing inoculum in the substrate composition and subjected to three levels of temperature (25, 35 and 40 deg C). The parameters evaluated were: reduction of total solids (TS) and volatile (VS), and the potential for biogas production. The results showed a reduction of TS higher in the treatment which was not used inoculum for diet 1 and 2 with the exception of the treatment which the substrate was referred to temperature of 40 deg C on diet 2. For the reduction of VS there was no interference from the use of inoculum on diet 1. On diet 2, the largest reductions were observed without the use of inoculum, with the exception of the 40 deg C temperature. For the potential for biogas production the treatment where they used waste derived from animals fed with diet 2, with the use of inoculum, in the temperature of 40 deg C showed the greatest value, or 0.53 m{sup 3} of biogas per kg TS added. (author)

  1. Continuous progeny testing, use and selection of proven bulls in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bar-Anan

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The breeding policy of the Israeli Holstein-type dairy cattle is reviewed. The bulls are progeny tested on their daughters’ first three lactations. The traits evaluated are the following: milk, fat, yield persistency, fertility, incidence of mastitis, and % cullings for three most important reasons. The test analysis takes into account the genetic level of daughters’ contemporaries and maternal grandsires. The paper describes a general outline of the selection decisions in AI bulls. Considerable amount of imported semen is used for breeding young bulls. Breeding goals are discussed against the estimated genetic parameters for and between the given traits.

  2. Duration Dependence in Stock Prices: An Analysis of Bull and Bear Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde, Asger; Timmermann, Allan

    2004-01-01

    This article studies time series dependence in the direction of stock prices by modeling the (instantaneous) probability that a bull or bear market terminates as a function of its age and a set of underlying state variables, such as interest rates. A random walk model is rejected both for bull...... and bear markets. Although it . ts the data better, a generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity model is also found to be inconsistent with the very long bull markets observed in the data. The strongest effect of increasing interest rates is found to be a lower bear market hazard rate...

  3. Genomic Prediction from Whole Genome Sequence in Livestock: The 1000 Bull Genomes Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayes, Benjamin J; MacLeod, Iona M; Daetwyler, Hans D

    Advantages of using whole genome sequence data to predict genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) include better persistence of accuracy of GEBV across generations and more accurate GEBV across breeds. The 1000 Bull Genomes Project provides a database of whole genome sequenced key ancestor bulls....... In a dairy data set, predictions using BayesRC and imputed sequence data from 1000 Bull Genomes were 2% more accurate than with 800k data. We could demonstrate the method identified causal mutations in some cases. Further improvements will come from more accurate imputation of sequence variant genotypes...

  4. Radiation damage to bull sperm motility. III. Further x-ray studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rikmenspoel, R.

    1975-01-01

    The results of previous radiation experiments, which indicated that the centriole serves as a control center for bull sperm motility, appear to be in conflict with experiments showing that the bull sperm flagellum is an autonomous oscillator. To resolve this conflict experiments were conducted to calibrate absolutely the dose-response curves for the radiation damage, and to measure the force production and the mechanochemical energy conversion after irradiation in bull sperm. The results indicate that the centriole acts as a mechanical anchor for the contractile fibers

  5. Estrogenic effects of phytoestrogens in brown trout (Salmo trutta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Louise Marie; Holbech, Henrik; Bjerregaard, Poul

    2010-01-01

    , the potential effect of the waterborne phytoestrogens on endemic fish species is largely unknown. In the present investigation, the estrogenic effect of biochanin A was tested in brown trout through water exposure experiments. Juvenile brown trout of both sexes were exposed to different concentrations...... of biochanin A. In a ten day exposure experiments, NOEC and LOEC for plasma vitellogenin induction in brown trout were found to be 0.8µg biochanin A/L and 1.2µg biochanin A/L, respectively. A six hour pulse experiment resulted in NOEC and LOEC for induction of plasma vitellogenin in brown trout of 48µg...... biochanin A/L and 186µg biochanin A/L, respectively. Investigations of the ability of genistein to induce vitellogenin synthesis in brown trout are ongoing....

  6. Identification of suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS) 6, 7, 9 and CISH in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and analysis of their expression in relation to other known trout SOCS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tiehui; Gao, Qian; Nie, Pin; Secombes, Christopher J

    2010-10-01

    Four new members of the SOCS family of molecules in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), CISH and SOCS6, 7 and 9, are described for the first time in this species. The genes had a wide tissue distribution in trout, and were detected in gills, skin, muscle, liver, spleen, head kidney, intestine and brain, with brain having the highest expression levels. Stimulation of a rainbow trout leucocyte cell line, RTS-11, (mononuclear/macrophage-like cells) with LPS or Poly I:C had no effect on the expression of these genes, although in both cases the previously identified SOCS1-3 genes were up-regulated. Similarly, stimulation of RTS-11 or RTG-2 (fibroblasts) cells with the trout recombinant cytokines IFN-gamma or IL-1beta had no effect on CISH or SOCS6, 7 and 9 expression. However, PMA stimulation did impact on SOCS6 and SOCS9 expression, and LPS stimulation of primary cultures or bacterial infection (Yersinia ruckeri) increased significantly CISH expression (as well as SOCS1 and SOCS2 or SOCS3 respectively). It is apparent that the type II SOCS genes (CISH, SOCS1-3) are particularly relevant to immune regulation in fish, although the intriguing expansion of the SOCS4/5 subgroup in fish requires further investigation as to their role and functional divergence. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of water temperature and fish size on predation vulnerability of juvenile humpback chub to rainbow trout and brown trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, David L.; Morton-Starner, Rylan

    2015-01-01

    Predation on juvenile native fish by introduced Rainbow Trout and Brown Trout is considered a significant threat to the persistence of endangered Humpback Chub Gila cypha in the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon. Diet studies of Rainbow Trout and Brown Trout in Glen and Grand canyons indicate that these species do eat native fish, but impacts are difficult to assess because predation vulnerability is highly variable, depending on prey size, predator size, and the water temperatures under which the predation interactions take place. We conducted laboratory experiments to evaluate how short-term predation vulnerability of juvenile native fish changes in response to fish size and water temperature using captivity-reared Humpback Chub, Bonytail, and Roundtail Chub. Juvenile chub 45–90 mm total length (TL) were exposed to adult Rainbow and Brown trouts at 10, 15, and 20°C to measure predation vulnerability as a function of water temperature and fish size. A 1°C increase in water temperature decreased short-term predation vulnerability of Humpback Chub to Rainbow Trout by about 5%, although the relationship is not linear. Brown Trout were highly piscivorous in the laboratory at any size > 220 mm TL and at all water temperatures we tested. Understanding the effects of predation by trout on endangered Humpback Chub is critical in evaluating management options aimed at preserving native fishes in Grand Canyon National Park.

  8. Feeding habits of the alien brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and the native brown trout Salmo trutta in Czech mountain streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horká Petra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying patterns of prey resource use is fundamental to identify mechanisms enabling the coexistence of related fish species. Trophic interactions between the native brown trout, Salmo trutta, and the introduced brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, were studied monthly from May to October in three mountain streams in Central Europe (Czech Republic. To evaluate whether the feeding habits differ between separated and coexisting populations of these species, one locality where both species coexist, and two allopatric populations of either species were studied. Across the study period, the mean stomach fullness of fish varied, being highest in spring and declining through autumn. The diet overlap (Schoener's overlap index between the species increased through the studied season (from 54.5% in July to 81.5% in October. In allopatry, both species had nearly the same feeding habits. However, in sympatry, brook trout consumed higher proportion of terrestrial invertebrates, while brown trout showed no changes either in the proportions of aquatic and terrestrial prey utilized or in the selectivity for prey categories in comparison to allopatric conditions. The dietary shift observed for brook trout, but not for brown trout, suggests that brown trout is a stronger competitor in the studied sympatric locality, leading the brook trout to change its feeding habits to reduce interspecific competition.

  9. Evaluation of a rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mikyss culture water recirculating system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Sánchez O.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate a water recirculation system for rainbow trout fish cultures at the recirculating laboratory of the Aquaculture Engineering Production Program of University of Nariño. Materials and Methods. 324 rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mikyss fries were cultured in 12 plastic tanks with a capacity of 250 L in an aquaculture recirculating system the treatment system of which was made up by a conventional sedimentation tank, a fixed stand upflow biofilter with recycled PVC tube pieces and a natural degassing system; the sedimentation unit effluent was pumped up to a reservoir tank using a 2 HP centrifugal pump after being subject to gravity through the biofilter and to be then distributed to the 12 culture units to which a constant amount of air from a blower was injected. Results. The water treatment system removed 31% of total suspended solids, 9.5% of total ammonia nitrogen, and increased dissolved oxygen to the final effluent in 6.5%. An increase of 305% in biomass was calculated during 75 days, the mortality percentage registered throughout the study period was 4.9%. Conclusions. The water treatment system maintained the physicochemical water quality parameters within the values recommended for the species. The increase in weight and size, food conversion, mortality and biomass production reported normal values for rainbow trout fish culture in recirculating systems.

  10. Behaviour of rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss) under defensible and indefensible patterns of food delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed Heydarnejad, M.; Purser, G. J.

    2010-07-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the behaviour of rainbow trout ( n=30), Oncorhynchus mykiss, in small raceways when either self-feeders (T2) or hand-feeding (t2) were used. The method of food delivery in T2 was defensible while that of t2 was indefensible. Fish in both raceways were subjected to restricted feeding (RF) for 25 days. Food was available in the morning (09:00-10:00) in the downstream area and in the afternoon (16:00-17:00) in the upstream area of the raceways. The results showed that the behaviour of rainbow trout was significantly different under interference competition (T2) for food compared with that under scramble competition (t2). RF in T2 fish limited food availability to meal times when feeding rewards were available while t2 fish only responded to the location of food delivery. The aggressive fish in T2 were dominant, and t2 fish at high densities showed intense social interactions under the indefensible pattern of food distribution; these interactions did not dampen to a minimum level to suppress the development of dominance hierarchies. Further, the stocking density did not break down the dominance hierarchies between the T2 fish. This suggests that decreased efficiency in the search for food or inefficient foraging, induced by interference competition at high densities, affected the behaviour of rainbow trout.

  11. Measurement of peroxisomal enzyme activities in the liver of brown trout (Salmo trutta, using spectrophotometric methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resende Albina D

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was aimed primarily at testing in the liver of brown trout (Salmo trutta spectrophotometric methods previously used to measure the activities of catalase and hydrogen peroxide producing oxidases in mammals. To evaluate the influence of temperature on the activities of those peroxisomal enzymes was the second objective. A third goal of this work was the study of enzyme distribution in crude cell fractions of brown trout liver. Results The assays revealed a linear increase in the activity of all peroxisomal enzymes as the temperature rose from 10° to 37°C. However, while the activities of hydrogen peroxide producing oxidases were strongly influenced by temperature, catalase activity was only slightly affected. A crude fraction enriched with peroxisomes was obtained by differential centrifugation of liver homogenates, and the contamination by other organelles was evaluated by the activities of marker enzymes for mitochondria (succinate dehydrogenase, lysosomes (aryl sulphatase and microsomes (NADPH cytochrome c reductase. For peroxisomal enzymes, the activities per mg of protein (specific activity in liver homogenates were strongly correlated with the activities per g of liver and with the total activities per liver. These correlations were not obtained with crude peroxisomal fractions. Conclusions The spectrophotometric protocols originally used to quantify the activity of mammalian peroxisomal enzymes can be successfully applied to the study of those enzymes in brown trout. Because the activity of all studied peroxisomal enzymes rose in a linear mode with temperature, their activities can be correctly measured between 10° and 37°C. Probably due to contamination by other organelles and losses of soluble matrix enzymes during homogenisation, enzyme activities in crude peroxisomal fractions do not correlate with the activities in liver homogenates. Thus, total homogenates will be used in future seasonal and

  12. Growth rate differences between resident native brook trout and non-native brown trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, S.M.; Hendry, A.P.; Letcher, B.H.

    2007-01-01

    Between species and across season variation in growth was examined by tagging and recapturing individual brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and brown trout Salmo trutta across seasons in a small stream (West Brook, Massachusetts, U.S.A.). Detailed information on body size and growth are presented to (1) test whether the two species differed in growth within seasons and (2) characterize the seasonal growth patterns for two age classes of each species. Growth differed between species in nearly half of the season- and age-specific comparisons. When growth differed, non-native brown trout grew faster than native brook trout in all but one comparison. Moreover, species differences were most pronounced when overall growth was high during the spring and early summer. These growth differences resulted in size asymmetries that were sustained over the duration of the study. A literature survey also indicated that non-native salmonids typically grow faster than native salmonids when the two occur in sympatry. Taken together, these results suggest that differences in growth are not uncommon for coexisting native and non-native salmonids. ?? 2007 The Authors.

  13. Diurnal stream habitat use of juvenile Atlantic salmon, brown trout and rainbow trout in winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. H.; Douglass, K.A.

    2009-01-01

    The diurnal winter habitat of three species of juvenile salmonids was examined in a tributary of Skaneateles Lake, NY to compare habitat differences among species and to determine if species/age classes were selecting specific habitats. A total of 792 observations were made on the depth, velocity, substrate and cover (amount and type) used by sympatric subyearling Atlantic salmon, subyearling brown trout and subyearling and yearling rainbow trout. Subyearling Atlantic salmon occurred in shallower areas with faster velocities and less cover than the other salmonid groups. Subyearling salmon was also the only group associated with substrate of a size larger than the average size substrate in the study reach during both winters. Subyearling brown trout exhibited a preference for vegetative cover. Compared with available habitat, yearling rainbow trout were the most selective in their habitat use. All salmonid groups were associated with more substrate cover in 2002 under high flow conditions. Differences in the winter habitat use of these salmonid groups have important management implications in terms of both habitat protection and habitat enhancement.

  14. Admixture analysis of stocked brown trout populations using mapped microsatellite DNA markers: indigenous trout persist in introgressed populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Mensberg, Karen-Lise Dons

    2009-01-01

    , but resolution is low if genetic differentiation is weak. Here, we analyse stocked brown trout populations represented by historical (1943-1956) and contemporary (2000s) samples, where genetic differentiation between wild populations and stocked trout is weak (pair-wise F-ST of 0.047 and 0.053). By analysing...... a high number of microsatellite DNA markers (50) and making use of linkage map information, we achieve clear identification of admixed and non-admixed trout. Moreover, despite strong population-level admixture by hatchery strain trout in one of the populations (70.8%), non-admixed individuals...... nevertheless persist (7 out of 53 individuals). These remnants of the indigenous population are characterized by later spawning time than the majority of the admixed individuals. We hypothesize that isolation by time mediated by spawning time differences between wild and hatchery strain trout is a major factor...

  15. Use of post-thaw semen quality parameters to predict fertility of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bull during peak breeding season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, H; Andrabi, S M H; Anwar, M; Jahan, S

    2017-05-01

    This study was designed to predict the fertility of water buffalo bull using post-thaw semen quality parameters during peak breeding season. Thirty ejaculates were collected from five bulls with artificial vagina and cryopreserved. At post-thaw, semen was analysed for motility parameters, velocity distribution, kinematics, DNA integrity/fragmentation, viability, mitochondrial transmembrane potential, morphology, plasma membrane and acrosome integrity. Data of 514 inseminations were collected for estimation of in vivo fertility. Pearson's correlation coefficients showed that progressive motility (PM), rapid velocity, average path velocity, straight line velocity, straightness, supravital plasma membrane integrity, viable spermatozoon with intact acrosome or with high mitochondrial activity were correlated with in vivo fertility (r = .81, p fertility was PM. However, combinations of semen quality parameters to predict fertility were better as compared to single parameter. In conclusion, fertility of buffalo bull can be predicted through some of the post-thaw in vitro semen quality tests during peak breeding season. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Bulls grazing Kentucky 31 tall fescue exhibit impaired growth, semen quality, and decreased semen freezing potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum prolactin (PRL) and testosterone concentrations, body weight, body composition, semen quality, and semen freezing potential for bulls grazing the toxic tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum [Schreb.] Darbysh. ¼ Schedonorous arundinaceum [Schreb.] Dumort.) cultivar Kentucky 31 (E+) compared with a n...

  17. Longitudinal strain bull's eye plot patterns in patients with cardiomyopathy and concentric left ventricular hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Hu, Kai; Nordbeck, Peter; Ertl, Georg; Störk, Stefan; Weidemann, Frank

    2016-05-10

    Despite substantial advances in the imaging techniques and pathophysiological understanding over the last decades, identification of the underlying causes of left ventricular hypertrophy by means of echocardiographic examination remains a challenge in current clinical practice. The longitudinal strain bull's eye plot derived from 2D speckle tracking imaging offers an intuitive visual overview of the global and regional left ventricular myocardial function in a single diagram. The bull's eye mapping is clinically feasible and the plot patterns could provide clues to the etiology of cardiomyopathies. The present review summarizes the longitudinal strain, bull's eye plot features in patients with various cardiomyopathies and concentric left ventricular hypertrophy and the bull's eye plot features might serve as one of the cardiac workup steps on evaluating patients with left ventricular hypertrophy.

  18. In vitro assessment of sperm from bulls of high and low field fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Naib, A; Hanrahan, J P; Lonergan, P; Fair, S

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the reasons for differences in field fertility of bulls following insemination with frozen-thawed semen. The study was carried out in two separate parts over two years and comparisons were made between 5 high and 4 low fertility Holstein Friesian bulls as determined by their either 90 day non-return rate (Year 1) or calving rate (Year 2). Two high fertility Limousin bulls were included in Year 1 for comparative purposes. The ability of sperm from each bull to penetrate artificial mucus was assessed (Year 1 = 7 replicates; Year 2 = 5 replicates). Glass capillary tubes (2 per bull per replicate) were filled with artificial mucus and incubated with sperm stained in 1% Hoechst 33342 for 30 min at 37 °C. The number of sperm were subsequently counted at 10 mm intervals along the tube between 40 and 80 mm markers. Sperm mitochondrial activity of each bull was assessed by the MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) assay (4 replicates in each year). Sperm were incubated with MTT for 1 h at 37 °C following which the absorbance of formazan was read using a spectrophotometer. Sperm viability after thawing was assessed for each bull using a live/dead sperm viability kit (Year 1 = 3 replicates; Year 2 = 4 replicates). A minimum of 250 cells were assessed per bull in each replicate and classified as either live or dead. Finally, the ability of sperm to fertilize oocytes in vitro and their ability to develop to blastocyst stage embryos were assessed (5 replicates in each year involving 220 to 306 oocytes per bull). Data transformation to normalize residuals was required for mucus sperm penetration (square root) and IVF (cleavage and blastocyst rate) results (arcsin). The mean number of sperm counted at each 10 mm mark between 40 and 80 mm was higher in the high fertility (56.0; 95% CI 39.5 to 75.3) compared to the low fertility (42.9; 95% CI 29.3 to 59.1) Holstein Friesian bulls but the difference did not

  19. The effect of Cu2+ on osmoregulation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) assayed by changes in plasma salinity and gill lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heinz J.M.; Olsen, Allan Gylling; Rosenkilde, Per

    1993-01-01

    Zoofysiologi, Osmoregulation, Lipid metabolism, Ecotoxicology, Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.......Zoofysiologi, Osmoregulation, Lipid metabolism, Ecotoxicology, Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss....

  20. Intake, physiological parameters and behavior of Angus and Nellore bulls subjected to heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ériton Egidio Lisboa Valente

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetics differences between breeds may determine the tolerance to high temperature, effect dry matter intake and consequently cattle performance. The effect of temperature and humidity index (THI on diurnal, nocturnal and daily intake, water intake, physiologic parameters and behavior of Nellore (B. indicus and Angus (B. taurus bulls were evaluated. Eight Angus and eight Nellore young bulls (337±7.4 kg and 16 months of age were allocated in two climate-controlled rooms for 32 days. In the period 1, all bulls were housed in thermoneutral conditions (TN, THI = 72.6 for 10 days. In period 2 (10 days, four Angus and four Nellore bulls were subjected to low heat stress (LHS, THI = 76.4 in daytime, and four Angus and four Nellore bulls were subjected to high heat stress (HHS, THI = 81.5 in daytime. The diurnal and daily dry matter intake (DMI of Nellore were not affected (P>0.05 by heat stress. However, Angus bulls decreased diurnal DMI by 24% and daily DMI decreased (P<0.05 by 15% on HHS. In TN Angus bulls had higher (P<0.05 daily DMI (36.2 g/kg of BW than Nellore (29.1 g/kg of BW, but in HHS they had similar (P>0.05 daily DMI (31.6 and 30.2 g/kg of BW, respectively. We observed an increase (P<0.05 in respiratory frequency, but water intake was not affected (P>0.05 by heat stress. The heart rate decreased (P<0.05 with heat stress. No differences were found (P>0.05 in feeding behavior. Therefore, THI stress threshold should distinct for Angus and Nellore bulls. The use of feed intake information may improve the prediction of thermic discomfort on specific climate condition. 

  1. NITRO MUSK ADDUCTS OF RAINBOW TROUT ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainbow trout and other fish species can serve as 'sentinel' species for the assessment of ecological status and the presence of certain environmental contaminants. As such they act as bioindicators of exposure. Here we present seminal data regarding dose-response and toxicokinetics of trout hemoglobin adduct formation from exposure to nitro musks that are frequently used as fragrance ingredients in formulations of personal care products. Hemoglobin adducts serve as biomarkers of exposure of the sentinel species as we have shown in previous studies of hemoglobin adducts formed in trout and environmental carp exposed to musk xylene (MX) and musk ketone (MK). Gas chromatography-electron capture negative ion chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (GC-NICI-MS) employing selected ion monitoring is used to measure 4-amino-MX (4-AMX), 2-amino-MX (2-AMX), and 2-amino-MK (2-AMK) released by alkaline hydrolysis from the sulfinamide adducts of hemoglobin. Dose-response and toxicokinetics were investigated using this sensitive method for analysis of these metabolites. In the dose-response investigation, the concentrations of 4-AMX and 2-2AMX are observed to pass through a maximum at 0.10 mg/g. In the case of 2-AMK, the adduct concentration is almost the same at dosages in the range of 0.030 to 0.10 mg/g. For toxicokinetics, the concentration of the metabolites in the Hb reaches a maximum in the 3-day sample after administration of MX or MK. Further elimination of the metabo

  2. Lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Erie: a case history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Floyd C.; Muth, Kenneth M.; Kenyon, Roger

    1995-01-01

    Native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) once thrived in the deep waters of eastern Lake Erie. The impact of nearly 70 years of unregulated exploitation and over 100 years of progressively severe cultural eutrophication resulted in the elimination of lake trout stocks by 1950. Early attempts to restore lake trout by stocking were unsuccessful in establishing a self-sustaining population. In the early 1980s, New York's Department of Environmental Conservation, Pennsylvania's Fish and Boat Commission, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service entered into a cooperative program to rehabilitate lake trout in the eastern basin of Lake Erie. After 11 years of stocking selected strains of lake trout in U.S. waters, followed by effective sea lamprey control, lake trout appear to be successfully recolonizing their native habitat. Adult stocks have built up significantly and are expanding their range in the lake. Preliminary investigations suggest that lake trout reproductive habitat is still adequate for natural reproduction, but natural recruitment has not been documented. Future assessments will be directed toward evaluation of spawning success and tracking age-class cohorts as they move through the fishery.

  3. Growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of finishing bulls fed crude glycerin-supplemented diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Chaves Françozo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the performance, carcass characteristics and chemical composition of Longissimusmuscle (LM of the bulls. Twenty-four Nellore bulls were used in a complete randomised design. The bulls were randomly assigned to one of the three diets containing 0, 5 or 12% glycerin. Final BW and ADG were similar (P>0.05 between the bulls fed with 5 or 12% of glycerin but were higher (P0.05 by glycerin level. Hot carcass weight increased (P0.05 the conformation, colour, texture, marbling and pH. There was difference (P>0.05 for moisture, ashes and crude protein among glycerin levels. Bulls fed 12% glycerin present the highest (P<0.03 total lipids on LM. The percentage of saturated fatty acids (SFA, monounsaturated acids (MUFA, polyunsaturated acids (PUFA, n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and PUFA/SFA and n-6:n-3 ratios of the LM were similar among the diets. In conclusion, glycerin level did not affect the animal performance and carcass characteristics of Nellore bulls finished in feedlot.

  4. MEAT PERFORMANCE OF THE CZECH SPOTTED CATTLE BULLS BRED IN MOUNTAIN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. VOŘÍŠKOVÁ

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Chosen indicators of meat performance of 98 bulls of Czech Spotted cattle bred in elevation above 720 m above sea-level in the mountain region of Šumava are presented in the article. The fattening was realized in a barn with a deep litter. The feed ration consisted of haylage throughout the year. The bulls were divided into three groups according to their genotype - C100, C75-85R (CxR and C75-85A (CxA. The highest live weight at slaughter was achieved in the group C100 with 650 kg with the average age of 726 days and the weight of the carcasses of 363.8 kg. On the other hand, the worst results were achieved in the group CxA. For comparison a group of 14 bulls of the Holstein breed was created (H100, which was fattened in the same conditions. The bulls achieved their highest live weight before slaughter (664.6 kg, but at the highest age (743 days. Statistically significant differences were proven in the meat performance after individual fathers – the best results were documented with the offspring of the bull BO-837. After the separation of the set of bulls according to live weight at the end of fattening, the highest results were achieved by the group above 700 kg. The best class using the SEUROP method was achieved by the group with slaughtering live weight between 650 kg and 700 kg.

