Sample records for bull trout distribution

  1. Bull Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006) (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for BULL TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  2. Bull trout distributions related to temperature regimes in four central Idaho streams (United States)

    Susan B. Adams; Theodore C. Bjornn


    bull trout Salvelinus confluentus distributions and water temperature regimes were studied in four streams in the Weiser River basin, Idaho, in 1992 and 1993. bull trout occurred at elevations ranging from 1,472 m to 2,182 m and at densities up to 9.5 fish per 100 m2. Bull trout were sympatric with rainbow trout

  3. Factors influencing the distribution of native bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout in western Glacier National Park, Montana (United States)

    D'Angelo, Vincent S.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.


    The widespread declines of native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) populations prompted researchers to investigate factors influencing their distribution and status in western Glacier National Park, Montana. We evaluated the association of a suite of abiotic factors (stream width, elevation, gradient, large woody debris density, pool density, August mean stream temperature, reach surface area) with the occurrence (presence or absence) of bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout in 79 stream reaches in five sub-drainages containing glacial lakes. We modeled the occurrence of each species using logistic regression and evaluated competing models using an information theoretic approach. Westslope cutthroat trout were widely distributed (47 of 79 reaches), and there appeared to be no restrictions on their distribution other than physical barriers. Westslope cutthroat trout were most commonly found in relatively warm reaches downstream of lakes and in headwater reaches with large amounts of large woody debris and abundant pools. By contrast, bull trout were infrequently detected (10 of 79 reaches), with 7 of the 10 (70%) detections in sub-drainages that have not been compromised by non-native lake trout (S. namaycush). Bull trout were most often found in cold, low-gradient reaches upstream of glacial lakes. Our results indicate that complex stream habitats in sub-drainages free of non-native species are important to the persistence of native salmonids in western Glacier National Park. Results from this study may help managers monitor and protect important habitats and populations, inform conservation and recovery programs, and guide non-native species suppression efforts in Glacier National Park and elsewhere.

  4. Conservation genetics of bull trout: Geographic distribution of variation at microsatellite loci. (United States)

    P. Spruell; A.R. Hemmingsen; P.J. Howell; N. Kanda; F.W. Allendorf


    We describe the genetic population structure of 65 bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) populations from the northwestern United States using four microsatellite loci. The distribution of genetic variation as measured by microsatellites is consistent with previous allozyme and mitochondrial DNA analysis. There is relatively little genetic variation...

  5. A watershed-scale monitoring protocol for bull trout (United States)

    Dan Isaak; Bruce Rieman; Dona Horan


    Bull trout is a threatened species native to the Pacific Northwest that has been selected as Management Indicator Species on several national forests. Scientifically defensible procedures for monitoring bull trout populations are necessary that can be applied to the extensive and remote lands managed by the U.S. Forest Service. Distributional monitoring focuses...

  6. Status of Oregon's Bull Trout.

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    Buchanan, David V.; Hanson, Mary L.; Hooton, Robert M.


    Limited historical references indicate that bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in Oregon were once widely spread throughout at least 12 basins in the Klamath River and Columbia River systems. No bull trout have been observed in Oregon's coastal systems. A total of 69 bull trout populations in 12 basins are currently identified in Oregon. A comparison of the 1991 bull trout status (Ratliff and Howell 1992) to the revised 1996 status found that 7 populations were newly discovered and 1 population showed a positive or upgraded status while 22 populations showed a negative or downgraded status. The general downgrading of 32% of Oregon's bull trout populations appears largely due to increased survey efforts and increased survey accuracy rather than reduced numbers or distribution. However, three populations in the upper Klamath Basin, two in the Walla Walla Basin, and one in the Willamette Basin showed decreases in estimated population abundance or distribution.

  7. Spawning and rearing behavior of bull trout in a headwaterlake ecosystem (United States)

    Lora B. Tennant,; Gresswell, Bob; Guy, Christopher S.; Michael H. Meeuwig,


    Numerous life histories have been documented for bull trout Salvelinus confluentus. Lacustrine-adfluvial bull trout populations that occupy small, headwater lake ecosystems and migrate short distances to natal tributaries to spawn are likely common; however, much of the research on potamodromous bull trout has focused on describing the spawning and rearing characteristics of bull trout populations that occupy large rivers and lakes and make long distance spawning migrations to natal headwater streams. This study describes the spawning and rearing characteristics of lacustrine-adfluvial bull trout in the Quartz Lake drainage, Glacier National Park, USA, a small headwater lake ecosystem. Many spawning and rearing characteristics of bull trout in the Quartz Lake drainage are similar to potamodromous bull trout that migrate long distances. For example, subadult bull trout distribution was positively associated with slow-water habitat unit types and maximum wetted width, and negatively associated with increased stream gradient. Bull trout spawning also occurred when water temperatures were between 5 and 9 °C, and redds were generally located in stream segments with low stream gradient and abundant gravel and cobble substrates. However, this study also elucidated characteristics of bull trout biology that are not well documented in the literature, but may be relatively widespread and have important implications regarding general characteristics of bull trout ecology, use of available habitat by bull trout, and persistence of lacustrine-adfluvial bull trout in small headwater lake ecosystems.

  8. Bull Trout Life History, Genetics, Habitat Needs, and Limiting Factors in Central and Northeast Oregon. Annual Report 1996.

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    Bellerud, Blane L.; Gunckel, Stephanie; Hemmingsen, Alan R.; Buchanan, David V.; Howell, Philip J.


    This study is part of a multi-year research project studying aspects of bull trout life history, ecology and genetics. This report covers the activities of the project in 1996. Results and analysis are presented in the following five areas: (1) analysis of the genetic structure of Oregon bull trout populations; (2) distribution and habitat use of bull trout and brook trout in streams containing both species; (3) bull trout spawning surveys; (4) summary and analysis of historical juvenile bull trout downstream migrant trap catches in the Grande Ronde basin; and (5) food habits and feeding behavior of bull trout alone and in sympatry with brook trout.

  9. Bull trout recovery: Monitoring and evaluation guidance (United States)

    U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS)


    Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) is an imperiled species of char native to the Pacific Northwest. Combinations of habitat degradation (e.g., Fraley and Shepard 1989), barriers to migration (e.g., Rieman and McIntyre 1995), and the introduction of non-natives (e.g., Leary et al. 1993) have led to the decline of bull trout populations across their...

  10. Demographic characteristics of an adfluvial bull trout population in Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho (United States)

    McCubbins, Jonathan L; Hansen, Michael J.; DosSantos, Joseph M; Dux, Andrew M


    Introductions of nonnative species, habitat loss, and stream fragmentation have caused the Bull Trout Salvelinus confluentus to decline throughout much of its native distribution. Consequently, in June 1998, the Bull Trout was listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act as threatened. The Bull Trout has existed in Lake Pend Oreille and its surrounding tributaries since the last ice age, and the lake once supported a world-renowned Bull Trout fishery. To quantify the current status of the Bull Trout population in Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, we compared the mean age, growth, maturity, and abundance with reports in a study conducted one decade earlier. Abundance was estimated by mark–recapture for Bull Trout caught in trap nets and gill nets set in Lake Pend Oreille during ongoing suppression netting of Lake Trout S. namaycushin 2007–2008. Bull Trout sampled in 2006–2008 were used to estimate age structure, survival, growth, and maturity. Estimated Bull Trout abundance was similar to that estimated one decade earlier in Lake Pend Oreille. Bull Trout residing in Lake Pend Oreille between 2006 and 2008 were between ages 4 and 14 years; their growth was fastest between ages 1 and 2 and slowed thereafter. Male and female Bull Trout matured at a similar age, but females grew faster than males, thereby maturing at a larger size. Our findings suggest that management has effectively addressed current threats to increase the likelihood of long-term persistence of the Bull Trout population in Lake Pend Oreille.

  11. Bull Trout Spawning Surveys: Kootenai National Wildlife Refuge (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bull trout are listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act and Myrtle Creek was designated as critical habitat for bull trout this year. Myrtle Creek flows...

  12. Bull Trout Population Assessment in the Columbia River Gorge : Annual Report 2000.

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    Byrne, Jim; McPeak, Ron


    We summarized existing knowledge regarding the known distribution of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) across four sub-basins in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington. The Wind River, Little White Salmon River, White Salmon River, and the Klickitat River sub-basins were analyzed. Cold water is essential to the survival, spawning, and rearing of bull trout. We analyzed existing temperature data, installed Onset temperature loggers in the areas of the four sub-basins where data was not available, and determined that mean daily water temperatures were <15 C and appropriate for spawning and rearing of bull trout. We snorkel surveyed more than 74 km (46.25 mi.) of rivers and streams in the four sub-basins (13.8 km at night and 60.2 km during the day) and found that night snorkeling was superior to day snorkeling for locating bull trout. Surveys incorporated the Draft Interim Protocol for Determining Bull Trout Presence (Peterson et al. In Press). However, due to access and safety issues, we were unable to randomly select sample sites nor use block nets as recommended. Additionally, we also implemented the Bull Trout/Dolly Varden sampling methodology described in Bonar et al. (1997). No bull trout were found in the Wind River, Little White Salmon, or White Salmon River sub-basins. We found bull trout in the West Fork Klickitat drainage of the Klickitat River Sub-basin. Bull trout averaged 6.7 fish/100m{sup 2} in Trappers Creek, 2.6 fish/100m{sup 2} on Clearwater Creek, and 0.4 fish/100m{sup 2} in Little Muddy Creek. Bull trout was the only species of salmonid encountered in Trappers Creek and dominated in Clearwater Creek. Little Muddy Creek was the only creek where bull trout and introduced brook trout occurred together. We found bull trout only at night and typically in low flow regimes. A single fish, believed to be a bull trout x brook trout hybrid, was observed in the Little Muddy Creek. Additional surveys are needed in the West Fork Klickitat and mainstem

  13. Development of bull trout sampling protocols (United States)

    R. F. Thurow; J. T. Peterson; J. W. Guzevich


    This report describes results of research conducted in Washington in 2000 through Interagency Agreement #134100H002 between the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the U.S. Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station (RMRS). The purpose of this agreement is to develop a bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) sampling protocol by integrating...

  14. Thermal regimes, nonnative trout, and their influences on native Bull Trout in the Upper Klamath River Basin, Oregon (United States)

    Benjamin, Joseph R.; Heltzel, Jeannie; Dunham, Jason; Heck, Michael; Banish, Nolan P.


    The occurrence of fish species may be strongly influenced by a stream’s thermal regime (magnitude, frequency, variation, and timing). For instance, magnitude and frequency provide information about sublethal temperatures, variability in temperature can affect behavioral thermoregulation and bioenergetics, and timing of thermal events may cue life history events, such as spawning and migration. We explored the relationship between thermal regimes and the occurrences of native Bull Trout Salvelinus confluentus and nonnative Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis and Brown Trout Salmo trutta across 87 sites in the upper Klamath River basin, Oregon. Our objectives were to associate descriptors of the thermal regime with trout occurrence, predict the probability of Bull Trout occurrence, and estimate upper thermal tolerances of the trout species. We found that each species was associated with a different suite of thermal regime descriptors. Bull Trout were present at sites that were cooler, had fewer high-temperature events, had less variability, and took longer to warm. Brook Trout were also observed at cooler sites with fewer high-temperature events, but the sites were more variable and Brook Trout occurrence was not associated with a timing descriptor. In contrast, Brown Trout were present at sites that were warmer and reached higher temperatures faster, but they were not associated with frequency or variability descriptors. Among the descriptors considered, magnitude (specifically June degree-days) was the most important in predicting the probability of Bull Trout occurrence, and model predictions were strengthened by including Brook Trout occurrence. Last, all three trout species exhibited contrasting patterns of tolerating longer exposures to lower temperatures. Tolerance limits for Bull Trout were lower than those for Brook Trout and Brown Trout, with contrasts especially evident for thermal maxima. Our results confirm the value of exploring a suite of thermal

  15. Multiscale hydrogeomorphic influences on bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) spawning habitat (United States)

    Bean, Jared R; Wilcox, Andrew C.; Woessner, William W.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.


    We investigated multiscale hydrogeomorphic influences on the distribution and abundance of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) spawning in snowmelt-dominated streams of the upper Flathead River basin, northwestern Montana. Within our study reaches, bull trout tended to spawn in the finest available gravel substrates. Analysis of the mobility of these substrates, based on one-dimensional hydraulic modeling and calculation of dimensionless shear stresses, indicated that bed materials in spawning reaches would be mobilized at moderate (i.e., 2-year recurrence interval) high-flow conditions, although the asynchronous timing of the fall–winter egg incubation period and typical late spring – early summer snowmelt high flows in our study area may limit susceptibility to redd scour under current hydrologic regimes. Redd occurrence also tended to be associated with concave-up bedforms (pool tailouts) with downwelling intragravel flows. Streambed temperatures tracked stream water diurnal temperature cycles to a depth of at least 25 cm, averaging 6.1–8.1 °C in different study reaches during the spawning period. Ground water provided thermal moderation of stream water for several high-density spawning reaches. Bull trout redds were more frequent in unconfined alluvial valley reaches (8.5 versus 5.0 redds·km−1 in confined valley reaches), which were strongly influenced by hyporheic and groundwater – stream water exchange. A considerable proportion of redds were patchily distributed in confined valley reaches, however, emphasizing the influence of local physical conditions in supporting bull trout spawning habitat. Moreover, narrowing or “bounding” of these alluvial valley segments did not appear to be important. Our results suggest that geomorphic, thermal, and hydrological factors influence bull trout spawning occurrence at multiple spatial scales.

  16. Bull Trout Life History, Genetics, Habitat Needs, and Limiting Fact in Central and Northeast Oregon. Annual Report 1999.

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    Hemmingsen, Alan R.; Gunckel, Stephanie L.; Howell, Philip J.


    This section describes work accomplished in 1999 that continued to address two objectives of this project. These objectives are (1) determine the distribution of juvenile and adult bull trout Salvelinus confluentus and habitats associated with that distribution, and (2) determine fluvial and resident bull trout life history patterns. Completion of these objectives is intended through studies of bull trout in the Grande Ronde, Walla Walla, and John Day basins. These basins were selected because they provide a variety of habitats, from relatively degraded to pristine, and bull trout populations were thought to vary from relatively depressed to robust. In all three basins we used radio telemetry to determine the seasonal movements of bull trout. In the John Day and Walla Walla basins we also used traps to capture migrant bull trout. With these traps, we intended to determine the timing of bull trout movements both upstream and downstream, determine the relative abundance, size and age of migrant fish, and capture bull trout to be implanted with radio transmitters. In the John Day basin, we captured adult and juvenile bull trout from the upper John Day River and its tributaries, Call Creek, Reynolds Creek, and Roberts Creek. In the Walla Walla basin, we captured adult and juvenile bull trout from Mill Creek.

  17. Monitor and Protect Wigwam River Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir; White River Bull Trout Enumeration Project Summary, Progress Report 2003.

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    Cope, R.


    This report summarizes the first year of a three-year bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) enumeration project on the White River and is a co-operative initiative of the British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land, and Air Protection and Bonneville Power Administration. The White River has been identified as an important bull trout spawning tributary of the upper Kootenay River in southeastern British Columbia. The objective was to collect information on the returning adult spawning population to the White River through the use of a fish fence and traps, and to conduct redd surveys at the conclusion of spawning to provide an index of spawning escapement and distribution. The fence was installed on September 9th, 2003 and was operated continuously (i.e. no high-water or breaching events) until the fence was removed on October 9th, 2003. Estimation of the spawning population of White River bull trout was incomplete. This was due to a larger and more protracted out-migration than expected. As a result, the bull trout spawning population of the White River was estimated to be somewhere above 899 fish. In comparison, this represents approximately one third the population estimate of the 2003 Wigwam River bull trout spawning population. Based on redd index data, the number of bull trout per redd was over twice that of the Wigwam River or Skookumchuck Creek. This was expected as the index sites on the Wigwam River and Skookumchuck Creek cover the majority of the spawning area. This is not true on the White River. From previous redd counts, it is known that there are approximately twice as many redds in Blackfoot Creek as there are in the index site. Additionally, given the large size of the White River watershed and in particular, the large number of tributaries, there is a high likelihood that important bull trout spawning areas remain unidentified. Both floy tag and radio-telemetry data for the White River bull trout have identified extensive life history migrations

  18. Diet overlap of top-level predators in recent sympatry: bull trout and nonnative lake trout (United States)

    Guy, Christopher S.; McMahon, Thomas E.; Fredenberg, Wade A.; Smith, Clinton J.; Garfield, David W.; Cox, Benjamin S.


    The establishment of nonnative lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in lakes containing lacustrine–adfluvial bull trout Salvelinus confluentus often results in a precipitous decline in bull trout abundance. The exact mechanism for the decline is unknown, but one hypothesis is related to competitive exclusion for prey resources. We had the rare opportunity to study the diets of bull trout and nonnative lake trout in Swan Lake, Montana during a concomitant study. The presence of nonnative lake trout in Swan Lake is relatively recent and the population is experiencing rapid population growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diets of bull trout and lake trout during the early expansion of this nonnative predator. Diets were sampled from 142 bull trout and 327 lake trout during the autumn in 2007 and 2008. Bull trout and lake trout had similar diets, both consumed Mysis diluviana as the primary invertebrate, especially at juvenile stages, and kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka as the primary vertebrate prey, as adults. A diet shift from primarily M. diluviana to fish occurred at similar lengths for both species, 506 mm (476–545 mm, 95% CI) for bull trout and 495 mm (470–518 mm CI) for lake trout. These data indicate high diet overlap between these two morphologically similar top-level predators. Competitive exclusion may be a possible mechanism if the observed overlap remains similar at varying prey densities and availability.

  19. Spatial and temporal distribution of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus)-size fish near the floating surface collector in the North Fork Reservoir, Oregon, 2016 (United States)

    Adams, Noah S.; Smith, Collin D.


    Acoustic cameras were used to assess the behavior and abundance of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus)-size fish at the entrance to the North Fork Reservoir juvenile fish floating surface collector (FSC). The purpose of the FSC is to collect downriver migrating juvenile salmonids at the North Fork Dam, and safely route them around the hydroelectric projects. The objective of the acoustic camera component of this study was to assess the behaviors of bull trout-size fish observed near the FSC, and to determine if the presence of bull trout-size fish influenced the collection or abundance of juvenile salmonids. Acoustic cameras were deployed near the surface and floor of the entrance to the FSC. The acoustic camera technology was an informative tool for assessing abundance and spatial and temporal behaviors of bull trout-size fish near the entrance of the FSC. Bull trout-size fish were regularly observed near the entrance, with greater abundances on the deep camera than on the shallow camera. Additionally, greater abundances were observed during the hours of sunlight than were observed during the night. Behavioral differences also were observed at the two depths, with surface fish traveling faster and straighter with more directed movement, and fish observed on the deep camera generally showing more milling behavior. Modeling potential predator-prey interactions and influences using collected passive integrated transponder (PIT) -tagged juvenile salmonids proved largely unpredictable, although these fish provided relevant timing and collection information. Overall, the results indicate that bull trout-size fish are present near the entrance of the FSC, concomitant with juvenile salmonids, and their abundances and behaviors indicate that they may be drawn to the entrance of the FSC because of the abundance of prey-sized fish.

  20. Bioenergetic evaluation of diel vertical migration by bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in a thermally stratified reservoir (United States)

    Eckmann, Madeleine; Dunham, Jason; Connor, Edward J.; Welch, Carmen A.


    Many species living in deeper lentic ecosystems exhibit daily movements that cycle through the water column, generally referred to as diel vertical migration (DVM). In this study, we applied bioenergetics modelling to evaluate growth as a hypothesis to explain DVM by bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in a thermally stratified reservoir (Ross Lake, WA, USA) during the peak of thermal stratification in July and August. Bioenergetics model parameters were derived from observed vertical distributions of temperature, prey and bull trout. Field sampling confirmed that bull trout prey almost exclusively on recently introduced redside shiner (Richardsonius balteatus). Model predictions revealed that deeper (>25 m) DVMs commonly exhibited by bull trout during peak thermal stratification cannot be explained by maximising growth. Survival, another common explanation for DVM, may have influenced bull trout depth use, but observations suggest there may be additional drivers of DVM. We propose these deeper summertime excursions may be partly explained by an alternative hypothesis: the importance of colder water for gametogenesis. In Ross Lake, reliance of bull trout on warm water prey (redside shiner) for consumption and growth poses a potential trade-off with the need for colder water for gametogenesis.

  1. Adaptive Management of Bull Trout Populations in the Lemhi Basin (United States)

    Peterson, James T.; Tyre, Andrew J.; Converse, Sarah J.; Bogich, Tiffany L.; Miller, Damien; Post van der Burg, Max; Thomas, Carmen; Thompson, Ralph J.; Wood, Jeri; Brewer, Donna; Runge, Michael C.


    The bull trout Salvelinus confluentus, a stream-living salmonid distributed in drainages of the northwestern United States, is listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act because of rangewide declines. One proposed recovery action is the reconnection of tributaries in the Lemhi Basin. Past water use policies in this core area disconnected headwater spawning sites from downstream habitat and have led to the loss of migratory life history forms. We developed an adaptive management framework to analyze which types of streams should be prioritized for reconnection under a proposed Habitat Conservation Plan. We developed a Stochastic Dynamic Program that identified optimal policies over time under four different assumptions about the nature of the migratory behavior and the effects of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis on subpopulations of bull trout. In general, given the current state of the system and the uncertainties about the dynamics, the optimal policy would be to connect streams that are currently occupied by bull trout. We also estimated the value of information as the difference between absolute certainty about which of our four assumptions were correct, and a model averaged optimization assuming no knowledge. Overall there is little to be gained by learning about the dynamics of the system in its current state, although in other parts of the state space reducing uncertainties about the system would be very valuable. We also conducted a sensitivity analysis; the optimal decision at the current state does not change even when parameter values are changed up to 75% of the baseline values. Overall, the exercise demonstrates that it is possible to apply adaptive management principles to threatened and endangered species, but logistical and data availability constraints make detailed analyses difficult.

  2. Are brown trout replacing or displacing bull trout populations in a changing climate? (United States)

    Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Schmetterling, David A.; Clancy, Chris; Saffel, Pat; Kovach, Ryan; Nyce, Leslie; Liermann, Brad; Fredenberg, Wade A.; Pierce, Ron


    Understanding how climate change may facilitate species turnover is an important step in identifying potential conservation strategies. We used data from 33 sites in western Montana to quantify climate associations with native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and non-native brown trout (Salmo trutta) abundance and population growth rates (λ). We estimated λ using exponential growth state space models and delineated study sites based on bull trout use for either Spawning and Rearing (SR) or Foraging, Migrating, and Overwintering (FMO) habitat. Bull trout abundance was negatively associated with mean August stream temperatures within SR habitat (r = -0.75). Brown trout abundance was generally highest at temperatures between 12 and 14°C. We found bull trout λ were generally stable at sites with mean August temperature below 10°C but significantly decreasing, rare, or extirpated at 58% of the sites with temperatures exceeding 10°C. Brown trout λ were highest in SR and sites with temperatures exceeding 12°C. Declining bull trout λs at sites where brown trout were absent suggests brown trout are likely replacing bull trout in a warming climate.

  3. Trophic ontogeny of fluvial Bull Trout and seasonal predation on Pacific Salmon in a riverine food web (United States)

    Lowery, Erin D.; Beauchamp, David A.


    Bull Trout Salvelinus confluentus are typically top predators in their host ecosystems. The Skagit River in northwestern Washington State contains Bull Trout and Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytschapopulations that are among the largest in the Puget Sound region and also contains a regionally large population of steelhead O. mykiss (anadromous Rainbow Trout). All three species are listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Our objective was to determine the trophic ecology of Bull Trout, especially their role as predators and consumers in the riverine food web. We seasonally sampled distribution, diets, and growth of Bull Trout in main-stem and tributary habitats during 2007 and winter–spring 2008. Consumption rates were estimated with a bioenergetics model to (1) determine the annual and seasonal contributions of different prey types to Bull Trout energy budgets and (2) estimate the potential impacts of Bull Trout predation on juvenile Pacific salmon populations. Salmon carcasses and eggs contributed approximately 50% of the annual energy budget for large Bull Trout in main-stem habitats, whereas those prey types were largely inaccessible to smaller Bull Trout in tributary habitats. The remaining 50% of the energy budget was acquired by eating juvenile salmon, resident fishes, and immature aquatic insects. Predation on listed Chinook Salmon and steelhead/Rainbow Trout was highest during winter and spring (January–June). Predation on juvenile salmon differed between the two study years, likely due to the dominant odd-year spawning cycle for Pink Salmon O. gorbuscha. The population impact on ocean- and stream-type Chinook Salmon was negligible, whereas the impact on steelhead/Rainbow Trout was potentially very high. Due to the ESA-listed status of Bull Trout, steelhead, and Chinook Salmon, the complex trophic interactions in this drainage provide both challenges and opportunities for creative adaptive management strategies.

  4. Use of cover habitat by bull trout Salvelinus confluentus and lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in a laboratory environment (United States)

    Meeuwig, Michael H.; Guy, Christopher S.; Fredenberg, Wade A.


    Lacustrine-adfluvial bull trout, Salvelinus confluentus, migrate from spawning and rearing streams to lacustrine environments as early as age 0. Within lacustrine environments, cover habitat pro- vides refuge from potential predators and is a resource that is competed for if limiting. Competitive inter- actions between bull trout and other species could result in bull trout being displaced from cover habitat, and bull trout may lack evolutionary adaptations to compete with introduced species, such as lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush. A laboratory experiment was performed to examine habitat use and interactions for cover by juvenile (i.e., <80 mm total length) bull trout and lake trout. Differences were observed between bull trout and lake trout in the proportion of time using cover (F1,22.6=20.08, P<0.001) and bottom (F1,23.7 = 37.01, P < 0.001) habitat, with bull trout using cover and bottom habitats more than lake trout. Habitat selection ratios indicated that bull trout avoided water column habitat in the presence of lake trout and that lake trout avoided bottom habitat. Intraspecific and interspecific agonistic interactions were infrequent, but approximately 10 times greater for intraspecific inter- actions between lake trout. Results from this study provide little evidence that juvenile bull trout and lake trout compete for cover, and that species-specific differences in habitat use and selection likely result in habitat partitioning between these species.

  5. Influences of temperature and environmental variables on the distribution of bull trout within streams at the southern margin of its range (United States)

    J. Dunham; B. Rieman; G. Chandler


    The bull trout Salvelinus confluentus is believed to be among the most thermally sensitive species in coldwater habitats in western North America. We conducted a comprehensive field assessment of thermal habitat associations throughout the southern margin of the species' range. We developed models of thermal habitat associations using two data sets representing a...

  6. Bull Trout Life History, Genetics, Habitat Needs, and Limiting Factors in Central and Northeast Oregon, Annual Report 2001.

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    Hemmingsen, Alan R.; Gunckel, Stephanie L.; Sankovich, Paul M.; Howell, Philip J.


    Bull trout Salvelinus confluentus exhibit a number of life history strategies. Stream-resident bull trout complete their life cycle in their natal tributaries. Migratory bull trout spawn in tributary streams where juvenile fish usually spend from one to four years before migrating to either a larger river (fluvial) or lake (adfluvial) where they rear before returning to the tributary stream to spawn (Fraley and Shepard 1989). These migratory forms occur where conditions allow movement from spawning locations to downstream waters that provide greater foraging opportunities (Dunham and Rieman 1999). Resident and migratory forms may occur together, and either form can produce resident or migratory offspring (Rieman and McIntyre 1993). The ability to migrate is important to the persistence of local bull trout populations (Rieman and McIntyre 1993). The identification of migratory corridors can help focus habitat protection efforts. Determining the life history form(s) that comprise local populations, the timing of seasonal movements, and the geographic extent of these movements are critical to bull trout protection and recovery efforts. This section describes work accomplished in 2001 that continued to address two objectives of this project. These objectives are (1) determine the distribution of juvenile and adult bull trout and habitats associated with that distribution, and (2) determine fluvial and resident bull trout life history patterns. Completion of these objectives is intended through studies of bull trout in the Grande Ronde, Walla Walla, and John Day basins. These basins were selected because they provide a variety of habitats, from relatively degraded to pristine, and bull trout populations were thought to vary from relatively depressed to robust. In the Grande Ronde and Walla Walla basins, we continued to monitor the movements of bull trout with radio transmitters applied in 1998 (Hemmingsen, Bellerud, Gunckel and Howell 2001) and 1999 (Hemmingsen, Gunckel

  7. Genetic Inventory of Bull Trout and Westslope Cutthroat Trout in Pend Oreille Subbasin, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

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    Olson, Jason; Maroney, Joseph R.; Andersen, Todd (Kalispel Department of Natural Resources, Usk, WA)


    In 2003, the Kalispel Natural Resource Department (KNRD) collected tissue samples for genetic analysis from 209 bull trout and 1,276 westslope cutthroat. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife developed and applied microsatellite DNA screening protocols for the analysis of bull trout at 13 loci and 24 loci for cutthroat trout. This project will continue collection and analysis of additional samples next year. At that time, a final annual report will be compiled for the three-year study that will describe the genetic characteristics for bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout. The extent of hybridization of bull trout (with brook trout) and westslope cutthroat trout (with Yellowstone cutthroat trout and rainbow trout) in the Priest Lake and Lower Pend Oreille subbasins will also be examined.

  8. Genetic Inventory of Bull Trout and Westslope Cutthroat Trout in the Pend Oreille Subbasin, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

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    Maroney, Joseph R. (Kalispel Tribe of Indians, Usk, WA); Shaklee, James B.; Young, Sewall F. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)


    In 2002, the Kalispel Natural Resource Department (KNRD) collected tissue samples for genetic analysis from 280 bull trout and 940 westslope cutthroat. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife developed and applied microsatellite DNA screening protocols for the analysis of bull trout at 13 loci and 24 loci for cutthroat trout. This project will continue collection and analysis of additional samples for the next 2 years. At that time, a final annual report will be compiled for the three-year study that will describe the genetic characteristics for bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout. The extent of hybridization of bull trout (with brook trout) and westslope cutthroat trout (with Yellowstone cutthroat trout and rainbow trout) in the Priest Lake and Lower Pend Oreille subbasins will also be examined.

  9. Evaluate Bull Trout Movements in the Tucannon and Lower Snake Rivers, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faler, Michael P. (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Fishery Resource Office, Ahsahka, ID); Mendel, Glen W.; Fulton, Carl (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Fish Management Division, Dayton, WA)


    We collected 279 adult bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Tucannon River during the Spring and Fall of 2003. Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags were inserted in 191 of them, and we detected existing PIT tags in an additional 31bull trout. Thirty five of these were also surgically implanted with radio-tags, and we monitored the movements of these fish throughout the year. Fourteen radio-tags were recovered shortly after tagging, and as a result, 21 remained in the river through December 31, 2003. Four bull trout that were radio-tagged in spring 2002 were known to survive and carry their tags through the spring and/or summer of 2003. One of these fish spent the winter near river mile (RM) 13.0; the other 3 over-wintered in the vicinity of the Tucannon Hatchery between RM 34 and 36. Twenty-one radio tags from bull trout tagged in 2002 were recovered during the spring and summer, 2003. These tags became stationary the winter of 2002/2003, and were recovered between RM 11 and 55. We were unable to recover the remaining 15 tags from 2002. During the month of July, radio-tagged bull trout exhibited a general upstream movement into the upper reaches of the Tucannon subbasin. We observed some downstream movements of radio-tagged bull trout in mid to late September and throughout October. By late November and early December, radio tagged bull trout were relatively stationary, and were distributed from the headwaters downstream to river mile 6.4, near Lower Monumental Pool. As in 2002, we did not conduct work associated with objectives 2, 3, or 4 of this study, because we were unable to monitor migratory movement of radio-tagged bull trout into the Federal hydropower system on the mainstem Snake River. Transmission tests of submerged ATS model F1830 radio-tags in Lower Granite Pool showed that audible detection and individual tag identification was possible at depths of 20 and 30 ft. Tests were conducted using an ATS R-4000 Receiver equipped with an &apos

  10. Anticipated climate warming effects on bull trout habitats and populations across the interior Columbia River basin (United States)

    Bruce E. Rieman; Daniel Isaak; Susan Adams; Dona Horan; David Nagel; Charles Luce; Deborah Myers


    A warming climate could profoundly affect the distribution and abundance of many fishes. Bull trout Salvelinus confluentus may be especially vulnerable to climate change given that spawning and early rearing are constrained by cold water temperatures creating a patchwork of natal headwater habitats across river networks. Because the size and...

  11. Evaluation of the Life History of Native Salmonids in the Malheur River Basin; Cooperative Bull Trout/Redband Trout Research Project, 1999-2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwabe, Lawrence; Tiley, Mark (Burns Paiute Tribe, Department of Fish and Wildlife, Burns, OR); Perkins, Raymond R. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Ontario, OR)


    The purpose of this study is to document the seasonal distribution of adult/sub-adult bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Malheur River basin. Due to the decline of bull trout in the Columbia Basin, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service listed bull trout as a threatened species in June 1998. Past land management activities; construction of dams; and fish eradication projects in the North Fork and Middle Fork Malheur River by poisoning have worked in concert to cumulatively impact native species in the Malheur Basin (Bowers et. al. 1993). Survival of the remaining bull trout populations is severely threatened (Buchanan 1997). 1999 Research Objects are: (1) Document the migratory patterns of adult/sub-adult bull trout in the North Fork Malheur River; (2) Determine the seasonal bull trout use of Beulah Reservoir and bull trout entrainment; and (3) Timing and location of bull trout spawning in the North Fork Malheur River basin. The study area includes the Malheur basin from the mouth of the Malheur River located near Ontario, Oregon to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur River (Map 1). All fish collected and most of the telemetry effort was done on the North Fork Malheur River subbasin (Map 2). Fish collection was conducted on the North Fork Malheur River at the tailwaters of Beulah Reservoir (RK 29), Beulah Reservoir (RK 29-RK 33), and in the North Fork Malheur River at Crane Crossing (RK 69) to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur. Radio telemetry was done from the mouth of the Malheur River in Ontario, Oregon to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur. This report will reflect all migration data collected from 3/1/99 to 12/31/99.

  12. Effective population size and genetic conservation criteria for bull trout (United States)

    Bruce E. Rieman; F. W. Allendorf


    Effective population size (Ne) is an important concept in the management of threatened species like bull trout Salvelinus confluentus. General guidelines suggest that effective population sizes of 50 or 500 are essential to minimize inbreeding effects or maintain adaptive genetic variation, respectively....

  13. Evaluate Bull Trout Movements in the Tucannon and Lower Snake Rivers, 2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faler, Michael P. (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Fishery Resource Office, Ahsahka, ID); Mendel, Glen W.; Fulton, Carl (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Fish Management Division, Dayton, WA)


    We sampled and released 313 bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) from the Tucannon River in 2004. Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags were inserted in 231 of these individuals, and we detected existing PIT tags in an additional 44 bull trout. Twenty-five of these were also surgically implanted with radio-tags, and we monitored the movements of these fish throughout the year. Ten bull trout that were radio-tagged in 2003 were known to survive and carry their tags through the spring of 2004. One of these fish outmigrated into the Snake River in the fall, and remained undetected until February, when it's tag was located near the confluence of Alkali Flat Creek and the Snake River. The remaining 9 fish spent the winter between Tucannon River miles 2.1 (Powers Road) and 36.0 (Tucannon Fish Hatchery). Seven of these fish retained their tags through the summer, and migrated to known spawning habitat prior to September 2004. During June and July, radio-tagged bull trout again exhibited a general upstream movement into the upper reaches of the Tucannon subbasin. As in past years, we observed some downstream movements of radio-tagged bull trout in mid to late September and throughout October, suggesting post spawning outmigrations. By late November and early December, radio tagged bull trout were relatively stationary, and were distributed from river mile 42 at Camp Wooten downstream to river mile 17, near the Highway 12 bridge. As in previous years, we did not collect data associated with objectives 2, 3, or 4 of this study, because we were unable to monitor migratory movement of radio-tagged bull trout into the vicinity of the hydropower dams on the main stem Snake River. Transmission tests of submerged Lotek model NTC-6-2 nano-tags in Lower Granite Pool showed that audible detection and individual tag identification was possible at depths of 20, 30, and 40 ft. We were able to maintain tag detection and code separation at all depths from both a boat and 200 ft

  14. Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) suppression for bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) recovery in Flathead Lake, Montana, North America (United States)

    Hansen, Michael J.; Hansen, Barry S; Beauchamp, David A.


    Non-native lake trout Salvelinus namaycush displaced native bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in Flathead Lake, Montana, USA, after 1984, when Mysis diluviana became abundant following its introduction in upstream lakes in 1968–1976. We developed a simulation model to determine the fishing mortality rate on lake trout that would enable bull trout recovery. Model simulations indicated that suppression of adult lake trout by 75% from current abundance would reduce predation on bull trout by 90%. Current removals of lake trout through incentivized fishing contests has not been sufficient to suppress lake trout abundance estimated by mark-recapture or indexed by stratified-random gill netting. In contrast, size structure, body condition, mortality, and maturity are changing consistent with a density-dependent reduction in lake trout abundance. Population modeling indicated total fishing effort would need to increase 3-fold to reduce adult lake trout population density by 75%. We conclude that increased fishing effort would suppress lake trout population density and predation on juvenile bull trout, and thereby enable higher abundance of adult bull trout in Flathead Lake and its tributaries.

  15. Temporary Restoration of Bull Trout Passage at Albeni Falls Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paluch, Mark; Scholz, Allan; McLellan, Holly [Eastern Washington University Department of Biology; Olson, Jason [Kalispel Tribe of Indians Natural Resources Department


    This study was designed to monitor movements of bull trout that were provided passage above Albeni Falls Dam, Pend Oreille River. Electrofishing and angling were used to collect bull trout below the dam. Tissue samples were collected from each bull trout and sent to the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service Abernathy Fish Technology Center Conservation Genetics Lab, Washington. The DNA extracted from tissue samples were compared to a catalog of bull trout population DNA from the Priest River drainage, Lake Pend Oreille tributaries, and the Clark Fork drainage to determine the most probable tributary of origin. A combined acoustic radio or radio tag was implanted in each fish prior to being transported and released above the dam. Bull trout relocated above the dam were able to volitionally migrate into their natal tributary, drop back downstream, or migrate upstream to the next dam. A combination of stationary radio receiving stations and tracking via aircraft, boat, and vehicle were used to monitor the movement of tagged fish to determine if the spawning tributary it selected matched the tributary assigned from the genetic analysis. Seven bull trout were captured during electrofishing surveys in 2008. Of these seven, four were tagged and relocated above the dam. Two were tagged and left below the dam as part of a study monitoring movements below the dam. One was immature and too small at the time of capture to implant a tracking tag. All four fish released above the dam passed by stationary receivers stations leading into Lake Pend Oreille and no fish dropped back below the dam. One of the radio tags was recovered in the tributary corresponding with the results of the genetic test. Another fish was located in the vicinity of its assigned tributary, which was impassable due to low water discharge at its mouth. Two fish have not been located since entering the lake. Of these fish, one was immature and not expected to enter its natal tributary in the fall of 2008. The other

  16. Consequences of actively managing a small Bull Trout population in a fragmented landscape (United States)

    Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Moran, Sean; McHugh, Peter; Bernall, Shana; Fredenberg, Wade; DosSantos, Joseph M.


    Habitat fragmentation, which affects many native salmonid species, is one of the major factors contributing to the declines in distribution and abundance of Bull Trout Salvelinus confluentus. Increasingly, managers are considering options to maintain and enhance the persistence of isolated local populations through active management strategies. Understanding the ecological consequences of such actions is a necessary step in conservation planning. We used an individual-based model to evaluate the consequences of an ongoing management program aimed at mitigating the anthropogenic fragmentation of the lower Clark Fork River in Montana. Under this program juvenile Bull Trout are trapped and transported from small, headwater source populations to Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, for rearing, and adults are subsequently recaptured in their upstream migration and returned to the natal population for spawning. We examined one of these populations and integrated empirical estimates of demographic parameters to simulate different management scenarios where moderate (n = 4) and high (n = 8) numbers of age-2, age-3, or age-4 Bull Trout were removed for transport with variable return rates under both demographic stochasticity and environmental perturbations. Our results indicated the risks from removal with no returns increased substantially when removal totals and age of Bull Trout removed from the simulated population increased. Specifically, removing eight age-3 or age-4 individuals resulted in 26% and 62% reductions in average adult population size, respectively, across simulations. We found the risks of transport were not likely alleviated with low (3%) or moderate (6%) return rates, and there were considerable risks of declines for the source population even when return rates were extremely high (>12%). Our simulations indicated little risk of declines for the source population with removals of age-2 Bull Trout, and any risks were alleviated with low return rates. However, we

  17. Genetic diversity is related to climatic variation and vulnerability in threatened bull trout (United States)

    Kovach, Ryan; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Wade, Alisa A.; Hand, Brian K.; Whited, Diane C.; DeHaan, Patrick W.; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Luikart, Gordon


    Understanding how climatic variation influences ecological and evolutionary processes is crucial for informed conservation decision-making. Nevertheless, few studies have measured how climatic variation influences genetic diversity within populations or how genetic diversity is distributed across space relative to future climatic stress. Here, we tested whether patterns of genetic diversity (allelic richness) were related to climatic variation and habitat features in 130 bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) populations from 24 watersheds (i.e., ~4–7th order river subbasins) across the Columbia River Basin, USA. We then determined whether bull trout genetic diversity was related to climate vulnerability at the watershed scale, which we quantified on the basis of exposure to future climatic conditions (projected scenarios for the 2040s) and existing habitat complexity. We found a strong gradient in genetic diversity in bull trout populations across the Columbia River Basin, where populations located in the most upstream headwater areas had the greatest genetic diversity. After accounting for spatial patterns with linear mixed models, allelic richness in bull trout populations was positively related to habitat patch size and complexity, and negatively related to maximum summer temperature and the frequency of winter flooding. These relationships strongly suggest that climatic variation influences evolutionary processes in this threatened species and that genetic diversity will likely decrease due to future climate change. Vulnerability at a watershed scale was negatively correlated with average genetic diversity (r = −0.77;P bull trout and other imperiled species. Genetic diversity is already depressed where climatic vulnerability is highest; it will likely erode further in the very places where diversity may be most needed for future persistence.

  18. Evaluation of Bull Trout Movements in the Tucannon and Lower Snake Rivers, 2002-2006 Project Completion Summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faler, Michael P. [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; Mendel, Glen; Fulton, Carl [Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife


    The Columbia River Distinct Population Segment of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) was listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 1998. One of the identified major threats to the species is fragmentation resulting from dams on over-wintering habitats of migratory subpopulations. A migratory subgroup in the Tucannon River appeared to utilize the Snake River reservoirs for adult rearing on a seasonal basis. As a result, a radio telemetry study was conducted on this subgroup from 2002-2006, to help meet Reasonable and Prudent Measures, and Conservation Recommendations associated with the lower Snake River dams in the FCRPS Biological Opinion, and to increase understanding of bull trout movements within the Tucannon River drainage. We sampled 1,109 bull trout in the Tucannon River; 124 of these were surgically implanted with radio tags and PIT tagged, and 681 were only PIT tagged. The remaining 304 fish were either recaptures, or released unmarked. Bull trout seasonal movements within the Tucannon River were similar to those described for other migratory bull trout populations. Bull trout migrated upstream in spring and early summer to the spawning areas in upper portions of the Tucannon River watershed. They quickly moved off the spawning areas in the fall, and either held or continued a slower migration downstream through the winter until early the following spring. During late fall and winter, bull trout were distributed in the lower half of the Tucannon River basin, down to and including the mainstem Snake River below Little Goose Dam. We were unable to adequately radio track bull trout in the Snake River and evaluate their movements or interactions with the federal hydroelectric dams for the following reasons: (1) none of our radio-tagged fish were detected attempting to pass a Snake River dam, (2) our radio tags had poor transmission capability at depths greater than 12.2 m, and (3) the sample size of fish that actually entered the Snake River

  19. Monitor and Protect Wigwam River Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir : Summary of the Skookumchuck Creek Bull Trout Enumeration Project Final Report 2000-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Jeremy; Baxter, James S.


    This report summarizes the third and final year of a bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) enumeration project on Skookumchuck Creek in southeastern British Columbia. The fence and traps were operated from September 6th to October 11th 2002 in order to enumerate post-spawning bull trout. During the study period a total of 309 bull trout were captured at the fence. In total, 16 fish of undetermined sex, 114 males and 179 females were processed at the fence. Length and weight data, as well as recapture information, were collected for these fish. An additional 41 bull trout were enumerated upstream of the fence by snorkeling prior to fence removal. Coupled with the fence count, the total bull trout enumerated during the project was 350 individuals. Several fish that were tagged in the lower Bull River were recaptured in 2002, as were repeat and alternate year spawners previously enumerated in past years at the fence. A total of 149 bull trout redds were enumerated on the ground in 2002, of which 143 were in the 3.0 km index section (river km 27.5-30.5) that has been surveyed over the past six years. The results of the three year project are summarized, and population characteristics are discussed.

  20. Monitor and Protect Wigwam River Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir : Summary of the Skookumchuck Creek Bull Trout Enumeration Project, Annual Report 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, James S.; Baxter, Jeremy


    This report summarizes the second year of a bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) enumeration project on Skookumchuck Creek in southeastern British Columbia. An enumeration fence and traps were installed on the creek from September 6th to October 12th 2001 to enable the capture of post-spawning bull trout emigrating out of the watershed. During the study period, a total of 273 bull trout were sampled through the enumeration fence. Length and weight were determined for all bull trout captured. In total, 39 fish of undetermined sex, 61 males and 173 females were processed through the fence. An additional 19 bull trout were observed on a snorkel survey prior to the fence being removed on October 12th. Coupled with the fence count, the total bull trout enumerated during this project was 292 fish. Several other species of fish were captured at the enumeration fence including westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi), Rocky Mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni), and kokanee (O. nerka). A total of 143 bull trout redds were enumerated on the ground in two different locations (river km 27.5-30.5, and km 24.0-25.5) on October 3rd. The majority of redds (n=132) were observed in the 3.0 km index section (river km 27.5-30.5) that has been surveyed over the past five years. The additional 11 redds were observed in a 1.5 km section (river km 24.0-25.5). Summary plots of water temperature for Bradford Creek, Sandown Creek, Buhl Creek, and Skookumchuck Creek at three locations suggested that water temperatures were within the temperature range preferred by bull trout for spawning, egg incubation, and rearing.

  1. Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) telemetry and associated habitat data collected in a geodatabase from the upper Boise River, southwestern Idaho (United States)

    MacCoy, Dorene E.; Shephard, Zachary M.; Benjamin, Joseph R.; Vidergar, Dmitri T.; Prisciandaro, Anthony F.


    Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act, are among the more thermally sensitive of coldwater species in North America. The Boise River upstream of Arrowrock Dam in southwestern Idaho (including Arrowrock Reservoir) provides habitat for one of the southernmost populations of bull trout. The presence of the species in Arrowrock Reservoir poses implications for dam and reservoir operations. From 2011 to 2014, the Bureau of Reclamation and the U.S. Geological Survey collected fish telemetry data to improve understanding of bull trout distribution and movement in Arrowrock Reservoir and in the upper Boise River tributaries. The U.S. Geological Survey compiled the telemetry (fish location) data, along with reservoir elevation, river discharge, precipitation, and water-quality data in a geodatabase. The geodatabase includes metadata compliant with Federal Geographic Data Committee content standards. The Bureau of Reclamation plans to incorporate the data in a decision‑support tool for reservoir management.

  2. Landscape influences on genetic differentiation among bull trout populations in a stream-lake network (United States)

    Meeuwig, M.H.; Guy, C.S.; Kalinowski, S.T.; Fredenberg, W.A.


    This study examined the influence of landscape heterogeneity on genetic differentiation between migratory bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) populations in Glacier National Park, Montana. An information-theoretic approach was used to compare different conceptual models of dispersal associated with barriers, different models of isolation by distance, and the combined effects of barriers, waterway distance, patch size, and intra- and inter-drainage distribution of populations on genetic differentiation between bull trout populations. The effect of distance between populations on genetic differentiation was best explained by partitioning the effects of mainstem and tributary stream sections. Models that categorized barriers as having a one-way effect (i.e. allowed downstream dispersal) or a two-way effect were best supported. Additionally, patch size and the distribution of populations among drainages influenced genetic differentiation. Genetic differentiation between bull trout populations in Glacier National Park is linked to landscape features that restrict dispersal. However, this analysis illustrates that modelling variability within landscape features, such as dispersal corridors, will benefit landscape genetic analyses. Additionally, the framework used for evaluating the effects of barriers must consider not just barrier presence, but also potential asymmetries in barrier effects with respect to the organism under investigation.

  3. Physical, biotic, and sampling influences on diel habitat use by stream-dwelling bull trout (United States)

    Nolan P. Banish; James T. Peterson; Russell F. Thurow


    We used daytime and nighttime underwater observation to assess microhabitat use by bull trout Salvelinus confluentus (N = 213) in streams of the intermountain western USA during the summers of 2001 and 2002. We recorded fish focal points and measured a set of habitat characteristics as well as habitat availability via line transects. Bull trout were...

  4. Monitor and Protect Wigwam River Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir : Summary of the Skookumchuck Creek Bull Trout Enumeration Project, Annual Report 2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, James S.; Baxter, Jeremy


    An enumeration fence and traps were installed on Skookumchuck Creek from September 7 th to October 16 th to enable the capture of post-spawning bull trout emigrating out of the watershed. During the study period, a total of 252 bull trout were sampled through the enumeration fence. Length, weight, and sex were determined for all but one of the 252 bull trout captured. In total, one fish of undetermined sex, 63 males and 188 females were processed through the fence. A total of 67 bull trout were observed on a snorkel survey prior to the fence being removed on October 16 th . Coupled with the fence count, the total bull trout count during this project was 319 fish. Several other species of fish were captured at the enumeration fence including westslope cutthroat trout, Rocky Mountain whitefish, kokanee, sucker, and Eastern brook trout. Redds were observed during ground surveys in three different locations (river km 27.5- 28.5, km 29-30, and km 24-25). The largest concentration of redds were noted in the upper two sections which have served as the index sections over the past four years. A total of 197 bull trout redds were enumerated on the ground on October 4 th . The majority of redds (n=189) were observed in the 3.0 km index section (river km 27.5-30.5) that has been surveyed over the past four years. The additional 8 redds were observed in a 1.5 km section (river km 24.0-25.5). Summary plots of water temperature for Bradford Creek, Sandown Creek, Skookumchuck Creek at km 39.5, and Skookumchuck Creek at the fence site suggested that water temperatures were within the range preferred by bull trout for spawning, egg incubation, and rearing.

  5. Wigwam River Juvenile Bull Trout and Fish Habitat Monitoring Program : 2002 Data Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cope, R.S. [Westslope Fisheries, Cranbrook, BC, Canada


    The Wigwam River bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and fish habitat monitoring program is a trans-boundary initiative implemented by the British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land, and Air Protection (MWLAP), in cooperation with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The Wigwam River is an important fisheries stream located in southeastern British Columbia that supports healthy populations of both bull trout and Westslope cutthroat trout (Figure 1). This river has been characterized as the single most important bull trout spawning stream in the Kootenay Region (Baxter and Westover 2000, Cope 1998). In addition, the Wigwam River supports some of the largest Westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) in the Kootenay Region. These fish are highly sought after by anglers (Westover 1999a, 1999b). Bull trout populations have declined in many areas of their range within Montana and throughout the northwest including British Columbia. Bull trout were blue listed as vulnerable in British Columbia by the B.C. Conservation Data Center (Cannings 1993) and although there are many healthy populations of bull trout in the East Kootenay they remain a species of special concern. Bull trout in the United States portion of the Columbia River were listed as threatened in 1998 under the Endangered Species Act by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The upper Kootenay River is within the Kootenai sub-basin of the Mountain Columbia Province, one of the eleven Eco-provinces that make up the Columbia River Basin. MWLAP applied for and received funding from BPA to assess and monitor the status of wild, native stocks of bull trout in tributaries to Lake Koocanusa (Libby Reservoir) and the upper Kootenay River. This task is one of many that were undertaken to ''Monitor and Protect Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir'' (BPA Project Number 2000-04-00).

  6. Wigwam River Juvenile Bull Trout and Fish Habitat Monitoring Program : 2000 Data Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cope, R.S.; Morris, K.J.


    The Wigwam River bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and fish habitat monitoring program is a trans-boundary initiative implemented by the British Columbia Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks (MOE), in cooperation with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The Wigwam River is an important fisheries stream located in southeastern British Columbia that supports healthy populations of both bull trout and Westslope cutthroat trout (Figure 1.1). This river has been characterized as the single most important bull trout spawning stream in the Kootenay Region (Baxter and Westover 2000, Cope 1998). In addition, the Wigwam River supports some of the largest Westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) in the Kootenay Region. These fish are highly sought after by anglers (Westover 1999a, 1999b). Bull trout populations have declined in many areas of their range within Montana and throughout the northwest including British Columbia. Bull trout were blue listed as vulnerable in British Columbia by the B.C. Conservation Data Center (Cannings 1993) and although there are many healthy populations of bull trout in the East Kootenays they remain a species of special concern. Bull trout in the United States portion of the Columbia River were listed as threatened in 1998 under the Endangered Species Act by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The upper Kootenay River is within the Kootenai sub-basin of the Mountain Columbia Province, one of the eleven Eco-provinces that make up the Columbia River Basin. MOE applied for and received funding from BPA to assess and monitor the status of wild, native stocks of bull trout in tributaries to Lake Koocanusa (Libby Reservoir) and the upper Kootenay River. This task is one of many that was undertaken to ''Monitor and Protect Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir'' (BPA Project Number 2000-04-00).

  7. Kootenai River Fisheries Investigations; Rainbow and Bull Trout Recruitment, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, Jody P.


    Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss provide the most important sport fishery in the Kootenai River, Idaho, but densities and catch rates are low. Low recruitment is one possible factor limiting the rainbow trout population. Bull trout Salvelinus confluentus also exist in the Kootenai River, but little is known about this population. Research reported here addresses the following objectives for the Kootenai River, Idaho: increase rainbow trout recruitment, identify rainbow and bull trout spawning tributaries and migration timing, establish baseline data on bull trout redd numbers in tributaries, and improve the rainbow trout population size structure. Six adult rainbow trout were moved to spawning habitat upstream of a potential migration barrier on Caboose Creek, but numbers of redds and age-0 out-migrants did not appear to increase relative to a reference stream. Measurements taken on the Moyie River indicated the gradient is inadequate to deliver suitable flows to a proposed rainbow trout spawning channel. Summer water temperatures measured in the Deep Creek drainage sometimes exceeded 24 C, higher than those reported as suitable for rainbow trout. Radio-tagged rainbow trout were located in Boulder Creek during the spring spawning season, and bull trout were located in the Moyie River and O'Brien Creek, Montana in the fall. Bull trout spawning migration timing was related to increases in Kootenai River flows. Bull trout redd surveys documented 19 redds on Boulder Creek and North and South Callahan creeks. Fall 2002 electrofishing showed that the Kootenai River rainbow trout proportional stock density was 54, higher than prior years when more liberal fishing regulations were in effect. Boulder Creek produces the highest number of age-0 rainbow trout out-migrants upstream of Bonners Ferry, but the survival rate of these out-migrants upon reaching the Kootenai River is unknown. Determining juvenile survival rates and sources of mortality could aid management

  8. Temporary Restoration of Bull Trout Passage at Albeni Falls Dam, 2008 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellgraph, Brian J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory


    The goal of this project is to provide temporary upstream passage of bull trout around Albeni Falls Dam on the Pend Oreille River, Idaho. Our specific objectives are to capture fish downstream of Albeni Falls Dam, tag them with combination acoustic and radio transmitters, release them upstream of Albeni Falls Dam, and determine if genetic information on tagged fish can be used to accurately establish where fish are located during the spawning season. In 2007, radio receiving stations were installed at several locations throughout the Pend Oreille River watershed to detect movements of adult bull trout; however, no bull trout were tagged during that year. In 2008, four bull trout were captured downstream of Albeni Falls Dam, implanted with transmitters, and released upstream of the dam at Priest River, Idaho. The most-likely natal tributaries of bull trout assigned using genetic analyses were Grouse Creek (N = 2); a tributary of the Pack River, Lightning Creek (N = 1); and Rattle Creek (N = 1), a tributary of Lightning Creek. All four bull trout migrated upstream from the release site in Priest River, Idaho, were detected at monitoring stations near Dover, Idaho, and were presumed to reside in Lake Pend Oreille from spring until fall 2008. The transmitter of one bull trout with a genetic assignment to Grouse Creek was found in Grouse Creek in October 2008; however, the fish was not found. The bull trout assigned to Rattle Creek was detected in the Clark Fork River downstream from Cabinet Gorge Dam (approximately 13 km from the mouth of Lightning Creek) in September but was not detected entering Lightning Creek. The remaining two bull trout were not detected in 2008 after detection at the Dover receiving stations. This report details the progress by work element in the 2008 statement of work, including data analyses of fish movements, and expands on the information reported in the quarterly Pisces status reports.

  9. Monitor and Protect Wigwam River Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir; Skookumchuck Creek Juvenile Bull Trout and Fish Habitat Monitoring Program, Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cope, R.


    The Skookumchuck Creek juvenile bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and fish habitat-monitoring program is a co-operative initiative of the British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land, and Air Protection and Bonneville Power Administration. This project was commissioned in planning for fish habitat protection and forest development within the Skookumchuck Creek watershed and was intended to expand upon similar studies initiated within the Wigwam River from 2000 to 2002. The broad intent is to develop a better understanding of juvenile bull trout and Westslope cutthroat trout recruitment and the ongoing hydrologic and morphologic processes, especially as they relate to spawning and rearing habitat quality. The 2002 project year represents the first year of a long-term bull trout-monitoring program with current studies focused on collecting baseline information. This report provides a summary of results obtained to date. Bull trout represented 72.4% of the catch. Fry dominated the catch because site selection was biased towards electrofishing sample sites which favored high bull trout fry capture success. The mean density of all juvenile bull trout was estimated to be 6.6 fish/100m{sup 2}. This represents one-half the densities reported for the 2002 Wigwam River enumeration program, even though enumeration of bull trout redds was an order of magnitude higher for the Wigwam River. Typically, areas with combined fry and juvenile densities greater than 1.5 fish per 100 m{sup 2} are cited as critical rearing areas. Trends in abundance appeared to be related to proximity to spawning areas, bed material size, and water depth. Cover components utilized by juvenile and adult bull trout and cutthroat trout were interstices, boulder, depth, overhead vegetation and LWD. The range of morphological stream types encompass the stable and resilient spectrum (C3(1), C3 and B3c). The Skookumchuck can be generalized as a slightly entrenched, meandering, riffle-pool, cobble dominated

  10. Investigations of Bull Trout (Salvelinus Confluentus), Steelhead Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss), and Spring Chinook Salmon (O. Tshawytscha) Interactions in Southeast Washington Streams : 1991 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Steven W.


    Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) are native to many tributaries of the Snake River in southeast Washington. The Washington Department of Wildlife (WDW) and the American Fisheries Society (AFS) have identified bull trout as a species of special concern which means that they may become threatened or endangered by relatively, minor disturbances to their habitat. Steelhead trout/rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and spring chinook salmon (O.tshawytscha) are also native to several tributaries of the Snake river in southeast Washington. These species of migratory fishes are depressed, partially due to the construction of several dams on the lower Snake river. In response to decreased run size, large hatchery program were initiated to produce juvenile steelhead and salmon to supplement repressed tributary stocks, a practice known as supplementation. There is a concern that supplementing streams with artificially high numbers of steelhead and salmon may have an impact on resident bull trout in these streams. Historically, these three species of fish existed together in large numbers, however, the amount of high-quality habitat necessary for reproduction and rearing has been severely reduced in recent years, as compared to historic amounts. The findings of the first year of a two year study aimed at identifying species interactions in southeast Washington streams are presented in this report. Data was collected to assess population dynamics; habitat utilization and preference, feeding habits, fish movement and migration, age, condition, growth, and the spawning requirements of bull trout in each of four streams. A comparison of the indices was then made between the study streams to determine if bull trout differ in the presence of the putative competitor species. Bull trout populations were highest in the Tucannon River (supplemented stream), followed by Mill Creek (unsupplemented stream). Young of the year bull trout utilized riffle and cascade habitat the most in all

  11. Development and evaluation of a bioenergetics model for bull trout (United States)

    Mesa, Matthew G.; Welland, Lisa K.; Christiansen, Helena E.; Sauter, Sally T.; Beauchamp, David A.


    We conducted laboratory experiments to parameterize a bioenergetics model for wild Bull Trout Salvelinus confluentus, estimating the effects of body mass (12–1,117 g) and temperature (3–20°C) on maximum consumption (C max) and standard metabolic rates. The temperature associated with the highest C max was 16°C, and C max showed the characteristic dome-shaped temperature-dependent response. Mass-dependent values of C max (N = 28) at 16°C ranged from 0.03 to 0.13 g·g−1·d−1. The standard metabolic rates of fish (N = 110) ranged from 0.0005 to 0.003 g·O2·g−1·d−1 and increased with increasing temperature but declined with increasing body mass. In two separate evaluation experiments, which were conducted at only one ration level (40% of estimated C max), the model predicted final weights that were, on average, within 1.2 ± 2.5% (mean ± SD) of observed values for fish ranging from 119 to 573 g and within 3.5 ± 4.9% of values for 31–65 g fish. Model-predicted consumption was within 5.5 ± 10.9% of observed values for larger fish and within 12.4 ± 16.0% for smaller fish. Our model should be useful to those dealing with issues currently faced by Bull Trout, such as climate change or alterations in prey availability.

  12. Kootenai River Fisheries Investigations; Rainbow and Bull Trout Recruitment, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, Jody P.


    Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss provide the most important sport fishery in the Kootenai River, Idaho, but densities and catch rates are low. Low recruitment is one possible factor limiting the rainbow trout population. Bull trout Salvelinus confluentus also exist in the Kootenai River, but little is known about this population. Research reported here addresses the following objectives for the Kootenai River, Idaho: identify sources of rainbow and bull trout recruitment, monitor the rainbow trout population size structure to evaluate regulation changes initiated in 2002, and identify factors potentially limiting rainbow trout recruitment. A screw trap was used to estimate juvenile redband and bull trout out-migration from the Callahan Creek drainage, and electrofishing was conducted to estimate summer densities of bull trout rearing in the Idaho portion of the drainage. An estimated 1,132 juvenile redband trout and 68 juvenile bull trout out-migrated from Callahan Creek to the Kootenai River from April 7 through July 15, 2003. Densities of bull trout {ge} age-1 in North and South Callahan creeks ranged from 1.6 to 7.7 fish/100m{sup 2} in August. Bull trout redd surveys were conducted in North and South Callahan creeks, Boulder Creek, and Myrtle Creek. Thirty-two bull trout redds were located in North Callahan Creek, while 10 redds were found in South Callahan Creek. No redds were found in the other two streams. Modeling of culverts in the Deep Creek drainage identified two as upstream migration barriers, preventing rainbow trout from reaching spawning and rearing habitat. Water temperature monitoring in Deep Creek identified two sites where maximum temperatures exceeded those suitable for rainbow trout. Boulder Creek produces the most rainbow trout recruits to the Kootenai River in Idaho upstream of Deep Creek, but may be below carrying capacity for rearing rainbow trout due to nutrient limitations. Monthly water samples indicate Boulder Creek is nutrient limited

  13. Investigations of Bull Trout (Salvelinus Confluentus), Steelhead Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss), and Spring Chinook Salmon (O. Tshawytscha) Interactions in Southeast Washington Streams. Final Report 1992.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Underwood, Keith D.