  5. Correlation between hypoosmotic swelling test and breeding soundness evaluation of adult Nelore bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamires Miranda Neto

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the relationship between physical and morphological semen features with the hypoosmotic swelling (HOS test in raw semen of adult Nelore bulls classified as sound and unsound for breeding. Two hundred and six Nelore bulls aging from 3-10 years old were subjected to breeding soundness examination. After physical and morphological semen examination, HOS test was done. After the breeding soundness examination, 94.2% of the bulls were classified as sound for breeding. There was no difference between the average scrotal circumference of bulls classified as sound and unsound for breeding (P>0.05, but there was difference between all semen physical and morphological aspects of bulls classified as sound and unsound for breeding (P>0.05, but there was no difference in the mean percentage of reactive spermatozoa to HOS test results both for sound (38.4±17.9 and unsound animals (39.5±16.4; P>0.05, with no Pearson correlation between the HOS test and variables. According to these results HOS test can not be used alone to predict the reproductive potential of adult Nelore bulls.

  6. High salt inclusion reduces concentrate intake without major effects on renal function in young bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireia Blanco

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Beef producers prefer to feed concentrates on an ad libitum basis to increase the flexibility of their work. Including salt, which is a self-limiting supplement, could control or reduce concentrate intake without increasing the workforce. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of including 10%NaCl in the concentrate on intake, growth, blood ions (sodium, potassium and chlorine, renal function (through creatinine and urea concentrations in blood, and daytime behaviour of bulls over 6 weeks. Bulls consuming the control concentrate (Control bulls had greater weight gain (P<0.05 and concentrate intake (P<0.001 than those consuming the concentrate with 10%NaCl (10%NaCl bulls. Lower plasma sodium concentration was found in Control bulls after 6 weeks (P<0.05, while potassium concentration was lower after 4 (P<0.05 and 6 weeks (P<0.01. Blood urea did not differ between the groups, and creatinine only differed at week 4 (P<0.01. Control bulls spent less time eating hay (P<0.001 and more time idling (P<0.01 during daylight hours. In conclusion, the inclusion of 10%NaCl in the concentrate for short periods could be used to reduce concentrate intake without major effects on renal function; however, a concomitant decrease in weight gain should be expected.

  7. Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones

    1985-01-01

    Quaking aspen is the most widely distributed native North American tree species (Little 1971, Sargent 1890). It grows in a great diversity of regions, environments, and communities (Harshberger 1911). Only one deciduous tree species in the world, the closely related Eurasian aspen (Populus tremula), has a wider range (Weigle and Frothingham 1911)....

  8. Introduced brown trout alter native acanthocephalan infections in native fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Rachel A; Townsend, Colin R; Poulin, Robert; Tompkins, Daniel M

    2011-09-01

    1. Native parasite acquisition provides introduced species with the potential to modify native host-parasite dynamics by acting as parasite reservoirs (with the 'spillback' of infection increasing the parasite burdens of native hosts) or sinks (with the 'dilution' of infection decreasing the parasite burdens of native hosts) of infection. 2. In New Zealand, negative correlations between the presence of introduced brown trout (Salmo trutta) and native parasite burdens of the native roundhead galaxias (Galaxias anomalus) have been observed, suggesting that parasite dilution is occurring. 3. We used a multiple-scale approach combining field observations, experimental infections and dynamic population modelling to investigate whether native Acanthocephalus galaxii acquisition by brown trout alters host-parasite dynamics in native roundhead galaxias. 4. Field observations demonstrated higher infection intensity in introduced trout than in native galaxias, but only small, immature A. galaxii were present in trout. Experimental infections also demonstrated that A. galaxii does not mature in trout, although parasite establishment and initial growth were similar in the two hosts. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that trout may serve as an infection sink for the native parasite. 5. However, dynamic population modelling predicts that A. galaxii infections in native galaxias should at most only be slightly reduced by dilution in the presence of trout. Rather, model exploration indicates parasite densities in galaxias are highly sensitive to galaxias predation on infected amphipods, and to relative abundances of galaxias and trout. Hence, trout presence may instead reduce parasite burdens in galaxias by either reducing galaxias density or by altering galaxias foraging behaviour. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2011 British Ecological Society.

  9. Growth of brown trout in acid and alkaline waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, R N

    1961-01-01

    Studies have been performed to determine the factors affecting the growth and maturity of brown trout in lochs in the Highlands of Scotland. Evidence has been found which supports the view that the growth rate depends more on the relation between the trout population and the food supply than on any direct influence of the chemical composition of the water. Details are given of the growth rate of trout in nine lochs with a wide range of alkalinities where spawning facilities are either very good or poor or non-existent.

  10. Vertebral column deformities in farmed rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lone; Dalsgaard, Inger

    1999-01-01

    Farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were fed diets with either different levels of vitamin C, or diets enriched with glucan or chitin, from feeding start and 6 months onwards. At an average weight of 100 g, the trout were X-rayed to determine the deformity level. The investigations showed...... of deformities (4.8%). In all groups examined, the deformities were spread over the whole vertebral column. The deformities in the group fed the low vitamin C diet were more severe than those found in the other groups. An outbreak of the disease rainbow trout fry syndrome (RTFS) caused by the bacterium...

  11. A bioinformatics-based update on microRNAs and their targets in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liandong; He, Shunping

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) participate in various vitally biological processes via controlling target genes activity and thousands of miRNAs have been identified in many species to date, including 18,698 known animal miRNA in miRBase. However, there are only limited studies reported in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) especially via the computational-based approaches. In present study, we systematically investigated the miRNAs in rainbow trout using a well-developed comparative genome-based homologue search. A total of 196 potential miRNAs, belonging to 124 miRNA families, were identified, most of which were firstly reported in rainbow trout. The length of miRNAs ranged from 17 to 24 nt with an average of 20 nt while the length of their precursors varied from 47 to 152 nt with an average of 85 nt. The identified miRNAs were not evenly distributed in each miRNA family, with only one member per family for a majority, and multiple members were also identified for several families. Nucleotide U was dominant in the pre-miRNAs with a percentage of 30.04%. The rainbow trout pre-miRNAs had relatively high negative minimal folding free energy (MFE) and adjusted MFE (AMFE). Not only the mature miRNAs but their precursor sequences are conserved among the living organisms. About 2466 O. mykiss genes were predicted as potential targets for 189 miRNAs. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis showed that nearly 2093, 2107, and 2081 target genes are involved in cellular component, molecular function, and biological processes respectively. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis illuminated that these miRNAs targets might regulate 105 metabolic pathways, including those of purine metabolism, nitrogen metabolism, and oxidative phosphorylation. This study has provided an update on rainbow trout miRNAs and their targets, which represents a foundation for future studies. © 2013.

  12. Ice processes affect habitat use and movements of adult cutthroat trout and brook trout in a Wyoming foothills stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, J.W.; Hubert, W.A.

    2004-01-01

    Habitat use and movements of 25 adult cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii and 25 adult brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis from fall through winter 2002-2003 were assessed by means of radiotelemetry in a 7-km reach of a Rocky Mountains foothills stream. Temporal dynamics of winter habitat conditions were evaluated by regularly measuring the features of 30 pools and 5 beaver Castor canadensis ponds in the study reach. Groundwater inputs at three locations raised mean daily water temperatures in the stream channel during winter to 0.2-0.6??C and kept at least 250 m of the downstream channel free of ice, but the lack of surface ice further downstream led to the occurrence of frazil ice and anchor ice in pools and unstable habitat conditions for trout. Pools in segments that were not affected by groundwater inputs and beaver ponds tended to be stable and snow accumulated on the surface ice. Pools throughout the study reach tended to become more stable as snow accumulated. Both cutthroat trout and brook trout selected beaver ponds as winter progressed but tended to use lateral scour pools in proportion to their availability. Tagged fish not in beaver ponds selected lateral scour pools that were deeper than average and stable during winter. Movement frequencies by tagged fish decreased from fall through winter, but some individuals of both species moved during winter. Ice processes affected both the habitat use and movement patterns of cutthroat trout and brook trout in this foothills stream.

  13. Clinical application of bull's eye map in 201Tl myocardial tomography for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yongchang

    1991-01-01

    Bull's eye map in thallium-201 myocardial tomography was performed in 50 patients, and compared with planar imaging. In 27 rest imaging, 6 AMI were abnormal both in plannar and bull's eye images, in 10 OMI, planar abnormal in 6 and doubtful in 4, while bull's eye abnormal in 8 and doubtful in 2; in 11 angina, planar abnormal in 2, doubtful in 5 and normal in 4; but bull's eye abnormal in 5, doubtful abnormal in 4 and normal in 2. In 3 cases of dipyridamole imaging 2 angina were positive, 1 hypertension was negetive, while bull's eye map were all positive. It was demonstrated that bull's eye map gives a direct and clean view and also easy for the anatomical localization of the hypoperfused area

  14. Effect of a ceiling fan ventilation system on finishing young bulls' health, behaviour and growth performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrin, L; Brscic, M; Lora, I; Rumor, C; Tondello, L; Cozzi, G; Gottardo, F

    2017-06-01

    This research aimed at assessing the effects of a ceiling fan ventilation system on health, feeding, social behaviour and growth response of finishing young bulls fattened indoors during a mild summer season. A total of 69 Charolais young bulls were housed in six pens without any mechanical ventilation system (Control) and in six pens equipped with ceiling fans. The experimental period lasted 98 days from June until mid-September 2014. Four experimental days were considered in order to assess the effect of the ventilation system under two different microclimatic conditions: 2 alert days at monthly interval with temperature humidity index (THI) between 75 and 78, and 2 normal days with THI⩽74. Health and behaviour of the bulls were evaluated through 8-h observation sessions starting after morning feed delivery. The study was carried out during a rather cool summer with a climate average THI of 68.9 and 4 days with average THI>75. Despite these mild climate conditions, ceiling fans lowered litter moisture and acted as a preventive measure for bulls' dirtiness (odd ratio=47.9; 95% CI 19.6 to 117.4). The risk of abnormal breathing was increased for Control bulls (odd ratio=40.7; 95% CI 5.4 to 304.2). When exposed to alert THI conditions, respiration rate and panting scores increased and rumination duration dropped in Control bulls compared with bulls provided with a ceiling fan. During observations under alert THI, bulls spent less time eating, more time being inactive and consumed more water compared with normal THI conditions. Bulls' daily dry matter intake measured during the observation sessions decreased on alert compared with normal THI days (Pbehaviour (rumination, lying down and drinking water) and respiration rate, however. The lack of a significant improvement of bulls' growth response should not discourage beef farmers from using ceiling fans in indoor systems, considering the likely increase in frequency and intensity of heat waves in the planet

  15. Improved assay for measuring heparin binding to bull sperm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.J.; Ax, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    The binding of heparin to sperm has been used to study capacitation and to rank relative fertility of bulls. Previous binding assays were laborious, used 10 7 sperm per assay point, and required large amounts of radiolabeled heparin. A modified heparin-binding assay is described that used only 5 x 10 4 cells per incubation well and required reduced amounts of [ 3 H] heparin. The assay was performed in 96-well Millititer plates, enabling easy incubation and filtering. Dissociation constants and concentrations of binding sites did not differ if analyzed by Scatchard plots, Woolf plots, or by log-logit transformed weighted nonlinear least squares regression, except in the case of outliers. In such cases, Scatchard analysis was more sensitive to outliers. Nonspecific binding was insignificant using nonlinear logistic fit regression and a proportion graph. The effects were tested of multiple free-thawing of sperm in either a commercial egg yolk extender, 40 mM Tris buffer with 8% glycerol, or 40 mM Tris buffer without glycerol. Freeze-thawing in extender did not affect the dissociation constant or the concentration of binding sites. However, freeze-thawing three times in 40 mM Tris reduced the concentration of binding sites and lowered the dissociation constant (raised the affinity). The inclusion of glycerol in the 40 mM Tris did not significantly affect the estimated dissociation constant or the concentration of binding sites as compared to 40 mM Tris without glycerol

  16. Polarized light use in the nocturnal bull ant, Myrmecia midas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freas, Cody A; Narendra, Ajay; Lemesle, Corentin; Cheng, Ken

    2017-08-01

    Solitary foraging ants have a navigational toolkit, which includes the use of both terrestrial and celestial visual cues, allowing individuals to successfully pilot between food sources and their nest. One such celestial cue is the polarization pattern in the overhead sky. Here, we explore the use of polarized light during outbound and inbound journeys and with different home vectors in the nocturnal bull ant, Myrmecia midas . We tested foragers on both portions of the foraging trip by rotating the overhead polarization pattern by ±45°. Both outbound and inbound foragers responded to the polarized light change, but the extent to which they responded to the rotation varied. Outbound ants, both close to and further from the nest, compensated for the change in the overhead e-vector by about half of the manipulation, suggesting that outbound ants choose a compromise heading between the celestial and terrestrial compass cues. However, ants returning home compensated for the change in the e-vector by about half of the manipulation when the remaining home vector was short (1-2 m) and by more than half of the manipulation when the remaining vector was long (more than 4 m). We report these findings and discuss why weighting on polarization cues change in different contexts.

  17. Direct measurement of bull's-eye nanoantenna metal loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani Nia, Iman; Jang, Sung J.; Memis, Omer G.; Gelfand, Ryan; Mohseni, Hooman

    2013-09-01

    The loss in optical antennas can affect their performance for their practical use in many branches of science such as biological and solar cell applications. However the big question is that how much loss is due to the joule heating in the metals. This would affect the efficiency of solar cells and is very important for single photon detection and also for some applications where high heat generation in nanoantennas is desirable, for example, payload release for cancer treatment. There are few groups who have done temperature measurements by methods such as Raman spectroscopy or fluorescence polarization anisotropy. The latter method, which is more reliable than Raman spectroscopy, requires the deposition of fluorescent molecules on the antenna surface. The molecules and the polarization of radiation rotate depending upon the surface temperature. The reported temperature measurement accuracy in this method is about 0.1° C. Here we present a method based on thermo-reflectance that allows better temperature accuracy as well as spatial resolution of 500 nm. Moreover, this method does not require the addition of new materials to the nanoantenna. We present the measured heat dissipation from bull's-eye nanoantennas and compare them with 3D simulation results.

  18. Spawning Behaviour and the Softmouth Trout Dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteve Manu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Morphological, ecological and molecular data sets do not completely agree on the phylogenetic placement of the softmouth trout, Salmo (Salmothymus obtusirostris (Heckel. Molecules posit that softmouths are closely related to brown trout, Salmo trutta L. while some morphological, ecological and life history traits place them in the most basal position of the Salmoninae subfamily between grayling (Thymallus and lenok (Brachymystax. Here we add an additional source of data, behavioural characters based on the first reported observations of softmouth spawning. During spawning softmouth females present three important behaviours not found in the other Salmo members: they continually abandon their nests, rarely staying on them for periods over nine minutes; they expel different batches of eggs at the same nest at intervals of several minutes; and they do not cover their eggs immediately after spawning. These three behaviours are intriguing for two reasons: 1 they are possible homologous to behaviours found in grayling females; 2 when coupled to the nest digging behaviour-widespread in all the salmonines, including softmouths, they seem to be mal-adaptive.

  19. Across the great divide: genetic forensics reveals misidentification of endangered cutthroat trout populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Jessica L; Pritchard, Victoria L; Silvestri, Sarah M; Jenkins, Jazzmin B; Wood, John S; Cowley, David E; Evans, R Paul; Shiozawa, Dennis K; Martin, Andrew P

    2007-11-01

    Accurate assessment of species identity is fundamental for conservation biology. Using molecular markers from the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes, we discovered that many putatively native populations of greenback cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii stomias) comprised another subspecies of cutthroat trout, Colorado River cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii pleuriticus). The error can be explained by the introduction of Colorado River cutthroat trout throughout the native range of greenback cutthroat trout in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by fish stocking activities. Our results suggest greenback cutthroat trout within its native range is at a higher risk of extinction than ever before despite conservation activities spanning more than two decades.

  20. Novel molecular markers differentiate Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout and steelhead) and the O. clarki (cutthroat trout) subspecies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostberg, C.O.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    A suite of 26 PCR-based markers was developed that differentiates rainbow (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and coastal cutthroat trout (O. clarki clarki). The markers also differentiated rainbow from other cutthroat trout subspecies (O. clarki), and several of the markers differentiated between cutthroat trout subspecies. This system has numerous positive attributes, including: nonlethal sampling, high species-specificity and products that are easily identified and scored using agarose gel electrophoresis. The methodology described for developing the markers can be applied to virtually any system in which numerous markers are desired for identifying or differentiating species or subspecies.

  1. Selection of performance-tested young bulls and indirect responses in commercial beef cattle herds on pasture and in feedlots

    OpenAIRE

    Raidan , Fernanda S. S.; Santos , Dalinne C. C.; Moraes , Mariana M.; Araújo , Andresa E. M.; Ventura , Henrique T.; Bergmann , José A. G.; Turra , Eduardo M.; Toral , Fabio L. B.

    2016-01-01

    International audience; AbstractBackgroundCentral testing is used to select young bulls which are likely to contribute to increased net income of the commercial beef cattle herd. We present genetic parameters for growth and reproductive traits on performance-tested young bulls and commercial animals that are raised on pasture and in feedlots.MethodsRecords on young bulls and heifers in performance tests or commercial herds were used. Genetic parameters for growth and reproductive traits were ...

  2. Model comparison on genomic predictions using high-density markers for different groups of bulls in the Nordic Holstein population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Hongding; Su, Guosheng; Janss, Luc

    2013-01-01

    This study compared genomic predictions based on imputed high-density markers (~777,000) in the Nordic Holstein population using a genomic BLUP (GBLUP) model, 4 Bayesian exponential power models with different shape parameters (0.3, 0.5, 0.8, and 1.0) for the exponential power distribution...... relationship with the training population. Groupsmgs had both the sire and the maternal grandsire (MGS), Groupsire only had the sire, Groupmgs only had the MGS, and Groupnon had neither the sire nor the MGS in the training population. Reliability of DGV was measured as the squared correlation between DGV...... and DRP divided by the reliability of DRP for the bulls in validation data set. Unbiasedness of DGV was measured as the regression of DRP on DGV. The results indicated that DGV were more accurate and less biased for animals that were more related to the training population. In general, the Bayesian...

  3. Radioiodination of surface proteins of bull spermatozoa and their characterization by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vierula, M.

    1980-01-01

    Surface proteins of ejaculated bull spermatozoa were radioiodinated using Ma 125 I, solubilized and characterized by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The electron microscopic autoradiographs showed that the labelling was equally distributed to all parts of the spermatozoon and restricted to the sperm surface. The electrophoresis of solubilized radioactivity revealed 6 radioactive fractions with approximate molecular weights of 67 000-69 000, 47 000-50 000, 34 000-37 000, 25 000-28 000 and 14 000-16 000. The 6th fraction probably represented labelled lipids. The electrophoresis of radioiodinated seminal plasma proteins revealed only 2 radioactive protein peaks which coincided with the sperm surface protein fractions IV and V. (author)

  4. Fate of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene in rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnitz, A.R.; Squibb, K.S.; O'Connor, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are contaminants of surface waters and sediments, especially near urban centers. Although aquatic biota accumulate PAHs from environmental sources, metabolism may be rapid, and biota sampled from contaminated areas often have concentrations lower than might be estimated from bioconcentration factors. In some cases PAH metabolism by aquatic biota may create reactive intermediates, some of which have been related to chronic effects in fishes. This report describes the fate and distribution of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) after oral administration to rainbows trout (Salmo gairdneri). Emphasis has been placed on the disposition of DMBA among tissues and on DMBA transformation in the hepatobiliary system

  5. Breeding soundness evaluation of bulls by semen analysis, testicular fine needle aspiration cytology and trans-scrotal ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chapwanya A

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of trans-scrotal ultrasonography and testicular fine needle aspiration cytology in assessing bulls for breeding suitability. These two techniques were also compared with semen analysis. Bulls presented for breeding soundness evaluation were assessed using all three techniques. The findings of each technique were compared. There was agreement in classification of fertile bulls using all three techniques, suggesting that the combined use of these techniques enhances routine breeding soundness examination. Use of the three techniques also enhances detailed investigation of suspected sub-fertile bulls while accurately identifying testicular cause(s of sire sub-fertility.

  6. ERM booster vaccination of Rainbow trout using diluted bacterin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jacob Günther; Henriksen, Niels H.; Buchmann, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    under laboratory conditions extend the protection period. The present field study investigated the applicability of the method under practical farming conditions (freshwater earth ponds supplied by stream water). Primary immersion vaccination of trout (3–4 g) for 30 s in Y. ruckeri bacterin (diluted 1......Enteric Red Mouth Disease ERM caused by Yersinia ruckeri infection is associated with morbidity and mortality in salmonid farming but immersion vaccination of fry may confer some protection for a number of months. Revaccination of rainbow trout, even by use of diluted ERM immersion vaccine, can......:10) in April 2015 was followed 3 months later (July 2015) by 1 h bathing of rainbow trout in bacterin (diluted 1:650 or 1:1700) in order to evaluate if this time saving vaccination methodology can improve immunity and protection. Trout were subjected in farms to natural Y. ruckeri exposure in June and July...

  7. A Practical Approach to Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Seed Production

    OpenAIRE

    , Orhan Çakır

    2002-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) grows faster and has great disease resistance. Therefore this species has been preferred to culture for years. Fry production, feeding and management of broodstock are explained practically in order to increase profitability.

  8. Effects of cooking methods on electrophoretic patterns of rainbow trout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemen Yanar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of different cooking methods on the electrophoretic patterns of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss fillets using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. Raw rainbow trout were deep-fried, microwaved, grilled, and baked and then monitored for changes in the electrophoretic pattern. All cooking methods resulted in significant moisture loss when compared to the raw sample (P

  9. Comparison of biochemical parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) reared in two different trout farms'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Tayfun

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare biochemical parameters of cultured rainbow trouts (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum, 1972) reared in two different trout farms' (Agri and Erzurum). The average weights of fish were 150±10gr for first station (Agri), 230±10gr for second station (Erzurum). Fishes used in research were randomly caught from pools, and fifteen pieces were used for each group. Fishes were fed with commercial trout feed with 45-50% crude protein twice a day. The levels of AST, ALT, LDL, total cholesterol and triglyceride in the second station (Erzurum) were found to be higher (p<0.05) than that of first station (Agri). Whereas, the levels of HDL in the second station (Erzurum) were found to be lower (p<0.05) than that of first station (Agri). Differences in the levels of total cholesterol and AST, ALT, HDL, LDL, triglyceride may be associated with size, sex, sexual maturity and environmental conditions (temperature, pH, hardness and dissolved oxygen).

  10. Nucléation, ascension et éclatement d'une bulle de champagne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liger-Belair, G.

    2006-03-01

    People have long been fascinated by bubbles and foams dynamics, and since the pioneering work of Leonardo da Vinci in the early 16th century, this subject has generated a huge bibliography. However, only quite recently, much interest was devoted to bubbles in Champagne wines and carbonated beverages. Since the time of the benedictine monk dom Pierre Perignon (1638-1715), champagne is the wine of celebration. This fame is largely linked to the elegance of its effervescence and foaming properties. In this book, the latest results about the chemical physics behind the bubbling properties of Champagne and sparkling wines are collected and fully illustrated. The first chapter is devoted to the history of champagne and to a presentation of the tools of the physical chemistry of interfaces needed for a whole comprehension of the book. Then, the three main steps of a fleeting champagne bubble's life are presented in chronological order, that is, the bubble nucleation on the glass wall (Chap.2), the bubble ascent and growth through the liquid matrix (Chap.3), and the bursting of bubbles at the liquid surface (Chap.4), which constitutes the most intriguing, functional, and visually appealing step. L'objectif général de ce travail consacré à l'étude des processus physicochimiques liés à l'effervescence des vins de Champagne était de décortiquer les différentes étapes de la vie d'une bulle de champagne en conditions réelles de consommation, dans une flûte. Nous résumons ci-après les principaux résultats obtenus pour chacune des étapes de la vie de la bulle, depuis sa naissance sur les parois d'une flûte, jusqu'à son éclatement en surface. Nucléation À l'aide d'une caméra rapide munie d'un objectif de microscope, nous avons pu mettre à mal une idée largement répandue. Ce ne sont pas les anfractuosités de la surface du verre ou de la flûte qui sont responsable de la nucléation hétérogène des bulles, mais des particules adsorbées sur les parois du

  11. Overwintering of sea trout (Salmo trutta) in freshwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Dennis; Koed, Anders; Nielsen, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Brown trout (Salmo trutta) show large phenotypic plasticity. Juveniles may reside in their native freshwater habitat until maturation or migrate into the ocean as 1- to 3-year-old smolts. Sea-going fish (sea trout) reside at sea for 2-3 years until migrating back to their native stream for reprod......Brown trout (Salmo trutta) show large phenotypic plasticity. Juveniles may reside in their native freshwater habitat until maturation or migrate into the ocean as 1- to 3-year-old smolts. Sea-going fish (sea trout) reside at sea for 2-3 years until migrating back to their native stream...... for reproduction. However, immature fish may leave the ocean during their first or second winter at sea and overwinter in freshwater. The question is why does this occur? We tested the hypothesis that hypo-osmoregulatory capacity is compromised by low temperature in two coastal sea trout populations, one...... representing high salinity and the other, low salinity. Immature sea-run trout were caught in lower parts of two rivers during winter and acclimated to laboratory conditions. Subgroups were challenged with high salinity or low water temperature or both, and their osmoregulatory performance was investigated...