    The goal of this two year study was to determine if supplementation with hatchery reared steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) negatively impacted wild native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) through competitive interactions. Four streams with varying levels of fish supplementation activity were sampled in Southeast Washington. Tasks performed during this study were population density, relative abundance, microhabitat utilization, habitat availability, diet analysis, bull trout spawning ground surveys, radio telemetry of adult bull trout, and growth analysis. Results indicate that bull trout overlapped geographically with the supplemented species in each of the study streams suggesting competition among species was possible. Within a stream, bull trout and the supplemented species utilized dissimilar microhabitats and microhabitat utilization by each species was the same among streams suggesting that there was no shifts in microhabitat utilization among streams. The diet of bull trout and O. mykiss significantly overlapped in each of the study streams. The stream most intensely supplemented contained bull trout with the slowest growth and the non-supplemented stream contained bull trout with the fastest growth. Conversely, the stream most intensely supplemented contain steelhead with the fastest growth and the non-supplemented stream contained steelhead with the slowest growth. Growth indicated that bull trout may have been negatively impacted from supplementation, although other factors may have contributed. At current population levels, and current habitat quantity and quality, no impacts to bull trout as a result of supplementation with hatchery reared steelhead trout and spring chinook salmon were detected. Project limitations and future research recommendations are discussed.

  14. Wigwam River Juvenile Bull Trout and Fish Habitat Monitoring Program : 2001 Data Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cope, R.S.; Morris, K.J.; Bisset, J.E.


    The Wigwam River juvenile bull trout and fish habitat monitoring program is a co-operative initiative of the British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land, and Air Protection and Bonneville Power Administration. The Wigwam River has been characterized as the single most important bull trout spawning stream in the Kootenay Region. This report provides a summary of results obtained during the second year (2001) of the juvenile bull trout enumeration and fish habitat assessment program. This project was commissioned in planning for fish habitat protection and forest development within the upper Wigwam River valley. The broad intent is to develop a better understanding of juvenile bull trout and Westslope cutthroat trout recruitment and the ongoing hydrologic and morphologic processes in the upper Wigwam River, especially as they relate to spawning and rearing habitat quality. Five permanent sampling sites were established August 2000 in the Wigwam river drainage (one site on Bighorn Creek and four sites on the mainstem Wigwam River). At each site, juvenile (0{sup +}, 1{sup +} and 2{sup +} age classes) fish densities and stream habitat conditions were measured over two stream meander wavelengths. Bull trout represented 95.1% of the catch and the mean density of juvenile bull trout was estimated to be 20.7 fish/100m{sup 2} (range 0.9 to 24.0 fish/100m{sup 2}). This compares to 17.2 fish/100m{sup 2} (+20%) for the previous year. Fry (0{sup +}) dominated the catch and this was a direct result of juvenile bull trout ecology and habitat partitioning among life history stages. Site selection was biased towards sample sites which favored high bull trout fry capture success. Comparison of fry density estimates replicated across both the preliminary survey (1997) and the current study (Cope and Morris 2001) illustrate the stable nature of these high densities. Bull trout populations have been shown to be extremely susceptible to habitat degradation and over-harvest and are

  15. Structured decision making for conservation of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in Long Creek, Klamath River Basin, south-central Oregon (United States)

    Benjamin, Joseph R.; McDonnell, Kevin; Dunham, Jason B.; Brignon, William R.; Peterson, James T.


    With the decline of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), managers face multiple, and sometimes contradictory, management alternatives for species recovery. Moreover, effective decision-making involves all stakeholders influenced by the decisions (such as Tribal, State, Federal, private, and non-governmental organizations) because they represent diverse objectives, jurisdictions, policy mandates, and opinions of the best management strategy. The process of structured decision making is explicitly designed to address these elements of the decision making process. Here we report on an application of structured decision making to a population of bull trout believed threatened by high densities of nonnative brook trout (S. fontinalis) and habitat fragmentation in Long Creek, a tributary to the Sycan River in the Klamath River Basin, south-central Oregon. This involved engaging stakeholders to identify (1) their fundamental objectives for the conservation of bull trout, (2) feasible management alternatives to achieve their objectives, and (3) biological information and assumptions to incorporate in a decision model. Model simulations suggested an overarching theme among the top decision alternatives, which was a need to simultaneously control brook trout and ensure that the migratory tactic of bull trout can be expressed. More specifically, the optimal management decision, based on the estimated adult abundance at year 10, was to combine the eradication of brook trout from Long Creek with improvement of downstream conditions (for example, connectivity or habitat conditions). Other top decisions included these actions independently, as well as electrofishing removal of brook trout. In contrast, translocating bull trout to a different stream or installing a barrier to prevent upstream spread of brook trout had minimal or negative effects on the bull trout population. Moreover, sensitivity analyses suggested that these actions were consistently identified as optimal across

  16. Marine Habitat Use by Anadromous Bull Trout from the Skagit River, Washington (United States)

    Hayes, Michael C.; Rubin, Steve P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald; Goetz, Fred A.; Jeanes, Eric; McBride, Aundrea


    Acoustic telemetry was used to describe fish positions and marine habitat use by tagged bull trout Salvelinus confluentus from the Skagit River, Washington. In March and April 2006, 20 fish were captured and tagged in the lower Skagit River, while 15 fish from the Swinomish Channel were tagged during May and June. Sixteen fish tagged in 2004 and 2005 were also detected during the study. Fish entered Skagit Bay from March to May and returned to the river from May to August. The saltwater residency for the 13 fish detected during the out-migration and return migration ranged from 36 to 133 d (mean ± SD, 75 ± 22 d). Most bull trout were detected less than 14 km (8.5 ± 4.4 km) from the Skagit River, and several bay residents used the Swinomish Channel while migrating. The bull trout detected in the bay were associated with the shoreline (distance from shore, 0.32 ± 0.27 km) and occupied shallow-water habitats (mean water column depth, Zostera sp.) vegetation classes made up more than 70% of the area used by bull trout. Our results will help managers identify specific nearshore areas that may require further protection to sustain the unique anadromous life history of bull trout.

  17. Bull Trout Population Assessment in the White Salmon and Klickitat Rivers, Columbia River Gorge, Washington, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiesfeld, Steven L.; McPeak, Ronald H.; McNamara, Brian S. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife); Honanie, Isadore (Confederated Tribes and Bands, Yakama Nation)


    We utilized night snorkeling and single pass electroshocking to determine the presence or absence of bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in 26 stream reaches (3,415 m) in the White Salmon basin and in 71 stream reaches (9,005 m) in the Klickitat River basin during summer and fall 2001. We did not find any bull trout in the White Salmon River basin. In the Klickitat River basin, bull trout were found only in the West Fork Klickitat River drainage. We found bull trout in two streams not previously reported: Two Lakes Stream and an unnamed tributary to Fish Lake Stream (WRIA code number 30-0550). We attempted to capture downstream migrant bull trout in the West Fork Klickitat River by fishing a 1.5-m rotary screw trap at RM 4.3 from July 23 through October 17. Although we caught other salmonids, no bull trout were captured. The greatest limiting factor for bull trout in the West Fork Klickitat River is likely the small amount of available habitat resulting in a low total abundance, and the isolation of the population. Many of the streams are fragmented by natural falls, which are partial or complete barriers to upstream fish movement. To date, we have not been able to confirm that the occasional bull trout observed in the mainstem Klickitat River are migrating upstream into the West Fork Klickitat River.

  18. Incorporating movement patterns to improve survival estimates for juvenile bull trout (United States)

    Bowerman, Tracy; Budy, Phaedra


    Populations of many fish species are sensitive to changes in vital rates during early life stages, but our understanding of the factors affecting growth, survival, and movement patterns is often extremely limited for juvenile fish. These critical information gaps are particularly evident for bull trout Salvelinus confluentus, a threatened Pacific Northwest char. We combined several active and passive mark–recapture and resight techniques to assess migration rates and estimate survival for juvenile bull trout (70–170 mm total length). We evaluated the relative performance of multiple survival estimation techniques by comparing results from a common Cormack–Jolly–Seber (CJS) model, the less widely used Barker model, and a simple return rate (an index of survival). Juvenile bull trout of all sizes emigrated from their natal habitat throughout the year, and thereafter migrated up to 50 km downstream. With the CJS model, high emigration rates led to an extreme underestimate of apparent survival, a combined estimate of site fidelity and survival. In contrast, the Barker model, which allows survival and emigration to be modeled as separate parameters, produced estimates of survival that were much less biased than the return rate. Estimates of age-class-specific annual survival from the Barker model based on all available data were 0.218±0.028 (estimate±SE) for age-1 bull trout and 0.231±0.065 for age-2 bull trout. This research demonstrates the importance of incorporating movement patterns into survival analyses, and we provide one of the first field-based estimates of juvenile bull trout annual survival in relatively pristine rearing conditions. These estimates can provide a baseline for comparison with future studies in more impacted systems and will help managers develop reliable stage-structured population models to evaluate future recovery strategies.

  19. Bull Trout life History, Genetics, Habitat Needs, and Limiting Factors in Central and Northeast Oregon, Annual Report 1995.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmingsen, Alan R.; Buchanan, David V.; Howell, Philip J.


    To fulfill one objective of the present study, genetic characteristics of Oregon bull trout will be determined by analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. During 1995, the authors collected and sampled a total of 1,217 bull trout from 46 streams in the Columbia River Basin. DNA analysis of those samples will be conducted at University of Montana. They primarily sampled juvenile fish near natal areas to increase the likelihood of identifying discrete populations while minimizing risk of injury to large spawners. Fork lengths of all fish sampled ranged from 2.6 to 60.5 cm with a median of 12 cm. Eighty-four percent of all bull trout sampled were less than 19 cm while two percent were larger than 27 cm. Bull trout were collected by several methods, mostly by electrofishing. Eighty-six percent of all bull trout sampled were collected by electrofishing with a programmable waveform electrofisher. They observed injuries caused by electrofishing to 8% of that proportion. Based on preliminary analysis, no waveform combination used appeared less injurious than others. Highest voltages appeared less injurious than some that were lower. Frequency of electrofishing injury was significantly correlated to fork length over the range-from 4 to 26 cm. There were indications for substantial risk for such injury to bull trout larger than 26 cm. Other species found in association with bull trout included chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, mountain whitefish Prosopium williamsoni, rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, sculpins Cottus spp., cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki, non-native brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, and tailed frogs Ascaphus truei. Rainbow trout was the species most frequently associated with bull trout. No injury or mortality was observed for any of the associated species captured.

  20. Sampling large geographic areas for rare species using environmental DNA: A study of bull trout Salvelinus confluentus occupancy in western Montana (United States)

    Kevin McKelvey; Michael Young; W. L. Knotek; K. J. Carim; T. M. Wilcox; T. M. Padgett-Stewart; Michael Schwartz


    This study tested the efficacy of environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling to delineate the distribution of bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in headwater streams in western Montana, U.S.A. Surveys proved fast, reliable and sensitive: 124 samples were collected across five basins by a single crew in c. 8days. Results were largely consistent with past electrofishing,...

  1. Climate change and vulnerability of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus ) in a fire-prone landscape (United States)

    Jeffrey A. Falke; Rebecca L. Flitcroft; Jason B. Dunham; Kristina M. McNyset; Paul F. Hessburg; Gordon H. Reeves; C. Tara Marshall


    Linked atmospheric and wildfire changes will complicate future management of native coldwater fishes in fire-prone landscapes, and new approaches to management that incorporate uncertainty are needed to address this challenge. We used a Bayesian network (BN) approach to evaluate population vulnerability of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Wenatchee River...

  2. Sources and magnitude of sampling error in redd counts for bull trout (United States)

    Jason B. Dunham; Bruce Rieman


    Monitoring of salmonid populations often involves annual redd counts, but the validity of this method has seldom been evaluated. We conducted redd counts of bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in two streams in northern Idaho to address four issues: (1) relationships between adult escapements and redd counts; (2) interobserver variability in redd...

  3. Effects of fine sediment, hyporheic flow, and spawning site characteristics on survival and development of bull trout embryos (United States)

    Bowerman, Tracy; Neilson, Bethany; Budy, Phaedra


    Successful spawning is imperative for the persistence of salmonid populations, but relatively little research has been conducted to evaluate factors affecting early life-stage survival for bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), a threatened char. We conducted a field experiment to assess the relationship between site-specific environmental factors and bull trout embryo survival and fry emergence timing. Survival from egg to hatch was negatively related to percent fine sediment (hydraulic conductivity via redd construction and selection of spawning sites with strong downwelling appear to enhance hyporheic flow rates and bull trout egg survival, but early life-stage success may ultimately be limited by intrusion of fine sediment into the incubation environment.

  4. Minimum Pool and Bull Trout Prey Base Investigations at Beulah Reservoir - Final Report for 2008 (United States)

    Rose, Brien P.; Mesa, Matthew G.


    Beulah Reservoir in southeastern Oregon provides irrigation water to nearby farms and supports an adfluvial population of threatened bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus). Summer drawdowns in the reservoir could affect forage fish production and overwintering bull trout. To assess the impacts of drawdown, we sampled fish, invertebrates, and water-quality variables seasonally during 2006-08. In 2006, the summer drawdown was about 68 percent of full pool, which was less than a typical drawdown of 85 percent. We detected few changes in pelagic invertebrate densities, and catch rates, abundance, and sizes of fish when comparing values from spring to values from fall. We did note that densities of benthic insects in areas that were dewatered annually were lower than those from areas that were not dewatered annually. In 2007, the drawdown was 100 percent (to run-of-river level) and resulted in decreases in abundance of invertebrates as much as 96 percent, decreases in catch rates of fish as much as 80 percent, decreases in abundance of redside shiners (Richardsonius balteatus) and northern pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) as much as 93 percent, and decreased numbers of small fish in catches. In the fall 2007, we estimated the total biomass of forage fish to be 76 kilograms, or about one-quarter of total biomass of forage fish in 2006. Bioenergetics modeling suggested that ample forage for about 1,000 bull trout would exist after a moderate drawdown, but that forage remaining after a complete dewatering would not be sufficient for a population one-fifth the size. Our results indicate that drawdowns in Beulah Reservoir affect the aquatic community and perhaps the health and well-being of bull trout. The severity of effects depends on the extent of drawdown, population size of bull trout, and perhaps other factors.

  5. Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) movement in relation to water temperature, season, and habitat features in Arrowrock Reservoir, Idaho, 2012 (United States)

    Maret, Terry R.; Schultz, Justin E.


    Acoustic telemetry was used to determine spring to summer (April–August) movement and habitat use of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in Arrowrock Reservoir (hereafter “Arrowrock”), a highly regulated reservoir in the Boise River Basin of southwestern Idaho. Water management practices annually use about 86 percent of the reservoir water volume to satisfy downstream water demands. These practices might be limiting bull trout habitat and movement patterns. Bull trout are among the more thermally sensitive coldwater species in North America, and the species is listed as threatened throughout the contiguous United States under the Endangered Species Act. Biweekly water-temperature and dissolved-oxygen profiles were collected by the Bureau of Reclamation at three locations in Arrowrock to characterize habitat conditions for bull trout. Continuous streamflow and water temperature also were measured immediately upstream of the reservoir on the Middle and South Fork Boise Rivers, which influence habitat conditions in the riverine zones of the reservoir. In spring 2012, 18 bull trout ranging in total length from 306 to 630 millimeters were fitted with acoustic transmitters equipped with temperature and depth sensors. Mobile boat tracking and fixed receivers were used to detect released fish. Fish were tagged from March 28 to April 20 and were tracked through most of August. Most bull trout movements were detected in the Middle Fork Boise River arm of the reservoir. Fifteen individual fish were detected at least once after release. Water surface temperature at each fish detection location ranged from 6.0 to 16.2 degrees Celsius (°C) (mean=10.1°C), whereas bull trout body temperatures were colder, ranging from 4.4 to 11.6°C (mean=7.3°C). Bull trout were detected over deep-water habitat, ranging from 8.0 to 42.6 meters (m) (mean=18.1 m). Actual fish depths were shallower than total water depth, ranging from 0.0 to 24.5 m (mean=6.7 m). The last bull trout was

  6. Diel habitat partitioning by bull charr and cutthroat trout during fall and winter in Rocky Mountain streams (United States)

    Michael J. Jakober; Thomas E. McMahon; Russell F. Thurow


    We used underwater observation to determine diel habitat partitioning between bull charr, Salvelinus confluentus, and cutthroat trout, Oncorhynchus clarki, during fall and winter (0.1-8.3°C) in two Rocky Mountain streams that differed in habitat availability. The majority (>70%) of both species emerged from concealment cover at night, though bull charr exhibited a...

  7. Evaluating trade-offs in bull trout reintroduction strategies using structured decision making (United States)

    Brignon, William R.; Peterson, James T.; Dunham, Jason; Schaller, Howard A.; Schreck, Carl B.


    Structured decision making allows reintroduction decisions to be made despite uncertainty by linking reintroduction goals with alternative management actions through predictive models of ecological processes. We developed a decision model to evaluate the trade-offs between six bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) reintroduction decisions with the goal of maximizing the number of adults in the recipient population without reducing the donor population to an unacceptable level. Sensitivity analyses suggested that the decision identity and outcome were most influenced by survival parameters that result in increased adult abundance in the recipient population, increased juvenile survival in the donor and recipient populations, adult fecundity rates, and sex ratio. The decision was least sensitive to survival parameters associated with the captive-reared population, the effect of naivety on released individuals, and juvenile carrying capacity of the reintroduced population. The model and sensitivity analyses can serve as the foundation for formal adaptive management and improved effectiveness, efficiency, and transparency of bull trout reintroduction decisions.

  8. Climate change and vulnerability of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in a fire-prone landscape. (United States)

    Falke, Jeffrey A.; Flitcroft, Rebecca L; Dunham, Jason B.; McNyset, Kristina M.; Hessburg, Paul F.; Reeves, Gordon H.


    Linked atmospheric and wildfire changes will complicate future management of native coldwater fishes in fire-prone landscapes, and new approaches to management that incorporate uncertainty are needed to address this challenge. We used a Bayesian network (BN) approach to evaluate population vulnerability of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Wenatchee River basin, Washington, USA, under current and future climate and fire scenarios. The BN was based on modeled estimates of wildfire, water temperature, and physical habitat prior to, and following, simulated fires throughout the basin. We found that bull trout population vulnerability depended on the extent to which climate effects can be at least partially offset by managing factors such as habitat connectivity and fire size. Moreover, our analysis showed that local management can significantly reduce the vulnerability of bull trout to climate change given appropriate management actions. Tools such as our BN that explicitly integrate the linked nature of climate and wildfire, and incorporate uncertainty in both input data and vulnerability estimates, will be vital in effective future management to conserve native coldwater fishes.

  9. Evidence of climate-induced range contractions in bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in a Rocky Mountain watershed, U.S.A. (United States)

    Eby, Lisa A; Helmy, Olga; Holsinger, Lisa M; Young, Michael K


    Many freshwater fish species are considered vulnerable to stream temperature warming associated with climate change because they are ectothermic, yet there are surprisingly few studies documenting changes in distributions. Streams and rivers in the U.S. Rocky Mountains have been warming for several decades. At the same time these systems have been experiencing an increase in the severity and frequency of wildfires, which often results in habitat changes including increased water temperatures. We resampled 74 sites across a Rocky Mountain watershed 17 to 20 years after initial samples to determine whether there were trends in bull trout occurrence associated with temperature, wildfire, or other habitat variables. We found that site abandonment probabilities (0.36) were significantly higher than colonization probabilities (0.13), which indicated a reduction in the number of occupied sites. Site abandonment probabilities were greater at low elevations with warm temperatures. Other covariates, such as the presence of wildfire, nonnative brook trout, proximity to areas with many adults, and various stream habitat descriptors, were not associated with changes in probability of occupancy. Higher abandonment probabilities at low elevation for bull trout provide initial evidence validating the predictions made by bioclimatic models that bull trout populations will retreat to higher, cooler thermal refuges as water temperatures increase. The geographic breadth of these declines across the region is unknown but the approach of revisiting historical sites using an occupancy framework provides a useful template for additional assessments.

  10. An ecological risk assessment of the acute and chronic toxicity of the herbicide picloram to the threatened bull trout (salvelinus confluentus) and the rainbow trout (onchorhyncus mykiss) (United States)

    Fairchild, J.F.; Feltz, K.P.; Sappington, L.C.; Allert, A.L.; Nelson, K.J.; Valle, J.


    We conducted acute and chronic toxicity studies of the effects of picloram acid on the threatened bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and the standard coldwater surrogate rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Juvenile fish were chronically exposed for 30 days in a proportional flow-through diluter to measured concentrations of 0, 0.30, 0.60, 1.18, 2.37, and 4.75 mg/L picloram. No mortality of either species was observed at the highest concentration. Bull trout were twofold more sensitive to picloram (30-day maximum acceptable toxic concentration of 0.80 mg/L) compared to rainbow trout (30-day maximum acceptable toxic concentration of 1.67 mg/L) based on the endpoint of growth. Picloram was acutely toxic to rainbow trout at 36 mg/L (96-h ALC50). The acute:chronic ratio for rainbow trout exposed to picloram was 22. The chronic toxicity of picloram was compared to modeled and measured environmental exposure concentrations (EECs) using a four-tiered system. The Tier 1, worst-case exposure estimate, based on a direct application of the current maximum use rate (1.1 kg/ha picloram) to a standardized aquatic ecosystem (water body of 1-ha area and 1-m depth), resulted in an EEC of 0.73 mg/L picloram and chronic risk quotients of 0.91 and 0.44 for bull trout and rainbow trout, respectively. Higher-tiered exposure estimates reduced chronic risk quotients 10-fold. Results of this study indicate that picloram, if properly applied according to the manufacturer's label, poses little risk to the threatened bull trout or rainbow trout in northwestern rangeland environments on either an acute or a chronic basis. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  11. Influences of body size and environmental factors on autumn downstream migration of bull trout in the Boise River, Idaho (United States)

    Monnot, L.; Dunham, J.B.; Hoem, T.; Koetsier, P.


    Many fishes migrate extensively through stream networks, yet patterns are commonly described only in terms of the origin and destination of migration (e.g., between natal and feeding habitats). To better understand patterns of migration in bull trout,Salvelinus confluentus we studied the influences of body size (total length [TL]) and environmental factors (stream temperature and discharge) on migrations in the Boise River basin, Idaho. During the autumns of 2001-2003, we tracked the downstream migrations of 174 radio-tagged bull trout ranging in size from 21 to 73 cm TL. The results indicated that large bull trout (>30 cm) were more likely than small fish to migrate rapidly downstream after spawning in headwater streams in early autumn. Large bull trout also had a higher probability of arriving at the current terminus of migration in the system, Arrowrock Reservoir. The rate of migration by small bull trout was more variable and individuals were less likely to move into Arrowrock Reservoir. The rate of downstream migration by all fish was slower when stream discharge was greater. Temperature was not associated with the rate of migration. These findings indicate that fish size and environmentally related changes in behavior have important influences on patterns of migration. In a broader context, these results and other recent work suggest, at least in some cases, that commonly used classifications of migratory behavior may not accurately reflect the full range of behaviors and variability among individuals (or life stages) and environmental conditions. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  12. Observer error structure in bull trout redd counts in Montana streams: Implications for inference on true redd numbers (United States)

    Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Taper, Mark L.; Staples, David F.; Shepard, Bradley B.


    Despite the widespread use of redd counts to monitor trends in salmonid populations, few studies have evaluated the uncertainties in observed counts. We assessed the variability in redd counts for migratory bull trout Salvelinus confluentus among experienced observers in Lion and Goat creeks, which are tributaries to the Swan River, Montana. We documented substantially lower observer variability in bull trout redd counts than did previous studies. Observer counts ranged from 78% to 107% of our best estimates of true redd numbers in Lion Creek and from 90% to 130% of our best estimates in Goat Creek. Observers made both errors of omission and errors of false identification, and we modeled this combination by use of a binomial probability of detection and a Poisson count distribution of false identifications. Redd detection probabilities were high (mean = 83%) and exhibited no significant variation among observers (SD = 8%). We applied this error structure to annual redd counts in the Swan River basin (1982–2004) to correct for observer error and thus derived more accurate estimates of redd numbers and associated confidence intervals. Our results indicate that bias in redd counts can be reduced if experienced observers are used to conduct annual redd counts. Future studies should assess both sources of observer error to increase the validity of using redd counts for inferring true redd numbers in different basins. This information will help fisheries biologists to more precisely monitor population trends, identify recovery and extinction thresholds for conservation and recovery programs, ascertain and predict how management actions influence distribution and abundance, and examine effects of recovery and restoration activities.

  13. Assessing the impacts of river regulation on native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) habitats in the upper Flathead River, Montana, USA (United States)

    Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Jones, Leslie A.; Kotter, D.; Miller, William J.; Geise, Doran; Tohtz, Joel; Marotz, Brian


    Hungry Horse Dam on the South Fork Flathead River, Montana, USA, has modified the natural flow regimen for power generation, flood risk management and flow augmentation for anadromous fish recovery in the Columbia River. Concern over the detrimental effects of dam operations on native resident fishes prompted research to quantify the impacts of alternative flow management strategies on threatened bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) habitats. Seasonal and life‐stage specific habitat suitability criteria were combined with a two‐dimensional hydrodynamic habitat model to assess discharge effects on usable habitats. Telemetry data used to construct seasonal habitat suitability curves revealed that subadult (fish that emigrated from natal streams to the river system) bull trout move to shallow, low‐velocity shoreline areas at night, which are most sensitive to flow fluctuations. Habitat time series analyses comparing the natural flow regimen (predam, 1929–1952) with five postdam flow management strategies (1953–2008) show that the natural flow conditions optimize the critical bull trout habitats and that the current strategy best resembles the natural flow conditions of all postdam periods. Late summer flow augmentation for anadromous fish recovery, however, produces higher discharges than predam conditions, which reduces the availability of usable habitat during this critical growing season. Our results suggest that past flow management policies that created sporadic streamflow fluctuations were likely detrimental to resident salmonids and that natural flow management strategies will likely improve the chances of protecting key ecosystem processes and help to maintain and restore threatened bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout populations in the upper Columbia River Basin.

  14. Influences of body size and environmental factors on autumn downstream migration of bull trout in the Boise River, Idaho (United States)

    Lauri Monnot; Jason B. Dunham; Tammy Hoem; Peter Koetsier


    Many fishes migrate extensively through stream networks, yet patterns are commonly described only in terms of the origin and destination of migration (e.g., between natal and feeding habitats). To better understand patterns of migration in bull trout, Salvelinus confluentus we studied the influences of body size (total length [TL]) and environmental...

  15. Fine-scale characteristics of fluvial bull trout redds and adjacent sites in Rapid River, Idaho, 1993-2007 (United States)

    John W. Guzevich; Russell F. Thurow


    From 1993 to 2007, we used single pass, September surveys to locate and measure fluvial bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) redds in Rapid River, Idaho. Here we describe substrate sizes, redd dimensions, and water depths, velocities, and temperatures within and adjacent to 337 redds. Most (79%) spawning sites had fewer than 20% surface fines (< 2 mm) and mean,...

  16. Sampling large geographic areas for rare species using environmental DNA: a study of bull trout Salvelinus confluentus occupancy in western Montana. (United States)

    McKelvey, K S; Young, M K; Knotek, W L; Carim, K J; Wilcox, T M; Padgett-Stewart, T M; Schwartz, M K


    This study tested the efficacy of environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling to delineate the distribution of bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in headwater streams in western Montana, U.S.A. Surveys proved fast, reliable and sensitive: 124 samples were collected across five basins by a single crew in c. 8 days. Results were largely consistent with past electrofishing, but, in a basin where S. confluentus were known to be scarce, eDNA samples indicated that S. confluentus were more broadly distributed than previously thought. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  17. Cooperative Recovery Initiative: Bull Trout Restoration: Restoring Cold, Clean, Complex and Connected Habitat in the Blackfoot River Watershed of Montana Interim Report (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Habitat degradation and the effects of climate change are the biggest threats to bull trout in the Blackfoot River watershed of Montana. Montana Fish, Wildlife &...

  18. A framework for assessing the feasibility of native fish conservation translocations: Applications to threatened bull trout (United States)

    Galloway, Benjamin T.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Guy, Christopher S.; Downs, Christopher C.; Fredenberg, Wade A.


    There is an urgent need to consider more aggressive and direct interventions for the conservation of freshwater fishes that are threatened by invasive species, habitat loss, and climate change. Conservation introduction (moving a species outside its indigenous range to other areas where conditions are predicted to be more suitable) is one type of translocation strategy that fisheries managers can use to establish new conservation populations in areas of refugia. To date, however, there are few examples of successful conservation-based introductions. Many attempts fail to establish new populations—in part because environmental factors that might influence success are inadequately evaluated before the translocation is implemented. We developed a framework to assess the feasibility of rescuing threatened fish populations through translocation into historically unoccupied stream and lake habitats. The suitability of potential introduction sites was evaluated based on four major components: the recipient habitat, recipient community, donor population, and future threats. Specific questions were then developed to evaluate each major component. The final assessment was based on a scoring system that addressed each question by using criteria developed from characteristics representative of highly suitable habitats and populations. This framework was used to evaluate the proposed within-drainage translocation of three Bull Trout Salvelinus confluentus populations in Glacier National Park, Montana. Our results indicated that within-drainage translocation is a feasible strategy for conserving locally adapted populations of Bull Trout through the creation of new areas of refugia in Glacier National Park. The framework provides a flexible platform that can help managers make informed decisions for moving threatened fishes into new areas of refugia for conservation and recovery programs.

  19. Calving distributions of individual bulls in multiple-sire pastures. (United States)

    Abell, Kaitlynn M; Theurer, Miles E; Larson, Robert L; White, Brad J; Hardin, David K; Randle, Richard F; Cushman, Robert A


    The objective of this project was to quantify patterns in the calving rate of sires in multiple-sire pastures over seven years at a large-scale cow-calf operation. Data consisted of reproductive and genomic records from multiple-sire breeding pastures (n = 33) at the United States Meat Animal Research Center (USMARC) from 2007 to 2013. Calving intervals were analyzed in 21-day periods. A ranking system for each bull was developed based on the calving rate per pasture over the breeding season, with Rank 1 = the bull with greatest calving rate, Rank 3 = the bull with the least calving rate, and Rank 2 = all other bulls. A total of 179 bulls and 3703 calves were successfully genotyped over seven years. A uniform distribution described the expected percentage of calves sired per rank within pasture. Rank 1 bulls sired 113% greater calves than the expected pasture-average, Rank 2 bulls sired 6% less than expected, and Rank 3 bulls sired 81% less than expected. A rank by calving interval interaction effect was identified (P Rank 1 bull in calving interval 1 produced a greater average percent of the total calf crop over the entire season, compared to a Rank 2 and Rank 3 bull. The calving rate for individual sires is not homogeneous and there is a large difference between bulls siring the greatest and least number of calves. More research is needed to determine how rank changes over multiple breeding years and its association with dominance, libido, and fertility. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Evaluation of the Life History of Native Salmonids in the Malheur River Basin; Cooperative Bull Trout/Redband Trout Research Project, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Alan; Soupir, Jim (US Forest Service, Prairie City Ranger District, Prairie City, OR); Schwabe, Lawrence (Burns Paiute Tribe, Department of Fish and Wildlife, Burns, OR)


    The Malheur River is a 306-kilometer tributary to the Snake River, which drains 12,950 square kilometers. The Malheur River originates in the Blue Mountains and flows into the Snake River near Ontario, Oregon. The climate of the basin is characterized by hot dry summers, occasionally exceeding 38 C, and cold winters that may drop below -29 C. Average annual precipitation is 30 centimeters in the lower reaches. Wooded areas consist primarily of mixed fir and pine forest in the higher elevations. Sagebrush and grass communities dominate the flora in the lower elevations. Efforts to document salmonid life histories, water quality, and habitat conditions have continued in fiscal year 2002. Bull trout Salvelinus confluentus are considered to be cold water species and are temperature-dependant. Due to the interest of bull trout from various state and Federal agencies, a workgroup was formed to develop project objectives related to bull trout. Table 1 lists individuals that participated in the 2002 work group. This report will reflect work completed during the Bonneville Power Administration contract period starting April 1, 2002, and ending March 31, 2003. All tasks were conducted within this timeframe, and a more detailed timeframe may be referred to in each individual report.

  1. Assessing the feasibility of native fish reintroductions: a framework applied to threatened bull trout (United States)

    Dunham, Jason B.; Gallo, Kirsten; Shively, Dan; Allen, Chris; Goehring, Brad


    Translocations to recover native fishes have resulted in mixed success. One reason for the failure of these actions is inadequate assessments of their feasibility prior to implementation. Here, we provide a framework developed to assess the feasibility of one type of translocation-reintroduction. The framework was founded on two simple components of feasibility: the potential for recipient habitats to support a reintroduction and the potential of available donor populations to support a reintroduction. Within each component, we developed a series of key questions. The final assessment was based on a scoring system that incorporated consideration of uncertainty in available information. The result was a simple yet transparent system for assessing reintroduction feasibility that can be rapidly applied in practice. We applied this assessment framework to the potential reintroduction of threatened bull trout Salvelinus confluentus into the Clackamas River, Oregon. In this case, the assessment suggested that the degree of feasibility for reintroduction was high based on the potential of recipient habitats and available donor populations. The assessment did not provide a comprehensive treatment of all possible factors that would drive an actual decision to implement a reintroduction,

  2. Evaluation of the Life History of Native Salmonids in the Malheur River Basin; Cooperative Bull Trout/Redband Trout Research Project, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, Dan; Schwabe, Lawrence; Wenick, Jess (Burns Paiute Tribe, Department of Fish and Wildlife, Burns, OR)


    The Malheur basin lies within southeastern Oregon. The Malheur River is a tributary to the Snake River, entering at about River Kilometer (RK) 595. The hydrological drainage area of the Malheur River is approximately 12,950 km{sup 2} and is roughly 306 km in length. The headwaters of the Malheur River originate in the Blue Mountains at elevations of 6,500 to 7,500 feet, and drops to an elevation of 2000 feet at the confluence with the Snake River near Ontario, Oregon. The climate of the Malheur basin is characterized by hot dry summers, occasionally exceeding 38 C and cold winters that may drop below -29 C. Average annual precipitation is 300 centimeters and ranges from 100 centimeters in the upper mountains to less than 25 centimeters in the lower reaches (Gonzalez 1999). Wooded areas consist primarily of mixed fir and pine forest in the higher elevations. Sagebrush and grass communities dominate the flora in the lower elevations. Efforts to document salmonid life histories, water quality, and habitat conditions have continued in fiscal year 2000. The Burns Paiute Tribe (BPT), United States Forest Service (USFS), and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), have been working cooperatively to achieve this common goal. Bull trout ''Salvenlinus confluentus'' have specific environmental requirements and complex life histories making them especially susceptible to human activities that alter their habitat (Howell and Buchanan 1992). Bull trout are considered to be a cold-water species and are temperature dependent. This presents a challenge for managers, biologists, and private landowners in the Malheur basin. Because of the listing of bull trout under the Endangered Species Act as threatened and the current health of the landscape, a workgroup was formed to develop project objectives related to bull trout. This report will reflect work completed during the Bonneville Power contract period starting 1 April 2000 and ending 31 March 2001. The

  3. An expert panel approach to assessing potential effects of bull trout reintroduction on federally listed salmonids in the Clackamas River, Oregon (United States)

    Bruce G. Marcot; Chris S. Allen; Steve Morey; Dan Shively; Rollie. White


    The bull trout Salvelinus confluentus is an apex predator in native fish communities in the western USA and is listed as threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). Restoration of this species has raised concerns over its potential predatory impacts on native fish fauna. We held a five-person expert panel to help determine potential...

  4. Brown Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006) (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for BROWN TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  5. Rainbow Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006) (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for RAINBOW TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear...

  6. Yellowstone Cutthroat Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006) (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for YELLOWSTONE CUTTHROAT TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based...

  7. Redband Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006) (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for REDBAND TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear...

  8. Brook Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006) (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for BROOK TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  9. Westslope Cutthroat Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006) (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for WESTSLOPE CUTTHROAT TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on...

  10. Lahontan Cutthroat Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006) (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for LAHONTAN CUTTHROAT TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on...

  11. Environmental DNA particle size distribution from Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) (United States)

    Taylor M. Wilcox; Kevin S. McKelvey; Michael K. Young; Winsor H. Lowe; Michael K. Schwartz


    Environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling has become a widespread approach for detecting aquatic animals with high potential for improving conservation biology. However, little research has been done to determine the size of particles targeted by eDNA surveys. In this study, we conduct particle distribution analysis of eDNA from a captive Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in...

  12. Estimating thermal regimes of bull trout and assessing the potential effects of climate warming on critical habitats (United States)

    Jones, Leslie A.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Marshall, Lucy A.; McGlynn, Brian L.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.


    Understanding the vulnerability of aquatic species and habitats under climate change is critical for conservation and management of freshwater systems. Climate warming is predicted to increase water temperatures in freshwater ecosystems worldwide, yet few studies have developed spatially explicit modelling tools for understanding the potential impacts. We parameterized a nonspatial model, a spatial flow-routed model, and a spatial hierarchical model to predict August stream temperatures (22-m resolution) throughout the Flathead River Basin, USA and Canada. Model comparisons showed that the spatial models performed significantly better than the nonspatial model, explaining the spatial autocorrelation found between sites. The spatial hierarchical model explained 82% of the variation in summer mean (August) stream temperatures and was used to estimate thermal regimes for threatened bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) habitats, one of the most thermally sensitive coldwater species in western North America. The model estimated summer thermal regimes of spawning and rearing habitats at <13 C° and foraging, migrating, and overwintering habitats at <14 C°. To illustrate the useful application of such a model, we simulated climate warming scenarios to quantify potential loss of critical habitats under forecasted climatic conditions. As air and water temperatures continue to increase, our model simulations show that lower portions of the Flathead River Basin drainage (foraging, migrating, and overwintering habitat) may become thermally unsuitable and headwater streams (spawning and rearing) may become isolated because of increasing thermal fragmentation during summer. Model results can be used to focus conservation and management efforts on populations of concern, by identifying critical habitats and assessing thermal changes at a local scale.

  13. Extensive feeding on sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka smolts by bull trout Salvelinus confluentus during initial outmigration into a small, unregulated and inland British Columbia river (United States)

    Furey, Nathan B.; Hinch, Scott G.; Lotto, A.G.; Beauchamp, David A.


    Stomach contents were collected and analysed from 22 bull trout Salvelinus confluentus at the edge of the Chilko Lake and Chilko River in British Columbia, Canada, during spring outmigration of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka smolts. Twenty of the 22 (>90%) stomachs contained prey items, virtually all identifiable prey items were outmigrant O. nerka smolts and stomach contents represented a large portion (0·0–12·6%) of estimated S. confluentus mass. The results demonstrate nearly exclusive and intense feeding by S. confluentus on outmigrant smolts, and support recent telemetry observations of high disappearance rates of O. nerka smolts leaving large natural lake systems prior to entering high-order unregulated river systems.

  14. Landscape models of brook trout abundance and distribution in lotic habitat with field validation (United States)

    McKenna, James E.; Johnson, James H.


    Brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis are native fish in decline owing to environmental changes. Predictions of their potential distribution and a better understanding of their relationship to habitat conditions would enhance the management and conservation of this valuable species. We used over 7,800 brook trout observations throughout New York State and georeferenced, multiscale landscape condition data to develop four regionally specific artificial neural network models to predict brook trout abundance in rivers and streams. Land cover data provided a general signature of human activity, but other habitat variables were resistant to anthropogenic changes (i.e., changing on a geological time scale). The resulting models predict the potential for any stream to support brook trout. The models were validated by holding 20% of the data out as a test set and by comparison with additional field collections from a variety of habitat types. The models performed well, explaining more than 90% of data variability. Errors were often associated with small spatial displacements of predicted values. When compared with the additional field collections (39 sites), 92% of the predictions were off by only a single class from the field-observed abundances. Among “least-disturbed” field collection sites, all predictions were correct or off by a single abundance class, except for one where brown trout Salmo trutta were present. Other degrading factors were evident at most sites where brook trout were absent or less abundant than predicted. The most important habitat variables included landscape slope, stream and drainage network sizes, water temperature, and extent of forest cover. Predicted brook trout abundances were applied to all New York streams, providing a synoptic map of the distribution of brook trout habitat potential. These fish models set benchmarks of best potential for streams to support brook trout under broad-scale human influences and can assist with planning and

  15. Predicting spatial distribution of postfire debris flows and potential consequences for native trout in headwater streams (United States)

    Sedell, Edwin R; Gresswell, Bob; McMahon, Thomas E.


    Habitat fragmentation and degradation and invasion of nonnative species have restricted the distribution of native trout. Many trout populations are limited to headwater streams where negative effects of predicted climate change, including reduced stream flow and increased risk of catastrophic fires, may further jeopardize their persistence. Headwater streams in steep terrain are especially susceptible to disturbance associated with postfire debris flows, which have led to local extirpation of trout populations in some systems. We conducted a reach-scale spatial analysis of debris-flow risk among 11 high-elevation watersheds of the Colorado Rocky Mountains occupied by isolated populations of Colorado River Cutthroat Trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii pleuriticus). Stream reaches at high risk of disturbance by postfire debris flow were identified with the aid of a qualitative model based on 4 primary initiating and transport factors (hillslope gradient, flow accumulation pathways, channel gradient, and valley confinement). This model was coupled with a spatially continuous survey of trout distributions in these stream networks to assess the predicted extent of trout population disturbances related to debris flows. In the study systems, debris-flow potential was highest in the lower and middle reaches of most watersheds. Colorado River Cutthroat Trout occurred in areas of high postfire debris-flow risk, but they were never restricted to those areas. Postfire debris flows could extirpate trout from local reaches in these watersheds, but trout populations occupy refugia that should allow recolonization of interconnected, downstream reaches. Specific results of our study may not be universally applicable, but our risk assessment approach can be applied to assess postfire debris-flow risk for stream reaches in other watersheds.

  16. Geomorphic influences on the distribution of Yellowstone cutthroat trout in the Absaroka Mountains, Wyoming (United States)

    Kruse, C.G.; Hubert, W.A.; Rahel, F.J.


    Influences of large-scale abiotic, geomorphic characteristics on distributions of Yellowstone cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki bouvieri are poorly understood. We sampled 151 sites on 56 perennial streams in the Greybull-Wood river drainage in northwestern Wyoming to determine the effects of geomorphic variables on Yellowstone cutthroat trout distributions. Channel slope, elevation, stream size, and barriers to upstream movement significantly influenced the presence and absence of Yellowstone cutthroat trout. Wild populations of Yellowstone cutthroat trout were not found upstream of barriers to fish migration, at sites with channel slopes of 10% or greater, or at elevations above 3, 182 m. Based on channel slope alone, logistic regression models correctly classified presence or absence of Yellowstone cutthroat trout in 83% of study sites. The addition of elevation and stream size in the models increased classification to 87%. Logistic models tested on an independent data set had agreement rates as high as 91% between actual and predicted fish presence. Large-scale geomorphic variables influence Yellowstone cutthroat trout distributions, and logistic functions can predict these distributions with a high degree of accuracy.

  17. Quantifying the distribution of nanodiamonds in pre-Younger Dryas to recent age deposits along Bull Creek, Oklahoma panhandle, USA. (United States)

    Bement, Leland C; Madden, Andrew S; Carter, Brian J; Simms, Alexander R; Swindle, Andrew L; Alexander, Hanna M; Fine, Scott; Benamara, Mourad


    High levels of nanodiamonds (nds) have been used to support the transformative hypothesis that an extraterrestrial (ET) event (comet explosion) triggered Younger Dryas changes in temperature, flora and fauna assemblages, and human adaptations [Firestone RB, et al. (2007) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104(41):16016-16021]. We evaluate this hypothesis by establishing the distribution of nds within the Bull Creek drainage of the Beaver River basin in the Oklahoma panhandle. The earlier report of an abundance spike of nds in the Bull Creek I Younger Dryas boundary soil is confirmed, although no pure cubic diamonds were identified. The lack of hexagonal nds suggests Bull Creek I is not near any impact site. Potential hexagonal nds at Bull Creek were found to be more consistent with graphene/graphane. An additional nd spike is found in deposits of late Holocene through the modern age, indicating nds are not unique to the Younger Dryas boundary. Nd distributions do not correlate with depositional environment, pedogenesis, climate perturbations, periods of surface stability, or cultural activity.

  18. Distribution and dynamic habitat use of young bull sharks Carcharhinus leucas in a highly stratified northern Gulf of Mexico estuary. (United States)

    Drymon, J Marcus; Ajemian, Matthew J; Powers, Sean P


    Understanding how animals alter habitat use in response to changing abiotic conditions is important for effective conservation management. For bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas), habitat use has been widely examined in the eastern and western Gulf of Mexico; however, knowledge of their movements and the factors influencing them is lacking for populations in the more temperate north-central Gulf of Mexico. To examine how changes in hydrographic conditions affected the presence of young bull sharks in Mobile Bay, Alabama, thirty-five sharks were fitted with internal acoustic transmitters and monitored with an acoustic monitoring array consisting of thirty-three receivers between June 2009 and December 2010. Tagged sharks ranged in size from 60 to 114 cm fork length and were detected between the upper and lower portions of Mobile Bay. Despite a variety of freshwater sources associated with this highly productive estuary, sharks were most consistently detected at the largest input to the system--the Mobile and Tensaw Rivers. Our findings suggest a combination of hydrographic factors interact to influence the distribution of juvenile bull sharks in Mobile Bay. The factors affecting the probability of detecting at least one bull shark varied both temporally (2009 vs 2010) and spatially (upper vs lower bay). Electivity analysis demonstrated that bull sharks showed highest affinity for warm water (29-32 °C), moderate salinities (10-11 psu) and normoxic waters (5-7 mg/l), although these patterns were not consistent between regions or across years. We suggest future studies coupling telemetry and hydrographic variables should, when possible, consider the interactions of multiple environmental parameters when defining the dynamic factors explaining the spatial distribution of coastal sharks.

  19. Distribution patterns of muscle fibre types in major muscles of the bull (Bos taurus). (United States)

    Totland, G K; Kryvi, H


    The study describes the variations in distribution and cross-sectional area (fibre size) of three muscle fibre types (I, IIA, IIB) in 34 of the largest muscles of the bull (Bos taurus). The animals had been kept strictly unexercised for one year before slaughter. Representative sampling was done at 15 positions within each muscle, and from 2700 to 4500 fibres were analysed in each muscle. Different intermuscular patterns are described. The overall volume fraction (%) of type I fibres was about 10% higher in the forepart muscles than in the hindpart muscles (41% and 31%, respectively), while the mean content of type IIB fibres was similar. Type I fibres were particularly abundant in antigravity muscles. Of these, the hindlimb muscles contained 50% more type I fibres (by weight) than those of the forelimb. Typical antigravity antagonists contained very few type I fibres. In the thigh cross-section the proportion of type I fibres was highest in the anterior and medial parts, while the IIB fibres tended to be concentrated in the superficial and posterior parts. Intramuscular patterns were revealed, with type I fibres becoming gradually more abundant from superficial to deep regions, while IIB fibres had an opposite distribution. This was particularly evident in the thigh proper and in the scapular region. Within each fasciculus of all the muscles, the muscle fibre types formed a general spatial pattern. Type I fibres in the muscles of the forepart were on average about 15% larger than those of the muscles in the hindpart. The IIB fibres were on average about 10% larger in the hindpart than in the forepart muscles. A covariation between the proportion of type I and IIB fibres and their cross-sectional area was indicated.

  20. Brook trout distributional response to unconventional oil and gas development: Landscape context matters. (United States)

    Merriam, Eric R; Petty, J Todd; Maloney, Kelly O; Young, John A; Faulkner, Stephen P; Slonecker, E Terrence; Milheim, Lesley E; Hailegiorgis, Atesmachew; Niles, Jonathan


    We conducted a large-scale assessment of unconventional oil and gas (UOG) development effects on brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) distribution. We compiled 2231 brook trout collection records from the Upper Susquehanna River Watershed, USA. We used boosted regression tree (BRT) analysis to predict occurrence probability at the 1:24,000 stream-segment scale as a function of natural and anthropogenic landscape and climatic attributes. We then evaluated the importance of landscape context (i.e., pre-existing natural habitat quality and anthropogenic degradation) in modulating the effects of UOG on brook trout distribution under UOG development scenarios. BRT made use of 5 anthropogenic (28% relative influence) and 7 natural (72% relative influence) variables to model occurrence with a high degree of accuracy [Area Under the Receiver Operating Curve (AUC)=0.85 and cross-validated AUC=0.81]. UOG development impacted 11% (n=2784) of streams and resulted in a loss of predicted occurrence in 126 (4%). Most streams impacted by UOG had unsuitable underlying natural habitat quality (n=1220; 44%). Brook trout were predicted to be absent from an additional 26% (n=733) of streams due to pre-existing non-UOG land uses (i.e., agriculture, residential and commercial development, or historic mining). Streams with a predicted and observed (via existing pre- and post-disturbance fish sampling records) loss of occurrence due to UOG tended to have intermediate natural habitat quality and/or intermediate levels of non-UOG stress. Simulated development of permitted but undeveloped UOG wells (n=943) resulted in a loss of predicted occurrence in 27 additional streams. Loss of occurrence was strongly dependent upon landscape context, suggesting effects of current and future UOG development are likely most relevant in streams near the probability threshold due to pre-existing habitat degradation. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Histochemical distribution of zinc in the brain of the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchos myciss. I. The telencephalon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piñuela, C; Baatrup, E; Geneser, F A


    The present paper which describes the distribution of zinc in the telencephalon of the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchos myciss, is the first report on the distribution of a heavy metal in the fish brain. Zinc was demonstrated histochemically by silver enhancement using the Neo-Timm method. The staining...... of cytoarchitectural features. However, the telencephalon stained much more weakly than the rest of the brain, in striking contrast to the situation in the reptilian, mammalian, and avian brain. In these classes, high staining intensities are observed almost exclusively in the telencephalon. The staining...

  2. 75 FR 2269 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Designation of Critical Habitat for Bull... (United States)


    ... and Puget Sound), and 215,870 hectares (ha) (533,426 acres (ac)) of reservoirs or lakes are being... to waters of western North America. Bull trout range throughout the Columbia River and Snake River...-history form of bull trout is unique to the Coastal-Puget Sound population (64 FR 58921; November 1, 1999...

  3. Distribution of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in a Subclinical Naturally Infected German Fleckvieh Bull. (United States)

    Fechner, K; Schäfer, J; Wiegel, C; Ludwig, J; Münster, P; Sharifi, A R; Wemheuer, W; Czerny, C-P


    Although it has been known for years that Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is detectable in the reproductive organs and semen of infected bulls, only few studies have been conducted on this topic worldwide. This study surveyed the MAP status of a bull, naturally infected due to close contact with its subclinically infected parents over a period of 4 years. From the age of 7 weeks to necropsy, faecal, blood and, after sexual maturity, semen samples were drawn repeatedly. Already at the first sampling day, MAP-DNA was detected in faeces by semi-nested PCR. True infection was confirmed by the detection of MAP-DNA in blood at the age of 40 weeks. In total, MAP-DNA was present in 25% faecal (34/139), 16% blood (23/140) and 5% semen (4/89) samples, including MAP-free intervals of up to 9 weeks. MAP genome equivalents (MAP-GE) of up to 6.3 × 106 /g faeces and 1.8 × 105 /ml blood were determined. Cultivation of MAP occurred only in three of 137 faecal and two of 109 blood, but never in semen samples. Over the whole period, the bull was a serological negative MAP shedder. During necropsy, 42 tissue samples were collected. Neither macroscopic nor histological lesions characteristic of a MAP infection were observed. Cultivation of MAP in tissue sections failed. However, MAP-DNA was spread widely in the host, including in tissues of the lymphatic system (7/15), digestive tract (5/14) and the urogenital tract (5/9) with concentrations of up to 3.9 × 106 MAP-GE/g tissue. The study highlighted the detection of MAP in male reproductive organs and semen. It supports the hypothesis that bulls may probably transmit MAP, at least under natural mating conditions. In artificial insemination, this might not be relevant, due to antibiotics included currently in semen extenders. However, the survivability of MAP in this microenvironment should be investigated in detail. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Variability of kokanee and rainbow trout food habits, distribution, and population dynamics, in an ultraoligotrophic lake with no manipulative management (United States)

    Buktenica, M.W.; Girdner, S.F.; Larson, G.L.; McIntire, C.D.


    Crater Lake is a unique environment to evaluate the ecology of introduced kokanee and rainbow trout because of its otherwise pristine state, low productivity, absence of manipulative management, and lack of lotic systems for fish spawning. Between 1986 and 2004, kokanee displayed a great deal of variation in population demographics with a pattern that reoccurred in about 10 years. We believe that the reoccurring pattern resulted from density dependent growth, and associated changes in reproduction and abundance, driven by prey resource limitation that resulted from low lake productivity exacerbated by prey consumption when kokanee were abundant. Kokanee fed primarily on small-bodied prey from the mid-water column; whereas rainbow trout fed on large-bodied prey from the benthos and lake surface. Cladoceran zooplankton abundance may be regulated by kokanee. And kokanee growth and reproductive success may be influenced by the availability of Daphnia pulicaria, which was absent in zooplankton samples collected annually from 1990 to 1995, and after 1999. Distribution and diel migration of kokanee varied over the duration of the study and appeared to be most closely associated with prey availability, maximization of bioenergetic efficiency, and fish density. Rainbow trout were less abundant than were kokanee and exhibited less variation in population demographics, distribution, and food habits. There is some evidence that the population dynamics of rainbow trout were in-part related to the availability of kokanee as prey. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  5. Bull trout in the Boundary System: managing connectivity and the feasibility of a reintroduction in the lower Pend Oreille River, northeastern Washington (United States)

    Dunham, Jason B.; Taylor, Eric B.; Allendorf, Fred W.


    Many of the World’s rivers are influenced by large dams (>15 m high) most of which have fragmented formerly continuous habitats, and significantly altered fish passage, natural flow, temperature, and sediment fluxes (Nilsson and others, 2005; Arthington, 2012; Liermann and others, 2012). In the Pacific Northwest, dams on major rivers have been a major focus for fishery managers, primarily in regard to passage of anadromous salmonids (principally Pacific salmon and steelhead trout [Oncorhynchus mykiss], for example, Ferguson and others, 2011), but more recently other species, such as Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus) and resident (non-anadromous) salmonids, are receiving more attention (Neraas and Spruell, 2001; Moser and others, 2002; Muhlfeld and others, 2012). In the case of resident salmonids, fish can adopt a wide range of migratory behaviors that often bring them into mainstem rivers where they can come into direct contact with large dams. When this occurs, some of the most important direct effects of dams on salmonids include barriers to upstream and downstream movement and mortality associated with entrainment within the dam or spill over dams. Biologically, these direct impacts can lead to (1) disruption of natural historical (pre-dam) genetic and demographic connectivity among local populations, (2) loss of access to historically used migratory destinations, (3) loss of individuals to the population through mortality associated with entrainment.

  6. The effects of global warming on the distribution of steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations on the Alaska Peninsula, Alaska, 1995 final report. (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An investigation to determine the distribution and population characteristics of steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) on the Alaska Peninsula, Alaska, was conducted...

  7. The effects of global warming on the distribution of steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations on the Alaska Peninsula, Alaska, 1992 progress report. (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An investigation to determine the distribution, age and size structure, and sex composition of steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations of the Alaska...

  8. Influences of summer water temperatures on the movement, distribution, and resources use of fluvial Westslope Cutthroat Trout in the South Fork Clearwater River basin (United States)

    Dobos, Marika E.; Corsi, Matthew P.; Schill, Daniel J.; DuPont, Joseph M.; Quist, Michael C.


    Although many Westslope Cutthroat Trout Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi populations in Idaho are robust and stable, population densities in some systems remain below management objectives. In many of those systems, such as in the South Fork Clearwater River (SFCR) system, environmental conditions (e.g., summer temperatures) are hypothesized to limit populations of Westslope Cutthroat Trout. Radiotelemetry and snorkeling methods were used to describe seasonal movement patterns, distribution, and habitat use of Westslope Cutthroat Trout in the SFCR during the summers of 2013 and 2014. Sixty-six radio transmitters were surgically implanted into Westslope Cutthroat Trout (170–405 mm TL) from May 30–June 25, 2013, and June 20–July 6, 2014. Sedentary and mobile summer movement patterns by Westslope Cutthroat Trout were observed in the SFCR. Westslope Cutthroat Trout were generally absent from the lower SFCR. In the upper region of the SFCR, fish generally moved from the main-stem SFCR into tributaries as water temperatures increased during the summer. Fish remained in the middle region of the SFCR where water temperatures were cooler than in the upper or lower regions of the SFCR. A spatially explicit water temperature model indicated that the upper and lower regions of the SFCR exceeded thermal tolerance levels of Westslope Cutthroat Trout throughout the summer. During snorkeling, 23 Westslope Cutthroat Trout were observed in 13 sites along the SFCR and at low density (mean ± SD, 0.0003 ± 0.0001 fish/m2). The distribution of fish observed during snorkeling was consistent with the distribution of radio-tagged fish in the SFCR during the summer. Anthropogenic activities (i.e., grazing, mining, road construction, and timber harvest) in the SFCR basin likely altered the natural flow dynamics and temperature regime and thereby limited stream habitat in the SFCR system for Westslope Cutthroat Trout.

  9. Evidence of climate-induced range contractions in bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in a Rocky Mountain watershed, U.S.A. (United States)

    Lisa A. Eby; Olga Helmy; Lisa M. Holsinger; Michael K. Young


    Many freshwater fish species are considered vulnerable to stream temperature warming associated with climate change because they are ectothermic, yet there are surprisingly few studies documenting changes in distributions. Streams and rivers in the U.S. Rocky Mountains have been warming for several decades. At the same time these systems have been experiencing an...

  10. Physically-Based Distributed-Parameter Hydrologic Modeling of the Bull Creek Watershed, Austin, Texas (United States)

    Sparks, L. B.; Sharif, H. O.; French, R. H.


    Recent advances in computing power, data storage and the increased availability of spatially distributed data sets have encouraged research into the benefits and potential applications of physically-based, distributed hydrologic models. Physically-based, distributed parameter, structured grid models simulate watershed processes using physics-based equations, such as energy, momentum and continuity. Hydrologic parameters are specified for each grid cell within the model domain in an effort to best represent the spatial variability of watershed characteristics. The intent of this study is to contribute to the ongoing effort to evaluate the physically-based, distributing modeling approach for hydrologic study, flood forecasting and other applications. The hydrology of a partially urbanized watershed located in Austin, Texas is simulated using the physically-based, distributed parameter model Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA). GIS-based data sets, collected from publicly available sources and the City of Austin Watershed Protection Division, were processed using ArcGIS version 9.1 and the Watershed Modeling System graphical modeling environment. NEXRAD precipitation data for three significant rain events were processed and quality-controlled using rain-gauge observations. Model-generated hydrographs for these events were compared to observed flow data at a USGS flow gage located at the basin outlet.

  11. Distribution of T Cells in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Skin and Responsiveness to Viral Infection (United States)

    Leal, Esther; Granja, Aitor G.; Zarza, Carlos; Tafalla, Carolina


    Although the skin constitutes the first line of defense against waterborne pathogens, there is a great lack of information regarding the skin associated lymphoid tissue (SALT) and whether immune components of the skin are homogeneously distributed through the surface of the fish is still unknown. In the current work, we have analyzed the transcription of several immune genes throughout different rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) skin areas. We found that immunoglobulin and chemokine gene transcription levels were higher in a skin area close to the gills. Furthermore, this skin area as well as other anterior sections also transcribed significantly higher levels of many different immune genes related to T cell immunity such as T cell receptor α (TCRα), TCRγ, CD3, CD4, CD8, perforin, GATA3, Tbet, FoxP3, interferon γ (IFNγ), CD40L and Eomes in comparison to posterior skin sections. In agreement with these results, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that anterior skin areas had a higher concentration of CD3+ T cells and flow cytometry analysis confirmed that the percentage of CD8+ T lymphocytes was also higher in anterior skin sections. These results demonstrate for the first time that T cells are not homogeneously distributed throughout the teleost skin. Additionally, we studied the transcriptional regulation of these and additional T cell markers in response to a bath infection with viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). We found that VHSV regulated the transcription of several of these T cell markers in both the skin and the spleen; with some differences between anterior and posterior skin sections. Altogether, our results point to skin T cells as major players of teleost skin immunity in response to waterborne viral infections. PMID:26808410

  12. Preparation and anatomical distribution study of 67Ga-alginic acid nanoparticles for SPECT purposes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidarieh Marzieh


    Full Text Available Ergosan contains 1% alginic acid extracted from two brown sea weeds. Little is known about the target organs and anatomical distribution of Ergosan (alginic acid in fish. Therefore, feasibility of developing alginic acid nanoparticles to detect target organ in rainbow trout is interesting. To make nanoparticles, Ergosan extract (alginic acid was irradiated at 30 kGy in a cobalt-60 irradiator and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Results from TEM images showed that particle sizes of irradiated alginic acid ranged from 30 to 70 nm. The FTIR results indicated that gamma irradiation had no significant influence on the basic structure of alginic acid. Later, alginic acid nanoparticles were successively labelled with 67Ga-gallium chloride. The biodistribution of irradiated Ergosan in normal rainbow trout showed highest uptake in intestine and kidney and then in liver and kidney at 4- and 24-h post injection, respectively. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT images also demonstrated target specific binding of the tracer at 4- and 24-h post injection. In conclusion, the feed supplemented with alginic acid nanoparticles enhanced SPECT images of gastrointestinal morphology and immunity system in normal rainbow trout.

  13. Broad-scale patterns of Brook Trout responses to introduced Brown Trout in New York (United States)

    McKenna, James E.; Slattery, Michael T.; Kean M. Clifford,


    Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis and Brown Trout Salmo trutta are valuable sport fish that coexist in many parts of the world due to stocking introductions. Causes for the decline of Brook Trout within their native range are not clear but include competition with Brown Trout, habitat alteration, and repetitive stocking practices. New York State contains a large portion of the Brook Trout's native range, where both species are maintained by stocking and other management actions. We used artificial neural network models, regression, principal components analysis, and simulation to evaluate the effects of Brown Trout, environmental conditions, and stocking on the distribution of Brook Trout in the center of their native range. We found evidence for the decline of Brook Trout in the presence of Brown Trout across many watersheds; 22% of sampled reaches where both species were expected to occur contained only Brown Trout. However, a model of the direct relationship between Brook Trout and Brown Trout abundance explained less than 1% of data variation. Ordination showed extensive overlap of Brook Trout and Brown Trout habitat conditions, with only small components of the hypervolume (multidimensional space) being distinctive. Subsequent analysis indicated higher abundances of Brook Trout in highly forested areas, while Brown Trout were more abundant in areas with relatively high proportions of agriculture. Simulation results indicated that direct interactions and habitat conditions were relatively minor factors compared with the effects of repeated stocking of Brown Trout into Brook Trout habitat. Intensive annual stocking of Brown Trout could eliminate resident Brook Trout in less than a decade. Ecological differences, harvest behavior, and other habitat changes can exacerbate Brook Trout losses. Custom stocking scenarios with Brown Trout introductions at relatively low proportions of resident Brook Trout populations may be able to sustain healthy populations of both

  14. Development of bull trout sampling efficiency models (United States)

    R. F. Thurow; J. T. Peterson; C. A. Larson; J. W. Guzevich


    This report describes results of research conducted in Washington State in 2002 through Interagency Agreement #134100-2-H001 between the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the U.S. Forest Service Rocky Mountain Station (RMRS). This project was a collaborative effort between the USFWS, RMRS, the Washington Department of Fisheries and Wildlife (WDFW), and the U.S...

  15. Distribution of individual inbreeding coefficients, relatedness and influence of stocking on native anadromous brown trout ( Salmo trutta ) population structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzzante, D.E.; Hansen, Michael Møller; Meldrup, Dorte


    We examined polymorphism at seven microsatellite loci in 4023 brown trout (Salmo trutta) collected from 32 tributaries to the Limfjord, Denmark (similar to 200 km) and from two hatcheries used for stocking. Populations differ in their estimated sizes and stocking histories. Mean individual...... inbreeding coefficients do not differ among locations within rivers. Relatedness varies between sites within rivers indicating varied local dynamics at a very small geographical scale. Relatedness is sometimes lower than expected among an equal number of simulated individuals with randomized genotypes......, suggesting structure within locations. Five per cent of the genetic variance is distributed among rivers (F-ST = 0.049), but in the western, less heavily stocked, area of the Limfjord a higher proportion of the genetic variance is distributed among rivers than among locations within rivers. The reverse...

  16. Utilising spatial distribution in two-tank systems to investigate the level of aversiveness to crowding in farmed rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Danielle Caroline; Andersson, Madelene Åberg; Silva, Patricia Isabel Mota


    . The aim of the present study was to apply a novel method to investigate a level of crowding that indicated aversiveness in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). In a two-tank system, where two identical tanks were connected via a doorway, it was observed that social behaviour controlled the distribution...

  17. Assessing conditions influencing the longitudinal distribution of exotic brown trout (Salmo trutta) in a mountain stream: a spatially-explicit modeling approach (United States)

    Meredith, Christy S.; Budy, Phaedra; Hooten, Mevin B.; Oliveira Prates, Marcos


    Trout species often segregate along elevational gradients, yet the mechanisms driving this pattern are not fully understood. On the Logan River, Utah, USA, exotic brown trout (Salmo trutta) dominate at low elevations but are near-absent from high elevations with native Bonneville cutthroat trout (Onchorhynchus clarkii utah). We used a spatially-explicit Bayesian modeling approach to evaluate how abiotic conditions (describing mechanisms related to temperature and physical habitat) as well as propagule pressure explained the distribution of brown trout in this system. Many covariates strongly explained redd abundance based on model performance and coefficient strength, including average annual temperature, average summer temperature, gravel availability, distance from a concentrated stocking area, and anchor ice-impeded distance from a concentrated stocking area. In contrast, covariates that exhibited low performance in models and/or a weak relationship to redd abundance included reach-average water depth, stocking intensity to the reach, average winter temperature, and number of days with anchor ice. Even if climate change creates more suitable summer temperature conditions for brown trout at high elevations, our findings suggest their success may be limited by other conditions. The potential role of anchor ice in limiting movement upstream is compelling considering evidence suggesting anchor ice prevalence on the Logan River has decreased significantly over the last several decades, likely in response to climatic changes. Further experimental and field research is needed to explore the role of anchor ice, spawning gravel availability, and locations of historical stocking in structuring brown trout distributions on the Logan River and elsewhere.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvester Žgur


    Full Text Available In 2007, the EUROP 15-point scale of carcass conformation and fatness classification system was introduced in Slovenia and replaced existing 5-point scale. Data (carcass weight, carcass conformation and fatness from Slovenian commercial slaughterhouses were collected from January 2005 to December 2013. In total, data from 374,122 animals were used. The analysis was conducted for the category of young bulls from 12 to less than 24 months of age. In the first year after the transition, the classifiers preferentially used 0 classes in classification of carcass conformation and carcass fatness as well. In period 2008 - 2009 the classifiers adapted the new scale and started to use + and – subclasses more frequently. The distribution of conformation and fatness subclasses was brought near normal distribution.

  19. Route of entry and tissue distribution of Yersinia ruckeri in experimentally infected rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. (United States)

    Tobback, E; Decostere, A; Hermans, K; Ryckaert, J; Duchateau, L; Haesebrouck, F; Chiers, K


    Yersinia ruckeri is the causative agent of enteric redmouth disease, which leads to significant losses in salmonid aquaculture worldwide. Despite the significance of the disease, little information is available on the pathogenesis. In this study, the portal of entry was investigated using a contact-exposure infection method in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss with 4 different Y. ruckeri strains. Bacteriological and histological examination revealed the presence of high numbers of bacteria in the gills immediately after infection resulting in a rapid spread of Y. ruckeri in the internal organs. However, only a virulent strain was able to survive and multiply in the host, causing septicaemia and death several days after infection. These findings indicate that gills may be an important site of entry and that Y. ruckeri virulence is related to immune evasion.

  20. Suppression of invasive lake trout in an isolated backcountry lake in Glacier National Park (United States)

    Fredenberg, C. R.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Guy, Christopher S.; D'Angelo, Vincent S.; Downs, Christopher C.; Syslo, John M.


    Fisheries managers have implemented suppression programmes to control non-native lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush (Walbaum), in several lakes throughout the western United States. This study determined the feasibility of experimentally suppressing lake trout using gillnets in an isolated backcountry lake in Glacier National Park, Montana, USA, for the conservation of threatened bull trout, Salvelinus confluentus (Suckley). The demographics of the lake trout population during suppression (2009–2013) were described, and those data were used to assess the effects of suppression scenarios on population growth rate (λ) using an age-structured population model. Model simulations indicated that the population was growing exponentially (λ = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.16–1.28) prior to suppression. However, suppression resulted in declining λ(0.61–0.79) for lake trout, which was concomitant with stable bull trout adult abundances. Continued suppression at or above observed exploitation levels is needed to ensure continued population declines.

  1. The distribution of ( sup 14 C)acrylamide in rainbow trout studied by whole-body autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waddell, W.J.; Lech, J.J.; Marlowe, C.; Kleinow, K.M.; Friedman, M.A. (Univ. of Louisville, KY (USA))


    The distribution of (2,3-{sup 14}C)acrylamide was studied in fingerling rainbow trout by whole-body autoradiography. Fish weighing approximately 7 g were injected ip with 3.2 mg/kg ({sup 14}C)acrylamide (0.1 microCi/g). One group of fish was kept in a fresh flowing water tank and frozen in dry ice/hexane 22 hr after injection; another group was placed in a separate tank of fresh flowing water and frozen 120 hr after treatment. A third group of fish served as nontreated controls. The autoradiographs of the fish at 22 hr show the highest concentration of radioactivity in the kidney, urinary bladder, blood, gallbladder, intestinal contents, and lens of eye. Lesser amounts of radioactivity are seen in the CNS, liver, and gills. Very low concentrations are seen in muscle. By 120 hr the only high concentrations are seen in gallbladder and lens of the eye. Lesser amounts are seen in the sclera, vertebrae, CNS, kidney, wall of intestine, and discrete spots in subcutaneous tissue presumed to be chromatophores. Low amounts are seen in muscle, the tissue usually consumed by man.

  2. Absorption and distribution of /sup 14/C-bacitracin in rainbow trout (Salmo Gairdneri) after a single oral dose, as observed by whole body autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoey, T.; Horsberg, T.E.; Nafstad, I. (Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, The Norwegian College of Veterinary Medicine, Oslo (Norway)); Berge, G.N. (A/S Apothekernes Laboratorium for Specialpraeparater, Oslo (Norway))


    This study was performed to investigate the absorption, distribution and elimination of orally given radiolabelled bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD) in rainbow trout kept in salt water. The level of radioactivity in skeletal muscle tissue remained low, but stable throughout the experiment, while radioactivity in bile and liver tissue increased for about 48 hr, before decreasing. There was a trapping of BMD and/or its metabolites in excretory kidney tissue, where the amount of radioactivity continued to increase when radioactive material was being removed from other tissue. The maximum concentration found in excretory kidney tissue was about 7 times as high as the maximum concentration found in the liver. Even though there is no appreciable absorption of BMD from the gastrointestinal tract in homoiotherms, we found the absorption in rainbow trout to be significant. (author).

  3. Distribution and elimination of (/sup 14/C)octachlorostyrene in cod (Gadus morhua), rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri, and blue mussel (Mytilus edulis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingebrigtsen, K.; Solbakken, J.E.; Norheim, G.; Nafstad, I.


    Cod (Gadus morhua) and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) were given a single oral dose of 100 microCi/kg b.w. of (/sup 14/C)octachlorostyrene ((/sup 14/C)OCS) in peanut oil. Blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) was exposed to (/sup 14/C)OCS in water. The distribution and elimination of the compound was studied by liquid scintillation counting and whole-body autoradiography. The highest degree of radioactivity in the cod and rainbow trout was measured in the liver and the visceral fat, respectively. The degree of radioactivity in the brain of cod exceeded that of the rainbow trout by a factor between 2 and 4 at all survival times. In addition to bile excretion of (/sup 14/C)OCS-derived radioactivity, a possible excretion over the intestinal mucosa was suggested. The rate of elimination was slow in both species, and substantial amounts of radioactivity remained in the tissues 90 d after administration. In the blue mussel, the highest degree of radioactivity was found in the hepatopancreas. Substantial amounts of radioactivity were present in the mussel tissues 60 d after administration.

  4. Bull Moose Tube Company (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against the Bull Moose Tube Company, a business located at 1819 Clarkson Road, Chesterfield, MO, 63017, for alleged violations at the facility located at 406 East Industrial Drive,

  5. Garter snakes distributions in high elevation aquatic ecosystems: Is there a link with declining amphibian populations and nonnative trout introductions? (United States)

    K.R. Matthews; R.A. Knapp; K.L. Pope


    ABSTRACT.—The dramatic amphibian population declines reported worldwide likely have important effects on their predators. In the Sierra Nevada, where amphibian declines are well documented and some are closely tied to the introduction of nonnative trout, the mountain garter snake, Thamnophis elegans elegans, preys predominately on amphibians. We surveyed 2103 high-...

  6. Brook trout use of thermal refugia and foraging habitat influenced by brown trout (United States)

    Hitt, Nathaniel P.; Snook, Erin; Massie, Danielle L.


    The distribution of native brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in eastern North America is often limited by temperature and introduced brown trout (Salmo trutta), the relative importance of which is poorly understood but critical for conservation and restoration planning. We evaluated effects of brown trout on brook trout behavior and habitat use in experimental streams across increasing temperatures (14–23 °C) with simulated groundwater upwelling zones providing thermal refugia (6–9 °C below ambient temperatures). Allopatric and sympatric trout populations increased their use of upwelling zones as ambient temperatures increased, demonstrating the importance of groundwater as thermal refugia in warming streams. Allopatric brook trout showed greater movement rates and more even spatial distributions within streams than sympatric brook trout, suggesting interference competition by brown trout for access to forage habitats located outside thermal refugia. Our results indicate that removal of introduced brown trout may facilitate native brook trout expansion and population viability in downstream reaches depending in part on the spatial configuration of groundwater upwelling zones.

  7. Conservation status of Colorado River cutthroat trout (United States)

    Michael K. Young; R. Nick Schmal; Thomas W. Kohley; Victoria G. Leonard


    Though biologists recognize that populations of Colorado River cutthroat trout have declined, the magnitude of the loss remains unquantified. We obtained information from state and federal biologists and from state databases to determine the current distribution and status of populations of Colorado River cutthroat trout. Recent population extinctions have been...

  8. Detection automatique de bulles HI en expansion (United States)

    Daigle, Anik

    Plusieurs cavités en expansion observées dans le gaz d'hydrogène neutre galactique ont été associées à la présence d'étoiles massives présentant d'intenses vents stellaires ou à des explosions de supernovae. Ces bulles, qui sont remplies de gaz très chaud ( T = 10 5 -10 7 K), tracent donc à la fois les étoiles massives et la phase chaude et ionisée du gaz interstellaire. La morphologie de ces bulles est instable et généralement perturbée par la multitude de structures et de phénomènes existant dans le milieu interstellaire. Leur détection par inspection visuelle est donc difficile et subjective. L'objet de cette thèse est le développement d'une technique de détection automatique et objective de bulles en expansion dans le gaz d'hydrogène neutre de la Voie lactée. Les bulles à progéniteurs stellaires présentent toutes des vitesses d'expansion comprises entre 6 et 19 km s -1 . Une telle caractéristique peut généralement être reconnue dans les spectres en vitesse des cubes de données à 21 cm de l'hydrogène neutre. Notre technique de détection a donc été fondée sur la reconnaissance automatique de la signature d'une expansion à [6, 19] km s -1 dans les spectres en vitesse. La caractérisation et la généralisation de la signature dynamique propre à une bulle en expansion a été confiée à des réseaux de neurones artificiels. Des validations subséquentes, dont certaines liées à la morphologie, ont ensuite été appliquées. La technique a été testée sur onze bulles connues, dont dix ont pu être détectées. La technique a aussi été employée pour la réalisation d'un relevé dans la région du bras de Persée. La distribution spatiale des objets détectés s'est révélée suivre la distribution des étoiles du disque de la Voie lactée. De plus, la distribution selon le rayon et selon la vitesse d'expansion des bulles détectées de rayons plus petits que 10 pc correspondent aux distributions dérivées du mod

  9. Distribution of glutamic acid decarboxylase mRNA in the forebrain of the rainbow trout as studied by in situ hybridization. (United States)

    Anglade, I; Mazurais, D; Douard, V; Le Jossic-Corcos, C; Mañanos, E L; Michel, D; Kah, O


    By using degenerate primers designed from glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) sequences of mammals, Xenopus and Drosophila, a 270-bp cDNA fragment was cloned by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) from cerebellum total RNA of rainbow trout. This partial cDNA shows 90% identity with mammalian GAD 65 and presents the Asn-Pro-His-Lys (NPHK) sequence corresponding to the pyridoxal-binding region of porcine DOPA decarboxylase or mammalian GAD. The distribution of GAD 65 mRNA-expressing neurons in the forebrain of the trout was studied by in situ hybridization using either digoxigenin- or 35S-labeled probes. The results demonstrate that gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) neurons are widely distributed throughout the forebrain, with a high density in the periventricular regions. In this study, we report their precise distribution in the telencephalon and diencephalon. GAD mRNA-expressing cells were particularly abundant in the preoptic region and the mediobasal hypothalamus, two major neuroendocrine and estrogen-sensitive regions in fish. The presence of GAD mRNA-expressing neurons was observed in visually related structures such as the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the pretectal region, and the thalamus. Immunohistochemistry with antibodies directed against mouse GAD failed to demonstrate the presence of immunoreactive cell bodies, but showed a very high concentration of GAD-immunoreactive fibers in many brain regions, notably in the preoptic area, hypothalamus, and neurohypophyseal digitations of the pituitary, in particular in the proximal pars distalis. These results indicate that GABA neurons are ideally placed to modulate neuroendocrine activities at the hypothalamic and pituitary levels and to participate in the processing of sensorial information.

  10. 29 CFR 1918.84 - Bulling cargo. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bulling cargo. 1918.84 Section 1918.84 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.84 Bulling cargo. (a) Bulling cargo shall be done with the bull line led directly from the heel block. However, bulling may be done from the...

  11. Prediction of bull fertility. (United States)

    Utt, Matthew D


    Prediction of male fertility is an often sought-after endeavor for many species of domestic animals. This review will primarily focus on providing some examples of dependent and independent variables to stimulate thought about the approach and methodology of identifying the most appropriate of those variables to predict bull (bovine) fertility. Although the list of variables will continue to grow with advancements in science, the principles behind making predictions will likely not change significantly. The basic principle of prediction requires identifying a dependent variable that is an estimate of fertility and an independent variable or variables that may be useful in predicting the fertility estimate. Fertility estimates vary in which parts of the process leading to conception that they infer about and the amount of variation that influences the estimate and the uncertainty thereof. The list of potential independent variables can be divided into competence of sperm based on their performance in bioassays or direct measurement of sperm attributes. A good prediction will use a sample population of bulls that is representative of the population to which an inference will be made. Both dependent and independent variables should have a dynamic range in their values. Careful selection of independent variables includes reasonable measurement repeatability and minimal correlation among variables. Proper estimation and having an appreciation of the degree of uncertainty of dependent and independent variables are crucial for using predictions to make decisions regarding bull fertility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. PCB concentrations in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) are correlated to habitat use and lake characteristics. (United States)

    Guildford, S J; Muir, D C G; Houde, M; Evans, M S; Kidd, K A; Whittle, D M; Drouillard, K; Wang, X; Anderson, M R; Bronte, C R; Devault, D S; Haffner, D; Payne, J; Kling, H J


    This study considers the importance of lake trout habitat as a factor determining persistent organochlorine (OC) concentration. Lake trout is a stenothermal, cold water species and sensitive to hypoxia. Thus, factors such as lake depth, thermal stratification, and phosphorus enrichment may determine not only which lakes can support lake trout but may also influence among-lake variability in lake trout population characteristics including bioaccumulation of OCs. A survey of 23 lakes spanning much of the natural latitudinal distribution of lake trout provided a range of lake trout habitat to test the hypothesis that lake trout with greater access to littoral habitat for feeding will have lower concentrations of OCs than lake trout that are more restricted to pelagic habitat. Using the delta13C stable isotope signature in lake trout as an indicator of influence of benthic littoral feeding, we found a negative correlation between lipid-corrected delta13C and sigmaPCB concentrations supporting the hypothesis that increasing accessto littoral habitat results in lower OCs in lake trout. The prominence of mixotrophic phytoplankton in lakes with more contaminated lake trout indicated the pelagic microbial food web may exacerbate the biomagnification of OCs when lake trout are restricted to pelagic feeding. A model that predicted sigmaPCB in lake trout based on lake area and latitude (used as proximate variables for proportion of littoral versus pelagic habitat and accessibility to littoral habitat respectively) explained 73% of the variability in sigmaPCBs in lake trout in the 23 lakes surveyed.

  13. Landscape-scale evaluation of asymmetric interactions between Brown Trout and Brook Trout using two-species occupancy models (United States)

    Wagner, Tyler; Jefferson T. Deweber,; Jason Detar,; John A. Sweka,


    Predicting the distribution of native stream fishes is fundamental to the management and conservation of many species. Modeling species distributions often consists of quantifying relationships between species occurrence and abundance data at known locations with environmental data at those locations. However, it is well documented that native stream fish distributions can be altered as a result of asymmetric interactions between dominant exotic and subordinate native species. For example, the naturalized exotic Brown Trout Salmo trutta has been identified as a threat to native Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis in the eastern United States. To evaluate large-scale patterns of co-occurrence and to quantify the potential effects of Brown Trout presence on Brook Trout occupancy, we used data from 624 stream sites to fit two-species occupancy models. These models assumed that asymmetric interactions occurred between the two species. In addition, we examined natural and anthropogenic landscape characteristics we hypothesized would be important predictors of occurrence of both species. Estimated occupancy for Brook Trout, from a co-occurrence model with no landscape covariates, at sites with Brown Trout present was substantially lower than sites where Brown Trout were absent. We also observed opposing patterns for Brook and Brown Trout occurrence in relation to percentage forest, impervious surface, and agriculture within the network catchment. Our results are consistent with other studies and suggest that alterations to the landscape, and specifically the transition from a forested catchment to one that contains impervious surface or agriculture, reduces the occurrence probability of wild Brook Trout. Our results, however, also suggest that the presence of Brown Trout results in lower occurrence probability of Brook Trout over a range of anthropogenic landscape characteristics, compared with streams where Brown Trout were absent.

  14. Danish holsteins favor bull offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Kirkeby, Carsten; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose


    In a previous study from 2014 it was found that US Holstein cows that gave birth to heifer calves produced more milk than cows having bull calves. We wanted to assess whether this is also true for Danish cattle. Data from 578 Danish Holstein herds were analysed with a mixed effect model and contr......In a previous study from 2014 it was found that US Holstein cows that gave birth to heifer calves produced more milk than cows having bull calves. We wanted to assess whether this is also true for Danish cattle. Data from 578 Danish Holstein herds were analysed with a mixed effect model...... and contrary to the findings in the US, we found that cows produced higher volumes of milk if they had a bull calf compared to a heifer calf. We found a significantly higher milk production of 0.28% in the first lactation period for cows giving birth to a bull calf, compared to a heifer calf. This difference...... was even higher when cows gave birth to another bull calf, so having two bull calves resulted in a difference of 0.52% in milk production compared to any other combination of sex of the offspring. Furthermore, we found that farmer assisted calvings were associated with a higher milk yield. Cows...

  15. Bulling among yearling feedlot steers. (United States)

    Pierson, R E; Jensen, R; Braddy, P M; Horton, D P; Christie, R M


    In a survey to determine the cause of illness and deaths among yearling feedlot cattle, bulling was found to be one of the major problems. During the years 1971-1974, 54,913 (2.88%) steers became bullers and represented an annual loss of around +325,000. Some of the causes of bulling were found to be hormones, either as implants or in the feed. In 1974, from 1,988 necropsies, it was determined that 83 steers died from riding injuries.

  16. Uncle Sam vs. John Bull. (United States)

    Mellini, Peter


    Compares John Bull and Uncle Sam as iconographic symbols, respectively personifying male images of the British and United States national characters. Recounts their origins, evolutions, and representative values, and includes cartoons depicting the evolution. Describes female counterparts: Britannia and Columbia/Liberty. (CH)

  17. Dworshak Reservoir Investigations: Trout, Bass and Forage Species, 1988 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Statler, David P.


    For the period March 1988 through February 1989, an estimated 154,558 angler-hours were expended to catch 20,037 rainbow trout, 3,933 smallmouth bass, and 14 bull trout. Estimated catch of other species, including cutthroat trout, whitefish, suckers, and squawfish totalled 84. Subcatchable rainbow trout (135 to 185mm) caught and released by boat anglers comprised 53% (12,770) of the total catch. An estimated 88.6% of the smallmouth bass caught were under the minimum legal size limit of 305mm and were released. Estimated harvest of smallmouth bass was 450. The highest monthly catch rate documented for all species excluding kokanee was 1.81 fish per hour during October. Severe weather conditions during February reduced effort and no fish were documented in the creel. Cumulative catch rates through the survey period for rainbow trout and smallmouth bass were .13 and .02, respectively. The lowest monthly catch rates generally occurred when fishing pressure was the highest, with fishing effort targeting on kokanee during the May through July high use periods. The Arlee strain rainbow trout was somewhat more vulnerable to boat anglers than the Shasta strain during the early post-release period. 20 refs., 16 figs., 12 tabs.

  18. Clinical usefulness of myocardial iodine-123-15-(p-iodophenyl)-3(R,S)-methyl-pentadecanoic acid distribution abnormality in patients with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy based on normal data file in bull`s-eye polar map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Nobukazu; Mitani, Isao; Sumita, Shinichi [Yokohama City Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine] [and others


    Visual interpretation of iodine-123-beta-15-(p-iodophenyl)-3(R,S)-methyl-pentadecanoic acid ({sup 123}I-BMIPP) myocardial images cannot easily detect mild reduction in tracer uptake. Objective assessment of myocardial {sup 123}I-BMIPP maldistributions at rest was attempted using a bull`s-eye map and its normal data file for detecting myocardial damage in patients with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy. Six patients, two with Kearns-Sayre syndrome and four with mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and strokelike episodes (MELAS), and 10 normal subjects were studied. Fractional myocardial uptake of 1{sup 23}I-BMIPP was also measured by dynamic static imaging to assess the global myocardial free fatty acid. These data were compared with the cardiothoracic ratio measured by chest radiography and left ventricular ejection fraction assessed by echocardiography. Abnormal cardiothoracic ratio and lower ejection fraction were detected in only one patient with Kearns-Sayre syndrome. Abnormal fractional myocardial uptake was detected in two patients (1.61%, 1.91%), whereas abnormal regional {sup 123}I-BMIPP uptake assessed by the bull`s-eye map was detected in five patients (83%). All patients showed abnormal uptake in the anterior portion, and one showed progressive atrioventricular conduction abnormality and systolic dysfunction with extended {sup 123}I-BMIPP abnormal uptake. The results suggest that assessment based on the normal data file in a bull`s-eye polar map is clinically useful for detection of myocardial damage in patients with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy. (author)

  19. Watershed boundaries and geographic isolation: patterns of diversification in cutthroat trout from western North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loxterman Janet L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background For wide-ranging species, intraspecific variation can occur as a result of reproductive isolation from local adaptive differences or from physical barriers to movement. Cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii, a widely distributed fish species from North America, has been divided into numerous putative subspecies largely based on its isolation in different watersheds. In this study, we examined mtDNA sequence variation of cutthroat trout to determine the major phylogenetic lineages of this polytypic species. We use these data as a means of testing whether geographic isolation by watershed boundaries can be a primary factor organizing intraspecific diversification. Results We collected cutthroat trout from locations spanning almost the entire geographic range of this species and included samples from all major subspecies of cutthroat trout. Based on our analyses, we reveal eight major lineages of cutthroat trout, six of which correspond to subspecific taxonomy commonly used to describe intraspecific variation in this species. The Bonneville cutthroat trout (O. c. utah and Yellowstone cutthroat trout (O. c. bouvieri did not form separate monophyletic lineages, but instead formed an intermixed clade. We also document the geographic distribution of a Great Basin lineage of cutthroat trout; a group typically defined as Bonneville cutthroat trout, but it appears more closely related to the Colorado River lineage of cutthroat trout. Conclusion Our study indicates that watershed boundaries can be an organizing factor isolating genetic diversity in fishes; however, historical connections between watersheds can also influence the template of isolation. Widely distributed species, like cutthroat trout, offer an opportunity to assess where historic watershed connections may have existed, and help explain the current distribution of biological diversity across a landscape.

  20. bulls with unilateral gonadal hypoplasia and aplasia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heritability of reproduction disturbances in bulls of Swedish Red and White cattle (SRB\\. Nordt, Vet. Med. 2,943. KISER, T.E., MILVAE, R.A., HAFS, H.D., OXENDER, W.D.. & LOUIS, T.M., 1978. Comparison of testosterone and andronstenedione secretion in bulls given prostaglandin (F2s or luteinizing hormone. J. Anim. Sci.

  1. Indirect effects of introduced trout on Cascades frogs (Rana cascadae) via shared aquatic prey (United States)

    Maxwell B. Joseph; Jonah Piovia-Scott; Sharon P. Lawler; Karen L. Pope


    1. The introduction of trout to montane lakes has negatively affected amphibian populations across the western United States. In northern California’s Klamath–Siskiyou Mountains, introduced trout have diminished the distribution and abundance of a native ranid frog, Rana (=Lithobates)

  2. Conservation of Yellowstone Cutthroat Trout in Yellowstone National Park: A Case Study (United States)

    Duncan, Michael B.; Murphy, Brian R.; Zale, Alexander V.


    The Yellowstone cutthroat trout (YCT; "Oncorhynchus clarki bouvieri") has become a species of special concern for Yellowstone National Park (YNP) fisheries biologists. Although this subspecies formerly occupied a greater area than any other inland cutthroat trout, the current distribution of YCT is now limited to several watersheds within the…

  3. A Long-Term Comparison of Yellowstone Cutthroat Trout Abundance and Size Structure in Their Historical Range in Idaho.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Kevin A.; Schill, Daniel J.; Elle, F. Steven


    We compared estimates of population abundance and size structure for Yellowstone cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki bouvieri obtained by electrofishing 77 stream segments across southeastern Idaho in the 1980s and again in 1999-2000 to test whether populations of Yellowstone cutthroat trout had changed. Sites sampled in the 1980s were relocated in 1999-2000 by using maps and photographs or by finding original site-boundary stakes, so that the same reach of stream was sampled during both periods. Abundance of Yellowstone cutthroat trout longer than 10 cm did not change, averaging 41 fish/100 m of stream during both the 1980s and 1999-2000. The proportion of the total catch of trout composed of Yellowstone cutthroat trout also did not change, averaging 82% in the 1980s and 78% in 1999-2000. At the 48 sites where size structure could be estimated for both periods, the proportion of Yellowstone cutthroat trout that were 10-20 cm long declined slightly (74% versus 66%), but the change was due entirely to the shift in size structure at the Teton River sites. The number of sites that contained rainbow trout O. mykiss or cutthroat trout 3 rainbow trout hybrids rose from 23 to 37, but the average proportion of the catch composed of rainbow trout and hybrids did not increase (7% in both the 1980s and 1999-2000). Although the distribution and abundance of Yellowstone cutthroat trout have been substantially reduced in Idaho over the last century, our results indicate that Yellowstone cutthroat trout abundance and size structure in Idaho have remained relatively stable at a large number of locations for the last 10-20 years. The expanding distribution of rainbow trout and hybrids in portions of the upper Snake River basin, however, calls for additional monitoring and active management actions.

  4. Trout in the Classroom (United States)

    Heath, Thomas


    Trout in the Classroom (TIC) is a conservation-oriented environmental education program for elementary, middle, and high school students. During the year each teacher tailors the program to fit his or her curricular needs. Therefore, each TIC program is unique. TIC has interdisciplinary applications in science, social studies, mathematics, language arts, fine arts, and physical education. In the program, students and teachers raise trout from fertilized eggs supplied by Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries (VGIF) hatcheries, in aquariums equipped with special chillers designed to keep the water near 50 degrees F. The students make daily temperature measurements, and monitor pH, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, and ammonia levels. They record their data, plot trends, and make sure that the water quality is sufficient to support trout development. The fingerlings, which hatch in late October, are almost an inch and a half long by mid-January. And towards the end of the school year, students will release the fry into VGIF approved watersheds. TIC programs have been in place all across the country for more than 20 years, and are the result of numerous collaborations between teachers, volunteers, government agencies, and local organizations like Trout Unlimited. The programs were designed specifically for teachers who wanted to incorporate more environmental education into their curriculum. While the immediate goal of Trout in the Classroom is to increase student knowledge of water quality and cold water conservation, its long-term goal is to reconnect an increasingly urbanized population of youth to the system of streams, rivers, and watersheds that sustain them. Successful programs have helped: connect students to their local environments and their local watersheds; teach about watershed health and water quality, and; get students to care about fish and the environment. In Virginia, the TIC program is now in its 8th year. Over the past year, the program

  5. Monitoring rumen environment in finishing Lidia bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan García G


    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this work was to characterize the changes in rumen pH and temperature in finishing Lidia breed bulls reared on pasture and fed a total mixed ration (TMR. Materials and methods. Five 4-year-old Lidia bulls received approximately 10 kg of the TMR per animal and day in the morning. Bulls could move freely in a 17-ha fenced area and express normally their feeding behaviour. Internal wireless boluses were used to collect pH and temperature values every 10 minutes throughout the measurement period. Results. Average daily pH was 6.2. Average and maximum daily temperatures were not high enough to be indicative of disease (infections of other pathologies. Conclusions. When rations and feeding systems are appropriately managed, Lidia bulls can be supplemented with concentrates in the finishing stages of their productive cycle without impairing the rumen environment.

  6. Distribution of metals during digestion by cutthroat trout fed benthic invertebrates contaminated in the Clark Fork River, Montana and the Coeur d'Alene River, Idaho, U.S.A., and fed artificially contaminated Artemia (United States)

    Farag, A.M.; Suedkamp, M.J.; Meyer, J.S.; Barrows, R.; Woodward, D.F.


    The concentrations of essential amino acids in three, undigested invertebrate diets collected from the Clark Fork River (CFR) for cutthroat trout were similar to each other, but were c. 25–75% less than Artemia that were exposed to a mixture of arsenic, copper, cadmium, lead and zinc in the laboratory. The Artemia diet appeared less palatable and the texture, quantity and appearance of the intestinal contents differed between fish fed the Artemia and CFR diets. The Pb% in the fluid fraction of the intestinal contents was greater for the Artemia (29%) than for the CFR diets (10–17%), and the Cu% in the amino acid plus metal fraction of the intestinal contents was greater for the Artemia (78%) than for two of the three CFR diets (67% and 70%). Intestinal contents of fish fed invertebrate diets collected from various sites on the Coeur d'Alene River (CDA), Idaho, were similar in texture, quantity, and appearance. For fish fed the CDA diets, differences in the distribution of metals among fractions of the digestive fluids appeared to be related to concentrations of metals in the invertebrate diets. Pb% was lowest of all metals in the fluid portion of the intestinal contents. However, >80% of all metals in the hind gut were associated with the particulate fraction where they may still be available for uptake through pinocytosis.

  7. Impacts of Northern Pike on stocked Rainbow Trout in Pactola Reservoir, South Dakota (United States)

    Scheibel, Natalie C.; Dembkowski, Daniel J.; Davis, Jacob L.; Chipps, Steven R.


    Establishment of nonnative Northern Pike Esox lucius in Pactola Reservoir, South Dakota, has prompted concern among biologists about the influence of this species on the lake’s intensively managed salmonid fisheries. Ancedotal information suggests that catch rates of Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss have declined while mean size and abundance of Northern Pike has increased, although quantitative information on diet and growth of the Northern Pike population is lacking. To address potential interactions between Northern Pike and Rainbow Trout, we assessed size-dependent predation by Northern Pike on Rainbow Trout and determined the relative energetic contribution of stocked Rainbow Trout to Northern Pike growth using bioenergetics modeling. Stable isotopes combined with traditional diet analyses revealed that smaller Northern Pike (accounted for 56% of their annual energy consumption. Combining estimates of Northern Pike predation with production costs of catchable-size Rainbow Trout revealed that annual economic losses ranged from US$15,259 to $24,801 per year. Over its lifespan, an age-10 Northern Pike was estimated to consume ~117 Rainbow Trout worth approximately $340. Thus, Northern Pike predation substantially influences salmonid management initiatives and is likely a primary factor contributing to reduced Rainbow Trout abundance and return to anglers in Pactola Reservoir. Strategies for reducing Northern Pike predation on Rainbow Trout include increasing the size of stocked fish or altering the timing and spatial distribution of stocking events.

  8. Ecology and population status of trout-perch (Percopsis omiscomaycus) in western Lake Erie (United States)

    Kocovsky, Patrick; Stoneman, Andrea T.; Kraus, Richard T.


    Trout-perch Percopsis omiscomaycus is among the most abundant benthic species in Lake Erie, but comparatively little is known about its ecology. Although others have conducted extensive studies on trout-perch ecology, those efforts predated invasions of white perch Morone americana, Dreissena spp., Bythotrephes longimanus and round goby Neogobius melanostomus, suggesting the need to revisit past work. Trout-perch were sampled with bottom trawls at 56 sites during June and September 2010. We examined diets, fecundity, average annual mortality, sex ratio, and long-term population trends at sites sampled since 1961. Trout-perch abundance fluctuated periodically, with distinct shorter- (4-year) and longer-term (over period of 50 years) fluctuations. Males had higher average annual mortality than females. Both sexes were equally abundant at age 0, but females outnumbered males 4:1 by age 2. Diets of trout-perch were dominated by macroinvertebrates, particularly chironomids and Hexagenia sp. Size distributions of trout-perch eggs varied widely and exhibited multiple modes indicative of protracted batch spawning. A review of the few other studies of trout-perch revealed periodic fluctuations in sex ratio of adults, which in light of our evidence of periodicity in abundance suggests the potential for sex-ratio-mediated intrinsic population regulation. Despite the introduction of numerous invasive species in Lake Erie, trout-perch remain one of the most abundant benthic invertivores and the population is relatively stable.

  9. Spatial segregation of spawning habitat limits hybridization between sympatric native Steelhead and Coastal Cutthroat Trout (United States)

    Buehrens, T.W.; Glasgow, J.; Ostberg, Carl O.; Quinn, T.P.


    Native Coastal Cutthroat Trout Oncorhynchus clarkii clarkii and Coastal Steelhead O. mykiss irideus hybridize naturally in watersheds of the Pacific Northwest yet maintain species integrity. Partial reproductive isolation due to differences in spawning habitat may limit hybridization between these species, but this process is poorly understood. We used a riverscape approach to determine the spatial distribution of spawning habitats used by native Coastal Cutthroat Trout and Steelhead as evidenced by the distribution of recently emerged fry. Molecular genetic markers were used to classify individuals as pure species or hybrids, and individuals were assigned to age-classes based on length. Fish and physical habitat data were collected in a spatially continuous framework to assess the relationship between habitat and watershed features and the spatial distribution of parental species and hybrids. Sampling occurred in 35 reaches from tidewaters to headwaters in a small (20 km2) coastal watershed in Washington State. Cutthroat, Steelhead, and hybrid trout accounted for 35%, 42%, and 23% of the fish collected, respectively. Strong segregation of spawning areas between Coastal Cutthroat Trout and Steelhead was evidenced by the distribution of age-0 trout. Cutthroat Trout were located farther upstream and in smaller tributaries than Steelhead were. The best predictor of species occurrence at a site was the drainage area of the watershed that contributed to the site. This area was positively correlated with the occurrence of age-0 Steelhead and negatively with the presence of Cutthroat Trout, whereas hybrids were found in areas occupied by both parental species. A similar pattern was observed in older juveniles of both species but overlap was greater, suggesting substantial dispersal of trout after emergence. Our results offer support for spatial reproductive segregation as a factor limiting hybridization between Steelhead and Coastal Cutthroat Trout.

  10. Toxic and photodynamic effects of toluidine blue on living bull spermatoza

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijn, C. van

    1. 1. The effects of vital staining with toluidine blue on the total number of bull spermatozoa moving normally and on their mean velocity and velocity frequency distributions have been investigated with Rikmenspoel's photoelectric method. 2. 2. A significant decrease of the mean half-life period

  11. Radio-transmitted electromyogram signals as indicators of swimming speed in lake trout and brown trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorstad, E.B.; Økland, F.; Koed, Anders


    Swimming speed and average electromyogram (EMG) pulse intervals were highly correlated in individual lake trout Salvelinus namaycush (r(2)=0.52-0.89) and brown trout Salmo trutta (r(2)=0.45-0.96). High correlations were found also for pooled data in both lake trout (r(2)=0.90) and brown trout...

  12. Profiling of sperm proteins and association of sperm PDC-109 with bull fertility. (United States)

    Somashekar, Lakshminarayana; Selvaraju, Sellappan; Parthipan, Sivashanmugam; Ravindra, Janivara Parameswaraiah


    The composition of sperm proteins influences the fertilizing ability of sperm and hence the present study was conducted (i) to profile sperm proteins expression patterns in bulls of differing fertility index and (ii) to identify and relate the abundant sperm proteins with bull fertility. The semen samples were collected from Holstein-Friesian bulls (n = 12) varying in conception rate (CR) (high/low). The frozen semen straws (three ejaculates, from each bull) were used to study (a) sperm kinetic parameters, (b) plasmalemma integrity, (c) mitochondrial membrane potential, and (d) chromatin distribution. Three bulls were randomly selected from each group (n = 3) and the neat sperm pellets were subjected to percoll purification, followed by protein isolation using 0.1% Triton X100. The sperm kinetic parameters, plasmalemma integrity, mitochondrial membrane potential, and the chromatin distribution did not differ significantly between groups. The number of acidic (pI; 3.1-5.6, 37%) and basic (pI; 7.9-10.0, 27%) proteins and their pattern of expression varied significantly (p sperm protein spots in 2D-gel electrophoresis (2DE) were identified as seminal plasma protein PDC-109 (i.e., protein with N-terminus aspartic acid, D and carboxy terminus cystine, having 109 amino acids) and its isoform and spermadhesin-1 (SPADH1). The western blot analysis confirmed the presence of PDC-109 isoform proteins at 15.4 kDa (pI 5.3 and 5.5). The seminal plasma protein PDC-109 was abundant in the low fertile when compared to the high fertile group (p sperm proteins may influence sperm fertility and sperm PDC-109 levels above a certain threshold affects bull fertility.

  13. Optimizing age of bull at first use in relation to fertility of Murrah breeding bulls


    Mir, M. A.; Chakravarty, A. K.; Gupta, A.K.; B. C. Naha; V. JAMUNA; Patil, C. S.; Singh, A. P.


    Aim: The aim of the present investigation was to optimize the age at first use (AAFU) of semen of Murrah breeding bulls, which will help in early selection of bulls under progeny testing program for improving the reproductive performance in the herd. Materials and Methods: The data on AAFU, conception rate based on first A.I. (CRFAI), overall conception rate (OCR), and birth weight (B.WT) of 57 Murrah bulls during 1993-2014 at NDRI center pertaining to 14 sets of Network Project on Buffalo Im...

  14. Scrotal circumference in young beef bulls: Relationships to growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dairy cattle, but natural mating accounts for most of the pregnancies achieved each ... Grou'th test data from Phase C (National Beef Cattle. Performance and Progenv Testing Scheme) from 129. Simmentaler bulls. 97 Santa Gertrudis bulls and 100. Hereford bulls were obtained from the different Cattle. Breeders' Societies of ...

  15. (Salmo trutta macrostigma) and Farmed Rainbow trout

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Apr 6, 2013 ... Abstract. The purpose of this study was to compare the fatty acid and proximate composition of two commercially exploited trout species (wild brown trout (WBT) and farmed rainbow trout (FRT)). The mean crude lipid content in FRT (4.3%) was significantly higher than that in WBT (2.7%). Total saturated fatty.

  16. Patterns of hybridization of nonnative cutthroat trout and hatchery rainbow trout with native redband trout in the Boise River, Idaho (United States)

    Neville, Helen M.; Dunham, Jason B.


    Hybridization is one of the greatest threats to native fishes. Threats from hybridization are particularly important for native trout species as stocking of nonnative trout has been widespread within the ranges of native species, thus increasing the potential for hybridization. While many studies have documented hybridization between native cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii and nonnative rainbow trout O. mykiss, fewer have focused on this issue in native rainbow trout despite widespread threats from introductions of both nonnative cutthroat trout and hatchery rainbow trout. Here, we describe the current genetic (i.e., hybridization) status of native redband trout O. mykiss gairdneri populations in the upper Boise River, Idaho. Interspecific hybridization was widespread (detected at 14 of the 41 sampled locations), but high levels of hybridization between nonnative cutthroat trout and redband trout were detected in only a few streams. Intraspecific hybridization was considerably more widespread (almost 40% of sampled locations), and several local populations of native redband trout have been almost completely replaced with hatchery coastal rainbow trout O. mykiss irideus; other populations exist as hybrid swarms, some are in the process of being actively invaded, and some are maintaining genetic characteristics of native populations. The persistence of some redband trout populations with high genetic integrity provides some opportunity to conserve native genomes, but our findings also highlight the complex decisions facing managers today. Effective management strategies in this system may include analysis of the specific attributes of each site and population to evaluate the relative risks posed by isolation versus maintaining connectivity, identifying potential sites for control or eradication of nonnative trout, and long-term monitoring of the genetic integrity of remaining redband trout populations to track changes in their status.

  17. bulls with unilateral gonadal hypoplasia and aplasia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    maintenance of fertility of bulls with gonadal hypoplasia as observed by other ... that the unilaterally affected animals have normal fertility, while the bilaterally affected animals have reduced fertility or total infertility. Gonadal hypoplasia has been reported in numerous .... Hereditary forms of sterility in Swedish cattle breeds.

  18. Bull Riding Injuries In Central Queensland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan James Livingston


    Full Text Available Background Bull riding is an increasingly popular and growing professional sport in Australia. This is the first national study that investigates bull riding-related injuries. Method A six-year retrospective study of patients admitted to Rockhampton Base Hospital with acute injuries sustained whilst bull riding. Patients were identified from the Rockhampton Hospital international coding system and surgical audit excel databases. Supporting information was found from patient chart review. Results Thirty-eight patients were admitted during the study. Injuries increased from 2008. The most common injuries were to limbs (52%, chest (15% and brain (10%. Life-threatening injuries were all caused by a direct kick or trampling by the bull; 5% of patients needed air transfer to Brisbane, and 10% to Rockhampton for their acute care. The only complication was infection of open wounds. The average hospital stay was 2.2 (range= 1-5, SD= 1.1 days and 64% of patients required operative intervention. Conclusion Patients that had been kicked or trampled should be identified as having potentially life-threatening injuries, and transferred for review at an appropriate facility. Due to the high risk of infection all contaminated wounds should be washed out formally and receive antibiotics. Protective equipment should be encouraged among riders.

  19. Primary mandibular hemangiosarcoma in a bull (United States)

    Poulsen, Keith P.; McSloy, Alexandra C.; Perrier, Melanie; Prichard, Michael A.; Steinberg, Howard; Semrad, Susan D.


    Disseminated pulmonary and subcutaneous-muscular hemangiosarcoma at the left hemimandible was diagnosed postmortem in a 2-year-old Jersey bull that presented with a 7-day history of facial swelling from suspected traumatic injury. Hemangiosarcoma is uncommon in cattle and has never been reported to affect the bones of the skull. PMID:19043489

  20. Comparison of pigment cell ultrastructure and organisation in the dermis of marble trout and brown trout, and first description of erythrophore ultrastructure in salmonids (United States)

    Djurdjevič, Ida; Kreft, Mateja Erdani; Sušnik Bajec, Simona


    Skin pigmentation in animals is an important trait with many functions. The present study focused on two closely related salmonid species, marble trout (Salmo marmoratus) and brown trout (S. trutta), which display an uncommon labyrinthine (marble-like) and spot skin pattern, respectively. To determine the role of chromatophore type in the different formation of skin pigment patterns in the two species, the distribution and ultrastructure of chromatophores was examined with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The presence of three types of chromatophores in trout skin was confirmed: melanophores; xanthophores; and iridophores. In addition, using correlative microscopy, erythrophore ultrastructure in salmonids was described for the first time. Two types of erythrophores are distinguished, both located exclusively in the skin of brown trout: type 1 in black spot skin sections similar to xanthophores; and type 2 with a unique ultrastructure, located only in red spot skin sections. Morphologically, the difference between the light and dark pigmentation of trout skin depends primarily on the position and density of melanophores, in the dark region covering other chromatophores, and in the light region with the iridophores and xanthophores usually exposed. With larger amounts of melanophores, absence of xanthophores and presence of erythrophores type 1 and type L iridophores in the black spot compared with the light regions and the presence of erythrophores type 2 in the red spot, a higher level of pigment cell organisation in the skin of brown trout compared with that of marble trout was demonstrated. Even though the skin regions with chromatophores were well defined, not all the chromatophores were in direct contact, either homophilically or heterophilically, with each other. In addition to short-range interactions, an important role of the cellular environment and long-range interactions between chromatophores in promoting adult pigment pattern

  1. Genetic diversity in Chilean populations of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia B Cárcamo


    Full Text Available The rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, was first introduced in Chile between 1905 and 1920 and is currently widely distributed in Chile from Antofagasta (23°S to Patagonia (55°S. The broad range of the geographic and climatic distributions of this species in Chile offers a unique opportunity to study the effect of naturalization of an introduced species on its genetic variability. It is of particular importance to observe the genetic variability of populations in the northern range of this species distribution, in a transition zone where a Mediterranean-type climate changes to an arid climate. The present study analyzed allozymic variability and distribution within and between populations of O. mykiss from the river basins of Elqui and Limari rivers, and six culture strains, using starch-gel protein electrophoresis. Populations were found to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and the average values of He (0.045, polymorphism (13.9% and allele per locus (1.19 are similar to rainbow trout in its native distributional range. About 77.8% of the genetic variability was within population, similar to the variability reported for wild populations in the northern hemisphere. However, a marked genetic differentiation between wild populations was also found. This is likely to be the consequence of initial founder effects followed by subsequent introgression of resident populations caused by reseeding with trout of different origins in both basins.

  2. Optimizing age of bull at first use in relation to fertility of Murrah breeding bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Mir


    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present investigation was to optimize the age at first use (AAFU of semen of Murrah breeding bulls, which will help in early selection of bulls under progeny testing program for improving the reproductive performance in the herd. Materials and Methods: The data on AAFU, conception rate based on first A.I. (CRFAI, overall conception rate (OCR, and birth weight (B.WT of 57 Murrah bulls during 1993-2014 at NDRI center pertaining to 14 sets of Network Project on Buffalo Improvement at ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, Haryana, India were adjusted for significant environmental influences and subsequently analyzed. Simple and multiple regression models were used for prediction of CRFAI and OCR of Murrah breeding bulls. Comparative evaluation of three developed models (I-III showed that Model III, having AAFU and B.WT, fulfill the accuracy of model as revealed by high coefficient of determination, low mean sum of squares due to error, low conceptual predictive value, and low Bayesian information criterion. Results: The results revealed that the average predicted CRFAI was highest (39.95% at 4.5 years of age at first A.I/use. Similarly, average predicted OCR was highest (41.05% at 4.5 years of age at first A.I/use of Murrah bulls. Conclusion: In organized herd under progeny testing program, Murrah bulls should be used at young age, i.e. prior to 3.5 years, which is expected to result in 5.08% better CRFAI and 1.63% better OCR in comparison to Murrah bulls used after 4.5 years of age.

  3. Optimizing age of bull at first use in relation to fertility of Murrah breeding bulls. (United States)

    Mir, M A; Chakravarty, A K; Gupta, A K; Naha, B C; Jamuna, V; Patil, C S; Singh, A P


    The aim of the present investigation was to optimize the age at first use (AAFU) of semen of Murrah breeding bulls, which will help in early selection of bulls under progeny testing program for improving the reproductive performance in the herd. The data on AAFU, conception rate based on first A.I. (CRFAI), overall conception rate (OCR), and birth weight (B.WT) of 57 Murrah bulls during 1993-2014 at NDRI center pertaining to 14 sets of Network Project on Buffalo Improvement at ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, Haryana, India were adjusted for significant environmental influences and subsequently analyzed. Simple and multiple regression models were used for prediction of CRFAI and OCR of Murrah breeding bulls. Comparative evaluation of three developed models (I-III) showed that Model III, having AAFU and B.WT, fulfill the accuracy of model as revealed by high coefficient of determination, low mean sum of squares due to error, low conceptual predictive value, and low Bayesian information criterion. The results revealed that the average predicted CRFAI was highest (39.95%) at 4.5 years of age at first A.I/use. Similarly, average predicted OCR was highest (41.05%) at 4.5 years of age at first A.I/use of Murrah bulls. In organized herd under progeny testing program, Murrah bulls should be used at young age, i.e. prior to 3.5 years, which is expected to result in 5.08% better CRFAI and 1.63% better OCR in comparison to Murrah bulls used after 4.5 years of age.

  4. 78 FR 40079 - Special Local Regulations; Red Bull Flugtag Miami, Biscayne Bay; Miami, FL (United States)


    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Red Bull Flugtag Miami... Park, in Miami, Florida, during the Red Bull Flugtag event. The Red Bull Flugtag is scheduled to take... United States during the Red Bull Flugtag. C. Discussion of Proposed Rule On September 21, 2013, Red Bull...

  5. 77 FR 60302 - Special Local Regulations; Red Bull Flugtag Miami, Biscayne Bay; Miami, FL (United States)


    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Red Bull Flugtag Miami... during the Red Bull Flugtag. The Red Bull Flugtag is scheduled to take place on Saturday, November 3... United States during the Red Bull Flugtag. C. Discussion of the Final Rule On November 3, 2012, Red Bull...

  6. Quantifying long-term population growth rates of threatened bull trout: challenges, lessons learned, and opportunities (United States)

    Budy, Phaedra; Bowerman, Tracy; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Conner, Mary; Schaller, Howard


    Temporal symmetry models (TSM) represent advances in the analytical application of mark–recapture data to population status assessments. For a population of char, we employed 10 years of active and passive mark–recapture data to quantify population growth rates using different data sources and analytical approaches. Estimates of adult population growth rate were 1.01 (95% confidence interval = 0.84–1.20) using a temporal symmetry model (λTSM), 0.96 (0.68–1.34) based on logistic regressions of annual snorkel data (λA), and 0.92 (0.77–1.11) from redd counts (λR). Top-performing TSMs included an increasing time trend in recruitment (f) and changes in capture probability (p). There was only a 1% chance the population decreased ≥50%, and a 10% chance it decreased ≥30% (λMCMC; based on Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo procedure). Size structure was stable; however, the adult population was dominated by small adults, and over the study period there was a decline in the contribution of large adults to total biomass. Juvenile condition decreased with increasing adult densities. Utilization of these different information sources provided a robust weight-of-evidence approach to identifying population status and potential mechanisms driving changes in population growth rates.

  7. Effects of arsenic on bull trout: An investigation of mine cleanup practices in the Pacific Northwest (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study evaluated the effects of arsenic and heavy metals on individual salmonids and the aquatic community within Gold Creek, Idaho. Gold Creek is a tributary to...

  8. A blocking primer increases specificity in environmental DNA detection of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) (United States)

    Taylor M. Wilcox; Michael K. Schwartz; Kevin S. McKelvey; Michael K. Young; Winsor H. Lowe


    Environmental DNA (eDNA) is increasingly applied as a highly sensitive way to detect aquatic animals non-invasively. However, distinguishing closely related taxa can be particularly challenging. Previous studies of ancient DNA and genetic diet analysis have used blocking primers to enrich target template in the presence of abundant, non-target DNA. Here we apply a...

  9. Mexican native trouts: A review of their history and current systematic and conservation status (United States)

    Hendrickson, D.A.; Perez, H.E.; Findley, L.T.; Forbes, W.; Tomelleri, J.R.; Mayden, Richard L.; Nielsen, J.L.; Jensen, B.; Campos, G.R.; Romero, A.V.; van der Heiden, A.; Camarena, F.; Garcia de Leon, F.J.


    While biologists have been aware of the existence of native Mexican trouts for over a century, they have received little study. The few early studies that did much more than mention their existence began in the 1930s and continued into the early 1960s, focusing primarily on distributional surveys and taxonomic analyses. Starting in the 1980s the Baja California rainbow trout became the subject of more detailed studies, but very little remains known of mainland trouts of the Sierra Madre Occidental. We review earlier studies and report on our own collections and observations made between 1975 and 2000. We present newly discovered historical evidence that leads us to conclude that a "lost" cutthroat trout, a lineage not previously known from Mexico, was collected more than a century ago from headwaters of the Ri??o Conchos (a major tributary of the Rio Grande (= Ri??o Bravo)), a basin not previously considered to harbor a native trout. We review the last century of regional natural resource management and discuss our own observations of trout habitats. Impacts of logging, road building and overgrazing are widespread and expanding. Many streams suffer from heavy erosion, siltation and contamination, and though long-term hydrologic data are generally not available, there is evidence of decreased discharge in many streams. These problems appear related to region-wide land management practices as well as recent regional drought. Trout culture operations using exotic rainbow trout have rapidly proliferated throughout the region, threatening genetic introgression and/or competition with native forms and predation on them. Knowledge of distribution, abundance, relationships and taxonomy, not to mention ecology and population biology, of native trouts of the Sierra Madre Occidental remains inadequate. Vast areas of most mainland drainages are still unexplored by fish collectors, and even rudimentary information regarding basic biology, ecology and population structure of

  10. Impact of cryopreservation on bull () semen proteome. (United States)

    Westfalewicz, B; Dietrich, M A; Ciereszko, A


    Cryopreservation of bull spermatozoa is a well-established technique, allowing artificial insemination of cattle on a commercial scale. However, the extent of proteome changes in seminal plasma and spermatozoa during cryopreservation are not yet fully known. The objective of this study was to compare the proteomes of fresh, equilibrated, and cryopreserved bull semen (spermatozoa and seminal plasma) to establish the changes in semen proteins during the cryopreservation process. Semen was collected from 6 mature Holstein Friesian bulls. After sample processing, comparative analysis and identification of proteins was performed using 2-dimensional difference in-gel electrophoresis coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. Analysis of spermatozoa extracts revealed that 25 identified protein spots, representing 16 proteins, underwent significant ( cryopreservation. Eighteen protein spots decreased in abundance, 5 protein spots increased in abundance, and 2 protein spots showed different, specific patterns of abundance changes. Analysis of seminal fluid containing seminal plasma showed that 6 identified protein spots, representing 4 proteins, underwent significant ( cryopreservation. Two protein spots increased in abundance and 4 decreased in abundance. Semen extending and equilibration seems to be responsible for a significant portion of the proteome changes related to cryopreservation technology. Most sperm proteins affected by equilibration and cryopreservation are membrane bound, and loss of those proteins may reduce natural spermatozoa coating. Further research is needed to unravel the mechanisms of the particular protein changes described in this study and establish the relationship between those changes and sperm quality.

  11. Infertility of the breeding bull in insemination technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predojević Mirko R.


    Full Text Available In spite of very strict breeding bull selection, especialy for A.I programes their infertility is a very serius problem in everyday practice. Especially bull semen has been marked as the main factor for unsatisfied cow fertility in the A.I.programme. The reason could be the bull semen which really may play as the spreading factor of the specific or non-specific reproductive infective disoders – IBR, IPV, BVD, Campylobacter-Vibrio fetus, brucellosis leptospirosis, tuberculosis and other reproductive diseases. Secondarily, the percentage of vitality, motility, penetration abilities, and immonological properties of bull spermatozoa also have an important role in unsuccessful bovine fecundation. That is, why it is necessary to secure professional health care for breedig bull in AI centres, becase only healthy bulls can ensure good bovine genetic transmission and progress in cattle production for today's growing population.

  12. Scale-Dependent Seasonal Pool Habitat Use by Sympatric Wild Brook Trout and Brown Trout Populations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, Lori A; Wagner, Tyler


    .... Discrete-choice models were used to (1) evaluate fall and early winter daytime habitat use by sympatric Brook Trout and Brown Trout populations based on available residual pool habitat within a stream network and (2...

  13. Seasonal habitat selection by lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in a small Canadian shield lake: Constraints imposed by winter conditions (United States)

    Blanchfield, P.J.; Tate, L.S.; Plumb, J.M.; Acolas, M.-L.; Beaty, K.G.


    The need for cold, well-oxygenated waters significantly reduces the habitat available for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) during stratification of small temperate lakes. We examined the spatial and pelagic distribution of lake trout over two consecutive summers and winters and tested whether winter increased habitat availability and access to littoral regions in a boreal shield lake in which pelagic prey fish are absent. In winter, lake trout had a narrowly defined pelagic distribution that was skewed to the upper 3 m of the water column and spatially situated in the central region of the lake. Individual core areas of use (50% Kernel utilization distributions) in winter were much reduced (75%) and spatially non-overlapping compared to summer areas, but activity levels were similar between seasons. Winter habitat selection is in contrast to observations from the stratified season, when lake trout were consistently located in much deeper waters (>6 m) and widely distributed throughout the lake. Winter distribution of lake trout appeared to be strongly influenced by ambient light levels; snow depth and day length accounted for up to 69% of the variation in daily median fish depth. More restricted habitat use during winter than summer was in contrast to our original prediction and illustrates that a different suite of factors influence lake trout distribution between these seasons. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

  14. Debunking the Effects of Taurine in Red Bull Energy Drink


    Kim, Woojae


    Red Bull is a carbonated beverage that initially gained wide popularity in the U.S. during the late nineties. Taking root amongst college campuses, it appeared throughout underground clubs and eventually entered mainstream pop-culture. The manufactures claim that drinking Red Bull enhances physical endurance, concentration and reaction speed (1,6). The main ingredients of Red Bull include sugar, taurine, glucuronolactone and caffeine. It is hypothesized that the combinatorial influences o...

  15. Copper uptake across rainbow trout gills: mechanisms of apical entry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosell, Martin Hautopp; Wood, C. M.


    Copper, Homeostasis, sodium uptake, copper/sodium interactions, gill, rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss......Copper, Homeostasis, sodium uptake, copper/sodium interactions, gill, rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss...

  16. Brown trout as an invader: A synthesis of problems and perspectives in western North America: Chapter 20 (United States)

    Budy, Phaedra; Gaeta, Jereme W.; Lobón-Cerviá, Javier; Sanz, Nuria


    Brown trout are one of the most pervasive and successful invaders worldwide and are ubiquitous across the Intermountain West, USA (IMW). This species is the foundation of extremely popular and economically significant sport fisheries despite well-established negative effects on native fishes and ecosystems, resulting in very challenging, and often opposing, conservation and management goals. Herein, we review the direct (e.g., competition and predation) and indirect (e.g., disease vectors) pathways through which brown trout across the IMW have posed a threat to native species. We discuss the importance of brown trout as economically and culturally important fisheries, especially in novel tailwater ecosystems created by damming. To this end, we surveyed 24 experts from eight states across the IMW to document the relevance of novel brown trout fisheries in 51 tailwaters and found brown trout are thriving in these novel ecosystems, which are often unsuitable for native fishes. We discuss the challenging interplay between protecting native species and managing novel brown trout fisheries. Notably, the future of exotic brown trout in the IMW is shifting as the prestige of native fisheries is growing and many non-native eradication efforts have occurred. The future of exotic brown trout in the IMW, will depend on the nexus of public sentiment and policy, the effectiveness of eradication efforts, and the effect of climate change on both the native fishes and exotic brown trout. Regardless, because brown trout are pervasive and have a broad distribution through the IMW, populations of this species will likely persist at least in some locations into the future.

  17. The effect of mature elephant bull introductions on ranging patterns of resident bulls: Phinda Private Game Reserve, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heleen Druce


    Full Text Available Increasing popularity of wildlife viewing has resulted in a rapid increase in small, enclosed reserves in South Africa. The African elephant is one of the many species that has been reintroduced into these reserves for eco-tourism. These elephant populations were established as young (smaller that 10 years old orphans from prior Kruger National Park culling operations. Consequently, this abnormal sex and age structure of these introduced populations has influenced their behavioural and spatial ecology. In Pilanesberg National Park, this abnormal behaviour was corrected by introducing older bulls and culling certain problem elephants. In July 2003, three older bulls (29–41 years old were introduced into Phinda Private Game Reserve, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa in order to normalise the bull age structure. These introduced bulls were monitored intensively after release, as was the resident bull population, both before and after introduction of the older bulls. The introduced bulls settled into restricted ranges separate from the family groups. All the resident bulls decreased their home ranges at first, with most increasing their home ranges a year later. The resident bulls’ change in ranging patterns was due more to ecological factors than to the influence of the mature bull introduction. This study indicates that the introduction of older male elephants into small populations does not pose major risks or animal welfare concerns.

  18. Use of an annular chamber for testing thermal preference of westslope cutthroat trout and rainbow trout (United States)

    McMahon, T.E.; Bear, E.A.; Zale, A.V.


    Remaining populations of westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) in western North America are primarily confined to cold headwaters whereas nonnative rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) predominate in warmer, lower elevation stream sections historically occupied by westslope cutthroat trout. We tested whether differing thermal preferences could account for the spatial segregation observed in the field. Thermal preferences of age-1 westslope cutthroat trout and rainbow trout (125 to 150 mm total length) were assessed in the laboratory using a modified annular preference chamber at acclimation temperatures of 10, 12, 14, and 16??C Final preferred temperature of westslope cutthroat trout (14.9??C) was similar to that of rainbow trout (14.8??C) when tested in a thermal gradient of 11-17??C The high degree of overlap in thermal preference indicates the two species have similar thermal niches and a high potential for competition. We suggest several modifications to the annular preference chamber to improve performance in future studies.

  19. Cellulitis in a Red Kandhari Bull : A Case Report

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    M M Pathan


    Full Text Available A case of cellulitis caused by mixed infection of Staphylococcus spp. and Corynebacterium spp in a Red Kandhari bull leading to death of animal was autopsied at the department. It is being a case of cellulitis in a Red Kandhari bull and placed on record. [Vet. World 2012; 5(3.000: 183-184

  20. Viability of bull semen extended with commercial semen extender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Andrea Raseona

    Abstract. The aim of this study was to evaluate the viability of bull spermatozoa diluted with commercial semen extender and two culture media stored at controlled room temperature (24 °C) for 72 hours. Two Nguni bulls were used for semen collection with the aid of an electro-ejaculator. After macroscopic evaluation ...