  12. Virulence of Flavobacterium columnare genomovars in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenhuis, Jason P; LaFrentz, Benjamin R

    2016-08-09

    Flavobacterium columnare is the causative agent of columnaris disease and is responsible for significant economic losses in aquaculture. F. columnare is a Gram-negative bacterium, and 5 genetic types or genomovars have been described based on restriction fragment length polymorphism of the 16S rRNA gene. Previous research has suggested that genomovar II isolates are more virulent than genomovar I isolates to multiple species of fish, including rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. In addition, improved genotyping methods have shown that some isolates previously classified as genomovar I, and used in challenge experiments, were in fact genomovar III. Our objective was to confirm previous results with respect to genomovar II virulence, and to determine the susceptibility of rainbow trout to other genomovars. The virulence of 8 genomovar I, 4 genomovar II, 3 genomovar II-B, and 5 genomovar III isolates originating from various sources was determined through 3 independent challenges in rainbow trout using an immersion challenge model. Mean cumulative percent mortality (CPM) of ~49% for genomovar I isolates, ~1% for genomovar II, ~5% for the II-B isolates, and ~7% for the III isolates was observed. The inability of genomovar II isolates to produce mortalities in rainbow trout was unanticipated based on previous studies, but may be due to a number of factors including rainbow trout source and water chemistry. The source of fish and/or the presence of sub-optimal environment may influence the susceptibility of rainbow trout to different F. columnare genomovars.

  13. Conservation of native Pacific trout diversity in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penaluna, Brooke E.; Abadía-Cardoso, Alicia; Dunham, Jason B.; García de León, Francisco J; Gresswell, Robert E.; Luna, Arturo Ruiz; Taylor, Eric B.; Shepard, Bradley B.; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Bestgen, Kevin R.; Rogers, Kevin H.; Escalante, Marco A; Keeley, Ernest R; Temple, Gabriel; Williams, Jack E.; Matthews, Kathleen; Pierce, Ron; Mayden, Richard L.; Kovach, Ryan; Garza, John Carlos; Fausch, Kurt D.

    2016-01-01

    Pacific trout Oncorhynchus spp. in western North America are strongly valued in ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural views, and have been the subject of substantial research and conservation efforts. Despite this, the understanding of their evolutionary histories, overall diversity, and challenges to their conservation is incomplete. We review the state of knowledge on these important issues, focusing on Pacific trout in the genus Oncorhynchus. Although most research on salmonid fishes emphasizes Pacific salmon, we focus on Pacific trout because they share a common evolutionary history, and many taxa in western North America have not been formally described, particularly in the southern extent of their ranges. Research in recent decades has led to the revision of many hypotheses concerning the origin and diversification of Pacific trout throughout their range. Although there has been significant success at addressing past threats to Pacific trout, contemporary and future threats represented by nonnative species, land and water use activities, and climate change pose challenges and uncertainties. Ultimately, conservation of Pacific trout depends on how well these issues are understood and addressed, and on solutions that allow these species to coexist with a growing scope of human influences.

  14. Nonnative trout invasions combined with climate change threaten persistence of isolated cutthroat trout populations in the southern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James J.; Kurt D. Fausch,; Hooten, Mevin B.; Peterson, Douglas P.

    2017-01-01

    Effective conservation of Cutthroat Trout Oncorhynchus clarkii lineages native to the Rocky Mountains will require estimating effects of multiple stressors and directing management toward the most important ones. Recent

  15. Kootenai River Fisheries Investigations: Salmonid Studies Project Progress Report, 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paragamian, Vaughn L.; Walters, Jody; Maiolie, Melo [Idaho Department of Fish and Game

    2009-04-09

    This research report addresses bull trout Salvelinus confluentus and Redband trout Oncorhynchus mykiss redd surveys, population monitoring, trout distribution, and abundance surveys in the Kootenai River drainage of Idaho. The bull trout is one of several sport fish native to the Kootenai River, Idaho that no longer supports a fishery. Because bull trout are listed under the Endangered Species Act, population data will be vital to monitoring status relative to recovery goals. Thirty-three bull trout redds were found in North and South Callahan creeks and Boulder Creek in 2007. This is a decrease from 2006 and 2005 and less than the high count in 2003. However, because redd numbers have only been monitored since 2002, the data series is too short to determine bull trout population trends based on redd counts. Redband trout still provide an important Kootenai River sport fishery, but densities are low, at least partly due to limited recruitment. The redband trout proportional stock density (PSD) in 2007 increased from 2006 for a second year after a two-year decline in 2004 and 2005. This may indicate increased recruitment to or survival in the 201-305 mm length group due to the minimum 406 mm (16 inches) length limit initiated in 2002. We conducted 13 redd surveys and counted 44 redband trout redds from May 7 to June 3, 2007 in a 3.8 km survey reach on Twentymile Creek. We surveyed streams in the Kootenai River valley to look for barriers to trout migration. Man-made barriers, for at least part of the year, were found on Caboose, Debt, Fisher, and Twenty Mile creeks. Removing these barriers would increase spawning and rearing habitat for trout and help to restore trout fisheries in the Kootenai River.

  16. Embryotoxicity of quantum dots in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss during hatching period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nijolė Kazlauskienė

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Research on quantum dots (QD has become a major interdisciplinary area of science. Unique physic-chemical properties of QD significantly expanded areas of their application and increased the potential impact on hydrosystems. The objectives of complex study (using toxicological, physical, chemical methods were: to determine the toxicity of QD to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss during ontogenesis (embryos, larvae depending on the duration of exposure; to estimate QD stability; to investigate QD uptake routes, distribution, accumulation, localization in tissues and different organs of embryos and larvae. This study examined the toxic effects of CdSe/ZnS-COOH at sublethal concentration. Bioassay testing was carried out under controlled laboratory conditions. Short-term (24-, 96-hour and long-term toxicity tests (14-day on fish at early stages of development (starting from “eye-egg” embryos were performed under static conditions. Mortality, physiological parameters, blood circulatory system, development disorders, behavioural responses and growth parameters of larvae were investigated. The results indicated that toxic effects of QD to rainbow trout in early life stages of development depended on the duration of exposure. Long-term exposure of QD induced remarkable deleterious changes in various systems of the developing fish organism: increased mortality, alterations in cardio-respiratory system, disturbed behavioural responses, caused developmental disorders and adversely affected the growth of larvae. Using physical methods it was determined: QD stability, uptake routes, distribution, accumulation and localization in tissues as well as in different organs of embryos and larvae of rainbow trout. Fish toxicity tests results will help to understand ecotoxicity of nanoparticles and will be used as nanoparticle embryotoxicity model in humans and other organisms.

  17. Uptake, disposition, and elimination of acrylamide in rainbow trout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, D.W.; Kleinow, K.M.; Kraska, R.C.; Lech, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    The uptake, disposition, and elimination of [2,3- 14 C]acrylamide was studied in fingerling rainbow trout exposed to 0.388 and 0.710 mg/liter [2,3- 14 C]acrylamide at 12 degrees C under static water conditions for 72 hr. 14 C in carcass and viscera was determined at times ranging from 4 to 72 hr after the beginning of the exposure period and 4 to 96 hr after transfer of the fish to fresh flowing water for the elimination studies. Uptake of 14 C was initially rapid and plateaued after 72 hr of acrylamide exposure. No appreciable bioaccumulation occurred in carcass or viscera at either exposure concentration and 14 C distributed approximately equally to all tissues studied. Elimination of 14 C from carcass and viscera was biphasic with a terminal half-life of approximately 7 days. 14 C elimination was not uniform in all tissues studied with the most rapid elimination occurring in blood and gill and the slowest elimination occurring in muscle and intestine. In addition, 10 to 15% of the initial total 14 C in carcass or viscera was nonextractable and was associated with the protein fraction of the sample at all time points in the depuration period. Approximately 20% of an ip administered dose of [ 14 C]acrylamide was eliminated via the gills, 7% via the urine, and less than 1% via the bile in 2 hr. At least three biliary metabolites were isolated by HPLC

  18. Carcass characteristics and sensorial evaluation of meat from Nellore steers and crossbred Angus vs. Nellore bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Cunha Barcellos

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated animal performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of 36-month old Nellore steers finished in pastures (n = 10 and 20-month old Angus vs. Nellore bulls finished in feedlot (n = 10. Final body weight, carcass weight, characteristics, conformation and fat thickness, were higher (p 0.05 throughout the ageing period for the Angus vs. Nellore bulls, but higher in meat from the Nellore steers (p 0.05 on meat a* value (redness. Likewise, ageing time had no effect on a* in both genetic groups, and genetic group had no effect (p > 0.05 on meat b* value (yellowness. On the other hand, b* was increased after day 7 of ageing for the bulls from the two genetic groups. Thawing and cooking losses were lower for Nellore steers after day 7 of aging (p 0.05 on lipid oxidation; however, lipid oxidation increased after day7. Meat from Nellore steers contained a higher percentage of saturated fatty acids (SFA, a lower percentage of unsaturated (UFA and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and a similar percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA than the meat from Angus vs. Nellore bulls. Intramuscular fat from Nellore steers had a more favourable n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio than that from Angus vs. Nellore bulls (4.37 vs. 11.45, respectively. Tenderness, flavour and overall acceptability were higher (p < 0.001 for meats of the Nellore steers, regardless of ageing time (1, 4, 7 and 14 days.

  19. [Severe inflammation of the muzzle caused by a nose ring in a breeding bull].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, U; Gautschi, A; Reichle, S; Gerspach, C

    2010-09-01

    This report describes the findings in a bull with severe inflammation of the muzzle and nose attributable to a nose ring. The most striking finding was that the bull continually licked the right side of the upper lip. The muzzle and right upper lip were swollen, hard, reddened and partially depigmented. Mucopurulent nasal discharge and salivation were also noted, and palpation of the right upper lip was extremely painful. Based on the findings, purulent infection of the right side of the muzzle, right naris and external nasal passage was diagnosed. After removing the nose ring the affected areas were washed daily for four days with a camomile-containing solution after which a chlorhexidine and dexpanthenol salve was applied. The bull also received ceftiofur and ketoprofen. The general condition and appetite of the bull normalised within a few days, and the inflammatory lesions resolved with the exception of the areas of depigmentation. After ten days of treatment, the bull was considered healthy and discharged from the clinic.

  20. Influence of season of birth on growth and reproductive development of Brahman bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatman, Shawn R; Neuendorff, Don A; Wilson, Timothy W; Randel, Ronald D

    2004-07-01

    Seasonal effects on reproduction are more dramatic in Bos indicus than Bos taurus cattle. This experiment evaluated reproductive development of fall- (n=7) versus spring- (n = 10) born Brahman bulls to determine if season of birth affects reproductive development. Measurements of growth and reproductive development began after weaning and continued at bi-weekly intervals until each bull reached sexual maturity. Different stages of sexual development were classified according to characteristics of the ejaculate and included first sperm in the ejaculate, puberty (> 50 x 10(6) sperm/ejaculate), and sexual maturity (two ejaculates with > 500 = 10(6) sperm/ejaculate). Average daily increases in all measured traits were similar in fall- and spring-born bulls and there were no differences in age, body weight, scrotal circumference, or paired testis volume between groups at first sperm or puberty. However, fall-born bulls were older (P days versus 481 days, respectively) as the interval between puberty and sexual maturity was longer (P days versus 54 days, respectively). The prolonged interval between puberty and sexual maturity in fall-born calves coincided with a short photoperiod (winter) whereas the short interval between puberty and sexual maturity in spring-born calves coincided with a long photoperiod (summer). In conclusion, season of birth affected sexual development; photoperiod might be involved in regulating testicular function immediately after puberty in Brahman bulls.

  1. Collection of preputial material by scraping and aspiration for the diagnosis of Tritrichomonas foetus in bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. Irons

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Two trials were carried out to assess the diagnostic sensitivity and practicability of preputial scraping as a method of collecting preputial material from bulls infected with Tritrichomonas foetus. In the 1st trial, preputial material was collected by simultaneous scraping and aspiration from 3 infected and 1 uninfected bull 10 times over a 5-week period. In the 2nd trial, samples from 5 infected bulls were collected by both sheath washing and scraping on 6 occasions, while 8 uninfected animals were sampled 3 times. Samples were cultured using a modified Trichomonas culture medium (Oxoid. In the first trial, 29 of 30 samples from infected bulls were found to be positive. In the second trial, 83 % of samples collected by both methods tested positive. In neither trial were any samples from the control bulls found to be positive. Scraping was found to be quick and safe, and offered advantages over preputial washing in that urine contamination was easily avoided, samples were smaller and more concentrated and contamination was reduced. It may, however, be subject to greater operator variability than sheath washing. It is concluded that preputial scraping is as effective as washing and represents a suitable alternative for the collection of material for direct examination and culture of Tritrichomonas foetus.

  2. Fate of Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa) after infection of brown trout Salmo trutta and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Gokhlesh; Abd-Elfattah, Ahmed; Saleh, Mona; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2013-01-01

    Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa) is the causative agent of proliferative kidney disease in salmonids. We assessed differences in intensity of T. bryosalmonae infection between brown trout Salmo trutta and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss from the clinical phase of infection onwards. Specific pathogen-free fish were exposed to T. bryosalmonae spores under controlled laboratory conditions and sampled at 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 17 wk post exposure (wpe), and the transmission of T. bryosalm...

  3. Yersiniosis outbreak in rainbow trout at fish farm in Oromia Regional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopia's physical environment and availability of agricultural residues ... Trout Fish Farmers Private Limited Company has established a commercial trout fish ... different organs were closely observed in situ for the presence of visible macro-.

  4. Morphological differences in the skin of marble trout Salmo marmoratus and of brown trout Salmo trutta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urška Sivka

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite being genetically very closely related, the marble trout Salmo marmoratus and the brown trout Salmo trutta exhibit marked phenotypic differences, particularly with regard to skin pigmentation. Histological analysis of skin from the head and gill cover of differently aged individuals of the two species was carried out in order to characterize differences in skin structure. The basic structure of skin of the individuals studied corresponded with that described for other salmonids, though the head epidermis was somewhat thicker in S. marmoratus than in S. trutta, thickening with age in both species. Numerous secretory goblet cells and sporadic secretory sacciform cells were observed in the upper and middle part of the epidermis in both species. Melanophores were present in both species only in the dermis, and were bigger in S. marmoratus and present at lower average density than in S. trutta, and more or less constant across all age classes. In adult S. marmoratus with fully established marble pigmentation, light areas at low density with small (i.e. aggregated melanophores were present, while in S. trutta melanophores were more uniformly distributed.

  5. Effects of hybridization between nonnative Rainbow Trout and native Westslope Cutthroat Trout on fitness-related traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinan, Daniel P.; Webb, Molly A. H.; Naish, Kerry A.; Kalinowski, Steven T.; Boyer, Matthew C.; Steed, Amber C.; Shepard, Bradley B.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.

    2015-01-01

    Hybridization between introduced and native fauna is a risk to native species and may threaten the long-term persistence of numerous taxa. Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss has been one of the most widely introduced species around the globe and often hybridizes with native Cutthroat Trout O. clarkii in the Rocky Mountains. Previous work has shown that hybridization negatively affects reproductive success, but identification of the traits contributing to that reduction has been elusive. In this study, we used a combination of field and laboratory techniques to assess how hybridization with Rainbow Trout affects seven traits during several stages of Westslope Cutthroat Trout development: embryonic survival, ova size, ova energy concentration, sperm motility, juvenile weight, juvenile survival, and burst swimming endurance. Rainbow Trout admixture was correlated with an increase in embryonic survival and ova energy concentration but with a decrease in juvenile weight and burst swimming endurance. These correlations differed from previously observed patterns of reproductive success and likely do not explain the declines in reproductive success associated with admixture. Future investigation of additional, unstudied traits and the use of different environments may shed light on the traits responsible for reproductive success in admixed Cutthroat Trout.

  6. A comparison of oxolinic acid concentrations in farmed and laboratory held rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) following oral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coyne, R.; Samuelsen, O.; Kongshaug, H.

    2004-01-01

    Plasma oxolinic acid (OXA) concentrations were measured in fish from a cage of farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) 1 day after the termination of medication. The fish were experiencing significant mortalities and following a diagnosis of vibriosis, OXA had been orally administered at 50 mg....../kg for 6 days over a 9-day period. Samples from healthy fish (n=20), moribund (n=26) and dead fish (n=10) were analysed by HPLC. There was a dramatic difference in the OXA concentrations between healthy and moribund fish. In the moribund group, none of which showed signs of recent feeding, 85% of the fish...... laboratory held rainbow trout (O. mykiss) following the administration of OXA under similar conditions of salinity, temperature and dosing regimen. In these laboratory held fish, the mean plasma OXA concentration was 0.133±0.068 mg/l. The major difference between the distributions of OXA concentrations...

  7. An immunohistochemical study of Flexibacter psychrophilus infection in experimentally and naturally infected rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evensen, O.; Lorenzen, Ellen

    1996-01-01

    An immunohistochemical method is described for the detection of Flexibacter psychrophilus in formalin-fixed, parafiin-wax-embedded fry of rainbow trout. Rabbit antiserum as well as rainbow trout hyperimmune serum were used in the study. The distribution and tissue localization of the bacterium wa...... are typically found during the chronic stage of the disease....... and experimentally infected fry showed that there was a localization of bacteria in the monocyte-macrophage system, in skin lesions, and in the retina and the choroid gland of the eye. The dermal changes included superficial or deep ulcers extending to the subcutaneous tissue or the musculature accompanied...... by inflammatory cell infiltrates in which polymorphonuclear inflammatory cells were shown to contain the bacterium in the cytoplasm by immunostaining. The eye changes were likewise a common finding in chronic cases with severe inflammatory changes in the retina and with numerous bacteria in inflammatory (mainly...

  8. First record of proliferative kidney disease agent Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae in wild brown trout and European grayling in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasemägi, Anti; Nousiainen, Ilkka; Saura, Ari; Vähä, Juha-Pekka; Valjus, Jorma; Huusko, Ari

    2017-06-19

    The myxozoan endoparasite Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae causes temperature-driven proliferative kidney disease (PKD) in salmonid fishes. Despite the economic and ecological importance of PKD, information about the distribution of the parasite is still scarce. Here, we report for the first time the occurrence of T. bryosalmonae in wild brown trout Salmo trutta and European grayling Thymallus thymallus populations in Finland. We detected T. bryosalmonae at high prevalence in both brown trout and European grayling from the transboundary Finnish-Russian River Koutajoki system (Rivers Oulankajoki, Kuusinkijoki, Kitkajoki, Maaninkajoki, and Juumajoki) in north-eastern Finland. In southern Finland, T. bryosalmonae was detected in River Siuntionjoki young-of-the-year brown trout collected both in 2015 and 2016 (100% prevalence), while the parasite was not observed in fish from 3 other rivers (Ingarskila, Mustajoki, and Vantaanjoki) flowing to the Gulf of Finland. Our results, together with those from recent studies of Atlantic salmon, indicate that T. bryosalmonae is distributed over much higher latitudes in northern Europe than previously appreciated. We expect that increasing water temperatures will likely cause new PKD outbreaks in these more northerly regions in the future.

  9. Intracellular diffusion restrictions in isolated cardiomyocytes from rainbow trout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birkedal Rikke

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Restriction of intracellular diffusion of adenine nucleotides has been studied intensively on adult rat cardiomyocytes. However, their cause and role in vivo is still uncertain. Intracellular membrane structures have been suggested to play a role. We therefore chose to study cardiomyocytes from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, which are thinner and have fewer intracellular membrane structures than adult rat cardiomyocytes. Previous studies suggest that trout permeabilized cardiac fibers also have diffusion restrictions. However, results from fibers may be affected by incomplete separation of the cells. This is avoided when studying permeabilized, isolated cardiomyocytes. The aim of this study was to verify the existence of diffusion restrictions in trout cardiomyocytes by comparing ADP-kinetics of mitochondrial respiration in permeabilized fibers, permeabilized cardiomyocytes and isolated mitochondria from rainbow trout heart. Experiments were performed at 10, 15 and 20°C in the absence and presence of creatine. Results Trout cardiomyocytes hypercontracted in the solutions used for mammalian cardiomyocytes. We developed a new solution in which they retained their shape and showed stable steady state respiration rates throughout an experiment. The apparent ADP-affinity of permeabilized cardiomyocytes was different from that of fibers. It was higher, independent of temperature and not increased by creatine. However, it was still about ten times lower than in isolated mitochondria. Conclusions The differences between fibers and cardiomyocytes suggest that results from trout heart fibers were affected by incomplete separation of the cells. However, the lower ADP-affinity of cardiomyocytes compared to isolated mitochondria indicate that intracellular diffusion restrictions are still present in trout cardiomyocytes despite their lower density of intracellular membrane structures. The lack of a creatine effect indicates that

  10. Spatial and temporal movement dynamics of brook Salvelinus fontinalis and brown trout Salmo trutta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, L.A.; Wagner, Tyler; Barton, Meredith L.

    2015-01-01

    Native eastern brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and naturalized brown trout Salmo trutta occur sympatrically in many streams across the brook trout’s native range in the eastern United States. Understanding within- among-species variability in movement, including correlates of movement, has implications for management and conservation. We radio tracked 55 brook trout and 45 brown trout in five streams in a north-central Pennsylvania, USA watershed to quantify the movement of brook trout and brown trout during the fall and early winter to (1) evaluate the late-summer, early winter movement patterns of brook trout and brown trout, (2) determine correlates of movement and if movement patterns varied between brook trout and brown trout, and (3) evaluate genetic diversity of brook trout within and among study streams, and relate findings to telemetry-based observations of movement. Average total movement was greater for brown trout (mean ± SD = 2,924 ± 4,187 m) than for brook trout (mean ± SD = 1,769 ± 2,194 m). Although there was a large amount of among-fish variability in the movement of both species, the majority of movement coincided with the onset of the spawning season, and a threshold effect was detected between stream flow and movement: where movement increased abruptly for both species during positive flow events. Microsatellite analysis of brook trout revealed consistent findings to those found using radio-tracking, indicating a moderate to high degree of gene flow among brook trout populations. Seasonal movement patterns and the potential for relatively large movements of brook and brown trout highlight the importance of considering stream connectivity when restoring and protecting fish populations and their habitats.

  11. Measurement of scrotal circumference in beef bulls in Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R.O Menegassi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The variability of scrotal circumference and the effects of age and breed as well as the relationship between testicular weight (TW, scrotal circumference (SC, and live weight (BW were investigated in bulls. Devon, Polled Hereford, and Red Angus breeds showed higher SC values than the other British, Continental, Synthetic, and Zebu studied breeds. The percentage of culled bulls because of low SC ranged from 7.01 to 24.25%. The increase of SC was proportional to the increase in TW and they were highly correlated (r²= 0.90. The results suggest that SC in young bulls is the best way to predict TW and, therefore, a useful tool for their selection

  12. PERFORMANCE OF BALI BULL IN GREENLOT FATTENING BY FARMERS WHEN RAINY SEASON IN TIMOR ISLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K. Tahuk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the performance of Bali bull in rainy season underfeedlotting management on farmer level in Timor Island. Twenty Bali bulls with 2.0-2.5 years old on thebasis of teeth eruption were used in this study. Feed for animals was field grass, king grass and cornstraw. The type, quantity and quality of feed given in accordance with the habits of farmers in thefattened cattle. Research was conducted by direct observation in farmer management during rainyseason. Data measured were daily gain, feed consumption and feed conversion. The data collected wastabulated and analyzed descriptively. The result showed that the average of daily gain weight was 0.53kg/head/d, dry matter intake was 3.88 kg/head/d and feed conversion was 7.55 kg DM/kg daily gain. Inconclusion, performance of Bali bull fattened at farmers level with forage in the rainy season could beimproved.

  13. DETECTION OF RECESSIVE MUTATIONS (CVM, BLAD AND RED FACTOR INHOLSTEIN BULLS IN SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betka LOGAR

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Detection of recessive mutations that causes complex vertebral malformation (CVM and bovine leukocyte adhesion defi ciency (BLAD in Holstein cattle is especially required for bulls, which are used for artifi cial insemination (A.I.; these enable elimination of carriers from the A.I. programs and therefore prevent transmission of unwanted mutations to a large number of offspring. Some breeders are also interested in the identifi cation of carriers of recessive allele for red and white coat colour (Red factor. Here, we performed genetic tests for detection of mutations associated with CVM, BLAD and Red factor using methods previously reported or modifi ed methods. Analysis of Holstein bulls, which were recommended for A.I in Slovenia in the years 2007 and 2008, revealed four (10 % carriers of CVM, and two (5.4 % carriers of red gene, while all bulls were non-carriers of BLAD.