  1. Multiple Congenital Defects In A Bunaji Bull | Ibrahim | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A congenitally malformed two- and-half year-old bull was acquired from Zaria abattoir for clinical and laboratory investigations. Clinical observations revealed that the bull had kyphoscoliosis and notomelia, with the two extra hind limbs attached to the right lumbosacral aspect, and a common hypoplastic pelvic bone for the ...

  2. Trout Creek Mountain project, Oregon


    Hatfield, Doc; Hatfield, Connie


    The Trout Creek Mountain experience is an example of how the land and the people can win by building bridges of understanding and common interest between concerned constituencies. Love of the land, its natural resources, and realization of a need for changing grazing practices to reverse the degradation of riparian areas were the common interests that caused environmentalists, ranchers, the BLM, the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to work togethe...

  3. Exploration of Biological Markers of Feed Efficiency in Young Bulls. (United States)

    Meale, Sarah J; Morgavi, Diego P; Cassar-Malek, Isabelle; Andueza, Donato; Ortigues-Marty, Isabelle; Robins, Richard J; Schiphorst, Anne-Marie; Laverroux, Sophie; Graulet, Benoit; Boudra, Hamid; Cantalapiedra-Hijar, Gonzalo


    The efficiency with which ruminants convert feed to desirable products is difficult to measure under normal commercial settings. We explored the use of potential biological markers from easily obtainable samples, that is, blood, hair, and feces, to characterize potential causes of divergent efficiency when considered as residual feed intake (RFI) or feed conversion efficiency (FCE). A total of 54 Charolais bulls, 20 in period 1 and 34 in period 2, were examined for individual dry matter intake (DMI) and growth. Bulls were offered a diet of 70:30 wrapped grass silage to concentrate for 99 d. At the conclusion of the test period, blood samples were collected for the determination of vitamins B2 and B6, and plasma used for the determination of metabolites, natural isotopic 15N abundance (15N NIA, expressed as δ15N ‰) and fractionation (Δ15Nplasma proteins-diet and Δ13Cplasma proteins-diet) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Feces were analyzed by NIRS. Bulls were slaughtered at 15-17 months of age and carcass characteristics determined. Bulls were ranked according to RFI with extremes (SD ± 0.5; n = 31) classified as either efficient (Neg-RFI) or inefficient (Pos-RFI). Extreme bulls were then classified for FCE (high vs low FCE), changing the groups. Pos-RFI bulls consumed 14% more feed than Neg-RFI bulls for the same level of weight gain. Low FCE bulls tended to eat more, but had lower weight gains than high FCE bulls. No differences were detected in carcass conformation, fat scores, hot carcass weight, or dressing percentage. Yet, heart and bladder weights were heavier in Pos-RFI, and rumen weight tended to be heavier in Pos-RFI bulls. RFI did not affect bulk 15N or 13C fractionation. A negative correlation was observed between FCE and Δ15Nplasma proteins-diet. Inefficient bulls (Pos-RFI) had higher δ15N in glycine compared to Neg-RFI bulls. Similarly, metabolomic analysis showed a tendency for concentrations of glycine and sarcosine to be elevated in

  4. Effect of natural neosporosis on bull sperm quality. (United States)

    Bahrami, Somayeh; Hamidinejat, Hossein; Fatemi-Tabatabaei, Seyed Reza; Sardarifar, Saeed


    Neospora is one of the protozoans that can infect the male and female's reproduction system. Despite the existence of N. caninum in the genitalia, its effect on sperm characteristics was not studied yet. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of natural neosporosis on the sperm parameters of bulls. Using 30 bulls with neosporosis diagnosed by modified agglutination test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and 15 healthy bulls, some sperm parameters such as sperm concentration, viability, motility, and morphology were studied and compared. Also, the activity of super oxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and malondialdehyde (MDA) level as the biomarker of lipid peroxidation was investigated. Results showed that sperm concentration, viability, and motility were significantly lower in bulls with neosporosis in the present study. There were no significant differences in activities of SOD and MDA level but GPX activity was significantly increased in infected bulls.

  5. A new reciprocal translocation in a subfertile bull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darré Roland


    Full Text Available Abstract Three bulls of the Montbéliarde breed that exhibited fertility rates lower than 30% following more than 400 artificial inseminations were examined. Semen quality (sperm motility and morphology from these bulls was normal. Fertilizing ability estimated from in vitro embryo production results was studied for two of them. In vitro production rate was very low for one bull (A and normal for the other (B. Cytogenetic analyses were carried out on the three bulls using chromosome banding techniques. These analyses revealed a reciprocal translocation (12;17(q22;q14 in bull B. Based on family analyses, the hypothesis of a de novo origin of this rearrangement is proposed.

  6. Review of potential interactions between stocked rainbow trout and listed Snake River sockeye salmon in Pettit Lake Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teuscher, D.


    The objective of this study was to determine if hatchery rainbow trout compete with or prey on juvenile Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka in Pettit Lake, Idaho. In 1995, a total of 8,570 age-0 sockeye and 4,000 hatchery rainbow trout were released in Pettit Lake. After releasing the fish, gillnets were set in the pelagic and littoral zones to collected diet and spatial distribution data. Interactions were assessed monthly from June 1995 through March 1996. Competition for food was discounted based on extremely low diet overlap results observed throughout the sample period. Conversely, predation interactions were more significant. A total of 119 rainbow trout stomachs were analyzed, two contained O. nerka. The predation was limited to one sample period, but when extrapolated to the whole rainbow trout populations results in significant losses. Total consumption of O. nerka by rainbow trout ranged from an estimated 10 to 23% of initial stocking numbers. Predation results contradict earlier findings that stocked rainbow trout do not prey on wild kokanee or sockeye in the Sawtooth Lakes. The contradiction may be explained by a combination of poorly adapted hatchery sockeye and a littoral release site that forced spatial overlap that was not occurring in the wild populations. Releasing sockeye in the pelagic zone may have reduced or eliminated predation losses to rainbow trout.

  7. Efficacy of environmental DNA to detect and quantify Brook Trout populations in headwater streams of the Adirondack Mountains, New York (United States)

    Baldigo, Barry P.; Sporn, Lee Ann; George, Scott D.; Ball, Jacob


    Environmental DNA (eDNA) analysis is rapidly evolving as a tool for monitoring the distributions of aquatic species. Detection of species’ populations in streams may be challenging because the persistence time for intact DNA fragments is unknown and because eDNA is diluted and dispersed by dynamic hydrological processes. During 2015, the DNA of Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis was analyzed from water samples collected at 40 streams across the Adirondack region of upstate New York, where Brook Trout populations were recently quantified. Study objectives were to evaluate different sampling methods and the ability of eDNA to accurately predict the presence and abundance of resident Brook Trout populations. Results from three-pass electrofishing surveys indicated that Brook Trout were absent from 10 sites and were present in low (300 fish/0.1 ha) densities at 9, 11, and 10 sites, respectively. The eDNA results correctly predicted the presence and confirmed the absence of Brook Trout at 85.0–92.5% of the study sites; eDNA also explained 44% of the variability in Brook Trout population density and 24% of the variability in biomass. These findings indicate that eDNA surveys will enable researchers to effectively characterize the presence and abundance of Brook Trout and other species’ populations in headwater streams across the Adirondack region and elsewhere.

  8. Farming of Freshwater Rainbow Trout in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokumsen, Alfred; Svendsen, Lars Moeslund

    Textbook on Farming of Freshwater Rainbow Trout in Denmark. Danish edition with the title: Opdræt af regnbueørred i Danmark......Textbook on Farming of Freshwater Rainbow Trout in Denmark. Danish edition with the title: Opdræt af regnbueørred i Danmark...

  9. Testicular Histomorphometric Evaluation of Zebu Bull Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Antônio Terrabuio Andreussi


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the quantitative histology and testicular biometrics in zebu bulls of different breeds. Testicular fragments of Nelore (n=10, Polled Nelore (n=6, Gir (n=5, Guzerat (n=5 and Tabapuã bulls (n=5 were used. The fragments were perfusion-fixed in Karnovsky solution, embedded in glycol methacrylate and stained with toluidine blue-1% sodium borate. The Nelore animals had a higher tubular volumetric proportion (85.2% and greater height of the seminiferous epithelium (73.2 µm than the Gir, Guzerat and Tabapuã breeds. The Nelore animals also had a higher volumetric proportion of Leydig cells (5.2% than the Guzerat and Tabapuã breeds. There was no significant difference for any of these parameters between the Nelore and Polled Nelore breeds. The gonadosomatic index, seminiferous tubule diameter, cross-sectional area of the seminiferous tubule and tubule length (total length and length per gram of testicular parenchyma did not vary among the breeds studied. The morphometric parameters evaluated suggested that the genetic selection applied to the Nelore and Polled Nelore breeds improved the efficiency of spermatogenesis in these breeders.

  10. Simulating Spawning and Juvenile Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Habitat in Colorado River Based on High-Flow Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Yao


    Full Text Available High flow generates significant alterations in downstream river reaches, resulting in physical condition changes in the downstream regions of the river such as water depth, flow velocity, water temperature and river bed. These alterations will lead to change in fish habitat configuration in the river. This paper proposes a model system to evaluate the high flow effects on river velocity, water depth, substrates changes, temperature distribution and consequently assess the change in spawning and juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss habitats in the downstream region of the Glen Canyon Dam. Firstly, based on the 2 dimensional (2D depth-averaged CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics model and heat transfer equation applied for simulation, three indices were simulated, namely depth, flow velocity and temperature distribution. Then, the spawning and juvenile fish preference curves were obtained based on these three indices and substrates distribution. After that, the habitat model was proposed and used to simulate the high flow effects on juvenile and spawning rainbow trout habitat structure. Finally, the weighted usable area (WUA and overall suitability index (OSI of the spawning and juvenile fish species were quantitatively simulated to estimate the habitat sensitivity. The results illustrate that the high flow effect (HFE increased the juvenile rainbow trout habitat quality but decreased the spawning rainbow trout habitat quality. The juvenile trout were mainly affected by the water depth while the spawning rainbow trout were dominated by the bed elevation.

  11. Rainbow trout versus brook trout biomass and production under varied climate regimes in small southern Appalachian streams (United States)

    Bonnie. J.E. Myers; C. Andrew Dolloff; Andrew L. Rypel


    Many Appalachian streams historically dominated by Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis have experienced shifts towards fish communities dominated by Rainbow Trout Onchorhynchus mykiss. We used empirical estimates of biomass and secondary production of trout conspecifics to evaluate species success under varied thermal regimes. Trout...

  12. Bath vaccination of rainbow trout against yersiniosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raida, Martin Kristian; Buchmann, Kurt


    Studies have been conducted on the temperature-dependent effect of bath vaccination of rainbow trout against Yersinia ruckeri O1. Protection of rainbow trout fry against challenge, following bath vaccination with a bacterin of Yersinia ruckeri O1, the bacterial pathogen causing enteric red mouth...... disease (ERM), was investigated at 5, 15 and 25° C. Rainbow trout fry were kept at controlled temperatures for two month before they were immersed in a commercial Yersinia ruckeri O1 bacterin for 10 minutes. Control groups were sham vaccinated using pure water. Fish were challenged with Yersinia ruckeri O......1 one and two month post vaccination at the three temperatures. Protection of vaccinated fish was seen one and two month post vaccination in rainbow trout reared at 15° C. There was no effect of vaccination in rainbow trout reared at 5 and 25° C. Spleen tissue was sampled from 5 vaccinated and 5...

  13. Genetic status and conservation of Westslope Cutthroat Trout in Glacier National Park (United States)

    Muhlfeld, Clint C.; D'Angelo, Vincent S.; Downs, Christopher C.; Powell, John D.; Amish, Stephen J.; Luikart, Gordon; Kovach, Ryan; Boyer, Matthew; Kalinowski, Steven T.


    Invasive hybridization is one of the greatest threats to the persistence of Westslope Cutthroat Trout Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi. Large protected areas, where nonhybridized populations are interconnected and express historical life history and genetic diversity, provide some of the last ecological and evolutionary strongholds for conserving this species. Here, we describe the genetic status and distribution of Westslope Cutthroat Trout throughout Glacier National Park, Montana. Admixture between Westslope Cutthroat Trout and introduced Rainbow Trout O. mykiss and Yellowstone Cutthroat Trout O. clarkii bouvieri was estimated by genotyping 1,622 fish collected at 115 sites distributed throughout the Columbia, Missouri, and South Saskatchewan River drainages. Currently, Westslope Cutthroat Trout occupy an estimated 1,465 km of stream habitat and 45 lakes (9,218 ha) in Glacier National Park. There was no evidence of introgression in samples from 32 sites along 587 km of stream length (40% of the stream kilometers currently occupied) and 17 lakes (2,555 ha; 46% of the lake area currently occupied). However, nearly all (97%) of the streams and lakes that were occupied by nonhybridized populations occurred in the Columbia River basin. Based on genetic status (nonnative genetic admixture ≤ 10%), 36 Westslope Cutthroat Trout populations occupying 821 km of stream and 5,482 ha of lakes were identified as “conservation populations.” Most of the conservation populations (N = 27; 736 km of stream habitat) occurred in the Columbia River basin, whereas only a few geographically restricted populations were found in the South Saskatchewan River (N = 7; 55 km) and Missouri River (N = 2; 30 km) basins. Westslope Cutthroat Trout appear to be at imminent risk of genomic extinction in the South Saskatchewan and Missouri River basins, whereas populations in the Columbia River basin are widely distributed and conservation efforts are actively addressing threats from

  14. 77 FR 55139 - Safety Zone; Chicago Red Bull Flugtag, Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL (United States)


    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Chicago Red Bull Flugtag, Lake Michigan... restrict vessels from a portion of Lake Michigan for the Red Bull Flugtag event. This temporary safety zone... September 8, 2012 Red Bull North America will sponsor their Red Bull Flugtag event on the waters of Lake...

  15. 78 FR 57061 - Special Local Regulation; Red Bull Flugtag Miami, Biscayne Bay; Miami, FL (United States)


    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Red Bull Flugtag Miami..., during the Red Bull Flugtag. The Red Bull Flugtag is scheduled to take place on September 21, 2013. The... published a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) entitled USCG-2013-0180 Special Local Regulation; Red Bull...

  16. Nutritional composition analysis of meat from human lactoferrin transgenic bulls. (United States)

    Zhao, Jie; Xu, Jianxiang; Wang, Jianwu; Li, Ning


    Transgenic technology has many potential advantages in food production. However, the transgenic technology process may influence the composition of food products derived from genetically engineered (GE) animals, which may be adverse to human health. Therefore, it is very important to research the compositions of GE animal products. Here, we analyzed the compositions of meat from the offspring of human lactoferrin (hLF) transgenic cows, which can express human lactoferrin proteins in their mammary gland. Six hLF transgenic bulls and three wide-type (WT) bulls, 10 months of age, were slaughtered for meat composition analysis. To determine the comparative health of hLF bulls for meat analysis, hematological analyses, organ/body weight analyses and pathology analyses were conducted. Results of the meat analysis show that there were no significant differences in the hematological parameters, organ/body weight ratios of hLF and WT bulls (P>0.05), and histopathological examination of the main organs of hLF bulls revealed no abnormalities. Nutrient parameters of meat compositions of hLF and WT bulls did not show any significant differences (P>0.05). All of these results suggest that the hLF transgene did not have an impact on the meat nutrient compositions of hLF bulls.

  17. Breaking the speed limit--comparative sprinting performance of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) (United States)

    Castro-Santos, Theodore; Sanz-Ronda, Francisco Javier; Ruiz-Legazpi, Jorge


    Sprinting behavior of free-ranging fish has long been thought to exceed that of captive fish. Here we present data from wild-caught brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and brown trout (Salmo trutta), volitionally entering and sprinting against high-velocity flows in an open-channel flume. Performance of the two species was nearly identical, with the species attaining absolute speeds > 25 body lengths·s−1. These speeds far exceed previously published observations for any salmonid species and contribute to the mounting evidence that commonly accepted estimates of swimming performance are low. Brook trout demonstrated two distinct modes in the relationship between swim speed and fatigue time, similar to the shift from prolonged to sprint mode described by other authors, but in this case occurring at speeds > 19 body lengths·s−1. This is the first demonstration of multiple modes of sprint swimming at such high swim speeds. Neither species optimized for distance maximization, however, indicating that physiological limits alone are poor predictors of swimming performance. By combining distributions of volitional swim speeds with endurance, we were able to account for >80% of the variation in distance traversed by both species.

  18. A Regional View of the Margin: Salmonid Abundance and Distribution in the Southern Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina and Virginia (United States)

    Patricia A. Flebbe


    In the southern Appalachian Mountains, native brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and introduced rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and brown trout Salmo trutta are at the southern extremes of their distributions, an often overlooked kind of marginal habitat. At a regional scale composed of the states of Virginia...

  19. Fall and winter survival of brook trout and brown trout in a north-central Pennsylvania watershed (United States)

    Sweka, John A.; Davis, Lori A.; Wagner, Tyler


    Stream-dwelling salmonids that spawn in the fall generally experience their lowest survival during the fall and winter due to behavioral changes associated with spawning and energetic deficiencies during this time of year. We used data from Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis and Brown Trout Salmo trutta implanted with radio transmitters in tributaries of the Hunts Run watershed of north-central Pennsylvania to estimate survival from the fall into the winter seasons (September 2012–February 2013). We examined the effects that individual-level covariates (trout species, size, and movement rates) and stream-level covariates (individual stream and cumulative drainage area of a stream) have on survival. Brook Trout experienced significantly lower survival than Brown Trout, especially in the early fall during their peak spawning period. Besides a significant species effect, none of the other covariates examined influenced survival for either species. A difference in life history between these species, with Brook Trout having a shorter life expectancy than Brown Trout, is likely the primary reason for the lower survival of Brook Trout. However, Brook Trout also spawn earlier in the fall than Brown Trout and low flows during Brook Trout spawning may have resulted in a greater risk of predation for Brook Trout compared with Brown Trout, thereby also contributing to the observed differences in survival between these species. Our estimates of survival can aid parameterization of future population models for Brook Trout and Brown Trout through the spawning season and into winter.

  20. Testicle size as indicator of fertility in bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prka Igor


    Full Text Available Male calves from the high value parents, bull fathers and bull dams, enter the selection for artificial insemination. After laboratory tests, the calves are taken to the center for artificial insemination, and after a stay in quarantine the are moved to a test station. At the age of twelve months they are measured for assessing the value of each calf exterior. One of the measures recorded was the testicle scope. On the basis of testicle size, it is possible to predict sperm production potential. For the determination of testicle size (testicular biometry, tapes or rulers were used. The aim of this work was to investigate the possible effect of testicle size on sperm production in young bulls used for artificial insemination. For that purpose there were used the data on circumference of testicles of one year old bulls just starting production of sperm, and then compared with certain semen quality parameters such as: volume of ejaculate and concentration and percentage of alive and progressively mobile spermatozoa. The investigation included all young bulls that started production in the period from 2010. to 2012., that is 36 bulls of various breeds (Simmental, Holstein Friesian, Montafon. After the testicle scope measuring in these bulls, there were observed the parameters of the sperm quality during the following one year period. The obtained results showed that the increased testicle size was followed by the increased average ejaculate quantity, in other words: 3.7 ml in group of bulls with testicle circumference below 30 cm, to 6.7 ml in bulls whose testicle circumference was over 40 cm. Also, the results showed that there was a correlation between the increased testicle size and the increased spermatozoa concentration. The values grow to testicle scope of 36 cm, and above that they were still high but with some oscillations. When it came to relation between testicle scope and the percentage of alive and progressively mobile spermatozoa, the

  1. Lice pressure from salmon farms on wild sea trout (Salmo trutta in a Norwegian fjord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Arechavala-Lopez


    Full Text Available Salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis are external parasites on salmonids in the marine environment. However, during recent years, salmon lice abundance has increased due to the presence of salmon farming. Scientific studies shows that salmon farming increases the abundance of lice in the marine habitat and that salmon lice in the most intensively farmed areas have negatively affected wild fish populations. The present study assesses the spatiotemporal distribution of salmon lice infestations on wild sea trout population in the Romsdalsfjord region (Norway, and the potential relationship with fish-farming activity and environmental parameters in this area. Salmon lice at farms varied among localities or farming areas, although infestation levels were under the safety established thresholds (max: 0.5 adult females per fish in most of the cases. However, salmon farms with these levels might produce and release millions of copepods, potentially infecting wild salmonids. In accordance, low lice loads were recorded on wild sea trout captured in areas with low farming activity, while higher mean loads were recorded in areas with higher farming activity. A clear seasonal pattern and a positive correlation between lice on sea trout and sea water temperature were observed throughout the study period. The estimated production of copepods at farms and the mobile lice counted on wild sea trout one month later were correlated, suggesting the potential use of lice monitoring on sea trout as a proxy indicator of salmon lice infestation risks.

  2. Marine migration and habitat use of anadromous brown trout Salmo trutta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldøy, Sindre Håvarstein; Davidsen, Jan Grimsrud; Thorstad, Eva Bonsak


    in a fjord system during April–September in 2012–2013. Overall, fish spent 68% of their marine residence time close to river mouths (... residence time was 7–183 days and was positively correlated to body length and smolt age, but negatively correlated to the date of sea entry......The biology and ecology of anadromous brown trout (Salmo trutta) at sea is poorly understood. This study provided information on spatial and temporal distribution of sea trout in the ocean. The behaviour of 115 individuals (veteran migrants, 270–700 mm) was tracked by using acoustic telemetry...

  3. Status and conservation of interior Redband Trout in the western United States (United States)

    Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Albeke, Shannon E.; Gunckel, Stephanie L; Writer, Benjamin J; Shepard, Bradley B.; May, Bruce E


    In this article we describe the current status and conservation of interior (potamodromous) Redband Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss sspp. throughout its range in the western United States using extant data and expert opinion provided by fish managers. Redband Trout historically occupied 60,295 km of stream habitat and 152 natural lakes. Currently, Redband Trout occupy 25,417 km of stream habitat (42% of their historical range) and 124 lakes or reservoirs. Nonhybridized populations are assumed to occupy 11,695 km (46%) of currently occupied streams; however, fish from only 4,473 km (18%) have been genetically tested. Approximately 47% of the streams occupied by Redband Trout occur on private land, 45% on government lands, and 8% in protected areas. A total of 210 Redband Trout populations, occupying 15,252 km of stream habitat (60% of the current distribution) and 95,158 ha of lake habitat (52%), are being managed as “conservation populations.” Most conservation populations have been designated as weakly to strongly connected metapopulations (125; 60%) and occupy much more stream length (14,112 km; 93%) than isolated conservation populations (1,141 km; 7%). The primary threats to Redband Trout include invasive species, habitat degradation and fragmentation, and climate change. Although the historical distribution of interior Redband Trout has declined dramatically, we conclude that the species is not currently at imminent risk of extinction because it is still widely distributed with many populations isolated by physical barriers and active conservation efforts are occurring for many populations. However, the hybridization status of many populations has not been well quantified, and introgression may be more prevalent than documented here. We recommend (1) collecting additional genetic data and estimating distribution and abundance by means of a more rigorous spatial sampling design to reduce uncertainties, (2) collecting additional information to assess and

  4. Toxicokinetics of the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) (United States)

    Imidacloprid (IMI) is the largest selling insecticide internationally. Little is known about the toxicokinetics of IMI in fish, however. In vivo time-course studies were conducted to study the distribution and elimination of IMI in rainbow trout. Animals confined to respiromet...

  5. Seasonal Variations in Relative Weight of Lake Trout (Salvelinus namaycush), Kokanee Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), Rainbow Trout (Onocorhynchus mykiss), and Brown Trout (Salmo trutta) in Blue Mesa Reservoir, Colorado


    Midas, Madeline; Williams, Asia; Cooper, Cindy; Courtney, Michael


    Blue Mesa Reservoir is the largest body of water in Colorado and is located on the western slope of the Rocky Mountains at an elevation of 7520 feet. Blue Mesa Reservoir contains recreationally important populations of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), kokanee salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), rainbow trout (Onocorhynchus mykiss), and brown trout (Salmo trutta). A management challenge in recent years has been the overpopulation of lake trout, which has led to a steep decline in abundance of kokan...

  6. Bull Moose Tube Company - Clean Water Act Public Notice (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against the Bull Moose Tube Company, a business located at 1819 Clarkson Road, Chesterfield, MO, 63017, for alleged violations at the facility located at 406 East Industrial Drive,



    Serafini, Rosanna


    The interest in sperm DNA integrity evaluation and its relationship to subfertility and infertility loaded to development of several sperm DNA assays. The aim of this study was to compare several sperm DNA assays in buffaloes, bulls and stallions, and to identify the relationships between those DNA assays and traditional sperm features. In Italian Mediterranean Buffalo (IMB) bulls traditional sperm features (motility, viability, acrosome integrity and morphology), sperm DNA integrity (neutral...

  8. A Vegetation Survey of Trout Brook Flowage (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Trout Brook structure was started in 1963 under the Accelerated Public Works Program and finished in the summer of 1965. There is a 200 foot earthdike, a metal...

  9. Toxicokinetics of PFOS in rainbow trout (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This ScienceHub entry was developed for the published paper: Consoer et al., 2016, Toxicokinetics of perfluorooctane sulfonate in rainow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss),...

  10. Breeding soundness evaluations of Senepol bulls in the US Virgin Islands. (United States)

    Godfrey, R W; Dodson, R E


    The breeding soundness evaluation (BSE) was used to evaluate Senepol (Bos taurus) bulls (n = 495) on St. Croix over a 7-year period. Young, unproven bulls (10-26 months of age) and breeding bulls (16 months to 8.5 years) were tested prior to sale or use in breeding. Inbreeding coefficients were determined for a subset of bulls (n = 290). The percentage of bulls passing the BSE increased (P 20 months. The proportion of all bulls that failed the BSE and received an Unsatisfactory rating for scrotal circumference or sperm motility decreased (P 90 to Senepol bulls raised under tropical conditions had a low probability of passing the BSE at young ages, but the passing rate increased with age. Older Senepol bulls were more likely to fail the BSE due to abnormal sperm morphology than due to inadequate testicular size or sperm motility. To prevent unnecessary culling, a BSE should not be performed on Senepol bulls <16 months old.

  11. Brown Trout removal effects on short-term survival and movement of Myxobolus cerebralis-resistant rainbow trout (United States)

    Fetherman, Eric R.; Winkelman, Dana L.; Bailey, Larissa L.; Schisler, George J.; Davies, K.


    Following establishment of Myxobolus cerebralis (the parasite responsible for salmonid whirling disease) in Colorado, populations of Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykissexperienced significant declines, whereas Brown Trout Salmo trutta densities increased in many locations across the state, potentially influencing the success of M. cerebralis-resistant Rainbow Trout reintroductions. We examined the effects of Brown Trout removal on the short-term (3-month) survival and movement of two crosses of reintroduced, M. cerebralis-resistant Rainbow Trout in the Cache la Poudre River, Colorado. Radio frequency identification passive integrated transponder tags and antennas were used to track movements of wild Brown Trout and stocked Rainbow Trout in reaches where Brown Trout had or had not been removed. Multistate mark–recapture models were used to estimate tagged fish apparent survival and movement in these sections 3 months following Brown Trout removal. A cross between the German Rainbow Trout and Colorado River Rainbow Trout strains exhibited similar survival and movement probabilities in the reaches, suggesting that the presence of Brown Trout did not affect its survival or movement. However, a cross between the German Rainbow Trout and Harrison Lake Rainbow Trout exhibited less movement from the reach in which Brown Trout had been removed. Despite this, the overall short-term benefits of the removal were equivocal, suggesting that Brown Trout removal may not be beneficial for the reintroduction of Rainbow Trout. Additionally, the logistical constraints of conducting removals in large river systems are substantial and may not be a viable management option in many rivers.

  12. Adrenal involvement in the biostimulatory effect of bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berardinelli James G


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective was to evaluate if cortisol concentrations are associated with the resumption of luteal activity in postpartum, primiparous cows exposed to bulls. The hypotheses were that 1 interval from start of exposure to resumption of luteal activity; 2 proportions of cows that resumed luteal function during the exposure period; and 3 cortisol concentrations do not differ among cows exposed or not exposed to bulls (Exp. 1, and cows continuously exposed to bull or steer urine (Exp. 2. Methods In Exp. 1, 28 anovular cows were exposed (BE; n = 13 or not exposed (NE; n = 15 to bulls for 30 d at 58 d after calving. In Exp. 2, 38 anovular cows were fitted with a controlled urine delivery device at 45 d after calving and exposed continuously (24 h/d to bull (BUE; n = 19 or steer (SUE; n = 19 urine. Length of exposure was ~64 d. Blood samples were collected from each cow on D 0 and every 3 d throughout exposure periods in both experiments and assayed for progesterone. Cortisol was assayed in samples collected on D 0, 8, 16, and 24 in Exp. 1; and, D 0, 19, 38, and 57 in Exp. 2. Results In Exp. 1, interval from the start of exposure to resumption of luteal activity was shorter (P Conclusion We conclude that the physical presence of bulls stimulates resumption of luteal activity and is coincident with increased cortisol concentrations, and hypothesize a possible association between adrenal activation and the biostimulatory effect of bulls.

  13. Biology and management of threatened and endangered western trouts (United States)

    R. J. Behnke; Mark Zarn


    Discusses taxonomy, reasons for decline, life history and ecology, and suggestions for preservation and management of six closely related trouts native to western North America: Colorado River cutthroat, Salmo clarki pleuriticus; greenback trout, S. c. stomias; Lahontan cutthroat, S. c. henshawi; Paiute trout,...

  14. Evaluation of dietary soy sensitivity in snake river cutthroat trout (United States)

    Hatchery-cultured cutthroat trout fed some commercially available rainbow trout feeds display slow growth and increased mortality. Feed characteristics such as buoyancy and texture alter feed acceptance in some fish species but their effects have not been adequately addressed in cutthroat trout. Th...

  15. Factors influencing the spawning migration of female anadromous brown trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jon Christian; Koed, Anders; Aarestrup, Kim


    Radio telemetry was employed to study movements of adult female anadromous brown trout Salmo trutta (sea trout) during upstream spawning migration and following spawning in a stream with tributaries. Sea trout were monitored by manual tracking and by automatic listening stations. The latter sugge...

  16. Evaluating bull fertility based on non-return method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prka Igor


    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the results of reproductive cows and heifers, different parameters of fertility are used, such as the service period, insemination index, intercalving time and others, and of the breeding bulls the values obtained through non-return. An ejaculate is taken up for further processing by veterinary centres only provided it meets the prescribed quality parameters. Rating semen parameters includes a macroscopic (volume, colour, consistency, smell and pH and a microscopic evaluation (mobility, density, percentage of live sperm and abnormal and damaged sperm. In addition to sperm quality and the fertility of the female animal, the results of the non-return method are also influenced by a number of exogenous causes (season, age, race, insemination techniques that have no small impact on the end result of insemination - pregnancy. In order to obtain more objective results of the fertility of bulls the following tasks were undertaken, namely: 1. to calculate with the non-return method the fertility of bulls in over 10,000 cows inseminated for the first time during a period of 6 years; and 2. to analyze the impact of semen quality, season, age of cow and bull, and the bull breed on the results of fertility.

  17. Biology, status, and management of the yellowstone cutthroat trout (United States)

    Gresswell, R.E.


    Yellowstone cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii bouvieri were historically distributed in the Yellowstone River drainage (Montana and Wyoming) and the Snake River drainage (Wyoming, Idaho, Utah, Nevada, and probably Washington). Individual populations evolved distinct life history characteristics in response to the diverse environments in which they were isolated after the last glaciation. Anthropogenic activities have resulted in a substantial decline (42% of the historical range is currently occupied; 28% is occupied by core [genetically unaltered] populations), but the number of extant populations, especially in headwater streams, has precluded listing of this taxon under the Endangered Species Act. Primary threats to persistence of Yellowstone cutthroat trout include (1) invasive species, resulting in hybridization, predation, disease, and interspecific competition; (2) habitat degradation from human activities such as agricultural practices, water diversions, grazing, dam construction, mineral extraction, grazing, timber harvest, and road construction; and (3) climate change, including an escalating risk of drought, wildfire, winter flooding, and rising temperatures. Extirpation of individual populations or assemblages has led to increasing isolation and fragmentation of remaining groups, which in turn raises susceptibility to the demographic influences of disturbance (both human and stochastic) and genetic factors. Primary conservation strategies include (1) preventing risks associated with invasive species by isolating populations of Yellowstone cutthroat trout and (2) connecting occupied habitats (where possible) to preserve metapopulation function and the expression of multiple life histories. Because persistence of isolated populations may be greater in the short term, current management is focused on isolating individual populations and restoring habitats; however, this approach implies that humans will act as dispersal agents if a population is

  18. Use of microsatellite markers for identification of indigenous brown trout in a geographical region heavily influenced by stocked domesticated trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritzner, Niels G.; Møller Hansen, Michael; Madsen, Steffen


    Based on estimates of genetic differentiation between populations, assignment tests and analysis of isolation by distance, stocked populations of brown trout Salmo trutta of Funen Island, Denmark, had been genetically affected by domesticated trout, whereas the stocking of wild exogenous trout in...

  19. Proteomic comparison of detergent-extracted sperm proteins from bulls with different fertility indexes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D'Amours, Olivier; Frenette, Gilles; Fortier, Marlene; Leclerc, Pierre; Sullivan, Robert


    .... Frozen semen from 23 Holstein bulls with documented fertility was used. According to their ‘fertility solution’ (SOL), as calculated by the Canadian dairy network, bulls were divided into four groups...

  20. Proteomic comparison of detergent-extracted sperm proteins from bulls with different fertility indexes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olivier D'Amours; Gilles Frenette; Marlène Fortier; Pierre Leclerc; Robert Sullivan


    .... Frozen semen from 23 Holstein bulls with documented fertility was used. According to their ‘fertility solution’ (SOL), as calculated by the Canadian dairy network, bulls were divided into four groups...

  1. Relationship of nonreturn rates of dairy bulls to binding affinity of heparin to sperm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks, J.L.; Ax, R.L.


    The binding of the glycosaminoglycan (3H) heparin to bull spermatozoa was compared with nonreturn rates of dairy bulls. Semen samples from five bulls above and five below an average 71% nonreturn rate were used. Samples consisted of first and second ejaculates on a single day collected 1 d/wk for up to 5 consecutive wk. Saturation binding assays using (TH) heparin were performed to quantitate the binding characteristics of each sample. Scatchard plot analyses indicated a significant difference in the binding affinity for (TH) heparin between bulls of high and low fertility. Dissociation constants were 69.0 and 119.3 pmol for bulls of high and low fertility, respectively. In contrast, the number of binding sites for (TH) heparin did not differ significantly among bulls. Differences in binding affinity of (TH) heparin to bull sperm might be used to predict relative fertility of dairy bulls.

  2. Diel resource partitioning among juvenile Atlantic Salmon, Brown Trout, and Rainbow Trout during summer (United States)

    Johnson, James H.; McKenna, James E.


    Interspecific partitioning of food and habitat resources has been widely studied in stream salmonids. Most studies have examined resource partitioning between two native species or between a native species and one that has been introduced. In this study we examine the diel feeding ecology and habitat use of three species of juvenile salmonids (i.e., Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar, Brown Trout Salmo trutta, and Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss) in a tributary of Skaneateles Lake, New York. Subyearling Brown Trout and Rainbow Trout fed more heavily from the drift than the benthos, whereas subyearling Atlantic Salmon fed more from the benthos than either species of trout. Feeding activity of Atlantic Salmon and Rainbow Trout was similar, with both species increasing feeding at dusk, whereas Brown Trout had no discernable feeding peak or trough. Habitat availability was important in determining site-specific habitat use by juvenile salmonids. Habitat selection was greater during the day than at night. The intrastream, diel, intraspecific, and interspecific variation we observed in salmonid habitat use in Grout Brook illustrates the difficulty of acquiring habitat use information for widespread management applications.

  3. Bull'S eye maculopathy in a patient taking sertraline. (United States)

    Mason, John O; Patel, Shyam A


    To report a very rare case of bilateral Bull's eye maculopathy caused by sertraline. Clinical case report and literature review. A 14-year-old girl. A 14-year-old girl with no significant medical history developed bilateral Bull's eye maculopathy after taking sertraline for 1 year. Diagnostic work-up, which consisted of electrooculography, electroretinography, and genetic testing, yielded no abnormal results. Three-year follow-up examination after discontinuation of sertraline showed no improvement in visual acuity (20/200 bilaterally) or retinal pigment epithelium. This is the second published case, and according to the National Registry of Drug-Induced Ocular Side Effects, this is only the fifth reported case of presumed sertraline maculopathy. Although Bull's eye maculopathy related to sertraline is rare, physicians and patients need to be aware of the possible toxicity.

  4. Rhéologie de suspensions de bulles


    Morini, Romain; Tocquer, Laurent; Chateau, Xavier; Ovarlez, Guillaume; Pitois, Olivier


    Un dispositif original a été développé pour fabriquer des suspensions monodisperses de bulles (diamètre 700 ¼m) dans un fluide newtonien très visqueux (viscosité dynamique 100 Pa.s). La viscosité de ces suspensions a été mesurée dans les régimes dilué et faiblement concentré (fraction volumique en bulles comprises entre 2% et 15%) dans une géométrie Couette. La viscosité des suspensions dépend de la viscosité du fluide suspendant, de la fraction volumique en bulles et d'un nombre sans ...

  5. Effects of epidural lidocaine anesthesia on bulls during electroejaculation. (United States)

    Falk, A J; Waldner, C L; Cotter, B S; Gudmundson, J; Barth, A D


    Two experiments were conducted to determine whether caudal epidural lidocaine anesthesia reduces a stress response to electroejaculation. In the 1st experiment, changes in cortisol and progesterone concentrations in serial blood samples were used to assess the stress response to restraint (control), transrectal massage, caudal epidural injection of saline, electroejaculation after caudal epidural injection of lidocaine, and electroejaculation without epidural lidocaine. In the 2nd experiment, behavioral responses were subjectively scored in bulls that were electroejaculated with or without caudal epidural lidocaine anesthesia. Cortisol and progesterone concentrations were significantly elevated after electroejaculation, whether or not bulls received caudal epidural anesthesia. Elevations in cortisol and progesterone were lower and fewer bulls vocalized during electroejaculation when given caudal epidural anesthesia; however, the differences were not significant.

  6. Physical and morphological characteristics of Kankrej bull semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharatkumar R. Patel

    Full Text Available Aim: Present investigation was carried out to study the physical characteristics of Kankrej bulls semen by evaluation of various semen parameters from neat semen and at various stages of semen preservation. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 ejaculates, 10 each from 6 mature Kankrej bulls, once in a week for 10 weeks, were collected and analyzed for various semen attributes. Result: The mean values for different seminal attributes were: ejaculate volume 4.84 ± 0.01 ml, pH 6.88 ± 0.01, mass motility 3.72 ± 0.02, sperm concentration 1253.83 ± 14.68 million / ml, individual motility 86.15 ± 0.30 per cent, live sperm count 90.58 ± 0.20 per cent, abnormal sperm count 4.24 ± 0.03 per cent and acrosomal integrity 81.17 ± 0.11 per cent. The colour of the Kankrej bull semen under the investigation was creamy white. Mean values of ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, live sperm count and acrosomal integrity of semen differed significantly (P < 0.05 among the bulls under investigation. The ejaculate volume was positively correlated with mass motility (+ 0.392 and sperm concentration (+ 0.385 and inversely proportional to the mass motility whereas mass motility positively correlated with volume (+0.392, individual sperm motility (+0.329 and live sperm count (+0.527. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the volume, pH, mass motility and sperm concentration of Kankrej bull semen were well comparable with other breeds of Indian cattle, however higher individual motility, live sperm count, acrosomal integrity and lower abnormal sperm count were recorded in the Kankrej bull semen. [Vet World 2013; 6(7.000: 405-408

  7. Compass cues used by a nocturnal bull ant, Myrmecia midas. (United States)

    Freas, Cody A; Narendra, Ajay; Cheng, Ken


    Ants use both terrestrial landmarks and celestial cues to navigate to and from their nest location. These cues persist even as light levels drop during the twilight/night. Here, we determined the compass cues used by a nocturnal bull ant, Myrmecia midas, in which the majority of individuals begin foraging during the evening twilight period. Myrmecia midas foragers with vectors of ≤5 m when displaced to unfamiliar locations did not follow the home vector, but instead showed random heading directions. Foragers with larger home vectors (≥10 m) oriented towards the fictive nest, indicating a possible increase in cue strength with vector length. When the ants were displaced locally to create a conflict between the home direction indicated by the path integrator and terrestrial landmarks, foragers oriented using landmark information exclusively and ignored any accumulated home vector regardless of vector length. When the visual landmarks at the local displacement site were blocked, foragers were unable to orient to the nest direction and their heading directions were randomly distributed. Myrmecia midas ants typically nest at the base of the tree and some individuals forage on the same tree. Foragers collected on the nest tree during evening twilight were unable to orient towards the nest after small lateral displacements away from the nest. This suggests the possibility of high tree fidelity and an inability to extrapolate landmark compass cues from information collected on the tree and at the nest site to close displacement sites. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Time budgets of finishing bulls housed in an uninsulated barn or at pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Tuomisto


    Full Text Available This study aimed at comparing the behaviour of finishing bulls raised in an uninsulated barn (UB and at pasture (PAS. In experiment 1, dairy bulls were housed in an uninsulated barn (two groups of five bulls, 32 m2/pen or at pasture (groups of four and five bulls, 5000 m2/paddock. In experiment 2, Hereford bulls were housed in an uninsulated barn (three groups of four or five bulls, 32 m2/pen or at pasture (three groups of five bulls, 5000 m2/paddock. There were no differences in drinking, social licking, butting, other social behaviour, self-licking or idling between the UB and PAS bulls. The UB bulls spent more time in lying, ruminating, oral explorative and manipulative behaviour and rubbing and less time foraging and walking than the PAS bulls. The UB bulls performed more social licking and oral manipulation of objects and less mounting than the PAS bulls. These differences resulted most probably from the different feeding regimes and different space allowances.

  9. Reversible postural tachycardia syndrome due to inadvertent overuse of Red Bull. (United States)

    Terlizzi, Rossana; Rocchi, Camilla; Serra, Maria; Solieri, Laura; Cortelli, Pietro


    Postural tachycardia syndrome associated with a vasovagal reaction was recorded in a young volleyball player after an excess intake of Red Bull as a refreshing energy drink. Considering the widespread use of Red Bull among young people who are often unaware of the drink's drug content, this case report suggest Red Bull be considered a possible cause of orthostatic intolerance.

  10. Whole-genome sequencing of 234 bulls facilitates mapping of monogenic and complex traits in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daetwyler, Hans D; Capitan, Aurélien; Pausch, Hubert


    The 1000 bull genomes project supports the goal of accelerating the rates of genetic gain in domestic cattle while at the same time considering animal health and welfare by providing the annotated sequence variants and genotypes of key ancestor bulls. In the first phase of the 1000 bull genomes p...

  11. 77 FR 47334 - Safety Zone; Red Bull Flugtag, Delaware River; Camden, NJ (United States)


    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Red Bull Flugtag, Delaware River; Camden... to establish a safety zone for the ``Red Bull Flugtag Camden'', a marine event to be held on... Red Bull is sponsoring a Flugtag event along the Camden Riverfront. During this event participants...

  12. 75 FR 17106 - Safety Zone; Red Bull Air Race, Detroit River, Detroit, MI (United States)


    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Red Bull Air Race, Detroit River, Detroit... vessels from portions of the Detroit River during the Red Bull Air Race. This temporary safety zone is... in conjunction with the Red Bull Air Race. The safety zone will be in effect from 9 a.m. June 3, 2010...

  13. 75 FR 54026 - Safety Zone; Red Bull Flugtag, Delaware River, Camden, NJ (United States)


    ... [Docket No. USCG-2010-0728] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Red Bull Flugtag, Delaware River, Camden, NJ AGENCY... of the Delaware River during the Red Bull Flugtag event. The safety zone is necessary to protect... vessels and vessels from any debris in the water as a result from the event. Basis and Purpose Red Bull...

  14. 78 FR 38577 - Special Local Regulations; Red Bull Flugtag National Harbor Event, Potomac River; National Harbor... (United States)


    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Red Bull Flugtag National...; Red Bull Flugtag National Harbor Event, Potomac River; National Harbor Access Channel, MD'' in the... safety of life on navigable waters of the United States during the Red Bull Flugtag National Harbor event...

  15. 75 FR 30708 - Safety Zone; Red Bull Air Race, Detroit River, Detroit, MI (United States)


    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Red Bull Air Race, Detroit River, Detroit... from portions of the Detroit River during the Red Bull Air Race. This temporary safety zone is... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) entitled Safety Zone; Red Bull Air Race, Detroit River, Detroit, MI in the...

  16. 78 FR 18274 - Special Local Regulations; Red Bull Flugtag National Harbor Event, Potomac River; National Harbor... (United States)


    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Red Bull Flugtag National... during the ``Red Bull Flugtag National Harbor event,'' to be held on the waters of the Potomac River on... of National Harbor, Maryland, is sponsoring the Red Bull Flugtag National Harbor event, a competition...

  17. 77 FR 14965 - Special Local Regulations; Red Bull Candola, New River, Fort Lauderdale, FL (United States)


    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Red Bull Candola, New River... east of the South Andrews Avenue Bascule Bridge in Fort Lauderdale, Florida for the Red Bull Candola... this rule because the Coast Guard did not receive necessary information about the Red Bull Candola...

  18. On-farm welfare and estimated daily carcass gain of slaughtered bulls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herva, T.; Virtala, A.M.; Huuskonen, A.; Saatkamp, H.W.; Peltoniemi, O.


    Welfare of growing bulls was evaluated using on-farm scoring modified by well-described test theory methods. Production parameters of the bulls were collected at slaughter. A positive relationship was observed between on-farm welfare, using the full A-Index score, and daily carcass gain of bulls.

  19. Testicular cytology indicates differences in Sertoli cell counts between "good freezer" and "poor freezer" bulls. (United States)

    Rajak, Shailendra Kumar; Thippeswamy, Vijetha Bajjalli; Kumaresan, Arumugam; Layek, Siddhartha Shankar; Mohanty, Tushar Kumar; Gaurav, Mukesh Kumar; Chakravarty, Atish Kumar; Datta, Tirtha Kumar; Manimaran, Ayyasamy; Prasad, Shiv


    In artificial insemination, poor quality of semen unsuitable for cryopreservation and susceptibility of spermatozoa to cryodamage in crossbred bulls have been a matter of concern. Present study was designed to identify the testicular cytology indices that might be used to predict the semen quality and cryotolerance of spermatozoa in bulls. Based on the ejaculate rejection rate and sperm cryotolerance, bulls (Holstein Friesian X Tharparkar crossbred) were classified into either good (producing good quality semen with spermatozoa having good cryotolerance; n = 4) or poor (producing poor quality semen with spermatozoa having poor cryotolerance; n = 4). Testicular cytology was studied in all the 8 bulls using fine needle aspiration technique. Testicular cytology of good bulls and poor bulls differed significantly. The proportion of Sertoli cells was significantly higher in good bulls (25.3 ± 1.6) compared to poor bulls (11.0 ± 0.8). The Sertoli cell index was 46.1 ± 5.0 in good bulls while it was only 13.8 ± 1.3 in poor bulls. The cut off values, as determined using Receiver Operating Characteristics analysis, indicate that the bulls having testicular cytogram comprising of 4.0 spermatogenic cells to Sertoli cell ratio might be a poor bull in terms of semen quality and cryotolerance of spermatozoa. The proportion of Sertoli cells in the testicular cytology had positive (P < 0.05) relationship with semen quality and cryotolerance of spermatozoa.

  20. The bull as a source of trichomonosis and lumpy skin disease: An African perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Irons, P.C.


    The use of bulls in breeding herds is regarded as a practical, labour-efficient way of producing a calf crop. However, the risks of a poor crop due to unsatisfactory performance of bulls are significant. The causes of sub- or infertility of the bull are classified under the headings Impotentia


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ahmad, K. Javed1 and A. Sattar


    Full Text Available A study of chromosomal analysis for 200 breeding bulls of different breeds of cattle (Jersey, Holstein Friesian, Sahiwal and Cross-bred and Nili-Ravi buffalo, maintained at Semen Production Unit, Qadirabad and Livestock Experiment Station, Bhunikey (Pattoki was carried out. Micromethod was adopted for leukocyte culture and chromosomes were trapped at metaphase stage. The diploid number of chromosomes in all breeds of cattle was found to be 60 (58 autosomes and 2 sex chromosomes: XY, while this number in Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls was 50 (48 autosomes and 2 sex chromosomes: XY. All the autosomes and sex chromosomes in males of both species were found normal.

  2. Microsatellite analyses of Alameda Creek Rainbow/Steelhead trout (United States)

    Nielsen, Jennifer L.; Fountain, Monique C.


    Microsatellite genetic diversity found in Alameda Creek rainbow trout support a close genetic relationship with coastal trout found in Lagunitas Creek, Marin County, California. No significant genotypic or allelic frequencies associations could be drawn among Alameda Creek trout and fish collected from the four primary rainbow trout hatchery strains in use in California, Whitney, Mount Shasta, Coleman, and Hot Creek strains, indeed, genetic distance analyses (δμ2) supported genetic separation among Alameda Creek trout and hatchery trout with greater than 50% bootstrap values in 1000 replicate neighbor-joining trees. Fish collected for this study from Palo Seco and Sheppard Creeks shared allelic frequencies with both the fish in Alameda Creek and those found in Scott Creek in Santa Cruz County. Fish collected in Horseshoe Creek or San Lorenzo Creek (Alameda County) did not share this unique genetic relationship between Alameda Creek fish and putative wild coastal trout. These two streams had allelic frequencies similar to some hatchery trout strains and to wild trout captured in the Central Valley. These data suggest that there are two possible steelhead ESUs using the tributaries of San Francisco Bay (one coastal and one Central Valley) or that hatchery trout supplementation has impacted some, but not all streams with a subsequent loss of locally adapted genetic characteristics. These data support the implementation of conservation management of rainbow trout in the Alameda Creek drainage as part of the central California coastal steelhead ESU.

  3. Habitat suitability index models: Cutthroat trout (United States)

    Hickman, Terry J.; Raleigh, Robert F.


    Cutthroat trout, Salmo clarki, are a polytypic species consisting of several geographically distinct forms with a broad distribution and a great amount of genetic diversity (Hickman 1978; Behnke 1979). Behnke (1979) recognized 13 extant subspecies: Coastal cutthroat (S. c. clarki) in coastal streams from Prince William Sound, Alaska to the Eel Rlver in California; mountain cutthroat (~. ~. alpestris) in upper Columbia and F~Dser River drainages of British Columbia; west slope cutthroat (S. c. lewisi) in the upper Columbia, Salmon, Clearwater, South Saskatchewan and upper Missouri drainages of Montana and Idaho; an undescribed subspecies in the Alvord basin, Oregon; Lahonton cutthroat (S. c ..henshawi), Pauite cutthroat (S. c. seleniris), and an undescribed- subspecies in the Humboldt River drafnage of the Lahontan basin of Nevada and California; Yellowstone cutthroat (S. c. bouvieri) in the Yellowstone drainage of Wyoming and Montana and the Snake River drainage of Wyoming, Idaho, and Nevada; an undescribed subspecies (fine spotted) in the upper Snake River, Wyoming; Bonneville cutthroat (S. c. utah) in the Bonneville basin in Utah, Nevada, Idaho, and Wyoming; Colorado River cutthroat (~. ~. pleuriticus) in the Colorado River drainage in Wyoming, Utah, New Mexico, and Colorado; greenback cutthroat (S. c. stomias) in the South Platte and Arkansas River systems; and Rio Grande cutthroat (~. ~. virginalis) in the Rio Grande River drainage of Colorado and New Mexico. Many of these 13 subspecies are included on Federal or State endangered or threatened species lists.Temperature and chemical preferences, migration, and other ecological and life history attributes vary among cutthroat subspecies (Behnke 1979). Differences in growth rate (Carlander 1969; Scott and Crossman 1973; Behnke 1979) and food preferences have also been reported (Trojnar and Behnke 1974) between some subspecies.

  4. Semen quality parameters as fertility predictors of water buffalo bull spermatozoa during low-breeding season. (United States)

    Ahmed, Hussain; Andrabi, S Murtaza Hassan; Jahan, Sarwat


    The present study was carried out to assess various postthaw semen quality parameters for the prediction of fertility in buffalo bull during low-breeding season. Semen (30 ejaculates) was collected from five adult buffalo bulls with artificial vagina (42 °C). Sperm motility parameters, velocity distribution, motion kinematics, and subpopulations were analyzed by computer-aided sperm motion analyzer (CASA). Moreover, sperm visual motility, supravital plasma membrane integrity, viability/acrosome integrity, viability/mitochondrial transmembrane potential, DNA fragmentation/integrity, and morphology were analyzed by phase-contrast microscope, supravital hypoosmotic swelling test, Trypan blue/Giemsa staining, propidium iodide/"5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolyl carbocyanine iodide" (JC-1) fluorochromes, neutral comet assay/acridine orange assay and wet mount technique, respectively. Outcome of 528 inseminations was analyzed for in vivo fertility. Pearson's correlation coefficients revealed that sperm progressive motility (%), rapid velocity (%), average path velocity (μm/s), straight line velocity (μm/s), subpopulation one (most rapid, and progressive) of motile spermatozoa (%), supravital plasma membrane integrity (%), and viable spermatozoa with intact acrosome (%) were significantly correlated with in vivo fertility (r = 0.64, P comet length (μm) of neutral comet assay were negatively associated with in vivo fertility (r = -0.79, r = -0.75, P sperm structural and functional parameters, that is, integrity of plasma membrane and acrosome, and transmembrane potential of mitochondria were able to predict the in vivo fertility of water buffalo bull during low-breeding season. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Genome incompatibility between rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and sea trout (Salmo trutta) and induction of the interspecies gynogenesis. (United States)

    Polonis, Marcin; Fujimoto, Takafumi; Dobosz, Stefan; Zalewski, Tomasz; Ocalewicz, Konrad


    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) and sea trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus, 1758) show large karyotypic differences and their hybrid offspring is not viable due to unstable karyotype and chromosome fragmentation. However, gametes from these two species were used to induce gynogenetic development. Rainbow trout eggs activated by UV-irradiated sea trout sperm were subjected to high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) shock to prevent release of the 2nd polar body (early shock) or to inhibit the first cleavage (late shock) in order to produce diploid meiotic gynogenotes and gynogenetic doubled haploids (DHs), respectively. Cytogenetic analysis proved fish that development was induced by the sea trout spermatozoa were rainbow trout. In turn, molecular examination confirmed homozygosity of the gynogenetic DHs. Presumed appearance of the recessive alleles resulted in lower survival of the gynogenetic DH larvae (~25%) when compared to survival of the heterozygous (meiotic) gynogenotes (c. 50%). Our results proved that genomic incompatibilities between studied trout species result in the hybrid unviability. However, artificial gynogenesis including activation of rainbow trout eggs with UV-irradiated sea trout spermatozoa was successfully induced. As both species are unable to cross, application of the UV-irradiated sea trout spermatozoa to activate rainbow trout development assures only maternal inheritance with no contamination by the residues of the paternal chromosomes.

  6. The effects of overwinter flowson the spring condition of rainbow and brown trout size classes in the Green River downstream of Flaming Gorge Dam, Utah.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnusson, A. K.; LaGory, K. E.; Hayse, J. W.; Environmental Science Division


    Flaming Gorge Dam, a hydroelectric facility operated by the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), is located on the Green River in Daggett County, northeastern Utah. Until recently, and since the early 1990s, single daily peak releases or steady flows have been the operational pattern of the dam during the winter period. However, releases from Flaming Gorge Reservoir followed a double-peak pattern (two daily flow peaks) during the winters of 2006-2007 and 2008-2009. Because there is little recent long-term history of double-peaking at Flaming Gorge Dam, the potential effects of double-peaking operations on trout body condition in the dam's tailwater are not known. A study plan was developed that identified research activities to evaluate potential effects from winter double-peaking operations (Hayse et al. 2009). Along with other tasks, the study plan identified the need to conduct a statistical analysis of historical trout condition and macroinvertebrate abundance to evaluate the potential effects of hydropower operations. The results from analyses based on the combined size classes of trout (85-630 mm) were presented in Magnusson et al. (2008). The results of this earlier analysis suggested possible relationships between trout condition and flow, but concern that some of the relationships resulted from size-based effects (e.g., apparent changes in condition may have been related to concomitant changes in size distribution, because small trout may have responded differently to flow than large trout) prompted additional analysis of within-size class relationships. This report presents the results of analyses of three different size classes of trout (small: 200-299 mm, medium: 300-399 mm, and large: {ge}400 mm body length). We analyzed historical data to (1) describe temporal patterns and relationships among flows, benthic macroinvertebrate abundance, and condition of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the tailwaters of Flaming

  7. Feed efficiency and carcass and meat quality characteristics of bulls ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The inclusion of 8% SBP significantly improved panel ratings for tenderness, juiciness, beef flavour intensity and general acceptance, as well as number of chews before swallowing and the Warner Bratzler Shear value. Proximate analysis of the meat did not demonstrate differences between meat from the bulls fed C and ...

  8. Bulls, Goats, and Pedagogy: Engaging Students in Overseas Development Aid (United States)

    Miles, William F. S.


    This article illustrates the profound learning that occurs--for students and instructor alike--when a class on third-world development attempts to undertake foreign aid. With undergraduate, graduate, and departmental money, I purchased bulls and carts for farmers, and goats for widows, in two West African villages. Such experiential learning…

  9. binding globulin gene of Bubalus bubalis bulls in Egypt

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    This study was carried out on 67 adult buffalo bulls of the species Bubalus bubalis from different farms in. Damietta and .... result of the development and functional differentiation of the testis (Sharma et al. 1984 .... Gulia S., Sarkar M., Kumar V., Meyer H. H. D. and Prakash B. S. 2010 Divergent development of testosterone.

  10. Fusarium graminearum in a Papilloma Virus Infected Friesian Bull in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fusarium graminearum in a Papilloma Virus Infected Friesian Bull in Vom, Nigeria: Case Report. IO Fagbamila, CA Meseko, JA Adedeji, SS Ngulukun, Y Akalusi, JS Dalis, BO Akanbi, NJ Zwandor, J Okpara, PI Ankeli, OO Asala, L Taama, M Muhammad ...

  11. Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 1998, 12(1)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 1998, 12(1), 69-77. ISSN 1011-3294. Printed in Ethiopia @ 1998 Chemical Society of Ethiopia ... The electrochemical cell and the reference electrodes used were the same as those described in ref. 6. RE ... potential. Further details are available in ref. 9. For comparison the capacitance values of.

  12. Bulls and bears: the stock market and clinical pathology research. (United States)

    Khong, T Y


    To analyse the level of funded research in clinical pathology in a recent bear and bull market to act as a predictor for future funding during the current global financial crisis. The level of funding for research published in three clinical pathology journals in 2005 and 2008 to coincide with the bear market of March 2000 to October 2002 and with the subsequent bull market to October 2007 was determined using a Medline query. Other parameters examined were the type of article, affiliation of the first author and the pathology subspecialty. Approximately 30% of publications were funded and did not differ between the 2 years studied. Original research papers were more likely to be funded than case reports or reviews. Research from university departments of pathology was more likely to be funded than from hospital pathology departments but there were more publications from hospital pathology departments. The proportion of research in the different subspecialties that was funded did not differ significantly between each other and between 2005 and 2008. Based on data from the previous bear market, which was the longest and deepest of the post 1950 era, and the subsequent bull market, which led to the all-time high in the Dow Jones Industrial Index, funding for clinical pathology research does not seem to be affected by bull or bear markets.

  13. Cytotoxic triterpenoids from the mushroom Clavulina cinerea (Bull) J ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    C. cinerea (Bull) J. Schröt (Lyophyllaceae) is among the many edible mushrooms in Kenya and is also traditionally regarded as a complementary medicine for chronically-ill people. The use of these mushrooms in the East African prompted this investigation in which the phytochemistry and potential anti-cancer activity was ...

  14. Record Litter Size for the Bull Shark, Carcharhinus leucas (Muller ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the morning of 25 September 2013, a large female bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas, was landed in Port Victoria, Seychelles. It had been caught on an anchored long line set the previous evening, within 100 m of the main fishing quay. The female exhibited an unusually large girth for this heavy-set species. The shark ...

  15. Welfare aspects of theriogenology: investigating alternatives to electroejaculation of bulls. (United States)

    Palmer, Colin W


    Evaluation of the breeding soundness of bulls is an important management tool. Electroejaculation has been a reliable method of obtaining a semen sample for the purpose of evaluating breeding soundness, but is considered by some to be inhumane on the grounds that it is painful. This paper provides a review of studies conducted to find ways to both measure, as well as lessen, pain associated with electroejaculation, and to explore alternatives to electroejaculation in bulls. Changes in heart rate, serum cortisol, serum progesterone, relative aversion, and degrees of vocalization, struggling and lying down have been used to assess the pain associated with electroejaculation. Transrectal massage and artificial vaginas, and oxytocin and cloprostenol have been investigated as alternatives to, and facilitators of electroejaculation, respectively. Epidural, intravenous and topical anesthetics have been used to ameliorate the pain associated with electroejaculation. Serum progesterone and degrees of vocalization are useful for measuring the pain associated with electroejaculation in bulls. Transrectal massage and artificial vaginas are not as efficacious as electroejaculation for obtaining a semen sample and drugs used to facilitate or decrease pain associated with electroejaculation have not been efficacious enough to warrant use. Transrectal massage of the ampullae may be of some use as an alternative to electroejaculation in docile bulls and may be also be used to decrease the duration of subsequent electroejaculation. Pain associated with electroejaculation may be influenced by operator technique; therefore, operators of electroejaculator equipment must strive to apply electrical stimulation as gently as possible.

  16. The Missing Manuscript of Dr. Jose Delgado's Radio Controlled Bulls. (United States)

    Marzullo, Timothy C


    Neuroscience systems level courses teach: 1) the role of neuroanatomical structures of the brain for perception, movement, and cognition; 2) methods to manipulate and study the brain including lesions, electrophysiological recordings, microstimulation, optogenetics, and pharmacology; 3) proper interpretation of behavioral data to deduce brain circuit operation; and 4) the similarities, differences, and ethics of animal models and their relation to human physiology. These four topics come together quite dramatically in Dr. Jose Delgado's 1960s famous experiments on the neural correlates of aggression in which he stopped bulls in mid-charge by electrically stimulating basal ganglia and thalamic structures. Technical documentation on these experiments is famously difficult to find. Here I translate and discuss a Spanish language article written by Dr. Delgado in 1981 for an encyclopedia on bull fighting published in Madrid. Here Dr. Delgado appears to give the most complete explanation of his experiments on microstimulation of bovine brains. Dr. Delgado's motivations, methods, and his interpretation of the bull experiments are summarized, as well as some accompanying information from his 1970 English language book: "Physical Control of the Mind." This review of Dr. Delgado's written work on the bull experiments can provide a resource to educators and students who desire to learn more about and interpret the attention-calling experiments that Dr. Delgado did on a ranch in Andalucía over 50 years ago.

  17. Bull's Mental Skills Questionnaire validation in an Afrikaans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this research was to validate the Bull's Mental Skills Questionnaire in an Afrikaans speaking population. An Afrikaans version of the scale was developed through a rigorous translation and back translation procedure. The scale was administered to a convenience sample of 674 first to third year, Human ...