  14. Split Bull's eye shaped aluminum antenna for plasmon-enhanced nanometer scale germanium photodetector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Fang-Fang; Ang, Kah-Wee; Ye, Jiandong; Yu, Mingbin; Lo, Guo-Qiang; Kwong, Dim-Lee

    2011-03-09

    Bull's eye antennas are capable of efficiently collecting and concentrating optical signals into an ultrasmall area, offering an excellent solution to break the bottleneck between speed and photoresponse in subwavelength photodetectors. Here, we exploit the idea of split bull's eye antenna for a nanometer germanium photodetector operating at a standard communication wavelength of 1310 nm. The nontraditional plasmonic metal aluminum has been implemented in the resonant antenna structure fabricated by standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) processing. A significant enhancement in photoresponse could be achieved over the conventional bull's eye scheme due to an increased optical near-field in the active region. Moreover, with this novel antenna design the effective grating area could be significantly reduced without sacrificing device performance. This work paves the way for the future development of low-cost, high-density, and high-speed CMOS-compatible germanium-based optoelectronic devices.

  15. Hepatic transcriptional changes in critical genes for gluconeogenesis following castration of bulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassah, Dilla Mareistia; Jeong, Jin Young

    2018-01-01

    Objective This study was performed to understand transcriptional changes in the genes involved in gluconeogenesis and glycolysis pathways following castration of bulls. Methods Twenty Korean bulls were weaned at average 3 months of age, and castrated at 6 months. Liver tissues were collected from bulls (n = 10) and steers (n = 10) of Korean cattle, and hepatic gene expression levels were measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. We examined hepatic transcription levels of genes encoding enzymes for irreversible reactions in both gluconeogenesis and glycolysis as well as genes encoding enzymes for the utilization of several glucogenic substrates. Correlations between hepatic gene expression and carcass characteristics were performed to understand their associations. Results Castration increased the mRNA (3.6 fold; pgluconeogenesis reactions from pyruvate to glucose and enzymes responsible for incorporation of glucogenic substrates including lactate, glycerol, and propionate. Hepatic gluconeogenic gene expression levels were associated with intramuscular fat deposition. PMID:29502393

  16. Levels of natural resistance to Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae in Carora breed bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy D. Meléndez

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Boophilus microplus infestation is one of the most serious limitations to cattle industry in tropical regions, even though bovines show natural resistance to ticks. This resistance was evaluated in Cross-bred Carora Bulls (CCB a tropicalized dairy breed from Venezuela. Seven CCB were experimentally infested with B. microplus larvae, "Mozo" strain, they were considered tick-naive because they had never been infested with ticks. The mean inoculum size applied on each bull was 6 477 larvae. After life cycle was completed adult female body weight (BW, egg mass weight (EW, egg hatching rate (%EH, and reproductive index (RI were recorded. Results revealed a high variability in the levels of resistance to B. microplus. Thus, one animal showed greater resistance (Dunnett, p< 0.05 for the analyzed parameters in contrast with three non-resistant bulls. The others had moderate resistance. The trait "resistance" should be included togheter with other traits often used in genetic selection of cattle.

  17. Manipulation of extraordinary acoustic transmission by a tunable bull's eye structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ji-Wei; Cheng Ying; Liu Xiao-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Extraordinary acoustic transmission (EAT) has been investigated in a tunable bull's eye structure. We demonstrate that the transmission coefficient of acoustic waves can be modulated by a grating structure. When the grating is located at a distance of 0.5 mm from the base plate, the acoustic transmission shows an 8.77-fold enhancement compared to that by using a traditional bull's eye structure. When the distance increases to 1.5 mm, the transmission approaches zero, indicating a total reflection. Thus, we can make an efficient modulation of acoustic transmission from 0 to 877%. The EAT effects have been ascribed to the coupling of structure-induced resonance with the diffractive wave and the waveguide modes, as well as the Fabry-Perot resonances. As a potential application, the modulation of far-field collimation is illustrated in the proposed bull's eye structure. (rapid communication)

  18. Population Structure Analysis of Bull Genomes of European and Western Ancestry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Neo Christopher; Szyda, Joanna; Frąszczak, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    Since domestication, population bottlenecks, breed formation, and selective breeding have radically shaped the genealogy and genetics of Bos taurus. In turn, characterization of population structure among diverse bull (males of Bos taurus) genomes enables detailed assessment of genetic resources...... and origins. By analyzing 432 unrelated bull genomes from 13 breeds and 16 countries, we demonstrate genetic diversity and structural complexity among the European/Western cattle population. Importantly, we relaxed a strong assumption of discrete or admixed population, by adapting latent variable models...... harboring largest genetic differentiation suggest positive selection underlying population structure. We carried out gene set analysis using SNP annotations to identify enriched functional categories such as energy-related processes and multiple development stages. Our population structure analysis of bull...

  19. The Spectacle of Redemption: Guilt and Violence in Martin Scorsese’s Raging Bull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Serrano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Of all the characters that undertake a search for redemption in Martin Scorsese’s films, perhaps it is the story of Jake La Motta in Raging Bull that for many reasons presents the greatest challenge to understanding redemption’s role in the narratives of his films. Is Jake La Motta a redeemed character at the end of Raging Bull? I argue that Scorsese uses Raging Bull to criticize a ritualistic view of redemption by portraying the beginning of Jake’s search as a futile attempt to submit himself to a public spectacle of ritual violence in the boxing ring while visually relating this to the Catholic sacraments and the crucifixion. It will only be later—in the loneliness of a jail cell, estranged from his family and without having to have had gone through a rite—that Jake achieves the self-awareness redemption requires.

  20. Brook trout movement within a high-elevation watershed: Consequences for watershed restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeff L. Hansbarger; J. Todd Petty; Patricia M. Mazik

    2010-01-01

    We used radio-telemetry to quantify brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) movements in the Shavers Fork of the Cheat River, West Virginia, and an adjacent second-order tributary (Rocky Run). Our objectives were to quantify the overall rate of trout movement, assess spatial and temporal variation in...

  1. Agonistic behavior among three stocked trout species in a novel reservoir fish community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budy, Phaedra; Hafen, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    The popularity of reservoirs to support sport fisheries has led to the stocking of species that did not co-evolve, creating novel reservoir fish communities. In Utah, the Bear Lake strain of Bonneville Cutthroat Trout Oncorhynchus clarkii utah and tiger trout (female Brown Trout Salmo trutta × male Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis) are being more frequently added to a traditional stocking regimen consisting primarily of Rainbow TroutO. mykiss. Interactions between these three predatory species are not well understood, and studies evaluating community interactions have raised concern for an overall decrease of trout condition. To evaluate the potential for negative interactions among these species, we tested aggression in laboratory aquaria using three-species and pairwise combinations at three densities. Treatments were replicated before and after feeding. During the three-species trials Rainbow Trout initiated 24.8 times more aggressive interactions than Cutthroat Trout and 10.2 times more aggressive interactions than tiger trout, and tiger trout exhibited slightly (1.9 times) more aggressive initiations than Cutthroat Trout. There was no significant difference in behavior before versus after feeding for any species, and no indication of increased aggression at higher densities. Although Rainbow Trout in aquaria may benefit from their bold, aggressive behavior, given observations of decreased relative survival in the field, these benefits may be outweighed in reservoirs, possibly through unnecessary energy expenditure and exposure to predators.

  2. The global impact of alien trout species — a review; with reference ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brown trout, Salmo trutta, and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were first introduced into South African waters as angling species in the later part of the nineteenth century, when environmental impact studies were neither considered nor undertaken. Trout have since been introduced mainly into the cooler upper ...

  3. A New Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Database for Rainbow Trout Generated Through Whole Genome Resequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangtu Gao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are highly abundant markers, which are broadly distributed in animal genomes. For rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, SNP discovery has been previously done through sequencing of restriction-site associated DNA (RAD libraries, reduced representation libraries (RRL and RNA sequencing. Recently we have performed high coverage whole genome resequencing with 61 unrelated samples, representing a wide range of rainbow trout and steelhead populations, with 49 new samples added to 12 aquaculture samples from AquaGen (Norway that we previously used for SNP discovery. Of the 49 new samples, 11 were double-haploid lines from Washington State University (WSU and 38 represented wild and hatchery populations from a wide range of geographic distribution and with divergent migratory phenotypes. We then mapped the sequences to the new rainbow trout reference genome assembly (GCA_002163495.1 which is based on the Swanson YY doubled haploid line. Variant calling was conducted with FreeBayes and SAMtools mpileup, followed by filtering of SNPs based on quality score, sequence complexity, read depth on the locus, and number of genotyped samples. Results from the two variant calling programs were compared and genotypes of the double haploid samples were used for detecting and filtering putative paralogous sequence variants (PSVs and multi-sequence variants (MSVs. Overall, 30,302,087 SNPs were identified on the rainbow trout genome 29 chromosomes and 1,139,018 on unplaced scaffolds, with 4,042,723 SNPs having high minor allele frequency (MAF > 0.25. The average SNP density on the chromosomes was one SNP per 64 bp, or 15.6 SNPs per 1 kb. Results from the phylogenetic analysis that we conducted indicate that the SNP markers contain enough population-specific polymorphisms for recovering population relationships despite the small sample size used. Intra-Population polymorphism assessment revealed high level of polymorphism and

  4. Effect of preputial washing on bacterial load and preservability of semen in Murrah buffalo bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Meena

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the effect of preputial washing on bacterial load, preservability and semen quality in Murrah buffalo bulls Materials and Methods: A total of 36 collections of three Murrah buffalo bulls maintained at Artificial Breeding Research Centre, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, were collected at weekly intervals from each bull without preputial washing and latter ejaculates from same bull with preputial washing by infusing normal saline (0.85%, KMnO4 (0.02% and savlon (2.0% to first, second and third bull, respectively. The microbial load and semen quality were evaluated during different hours of storage at refrigerated temperature (0, 24 and 48 h and after thrawing of cryopreserved (at −196°C semen. Results: The results of preservation of semen at refrigerated temperature showed that bacterial load was markedly lower in ejaculates of bulls subjected to preputial washing. Semen preserved at refrigerator temperature and cryopreserved, the effect of washing solution was significant for individual motility (IM, non-eosiniphilic count, hypo-osmotic swelling reactivity (HOST, total plate count (TPC and acrosome integrity. KMnO4 was found to be the best in lowering bacterial load, sperm abnormalities and in improving semen quality such as motility, non-eosinophilic count, HOST and acrosome integrity even up to 48 h of preservation and cryopreserved semen. Effect of duration of preservation and stage of cryopreservation was also significant for IM, non-eosiniphilic count, HOST, sperm abnormalities and acrosome integrity. Conclusion: Overall the results suggested that preputial washing with KMnO4 solution improved the semen quality and reduced microbial load of Murrah buffalo bull’s semen preserved at refrigerated temperature and cryopreservation.

  5. MEAT QUALITY FROM CHAROLAIS BULLS FED DIETS WITH DIFFERENT LEVELS OF CORN SILAGE INCLUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Cozzi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A sample of 6 intensive beef farms was selected according to the feeding plan adopted during the fattening period of Charolais bulls. Two farms did not include any corn silage in the diet (CS0, while corn silage represented 22% of the dietary DM in the second group of 2 farms (CS22, and it raised up to 44% of the dietary DM in the last 2 farms (CS44. Five bulls were randomly selected from each farm to be slaughtered in the same abattoir. Bulls age was similar across treatments but the CS44 bulls had a lower carcass weight (396 kg than the other two treatments (436 and 446 kg for CS0 and CS22, respectively. Carcass fleshiness (SEUROP and fatness scores were not affected by the level of corn silage in the diet. Meat quality was evaluated on a joint sample of the m. Longissimus thoracis, excised from the 5th to the 9th rib of each right half carcass 24 h post-mortem, after an ageing period of 10 d vacuum packaged at 4°C. Meat chemical analysis showed no variations in pH, DM, intramuscular fat and protein content due to the different silage inclusion in the diet. Only the cholesterol content was progressively reduced in the meat of bulls fed increasing quantities of corn silage according to a significant negative linear trend. Meat colour, cooking losses and shear force values were not affected by the diet. Therefore, based on these findings there are no substantial arguments against the use of a large amount of corn silage in the fattening diets of Charolais bulls.

  6. The effects of Red Bull energy drink compared with caffeine on cycling time-trial performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlivan, Alannah; Irwin, Christopher; Grant, Gary D; Anoopkumar-Dukie, Sheilandra; Skinner, Tina; Leveritt, Michael; Desbrow, Ben

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the ergogenic effects of a commercial energy drink (Red Bull) or an equivalent dose of anhydrous caffeine in comparison with a noncaffeinated control beverage on cycling performance. Eleven trained male cyclists (31.7 ± 5.9 y 82.3 ± 6.1 kg, VO2max = 60.3 ± 7.8 mL · kg-1 · min-1) participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover-design study involving 3 experimental conditions. Participants were randomly administered Red Bull (9.4 mL/kg body mass [BM] containing 3 mg/kg BM caffeine), anhydrous caffeine (3 mg/kg BM given in capsule form), or a placebo 90 min before commencing a time trial equivalent to 1 h cycling at 75% peak power output. Carbohydrate and fluid volumes were matched across all trials. Performance improved by 109 ± 153 s (2.8%, P = .039) after Red Bull compared with placebo and by 120 ± 172 s (3.1%, P = .043) after caffeine compared with placebo. No significant difference (P > .05) in performance time was detected between Red Bull and caffeine treatments. There was no significant difference (P > .05) in mean heart rate or rating of perceived exertion among the 3 treatments. This study demonstrated that a moderate dose of caffeine consumed as either Red Bull or in anhydrous form enhanced cycling time-trial performance. The ergogenic benefits of Red Bull energy drink are therefore most likely due to the effects of caffeine, with the other ingredients not likely to offer additional benefit.

  7. A value orientation approach to assess and compare climate change risk perception among trout anglers in Georgia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh Paudyal; Neelam C. Poudyal; J.M. Bowker; Adrienne M. Dorison; Stanley J. Zarnoch; Gary T. Green

    2015-01-01

    Trout in Georgia could experience early impacts from climate change as the streams in the region are located at the southern most edge of their North American home range. This study surveyed trout anglers in Georgia to understand how anglers perceive the potential impact of climate change on trout, and whether and how their perception and response to declines in trout...

  8. Genetic Background and Population Genetics of Hungarian Brown Trout Populations Using PCR-RFLP and Microsatellite Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ágnes Ősz

    2015-12-01

    4 University of West Hungary, Mosonmagyaróvár Vár 2., 9200 Mosonmagyaróvár, Hungary Based on the analyses of the mitochondrial DNA of several European brown trout populations, five evolutionary lineages of brown trout were indentified (Atlantic, Danubian, Mediterranean, Adriatic, Marble. The species is bred primarily for stock enhancement of natural waters, however the most hatchery-maintained broodstocks originate from the Atlantic lineage. Due to the hydrogeography of Hungary our stocks should theoretically belong to the Danubian lineage; however, this has not been investigated earlier by genetic studies. For our genetic analysis, 702 fin clips were collected from two brown trout broodstocks (Lillafüred and Szilvásvárad as well as populations of natural streams (Bán, Jósva, Kemence, Apátkút, Bittva and Kölöntés in Hungary. Sequencing of the control region in mitochondrial DNA, three PCR-RFLP (mitochondrial DNA control region, lactate dehydrogenase and somatolactin genes and five microsatellite markers were used to distinguish between Danubian and Atlantic lineages of brown trout. The proportion of the mitochondrial haplotype of the Danubian lineage was low, with the exception of the Apátkúti, Kölöntés streams and Szilvásvárad broodstock. Analyses of nuclear PCR-RFLP and microsatellites markers showed various distributions of alleles characteristic of the Atlantic or Danubian lineages, although the Atlantic genotype has dominated in all population. In case of the analyses of microsatellites the polymorphism varied greatly at all locations. In addition we found several alleles that were not described earlier in other populations. Those alleles probably would be typical of Hungarian brown trout populations. Overall the populations were effectively in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for both PCR-RFLP and microsatellite markers. The remarkably high proportion of allochthonous Atlantic alleles in the analyzed sites is a clear indicator of the import

  9. The effect of paternal bull on milk fat composition of dairy cows of different breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Kirchnerová

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Intake of milk fat in human nutrition is important because of unsaturated and especially essential fatty acids (FAs, linoleic and α-linolenic acid, and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, which is found only in meat and milk of ruminants. The objective of our study was to investigate the effect of paternal bulls on fatty acids composition in milk fat of dairy cows of different breeds. The milk samples were taken in total from 299 dairy cows from 11 dairy farms. In experiment Holstein (H, n = 105, Red Holstein (R, n = 120 and Pinzgau (P, n = 74 breeds originated from different bulls were used. Individual milk samples were analyzed for fatty acids in milk fat using gas chromatography (apparatus GC Varian 3800, Techtron, USA, using FID detector in capillary column Omegawax 530; 30 m. In the chromatography records there were identified 54 fatty acids inclusive of particular isomers. Their relative proportions were expressed in percent's (%. Among the studied breeds, the highest content of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA - 0.67%, essential FAs (EFA - 2.98%, monounsaturated FAs (MUFA - 25.84% and the lowest atherogenic index (AI - 3.10 was at breed P. Within this breed there was high variability and daughters of bull COS1 achieved significant above-average values of CLA content 1.07%, EFA 3.71%, MUFA 29.93% and under breed average AI = 2.40. The group of daughters of NOB3 was significant lower in CLA, 0.50% as compared with an average of P breed. . From the breed H bull MTY2 showed significantly higher value of 0.62% CLA, EFA 3.42%, 34.29% MUFA and lower value of AI, 1.9 as compared to H breed average. Statistically significantly lower levels of CLA 0.29% and 21.46% MUFA and higher AI 3.72 in milk fat of his daughters, bull STY3 may be considered as potential worser of these properties. At the breed R bull MOR506 showed in compar to the breed average significantly higher value of the EFA 3.80% and also the higher content of CLA 0.50% and MUFA 25

  10. Superheavy-element fission tracks in iron meteorites, and reply by Bull, R.K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runcorn, S.K.

    1980-01-01

    Comment is made on the lack of superheavy element (SHE) fission tracks observed in silicates from the class IA Odessa iron meteorite by Bull (Nature; 282:393 (1979)). Two explanations are suggested. Firstly, a thermal history for Odessa can be constructed in which the meteorite reaches track retention temperatures only after a time corresponding to many half lives for the SHEs (taken to be approximately 100 Myr) has elapsed and secondly that the IA irons never took up many SHEs. These suggestions are discussed in a reply by Bull. (U.K.)

  11. Victims and offenders in a situation of bulling: who are they?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekimova V.I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bulling is one of the most common form of violence in the school environment, adversely affecting the physical and mental health of all its members. The article provides a brief review of foreign studies of this phenomenon, the actual statistics of its prevalence and forms of manifestation. Research focuses on the General characteristics of the bulling participants – aggressors and victims of aggression. The article points to the descriptive character of the studies and contradictory results. It also draws attention to the scarcity of diagnostic tools and a lack of understanding of the psychological component of the problem

  12. Quantitative protein and fat metabolism in bull calves treated with beta-adrenergic agonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chwalibog, André; Jensen, K; Thorbek, G

    1996-01-01

    Protein and energy utilization and quantitative retention of protein, fat and energy was investigated with 12 Red Danish bulls during two subsequent 6 weeks trials (Sections A and B) at a mean live weight of 195 and 335 kg respectively. Treatments were control (Group 1) and beta-agonist (L-644...... matter, metabolizable energy and digestible protein was of the same magnitude for all groups. The beta-agonist had no significant effect on protein digestibility and metabolizability of energy, but daily live weight gain was significantly higher in the treated bulls. The utilization of digested protein...

  13. Value of Bull's eye thallium 201 tomoscintigraphic images for the appreciation of coronary artery disease extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colonna, G.; Merlet, P.; Bourguignon, M.H.; Syrota, A.

    1990-01-01

    A myocardial tomography (T1-201) has been performed in 97 patients after exercise and 3 hours later. Tomographic slices were reconstructed using a standard software. Bull's eye images of short axis slices were compared, in blind manner, by 5 physicians, to the standard display. For the diagnosis of coronary artery disease, both displays had the same clinical value. For the appreciation of the extension of the disease, results obtained from bull's eye display were slightly better than those obtained from the conventional display [fr

  14. Perfusion SPECT of the myocardium with 99mTc-MIBI and Bull's Eye analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belohlavek, O.; Svobodova, J.; Kotik, I.; Peterka, K.; Vodak, M.; Cervenka, V.

    1993-01-01

    Single-photon emission tomography and its application to the determination of myocardial perfusion are described. The radiopharmaceutical Cardiolite is used for this. The radiation burden due to Cardiolite is several times lower than that from 201 Tl-labelled compounds. The examination is performed at rest and at load. In addition to conventional methods, the Bull's Eye Image method can also be applied to process the data obtained. Bull's Eye Image is a polar map in whose centre is the apex of the heart, surrounded by the various sections. (M.D.). 6 refs

  15. Skin and gonadal dose reduction during hip radiography of the bull

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, A.K.W.; Blockey, deB.; Reynolds, K.M.; Leith, I.S.; Burns, P.A.

    1979-01-01

    Radiology is being used to an increasing extent in the clinical diagnosis of hip lameness in bulls. Consequent gonadal doses may have important implications in later breeding programmes. Skin and gonadal doses were recorded during hip radiography of 18 bulls. An additional 0.13 mm copper filtration reduced skin dose by more than one third, but had no effect on gonadal dose. The average radiation dose to the gonads was approximately halved by completely surrounding the scrotum with lead sheeting 0.95 mm in thickness. (author)

  16. A definition of unknown parent groups based on bull usage patterns across herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouquet, A; Renand, G; Phocas, F

    2011-03-01

    In genetic evaluations, the definition of unknown parent groups (UPG) is usually based on time periods, selection path and flows of foreign founders. The definition of UPG may be more complex for populations presenting genetic heterogeneity due to both, large national expansion and coexistence of artificial insemination (AI) and natural service (NS). A UPG definition method accounting for beef bull flows was proposed and applied to the French Charolais cattle population. It assumed that, at a given time period, unknown parents belonged to the same UPG when their progeny were bred in herds that used bulls with similar origins (birth region and reproduction way). Thus, the birth period, region and AI rate of a herd were pointed out to be the three criteria reflecting genetic disparities at the national level in a beef cattle population. To deal with regional genetic disparities, 14 regions were identified using a factorial approach combining principal component analysis and Ward clustering. The selection nucleus of the French cattle population was dispersed over three main breeding areas. Flows of NS bulls were mainly carried out within each breeding area. On the contrary, the use and the selection of AI bulls were based on a national pool of candidates. Within a time period, herds of different regions were clustered together when they used bulls coming from the same origin and with an estimated difference of genetic level lower than 20% of genetic standard deviation (σg) for calf muscle and skeleton scores (SS) at weaning. This led to the definition of 16 UPG of sires, which were validated as robust and relevant in a sire model, meaning numerically stable and corresponding to distinct genetic subpopulations. The UPG genetic levels were estimated for muscle and SS under sire and animal models. Whatever the trait, differences between bull UPG estimates within a time period could reach 0.5 σg across regions. For a given time period, bull UPG estimates for muscle and

  17. A haplotype regression approach for genetic evaluation using sequences from the 1000 bull genomes Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakhssassi, K.; González-Recio, O.

    2017-01-01

    Haplotypes from sequencing data may improve the prediction accuracy in genomic evaluations as haplotypes are in stronger linkage disequilibrium with quantitative trait loci than markers from SNP chips. This study focuses first, on the creation of haplotypes in a population sample of 450 Holstein animals, with full-sequence data from the 1000 bull genomes project; and second, on incorporating them into the whole genome prediction model. In total, 38,319,258 SNPs (and indels) from Next Generation Sequencing were included in the analysis. After filtering variants with minor allele frequency (MAF< 0.025) 13,912,326 SNPs were available for the haplotypes extraction with findhap.f90. The number of SNPs in the haploblocks was on average 924 SNP (166,552 bp). Unique haplotypes were around 97% in all chromosomes and were ignored leaving 153,428 haplotypes. Estimated haplotypes had a large contribution to the total variance of genomic estimated breeding values for kilogram of protein, Global Type Index, Somatic Cell Score and Days Open (between 32 and 99.9%). Haploblocks containing haplotypes with large effects were selected by filtering for each trait, haplotypes whose effect was larger/lower than the mean plus/minus 3 times the standard deviation (SD) and 1 SD above the mean of the haplotypes effect distribution. Results showed that filtering by 3 SD would not be enough to capture a large proportion of genetic variance, whereas filtering by 1 SD could be useful but model convergence should be considered. Additionally, sequence haplotypes were able to capture additional genetic variance to the polygenic effect for traits undergoing lower selection intensity like fertility and health traits.

  18. Texas Bull Nettle (Cnidoscolus texanus) Exposures Reported to Texas Poison Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Mathias B

    2017-06-01

    Texas bull nettle (Cnidoscolus texanus) is covered in bristly hairs similar to stinging nettle. Contact with the plant may result in intense dermal pain, burning, itching, cellulitis, and allergic reaction. This study characterizes C texanus exposures reported to a large state-wide poison center system. Cases were C texanus exposures reported to Texas poison centers during 2000-2015. The distribution of cases was determined for patient demographics, exposure circumstances, and patient outcome. A total of 140 C texanus exposures were identified. Twenty percent of the patients were aged ≤5 years, 21% were 6 to 12 years, 5% were 13 to 19 years, and 51% were ≥20years; and 51% of the patients were male. Eighty-one percent of the exposures occurred at the patient's own residence, 11% in a public area, 2% at another residence, and 1% at school. Seventy-eight percent of the patients were managed on site, 13% were already at or en route to a health care facility, and 6% were referred to a health care facility. Eighty-eight percent of the exposures resulted in dermal effects: irritation or pain (56%), erythema or flushing (31%), edema (27%), pruritus (24%), rash (19%), puncture or wound (19%), and hives or welts (11%). C texanus exposures reported to Texas poison centers were most likely to be unintentional and occur at the patient's own residence. The outcomes of the exposures tended not to be serious and could be managed successfully outside of health care facilities. Copyright © 2017 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A haplotype regression approach for genetic evaluation using sequences from the 1000 bull genomes Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakhssassi, K.; González-Recio, O.

    2017-07-01

    Haplotypes from sequencing data may improve the prediction accuracy in genomic evaluations as haplotypes are in stronger linkage disequilibrium with quantitative trait loci than markers from SNP chips. This study focuses first, on the creation of haplotypes in a population sample of 450 Holstein animals, with full-sequence data from the 1000 bull genomes project; and second, on incorporating them into the whole genome prediction model. In total, 38,319,258 SNPs (and indels) from Next Generation Sequencing were included in the analysis. After filtering variants with minor allele frequency (MAF< 0.025) 13,912,326 SNPs were available for the haplotypes extraction with findhap.f90. The number of SNPs in the haploblocks was on average 924 SNP (166,552 bp). Unique haplotypes were around 97% in all chromosomes and were ignored leaving 153,428 haplotypes. Estimated haplotypes had a large contribution to the total variance of genomic estimated breeding values for kilogram of protein, Global Type Index, Somatic Cell Score and Days Open (between 32 and 99.9%). Haploblocks containing haplotypes with large effects were selected by filtering for each trait, haplotypes whose effect was larger/lower than the mean plus/minus 3 times the standard deviation (SD) and 1 SD above the mean of the haplotypes effect distribution. Results showed that filtering by 3 SD would not be enough to capture a large proportion of genetic variance, whereas filtering by 1 SD could be useful but model convergence should be considered. Additionally, sequence haplotypes were able to capture additional genetic variance to the polygenic effect for traits undergoing lower selection intensity like fertility and health traits.

  20. Effects of chronic high stocking density on liver proteome of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Mahdi; Keyvanshokooh, Saeed; Salati, Amir Parviz; Ghaedi, Alireza

    2017-10-01

    The main aim of the present study was to assess the effects of chronic high stocking density on liver proteome of rainbow trout. Rainbow trout juveniles (42.6 ± 2.3 g average body weight) were randomly distributed into six tanks at two stocking densities (low stocking density (LD) = 20 kg m -3 and high stocking density (HD) = 80 kg m -3 ). Both treatments were performed in triplicate tanks for a period of 60 days. High stocking density caused a reduction in the growth performance compared with LD fish. Lysozyme activity increased with stocking density, while serum complement activity presented the opposite pattern. Serum cortisol and total protein levels did not show significant differences (P > 0.05) between experimental groups. The fish reared at high stocking density showed significantly lower osmolality and globulin values but higher albumin level. The HD group had significantly higher activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase, and malondialdehyde content in the liver when compared to the LD group. Comparative proteomics was used to determine the proteomic responses in livers of rainbow trout reared at high stocking density for 60 days. Out of nine protein spots showing altered abundance (>1.5-folds, P < 0.05), eight spots were successfully identified. Two proteins including apolipoprotein A-I-2 precursor and mitochondrial stress-70 protein were found to increase in HD group. The spots found to decrease in the HD group were identified as follows: 2-peptidylprolyl isomerase A, two isoforms of glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, an unnamed protein product similar to fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein, and serum albumin 1 protein.

  1. Central ventilatory and cardiovascular actions of trout gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP in the unanesthetized trout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Le Mével

    2013-07-01

    Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP, a neuropeptide initially isolated from porcine stomach, shares sequence similarity with bombesin. GRP and its receptors are present in the brains and peripheral tissues of several species of teleost fish, but little is known about the ventilatory and cardiovascular effects of this peptide in these vertebrates. The goal of this study was to compare the central and peripheral actions of picomolar doses of trout GRP on ventilatory and cardiovascular variables in the unanesthetized rainbow trout. Compared to vehicle, intracerebroventricular (ICV injection of GRP (1–50 pmol significantly elevated the ventilation rate (ƒV and the ventilation amplitude (VAMP, and consequently the total ventilation (VTOT. The maximum hyperventilatory effect of GRP (VTOT: +225%, observed at a dose of 50 pmol, was mostly due to its stimulatory action on VAMP (+170% rather than ƒV (+20%. In addition, ICV GRP (50 pmol produced a significant increase in mean dorsal aortic blood pressure (PDA (+35% and in heart rate (ƒH (+25%. Intra-arterial injections of GRP (5–100 pmol were without sustained effect on the ventilatory variables but produced sporadic and transient increases in ventilatory movement at doses of 50 and 100 pmol. At these doses, GRP elevated PDA by +20% but only the 50 pmol dose significantly increased HR (+15%. In conclusion, our study suggests that endogenous GRP within the brain of the trout may act as a potent neurotransmitter and/or neuromodulator in the regulation of cardio-ventilatory functions. In the periphery, endogenous GRP may act as locally-acting and/or circulating neurohormone with an involvement in vasoregulatory mechanisms.

  2. Evaluation of an Unsuccessful Brook Trout Electrofishing Removal Project in a Small Rocky Mountain Stream.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Kevin A.; Lamansky, Jr., James A.; Schill, Daniel J.

    2006-01-26

    In the western United States, exotic brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis frequently have a deleterious effect on native salmonids, and biologists often attempt to remove brook trout from streams by means of electrofishing. Although the success of such projects typically is low, few studies have assessed the underlying mechanisms of failure, especially in terms of compensatory responses. A multiagency watershed advisory group (WAG) conducted a 3-year removal project to reduce brook trout and enhance native salmonids in 7.8 km of a southwestern Idaho stream. We evaluated the costs and success of their project in suppressing brook trout and looked for brook trout compensatory responses, such as decreased natural mortality, increased growth, increased fecundity at length, and earlier maturation. The total number of brook trout removed was 1,401 in 1998, 1,241 in 1999, and 890 in 2000; removal constituted an estimated 88% of the total number of brook trout in the stream in 1999 and 79% in 2000. Although abundance of age-1 and older brook trout declined slightly during and after the removals, abundance of age-0 brook trout increased 789% in the entire stream 2 years after the removals ceased. Total annual survival rate for age-2 and older brook trout did not decrease during the removals, and the removals failed to produce an increase in the abundance of native redband trout Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri. Lack of a meaningful decline and unchanged total mortality for older brook trout during the removals suggest that a compensatory response occurred in the brook trout population via reduced natural mortality, which offset the removal of large numbers of brook trout. Although we applaud WAG personnel for their goal of enhancing native salmonids by suppressing brook trout via electrofishing removal, we conclude that their efforts were unsuccessful and suggest that similar future projects elsewhere over such large stream lengths would be costly, quixotic enterprises.

  3. Native and exotic fishes in a Patagonian reservoir with rainbow trout cage culture: spatial and trophic resource use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabaes Jodar Diego N.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the interactions of exotic salmonids with native Patagonian fishes are well known, little is known about the ecology and impact of farmed fish escapees. Salmonid production in Argentina is largely concentrated in the Alicurá reservoir in north Patagonia, where fish community studies have been scarce. Here, we assess and compare the spatial distribution, body size–condition and diet of the different fish species in this reservoir. Strong vertical segregation was observed between exotic rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (both escapees and wild, dominating the littoral zone, and native Percichthys trucha which dominate the medium and deep strata. Low piscivory–benthivory and high zooplanktivory were observed for rainbow trout, both traits being uncommon at a regional scale. Escaped farmed rainbow trout (ERT diet included abundant indigestible items along with wild prey. Higher body condition of P. trucha close to farms, as well as the regionally unprecedented high incidence of Daphnia sp. in the guts of all the species suggest that farm nutrient discharges have had significant impacts. Finally, the high body condition of ERT, together with their wild food diet and the long dispersal distance observed, demonstrate post-escape success, drawing our attention to potential upstream dispersion affecting the biodiversity and fisheries of Patagonian rivers and lakes.

  4. Toxicity of five forest insecticides to cutthroat trout and two species of aquatic invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, D.F.; Mauck, W.L.

    1980-01-01

    vegetation in riffle areas in streams and rivers. Stonefly naiads and amphipods were selected as test organisms because of their importance as trout food and their wide distribution in mountain stream communities. We determined the effect of various water types representing different biogeographical areas in the Intermountain West on the toxicity of these five forest insecticides.

  5. Cadmium-mediated disruption of cortisol biosynthesis involves suppression of corticosteroidogenic genes in rainbow trout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandhu, Navdeep; Vijayan, Mathilakath M.

    2011-01-01

    Cadmium is widely distributed in the aquatic environment and is toxic to fish even at sublethal concentrations. This metal is an endocrine disruptor, and one well established role in teleosts is the suppression of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-stimulated cortisol biosynthesis by the interrenal tissue. However the mechanism(s) leading to this steroid suppression is poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that cadmium targets genes encoding proteins critical for corticosteroid biosynthesis, including melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). To test this, head kidney slices (containing the interrenal tissues) were incubated in vitro with cadmium chloride (0, 10, 100 and 1000 nM) for 4 h either in the presence or absence of ACTH (0.5 IU/mL). In the unstimulated head kidney slices, cadmium exposure did not affect basal cortisol secretion and the mRNA levels of MC2R and P450scc, while StAR gene expression was significantly reduced. Cadmium exposure significantly suppressed ACTH-stimulated cortisol production in a dose-related fashion. This cadmium-mediated suppression in corticosteroidogenesis corresponded with a significant reduction in MC2R, StAR and P450scc mRNA levels in trout head kidney slices. The inhibition of ACTH-stimulated cortisol production and suppression of genes involved in corticosteroidogenesis by cadmium were completely abolished in the presence of 8-Bromo-cAMP (a cAMP analog). Overall, cadmium disrupts the expression of genes critical for corticosteroid biosynthesis in rainbow trout head kidney slices. However, the rescue of cortisol production as well as StAR and P450scc gene expressions by cAMP analog suggests that cadmium impact occurs upstream of cAMP production. We propose that MC2R signaling, the primary step in ACTH-induced cortocosteroidogenesis, is a key target for cadmium-mediated disruption of

  6. Cadmium-mediated disruption of cortisol biosynthesis involves suppression of corticosteroidogenic genes in rainbow trout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandhu, Navdeep [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Vijayan, Mathilakath M., E-mail: mvijayan@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2011-05-15

    Cadmium is widely distributed in the aquatic environment and is toxic to fish even at sublethal concentrations. This metal is an endocrine disruptor, and one well established role in teleosts is the suppression of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-stimulated cortisol biosynthesis by the interrenal tissue. However the mechanism(s) leading to this steroid suppression is poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that cadmium targets genes encoding proteins critical for corticosteroid biosynthesis, including melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). To test this, head kidney slices (containing the interrenal tissues) were incubated in vitro with cadmium chloride (0, 10, 100 and 1000 nM) for 4 h either in the presence or absence of ACTH (0.5 IU/mL). In the unstimulated head kidney slices, cadmium exposure did not affect basal cortisol secretion and the mRNA levels of MC2R and P450scc, while StAR gene expression was significantly reduced. Cadmium exposure significantly suppressed ACTH-stimulated cortisol production in a dose-related fashion. This cadmium-mediated suppression in corticosteroidogenesis corresponded with a significant reduction in MC2R, StAR and P450scc mRNA levels in trout head kidney slices. The inhibition of ACTH-stimulated cortisol production and suppression of genes involved in corticosteroidogenesis by cadmium were completely abolished in the presence of 8-Bromo-cAMP (a cAMP analog). Overall, cadmium disrupts the expression of genes critical for corticosteroid biosynthesis in rainbow trout head kidney slices. However, the rescue of cortisol production as well as StAR and P450scc gene expressions by cAMP analog suggests that cadmium impact occurs upstream of cAMP production. We propose that MC2R signaling, the primary step in ACTH-induced cortocosteroidogenesis, is a key target for cadmium-mediated disruption of

  7. South Fork Flathead Watershed Westslope Cutthroat Trout Conservation Program, Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grisak, Grant; Marotz, Brian

    2003-06-01

    In 1999, Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks (MFWP) began a program aimed at conserving the genetically pure populations of westslope cutthroat trout in the South Fork Flathead River drainage. The objective of this program is to eliminate all of the exotic and hybrid trout that threaten the genetically pure westslope cutthroat populations in the South Fork Flathead. The exotic and hybrid trout populations occur in several headwater lakes and their outflow streams. In 2001 MFWP released a draft environmental assessment, pursuant to the Montana Environmental Policy Act (MEPA), that addressed the use of motorized equipment to deliver personnel and materials to some of these lakes in the Bob Marshall and Great Bear Wildernesses (Grisak 2001). After a 30-day public comment period, MFWP determined that the complexity of issues was too great and warranted a more detailed analysis. These issues included transportation options for personnel, equipment and materials, the use of motorized equipment in wilderness, fish removal methods, fish stocking, and the status and distribution of amphibian populations in the project area. Because the program also involves the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the environmental analysis needs to comply with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). In October 2001, pursuant to NEPA, MFWP, along with the USFS and BPA initiated an environmental assessment to address these issues. In June 2002, the three agencies determined that the scope of these issues warranted an Environmental Impact Statement. This specialist report describes the logistical, technical and biological issues associated with this project and provides an analysis of options for fish removal, transportation and fish stocking. It further analyzes issues and concerns associated with amphibian populations and creating new domesticated stocks of westslope cutthroat trout. Finally, this document provides a description of each lake, the best

  8. Radiocaesium turnover in Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) in a Norwegian lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forseth, T.; Ugedal, O.; Jonsson, B.; Langeland, A.; Njaastad, O.

    1991-01-01

    The radioactivity of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) and Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus (L.)) was monitored in a Norwegian lake from 1986 to 1989. A distinct difference was observed between brown trout and Arctic charr in the accumulation of radiocaesium ( 134 Cs and 137 Cs) from the Chernobyl fallout, and the study focused on the understanding of this difference. Brown trout had a large food consumption and a corresponding high intake of radiocaesium. Excretion was 20% faster in brown trout than Arctic charr as brown trout lived at high temperatures in epilimnic water. Arctic charr had a lower food consumption (less than one-third of trout) and lived in colder meta-and hypolimnic water. Arctic charr therefore had a lower intake and slower excretion of radiocaesium. Brown trout an Arctic charr had different diets. For brown trout zoobenthos was the dominant food item, whereas Artic charr mainly fed on zooplankton. The radioactivity in the stomach contents of the two species was different in 1986, but similar for the rest of the period. Higher levels of radiocaesium in brown trout than Arctic charr in 1986 were due to a higher food consumption and more radioactive food items in its diet. The parallel development in accumulated radiocaesium through summer 1987 was probably formed by brown trout balancing a higher intake with a faster excretion. The ecological half-lives of radiocaesium in brown trout (357 days) and Arctic charr (550 days) from Lake Hoeysjoeen indicated a slow removal of the isotopes from the food webs. (author)

  9. Admixture analysis and stocking impact assessment in brown trout ( Salmo trutta ), estimated with incomplete baseline data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Bekkevold, Dorte

    2001-01-01

    the populations contributing to admixture. We applied the method to analyse the genetic contribution of domesticated brown trout (Salmo trutta) in samples of anadromous trout from two stocked populations with no genetic data available before stocking. Further, we estimated population level admixture proportions...... by the mean of individual admixture coefficients. This method proved more informative than a multidimensional scaling analysis of individual-based genetic distances and assignment tests. The results showed almost complete absence of stocked, domesticated trout in samples of trout from the rivers. Consequently......, stocking had little effect on improving fisheries. In one population, the genetic contribution by domesticated trout was small, whereas in the other population, some genetic impact was suggested. Admixture in this sample of anadromous trout despite absence of stocked domesticated trout could be because...

  10. Lake trout demographics in relation to burbot and coregonine populations in the Algonquin Highlands, Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl, L.M.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that lake trout populations change in relation to cisco, lake whitefish, round whitefish and burbot populations in lakes in the Algonquin Highlands region of Ontario. Lake trout population change is greatest where cisco and lake whitefish are present. Lake trout populations in lakes without either coregonine tend to have small adults and many juveniles. Where cisco or lake whitefish are present, adult lake trout are large, juvenile abundance is low, and the stock-recruit relationship appears to be uncoupled likely due to a larval bottleneck. Lake trout populations in these lakes may be sensitive to overfishing and recruitment failure. Lake trout populations do not appear to change in relation to round whitefish. There appears to be an indirect positive change on juvenile lake trout abundance through reductions in the density of benthic coregonines in the presence of large, hypolimnetic burbot. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  11. Evaluation of glutamic acid and glycine as sources of nonessential amino acids for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, S.G.

    1985-01-01

    1. A semi-purified test diet which contained either glutamic acid or glycine as the major source of nonessential amino acids (NEAA) was fed to lake and rainbow trout.2. Trout fed the diet containing glutamic acid consistently showed better growth and feed conversion efficiencies than those fed the diets containing glycine.3. The data indicate that these trout utilize glutamic acid more efficiently than glycine when no other major sources of NEAA are present.

  12. Viimane valik / Malcolm Bull ; tõlk. Märt Väljataga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bull, Malcolm

    2006-01-01

    Genotsiidi mõistest ja teostamisest. Rets. rmt.: Michael Mann. The dark side of democracy: explaining ethnic cleansing. Cambridge, 2005; Marc Levene. Genocide in the age of the nation state. Volume I: The meaning of genocide; Volume II: The rise of the West and the coming of genocide. Tauris, 2005. Lisa: Malcolm Bull

  13. A feed forward neural network for classification of bull's-eye myocardial perfusion images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, D.; Riley, P.J.; Miola, U.J.; Amro, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    Identification of hypoperfused areas in myocardial perfusion single-photon emission tomography studies can be aided by bull's-eye representation of raw counts, lesion extent and lesion severity, the latter two being produced by comparison of the raw bull's-eye data with a normal data base. An artificial intelligence technique which is presently becoming widely popular and which is particularly suitable for pattern recognition is that of artificial neural network. We have studied the ability of feed forward neural networks to extract patterns from bull's-eye data by assessing their capability to predict lesion presence without direct comparison with a normal data base. Studies were undertaken on both simulation data and on real stress-rest data obtained from 410 male patients undergoing routine thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. The ability of trained neural networks to predict lesion presence was quantified by calculating the areas under receiver operating characteristic curves. Figures as high as 0.96 for non-preclassified patient data were obtained, corresponding to an accuracy of 92%. The results demonstrate that neural networks can accurately classify patterns from bull's-eye myocardial perfusion images and detect the presence of hypoperfused areas without the need for comparison with a normal data base. Preliminary work suggests that this technique could be used to study perfusion patterns in the myocardium and their correlation with clinical parameters. (orig.)

  14. Increased conception rates in beef cattle inseminated with nanopurified bull semen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reproductive performance is of paramount importance to the cattle industry. Since recent progress has been achieved by optimizing estrus and ovulation synchronization protocols in cows, improvements are desired to increase the fertility of bulls enrolled in artificial insemination (AI) programs. Thi...

  15. Bos taurus strain:dairy beef (cattle): 1000 Bull Genomes Run 2, Bovine Whole Genome Sequence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, A.C.; Daetwyler, H.D.; Chamberlain, Amanda J.; Ponce, Carla Hurtado; Sargolzaei, Mehdi; Schenkel, Flavio S.; Sahana, Goutam; Govignon-Gion, Armelle; Boitard, Simon; Dolezal, Marlies; Pausch, Hubert; Brøndum, Rasmus F.; Bowman, Phil J.; Thomsen, Bo; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens S.; Servin, Bertrand; Garrick, Dorian J.; Reecy, James M.; Vilkki, Johanna; Bagnato, Alessandro; Wang, Min; Hoff, Jesse L.; Schnabel, Robert D.; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A.E.; Panitz, Frank; Bendixen, Christian; Holm, Lars-Erik; Gredler, Birgit; Hozé, Chris; Boussaha, Mekki; Sanchez, Marie Pierre; Rocha, Dominique; Capitan, Aurelien; Tribout, Thierry; Barbat, Anne; Croiseau, Pascal; Drögemüller, Cord; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Vander Jagt, Christy; Crowley, John J.; Bieber, Anna; Purfield, Deirdre C.; Berry, Donagh P.; Emmerling, Reiner; Götz, Kay Uwe; Frischknecht, Mirjam; Russ, Ingolf; Sölkner, Johann; Tassell, van Curtis P.; Fries, Ruedi; Stothard, Paul; Veerkamp, R.F.; Boichard, Didier; Goddard, Mike E.; Hayes, Ben J.

    2014-01-01

    Whole genome sequence data (BAM format) of 234 bovine individuals aligned to UMD3.1. The aim of the study was to identify genetic variants (SNPs and indels) for downstream analysis such as imputation, GWAS, and detection of lethal recessives. Additional sequences for later 1000 bull genomes runs can

  16. Laminitis with severe rarefactive osteitis of the distal phalanx in a young Simmental bull

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kofler, J.; Stanek, C.

    1990-01-01

    A case report of a 9-month-old Simmental bull with chronic laminitis is presented including clinical examination, radiology and pathomorphology. The condition is similar to several cases of laminitis described earlier in Jersey cattle, which have been attributed to hereditary factors

  17. Reproductive performance of peranakan ongole (PO) bull at different altitudes areas in Lampung province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suretno, N. D.; Supriyatna, I.; Purwanto, B.; Priyanto, R.

    2018-01-01

    Peranakan Ongole (PO) cattle are famous for their bulls and known for their toughness, rapid growth and natural tolerance to tropical heat and disease resistance. This study was conducted to determine the reproductive performance of PO bull in some altitude in Lampung Province. A total of PO bulls used were 48 heads, with age three to four years. The variables observed were volume, consistency, pH, semen colour, concentration, mass movement, motility, percentage of living spermatozoa and abnormality. Data were collected during the rainy season and dry season, calculated with the average and standard deviation and then analyzed descriptively. Based on the macroscopic examination, Peranakan Ongole bull living in low temperature place had a normal semen volume, the consistency mostly watery to moderate, fresh semen pH is in the normal range and the color of semen are all normal both in the rainy and dry seasons. The results of microscopic examination showed that PO cattle had a good reproduction conditions at all three

  18. 77 FR 55139 - Safety Zone; Chicago Red Bull Flugtag, Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ..., Protection of Children from Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks. This rule is not an economically significant rule and does not create an environmental risk to health or risk to safety that may..., Chicago, IL. The Captain of the Port, Sector Lake Michigan, has determined that the Red Bull Flugtag event...

  19. Effects of pedigree and exotic genetic inheritance on semen production traits of dairy bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijetha Bajjalli Thippeswamy

    2014-03-01

    Conclusions: It may be inferred that the “acceptable quality semen producing ability” decreased from grandsire through sire to male progeny and among the increasing exotic genetic levels of CB cattle, F1 bulls produced significantly higher “low grade ejaculates” that were unfit for cryopreservation.

  20. Seasonal variability of bull and tiger shark presence on the west ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A fisheries-independent survey using longlines and drumlines, and an acoustic telemetry study, revealed that bull sharks Carcharhinus leucas and tiger sharks Galeocerdo cuvier occur throughout the year off the west coast of Reunion Island. The research, which commenced in 2011, was conducted in response to an ...

  1. Carcass and meat quality in double-muscled Belgian Blue bulls and cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiems, L O; De Campeneere, S; Van Caelenbergh, W; De Boever, J L; Vanacker, J M

    2003-03-01

    Carcass and meat quality of 37 bulls and 91 cows of the Belgian Blue breed (double-muscled type) were compared. Age at slaughter averaged 648±73 and 1820±689 days, respectively. Both groups of cattle were finished on maize silage supplemented with concentrate, and were slaughtered at about 750 kg live weight. Females had a lower (P=0.004) cold carcass weight (469.7 kg) in comparison with bulls (500.8 kg), due to a reduced dressing percentage (63.8 vs. 66.6; P M. longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle (2.3 vs. 1.1%; P <0.001) were higher for females than for males. The LT of cows was darker (lower L* and higher a*-value; P <0.001), had a better waterholding capacity (P⩽0.063) and was slightly more tender (P=0.120) than the LT of bulls. Increasing parity reduced dressing percentage and increased LT lightness (L*-value) in cows. Several carcass (SEUROP-grading, composition, LT-area) and meat quality traits (protein and fat contents, drip and cooking losses, a*-value) were better correlated with carcass weight than parity. It is concluded that meat quality of the aged LT of cows is not negatively affected by age, while some carcass quality traits decreased with advancing age. Carcass quality traits adjusted for age at slaughter were better for bulls, but LT meat quality characteristics were at least as good for females as for males.

  2. A Report on the Sexual Cycle in the Kudu Bull Tragelaphus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Report on the Sexual Cycle in the Kudu Bull Tragelaphus Strepsiceros Pallas and a Description of an Inter-Sex. JD Skinner, BJ Huntley. Abstract. Although Ansell (1960) reported that there was no seasonal calving pattern in kudu in Zambia, many workers in southern. Africa have since reported that there is a definite ...