  18. 75 FR 25794 - Regulated Navigation Area: Red Bull Air Race World Championship, Upper New York Bay, Lower Hudson... (United States)


    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA08 Regulated Navigation Area: Red Bull Air Race World... State Park, New Jersey and Ellis Island, New Jersey and New York for the Red Bull Air Race World... Register. Basis and Purpose Red Bull Air Race GmbH is sponsoring the Red Bull Air Race World Championship...

  19. The problem of sampling families rather than populations: Relatedness among individuals in samples of juvenile brown trout Salmo trutta L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Mensberg, Karen-Lise Dons


    In species exhibiting a nonrandom distribution of closely related individuals, sampling of a few families may lead to biased estimates of allele frequencies in populations. This problem was studied in two brown trout populations, based on analysis of mtDNA and microsatellites. In both samples mt......DNA haplotype frequencies differed significantly between age classes, and in one sample 17 out of 18 individuals less than 1 year of age shared one particular mtDNA haplotype. Estimates of relatedness showed that these individuals most likely represented only three full-sib families. Older trout exhibiting...

  20. An immunohistochemical study of Flexibacter psychrophilus infection in experimentally and naturally infected rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evensen, O.; Lorenzen, Ellen


    An immunohistochemical method is described for the detection of Flexibacter psychrophilus in formalin-fixed, parafiin-wax-embedded fry of rainbow trout. Rabbit antiserum as well as rainbow trout hyperimmune serum were used in the study. The distribution and tissue localization of the bacterium...... and experimentally infected fry showed that there was a localization of bacteria in the monocyte-macrophage system, in skin lesions, and in the retina and the choroid gland of the eye. The dermal changes included superficial or deep ulcers extending to the subcutaneous tissue or the musculature accompanied...... polymorphonuclear) cells. F. psychrophilus infection in rainbow trout fry involves the monocyte-macrophage system extensively, and the concurrent localization of bacteria in the skin ulcers and retinal inflammation points to the probable involvement of the bacterium in the development of the lesions which...

  1. Microsatellite analyses of San Franciscuito Creek rainbow trout (United States)

    Nielsen, Jennifer L.


    Microsatellite genetic diversity found in San Francisquito Creek rainbow trout support a close genetic relationship with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from another tributary of San Francisco Bay, Alameda Creek, and coastal trout found in Lagunitas Creek, Marin County, California. Fish collected for this study from San Francisquito Creek showed a closer genetic relationship to fish from the north-central California steelhead ESU than for any other listed group of O. mykiss. No significant genotypic or allelic frequency associations could be drawn between San Francisquito Creek trout and fish collected from the four primary rainbow trout hatchery strains in use in California, i.e. Whitney, Mount Shasta, Coleman, and Hot Creek hatchery fish. Indeed, genetic distance analyses (δµ2) supported separation between San Francisquito Creek trout and all hatchery trout with 68% bootstrap values in 1000 replicate neighbor-joining trees. Not surprisingly, California hatchery rainbow trout showed their closest evolutionary relationships with contemporary stocks derived from the Sacramento River. Wild collections of rainbow trout from the Sacramento-San Joaquin basin in the Central Valley were also clearly separable from San Francisquito Creek fish supporting separate, independent ESUs for two groups of O. mykiss (one coastal and one Central Valley) with potentially overlapping life histories in San Francisco Bay. These data support the implementation of management and conservation programs for rainbow trout in the San Francisquito Creek drainage as part of the central California coastal steelhead ESU.

  2. Genetic evaluation of a Great Lakes lake trout hatchery program (United States)

    Page, K.S.; Scribner, K.T.; Bast, D.; Holey, M.E.; Burnham-Curtis, M. K.


    Efforts over several decades to restore lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in U.S. waters of the upper Great Lakes have emphasized the stocking of juveniles from each of six hatchery broodstocks. Retention of genetic diversity across all offspring life history stages throughout the hatchery system has been an important component of the restoration hatchery and stocking program. Different stages of the lake trout hatchery program were examined to determine how effective hatchery practices have been in minimizing the loss of genetic diversity in broodstock adults and in progeny stocked. Microsatellite loci were used to estimate allele frequencies, measures of genetic diversity, and relatedness for wild source populations, hatchery broodstocks, and juveniles. We also estimated the effective number of breeders for each broodstock. Hatchery records were used to track destinations of fertilized eggs from all spawning dates to determine whether adult contributions to stocking programs were proportional to reproductive effort. Overall, management goals of maintaining genetic diversity were met across all stages of the hatchery program; however, we identified key areas where changes in mating regimes and in the distribution of fertilized gametes and juveniles could be improved. Estimates of effective breeding population size (Nb) were 9-41% of the total number of adults spawned. Low estimates of Nb were primarily attributed to spawning practices, including the pooling of gametes from multiple males and females and the reuse of males. Nonrandom selection and distribution of fertilized eggs before stocking accentuated declines in effective breeding population size and increased levels of relatedness of juveniles distributed to different rearing facilities and stocking locales. Adoption of guidelines that decrease adult reproductive variance and promote more equitable reproductive contributions of broodstock adults to juveniles would further enhance management goals of

  3. Chapter 3. Rio Grande cutthroat trout (United States)

    John N. Rinne


    The Rio Grande cutthroat trout was once widespread in the upper Rio Grande and Canadian River basins of northern New Mexico and south-central Colorado and in the headwaters of the Pecos River, New Mexico (Sublette et al. 1990; Behnke 1992). It may have occurred as far south as Chihuahua, Mexico (Behnke 1992). Currently, it is restricted primarily to headwater...

  4. Molecular characterization of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Microsatellite markers in combination with recent statistical approaches represent a useful tool for genetic characteriza- tion which ultimately supports the management of cultured stocks. These markers have been successfully used to eva- luate the wild and farm stocks of rainbow trout in western. Australia (Ward et al.

  5. Molecular characterization of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 94; Online resources. Molecular characterization of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792) stocks in India. Ashoktaru Barat Prabhati K. Sahoo Rohit Kumar Javaid I. Mir Shahnawaz Ali Rabindar S. Patiyal Atul K. Singh. Volume 94 Online resources 2015 pp e13- ...

  6. Stocking impact and migration pattern in an anadromous brown trout ( Salmo trutta ) complex: where have all the stocked spawning sea trout gone?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzzante, D.E.; Hansen, Michael Møller; Meldrup, Dorte


    abandoned in the early 1990s, the proportion of sea trout of domestic origin was only 8.5%. Interestingly, for all three regional sea trout groups, virtually no sea trout of hatchery origin were found among the spawning individuals, which were on average larger than the nonspawning sea trout. These results...

  7. Determination of habitat requirements for Apache Trout (United States)

    Petre, Sally J.; Bonar, Scott A.


    The Apache Trout Oncorhynchus apache, a salmonid endemic to east-central Arizona, is currently listed as threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Establishing and maintaining recovery streams for Apache Trout and other endemic species requires determination of their specific habitat requirements. We built upon previous studies of Apache Trout habitat by defining both stream-specific and generalized optimal and suitable ranges of habitat criteria in three streams located in the White Mountains of Arizona. Habitat criteria were measured at the time thought to be most limiting to juvenile and adult life stages, the summer base flow period. Based on the combined results from three streams, we found that Apache Trout use relatively deep (optimal range = 0.15–0.32 m; suitable range = 0.032–0.470 m) pools with slow stream velocities (suitable range = 0.00–0.22 m/s), gravel or smaller substrate (suitable range = 0.13–2.0 [Wentworth scale]), overhead cover (suitable range = 26–88%), and instream cover (large woody debris and undercut banks were occupied at higher rates than other instream cover types). Fish were captured at cool to moderate temperatures (suitable range = 10.4–21.1°C) in streams with relatively low maximum seasonal temperatures (optimal range = 20.1–22.9°C; suitable range = 17.1–25.9°C). Multiple logistic regression generally confirmed the importance of these variables for predicting the presence of Apache Trout. All measured variables except mean velocity were significant predictors in our model. Understanding habitat needs is necessary in managing for persistence, recolonization, and recruitment of Apache Trout. Management strategies such as fencing areas to restrict ungulate use and grazing and planting native riparian vegetation might favor Apache Trout persistence and recolonization by providing overhead cover and large woody debris to form pools and instream cover, shading streams and lowering temperatures.

  8. Demographic changes following mechanical removal of exotic brown trout in an Intermountain West (USA), high-elevation stream (United States)

    Saunders, W. Carl; Budy, Phaedra E.; Thiede, Gary P.


    Exotic species present a great threat to native fish conservation; however, eradicating exotics is expensive and often impractical. Mechanical removal can be ineffective for eradication, but nonetheless may increase management effectiveness by identifying portions of a watershed that are strong sources of exotics. We used mechanical removal to understand processes driving exotic brown trout (Salmo trutta) populations in the Logan River, Utah. Our goals were to: (i) evaluate the demographic response of brown trout to mechanical removal, (ii) identify sources of brown trout recruitment at a watershed scale and (iii) evaluate whether mechanical removal can reduce brown trout densities. We removed brown trout from 2 km of the Logan River (4174 fish), and 5.6 km of Right Hand Fork (RHF, 15,245 fish), a low-elevation tributary, using single-pass electrofishing. We compared fish abundance and size distributions prior to, and after 2 years of mechanical removal. In the Logan River, immigration to the removal reach and high natural variability in fish abundances limited the response to mechanical removal. In contrast, mechanical removal in RHF resulted in a strong recruitment pulse, shifting the size distribution towards smaller fish. These results suggest that, before removal, density-dependent mortality or emigration of juvenile fish stabilised adult populations and may have provided a source of juveniles to the main stem. Overall, in sites demonstrating strong density-dependent population regulation, or near sources of exotics, short-term mechanical removal has limited effects on brown trout populations but may help identify factors governing populations and inform large-scale management of exotic species.

  9. Combining inferences from models of capture efficiency, detectability, and suitable habitat to classify landscapes for conservation of threatened bull trout (United States)

    James T. Peterson; Jason Dunham


    Effective conservation efforts for at-risk species require knowledge of the locations of existing populations. Species presence can be estimated directly by conducting field-sampling surveys or alternatively by developing predictive models. Direct surveys can be expensive and inefficient, particularly for rare and difficult- to-sample species, and models of species...

  10. Cod and rainbow trout as freeze-chilled meal elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard; Nielsen, Jette; Jørgensen, Bo


    Meal elements' are elements of a meal, e.g. portions of pre-fried meat, sauces, frozen fish or pre-processed vegetables typically prepared industrially. The meal elements are distributed to professional satellite kitchens, where the staff can combine them into complete meals. Freeze......-chilling is a process consisting of freezing and frozen storage followed by thawing and chilled storage. Combining the two would enable the manufacturer to produce large quantities of frozen meal elements to be released into the chill chain according to demand. We have studied the influence of freeze...... and cod and rainbow trout seem potential candidates for freeze-chilled meal elements. (C) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry...

  11. Sensitivity of Trout to Chronic Acute Exposure to Selenium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunnar Gissel; Nielsen, M. Gissel


    Trout were exposed to selenite (Na2SeO3) solutions of varying concentrations (0.1-100 ppm Se) for periods of up to 4 wk. A chronic exposure to 0.1 ppm Se or less is non-lethal to trout. Lethality at higher concentrations depends on the length of exposure. Trout that survive for 10 days in tap-wat...

  12. Ultrasound Imaging of Testes and Epididymides of Normal and Infertile Breeding Bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Mahmood Ali, Nazir Ahmad*, Nafees Akhtar, Shujait Ali, Maqbool Ahmad and Muhammad Younis1


    Full Text Available Echotexture of testes and epididymides from 10 slaughtered male buffaloes was studied. Diameter of testis and mediastinum testis was measured by ultrasound and compared with respective values taken by calipers. Testes and epididymides of another 10 fertile and 10 infertile breeding bulls were examined in vivo through manual palpation and ultrasound imaging. Semen quality of these bulls was also monitored. There were significant (P<0.01 positive correlations between ultrasound and calipers values of all parameters. The testicular parenchyma of fertile bulls was uniformly homogeneous and moderately echogenic. Epididymal tail was more heterogeneous and less echogenic, while epididymal head was homogeneous and less echogenic, than the testicular parenchyma. The epididymal body appeared as hypoechoic structure with echogenic margin. Among 10 infertile bulls, nine had poor semen quality, while one bull failed to give any ejaculate. On ultrasonography, six bulls showed abnormalities in their scrotal echotexture. Among these, one had an abundance of hyperechoic areas scattered in the testicular parenchyma, some of these showed acoustic shadowing, showing testicular degenerations with mineralization. The second bull showed many anechoic areas in the testes and epididymal head, demarcated from the rest of the organ by well defined margins. In the third bull, three-fourth of the right testis showed hyperechoic areas, suspected of testicular degeneration with mineralization. The fourth bull had two anechoic areas in one testis assumed to represent dilated blood vessel. The fifth bull showed small hyperechoic areas within the testicular parenchyma. The sixth bull showed an anechoic area with distinct hyperechogenic margin below the testicular tunics. The remaining four bulls had normal echogenicity of testes and epididymides in spite of poor semen quality. In conclusion, diagnostic ultrasound may be included in breeding soundness examination of breeding

  13. Correlation between Leukocyte Numbers and Body Size of Rainbow Trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammad, Rezkar Jaafar; Otani, Maki; Kania, Per Walter


    Immune cells in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss comprise granulocytes (neutrophils, basophils and eosinophils), macrophages/monocytes and lymphocytes (B- and T-cells). These cellular elements occur early during the ontogenetic development of trout and allow both innate and adaptive responses...... wild and cultured fish and we show that the size of the leukocyte population increases exponentially with body size of rainbow trout. Four groups (5 fish/group) of naive rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) with a mean body weight of 2 - 4 g (group I), 4 - 6 g (group II), 25 - 30 g (group III), and 650...

  14. Production of trout offspring from triploid salmon parents. (United States)

    Okutsu, Tomoyuki; Shikina, Shinya; Kanno, Megumi; Takeuchi, Yutaka; Yoshizaki, Goro


    Many salmonids have become at risk of extinction. For teleosts whose eggs cannot be cryopreserved, developing techniques other than egg cryopreservation to save genetic resources is imperative. In this study, spermatogonia from rainbow trout were intraperitoneally transplanted into newly hatched sterile triploid masu salmon. Transplanted trout spermatogonia underwent spermatogenesis and oogenesis in male and female recipients, respectively. At 2 years after transplantation, triploid salmon recipients only produced trout sperm and eggs. With use of these salmon as parents, we successfully produced only donor-derived trout offspring. Thus, by transplanting cryopreserved spermatogonia into sterile xenogeneic recipients, we can generate individuals of a threatened species.

  15. the description of growth in beef bulls

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Digatibility of diea. The object of the digestibility trial was twofold, to determine if apparent digestibility of energy (DE) differs between genotlpes at ad lib. ntake and to deter- mine if DE changes with time. Faeces collections were consequently made every two to three weeks. The cahes were distributed at random between ...

  16. Environmental Enrichment in Kennelled Pit Bull Terriers (Canis lupus familiaris)


    Kiddie, Jenna; Bodymore, Anna; Alex, Dittrich


    Simple Summary Rescue shelters, although set-up with good intentions, may lead to poor welfare of the animals that they house, especially when the shelter organisation is under-resourced. This study therefore investigated the behavioural effects of cheap and locally accessible objects added to the cages of rescued Pit Bull Terrier type dogs in the Philippines to determine whether it is possible for shelter organisations with limited funds and staffing to improve the welfare of their dogs with...

  17. Inquisitorial bulls : Ad Abolendam (1184 and Vergentis in Senium (1199

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Duarte Rust


    Full Text Available In this paper we present two important medieval documents, the decretals Ad Abolendam (1184 and Vergentis in Senium (1199, in a bilingual edition, Latin-Portuguese. Usually described as "the founding texts of Inquisition", these bulls record the political scene at the end of the 12th century. Unpublished in Portuguese, the translation comes to public with a brief introductory text and some notes for historical information.

  18. Nutrient intake, digestibility and rumen metabolites in bulls fed rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrient intake, digestibility and rumen metabolites were determined in rumen - cannulated bulls fed rice straw or straw supplemented with urea, groundnut hay or cotton seed cake. Total dry matter intake (DMI) ranged from 7.55 Lo 8.29kg/d or 3.66 to 4.04% of liveweight and from 6.48 to 7. 21 kg/d for organic matter.

  19. The Papal Bulls on Papyrus: an Approach to their Conservation


    Bello, Carmen; Borrell, Àngels


    There are few Papal bulls on Papyrus, it is a support difficult to find and to preserve, and that’s why we have to consider them like an exceptional historic and cultural heritage, especially in Catalonia where some important collections are preserved. Our work over the years has been studying, documenting and preserving these extraordinary documents and setting some precedents which will serve as a good model for their documentation and for any action on conservation or restoration in the fu...

  20. A trial of two trouts: Comparing the impacts of rainbow and brown trout on a native galaxiid (United States)

    Young, K.A.; Dunham, J.B.; Stephenson, J.F.; Terreau, A.; Thailly, A.F.; Gajardo, G.; de Leaniz, C. G.


    Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and brown trout Salmo trutta are the world's two most widespread exotic fishes, dominate the fish communities of most cold-temperate waters in the southern hemisphere and are implicated in the decline and extirpation of native fish species. Here, we provide the first direct comparison of the impacts of rainbow and brown trout on populations of a native fish by quantifying three components of exotic species impact: range, abundance and effect. We surveyed 54 small streams on the island of Chilo?? in Chilean Patagonia and found that the rainbow trout has colonized significantly more streams and has a wider geographic range than brown trout. The two species had similar post-yearling abundances in allopatry and sympatry, and their abundances depended similarly on reach-level variation in the physical habitat. The species appeared to have dramatically different effects on native drift-feeding Aplochiton spp., which were virtually absent from streams invaded by brown trout but shared a broad sympatric range with rainbow trout. Within this range, the species' post-yearling abundances varied independently before and after controlling for variation in the physical habitat. In the north of the island, Aplochiton spp. inhabited streams uninvaded by exotic trouts. Our results provide a context for investigating the mechanisms responsible for apparent differences in rainbow and brown trout invasion biology and can help inform conservation strategies for native fishes in Chilo?? and elsewhere. ?? 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation ?? 2010 The Zoological Society of London.

  1. Discerning between Giant Kelp and Bull Kelp in AVIRIS Imagery (United States)

    Thompson, T. J.; Kudela, R. M.; Bausell, J.


    Kelp forests are an important staple of sub-tidal coastal ecosystems in the subtropical and temperate zones. Two species of kelp form the backbone of the northeastern Pacific coast's kelp forests: bull kelp (Nereocystis Luetkeana) and giant kelp (Macrocystis Pyrifera). In recent years, these species have been declining at an alarming rate due to warmer water temperatures and the rising abundance of purple urchins, which feed on kelp holdfasts. Additionally, in situ measurements have indicated that this rapid decline is especially severe for bull kelp. However, because of assumptions about the spectral similarity of these two kinds of kelp, oceanographers do not have a good idea of their relative prevalence on a large scale. In this study, data from 2013 AVIRIS runs are used to investigate the spectral separability of bull kelp and giant kelp. Two machine-learning-based methods of distinguishing are presented, one involving spectral angle comparison and the other using linear unmixing techniques. Reference endmembers are selected from kelp beds near Manchester and Fort Ross in northern California and Santa Barbara in southern California. These are then verified using survey data from Reef Check. The two methods are then tested on pixels taken from kelp beds in the vicinity of Monterey and Carmel, CA. The results show some spectral separability of the two kinds of kelp, as well as potential for application in large-scale surveying operations.

  2. Do native brown trout and non-native brook trout interact reproductively? (United States)

    Cucherousset, J.; Aymes, J. C.; Poulet, N.; Santoul, F.; Céréghino, R.


    Reproductive interactions between native and non-native species of fish have received little attention compared to other types of interactions such as predation or competition for food and habitat. We studied the reproductive interactions between non-native brook trout ( Salvelinus fontinalis) and native brown trout ( Salmo trutta) in a Pyrenees Mountain stream (SW France). We found evidence of significant interspecific interactions owing to consistent spatial and temporal overlap in redd localizations and spawning periods. We observed mixed spawning groups composed of the two species, interspecific subordinate males, and presence of natural hybrids (tiger trout). These reproductive interactions could be detrimental to the reproduction success of both species. Our study shows that non-native species might have detrimental effects on native species via subtle hybridization behavior.

  3. Pracovní využití teriérů typu bull


    TÖRÖKOVÁ, Jacquelina


    This work deals with the history of born, origin, domestication of the dog and various types of bull terriers. Pointing at the crossing of the Bulldog with a black terrier. This work also deals with the different types of dogs Bull, their character, description. This work answers the question, ?Why the pit bull is not dangerous to people", evaluates conflict situations, and shows how conflicts can occur. It mentions the current differences and cons of each breed. It places an attempt to creat...

  4. Inconsistent identification of pit bull-type dogs by shelter staff. (United States)

    Olson, K R; Levy, J K; Norby, B; Crandall, M M; Broadhurst, J E; Jacks, S; Barton, R C; Zimmerman, M S


    Shelter staff and veterinarians routinely make subjective dog breed identification based on appearance, but their accuracy regarding pit bull-type breeds is unknown. The purpose of this study was to measure agreement among shelter staff in assigning pit bull-type breed designations to shelter dogs and to compare breed assignments with DNA breed signatures. In this prospective cross-sectional study, four staff members at each of four different shelters recorded their suspected breed(s) for 30 dogs; there was a total of 16 breed assessors and 120 dogs. The terms American pit bull terrier, American Staffordshire terrier, Staffordshire bull terrier, pit bull, and their mixes were included in the study definition of 'pit bull-type breeds.' Using visual identification only, the median inter-observer agreements and kappa values in pair-wise comparisons of each of the staff breed assignments for pit bull-type breed vs. not pit bull-type breed ranged from 76% to 83% and from 0.44 to 0.52 (moderate agreement), respectively. Whole blood was submitted to a commercial DNA testing laboratory for breed identification. Whereas DNA breed signatures identified only 25 dogs (21%) as pit bull-type, shelter staff collectively identified 62 (52%) dogs as pit bull-type. Agreement between visual and DNA-based breed assignments varied among individuals, with sensitivity for pit bull-type identification ranging from 33% to 75% and specificity ranging from 52% to 100%. The median kappa value for inter-observer agreement with DNA results at each shelter ranged from 0.1 to 0.48 (poor to moderate). Lack of consistency among shelter staff indicated that visual identification of pit bull-type dogs was unreliable. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Joint disorder; a contributory cause to reproductive failure in beef bulls?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekman Stina


    Full Text Available Abstract The lame sire, unsound for breeding, can cause substantial economic loss due to reduced pregnancies in the beef-producing herd. To test the hypothesis that joint disorder is a possible cause of infertility in beef sires, right and left hind limb bones from 34 beef sires were examined postmortem to identify lesions in the femorotibial, femoropatellar (stifle, tarsocrural, talocalcaneus, and proximal intertarsal (tarsal joints. The bulls were slaughtered during or after the breeding season due to poor fertility results. Aliquots of the cauda epididymal contents taken postmortem from 26 bulls were used for sperm morphology evaluation. As a control, hind limbs (but no semen samples from 11 beef bulls with good fertility results were included. Almost all infertile bulls (30/34 had lesions in at least one joint. Twenty-eight bulls (28/30, 93% had lesions in the stifle joint, and 24 (24/28, 86% of these were bilateral. Fourteen bulls (14/30, 47% had lesions in the tarsal joint, and 10 (10/14, 71% of these were bilateral. Four bulls (4/34, 12% had no lesions, three bulls (3/34, 9% had mild osteoarthritis (OA, 5 (5/34, 15% moderate OA, 17 (17/34, 50% severe OA and 5 (5/34, 15% deformed OA. Almost all OA lesions (97% were characterized as lesions secondary to osteochondrosis dissecans. All the bulls with satisfactory sperm morphology (n = 12/34 had joint lesions, with mostly severe or deformed bilateral lesions (83%. Consequently, the most likely cause of infertility in these 12 bulls was joint disease. Almost all control bulls (10/11 had OA lesions, but most of them were graded as mild (55% or moderate (36%. None of the control bulls had severe lesions or deformed OA. We suggest that joint lesions should be taken into consideration as a contributory cause of reproductive failure in beef sires without symptoms of lameness.

  6. Soil Geochemical Control Over Nematode Populations in Bull Pass, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica (United States)

    Poage, M. A.; Barrett, J. E.; Virginia, R. A.; Wall, D. H.


    The McMurdo Dry Valleys occupy the largest ice-free region of Antarctica and are characterized by climatic conditions among the most extreme on Earth. Despite the harsh environmental conditions, some soils of the dry valleys host simple low-diversity ecosystems dominated by microbes and several taxa of metazoans, predominantly nematodes. Distributions, abundance, and diversity of these biota appear to be related to the highly variable soil geochemistry (pH, conductivity, nitrate, sulfate, chloride) of the dry valleys. Bull Pass is a glacially carved valley within the dry valleys. An ancient lake margin near the valley floor creates a continuous gradient spanning the full range of geochemical parameters found across the entire McMurdo Dry Valleys system. This unique setting provides the opportunity to systematically investigate the soil geochemical control on local biodiversity and establish, on the spatial scale of hundreds of meters, correlations between nematode populations and individual geochemical parameters that have application at the regional scale. We measured soil geochemistry and nematode population data from a 1500-meter transect across this ancient lake margin. There were significant negative correlations between live nematode abundance and concentrations of soil nitrate, sulfate and chloride as well as total soil salinity, consistent with recent laboratory experiments showing strong salinity inhibition of nematode survival. A logistical regression analysis based on a compilation of published datasets from across the dry valleys was designed to calculate the probably of live nematode populations occurring given a particular soil chemistry, using the dataset from the Bull Pass transect as a case study to field-test the model. Small-scale chemical and biological gradients can provide insights on the distribution of soil biota at much larger regional scales.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M.S. Lestari


    Full Text Available This study was set up to evaluate the performance of Java and Ongole Crossbred (OC bulls fedconcentrate and rice straw. A total of four Java bulls and four OC bulls were used in this experiment. Thebulls were fed concentrates (50% of the total dry matter feed requirement and rice straw (ad libitum.The concentrates were consisted of rice bran, beer waste product, copra meal, minerals, with crudeprotein (CP and total digestible nutrients (TDN contents of 15.32% and 73.09%, respectively. Theaverage daily gain (ADG, dry matter intake (DMI, protein and energy intake, and feed conversion ratio(FCR were observed. The results of this study showed that the ADG, DMI, CP and TDN intake, andFCR were not significantly different (p> 0.05. The ADG of Java and OC bulls were 0.58 kg and 0.78kg, respectively. The averages of DMI, CP and TDN intake were 6.59 kg (2.09% of BW, 0.81 kg and4.34 kg for Java bulls whereas for OC bulls were 6.42 kg (2.11% of BW, 0.78 kg, and 4.20 kg,respectively. The FCR of Java bulls was 11.49 and those of OC bulls was 9.21. It can be concluded thatJava and OC bulls raised intensively and fed concentrate and rice straw had the similar performance.

  8. Enhanced early-life nutrition promotes hormone production and reproductive development in Holstein bulls. (United States)

    Dance, Alysha; Thundathil, Jacob; Wilde, Randy; Blondin, Patrick; Kastelic, John


    Holstein bull calves often reach artificial insemination centers in suboptimal body condition. Early-life nutrition is reported to increase reproductive performance in beef bulls. The objective was to determine whether early-life nutrition in Holstein bulls had effects similar to those reported in beef bulls. Twenty-six Holstein bull calves were randomly allocated into 3 groups at approximately 1 wk of age to receive a low-, medium-, or high-nutrition diet, based on levels of energy and protein, from 2 to 31 wk of age. Calves were on their respective diets until 31 wk of age, after which they were all fed a medium-nutrition diet. To evaluate secretion profiles and concentrations of blood hormones, a subset of bulls was subjected to intensive blood sampling every 4 wk from 11 to 31 wk of age. Testes of all bulls were measured once a month; once scrotal circumference reached 26cm, semen collection was attempted (by electroejaculation) every 2 wk to confirm puberty. Bulls were maintained until approximately 72 wk of age and then slaughtered at a local abattoir. Testes were recovered and weighed. Bulls fed the high-nutrition diet were younger at puberty (high=324.3 d, low=369.3 d) and had larger testes for the entire experimental period than bulls fed the low-nutrition diet. Bulls fed the high-nutrition diet also had an earlier and more substantial early rise in LH than those fed the low-nutrition diet and had increased concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) earlier than the bulls fed the low-nutrition diet. Furthermore, we detected a temporal association between increased IGF-I concentrations and an early LH rise in bulls fed the high-nutrition diet. Therefore, we inferred that IGF-I had a role in regulating the early gonadotropin rise (in particular, LH) and thus reproductive development of Holstein bulls. Overall, these results support our hypothesis that Holstein bull calves fed a high-nutrition diet reach puberty earlier and have larger testes than


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad, M., M.T. Asmat, N.U. Rehman and M.Z. Khan*


    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of age and season on the semen quality of 21 Sahiwal bulls kept under the similar managemental conditions at the Semen Production Unit, Qadirabad, District Sahiwal. These bulls were divided into 3 age groups i.e. group-I (upto 3 years, group-II (3-5 years and group-III (above five years. Depending on the photo period months of the year were grouped into 4 seasons i.e. Winter (November, December and January, Spring (February, March and April, Summer (May, June and July and Autumn (August, September & October.The results indicated that ejaculatory volume, motility percentage and doses produced by bulls of Group-II were significantly higher( P<0.05 than that of bulls of Group I and III. However mass activity, sperm concentration, pH and post thaw motility differed non significantly among bulls of three age groups. Generally all bulls showed better performance during Spring than other seasons of the year. It may be concluded that semen collected from mature bulls (adult bulls during the Spring is of better quality than the semen of young and old bulls and also in Spring the quality of semen is better than the other seasons of the year.

  10. The effects of varied densities on the growth and emigration of adult cutthroat trout and brook trout in fenced stream enclosures (United States)

    Buys, D.J.; Hilderbrand, R.H.; Kershner, J.L.


    We evaluated the effects of various density treatments on adult fish growth and emigration rates between Bonneville cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki utah and brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in stream enclosures in Beaver Creek, Idaho, We used 3 density treatments (low, ambient, and high fish densities) to evaluate density-related effects and to ensure a response. Intraspecific ambient-density tests using cutthroat trout only were also performed. Results indicated an absence of cage effects in the stream enclosures and no differences in fish growth between ambient-density stream-enclosure fish and free-range fish. Brook trout outgrew and moved less than cutthroat trout in the stream enclosures, especially as density increased, In all 3 density treatments, brook trout gained more weight than cutthroat trout, with brook trout gaining weight in each density treatment and cutthroat trout losing weight at the highest density. At high densities, cutthroat trout attempted to emigrate more frequently than brook trout in sympatry and allopatry. We observed a negative correlation between growth and emigration for interspecific cutthroat trout, indicating a possible competitive response due to the presence of brook trout. We observed similar responses for weight and emigration in trials of allopatric cutthroat trout, indicating strong intraspecific effects as density increased. While cutthroat trout showed a response to experimental manipulation with brook trout at different densities, there has been long-term coexistence between these species in Beaver Creek, This system presents a unique opportunity to study the mechanisms that lead cutthroat trout to coexist with rather than be replaced by nonnative brook trout.

  11. Ecological segregation moderates a climactic conclusion to trout hybridization (United States)

    Michael K. Young; Daniel J. Isaak; Kevin S. McKelvey; Taylor M. Wilcox; Matthew R. Campbell; Matthew P. Corsi; Dona Horan; Michael K. Schwartz


    Invasive hybridization, in which an introduced species may introgressively hybridize with a native taxon and threaten its persistence, is prominently featured in the conservation literature. One of the most frequently cited examples of this phenomenon involves interactions between native westslope cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi and introduced rainbow trout...

  12. Communications: Blood chemistry of laboratory-reared Golden trout (United States)

    Hunn, Joseph B.; Wiedmeyer, Ray H.; Greer, Ivan E.; Grady, Andrew W.


    Golden trout Oncorhynchus aguabonita obtained from a wild stock as fertilized eggs were reared in the laboratory for 21 months. The laboratory-reared golden trout in our study reached sexual maturity earlier and grew more rapidly than wild golden trout do (according to the scientific literature). Male fish averaged 35.6 cm in total length and 426 g in weight, and females averaged 36.2 cm and 487 g. All golden trout were sexually mature when used for hematological analysis. The hematological profile (hematocrit, red blood cells, white blood cells, and thrombocytes) of golden trout was similar to that reported elsewhere for other trout species. Male and female golden trout did not have significantly different thrombocyte counts; however, the immobilization treatment used on the fish (anesthesia versus a blow to the head) resulted in significant treatment differences in thrombocyte numbers and interaction effect of sex in treatment for hematocrits. Gravid female golden trout had significantly higher plasma protein and calcium levels than did males. The ionic compositions of plasma (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, copper, zinc, iron, and chloride) and gallbladder bile (calcium and chloride) were similar to those reported for other salmonids.

  13. SuchThatCast Episode 3: J.D. Trout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soraker, Johnny


    SuchThatCast goes mobile in the third episode, as I interview J.D. Trout on the appr. 2 hour train ride between Enschede and Schiphol airport. Trout received his PhD in Philosophy at Cornell University and is currently Professor of Philosophy and Psychology at Loyola University Chicago. He was

  14. Secondary immune response of rainbow trout following repeated immersion vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaafar, R. M.; Al-Jubury, Azmi; Chettri, Jiwan Kumar


    vaccination of fish raises a secondary immune response, consisting of rapid, accelerated and increased antibody reaction. This study reports how rainbow trout responds to repeated immersion vaccination against yersiniosis (ERM) caused by the bacterial pathogen Yersinia ruckeri. It was found that rainbow trout...

  15. Secondary immune response of rainbow trout following repeated immersion vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaafar, R. M.; Al-Jubury, A.; Chettri, J. K.


    vaccination of fish raises a secondary immune response, consisting of rapid, accelerated and increased antibody reaction. This study reports how rainbow trout responds to repeated immersion vaccination against yersiniosis (ERM) caused by the bacterial pathogen Yersinia ruckeri. It was found that rainbow trout...

  16. Influence of waterfalls on patterns of association between trout and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relative abundances of trout and tadpoles of Natal cascade frogs were assessed after sampling using electrofishing. Habitat templates were compared for above- versus below-waterfall sites. Trout predation is the most likely causative agent for an observed abrupt decline in H. natalensis tadpole abundance occurring ...

  17. Maturity schedules of lake trout in Lake Michigan (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; DeSorcie, Timothy J.; Stedman, Ralph M.


    We determined maturity schedules of male and female lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Michigan from nearshore populations and from an offshore population on Sheboygan Reef, which is located in midlake. Gill nets and bottom trawls were used to catch lake trout in fall 1994 and 1995 from two nearshore sites and Sheboygan Reef. Each lake trout was judged immature or mature, based on visual examination of gonads. Probit analysis, coupled with relative potency testing, revealed that age-at-maturity and length-at-maturity were similar at the two nearshore sites, but that lake trout from the nearshore sites matured at a significantly earlier age than lake trout from Sheboygan Reef. However, length at maturity for the nearshore populations was nearly identical to that for the offshore population, suggesting that rate of lake trout maturation in Lake Michigan was governed by growth rather than age. Half of the lake trout males reached maturity at a total length of 580 mm, whereas half of the females were mature at a length of 640 mm. Over half of nearshore males were mature by age 5, and over half the nearshore females matured by age 6. Due to a slower growth rate, maturity was delayed by 2 years on Sheboygan Reef compared with the nearshore populations. Documentation of this delay in maturation may be useful in deciding stocking allocations for lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Michigan.

  18. Comparative proteomic analysis of Taurine, Indicine, and crossbred (Bos taurus × Bos indicus) bull spermatozoa for identification of proteins related to sperm malfunctions and subfertility in crossbred bulls. (United States)

    Muhammad Aslam, Munchakkal Kather; Kumaresan, Arumugam; Rajak, Shailendra Kumar; Tajmul, Md; Datta, Tirtha Kumar; Mohanty, Tushar Kumar; Srinivasan, Alagiri; Yadav, Savita


    Subfertility is one of the most common problems observed among Taurine × Indicine crossbred bulls in tropical countries; however, the etiology remain unknown in most of the cases. In present study, we compared the proteomic profile of spermatozoa from crossbred bulls (Bos taurus × Bos indicus) against their purebred parent lines (Holstein Friesian [Taurine] and Tharparkar [Indicine]) to find out alteration in expressions of proteins, if any. The proteomic profiles of freshly ejaculated spermatozoa from these breeds were compared by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis, and differentially expressed proteins were identified through mass spectrometry. It was observed that compared to Holstein Friesian, nine proteins were underexpressed and eight proteins were overexpressed (P < 0.05) in the spermatozoa of crossbred bulls. Similarly, four proteins were overexpressed and four proteins were underexpressed (P < 0.05) in the spermatozoa of crossbred bulls compared to Tharparkar bulls. In concurrent three breed comparison, 14 proteins were found to be differentially expressed (P < 0.05) between these breeds. From the findings of the study, it is apparent that the expression levels of several functionally significant proteins are either upregulated or downregulated in spermatozoa of crossbred bulls, which might be related to high incidence of subfertility in these bulls. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Otter ( Lutra lutra ) predation on stocked brown trout ( Salmo trutta ) in two Danish lowland rivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lene


    This study aimed to evaluate otter predation on stocked trout. Large hatchery-reared trout (16-30 cm) were stocked into two Danish rivers with different fish populations. Otter diet before and after trout stocking was determined by analysing 685 spraints, collected regularly during the 35-day study...... the lengths of stocked trout, indicating that newly stocked trout were preferred to wild trout. In River Skals, dominated by cyprinids, there was no change in otter diet after stocking of hatchery trout, i.e., these were ignored by otter. Otter predation should be taken into account together with fish...

  20. Growth and reproductive development from weaning through 20 months of age among breeds of bulls in subtropical Florida. (United States)

    Chase, C C; Chenoweth, P J; Larsen, R E; Olson, T A; Hammond, A C; Menchaca, M A; Randel, R D


    To determine the effect of breed on growth and reproductive development, weaned bulls in each of 2 yr were managed as a single group for approximately a year. In Year 1, the study group consisted of 24 Angus, 24 Brahman, 20 Hereford and 14 Senepol bulls, while in Year 2, it contained 25 Angus, 17 Brahman. 13 Romosinuano and 9 Nellore x Brahman bulls. Body and testicular growth measurements were recorded at 6-wk intervals. At approximately 1 yr of age and quarterly thereafter (4 periods), bulls were evaluated for libido, pubertal status, and GnRH-induced LH and testosterone secretion. Significant breed-by-age interactions occurred for most growth measurements. Brahman bulls (Bos indicus ) were (P Senepol and Romosinuano bulls (Bos taurus ). Libido scores were lowest for Brahman and Nell ore x Brahman bulls (Bos indicus ). highest for Angus and Hereford bulls (temperate Bos taurus breeds) and intermediate for Senepol and Romosinuano bulls (tropical Bos taurus breeds; P Senepol, Romosinuano and Nellore x Brahman bulls (tropical breeds). In conclusion, reproductive development of Senepol and Romosinuano bulls (tropical Bos taurus breeds) was more similar to Angus and Hereford bulls (temperate Bos taurus breeds) than to Brahman and Nellore x Brahman bulls (Bos indicus ).

  1. Feeding habits of the alien brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and the native brown trout Salmo trutta in Czech mountain streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horká Petra


    Full Text Available Quantifying patterns of prey resource use is fundamental to identify mechanisms enabling the coexistence of related fish species. Trophic interactions between the native brown trout, Salmo trutta, and the introduced brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, were studied monthly from May to October in three mountain streams in Central Europe (Czech Republic. To evaluate whether the feeding habits differ between separated and coexisting populations of these species, one locality where both species coexist, and two allopatric populations of either species were studied. Across the study period, the mean stomach fullness of fish varied, being highest in spring and declining through autumn. The diet overlap (Schoener's overlap index between the species increased through the studied season (from 54.5% in July to 81.5% in October. In allopatry, both species had nearly the same feeding habits. However, in sympatry, brook trout consumed higher proportion of terrestrial invertebrates, while brown trout showed no changes either in the proportions of aquatic and terrestrial prey utilized or in the selectivity for prey categories in comparison to allopatric conditions. The dietary shift observed for brook trout, but not for brown trout, suggests that brown trout is a stronger competitor in the studied sympatric locality, leading the brook trout to change its feeding habits to reduce interspecific competition.

  2. Streptococcus iniae expresses a cell surface non-immune trout immunoglobulin-binding factor when grown in normal trout serum. (United States)

    Barnes, Andrew C; Horne, Michael T; Ellis, Anthony E


    Three capsulated isolates of S. iniae representing serotype I and II and being arginine dihydrolase positive, negative or variable (AD+ve, AD-ve, AD+-ve) were investigated for their ability to bind rainbow trout serum immunoglobulin by the Fc region. Using a coagglutination assay with bacteria grown in Todd-Hewitt broth (THB), no evidence of non-specific Fc-binding of trout immunoglobulin (Ig) was obtained. However, when grown in normal trout serum, all isolates produced similar protein patterns in SDS-PAGE, but they were markedly different from the patterns of the bacteria grown in THB. Some bands with MW 70 kDa and over 100 kDa were very intense in the profiles of the serum-grown isolates. In Western blots, these bands of all isolates were immunostained with the conjugated goat antiserum to trout Ig, after blocking with normal goat serum, demonstrating that the bacteria had bound the trout Ig during growth in the serum. When the isolates were grown overnight in trout antiserum against Lactococcus garvieae they coagglutinated with L. garvieae cells but S. iniae isolates grown in normal trout serum did not. These data indicate that S. iniae grown in serum express surface factors which can bind trout Ig by the Fc-region.

  3. Effects of water temperature and fish size on predation vulnerability of juvenile humpback chub to rainbow trout and brown trout (United States)

    Ward, David L.; Morton-Starner, Rylan


    Predation on juvenile native fish by introduced Rainbow Trout and Brown Trout is considered a significant threat to the persistence of endangered Humpback Chub Gila cypha in the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon. Diet studies of Rainbow Trout and Brown Trout in Glen and Grand canyons indicate that these species do eat native fish, but impacts are difficult to assess because predation vulnerability is highly variable, depending on prey size, predator size, and the water temperatures under which the predation interactions take place. We conducted laboratory experiments to evaluate how short-term predation vulnerability of juvenile native fish changes in response to fish size and water temperature using captivity-reared Humpback Chub, Bonytail, and Roundtail Chub. Juvenile chub 45–90 mm total length (TL) were exposed to adult Rainbow and Brown trouts at 10, 15, and 20°C to measure predation vulnerability as a function of water temperature and fish size. A 1°C increase in water temperature decreased short-term predation vulnerability of Humpback Chub to Rainbow Trout by about 5%, although the relationship is not linear. Brown Trout were highly piscivorous in the laboratory at any size > 220 mm TL and at all water temperatures we tested. Understanding the effects of predation by trout on endangered Humpback Chub is critical in evaluating management options aimed at preserving native fishes in Grand Canyon National Park.

  4. Evaluation of a rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mikyss culture water recirculating system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Sánchez O.


    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate a water recirculation system for rainbow trout fish cultures at the recirculating laboratory of the Aquaculture Engineering Production Program of University of Nariño. Materials and Methods. 324 rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mikyss fries were cultured in 12 plastic tanks with a capacity of 250 L in an aquaculture recirculating system the treatment system of which was made up by a conventional sedimentation tank, a fixed stand upflow biofilter with recycled PVC tube pieces and a natural degassing system; the sedimentation unit effluent was pumped up to a reservoir tank using a 2 HP centrifugal pump after being subject to gravity through the biofilter and to be then distributed to the 12 culture units to which a constant amount of air from a blower was injected. Results. The water treatment system removed 31% of total suspended solids, 9.5% of total ammonia nitrogen, and increased dissolved oxygen to the final effluent in 6.5%. An increase of 305% in biomass was calculated during 75 days, the mortality percentage registered throughout the study period was 4.9%. Conclusions. The water treatment system maintained the physicochemical water quality parameters within the values recommended for the species. The increase in weight and size, food conversion, mortality and biomass production reported normal values for rainbow trout fish culture in recirculating systems.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Objective of the present study was to document the semen producing ability, productive life and genetic ability for lactation milk yield of Sahiwal bulls used for artificial insemination (AI in Punjab and to find the impact of AI bulls on the improvement of Sahiwal cattle. Data from Semen Production Unit (SPU, Qadirabad, Sahiwal, Pakistan were used for this purpose. A repeatability animal model was used for estimation of breeding values for lactation milk yield. Productive life of a bull was calculated as a difference between culling age and the age at first ejaculation. Number of bulls brought to SPU varied from 9 to 102 for any year. Average number of doses of semen produced by any bull for a year varied from 724 to 5745. On the average, 238 bulls produced 17143 ± 1164 semen doses during their average stay of 5.4 ± 0.2 years. About 50% of the bulls stayed for less than four years at the SPU; with a maximum range of 14 years. Progeny tested bulls (n=90 produced 5000 and 10000 semen doses (Y in three and four years of stay (X, respectively (Y = 24.8 + 2.3635 X - 0.0112 X2. To produce 20,000 doses, it is predicted that bulls need to stay for six and a half years at the SPU. There was no association between breeding values for lactation milk yield estimated under a repeatability animal model (EBVs and number of semen doses produced (r = 0.17 and EBVs and number of daughters. Lack of genetic superiority of bulls used indicated that AI did not bring desired genetic improvement in Sahiwal cattle in the present situation. Modifications for judicious utilization of bulls are suggested along with improvements in data recording.

  6. Measurement of peroxisomal enzyme activities in the liver of brown trout (Salmo trutta, using spectrophotometric methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resende Albina D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was aimed primarily at testing in the liver of brown trout (Salmo trutta spectrophotometric methods previously used to measure the activities of catalase and hydrogen peroxide producing oxidases in mammals. To evaluate the influence of temperature on the activities of those peroxisomal enzymes was the second objective. A third goal of this work was the study of enzyme distribution in crude cell fractions of brown trout liver. Results The assays revealed a linear increase in the activity of all peroxisomal enzymes as the temperature rose from 10° to 37°C. However, while the activities of hydrogen peroxide producing oxidases were strongly influenced by temperature, catalase activity was only slightly affected. A crude fraction enriched with peroxisomes was obtained by differential centrifugation of liver homogenates, and the contamination by other organelles was evaluated by the activities of marker enzymes for mitochondria (succinate dehydrogenase, lysosomes (aryl sulphatase and microsomes (NADPH cytochrome c reductase. For peroxisomal enzymes, the activities per mg of protein (specific activity in liver homogenates were strongly correlated with the activities per g of liver and with the total activities per liver. These correlations were not obtained with crude peroxisomal fractions. Conclusions The spectrophotometric protocols originally used to quantify the activity of mammalian peroxisomal enzymes can be successfully applied to the study of those enzymes in brown trout. Because the activity of all studied peroxisomal enzymes rose in a linear mode with temperature, their activities can be correctly measured between 10° and 37°C. Probably due to contamination by other organelles and losses of soluble matrix enzymes during homogenisation, enzyme activities in crude peroxisomal fractions do not correlate with the activities in liver homogenates. Thus, total homogenates will be used in future seasonal and

  7. Aggregation of Argulus coregoni (Crustacea: Branchiura) on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): a consequence of host susceptibility or exposure? (United States)

    Bandilla, M; Hakalahti, T; Hudson, P J; Valtonen, E T


    By sampling individual rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, at a fish farm we showed that Argulus coregoni were aggregated within their host population. The relative significance of susceptibility and exposure generating the observed pattern was tested using experimental infections. We examined, whether rainbow trout developed protective resistance mechanisms against the louse following a challenge infection and if there was variation between individual trout in their susceptibility to A. coregoni metanauplii. Fish were exposed to 20 A. coregoni for 5, 25, 50, 85 or 120 min and the numbers attaching recorded. Three weeks later, developing argulids were removed and the experiment repeated with a standardized exposure of 20 metanauplii. Prior exposure of fish with A. coregoni did not reduce the total infection intensity compared to naive fish, but fish gained infection more rapidly. We suggest that there is no protective acquired resistance of pre-exposed rainbow trout to subsequent Argulus exposure. The possibility that an immunosuppressive mechanism by argulids was acting enabling the higher attachment rate could be refuted since control individuals, not previously exposed to lice, gained the infection at a similar rate as the fish challenged twice. Our results do not indicate clear differences in susceptibility among individual fish but the transmission of metanauplii on fish seemed to be opportunistic and non-selective. Our results support the view that variation in exposure time, rather than differences in susceptibility of individual hosts, might be the key factor in generating the aggregated distribution of Argulus on their hosts.

  8. Evaluation of bison (Bison bison) semen from Yellowstone National Park, Montana, USA, bulls for Brucella abortus shedding. (United States)

    Frey, Rebecca K; Clarke, P Ryan; McCollum, Matt P; Nol, Pauline; Johnson, Kammy R; Thompson, Brent D; Ramsey, Jennifer M; Anderson, Neil J; Rhyan, Jack C


    To determine if bison (Bison bison) bulls from Yellowstone National Park (YNP), Montana, USA, shed an infective dose of Brucella abortus in semen, 50 YNP bulls were captured on public lands in Montana during the winter and early spring (April-May) of 2010 and 2011. The bulls were immobilized, and blood and semen samples were collected for serology and Brucella culture. Thirty-five bulls (70%) were antibody-positive, and B. abortus was cultured from semen in three (9%) of the 35 antibody-positive or suspect bulls, though not at concentrations considered an infective dose. Eight bulls (six antibody-positive, two negative) had palpable lesions of the testes, epididymides, or seminal vesicles consistent with B. abortus infection. Breeding soundness exams and semen analysis suggested that antibody-positive bulls were more likely to have nonviable ejaculate (8/35; 23%) than bulls without detectable antibody (2/15; 13%).

  9. NGC6543: Cat's Eye and Bull's Eye (United States)

    Balick, B.; Wilson, J. M.


    Deep Hubble images of NGC 6543 reveal a series of regularly spaced circular concentric ``rings'' that surround the famous Cat's Eye nebula. The rings seen in the lines of Hα , [O III], and [N II] but not the continuum. These photoionized rings are almost certainly the result of periodic spherical mass pulsations by the nucleus before the Cat's Eye formed. A good fit to the observed Hα surface brightness distribution is obtained if the bubbles were ejected with constant mass, thickness, and ejection velocity. The model can be used to estimate the total mass of the rings, ~ 0.1M⊙ , which lies between that of the core ( ~ 0.05 M⊙ ) and the surrounding halo ( ~ 0.5 M⊙ ). Assuming an ejection speed of 10 km s-1 the interpulse period is 1500 +/- 300 y, the same as the expansion age of the core itself. Hubble images of other planetaries displayed on the poster, IC 418, NGC 7027, and Hubble 5 (a bipolar) show similar sets of multiple concentric rings. Hence, it appears, regular isotropic AGB mass pulses often precede the formation of brighter and more complex PN cores. However, the interpulse time scale, ~ 103 y, is a serious problem for extant models of core thermal pulses and surface pulsations. The cores of PNe seem to form in an abrupt change of mode of mass loss, as predicted by disrputive binary companion merger models. A preprint is available from Financial support from NASA/STScI grant GO 7501 is very gratefully acknowledged.

  10. Detection of copy number variations and their effects in Chinese bulls

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Liangzhi


    Background: Copy number variations (CNVs) are a main source of genomic structural variations underlying animal evolution and production traits. Here, with one pure-blooded Angus bull as reference, we describe a genome-wide analysis of CNVs based on comparative genomic hybridization arrays in 29 Chinese domesticated bulls and examined their effects on gene expression and cattle growth traits.Results: We identified 486 copy number variable regions (CNVRs), covering 2.45% of the bovine genome, in 24 taurine (Bos taurus), together with 161 ones in 2 yaks (Bos grunniens) and 163 ones in 3 buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). Totally, we discovered 605 integrated CNVRs, with more " loss" events than both " gain" and " both" ones, and clearly clustered them into three cattle groups. Interestingly, we confirmed their uneven distributions across chromosomes, and the differences of mitochondrion DNA copy number (gain: taurine, loss: yak & buffalo). Furthermore, we confirmed approximately 41.8% (253/605) and 70.6% (427/605) CNVRs span cattle genes and quantitative trait loci (QTLs), respectively. Finally, we confirmed 6 CNVRs in 9 chosen ones by using quantitative PCR, and further demonstrated that CNVR22 had significantly negative effects on expression of PLA2G2D gene, and both CNVR22 and CNVR310 were associated with body measurements in Chinese cattle, suggesting their key effects on gene expression and cattle traits.Conclusions: The results advanced our understanding of CNV as an important genomic structural variation in taurine, yak and buffalo. This study provides a highly valuable resource for Chinese cattle\\'s evolution and breeding researches. 2014 Zhang et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  11. Replacing propane by natural gas; Liebherr SA a Bulle. Du propane au gaz naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matile, O.


    Liebherr Ltd., the worldwide busy manufacturer of construction site equipment, switched from propane to natural gas as energy sources for space heating and hot water in its headquarters in Bulle, Switzerland. The compound first included an industrial building of 22,000 m{sup 2} for manufacturing activities and an office building of 5,100 m{sup 2}. When it was built in 1978, the only available gas type at the site was liquefied propane. The selected heat emission devices for the very large rooms were radiant panels. As it was out of question to use electric power as energy source, propane remained the only possible choice. A 80,000 liter tank for liquid gas was installed. Later on, following the company's development, two industrial buildings and two office buildings were added to the compound, requiring a second propane tank of 100,000 liters. In 2008 a new natural gas pipeline reached the city of Bulle and Liebherr decided to adopt this newly available source of energy. The radiant panels had to be adapted or replaced and some new internal gas distribution lines were installed. Gas boilers were installed in the office buildings. The two big gas tanks have been dismantled and the propane delivery by trucks suppressed. No dangerous liquid gas transfer to the tanks was needed any longer. Also, the costly electrically heating-up of the propane gas by means of 90 kW resistors became unnecessary. The company is eased to have no longer any stored propane in its compound.

  12. Polymyxin B effects on motility parameters of cryopreserved bull semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Rashedi


    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of adding different values of polymyxin B (PMB to bull semen on various motility parameters of post-thawed semen such as total motility, progressive motility and velocity parameters using kinetic parameters of sperm by Computer Assisted Sperm Analysis. Methods: Gram negative bacteria release lipopolysaccharide, which induces the apoptotic pathway. Antibiotics are added to semen in order to prevent bacterial contaminations in bovine semen. These antibiotics kill the bacteria especially gram negative bacteria. Therefore, their endotoxins are released during bacteriolysis and bind to the head region and midpiece of sperm. PMB is a bactericidal antibiotic against multidrug resistant gram-negative bacteria and is able to neutralize the toxic effects of the released endotoxin. This study was performed on 3-year old Taleshi bulls. Results: The results showed both positive and negative significant effects of PMB on semen quality. Total motility and progressive motility were significantly increased (P<0.000 1 by 100 μg per mL of PMB (55.2% and 48.8% respectively against the control groups (43.5% and 37.7%, respectively. Moreover, they were significantly decreased (P<0.000 1 by 1 000 μg per mL of PMB (35.2% and 28.8% respectively against the control groups (43.5% and 37.7% respectively in above-mentioned parameters. In Computer Assisted Semen Analyzer, parameter VAP was significantly decreased (P<0.04 in 1 000 μg (69.6 μm/s against the control group (78.7 μm/s. Finally, using PMB in processing cryopreserved bull semen is advised, but before using it, the rate of endotoxins must be measured. Conclusions: We advise using PMB after measuring endotoxin concentration; In vitro, in vivo and in field fertilization, adding other sperm evaluation factors such as acrosomal integrity, DNA integrity, mitochondrial function to PMB treated semen.

  13. Dynamics of microRNAs in bull spermatozoa


    Govindaraju Aruna; Uzun Alper; Robertson LaShonda; Atli Mehmet O; Kaya Abdullah; Topper Einko; Crate Elizabeth A; Padbury James; Perkins Andy; Memili Erdogan


    Abstract Background MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression and thus play important roles in mammalian development. However, the comprehensive lists of microRNAs, as well as, molecular mechanisms by which microRNAs regulate gene expression during gamete and embryo development are poorly defined. The objectives of this study were to determine microRNAs in bull sperm and predict their functions. Methods To accomplish our objectives we isolated miRNAs from sperm of high...

  14. Michael Bull, Sound Moves. Ipod Culture and Urban Experience


    Lisa McCormick


    Sound Moves, ouvrage non traduit de l'universitaire britannique Michael Bull, paru en 2007, a une place importante dans l'élaboration du champ de recherche sur l'écoute et les pratiques musicales appareillées en situation. Dans la continuité de son premier ouvrage (2000), ce deuxième opus poursuit l'étude de la « musicalisation » de notre quotidien au travers d’appareils mobiles, l'iPod en particulier. Dans la filiation d'un cadre théorique hérité des cultural studies et situé au carrefour de...

  15. A comparison of the performance of Holstein and Friesian bulls in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance of 92 Holstein-Friesian bulls, which were accepted for progeny testing ander the South African National Dairy Animal Performance and Progeny Testing Scheme during 1982, 1983 and 1984, was compared. Bulls which were locally bred for more than one generation were not entered under the Scheme.

  16. A comparison of the performance of Holstein and Friesian bulls in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance of 92 Holstein-Friesian bulls, which were accepted for progeny testing ander the South African. National Dairy Animal Performance and Progeny Testing Scheme during 1982, 1983 and 1984, was compared. Bulls which were locally bred for more than one generation were not entered under the Scheme.

  17. Detection of Paratuberculosis in Breeding Bulls at Pakistani Semen Production Units: A Continuous Source of Threat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abbas, Muhammad; Munir, Muhammad; Khaliq, Syed Abdul; Haq, Muhammad Ikram Ul; Tanveer Khan, Muhammad; Qureshi, Zafar ul Ahsan


    .... Collectively, seroprevalence of 20.0% (47/235) in breeding bulls and 33.3% (6/18) in teaser bulls was observed, and thus it poses a potential threat of disease spread to a high number of heifers and cows through artificial...

  18. Evaluation of rice offal as energy source for fattening Bunaji bulls ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    249kg and age range of 2-3 years to evaluate the feeding value of raw or parboiled rice offal as energy source for bull fattening. Four bulls per treatment were allotted to five dietary treatments in a 2x2 factorial arrangement with a common control.

  19. Genomic Prediction from Whole Genome Sequence in Livestock: The 1000 Bull Genomes Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayes, Benjamin J; MacLeod, Iona M; Daetwyler, Hans D

    Advantages of using whole genome sequence data to predict genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) include better persistence of accuracy of GEBV across generations and more accurate GEBV across breeds. The 1000 Bull Genomes Project provides a database of whole genome sequenced key ancestor bulls...

  20. Use of NMR and NMR Prediction Software to Identify Components in Red Bull Energy Drinks (United States)

    Simpson, Andre J.; Shirzadi, Azadeh; Burrow, Timothy E.; Dicks, Andrew P.; Lefebvre, Brent; Corrin, Tricia


    A laboratory experiment designed as part of an upper-level undergraduate analytical chemistry course is described. Students investigate two popular soft drinks (Red Bull Energy Drink and sugar-free Red Bull Energy Drink) by NMR spectroscopy. With assistance of modern NMR prediction software they identify and quantify major components in each…

  1. Positive effects of Red Bull® Energy Drink on driving performance during prolonged driving. (United States)

    Mets, Monique A J; Ketzer, Sander; Blom, Camilla; van Gerven, Maartje H; van Willigenburg, Gitta M; Olivier, Berend; Verster, Joris C


    The purpose of this study was to examine if Red Bull® Energy Drink can counteract sleepiness and driving impairment during prolonged driving. Twenty-four healthy volunteers participated in this double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study. After 2 h of highway driving in the STISIM driving simulator, subjects had a 15-min break and consumed Red Bull® Energy Drink (250 ml) or placebo (Red Bull® Energy Drink without the functional ingredients: caffeine, taurine, glucuronolactone, B vitamins (niacin, pantothenic acid, B6, B12), and inositol) before driving for two additional hours. A third condition comprised 4 h of uninterrupted driving. Primary parameter was the standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP), i.e., the weaving of the car. Secondary parameters included SD speed, subjective driving quality, sleepiness, and mental effort to perform the test. No significant differences were observed during the first 2 h of driving. Red Bull® Energy Drink significantly improved driving relative to placebo: SDLP was significantly reduced during the 3rd (p Red Bull® Energy Drink significantly reduced the standard deviation of speed (p Red Bull® Energy Drink (p Red Bull® Energy Drink significantly improved each parameter. Red Bull® Energy Drink significantly improves driving performance and reduces driver sleepiness during prolonged highway driving.

  2. Sperm function during incubation with oestrus oviductal fluid differs in bulls with different fertility. (United States)

    Kumaresan, A; Johannisson, A; Bergqvist, A-S


    Spermatozoa undergo several modifications in the oviduct before acquiring fertilising capacity. Although spermatozoa are exposed to similar conditions in the oviduct, the speed of the response varies with the male and the state of the spermatozoa. We hypothesised that spermatozoa from bulls with different fertility may differ in their ability to respond to oviductal fluid (ODF). Frozen-thawed spermatozoa from four bulls were incubated with oestrus oviductal fluid (OODF) for 6h. Sperm kinematics, tyrosine phosphorylation, phosphorylation patterns, capacitation and acrosome reaction were analysed at hourly intervals. The amplitude of lateral head displacement (ALH) and straightness coefficient (STR) were higher (P<0.05) in bulls with higher fertility compared with those with lower fertility, at 1-4h of incubation. At 4h of incubation and onwards, spermatozoa from bulls with higher fertility showed a lower degree (P<0.05) of tyrosine phosphorylation and higher degree of capacitation and acrosome reaction. At least five tyrosine-phosphorylated sperm proteins were detected in all bulls. However, the expression of two phosphorylated sperm proteins (183 and 109 kDa) was upregulated in bulls with lower fertility. It may be concluded that cryopreserved spermatozoa from high- and low- fertile bulls differ in their ability to respond to OODF. This may help in developing tools for assessing fertility of bulls, once validated in more animals.

  3. The effect of Cu2+ on osmoregulation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) assayed by changes in plasma salinity and gill lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heinz J.M.; Olsen, Allan Gylling; Rosenkilde, Per


    Zoofysiologi, Osmoregulation, Lipid metabolism, Ecotoxicology, Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.......Zoofysiologi, Osmoregulation, Lipid metabolism, Ecotoxicology, Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss....

  4. Carcass characteristics, chemical and fatty acid composition of Longissimus muscle of Purunã bulls slaughtered at 18 or 24 months of age - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i3.7274 Carcass characteristics, chemical and fatty acid composition of Longissimus muscle of Purunã bulls slaughtered at 18 or 24 months of age - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i3.7274

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Fugta


    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate carcass characteristics, chemical and fatty acid composition of the Longissimus muscle of 78 Purunã bulls (39 bulls/treatment slaughtered at 18 or 24 months old. The experimental design was completely randomized. The bulls were distributed into two systems: 1 Finished in feedlot 13 to 18 months old (T18, or 2 Finished in feedlot from 21 to 24 months old (T24. The diet, roughage:concentrate ratio of 52:48 (dry matter basis, contained 12% crude protein and 72% total digestible nutrients. The T18 system showed lower (p Longissimus area (66.17 vs. 70.87 cm2, lower (p Longissimus muscle fatty acid composition was not influenced (p This study was carried out to evaluate carcass characteristics, chemical and fatty acid composition of the Longissimus muscle of 78 Purunã bulls (39 bulls/treatment slaughtered at 18 or 24 months old. The experimental design was completely randomized. The bulls were distributed into two systems: 1 Finished in feedlot 13 to 18 months old (T18, or 2 Finished in feedlot from 21 to 24 months old (T24. The diet, roughage:concentrate ratio of 52:48 (dry matter basis, contained 12% crude protein and 72% total digestible nutrients. The T18 system showed lower (p Longissimus area (66.17 vs. 70.87 cm2, lower (p Longissimus muscle fatty acid composition was not influenced (p < 0.05, with exception of C18:1 n-9 and C18:3 n-3, which were lower (p < 0.05 for the T18 system. Saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, n-6, n-3 percentage and PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 ratio did not change (p < 0.05 according to slaughter age.