  3. Neurosurgical considerations after bull goring during festivities in Spain and Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiotta, Alejandro M; Matoses, Salvador Martorell

    2011-08-01

    Bullfighting is a highly popular activity during festivities in Spain and Latin America. A scientific society for bullfight injuries, Congreso Internacional de Cirugía Taurina, was founded on November 24, 1974, in recognition of the distinctive pattern of injury that results from bull goring, and a subspecialty of general surgical trauma with emphasis on the acute surgical management of bull-goring injuries has emerged. Injuries to the head and neck are less frequent than genitourinary, inguinal, and abdominal injuries, but are more severe and more likely to result in death. This report reviews the primary venues in which bull goring and associated injuries occur, including the bullfight and the running of the bulls. The biomechanics of the primary and secondary goring injuries are reviewed, with an emphasis on those with the potential to result in neurosurgical injuries. This results in a very unique and devastating pattern of injury that combines penetrating and blunt mechanisms and results in polytrauma. Neurosurgical expertise should be immediately available on-site in the event of a life-threatening neurological injury.

  4. Virulence and genotype of a bovine herpesvirus 1 isolate from semen of a subclinically infected bull

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oirschot, van J.T.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Straver, P.J.; Ruuls, R.C.; Quak, J.; Davidse, A.; Westenbrink, E.; Gielkens, A.L.J.; Dijk, van J.E.; Moerman, A.

    1995-01-01

    A bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) isolate from the semen of a subclinically infected bull was administered to cattle by various routes to assess its virulence. Cattle that were artificially inseminated or inoculated intrapreputially did not develop clinical signs, but did transmit the virus to contact

  5. A new application of Bull's eye analysis to lung perfusion scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasui, Kotaro; Kohno, Yoshihiro; Akaki, Shiro; Hasegawa, Mari; Nakagawa, Tomio; Simizu, Mitsuharu; Takeda, Yoshihiro; Hiraki, Yoshio; Nagaya, Isao.

    1990-01-01

    Technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin lung perfusion scintigraphy was performed and evaluated semiquantitatively by Bull's eye analysis in 24, including 7 with central pulmonary carcinoma, 3 with hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP), 3 with diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB) and 11 normal subjects. First, whole lung field was divided into three regions by three concentric circles. And then radial axes were projected from the center to define 36 sectors, 10 degree each. The counts of each sector was calculated and Bull's eye image and circumferential profile curve were displayed. The patient's map was compared with the lower limit of normal (mean-2 SD), and the extent score (ES) and the severity score (SS) were calculated. The ES was 0.25±0.12 in pulmonary carcinoma (n=7), 0.08±0.07 in HP (n=3), 0.06±0.04 in DPB (n=3). The SS was 26.39±15.17 in pulmonary carcinoma, 4.75±5.57 in HP, 4.29±3.67 in DPB. In one case of central pulmonary carcinoma, segmental perfusion defect was evaluated semiquantitatively by Bull's eye image and circumferential profile curve. And in one case of HP, the change of regional pulmonary blood flow could be followed easily using extent and severity map. This new application of Bull's eye analysis to lung perfusion scintigraphy might be useful to evaluate regional pulmonary blood flow. (author)

  6. Oxidation of nutrients in bull calves treated with beta-adrenergic agonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chwalibog, André; Jensen, K; Thorbek, G

    1996-01-01

    Oxidation of protein (OXP), carbohydrate (OXCHO) and fat (OXF) was investigated with 12 growing bulls treated with beta-agonist (L-644, 969) during two 6 weeks trials (Section A and B) at a mean live weight of 195 and 335 kg. Heat production and nutrient oxidation was calculated from gas exchange...

  7. Relationship between temperament and transportation with rectal temperature and secretion of cortisol and epinephrine in bulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated whether temperament influences rectal temperature and the secretion of cortisol and epinephrine in response to transportation. Brahman bulls were selected based on temperament score (average of exit velocity, EV, and pen score, PS) measured 28 days prior to weaning with the 8...

  8. Restricted gene flow at the micro- and macro-geographical scale in marble trout based on mtDNA and microsatellite polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patarnello Tomaso

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genetic structure of the marble trout Salmo trutta marmoratus, an endemic salmonid of northern Italy and the Balkan peninsula, was explored at the macro- and micro-scale level using a combination of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA and microsatellite data. Results Sequence variation in the mitochondrial control region showed the presence of nonindigenous haplotypes indicative of introgression from brown trout into marble trout. This was confirmed using microsatellite markers, which showed a higher introgression at nuclear level. Microsatellite loci revealed a strong genetic differentiation across the geographical range of marble trout, which suggests restricted gene flow both at the micro-geographic (within rivers and macro-geographic (among river systems scale. A pattern of Isolation-by-Distance was found, in which genetic samples were correlated with hydrographic distances. A general West-to-East partition of the microsatellite polymorphism was observed, which was supported by the geographic distribution of mitochondrial haplotypes. Conclusion While introgression at both mitochondrial and nuclear level is unlikely to result from natural migration and might be the consequence of current restocking practices, the pattern of genetic substructuring found at microsatellites has been likely shaped by historical colonization patterns determined by the geological evolution of the hydrographic networks.

  9. The effects of different levels of Beta Plus on growth performance, microbial flora and blood parameters of Caspian trout, Salmo caspius (Kessler, 1877

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Krimzadeh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Beta plus probiotic, a mixture of Bacillius leicheniformic and Bacillius subtilis, on the growth performance and intestinal microbial flora of Caspian trout (Salmo caspius. A basal diet was formulated and supplemented with Beta plus at 0, 0.5 and 1 g kg-1, leading to three experimental diets. Each experimental diet was randomly assigned to quadruple 1500 L tanks. The Caspian trout with an initial weight of 108.7 ± 1.8 g were randomly distributed in the experimental tanks. The results showed that inclusion of dietary Beta plus significantly increased the final weight and specific growth rate (SGR of Caspian trout compared to those the control treatment. The feed conversion ratio (FCR was also improved significantly after probiotic administration to the experimental fish. However, the body composition and blood parameters were not influenced by the probiotic inclusion. Total count of Gram positive and negative bacteria in the intestine of the fish increased by feeding on diet contained 1 g kg-1 Beta Plus (P<0.05. In conclusion, administration of the probiotic Beta plus can improve the nutrient efficiency and growth performance of Caspian trout confirming the positive effect of a mixture of Bacillus spp.

  10. Safety on North Carolina and Kentucky trout farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunsanya, T J; Durborow, R M; Myers, M L; Cole, H P; Thompson, S L

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify and describe work-related safety hazards, injuries, and near-injury events (close calls) that occurred on trout farms in North Carolina and Kentucky. An interview instrument was used to collect information on occupational hazards, injuries, and near-injury events that resulted from work-related activities. Trout farmers reported occupational hazards including falling live tank lids, slippery surfaces on hauling trucks, lifting strains, falls from raceway walls and walkways, needlesticks while vaccinating fish, allergies, hypothermia/drowning, falls from cranes, chemical exposure, fire/explosions related to oxygen exposure, and electrical contact with overhead power lines. This study also reports solutions suggested by farm safety researchers or used by farmers to prevent the safety hazards found on trout farms.

  11. Gyrodactylid Ectoparasites in a Population of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Rachel L; Hansen, Adam G; Chan, Maia M; Sanders, George E

    2014-01-01

    A colony of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in a decentralized aquatic animal facility was noted to have an increase in morbidity and mortality (from 4 or 5 fish each month to 3 or 4 fish daily) approximately 2 wk after experimental procedures began. The primary clinical signs were erratic swimming behavior and ‘flashing’ of fish against surfaces within housing enclosures. Moribund and normal rainbow trout were presented alive for diagnostic evaluation; samples of water from housing enclosures were provided for water quality assessment. The trout were determined to be infected with gyrodactylids, a common monogenean ectoparasite of the skin and gills in both marine and freshwater fish. This case report describes the diagnosis, pathology, and treatment of gyrodactylids and husbandry modifications associated with the resolution of this clinical aquatic-animal case. PMID:24411786

  12. Thermoregulatory responses and reproductive traits in composite beef bulls raised in a tropical climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanello, Narian; de Brito Lourenço Junior, José; Barioni Junior, Waldomiro; Brandão, Felipe Zandonadi; Marcondes, Cintia Righetti; Pezzopane, José Ricardo Macedo; de Andrade Pantoja, Messy Hannear; Botta, Daniela; Giro, Alessandro; Moura, Ana Beatriz Bossois; do Nascimento Barreto, Andréa; Garcia, Alexandre Rossetto

    2018-05-01

    It is believed that increased livestock production is limited by tropical climate. Thermal imbalance in bulls can lead to hyperthermia and alter testicular metabolism, causing subfertility or infertility. Therefore, the thermoregulation of composite Canchim bulls (5/8 Charolais × 3/8 Zebu) raised in tropical climate as well as their consequences in the physiological, hematological, hormonal, and andrological parameters were evaluated monthly. The bulls (n = 18; 30.0 ± 1.5 months; 503.8 ± 23.0 kg) were kept on pasture, in a single group, from August 2015 to March 2016, comprising the winter, spring, and summer seasons. Biometeorological variables were continuously monitored, and the Temperature and Humidity Index (THI) was calculated. A greater thermal challenge occurred in spring and summer (THI ≥ 72.0). Nevertheless, the bulls exhibited normothermia (38.6 to 38.9 °C) in these seasons. The cortisol did not vary between seasons (7.0 vs. 8.7 vs. 6.8 ng/mL; P > 0.05) and remained within the physiological patterns. Independent of the seasons, stress leukogram was also not observed, refuting the incidence of acute or chronic thermal stress. It is noteworthy that T3 and testosterone increased (P < 0.0001, P < 0.05) in spring and summer, the time that coincides with the breeding season, when there is increased metabolic requirement from the bulls. The progressive thermal challenge increase did not affect the scrotal thermoregulatory capacity, and in general, scrotal temperature remained at 5.2 °C below the internal body temperature. In summer, there was a 5% reduction in the minor sperm defects (P < 0.05) and DNA fragmentation in 2.4% of spermatozoa, a compatible value for high fertility bulls. The results show that the studied composite bulls can be considered as climatically adapted and constitute a viable alternative to be used in production systems in a tropical climate, even if the breeding seasons occur during the most critical thermal condition periods of

  13. Evaluation of bull fertility in dairy and beef cattle using cow field data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, D P; Evans, R D; Mc Parland, S

    2011-01-01

    A successful outcome to a given service is a combination of both male and female fertility. Despite this, most national evaluations for fertility are generally confined to female fertility with evaluations for male fertility commonly undertaken by individual breeding organisations and generally not made public. The objective of this study was to define a pertinent male fertility trait for seasonal calving production systems, and to develop a multiple regression mixed model that may be used to evaluate male fertility at a national level. The data included in the study after editing consisted of 361,412 artificial inseminations from 206,683 cow-lactations (134,911 cows) in 2,843 commercial dairy and beef herds. Fixed effects associated with whether a successful pregnancy ensued (pregnant = 1) or not (pregnant = 0) from a given service were year by month of service, day of the week, days since calving, cow parity, level of calving difficulty experienced, whether or not the previous calving was associated with perinatal mortality, and age of the service bull at the date of insemination. Non-additive genetic effects such as heterosis and recombination loss as well as inbreeding level of the service bull, dam or mating were not associated with a successful pregnancy; there was no difference in pregnancy rate between fresh or frozen semen. Random effects included in the model were the additive genetic effect of the cow, as well as a within lactation and across lactation permanent environmental effect of the cow; pedigree group effects based on cow breed were also included via the relationship matrix. Temporal differences in the AI technician and service bull were also included as random effects. A difference in five percentage units in male fertility was evident between the average effects of different dairy and beef breeds. The correlation between raw pregnancy rates for bulls with more than 100 services (n = 431) and service bull solutions from the mixed model analysis

  14. Factors affecting competitive dominance of rainbow trout over brook trout in southern Appalachian streams: Implications of an individual-based model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, M.E. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Rose, K.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-01-01

    We used an individual-based model to examine possible explanations for the dominance of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss over brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in southern Appalachian streams. Model simulations were used to quantify the effects on interspecific competition of (1) competitive advantage for feeding sites by rainbow trout, (2) latitudinal differences in stream temperatures, flows, and daylight, (3) year-class failures, (4) lower fecundity of brook trout, and (5) reductions in spawning habitat. The model tracks the daily spawning, growth, and survival of individuals of both species throughout their lifetime in a series of connected stream habitat units (pools, runs, or riffles). Average densities of each species based on 100-year simulations were compared for several levels of each of the five factors and for sympatric and allopatric conditions. Based on model results and empirical information, we conclude that more frequent year-class failures and the lower fecundity of brook trout are both possible and likely explanations for rainbow trout dominance, that warmer temperatures due to latitude and limited spawning habitat are possible but unlikely explanations, and that competitive advantage for feeding sites by rainbow trout is an unlikely explanation. Additional field work should focus on comparative studies of the reproductive success and the early life stage mortalities of brook and rainbow trout among Appalachian streams with varying rainbow trout dominance. 53 refs., 11 figs.

  15. Chromosome rearrangements, recombination suppression, and limited segregation distortion in hybrids between Yellowstone cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii bouvieri) and rainbow trout (O. mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Introgressive hybridization is an important evolutionary process that can lead to the creation of novel genome structures and thus potentially new genetic variation for selection to act upon. On the other hand, hybridization with introduced species can threaten native species, such as cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii) following the introduction of rainbow trout (O. mykiss). Neither the evolutionary consequences nor conservation implications of rainbow trout introgression in cutthroat trout is well understood. Therefore, we generated a genetic linkage map for rainbow-Yellowstone cutthroat trout (O. clarkii bouvieri) hybrids to evaluate genome processes that may help explain how introgression affects hybrid genome evolution. Results The hybrid map closely aligned with the rainbow trout map (a cutthroat trout map does not exist), sharing all but one linkage group. This linkage group (RYHyb20) represented a fusion between an acrocentric (Omy28) and a metacentric chromosome (Omy20) in rainbow trout. Additional mapping in Yellowstone cutthroat trout indicated the two rainbow trout homologues were fused in the Yellowstone genome. Variation in the number of hybrid linkage groups (28 or 29) likely depended on a Robertsonian rearrangement polymorphism within the rainbow trout stock. Comparison between the female-merged F1 map and a female consensus rainbow trout map revealed that introgression suppressed recombination across large genomic regions in 5 hybrid linkage groups. Two of these linkage groups (RYHyb20 and RYHyb25_29) contained confirmed chromosome rearrangements between rainbow and Yellowstone cutthroat trout indicating that rearrangements may suppress recombination. The frequency of allelic and genotypic segregation distortion varied among parents and families, suggesting few incompatibilities exist between rainbow and Yellowstone cutthroat trout genomes. Conclusions Chromosome rearrangements suppressed recombination in the hybrids. This result

  16. Spatial and temporal consumption dynamics of trout in catch-and-release areas in Arkansas tailwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinders, John M.; Magoulick, Daniel D.

    2017-01-01

    Restrictive angling regulations in tailwater trout fisheries may be unsuccessful if food availability limits energy for fish to grow. We examined spatial and temporal variation in energy intake and growth in populations of Brown Trout Salmo trutta and Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss within three catch-and-release (C-R) areas in Arkansas tailwaters to evaluate food availability compared with consumption. Based on bioenergetic simulations, Rainbow Trout fed at submaintenance levels in both size-classes (≤400 mm TL, >400 mm TL) throughout most seasons. A particular bottleneck in food availability occurred in the winter for Rainbow Trout when the daily ration was substantially below the minimum required for maintenance, despite reduced metabolic costs associated with lower water temperatures. Rainbow Trout growth rates followed a similar pattern to consumption with negative growth rates during the winter periods. All three size-classes (400 mm TL) of Brown Trout experienced high growth rates and limited temporal bottlenecks in food availability. We observed higher mean densities for Rainbow Trout (47–342 fish/ha) than for Brown Trout (3–84 fish/ha) in all C-R areas. Lower densities of Brown Trout coupled with an ontogenetic shift towards piscivory may have allowed for higher growth rates and sufficient consumption rates to meet energetic demands. Brown Trout at current densities were more effective in maintaining adequate growth rates and larger sizes in C-R areas than were Rainbow Trout. Bioenergetic simulations suggest that reducing stocking levels of Rainbow Trout in the tailwaters may be necessary in order to achieve increased catch rates of larger trout in the C-R areas.

  17. Influence of dissolved oxygen concentration on the toxicity of potassium cyanide to rainbow trout. [Salmo gairdneri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downing, K M

    1954-01-01

    The present work was undertaken to see if similar results were obtained when fish were tested in a continuous flow of water in which the concentrations of oxygen and cyanide were kept constant. Periods of survival were measured this way to minimize distortion of results by accumulation of metabolic waste, depletion of oxygen or depletion of poison. Results are summarized as follows: rainbow trout survival in potassium cyanide increased with increase in dissolved oxygen; increase in survival times did not decline as oxygen saturation was approached; and medium survival times of 3.3 minutes or less were normally distributed while those of greater than 13 minutes were log normally distributed. 6 references, 1 figure.

  18. Lake trout otolith chronologies as multidecadal indicators of high-latitude freshwater ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, B.A.; Von Biela, V.R.; Zimmerman, C.E.; Brown, Randy J.

    2013-01-01

    High-latitude ecosystems are among the most vulnerable to long-term climate change, yet continuous, multidecadal indicators by which to gauge effects on biology are scarce, especially in freshwater environments. To address this issue, dendrochronology (tree-ring analysis) techniques were applied to growth-increment widths in otoliths from lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from the Chandler Lake system, Alaska (68.23°N, 152.70°W). All otoliths were collected in 1987 and exhibited highly synchronous patterns in growth-increment width. Increments were dated, the widths were measured, and age-related growth declines were removed using standard dendrochronology techniques. The detrended time series were averaged to generate an annually resolved chronology, which continuously spanned 1964–1984. The chronology positively and linearly correlated with August air temperature over the 22-year interval (p fish metabolic rate or lake productivity. Given the broad distribution of lake trout within North America, this study suggests that otolith chronologies could be used to examine responses between freshwater ecosystems and environmental variability across a range of temporal and spatial scales.

  19. Compensatory growth response of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum following short starvation periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azodi, Maryam; Ebrahimi, Eisa; Farhadian, Omidvar; Mahboobi-Soofiani, Nasrollah; Morshedi, Vahid

    2015-07-01

    This sixty-day study was performed to determine the effects of short-term starvation and re-feeding cycles on growth, feeding performances and body composition of rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss). Three hundred trout fingerlings with an average initial weight of 17.5±0.06 g were randomly distributed in 15 circular fiberglass tanks. The fish were exposed to 5 different feeding regimes; control: continuously fed twice daily to apparent satiation; T1: starved for 1 day and re-fed for 2 days; T2: starved for 1 day and re-fed for 4 days; T3: starved for 3 days and re-fed for 12 days; T4: starved for 4 days and re-fed for 16 days. At the end of the experiment, growth performance, feed utilization, whole body ash and moisture contents were not significantly ( P>0.05) different among the treatments. However, whole body protein content in T3 was significantly higher than other treatments ( Ptrout culture.

  20. Oxidative stress and partial migration in brown trout (Salmo trutta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birnie-Gauvin, Kim; Peiman, K. S.; Larsen, Martin Hage

    2017-01-01

    of oxidative status in migration biology, particularly in fish. Semi-anadromous brown trout (Salmo trutta, Linnaeus 1758) exhibit partial migration, where some individuals smoltify and migrate to sea, and others become stream residents, providing us with an excellent model to investigate the link between...... oxidative stress and migration. Using the brown trout, we obtained blood samples from juveniles from a coastal stream in Denmark in the fall prior to peak seaward migration which occurs in the spring, and assayed for antioxidant capacity (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) and oxidative stress levels...

  1. Animal welfare in brown trout farming: hematological results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Forneris

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of stress resulting from fish farming has received considerable attention in this last period and fish welfare in aquaculture is a relevant topic, very important for the future of aquaculture (Watson et al., 2004; Klinger et al., 1996; Peres et al., 2004; Ron et al., 1995;Wagner et al., 1995;Watson et al., 1998. Brown trout farming is less developed then rainbow trout farming, but this kind of fish farming is increasing, mainly for fish conservation and restocking aquaculture.

  2. Immunity to rhabdoviruses in rainbow trout: the antibody response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Niels; Lapatra, S.E.

    1999-01-01

    to their occasional detrimental effect on rainbow trout farming. Research efforts have been focused on understanding the mechanisms involved in protective immunity. Several specific and nonspecific cellular and humoral parameters are believed to be involved, but only the antibody response has been characterised......, have demonstrated that rainbow trout can produce specific and highly functional antibodies that are able to neutralise virus pathogenicity in vitro as well as in vivo. The apparently more restricted antibody response to IHNV and VHSV antigens in fish compared to mammals could possibly be explained...... aspects of antibody response and antibody reactivity with IHNV and VHSV antigens....

  3. Seminal quality and sperm production in beef bulls with chronic dietary vitamin A deficiency and subsequent re-alimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, L M; Coulter, G H; Kastelic, J P; Bailey, D R

    1995-05-01

    Sixteen Hereford bulls (16 mo of age, 462 kg average body weight) were used in each of 2 yr to evaluate the effects of hypovitaminosis A on seminal quality and sperm production. Bulls were fed a high-concentrate diet with (+VIT) or without (-VIT) supplemental Vitamin A until the apparent onset of hypovitaminosis A (28 and 32 wk in Year 1 and 2, respectively). Half of the bulls on each treatment were then slaughtered and those remaining were re-alimented with Vitamin A. Plasma retinol concentration in -VIT bulls reached a nadir at approximately 25 wk. In Year 1, the proportion of progressively motile spermatozoa was lower in -VIT bulls after 17 wk but returned to that of the +VIT group after re-alimentation. The proportion of spermatozoa with primary morphological defects appeared to be greater in -VIT bulls compared to +VIT bulls by 26 and 24 wk in Year 1 and 2, respectively. The incidence of these defects declined in -VIT bulls upon re-alimentation, and approached the incidence observed in +VIT bulls by 8 to 12 wk of re-alimentation. Hypovitaminosis A decreased paired testes weight, daily sperm production, and epididymal sperm reserves but did not affect daily gain. Prolonged dietary Vitamin A deficiency impaired semen quality and sperm production in the absence of other clinical symptoms. However, under practical feeding conditions, diets that result in long-term, marginal Vitamin A deficiency or a relatively short-term absence of Vitamin A intake probably would have minimal effects on spermatogenesis.

  4. Initial steps in defining the environment of the prepuce of the bull by measuring pH and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziol, J H; Fraser, N S; Passler, T; Wolfe, D F

    2017-12-01

    To determine the baseline pH and temperature of the preputial cavity of bulls. We enrolled 55 bulls ranging in age from 15 to 84 months. The preputial temperature and pH were measured by insertion of temperature and pH probes, respectively, into the preputial orifice prior to routine breeding soundness examinations. Information was obtained from owners regarding the diet of each bull and categorised as one of three categories: forage only, grain supplemented or silage supplemented. The average temperature of the prepuce was 37.81°C ± 1.76 and the median pH of the prepuce was 8.45 (6.35-9.46). Preputial temperatures of the bull weakly correlated with ambient temperatures (r s  = -0.29, P = 0.028). The preputial pH of silage-fed bulls was significantly lower than that of bulls fed forage only (P = 0.025) or grain-supplemented diets (P = 0.002). The median preputial pH of bulls fed a silage-based diet was 7.6 (6.3-8.9) compared with a median pH 8.7 (7.8-9.1) for bulls fed forage-based diets or a median of 8.5 (7.7-9.4) for those given grain-supplemented diets. Diet and ambient temperature can, respectively, affect pH and the temperature in the prepuce. Further studies to describe and understand the microbiota of the prepuce and penis may assist in developing treatments for diseases of the genital tract in bulls. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  5. A comparison of spatial and movement patterns between sympatric predators: bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas and Atlantic tarpon (Megalops atlanticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Hammerschlag

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Predators can impact ecosystems through trophic cascades such that differential patterns in habitat use can lead to spatiotemporal variation in top down forcing on community dynamics. Thus, improved understanding of predator movements is important for evaluating the potential ecosystem effects of their declines. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We satellite-tagged an apex predator (bull sharks, Carcharhinus leucas and a sympatric mesopredator (Atlantic tarpon, Megalops atlanticus in southern Florida waters to describe their habitat use, abundance and movement patterns. We asked four questions: (1 How do the seasonal abundance patterns of bull sharks and tarpon compare? (2 How do the movement patterns of bull sharks and tarpon compare, and what proportion of time do their respective primary ranges overlap? (3 Do tarpon movement patterns (e.g., straight versus convoluted paths and/or their rates of movement (ROM differ in areas of low versus high bull shark abundance? and (4 Can any general conclusions be reached concerning whether tarpon may mitigate risk of predation by sharks when they are in areas of high bull shark abundance? CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite similarities in diet, bull sharks and tarpon showed little overlap in habitat use. Bull shark abundance was high year-round, but peaked in winter; while tarpon abundance and fishery catches were highest in late spring. However, presence of the largest sharks (>230 cm coincided with peak tarpon abundance. When moving over deep open waters (areas of high shark abundance and high food availability tarpon maintained relatively high ROM in directed lines until reaching shallow structurally-complex areas. At such locations, tarpon exhibited slow tortuous movements over relatively long time periods indicative of foraging. Tarpon periodically concentrated up rivers, where tracked bull sharks were absent. We propose that tarpon trade-off energetic costs of both food assimilation and

  6. Cannibalism in non-native brown trout Salmo trutta and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss stream-dwelling populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musseau, C; Vincenzi, S; Jesenšek, D; Crivelli, A J

    2017-12-01

    Introduced and allopatric populations of brown trout Salmo trutta and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss were sampled in Slovenia for stable isotope analysis to assess dietary niche shifts through ontogeny and estimate the propensity for cannibalism. Both S. trutta and O. mykiss are cannibals, with higher average relative contribution of conspecific assimilated energy for S. trutta (27·9%) compared with O. mykiss (7·7%). The smallest cannibal was 166 mm in the S. trutta population and 247 mm in the O. mykiss population. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  7. Microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA polymorphism reveals life history dependent interbreeding between hatchery and wild brown trout ( Salmo trutta L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Ruzzante, D.E.; Eg Nielsen, Einar

    2000-01-01

    The effects of stocking hatchery trout into wild populations were studied in a Danish river, using microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers. Baseline samples were taken from hatchery trout and wild trout assumed to be unaffected by previous stocking. Also, samples were taken from...... resident and sea trout from a stocked section of the river. Genetic differentiation between the hatchery strain and the local wild population was modest (microsatellite F-ST = 0.06). Using assignment tests, more than 90% of individuals from the baseline samples were classified correctly. Assignment tests...... involving samples from the stocked river section suggested that the contribution by hatchery trout was low among sea trout (trout. Hybrid index analysis and a high percentage of mtDNA haplotypes specific to indigenous trout observed among resident trout that were assigned...

  8. BIOMASS AND DENSITY OF BROWN AND RAINBOW TROUT IN NEW MEXICO STREAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srečko Lainer

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available Mean stream numerical density of the brown trout (Salmo trutta m. fario Linnaeus, 1758 and the rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792 was 0.090 fish/m2 of which brown trout averaged 69% (72% in total biomass in 15 high-elevation New Mexico streams (1,661-2,560 m above sea level. Total trout density varied from 0.008/m2 in 1988 and 1989. Mean trout density ranged between 0.023-0.121 fish/m2 at site s open to public fishing. Considerably higher densities (0.142-0.409 fish/m2 were observed at sites closed for fishing. In the seven selected streams shared by both species, brown trout density exceeded rainbow trout density except at the two sites closed to fishing. Brown trout were stocked only as fingerlings (average 7,000 fish/stream/year while rainbow trout were stocked only in harvestable sizes (11,000 fish/stream/year. Reported total trout yield rates exceeded the total number of fish estimated to be in the stream by 1.01 to 11.63 in most small streams open to fishing. The proportional stock density (PSD ranged between O and 50 percent. Streams with low to moderate intensities of fishing had the highest PSD.

  9. Computerized electrocardiography in American pit bull terrier dogsEletrocardiografia computadorizada em cães da raça American pit bull terrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro José Lahm Cardoso

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Electrocardiography (ECG is an essential examination for evaluation of patient with heart disease is great importance the diagnosis of arrhythmias. The examination can determine source f rhythm and frequency depolarization heart, providing information in clinical status myocardium, since deflections P-QRS-T tracing can be altered by disease or physiological factor. With advancement of computer technology, computerized electrocardiography has been used in human medicine as auxiliary diagnostic method and currently is being increasingly used in veterinary medicine. The objectives this study were to study e computerized electrocardiographic parameters in dogs breed American Pit Bull Terrier, comparing them with patterns species. In present study, we evaluated electrocardiographic examinations 42 dogs the breed American Pit Bull clinically healthy, 22 males and 20 females, aged between 1 and 6 years. Sinus rhythm was observed in 57% of dogs showed sinus rhythm and only 26% were wandering pacemaker. The electrocardiographic values obtained from these dogs computerized ECG were within the normal range of species, except the duration of the P wave which had longer than 0.04 seconds in 24% of dogs. We conclude that the dogs of the breed American Pit Bull Terrier have the same electrocardiographic values obtained in other breeds by the computerized method, except for the increase in P-wave duration. A eletrocardiografia (ECG é um exame essencial para avaliação do paciente com doença cardíaca, sendo de grande importância para o diagnóstico das arritmias. O exame pode determinar a origem do ritmo e a freqüência de despolarização do coração, fornecendo informações do estado clínico do miocárdio, uma vez que as deflexões P-QRS-T do traçado podem ser alteradas por uma enfermidade ou fator fisiológico. Com o avanço da informática, a eletrocardiografia computadorizada tem sido utilizada na medicina humana e veterinária como método de

  10. Chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Dorman, Rebecca A.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Kunz, James L.; Hardesty, Douglas K.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was evaluated in water-only exposures started with newly hatched larvae or approximately 1-mo-old juveniles. The 20% effect concentration (EC20) for cadmium from the sturgeon tests was higher than the EC20 from the trout tests, whereas the EC20 for copper, lead, or zinc for the sturgeon were lower than those EC20s for the trout. When the EC20s from the present study were included in compiled toxicity databases for all freshwater species, species mean chronic value for white sturgeon was in a relatively low percentile of the species sensitivity distribution for copper (9th percentile) and in the middle percentile for cadmium (55th percentile), zinc (40th percentile), or lead (50th percentile). However, the species mean chronic value for rainbow trout was in a high percentile for copper, lead, and zinc (∼68th–82nd percentile), but in a low percentile for cadmium (23rd percentile). The trout EC20s for each of the 4 metals and the sturgeon EC20s for cadmium or lead were above US Environmental Protection Agency chronic ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) or Washington State chronic water quality standards (WQS), whereas the sturgeon EC20s for copper or zinc were approximately equal to or below the chronic AWQC and WQS. In addition, acute 50% effect concentrations (EC50s) for copper obtained in the first 4 d of the chronic sturgeon test were below the final acute value used to derive acute AWQC and below acute WQS for copper.

  11. Impaired protamination and sperm DNA damage in a Nellore bull with high percentages of morphological sperm defects in comparison to normospermic bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.T. Carreira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The routine semen evaluation assessing sperm concentration, motility and morphology, does not identify subtle defects in sperm chromatin architecture. Bulls appear to have stable chromatin, with low levels of DNA fragmentation. However, the nature of fragmentation and its impact on fertility remain unclear and there are no detailed reports characterizing the DNA organization and damage in this species. The intensive genetic selection, the use of artificial insemination and in vitro embryo production associated to the cryopreservation process can contribute to the chromatin damage and highlights the importance of sperm DNA integrity for the success of these technologies. Frozen-thawed semen samples from three ejaculates from a Nellore bull showed high levels of morphological sperm abnormalities (55.8±5.1%, and were selected for complementary tests. Damage of acrosomal (76.9±8.9% and plasma membranes (75.7±9.3% as well as sperm DNA strand breaks (13.8±9.5% and protamination deficiency (3.7±0.6% were significantly higher compared to the values measured in the semen of five Nellore bulls with normospermia (24.3±3.3%; 24.5±6.1%; 0.6±0.5%; 0.4±0.6% for acrosome, plasma membrane, DNA breaks and protamine deficiency, respectively (P<0.05. Motility and percentage of spermatozoa with low mitochondrial potential showed no differences between groups. This study shows how routine semen analyses (in this case morphology may point to the length and complexity of sperm cell damage emphasizing the importance of sperm function testing.

  12. PRODUCTION OF IN VITRO EMBRYO USING SEXED SPERM OF 5/8 GIROLANDO BULLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pábola Santos Nascimento

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the "in vitro" blastocyst rate production using bovine sexed semen. Semen from three bulls was used to verify the individual's semen variation, cleavage rates and embryo production. In this study, we employed reproductive biotechnologies, computer analysis of post-thawed semen and fluorescent probes for sperm cells integrity analysis (plasma membrane, acrosome membrane and mitochondrial potential. A total of 959 oocysts went through in vitro maturation steps for in vitro fertilization and cultivation, being 473 with sexed semen and 486 with conventional semen. The cleavage rate was observed in blastocysts on D2 and D7. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16.0 software using analysis of variance (ANOVA, Student's t-test was used to detect differences between groups, and chi-square analysis for in vitro production results (P <0.05 . The results differed between conventional (31.06% and sexed semen (21.10% in the obtainment of blastocyst. When the blastocyst production was individually compared in sexed semen samples (27.69%, 17.93% and 25.56%, bulls 1, 2 and 3, respectively we verified T2 bulls in curvilinear speed, linear speed and path velocity variables where T1 (117.7 ± 1.6 µm/s; 60.0 ± 0.3 µm/s, 73.6 ± 0.4 µm/s, respectively showed the highest values when compared to T2 bulls (80.2 ± 2.3 µm/s, 47.0 ± 2.0 µm/s, 57.7 ± 0, 9 µm/s, respectively and T3 (86.4 ± 5.7 µm/s, 46.2 ± 2.7 µm/s, 53.8 ± 2.8 µm/s, respectively. Analyses of sperm cell integrity did not differ among conventional semen samples, but in the sexed semen, membrane integrity was the variable that differ statistically among bulls once T1 (38 ± 2.7 differed from T3 (53 8 ± 1.8 (P = 0.009 but did not differ from T2 (44.1 ± 4.4. It is possible to conclude that sexed semen was less efficient in blastocyst production when compared with conventional semen

  13. Estrogenic response of bisphenol A in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Christian; Pedersen, Knud Ladegaard; Pedersen, Søren Nørby

    2000-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) previously shown to possess xenoestrogenic activities was administered to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) through a continuos flow system. The estrogenic response expressed as the induction of vitellogenin (VTG) synthesis was measured during 12 days of exposure, using a direct...

  14. DNA Fingerprinting of Trout Lilies: A High School Student Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vann, Carolyn N.; Saxon, Herbert L.; Brblic, Tom; Elliades, Stacie; Lambert, Scott; Shaw, Jake; Smith, Ryan; Inman, Megan

    1998-01-01

    Reports on a student's research project on the degree of genetic diversity within the trout lily species. Enables a rough prediction of the continuance of the species and provides insight into how to manage plants that might be endangered. Contains 16 references. (DDR)

  15. Conservation of native Pacific trout diversity in Western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke E. Penaluna; Alicia Abadía-Cardoso; Jason B. Dunham; Francisco J. García-Dé León; Robert E. Gresswell; Arturo Ruiz Luna; Eric B. Taylor; Bradley B. Shepard; Robert Al-Chokhachy; Clint C. Muhlfeld; Kevin R. Bestgen; Kevin Rogers; Marco A. Escalante; Ernest R. Keeley; Gabriel M. Temple; Jack E. Williams; Kathleen R. Matthews; Ron Pierce; Richard L. Mayden; Ryan P. Kovach; John Carlos Garza; Kurt D. Fausch

    2016-01-01

    Pacific trout Oncorhynchus spp. in western North America are strongly valued in ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural views, and have been the subject of substantial research and conservation efforts. Despite this, the understanding of their evolutionary histories, overall diversity, and challenges to their conservation is incomplete. We review...

  16. Lake Michigan lake trout PCB model forecast post audit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scenario forecasts for total PCBs in Lake Michigan (LM) lake trout were conducted using the linked LM2-Toxics and LM Food Chain models, supported by a suite of additional LM models. Efforts were conducted under the Lake Michigan Mass Balance Study and the post audit represents th...

  17. Toxicokinetics of perfluorooctane sulfonate in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) confined to respirometer-metabolism chambers were dosed with perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) by intra-arterial injection and sampled to obtain concentration time-course data for plasma, and either urine or expired water. The data were then an...

  18. Impacts of trout on aquatic macroinvertebrates in three Drakensberg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Further studies are recommended in order to provide additional information on seasonal variation in these patterns, as well as on density-dependent effects of trout on aquatic macroinvertebrate communities. Keywords: management, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Salmo trutta, Ukhahlamba-Drakensberg Park, waterfalls

  19. Fine Sediment Effects on Brook Trout Eggs in Laboratory Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    David G. Argent; Patricia A. Flebbe

    1999-01-01

    This study was designed to determine effects of different fine sediments (0.43-0.85 mm in diameter) on survival of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) eggs during early developmental stages under laboratory conditions. Intragravel permeability and dissolved oxygen declined with increasing fine sediment amounts. Survival at each developmental stage...

  20. Localization of rem2 in the central nervous system of the adult rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Anna G; Scholles, Katie R; Hollis, David M

    2016-12-01

    Rem2 is member of the RGK (Rem, Rad, and Gem/Kir) subfamily of the Ras superfamily of GTP binding proteins known to influence Ca 2+ entry into the cell. In addition, Rem2, which is found at high levels in the vertebrate brain, is also implicated in cell proliferation and synapse formation. Though the specific, regional localization of Rem2 in the adult mammalian central nervous system has been well-described, such information is lacking in other vertebrates. Rem2 is involved in neuronal processes where the capacities between adults of different vertebrate classes vary. Thus, we sought to localize the rem2 gene in the central nervous system of an adult anamniotic vertebrate, the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). In situ hybridization using a digoxigenin (DIG)-labeled RNA probe was used to identify the regional distribution of rem2 expression throughout the trout central nervous system, while real-time polymerase chain reaction (rtPCR) further supported these findings. Based on in situ hybridization, the regional distribution of rem2 occurred within each major subdivision of the brain and included large populations of rem2 expressing cells in the dorsal telencephalon of the cerebrum, the internal cellular layer of the olfactory bulb, and the optic tectum of the midbrain. In contrast, no rem2 expressing cells were resolved within the cerebellum. These results were corroborated by rtPCR, where differential rem2 expression occurred between the major subdivisions assayed with the highest levels being found in the cerebrum, while it was nearly absent in the cerebellum. These data indicate that rem2 gene expression is broadly distributed and likely influences diverse functions in the adult fish central nervous system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Sanctuaries for lake trout in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Jon G.; Eshenroder, Randy L.; Hartman, Wilbur L.

    1987-01-01

    Populations of lake trout, severely depleted in Lake Superior and virtually extirpated from the other Great Lakes because of sea lamprey predation and intense fishing, are now maintained by annual plantings of hatchery-reared fish in Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario and parts of Lake Superior. The extensive coastal areas of the Great Lakes and proximity to large populations resulted in fishing pressure on planted lake trout heavy enough to push annual mortality associated with sport and commercial fisheries well above the critical level needed to reestablish self-sustaining stocks. The interagency, international program for rehabilitating lake trout includes controlling sea lamprey abundance, stocking hatchery-reared lake trout, managing the catch, and establishing sanctuaries where harvest is prohibited. Three lake trout sanctuaries have been established in Lake Michigan: the Fox Island Sanctuary of 121, 500 ha, in the Chippewa-Ottawa Treaty fishing zone in the northern region of the lake; the Milwaukee Reef Sanctuary of 160, 000 ha in midlake, in boundary waters of Michigan and Wisconsin; and Julian's Reef Sanctuary of 6, 500 ha, in Illinois waters. In northern Lake Huron, Drummond Island Sanctuary of 55, 000 ha is two thirds in Indian treaty-ceded waters in Michigan and one third in Ontario waters of Canada. A second sanctuary, Six Fathom Bank-Yankee Reef Sanctuary, in central Lake Huron contains 168, 000 ha. Sanctuary status for the Canadian areas remains to be approved by the Provincial government. In Lake Superior, sanctuaries protect the spawning grounds of Gull Island Shoal (70, 000 ha) and Devils Island Shoal (44, 000 ha) in Wisconsin's Apostle Island area. These seven sanctuaries, established by the several States and agreed upon by the States, Indian tribes, the U.S. Department of the Interior, and the Province of Ontario, contribute toward solving an interjurisdictional fishery problem.

  2. Analýza komunikační strategie společnosti Red Bull ČR

    OpenAIRE

    Syrovátková, Anežka

    2015-01-01

    In my thesis I focused on the analysis of communication strategy of Red Bull Czech Republic, specifically on advertising, communication at the point of sale, public relations and media communications, opinion leaders program, event marketing and digital communications. I started from global communication strategy represented by Red Bull Media House and I have examined, how this strategy is implemented at local level. For this analysis, it was also necessary to analyze market of energy drinks ...

  3. Statistical methods for estimating normal blood chemistry ranges and variance in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), Shasta Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedemeyer, Gary A.; Nelson, Nancy C.

    1975-01-01

    Gaussian and nonparametric (percentile estimate and tolerance interval) statistical methods were used to estimate normal ranges for blood chemistry (bicarbonate, bilirubin, calcium, hematocrit, hemoglobin, magnesium, mean cell hemoglobin concentration, osmolality, inorganic phosphorus, and pH for juvenile rainbow (Salmo gairdneri, Shasta strain) trout held under defined environmental conditions. The percentile estimate and Gaussian methods gave similar normal ranges, whereas the tolerance interval method gave consistently wider ranges for all blood variables except hemoglobin. If the underlying frequency distribution is unknown, the percentile estimate procedure would be the method of choice.

  4. Thermal onset of cellular and endocrine stress responses correspond to ecological limits in brook trout, an iconic cold-water fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Joseph G; Nislow, Kieth H; McCormick, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is predicted to change the distribution and abundance of species, yet underlying physiological mechanisms are complex and methods for detecting populations at risk from rising temperature are poorly developed. There is increasing interest in using physiological mediators of the stress response as indicators of individual and population-level response to environmental stressors. Here, we use laboratory experiments to show that the temperature thresholds in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) for increased gill heat shock protein-70 (20.7°C) and plasma glucose (21.2°C) are similar to their proposed thermal ecological limit of 21.0°C. Field assays demonstrated increased plasma glucose, cortisol and heat shock protein-70 concentrations at field sites where mean daily temperature exceeded 21.0°C. Furthermore, population densities of brook trout were lowest at field sites where temperatures were warm enough to induce a stress response, and a co-occurring species with a higher thermal tolerance showed no evidence of physiological stress at a warm site. The congruence of stress responses and proposed thermal limits supports the use of these thresholds in models of changes in trout distribution under climate change scenarios and suggests that the induction of the stress response by elevated temperature may play a key role in driving the distribution of species.

  5. Temporal genetic monitoring of hybridization between native westslope cutthroat trout and introduced rainbow trout in the Stehekin River, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostberg, Carl O.; Chase, Dorothy M.

    2012-01-01

    Introgressive hybridization with introduced rainbow trout (RBT) (Oncorhynchus mykiss) has led to the loss of native cutthroat trout species (O. clarkii) throughout their range, creating conservation concerns. Monitoring temporal hybridization trends provides resource managers with a tool for determining population status and information for establishing conservation goals for native cutthroat trout. In this study, we re-sampled six locations in 2010 within the Stehekin River watershed, North Cascades National Park, which were originally sampled between 1999 and 2003. We used genetic markers to monitor changes in hybridization levels between sampling periods in the native westslope cutthroat trout (WCT) (O. c. lewisi) stemming from past RBT introductions. Additionally, two new locations from the lower Stehekin drainage were added to the baseline data. We found that the frequency of WCT, RBT, and their hybrids was not significantly different between monitoring periods, but that RBT allele frequencies decreased in two locations and increased in one location. We also found a consistent, substantial reduction in the frequency of RBT alleles over the monitoring period in the Stehekin River upstream of Bridge Creek (SR3) compared to the Stehekin River downstream of Bridge Creek (SR1 -2) and within lower Bridge Creek (BR1) although these three locations are confined to a small geographic area (approximately 5 km). Ecological and/or evolutionary processes likely restrict the dispersal of RBT alleles in the Stehekin River upstream of Bridge Creek.

  6. Does dispersal from landlocked trout explain the coexistence of resident and migratory trout females in a small stream?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettersson, J.C.E.; Hansen, Michael Møller; Bohlin, T.

    2001-01-01

    The hypothesis that stream-resident females of brown trout Salmo trutta occurring in sympatry with sea-migrant females in a small stream were immigrants from an up-stream allopatric landlocked population was rejected. Genetic differentiation was not detected between the sympatric forms whereas...

  7. Estimating the long-term effects of stocking domesticated trout into wild brown trout ( Salmo trutta ) populations : an approach using microsatellite DNA analysis of historical and contemporary samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller

    2002-01-01

    . The study was based on analysis of two historical samples (194556), represented by old scale collections, and seven contemporary samples (1986-2000). In one population historical and contemporary samples were remarkably genetically similar despite more than a decade of intense stocking. Estimation...... of admixture proportions showed a small genetic contribution from domesticated trout (approximately 6%), and individual admixture analysis demonstrated a majority of nonadmixed individuals. The expected genetic contribution by domesticated trout was 64%, assessed from the number of stocked trout and assuming...... in samples from a broodstock thought to represent the indigenous population and in a sample of wild spawners. Survival of domesticated trout and admixture with indigenous fish in the broodstock and subsequent stocking into the river, combined with a low population size of native trout relative to the number...

  8. Inter relationship between some routine semen evaluation parameters in Jersey X local hill cattle crossbred bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kapoor

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted with an objective of establishing a relationship between various routine semen evaluation parameters. Work was conducted at Sperm Station Palampur, Himachal Pradesh, on the semen from five Jersey X local hill cattle crossbred breeding bulls. A total of 40 ejaculates (8 from each bull, were analysed at five different stages of processing namely post dilution, post equilibration, post thaw and after 1 and 2 hours incubation post thaw at 37°C for progressive motility, live dead count, reaction to hypo-osmotic solution, acrosomal integrity and gross morphological abnormalities. The results of the study revealed a highly significant (P<0.01 correlation between the various semen evaluation parameters except for the gross morphological abnormalities where there was a significant (P<0.05 negative correlation between the acrosomal integrity and gross morphological abnormalities.

  9. Who does Red Bull give wings to? Sensation seeking moderates sensitivity to subliminal advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustin, Gaëlle M; Jones, Daniel N; Hansenne, Michel; Quoidbach, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed whether subliminal priming of a brand name of a drink can affect people's choices for the primed brand, and whether this effect is moderated by personality traits. Participants with different levels of sensation seeking were presented subliminally with the words Red Bull or Lde Ublr. Results revealed that being exposed to Red Bull lead on average to small increases in participants' preferences for the primed brand. However, this effect was twice as strong for participants high in sensation seeking and did not occur for participants low in sensation seeking. Going beyond previous research showing that situational factors (e.g., thirst, fatigue…) can increase people's sensitivity to subliminal advertisement, our results suggest that some dispositional factors could have the same potentiating effect. These findings highlight the necessity of taking personality into account in non-conscious persuasion research.

  10. Administering the Bull of the Crusade in New Spain (1574-1659

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Pilar Martínez López-Cano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Bull of the Crusade was one of the most original sources of income for the Real Hacienda. It consisted of charity provided by the faithful in exchange for indulgences, exemptions from fasting, and other spiritual privileges; this church rent was handed over to the Catholic monarchy after negotiations between the Crown and the Holy See. The predication of the bull in the viceroyalty began officially in 1574; this work examines how this revenue was levied from that year until 1659, a period characterized by the system of asientos generales (general entries, thus called because the contract included all the bishoprics in New Spain, Guatemala, and the Philippines. The author provides data on treasurers, collections, and entry conditions, and reflects on the opportunities opened by these arrangements.

  11. A functional probe with bowtie aperture and bull's eye structure for nanolithograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shuo; Wang Qiao; Guo Ying-Yan; Pan Shi; Li Xu-Feng

    2012-01-01

    The bowtie aperture surrounded by concentric gratings (the bull's eye structure) integrated on the near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) probe (aluminum coated fiber tip) for nanolithography has been investigated using the finite-difference time domain (FDTD) method. By modifying the parameters of the bowtie aperture and the concentric gratings, a maximal field enhancement factor of 391.69 has been achieved, which is 18 times larger than that obtained from the single bowtie aperture. Additionally, the light spot depends on the gap size of the bowtie aperture and can be confined to sub-wavelength. The superiority of the combination of the bowtie aperture and the bull's eye structure is confirmed, and the mechanism for the electric field enhancement in this derived structure is analyzed

  12. A functional probe with bowtie aperture and bull's eye structure for nanolithograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuo; Li, Xu-Feng; Wang, Qiao; Guo, Ying-Yan; Pan, Shi

    2012-10-01

    The bowtie aperture surrounded by concentric gratings (the bull's eye structure) integrated on the near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) probe (aluminum coated fiber tip) for nanolithography has been investigated using the finite-difference time domain (FDTD) method. By modifying the parameters of the bowtie aperture and the concentric gratings, a maximal field enhancement factor of 391.69 has been achieved, which is 18 times larger than that obtained from the single bowtie aperture. Additionally, the light spot depends on the gap size of the bowtie aperture and can be confined to sub-wavelength. The superiority of the combination of the bowtie aperture and the bull's eye structure is confirmed, and the mechanism for the electric field enhancement in this derived structure is analyzed.

  13. Who does Red Bull give wings to? Sensation seeking moderates sensitivity to subliminal advertisement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëlle Marie Bustin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed whether subliminal priming of a brand name of a drink can affect people’s choices for the primed brand, and whether this effect is moderated by personality traits. Participants with different levels of sensation seeking were presented subliminally with the words Red Bull or Lde Ublr. Results revealed that being exposed to Red Bull lead on average to small increases in participants’ preferences for the primed brand. However, this effect was twice as strong for participants high in sensation seeking and did not occur for participants low in sensation seeking. Going beyond previous research showing that situational factors (e.g., thirst, fatigue… can increase people’s sensitivity to subliminal advertisement, our results suggest that some dispositional factors could have the same potentiating effect. These findings highlight the necessity of taking personality into account in non-conscious persuasion research.