  5. Sperm protamine-status correlates to the fertility of breeding bulls. (United States)

    Dogan, Sule; Vargovic, Peter; Oliveira, Rodrigo; Belser, Lauren E; Kaya, Abdullah; Moura, Arlindo; Sutovsky, Peter; Parrish, John; Topper, Einko; Memili, Erdoğan


    During fertilization, spermatozoa make essential contributions to embryo development by providing oocyte activating factors, centrosomal components, and paternal chromosomes. Protamines are essential for proper packaging of sperm DNA; however, in contrast to the studies of oocyte-related female infertility, the influence of sperm chromatin structure on male infertility has not been evaluated extensively. The objective of this study was to determine the sperm chromatin content of bull spermatozoa by evaluating DNA fragmentation, chromatin maturity/protamination, PRM1 protein status, and nuclear shape in spermatozoa from bulls with different fertility. Relationships between protamine 1 (PRM1) and the chromatin integrity were ascertained in spermatozoa from Holstein bulls with varied (high vs. low) but acceptable fertility. Sperm DNA fragmentation and chromatin maturity (protamination) were tested using Halomax assay and toluidine blue staining, respectively. The PRM1 content was assayed using Western blotting and in-gel densitometry, flow cytometry, and immunocytochemistry. Fragmentation of DNA was increased and chromatin maturity significantly reduced in spermatozoa from low-fertility bulls compared to those from high-fertility bulls. Field fertility scores of the bulls were negatively correlated with the percentage of spermatozoa displaying reduced protamination and fragmented DNA using toluidine blue and Halomax, respectively. Bull fertility was also positively correlated with PRM1 content by Western blotting and flow cytometry. However, detection of PRM1 content by Western blotting alone was not predictive of bull fertility. In immunocytochemistry, abnormal spermatozoa showed either a lack of PRM1 or scattered localization in the apical/acrosomal region of the nuclei. The nuclear shape was distorted in spermatozoa from low-fertility bulls. In conclusion, we showed that inadequate amount and localization of PRM1 were associated with defects in sperm chromatin

  6. ERM booster vaccination of Rainbow trout using diluted bacterin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jacob Günther; Henriksen, Niels H.; Buchmann, Kurt


    Enteric Red Mouth Disease ERM caused by Yersinia ruckeri infection is associated with morbidity and mortality in salmonid farming but immersion vaccination of fry may confer some protection for a number of months. Revaccination of rainbow trout, even by use of diluted ERM immersion vaccine, can......:10) in April 2015 was followed 3 months later (July 2015) by 1 h bathing of rainbow trout in bacterin (diluted 1:650 or 1:1700) in order to evaluate if this time saving vaccination methodology can improve immunity and protection. Trout were subjected in farms to natural Y. ruckeri exposure in June and July...

  7. Commercial communication of RED BULL on the Czech market


    Gavrilova, Polina


    Cílem Bakalářské práce je definovat komerční komunikaci společnosti Red Bull GmbH na českém trhu. Teoretická část práce pomůže pochopit druhou, praktickou část. V práci bude čtenáři krok po kroku představena značka Red Bull a její skrytá identita ale také obraz v očích konzumenta. Umožněné to bude analýzou postavení společnosti na českém trhu, spolu s jejich jedinečným a originálním způsobem komunikace. Dále realizace případové studie Red Bullu se uskuteční skrz primárního výzkumu, který slou...

  8. The temperature-productivity squeeze: Constraints on brook trout growth along an Appalachian river continuum (United States)

    Petty, J. Todd; Thorne, David; Huntsman, Brock M.; Mazik, Patricia M.


    We tested the hypothesis that brook trout growth rates are controlled by a complex interaction of food availability, water temperature, and competitor density. We quantified trout diet, growth, and consumption in small headwater tributaries characterized as cold with low food and high trout density, larger tributaries characterized as cold with moderate food and moderate trout density, and large main stems characterized as warm with high food and low trout density. Brook trout consumption was highest in the main stem where diets shifted from insects in headwaters to fishes and crayfish in larger streams. Despite high water temperatures, trout growth rates also were consistently highest in the main stem, likely due to competitively dominant trout monopolizing thermal refugia. Temporal changes in trout density had a direct negative effect on brook trout growth rates. Our results suggest that competition for food constrains brook trout growth in small streams, but access to thermal refugia in productive main stem habitats enables dominant trout to supplement growth at a watershed scale. Brook trout conservation in this region should seek to relieve the “temperature-productivity squeeze,” whereby brook trout productivity is constrained by access to habitats that provide both suitable water temperature and sufficient prey.

  9. Residency Patterns and Migration Dynamics of Adult Bull Sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) on the East Coast of Southern Africa (United States)

    Daly, Ryan; Smale, Malcolm J.; Cowley, Paul D.; Froneman, Pierre W.


    Bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) are globally distributed top predators that play an important ecological role within coastal marine communities. However, little is known about the spatial and temporal scales of their habitat use and associated ecological role. In this study, we employed passive acoustic telemetry to investigate the residency patterns and migration dynamics of 18 adult bull sharks (195–283 cm total length) tagged in southern Mozambique for a period of between 10 and 22 months. The majority of sharks (n = 16) exhibited temporally and spatially variable residency patterns interspersed with migration events. Ten individuals undertook coastal migrations that ranged between 433 and 709 km (mean  = 533 km) with eight of these sharks returning to the study site. During migration, individuals exhibited rates of movement between 2 and 59 km.d−1 (mean  = 17.58 km.d−1) and were recorded travelling annual distances of between 450 and 3760 km (mean  = 1163 km). Migration towards lower latitudes primarily took place in austral spring and winter and there was a significant negative correlation between residency and mean monthly sea temperature at the study site. This suggested that seasonal change is the primary driver behind migration events but further investigation is required to assess how foraging and reproductive activity may influence residency patterns and migration. Results from this study highlight the need for further understanding of bull shark migration dynamics and suggest that effective conservation strategies for this vulnerable species necessitate the incorporation of congruent trans-boundary policies over large spatial scales. PMID:25295972

  10. Residency patterns and migration dynamics of adult bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas on the east coast of southern Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Daly

    Full Text Available Bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas are globally distributed top predators that play an important ecological role within coastal marine communities. However, little is known about the spatial and temporal scales of their habitat use and associated ecological role. In this study, we employed passive acoustic telemetry to investigate the residency patterns and migration dynamics of 18 adult bull sharks (195-283 cm total length tagged in southern Mozambique for a period of between 10 and 22 months. The majority of sharks (n = 16 exhibited temporally and spatially variable residency patterns interspersed with migration events. Ten individuals undertook coastal migrations that ranged between 433 and 709 km (mean  = 533 km with eight of these sharks returning to the study site. During migration, individuals exhibited rates of movement between 2 and 59 km x d(-1 (mean = 17.58 km x d(-1 and were recorded travelling annual distances of between 450 and 3760 km (mean = 1163 km. Migration towards lower latitudes primarily took place in austral spring and winter and there was a significant negative correlation between residency and mean monthly sea temperature at the study site. This suggested that seasonal change is the primary driver behind migration events but further investigation is required to assess how foraging and reproductive activity may influence residency patterns and migration. Results from this study highlight the need for further understanding of bull shark migration dynamics and suggest that effective conservation strategies for this vulnerable species necessitate the incorporation of congruent trans-boundary policies over large spatial scales.

  11. Residency patterns and migration dynamics of adult bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) on the east coast of southern Africa. (United States)

    Daly, Ryan; Smale, Malcolm J; Cowley, Paul D; Froneman, Pierre W


    Bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) are globally distributed top predators that play an important ecological role within coastal marine communities. However, little is known about the spatial and temporal scales of their habitat use and associated ecological role. In this study, we employed passive acoustic telemetry to investigate the residency patterns and migration dynamics of 18 adult bull sharks (195-283 cm total length) tagged in southern Mozambique for a period of between 10 and 22 months. The majority of sharks (n = 16) exhibited temporally and spatially variable residency patterns interspersed with migration events. Ten individuals undertook coastal migrations that ranged between 433 and 709 km (mean  = 533 km) with eight of these sharks returning to the study site. During migration, individuals exhibited rates of movement between 2 and 59 km x d(-1) (mean = 17.58 km x d(-1)) and were recorded travelling annual distances of between 450 and 3760 km (mean = 1163 km). Migration towards lower latitudes primarily took place in austral spring and winter and there was a significant negative correlation between residency and mean monthly sea temperature at the study site. This suggested that seasonal change is the primary driver behind migration events but further investigation is required to assess how foraging and reproductive activity may influence residency patterns and migration. Results from this study highlight the need for further understanding of bull shark migration dynamics and suggest that effective conservation strategies for this vulnerable species necessitate the incorporation of congruent trans-boundary policies over large spatial scales.

  12. 60Co transfer from water to the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mikiss Walbaum). (United States)

    Baudin, J P; Véran, M P; Adam, C; Garnier-Laplace, J


    60Co uptake from natural water, release and tissue distribution were investigated in the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mikiss), which is representative of the third order consumers of the freshwater trophic chains. The experiments were carried out on two groups of fingerling trout placed in 0.45 microm filtered river water, maintained at 12 +/- 0.5 degrees C, contaminated with about 30 Bq ml-1 of 60Co and renewed three times a week. After a 8-week exposure phase, the fish of one group were dissected to determine the contamination of the tissues and organs and the distribution of the accumulated 60Co. The fish of the other group were placed in non-contaminated water, renewed daily, to monitor radionuclide release. After a 42-day depuration phase, the specimens were dissected to study the tissue distribution of the residual 60Co.60Co accumulation from water by trout can be described by a one-compartment exponential model. The concentration factor, calculated from the ratio of the radionuclide concentration in filtered water and in the fish, reached a maximum value of 4.6 (w.w.) after 30 days exposure. After the 42-day depuration phase, the fish retained about 29% of the accumulated radionuclide. A single-compartment exponential model was fitted to the 60Co elimination data, and the corresponding radionuclide half-life was 21 days. At the end of the exposure phase, tissue contamination study showed 60Co accumulation by the gills, viscera (air bladder, heart and spleen) and kidneys, to be the highest. At the end of the depuration phase, the kidney was the most contaminated organ, followed by the viscera, head, gills, and liver. In both cases, 60Co concentration was by far the lowest in the muscle, which accounted for about 45% of the total body weight and only 20% of the total radionuclide body load.

  13. Effects of herd origin, AI stud and sire identification on genetic evaluation of Holstein Friesian bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Bittante


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to estimate the effects of herd origin of bull, AI stud and sire identification number (ID  on official estimated breeding values (EBV for production traits of Holstein Friesian proven bulls. The data included 1,005  Italian Holstein-Friesian bulls, sons of 76 sires, born in 100 herds and progeny tested by 10 AI studs. Bulls were required  to have date of first proof between September 1992 and September 1997, to be born in a herd with at least one other  bull and to have sire and dam with official EBV when bull was selected for progeny testing. Records of sires with only one  son were also discarded. The dependent variable analyzed was the official genetic evaluation for a “quantity and quality  of milk” index (ILQ. The linear model to predict breeding values of bulls included the fixed class effects of herd origin of  bull, AI testing organization, birth year of bull, and estimated breeding values of sire and dam, both as linear covariates.  The R2of the model was 45% and a significant effect was found for genetic merit of sire (P   for herd origin of bull (P   nificant. The range of herd origin effect was 872 kg of ILQ. However, in this study, the causes of this result were not  clear; it may be due to numerous factors, one of which may be preferential treatment on dams of bulls. Analyses of resid-  uals on breeding value of proven bulls for ILQ showed a non significant effect of sire ID, after adjusting for parent aver-  age, herd origin effect and birth year effect. Although the presence of bias in genetic evaluation of dairy bulls is not evi-  dent, further research is recommended firstly to understand the reasons of the significant herd origin effect, secondly to  monitor and guarantee the greatest accuracy and reliability of genetic evaluation procedures. 

  14. Admixture analysis of stocked brown trout populations using mapped microsatellite DNA markers: indigenous trout persist in introgressed populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Mensberg, Karen-Lise Dons


    a high number of microsatellite DNA markers (50) and making use of linkage map information, we achieve clear identification of admixed and non-admixed trout. Moreover, despite strong population-level admixture by hatchery strain trout in one of the populations (70.8%), non-admixed individuals...... nevertheless persist (7 out of 53 individuals). These remnants of the indigenous population are characterized by later spawning time than the majority of the admixed individuals. We hypothesize that isolation by time mediated by spawning time differences between wild and hatchery strain trout is a major factor...

  15. Great Smoky Mountains National Park Brook Trout Genetics (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM) is committed to monitoring ecological and evolutionary functions and processes of park ecosystems. Brook trout (Salvelinus...

  16. Environmental contaminants in brook trout from Aroostook National Wildlife Refuge (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In June 2012, four brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) were collected by angling from Chapman Pond and East Loring Lake at Aroostook NWR in northeast Maine. Two...

  17. Characteristics of beef from intensively fed western Baggara bulls and heifers: quality attributes and chemical composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M.A. Sharaf Eldin


    Full Text Available Fourteen samples of L. dorsi muscles were taken from western Baggara cattle, one sample from each of seven bulls and seven heifers randomly selected for slaughter at the end of an experimental feedlot feeding which lasted for 16 weeks at Kuku Research Station, Khartoum North, Sudan, to study sex effects on meat chemical composition and quality attributes. Moisture content of beef was higher in bulls meat than in heifers meat. Protein and ash content were significantly (P<0.001 higher in bulls meat, whereas fat content was significantly (P<0.001 higher in heifers meat than in bulls meat. Cooking loss of bulls meat was significantly (P<0.001 lower and water-holding capacity was also significantly (P<0.01 lower in the bulls meat than in heifers meat. Bull’s meat colour had low lightness (L and high redness (a and yellowness (b, as determined by Hunter Lab. Tristimulus colorimeter, as compared with heifers meat. Sensory panelist scores were higher for colour darkness and flavour intensity and lower for tenderness, juiciness and overall acceptability of bulls meat as compared with heifers meat.

  18. Associations between endotoxin-induced metabolic changes and temperament in Brahman bulls. (United States)

    Burdick Sanchez, N C; Carroll, J A; Randel, R D; Vann, R C; Welsh, T H


    The influence of temperament on the alteration of metabolic parameters in response to a lipopolysaccharide(LPS) challenge was investigated. Brahman bulls were selected based on temperament score. Bulls (10 months; 211±5kg BW; n = 6, 8 and 7 for Calm, Intermediate and Temperamental groups, respectively) were fitted with indwelling jugular catheters to evaluate peripheral blood concentrations of glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN),non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), insulin, epinephrine and cortisol before and after LPS administration (0.5 μg/kg BW LPS). Feed intake was also recorded. Intermediate bulls consumed more feed than the Temperamental bulls during the challenge (p = 0.046). Pre-LPS glucose (p = 0.401) and BUN (p = 0.222) did not differ among the temperament groups. However, pre-LPS insulin (p = 0.023) was lower, whereas pre-LPS NEFA (p metabolic responses of Brahman bulls following a provocative endotoxin challenge.Specifically, Temperamental bulls may preferentially utilize an alternate energy source (i.e. NEFA) to a greater degree than do bulls of Calm and Intermediate temperaments. The use of circulating NEFA from lipolysis may reduce the negative metabolic consequences of an immune response by allowing for a prompt answer to increasing energy demands required during immunological challenge, compared with the time required for glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis.

  19. Impact of a timed-release FSH treatment from 2 to 6 months of age in bulls II: Endocrinology, puberty attainment, and mature sperm production in Holstein bulls. (United States)

    Harstine, B R; Cruppe, L H; Abreu, F M; Rodrigues, A D; DeJarnette, J M; Day, M L


    The use of genomic testing in the cattle industries has renewed an interest in hastening bull puberty. In prepubertal males, FSH facilitates Sertoli cell proliferation and testis maturation. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of prepubertal administration of a timed-release FSH (delivered in a hyaluronan solution) on hormone secretion, puberty attainment, and mature sperm production in Holstein bulls in an AI center. Bulls (n = 29) were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups based on birth date and pedigree. Beginning at 62 days of age (Day 62), bulls were injected im every 3.5 days with either 30 mg FSH (Folltropin-V; NIH-FSH-P1 units) in a 2% hyaluronan solution (FSH-HA, n = 17) or saline (control, n = 12) until Day 170.5. Blood samples to assess FSH, activin A, and testosterone were collected prior to each treatment. Scrotal circumference (SC) and BW were measured monthly. Puberty assessment (ability to ejaculate 5 × 107 sperm, 10% motile) was initiated at Day 244. Average mature daily sperm production (3× wk collection, combined 2 ejaculates) was assessed from Day 571-627. In blood collected every 3.5 days, FSH concentrations within FSH-HA bulls were increased (P  0.1) in testosterone, BW, or SC. FSH-HA bulls attained puberty at a younger age than control bulls (278 ± 7.7 vs. 303 ± 9.1 days of age, P puberty. We propose this exogenous FSH delivered in hyaluronan initiates a positive feedback loop that includes an increase in activin A production observed on Day 86.5 and 107.5. However, differences in mature sperm production were not realized in this experiment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Growth, puberty, and carcass characteristics of Brahman-, Senepol-, and Tuli-sired F1 Angus bulls. (United States)

    Chase, C C; Chenoweth, P J; Larsen, R E; Hammond, A C; Olson, T A; West, R L; Johnson, D D


    Postweaning growth, sexual development, libido, and carcass data were collected from two consecutive calf crops using 31 Brahman x Angus (B x A), 41 Senepol x Angus (S x A), and 38 Tuli x Angus (T x A) F1 bulls. Following weaning (by mid-September) and preconditioning, at the start of the study (late September) bulls were fed concentrate (three times each week at a rate equivalent to 4.5 kg/d) on bahiagrass pasture for approximately 250 d. At the start of the study and at 28-d intervals, BW, hip height, and scrotal circumference (SC) were measured. Concurrently at 28-d intervals, when the SC of a bull was > or = 23 cm, semen collection was attempted using electroejaculation. Ejaculates were evaluated for presence of first spermatozoa (FS), 50 x 10(6) sperm with at least 10% motility (PU), and 500 x 10(6) sperm with at least 50% motility (PP). After all bulls reached PP they were subjected to two libido tests. Carcass data were collected on all bulls (n = 110) and Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) force values were assessed on a subset (n = 80). For both years, B x A bulls were heavier (P 0.10) gain in BW or hip height during the study. Scrotal circumference of T x A bulls was larger (P 0.10) of breed type by the end of the study. At PU and PP, B x A bulls were older (P 0.10) USDA quality grade. In conclusion, tropically adapted F1 bulls produced from Senepol (Bos taurus) and Tuli (Sanga) sires bred to Angus cows in Florida had lighter BW, shorter hip heights, and smaller carcasses than those from Brahman sires but reached puberty earlier and had higher libido scores and lower WBS force values.

  1. Effect of Red Bull energy drink on cardiovascular and renal function. (United States)

    Ragsdale, Frances R; Gronli, Tyler D; Batool, Narjes; Haight, Nicole; Mehaffey, April; McMahon, Erin C; Nalli, Thomas W; Mannello, Carla M; Sell, Crystal J; McCann, Patrick J; Kastello, Gary M; Hooks, Tisha; Wilson, Ted


    Energy drink consumption has been anecdotally linked to the development of adverse cardiovascular effects in consumers, although clinical trials to support this link are lacking. The effects of Red Bull energy drink on cardiovascular and neurologic functions were examined in college-aged students enrolled at Winona State University. In a double-blind experiment where normal calorie and low calorie Red Bull were compared to normal and low calorie placebos, no changes in overall cardiovascular function nor blood glucose (mg/dL) were recorded in any participant (n = 68) throughout a 2-h test period. However, in the second experiment, nine male and twelve female participants subjected to a cold pressor test (CPT) before and after Red Bull consumption showed a significant increase in blood sugar levels pre- and post Red Bull consumption. There was a significant increase in diastolic blood pressure of the male volunteers immediately after submersion of the hand in the 5 degrees C water for the CPT. Under the influence of Red Bull, the increase in diastolic pressure for the male participants during the CPT was negated. There were no significant changes in the blood pressure of the female participants for the CPT with or without Red Bull. Finally, the CPT was used to evaluate pain threshold and pain tolerance before and after Red Bull consumption. Red Bull consumption was associated with a significant increase in pain tolerance in all participants. These findings suggest that Red Bull consumption ameliorates changes in blood pressure during stressful experiences and increases the participants' pain tolerance.

  2. Red Bull® energy drink increases consumption of higher concentrations of alcohol. (United States)

    Roldán, Marta; Echeverry-Alzate, Victor; Bühler, Kora-Mareen; Sánchez-Diez, Israel J; Calleja-Conde, Javier; Olmos, Pedro; Boehm, Stephen L; Maldonado, Rafael; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Santiago, Catalina; Gómez-Gallego, Felix; Giné, Elena; López-Moreno, Jose Antonio


    Mixing alcohol with caffeinated energy drinks is a common practice, especially among young people. In humans, the research on this issue has mainly focused on the use of the mass-marketed energy drinks themselves, whereas in animal models, it has focused on the individual effects of their active ingredients (i.e. caffeine). Here, we have characterized how Red Bull®, one of the most consumed caffeinated energy drink worldwide, modulates operant alcohol self-administration in Wistar rats. We found that animals readily and steadily responded for Red Bull (mean: 90 responses, 30 minutes and fixed-ratio 1), which was accompanied by locomotor stimulating effects (26 percent increase). The higher the concentration of alcohol (3-20 percent), the higher the consumption of alcohol (g/kg) and associated blood alcohol levels (91.76 percent) in the mixed Red Bull-alcohol group (60 percent increase). Blood caffeine levels in the Red Bull group were 4.69 μg/ml and 1.31 μg/ml in the Red Bull-alcohol group after the 30-minute session. Because Red Bull also contains 11 percent sucrose, we examined the time course of blood glucose as well as insulin and corticosterone. The correlation between intake of Red Bull and blood glucose levels was higher at 90 minutes than 5 minutes after its consumption, and there was no relationship with blood insulin or blood corticosterone levels. Red Bull did not alter extinction and reacquisition of responding for alcohol nor did it affect relapse-like drinking. Overall, our results suggest that Red Bull might be a vulnerability factor to develop alcoholism given that it intensifies the consumption of higher concentrations of alcohol. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. Electroejaculation increased vocalization and plasma concentrations of cortisol and progesterone, but not substance P, in beef bulls. (United States)

    Whitlock, B K; Coffman, E A; Coetzee, J F; Daniel, J A


    Electroejaculation is a reliable method of obtaining a semen sample for a bull breeding soundness examination, but is sometimes regarded as painful. Substance P is a neuropeptide involved in the integration of pain, stress, and anxiety. We hypothesized that substance P is a measure of pain in bulls following electroejaculation. The specific objective was to compare vocalization and plasma concentrations of cortisol, progesterone, and substance P immunoreactivity in bulls following electroejaculation. Nine Angus bulls (501.9 ± 14.3 kg) were used. Blood samples were collected at -60, -30, 0, 2, 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 120 min relative to treatment. At Time 0, bulls were subject to electroejaculation, rectal probe insertion without electroejaculation, or no manipulation. Treatments were administered contemporaneously to three bulls. Treatments were repeated weekly until each bull had received each treatment in a 3 × 3 Latin square design. More bulls (P = 0.0147) in the electroejaculation group vocalized (5 of 9 bulls; 55.6%) when compared to controls (0 of 9 bulls; 0%). Mean plasma cortisol and progesterone concentration following electroejaculation in bulls were higher (P electroejaculation in bulls (77.2 ± 17.2 pg/mL) was not different (P = 0.6264) from probed (79.1 ± 17.2 pg/mL) or control bulls (93.4 ± 17.2 pg/mL). A significant increase in vocalization and plasma cortisol and progesterone concentrations in bulls following electroejaculation was likely owing to acute stress. However, the lack of a difference in plasma concentrations of substance P after electroejaculation was interpreted as a lack of pain associated with nociception. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Nonnative trout invasions combined with climate change threaten persistence of isolated cutthroat trout populations in the southern Rocky Mountains (United States)

    Roberts, James J.; Kurt D. Fausch,; Hooten, Mevin B.; Peterson, Douglas P.


    Effective conservation of Cutthroat Trout Oncorhynchus clarkii lineages native to the Rocky Mountains will require estimating effects of multiple stressors and directing management toward the most important ones. Recent

  5. Infertility in the dromedary bull: a review of causes, relations and implications. (United States)

    Al-Qarawi, A A


    Research into infertility in the dromedary bull, as reported during the last two decades, is reviewed with emphasis on causes and effects. Reproductive activity of such animals is naturally limited by a breeding season, though with enough encouragement some may mate with oestrous females out of season but a full fertilization potential can in no way be expected. It is essential that any female presented to a bull is capable of reproducing. The presentation of a subfertile or infertile female due to infection or physiological abnormality will adversely affect the female's ability to conceive and, therefore, the apparent fertility rates of the bull she was put to. The average number of successful services a bull could be expected to perform is two per day. Dromedary bulls with large testes have larger sperm outputs and can cope with more than two females per day providing that they are given adequate periods of rest, 1-2 days every 10 days or so, in conjunction with appropriate nutrition throughout the season. Anabolic steroids or testosterone therapies, which are sometimes used in an attempt to improve male characteristics and bull libido, are not recommended for dromedary bulls in breeding work. Such steroids result in a decrease in testicular size and weight with fewer sperm per gram of testicular tissue being found and the sperm produced also have lower motility rates. Pain associated with the act of mating a she-camel, due to injuries or inflammation in the scrotum, testes, prepuce and sheath, can cause a permanent reduction in bull libido. Camel bulls achieving pregnancy rates more than 60% have had consistently higher spermatozoal concentrations and kinematic variables derived by the computerized cell motion analyzer (CMA) system. As far as physical capabilities are concerned, 3-year-old dromedary bulls, which have reached puberty, have been shown to be perfectly capable of fertilizing a female, but they have a limited sperm production to perform consistently

  6. Effect of a ceiling fan ventilation system on finishing young bulls' health, behaviour and growth performance. (United States)

    Magrin, L; Brscic, M; Lora, I; Rumor, C; Tondello, L; Cozzi, G; Gottardo, F


    This research aimed at assessing the effects of a ceiling fan ventilation system on health, feeding, social behaviour and growth response of finishing young bulls fattened indoors during a mild summer season. A total of 69 Charolais young bulls were housed in six pens without any mechanical ventilation system (Control) and in six pens equipped with ceiling fans. The experimental period lasted 98 days from June until mid-September 2014. Four experimental days were considered in order to assess the effect of the ventilation system under two different microclimatic conditions: 2 alert days at monthly interval with temperature humidity index (THI) between 75 and 78, and 2 normal days with THI⩽74. Health and behaviour of the bulls were evaluated through 8-h observation sessions starting after morning feed delivery. The study was carried out during a rather cool summer with a climate average THI of 68.9 and 4 days with average THI>75. Despite these mild climate conditions, ceiling fans lowered litter moisture and acted as a preventive measure for bulls' dirtiness (odd ratio=47.9; 95% CI 19.6 to 117.4). The risk of abnormal breathing was increased for Control bulls (odd ratio=40.7; 95% CI 5.4 to 304.2). When exposed to alert THI conditions, respiration rate and panting scores increased and rumination duration dropped in Control bulls compared with bulls provided with a ceiling fan. During observations under alert THI, bulls spent less time eating, more time being inactive and consumed more water compared with normal THI conditions. Bulls' daily dry matter intake measured during the observation sessions decreased on alert compared with normal THI days (PCeiling fan treatment had no effect on bulls' growth performance or water consumption but these results most likely depended on the mild climate conditions. Ceiling fans proved to mitigate some of the negative effects of heat stress on bulls' behaviour (rumination, lying down and drinking water) and respiration rate

  7. Radiation damage to bull sperm motility. III. Further x-ray studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rikmenspoel, R.


    The results of previous radiation experiments, which indicated that the centriole serves as a control center for bull sperm motility, appear to be in conflict with experiments showing that the bull sperm flagellum is an autonomous oscillator. To resolve this conflict experiments were conducted to calibrate absolutely the dose-response curves for the radiation damage, and to measure the force production and the mechanochemical energy conversion after irradiation in bull sperm. The results indicate that the centriole acts as a mechanical anchor for the contractile fibers. (auth)

  8. Near-infrared reflectance bull's eye maculopathy as an early indication of hydroxychloroquine toxicity. (United States)

    Wong, Keye L; Pautler, Scott E; Browning, David J


    In some patients, hydroxychloroquine ocular toxicity may progress even following cessation of therapy. Any leverage the clinician may use to allow earlier detection may avert significant vision loss. We report three cases suggesting that bull's eye maculopathy seen on near-infrared reflectance with a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope could be an early, objective manifestation of hydroxychloroquine ocular toxicity, and with progression of the disease this near-infrared "bull's eye" change may disappear. Alerting clinicians to this observation may allow a larger case series to corroborate the hypothesis that bull's eye maculopathy detected by near-infrared reflectance may represent an early sign of hydroxychloroquine toxicity.

  9. Duration Dependence in Stock Prices: An Analysis of Bull and Bear Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde, Asger; Timmermann, Allan


    This article studies time series dependence in the direction of stock prices by modeling the (instantaneous) probability that a bull or bear market terminates as a function of its age and a set of underlying state variables, such as interest rates. A random walk model is rejected both for bull...... and bear markets. Although it . ts the data better, a generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity model is also found to be inconsistent with the very long bull markets observed in the data. The strongest effect of increasing interest rates is found to be a lower bear market hazard rate...

  10. Content of heavy metals in the semen of bulls from various environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monkiewicz, J.; Jaczewski, S.; Dynarowicz, I.


    The content of metal ions (Cu, Pb, Zn) was examined in the semen of bulls kept under different environments. It was found that the content of Cu and Pb ions in the semen of bulls living near the copperworks and near to a highway was higher than that in the semen of bulls kept under normal conditions. The differences appeared to be highly significant statistically (P < 0.001). No significant statistical differences were found in the content of Zn. In addition, it was stated that the higher content of Pb influenced the survival of spermatozoons at highers temperature (46.5/sup 0/C). Further investigations will be performed under model conditions.

  11. Embryotoxicity of quantum dots in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss during hatching period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nijolė Kazlauskienė


    Full Text Available Research on quantum dots (QD has become a major interdisciplinary area of science. Unique physic-chemical properties of QD significantly expanded areas of their application and increased the potential impact on hydrosystems. The objectives of complex study (using toxicological, physical, chemical methods were: to determine the toxicity of QD to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss during ontogenesis (embryos, larvae depending on the duration of exposure; to estimate QD stability; to investigate QD uptake routes, distribution, accumulation, localization in tissues and different organs of embryos and larvae. This study examined the toxic effects of CdSe/ZnS-COOH at sublethal concentration. Bioassay testing was carried out under controlled laboratory conditions. Short-term (24-, 96-hour and long-term toxicity tests (14-day on fish at early stages of development (starting from “eye-egg” embryos were performed under static conditions. Mortality, physiological parameters, blood circulatory system, development disorders, behavioural responses and growth parameters of larvae were investigated. The results indicated that toxic effects of QD to rainbow trout in early life stages of development depended on the duration of exposure. Long-term exposure of QD induced remarkable deleterious changes in various systems of the developing fish organism: increased mortality, alterations in cardio-respiratory system, disturbed behavioural responses, caused developmental disorders and adversely affected the growth of larvae. Using physical methods it was determined: QD stability, uptake routes, distribution, accumulation and localization in tissues as well as in different organs of embryos and larvae of rainbow trout. Fish toxicity tests results will help to understand ecotoxicity of nanoparticles and will be used as nanoparticle embryotoxicity model in humans and other organisms.

  12. Evaluation of soil intake by growing Creole young bulls in common grazing systems in humid tropical conditions. (United States)

    Jurjanz, S; Collas, C; Lastel, M L; Godard, X; Archimède, H; Rychen, G; Mahieu, M; Feidt, C


    Soil is the main matrix which contributes to the transfer of environmental pollutants to animals and consequently into the food chain. In the French West Indies, chlordecone, a very persistent organochlorine pesticide, has been widely used on banana growing areas and this process has resulted in a long-term pollution of the corresponding soils. Domestic outside-reared herbivores are exposed to involuntary soil intake, and tethered grazing commonly used in West Indian systems can potentially favour their exposure to chlordecone. Thus, it appears necessary to quantify to what extent grazing conditions will influence soil intake. This experiment consisted of a cross-over design with two daily herbage allowance (DHA) grazed alternatively. Six young Creole bulls were distributed into two groups (G1 and G2) according to their BW. The animals were individually tethered and grazed on a restrictive (RES) or non-restrictive (NRES) levels of DHA during two successive 10-days periods. Each bull progressed on a new circular area every day. The two contrasting levels of DHA (P0.05) due to the lower DMI of RES compared with NRES treatment.

  13. Re-evaluating the Contribution and Legacy of Hedley Bull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Maione Souza


    Full Text Available The article aims, in the first instance, to make a detailed analysis of the work of Hedley Bull, approaching the main themes and concepts developed by him. Secondly, it aims to re-evaluate the potential of the author’s contribution, given the new conditions of the post-Cold War period. With this in mind, the article critically analyses the most recent interpretations of this work, which seek to highlight its critical and normative potential, as well as to dissociate it from the realist tradition in international relations. These two facts differentiate the new commentators from older ones and reaffirm the continuing relevance of Hedley Bull’s work, the latter being the article’s chief conclusion.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Moravčíková


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was identification of SNPs in leptin (LEP, leptin receptor (LEPR, growth hormone (GH and specific pituitary transcription factor (Pit-1 genes in order to analyze genetic structure of Charolais bulls’ population. The total numbers of genomic DNA samples were taken from 52 breeding bulls and analyzed by PCR-RFLP method. After digestion with restriction enzymes were detected in bulls’ population alleles with frequency: LEP/Sau3AI A 0.83 and B 0.17 (±0.037; LEPR/BseGI C 0.95 and T 0.05 (±0.021, GH/AluI L 0.62 and V 0.38 (±0.048 and Pit1/HinfI A 0.40 and B 0.60 (±0.048. Based on the observed vs. expected genotypes frequencies population across loci were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P>0.05, only in case of Pit-1 locus was detected disequilibrium. Predominant were in analyzed breeding bulls LEP/Sau3AIAA (0.69, LEPR/T945MCC (0.90, GH/AluILL (0.43 and Pit-1/HinfIAB (0.65 genotypes. The observed heterozygosity of SNPs was also transferred to the low (LEP/Sau3AI/0.248 and LEPR/T945M/0.088 or median polymorphic information content (GH/AluI/0.366 and Pit-1/HinfI/0.370. Within genetic variability estimating negative (LEPR/T945M and Pit-1/HinfI and positive values (LEP/Sau3AI and GH/AluI of fixation indexes FIS indicating slight heterozygote excess or deficiency based on analyzed genetic marker were observed.

  15. Performance of continuous biodigestors supplied by young bull waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Monica Sarolli S. de M. [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil)], E-mail:; Lucas Junior, Jorge de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias; Pivetta, Laercio Augusto [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Marechal C. Rondon, PR (Brazil); Costa, Luiz A. de Mendonca


    The various systems of livestock farming in the industrial model promote physical and chemical changes on waste. In the fattening of cattle in the model of confinement for young bulls has been a reversal in the proportion between roughage and concentrate, or the animals receive a higher amount of protein compared to the traditional system of confinement. This change of the waste characteristics involves modification in the system of treatment used. In this work, it was aimed to evaluate the performance of batch biodigestors operated in continuous system, supplied by young bulls waste which received two differentiated diets by the proportion between roughage and concentrate, whether or not containing inoculum in the substrate composition and subjected to three levels of temperature (25, 35 and 40 deg C). The parameters evaluated were: reduction of total solids (TS) and volatile (VS), and the potential for biogas production. The results showed a reduction of TS higher in the treatment which was not used inoculum for diet 1 and 2 with the exception of the treatment which the substrate was referred to temperature of 40 deg C on diet 2. For the reduction of VS there was no interference from the use of inoculum on diet 1. On diet 2, the largest reductions were observed without the use of inoculum, with the exception of the 40 deg C temperature. For the potential for biogas production the treatment where they used waste derived from animals fed with diet 2, with the use of inoculum, in the temperature of 40 deg C showed the greatest value, or 0.53 m{sup 3} of biogas per kg TS added. (author)

  16. Use of post-thaw semen quality parameters to predict fertility of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bull during peak breeding season. (United States)

    Ahmed, H; Andrabi, S M H; Anwar, M; Jahan, S


    This study was designed to predict the fertility of water buffalo bull using post-thaw semen quality parameters during peak breeding season. Thirty ejaculates were collected from five bulls with artificial vagina and cryopreserved. At post-thaw, semen was analysed for motility parameters, velocity distribution, kinematics, DNA integrity/fragmentation, viability, mitochondrial transmembrane potential, morphology, plasma membrane and acrosome integrity. Data of 514 inseminations were collected for estimation of in vivo fertility. Pearson's correlation coefficients showed that progressive motility (PM), rapid velocity, average path velocity, straight line velocity, straightness, supravital plasma membrane integrity, viable spermatozoon with intact acrosome or with high mitochondrial activity were correlated with in vivo fertility (r = .81, p fertility was PM. However, combinations of semen quality parameters to predict fertility were better as compared to single parameter. In conclusion, fertility of buffalo bull can be predicted through some of the post-thaw in vitro semen quality tests during peak breeding season. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Skov, Jakob; Mohammad, Rezkar Jaafar

    to that of the commercial vaccine with lower side effects as observed by the Speilberg scoring system. Gene expression analysis did not show a clear trend for Th1 or Th2 response in the vaccinated fish. Exposure of fish to saltwater increased the IgT production. Overall, the immune response in vaccinated fish, the side......In vivo testing of any candidate vaccine is influenced by the choice of challenge method and the external environmental conditions. In the present study, a comparative challenge study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of different vaccines against the bacterial pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida...... causing furunculosis. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were vaccinated with two trivalent adjuvanted experimental vaccines containing formalin-killed A. salmonicida, Vibrio anguillarum O1 and O2a and a commercial corresponding vaccine (Alpha Ject 3000). Fish were challenged by i.p. injection...

  18. Effects of hybridization between nonnative Rainbow Trout and native Westslope Cutthroat Trout on fitness-related traits (United States)

    Drinan, Daniel P.; Webb, Molly A. H.; Naish, Kerry A.; Kalinowski, Steven T.; Boyer, Matthew C.; Steed, Amber C.; Shepard, Bradley B.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.


    Hybridization between introduced and native fauna is a risk to native species and may threaten the long-term persistence of numerous taxa. Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss has been one of the most widely introduced species around the globe and often hybridizes with native Cutthroat Trout O. clarkii in the Rocky Mountains. Previous work has shown that hybridization negatively affects reproductive success, but identification of the traits contributing to that reduction has been elusive. In this study, we used a combination of field and laboratory techniques to assess how hybridization with Rainbow Trout affects seven traits during several stages of Westslope Cutthroat Trout development: embryonic survival, ova size, ova energy concentration, sperm motility, juvenile weight, juvenile survival, and burst swimming endurance. Rainbow Trout admixture was correlated with an increase in embryonic survival and ova energy concentration but with a decrease in juvenile weight and burst swimming endurance. These correlations differed from previously observed patterns of reproductive success and likely do not explain the declines in reproductive success associated with admixture. Future investigation of additional, unstudied traits and the use of different environments may shed light on the traits responsible for reproductive success in admixed Cutthroat Trout.

  19. A comparison of oxolinic acid concentrations in farmed and laboratory held rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) following oral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coyne, R.; Samuelsen, O.; Kongshaug, H.


    Plasma oxolinic acid (OXA) concentrations were measured in fish from a cage of farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) 1 day after the termination of medication. The fish were experiencing significant mortalities and following a diagnosis of vibriosis, OXA had been orally administered at 50 mg...... laboratory held rainbow trout (O. mykiss) following the administration of OXA under similar conditions of salinity, temperature and dosing regimen. In these laboratory held fish, the mean plasma OXA concentration was 0.133±0.068 mg/l. The major difference between the distributions of OXA concentrations...... in the farm and laboratory populations was in the extent of fish to fish variation observed. In the healthy farmed fish, the percentage coefficient of variation (%CV) was 97% compared to a %CV of 51% in the laboratory held fish. The patterns of the daily mortality in the farmed population were analysed from...

  20. Two immunogenetical parameters in five Danish rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) strains and their relation to body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slierendrecht, W.J.; Olesen, Niels Jørgen


    The distribution of different phenotypes of the complement component C3 and a possible correlation with body weight were investigated in five Danish strains (A, C, D, E, J) of farmed trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum). All strains showed the presence of the f1 and f2 alleles; two of these strains...... also expressed the s allele. Most common was the fl allele (> 68%); rarest was the s allele (body weight of trout and different C3...... phenotypes (P = 0.002); the mean body weight of individuals with the f1 phenotype was also lower than that of the f1/f2 and s/f1 phenotypes. This result, however, is not conclusive, as it was observed in only one of the five strains and because the number of individuals in some of the phenotype groups...

  1. Intracellular diffusion restrictions in isolated cardiomyocytes from rainbow trout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birkedal Rikke


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Restriction of intracellular diffusion of adenine nucleotides has been studied intensively on adult rat cardiomyocytes. However, their cause and role in vivo is still uncertain. Intracellular membrane structures have been suggested to play a role. We therefore chose to study cardiomyocytes from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, which are thinner and have fewer intracellular membrane structures than adult rat cardiomyocytes. Previous studies suggest that trout permeabilized cardiac fibers also have diffusion restrictions. However, results from fibers may be affected by incomplete separation of the cells. This is avoided when studying permeabilized, isolated cardiomyocytes. The aim of this study was to verify the existence of diffusion restrictions in trout cardiomyocytes by comparing ADP-kinetics of mitochondrial respiration in permeabilized fibers, permeabilized cardiomyocytes and isolated mitochondria from rainbow trout heart. Experiments were performed at 10, 15 and 20°C in the absence and presence of creatine. Results Trout cardiomyocytes hypercontracted in the solutions used for mammalian cardiomyocytes. We developed a new solution in which they retained their shape and showed stable steady state respiration rates throughout an experiment. The apparent ADP-affinity of permeabilized cardiomyocytes was different from that of fibers. It was higher, independent of temperature and not increased by creatine. However, it was still about ten times lower than in isolated mitochondria. Conclusions The differences between fibers and cardiomyocytes suggest that results from trout heart fibers were affected by incomplete separation of the cells. However, the lower ADP-affinity of cardiomyocytes compared to isolated mitochondria indicate that intracellular diffusion restrictions are still present in trout cardiomyocytes despite their lower density of intracellular membrane structures. The lack of a creatine effect indicates that

  2. Spatial and temporal movement dynamics of brook Salvelinus fontinalis and brown trout Salmo trutta (United States)

    Davis, L.A.; Wagner, Tyler; Barton, Meredith L.


    Native eastern brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and naturalized brown trout Salmo trutta occur sympatrically in many streams across the brook trout’s native range in the eastern United States. Understanding within- among-species variability in movement, including correlates of movement, has implications for management and conservation. We radio tracked 55 brook trout and 45 brown trout in five streams in a north-central Pennsylvania, USA watershed to quantify the movement of brook trout and brown trout during the fall and early winter to (1) evaluate the late-summer, early winter movement patterns of brook trout and brown trout, (2) determine correlates of movement and if movement patterns varied between brook trout and brown trout, and (3) evaluate genetic diversity of brook trout within and among study streams, and relate findings to telemetry-based observations of movement. Average total movement was greater for brown trout (mean ± SD = 2,924 ± 4,187 m) than for brook trout (mean ± SD = 1,769 ± 2,194 m). Although there was a large amount of among-fish variability in the movement of both species, the majority of movement coincided with the onset of the spawning season, and a threshold effect was detected between stream flow and movement: where movement increased abruptly for both species during positive flow events. Microsatellite analysis of brook trout revealed consistent findings to those found using radio-tracking, indicating a moderate to high degree of gene flow among brook trout populations. Seasonal movement patterns and the potential for relatively large movements of brook and brown trout highlight the importance of considering stream connectivity when restoring and protecting fish populations and their habitats.

  3. DNA integrity in sexed bull sperm assessed by neutral Comet assay and sperm chromatin structure assay. (United States)

    Boe-Hansen, Gry B; Morris, Ian D; Ersbøll, Annette K; Greve, Torben; Christensen, Preben


    During the production of sex-sorted spermatozoa from bull semen, the cells are exposed to a number of potential hazards including: dilution, centrifugation, incubation, exposure to DNA stains and laser light. These factors may affect the survival capacity and fertilization potential of the sperm. The objective of this study was to determine whether sex-sorted bull spermatozoa have more DNA damage than sperm from conventional processed bull semen. Two methods were used to determine DNA integrity: the neutral Comet assay (NCA) and the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA). The NCA showed that the conventional samples had a higher tail moment (TM) (P sperm and that cell sorting by flow cytometry improves the integrity of the sperm cell population. Additionally the results from the SCSA indicated that the sex-sorted sperm had less homogenous sperm chromatin. In the future assessment of sperm DNA integrity may be used to select bulls for sperm sex sorting and optimizing sperm sex sorting procedures.

  4. Comparison on accuracy of different nonlinear models in predicting growth of Podolica bulls

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Selvaggi, Maria; Laudadio, Vito; D'Alessandro, Angela Gabriella; Dario, Cataldo; Tufarelli, Vincenzo


    .... This study was carried out to estimate the parameters of logistic, Gompertz, Richards and von Bertalanffy growth curve models in a sample of Podolica young bulls to determine the goodness of fit...

  5. Bulls grazing Kentucky 31 tall fescue exhibit impaired growth, semen quality, and decreased semen freezing potential (United States)

    Serum prolactin (PRL) and testosterone concentrations, body weight, body composition, semen quality, and semen freezing potential for bulls grazing the toxic tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum [Schreb.] Darbysh. ¼ Schedonorous arundinaceum [Schreb.] Dumort.) cultivar Kentucky 31 (E+) compared with a n...


    Essilfie, Juliet O; Sanfilippo, Christian J; Sarraf, David


    To report a case of bull's eye maculopathy associated with mutations in RDS/PRPH2 and ROM-1 genes. We present a case report of a patient with a characteristic maculopathy and describe the multimodal retinal imaging findings including spectral domain optical coherence tomography and fundus autofluorescence and full-field electrophysiology. The results of genetic testing are also reported. A 60-year-old woman presented with decreased vision and a remarkable bull's eye maculopathy with retinal examination. Fundus autofluorescence illustrated a striking pattern of speckled hyperautofluorescence and hypoautofluorescence that highlighted the bull's eye maculopathy in each eye and guided genetic testing, which confirmed a mutation of the RDS/PRPH2 gene and a novel mutation of the ROM-1 gene. Multimodal imaging including fundus autofluorescence may guide genetic testing in patients with a characteristic maculopathy. RDS/PRPH2 genetic mutation can be associated with a bull's eye maculopathy with a signature fundus autofluorescence presentation.

  7. Quality Traits of Meat from Young Limousin, Charolais and Hereford Bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Pogorzelska*, Jan Miciński, Halina Ostoja1, Ireneusz M. Kowalski2, Józef Szarek3 and Emilia Strzyżewska3


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of beef cattle breed and muscle type on the proximate chemical composition and quality traits of meat, including processing suitability. The experimental materials comprised samples of musculus longissimus dorsi (LD muscle and musculus semitendinosus (ST muscle collected from the carcasses of young Limousin, Charolais and Hereford bulls. The chemical composition, texture, hydration and color parameters of LD and ST muscles were determined. Meat from Limousin and Charolais bulls, characterized by higher body mass at slaughter contained more protein than meat from Hereford bulls. Meat from Hereford bulls had a higher fat content, compared with the other two breeds. Texture parameters, including hardness, gumminess and chewiness, varied depending on muscle type and cattle breed. An analysis of the maximum shear force values showed that the mechanical properties of beef also varied depending on cattle breed and muscle type.

  8. Kinetics data from bovine sex-specific embryo development from three different bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.S. Oliveira


    Full Text Available Here we present kinetics data from bovine sex-specific embryo development. Embryos were originated using sex-sorted semen from three different Nelore bulls, and semen from the same batch was used for X-and Y-chromosome spermatozoa sorting. Data was obtained for six time points (24, 48, 96, 120, and 144 h.p.i.. Analyses for each bull׳s embryos (1, 2 and 3 is presented for female and male groups separately. Also, grouped data analysis, considering bull and sex interaction, is shown. For further interpretation and discussion, see "Cell death is involved in sexual dimorphism during preimplantation development" (Oliveira et al., 2015 [1].

  9. Testicular, semen and blood parameters in adapted and nonadapted Bos taurus bulls in the semi-arid tropics. (United States)

    Wildeus, S; Hammond, A C


    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate differences in testicular, seminal and hematological characteristics in adapted (Senepol) and nonadapted (Holstein) Bos taurus bulls under the semi-arid environmental conditions of St. Croix, Virgin Islands (17 degrees N, 64 degrees W). In Experiment 1 mature, sexually-rested Senepol (n=10) and Holstein (n=9) bulls of similar age (37 months) and body weight (715 kg) and grazing on adjacent native pastures, were tested on the same day in July (28.8 degrees C mean ambient temperature, 81.5% humidity). Senepol bulls had lower (PSenepol compared to Holstein bulls. Ejaculates, obtained by electroejaculation, contained 3.2x10(9) more spermatozoa with fewer abnormal tails and detached acrosomes in Senepol than in Holstein bulls (PSenepol (n=42) and Holstein (n=30) bulls, representing 3 beef and 5 dairy farms, were evaluated during the summer (August/September) and winter (February/March). Again, scrotal circumference was larger (PSenepol than in Holstein bulls, with no effect of season. Seminal fructose was higher (PSenepol than in Holstein bulls and decreased (PSenepol bulls. The data point to differences between the adapted and nonadapted breed type in testicular and ejaculate characteristics, but also suggest that season has only a limited impact on bull reproductive function under the environmental conditions in St. Croix.

  10. Magnetite-Based Magnetoreceptor Cells in the Olfactory Organ of Rainbow Trout and Zebrafish (United States)

    Kirschvink, J. L.; Cadiou, H.; Dixson, A. D.; Eder, S.; Kobayashi, A.; McNaughton, P. A.; Muhamad, A. N.; Raub, T. D.; Walker, M. M.; Winklhofer, M.; Yuen, B. B.


    with narrow particle size distribution concentrated in the trunk, similar to biogenic magnetofossils. In SQUID microscopy images numerous dipole spots are widely distributed throughout the flank, not correlated with skin pigments or the spinal cord and neural arches. We interpret this to indicate a lateral line location for trunk magnetite in zebrafish. In contrast to trout in which rock magnetic experiments and TEM suggest highly interacting bundled ropes of crystals, similar to those in the large magnetotactic bacterium, M. bavaricum, zebrafish magnetic aggregates apparently arrange in clumps or mixed chains and clumps. We report trout olfactory epithelium containing magnetite magnetoreceptors that transduce the external magnetic field, then encode and transmit it to the brain, while zebrafish contain magnetite in the lateral line region.

  11. Restoration of Soldier Spring: an isolated habitat for native Apache trout (United States)

    Jonathan W. Long; B. Mae Burnette; Alvin L. Medina; Joshua L. Parker


    Degradation of streams is a threat to the recovery of the Apache trout, an endemic fish of the White Mountains of Arizona. Historic efforts to improve trout habitat in the Southwest relied heavily on placement of in-stream log structures. However, the effects of structural interventions on trout habitat and populations have not been adequately evaluated. We treated an...

  12. Agonistic behavior among three stocked trout species in a novel reservoir fish community (United States)

    Budy, Phaedra; Hafen, Konrad


    The popularity of reservoirs to support sport fisheries has led to the stocking of species that did not co-evolve, creating novel reservoir fish communities. In Utah, the Bear Lake strain of Bonneville Cutthroat Trout Oncorhynchus clarkii utah and tiger trout (female Brown Trout Salmo trutta × male Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis) are being more frequently added to a traditional stocking regimen consisting primarily of Rainbow TroutO. mykiss. Interactions between these three predatory species are not well understood, and studies evaluating community interactions have raised concern for an overall decrease of trout condition. To evaluate the potential for negative interactions among these species, we tested aggression in laboratory aquaria using three-species and pairwise combinations at three densities. Treatments were replicated before and after feeding. During the three-species trials Rainbow Trout initiated 24.8 times more aggressive interactions than Cutthroat Trout and 10.2 times more aggressive interactions than tiger trout, and tiger trout exhibited slightly (1.9 times) more aggressive initiations than Cutthroat Trout. There was no significant difference in behavior before versus after feeding for any species, and no indication of increased aggression at higher densities. Although Rainbow Trout in aquaria may benefit from their bold, aggressive behavior, given observations of decreased relative survival in the field, these benefits may be outweighed in reservoirs, possibly through unnecessary energy expenditure and exposure to predators.

  13. Exploring trends, causes, and consequences of declining lipids in Lake Superior lake trout (United States)

    The ability of lake trout to forage in deepwater habitats is facilitated by high lipid content, which affords buoyancy. In Lake Superior, lean lake trout historically occupied depths < 80 m, and siscowet lake trout occupied depths > 80 m. Siscowets have been known f...

  14. Detection of Paratuberculosis in Breeding Bulls at Pakistani Semen Production Units: A Continuous Source of Threat


    Muhammad ABBAS; Munir, Muhammad; Khaliq, Syed Abdul; Haq, Muhammad Ikram Ul; Tanveer Khan, Muhammad; Qureshi, Zafar Ul Ahsan


    Paratuberculosis is a chronic bowel disease of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Its secretion through semen highlights the importance of paratuberculosis-free breeding bulls. The breeding and teaser bulls at three semen production units (SPUs) located in Punjab, Pakistan, were screened for the presence of antibodies against MAP. A total of 253 samples were collected from SPUs and a commercially available indirect screen ELISA (Is-ELISA) was applied. Is-EL...

  15. Identification of putative fertility markers in seminal plasma of crossbred bulls through differential proteomics. (United States)

    Aslam, M K Muhammad; Kumaresan, A; Sharma, Vinay K; Tajmul, Md; Chhillar, Shivani; Chakravarty, A K; Manimaran, A; Mohanty, T K; Srinivasan, A; Yadav, Savita


    Sub-fertility is a major problem in crossbred bulls leading to disintegration of breeding systems and huge economic loss. Identification of some potential biomarkers to determine the latent fertility of bulls accurately has long been the interest of researchers. In this study, we analyzed the proteome of seminal plasma (SP) from bulls with varying fertility to identify the fertility-associated proteins. The proteomic profile of high- and low-fertile bulls was compared by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and differentially expressed proteins were identified through matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight/mass spectrometry. Out of the 18 differentially expressed proteins (P bulls and 9 were overexpressed in SP of low-fertile bulls. The differential expressions ranged from 1.5- to 5.5-fold between the two groups, where protection of telomeres-1 protein (POT1) was highly overexpressed (2.9-fold) in high-fertile group and prostaglandin E2 receptor EP3 (PTGER3) was highly abundant (5.5-fold) in low-fertile group. The protein interaction network was elucidated using STRING software tool, and the functional bioinformatics analysis was done using Blast2Go software. Most of the differentially expressed proteins were found to be involved in cellular processes and biological regulation with binding and catalytic function. It is inferred that the expression of certain proteins in the SP varied with bull fertility, and concurrent appraisal of their expression along with other fertility assays may help in determining bull fertility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Gross testicular abnormalities in indigenous breeds of bulls in Eastern Ethiopia


    Amare Eshetu Gemeda


    Objective: This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of different types of gross testicular disorders in bulls, and to evaluate the associations with sampling year, age, and body condition. Materials and methods: In this study, a total of 398 apparently healthy bulls were randomly selected that were brought from different parts of eastern Ethiopia to the Haramaya University abattoir for slaughtering during the period from June 2014 to September 2016. Ante- and post-mortem examinat...

  17. Light-scattering studies of bull spermatozoa. II. Interaction and concentration effects.


    Woolford, M.W.; Harvey, J D


    The complete autocorrelation function of the intensity fluctuations of laser light scattered from motile bull spermatozoa is shown to depend upon several factors not previously considered. Samples of bull spermatozoa generally contain a substantial proportion of dead cells, which give rise to slowly decaying components of the autocorrelation function. Whereas previous work has concentrated on the form of the fast decaying autocorrelation component, we are concerned here with the relative ampl...

  18. Relationships among temperament, behavior, and growth during performance testing of bulls. (United States)

    Lockwood, S A; Kattesh, H G; Krawczel, P D; Kirkpatrick, F D; Saxton, A M; Rhinehart, J D; Wilkerson, J B


    Excitable cattle are dangerous to personnel and have reduced individual performance. The aim of this study was to 1) identify objective criteria for evaluating bull temperament and 2) examine relationships among temperament, behavior, and performance of bulls during an 84-d performance test. Angus bulls ( = 60) were reared in 6 pens based on BW and age. Pen scores (PS; 1 = docile and 5 = very aggressive) were assigned on d -1, 27, 55, and 83. Exit velocity (EV), BW, time to exit the chute, and order through the chute were recorded on d 0, 28, 56, and 84. The ADG was calculated for the 84-d test period, and ultrasound data and frame score calculations were recorded on d 84. Dataloggers measured steps taken, lying time, number of lying bouts, and lying bout duration of bulls ( = 27; 3 pens) from d 3 to 28 and d 59 to 84. Bulls with a d -1 PS of 1 or 2 were categorized as calm (PScalm; = 40), whereas bulls with a PS of 3 or 4 were categorized as excitable (PSexcitable; = 20). Bulls were separated into 2 groups based on the bottom 20 EV (EVcalm) and top 20 EV (EVexcitable) on d 0. Mixed model ANOVA (SAS 9.3) was used to compare groups for the two temperament assessment methods, behavior, and growth performance. Mean EV decreased ( testing period. Additionally, the potential lack of innate temperament variation may have attributed to the little difference seen among the behavioral and performance data. Therefore, temperament should be reassessed within a novel environment with new handlers to differentiate between the bull's true temperament and its ability to habituate.

  19. Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular effects in response to red bull consumption combined with mental stress. (United States)

    Grasser, Erik Konrad; Dulloo, Abdul G; Montani, Jean-Pierre


    The sale of energy drinks is often accompanied by a comprehensive and intense marketing with claims of benefits during periods of mental stress. As it has been shown that Red Bull negatively impacts human hemodynamics at rest, we investigated the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular consequences when Red Bull is combined with mental stress. In a randomized cross-over study, 20 young healthy humans ingested either 355 ml of a can Red Bull or water and underwent 80 minutes after the respective drink a mental arithmetic test for 5 minutes. Continuous cardiovascular and cerebrovascular recordings were performed for 20 minutes before and up to 90 minutes after drink ingestion. Measurements included beat-to-beat blood pressure (BP), heart rate, stroke volume, and cerebral blood flow velocity. Red Bull increased systolic BP (+7 mm Hg), diastolic BP (+4 mm Hg), and heart rate (+7 beats/min), whereas water drinking had no significant effects. Cerebral blood flow velocity decreased more in response to Red Bull than to water (-9 vs -3 cm/s, p Red Bull; similar increases were also observed after water ingestion. In combination, Red Bull and mental stress increased systolic BP by about 10 mm Hg, diastolic BP by 7 mm Hg, and heart rate by 20 beats/min and decreased cerebral blood flow velocity by -7 cm/s. In conclusion, the combination of Red Bull and mental stress impose a cumulative cardiovascular load and reduces cerebral blood flow even under a mental challenge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysis of organisation sport event of event Red Bull Crashed Ice 2009


    Rak, Zdeněk


    Title: Analysis of organisation sport event of event Red Bull Crashed Ice 2009 Work goal: Analysis of organisation of event... Methods: Descriptive analysis, SWOT analysis, Interview with experts. Annotation: Organisation of Red Bull Crashed Ice includes possible areas of improvement with concrete suggestions to activities of organisational process of this sport event. Introduced proposals result from results of SWOT analysis and interviews with professionals. Results: Conclusion and advices ...

  1. Kootenai River Fisheries Investigations: Salmonid Studies Project Progress Report, 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paragamian, Vaughn L.; Walters, Jody; Maiolie, Melo [Idaho Department of Fish and Game


    This research report addresses bull trout Salvelinus confluentus and Redband trout Oncorhynchus mykiss redd surveys, population monitoring, trout distribution, and abundance surveys in the Kootenai River drainage of Idaho. The bull trout is one of several sport fish native to the Kootenai River, Idaho that no longer supports a fishery. Because bull trout are listed under the Endangered Species Act, population data will be vital to monitoring status relative to recovery goals. Thirty-three bull trout redds were found in North and South Callahan creeks and Boulder Creek in 2007. This is a decrease from 2006 and 2005 and less than the high count in 2003. However, because redd numbers have only been monitored since 2002, the data series is too short to determine bull trout population trends based on redd counts. Redband trout still provide an important Kootenai River sport fishery, but densities are low, at least partly due to limited recruitment. The redband trout proportional stock density (PSD) in 2007 increased from 2006 for a second year after a two-year decline in 2004 and 2005. This may indicate increased recruitment to or survival in the 201-305 mm length group due to the minimum 406 mm (16 inches) length limit initiated in 2002. We conducted 13 redd surveys and counted 44 redband trout redds from May 7 to June 3, 2007 in a 3.8 km survey reach on Twentymile Creek. We surveyed streams in the Kootenai River valley to look for barriers to trout migration. Man-made barriers, for at least part of the year, were found on Caboose, Debt, Fisher, and Twenty Mile creeks. Removing these barriers would increase spawning and rearing habitat for trout and help to restore trout fisheries in the Kootenai River.

  2. Genetic Background and Population Genetics of Hungarian Brown Trout Populations Using PCR-RFLP and Microsatellite Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ágnes Ősz


    4 University of West Hungary, Mosonmagyaróvár Vár 2., 9200 Mosonmagyaróvár, Hungary Based on the analyses of the mitochondrial DNA of several European brown trout populations, five evolutionary lineages of brown trout were indentified (Atlantic, Danubian, Mediterranean, Adriatic, Marble. The species is bred primarily for stock enhancement of natural waters, however the most hatchery-maintained broodstocks originate from the Atlantic lineage. Due to the hydrogeography of Hungary our stocks should theoretically belong to the Danubian lineage; however, this has not been investigated earlier by genetic studies. For our genetic analysis, 702 fin clips were collected from two brown trout broodstocks (Lillafüred and Szilvásvárad as well as populations of natural streams (Bán, Jósva, Kemence, Apátkút, Bittva and Kölöntés in Hungary. Sequencing of the control region in mitochondrial DNA, three PCR-RFLP (mitochondrial DNA control region, lactate dehydrogenase and somatolactin genes and five microsatellite markers were used to distinguish between Danubian and Atlantic lineages of brown trout. The proportion of the mitochondrial haplotype of the Danubian lineage was low, with the exception of the Apátkúti, Kölöntés streams and Szilvásvárad broodstock. Analyses of nuclear PCR-RFLP and microsatellites markers showed various distributions of alleles characteristic of the Atlantic or Danubian lineages, although the Atlantic genotype has dominated in all population. In case of the analyses of microsatellites the polymorphism varied greatly at all locations. In addition we found several alleles that were not described earlier in other populations. Those alleles probably would be typical of Hungarian brown trout populations. Overall the populations were effectively in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for both PCR-RFLP and microsatellite markers. The remarkably high proportion of allochthonous Atlantic alleles in the analyzed sites is a clear indicator of the import

  3. [Effect of the E-50 Biostimulant on sperm production in young bulls]. (United States)

    Elezov, G; Marinkov, T; Krŭstev, M


    The Biostimulant E-50 preparation, a biogenic stumulant, was applied to 8 bulls divided into two groups--with normal and with disturbed semen production (lower qualitative indices of semen and higher number of discarded ejaculates). The stimulant was injected muscularly at the rate of 40 cu. cm, twice, at a seven-day interval, with one of the bulls it being used in a second series. Studied were a total of 587 ejaculates taken from the test bulls following treatment. It was found that the agent produced a favourable effect on semen production, the reaction being individual and better manifested with bulls having disturbances. Up to 13.7 per cent of the ejaculates of bulls with normal semen production were discarded, and up to 31.8 per cent of those showing signs of disturbed spermiogenesis. The spermogram indices with some bulls reliably rose (P less than 0.01 and 0.05) in terms of concentration and motility, the number of dead spermatozoa coming back to normal at negligible rise of the pH value.