  14. Perbedaan jenis bahan penyamak terhadap sifat fisik kulit katak bull frog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochtar Lutfie

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The Obyective of this research is to study the effects of various tanning agents on the qualities of leather made from Bull Frog skin. Fifteen pieces of wet salted Bull Frog from Malang were tanned with several tanning agents, wich are mineral (10% Chromosal B, vegetable (10% Mimosa extract and synthetic tensile strengths and elongations. Its turned out that vegetable tanning agent gave the higest tensile strength (279,62 kg/cm2, while mineral tanning agent gave the lowest one (183.04 kg/cm2. It showed that the type of tanning agent used significantly effects the tensile strength of the leather produced (p ≤ 0.005. On the other hand, mineral tanning agent gave the higest elongation (105.20%. While vegetable tanning agent gave the lowest one (91.20%. This result implied that the type of tanning agent used has a significant effect on the elongation (p ≤ 0.01.

  15. Daily and seasonal variations of serum testosterone levels in bulls after chemical or surgical castration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feher, T.; Bodrogi, L. (Semmelweis Orvostudomanyi Egyetem, Budapest (Hungary). 1. Belklinika); Makray, S. (Mezoegazdasagi Foeiskola, Kaposvar (Hungary))

    1985-01-01

    The dynamics of serum testosterone levels were studied by a radio-immunological assay (RIA) in 7-9 months old Holstein-Friesian bulls. Significant correlation was found between the hormone level and age (rather than body mass) of adult animals. The daily dynamics of hormone level varied to a large extent indicating that only several and repeated hormonal investigations allowed the evaluation of hormonal state and sexual function in bulls. The serum testosterone lewel was the highest in October and the lowest in April; the seasonal differences were not significant. The hormone level of blood was minimal already 24 hours after the surgical castration. Chemical castration (tannic acid-ZnSOsub(4) injection into both testes) resulted in a slower and more moderate decrease of the hormone concentration.

  16. Daily and seasonal variations of serum testosterone levels in bulls after chemical or surgical castration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feher, Tibor; Bodrogi, Lajos

    1985-01-01

    The dynamics of serum testosterone levels were studied by a radio-immunological assay (RIA) in 7-9 months old Holstein-Friesian bulls. Significant correlation was found between the hormone level and age (rather than body mass) of adult animals. The daily dynamics of hormone level varied to a large extent indicating that only several and repeated hormonal investigations allowed the evaluation of hormonal state and sexual function in bulls. The serum testosterone lewel was the highest in October and the lowest in April; the seasonal differences were not significant. The hormon level of blood was minimal already 24 hours after the surgical castration. Chemical castration (tannic acid-ZnSOsub(4) injection into both testes) resulted in a slower and more moderate decrease of the hormone concentration. (author)

  17. A register-based study of the antimicrobial usage in Danish veal calves and young bulls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Mette Ely; Toft, Nils; Martin, Henrik Læssøe

    2016-01-01

    High antimicrobial usage and multidrug resistance have been reported in veal calves in Europe. This may be attributed to a high risk of disease as veal calves are often purchased from numerous dairy herds, exposed to stress related to the transport and commingling of new animals, and fed a new...... ration. In this study, we used national register data to characterize the use of antimicrobials registered for large Danish veal calf and young bull producing herds in 2014. A total of 325 herds with veal calf and potentially young bull production were identified from the Danish Cattle database....... According to the national Danish database on drugs for veterinary use (VetStat), a total of 537,399 Animal Daily Doses (ADD200) were registered for these 325 herds during 2014. The amount of antimicrobials registered in 2014 varied throughout the year, with the highest amounts registered in autumn...

  18. Biological characteristics that influence the SEUROP system classification for Czech fleckvieh and Holstein bull carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Filipčík

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to analyse the influence of certain characteristics (aptitude, age, carcass weight, net daily gain, feeding on the final carcass classification in the SEUROP system. 703 Czech Fleckvieh bulls and 642 Holstein bulls were studied. The animals were slaughtered and evaluated at a designated beef processing company. Combine aptitude carcasses shown significant differences between characteristics. Remarkable differences of group averages (P>0, 01 were established between farms and they were due to various rearing conditions. Also the levels of net daily gain between aptitudes were proved significantly. Holstein breed showed significant difference among The net daily gain < 500 g.day–1 and levels 551–600; 601–650 and above 651 g.day–1. The SEUROP system is influenced the most by the feeding regime, which is described by a net daily gain in this work, and farm impact.

  19. Acute effects of Red Bull energy drink on ventricular repolarization in healthy young volunteers: a prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elitok, Ali; Öz, Fahrettin; Panc, Cafer; Sarıkaya, Remzi; Sezikli, Selim; Pala, Yasin; Bugan, Övgü Sinem; Ateş, Müge; Parıldar, Hilal; Ayaz, Mustafa Buğra; Atıcı, Adem; Oflaz, Hüseyin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Energy drinks (EDs) are widely consumed products of the beverage industry and are often chosen by teenagers and young adults. Several adverse cardiovascular events and malignant cardiac arrhythmias following consumption of EDs have been reported in the literature. Several studies have suggested that the interval from the peak to the end of the electrocardiographic T wave (Tp-e) may correspond to the dispersion of repolarization and that an increased Tp-e interval and Tp-e/QT ratio are associated with malignant ventricular arrhythmias. This study investigated the acute effects of Red Bull ED on ventricular repolarization as assessed by the Tp-e interval and Tp-e/QT ratio. Methods: A prospective, open-label study design was used. After an 8-h fast, 50 young, healthy subjects consumed 355 mL of Red Bull ED. The Tp-e interval, Tp-e/QTc ratio, and several other electrocardiographic parameters were measured at baseline and 2 h after ingestion of Red Bull ED. Results: No significant changes in the Tp-e interval or Tp-e/QTc ratio were observed with Red Bull ED consumption. Red Bull ED consumption led to increases in both systolic and diastolic blood pressures, which were associated with an increased heart rate. Conclusion: Although ingestion of Red Bull ED increases the heart rate and diastolic and systolic blood pressures, it does not cause alterations in ventricular repolarization as assessed by the Tp-e interval and Tp-e/QTc ratio. PMID:25868042

  20. Acute effects of Red Bull energy drink on ventricular repolarization in healthy young volunteers: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elitok, Ali; Öz, Fahrettin; Panc, Cafer; Sarıkaya, Remzi; Sezikli, Selim; Pala, Yasin; Bugan, Övgü Sinem; Ateş, Müge; Parıldar, Hilal; Ayaz, Mustafa Buğra; Atıcı, Adem; Oflaz, Hüseyin

    2015-11-01

    Energy drinks (EDs) are widely consumed products of the beverage industry and are often chosen by teenagers and young adults. Several adverse cardiovascular events and malignant cardiac arrhythmias following consumption of EDs have been reported in the literature. Several studies have suggested that the interval from the peak to the end of the electrocardiographic T wave (Tp-e) may correspond to the dispersion of repolarization and that an increased Tp-e interval and Tp-e/QT ratio are associated with malignant ventricular arrhythmias. This study investigated the acute effects of Red Bull ED on ventricular repolarization as assessed by the Tp-e interval and Tp-e/QT ratio. A prospective, open-label study design was used. After an 8-h fast, 50 young, healthy subjects consumed 355 mL of Red Bull ED. The Tp-e interval, Tp-e/QTc ratio, and several other electrocardiographic parameters were measured at baseline and 2 h after ingestion of Red Bull ED. No significant changes in the Tp-e interval or Tp-e/QTc ratio were observed with Red Bull ED consumption. Red Bull ED consumption led to increases in both systolic and diastolic blood pressures, which were associated with an increased heart rate. Although ingestion of Red Bull ED increases the heart rate and diastolic and systolic blood pressures, it does not cause alterations in ventricular repolarization as assessed by the Tp-e interval and Tp-e/QTc ratio.

  1. Comparison of composition and quality traits of meat from young finishing bulls from Belgian Blue, Limousin and Aberdeen Angus breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuvelier, C; Clinquart, A; Hocquette, J F; Cabaraux, J F; Dufrasne, I; Istasse, L; Hornick, J L

    2006-11-01

    Thirty-six young finishing bulls from three breeds (Belgian Blue, Limousin and Aberdeen Angus) were fattened over five months with finishing diets based either on sugar-beet pulp or on cereals. Nutritional quality traits of meat - fat content and fatty acid composition with emphasis on the n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids - along with some organoleptic quality traits were measured. The Belgian Blue bulls had the lowest intramuscular fat content associated with lower saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid contents. The polyunsaturated fatty acid content did not differ to a large extent between the breeds, the Aberdeen Angus bulls showing slightly higher values. Relative to energy intake, the overall contribution of meat to the n-3 fatty acid recommended intake was small, whatever the breed. By contrast, the contribution of meat to daily fat intake was of greater importance, especially for the Aberdeen Angus bulls. The quality traits of meat varied also according to the breed: compared to the Aberdeen Angus, the Belgian Blue bull meat had the stablest colour, the highest drip and the lowest cooking losses. The meat of Limousin bulls had intermediate characteristics for all the parameters.

  2. Flehmen response in bull: role of vaginal mucus and other body fluids of bovine with special reference to estrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, R; Archunan, G

    2004-07-30

    The present investigation was carried out with a view to evaluate the frequency of Flehmen behaviour in bull in response to body fluids of cows in various stages of the estrous cycle, in the context of estrus detection. The study was performed on free moving bulls under natural conditions. Samples of vaginal mucus, saliva, faeces and milk of pro-estrus, estrus and di-estrus stages collected from donor cows were rubbed individually onto the genital regions of non-estrus animals (dummy cows) and the bulls were observed for 30 min for assessment of Flehmen behaviour. The duration of Flehmen behaviour shown by bulls was maximum towards the dummy cows receiving estrus sample. Such Flehmen behaviour, however, did not occur in bulls in response to the cows receiving samples of other stages. The statistical significance was higher (P mucus may act as an additional/secondary source along with urine in eliciting copulatary behaviour and executing coitus in bulls during estrus. The results further suggest that in addition to vaginal mucus, other body fluids like saliva, faeces and milk have estrus-related odours and are probably involved in bovine bio-communication.

  3. Potential population and assemblage influences of non-native trout on native nongame fish in Nebraska headwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turek, Kelly C.; Pegg, Mark A.; Pope, Kevin L.; Schainost, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Non-native trout are currently stocked to support recreational fisheries in headwater streams throughout Nebraska. The influence of non-native trout introductions on native fish populations and their role in structuring fish assemblages in these systems is unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine (i) if the size structure or relative abundance of native fish differs in the presence and absence of non-native trout, (ii) if native fish-assemblage structure differs in the presence and absence of non-native trout and (iii) if native fish-assemblage structure differs across a gradient in abundances of non-native trout. Longnose dace Rhinichthys cataractae were larger in the presence of brown trout Salmo trutta and smaller in the presence of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss compared to sites without trout. There was also a greater proportion of larger white suckers Catostomus commersonii in the presence of brown trout. Creek chub Semotilus atromaculatus and fathead minnow Pimephales promelas size structures were similar in the presence and absence of trout. Relative abundances of longnose dace, white sucker, creek chub and fathead minnow were similar in the presence and absence of trout, but there was greater distinction in native fish-assemblage structure between sites with trout compared to sites without trout as trout abundances increased. These results suggest increased risk to native fish assemblages in sites with high abundances of trout. However, more research is needed to determine the role of non-native trout in structuring native fish assemblages in streams, and the mechanisms through which introduced trout may influence native fish populations.

  4. Aggregated forms of bull seminal plasma proteins and their heparin-binding activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínková, Petra; Ryšlavá, H.; Liberda, J.; Jonáková, Věra; Tichá, M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 69, - (2004), s. 616-630 ISSN 0010-0765 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/02/0433; GA ČR GP303/02/P069; GA MZd NJ7463 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915; CEZ:MSM 113100001 Keywords : bull seminal plasma proteins * heparin-binding proteins * aggregated forms of proteins Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.062, year: 2004

  5. Study on chemical, bioactive and food preserving properties of Laetiporus sulphureus (Bull.: Fr.) Murr.

    OpenAIRE

    Petrović, Jovana; Stojković, Dejan; Reis, Filipa; Barros, Lillian; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.; Soković, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Laetiporus sulphureus (Bull.: Fr.) Murr. was studied regarding the nutritional value, bioactive compounds, in vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial and antitumor activities. The studied mushroom is a rich source of carbohydrates and proteins. Mannitol and trehalose were the main free sugars, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. α-, γ- and δ-Tocopherols were found. Oxalic and citric acids were the most abundant organic acids; cinnamic and p-hydroxybenzoic acids were quantified in the methanolic extract...

  6. [Laminitis with a high degree of osteitis rarefaciens of the distal phalanx in a Fleckvieh bull].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, J; Stanek, C

    1990-06-01

    Chronic laminitis with severe rarefactive osteitis was diagnosed in a nine month old Simmental fattening bull. The condition was observed in all eight weight bearing digits. Clinical, radiological and pathomorphological examinations revealed osteolysis and downward rotation of all the distal phalanges. The condition appears to resemble the several cases of laminitis in Jersey cattle, which have been attributed to hereditary factors. In this case, however, the genetic background was unavailable for evaluation.

  7. D-fructose-binding proteins in bull seminal plasma: Isolation and characterization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Liberda, J.; Kraus, Marek; Ryšlavá, H.; Vlasáková, M.; Jonáková, Věra; Tichá, M.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 4 (2001), s. 113-119 ISSN 0015-5500 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/99/0357; GA ČR GV524/96/K162 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : bull seminal plasma * non-heparin-binding and heparin-binding proteins * D-fructose-binding proteins Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.519, year: 2001

  8. The corkscrew sperm defect in Danish bulls - a possible indicator of nuclear fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blom, Erik

    1978-01-01

    In spite of the fact that the sterilizing corkscrew sperm defect was described about 20 years ago, very little is as yet known about a possible causal factor and about the genesis of the defect. Up to now 60 Danish cases have been recorded showing no proof whatsoever of heredity. The cases have predominantly been found in older bulls of the Red Danish breed and during a period with a rather high degree of atmospheric pollution from nuclear fallout. (author)

  9. Evaluation of cytotoxic action of antihistamines desloratadine and loratadine using bulls spermatozoa as a test object

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzminov, O.; Ostapiv, D.; Alekhina, T.

    2014-01-01

    Antihistamines with active ingredients of loratadine and desloratadine are produced by Ukrainian pharmaceutical industry. According to the law, ther are assessed for their potential danger to human health and the environment, including alternative test objects. Evaluation has been carried out with regard to cytotoxic effect of pharmacological substances (loratadine and desloratadine) using the bull sperm suspension as test objects, standardized and highly sensitive to toxic substances. Sperm ...

  10. Cultural Differences Applied in International Marketing : Cases Of McDonalds and Red Bull

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulkerimova, Assiyat

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this thesis is to demonstrate how culture and cultural differences influence on the international marketing. Also, it demonstrates how international companies deal with cross-cultural issues and problems. First, the importance of culture and two models of cultural dimensions like Hofstede and Trompenaars will be analyzed and discussed. Second, the marketing activities of two international corporations- McDonald's and Red Bull will be discussed and analyzed. The research wi...

  11. Modeling brook trout presence and absence from landscape variables using four different analytical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Paul J.; Passino-Reader, Dora R.; Wiley, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    As a part of the Great Lakes Regional Aquatic Gap Analysis Project, we evaluated methodologies for modeling associations between fish species and habitat characteristics at a landscape scale. To do this, we created brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis presence and absence models based on four different techniques: multiple linear regression, logistic regression, neural networks, and classification trees. The models were tested in two ways: by application to an independent validation database and cross-validation using the training data, and by visual comparison of statewide distribution maps with historically recorded occurrences from the Michigan Fish Atlas. Although differences in the accuracy of our models were slight, the logistic regression model predicted with the least error, followed by multiple regression, then classification trees, then the neural networks. These models will provide natural resource managers a way to identify habitats requiring protection for the conservation of fish species.

  12. Study of Some Morphological Characters of Three Trout Breed Farmed in Salmonid Exploitations from Moldova

    OpenAIRE

    Cătălin Emilian Nistor; Ionuţ Bogdan Pagu; Emanuel Magdici; Benone Pasarin

    2014-01-01

    Study of morphological characters at fish by means of biometry is a frequently utilized method and consists in determining the variability of characters in groups of individuals, by direct measurement, weighting and statistical processing of obtained data. Effectuation of body measurements and weighting is used to determine the increase in length of fish and to evaluate the general physiological condition. Brook trout, rainbow trout, and brown trout were the object of the current study by...

  13. Molecular analysis of population genetic structure and recolonization of rainbow trout following the Cantara spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, J.L.; Heine, Erika L.; Gan, Christina A.; Fountain, Monique C.

    2000-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence and allelic frequency data for 12 microsatellite loci were used to analyze population genetic structure and recolonization by rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, following the 1991 Cantara spill on the upper Sacramento River, California. Genetic analyses were performed on 1,016 wild rainbow trout collected between 1993 and 1996 from the mainstem and in 8 tributaries. Wild trout genotypes were compared to genotypes for 79 Mount Shasta Hatchery rainbow trout. No genetic heterogeneity was found 2 years after the spill (1993) between tributary populations and geographically proximate mainstem fish, suggesting recolonization of the upper mainstem directly from adjacent tributaries. Trout collections made in 1996 showed significant year-class genetic variation for mtDNA and microsatellites when compared to fish from the same locations in 1993. Five years after the spill, mainstem populations appeared genetically mixed with no significant allelic frequency differences between mainstem populations and geographically proximate tributary trout. In our 1996 samples, we found no significant genetic differences due to season of capture (summer or fall) or sampling technique used to capture rainbow trout, with the exception of trout collected by electrofishing and hook and line near Prospect Avenue. Haplotype and allelic frequencies in wild rainbow trout populations captured in the upper Sacramento River and its tributaries were found to differ genetically from Mount Shasta Hatchery trout for both years, with the notable exception of trout collected in the lower mainstem river near Shasta Lake, where mtDNA and microsatellite data both suggested upstream colonization by hatchery fish from the reservoir. These data suggest that the chemical spill in the upper Sacramento River produced significant effects over time on the genetic population structure of rainbow trout throughout the entire upper river basin.

  14. OCCURRENCE OF INFECTIOUS PANCREATIC NECROSIS VIRUS (IPNV) IN FARMED RAINBOW TROUT (ONCHORHYNCHUS MYKISS) IN KOSOVO

    OpenAIRE

    Agim Rexhepi; Kristaq Berxholli; Peter Scheinert; Afrim Hamidi; Kurtesh Sherifi

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the research carried out for the detection of viruses responsible for VHS, IHN and IPN diseases in farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Kosovo for the three-year period between 2006 and 2008. Losses are often reported in trout fingerlings, but no virus has ever been isolated in the rainbow trout in Kosovo. A research project was carried out to determine the occurrence of VHSV, IHNV & IPNV from the samples of fish tissue and ovarian fluids from mature broodf...

  15. First evidence of successful natural reproduction by planted lake trout in Lake Huron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nester, Robert T.; Poe, Thomas P.

    1984-01-01

    Twenty-two lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) swim-up fry, 24-27 mm long, were captured with emergent fry traps and a tow net in northwestern Lake Huron on a small nearshore reef off Alpena, Michigan, between May 10 and June 1, 1982. These catches represent the first evidence of successful production of swim-up fry by planted, hatchery-reared lake trout in Lake Huron since the lake trout rehabilitation program began in 1973.

  16. Experimental evaluation of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss predation on longnose dace Rhinichthys cataractae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turek, Kelly C.; Pegg, Mark A.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory and in-stream enclosure experiments were used to determine whether rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss influence survival of longnose dace Rhinichthys cataractae. In the laboratory, adult rainbow trout preyed on longnose dace in 42% of trials and juvenile rainbow trout did not prey on longnose dace during the first 6 h after rainbow trout introduction. Survival of longnose dace did not differ in the presence of adult rainbow trout previously exposed to active prey and those not previously exposed to active prey ( = 0.28, P = 0.60). In field enclosures, the number of longnose dace decreased at a faster rate in the presence of rainbow trout relative to controls within the first 72 h, but did not differ between moderate and high densities of rainbow trout (F2,258.9 = 3.73, P = 0.03). Additionally, longnose dace were found in 7% of rainbow trout stomachs after 72 h in enclosures. Rainbow trout acclimated to the stream for longer periods had a greater initial influence on the number of longnose dace remaining in enclosures relative to those acclimated for shorter periods regardless of rainbow trout density treatment (F4,148.5 = 2.50, P = 0.04). More research is needed to determine how predation rates will change in natural environments, under differing amounts of habitat and food resources and in the context of whole assemblages. However, if rainbow trout are introduced into the habitat of longnose dace, some predation on longnose dace is expected, even when rainbow trout have no previous experience with active prey.

  17. The effect of sperm concentration in the ejaculate on morphological traits of bull spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondracki, Stanisław; Banaszewska, Dorota; Wysokńjska, Anna; Iwanina, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Experiments were performed on 75 ejaculates obtained from 19 bulls representing different cattle breeds used at the Masovian Centre for Animal Breeding and Reproduction in Łowicz. Fresh ejaculates were measured in respect to their volume and sperm count in the ejaculates was determined. The ejaculates were classified based on the criterion of sperm concentration and divided into five groups. Sperm morphometric measurements were taken from each bull and assessment of semen morphology was done on the basis of examination under a microscope using preparations made from fresh ejaculates. For each slide, morphometric measurements were taken of 15 randomly selected spermatozoa characterised by normal morphology and well visible under the microscope. Additionally, in each preparation morphometry of 500 spermatozoa was evaluated, numbers of spermatozoa with normal morphology and morphological abnormalities were recorded and these were categorized into spermatozoa with major and minor defects. An insignificant correlation was observed between the sperm concentration in the ejaculate and morphological traits, dimensions and shapes of bull spermatozoa. The less concentrated ejaculates contained spermatozoa with a slightly larger head circumference and a more elongated head shape in comparison with the spermatozoa in the more concentrated ejaculates. The highest frequency of morphologically malformed spermatozoa, both in the case of primary and secondary alterations, was observed in ejaculates with sperm concentration of no more than 1000 x 10(3)/mm3.

  18. Soya-lecithin in extender improves the freezability and fertility of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bull spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, S; Ansari, M S; Andrabi, S M H; Rakha, B A; Ullah, N; Khalid, M

    2012-10-01

    Egg yolk is routinely used as a cryoprotectant in semen extenders. However, it may contain cryoprotective antagonists, and there are hygienic risks associated with its use. Proteins of plant origin, like soya-lecithin, lack these hazards. The aim of this study was to use soya-lecithin as a cryoprotectant in extender and to investigate its effects on in vitro quality and in vivo fertility of buffalo semen. Semen from three buffalo bulls was frozen in tris-citric extender containing 5.0%, 10% or 15% soya-lecithin or 20% egg yolk. Sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity and viability were assessed post-dilution, pre-freezing and post-thaw. In Post-dilution and pre-freezing, the values for motility, plasma membrane integrity and viability remained higher (p ≤ 0.05) in extenders containing 10% soya-lecithin and control compared with extender containing 5% and 15% soya-lecithin. However, motility, plasma membrane integrity and viability were higher (p lecithin compared with control and extenders containing 5% and 15% soya-lecithin. Semen from two buffalo bulls was frozen in tris-citric extender containing either 10% soya-lecithin or 20% egg yolk. Higher (p lecithin (56%) compared with 20% egg yolk (41.5%). The results suggest that 10% soya-lecithin in extender improves the freezability and fertility of buffalo bull spermatozoa and can be used as an alternate to egg yolk in cryopreservation of buffalo semen. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Antioxidative effects of melatonin on kinetics, microscopic and oxidative parameters of cryopreserved bull spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, Iraj; Kohram, Hamid; Ardabili, Farhad Farrokhi

    2013-06-01

    Reactive oxygen species generated during the freeze-thawing process may reduce sperm quality. This study evaluates the effects of melatonin supplementation as an antioxidant in the semen extender on post-thaw parameters of bull spermatozoa. Melatonin was added to the citrate-egg yolk extender to yield six different final concentrations: 0, 0.1, 1, 2, 3 and 4mM. Ejaculates were collected from six proven Holstein bulls. Semen was diluted in the extender packaged in straws, which was frozen with liquid nitrogen. The semen extender supplemented with various doses of melatonin increased (peffective concentration of melatonin in microscopic evaluations of the bull sperm freezing extender was 2mM. The highest (pconcentration of melatonin in the semen extender and the highest activity of catalase (0.7±0.1) was obtained by 2mM melatonin. Four millimolar concentration of melatonin were reduced (pconcentration of melatonin in the semen extender improved the quality of post-thawed semen, which may associate with a reduction in lipid peroxidation as well as an increase in the total antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzyme activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Differential expression of genes associated with lipid metabolism in longissimus dorsi of Korean bulls and steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bong, Jin Jong; Jeong, Jin Young; Rajasekar, Panchamoorthy; Cho, Young Moo; Kwon, Eung Gi; Kim, Hyeong Cheol; Paek, Bong Hyun; Baik, Myunggi

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare expression of genes associated with lipid deposition and removal between bulls and steers in the longissimus dorsi muscle (LM) tissue of Korean cattle. Castration increased the expression of lipid uptake lipoprotein lipase, fatty acid translocase, and fatty acid transport protein 1 in LM. Castration increased lipogenic gene expression of both acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase. In contrast, castration downregulated lipolytic gene expression of both adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and monoglyceride lipase. Steers showed higher expression levels of insulin signaling phospho-v-akt murine thymoma viral oncog