  4. Study on the reproductive capacity of bulls of the autochthonous Rhodope Shorthorn cattle breed

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    Radka Malinova


    Full Text Available The sperm production of bulls from the autochthonous Rhodope Shorthorn cattle breed was studied. The breed is among the smallest in Europe, the average weight of the cows ranging from 200 to 250 kg, and of the bulls from 330 to 370 kg. It was found that during the first 6 months from the start of exploitation, at the age of the bulls from 18 to 24 months, AI bulls had high reproductive capacity. The ejaculate volume was 1,74±0,09 ml in average (LS, the percentage of motile spermatozoa was 74,3±3,48% and the concentration 1268±13,1 x 106/ml. It was established that the bull had a significant impact on the reproductive performance, but the individual differences in the main characteristics were not high – motility 71,8-77,0%, concentration – 1222-1324 х 106/ml. The season also had a significant effect on the percentage of motile spermatozoa. Within the period from January to June, the highest reproductive capacity of the bulls was observed from February to May and the lowest in June.

  5. Are the Scaling Properties of Bull and Bear Markets Identical? Evidence from Oil and Gold Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samet Günay


    Full Text Available In this study, the scaling properties of the oil and gold return volatilities have been analyzed in the context of bull and bear periods. In the determination of bull and bear turning points, we used the Modified Bry-Boschan Quarterly (MBBQ algorithm. Results showed that the business cycle phase shapes of the bear periods in the oil market are almost linear, whereas the bull and bear periods of the gold and bull period of the oil market are convex. This means that there are sharper declines in the bear period of the oil market. Following the detection of bull and bear periods, scaling exponent H analysis was performed via the aggregated variance, Higuchi’s statistic, Peng’s statistic, rescaled range, boxed periodogram and wavelet fit models, which are from the time, frequency and wavelet domains. As there are conflicts about the credibility of these methods in the literature, we have used the shuffling procedure in order to determine the most robust methods. According to the results, bear periods have higher volatility persistency than bull periods.

  6. Growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of finishing bulls fed crude glycerin-supplemented diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Chaves Françozo


    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the performance, carcass characteristics and chemical composition of Longissimusmuscle (LM of the bulls. Twenty-four Nellore bulls were used in a complete randomised design. The bulls were randomly assigned to one of the three diets containing 0, 5 or 12% glycerin. Final BW and ADG were similar (P>0.05 between the bulls fed with 5 or 12% of glycerin but were higher (P0.05 by glycerin level. Hot carcass weight increased (P0.05 the conformation, colour, texture, marbling and pH. There was difference (P>0.05 for moisture, ashes and crude protein among glycerin levels. Bulls fed 12% glycerin present the highest (P<0.03 total lipids on LM. The percentage of saturated fatty acids (SFA, monounsaturated acids (MUFA, polyunsaturated acids (PUFA, n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and PUFA/SFA and n-6:n-3 ratios of the LM were similar among the diets. In conclusion, glycerin level did not affect the animal performance and carcass characteristics of Nellore bulls finished in feedlot.

  7. Correlation between hypoosmotic swelling test and breeding soundness evaluation of adult Nelore bulls

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    Tamires Miranda Neto


    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the relationship between physical and morphological semen features with the hypoosmotic swelling (HOS test in raw semen of adult Nelore bulls classified as sound and unsound for breeding. Two hundred and six Nelore bulls aging from 3-10 years old were subjected to breeding soundness examination. After physical and morphological semen examination, HOS test was done. After the breeding soundness examination, 94.2% of the bulls were classified as sound for breeding. There was no difference between the average scrotal circumference of bulls classified as sound and unsound for breeding (P>0.05, but there was difference between all semen physical and morphological aspects of bulls classified as sound and unsound for breeding (P>0.05, but there was no difference in the mean percentage of reactive spermatozoa to HOS test results both for sound (38.4±17.9 and unsound animals (39.5±16.4; P>0.05, with no Pearson correlation between the HOS test and variables. According to these results HOS test can not be used alone to predict the reproductive potential of adult Nelore bulls.

  8. A value orientation approach to assess and compare climate change risk perception among trout anglers in Georgia, USA (United States)

    Ramesh Paudyal; Neelam C. Poudyal; J.M. Bowker; Adrienne M. Dorison; Stanley J. Zarnoch; Gary T. Green


    Trout in Georgia could experience early impacts from climate change as the streams in the region are located at the southern most edge of their North American home range. This study surveyed trout anglers in Georgia to understand how anglers perceive the potential impact of climate change on trout, and whether and how their perception and response to declines in trout...

  9. Effects of chronic high stocking density on liver proteome of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). (United States)

    Naderi, Mahdi; Keyvanshokooh, Saeed; Salati, Amir Parviz; Ghaedi, Alireza


    The main aim of the present study was to assess the effects of chronic high stocking density on liver proteome of rainbow trout. Rainbow trout juveniles (42.6 ± 2.3 g average body weight) were randomly distributed into six tanks at two stocking densities (low stocking density (LD) = 20 kg m -3 and high stocking density (HD) = 80 kg m -3 ). Both treatments were performed in triplicate tanks for a period of 60 days. High stocking density caused a reduction in the growth performance compared with LD fish. Lysozyme activity increased with stocking density, while serum complement activity presented the opposite pattern. Serum cortisol and total protein levels did not show significant differences (P > 0.05) between experimental groups. The fish reared at high stocking density showed significantly lower osmolality and globulin values but higher albumin level. The HD group had significantly higher activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase, and malondialdehyde content in the liver when compared to the LD group. Comparative proteomics was used to determine the proteomic responses in livers of rainbow trout reared at high stocking density for 60 days. Out of nine protein spots showing altered abundance (>1.5-folds, P < 0.05), eight spots were successfully identified. Two proteins including apolipoprotein A-I-2 precursor and mitochondrial stress-70 protein were found to increase in HD group. The spots found to decrease in the HD group were identified as follows: 2-peptidylprolyl isomerase A, two isoforms of glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, an unnamed protein product similar to fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein, and serum albumin 1 protein.

  10. Replacement of corn by babassu mesocarp bran in diets for feedlot young bulls

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    Fabrícia Rocha Chaves Miotto


    Full Text Available Nutrient intake and digestibility and productive performance of 30 feedlot young bulls fed diets containing babassu mesocarp bran in replacement of corn were evaluated. Animals were distributed in a completely randomized design with five levels of replacement of corn by babassu mesocarp bran (BMB: 0, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 g/kg of dry matter, and six replications. The dry matter (DM intake in kg/day, g/kg body weight (BW and g/kgBW0.75 increased as the corn was replaced by BMB. The intake of neutral detergent fiber (NDF and crude protein (CP increased linearly, whereas the intake of non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC had quadratic behavior. The digestibility of DM, CP, NDF and NFC and the total digestible nutrients (TDN showed quadratic behavior with points of minimum digestibility of 850.0, 638.0, 867.0, 638.0 and 833.0 g/kg dry matter of replacement of corn by BMB, respectively. The final weight (476.82 kg and average daily gain (1.55 kg/day were not affected by experimental diets. The feed efficiencies of DM and CP decreased with increase in the levels of BMB, but the feed efficiency of TDN was not changed. Babassu mesocarp bran enables satisfactory performance, and depending on the price and opportunity cost, it can be utilized in the feeding of feedlot cattle totally replacing the corn of the diet.

  11. Central ventilatory and cardiovascular actions of trout gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP in the unanesthetized trout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Le Mével


    Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP, a neuropeptide initially isolated from porcine stomach, shares sequence similarity with bombesin. GRP and its receptors are present in the brains and peripheral tissues of several species of teleost fish, but little is known about the ventilatory and cardiovascular effects of this peptide in these vertebrates. The goal of this study was to compare the central and peripheral actions of picomolar doses of trout GRP on ventilatory and cardiovascular variables in the unanesthetized rainbow trout. Compared to vehicle, intracerebroventricular (ICV injection of GRP (1–50 pmol significantly elevated the ventilation rate (ƒV and the ventilation amplitude (VAMP, and consequently the total ventilation (VTOT. The maximum hyperventilatory effect of GRP (VTOT: +225%, observed at a dose of 50 pmol, was mostly due to its stimulatory action on VAMP (+170% rather than ƒV (+20%. In addition, ICV GRP (50 pmol produced a significant increase in mean dorsal aortic blood pressure (PDA (+35% and in heart rate (ƒH (+25%. Intra-arterial injections of GRP (5–100 pmol were without sustained effect on the ventilatory variables but produced sporadic and transient increases in ventilatory movement at doses of 50 and 100 pmol. At these doses, GRP elevated PDA by +20% but only the 50 pmol dose significantly increased HR (+15%. In conclusion, our study suggests that endogenous GRP within the brain of the trout may act as a potent neurotransmitter and/or neuromodulator in the regulation of cardio-ventilatory functions. In the periphery, endogenous GRP may act as locally-acting and/or circulating neurohormone with an involvement in vasoregulatory mechanisms.

  12. Impact of silymarin enriched semen extender on bull sperm preservability

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    El-Sheshtawy RI


    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effect of silymarin on bull spermatozoa during cooling and cryopreservation. Methods: Pooled bull semen were diluted by Tris-Citrate-Fructose egg yolk diluents, purified silymarin powder (obtained from the milk thistle silybum marianum, purchased from Unipharma, Al Obour city, Egypt, was soaked in Tris-citric acid-fructose diluent for 48 h at 10 ℃ making a stock solution (70 mg/mL, from this stock solution we obtained concentrations of 0.18 mg/mL, 0.36 mg/mL, 0.54 mg/mL, 0.72 mg/mL, 0.90 mg/mL in addition to the control (0.00 mg/mL reaching a final volume of 5 mL in each tube. Egg yolk was added to each tube to obtain silymarin enriched semen extender (SEE with 20% egg yolk, cooled slowly up to 5 曟 and equilibrated for 4 h. Semen was packed into 0.25 mL polyvinyl French straws (IMV, France. After equilibration periods, the straws were placed horizontally on a rack and frozen in a vapor 4 cm above liquid nitrogen for 10 min and were then dipped in liquid nitrogen. Extended semen was subjected to evaluation (motility, alive%, abnormality%, intact sperm membrane (HOST% and conception rate in both chilled and frozen semen. Results: Table 1 revealed that Sperm motility of the concentrations 2, 3 and 4 after 8 d of chilling were significantly (P<0.02 higher than control. Sperm motility of the concentration 2 (45.00%±2.89% after 9 d of chilling was higher than control and the other concentrations. Addition of SEE in concentration 1 and 2 gave post thawing sperm motility as high as the control (47.50±2.81 and 45.00±2.58, respectively while other concentration have lower effects on motility as compared to the control. Addition of silymarin improved post thawing alive% and was significantly higher (P<0.000 1 than the control. SEE decreased significantly (P<0.000 1 the % of post thawing abnormal sperm in concentration 3 and 4 (11.83±0.65 and 16.00±0.58, respectively. SEE improved significantly (P<0.018 the % of post

  13. Evaluation of an Unsuccessful Brook Trout Electrofishing Removal Project in a Small Rocky Mountain Stream.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Kevin A.; Lamansky, Jr., James A.; Schill, Daniel J.


    In the western United States, exotic brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis frequently have a deleterious effect on native salmonids, and biologists often attempt to remove brook trout from streams by means of electrofishing. Although the success of such projects typically is low, few studies have assessed the underlying mechanisms of failure, especially in terms of compensatory responses. A multiagency watershed advisory group (WAG) conducted a 3-year removal project to reduce brook trout and enhance native salmonids in 7.8 km of a southwestern Idaho stream. We evaluated the costs and success of their project in suppressing brook trout and looked for brook trout compensatory responses, such as decreased natural mortality, increased growth, increased fecundity at length, and earlier maturation. The total number of brook trout removed was 1,401 in 1998, 1,241 in 1999, and 890 in 2000; removal constituted an estimated 88% of the total number of brook trout in the stream in 1999 and 79% in 2000. Although abundance of age-1 and older brook trout declined slightly during and after the removals, abundance of age-0 brook trout increased 789% in the entire stream 2 years after the removals ceased. Total annual survival rate for age-2 and older brook trout did not decrease during the removals, and the removals failed to produce an increase in the abundance of native redband trout Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri. Lack of a meaningful decline and unchanged total mortality for older brook trout during the removals suggest that a compensatory response occurred in the brook trout population via reduced natural mortality, which offset the removal of large numbers of brook trout. Although we applaud WAG personnel for their goal of enhancing native salmonids by suppressing brook trout via electrofishing removal, we conclude that their efforts were unsuccessful and suggest that similar future projects elsewhere over such large stream lengths would be costly, quixotic enterprises.

  14. Characterization of p53 expression in rainbow trout. (United States)

    Liu, Michelle; Tee, Catherine; Zeng, Fanxing; Sherry, James P; Dixon, Brian; Bols, Niels C; Duncker, Bernard P


    The tumour suppressor protein p53 is a critical component of cell cycle checkpoint responses. It upregulates the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors in response to DNA damage and other cellular perturbations, and promotes apoptosis when DNA repair pathways are overwhelmed. Given the high incidence of p53 mutations in human cancers, it has been extensively studied, though only a small fraction of these investigations have been in non-mammalian systems. For the present study, an anti-rainbow trout p53 polyclonal antibody was generated. A variety of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) tissues and cell lines were examined through western blot analysis of cellular protein extracts, which revealed relatively high p53 levels in brain and gills. To evaluate the checkpoint response of rainbow trout p53, RTbrain-W1 and RTgill-W1 cell lines were exposed to varying concentrations of the DNA damaging agent bleomycin and ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor hydroxyurea. In contrast to mammals, these checkpoint-inducing agents provoked no apparent increase in rainbow trout p53 levels. These results infer the presence of alternate DNA damage checkpoint mechanisms in rainbow trout cells. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Indirect benefits for female salmon from mating with brown trout. (United States)

    Castillo, Ana G F; Beall, Edward; Morán, Paloma; Martinez, Jose L; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva


    By genetic analysis of 1625 samples from 10 south European rivers, we have found that Atlantic salmon Salmo salar hybridize with sympatric brown trout S. trutta in the wild and provide the female in most heterospecific crosses. Hybrids exhibit reduced fertility and could be considered a wasted reproductive effort by salmon females. In 7 experiments involving salmon females, large brown trout males, and small salmon male sneakers, reproductive success of Atlantic salmon females mating with brown trout males was not significantly different from that of 5 experiments of females mating with conspecific males because small Atlantic salmon sneakers fertilized most ova (mean 93%) in salmon x trout matings. Although egg retention tended to be higher in heterospecific than in conspecific crosses (mean 5.7% vs. 20.5% respectively), mean offspring survival was 24.4% and 30.3%, respectively (t = 1.5 x 10(-8), not significant). Brown trout males taking on a courting role may benefit late-maturing females in absence or scarcity of anadromous salmon males because they play a protective role against disturbances from other fishes (including cannibal sneakers).

  16. Use of Bayesian Inference to Correlate In Vitro Embryo Production and In Vivo Fertility in Zebu Bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus José Sudano


    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to test in vitro embryo production (IVP as a tool to estimate fertility performance in zebu bulls using Bayesian inference statistics. Oocytes were matured and fertilized in vitro using sperm cells from three different Zebu bulls (V, T, and G. The three bulls presented similar results with regard to pronuclear formation and blastocyst formation rates. However, the cleavage rates were different between bulls. The estimated conception rates based on combined data of cleavage and blastocyst formation were very similar to the true conception rates observed for the same bulls after a fixed-time artificial insemination program. Moreover, even when we used cleavage rate data only or blastocyst formation data only, the estimated conception rates were still close to the true conception rates. We conclude that Bayesian inference is an effective statistical procedure to estimate in vivo bull fertility using data from IVP.

  17. Model comparison on genomic predictions using high-density markers for different groups of bulls in the Nordic Holstein population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Hongding; Su, Guosheng; Janss, Luc


    This study compared genomic predictions based on imputed high-density markers (~777,000) in the Nordic Holstein population using a genomic BLUP (GBLUP) model, 4 Bayesian exponential power models with different shape parameters (0.3, 0.5, 0.8, and 1.0) for the exponential power distribution...... relationship with the training population. Groupsmgs had both the sire and the maternal grandsire (MGS), Groupsire only had the sire, Groupmgs only had the MGS, and Groupnon had neither the sire nor the MGS in the training population. Reliability of DGV was measured as the squared correlation between DGV...... and DRP divided by the reliability of DRP for the bulls in validation data set. Unbiasedness of DGV was measured as the regression of DRP on DGV. The results indicated that DGV were more accurate and less biased for animals that were more related to the training population. In general, the Bayesian...

  18. 3D visualization of the initial Yersinia ruckeri infection route in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by optical projection tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otani, Maki; Villumsen, Kasper Rømer; Kragelund Strøm, Helene


    trout. Using OPT scanning it was possible to visualize the initial route of entry, as well as secondary infection routes along with the proliferation and spread of Y. ruckeri, ultimately causing significant mortality in the exposed rainbow trout. These results demonstrate that OPT is a state-of-the-art......, optical projection tomography (OPT), a novel three-dimensional (3D) bio-imaging technique, was applied. OPT not only enables the visualization of Y. ruckeri on mucosal surfaces but also the 3D spatial distribution in whole organs, without sectioning. Rainbow trout were infected by bath challenge exposure...... to 1 × 10(8) CFU/ml of Y. ruckeri O1 for 1 hour. Three fish were sampled for OPT and immunohistochemistry (IHC) 1, 10 and 30 minutes, 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 hours, as well as 2, 3, 7 and 21 days after the start of the infection period. Y. ruckeri was re-isolated from the blood of infected fish as early...

  19. South Fork Flathead Watershed Westslope Cutthroat Trout Conservation Program, Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grisak, Grant; Marotz, Brian


    In 1999, Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks (MFWP) began a program aimed at conserving the genetically pure populations of westslope cutthroat trout in the South Fork Flathead River drainage. The objective of this program is to eliminate all of the exotic and hybrid trout that threaten the genetically pure westslope cutthroat populations in the South Fork Flathead. The exotic and hybrid trout populations occur in several headwater lakes and their outflow streams. In 2001 MFWP released a draft environmental assessment, pursuant to the Montana Environmental Policy Act (MEPA), that addressed the use of motorized equipment to deliver personnel and materials to some of these lakes in the Bob Marshall and Great Bear Wildernesses (Grisak 2001). After a 30-day public comment period, MFWP determined that the complexity of issues was too great and warranted a more detailed analysis. These issues included transportation options for personnel, equipment and materials, the use of motorized equipment in wilderness, fish removal methods, fish stocking, and the status and distribution of amphibian populations in the project area. Because the program also involves the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the environmental analysis needs to comply with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). In October 2001, pursuant to NEPA, MFWP, along with the USFS and BPA initiated an environmental assessment to address these issues. In June 2002, the three agencies determined that the scope of these issues warranted an Environmental Impact Statement. This specialist report describes the logistical, technical and biological issues associated with this project and provides an analysis of options for fish removal, transportation and fish stocking. It further analyzes issues and concerns associated with amphibian populations and creating new domesticated stocks of westslope cutthroat trout. Finally, this document provides a description of each lake, the best

  20. Cadmium-mediated disruption of cortisol biosynthesis involves suppression of corticosteroidogenic genes in rainbow trout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandhu, Navdeep [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Vijayan, Mathilakath M., E-mail: [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)


    Cadmium is widely distributed in the aquatic environment and is toxic to fish even at sublethal concentrations. This metal is an endocrine disruptor, and one well established role in teleosts is the suppression of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-stimulated cortisol biosynthesis by the interrenal tissue. However the mechanism(s) leading to this steroid suppression is poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that cadmium targets genes encoding proteins critical for corticosteroid biosynthesis, including melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). To test this, head kidney slices (containing the interrenal tissues) were incubated in vitro with cadmium chloride (0, 10, 100 and 1000 nM) for 4 h either in the presence or absence of ACTH (0.5 IU/mL). In the unstimulated head kidney slices, cadmium exposure did not affect basal cortisol secretion and the mRNA levels of MC2R and P450scc, while StAR gene expression was significantly reduced. Cadmium exposure significantly suppressed ACTH-stimulated cortisol production in a dose-related fashion. This cadmium-mediated suppression in corticosteroidogenesis corresponded with a significant reduction in MC2R, StAR and P450scc mRNA levels in trout head kidney slices. The inhibition of ACTH-stimulated cortisol production and suppression of genes involved in corticosteroidogenesis by cadmium were completely abolished in the presence of 8-Bromo-cAMP (a cAMP analog). Overall, cadmium disrupts the expression of genes critical for corticosteroid biosynthesis in rainbow trout head kidney slices. However, the rescue of cortisol production as well as StAR and P450scc gene expressions by cAMP analog suggests that cadmium impact occurs upstream of cAMP production. We propose that MC2R signaling, the primary step in ACTH-induced cortocosteroidogenesis, is a key target for cadmium-mediated disruption of

  1. Environmental Enrichment in Kennelled Pit Bull Terriers (Canis lupus familiaris). (United States)

    Kiddie, Jenna; Bodymore, Anna; Dittrich, Alex


    Although social enrichment can be considered beneficial in helping dogs cope with the kennel environment, when taking individual needs into account, it places a large demand on the carers and may not be appropriate in under-resourced kennels. Some kennels are also designed in such a way that there is too much social interaction, in that individuals cannot choose to distance themselves from conspecifics. This study therefore aimed to assess the effects of easily accessible enrichment on the behaviour of kennelled Pit Bull Terrier type dogs rescued from a dog-fighting ring in the Philippines. Thirty-six dogs were allocated to one of three treatment groups following a matched-subject design: (i) cardboard bed provision; (ii) coconut provision; and (iii) visual contact with dogs housed in adjacent cages obstructed with cardboard partitions. Behavioural diversity and the duration and frequency of individual behaviours were analysed using linear mixed-effect models. Yawning frequencies and time spent lying down and sitting decreased during treatment. No particular treatment was more influential in these behavioural changes. In conclusion, enrichment, regardless of type, affected the dogs' behaviour, with some effects depending on the sex of the dogs. Therefore, it is possible to cheaply and sustainably enrich the lives of dogs living in highly constrained environments, however, further research is required to refine the methods used.

  2. Behaviour and meat quality of Podolian young bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Napolitano


    Full Text Available From April to August 2008, twelve Podolian subjects, aged about 11 months at the beginning of the experimental period, were used to evaluate the effect of rearing system (Confined vs. Freerange and season (spring vs. summer on their behaviour and meat quality. Nine sessions of behavioural observations were performed. During a 6-h period, the behaviour of a focal animal, was continuously monitored. In each session a different animal was chosen. All the animals were slaughtered at 18 months of age. Walking (P<0.001 and standing (P<0.05 were lower in summer, whereas inactivity was higher (P<0.05. Free-range bulls spent more time walking (P<0.05, feeding (P<0.001 and standing (P<0.01 and showed a lower number of agonistic (P<0.05 and non-agonistic social interaction than confined animals (P<0.01. Self- and allo-grooming were not affected by rearing system, whereas season influenced self-grooming with higher values in spring (P<0.05. Confined animals showed higher final weights (P<0.05 and a lighter meat (P<0.05, whereas no differences between groups were observed for average daily gains, carcass yield, water holding capacity and a* and b* indexes. Confinement markedly affected the behaviour of the animals, whereas free-ranging had only minor negative effects on meat lightness.

  3. Polarized light use in the nocturnal bull ant, Myrmecia midas. (United States)

    Freas, Cody A; Narendra, Ajay; Lemesle, Corentin; Cheng, Ken


    Solitary foraging ants have a navigational toolkit, which includes the use of both terrestrial and celestial visual cues, allowing individuals to successfully pilot between food sources and their nest. One such celestial cue is the polarization pattern in the overhead sky. Here, we explore the use of polarized light during outbound and inbound journeys and with different home vectors in the nocturnal bull ant, Myrmecia midas. We tested foragers on both portions of the foraging trip by rotating the overhead polarization pattern by ±45°. Both outbound and inbound foragers responded to the polarized light change, but the extent to which they responded to the rotation varied. Outbound ants, both close to and further from the nest, compensated for the change in the overhead e-vector by about half of the manipulation, suggesting that outbound ants choose a compromise heading between the celestial and terrestrial compass cues. However, ants returning home compensated for the change in the e-vector by about half of the manipulation when the remaining home vector was short (1-2 m) and by more than half of the manipulation when the remaining vector was long (more than 4 m). We report these findings and discuss why weighting on polarization cues change in different contexts.

  4. Direct measurement of bull's-eye nanoantenna metal loss (United States)

    Hassani Nia, Iman; Jang, Sung J.; Memis, Omer G.; Gelfand, Ryan; Mohseni, Hooman


    The loss in optical antennas can affect their performance for their practical use in many branches of science such as biological and solar cell applications. However the big question is that how much loss is due to the joule heating in the metals. This would affect the efficiency of solar cells and is very important for single photon detection and also for some applications where high heat generation in nanoantennas is desirable, for example, payload release for cancer treatment. There are few groups who have done temperature measurements by methods such as Raman spectroscopy or fluorescence polarization anisotropy. The latter method, which is more reliable than Raman spectroscopy, requires the deposition of fluorescent molecules on the antenna surface. The molecules and the polarization of radiation rotate depending upon the surface temperature. The reported temperature measurement accuracy in this method is about 0.1° C. Here we present a method based on thermo-reflectance that allows better temperature accuracy as well as spatial resolution of 500 nm. Moreover, this method does not require the addition of new materials to the nanoantenna. We present the measured heat dissipation from bull's-eye nanoantennas and compare them with 3D simulation results.

  5. Evidence of Lake Trout reproduction at Lake Michigan's mid-lake reef complex (United States)

    Janssen, J.; Jude, D.J.; Edsall, T.A.; Paddock, R.W.; Wattrus, N.; Toneys, M.; McKee, P.


    The Mid-Lake Reef Complex (MLRC), a large area of deep (> 40 m) reefs, was a major site where indigenous lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Michigan aggregated during spawning. As part of an effort to restore Lake Michigan's lake trout, which were extirpated in the 1950s, yearling lake trout have been released over the MLRC since the mid-1980s and fall gill net censuses began to show large numbers of lake trout in spawning condition beginning about 1999. We report the first evidence of viable egg deposition and successful lake trout fry production at these deep reefs. Because the area's existing bathymetry and habitat were too poorly known for a priori selection of sampling sites, we used hydroacoustics to locate concentrations of large fish in the fall; fish were congregating around slopes and ridges. Subsequent observations via unmanned submersible confirmed the large fish to be lake trout. Our technological objectives were driven by biological objectives of locating where lake trout spawn, where lake trout fry were produced, and what fishes ate lake trout eggs and fry. The unmanned submersibles were equipped with a suction sampler and electroshocker to sample eggs deposited on the reef, draw out and occasionally catch emergent fry, and collect egg predators (slimy sculpin Cottus cognatus). We observed slimy sculpin to eat unusually high numbers of lake trout eggs. Our qualitative approaches are a first step toward quantitative assessments of the importance of lake trout spawning on the MLRC.

  6. Differential expression of subunits of 20β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase during gametogenesis in rainbow trout (Oncorhychus mykiss). (United States)

    Vazirzadeh, Arya; Guiguen, Yann


    The patterns of expression of two subunits of 20β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20β-HSD), key enzyme involved in the biosynthesis and activation of steroid hormones, were examined in rainbow trout by using a combination of quantitative real-time PCR and in-situ hybridization. The expression of targeted genes was examined in mRNA extracted from different tissues at different gonadal stages in male and female trout. Both subunits of 20β-HSD were found to be widely distributed in tissues. The highest expression of 20β-HSD A was found in intestine followed by skin, stomach, liver and gills, whereas, the highest expression of 20β-HSD B was observed in stomach followed by head kidney, ovary - at late vitellogenesis stage- and trunk kidney. In ovarian tissue 20β-HSD A was highly expressed in mature oocytes, and the highest expression of 20β-HSD B was in ovary at late vitellogenesis stage. There were no differences in the level of expression of either subunit among groups of rainbow trout at different stages of maturational competence. In male fish, 20β-HSD A was highly expressed in testis stage I in contrast to 20β-HSD B which was highly expressed in testis stage VIII. In situ- hybridization results showed that the 20β-HSD gene was highly expressed in gastrointestinal organs, while only slightly expressed in the gonadal tissue of fish at stage 62day-post-fertilization (dpf). Overall, the results confirm the ubiquitous presence of 20β-HSD among tissues in rainbow trout with relatively minor fluctuations in expression associated with reproductive cycles which collectively suggests a wider metabolic role of these enzymes than just an association with the synthesis of control hormones for reproduction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Breeding soundness evaluation of bulls by semen analysis, testicular fine needle aspiration cytology and trans-scrotal ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chapwanya A


    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of trans-scrotal ultrasonography and testicular fine needle aspiration cytology in assessing bulls for breeding suitability. These two techniques were also compared with semen analysis. Bulls presented for breeding soundness evaluation were assessed using all three techniques. The findings of each technique were compared. There was agreement in classification of fertile bulls using all three techniques, suggesting that the combined use of these techniques enhances routine breeding soundness examination. Use of the three techniques also enhances detailed investigation of suspected sub-fertile bulls while accurately identifying testicular cause(s of sire sub-fertility.

  8. The marine life of sea trout (Salmo trutta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Villar, Diego

    -smolts as well as on the fish returning to freshwater after the marine stage. The results of my experiments increase the current knowledge of specific behavioural traits that sea trout displays during their marine life. Additionally, it provides new information on the early and late marine survival which......During my PhD. research project I have studied the marine migratory behaviour and survival of wild sea trout (Salmo trutta L.) juveniles when moving from freshwater to saltwater (i.e. smolts/post-smolts) in two different fjord systems. These studies are focused on the initial marine stage of post...... is needed for comprehensive management of sea trout populations in the area. The principal method used was telemetry (acoustic and PIT-telemetry) which enable studying migratory patterns of fish in the fjord (i.e. acoustic telemetry) and detecting the transitions from the marine to the riverine environments...

  9. Epidermal response of rainbow trout to Ichthyobodo necator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Kuhn, Jesper Andreas; Mohammad, Rezkar Jaafar


    Infections with the parasitic flagellate Ichthyobodo necator (Henneguy, 1883) cause severe skin and gill disease in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792) juveniles. The epidermal disturbances including hyperplasia and mucous cell exhaustion caused by parasitization are known, but no d......Infections with the parasitic flagellate Ichthyobodo necator (Henneguy, 1883) cause severe skin and gill disease in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792) juveniles. The epidermal disturbances including hyperplasia and mucous cell exhaustion caused by parasitization are known...... an experimental infection of juvenile rainbow trout. The course of infection was followed by sampling for parasite enumeration, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) on days 0, 5, 9 and 14 post-infection. IHC showed a significant increase in the occurrence of IgM-positive cells in the skin...

  10. Evaluation of glutamic acid and glycine as sources of nonessential amino acids for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii) (United States)

    Hughes, S.G.


    1. A semi-purified test diet which contained either glutamic acid or glycine as the major source of nonessential amino acids (NEAA) was fed to lake and rainbow trout.2. Trout fed the diet containing glutamic acid consistently showed better growth and feed conversion efficiencies than those fed the diets containing glycine.3. The data indicate that these trout utilize glutamic acid more efficiently than glycine when no other major sources of NEAA are present.

  11. The effects of different levels of Beta Plus on growth performance, microbial flora and blood parameters of Caspian trout, Salmo caspius (Kessler, 1877

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Krimzadeh


    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Beta plus probiotic, a mixture of Bacillius leicheniformic and Bacillius subtilis, on the growth performance and intestinal microbial flora of Caspian trout (Salmo caspius. A basal diet was formulated and supplemented with Beta plus at 0, 0.5 and 1 g kg-1, leading to three experimental diets. Each experimental diet was randomly assigned to quadruple 1500 L tanks. The Caspian trout with an initial weight of 108.7 ± 1.8 g were randomly distributed in the experimental tanks. The results showed that inclusion of dietary Beta plus significantly increased the final weight and specific growth rate (SGR of Caspian trout compared to those the control treatment. The feed conversion ratio (FCR was also improved significantly after probiotic administration to the experimental fish. However, the body composition and blood parameters were not influenced by the probiotic inclusion. Total count of Gram positive and negative bacteria in the intestine of the fish increased by feeding on diet contained 1 g kg-1 Beta Plus (P<0.05. In conclusion, administration of the probiotic Beta plus can improve the nutrient efficiency and growth performance of Caspian trout confirming the positive effect of a mixture of Bacillus spp.

  12. Dietary Myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) improved non-specific immune parameters and bactericidal activity of skin mucus in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fingerlings. (United States)

    Mansouri Taee, Hadis; Hajimoradloo, Abdolmajid; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Ahmadvand, Hassan


    The present study examined the effects of dietary Myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) on non-specific immune parameters and bactericidal activity of skin mucus in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fingerlings. Three hundred and sixty fingerlings (6.50 ± 0.55 g (were distributed in twelve cages (65 × 65 × 65 cm) with a metal framework. The study included four treatments repeated in triplicates. The treatments were feeding trouts with experimental diets containing different levels (0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5%) of Myrtle powder. The fingerlings were fed on experimental diet for sixty days and then skin mucus non-specific immune parameters as well as bactericidal activity were measured. At the end of the trial, the highest skin mucus soluble protein level was observed in group fed with 1.5% Myrtle (P  0.05). Also, no antibacterial activity was detected against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enterica in all treatments and control group. Whereas skin mucus of rainbow trout showed antimicrobial activity against fish pathogens (Aeromonas hydrophila and Yersinia ruckeri) in 1 and 1.5% Myrtle treatments. These results indicated beneficial effects of dietary Myrtle on mucosal immune parameters of fingerling rainbow trout. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Natural or artificial? Habitat-use by the bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan M Werry

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite accelerated global population declines due to targeted and illegal fishing pressure for many top-level shark species, the impacts of coastal habitat modification have been largely overlooked. We present the first direct comparison of the use of natural versus artificial habitats for the bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas, an IUCN 'Near-threatened' species--one of the few truly euryhaline sharks that utilises natural rivers and estuaries as nursery grounds before migrating offshore as adults. Understanding the value of alternate artificial coastal habitats to the lifecycle of the bull shark is crucial for determining the impact of coastal development on this threatened but potentially dangerous species. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: We used longline surveys and long-term passive acoustic tracking of neonate and juvenile bull sharks to determine the ontogenetic value of natural and artificial habitats to bull sharks associated with the Nerang River and adjoining canals on the Gold Coast, Australia. Long-term movements of tagged sharks suggested a preference for the natural river over artificial habitat (canals. Neonates and juveniles spent the majority of their time in the upper tidal reaches of the Nerang River and undertook excursions into adjoining canals. Larger bull sharks ranged further and frequented the canals closer to the river mouth. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our work suggests with increased destruction of natural habitats, artificial coastal habitat may become increasingly important to large juvenile bull sharks with associated risk of attack on humans. In this system, neonate and juvenile bull sharks utilised the natural and artificial habitats, but the latter was not the preferred habitat of neonates. The upper reaches of tidal rivers, often under significant modification pressure, serve as nursery sites for neonates. Analogous studies are needed in similar systems elsewhere to assess the spatial and temporal generality of

  14. A first generation integrated map of the rainbow trout genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabet-Canale Kamila


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss are the most-widely cultivated cold freshwater fish in the world and an important model species for many research areas. Coupling great interest in this species as a research model with the need for genetic improvement of aquaculture production efficiency traits justifies the continued development of genomics research resources. Many quantitative trait loci (QTL have been identified for production and life-history traits in rainbow trout. An integrated physical and genetic map is needed to facilitate fine mapping of QTL and the selection of positional candidate genes for incorporation in marker-assisted selection (MAS programs for improving rainbow trout aquaculture production. Results The first generation integrated map of the rainbow trout genome is composed of 238 BAC contigs anchored to chromosomes of the genetic map. It covers more than 10% of the genome across segments from all 29 chromosomes. Anchoring of 203 contigs to chromosomes of the National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture (NCCCWA genetic map was achieved through mapping of 288 genetic markers derived from BAC end sequences (BES, screening of the BAC library with previously mapped markers and matching of SNPs with BES reads. In addition, 35 contigs were anchored to linkage groups of the INRA (French National Institute of Agricultural Research genetic map through markers that were not informative for linkage analysis in the NCCCWA mapping panel. The ratio of physical to genetic linkage distances varied substantially among chromosomes and BAC contigs with an average of 3,033 Kb/cM. Conclusions The integrated map described here provides a framework for a robust composite genome map for rainbow trout. This resource is needed for genomic analyses in this research model and economically important species and will facilitate comparative genome mapping with other salmonids and with model fish species. This resource will also

  15. Comparative bioenergetics modeling of two Lake Trout morphotypes (United States)

    Kepler, Megan V.; Wagner, Tyler; Sweka, John A.


    Efforts to restore Lake Trout Salvelinus namaycush in the Laurentian Great Lakes have been hampered for decades by several factors, including overfishing and invasive species (e.g., parasitism by Sea Lampreys Petromyzon marinus and reproductive deficiencies associated with consumption of Alewives Alosa pseudoharengus). Restoration efforts are complicated by the presence of multiple body forms (i.e., morphotypes) of Lake Trout that differ in habitat utilization, prey consumption, lipid storage, and spawning preferences. Bioenergetics models constitute one tool that is used to help inform management and restoration decisions; however, bioenergetic differences among morphotypes have not been evaluated. The goal of this research was to investigate bioenergetic differences between two actively stocked morphotypes: lean and humper Lake Trout. We measured consumption and respiration rates across a wide range of temperatures (4–22°C) and size-classes (5–100 g) to develop bioenergetics models for juvenile Lake Trout. Bayesian estimation was used so that uncertainty could be propagated through final growth predictions. Differences between morphotypes were minimal, but when present, the differences were temperature and weight dependent. Basal respiration did not differ between morphotypes at any temperature or size-class. When growth and consumption differed between morphotypes, the differences were not consistent across the size ranges tested. Management scenarios utilizing the temperatures presently found in the Great Lakes (e.g., predicted growth at an average temperature of 11.7°C and 14.4°C during a 30-d period) demonstrated no difference in growth between the two morphotypes. Due to a lack of consistent differences between lean and humper Lake Trout, we developed a model that combined data from both morphotypes. The combined model yielded results similar to those of the morphotype-specific models, suggesting that accounting for morphotype differences may

  16. Chromosome rearrangements, recombination suppression, and limited segregation distortion in hybrids between Yellowstone cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii bouvieri) and rainbow trout (O. mykiss). (United States)

    Ostberg, Carl O; Hauser, Lorenz; Pritchard, Victoria L; Garza, John C; Naish, Kerry A


    Introgressive hybridization is an important evolutionary process that can lead to the creation of novel genome structures and thus potentially new genetic variation for selection to act upon. On the other hand, hybridization with introduced species can threaten native species, such as cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii) following the introduction of rainbow trout (O. mykiss). Neither the evolutionary consequences nor conservation implications of rainbow trout introgression in cutthroat trout is well understood. Therefore, we generated a genetic linkage map for rainbow-Yellowstone cutthroat trout (O. clarkii bouvieri) hybrids to evaluate genome processes that may help explain how introgression affects hybrid genome evolution. The hybrid map closely aligned with the rainbow trout map (a cutthroat trout map does not exist), sharing all but one linkage group. This linkage group (RYHyb20) represented a fusion between an acrocentric (Omy28) and a metacentric chromosome (Omy20) in rainbow trout. Additional mapping in Yellowstone cutthroat trout indicated the two rainbow trout homologues were fused in the Yellowstone genome. Variation in the number of hybrid linkage groups (28 or 29) likely depended on a Robertsonian rearrangement polymorphism within the rainbow trout stock. Comparison between the female-merged F₁ map and a female consensus rainbow trout map revealed that introgression suppressed recombination across large genomic regions in 5 hybrid linkage groups. Two of these linkage groups (RYHyb20 and RYHyb25_29) contained confirmed chromosome rearrangements between rainbow and Yellowstone cutthroat trout indicating that rearrangements may suppress recombination. The frequency of allelic and genotypic segregation distortion varied among parents and families, suggesting few incompatibilities exist between rainbow and Yellowstone cutthroat trout genomes. Chromosome rearrangements suppressed recombination in the hybrids. This result supports several previous

  17. Spatial and temporal consumption dynamics of trout in catch-and-release areas in Arkansas tailwaters (United States)

    Flinders, John M.; Magoulick, Daniel D.


    Restrictive angling regulations in tailwater trout fisheries may be unsuccessful if food availability limits energy for fish to grow. We examined spatial and temporal variation in energy intake and growth in populations of Brown Trout Salmo trutta and Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss within three catch-and-release (C-R) areas in Arkansas tailwaters to evaluate food availability compared with consumption. Based on bioenergetic simulations, Rainbow Trout fed at submaintenance levels in both size-classes (≤400 mm TL, >400 mm TL) throughout most seasons. A particular bottleneck in food availability occurred in the winter for Rainbow Trout when the daily ration was substantially below the minimum required for maintenance, despite reduced metabolic costs associated with lower water temperatures. Rainbow Trout growth rates followed a similar pattern to consumption with negative growth rates during the winter periods. All three size-classes (400 mm TL) of Brown Trout experienced high growth rates and limited temporal bottlenecks in food availability. We observed higher mean densities for Rainbow Trout (47–342 fish/ha) than for Brown Trout (3–84 fish/ha) in all C-R areas. Lower densities of Brown Trout coupled with an ontogenetic shift towards piscivory may have allowed for higher growth rates and sufficient consumption rates to meet energetic demands. Brown Trout at current densities were more effective in maintaining adequate growth rates and larger sizes in C-R areas than were Rainbow Trout. Bioenergetic simulations suggest that reducing stocking levels of Rainbow Trout in the tailwaters may be necessary in order to achieve increased catch rates of larger trout in the C-R areas.

  18. Lake trout otolith chronologies as multidecadal indicators of high-latitude freshwater ecosystems (United States)

    Black, B.A.; Von Biela, V.R.; Zimmerman, C.E.; Brown, Randy J.


    High-latitude ecosystems are among the most vulnerable to long-term climate change, yet continuous, multidecadal indicators by which to gauge effects on biology are scarce, especially in freshwater environments. To address this issue, dendrochronology (tree-ring analysis) techniques were applied to growth-increment widths in otoliths from lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from the Chandler Lake system, Alaska (68.23°N, 152.70°W). All otoliths were collected in 1987 and exhibited highly synchronous patterns in growth-increment width. Increments were dated, the widths were measured, and age-related growth declines were removed using standard dendrochronology techniques. The detrended time series were averaged to generate an annually resolved chronology, which continuously spanned 1964–1984. The chronology positively and linearly correlated with August air temperature over the 22-year interval (p metabolic rate or lake productivity. Given the broad distribution of lake trout within North America, this study suggests that otolith chronologies could be used to examine responses between freshwater ecosystems and environmental variability across a range of temporal and spatial scales.

  19. Animal welfare in brown trout farming: hematological results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Forneris


    Full Text Available The effect of stress resulting from fish farming has received considerable attention in this last period and fish welfare in aquaculture is a relevant topic, very important for the future of aquaculture (Watson et al., 2004; Klinger et al., 1996; Peres et al., 2004; Ron et al., 1995;Wagner et al., 1995;Watson et al., 1998. Brown trout farming is less developed then rainbow trout farming, but this kind of fish farming is increasing, mainly for fish conservation and restocking aquaculture.

  20. Immunity to rhabdoviruses in rainbow trout: the antibody response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Niels; Lapatra, S.E.


    to their occasional detrimental effect on rainbow trout farming. Research efforts have been focused on understanding the mechanisms involved in protective immunity. Several specific and nonspecific cellular and humoral parameters are believed to be involved, but only the antibody response has been characterised......, have demonstrated that rainbow trout can produce specific and highly functional antibodies that are able to neutralise virus pathogenicity in vitro as well as in vivo. The apparently more restricted antibody response to IHNV and VHSV antigens in fish compared to mammals could possibly be explained...

  1. Multigene phylogeny of the southern bull-kelp genus Durvillaea (Phaeophyceae: Fucales). (United States)

    Fraser, Ceridwen I; Winter, David J; Spencer, Hamish G; Waters, Jonathan M


    Durvillaea (southern bull-kelp) is an economically and ecologically important brown algal genus that dominates many exposed, rocky coasts in the cold-temperate Southern Hemisphere. Of its five currently-recognized species, four are non-buoyant and restricted to the south-western Pacific, whereas one is both buoyant and widely distributed. Durvillaea has had an unsettled taxonomic history. Although its position within the brown algae (Phaeophyceae) has now been largely resolved through the use of molecular techniques, the taxonomic status of several Durvillaea species/morphotypes remains unresolved. Previous molecular phylogenetic studies of phaeophycean taxa have included few Durvillaea samples, and have consequently paid little or no attention to variation within this genus. The current study presents phylogenetic analyses of four genetic markers (mitchondrial: COI; chloroplast: rbcL; and nuclear: 18S and 28S) to resolve phylogenetic relationships within Durvillaea. Results support the monophyly of solid-bladed taxa D. willana, D. potatorum, and D. sp. A (an undescribed species from the Antipodes Islands), whereas the widespread, buoyant D. antarctica is paraphyletic, with solid-bladed D.chathamensis placed sister to a D. antarctica clade from northern NZ but within D. antarctica sensu lato. The phylogenetic and ecological diversity detected within D. antarctica indicate that it is a species complex of five deeply divergent clades. Under a phylogenetic species concept, Durvillaea can be interpreted as a complex of nine distinct evolutionary lineages, only one of which has an intercontinental distribution ('subantarctic'D. antarctica). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Nucléation, ascension et éclatement d'une bulle de champagne (United States)

    Liger-Belair, G.


    People have long been fascinated by bubbles and foams dynamics, and since the pioneering work of Leonardo da Vinci in the early 16th century, this subject has generated a huge bibliography. However, only quite recently, much interest was devoted to bubbles in Champagne wines and carbonated beverages. Since the time of the benedictine monk dom Pierre Perignon (1638-1715), champagne is the wine of celebration. This fame is largely linked to the elegance of its effervescence and foaming properties. In this book, the latest results about the chemical physics behind the bubbling properties of Champagne and sparkling wines are collected and fully illustrated. The first chapter is devoted to the history of champagne and to a presentation of the tools of the physical chemistry of interfaces needed for a whole comprehension of the book. Then, the three main steps of a fleeting champagne bubble's life are presented in chronological order, that is, the bubble nucleation on the glass wall (Chap.2), the bubble ascent and growth through the liquid matrix (Chap.3), and the bursting of bubbles at the liquid surface (Chap.4), which constitutes the most intriguing, functional, and visually appealing step. L'objectif général de ce travail consacré à l'étude des processus physicochimiques liés à l'effervescence des vins de Champagne était de décortiquer les différentes étapes de la vie d'une bulle de champagne en conditions réelles de consommation, dans une flûte. Nous résumons ci-après les principaux résultats obtenus pour chacune des étapes de la vie de la bulle, depuis sa naissance sur les parois d'une flûte, jusqu'à son éclatement en surface. Nucléation À l'aide d'une caméra rapide munie d'un objectif de microscope, nous avons pu mettre à mal une idée largement répandue. Ce ne sont pas les anfractuosités de la surface du verre ou de la flûte qui sont responsable de la nucléation hétérogène des bulles, mais des particules adsorbées sur les parois du

  3. Comparison of electroejaculation and transrectal massage for semen collection in range and yearling feedlot beef bulls. (United States)

    Palmer, C W; Brito, L F C; Arteaga, A A; Söderquist, L; Persson, Y; Barth, A D


    Two experiments were conducted to compare electroejaculation (EE) and transrectal massage (RM) of the ampullary region for semen collection from beef bulls, and to determine the effect of semen collection method on semen traits. In experiment 1, semen was collected either by EE or RM randomly assigned on an alternate basis in 137 range beef bulls unaccustomed to being handled. The maximum time allowed for RM was 4 min and if no semen was obtained, EE was used. In experiment 2, semen was collected from 39 yearling feedlot beef bulls that were accustomed to being handled, by RM followed immediately by EE. The maximum time allowed for semen collection by both methods was 4 min. In both experiments, sperm concentration, percent of progressively motile sperm, percent of sperm staining alive, and sperm morphology were determined. In experiment 1, RM resulted in fewer (P<0.001) successful semen collections and fewer bulls with penile protrusion than EE (80.9% versus 100% and 54.4% versus 91.5%, respectively). The success of RM was not influenced by bull age or breed, or by the veterinarian performing the massage. Transrectal massage required more time (30s, P<0.001) for obtaining a semen sample and resulted in samples with lower sperm concentration (P<0.001), percent motile sperm (P<0.05) and percent live sperm (P<0.001) when compared to EE. In experiment 2, EE and RM were equally effective for obtaining a semen sample (97.4 and 94.9%, respectively), but the proportion of bulls exhibiting penile protrusion during semen collection was lower (P<0.0001) with RM compared to EE. Percent of sperm staining alive was also lower (P<0.01) in samples collected by RM. Sperm morphology (normal sperm, head defects, midpiece defects, proximal cytoplasmic droplets, and detached sperm heads) did not differ between samples collected by EE and RM. In conclusion, semen could be collected by transrectal massage from approximately 80% of range beef bulls and from 95% of yearling beef bulls

  4. Comparative studies on bull and stallion seminal DNase activity and interaction with semen extender and spermatozoa. (United States)

    Alghamdi, Abdorrahman S; Funnell, Bethany J; Bird, Scott L; Lamb, G Cliff; Rendahl, Aaron K; Taube, Patrick C; Foster, Douglas N


    We performed a series of comparative studies of bull and stallion seminal plasma (SP) and its role on sperm-neutrophil binding as well as the interaction between semen extender and seminal DNase. Because of contrasting roles of SP on sperm-neutrophil binding between horses and cattle, it was suspected there were some species-specific differences on sperm interaction with SP proteins due to the variations in the natural location of semen deposition (uterus compared to vagina). Bull frozen-thawed sperm removed from egg yolk extender showed similar results to fresh sperm, but this also caused extensive sperm agglutination unless SP or egg yolk was included. If similar agglutination occurs after AI with frozen bull semen, it could interfere with sperm transport or sperm functions. Commonly used bull semen extenders were poor media for seminal DNase activity on plasmid DNA degradation, raising the prospect that the same may be true with other SP factors important to fertility. DNase activity per mg SP protein of bulls was less than that of horses (Pfertility. Modifications of semen extender and/or semen processing should be examined to allow sperm cells a maximum potential for fertilization. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Carcass characteristics and sensorial evaluation of meat from Nellore steers and crossbred Angus vs. Nellore bulls

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    Vinicius Cunha Barcellos


    Full Text Available This study evaluated animal performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of 36-month old Nellore steers finished in pastures (n = 10 and 20-month old Angus vs. Nellore bulls finished in feedlot (n = 10. Final body weight, carcass weight, characteristics, conformation and fat thickness, were higher (p 0.05 throughout the ageing period for the Angus vs. Nellore bulls, but higher in meat from the Nellore steers (p 0.05 on meat a* value (redness. Likewise, ageing time had no effect on a* in both genetic groups, and genetic group had no effect (p > 0.05 on meat b* value (yellowness. On the other hand, b* was increased after day 7 of ageing for the bulls from the two genetic groups. Thawing and cooking losses were lower for Nellore steers after day 7 of aging (p 0.05 on lipid oxidation; however, lipid oxidation increased after day7. Meat from Nellore steers contained a higher percentage of saturated fatty acids (SFA, a lower percentage of unsaturated (UFA and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and a similar percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA than the meat from Angus vs. Nellore bulls. Intramuscular fat from Nellore steers had a more favourable n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio than that from Angus vs. Nellore bulls (4.37 vs. 11.45, respectively. Tenderness, flavour and overall acceptability were higher (p < 0.001 for meats of the Nellore steers, regardless of ageing time (1, 4, 7 and 14 days.

  6. Ruptured urinary bladder attributable to urethral compression by a haematoma after vertebral fracture in a bull. (United States)

    Braun, Ueli; Trösch, Luzia; Sydler, Titus


    In male cattle, rupture of the urinary bladder is usually associated with urethral obstruction by uroliths. Less common causes include urethral compression or stricture. This case report describes the findings in a young Limousion breeding bull with rupture of the urinary bladder because of urethral compression by a haematoma after coccygeal fracture. The bull had been introduced into a 40-head Red-Holstein herd one week before being injured. One week after introduction to the herd, the bull had an acute onset of anorexia and he was referred to the clinic. There was marked abdominal distension, reduced skin turgor and enophthalmus. The serum concentration of urea and creatinine was increased. Ultrasonographic examination revealed severe ascites and abdominocentesis yielded clear yellow fluid with high urea and creatinine concentrations, which supported a diagnosis of uroperitoneum. The bull was euthanatized because of a poor prognosis. Postmortem examination revealed a comminuted fracture of the first two coccygeal vertebrae associated with a massive haematoma that obstructed entire pelvic cavity. The haematoma compressed the urethra thereby preventing outflow of urine, which resulted in a 5-cm tear ventrally at the neck of the bladder. It was assumed that the newly-introduced bull had sustained the vertebral fractures when he was mounted by a cow. The present case study serves to expand the differential diagnosis of urinary bladder rupture. Therefore, in addition to obstructive urolithiasis, compression and stricture of the urethra might be considered in male cattle with uroperitoneum.

  7. Effect of FMD vaccination on semen quality parameters in Karan Fries and Murrah buffalo bulls. (United States)

    Bhakat, Mukesh; Mohanty, Tushar K; Gupta, Ashok K; Raina, Virendra S; Brahma, Biswajit; Mahapatra, R K; Sarkar, M


    Effect of Foot and Mouth disease (FMD) vaccination was studied on semen quality parameters of 19 Karan Fries (KF) and eight Murrah (MU) breeding bulls during the period 2002 to 2004 at Artificial Breeding Complex, NDRI, Karnal. A total of non-vaccinated 155 KF and 72 MU bulls' ejaculates were taken as control, while 169 KF and 51 MU bulls' ejaculates, collected after vaccination, were used to study the effect of vaccination stress. The results showed that FMD vaccination had no significant (P > 0.05) effect on ejaculate volume and total volume per day of semen in both KF and MU bulls. Volume of semen increased slightly during post-vaccination period in both the breeds. After FMD vaccination, there was significant (P FMD vaccine had significantly (P < 0.05) adverse effect on most of the seminal attributes during post-vaccination in KF and MU buffalo bulls. So, the spermiograms affected following vaccination suggest that in bovines, the semen collection and preservation should be suspended till normal fertility of sperm is restored to avoid the failure of conception from artificial insemination using such semen.

  8. Daughter performance based buffalo bull ranking for boosting milk production in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghaffar


    Full Text Available The first lactation milk yield records of 2329 daughters of 180 bulls, (11 batches during 1983-2005 were used in this study. BLUP breeding values for male and female were computed using DFREML. The fixed effects like herd-year-season and batch number of bulls had significant effect on milk yield as determined by HARVEY Model-1. In addition to these fixed effects, age at first calving was included in the model as covariate to estimate the BLUP breeding values (EBV for milk yield. The year-wise least square means of milk yield for Nili Ravi buffaloes showed a sharp increase from 1984 to 1989 and then a significant yearly variation with the slight decrease in overall milk production under field conditions at private farmers door step. Among these candidate bulls 92 bulls were positive for milk yield EBV. The overall milk production was (Mean±S.E 2481.82±493.33 Kg. The heritability of milk yield was 0.15. There is wide variation over the years making the over all regression line (Y = - 146944 + 74.349X for milk yield negative. This emphasizes to review the policy of semen usage and production of candidate young bulls for future generations. Recently born male calves had better breeding values showing the positive regression line ( Y = 142.77 + 22.065X.

  9. Glacial oceanographic contrasts explain phylogeography of Australian bull kelp. (United States)

    Fraser, Ceridwen I; Spencer, Hamish G; Waters, Jonathan M


    The evolutionary effects of Southern Hemisphere Pleistocene oceanographic conditions - marked by fluctuations in sea levels and water temperatures, and redirected currents - are poorly understood. The southeastern tip of Australia presents an intriguing model system for studying the biological impacts of palaeoceanography. In particular, contrasting oceanographic conditions that existed on eastern vs. western sides of the Bassian Isthmus during Pleistocene glacial periods allow for natural comparisons between putative refugial vs. re-invading populations. Whereas many western Tasmanian marine taxa were likely eliminated by cold subantarctic water during the last glacial period, eastern Tasmanian populations would have persisted in relatively warm temperatures mediated by the ongoing influence of the East Australian Current (EAC). Here we test for the effects of contrasting palaeoceanographic conditions on endemic bull kelp, Durvillaea potatorum, using DNA sequence analysis (COI; rbcL) of more than 100 individuals from 14 localities in southeastern Australia. Phylogenetic reconstructions reveal a deep (maximum divergence 4.7%) genetic split within D. potatorum, corresponding to the 'eastern' and 'western' geographical regions delimited by the Bassian Isthmus, a vicariant barrier during low Pleistocene sea levels. Concordant with the western region's cold glacial conditions, samples from western Tasmania and western Victoria are genetically monomorphic, suggesting postglacial expansion from a mainland refugium. Eastern samples, in contrast, comprise distinct regional haplogroups, suggesting the species persisted in eastern Tasmania throughout recent glacial periods. The deep east-west divergence seems consistent with earlier reports of morphological differences between 'western' and 'eastern' D. potatorum, and it seems likely that these forms represent reproductively isolated species.


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    Srečko Lainer


    Full Text Available Mean stream numerical density of the brown trout (Salmo trutta m. fario Linnaeus, 1758 and the rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792 was 0.090 fish/m2 of which brown trout averaged 69% (72% in total biomass in 15 high-elevation New Mexico streams (1,661-2,560 m above sea level. Total trout density varied from 0.008/m2 in 1988 and 1989. Mean trout density ranged between 0.023-0.121 fish/m2 at site s open to public fishing. Considerably higher densities (0.142-0.409 fish/m2 were observed at sites closed for fishing. In the seven selected streams shared by both species, brown trout density exceeded rainbow trout density except at the two sites closed to fishing. Brown trout were stocked only as fingerlings (average 7,000 fish/stream/year while rainbow trout were stocked only in harvestable sizes (11,000 fish/stream/year. Reported total trout yield rates exceeded the total number of fish estimated to be in the stream by 1.01 to 11.63 in most small streams open to fishing. The proportional stock density (PSD ranged between O and 50 percent. Streams with low to moderate intensities of fishing had the highest PSD.

  11. Interspecific interactions between brown trout and slimy sculpin in stream enclosures (United States)

    Ruetz, C. R.; Hurford, A.L.; Vondracek, B.


    We conducted a 30-d manipulative experiment in Valley Creek, Minnesota, to examine interspecific interactions between juvenile brown trout Salmo trutta and adult slimy sculpin Cottus cognatus. We measured the instantaneous growth of each species in the presence and absence of the other in 1-m2 enclosures. We tested single-species (three slimy sculpins/m2 or three brown trout/m2) and combined-species (three sculpins/m2 and three trout/m2) combinations in each of six riffles. We placed a clay tile in each enclosure to evaluate the effects of fish combinations on benthic macroinvertebrates. Growth of brown trout was unaffected by the presence of slimy sculpins (P = 0.647, power [to detect 50% increase in growth] = 0.92), whereas slimy sculpin growth was less in the presence of brown trout (P = 0.038). Densities of total benthic macroinvertebrates, Chironomidae, Trichoptera, and Physa did not differ among fish combinations (P > 0.3). However, densities of Gammarus pseudolimnaeus were significantly less in the presence of brown trout irrespective of the presence of slimy sculpins (P = 0.024), which could be a causal factor underlying the interaction between brown trout and slimy sculpins. We found asymmetrical competition between brown trout and slimy sculpins in stream enclosures, with brown trout being the superior competitor. Nevertheless, the size of enclosures may have biased our results, making it more likely to detect an effect of brown trout on slimy sculpins than vice versa.

  12. Chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Dorman, Rebecca A.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Kunz, James L.; Hardesty, Douglas K.


    Chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was evaluated in water-only exposures started with newly hatched larvae or approximately 1-mo-old juveniles. The 20% effect concentration (EC20) for cadmium from the sturgeon tests was higher than the EC20 from the trout tests, whereas the EC20 for copper, lead, or zinc for the sturgeon were lower than those EC20s for the trout. When the EC20s from the present study were included in compiled toxicity databases for all freshwater species, species mean chronic value for white sturgeon was in a relatively low percentile of the species sensitivity distribution for copper (9th percentile) and in the middle percentile for cadmium (55th percentile), zinc (40th percentile), or lead (50th percentile). However, the species mean chronic value for rainbow trout was in a high percentile for copper, lead, and zinc (∼68th–82nd percentile), but in a low percentile for cadmium (23rd percentile). The trout EC20s for each of the 4 metals and the sturgeon EC20s for cadmium or lead were above US Environmental Protection Agency chronic ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) or Washington State chronic water quality standards (WQS), whereas the sturgeon EC20s for copper or zinc were approximately equal to or below the chronic AWQC and WQS. In addition, acute 50% effect concentrations (EC50s) for copper obtained in the first 4 d of the chronic sturgeon test were below the final acute value used to derive acute AWQC and below acute WQS for copper.

  13. Conservation of native Pacific trout diversity in Western North America (United States)

    Brooke E. Penaluna; Alicia Abadía-Cardoso; Jason B. Dunham; Francisco J. García-Dé León; Robert E. Gresswell; Arturo Ruiz Luna; Eric B. Taylor; Bradley B. Shepard; Robert Al-Chokhachy; Clint C. Muhlfeld; Kevin R. Bestgen; Kevin Rogers; Marco A. Escalante; Ernest R. Keeley; Gabriel M. Temple; Jack E. Williams; Kathleen R. Matthews; Ron Pierce; Richard L. Mayden; Ryan P. Kovach; John Carlos Garza; Kurt D. Fausch


    Pacific trout Oncorhynchus spp. in western North America are strongly valued in ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural views, and have been the subject of substantial research and conservation efforts. Despite this, the understanding of their evolutionary histories, overall diversity, and challenges to their conservation is incomplete. We review...

  14. Lake Michigan lake trout PCB model forecast post audit (United States)

    Scenario forecasts for total PCBs in Lake Michigan (LM) lake trout were conducted using the linked LM2-Toxics and LM Food Chain models, supported by a suite of additional LM models. Efforts were conducted under the Lake Michigan Mass Balance Study and the post audit represents th...

  15. Influence of waterfalls on patterns of association between trout and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Current literature suggests that little, if any, research has been conducted in South Africa to determine the impact of alien trout on indigenous amphibian biodiversity. The aim of this study was to establish whether waterfalls in the uKhahlamba Drakensberg Park, South Africa, are seasonally important in conserving ...

  16. Estrogenic response of bisphenol A in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Christian; Pedersen, Knud Ladegaard; Pedersen, Søren Nørby


    Bisphenol A (BPA) previously shown to possess xenoestrogenic activities was administered to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) through a continuos flow system. The estrogenic response expressed as the induction of vitellogenin (VTG) synthesis was measured during 12 days of exposure, using a direct...

  17. Rainbow trout offspring with different resistance to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slierendrecht, W.J.; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Juul-Madsen, H.R.


    To study immunological and immunogenetical parameters related to resistance against viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS), attempts to make gynogenetic strains of rainbow trout selected for high and low resistance to VHS were initiated in 1988. The first gynogenetic generation of inbreeding resulted...

  18. Studies on the motility and cryopreservation of rainbow trout

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the motility and cryopreservation of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerl) spermatozoa. G. van der Horst, H.M. Dott and G.C. Foster. ARC, Institute of Animal Physiology, Animal Research Station, Cambridge, United Kingdom. The very short duration of vigorous movement (1'12 to 7 min) in fresh water and physiological ...

  19. The Spectacle of Redemption: Guilt and Violence in Martin Scorsese’s Raging Bull

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    Arturo Serrano


    Full Text Available Of all the characters that undertake a search for redemption in Martin Scorsese’s films, perhaps it is the story of Jake La Motta in Raging Bull that for many reasons presents the greatest challenge to understanding redemption’s role in the narratives of his films. Is Jake La Motta a redeemed character at the end of Raging Bull? I argue that Scorsese uses Raging Bull to criticize a ritualistic view of redemption by portraying the beginning of Jake’s search as a futile attempt to submit himself to a public spectacle of ritual violence in the boxing ring while visually relating this to the Catholic sacraments and the crucifixion. It will only be later—in the loneliness of a jail cell, estranged from his family and without having to have had gone through a rite—that Jake achieves the self-awareness redemption requires.


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    Betka LOGAR


    Full Text Available Detection of recessive mutations that causes complex vertebral malformation (CVM and bovine leukocyte adhesion defi ciency (BLAD in Holstein cattle is especially required for bulls, which are used for artifi cial insemination (A.I.; these enable elimination of carriers from the A.I. programs and therefore prevent transmission of unwanted mutations to a large number of offspring. Some breeders are also interested in the identifi cation of carriers of recessive allele for red and white coat colour (Red factor. Here, we performed genetic tests for detection of mutations associated with CVM, BLAD and Red factor using methods previously reported or modifi ed methods. Analysis of Holstein bulls, which were recommended for A.I in Slovenia in the years 2007 and 2008, revealed four (10 % carriers of CVM, and two (5.4 % carriers of red gene, while all bulls were non-carriers of BLAD.

  1. Levels of natural resistance to Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae in Carora breed bulls

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    Roy D. Meléndez


    Full Text Available Boophilus microplus infestation is one of the most serious limitations to cattle industry in tropical regions, even though bovines show natural resistance to ticks. This resistance was evaluated in Cross-bred Carora Bulls (CCB a tropicalized dairy breed from Venezuela. Seven CCB were experimentally infested with B. microplus larvae, "Mozo" strain, they were considered tick-naive because they had never been infested with ticks. The mean inoculum size applied on each bull was 6 477 larvae. After life cycle was completed adult female body weight (BW, egg mass weight (EW, egg hatching rate (%EH, and reproductive index (RI were recorded. Results revealed a high variability in the levels of resistance to B. microplus. Thus, one animal showed greater resistance (Dunnett, p< 0.05 for the analyzed parameters in contrast with three non-resistant bulls. The others had moderate resistance. The trait "resistance" should be included togheter with other traits often used in genetic selection of cattle.

  2. Effect of dietary energy on growth and reproductive characteristics of Angus and Senepol bulls during summer in Florida. (United States)

    Chase, C C; Larsen, R E; Hammond, A C; Randel, R D


    Pubertal Angus bulls (n=10, 503 days of age and weighing 366 kg) and Senepol bulls (n=10, 457 days of age and weighing 381 kg) were stratified by age and weight into 2 dietary treatments formulated to provide equal amounts of crude protein and 75% (below) or 150% (above) of the maintenance requirements for metabolizable energy. Measurements to assess body growth and libido were collected at 28-day intervals for 112 days (June through September). Twice during each 28-day interval, the bulls were subjected to breeding soundness examinations. At the end of the experiment, gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) - induced secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone (T) in the serum were determined. At the end of the experiment, bulls fed the above maintenance diet (P0.1) or semen quality. In general, Angus bulls had superior initial semen quality (PSenepol bulls. The final rectal temperature was 0.5 degrees C lower (PSenepol than in Angus bulls. Basal T concentrations and area under the GnRH-induced T curve were greater (PSenepol bulls.

  3. Adrenergic System Activation Mediates Changes in Cardiovascular and Psychomotoric Reactions in Young Individuals after Red Bull (©) Energy Drink Consumption. (United States)

    Cavka, Ana; Stupin, Marko; Panduric, Ana; Plazibat, Ana; Cosic, Anita; Rasic, Lidija; Debeljak, Zeljko; Martinovic, Goran; Drenjancevic, Ines


    Objectives. To assess the effect of Red Bull(©) on (1) blood glucose and catecholamine levels, (2) cardiovascular and respiratory function changes before, during, and after exercise, (3) reaction time, (4) cognitive functions, and (5) response to mental stress test and emotions in young healthy individuals (N=38). Methods. Heart rate (HR) and arterial blood pressure (ABP), blood glucose, adrenaline, and noradrenalin plasma levels were measured before and after Red Bull(©) intake. Participants were subjected to 4 different study protocols by randomized order, before and 30 minutes after consumption of 500 mL of Red Bull(©). Results. Mean ABP and HR were significantly increased at rest after Red Bull(©) intake. Blood glucose level and plasma catecholamine levels significantly increased after Red Bull(©) consumption. Heart rate, respiration rate, and respiratory flow rate were significantly increased during exercise after Red Bull(©) consumption compared to control condition. Intake of Red Bull(©) significantly improved reaction time, performance in immediate memory test, verbal fluency, and subject's attention as well as performance in mental stress test. Conclusion. This study demonstrated that Red Bull(©) has beneficial effect on some cognitive functions and effect on cardiovascular and respiratory system at rest and during exercise by increasing activity of the sympathetic nervous system.

  4. Severe horn-gore injury in a 5-year-old Bunaji bull and a 10-month ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports two scenarios whereby goring injury sustained by a Bunaji bull and a Yankasa lamb were managed by pastoralists before the cases were presented to the Large Animal Clinic Unit of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. Anamnesis of the cases presented was that the bull ...

  5. Gross testicular abnormalities in indigenous breeds of bulls in Eastern Ethiopia

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    Amare Eshetu Gemeda


    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of different types of gross testicular disorders in bulls, and to evaluate the associations with sampling year, age, and body condition. Materials and methods: In this study, a total of 398 apparently healthy bulls were randomly selected that were brought from different parts of eastern Ethiopia to the Haramaya University abattoir for slaughtering during the period from June 2014 to September 2016. Ante- and post-mortem examinations of the bulls were employed. Visual inspection, palpation, serial and systematic dissections into the parenchyma of the testes and scrotum were performed to determine the presence and the extent of gross pathological changes. Results: Out of 398 bulls, 209(52.5% were affected by one or more gross testicular abnormalities of unidentified causes. Bilateral testicular hypoplasia was the most prevalent (9.8%; n=39/398 testicular abnormality, followed by unilateral testicular hypoplasia (9%; n=36/398, testicular hematoma (9%; n=36/398, orchitis (8.3%; n=33/398, testicular degeneration (6.5%; n=26/398, scrotal wound (6.3%; n=25/398 and epididymitis (2.5%; n=10/398. Unilateral cryptorchidism was the least prevalent (1%; n=4/398. Age and body condition did not affect the prevalence of any abnormality (P>0.05 except in scrotal wound which was significantly varied among body condition categories (P<0.05. Conclusion: This study reveals that the incidence of gross testicular abnormalities was 52.5% in bulls. Thus, attention should be given to reproductive management of bulls in Ethiopia. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(2.000: 200-206


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    G. Cozzi


    Full Text Available A sample of 6 intensive beef farms was selected according to the feeding plan adopted during the fattening period of Charolais bulls. Two farms did not include any corn silage in the diet (CS0, while corn silage represented 22% of the dietary DM in the second group of 2 farms (CS22, and it raised up to 44% of the dietary DM in the last 2 farms (CS44. Five bulls were randomly selected from each farm to be slaughtered in the same abattoir. Bulls age was similar across treatments but the CS44 bulls had a lower carcass weight (396 kg than the other two treatments (436 and 446 kg for CS0 and CS22, respectively. Carcass fleshiness (SEUROP and fatness scores were not affected by the level of corn silage in the diet. Meat quality was evaluated on a joint sample of the m. Longissimus thoracis, excised from the 5th to the 9th rib of each right half carcass 24 h post-mortem, after an ageing period of 10 d vacuum packaged at 4°C. Meat chemical analysis showed no variations in pH, DM, intramuscular fat and protein content due to the different silage inclusion in the diet. Only the cholesterol content was progressively reduced in the meat of bulls fed increasing quantities of corn silage according to a significant negative linear trend. Meat colour, cooking losses and shear force values were not affected by the diet. Therefore, based on these findings there are no substantial arguments against the use of a large amount of corn silage in the fattening diets of Charolais bulls.

  7. The effects of Red Bull energy drink compared with caffeine on cycling time-trial performance. (United States)

    Quinlivan, Alannah; Irwin, Christopher; Grant, Gary D; Anoopkumar-Dukie, Sheilandra; Skinner, Tina; Leveritt, Michael; Desbrow, Ben


    This study investigated the ergogenic effects of a commercial energy drink (Red Bull) or an equivalent dose of anhydrous caffeine in comparison with a noncaffeinated control beverage on cycling performance. Eleven trained male cyclists (31.7 ± 5.9 y 82.3 ± 6.1 kg, VO2max = 60.3 ± 7.8 mL · kg-1 · min-1) participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover-design study involving 3 experimental conditions. Participants were randomly administered Red Bull (9.4 mL/kg body mass [BM] containing 3 mg/kg BM caffeine), anhydrous caffeine (3 mg/kg BM given in capsule form), or a placebo 90 min before commencing a time trial equivalent to 1 h cycling at 75% peak power output. Carbohydrate and fluid volumes were matched across all trials. Performance improved by 109 ± 153 s (2.8%, P = .039) after Red Bull compared with placebo and by 120 ± 172 s (3.1%, P = .043) after caffeine compared with placebo. No significant difference (P > .05) in performance time was detected between Red Bull and caffeine treatments. There was no significant difference (P > .05) in mean heart rate or rating of perceived exertion among the 3 treatments. This study demonstrated that a moderate dose of caffeine consumed as either Red Bull or in anhydrous form enhanced cycling time-trial performance. The ergogenic benefits of Red Bull energy drink are therefore most likely due to the effects of caffeine, with the other ingredients not likely to offer additional benefit.

  8. Effect of preputial washing on bacterial load and preservability of semen in Murrah buffalo bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Meena


    Full Text Available Aim: To study the effect of preputial washing on bacterial load, preservability and semen quality in Murrah buffalo bulls Materials and Methods: A total of 36 collections of three Murrah buffalo bulls maintained at Artificial Breeding Research Centre, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, were collected at weekly intervals from each bull without preputial washing and latter ejaculates from same bull with preputial washing by infusing normal saline (0.85%, KMnO4 (0.02% and savlon (2.0% to first, second and third bull, respectively. The microbial load and semen quality were evaluated during different hours of storage at refrigerated temperature (0, 24 and 48 h and after thrawing of cryopreserved (at −196°C semen. Results: The results of preservation of semen at refrigerated temperature showed that bacterial load was markedly lower in ejaculates of bulls subjected to preputial washing. Semen preserved at refrigerator temperature and cryopreserved, the effect of washing solution was significant for individual motility (IM, non-eosiniphilic count, hypo-osmotic swelling reactivity (HOST, total plate count (TPC and acrosome integrity. KMnO4 was found to be the best in lowering bacterial load, sperm abnormalities and in improving semen quality such as motility, non-eosinophilic count, HOST and acrosome integrity even up to 48 h of preservation and cryopreserved semen. Effect of duration of preservation and stage of cryopreservation was also significant for IM, non-eosiniphilic count, HOST, sperm abnormalities and acrosome integrity. Conclusion: Overall the results suggested that preputial washing with KMnO4 solution improved the semen quality and reduced microbial load of Murrah buffalo bull’s semen preserved at refrigerated temperature and cryopreservation.

  9. Breed and other effects on reproductive traits and breeding soundness categorization in young beef bulls in Florida. (United States)

    Chenoweth, P J; Chase, C C; Thatcher, M J; Wilcox, C J; Larsen, R E


    Yearling, grass-fed, beef bulls at the USDA Subtropical Agricultural Research Station, Brooksville, Florida, were assessed for physical and semen traits in January, April, July and October of 1991 (Trial 1) and 1992 (Trial 2). Bulls were given a breeding soundness evaluation (BSE) using revised semen and scrotal circumference (SC) criteria. In Trial 1, the bulls consisted of Angus (n = 15), Brahman (n = 14), Hereford (n = 15) and Senepol (n = 14). In Trial 2, the breeds were Angus (n = 15), Brahman (n = 16), Romosinuano (n = 13) and Nellore x Brahman (n = 9). Trial bulls generally showed delayed growth compared with grain-fed bulls in temperate environments. Breed influenced semen traits (percentage sperm motility, normal spermatozoa and those with primary abnormalities) in both trials. Temperate Bos taurus breeds (Angus, Hereford) were generally superior to Bos indicus breeds (Brahman, Nellore x Brahman). Tropically-adapted Bos taurus breeds (Senepol, Romosinuano) were intermediate for those traits tested. In general, tropically-adapted Bos taurus breeds were more similar in reproductive development to temperate Bos taurus than to Bos indicus breeds. Breed by test period interactions occurred and were mainly influenced by delayed sexual maturity of Bos indicus bulls. Qualitative semen traits increased with bull age, particularly from 12 to 18 mo. Scrotal circumference development was slower in the Bos indicus breeds. Bulls of satisfactory BSE status at 18.1 to 22 mo of age were 73.9% in Trial 1 and 58.5% in Trial 2. Brahman bulls had the least satisfactory BSE scores in both years (Trial 1, 44.4%; Trial 2, 22.2%). Most bulls failed to achieve satisfactory BSE status due to a small SC relative to age (Trial 1, 66%; Trial 2, 72%). The most efficacious use of the BSE was > or = 15 mo in Bos taurus bulls and > 18 mo for Bos indicus bulls. Although the BSE has proven to be useful for the assessment of young, pasture-raised bulls in semi-tropical environments, use of SC

  10. Morphometry and subpopulation structure of Holstein bull spermatozoa: variations in ejaculates and cryopreservation straws (United States)

    Valverde, Anthony; Arenán, Héctor; Sancho, María; Contell, Jesús; Yániz, Jesús; Fernández, Alejandro; Soler, Carles


    Sperm quality is evaluated for the calculation of sperm dosage in artificial reproductive programs. The most common parameter used is motility, but morphology has a higher potential as a predictor of genetic quality. Morphometry calculations from CASA-Morph technology improve morphological evaluation and allow mathematical approaches to the problem. Semen from 28 Holstein bulls was collected by artificial vagina, and several ejaculates were studied. After general evaluation, samples were diluted, packaged in 0.25 ml straws, and stored in liquid nitrogen. Two straws per sample were thawed, and slides were processed and stained with Diff-Quik. Samples were analyzed by a CASA-Morph system for eight morphometric parameters. In addition to the “classical” statistical approach, based on variance analysis (revealing differences between animals, ejaculates, and straws), principal component (PC) analysis showed that the variables were grouped into PC1, related to size, and PC2 to shape. Subpopulation structure analysis showed four groups, namely, big, small, short, and narrow from their dominant characteristics, representing 31.0%, 27.3%, 24.1%, and 17.7% of the total population, respectively. The distributions varied between animals and ejaculates, but between straws, there were no differences in only four animals. This modern approach of considering an ejaculate sperm population as divided into subpopulations reflecting quantifiable parameters generated by CASA-Morph systems technology opens a new view on sperm function. This is the first study applying this approach to evaluate different ejaculates and straws from the same individual. More work must be done to improve seminal dose calculations in assisted reproductive programs. PMID:27678464

  11. Sanctuaries for lake trout in the Great Lakes (United States)

    Stanley, Jon G.; Eshenroder, Randy L.; Hartman, Wilbur L.


    Populations of lake trout, severely depleted in Lake Superior and virtually extirpated from the other Great Lakes because of sea lamprey predation and intense fishing, are now maintained by annual plantings of hatchery-reared fish in Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario and parts of Lake Superior. The extensive coastal areas of the Great Lakes and proximity to large populations resulted in fishing pressure on planted lake trout heavy enough to push annual mortality associated with sport and commercial fisheries well above the critical level needed to reestablish self-sustaining stocks. The interagency, international program for rehabilitating lake trout includes controlling sea lamprey abundance, stocking hatchery-reared lake trout, managing the catch, and establishing sanctuaries where harvest is prohibited. Three lake trout sanctuaries have been established in Lake Michigan: the Fox Island Sanctuary of 121, 500 ha, in the Chippewa-Ottawa Treaty fishing zone in the northern region of the lake; the Milwaukee Reef Sanctuary of 160, 000 ha in midlake, in boundary waters of Michigan and Wisconsin; and Julian's Reef Sanctuary of 6, 500 ha, in Illinois waters. In northern Lake Huron, Drummond Island Sanctuary of 55, 000 ha is two thirds in Indian treaty-ceded waters in Michigan and one third in Ontario waters of Canada. A second sanctuary, Six Fathom Bank-Yankee Reef Sanctuary, in central Lake Huron contains 168, 000 ha. Sanctuary status for the Canadian areas remains to be approved by the Provincial government. In Lake Superior, sanctuaries protect the spawning grounds of Gull Island Shoal (70, 000 ha) and Devils Island Shoal (44, 000 ha) in Wisconsin's Apostle Island area. These seven sanctuaries, established by the several States and agreed upon by the States, Indian tribes, the U.S. Department of the Interior, and the Province of Ontario, contribute toward solving an interjurisdictional fishery problem.

  12. Microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA polymorphism reveals life history dependent interbreeding between hatchery and wild brown trout ( Salmo trutta L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Ruzzante, D.E.; Eg Nielsen, Einar


    The effects of stocking hatchery trout into wild populations were studied in a Danish river, using microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers. Baseline samples were taken from hatchery trout and wild trout assumed to be unaffected by previous stocking. Also, samples were taken from...... resident and sea trout from a stocked section of the river. Genetic differentiation between the hatchery strain and the local wild population was modest (microsatellite F-ST = 0.06). Using assignment tests, more than 90% of individuals from the baseline samples were classified correctly. Assignment tests...... involving samples from the stocked river section suggested that the contribution by hatchery trout was low among sea trout (

  13. The effect of paternal bull on milk fat composition of dairy cows of different breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Kirchnerová


    Full Text Available Intake of milk fat in human nutrition is important because of unsaturated and especially essential fatty acids (FAs, linoleic and α-linolenic acid, and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, which is found only in meat and milk of ruminants. The objective of our study was to investigate the effect of paternal bulls on fatty acids composition in milk fat of dairy cows of different breeds. The milk samples were taken in total from 299 dairy cows from 11 dairy farms. In experiment Holstein (H, n = 105, Red Holstein (R, n = 120 and Pinzgau (P, n = 74 breeds originated from different bulls were used. Individual milk samples were analyzed for fatty acids in milk fat using gas chromatography (apparatus GC Varian 3800, Techtron, USA, using FID detector in capillary column Omegawax 530; 30 m. In the chromatography records there were identified 54 fatty acids inclusive of particular isomers. Their relative proportions were expressed in percent's (%. Among the studied breeds, the highest content of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA - 0.67%, essential FAs (EFA - 2.98%, monounsaturated FAs (MUFA - 25.84% and the lowest atherogenic index (AI - 3.10 was at breed P. Within this breed there was high variability and daughters of bull COS1 achieved significant above-average values of CLA content 1.07%, EFA 3.71%, MUFA 29.93% and under breed average AI = 2.40. The group of daughters of NOB3 was significant lower in CLA, 0.50% as compared with an average of P breed. . From the breed H bull MTY2 showed significantly higher value of 0.62% CLA, EFA 3.42%, 34.29% MUFA and lower value of AI, 1.9 as compared to H breed average. Statistically significantly lower levels of CLA 0.29% and 21.46% MUFA and higher AI 3.72 in milk fat of his daughters, bull STY3 may be considered as potential worser of these properties. At the breed R bull MOR506 showed in compar to the breed average significantly higher value of the EFA 3.80% and also the higher content of CLA 0.50% and MUFA 25

  14. Le marché de la dette souveraine est-il sur une bulle ?


    Mbacké, Tamsir


    Ce travail de Bachelor répond à une problématique actuelle d’économie d’entreprise. Le but est d’évaluer si le marché obligataire est sur une bulle, en mettant en évidence les bons aspects et ceux un peu plus sombres. Beaucoup s’accordent pour dire que le marché de la dette souveraine ne suit plus les principes économiques, alors que d’autres vont plus loin en qualifiant cette situation de « bulle ». Celle-ci pourrait se manifester pour diverses raisons, mais la question principale est de sav...

  15. A register-based study of the antimicrobial usage in Danish veal calves and young bulls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Mette Ely; Toft, Nils; Martin, Henrik Læssøe


    . According to the national Danish database on drugs for veterinary use (VetStat), a total of 537,399 Animal Daily Doses (ADD200) were registered for these 325 herds during 2014. The amount of antimicrobials registered in 2014 varied throughout the year, with the highest amounts registered in autumn...... ration. In this study, we used national register data to characterize the use of antimicrobials registered for large Danish veal calf and young bull producing herds in 2014. A total of 325 herds with veal calf and potentially young bull production were identified from the Danish Cattle database...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliška Špaleková


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine relationship between parameters of spermatozoa motility (total motility - TM and progressive movement - PM and viability of bull frozen-thawed spermatozoa (dead spermatozoa ratio, apoptotic spermatozoa ratio and plasma membrane integrity. Motility parameters were evaluated using computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA. Parameters of spermatozoa viability were analysed using fluorescent dyes PNA-FITC (plasma membrane, Yo-Pro-1 and propidium iodide (PI. All bulls (n=6 were divided into two groups. First group (n=3 A – better bulls with total motility after thawing over 40% and the second group (n=3 B – with total motility lower than 40%. It was observed significantly (P<0.001 higher TM and PM in group A. No significant differences in velocity parameters and ALH between the group A and B were detected. Occurrence of spermatozoa with disrupted membranes, dead/necrotic spermatozoa and apoptotic spermatozoa was significantly lower in the group A. Bulls in the group A showed significantly higher cleavage rate of embryos. These motility and viability characteristics are associated with a higher embryo cleavage rate in in vitro fertilizatioThe aim of this study was to determine relationship between parameters of spermatozoa motility (total motility - TM and progressive movement - PM and viability of bull frozen-thawed spermatozoa (dead spermatozoa ratio, apoptotic spermatozoa ratio and plasma membrane integrity. Motility parameters were evaluated using computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA. Parameters of spermatozoa viability were analysed using fluorescent dyes PNA-FITC (plasma membrane, Yo-Pro-1 and propidium iodide (PI. All bulls (n=6 were divided into two groups. First group (n=3 A – better bulls with total motility after thawing over 40% and the second group (n=3 B – with total motility lower than 40%. It was observed significantly (P<0.001 higher TM and PM in group A. No significant differences in

  17. Quantitative protein and fat metabolism in bull calves treated with beta-adrenergic agonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chwalibog, André; Jensen, K; Thorbek, G


    Protein and energy utilization and quantitative retention of protein, fat and energy was investigated with 12 Red Danish bulls during two subsequent 6 weeks trials (Sections A and B) at a mean live weight of 195 and 335 kg respectively. Treatments were control (Group 1) and beta-agonist (L-644...... matter, metabolizable energy and digestible protein was of the same magnitude for all groups. The beta-agonist had no significant effect on protein digestibility and metabolizability of energy, but daily live weight gain was significantly higher in the treated bulls. The utilization of digested protein...

  18. Investigations for the improvement of the technology of the freezing-preserving of bull semen


    Griga, Mihai Cristian


    The aim of this study was to investigate ways to improve the technology of bull semen cryoconservation in order to decrease the total sperm number per straw. The other objective was to investigate the relationship between spermatological parameters and the fertility of AI-bulls in the form of NRR as well as to present a combination and weighting of these parameters which facilitate the forecast of the NRR. For these purposes four large-scale trials were carried out. In the first section of th...

  19. Victims and offenders in a situation of bulling: who are they?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekimova V.I.


    Full Text Available Bulling is one of the most common form of violence in the school environment, adversely affecting the physical and mental health of all its members. The article provides a brief review of foreign studies of this phenomenon, the actual statistics of its prevalence and forms of manifestation. Research focuses on the General characteristics of the bulling participants – aggressors and victims of aggression. The article points to the descriptive character of the studies and contradictory results. It also draws attention to the scarcity of diagnostic tools and a lack of understanding of the psychological component of the problem

  20. Thermal onset of cellular and endocrine stress responses correspond to ecological limits in brook trout, an iconic cold-water fish. (United States)

    Chadwick, Joseph G; Nislow, Keith H; McCormick, Stephen D


    Climate change is predicted to change the distribution and abundance of species, yet underlying physiological mechanisms are complex and methods for detecting populations at risk from rising temperature are poorly developed. There is increasing interest in using physiological mediators of the stress response as indicators of individual and population-level response to environmental stressors. Here, we use laboratory experiments to show that the temperature thresholds in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) for increased gill heat shock protein-70 (20.7°C) and plasma glucose (21.2°C) are similar to their proposed thermal ecological limit of 21.0°C. Field assays demonstrated increased plasma glucose, cortisol and heat shock protein-70 concentrations at field sites where mean daily temperature exceeded 21.0°C. Furthermore, population densities of brook trout were lowest at field sites where temperatures were warm enough to induce a stress response, and a co-occurring species with a higher thermal tolerance showed no evidence of physiological stress at a warm site. The congruence of stress responses and proposed thermal limits supports the use of these thresholds in models of changes in trout distribution under climate change scenarios and suggests that the induction of the stress response by elevated temperature may play a key role in driving the distribution of species.

  1. A mathematical model of predator-prey interaction between seal-herring and steelhead trout (United States)

    Triharyuni, S.; Aldila, D.


    A mathematical model of predator-prey interaction between Seal, Herring and Steelhead Trout will be introduced in this article. The population of Steelhead Trout is divided into two subpopulations according to their living ecosystem, i.e in freshwater and sea ecosystem. Therefore, the model will be developed as a four-dimensional system of differential equation. The migration of Steelhead Trout is assumed to take place all over the year as a constant parameter as well as the harvesting rate in Herring and Steelhead Trout population. Mathematical analysis of the equilibrium points and local stability criteria was done. Some numerical simulation to give an interpretation about the analytical results has been conducted. The result shown that harvesting steelhead trout in fresh water has a significant impact to the ecosystem. Having the periodic harvesting strategy on the steelhead trout allows the population to recover and to ensure the sustainable harvest.

  2. Interspecific hybridization, a matter of pioneering? Insights from Atlantic salmon and brown trout. (United States)

    Hórreo, Jose L; Ayllón, Fernando; Perez, Juliana; Beall, Edward; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva


    Interspecific hybridization may occur in situations of recent contact between a colonizer and a resident species, being more intense in the colonization front. Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and brown trout S. trutta have been sympatric species since their origin and they share spatial and temporal spawning niches, exhibiting low levels of bidirectional interspecific hybridization and introgression throughout their distribution range. Different causes have been identified for increased hybridization, from escapes or deliberate releases of domesticated fish to sneaking male behavior. We have examined hybridization rates and direction in different situations of advance of one of these species into a territory formerly inhabited by the other (247 samples were analyzed in northern Spain and 487 in Kerguelen Islands). In all cases, hybrids found in the colonization front were offspring of colonizer females and resident males. We hypothesize that these findings are the result of adaptive relaxed mate choice of colonizing females, regardless of the relative abundance of each species.

  3. Brown trout ( Salmo trutta ) stocking impact assessment using microsatellite DNA markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Ruzzante, D.E.; Eg Nielsen, Einar


    The genetic integrity of many salmonid fish populations is threatened by stocking of domesticated conspecifics. The purpose of this study was to assess the utility of microsatellite DNA markers for detecting loss of genetic diversity in hatchery strains, for estimating their genetic relationships......, and for monitoring the genetic impact of stocking activity on wild populations of salmonid fishes. Brown trout from ten hatchery strains, one supportive breeding "strain," and five wild populations were screened for variation at eight loci. In most hatchery strains, genetic variation was comparable to that of wild...... populations, but three strains showed loss of allelic variation. In six of the hatchery strains, significant differentiation was observed between age classes. Genetic differentiation among all populations was moderate (F-ST = 0.065, p(ST) = 0.076), and only a minor part of genetic diversity was distributed...

  4. Potential population and assemblage influences of non-native trout on native nongame fish in Nebraska headwater streams (United States)

    Turek, Kelly C.; Pegg, Mark A.; Pope, Kevin L.; Schainost, Steve


    Non-native trout are currently stocked to support recreational fisheries in headwater streams throughout Nebraska. The influence of non-native trout introductions on native fish populations and their role in structuring fish assemblages in these systems is unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine (i) if the size structure or relative abundance of native fish differs in the presence and absence of non-native trout, (ii) if native fish-assemblage structure differs in the presence and absence of non-native trout and (iii) if native fish-assemblage structure differs across a gradient in abundances of non-native trout. Longnose dace Rhinichthys cataractae were larger in the presence of brown trout Salmo trutta and smaller in the presence of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss compared to sites without trout. There was also a greater proportion of larger white suckers Catostomus commersonii in the presence of brown trout. Creek chub Semotilus atromaculatus and fathead minnow Pimephales promelas size structures were similar in the presence and absence of trout. Relative abundances of longnose dace, white sucker, creek chub and fathead minnow were similar in the presence and absence of trout, but there was greater distinction in native fish-assemblage structure between sites with trout compared to sites without trout as trout abundances increased. These results suggest increased risk to native fish assemblages in sites with high abundances of trout. However, more research is needed to determine the role of non-native trout in structuring native fish assemblages in streams, and the mechanisms through which introduced trout may influence native fish populations.

  5. Quality effect of freeze-chilling in cod and rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard; Nielsen, Jette; Jørgensen, Bo

    are known to differ among fish species, the present study included the popular species cod (Gadus Morhua) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss). Principal component analysis of the sensory results clearly showed that after frozen storage at -30 °C for 1 month and subsequent chill storage at +2 °C, trout...... is practically applicable and cod and rainbow trout seem potential candidates for freeze-chilled meal elements....

  6. Diet of lake trout and burbot in northern Lake Michigan during spring: Evidence of ecological interaction (United States)

    Jacobs, Gregory R.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Bunnell, David B.; Holuszko, Jeffrey D.


    We used analyses of burbot (Lota lota) and lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) diets taken during spring gill-net surveys in northern Lake Michigan in 2006-2008 to investigate the potential for competition and predator-prey interactions between these two species. We also compared our results to historical data from 1932. During 2006-2008, lake trout diet consisted mainly of alewives (Alosa pseudoharengus) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), whereas burbot utilized a much wider prey base including round goby (Neogobius melanostomus), rainbow smelt, alewives, and sculpins. Using the Schoener's diet overlap index, we found a higher potential for interspecific competition in 1932 than in 2006-2008, though diet overlap was not significant in either time period. No evidence of cannibalism by lake trout or lake trout predation on burbot was found in either time period. In 2006-2008, however, lake trout composed 5.4% (by weight) of burbot diet. To determine whether this predation could be having an impact on lake trout rehabilitation efforts in northern Lake Michigan, we developed a bioenergetic-based consumption estimate for burbot on Boulder Reef (a representative reef within the Northern Refuge) and found that burbot alone can consume a considerable proportion of the yearling lake trout stocked annually, depending on burbot density. Overall, we conclude that predation, rather than competition, is the more important ecological interaction between burbot and lake trout, and burbot predation may be contributing to the failed lake trout rehabilitation efforts in Lake Michigan.

  7. A single rainbow trout cobalamin-binding protein stands in for three human binders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greibe, Eva; Fedosov, Sergey; Sorensen, Boe S


    -binding proteins of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and to compare their properties with those of the three human cobalamin-binding proteins. High cobalamin-binding capacity was found in trout stomach (210 pmol/g), roe (400 pmol/g), roe fluid (390 nmol/liter), and plasma (2500 nmol/liter). In all cases...... affinity for the cobalamin analog cobinamide. Like haptocorrin and transcobalamin, the trout cobalamin-binding protein was present in plasma and recognized ligands with altered nucleotide moiety. Like intrinsic factors, the trout cobalamin-binding protein was present in the stomach and resisted degradation...

  8. Identifying footprints of selection in stocked brown trout populations: a spatio-temporal approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Meier, Kristian; Mensberg, Karen-Lise Dons


    Studies of interactions between farmed and wild salmonid fishes have suggested reduced fitness of farmed strains in the wild, but evidence for selection at the genic level is lacking. We studied three brown trout populations in Denmark which have been significantly admixed with stocked hatchery...... trout. In the most strongly admixed population, however, there was no evidence for selection, possibly because of immigration by stocked trout overcoming selection against hatchery-derived alleles or supportive breeding practices allowing hatchery strain trout to escape natural selection. To our...

  9. Influence of Didymosphenia geminata blooms on prey composition and associated diet and growth of Brown Trout (United States)

    James, Daniel A.; Chipps, Steven R.


    We compared diet, stomach fullness, condition, and growth of Brown Trout Salmo trutta among streams with or without blooms of the benthic diatom Didymosphenia geminata in the Black Hills, South Dakota. In Rapid Creek, where D. geminata blooms covered ∼30% of the stream bottom, Brown Trout consumed fewer ephemeropterans (6–8% by weight) than individuals from two stream sections that have not had D. geminatablooms (Castle and Spearfish creeks; 13–39% by weight). In contrast, dipterans (primarily Chironomidae) represented a larger percentage of Brown Trout diets from Rapid Creek (D. geminata blooms present; 16–28% dry weight) compared with diets of trout from streams without D. geminata blooms (6–19% dry weight). Diets of small Brown Trout (100–199 mm TL) reflected the invertebrate species composition in benthic stream samples; in Rapid Creek, ephemeropterans were less abundant whereas dipterans were more abundant than in streams without D. geminata blooms. Stomach fullness and condition of Brown Trout from Rapid Creek were generally greater than those of Brown Trout from other populations. Linkages among invertebrate availability, diet composition, and condition of Brown Trout support the hypothesis that changes in invertebrate assemblages associated with D. geminata (i.e., more Chironomidae) could be contributing to high recruitment success for small Brown Trout in Rapid Creek.

  10. Two new species of atlantic trout (Actinopterygii, Salmonidae from Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doadrio, Ignacio


    Full Text Available Four trout species of the genus Salmo Linnaeus, 1758 have been traditionally recognized in Morocco: S. macrostigma Duméril, 1858; S. pallaryi Pellegrin, 1924; S. pellegrini Werner, 1931 and S. akairos Delling & Doadrio, 2005. Two of these species are mainly distributed in Mediterranean (S. macrostigma and Atlantic (S. pellegrini river basins while the other two species are restricted to isolated lakes in the Atlas Mountains, one of them to Ifni Lake (S. akairos and the other, probably extinct, to Sidi Ali Lake (S. pallaryi. Preliminary phylogenetic and regional studies based on molecular data have found high structuration of the populations of this genus in Morocco. These studies focused on allozymes, microsatellites and mitochondrial markers found genetic differences in populations from Isli Lake (Atlas Mountains and the Draa Basin in southern Morocco. In this work we provide different morphological and genetic traits to distinguish these populations from Isli Lake and Draa Basin as two different species. especies del género Salmo Linnaeus, 1758 se han reconocido tradicionalmente en Marruecos: S. macrostigma Duméril, 1858; S. pallaryi Pellegrin, 1924; S. pellegrini Werner, 1931 y S. akairos Delling y Doadrio, 2005. Dos de estas especies se distribuyen por las cuencas mediterráneas (S. macrostigma y atlánticas (S. pellegrini, mientras que las otras dos están restringidas a lagos aislados en las montañas del Atlas, una de ellas al Lago Ifni (S. akairos y la otra, probablemente extinta, al Lago de Sidi Alí (S. pallaryi. Estudios filogenéticos preliminares y estudios regionales basados en alozimas, microsatélites y marcadores mitocondriales hallaron una alta estructuración de las poblaciones de este género en Marruecos, con diferencias genéticas significativas en las poblaciones del lago de Isli (Montañas del Atlas y de la cuenca del Draa en el sur de Marruecos. En el


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine if a new antibiotic combination comprising of gentamycin, tylosin and linco-spectin (GTLS in extender is suitable for improvement in fertility of liquid buffalo bull semen through artificial insemination (AI. Two consecutive ejaculates per week (4 weeks were collected from three Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls of known fertility by using artificial vagina. The pooled ejaculates were split-sampled and diluted with skimmed milk extender (37oC; 10x106 motile spermatozoa/ml containing either SP (streptomycin 1000 μg/ml and penicillin 1000 iu/ml or GTLS (gentamycin 500 μg/ml, tylosin 100 μg/ml, lincomycin 300 μg/ml, and spectinomycin 600 μg/ml. Liquid semen was stored at 5°C for seven days. Fertility, based on 90-days first service pregnancy rate, was determined under field conditions. The fertility rates for SP-based vs. GTLS-containing liquid semen of buffalo bull were 58.55 and 60.00%, respectively, the difference was non significant. The fertility rates also did not differ (P>0.05 due to antibiotics at different days of storage of liquid semen at 5oC. In conclusion, GTLS, in skimmed milk extender compared to SP, did not significantly improve the fertility of chilled buffalo bull semen.

  12. Page 1 Bull. Mater. Sci., Vol. 17, No. 6, November 1994, pp. 999-004 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bull. Mater. Sci., Vol. 17, No. 6, November 1994, pp. 999-004, C Printed in India. Role of dopant cations in the gelation behaviour of silica sols. A PATRA and D GANGULI. Sol-Gel Laboratory, Central Glass & Ceramic Research Institute, Calcutta 700 032, India. Abstract. Gelation times of tetraethyl orthosilicate-derived sols ...

  13. Neurosurgical considerations after bull goring during festivities in Spain and Latin America. (United States)

    Spiotta, Alejandro M; Matoses, Salvador Martorell


    Bullfighting is a highly popular activity during festivities in Spain and Latin America. A scientific society for bullfight injuries, Congreso Internacional de Cirugía Taurina, was founded on November 24, 1974, in recognition of the distinctive pattern of injury that results from bull goring, and a subspecialty of general surgical trauma with emphasis on the acute surgical management of bull-goring injuries has emerged. Injuries to the head and neck are less frequent than genitourinary, inguinal, and abdominal injuries, but are more severe and more likely to result in death. This report reviews the primary venues in which bull goring and associated injuries occur, including the bullfight and the running of the bulls. The biomechanics of the primary and secondary goring injuries are reviewed, with an emphasis on those with the potential to result in neurosurgical injuries. This results in a very unique and devastating pattern of injury that combines penetrating and blunt mechanisms and results in polytrauma. Neurosurgical expertise should be immediately available on-site in the event of a life-threatening neurological injury.

  14. Viimane valik / Malcolm Bull ; tõlk. Märt Väljataga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bull, Malcolm


    Genotsiidi mõistest ja teostamisest. Rets. rmt.: Michael Mann. The dark side of democracy: explaining ethnic cleansing. Cambridge, 2005; Marc Levene. Genocide in the age of the nation state. Volume I: The meaning of genocide; Volume II: The rise of the West and the coming of genocide. Tauris, 2005. Lisa: Malcolm Bull

  15. Retinal dysplasia in American pit bull terriers--phenotypic characterization and breeding study. (United States)

    Rodarte-Almeida, Ana Carolina Veiga; Petersen-Jones, Simon; Langohr, Ingeborg M; Occelli, Laurence; Dornbusch, Peterson T; Shiokawa, Naoye; Montiani-Ferreira, Fabiano


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the inheritance and phenotype of retinal dysplasia (RD) in the American pit bull terrier. A breeding colony established from a single female pure-bred American pit bull terrier dog with RD. A female pure-bred American pit bull terrier with RD was donated to the Veterinary Hospital of Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil. A breeding colony was established and the phenotype and inheritance of the condition investigated. Regular ophthalmic examinations and fundus photography were performed on three generations of offspring from the founder animal. Some animals were additionally studied by optical coherence tomography. Ocular histopathology was performed on some animals from the colony. Fifty-seven offspring were produced in two generations from the affected founder female. Thirty-two were diagnosed with RD and showed a spectrum of severity of lesions including multifocal, and or geographic lesions and some developed retinal detachment. Histologic examination demonstrated retinal folds, rosettes, and areas of retinal detachment. The affected dogs were shorter in stature than the unaffected littermates. Breeding studies suggested the trait has an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. DNA testing showed that the affected dogs were negative for the known gene mutations for canine dwarfism with RD. This is a report of a novel inherited form of RD that affects American pit bull terriers. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  16. The use of integer programming to select bulls across breeding companies with volume price discounts. (United States)

    McConnel, M B; Galligan, D T


    Optimization programs are currently used to aid in the selection of bulls to be used in herd breeding programs. While these programs offer a systematic approach to the problem of semen selection, they ignore the impact of volume discounts. Volume discounts are discounts that vary depending on the number of straws purchased. The dynamic nature of volume discounts means that, in order to be adequately accounted for, they must be considered in the optimization routine. Failing to do this creates a missed economic opportunity because the potential benefits of optimally selecting and combining breeding company discount opportunities are not captured. To address these issues, an integer program was created which used binary decision variables to incorporate the effects of quantity discounts into the optimization program. A consistent set of trait criteria was used to select a group of bulls from 3 sample breeding companies. Three different selection programs were used to select the bulls, 2 traditional methods and the integer method. After the discounts were applied using each method, the integer program resulted in the lowest cost portfolio of bulls. A sensitivity analysis showed that the integer program also resulted in a low cost portfolio when the genetic trait goals were changed to be more or less stringent. In the sample application, a net benefit of the new approach over the traditional approaches was a 12.3 to 20.0% savings in semen cost.

  17. Effect of age and season on sperm morphology of Friesland bulls at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mev Louw

    which is critical, according to Salisbury et al. (1978), Bearden & Fuquay (1997) and Coe (1999). The effect of winter on sperm morphology declined drastically up to 60 months of age and then increased but to a lesser degree between 60 and 96 months of age. Summer was less of a concern in bulls younger than 36 months ...

  18. Necrotizing Infiltrative Lipomatosis in a Miniature Zebu Bull (Bos primigenius indicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott D. Reed


    Full Text Available Lipomatosis is described in a miniature Zebu, Bos primigenius indicus, bull that died of perianesthetic complications. This is the first pathologic description of lipomatosis that we are aware of in this species and breed of cattle. Infiltration of multiple visceral organs is described and depicted along with comparison to previously published cases of lipomatosis in other breeds of cattle.

  19. HSP90 expression correlation with the freezing resistance of bull sperm. (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Wang, Yan-Feng; Wang, Hong; Wang, Chun-Wei; Zan, Lin-Sen; Hu, Jian-Hong; Li, Qing-Wang; Jia, Yong-Hong; Ma, Guo-Ji


    To date, there has been little improvement in cryopreservation of bull sperm due to lack of understanding of the freezing mechanisms. Therefore, this study set out to investigate expression levels of fertility-associated proteins in bull sperm, and in particular the relationship between the 90 kDa heat-shock protein (HSP90) and the sperm characteristics after freezing-thawing. Semen was collected from eight Holstein bulls by artificial vagina. Characteristics of these fresh semen, including sperm motility, morphology, viability and concentration, were evaluated. Sperm quality was also assessed after freezing-thawing. Eight ejaculates were divided into two groups based on freezing resistance and sperm motility. Sperm proteins were extracted and sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis and western blotting were performed. SDS-PAGE results showed that there was substantial diversity in 90 kDa proteins in the frozen-thawed sperm and HSP90 was confirmed as one of the 90 kDa proteins by western blot. This study indicated that HSP90 expression correlated positively with sperm quality. The amount of expressed 90 kDa proteins in the high freezing resistance (HFR) group was significantly higher than that in the low freezing resistance (LFR) group (P sperm found after freezing-thawing. Therefore, we concluded that level of HSP90 expression could be used to predict reliably and simply the freezing resistance of bull sperm.

  20. Role of Disulfide Bonds on DNA Packaging Forces in Bull Sperm Chromatin. (United States)

    Hutchison, James M; Rau, Donald C; DeRouchey, Jason E


    Short arginine-rich proteins called protamines mediate the near crystalline DNA packaging in most vertebrate sperm cells. Protamines are synthesized during spermiogenesis and condense the paternal genome into a transcriptionally inactive state in late-stage spermatids. Protamines from eutherian mammals, including bulls and humans, also contain multiple cysteine residues that form intra- and interprotamine sulfur-sulfur bonds during the final stages of sperm maturation. Although the cross-linked protamine network is known to stabilize the resulting nucleoprotamine structure, little is known about the role of disulfide bonds on DNA condensation in the mammalian sperm. Using small angle x-ray scattering, we show that isolated bull nuclei achieve slightly lower DNA packing densities compared to salmon nuclei despite salmon protamine lacking cysteine residues. Surprisingly, reduction of the intermolecular sulfur-sulfur bonds of bull protamine results in tighter DNA packing. Complete reduction of the intraprotamine disulfide bonds ultimately leads to decondensation, suggesting that disulfide-mediated secondary structure is also critical for proper protamine function. Lastly, comparison of multiple bull collections showed some to have aberrant x-ray scattering profiles consistent with incorrect disulfide bond formation. Together, these observations shed light on the biological functions of disulfide linkages for in vivo DNA packaging in sperm chromatin. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Organic meat quality of dual purpose young bulls supplemented with pea (Pisum sativum L.) or soybean. (United States)

    Corazzin, Mirco; Piasentier, Edi; Saccà, Elena; Bazzoli, Ilario; Bovolenta, Stefano


    One of the main constraints established by organic legislation that limits the development of the rearing of young bulls is the ban on the use of genetically modified organisms (GMO). Most of the worldwide cultivated soybean is GMO, therefore the use of alternative protein sources should be evaluated. In this study, the effect of dietary substitution of soybean with pea (Pisum sativum L.) on carcass characteristics and meat quality of dual purpose young bulls reared following the organic method was investigated. Twenty-four young bulls of Rendena breed were randomly assigned to two diet treatments differing in protein supplement (soybean (SB) or field pea (FP)). Carcass characteristics and meat chemical composition, colour, cooking loss and Warner-Bratzler shear force did not differ between groups. Regarding meat fatty acid composition, SB showed higher concentrations of C18:0 and C18:1 t and lower C16:1n-9c, C14:0, C17:1n-9c and C18:1n-9c than FP. In descriptive sensory analysis, trained judges were not able to differentiate meats from SB and FP, which also had similar overall liking expressed by consumers. The results of this study indicate that FP can replace SB in the diet of dual purpose young bulls with only a minor influence on fatty acid composition and no effect on carcass characteristics and meat quality. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Training dairy bull calves to stay within light-built electric fences (Research Note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Training cattle to avoid electric fences before turnout to grazing reduces the risk of the animals breaking out from their paddock. We investigated the time needed for dairy bull calves to learn to avoid a light-built electric fence. Nineteen dairy bull calves were trained to an electric fence in a training yard during seven days. The number of electric shocks the animals received from the training fence was recorded continuously. After the training period, the calves were turned to pasture. Nine of the animals were also grazed the following summer as yearlings, and observed before turnout in a smaller enclosure. The calves got more shocks from the fence during training hour 1 than during any of the following seven hours. The number of shocks the calves received from the fence also declined from training day 1 to 2 and from training day 3 to 4. The results indicate that the dairy bull calves learned to avoid an electric fence quickly, even within an hour from release into the training yard. A simple training procedure was sufficient to ensure that the animals could be grazed in and would avoid a light-built electric fencing system as calves and, even after a winter-housing period, as bulls.;

  3. Color stability of Bos indicus bull steaks in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Robertina dos Santos


    Full Text Available Evaluations of meat quality, including color, influence purchasing decisions and can be affected by type of fresh meat the packaging system.In thisstudy,fresh steaks from Bos indicusbull were packaged in the vacuum (vacuum, 75% O2/25% CO2(HiOx-MAP and 40% CO2/0.4% CO/59.6% N2(CO-MAP. Emphasis is placed on the color and lipid oxidation of bull beef steaks. Results reveal that the steaks stored in CO-MAP and HiOx-MAPexhibited similar or brighter red color than fresh steaks (exposed only to oxygen or vacuum. The red color of the LD bull beef steaks packaged in CO-MAP was more intense than the color of meat stored in HiOx-MAP after the 14thday of storage. Vacuum packing dramatically impaired the color of the LD bull steaks, which were severely discolored (brown after all storage times. Bos indicussteaks of all treatments showed extremely low TBARS values in all storage times. The results suggested that HiOx-MAP or CO-MAP may be utilized to stabilize or improve the red color of fresh steaks from bull of so appreciated by the consumer.

  4. Cryporchidism among indigenous breeds of bulls in a semi-arid region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeyeye Adewale Ayodeji


    Full Text Available The study was carried out with the aim of determining the occurrence of cryptorchidism in bulls slaughtered at the Sokoto metropolitan abattoir. Out of 575 bulls examined, 10 (1.74% were cryptorchid. Nine (90.00% of this were unilateral cryptorchidism while 1 (10.00% was bilateral cryptorchidism. Sokoto Gudali breed had the highest 5 (50.00% occurrence followed by Red Bororo breed 3 (30.00% then crosses 2 (20.00% while none (0.00% was cryptorchid among Bunaji breed. Young bulls 5 years had 1 (10.00% each. None (0.00% was cryptorchid among bulls 4 ≥ - < 5 years. Subcutaneous testes 9 (90.00% occurred more than abdominal testis 1 (10.00% while left testicles 6 (66.67% were more affected than the right 3 (33.33% testicle. There were significant differences (p<0.05 between the mean±SEM testicular length, circumference and weight of the descended and retained testes.

  5. Marketingová strategie firmy Red Bull ČR, s.r.o.


    Janík, Dan


    Work consider theoretic information related to marketing strategy and brand marketing. There is description of Red Bull Czech Republic company and its organization in second part of work. In practical part of work is analyze of marketing research about influence of marketing activities and analyze of consumer preferences.

  6. Improvement of parameters of freezing medium and freezing protocol for bull sperm using two osmotic supports.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaveiro, A.; Machado, A.L.; Frijters, A.; Engel, B.; Woelders, H.


    The aim of this study was to improve the freezing protocol of bull sperm, by investigating the influence on sperm viability after freeze/thawing of different freezing medium components, as well as the effect of cooling rates in the different stages of the cooling protocol, in single factor

  7. Schmallenberg virus detection in bovine semen after experimental infection of bulls.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, van der W.H.M.; Parlevliet, J.M.; Verstraten, E.R.A.M.; Kooi, E.A.; Hakze-van der Honing, van der R.W.; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N.


    To study Schmallenberg virus (SBV) excretion in bovine semen after experimental infection, two bulls were inoculated subcutaneously with a SBV isolate (1 ml Vero cell culture 106 TCID50). After inoculation (at day 0), semen was collected daily from both animals for 21 days and samples were tested

  8. Virulence and genotype of a bovine herpesvirus 1 isolate from semen of a subclinically infected bull

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oirschot, van J.T.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Straver, P.J.; Ruuls, R.C.; Quak, J.; Davidse, A.; Westenbrink, E.; Gielkens, A.L.J.; Dijk, van J.E.; Moerman, A.


    A bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) isolate from the semen of a subclinically infected bull was administered to cattle by various routes to assess its virulence. Cattle that were artificially inseminated or inoculated intrapreputially did not develop clinical signs, but did transmit the virus to contact

  9. Investigation of Chlamydiaceae in semen and cauda epididymidis and seroprevalence of Chlamydophila abortus in breeding bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persson Ylva


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reproductive disorders associated with chlamydial infection have been reported worldwide in cattle and there are indications of potential venereal transmission. Methods Semen samples from 21 dairy bulls and cauda epididymidis tissue samples from 43 beef bulls were analysed for chlamydial agent by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR including an internal amplification control (mimic. Additionally, presence of antibodies against Chlamydophila (Cp. abortus among the bulls was investigated with the commercial Pourquier® ELISA Cp. abortus serum verification kit. Results No chlamydial agent was detected by PCR in either the semen samples or in the tissue samples. Additionally, no antibodies against Cp. abortus were detected. Conclusions The results suggest that Cp. abortus is very rare, or absent in Swedish bulls and thus the risk for venereal transmission of chlamydial infection through their semen is low. However, because Chlamydophila spp. infection rates seem to differ throughout the world, it is essential to clarify the relative importance of transmission of the infection through semen on cattle fertility.

  10. Feeding Treatment Based on Palm Oil Byproduct and Supplementation to Support Reproduction Performance of Bull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Ratnawati


    Full Text Available Palm oil waste (by productcan be used as a potential feed for livestock. Nevertheless, the study research of the effect of Palm oil waste (by product as a feed to the bull performance was limited. The purpose of this research is to get technology to improve semen quality through improving protein of  feed based on palm oil waste (byproducts. This research was conducted in PTPN 6 Jambi and  used 30 bulls that separated into 3 treatments, treatment I (feed protein 12% and suplementation, treatment II (feed protein 12% and treatment III (existing feed, feed protein 10%. Parameter were measured i.e feed consumption, libido, sperm motility, mass movement, sperm concentration, sperm abnormality, volume, pH, consistency, colour, body condition score and average daily gain. Design of this research was completely randomized design. Data was analyzed use ANOVA. The result showed that there is no significantly different on semen quality between treatmens. Semen quality of three treatments were appropriate to standart of quality semen of bull (sperm abnormality 50% and sperm concentration >500 million/ml. Based on this consideration, feed with protein level 10% more efficient because it needs less cost but results a good semen quality. The conclusion of this research is protein level 10% can supporting performance reproduction of bull.

  11. 78 FR 62666 - Kenneth Harold Bull, M.D.; Decision and Order (United States)


    ... to 100 patients for opiate addiction with Suboxone and Subutex under the Drug Addiction Treatment Act... Show Cause to Kenneth Harold Bull, M.D. (Respondent), of Albuquerque, New Mexico. ALJ Ex. 1. The Show... because of actions taken by the New Mexico Medical Board, Respondent was without authority to handle...

  12. Seasonal variability of bull and tiger shark presence on the west ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A fisheries-independent survey using longlines and drumlines, and an acoustic telemetry study, revealed that bull sharks Carcharhinus leucas and tiger sharks Galeocerdo cuvier occur throughout the year off the west coast of Reunion Island. The research, which commenced in 2011, was conducted in response to an ...

  13. The effect of streptomycin, oxytetracycline, tilmicosin and phenylbutazone on spermatogenesis in bulls. (United States)

    Barth, A D; Wood, M R


    To determine whether declining semen quality associated with health problems may be due to certain antibiotic or anti-inflammatory treatments, semen was collected 3 times per week for up to 42 d from 6 normal bulls after treatment with oxytetracycline, tilmicosin, dihydrostreptomycin, or phenylbutazone. No adverse effects on semen quality were observed. PMID:10051958

  14. Oxidation of nutrients in bull calves treated with beta-adrenergic agonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chwalibog, André; Jensen, K; Thorbek, G


    Oxidation of protein (OXP), carbohydrate (OXCHO) and fat (OXF) was investigated with 12 growing bulls treated with beta-agonist (L-644, 969) during two 6 weeks trials (Section A and B) at a mean live weight of 195 and 335 kg. Heat production and nutrient oxidation was calculated from gas exchange...

  15. Status of rainbow trout in tributaries of the upper King Salmon River, Becharof National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, 1990-92 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Rainbow trout were monitored in Gertrude Creek and four other tributaries using hook and line during May-September 1990-1991 and May-June 1992. Rainbow trout were...

  16. Rainbow trout estrogen receptor (ER) competitive bindng and vitellogenin induction agonism/antagonism data for 94 chemicals (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset is from screening 94 diverse chemicals for estrogen receptor (ER) activation in a competitive rainbow trout ER binding assay and a trout liver slice...

  17. Differential binding properties of the peripheral-type benzodiazepine ligands (/sup 3/H)PK 11195 and (/sup 3/H)Ro 5-4864 in trout and mouse brain membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eshleman, A.J.; Murray, T.F.


    High-affinity binding sites for (/sup 3/H)PK 11195 have been detected in brain membranes of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) and mouse forebrain, where the densities of receptors were 1,030 and 445 fmol/mg of protein, respectively. Ro 5-4864 (4'-chlorodiazepam) was 2,200-fold less potent as a competitor of (/sup 3/H)PK 11195 binding in the piscine than the murine membranes. Investigation of the regional distribution of these sites in trout yielded a rank order of density of spinal cord greater than olfactory bulb = optic tectum = rhombencephalon greater than cerebellum greater than telencephalon. This site in trout shared some of the characteristics of the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PTBR) (also known as the mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptor) in rodents, i.e., high affinity for PK 11195 and the endogenous ligand protoporphyrin IX, but was unique in the low affinity of Ro 5-4864 (41 microM) and diazepam and the relatively high affinity of the calcium channel ligand diltiazem and two central benzodiazepine ligands, CGS 8216 and CGS 9896. The differential affinity for the two prototypic PTBR ligands in trout is similar to that previously observed in calf and human brain membranes. Structural differences for the trout sites are indicated by the relative inability of diethyl pyrocarbonate to modify histidine residues of the binding site in trout as compared with mouse membranes. Heterogeneity of binding of the two prototypic PTBR ligands in mouse brain membranes was indicated by additivity studies, equilibrium competition experiments, and saturation isotherms, which together support the hypothesis that Ro 5-4864 discriminates between two (/sup 3/H)PK 11195 binding sites having high (nanomolar) and low (micromolar) affinity, respectively.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Miroshhikov


    Full Text Available It was established that studied meat raw material from young bulls of different breeds (Group I — red steppe, Group II — black-andwhite, Group III — Kalmyk, 15 animals per group was balanced by amino acid and fatty acid composition and by fatty acid ratio.In terms of safety, it corresponds to all parameters standardized in SanPiN biological value of meat from beef bulls is higher compared to dairy bulls by 3.7% and 0.9%. In all groups, the essential amino acid content in meat proteins exceeds the values recommended by FAO/WHO for humans.Oleic acid had the highest concentration in the intramuscular fat (38.71, 39.02, 40.16% in Groups I, II and III, respectively. Palmitic acid content in the sample of  intramuscular fat from red steppe bulls was 26.40%, in black-and-white bulls — 25.86%, and in Kalmyk bulls — 25.07%. Stearic acid concentration was 21.09%, 21.95% and 20.41% in Groups I, II and III, respectively. Thus, the intramuscular fat of Kalmyk bulls is characterized by a lower content of saturated fatty acids compared to herdmates from Groups I and II: palmitic acid by 1.33% and 0.79%, stearic acid by 0.68% and 1, 54% and myristic acid by 0.37% and 0.15%, respectively. The content of saturated fatty acids (palmitic and myristic in intramuscular fat samples from Group I was higher than in Groups II and III, and the content of stearic acid was the lowest. Polyunsaturatedfatty acid (PUFA concentration in the intramuscular fat of all breeds is sufficiently high. Thus, total PUFA content in Group I was 5.64%, in Group II — 6.42% and in Group III — 7.18%. While differences in PUFA content were insignificant, animals in Group III had a higher PUFA level compared to Groups I and II by 1.54 and 0.76%, respectively.Ecologically pure food product has been obtained in the SouthernUrals with its increased anthropogenic burden on natural and agricultural ecosystems. In Group III, lead content is lower than in Groups I and

  19. Evaluation of bull fertility in dairy and beef cattle using cow field data. (United States)

    Berry, D P; Evans, R D; Mc Parland, S


    A successful outcome to a given service is a combination of both male and female fertility. Despite this, most national evaluations for fertility are generally confined to female fertility with evaluations for male fertility commonly undertaken by individual breeding organisations and generally not made public. The objective of this study was to define a pertinent male fertility trait for seasonal calving production systems, and to develop a multiple regression mixed model that may be used to evaluate male fertility at a national level. The data included in the study after editing consisted of 361,412 artificial inseminations from 206,683 cow-lactations (134,911 cows) in 2,843 commercial dairy and beef herds. Fixed effects associated with whether a successful pregnancy ensued (pregnant = 1) or not (pregnant = 0) from a given service were year by month of service, day of the week, days since calving, cow parity, level of calving difficulty experienced, whether or not the previous calving was associated with perinatal mortality, and age of the service bull at the date of insemination. Non-additive genetic effects such as heterosis and recombination loss as well as inbreeding level of the service bull, dam or mating were not associated with a successful pregnancy; there was no difference in pregnancy rate between fresh or frozen semen. Random effects included in the model were the additive genetic effect of the cow, as well as a within lactation and across lactation permanent environmental effect of the cow; pedigree group effects based on cow breed were also included via the relationship matrix. Temporal differences in the AI technician and service bull were also included as random effects. A difference in five percentage units in male fertility was evident between the average effects of different dairy and beef breeds. The correlation between raw pregnancy rates for bulls with more than 100 services (n = 431) and service bull solutions from the mixed model analysis

  20. The immunological effects of oil sands surface waters and naphthenic acids on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). (United States)

    Leclair, Liane A; MacDonald, Gillian Z; Phalen, Laura J; Köllner, Bernd; Hogan, Natacha S; van den Heuvel, Michael R


    There is concern surrounding the immunotoxic potential of naphthenic acids (NAs), a major organic constituent in waters influenced by oil sands contamination. To assess the immunological response to NAs, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) waterborne exposures were conducted with oil sands-influenced waters, NAs extracted and purified from oil sands tailings waters, and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) as a positive control. After a 7d exposure, blood, spleen, head kidney, and gill samples were removed from a subset of fish in order to evaluate the distribution of thrombocytes, B-lymphocytes, myeloid cells, and T-lymphocytes using fluorescent antibodies specific for those cell types coupled with flow cytometry. The remaining trout in each experimental tank were injected with inactivated Aeromonas salmonicida and held in laboratory water for 21 d and subjected to similar lymphatic cell evaluation in addition to evaluation of antibody production. Fluorescent metabolites in bile as well as liver CYP1A induction were also determined after the 7 and 21 d exposure. Oil sands waters and extracted NAs exposures resulted in an increase in bile fluorescence at phenanthrene wavelengths, though liver CYP1A was not induced in those treatments as it was with the BaP positive control. Trout in the oil sands-influenced water exposure showed a decrease in B- and T-lymphocytes in blood as well as B-lymphocytes and myeloid cells in spleen and an increase in B-lymphocytes in head kidney. The extracted NAs exposure showed a decrease in thrombocytes in spleen at 8 mg/L and an increase in T-lymphocytes at 1mg/L in head kidney after 7d. There was a significant decrease in antibody production against A. salmonicida in both oil sands-influenced water exposures. Because oil sands-influenced waters affected multiple immune parameters, while extracted NAs impacts were limited, the NAs tested here are likely not the cause of immunotoxicity found in the oil sands-influenced water. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier