WorldWideScience

Sample records for bull trout distribution

  1. Bull Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for BULL TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  2. Distribution and Movement of Bull Trout in the Upper Jarbidge River Watershed, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M. Brady; Connolly, Patrick J.; Mesa, Matthew G.; Charrier, Jodi; Dixon, Chris

    2010-01-01

    In 2006 and 2007, we surveyed the occurrence of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), the relative distributions of bull trout and redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and stream habitat conditions in the East and West Forks of the Jarbidge River in northeastern Nevada and southern Idaho. We installed passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag interrogation systems at strategic locations within the watershed, and PIT-tagged bull trout were monitored to evaluate individual fish growth, movement, and the connectivity of bull trout between streams. Robust bull trout populations were found in the upper portions of the East Fork Jarbidge River, the West Fork Jarbidge River, and in the Pine, Jack, Dave, and Fall Creeks. Small numbers of bull trout also were found in Slide and Cougar Creeks. Bull trout were numerically dominant in the upper portions of the East Fork Jarbidge River, and in Fall, Dave, Jack, and Pine Creeks, whereas redband trout were numerically dominant throughout the rest of the watershed. The relative abundance of bull trout was notably higher at altitudes above 2,100 m. This study was successful in documenting bull trout population connectivity within the West Fork Jarbidge River, particularly between West Fork Jarbidge River and Pine Creek. Downstream movement of bull trout to the confluence of the East Fork and West Fork Jarbidge River both from Jack Creek (rkm 16.6) in the West Fork Jarbidge River and from Dave Creek (rkm 7.5) in the East Fork Jarbidge River was detected. Although bull trout exhibited some downstream movement during the spring and summer, much of their emigration occurred in the autumn, concurrent with decreasing water temperatures and slightly increasing flows. The bull trout that emigrated were mostly age-2 or older, but some age-1 fish also emigrated. Upstream movement by bull trout was detected less than downstream movement. The overall mean annual growth rate of bull trout in the East Fork and West Fork Jarbidge River was 36 mm

  3. Factors influencing the distribution of native bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout in western Glacier National Park, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Vincent S.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.

    2013-01-01

    The widespread declines of native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) populations prompted researchers to investigate factors influencing their distribution and status in western Glacier National Park, Montana. We evaluated the association of a suite of abiotic factors (stream width, elevation, gradient, large woody debris density, pool density, August mean stream temperature, reach surface area) with the occurrence (presence or absence) of bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout in 79 stream reaches in five sub-drainages containing glacial lakes. We modeled the occurrence of each species using logistic regression and evaluated competing models using an information theoretic approach. Westslope cutthroat trout were widely distributed (47 of 79 reaches), and there appeared to be no restrictions on their distribution other than physical barriers. Westslope cutthroat trout were most commonly found in relatively warm reaches downstream of lakes and in headwater reaches with large amounts of large woody debris and abundant pools. By contrast, bull trout were infrequently detected (10 of 79 reaches), with 7 of the 10 (70%) detections in sub-drainages that have not been compromised by non-native lake trout (S. namaycush). Bull trout were most often found in cold, low-gradient reaches upstream of glacial lakes. Our results indicate that complex stream habitats in sub-drainages free of non-native species are important to the persistence of native salmonids in western Glacier National Park. Results from this study may help managers monitor and protect important habitats and populations, inform conservation and recovery programs, and guide non-native species suppression efforts in Glacier National Park and elsewhere.

  4. Bull Trout Distribution and Abundance in the Waters on and Bordering the Warm Springs Indian Reservation, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brun, Christopher

    2000-01-01

    The range of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Deschutes River basin has decreased from historic levels due to many factors including dam construction, habitat degradation, brook trout introduction and eradication efforts. While the bull trout population appears to be stable in the Metolius River-Lake Billy Chinook system they have been largely extirpated from the upper Deschutes River (Buchanan et al. 1997). Little was known about bull trout in the lower Deschutes basin until BPA funded project No.9405400 began during 1998. In this progress report we describe the findings from the third year (2000) of the multi-year study aimed at determining the life history, genetics, habitat needs and limiting factors of bull trout in the lower Deschutes subbasin. Juvenile bull trout and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) relative abundance was assessed in the Warm Springs River and Shitike Creek by night snorkeling. In the Warm Springs R. juvenile bull trout were slightly more numerous than brook trout, however, both were found in low densities. Relative densities of both species declined from 1999 observations. Juvenile bull trout vastly out numbered brook trout in Shitike Cr. Relative densities of juvenile bull trout increased while brook trout abundance was similar to 1999 observations in eight index reaches. The utility of using index reaches to monitor trends in juvenile bull trout and brook trout relative abundance was assessed in the Warm Springs R. for the second year. Mean relative densities of both species, within the index reaches was slightly higher than what was observed in a 2.4 km control reach. Mill Creek was surveyed for the presence of juvenile bull trout. The American Fisheries Society ''Interim protocol for determining bull trout presence'' methodology was field tested. No bull trout were found in the 2 km survey area.

  5. Status of Oregon's Bull Trout.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, David V.; Hanson, Mary L.; Hooton, Robert M.

    1997-10-01

    Limited historical references indicate that bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in Oregon were once widely spread throughout at least 12 basins in the Klamath River and Columbia River systems. No bull trout have been observed in Oregon's coastal systems. A total of 69 bull trout populations in 12 basins are currently identified in Oregon. A comparison of the 1991 bull trout status (Ratliff and Howell 1992) to the revised 1996 status found that 7 populations were newly discovered and 1 population showed a positive or upgraded status while 22 populations showed a negative or downgraded status. The general downgrading of 32% of Oregon's bull trout populations appears largely due to increased survey efforts and increased survey accuracy rather than reduced numbers or distribution. However, three populations in the upper Klamath Basin, two in the Walla Walla Basin, and one in the Willamette Basin showed decreases in estimated population abundance or distribution.

  6. Spawning and rearing behavior of bull trout in a headwaterlake ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora B. Tennant,; Gresswell, Bob; Guy, Christopher S.; Michael H. Meeuwig,

    2015-01-01

    Numerous life histories have been documented for bull trout Salvelinus confluentus. Lacustrine-adfluvial bull trout populations that occupy small, headwater lake ecosystems and migrate short distances to natal tributaries to spawn are likely common; however, much of the research on potamodromous bull trout has focused on describing the spawning and rearing characteristics of bull trout populations that occupy large rivers and lakes and make long distance spawning migrations to natal headwater streams. This study describes the spawning and rearing characteristics of lacustrine-adfluvial bull trout in the Quartz Lake drainage, Glacier National Park, USA, a small headwater lake ecosystem. Many spawning and rearing characteristics of bull trout in the Quartz Lake drainage are similar to potamodromous bull trout that migrate long distances. For example, subadult bull trout distribution was positively associated with slow-water habitat unit types and maximum wetted width, and negatively associated with increased stream gradient. Bull trout spawning also occurred when water temperatures were between 5 and 9 °C, and redds were generally located in stream segments with low stream gradient and abundant gravel and cobble substrates. However, this study also elucidated characteristics of bull trout biology that are not well documented in the literature, but may be relatively widespread and have important implications regarding general characteristics of bull trout ecology, use of available habitat by bull trout, and persistence of lacustrine-adfluvial bull trout in small headwater lake ecosystems.

  7. Bull Trout Life History, Genetics, Habitat Needs, and Limiting Factors in Central and Northeast Oregon. Annual Report 1996.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellerud, Blane L.; Gunckel, Stephanie; Hemmingsen, Alan R.; Buchanan, David V.; Howell, Philip J.

    1997-10-01

    This study is part of a multi-year research project studying aspects of bull trout life history, ecology and genetics. This report covers the activities of the project in 1996. Results and analysis are presented in the following five areas: (1) analysis of the genetic structure of Oregon bull trout populations; (2) distribution and habitat use of bull trout and brook trout in streams containing both species; (3) bull trout spawning surveys; (4) summary and analysis of historical juvenile bull trout downstream migrant trap catches in the Grande Ronde basin; and (5) food habits and feeding behavior of bull trout alone and in sympatry with brook trout.

  8. Demographic characteristics of an adfluvial bull trout population in Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbins, Jonathan L; Hansen, Michael J.; DosSantos, Joseph M; Dux, Andrew M

    2016-01-01

    Introductions of nonnative species, habitat loss, and stream fragmentation have caused the Bull Trout Salvelinus confluentus to decline throughout much of its native distribution. Consequently, in June 1998, the Bull Trout was listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act as threatened. The Bull Trout has existed in Lake Pend Oreille and its surrounding tributaries since the last ice age, and the lake once supported a world-renowned Bull Trout fishery. To quantify the current status of the Bull Trout population in Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, we compared the mean age, growth, maturity, and abundance with reports in a study conducted one decade earlier. Abundance was estimated by mark–recapture for Bull Trout caught in trap nets and gill nets set in Lake Pend Oreille during ongoing suppression netting of Lake Trout S. namaycushin 2007–2008. Bull Trout sampled in 2006–2008 were used to estimate age structure, survival, growth, and maturity. Estimated Bull Trout abundance was similar to that estimated one decade earlier in Lake Pend Oreille. Bull Trout residing in Lake Pend Oreille between 2006 and 2008 were between ages 4 and 14 years; their growth was fastest between ages 1 and 2 and slowed thereafter. Male and female Bull Trout matured at a similar age, but females grew faster than males, thereby maturing at a larger size. Our findings suggest that management has effectively addressed current threats to increase the likelihood of long-term persistence of the Bull Trout population in Lake Pend Oreille.

  9. Bull Trout Spawning Surveys: Kootenai National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bull trout are listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act and Myrtle Creek was designated as critical habitat for bull trout this year. Myrtle Creek flows...

  10. Bull Trout Population Assessment in the Columbia River Gorge : Annual Report 2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, Jim; McPeak, Ron

    2001-02-01

    We summarized existing knowledge regarding the known distribution of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) across four sub-basins in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington. The Wind River, Little White Salmon River, White Salmon River, and the Klickitat River sub-basins were analyzed. Cold water is essential to the survival, spawning, and rearing of bull trout. We analyzed existing temperature data, installed Onset temperature loggers in the areas of the four sub-basins where data was not available, and determined that mean daily water temperatures were <15 C and appropriate for spawning and rearing of bull trout. We snorkel surveyed more than 74 km (46.25 mi.) of rivers and streams in the four sub-basins (13.8 km at night and 60.2 km during the day) and found that night snorkeling was superior to day snorkeling for locating bull trout. Surveys incorporated the Draft Interim Protocol for Determining Bull Trout Presence (Peterson et al. In Press). However, due to access and safety issues, we were unable to randomly select sample sites nor use block nets as recommended. Additionally, we also implemented the Bull Trout/Dolly Varden sampling methodology described in Bonar et al. (1997). No bull trout were found in the Wind River, Little White Salmon, or White Salmon River sub-basins. We found bull trout in the West Fork Klickitat drainage of the Klickitat River Sub-basin. Bull trout averaged 6.7 fish/100m{sup 2} in Trappers Creek, 2.6 fish/100m{sup 2} on Clearwater Creek, and 0.4 fish/100m{sup 2} in Little Muddy Creek. Bull trout was the only species of salmonid encountered in Trappers Creek and dominated in Clearwater Creek. Little Muddy Creek was the only creek where bull trout and introduced brook trout occurred together. We found bull trout only at night and typically in low flow regimes. A single fish, believed to be a bull trout x brook trout hybrid, was observed in the Little Muddy Creek. Additional surveys are needed in the West Fork Klickitat and mainstem

  11. Thermal regimes, nonnative trout, and their influences on native Bull Trout in the Upper Klamath River Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Joseph R.; Heltzel, Jeannie; Dunham, Jason; Heck, Michael; Banish, Nolan P.

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of fish species may be strongly influenced by a stream’s thermal regime (magnitude, frequency, variation, and timing). For instance, magnitude and frequency provide information about sublethal temperatures, variability in temperature can affect behavioral thermoregulation and bioenergetics, and timing of thermal events may cue life history events, such as spawning and migration. We explored the relationship between thermal regimes and the occurrences of native Bull Trout Salvelinus confluentus and nonnative Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis and Brown Trout Salmo trutta across 87 sites in the upper Klamath River basin, Oregon. Our objectives were to associate descriptors of the thermal regime with trout occurrence, predict the probability of Bull Trout occurrence, and estimate upper thermal tolerances of the trout species. We found that each species was associated with a different suite of thermal regime descriptors. Bull Trout were present at sites that were cooler, had fewer high-temperature events, had less variability, and took longer to warm. Brook Trout were also observed at cooler sites with fewer high-temperature events, but the sites were more variable and Brook Trout occurrence was not associated with a timing descriptor. In contrast, Brown Trout were present at sites that were warmer and reached higher temperatures faster, but they were not associated with frequency or variability descriptors. Among the descriptors considered, magnitude (specifically June degree-days) was the most important in predicting the probability of Bull Trout occurrence, and model predictions were strengthened by including Brook Trout occurrence. Last, all three trout species exhibited contrasting patterns of tolerating longer exposures to lower temperatures. Tolerance limits for Bull Trout were lower than those for Brook Trout and Brown Trout, with contrasts especially evident for thermal maxima. Our results confirm the value of exploring a suite of thermal

  12. Multiscale hydrogeomorphic influences on bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) spawning habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Jared R; Wilcox, Andrew C.; Woessner, William W.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated multiscale hydrogeomorphic influences on the distribution and abundance of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) spawning in snowmelt-dominated streams of the upper Flathead River basin, northwestern Montana. Within our study reaches, bull trout tended to spawn in the finest available gravel substrates. Analysis of the mobility of these substrates, based on one-dimensional hydraulic modeling and calculation of dimensionless shear stresses, indicated that bed materials in spawning reaches would be mobilized at moderate (i.e., 2-year recurrence interval) high-flow conditions, although the asynchronous timing of the fall–winter egg incubation period and typical late spring – early summer snowmelt high flows in our study area may limit susceptibility to redd scour under current hydrologic regimes. Redd occurrence also tended to be associated with concave-up bedforms (pool tailouts) with downwelling intragravel flows. Streambed temperatures tracked stream water diurnal temperature cycles to a depth of at least 25 cm, averaging 6.1–8.1 °C in different study reaches during the spawning period. Ground water provided thermal moderation of stream water for several high-density spawning reaches. Bull trout redds were more frequent in unconfined alluvial valley reaches (8.5 versus 5.0 redds·km−1 in confined valley reaches), which were strongly influenced by hyporheic and groundwater – stream water exchange. A considerable proportion of redds were patchily distributed in confined valley reaches, however, emphasizing the influence of local physical conditions in supporting bull trout spawning habitat. Moreover, narrowing or “bounding” of these alluvial valley segments did not appear to be important. Our results suggest that geomorphic, thermal, and hydrological factors influence bull trout spawning occurrence at multiple spatial scales.

  13. Bull Trout Life History, Genetics, Habitat Needs, and Limiting Fact in Central and Northeast Oregon. Annual Report 1999.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmingsen, Alan R.; Gunckel, Stephanie L.; Howell, Philip J.

    2001-08-01

    This section describes work accomplished in 1999 that continued to address two objectives of this project. These objectives are (1) determine the distribution of juvenile and adult bull trout Salvelinus confluentus and habitats associated with that distribution, and (2) determine fluvial and resident bull trout life history patterns. Completion of these objectives is intended through studies of bull trout in the Grande Ronde, Walla Walla, and John Day basins. These basins were selected because they provide a variety of habitats, from relatively degraded to pristine, and bull trout populations were thought to vary from relatively depressed to robust. In all three basins we used radio telemetry to determine the seasonal movements of bull trout. In the John Day and Walla Walla basins we also used traps to capture migrant bull trout. With these traps, we intended to determine the timing of bull trout movements both upstream and downstream, determine the relative abundance, size and age of migrant fish, and capture bull trout to be implanted with radio transmitters. In the John Day basin, we captured adult and juvenile bull trout from the upper John Day River and its tributaries, Call Creek, Reynolds Creek, and Roberts Creek. In the Walla Walla basin, we captured adult and juvenile bull trout from Mill Creek.

  14. Monitor and Protect Wigwam River Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir; White River Bull Trout Enumeration Project Summary, Progress Report 2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cope, R.

    2004-02-01

    This report summarizes the first year of a three-year bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) enumeration project on the White River and is a co-operative initiative of the British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land, and Air Protection and Bonneville Power Administration. The White River has been identified as an important bull trout spawning tributary of the upper Kootenay River in southeastern British Columbia. The objective was to collect information on the returning adult spawning population to the White River through the use of a fish fence and traps, and to conduct redd surveys at the conclusion of spawning to provide an index of spawning escapement and distribution. The fence was installed on September 9th, 2003 and was operated continuously (i.e. no high-water or breaching events) until the fence was removed on October 9th, 2003. Estimation of the spawning population of White River bull trout was incomplete. This was due to a larger and more protracted out-migration than expected. As a result, the bull trout spawning population of the White River was estimated to be somewhere above 899 fish. In comparison, this represents approximately one third the population estimate of the 2003 Wigwam River bull trout spawning population. Based on redd index data, the number of bull trout per redd was over twice that of the Wigwam River or Skookumchuck Creek. This was expected as the index sites on the Wigwam River and Skookumchuck Creek cover the majority of the spawning area. This is not true on the White River. From previous redd counts, it is known that there are approximately twice as many redds in Blackfoot Creek as there are in the index site. Additionally, given the large size of the White River watershed and in particular, the large number of tributaries, there is a high likelihood that important bull trout spawning areas remain unidentified. Both floy tag and radio-telemetry data for the White River bull trout have identified extensive life history migrations

  15. Seasonal movement and distribution of fluvial adult bull trout in selected watersheds in the mid-Columbia River and Snake River basins.

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    Steven J Starcevich

    Full Text Available From 1997 to 2004, we used radio telemetry to investigate movement and distribution patterns of 206 adult fluvial bull trout (mean, 449 mm FL from watersheds representing a wide range of habitat conditions in northeastern Oregon and southwestern Washington, a region for which there was little previous information about this species. Migrations between spawning and wintering locations were longest for fish from the Imnaha River (median, 89 km and three Grande Ronde River tributaries, the Wenaha (56 km and Lostine (41 km rivers and Lookingglass Creek (47 km. Shorter migrations were observed in the John Day (8 km, Walla Walla (20 km and Umatilla river (22 km systems, where relatively extensive human alterations of the riverscape have been reported. From November through May, fish displayed station-keeping behavior within a narrow range (basin medians, 0.5-6.2 km. Prespawning migrations began after snowmelt-driven peak discharge and coincided with declining flows. Most postspawning migrations began by late September. Migration rates of individuals ranged from 0.1 to 10.7 km/day. Adults migrated to spawning grounds in consecutive years and displayed strong fidelity to previous spawning areas and winter locations. In the Grande Ronde River basin, most fish displayed an unusual fluvial pattern: After exiting the spawning tributary and entering a main stem river, individuals moved upstream to wintering habitat, often a substantial distance (maximum, 49 km. Our work provides additional evidence of a strong migratory capacity in fluvial bull trout, but the short migrations we observed suggest adult fluvial migration may be restricted in basins with substantial anthropogenic habitat alteration. More research into bull trout ecology in large river habitats is needed to improve our understanding of how adults establish migration patterns, what factors influence adult spatial distribution in winter, and how managers can protect and enhance fluvial populations.

  16. Diet overlap of top-level predators in recent sympatry: bull trout and nonnative lake trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Christopher S.; McMahon, Thomas E.; Fredenberg, Wade A.; Smith, Clinton J.; Garfield, David W.; Cox, Benjamin S.

    2011-01-01

    The establishment of nonnative lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in lakes containing lacustrine–adfluvial bull trout Salvelinus confluentus often results in a precipitous decline in bull trout abundance. The exact mechanism for the decline is unknown, but one hypothesis is related to competitive exclusion for prey resources. We had the rare opportunity to study the diets of bull trout and nonnative lake trout in Swan Lake, Montana during a concomitant study. The presence of nonnative lake trout in Swan Lake is relatively recent and the population is experiencing rapid population growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diets of bull trout and lake trout during the early expansion of this nonnative predator. Diets were sampled from 142 bull trout and 327 lake trout during the autumn in 2007 and 2008. Bull trout and lake trout had similar diets, both consumed Mysis diluviana as the primary invertebrate, especially at juvenile stages, and kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka as the primary vertebrate prey, as adults. A diet shift from primarily M. diluviana to fish occurred at similar lengths for both species, 506 mm (476–545 mm, 95% CI) for bull trout and 495 mm (470–518 mm CI) for lake trout. These data indicate high diet overlap between these two morphologically similar top-level predators. Competitive exclusion may be a possible mechanism if the observed overlap remains similar at varying prey densities and availability.

  17. Protocol for determining bull trout presence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, James; Dunham, Jason B.; Howell, Philip; Thurow, Russell; Bonar, Scott

    2002-01-01

    The Western Division of the American Fisheries Society was requested to develop protocols for determining presence/absence and potential habitat suitability for bull trout. The general approach adopted is similar to the process for the marbled murrelet, whereby interim guidelines are initially used, and the protocols are subsequently refined as data are collected. Current data were considered inadequate to precisely identify suitable habitat but could be useful in stratifying sampling units for presence/absence surveys. The presence/absence protocol builds on previous approaches (Hillman and Platts 1993; Bonar et al. 1997), except it uses the variation in observed bull trout densities instead of a minimum threshold density and adjusts for measured differences in sampling efficiency due to gear types and habitat characteristics. The protocol consists of: 1. recommended sample sizes with 80% and 95% detection probabilities for juvenile and resident adult bull trout for day and night snorkeling and electrofishing adjusted for varying habitat characteristics for 50m and 100m sampling units, 2. sampling design considerations, including possible habitat characteristics for stratification, 3. habitat variables to be measured in the sampling units, and 3. guidelines for training sampling crews. Criteria for habitat strata consist of coarse, watershed-scale characteristics (e.g., mean annual air temperature) and fine-scale, reach and habitat-specific features (e.g., water temperature, channel width). The protocols will be revised in the future using data from ongoing presence/absence surveys, additional research on sampling efficiencies, and development of models of habitat/species occurrence.

  18. Adaptive Management of Bull Trout Populations in the Lemhi Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, James T.; Tyre, Andrew J.; Converse, Sarah J.; Bogich, Tiffany L.; Miller, Damien; Post van der Burg, Max; Thomas, Carmen; Thompson, Ralph J.; Wood, Jeri; Brewer, Donna; Runge, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    The bull trout Salvelinus confluentus, a stream-living salmonid distributed in drainages of the northwestern United States, is listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act because of rangewide declines. One proposed recovery action is the reconnection of tributaries in the Lemhi Basin. Past water use policies in this core area disconnected headwater spawning sites from downstream habitat and have led to the loss of migratory life history forms. We developed an adaptive management framework to analyze which types of streams should be prioritized for reconnection under a proposed Habitat Conservation Plan. We developed a Stochastic Dynamic Program that identified optimal policies over time under four different assumptions about the nature of the migratory behavior and the effects of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis on subpopulations of bull trout. In general, given the current state of the system and the uncertainties about the dynamics, the optimal policy would be to connect streams that are currently occupied by bull trout. We also estimated the value of information as the difference between absolute certainty about which of our four assumptions were correct, and a model averaged optimization assuming no knowledge. Overall there is little to be gained by learning about the dynamics of the system in its current state, although in other parts of the state space reducing uncertainties about the system would be very valuable. We also conducted a sensitivity analysis; the optimal decision at the current state does not change even when parameter values are changed up to 75% of the baseline values. Overall, the exercise demonstrates that it is possible to apply adaptive management principles to threatened and endangered species, but logistical and data availability constraints make detailed analyses difficult.

  19. Bioenergetic evaluation of diel vertical migration by bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in a thermally stratified reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckmann, Madeleine; Dunham, Jason; Connor, Edward J.; Welch, Carmen A.

    2016-01-01

    Many species living in deeper lentic ecosystems exhibit daily movements that cycle through the water column, generally referred to as diel vertical migration (DVM). In this study, we applied bioenergetics modelling to evaluate growth as a hypothesis to explain DVM by bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in a thermally stratified reservoir (Ross Lake, WA, USA) during the peak of thermal stratification in July and August. Bioenergetics model parameters were derived from observed vertical distributions of temperature, prey and bull trout. Field sampling confirmed that bull trout prey almost exclusively on recently introduced redside shiner (Richardsonius balteatus). Model predictions revealed that deeper (>25 m) DVMs commonly exhibited by bull trout during peak thermal stratification cannot be explained by maximising growth. Survival, another common explanation for DVM, may have influenced bull trout depth use, but observations suggest there may be additional drivers of DVM. We propose these deeper summertime excursions may be partly explained by an alternative hypothesis: the importance of colder water for gametogenesis. In Ross Lake, reliance of bull trout on warm water prey (redside shiner) for consumption and growth poses a potential trade-off with the need for colder water for gametogenesis.

  20. Are brown trout replacing or displacing bull trout populations in a changing climate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Schmetterling, David A.; Clancy, Chris; Saffel, Pat; Kovach, Ryan; Nyce, Leslie; Liermann, Brad; Fredenberg, Wade A.; Pierce, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how climate change may facilitate species turnover is an important step in identifying potential conservation strategies. We used data from 33 sites in western Montana to quantify climate associations with native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and non-native brown trout (Salmo trutta) abundance and population growth rates (λ). We estimated λ using exponential growth state space models and delineated study sites based on bull trout use for either Spawning and Rearing (SR) or Foraging, Migrating, and Overwintering (FMO) habitat. Bull trout abundance was negatively associated with mean August stream temperatures within SR habitat (r = -0.75). Brown trout abundance was generally highest at temperatures between 12 and 14°C. We found bull trout λ were generally stable at sites with mean August temperature below 10°C but significantly decreasing, rare, or extirpated at 58% of the sites with temperatures exceeding 10°C. Brown trout λ were highest in SR and sites with temperatures exceeding 12°C. Declining bull trout λs at sites where brown trout were absent suggests brown trout are likely replacing bull trout in a warming climate.

  1. Use of cover habitat by bull trout Salvelinus confluentus and lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in a laboratory environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeuwig, Michael H.; Guy, Christopher S.; Fredenberg, Wade A.

    2011-01-01

    Lacustrine-adfluvial bull trout, Salvelinus confluentus, migrate from spawning and rearing streams to lacustrine environments as early as age 0. Within lacustrine environments, cover habitat pro- vides refuge from potential predators and is a resource that is competed for if limiting. Competitive inter- actions between bull trout and other species could result in bull trout being displaced from cover habitat, and bull trout may lack evolutionary adaptations to compete with introduced species, such as lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush. A laboratory experiment was performed to examine habitat use and interactions for cover by juvenile (i.e., bull trout and lake trout. Differences were observed between bull trout and lake trout in the proportion of time using cover (F1,22.6=20.08, Pbull trout using cover and bottom habitats more than lake trout. Habitat selection ratios indicated that bull trout avoided water column habitat in the presence of lake trout and that lake trout avoided bottom habitat. Intraspecific and interspecific agonistic interactions were infrequent, but approximately 10 times greater for intraspecific inter- actions between lake trout. Results from this study provide little evidence that juvenile bull trout and lake trout compete for cover, and that species-specific differences in habitat use and selection likely result in habitat partitioning between these species.

  2. Standard Local Operating Procedures for Endangered Species (SLOPES) for Selected Nationwide Permit Activities Affecting Bull Trout in Western Montana and Northern Idaho. Endangered Species Act Section 7 Consultation: Biological Opinion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    reproductive system of bull trout has important repercussions for the management of this species. Bull trout require two-way passage up and...range of the species is diminished, and the potential for enhanced reproductive capabilities are lost (Rieman and McIntyre 1993). Diet Bull trout... reproduction , numbers, or distribution of that species.” Jeopardy determinations for bull trout are made at the scale of the listed entity, which is

  3. Effects of roads on bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), a federally threatened species

    OpenAIRE

    Teachout, Emily; Quan, Jennifer

    2001-01-01

    The bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) is federally listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. Bull trout are apex predators requiring a large prey base and a large home range, and are known to move throughout and between basins in search of prey. However, bull trout are dependent upon very cold, clean waters for spawning (below 9 degrees Celsius) and are typically characterized as spawning in the upper-most reaches of watersheds. Bull trout have four life history forms: resident...

  4. Genetic Inventory of Bull Trout and Westslope Cutthroat Trout in Pend Oreille Subbasin, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Jason; Maroney, Joseph R.; Andersen, Todd (Kalispel Department of Natural Resources, Usk, WA)

    2004-11-01

    In 2003, the Kalispel Natural Resource Department (KNRD) collected tissue samples for genetic analysis from 209 bull trout and 1,276 westslope cutthroat. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife developed and applied microsatellite DNA screening protocols for the analysis of bull trout at 13 loci and 24 loci for cutthroat trout. This project will continue collection and analysis of additional samples next year. At that time, a final annual report will be compiled for the three-year study that will describe the genetic characteristics for bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout. The extent of hybridization of bull trout (with brook trout) and westslope cutthroat trout (with Yellowstone cutthroat trout and rainbow trout) in the Priest Lake and Lower Pend Oreille subbasins will also be examined.

  5. Genetic Inventory of Bull Trout and Westslope Cutthroat Trout in the Pend Oreille Subbasin, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maroney, Joseph R. (Kalispel Tribe of Indians, Usk, WA); Shaklee, James B.; Young, Sewall F. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2003-10-01

    In 2002, the Kalispel Natural Resource Department (KNRD) collected tissue samples for genetic analysis from 280 bull trout and 940 westslope cutthroat. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife developed and applied microsatellite DNA screening protocols for the analysis of bull trout at 13 loci and 24 loci for cutthroat trout. This project will continue collection and analysis of additional samples for the next 2 years. At that time, a final annual report will be compiled for the three-year study that will describe the genetic characteristics for bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout. The extent of hybridization of bull trout (with brook trout) and westslope cutthroat trout (with Yellowstone cutthroat trout and rainbow trout) in the Priest Lake and Lower Pend Oreille subbasins will also be examined.

  6. Evaluate Bull Trout Movements in the Tucannon and Lower Snake Rivers, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faler, Michael P. (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Fishery Resource Office, Ahsahka, ID); Mendel, Glen W.; Fulton, Carl (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Fish Management Division, Dayton, WA)

    2003-06-01

    We collected, radio-tagged, and PIT-tagged 41 bull trout at the Tucannon River Hatchery trap from May 17, through June 14, 2002. An additional 65 bull trout were also collected and PIT tagged by June 24, at which time we ceased PIT tagging operations because water temperatures were reaching 16.0 C or higher on a regular basis. Six radio-tags were recovered shortly after tagging, and as a result, 35 remained in the river through November 30, 2002. During the month of July, radio-tagged bull trout exhibited a general upstream movement into the upper reaches of the Tucannon Subbasin. We began to observe some downstream movements of radio-tagged bull trout in mid to late September and throughout October. These movements appeared to be associated with post spawning migrations. As of November 30, radio tagged bull trout were relatively stationary, and distributed from the headwaters downstream to river mile 11.3, near Pataha Creek. None of the radio-tagged bull trout left the Tucannon Subbasin and entered the federal hydropower system on the mainstem Snake River. We conducted some initial transmission tests of submerged radio tags at depths of 25, 35, 45, and 55 ft. in Lower Monumental Pool to test our capability of detection at these depths. Equipment used included Lotek model MCFT-3A transmitters, an SRX 400 receiver, a 4 element Yagi antenna, and a Lotek ''H'' antenna. Test results indicated that depth transmission of these tags was poor; only the transmitter placed at 25 ft. was audibly detectable.

  7. Evaluate Bull Trout Movements in the Tucannon and Lower Snake Rivers, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faler, Michael P. (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Fishery Resource Office, Ahsahka, ID); Mendel, Glen W.; Fulton, Carl (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Fish Management Division, Dayton, WA)

    2004-04-01

    We collected 279 adult bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Tucannon River during the Spring and Fall of 2003. Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags were inserted in 191 of them, and we detected existing PIT tags in an additional 31bull trout. Thirty five of these were also surgically implanted with radio-tags, and we monitored the movements of these fish throughout the year. Fourteen radio-tags were recovered shortly after tagging, and as a result, 21 remained in the river through December 31, 2003. Four bull trout that were radio-tagged in spring 2002 were known to survive and carry their tags through the spring and/or summer of 2003. One of these fish spent the winter near river mile (RM) 13.0; the other 3 over-wintered in the vicinity of the Tucannon Hatchery between RM 34 and 36. Twenty-one radio tags from bull trout tagged in 2002 were recovered during the spring and summer, 2003. These tags became stationary the winter of 2002/2003, and were recovered between RM 11 and 55. We were unable to recover the remaining 15 tags from 2002. During the month of July, radio-tagged bull trout exhibited a general upstream movement into the upper reaches of the Tucannon subbasin. We observed some downstream movements of radio-tagged bull trout in mid to late September and throughout October. By late November and early December, radio tagged bull trout were relatively stationary, and were distributed from the headwaters downstream to river mile 6.4, near Lower Monumental Pool. As in 2002, we did not conduct work associated with objectives 2, 3, or 4 of this study, because we were unable to monitor migratory movement of radio-tagged bull trout into the Federal hydropower system on the mainstem Snake River. Transmission tests of submerged ATS model F1830 radio-tags in Lower Granite Pool showed that audible detection and individual tag identification was possible at depths of 20 and 30 ft. Tests were conducted using an ATS R-4000 Receiver equipped with an &apos

  8. Evaluation of the Life History of Native Salmonids in the Malheur River Basin; Cooperative Bull Trout/Redband Trout Research Project, 1999-2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwabe, Lawrence; Tiley, Mark (Burns Paiute Tribe, Department of Fish and Wildlife, Burns, OR); Perkins, Raymond R. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Ontario, OR)

    2000-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to document the seasonal distribution of adult/sub-adult bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Malheur River basin. Due to the decline of bull trout in the Columbia Basin, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service listed bull trout as a threatened species in June 1998. Past land management activities; construction of dams; and fish eradication projects in the North Fork and Middle Fork Malheur River by poisoning have worked in concert to cumulatively impact native species in the Malheur Basin (Bowers et. al. 1993). Survival of the remaining bull trout populations is severely threatened (Buchanan 1997). 1999 Research Objects are: (1) Document the migratory patterns of adult/sub-adult bull trout in the North Fork Malheur River; (2) Determine the seasonal bull trout use of Beulah Reservoir and bull trout entrainment; and (3) Timing and location of bull trout spawning in the North Fork Malheur River basin. The study area includes the Malheur basin from the mouth of the Malheur River located near Ontario, Oregon to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur River (Map 1). All fish collected and most of the telemetry effort was done on the North Fork Malheur River subbasin (Map 2). Fish collection was conducted on the North Fork Malheur River at the tailwaters of Beulah Reservoir (RK 29), Beulah Reservoir (RK 29-RK 33), and in the North Fork Malheur River at Crane Crossing (RK 69) to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur. Radio telemetry was done from the mouth of the Malheur River in Ontario, Oregon to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur. This report will reflect all migration data collected from 3/1/99 to 12/31/99.

  9. Evaluate Bull Trout Movements in the Tucannon and Lower Snake Rivers, 2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faler, Michael P. (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Fishery Resource Office, Ahsahka, ID); Mendel, Glen W.; Fulton, Carl (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Fish Management Division, Dayton, WA)

    2005-11-01

    We sampled and released 313 bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) from the Tucannon River in 2004. Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags were inserted in 231 of these individuals, and we detected existing PIT tags in an additional 44 bull trout. Twenty-five of these were also surgically implanted with radio-tags, and we monitored the movements of these fish throughout the year. Ten bull trout that were radio-tagged in 2003 were known to survive and carry their tags through the spring of 2004. One of these fish outmigrated into the Snake River in the fall, and remained undetected until February, when it's tag was located near the confluence of Alkali Flat Creek and the Snake River. The remaining 9 fish spent the winter between Tucannon River miles 2.1 (Powers Road) and 36.0 (Tucannon Fish Hatchery). Seven of these fish retained their tags through the summer, and migrated to known spawning habitat prior to September 2004. During June and July, radio-tagged bull trout again exhibited a general upstream movement into the upper reaches of the Tucannon subbasin. As in past years, we observed some downstream movements of radio-tagged bull trout in mid to late September and throughout October, suggesting post spawning outmigrations. By late November and early December, radio tagged bull trout were relatively stationary, and were distributed from river mile 42 at Camp Wooten downstream to river mile 17, near the Highway 12 bridge. As in previous years, we did not collect data associated with objectives 2, 3, or 4 of this study, because we were unable to monitor migratory movement of radio-tagged bull trout into the vicinity of the hydropower dams on the main stem Snake River. Transmission tests of submerged Lotek model NTC-6-2 nano-tags in Lower Granite Pool showed that audible detection and individual tag identification was possible at depths of 20, 30, and 40 ft. We were able to maintain tag detection and code separation at all depths from both a boat and 200 ft

  10. Temporary Restoration of Bull Trout Passage at Albeni Falls Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paluch, Mark; Scholz, Allan; McLellan, Holly [Eastern Washington University Department of Biology; Olson, Jason [Kalispel Tribe of Indians Natural Resources Department

    2009-07-13

    This study was designed to monitor movements of bull trout that were provided passage above Albeni Falls Dam, Pend Oreille River. Electrofishing and angling were used to collect bull trout below the dam. Tissue samples were collected from each bull trout and sent to the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service Abernathy Fish Technology Center Conservation Genetics Lab, Washington. The DNA extracted from tissue samples were compared to a catalog of bull trout population DNA from the Priest River drainage, Lake Pend Oreille tributaries, and the Clark Fork drainage to determine the most probable tributary of origin. A combined acoustic radio or radio tag was implanted in each fish prior to being transported and released above the dam. Bull trout relocated above the dam were able to volitionally migrate into their natal tributary, drop back downstream, or migrate upstream to the next dam. A combination of stationary radio receiving stations and tracking via aircraft, boat, and vehicle were used to monitor the movement of tagged fish to determine if the spawning tributary it selected matched the tributary assigned from the genetic analysis. Seven bull trout were captured during electrofishing surveys in 2008. Of these seven, four were tagged and relocated above the dam. Two were tagged and left below the dam as part of a study monitoring movements below the dam. One was immature and too small at the time of capture to implant a tracking tag. All four fish released above the dam passed by stationary receivers stations leading into Lake Pend Oreille and no fish dropped back below the dam. One of the radio tags was recovered in the tributary corresponding with the results of the genetic test. Another fish was located in the vicinity of its assigned tributary, which was impassable due to low water discharge at its mouth. Two fish have not been located since entering the lake. Of these fish, one was immature and not expected to enter its natal tributary in the fall of 2008. The other

  11. Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) suppression for bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) recovery in Flathead Lake, Montana, North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Michael J.; Hansen, Barry S; Beauchamp, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Non-native lake trout Salvelinus namaycush displaced native bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in Flathead Lake, Montana, USA, after 1984, when Mysis diluviana became abundant following its introduction in upstream lakes in 1968–1976. We developed a simulation model to determine the fishing mortality rate on lake trout that would enable bull trout recovery. Model simulations indicated that suppression of adult lake trout by 75% from current abundance would reduce predation on bull trout by 90%. Current removals of lake trout through incentivized fishing contests has not been sufficient to suppress lake trout abundance estimated by mark-recapture or indexed by stratified-random gill netting. In contrast, size structure, body condition, mortality, and maturity are changing consistent with a density-dependent reduction in lake trout abundance. Population modeling indicated total fishing effort would need to increase 3-fold to reduce adult lake trout population density by 75%. We conclude that increased fishing effort would suppress lake trout population density and predation on juvenile bull trout, and thereby enable higher abundance of adult bull trout in Flathead Lake and its tributaries.

  12. Genetic diversity is related to climatic variation and vulnerability in threatened bull trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovach, Ryan; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Wade, Alisa A.; Hand, Brian K.; Whited, Diane C.; DeHaan, Patrick W.; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Luikart, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how climatic variation influences ecological and evolutionary processes is crucial for informed conservation decision-making. Nevertheless, few studies have measured how climatic variation influences genetic diversity within populations or how genetic diversity is distributed across space relative to future climatic stress. Here, we tested whether patterns of genetic diversity (allelic richness) were related to climatic variation and habitat features in 130 bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) populations from 24 watersheds (i.e., ~4–7th order river subbasins) across the Columbia River Basin, USA. We then determined whether bull trout genetic diversity was related to climate vulnerability at the watershed scale, which we quantified on the basis of exposure to future climatic conditions (projected scenarios for the 2040s) and existing habitat complexity. We found a strong gradient in genetic diversity in bull trout populations across the Columbia River Basin, where populations located in the most upstream headwater areas had the greatest genetic diversity. After accounting for spatial patterns with linear mixed models, allelic richness in bull trout populations was positively related to habitat patch size and complexity, and negatively related to maximum summer temperature and the frequency of winter flooding. These relationships strongly suggest that climatic variation influences evolutionary processes in this threatened species and that genetic diversity will likely decrease due to future climate change. Vulnerability at a watershed scale was negatively correlated with average genetic diversity (r = −0.77;P bull trout and other imperiled species. Genetic diversity is already depressed where climatic vulnerability is highest; it will likely erode further in the very places where diversity may be most needed for future persistence.

  13. Monitor and Protect Wigwam River Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir : Summary of the Skookumchuck Creek Bull Trout Enumeration Project Final Report 2000-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Jeremy; Baxter, James S.

    2002-12-01

    This report summarizes the third and final year of a bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) enumeration project on Skookumchuck Creek in southeastern British Columbia. The fence and traps were operated from September 6th to October 11th 2002 in order to enumerate post-spawning bull trout. During the study period a total of 309 bull trout were captured at the fence. In total, 16 fish of undetermined sex, 114 males and 179 females were processed at the fence. Length and weight data, as well as recapture information, were collected for these fish. An additional 41 bull trout were enumerated upstream of the fence by snorkeling prior to fence removal. Coupled with the fence count, the total bull trout enumerated during the project was 350 individuals. Several fish that were tagged in the lower Bull River were recaptured in 2002, as were repeat and alternate year spawners previously enumerated in past years at the fence. A total of 149 bull trout redds were enumerated on the ground in 2002, of which 143 were in the 3.0 km index section (river km 27.5-30.5) that has been surveyed over the past six years. The results of the three year project are summarized, and population characteristics are discussed.

  14. Monitor and Protect Wigwam River Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir : Summary of the Skookumchuck Creek Bull Trout Enumeration Project, Annual Report 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, James S.; Baxter, Jeremy

    2002-03-01

    This report summarizes the second year of a bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) enumeration project on Skookumchuck Creek in southeastern British Columbia. An enumeration fence and traps were installed on the creek from September 6th to October 12th 2001 to enable the capture of post-spawning bull trout emigrating out of the watershed. During the study period, a total of 273 bull trout were sampled through the enumeration fence. Length and weight were determined for all bull trout captured. In total, 39 fish of undetermined sex, 61 males and 173 females were processed through the fence. An additional 19 bull trout were observed on a snorkel survey prior to the fence being removed on October 12th. Coupled with the fence count, the total bull trout enumerated during this project was 292 fish. Several other species of fish were captured at the enumeration fence including westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi), Rocky Mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni), and kokanee (O. nerka). A total of 143 bull trout redds were enumerated on the ground in two different locations (river km 27.5-30.5, and km 24.0-25.5) on October 3rd. The majority of redds (n=132) were observed in the 3.0 km index section (river km 27.5-30.5) that has been surveyed over the past five years. The additional 11 redds were observed in a 1.5 km section (river km 24.0-25.5). Summary plots of water temperature for Bradford Creek, Sandown Creek, Buhl Creek, and Skookumchuck Creek at three locations suggested that water temperatures were within the temperature range preferred by bull trout for spawning, egg incubation, and rearing.

  15. Evaluation of Bull Trout Movements in the Tucannon and Lower Snake Rivers, 2002-2006 Project Completion Summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faler, Michael P. [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; Mendel, Glen; Fulton, Carl [Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife

    2008-11-20

    The Columbia River Distinct Population Segment of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) was listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 1998. One of the identified major threats to the species is fragmentation resulting from dams on over-wintering habitats of migratory subpopulations. A migratory subgroup in the Tucannon River appeared to utilize the Snake River reservoirs for adult rearing on a seasonal basis. As a result, a radio telemetry study was conducted on this subgroup from 2002-2006, to help meet Reasonable and Prudent Measures, and Conservation Recommendations associated with the lower Snake River dams in the FCRPS Biological Opinion, and to increase understanding of bull trout movements within the Tucannon River drainage. We sampled 1,109 bull trout in the Tucannon River; 124 of these were surgically implanted with radio tags and PIT tagged, and 681 were only PIT tagged. The remaining 304 fish were either recaptures, or released unmarked. Bull trout seasonal movements within the Tucannon River were similar to those described for other migratory bull trout populations. Bull trout migrated upstream in spring and early summer to the spawning areas in upper portions of the Tucannon River watershed. They quickly moved off the spawning areas in the fall, and either held or continued a slower migration downstream through the winter until early the following spring. During late fall and winter, bull trout were distributed in the lower half of the Tucannon River basin, down to and including the mainstem Snake River below Little Goose Dam. We were unable to adequately radio track bull trout in the Snake River and evaluate their movements or interactions with the federal hydroelectric dams for the following reasons: (1) none of our radio-tagged fish were detected attempting to pass a Snake River dam, (2) our radio tags had poor transmission capability at depths greater than 12.2 m, and (3) the sample size of fish that actually entered the Snake River

  16. Monitor and Protect Wigwam River Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir : Summary of the Skookumchuck Creek Bull Trout Enumeration Project, Annual Report 2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, James S.; Baxter, Jeremy

    2001-02-01

    An enumeration fence and traps were installed on Skookumchuck Creek from September 7 th to October 16 th to enable the capture of post-spawning bull trout emigrating out of the watershed. During the study period, a total of 252 bull trout were sampled through the enumeration fence. Length, weight, and sex were determined for all but one of the 252 bull trout captured. In total, one fish of undetermined sex, 63 males and 188 females were processed through the fence. A total of 67 bull trout were observed on a snorkel survey prior to the fence being removed on October 16 th . Coupled with the fence count, the total bull trout count during this project was 319 fish. Several other species of fish were captured at the enumeration fence including westslope cutthroat trout, Rocky Mountain whitefish, kokanee, sucker, and Eastern brook trout. Redds were observed during ground surveys in three different locations (river km 27.5- 28.5, km 29-30, and km 24-25). The largest concentration of redds were noted in the upper two sections which have served as the index sections over the past four years. A total of 197 bull trout redds were enumerated on the ground on October 4 th . The majority of redds (n=189) were observed in the 3.0 km index section (river km 27.5-30.5) that has been surveyed over the past four years. The additional 8 redds were observed in a 1.5 km section (river km 24.0-25.5). Summary plots of water temperature for Bradford Creek, Sandown Creek, Skookumchuck Creek at km 39.5, and Skookumchuck Creek at the fence site suggested that water temperatures were within the range preferred by bull trout for spawning, egg incubation, and rearing.

  17. Wigwam River Juvenile Bull Trout and Fish Habitat Monitoring Program : 2002 Data Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cope, R.S. [Westslope Fisheries, Cranbrook, BC, Canada

    2003-03-01

    The Wigwam River bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and fish habitat monitoring program is a trans-boundary initiative implemented by the British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land, and Air Protection (MWLAP), in cooperation with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The Wigwam River is an important fisheries stream located in southeastern British Columbia that supports healthy populations of both bull trout and Westslope cutthroat trout (Figure 1). This river has been characterized as the single most important bull trout spawning stream in the Kootenay Region (Baxter and Westover 2000, Cope 1998). In addition, the Wigwam River supports some of the largest Westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) in the Kootenay Region. These fish are highly sought after by anglers (Westover 1999a, 1999b). Bull trout populations have declined in many areas of their range within Montana and throughout the northwest including British Columbia. Bull trout were blue listed as vulnerable in British Columbia by the B.C. Conservation Data Center (Cannings 1993) and although there are many healthy populations of bull trout in the East Kootenay they remain a species of special concern. Bull trout in the United States portion of the Columbia River were listed as threatened in 1998 under the Endangered Species Act by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The upper Kootenay River is within the Kootenai sub-basin of the Mountain Columbia Province, one of the eleven Eco-provinces that make up the Columbia River Basin. MWLAP applied for and received funding from BPA to assess and monitor the status of wild, native stocks of bull trout in tributaries to Lake Koocanusa (Libby Reservoir) and the upper Kootenay River. This task is one of many that were undertaken to ''Monitor and Protect Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir'' (BPA Project Number 2000-04-00).

  18. Wigwam River Juvenile Bull Trout and Fish Habitat Monitoring Program : 2000 Data Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cope, R.S.; Morris, K.J.

    2001-03-01

    The Wigwam River bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and fish habitat monitoring program is a trans-boundary initiative implemented by the British Columbia Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks (MOE), in cooperation with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The Wigwam River is an important fisheries stream located in southeastern British Columbia that supports healthy populations of both bull trout and Westslope cutthroat trout (Figure 1.1). This river has been characterized as the single most important bull trout spawning stream in the Kootenay Region (Baxter and Westover 2000, Cope 1998). In addition, the Wigwam River supports some of the largest Westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) in the Kootenay Region. These fish are highly sought after by anglers (Westover 1999a, 1999b). Bull trout populations have declined in many areas of their range within Montana and throughout the northwest including British Columbia. Bull trout were blue listed as vulnerable in British Columbia by the B.C. Conservation Data Center (Cannings 1993) and although there are many healthy populations of bull trout in the East Kootenays they remain a species of special concern. Bull trout in the United States portion of the Columbia River were listed as threatened in 1998 under the Endangered Species Act by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The upper Kootenay River is within the Kootenai sub-basin of the Mountain Columbia Province, one of the eleven Eco-provinces that make up the Columbia River Basin. MOE applied for and received funding from BPA to assess and monitor the status of wild, native stocks of bull trout in tributaries to Lake Koocanusa (Libby Reservoir) and the upper Kootenay River. This task is one of many that was undertaken to ''Monitor and Protect Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir'' (BPA Project Number 2000-04-00).

  19. Kootenai River Fisheries Investigations; Rainbow and Bull Trout Recruitment, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, Jody P.

    2004-01-01

    Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss provide the most important sport fishery in the Kootenai River, Idaho, but densities and catch rates are low. Low recruitment is one possible factor limiting the rainbow trout population. Bull trout Salvelinus confluentus also exist in the Kootenai River, but little is known about this population. Research reported here addresses the following objectives for the Kootenai River, Idaho: increase rainbow trout recruitment, identify rainbow and bull trout spawning tributaries and migration timing, establish baseline data on bull trout redd numbers in tributaries, and improve the rainbow trout population size structure. Six adult rainbow trout were moved to spawning habitat upstream of a potential migration barrier on Caboose Creek, but numbers of redds and age-0 out-migrants did not appear to increase relative to a reference stream. Measurements taken on the Moyie River indicated the gradient is inadequate to deliver suitable flows to a proposed rainbow trout spawning channel. Summer water temperatures measured in the Deep Creek drainage sometimes exceeded 24 C, higher than those reported as suitable for rainbow trout. Radio-tagged rainbow trout were located in Boulder Creek during the spring spawning season, and bull trout were located in the Moyie River and O'Brien Creek, Montana in the fall. Bull trout spawning migration timing was related to increases in Kootenai River flows. Bull trout redd surveys documented 19 redds on Boulder Creek and North and South Callahan creeks. Fall 2002 electrofishing showed that the Kootenai River rainbow trout proportional stock density was 54, higher than prior years when more liberal fishing regulations were in effect. Boulder Creek produces the highest number of age-0 rainbow trout out-migrants upstream of Bonners Ferry, but the survival rate of these out-migrants upon reaching the Kootenai River is unknown. Determining juvenile survival rates and sources of mortality could aid management

  20. Sprint swimming performance of wild bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, M.G.; Phelps, J.; Weiland, L.K.

    2008-01-01

    We conducted laboratory experiments to determine the sprint swimming performance of wild juvenile and adult bull trout Salvelinus confluentus. Sprint swimming speeds were estimated using high-speed digital video analysis. Thirty two bull trout were tested in sizes ranging from about 10 to 31 cm. Of these, 14 fish showed at least one motivated, vigorous sprint. When plotted as a function of time, velocity of fish increased rapidly with the relation linear or slightly curvilinear. Their maximum velocity, or Vmax, ranged from 1.3 to 2.3 m/s, was usually achieved within 0.8 to 1.0 s, and was independent of fish size. Distances covered during these sprints ranged from 1.4 to 2.4 m. Our estimates of the sprint swimming performance are the first reported for this species and may be useful for producing or modifying fish passage structures that allow safe and effective passage of fish without overly exhausting them. ?? 2008 by the Northwest Scientific Association. All rights reserved.

  1. Monitor and Protect Wigwam River Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir; Skookumchuck Creek Juvenile Bull Trout and Fish Habitat Monitoring Program, Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cope, R.

    2003-06-01

    The Skookumchuck Creek juvenile bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and fish habitat-monitoring program is a co-operative initiative of the British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land, and Air Protection and Bonneville Power Administration. This project was commissioned in planning for fish habitat protection and forest development within the Skookumchuck Creek watershed and was intended to expand upon similar studies initiated within the Wigwam River from 2000 to 2002. The broad intent is to develop a better understanding of juvenile bull trout and Westslope cutthroat trout recruitment and the ongoing hydrologic and morphologic processes, especially as they relate to spawning and rearing habitat quality. The 2002 project year represents the first year of a long-term bull trout-monitoring program with current studies focused on collecting baseline information. This report provides a summary of results obtained to date. Bull trout represented 72.4% of the catch. Fry dominated the catch because site selection was biased towards electrofishing sample sites which favored high bull trout fry capture success. The mean density of all juvenile bull trout was estimated to be 6.6 fish/100m{sup 2}. This represents one-half the densities reported for the 2002 Wigwam River enumeration program, even though enumeration of bull trout redds was an order of magnitude higher for the Wigwam River. Typically, areas with combined fry and juvenile densities greater than 1.5 fish per 100 m{sup 2} are cited as critical rearing areas. Trends in abundance appeared to be related to proximity to spawning areas, bed material size, and water depth. Cover components utilized by juvenile and adult bull trout and cutthroat trout were interstices, boulder, depth, overhead vegetation and LWD. The range of morphological stream types encompass the stable and resilient spectrum (C3(1), C3 and B3c). The Skookumchuck can be generalized as a slightly entrenched, meandering, riffle-pool, cobble dominated

  2. Investigations of Bull Trout (Salvelinus Confluentus), Steelhead Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss), and Spring Chinook Salmon (O. Tshawytscha) Interactions in Southeast Washington Streams : 1991 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Steven W.

    1992-07-01

    Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) are native to many tributaries of the Snake River in southeast Washington. The Washington Department of Wildlife (WDW) and the American Fisheries Society (AFS) have identified bull trout as a species of special concern which means that they may become threatened or endangered by relatively, minor disturbances to their habitat. Steelhead trout/rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and spring chinook salmon (O.tshawytscha) are also native to several tributaries of the Snake river in southeast Washington. These species of migratory fishes are depressed, partially due to the construction of several dams on the lower Snake river. In response to decreased run size, large hatchery program were initiated to produce juvenile steelhead and salmon to supplement repressed tributary stocks, a practice known as supplementation. There is a concern that supplementing streams with artificially high numbers of steelhead and salmon may have an impact on resident bull trout in these streams. Historically, these three species of fish existed together in large numbers, however, the amount of high-quality habitat necessary for reproduction and rearing has been severely reduced in recent years, as compared to historic amounts. The findings of the first year of a two year study aimed at identifying species interactions in southeast Washington streams are presented in this report. Data was collected to assess population dynamics; habitat utilization and preference, feeding habits, fish movement and migration, age, condition, growth, and the spawning requirements of bull trout in each of four streams. A comparison of the indices was then made between the study streams to determine if bull trout differ in the presence of the putative competitor species. Bull trout populations were highest in the Tucannon River (supplemented stream), followed by Mill Creek (unsupplemented stream). Young of the year bull trout utilized riffle and cascade habitat the most in all

  3. Development and evaluation of a bioenergetics model for bull trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, Matthew G.; Welland, Lisa K.; Christiansen, Helena E.; Sauter, Sally T.; Beauchamp, David A.

    2013-01-01

    We conducted laboratory experiments to parameterize a bioenergetics model for wild Bull Trout Salvelinus confluentus, estimating the effects of body mass (12–1,117 g) and temperature (3–20°C) on maximum consumption (C max) and standard metabolic rates. The temperature associated with the highest C max was 16°C, and C max showed the characteristic dome-shaped temperature-dependent response. Mass-dependent values of C max (N = 28) at 16°C ranged from 0.03 to 0.13 g·g−1·d−1. The standard metabolic rates of fish (N = 110) ranged from 0.0005 to 0.003 g·O2·g−1·d−1 and increased with increasing temperature but declined with increasing body mass. In two separate evaluation experiments, which were conducted at only one ration level (40% of estimated C max), the model predicted final weights that were, on average, within 1.2 ± 2.5% (mean ± SD) of observed values for fish ranging from 119 to 573 g and within 3.5 ± 4.9% of values for 31–65 g fish. Model-predicted consumption was within 5.5 ± 10.9% of observed values for larger fish and within 12.4 ± 16.0% for smaller fish. Our model should be useful to those dealing with issues currently faced by Bull Trout, such as climate change or alterations in prey availability.

  4. Kootenai River Fisheries Investigations; Rainbow and Bull Trout Recruitment, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, Jody P.

    2005-08-01

    Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss provide the most important sport fishery in the Kootenai River, Idaho, but densities and catch rates are low. Low recruitment is one possible factor limiting the rainbow trout population. Bull trout Salvelinus confluentus also exist in the Kootenai River, but little is known about this population. Research reported here addresses the following objectives for the Kootenai River, Idaho: identify sources of rainbow and bull trout recruitment, monitor the rainbow trout population size structure to evaluate regulation changes initiated in 2002, and identify factors potentially limiting rainbow trout recruitment. A screw trap was used to estimate juvenile redband and bull trout out-migration from the Callahan Creek drainage, and electrofishing was conducted to estimate summer densities of bull trout rearing in the Idaho portion of the drainage. An estimated 1,132 juvenile redband trout and 68 juvenile bull trout out-migrated from Callahan Creek to the Kootenai River from April 7 through July 15, 2003. Densities of bull trout {ge} age-1 in North and South Callahan creeks ranged from 1.6 to 7.7 fish/100m{sup 2} in August. Bull trout redd surveys were conducted in North and South Callahan creeks, Boulder Creek, and Myrtle Creek. Thirty-two bull trout redds were located in North Callahan Creek, while 10 redds were found in South Callahan Creek. No redds were found in the other two streams. Modeling of culverts in the Deep Creek drainage identified two as upstream migration barriers, preventing rainbow trout from reaching spawning and rearing habitat. Water temperature monitoring in Deep Creek identified two sites where maximum temperatures exceeded those suitable for rainbow trout. Boulder Creek produces the most rainbow trout recruits to the Kootenai River in Idaho upstream of Deep Creek, but may be below carrying capacity for rearing rainbow trout due to nutrient limitations. Monthly water samples indicate Boulder Creek is nutrient limited

  5. Physical, biotic, and sampling influences on diel habitat use by stream-dwelling bull trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banish, N.P.; Peterson, J.T.; Thurow, R.F.

    2008-01-01

    We used daytime and nighttime underwater observation to assess microhabitat use by bull trout Salvelinus confluentus (N = 213) in streams of the intermountain western USA during the summers of 2001 and 2002. We recorded fish focal points and measured a set of habitat characteristics as well as habitat availability via line transects. Bull trout were benthic and solitary; most (88%) were observed at night. We developed a conditional logistic regression model to account for the effect of fish movement in response to snorkeling, and we fitted 18 candidate models to evaluate the relative influences of biotic and abiotic factors on habitat use. The candidate models were also fitted with a naive logistic regression (i.e., no movement) to evaluate the effects of movement on inferences of microhabitat use. The most plausible model describing bull trout habitat use was the same for the conditional and nai??ve regressions and included depth, velocity, percent rubble substratum, and the day X depth, body size X depth, and body size X day X depth interactions. The presence of brook trout S. fontinalis and the abundance of conspecifics did not strongly influence microhabitat use by bull trout. The relative rankings of the remaining models differed substantially between the conditional and nai??ve models. Relative to the conditional models, the naive models overestimated the importance of diurnal differences in habitat use and overestimated the use of deepwater habitats, particularly during the day. Both model types suggested that all sizes of bull trout were generally found in deeper, low-velocity habitat at night, whereas small bull trout (70-90 mm total length) were found in shallower habitats during the day. We recommend lhat biologists account for fish movement in response to sampling to avoid biasing modeled habitat use patterns by bull trout. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  6. Kootenai River Fisheries Investigations; Rainbow and Bull Trout Recruitment, 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, Jody P.; Downs, Christopher C.

    2001-08-01

    Our 1999 objectives were to determine sources of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and bull trout Salvelinus confluentus spawning and recruitment in the Idaho reach of the Kootenai River. We used a rotary-screw trap to capture juvenile trout to determine age at out-migration and to estimate total out-migration from the Boundary Creek drainage to the Kootenai River. The out-migrant estimate for March through August 1999 was 1,574 (95% C. I. = 825-3,283) juvenile rainbow trout. Most juveniles out-migrated at age-2 and age-3. No out-migrating bull trout were caught. Five of 17 rainbow trout radio-tagged in Idaho migrated upstream into Montana waters during the spawning season. Five bull trout originally radio-tagged in O'Brien Creek, Montana in early October moved downstream into Idaho and British Columbia by mid-October. Annual angler exploitation for the rainbow trout population upstream of Bonners Ferry, Idaho was estimated to be 58%. Multi-pass depletion estimates for index reaches of Caboose, Curley, and Debt creeks showed 0.20, 0.01, and 0.13 rainbow trout juveniles/m{sup 2}, respectively. We estimated rainbow trout (180-415 mm TL) standing stock of 1.6 kg/ha for the Hemlock Bar reach (29.4 ha) of the Kootenai River, similar to the 1998 estimate. Recruitment of juvenile rainbow and bull trout from Idaho tributaries is not sufficient to be the sole source of subsequent older fish in the mainstem Kootenai River. These populations are at least partly dependent on recruitment from Montana waters. The low recruitment and high exploitation rate may be indicators of a rainbow trout population in danger of further decline.

  7. Investigations of Bull Trout (Salvelinus Confluentus), Steelhead Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss), and Spring Chinook Salmon (O. Tshawytscha) Interactions in Southeast Washington Streams. Final Report 1992.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Underwood, Keith D.

    1995-01-01

    The goal of this two year study was to determine if supplementation with hatchery reared steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) negatively impacted wild native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) through competitive interactions. Four streams with varying levels of fish supplementation activity were sampled in Southeast Washington. Tasks performed during this study were population density, relative abundance, microhabitat utilization, habitat availability, diet analysis, bull trout spawning ground surveys, radio telemetry of adult bull trout, and growth analysis. Results indicate that bull trout overlapped geographically with the supplemented species in each of the study streams suggesting competition among species was possible. Within a stream, bull trout and the supplemented species utilized dissimilar microhabitats and microhabitat utilization by each species was the same among streams suggesting that there was no shifts in microhabitat utilization among streams. The diet of bull trout and O. mykiss significantly overlapped in each of the study streams. The stream most intensely supplemented contained bull trout with the slowest growth and the non-supplemented stream contained bull trout with the fastest growth. Conversely, the stream most intensely supplemented contain steelhead with the fastest growth and the non-supplemented stream contained steelhead with the slowest growth. Growth indicated that bull trout may have been negatively impacted from supplementation, although other factors may have contributed. At current population levels, and current habitat quantity and quality, no impacts to bull trout as a result of supplementation with hatchery reared steelhead trout and spring chinook salmon were detected. Project limitations and future research recommendations are discussed.

  8. Wigwam River Juvenile Bull Trout and Fish Habitat Monitoring Program : 2001 Data Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cope, R.S.; Morris, K.J.; Bisset, J.E.

    2002-03-01

    The Wigwam River juvenile bull trout and fish habitat monitoring program is a co-operative initiative of the British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land, and Air Protection and Bonneville Power Administration. The Wigwam River has been characterized as the single most important bull trout spawning stream in the Kootenay Region. This report provides a summary of results obtained during the second year (2001) of the juvenile bull trout enumeration and fish habitat assessment program. This project was commissioned in planning for fish habitat protection and forest development within the upper Wigwam River valley. The broad intent is to develop a better understanding of juvenile bull trout and Westslope cutthroat trout recruitment and the ongoing hydrologic and morphologic processes in the upper Wigwam River, especially as they relate to spawning and rearing habitat quality. Five permanent sampling sites were established August 2000 in the Wigwam river drainage (one site on Bighorn Creek and four sites on the mainstem Wigwam River). At each site, juvenile (0{sup +}, 1{sup +} and 2{sup +} age classes) fish densities and stream habitat conditions were measured over two stream meander wavelengths. Bull trout represented 95.1% of the catch and the mean density of juvenile bull trout was estimated to be 20.7 fish/100m{sup 2} (range 0.9 to 24.0 fish/100m{sup 2}). This compares to 17.2 fish/100m{sup 2} (+20%) for the previous year. Fry (0{sup +}) dominated the catch and this was a direct result of juvenile bull trout ecology and habitat partitioning among life history stages. Site selection was biased towards sample sites which favored high bull trout fry capture success. Comparison of fry density estimates replicated across both the preliminary survey (1997) and the current study (Cope and Morris 2001) illustrate the stable nature of these high densities. Bull trout populations have been shown to be extremely susceptible to habitat degradation and over-harvest and are

  9. Marine Habitat Use by Anadromous Bull Trout from the Skagit River, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Michael C.; Rubin, Steve P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald; Goetz, Fred A.; Jeanes, Eric; McBride, Aundrea

    2011-01-01

    Acoustic telemetry was used to describe fish positions and marine habitat use by tagged bull trout Salvelinus confluentus from the Skagit River, Washington. In March and April 2006, 20 fish were captured and tagged in the lower Skagit River, while 15 fish from the Swinomish Channel were tagged during May and June. Sixteen fish tagged in 2004 and 2005 were also detected during the study. Fish entered Skagit Bay from March to May and returned to the river from May to August. The saltwater residency for the 13 fish detected during the out-migration and return migration ranged from 36 to 133 d (mean ± SD, 75 ± 22 d). Most bull trout were detected less than 14 km (8.5 ± 4.4 km) from the Skagit River, and several bay residents used the Swinomish Channel while migrating. The bull trout detected in the bay were associated with the shoreline (distance from shore, 0.32 ± 0.27 km) and occupied shallow-water habitats (mean water column depth, Zostera sp.) vegetation classes made up more than 70% of the area used by bull trout. Our results will help managers identify specific nearshore areas that may require further protection to sustain the unique anadromous life history of bull trout.

  10. Incorporating movement patterns to improve survival estimates for juvenile bull trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, Tracy; Budy, Phaedra

    2012-01-01

    Populations of many fish species are sensitive to changes in vital rates during early life stages, but our understanding of the factors affecting growth, survival, and movement patterns is often extremely limited for juvenile fish. These critical information gaps are particularly evident for bull trout Salvelinus confluentus, a threatened Pacific Northwest char. We combined several active and passive mark–recapture and resight techniques to assess migration rates and estimate survival for juvenile bull trout (70–170 mm total length). We evaluated the relative performance of multiple survival estimation techniques by comparing results from a common Cormack–Jolly–Seber (CJS) model, the less widely used Barker model, and a simple return rate (an index of survival). Juvenile bull trout of all sizes emigrated from their natal habitat throughout the year, and thereafter migrated up to 50 km downstream. With the CJS model, high emigration rates led to an extreme underestimate of apparent survival, a combined estimate of site fidelity and survival. In contrast, the Barker model, which allows survival and emigration to be modeled as separate parameters, produced estimates of survival that were much less biased than the return rate. Estimates of age-class-specific annual survival from the Barker model based on all available data were 0.218±0.028 (estimate±SE) for age-1 bull trout and 0.231±0.065 for age-2 bull trout. This research demonstrates the importance of incorporating movement patterns into survival analyses, and we provide one of the first field-based estimates of juvenile bull trout annual survival in relatively pristine rearing conditions. These estimates can provide a baseline for comparison with future studies in more impacted systems and will help managers develop reliable stage-structured population models to evaluate future recovery strategies.

  11. Bull Trout life History, Genetics, Habitat Needs, and Limiting Factors in Central and Northeast Oregon, Annual Report 1995.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmingsen, Alan R.; Buchanan, David V.; Howell, Philip J.

    1996-03-01

    To fulfill one objective of the present study, genetic characteristics of Oregon bull trout will be determined by analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. During 1995, the authors collected and sampled a total of 1,217 bull trout from 46 streams in the Columbia River Basin. DNA analysis of those samples will be conducted at University of Montana. They primarily sampled juvenile fish near natal areas to increase the likelihood of identifying discrete populations while minimizing risk of injury to large spawners. Fork lengths of all fish sampled ranged from 2.6 to 60.5 cm with a median of 12 cm. Eighty-four percent of all bull trout sampled were less than 19 cm while two percent were larger than 27 cm. Bull trout were collected by several methods, mostly by electrofishing. Eighty-six percent of all bull trout sampled were collected by electrofishing with a programmable waveform electrofisher. They observed injuries caused by electrofishing to 8% of that proportion. Based on preliminary analysis, no waveform combination used appeared less injurious than others. Highest voltages appeared less injurious than some that were lower. Frequency of electrofishing injury was significantly correlated to fork length over the range-from 4 to 26 cm. There were indications for substantial risk for such injury to bull trout larger than 26 cm. Other species found in association with bull trout included chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, mountain whitefish Prosopium williamsoni, rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, sculpins Cottus spp., cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki, non-native brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, and tailed frogs Ascaphus truei. Rainbow trout was the species most frequently associated with bull trout. No injury or mortality was observed for any of the associated species captured.

  12. Minimum Pool and Bull Trout Prey Base Investigations at Beulah Reservoir - Final Report for 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Brien P.; Mesa, Matthew G.

    2009-01-01

    Beulah Reservoir in southeastern Oregon provides irrigation water to nearby farms and supports an adfluvial population of threatened bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus). Summer drawdowns in the reservoir could affect forage fish production and overwintering bull trout. To assess the impacts of drawdown, we sampled fish, invertebrates, and water-quality variables seasonally during 2006-08. In 2006, the summer drawdown was about 68 percent of full pool, which was less than a typical drawdown of 85 percent. We detected few changes in pelagic invertebrate densities, and catch rates, abundance, and sizes of fish when comparing values from spring to values from fall. We did note that densities of benthic insects in areas that were dewatered annually were lower than those from areas that were not dewatered annually. In 2007, the drawdown was 100 percent (to run-of-river level) and resulted in decreases in abundance of invertebrates as much as 96 percent, decreases in catch rates of fish as much as 80 percent, decreases in abundance of redside shiners (Richardsonius balteatus) and northern pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) as much as 93 percent, and decreased numbers of small fish in catches. In the fall 2007, we estimated the total biomass of forage fish to be 76 kilograms, or about one-quarter of total biomass of forage fish in 2006. Bioenergetics modeling suggested that ample forage for about 1,000 bull trout would exist after a moderate drawdown, but that forage remaining after a complete dewatering would not be sufficient for a population one-fifth the size. Our results indicate that drawdowns in Beulah Reservoir affect the aquatic community and perhaps the health and well-being of bull trout. The severity of effects depends on the extent of drawdown, population size of bull trout, and perhaps other factors.

  13. Cooperative Recovery Initiative: Bull Trout Restoration: Restoring Cold, Clean, Complex and Connected Habitat in the Blackfoot River Watershed of Montana.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Habitat degradation and the effects of climate change are the biggest threats to bull trout in the Blackfoot River watershed of Montana. Montana Fish, Wildlife &...

  14. Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) movement in relation to water temperature, season, and habitat features in Arrowrock Reservoir, Idaho, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maret, Terry R.; Schultz, Justin E.

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic telemetry was used to determine spring to summer (April–August) movement and habitat use of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in Arrowrock Reservoir (hereafter “Arrowrock”), a highly regulated reservoir in the Boise River Basin of southwestern Idaho. Water management practices annually use about 86 percent of the reservoir water volume to satisfy downstream water demands. These practices might be limiting bull trout habitat and movement patterns. Bull trout are among the more thermally sensitive coldwater species in North America, and the species is listed as threatened throughout the contiguous United States under the Endangered Species Act. Biweekly water-temperature and dissolved-oxygen profiles were collected by the Bureau of Reclamation at three locations in Arrowrock to characterize habitat conditions for bull trout. Continuous streamflow and water temperature also were measured immediately upstream of the reservoir on the Middle and South Fork Boise Rivers, which influence habitat conditions in the riverine zones of the reservoir. In spring 2012, 18 bull trout ranging in total length from 306 to 630 millimeters were fitted with acoustic transmitters equipped with temperature and depth sensors. Mobile boat tracking and fixed receivers were used to detect released fish. Fish were tagged from March 28 to April 20 and were tracked through most of August. Most bull trout movements were detected in the Middle Fork Boise River arm of the reservoir. Fifteen individual fish were detected at least once after release. Water surface temperature at each fish detection location ranged from 6.0 to 16.2 degrees Celsius (°C) (mean=10.1°C), whereas bull trout body temperatures were colder, ranging from 4.4 to 11.6°C (mean=7.3°C). Bull trout were detected over deep-water habitat, ranging from 8.0 to 42.6 meters (m) (mean=18.1 m). Actual fish depths were shallower than total water depth, ranging from 0.0 to 24.5 m (mean=6.7 m). The last bull trout was

  15. The fishing and natural mortality of large, piscivorous Bull Trout and Rainbow Trout in Kootenay Lake, British Columbia (2008–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph L. Thorley

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Estimates of fishing and natural mortality are important for understanding, and ultimately managing, commercial and recreational fisheries. High reward tags with fixed station acoustic telemetry provides a promising approach to monitoring mortality rates in large lake recreational fisheries. Kootenay Lake is a large lake which supports an important recreational fishery for large Bull Trout and Rainbow Trout. Methods Between 2008 and 2013, 88 large (≥500 mm Bull Trout and 149 large (≥500 mm Rainbow Trout were marked with an acoustic transmitter and/or high reward ($100 anchor tags in Kootenay Lake. The subsequent detections and angler recaptures were analysed using a Bayesian individual state-space Cormack–Jolly–Seber (CJS survival model with indicator variable selection. Results The final CJS survival model estimated that the annual interval probability of being recaptured by an angler was 0.17 (95% CRI [0.11–0.23] for Bull Trout and 0.14 (95% CRI [0.09–0.19] for Rainbow Trout. The annual interval survival probability for Bull Trout was estimated to have declined from 0.91 (95% CRI [0.76–0.97] in 2009 to just 0.46 (95% CRI [0.24–0.76] in 2013. Rainbow Trout survival was most strongly affected by spawning. The annual interval survival probability was 0.77 (95% CRI [0.68–0.85] for a non-spawning Rainbow Trout compared to 0.41 (95% CRI [0.30–0.53] for a spawner. The probability of spawning increased with the fork length for both species and decreased over the course of the study for Rainbow Trout. Discussion Fishing mortality was relatively low and constant while natural mortality was relatively high and variable. The results indicate that angler effort is not the primary driver of short-term population fluctations in the Rainbow Trout abundance. Variation in the probability of Rainbow Trout spawning suggests that the spring escapement at the outflow of Trout Lake may be a less reliable index of abundance than

  16. Evidence of climate-induced range contractions in bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in a Rocky Mountain watershed, U.S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A Eby

    Full Text Available Many freshwater fish species are considered vulnerable to stream temperature warming associated with climate change because they are ectothermic, yet there are surprisingly few studies documenting changes in distributions. Streams and rivers in the U.S. Rocky Mountains have been warming for several decades. At the same time these systems have been experiencing an increase in the severity and frequency of wildfires, which often results in habitat changes including increased water temperatures. We resampled 74 sites across a Rocky Mountain watershed 17 to 20 years after initial samples to determine whether there were trends in bull trout occurrence associated with temperature, wildfire, or other habitat variables. We found that site abandonment probabilities (0.36 were significantly higher than colonization probabilities (0.13, which indicated a reduction in the number of occupied sites. Site abandonment probabilities were greater at low elevations with warm temperatures. Other covariates, such as the presence of wildfire, nonnative brook trout, proximity to areas with many adults, and various stream habitat descriptors, were not associated with changes in probability of occupancy. Higher abandonment probabilities at low elevation for bull trout provide initial evidence validating the predictions made by bioclimatic models that bull trout populations will retreat to higher, cooler thermal refuges as water temperatures increase. The geographic breadth of these declines across the region is unknown but the approach of revisiting historical sites using an occupancy framework provides a useful template for additional assessments.

  17. An ecological risk assessment of the acute and chronic toxicity of the herbicide picloram to the threatened bull trout (salvelinus confluentus) and the rainbow trout (onchorhyncus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, J.F.; Feltz, K.P.; Sappington, L.C.; Allert, A.L.; Nelson, K.J.; Valle, J.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted acute and chronic toxicity studies of the effects of picloram acid on the threatened bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and the standard coldwater surrogate rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Juvenile fish were chronically exposed for 30 days in a proportional flow-through diluter to measured concentrations of 0, 0.30, 0.60, 1.18, 2.37, and 4.75 mg/L picloram. No mortality of either species was observed at the highest concentration. Bull trout were twofold more sensitive to picloram (30-day maximum acceptable toxic concentration of 0.80 mg/L) compared to rainbow trout (30-day maximum acceptable toxic concentration of 1.67 mg/L) based on the endpoint of growth. Picloram was acutely toxic to rainbow trout at 36 mg/L (96-h ALC50). The acute:chronic ratio for rainbow trout exposed to picloram was 22. The chronic toxicity of picloram was compared to modeled and measured environmental exposure concentrations (EECs) using a four-tiered system. The Tier 1, worst-case exposure estimate, based on a direct application of the current maximum use rate (1.1 kg/ha picloram) to a standardized aquatic ecosystem (water body of 1-ha area and 1-m depth), resulted in an EEC of 0.73 mg/L picloram and chronic risk quotients of 0.91 and 0.44 for bull trout and rainbow trout, respectively. Higher-tiered exposure estimates reduced chronic risk quotients 10-fold. Results of this study indicate that picloram, if properly applied according to the manufacturer's label, poses little risk to the threatened bull trout or rainbow trout in northwestern rangeland environments on either an acute or a chronic basis. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  18. GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF TROUT FARMING IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güven ŞAHİN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Turkey is a peninsula, surrounded by seas on three sides, with a total coastline of 8.333km. As a result of its heritage from ancient inland living culture, Turkey has a limited development in fishery production. However, there have been significant efforts in developing Trout Farming, compared to the other aquaculture products in Turkey. The recent developments in trout farming in Turkey have led to an increase in trout productions, providing alternatives for public nutrition. This study aims to assess the geographical distribution of trout farming and trout fish consumption in Turkey.

  19. Assessing the impacts of river regulation on native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) habitats in the upper Flathead River, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Jones, Leslie A.; Kotter, D.; Miller, William J.; Geise, Doran; Tohtz, Joel; Marotz, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Hungry Horse Dam on the South Fork Flathead River, Montana, USA, has modified the natural flow regimen for power generation, flood risk management and flow augmentation for anadromous fish recovery in the Columbia River. Concern over the detrimental effects of dam operations on native resident fishes prompted research to quantify the impacts of alternative flow management strategies on threatened bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) habitats. Seasonal and life‐stage specific habitat suitability criteria were combined with a two‐dimensional hydrodynamic habitat model to assess discharge effects on usable habitats. Telemetry data used to construct seasonal habitat suitability curves revealed that subadult (fish that emigrated from natal streams to the river system) bull trout move to shallow, low‐velocity shoreline areas at night, which are most sensitive to flow fluctuations. Habitat time series analyses comparing the natural flow regimen (predam, 1929–1952) with five postdam flow management strategies (1953–2008) show that the natural flow conditions optimize the critical bull trout habitats and that the current strategy best resembles the natural flow conditions of all postdam periods. Late summer flow augmentation for anadromous fish recovery, however, produces higher discharges than predam conditions, which reduces the availability of usable habitat during this critical growing season. Our results suggest that past flow management policies that created sporadic streamflow fluctuations were likely detrimental to resident salmonids and that natural flow management strategies will likely improve the chances of protecting key ecosystem processes and help to maintain and restore threatened bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout populations in the upper Columbia River Basin.

  20. Sampling large geographic areas for rare species using environmental DNA: a study of bull trout Salvelinus confluentus occupancy in western Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, K S; Young, M K; Knotek, W L; Carim, K J; Wilcox, T M; Padgett-Stewart, T M; Schwartz, M K

    2016-03-01

    This study tested the efficacy of environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling to delineate the distribution of bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in headwater streams in western Montana, U.S.A. Surveys proved fast, reliable and sensitive: 124 samples were collected across five basins by a single crew in c. 8 days. Results were largely consistent with past electrofishing, but, in a basin where S. confluentus were known to be scarce, eDNA samples indicated that S. confluentus were more broadly distributed than previously thought.

  1. Cooperative Recovery Initiative: Bull Trout Restoration: Restoring Cold, Clean, Complex and Connected Habitat in the Blackfoot River Watershed of Montana Interim Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Habitat degradation and the effects of climate change are the biggest threats to bull trout in the Blackfoot River watershed of Montana. Montana Fish, Wildlife &...

  2. Cooperative Recovery Initiative: Bull Trout Restoration: Restoring Cold, Clean, Complex and Connected Habitat in the Blackfoot River Watershed of Montana Interim Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Habitat degradation and the effects of climate change are the biggest threats to bull trout in the Blackfoot River watershed of Montana. Montana Fish, Wildlife...

  3. A framework for assessing the feasibility of native fish conservation translocations: Applications to threatened bull trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Benjamin T.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Guy, Christopher S.; Downs, Christopher C.; Fredenberg, Wade A.

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need to consider more aggressive and direct interventions for the conservation of freshwater fishes that are threatened by invasive species, habitat loss, and climate change. Conservation introduction (moving a species outside its indigenous range to other areas where conditions are predicted to be more suitable) is one type of translocation strategy that fisheries managers can use to establish new conservation populations in areas of refugia. To date, however, there are few examples of successful conservation-based introductions. Many attempts fail to establish new populations—in part because environmental factors that might influence success are inadequately evaluated before the translocation is implemented. We developed a framework to assess the feasibility of rescuing threatened fish populations through translocation into historically unoccupied stream and lake habitats. The suitability of potential introduction sites was evaluated based on four major components: the recipient habitat, recipient community, donor population, and future threats. Specific questions were then developed to evaluate each major component. The final assessment was based on a scoring system that addressed each question by using criteria developed from characteristics representative of highly suitable habitats and populations. This framework was used to evaluate the proposed within-drainage translocation of three Bull Trout Salvelinus confluentus populations in Glacier National Park, Montana. Our results indicated that within-drainage translocation is a feasible strategy for conserving locally adapted populations of Bull Trout through the creation of new areas of refugia in Glacier National Park. The framework provides a flexible platform that can help managers make informed decisions for moving threatened fishes into new areas of refugia for conservation and recovery programs.

  4. Evaluation of the Life History of Native Salmonids in the Malheur River Basin; Cooperative Bull Trout/Redband Trout Research Project, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Alan; Soupir, Jim (US Forest Service, Prairie City Ranger District, Prairie City, OR); Schwabe, Lawrence (Burns Paiute Tribe, Department of Fish and Wildlife, Burns, OR)

    2003-08-01

    The Malheur River is a 306-kilometer tributary to the Snake River, which drains 12,950 square kilometers. The Malheur River originates in the Blue Mountains and flows into the Snake River near Ontario, Oregon. The climate of the basin is characterized by hot dry summers, occasionally exceeding 38 C, and cold winters that may drop below -29 C. Average annual precipitation is 30 centimeters in the lower reaches. Wooded areas consist primarily of mixed fir and pine forest in the higher elevations. Sagebrush and grass communities dominate the flora in the lower elevations. Efforts to document salmonid life histories, water quality, and habitat conditions have continued in fiscal year 2002. Bull trout Salvelinus confluentus are considered to be cold water species and are temperature-dependant. Due to the interest of bull trout from various state and Federal agencies, a workgroup was formed to develop project objectives related to bull trout. Table 1 lists individuals that participated in the 2002 work group. This report will reflect work completed during the Bonneville Power Administration contract period starting April 1, 2002, and ending March 31, 2003. All tasks were conducted within this timeframe, and a more detailed timeframe may be referred to in each individual report.

  5. Assessing the feasibility of native fish reintroductions: a framework applied to threatened bull trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Jason B.; Gallo, Kirsten; Shively, Dan; Allen, Chris; Goehring, Brad

    2011-01-01

    Translocations to recover native fishes have resulted in mixed success. One reason for the failure of these actions is inadequate assessments of their feasibility prior to implementation. Here, we provide a framework developed to assess the feasibility of one type of translocation-reintroduction. The framework was founded on two simple components of feasibility: the potential for recipient habitats to support a reintroduction and the potential of available donor populations to support a reintroduction. Within each component, we developed a series of key questions. The final assessment was based on a scoring system that incorporated consideration of uncertainty in available information. The result was a simple yet transparent system for assessing reintroduction feasibility that can be rapidly applied in practice. We applied this assessment framework to the potential reintroduction of threatened bull trout Salvelinus confluentus into the Clackamas River, Oregon. In this case, the assessment suggested that the degree of feasibility for reintroduction was high based on the potential of recipient habitats and available donor populations. The assessment did not provide a comprehensive treatment of all possible factors that would drive an actual decision to implement a reintroduction,

  6. Evaluation of the Life History of Native Salmonids in the Malheur River Basin; Cooperative Bull Trout/Redband Trout Research Project, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, Dan; Schwabe, Lawrence; Wenick, Jess (Burns Paiute Tribe, Department of Fish and Wildlife, Burns, OR)

    2001-08-01

    The Malheur basin lies within southeastern Oregon. The Malheur River is a tributary to the Snake River, entering at about River Kilometer (RK) 595. The hydrological drainage area of the Malheur River is approximately 12,950 km{sup 2} and is roughly 306 km in length. The headwaters of the Malheur River originate in the Blue Mountains at elevations of 6,500 to 7,500 feet, and drops to an elevation of 2000 feet at the confluence with the Snake River near Ontario, Oregon. The climate of the Malheur basin is characterized by hot dry summers, occasionally exceeding 38 C and cold winters that may drop below -29 C. Average annual precipitation is 300 centimeters and ranges from 100 centimeters in the upper mountains to less than 25 centimeters in the lower reaches (Gonzalez 1999). Wooded areas consist primarily of mixed fir and pine forest in the higher elevations. Sagebrush and grass communities dominate the flora in the lower elevations. Efforts to document salmonid life histories, water quality, and habitat conditions have continued in fiscal year 2000. The Burns Paiute Tribe (BPT), United States Forest Service (USFS), and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), have been working cooperatively to achieve this common goal. Bull trout ''Salvenlinus confluentus'' have specific environmental requirements and complex life histories making them especially susceptible to human activities that alter their habitat (Howell and Buchanan 1992). Bull trout are considered to be a cold-water species and are temperature dependent. This presents a challenge for managers, biologists, and private landowners in the Malheur basin. Because of the listing of bull trout under the Endangered Species Act as threatened and the current health of the landscape, a workgroup was formed to develop project objectives related to bull trout. This report will reflect work completed during the Bonneville Power contract period starting 1 April 2000 and ending 31 March 2001. The

  7. Using accelerated life testing procedures to compare the relative sensitivity of rainbow trout and the federally listed threatened bull trout to three commonly used rangeland herbicides (picloram, 2,4-D, and clopyralid)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, J.F.; Allert, A.; Sappington, L.S.; Nelson, K.J.; Valle, J.

    2008-01-01

    We conducted 96-h static acute toxicity studies to evaluate the relative sensitivity of juveniles of the threatened bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and the standard cold-water surrogate rainbow trout (Onchorhyncus mykiss) to three rangeland herbicides commonly used for controlling invasive weeds in the northwestern United States. Relative species sensitivity was compared using three procedures: standard acute toxicity testing, fractional estimates of lethal concentrations, and accelerated life testing chronic estimation procedures. The acutely lethal concentrations (ALC) resulting in 50% mortality at 96 h (96-h ALC50s) were determined using linear regression and indicated that the three herbicides were toxic in the order of picloram acid > 2,4-D acid > clopyralid acid. The 96-h ALC50 values for rainbow trout were as follows: picloram, 41 mg/L; 2.4-D, 707 mg/L; and clopyralid, 700 mg/L. The 96-h ALC50 values for bull trout were as follows: picloram, 24 mg/L; 2.4-D, 398 mg/L; and clopyralid, 802 mg/L. Fractional estimates of safe concentrations, based on 5% of the 96-h ALC50, were conservative (overestimated toxicity) of regression-derived 96-h ALC5 values by an order of magnitude. Accelerated life testing procedures were used to estimate chronic lethal concentrations (CLC) resulting in 1% mortality at 30 d (30-d CLC1) for the three herbicides: picloram (1 mg/L rainbow trout, 5 mg/L bull trout), 2,4-D (56 mg/L rainbow trout, 84 mg/L bull trout), and clopyralid (477 mg/L rainbow trout; 552 mg/L bull trout). Collectively, the results indicated that the standard surrogate rainbow trout is similar in sensitivity to bull trout. Accelerated life testing procedures provided cost-effective, statistically defensible methods for estimating safe chronic concentrations (30-d CLC1s) of herbicides from acute toxicity data because they use statistical models based on the entire mortality:concentration: time data matrix. ?? 2008 SETAC.

  8. Movement of bull trout in the upper Jarbidge River watershed, Idaho and Nevada, 2008-09--A supplement to Open-File Report 2010-1033

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munz, Carrie S.; Allen, M. Brady; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    We monitored bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in 2008 and 2009 as a continuation of our work in 2006 and 2007, which involved the tagging of 1,536 bull trout with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags in the East Fork Jarbidge River and West Fork Jarbidge River and their tributaries in northeastern Nevada and southern Idaho. We installed PIT tag interrogation systems (PTISs) at established locations soon after ice-out, and maintained the PTISs in order to collect information on bull trout movements through December of each year. We observed a marked increase of movement in 2008 and 2009. Bull trout tagged in the uppermost portions of the East Fork Jarbidge River at altitudes greater than 2,100 meters moved to the confluence of the East Fork Jarbidge River and West Fork Jarbidge River in summer and autumn. Ten bull trout tagged upstream of the confluence of Pine Creek and the West Fork Jarbidge River moved downstream and then upstream in the East Fork Jarbidge River, and then past the PTIS at Murphy Hot Springs (river kilometer [rkm] 4.1). Two of these fish ascended Dave Creek, a tributary of the East Fork Jarbidge River, past the PTIS at rkm 0.4. One bull trout that was tagged at rkm 11 in Dave Creek on June 28, 2007 moved downstream to the confluence of the East Fork Jarbidge River and West Fork Jarbidge River (rkm 0) on July 28, 2007, and it was then detected in the West Fork Jarbidge River moving past our PTIS at rkm 15 on May 4, 2008. Combined, the extent and types of bull trout movements observed indicated that the primarily age-1 and age-2 bull trout that we tagged in 2006 and 2007 showed increased movement with age and evidence of a substantial amount of fluvial life history. The movements suggest strong connectivity between spawning areas and downstream mainstem areas, as well as between the East Fork Jarbidge River and West Fork Jarbidge River.

  9. Lahontan Cutthroat Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for LAHONTAN CUTTHROAT TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on...

  10. Westslope Cutthroat Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for WESTSLOPE CUTTHROAT TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on...

  11. Yellowstone Cutthroat Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for YELLOWSTONE CUTTHROAT TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based...

  12. Brook Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for BROOK TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  13. Redband Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for REDBAND TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear...

  14. Rainbow Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for RAINBOW TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear...

  15. Brown Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for BROWN TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  16. Estimating thermal regimes of bull trout and assessing the potential effects of climate warming on critical habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Leslie A.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Marshall, Lucy A.; McGlynn, Brian L.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the vulnerability of aquatic species and habitats under climate change is critical for conservation and management of freshwater systems. Climate warming is predicted to increase water temperatures in freshwater ecosystems worldwide, yet few studies have developed spatially explicit modelling tools for understanding the potential impacts. We parameterized a nonspatial model, a spatial flow-routed model, and a spatial hierarchical model to predict August stream temperatures (22-m resolution) throughout the Flathead River Basin, USA and Canada. Model comparisons showed that the spatial models performed significantly better than the nonspatial model, explaining the spatial autocorrelation found between sites. The spatial hierarchical model explained 82% of the variation in summer mean (August) stream temperatures and was used to estimate thermal regimes for threatened bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) habitats, one of the most thermally sensitive coldwater species in western North America. The model estimated summer thermal regimes of spawning and rearing habitats at <13 C° and foraging, migrating, and overwintering habitats at <14 C°. To illustrate the useful application of such a model, we simulated climate warming scenarios to quantify potential loss of critical habitats under forecasted climatic conditions. As air and water temperatures continue to increase, our model simulations show that lower portions of the Flathead River Basin drainage (foraging, migrating, and overwintering habitat) may become thermally unsuitable and headwater streams (spawning and rearing) may become isolated because of increasing thermal fragmentation during summer. Model results can be used to focus conservation and management efforts on populations of concern, by identifying critical habitats and assessing thermal changes at a local scale.

  17. Relationships between water temperatures and upstream migration, cold water refuge use, and spawning of adult bull trout from the Lostine River, Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, P.J.; Dunham, J.B.; Sankovich, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding thermal habitat use by migratory fish has been limited by difficulties in matching fish locations with water temperatures. To describe spatial and temporal patterns of thermal habitat use by migratory adult bull trout, Salvelinus confluentus, that spawn in the Lostine River, Oregon, we employed a combination of archival temperature tags, radio tags, and thermographs. We also compared temperatures of the tagged fish to ambient water temperatures to determine if the fish were using thermal refuges. The timing and temperatures at which fish moved upstream from overwintering areas to spawning locations varied considerably among individuals. The annual maximum 7-day average daily maximum (7DADM) temperatures of tagged fish were 16-18 ??C and potentially as high as 21 ??C. Maximum 7DADM ambient water temperatures within the range of tagged fish during summer were 18-25 ??C. However, there was no evidence of the tagged fish using localized cold water refuges. Tagged fish appeared to spawn at 7DADM temperatures of 7-14 ??C. Maximum 7DADM temperatures of tagged fish and ambient temperatures at the onset of the spawning period in late August were 11-18 ??C. Water temperatures in most of the upper Lostine River used for spawning and rearing appear to be largely natural since there has been little development, whereas downstream reaches used by migratory bull trout are heavily diverted for irrigation. Although the population effects of these temperatures are unknown, summer temperatures and the higher temperatures observed for spawning fish appear to be at or above the upper range of suitability reported for the species. Published 2009. This article is a US Governmentwork and is in the public domain in the USA.

  18. 75 FR 2269 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Designation of Critical Habitat for Bull...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... Breeding, Reproduction, or Rearing (or Development) of Offspring Bull trout have more specific habitat... Designation of Critical Habitat for Bull Trout in the Coterminous United States; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal... Designation of Critical Habitat for Bull Trout in the Coterminous United States AGENCY: Fish and...

  19. Landscape models of brook trout abundance and distribution in lotic habitat with field validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, James E.; Johnson, James H.

    2011-01-01

    Brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis are native fish in decline owing to environmental changes. Predictions of their potential distribution and a better understanding of their relationship to habitat conditions would enhance the management and conservation of this valuable species. We used over 7,800 brook trout observations throughout New York State and georeferenced, multiscale landscape condition data to develop four regionally specific artificial neural network models to predict brook trout abundance in rivers and streams. Land cover data provided a general signature of human activity, but other habitat variables were resistant to anthropogenic changes (i.e., changing on a geological time scale). The resulting models predict the potential for any stream to support brook trout. The models were validated by holding 20% of the data out as a test set and by comparison with additional field collections from a variety of habitat types. The models performed well, explaining more than 90% of data variability. Errors were often associated with small spatial displacements of predicted values. When compared with the additional field collections (39 sites), 92% of the predictions were off by only a single class from the field-observed abundances. Among “least-disturbed” field collection sites, all predictions were correct or off by a single abundance class, except for one where brown trout Salmo trutta were present. Other degrading factors were evident at most sites where brook trout were absent or less abundant than predicted. The most important habitat variables included landscape slope, stream and drainage network sizes, water temperature, and extent of forest cover. Predicted brook trout abundances were applied to all New York streams, providing a synoptic map of the distribution of brook trout habitat potential. These fish models set benchmarks of best potential for streams to support brook trout under broad-scale human influences and can assist with planning and

  20. Predicting spatial distribution of postfire debris flows and potential consequences for native trout in headwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedell, Edwin R; Gresswell, Bob; McMahon, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation and degradation and invasion of nonnative species have restricted the distribution of native trout. Many trout populations are limited to headwater streams where negative effects of predicted climate change, including reduced stream flow and increased risk of catastrophic fires, may further jeopardize their persistence. Headwater streams in steep terrain are especially susceptible to disturbance associated with postfire debris flows, which have led to local extirpation of trout populations in some systems. We conducted a reach-scale spatial analysis of debris-flow risk among 11 high-elevation watersheds of the Colorado Rocky Mountains occupied by isolated populations of Colorado River Cutthroat Trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii pleuriticus). Stream reaches at high risk of disturbance by postfire debris flow were identified with the aid of a qualitative model based on 4 primary initiating and transport factors (hillslope gradient, flow accumulation pathways, channel gradient, and valley confinement). This model was coupled with a spatially continuous survey of trout distributions in these stream networks to assess the predicted extent of trout population disturbances related to debris flows. In the study systems, debris-flow potential was highest in the lower and middle reaches of most watersheds. Colorado River Cutthroat Trout occurred in areas of high postfire debris-flow risk, but they were never restricted to those areas. Postfire debris flows could extirpate trout from local reaches in these watersheds, but trout populations occupy refugia that should allow recolonization of interconnected, downstream reaches. Specific results of our study may not be universally applicable, but our risk assessment approach can be applied to assess postfire debris-flow risk for stream reaches in other watersheds.

  1. Distribution and dynamic habitat use of young bull sharks Carcharhinus leucas in a highly stratified northern Gulf of Mexico estuary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Marcus Drymon

    Full Text Available Understanding how animals alter habitat use in response to changing abiotic conditions is important for effective conservation management. For bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas, habitat use has been widely examined in the eastern and western Gulf of Mexico; however, knowledge of their movements and the factors influencing them is lacking for populations in the more temperate north-central Gulf of Mexico. To examine how changes in hydrographic conditions affected the presence of young bull sharks in Mobile Bay, Alabama, thirty-five sharks were fitted with internal acoustic transmitters and monitored with an acoustic monitoring array consisting of thirty-three receivers between June 2009 and December 2010. Tagged sharks ranged in size from 60 to 114 cm fork length and were detected between the upper and lower portions of Mobile Bay. Despite a variety of freshwater sources associated with this highly productive estuary, sharks were most consistently detected at the largest input to the system--the Mobile and Tensaw Rivers. Our findings suggest a combination of hydrographic factors interact to influence the distribution of juvenile bull sharks in Mobile Bay. The factors affecting the probability of detecting at least one bull shark varied both temporally (2009 vs 2010 and spatially (upper vs lower bay. Electivity analysis demonstrated that bull sharks showed highest affinity for warm water (29-32 °C, moderate salinities (10-11 psu and normoxic waters (5-7 mg/l, although these patterns were not consistent between regions or across years. We suggest future studies coupling telemetry and hydrographic variables should, when possible, consider the interactions of multiple environmental parameters when defining the dynamic factors explaining the spatial distribution of coastal sharks.

  2. Distribution and dynamic habitat use of young bull sharks Carcharhinus leucas in a highly stratified northern Gulf of Mexico estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drymon, J Marcus; Ajemian, Matthew J; Powers, Sean P

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how animals alter habitat use in response to changing abiotic conditions is important for effective conservation management. For bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas), habitat use has been widely examined in the eastern and western Gulf of Mexico; however, knowledge of their movements and the factors influencing them is lacking for populations in the more temperate north-central Gulf of Mexico. To examine how changes in hydrographic conditions affected the presence of young bull sharks in Mobile Bay, Alabama, thirty-five sharks were fitted with internal acoustic transmitters and monitored with an acoustic monitoring array consisting of thirty-three receivers between June 2009 and December 2010. Tagged sharks ranged in size from 60 to 114 cm fork length and were detected between the upper and lower portions of Mobile Bay. Despite a variety of freshwater sources associated with this highly productive estuary, sharks were most consistently detected at the largest input to the system--the Mobile and Tensaw Rivers. Our findings suggest a combination of hydrographic factors interact to influence the distribution of juvenile bull sharks in Mobile Bay. The factors affecting the probability of detecting at least one bull shark varied both temporally (2009 vs 2010) and spatially (upper vs lower bay). Electivity analysis demonstrated that bull sharks showed highest affinity for warm water (29-32 °C), moderate salinities (10-11 psu) and normoxic waters (5-7 mg/l), although these patterns were not consistent between regions or across years. We suggest future studies coupling telemetry and hydrographic variables should, when possible, consider the interactions of multiple environmental parameters when defining the dynamic factors explaining the spatial distribution of coastal sharks.

  3. Population status, distribution and potential threats of the Blue Bull Boselaphus tragocamelus (Mammalia: Cetartiodactyla: Bovidae along the Tinau River of Rupandehi District, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Aryal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The status and conservation of the Blue Bull Boselaphus tragocamelus is becoming one of the prominent discourses of wildlife research.  The study was carried out along the Tinau River at Rupandehi District in western Nepal to ascertain the population status, distribution and potential threats to the Blue Bull.  The study was conducted along six transect lines in the forest.  A total of 40 Blue Bulls were recorded in different transects.  The average group size was five.  The average population density was 0.228 Blue Bulls per ha and the sex ratio was 1 male: 3 females.  The potential threats of the Blue Bull along the Tinau River were habitat destruction, overgrazing, conflict, flooding and accident.  

  4. Geographic variability in elevation and topographic constraints on the distribution of native and nonnative trout in the Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Dana R.; Dunham, Jason B.; Hockman-Wert, David

    2014-01-01

    Understanding local and geographic factors influencing species distributions is a prerequisite for conservation planning. Our objective in this study was to model local and geographic variability in elevations occupied by native and nonnative trout in the northwestern Great Basin, USA. To this end, we analyzed a large existing data set of trout presence (5,156 observations) to evaluate two fundamental factors influencing occupied elevations: climate-related gradients in geography and local constraints imposed by topography. We applied quantile regression to model upstream and downstream distribution elevation limits for each trout species commonly found in the region (two native and two nonnative species). With these models in hand, we simulated an upstream shift in elevation limits of trout distributions to evaluate potential consequences of habitat loss. Downstream elevation limits were inversely associated with latitude, reflecting regional gradients in temperature. Upstream limits were positively related to maximum stream elevation as expected. Downstream elevation limits were constrained topographically by valley bottom elevations in northern streams but not in southern streams, where limits began well above valley bottoms. Elevation limits were similar among species. Upstream shifts in elevation limits for trout would lead to more habitat loss in the north than in the south, a result attributable to differences in topography. Because downstream distributions of trout in the north extend into valley bottoms with reduced topographic relief, trout in more northerly latitudes are more likely to experience habitat loss associated with an upstream shift in lower elevation limits. By applying quantile regression to relatively simple information (species presence, elevation, geography, topography), we were able to identify elevation limits for trout in the Great Basin and explore the effects of potential shifts in these limits that could occur in response to changing

  5. Bull trout in the Boundary System: managing connectivity and the feasibility of a reintroduction in the lower Pend Oreille River, northeastern Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Jason B.; Taylor, Eric B.; Allendorf, Fred W.

    2014-01-01

    Many of the World’s rivers are influenced by large dams (>15 m high) most of which have fragmented formerly continuous habitats, and significantly altered fish passage, natural flow, temperature, and sediment fluxes (Nilsson and others, 2005; Arthington, 2012; Liermann and others, 2012). In the Pacific Northwest, dams on major rivers have been a major focus for fishery managers, primarily in regard to passage of anadromous salmonids (principally Pacific salmon and steelhead trout [Oncorhynchus mykiss], for example, Ferguson and others, 2011), but more recently other species, such as Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus) and resident (non-anadromous) salmonids, are receiving more attention (Neraas and Spruell, 2001; Moser and others, 2002; Muhlfeld and others, 2012). In the case of resident salmonids, fish can adopt a wide range of migratory behaviors that often bring them into mainstem rivers where they can come into direct contact with large dams. When this occurs, some of the most important direct effects of dams on salmonids include barriers to upstream and downstream movement and mortality associated with entrainment within the dam or spill over dams. Biologically, these direct impacts can lead to (1) disruption of natural historical (pre-dam) genetic and demographic connectivity among local populations, (2) loss of access to historically used migratory destinations, (3) loss of individuals to the population through mortality associated with entrainment.

  6. Histochemical distribution of zinc in the brain of the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchos myciss. I. The telencephalon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piñuela, C; Baatrup, E; Geneser, F A

    1992-01-01

    The present paper which describes the distribution of zinc in the telencephalon of the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchos myciss, is the first report on the distribution of a heavy metal in the fish brain. Zinc was demonstrated histochemically by silver enhancement using the Neo-Timm method. The staining...... of cytoarchitectural features. However, the telencephalon stained much more weakly than the rest of the brain, in striking contrast to the situation in the reptilian, mammalian, and avian brain. In these classes, high staining intensities are observed almost exclusively in the telencephalon. The staining...... was essentially restricted to the nuclei of the ventral telencephalic area. In the dorsal telencephalic area, only the medial and central zones and medial part of the posterior zone showed comparable staining intensities. The Neo-Timm staining pattern lends support to the view that the pallio-subpallial boundary...

  7. Effects of diet composition and ultrasound treatment on particle size distribution and carbon bioavailability in feces of rainbow trout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meriac, A.; Tilburg, van T.; Eding, E.H.; Kamstra, A.; Schrama, J.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of a high and low non-starch polysaccharide diet (HNSP and LNSP diet) and ultrasound treatment on particle size distribution and carbon bioavailability in fecal waste of rainbow trout (Oncorynchus mykiss) was studied. Feces were collected from four flow-through fish tanks, two tanks fed t

  8. Influences of summer water temperatures on the movement, distribution, and resources use of fluvial Westslope Cutthroat Trout in the South Fork Clearwater River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobos, Marika E.; Corsi, Matthew P.; Schill, Daniel J.; DuPont, Joseph M.; Quist, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Although many Westslope Cutthroat Trout Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi populations in Idaho are robust and stable, population densities in some systems remain below management objectives. In many of those systems, such as in the South Fork Clearwater River (SFCR) system, environmental conditions (e.g., summer temperatures) are hypothesized to limit populations of Westslope Cutthroat Trout. Radiotelemetry and snorkeling methods were used to describe seasonal movement patterns, distribution, and habitat use of Westslope Cutthroat Trout in the SFCR during the summers of 2013 and 2014. Sixty-six radio transmitters were surgically implanted into Westslope Cutthroat Trout (170–405 mm TL) from May 30–June 25, 2013, and June 20–July 6, 2014. Sedentary and mobile summer movement patterns by Westslope Cutthroat Trout were observed in the SFCR. Westslope Cutthroat Trout were generally absent from the lower SFCR. In the upper region of the SFCR, fish generally moved from the main-stem SFCR into tributaries as water temperatures increased during the summer. Fish remained in the middle region of the SFCR where water temperatures were cooler than in the upper or lower regions of the SFCR. A spatially explicit water temperature model indicated that the upper and lower regions of the SFCR exceeded thermal tolerance levels of Westslope Cutthroat Trout throughout the summer. During snorkeling, 23 Westslope Cutthroat Trout were observed in 13 sites along the SFCR and at low density (mean ± SD, 0.0003 ± 0.0001 fish/m2). The distribution of fish observed during snorkeling was consistent with the distribution of radio-tagged fish in the SFCR during the summer. Anthropogenic activities (i.e., grazing, mining, road construction, and timber harvest) in the SFCR basin likely altered the natural flow dynamics and temperature regime and thereby limited stream habitat in the SFCR system for Westslope Cutthroat Trout.

  9. Proliferative kidney disease in rainbow trout: time- and temperature-related renal pathology and parasite distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettge, Kathrin; Wahli, Thomas; Segner, Helmut; Schmidt-Posthaus, Heike

    2009-01-28

    Proliferative kidney disease is a parasitic infection of salmonid fishes caused by Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae. The main target organ of the parasite in the fish is the kidney. To investigate the influence of water temperature on the disease in fish, rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss infected with T bryosalmonae were kept at 12 degrees C and 18 degrees C. The number of parasites, the type and degree of lesions in the kidney and the mortality rate was evaluated from infection until full development of disease. While mortality stayed low at 12 degrees C, it reached 77% at 18 degrees C. At 12 degrees C, pathological lesions were dominated by a multifocal proliferative and granulomatous interstitial nephritis. This was accompanied by low numbers of T. bryosalmonae, mainly located in the interstitial lesions. With progression of the disease, small numbers of parasites appeared in the excretory tubuli, and parasite DNA was detected in the urine. Parasite degeneration in the interstitium was observed at late stages of the disease. At 18 degrees C, pathological lesions in kidneys were more severe and more widely distributed, and accompanied by significantly higher parasite numbers. Distribution of parasites in the renal compartments, onset of parasite degeneration and time course of appearance of parasite DNA in urine were not clearly different from the 12 degrees C group. These findings indicate that higher mortality at 18 degrees C compared to 12 degrees C is associated with an enhanced severity of renal pathology and increased parasite numbers.

  10. Distribution of individual inbreeding coefficients, relatedness and influence of stocking on native anadromous brown trout ( Salmo trutta ) population structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzzante, D.E.; Hansen, Michael Møller; Meldrup, Dorte

    2001-01-01

    We examined polymorphism at seven microsatellite loci in 4023 brown trout (Salmo trutta) collected from 32 tributaries to the Limfjord, Denmark (similar to 200 km) and from two hatcheries used for stocking. Populations differ in their estimated sizes and stocking histories. Mean individual...... inbreeding coefficients do not differ among locations within rivers. Relatedness varies between sites within rivers indicating varied local dynamics at a very small geographical scale. Relatedness is sometimes lower than expected among an equal number of simulated individuals with randomized genotypes...... is true of the eastern, more heavily stocked, area of the Limfjord. Here, a higher proportion of the genetic variance is distributed among locations within rivers than among rivers. Assignment tests reveal that the majority of trout (mean 77% of all fish) are more probably of local origin than hatchery...

  11. Distribution of T Cells in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Skin and Responsiveness to Viral Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Esther; Granja, Aitor G.; Zarza, Carlos; Tafalla, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Although the skin constitutes the first line of defense against waterborne pathogens, there is a great lack of information regarding the skin associated lymphoid tissue (SALT) and whether immune components of the skin are homogeneously distributed through the surface of the fish is still unknown. In the current work, we have analyzed the transcription of several immune genes throughout different rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) skin areas. We found that immunoglobulin and chemokine gene transcription levels were higher in a skin area close to the gills. Furthermore, this skin area as well as other anterior sections also transcribed significantly higher levels of many different immune genes related to T cell immunity such as T cell receptor α (TCRα), TCRγ, CD3, CD4, CD8, perforin, GATA3, Tbet, FoxP3, interferon γ (IFNγ), CD40L and Eomes in comparison to posterior skin sections. In agreement with these results, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that anterior skin areas had a higher concentration of CD3+ T cells and flow cytometry analysis confirmed that the percentage of CD8+ T lymphocytes was also higher in anterior skin sections. These results demonstrate for the first time that T cells are not homogeneously distributed throughout the teleost skin. Additionally, we studied the transcriptional regulation of these and additional T cell markers in response to a bath infection with viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). We found that VHSV regulated the transcription of several of these T cell markers in both the skin and the spleen; with some differences between anterior and posterior skin sections. Altogether, our results point to skin T cells as major players of teleost skin immunity in response to waterborne viral infections. PMID:26808410

  12. Preparation and anatomical distribution study of 67Ga-alginic acid nanoparticles for SPECT purposes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidarieh Marzieh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ergosan contains 1% alginic acid extracted from two brown sea weeds. Little is known about the target organs and anatomical distribution of Ergosan (alginic acid in fish. Therefore, feasibility of developing alginic acid nanoparticles to detect target organ in rainbow trout is interesting. To make nanoparticles, Ergosan extract (alginic acid was irradiated at 30 kGy in a cobalt-60 irradiator and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Results from TEM images showed that particle sizes of irradiated alginic acid ranged from 30 to 70 nm. The FTIR results indicated that gamma irradiation had no significant influence on the basic structure of alginic acid. Later, alginic acid nanoparticles were successively labelled with 67Ga-gallium chloride. The biodistribution of irradiated Ergosan in normal rainbow trout showed highest uptake in intestine and kidney and then in liver and kidney at 4- and 24-h post injection, respectively. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT images also demonstrated target specific binding of the tracer at 4- and 24-h post injection. In conclusion, the feed supplemented with alginic acid nanoparticles enhanced SPECT images of gastrointestinal morphology and immunity system in normal rainbow trout.

  13. Broad-scale patterns of Brook Trout responses to introduced Brown Trout in New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, James E.; Slattery, Michael T.; Kean M. Clifford,

    2013-01-01

    Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis and Brown Trout Salmo trutta are valuable sport fish that coexist in many parts of the world due to stocking introductions. Causes for the decline of Brook Trout within their native range are not clear but include competition with Brown Trout, habitat alteration, and repetitive stocking practices. New York State contains a large portion of the Brook Trout's native range, where both species are maintained by stocking and other management actions. We used artificial neural network models, regression, principal components analysis, and simulation to evaluate the effects of Brown Trout, environmental conditions, and stocking on the distribution of Brook Trout in the center of their native range. We found evidence for the decline of Brook Trout in the presence of Brown Trout across many watersheds; 22% of sampled reaches where both species were expected to occur contained only Brown Trout. However, a model of the direct relationship between Brook Trout and Brown Trout abundance explained less than 1% of data variation. Ordination showed extensive overlap of Brook Trout and Brown Trout habitat conditions, with only small components of the hypervolume (multidimensional space) being distinctive. Subsequent analysis indicated higher abundances of Brook Trout in highly forested areas, while Brown Trout were more abundant in areas with relatively high proportions of agriculture. Simulation results indicated that direct interactions and habitat conditions were relatively minor factors compared with the effects of repeated stocking of Brown Trout into Brook Trout habitat. Intensive annual stocking of Brown Trout could eliminate resident Brook Trout in less than a decade. Ecological differences, harvest behavior, and other habitat changes can exacerbate Brook Trout losses. Custom stocking scenarios with Brown Trout introductions at relatively low proportions of resident Brook Trout populations may be able to sustain healthy populations of both

  14. Red Bull Crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Additives make Red Bull the first company to test China’s new Food Safety Law "Drink Red Bull when you feel sleepy or tired" is a famous advertising slogan well-known to Chinese. But a recent German

  15. Distribution of /sup 14/C-ochratoxin A in the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, R.; Appelgren, L.-E.; Hult, K.

    1986-01-01

    The nephrotoxic mycotoxin ochratoxin A was studied in rainbow trout by whole-body autoradiography and scintillation counting using /sup 14/C-labelled toxin. After one single intravenous injection of 10 ..mu..Ci fish, corresponding to 160 ng toxin/g body weight, the tissue affinity was studied during an eight day period. As soon as 5 min. after injection the concentration of the radioactivity in the blood had dropped to one tenth of that in the kidney and the urinary bladder. The autoradiograms showed two patterns of blackening in the kidney, one diffuse in the pronephros and one very strong blackening in the opistonephros. In addition to the kidney very high concentrations of radioactivity were also noticed in the bile and the pseudobranch. The muscular tissue of treated trouts contained almost no radioactivity during the whole experiment. Chemical analysis revealed that the radioactivity that could be extracted from the organs was mainly ochratoxin A.

  16. THE EFFECT OF TRANSITION FROM EUROP 5-POINT SCALE TO 15-POINT SCALE BEEF CARCASS CLASSIFICATION ON CARCASS DISTRIBUTION OF YOUNG SLAUGHTERED BULLS IN SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvester Žgur

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2007, the EUROP 15-point scale of carcass conformation and fatness classification system was introduced in Slovenia and replaced existing 5-point scale. Data (carcass weight, carcass conformation and fatness from Slovenian commercial slaughterhouses were collected from January 2005 to December 2013. In total, data from 374,122 animals were used. The analysis was conducted for the category of young bulls from 12 to less than 24 months of age. In the first year after the transition, the classifiers preferentially used 0 classes in classification of carcass conformation and carcass fatness as well. In period 2008 - 2009 the classifiers adapted the new scale and started to use + and – subclasses more frequently. The distribution of conformation and fatness subclasses was brought near normal distribution.

  17. Behavioral avoidance: Possible mechanism for explaining abundanc and distribution of trout species in a metal-impacted river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James A.; Woodward, Daniel F.; Little, Edward E.; DeLonay, Aaron J.; Bergman, Harold L.

    1999-01-01

    Behavioral avoidance of metal mixtures by rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was determined in the laboratory under water quality conditions that simulated the upper Clark Fork River, Montana, USA. A metal mixture with a fixed ratio of observed ambient metal concentrations (12 μg/L Cu:1.1 μg/L Cd:3.2 μg/L Pb:50 μg/L Zn) was used to determine avoidance in a countercurrent avoidance chamber. Rainbow trout avoided all metal concentrations tested from 10 to 1,000% of the simulated ambient metal mixture. The behavioral response of rainbow trout to the metal mixture was more sensitive than the response of brown trout (Salmo trutta) previously reported from the same laboratory under the same experimental conditions. Additionally, rainbow trout that were acclimated to the simulated ambient metal mixture for 45 d preferred clean water and avoided higher metal concentrations. Therefore, our laboratory experiments on the behavioral avoidance responses of rainbow trout, as well as previously reported experiments on brown trout, show that both species will avoid typical metal concentrations observed on the Clark Fork River. And the greater sensitivity of rainbow trout to the metal mixture may explain, in part, why rainbow trout populations appear to be more severely affected, compared to brown trout populations, in the upper Clark Fork River.

  18. Suppression of invasive lake trout in an isolated backcountry lake in Glacier National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredenberg, C. R.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Guy, Christopher S.; D'Angelo, Vincent S.; Downs, Christopher C.; Syslo, John M.

    2017-01-01

    Fisheries managers have implemented suppression programmes to control non-native lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush (Walbaum), in several lakes throughout the western United States. This study determined the feasibility of experimentally suppressing lake trout using gillnets in an isolated backcountry lake in Glacier National Park, Montana, USA, for the conservation of threatened bull trout, Salvelinus confluentus (Suckley). The demographics of the lake trout population during suppression (2009–2013) were described, and those data were used to assess the effects of suppression scenarios on population growth rate (λ) using an age-structured population model. Model simulations indicated that the population was growing exponentially (λ = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.16–1.28) prior to suppression. However, suppression resulted in declining λ(0.61–0.79) for lake trout, which was concomitant with stable bull trout adult abundances. Continued suppression at or above observed exploitation levels is needed to ensure continued population declines.

  19. Chromosomal characteristics and distribution of rDNA sequences in the brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill, 1814).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliwińska-Jewsiewicka, A; Kuciński, M; Kirtiklis, L; Dobosz, S; Ocalewicz, K; Jankun, Malgorzata

    2015-08-01

    Brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill, 1814) chromosomes have been analyzed using conventional and molecular cytogenetic techniques enabling characteristics and chromosomal location of heterochromatin, nucleolus organizer regions (NORs), ribosomal RNA-encoding genes and telomeric DNA sequences. The C-banding and chromosome digestion with the restriction endonucleases demonstrated distribution and heterogeneity of the heterochromatin in the brook trout genome. DNA sequences of the ribosomal RNA genes, namely the nucleolus-forming 28S (major) and non-nucleolus-forming 5S (minor) rDNAs, were physically mapped using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and primed in situ labelling. The minor rDNA locus was located on the subtelo-acrocentric chromosome pair No. 9, whereas the major rDNA loci were dispersed on 14 chromosome pairs, showing a considerable inter-individual variation in the number and location. The major and minor rDNA loci were located at different chromosomes. Multichromosomal location (3-6 sites) of the NORs was demonstrated by silver nitrate (AgNO3) impregnation. All Ag-positive i.e. active NORs corresponded to the GC-rich blocks of heterochromatin. FISH with telomeric probe showed the presence of the interstitial telomeric site (ITS) adjacent to the NOR/28S rDNA site on the chromosome 11. This ITS was presumably remnant of the chromosome rearrangement(s) leading to the genomic redistribution of the rDNA sequences. Comparative analysis of the cytogenetic data among several related salmonid species confirmed huge variation in the number and the chromosomal location of rRNA gene clusters in the Salvelinus genome.

  20. Adapting Bulls to Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    The adaptation of bulls used for natural breeding purposes to the Gulf Coast region of the United States including all of Florida is an important topic. Nearly 40% of the U.S. cow/calf population resides in the Gulf Coast and Southeast. Thus, as A.I. is relatively rare, the number of bulls used for ...

  1. BullsEye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted; Kristensen, Janus Bager; Bagge, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    implemented primarily in shaders on the GPU. The techniques are realized in the BullsEye computer vision software. We demonstrate experimentally that BullsEye provides sub-pixel accuracy down to a tenth of a pixel, which is a significant improvement compared to the commonly used reacTIVision software....

  2. Grazing behavior and spatial distribution of feces of Young bulls in silvopastoral systems and Marandu monoculture in the Pre-Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Alves de Araújo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the grazing behavior and the spatial distribution of feces of F1 young bulls from the cross between Nellore and Guzera on pastures of Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu in silvopastoral systems composed of babassu palm (Attalea speciosa and Marandu monoculture in the Pre-Amazon region of the state of Maranhão. Animals were evaluated in four systems consisting of 0, 80, 131, 160 palms ha-1, characterizing monoculture (mono, low density of palm trees (LD, medium density of palm trees (MD and high density of palm trees (HD during the rainy (RE and dry (DE periods. Five animals (repetitions were used in each system, with 231-303 days of age and 180±15 kg body weight. Determinations of behavioral patterns were made by instant sampling, at 10 min intervals. In each system, we demarcated 50 squares of 100 m2, which served as useful area to evaluate the dispersion of feces. The grazing behavior was influenced by the sward structure, which, in turn, was influenced by densities of palm trees, due to shading. The distribution of feces was affected by both the presence of babassu plantations and periods. The silvopastoral systems made the environment more pleasant to animals, since activities considered more stressful and avoided during the daytime were performed by animals of these environments, unlike animals in the monoculture system.

  3. Patterns of hybridization among cutthroat trout and rainbow trout in northern Rocky Mountain streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, Kevin S; Young, Michael K; Wilcox, Taylor M; Bingham, Daniel M; Pilgrim, Kristine L; Schwartz, Michael K

    2016-02-01

    Introgressive hybridization between native and introduced species is a growing conservation concern. For native cutthroat trout and introduced rainbow trout in western North America, this process is thought to lead to the formation of hybrid swarms and the loss of monophyletic evolutionary lineages. Previous studies of this phenomenon, however, indicated that hybrid swarms were rare except when native and introduced forms of cutthroat trout co-occurred. We used a panel of 86 diagnostic, single nucleotide polymorphisms to evaluate the genetic composition of 3865 fish captured in 188 locations on 129 streams distributed across western Montana and northern Idaho. Although introgression was common and only 37% of the sites were occupied solely by parental westslope cutthroat trout, levels of hybridization were generally low. Of the 188 sites sampled, 73% contained ≤5% rainbow trout alleles and 58% had ≤1% rainbow trout alleles. Overall, 72% of specimens were nonadmixed westslope cutthroat trout, and an additional 3.5% were nonadmixed rainbow trout. Samples from seven sites met our criteria for hybrid swarms, that is, an absence of nonadmixed individuals and a random distribution of alleles within the sample; most (6/7) were associated with introgression by Yellowstone cutthroat trout. In streams with multiple sites, upstream locations exhibited less introgression than downstream locations. We conclude that although the widespread introduction of nonnative trout within the historical range of westslope cutthroat trout has increased the incidence of introgression, sites containing nonadmixed populations of this taxon are common and broadly distributed.

  4. Tissue distribution of zinc and subtle oxidative stress effects after dietary administration of ZnO nanoparticles to rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Mona; Fernández, Marta; Conde, Estefanía; Torrent, Fernando; Navas, José M; Fernández-Cruz, María L

    2016-05-01

    The increasing use of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) in different fields has raised concerns about the possible environmental risks associated with these NPs entering aquatic systems. In this study, using a dietary exposure route, we have analysed the tissue distribution and depuration pattern of Zn as well as any associated redox balance disturbances in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) following exposure to ZnO NPs (20-30nm). Fish were fed a diet spiked with ZnO NPs prepared from a dispersion in sunflower oil at doses of 300 or 1000mg ZnO NPs/kg feed for 10days. This uptake phase was followed by a 28days depuration phase in which fish from all groups received untreated feed. While no overt signs of toxicity were observed and no important effects in fish growth (weight and length) or in the hepatosomatic index among groups were recorded, we observed high levels of Zn bioaccumulation in the gills and intestine of exposed fish following exposure to both dose levels. Zn levels were not eliminated during the depuration phase and we have evidenced oxidative stress responses in gills associated with such long term ZnO NPs bioaccumulation and lack of elimination. Furthermore, exposures to higher doses of ZnO NPs (1000mg/kg feed) resulted in Zn distribution to the liver of fish following 10days of exposure. Fish from this exposure group experienced biochemical disturbances associated with oxidative stress in the liver and ethoxy-resorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity which may point to the ability of ZnO NPs or its ions to interfere with cytochrome P450 metabolic processes.

  5. Utilising spatial distribution in two-tank systems to investigate the level of aversiveness to crowding in farmed rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Danielle Caroline; Andersson, Madelene Åberg; Silva, Patricia Isabel Mota;

    2013-01-01

    . The aim of the present study was to apply a novel method to investigate a level of crowding that indicated aversiveness in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). In a two-tank system, where two identical tanks were connected via a doorway, it was observed that social behaviour controlled the distribution...... occupying the second tank (“crowded” tank). Here, the potential of this unequal spatial distribution for quantifying aversion to crowding was explored. Fish were stocked in three two-tank systems at a total density of 20, 40 and 80kgm−3 respectively. The number of fish in each tank was determined every...... three days throughout the duration of the experiment and the percentage of fish in the “crowded” tank was used as an indicator of the distribution pattern in the two-tank systems. The results indicated a negative relationship between the total density stocked (20, 40 and 80kgm−3) and the percentage...

  6. 29 CFR 1918.84 - Bulling cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bulling cargo. 1918.84 Section 1918.84 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.84 Bulling cargo. (a) Bulling cargo shall be done with the bull line led directly from the heel block. However, bulling may be done from...

  7. Fine-scale population structure and riverscape genetics of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) distributed continuously along headwater channel networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Yoichiro; Vokoun, Jason C.; Letcher, Benjamin H.

    2011-01-01

    Linear and heterogeneous habitat makes headwater stream networks an ideal ecosystem in which to test the influence of environmental factors on spatial genetic patterns of obligatory aquatic species. We investigated fine-scale population structure and influence of stream habitat on individual-level genetic differentiation in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) by genotyping eight microsatellite loci in 740 individuals in two headwater channel networks (7.7 and 4.4 km) in Connecticut, USA. A weak but statistically significant isolation-by-distance pattern was common in both sites. In the field, many tagged individuals were recaptured in the same 50-m reaches within a single field season (summer to fall). One study site was characterized with a hierarchical population structure, where seasonal barriers (natural falls of 1.5–2.5 m in height during summer base-flow condition) greatly reduced gene flow and perceptible spatial patterns emerged because of the presence of tributaries, each with a group of genetically distinguishable individuals. Genetic differentiation increased when pairs of individuals were separated by high stream gradient (steep channel slope) or warm stream temperature in this site, although the evidence of their influence was equivocal. In a second site, evidence for genetic clusters was weak at best, but genetic differentiation between individuals was positively correlated with number of tributary confluences. We concluded that the population-level movement of brook trout was limited in the study headwater stream networks, resulting in the fine-scale population structure (genetic clusters and clines) even at distances of a few kilometres, and gene flow was mitigated by ‘riverscape’ variables, particularly by physical barriers, waterway distance (i.e. isolation-by-distance) and the presence of tributaries.

  8. Microsatellite analyses of the trout of northwest Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, J.L.; Sage, G.K.

    2001-01-01

    The trout of northwest Mexico represent an undescribed group of fish considered part of the Oncorhynchus mykiss (Pacific trout) complex of species and subspecies. Recent genetic studies have shown these fish to have important genetic diversity and a unique evolutionary history when compared to coastal rainbow trout. Increased levels of allelic diversity have been found in this species at the southern extent of its range. In this study we describe the trout in the Sierra Madre Occidental from the rios Yaqui, Mayo, Casas Grandes and de Bavispe, and their relationship to the more southern distribution of Mexican golden trout (O. chrysogaster) using 11 microsatellite loci. Microsatellite allelic diversity in Mexican trout was high with a mean of 6.6 alleles/locus, average heterozygosity = 0.35, and a mean Fst = 0.43 for all loci combined. Microsatellite data were congruent with previously published mtDNA results showing unique panmictic population structure in the Rio Yaqui trout that differs from Pacific coastal trout and Mexican golden trout. These data also add support for the theory of headwaters transfer of trout across the Continental Divide from tributaries of the Rio de Bavispe into the Rio Casas Grandes. Rio Mayo trout share a close genetic relationship to trout in Rio Yaqui, but sample sizes from the Rio Mayo prevent significant comparisons in this study. Microsatellite analyses show significant allelic frequency differences between Rio Yaqui trout and O. chrysogaster in Sinaloa and Durango Mexico, adding further support for a unique evolutionary status for this group of northwestern Mexican trout.

  9. Danish holsteins favor bull offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Kirkeby, Carsten; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose;

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study from 2014 it was found that US Holstein cows that gave birth to heifer calves produced more milk than cows having bull calves. We wanted to assess whether this is also true for Danish cattle. Data from 578 Danish Holstein herds were analysed with a mixed effect model and contr......In a previous study from 2014 it was found that US Holstein cows that gave birth to heifer calves produced more milk than cows having bull calves. We wanted to assess whether this is also true for Danish cattle. Data from 578 Danish Holstein herds were analysed with a mixed effect model...... and contrary to the findings in the US, we found that cows produced higher volumes of milk if they had a bull calf compared to a heifer calf. We found a significantly higher milk production of 0.28% in the first lactation period for cows giving birth to a bull calf, compared to a heifer calf. This difference...... was even higher when cows gave birth to another bull calf, so having two bull calves resulted in a difference of 0.52% in milk production compared to any other combination of sex of the offspring. Furthermore, we found that farmer assisted calvings were associated with a higher milk yield. Cows...

  10. Bulling among yearling feedlot steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, R E; Jensen, R; Braddy, P M; Horton, D P; Christie, R M

    1976-09-01

    In a survey to determine the cause of illness and deaths among yearling feedlot cattle, bulling was found to be one of the major problems. During the years 1971-1974, 54,913 (2.88%) steers became bullers and represented an annual loss of around +325,000. Some of the causes of bulling were found to be hormones, either as implants or in the feed. In 1974, from 1,988 necropsies, it was determined that 83 steers died from riding injuries.

  11. Characterization of melatonin synthesis in the gastrointestinal tract of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): distribution, relation with serotonin, daily rhythms and photoperiod regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Pérez, José L; López-Patiño, Marcos A; Álvarez-Otero, Rosa; Gesto, Manuel; Soengas, José L; Míguez, Jesús M

    2016-05-01

    Melatonin is synthesized in peripheral locations of vertebrates, including the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). In teleost, information regarding this topic is scarce. Here we studied the presence and synthesis of melatonin at the rainbow trout GIT. Different sections of trout GIT (from esophagus to hindgut) were dissected out and assayed for contents of melatonin, serotonin (5-HT) and its metabolite, 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid, as well as for aanat1, aanat2 and hiomt mRNA abundance. A trout group was pinealectomized to evaluate changes in plasma and gut melatonin content. Finally, the daily profile of melatonin and 5-HT content, and aanat1, aanat2 and hiomt mRNA abundance were analyzed in gut of trout kept under normal lighting, and then under constant darkness. Melatonin was detected in all GIT regions with higher concentrations in the muscular wall than in the mucosa, a similar trend to that of 5-HT. In contrast, transcripts of melatonin synthesis enzymes were more abundant in the mucosa. Pinealectomy did not affect melatonin levels in midgut and hindgut either at day or at night. Additionally, no daily rhythms could be defined for melatonin content in gut tissues but increases during late light phase and at midnight occurred. However, aanat1, aanat2 and hiomt mRNA abundance showed clear daily rhythms with peaks at night. These rhythms remained with a 3-h phase advanced peak in fish exposed to constant darkness. Our results provide clear evidence for a local synthesis of melatonin in trout GIT that might be influenced by the content of 5-HT in the tissue. The process is affected by environmental light cycle and is likely to be under circadian regulation.

  12. Trout Stream Special Regulations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This layer shows Minnesota trout streams that have a special regulation as described in the 2006 Minnesota Fishing Regulations. Road crossings were determined using...

  13. The development of beef breeding bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelken, T J

    2008-08-01

    Management of the bull battery will have a dramatic impact on profitability of the cow/calf enterprise. It is critical that young bulls be selected and developed to maximize longevity and productivity for the eventual buyer. Bulls must be structurally sound, healthy, and have adequate libido in order to service the required number of females. Once bulls complete their first breeding season, special care must be taken in order to ensure that they recover and regain needed body condition and pass a bull breeding soundness examination (BBSE). Mature bulls that have reached their genetic potential for growth require less intensive management, but the health program and annual BBSE cannot be overlooked. Mature bulls are also more likely to carry venereal disease and should be screened according to local disease incidence and state regulations. All bulls, regardless of age, should be observed early during the breeding season to ensure that they are physically capable of mounting and servicing females. The establishment of a complete management program, especially for young bulls, is essential to ensure that ranch resources are used efficiently, including maintenance of a high level of reproductive performance of the cow herd.

  14. 77 FR 27186 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... would be tagged with passive integrated transponders (PIT- tags), some would be killed for pathological... distribution of bull trout in the Lewis River, Washington. The objectives of the research are to (1) establish a random sampling protocol for bull trout, (2) determine bull trout distribution and abundance,...

  15. Sperm macromolecules associated with bull fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Abdullah; Memili, Erdoğan

    2016-06-01

    Bull fertility, ability of the sperm to fertilize and activate the egg that sustain embryo development, is vitally important for effective and efficient production of cattle. Fertility is a complex trait with low heritability. Despite recent advances in genomic selection and possibility of enormous paternal benefits to profitable cattle production, there exist no reliable tests for evaluating semen quality and predicting bull fertility. This review focuses on sperm macromolecules such as transcripts, proteins and the epigenome, i.e., the functional genome that are associated with bull fertility. Generating new information in these systems is important beyond agriculture because such progress advances the fundamental science of the mammalian male gamete while at the same time introduces biotechnology into livestock production. Sperm macromolecules and epigenome markers associated with bull fertility can be used alone or in combination with the current SNP microarrays to determine sperm quality and to indicate bull fertility.

  16. Ulcer disease of trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, F.F.

    1934-01-01

    During the summer of 1933, lesions of a disease were noted among some fingerling brook, rainbow, blackspotted, and lake trout at the Cortland (New York) trout hatchery. Although these lesions bore a marked superficial resemblance to those of furunculosis, they were sufficiently atypical to warrant further investigation. A more detailed examination of the lesions proved them to be of a distinct disease, which for lack of a better name is herein called "ulcer disease," for the lesions closely resemble those described by Calkins (1899) under this name. Because of the marked resemblance to furunculosis, ulcer disease has not been generally recognized by trout culturists, and any ulcer appearing on fish has been ascribed by them to furunculosis without further question.

  17. Clinical usefulness of myocardial iodine-123-15-(p-iodophenyl)-3(R,S)-methyl-pentadecanoic acid distribution abnormality in patients with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy based on normal data file in bull`s-eye polar map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Nobukazu; Mitani, Isao; Sumita, Shinichi [Yokohama City Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine] [and others

    1998-01-01

    Visual interpretation of iodine-123-beta-15-(p-iodophenyl)-3(R,S)-methyl-pentadecanoic acid ({sup 123}I-BMIPP) myocardial images cannot easily detect mild reduction in tracer uptake. Objective assessment of myocardial {sup 123}I-BMIPP maldistributions at rest was attempted using a bull`s-eye map and its normal data file for detecting myocardial damage in patients with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy. Six patients, two with Kearns-Sayre syndrome and four with mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and strokelike episodes (MELAS), and 10 normal subjects were studied. Fractional myocardial uptake of 1{sup 23}I-BMIPP was also measured by dynamic static imaging to assess the global myocardial free fatty acid. These data were compared with the cardiothoracic ratio measured by chest radiography and left ventricular ejection fraction assessed by echocardiography. Abnormal cardiothoracic ratio and lower ejection fraction were detected in only one patient with Kearns-Sayre syndrome. Abnormal fractional myocardial uptake was detected in two patients (1.61%, 1.91%), whereas abnormal regional {sup 123}I-BMIPP uptake assessed by the bull`s-eye map was detected in five patients (83%). All patients showed abnormal uptake in the anterior portion, and one showed progressive atrioventricular conduction abnormality and systolic dysfunction with extended {sup 123}I-BMIPP abnormal uptake. The results suggest that assessment based on the normal data file in a bull`s-eye polar map is clinically useful for detection of myocardial damage in patients with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy. (author)

  18. Management and Breeding Soundness of Mature Bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Colin W

    2016-07-01

    Mature bulls must be fed a balanced ration, vaccinated appropriately, and undergo a breeding soundness evaluation to ensure they meet what is required of a short, but intense breeding season. To be classified as a satisfactory potential breeder, minimum standards for physical soundness, scrotal circumference, sperm motility, and sperm morphology must be achieved using an accepted bull-breeding soundness evaluation format. Sperm production requires approximately 70 days. Heat and stress are the most common insults to spermatogenesis, causing an increase in morphologic abnormalities with obesity-associated scrotal fat accumulation being the most frequent cause of elevated testicular temperature in mature bulls.

  19. Watershed boundaries and geographic isolation: patterns of diversification in cutthroat trout from western North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loxterman Janet L

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For wide-ranging species, intraspecific variation can occur as a result of reproductive isolation from local adaptive differences or from physical barriers to movement. Cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii, a widely distributed fish species from North America, has been divided into numerous putative subspecies largely based on its isolation in different watersheds. In this study, we examined mtDNA sequence variation of cutthroat trout to determine the major phylogenetic lineages of this polytypic species. We use these data as a means of testing whether geographic isolation by watershed boundaries can be a primary factor organizing intraspecific diversification. Results We collected cutthroat trout from locations spanning almost the entire geographic range of this species and included samples from all major subspecies of cutthroat trout. Based on our analyses, we reveal eight major lineages of cutthroat trout, six of which correspond to subspecific taxonomy commonly used to describe intraspecific variation in this species. The Bonneville cutthroat trout (O. c. utah and Yellowstone cutthroat trout (O. c. bouvieri did not form separate monophyletic lineages, but instead formed an intermixed clade. We also document the geographic distribution of a Great Basin lineage of cutthroat trout; a group typically defined as Bonneville cutthroat trout, but it appears more closely related to the Colorado River lineage of cutthroat trout. Conclusion Our study indicates that watershed boundaries can be an organizing factor isolating genetic diversity in fishes; however, historical connections between watersheds can also influence the template of isolation. Widely distributed species, like cutthroat trout, offer an opportunity to assess where historic watershed connections may have existed, and help explain the current distribution of biological diversity across a landscape.

  20. Postprandial response and tissue distribution of the bile acid synthesis-related genes, cyp7a1, cyp8b1 and shp, in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murashita, Koji; Yoshiura, Yasutoshi; Chisada, Shin-ichi; Furuita, Hirofumi; Sugita, Tsuyoshi; Matsunari, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Takeshi

    2013-10-01

    In mammals, cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) and sterol 12α-hydroxylase (CYP8B1) are rate-limiting enzymes in bile acid synthesis. In addition, a small heterodimer partner (SHP) is also known to inhibit bile acid synthesis via the suppression of CYP7A1 and CYP8B1 expression. However, little information is currently available regarding primary structure of the genes involved in bile acid synthesis in fish. We therefore cloned cyp7a1, cyp8b1 and shp genes from rainbow trout and obtained cDNAs encoding two isoforms each of Cyp7a1 (-1 and -2), Cyp8b1 (-1 and -2) and Shp (-1 and -2). Both cyp7a1-1 and -2 encoded proteins of 512 amino acids. Trout cyp7a1-1 was expressed not only primarily in the kidney, pyloric caecum and mid-gut, but also weakly in the liver, eye, gill and ovary. cyp7a1-2 was highly expressed in the liver, pyloric caecum and mid-gut. cyp8b1-1 and -2, which encoded proteins of 512 and 509 amino acids, respectively, were principally expressed in the liver. Both shp-1 and -2, which encoded proteins of 288 and 290 amino acids, respectively, were strongly expressed in the liver, but shp-2 was also highly expressed in the gallbladder and digestive tract. The temporal changes in the expression of cyp7a1-1/-2, cyp8b1-1/-2 and shp-1/-2 in the liver were assessed after consumption of a single meal. Expression of cyp7a1-1/-2 and cyp8b1-1/-2 increased within 3h post feeding (hpf) when the stomach was still approximately 84% full and the gallbladder was almost completely empty. Although the expression of shp-1 did not change after feeding, the expression pattern of shp-2 was inversely related to the expression patterns of cyp7a1-1/-2 and cyp8b1-1/-2. Specifically, shp-2 expression decreased until 3 hpf before returning to initial levels at 24 hpf. These findings suggest that Cyp7a1s/8b1s and Shp-2 function antagonistically in bile acid synthesis in rainbow trout.

  1. Conservation of Yellowstone Cutthroat Trout in Yellowstone National Park: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Michael B.; Murphy, Brian R.; Zale, Alexander V.

    2009-01-01

    The Yellowstone cutthroat trout (YCT; "Oncorhynchus clarki bouvieri") has become a species of special concern for Yellowstone National Park (YNP) fisheries biologists. Although this subspecies formerly occupied a greater area than any other inland cutthroat trout, the current distribution of YCT is now limited to several watersheds within the…

  2. An assessment of dairy herd bulls in southern Australia: 1. Management practices and bull breeding soundness evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, A S; Younis, P J; Beggs, D S; Mansell, P D; Stevenson, M A; Pyman, M F

    2016-12-01

    In the pasture-based, seasonally calving dairy herds of southern Australia, the mating period usually consists of an initial artificial insemination period followed by a period of natural service using herd bulls. Bull breeding soundness evaluations (BBSE) were performed on 256 bulls from 32 dairy herds in southwest Victoria, using guidelines produced by the Australian Cattle Veterinarians, before and immediately after a single natural mating period. At the same time, herd managers were questioned regarding the management of the bulls. The objectives of this study were to describe the management practices of dairy herd bulls; to describe the causes of increased risk of reduced fertility in dairy herd bulls, as measured by a standard BBSE; and to describe the reasons for bull removal by herd managers during mating. At the premating BBSE, 19.5% of bulls were classified as high risk of reduced fertility, mostly due to physical abnormalities and reduced semen quality. At the postmating BBSE, 36.5% of bulls were classified as high risk of reduced fertility, mostly due to physical abnormalities, primarily lameness. Of the bulls used, 15.9% were removed from normal mating use by the herd manager, predominantly due to lameness and injuries. A premating BBSE is recommended in dairy herd bulls to identify bulls at risk of reduced fertility. Lameness is the most common problem in dairy herd bulls during the natural mating period, and risk factors associated with lameness in these bulls should be identified to better manage herd bulls.

  3. Impacts of Northern Pike on stocked Rainbow Trout in Pactola Reservoir, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibel, Natalie C.; Dembkowski, Daniel J.; Davis, Jacob L.; Chipps, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    Establishment of nonnative Northern Pike Esox lucius in Pactola Reservoir, South Dakota, has prompted concern among biologists about the influence of this species on the lake’s intensively managed salmonid fisheries. Ancedotal information suggests that catch rates of Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss have declined while mean size and abundance of Northern Pike has increased, although quantitative information on diet and growth of the Northern Pike population is lacking. To address potential interactions between Northern Pike and Rainbow Trout, we assessed size-dependent predation by Northern Pike on Rainbow Trout and determined the relative energetic contribution of stocked Rainbow Trout to Northern Pike growth using bioenergetics modeling. Stable isotopes combined with traditional diet analyses revealed that smaller Northern Pike (Pike (≥600 mm TL) consumed primarily Rainbow Trout, which accounted for 56% of their annual energy consumption. Combining estimates of Northern Pike predation with production costs of catchable-size Rainbow Trout revealed that annual economic losses ranged from US$15,259 to $24,801 per year. Over its lifespan, an age-10 Northern Pike was estimated to consume ~117 Rainbow Trout worth approximately $340. Thus, Northern Pike predation substantially influences salmonid management initiatives and is likely a primary factor contributing to reduced Rainbow Trout abundance and return to anglers in Pactola Reservoir. Strategies for reducing Northern Pike predation on Rainbow Trout include increasing the size of stocked fish or altering the timing and spatial distribution of stocking events.

  4. Trout in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Trout in the Classroom (TIC) is a conservation-oriented environmental education program for elementary, middle, and high school students. During the year each teacher tailors the program to fit his or her curricular needs. Therefore, each TIC program is unique. TIC has interdisciplinary applications in science, social studies, mathematics, language arts, fine arts, and physical education. In the program, students and teachers raise trout from fertilized eggs supplied by Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries (VGIF) hatcheries, in aquariums equipped with special chillers designed to keep the water near 50 degrees F. The students make daily temperature measurements, and monitor pH, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, and ammonia levels. They record their data, plot trends, and make sure that the water quality is sufficient to support trout development. The fingerlings, which hatch in late October, are almost an inch and a half long by mid-January. And towards the end of the school year, students will release the fry into VGIF approved watersheds. TIC programs have been in place all across the country for more than 20 years, and are the result of numerous collaborations between teachers, volunteers, government agencies, and local organizations like Trout Unlimited. The programs were designed specifically for teachers who wanted to incorporate more environmental education into their curriculum. While the immediate goal of Trout in the Classroom is to increase student knowledge of water quality and cold water conservation, its long-term goal is to reconnect an increasingly urbanized population of youth to the system of streams, rivers, and watersheds that sustain them. Successful programs have helped: connect students to their local environments and their local watersheds; teach about watershed health and water quality, and; get students to care about fish and the environment. In Virginia, the TIC program is now in its 8th year. Over the past year, the program

  5. A Long-Term Comparison of Yellowstone Cutthroat Trout Abundance and Size Structure in Their Historical Range in Idaho.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Kevin A.; Schill, Daniel J.; Elle, F. Steven

    2002-05-23

    We compared estimates of population abundance and size structure for Yellowstone cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki bouvieri obtained by electrofishing 77 stream segments across southeastern Idaho in the 1980s and again in 1999-2000 to test whether populations of Yellowstone cutthroat trout had changed. Sites sampled in the 1980s were relocated in 1999-2000 by using maps and photographs or by finding original site-boundary stakes, so that the same reach of stream was sampled during both periods. Abundance of Yellowstone cutthroat trout longer than 10 cm did not change, averaging 41 fish/100 m of stream during both the 1980s and 1999-2000. The proportion of the total catch of trout composed of Yellowstone cutthroat trout also did not change, averaging 82% in the 1980s and 78% in 1999-2000. At the 48 sites where size structure could be estimated for both periods, the proportion of Yellowstone cutthroat trout that were 10-20 cm long declined slightly (74% versus 66%), but the change was due entirely to the shift in size structure at the Teton River sites. The number of sites that contained rainbow trout O. mykiss or cutthroat trout 3 rainbow trout hybrids rose from 23 to 37, but the average proportion of the catch composed of rainbow trout and hybrids did not increase (7% in both the 1980s and 1999-2000). Although the distribution and abundance of Yellowstone cutthroat trout have been substantially reduced in Idaho over the last century, our results indicate that Yellowstone cutthroat trout abundance and size structure in Idaho have remained relatively stable at a large number of locations for the last 10-20 years. The expanding distribution of rainbow trout and hybrids in portions of the upper Snake River basin, however, calls for additional monitoring and active management actions.

  6. Embryotoxicity of an extract from Great Lakes lake trout to rainbow trout and lake trout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, P.J.; Tillitt, D.E. [National Biological Service, Columbia, MO (United States). Midwest Science Center

    1995-12-31

    Aquatic ecosystems such as the Great Lakes are known to be contaminated with chemicals that are toxic to fish. However, the role of these contaminants in reproductive failures of fishes, such as lake trout recruitment, has remained controvertible. It was the objective to evaluate dioxin-like embryotoxicity of a complex mixture of chemicals and predict their potential to cause the lack of recruitment in Great Lakes lake trout. Graded doses of a complex environmental extract were injected into eggs of both rainbow trout and lake trout. The extract was obtained from whole adult lake trout collected from Lake Michigan in 1988. The extract was embryotoxic in rainbow trout, with LD50 values for Arlee strain and Erwin strain of 33 eggEQ and 14 eggEQ respectively. The LOAEL for hemorrhaging, yolk-sac edema, and craniofacial deformities in rainbow trout were 2, 2, and 4 eggEQ, respectively. Subsequent injections of the extract into lake trout eggs were likewise embryotoxic, with an LD50 value of 7 eggEQ. The LOAEL values for the extract in lake trout for hemorrhaging, yolk-sac edema, and craniofacial deformities were 0.1, 1, and 2 eggEQ, respectively. The current levels of contaminants in lake trout eggs are above the threshold for hemorrhaging and yolk-sac edema. The results also support the use of an additive model of toxicity to quantify PCDDs, PCDFs, Non-o-PCBs, and Mono-o-PCBs in relation to early life stage mortality in Lake Michigan lake trout.

  7. Production and quality of beef from young bulls fed diets supplemented with peanut cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, B R; Carvalho, G G P; Oliveira, R L; Pires, A J V; Ribeiro, O L; Silva, R R; Leão, A G; Simionato, J I; Carvalho, B M A

    2016-08-01

    Peanut cake is a biodiesel byproduct that has been tested as an alternative feed additive for use in cattle production. This study aimed to assess the importance of dietary peanut cake inclusion for young bull growth rate, beef production, and beef quality. In total, 32 Nellore young bulls individually housed in stalls with a mean initial body weight of 390±43.5kg were distributed in a completely randomized design for the experiment. The animals were fed Tifton 85 hay and one of four concentrate mixtures with 0, 33, 66 or 100% peanut cake instead of soybean meal. There was a linear reduction (Pcake at levels up to 100% in the diet of feedlot-finished young bulls promotes a beneficial increase in the levels of PUFAs and the following nutraceutical compounds: conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and Ω3 and Ω6 fatty acids.

  8. On the occurrence of the Bull Ray Pteromylaeus bovinus (Chondrichthyes: Myliobatidae in the Amvrakikos Gulf, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. ZOGARIS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We document in this note the occurrence of the Bull Ray Pteromylaeus bovinus (Geoffroy St-Hilaire, 1817 (Chondrichthyes: Myliobatidae in the Amvrakikos Gulf (eastern Ionian Sea, within a recently designated Wetlands National Park. Although distributional data for this species are scant, there is circumstantial evidence depicting the species as rare in Greece and the Mediterranean.

  9. Toxic and photodynamic effects of toluidine blue on living bull spermatoza

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijn, C. van

    1962-01-01

    1. 1. The effects of vital staining with toluidine blue on the total number of bull spermatozoa moving normally and on their mean velocity and velocity frequency distributions have been investigated with Rikmenspoel's photoelectric method. 2. 2. A significant decrease of the mean half-life period of

  10. Initial analysis of sperm DNA methylome in Holstein bulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberrant DNA methylation patterns have been associated with abnormal semen parameters, idiopathic male infertility and early embryonic loss in mammals. Using Holstein bulls with high (Bull1) or low (Bull2) fertility rates, we created two representative sperm DNA methylomes at a single-base resolutio...

  11. Dworshak Reservoir Investigations: Trout, Bass and Forage Species, 1987 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Statler, David P.

    1988-05-01

    Dworshak Dam and Reservoir is a Corps of Engineers facility located on the North Fork Clearwater River 3.2 km upstream from the Mainstem Clearwater confluence. Since initial filling in 1971, conversion of 87 km of river habitat to a 6644 hectare impoundment has had a profound influence on resident fisheries. The Nez Perce Tribe and the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) entered into separate intergovernmental agreements with the Bonneville Power Administration in a cooperative effort to study these impacts. The kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka assessment is included in the IDFG agreement, and is not addressed in this report. This project pertains primarily to rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri, smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui), and forage species. For the period November 1987 through February 1988, an estimated 4339 angler-hours were expended to catch 430 rainbow trout. An estimated 20 bull trout Salvelinus confluentus, 4 smallmouth bass, and 4 suckers Catostomus spp. were also caught. Catch rates were generally poor through the period, at .091 fish per hour for all species combined (excluding kokanee). Shasta strain hatchery rainbow trout were dominant in the creel, comprising 53.9 percent of the catch, although this strain was last planted in the reservoir in June 1986. Bank anglers caught a higher percentage (93.5 percent) of the total catch of Shasta strain rainbows than Kamloops strain rainbows (33.3 percent). 11 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Distribution of metals during digestion by cutthroat trout fed benthic invertebrates contaminated in the Clark Fork River, Montana and the Coeur d'Alene River, Idaho, U.S.A., and fed artificially contaminated Artemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, A.M.; Suedkamp, M.J.; Meyer, J.S.; Barrows, R.; Woodward, D.F.

    2000-01-01

    The concentrations of essential amino acids in three, undigested invertebrate diets collected from the Clark Fork River (CFR) for cutthroat trout were similar to each other, but were c. 25–75% less than Artemia that were exposed to a mixture of arsenic, copper, cadmium, lead and zinc in the laboratory. The Artemia diet appeared less palatable and the texture, quantity and appearance of the intestinal contents differed between fish fed the Artemia and CFR diets. The Pb% in the fluid fraction of the intestinal contents was greater for the Artemia (29%) than for the CFR diets (10–17%), and the Cu% in the amino acid plus metal fraction of the intestinal contents was greater for the Artemia (78%) than for two of the three CFR diets (67% and 70%). Intestinal contents of fish fed invertebrate diets collected from various sites on the Coeur d'Alene River (CDA), Idaho, were similar in texture, quantity, and appearance. For fish fed the CDA diets, differences in the distribution of metals among fractions of the digestive fluids appeared to be related to concentrations of metals in the invertebrate diets. Pb% was lowest of all metals in the fluid portion of the intestinal contents. However, >80% of all metals in the hind gut were associated with the particulate fraction where they may still be available for uptake through pinocytosis.

  13. Bull Riding Injuries In Central Queensland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan James Livingston

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Bull riding is an increasingly popular and growing professional sport in Australia. This is the first national study that investigates bull riding-related injuries. Method A six-year retrospective study of patients admitted to Rockhampton Base Hospital with acute injuries sustained whilst bull riding. Patients were identified from the Rockhampton Hospital international coding system and surgical audit excel databases. Supporting information was found from patient chart review. Results Thirty-eight patients were admitted during the study. Injuries increased from 2008. The most common injuries were to limbs (52%, chest (15% and brain (10%. Life-threatening injuries were all caused by a direct kick or trampling by the bull; 5% of patients needed air transfer to Brisbane, and 10% to Rockhampton for their acute care. The only complication was infection of open wounds. The average hospital stay was 2.2 (range= 1-5, SD= 1.1 days and 64% of patients required operative intervention. Conclusion Patients that had been kicked or trampled should be identified as having potentially life-threatening injuries, and transferred for review at an appropriate facility. Due to the high risk of infection all contaminated wounds should be washed out formally and receive antibiotics. Protective equipment should be encouraged among riders.

  14. Patterns of hybridization of nonnative cutthroat trout and hatchery rainbow trout with native redband trout in the Boise River, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Helen M.; Dunham, Jason B.

    2011-01-01

    Hybridization is one of the greatest threats to native fishes. Threats from hybridization are particularly important for native trout species as stocking of nonnative trout has been widespread within the ranges of native species, thus increasing the potential for hybridization. While many studies have documented hybridization between native cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii and nonnative rainbow trout O. mykiss, fewer have focused on this issue in native rainbow trout despite widespread threats from introductions of both nonnative cutthroat trout and hatchery rainbow trout. Here, we describe the current genetic (i.e., hybridization) status of native redband trout O. mykiss gairdneri populations in the upper Boise River, Idaho. Interspecific hybridization was widespread (detected at 14 of the 41 sampled locations), but high levels of hybridization between nonnative cutthroat trout and redband trout were detected in only a few streams. Intraspecific hybridization was considerably more widespread (almost 40% of sampled locations), and several local populations of native redband trout have been almost completely replaced with hatchery coastal rainbow trout O. mykiss irideus; other populations exist as hybrid swarms, some are in the process of being actively invaded, and some are maintaining genetic characteristics of native populations. The persistence of some redband trout populations with high genetic integrity provides some opportunity to conserve native genomes, but our findings also highlight the complex decisions facing managers today. Effective management strategies in this system may include analysis of the specific attributes of each site and population to evaluate the relative risks posed by isolation versus maintaining connectivity, identifying potential sites for control or eradication of nonnative trout, and long-term monitoring of the genetic integrity of remaining redband trout populations to track changes in their status.

  15. State of Sexual Maturity of Nelore Bulls

    OpenAIRE

    Camilo José Ramírez López; Clara Cecilia Rugeles Pinto; Faider Alberto Castaño Villadiego; Víctor Enrique Gómez León; Tamires Miranda Neto; José Domingo Guimarães

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to determine the state of sexual maturity of young Nelore bulls and its relation to scrotal circumference and seminal characteristics. 1985 animals (aged between 19 and 23 months), fed with tropical pastures (Brachiaria brizantha, Brachiaria decumbes, and Panicum maximum), were evaluated through andrological examination. Physical characteristics of the ejaculate, sperm morphology and scrotal circumference (SC) were examined. After the andrological examination, animals were...

  16. State of Sexual Maturity of Nelore Bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo José Ramírez López

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to determine the state of sexual maturity of young Nelore bulls and its relation to scrotal circumference and seminal characteristics. 1985 animals (aged between 19 and 23 months, fed with tropical pastures (Brachiaria brizantha, Brachiaria decumbes, and Panicum maximum, were evaluated through andrological examination. Physical characteristics of the ejaculate, sperm morphology and scrotal circumference (SC were examined. After the andrological examination, animals were classified as suitable for reproduction (andrological class 1; suitable for reproduction in natural mating system (class 2; temporarily unsuitable for reproduction (class 3; and discarded (class 5. To compare the measurements found in different andrological classes, two tests were used: the Tukey test with 5% probability of error, and simple Pearson correlations to verify the relationships between the studied characteristics. 84.5% of the bulls were found to be sexually mature. 39.75% of the animals suitable for reproduction presented a SC greater than 34 cm, and only 0.71% of the study population showed a scrotal circumference less than 28 cm. Favorable high correlations between SC and the physical characteristics of semen were evidenced. The article concludes that scrotal circumference is an excellent characteristics for evaluating and selecting young Nelore bulls.

  17. Infertility of the breeding bull in insemination technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predojević Mirko R.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of very strict breeding bull selection, especialy for A.I programes their infertility is a very serius problem in everyday practice. Especially bull semen has been marked as the main factor for unsatisfied cow fertility in the A.I.programme. The reason could be the bull semen which really may play as the spreading factor of the specific or non-specific reproductive infective disoders – IBR, IPV, BVD, Campylobacter-Vibrio fetus, brucellosis leptospirosis, tuberculosis and other reproductive diseases. Secondarily, the percentage of vitality, motility, penetration abilities, and immonological properties of bull spermatozoa also have an important role in unsuccessful bovine fecundation. That is, why it is necessary to secure professional health care for breedig bull in AI centres, becase only healthy bulls can ensure good bovine genetic transmission and progress in cattle production for today's growing population.

  18. Effects of arsenic on bull trout: An investigation of mine cleanup practices in the Pacific Northwest

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study evaluated the effects of arsenic and heavy metals on individual salmonids and the aquatic community within Gold Creek, Idaho. Gold Creek is a tributary to...

  19. Feeding behavior of feedlot-finished young bulls fed diets containing peanut cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Bráulio Rocha; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; Pires, Aureliano José Viera; Ribeiro, Ossival Lolato; Silva, Robério Rodrigues; Leão, André Gustavo; Rodrigues, Carlindo Santos

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the feeding behavior of feedlot-finished young bulls fed diets containing peanut cake instead of soybean meal. A total of 32 Nellore young bulls with an initial body weight of 390 ± 43.5 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design. The animals were individually housed in stalls and fed Tifton 85 hay with four concentrate mixtures containing 0, 33, 66, or 100% peanut cake substituting for soybean meal. The diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous (with 15% crude protein) and isocaloric (with 65% total digestible nutrients), with a 40:60 forage:concentrate ratio, in the form of total mixed diet. The experimental period was 90 days, and data were collected every 28 days. Feeding behavior was assessed by means of observation and recording of the daily time spent feeding, ruminating, and idling, quantification of the periods and calculation of variables related to mastication characteristics as well as feeding and rumination efficiencies. Substitution of soybean meal for peanut cake in the diets caused a linear decrease in the intake of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber but did not affect the behavioral activities of the young bulls. Peanut cake may therefore replace up to 100% of soybean meal in the diet of feedlot-finished young Nellore bulls because it does not affect the feeding behavior of these animals.

  20. Effect of zeranol on sexual development of crossbred bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, R W; Randel, R D; Rouquette, F M

    1989-07-01

    Three groups of 1/2 Simmental X 1/4 Brahman X 1/4 Hereford bull calves were used during two different years to study effects of zeranol on sexual development. At 154 d of age, half the calves were implanted with 36 mg zeranol and half, not implanted, served as controls. Implanted calves were reimplanted at 90-d intervals throughout the trial (9 mo) each year. Trial 1 was conducted with 24 calves and Trial 2 was conducted the following year with 10 bulls. Twenty-four days after weaning (200 d of age) and at 28-d intervals thereafter, bulls in drylot in Trial 1 were weighted, scrotal circumference (SC) was measured and an ejaculate of semen was collected by electroejaculation to determine puberty. At these times, bulls were given 200 micrograms of GnRH i.m. and blood was collected at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 h after GnRH. Serum concentrations of LH and testosterone (TEST) were determined. At slaughter, testis weight, length and circumference and pubertal status were recorded. Bulls implanted with zeranol had smaller SC than control bulls during the entire 9-mo period (P less than .0001). More control bulls reached puberty than did implanted bulls (82.4 vs 23.5%, respectively; P less than .001). Control bulls had larger testis measurements at slaughter (P less than .0001). Implants did not alter total weight gain or ADG (P greater than .10).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Genetic diversity in Chilean populations of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia B Cárcamo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, was first introduced in Chile between 1905 and 1920 and is currently widely distributed in Chile from Antofagasta (23°S to Patagonia (55°S. The broad range of the geographic and climatic distributions of this species in Chile offers a unique opportunity to study the effect of naturalization of an introduced species on its genetic variability. It is of particular importance to observe the genetic variability of populations in the northern range of this species distribution, in a transition zone where a Mediterranean-type climate changes to an arid climate. The present study analyzed allozymic variability and distribution within and between populations of O. mykiss from the river basins of Elqui and Limari rivers, and six culture strains, using starch-gel protein electrophoresis. Populations were found to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and the average values of He (0.045, polymorphism (13.9% and allele per locus (1.19 are similar to rainbow trout in its native distributional range. About 77.8% of the genetic variability was within population, similar to the variability reported for wild populations in the northern hemisphere. However, a marked genetic differentiation between wild populations was also found. This is likely to be the consequence of initial founder effects followed by subsequent introgression of resident populations caused by reseeding with trout of different origins in both basins.

  2. The effect of mature elephant bull introductions on ranging patterns of resident bulls: Phinda Private Game Reserve, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heleen Druce

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing popularity of wildlife viewing has resulted in a rapid increase in small, enclosed reserves in South Africa. The African elephant is one of the many species that has been reintroduced into these reserves for eco-tourism. These elephant populations were established as young (smaller that 10 years old orphans from prior Kruger National Park culling operations. Consequently, this abnormal sex and age structure of these introduced populations has influenced their behavioural and spatial ecology. In Pilanesberg National Park, this abnormal behaviour was corrected by introducing older bulls and culling certain problem elephants. In July 2003, three older bulls (29–41 years old were introduced into Phinda Private Game Reserve, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa in order to normalise the bull age structure. These introduced bulls were monitored intensively after release, as was the resident bull population, both before and after introduction of the older bulls. The introduced bulls settled into restricted ranges separate from the family groups. All the resident bulls decreased their home ranges at first, with most increasing their home ranges a year later. The resident bulls’ change in ranging patterns was due more to ecological factors than to the influence of the mature bull introduction. This study indicates that the introduction of older male elephants into small populations does not pose major risks or animal welfare concerns.

  3. Radio-transmitted electromyogram signals as indicators of swimming speed in lake trout and brown trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorstad, E.B.; Økland, F.; Koed, Anders

    2000-01-01

    Swimming speed and average electromyogram (EMG) pulse intervals were highly correlated in individual lake trout Salvelinus namaycush (r(2)=0.52-0.89) and brown trout Salmo trutta (r(2)=0.45-0.96). High correlations were found also for pooled data in both lake trout (r(2)=0.90) and brown trout...... of the Ema stock (r(2)=0.96) and Laerdal stock (r(2)=0.96). The linear relationship between swimming speed and average EMG pulse intervals differed significantly among lake trout and the brown trout stocks. This successful calibration of EMGs to swimming speed opens the possibility of recording swimming...... speed of free swimming lake trout and brown trout in situ. EMGs can also be calibrated to oxygen consumption to record energy expenditure. (C) 2000 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles...

  4. Cellulitis in a Red Kandhari Bull : A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M M Pathan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A case of cellulitis caused by mixed infection of Staphylococcus spp. and Corynebacterium spp in a Red Kandhari bull leading to death of animal was autopsied at the department. It is being a case of cellulitis in a Red Kandhari bull and placed on record. [Vet. World 2012; 5(3.000: 183-184

  5. Short communication: Use of young bulls in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The availability of genomic evaluations since 2008 has resulted in many changes to dairy cattle breeding programs. One such change has been the increased contribution of young bulls (0.8 to 3.9 yr old) to those programs. The increased use of young bulls was investigated using pedigree data and b...

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis Biovar Intermedius, Isolated from the Prepuce of a Bull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraola, Gregorio; Pérez, Ruben; Naya, Hugo; Paolicchi, Fernando; Harris, David; Lawley, Trevor D; Rego, Natalia; Hernández, Martín; Calleros, Lucía; Carretto, Luis; Velilla, Alejandra; Morsella, Claudia; Méndez, Alejandra; Gioffre, Andrea

    2013-08-01

    Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis is the causative agent of bovine genital campylobacteriosis, a sexually transmitted disease distributed worldwide. Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis biovar Intermedius strains differ in their biochemical behavior and are prevalent in some countries. We report the first genome sequence for this biovar, isolated from bull prepuce.

  7. Testicular Histomorphometric Evaluation of Zebu Bull Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Antônio Terrabuio Andreussi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the quantitative histology and testicular biometrics in zebu bulls of different breeds. Testicular fragments of Nelore (n=10, Polled Nelore (n=6, Gir (n=5, Guzerat (n=5 and Tabapuã bulls (n=5 were used. The fragments were perfusion-fixed in Karnovsky solution, embedded in glycol methacrylate and stained with toluidine blue-1% sodium borate. The Nelore animals had a higher tubular volumetric proportion (85.2% and greater height of the seminiferous epithelium (73.2 µm than the Gir, Guzerat and Tabapuã breeds. The Nelore animals also had a higher volumetric proportion of Leydig cells (5.2% than the Guzerat and Tabapuã breeds. There was no significant difference for any of these parameters between the Nelore and Polled Nelore breeds. The gonadosomatic index, seminiferous tubule diameter, cross-sectional area of the seminiferous tubule and tubule length (total length and length per gram of testicular parenchyma did not vary among the breeds studied. The morphometric parameters evaluated suggested that the genetic selection applied to the Nelore and Polled Nelore breeds improved the efficiency of spermatogenesis in these breeders.

  8. Semen and reproductive profiles of genetically identical cloned bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecirlioglu, R Tayfur; Cooney, Melissa A; Korfiatis, Natasha A; Hodgson, Renee; Williamson, Mark; Downie, Shara; Galloway, David B; French, Andrew J

    2006-06-01

    In this comparative study, reproductive parameters and semen characteristics of cloned bulls (n = 3) derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) were compared to their original cell donor Holstein-Friesian (n = 2) bulls from the same enterprise to assess the differences in reproductive potential between a donor bull and its clones. The parameters evaluated included motility of fresh, frozen-thawed and Percoll-treated frozen-thawed spermatozoa, as well as in vitro fertilization (IVF) ability, embryo quality, birth and survival of calves following IVF and embryo transfer with frozen-thawed semen. With fresh semen, spermatozoa from one cloned bull had lower motility than its donor. Cloned bulls had higher velocity parameters in fresh semen, but those effects were not obvious in frozen-thawed or frozen-thawed semen selected with a Percoll gradient. Semen collected from cloned bulls had significantly higher IVF rates compared to donors; however, embryo development per cleaved embryo or quality of blastocysts did not differ between donors and cloned bulls. Pregnancy and live offspring rates from one donor and its cloned bull did not differ between fresh (40%, 16/40 versus 46%, 17/37) and vitrified/thawed (13%, 2/16 versus 25%, 4/16) embryo transfer following IVF. A total of 26 calves were obtained from genotypically identical donor and cloned bulls with no signs of phenotypical abnormalities. These preliminary results suggested that the physiology of surviving postpubertal cloned bulls and quality of collected semen had equivalent reproductive potential to their original cell donor, with no evidence of any deleterious effects in their progeny.

  9. An immunohistochemical study of Flexibacter psychrophilus infection in experimentally and naturally infected rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evensen, O.; Lorenzen, Ellen

    1996-01-01

    was compared in naturally and experimentally (intraperitoneal injections) infected fry by use of immunohistochemistry. This study showed that F. psychrophilus could be detected in paraffin-wax-embedded tissue of rainbow trout fry by immunohistochemistry. The principal immunohistochemical findings in naturally......An immunohistochemical method is described for the detection of Flexibacter psychrophilus in formalin-fixed, parafiin-wax-embedded fry of rainbow trout. Rabbit antiserum as well as rainbow trout hyperimmune serum were used in the study. The distribution and tissue localization of the bacterium...

  10. Fertility management of bulls to improve beef cattle productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thundathil, Jacob C; Dance, Alysha L; Kastelic, John P

    2016-07-01

    Global demand for animal proteins is increasing, necessitating increased efficiency of global food production. Improving reproductive efficiency of beef cattle, especially bull fertility, is particularly critical, as one bull can breed thousands of females (by artificial insemination). Identifying the genetic basis of male reproductive traits that influence male and female fertility, and using this information for selection, would improve herd fertility. Early-life selection of elite bulls by genomic approaches and feeding them to optimize postpubertal reproductive potential are essential for maximizing profitability. Traditional bull breeding soundness evaluation, or systematic analysis of frozen semen, eliminates bulls or semen samples that are grossly abnormal. However, semen samples classified as satisfactory on the basis of traditional approaches differ in fertility. Advanced sperm function assays developed for assessing compensatory and noncompensatory (submicroscopic) sperm traits can predict such variations in bull fertility. New knowledge on epigenetic modulations of sperm DNA, messenger RNA, and proteins is fundamental to refine and expand sperm function assays. Sexed semen, plus advanced reproductive technologies (e.g., ovum pickup and in vitro production of embryos) can maximize the efficiency of beef cattle production. This review is focused on genetic considerations for bull selection, physiology of reproductive development, breeding soundness evaluation, recent advances in assessing frozen semen, and existing and emerging uses of sexed semen in beef cattle production.

  11. Reproductive behaviour in bulls raised under tropical and subtropical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galina, C S; Horn, M M; Molina, R

    2007-06-01

    The present review describes the behavioral characteristics of bulls raised under tropical and subtropical conditions and emphasizes the difficulties associated with adequately monitoring their performance in the field to predict reproductive potential. Most of the information generated for improving our understanding of bull behavior under range conditions has been generated in Bos taurus bulls. The limited information available in Bos indicus indicates that males searching for cows in estrus display different sexual patterns when compared to B. taurus bulls and a poor selection of a sire utilized in range conditions can have an important impact in cattle production. Screening and selecting [cg1] bulls for desirable reproductive traits and high libido is known to improve the reproductive performance of the herd. The reproductive and genetic potential of a bull is influenced by factors such as management, age, nutrition and problems related to the female such as embryonic death and anestrus. However, behavioral characteristics of bulls when detecting and serving cows in estrus is poorly understood.

  12. Use of an annular chamber for testing thermal preference of westslope cutthroat trout and rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, T.E.; Bear, E.A.; Zale, A.V.

    2008-01-01

    Remaining populations of westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) in western North America are primarily confined to cold headwaters whereas nonnative rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) predominate in warmer, lower elevation stream sections historically occupied by westslope cutthroat trout. We tested whether differing thermal preferences could account for the spatial segregation observed in the field. Thermal preferences of age-1 westslope cutthroat trout and rainbow trout (125 to 150 mm total length) were assessed in the laboratory using a modified annular preference chamber at acclimation temperatures of 10, 12, 14, and 16??C Final preferred temperature of westslope cutthroat trout (14.9??C) was similar to that of rainbow trout (14.8??C) when tested in a thermal gradient of 11-17??C The high degree of overlap in thermal preference indicates the two species have similar thermal niches and a high potential for competition. We suggest several modifications to the annular preference chamber to improve performance in future studies.

  13. Testicle size as indicator of fertility in bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prka Igor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Male calves from the high value parents, bull fathers and bull dams, enter the selection for artificial insemination. After laboratory tests, the calves are taken to the center for artificial insemination, and after a stay in quarantine the are moved to a test station. At the age of twelve months they are measured for assessing the value of each calf exterior. One of the measures recorded was the testicle scope. On the basis of testicle size, it is possible to predict sperm production potential. For the determination of testicle size (testicular biometry, tapes or rulers were used. The aim of this work was to investigate the possible effect of testicle size on sperm production in young bulls used for artificial insemination. For that purpose there were used the data on circumference of testicles of one year old bulls just starting production of sperm, and then compared with certain semen quality parameters such as: volume of ejaculate and concentration and percentage of alive and progressively mobile spermatozoa. The investigation included all young bulls that started production in the period from 2010. to 2012., that is 36 bulls of various breeds (Simmental, Holstein Friesian, Montafon. After the testicle scope measuring in these bulls, there were observed the parameters of the sperm quality during the following one year period. The obtained results showed that the increased testicle size was followed by the increased average ejaculate quantity, in other words: 3.7 ml in group of bulls with testicle circumference below 30 cm, to 6.7 ml in bulls whose testicle circumference was over 40 cm. Also, the results showed that there was a correlation between the increased testicle size and the increased spermatozoa concentration. The values grow to testicle scope of 36 cm, and above that they were still high but with some oscillations. When it came to relation between testicle scope and the percentage of alive and progressively mobile spermatozoa, the

  14. Review of potential interactions between stocked rainbow trout and listed Snake River sockeye salmon in Pettit Lake Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teuscher, D.

    1996-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if hatchery rainbow trout compete with or prey on juvenile Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka in Pettit Lake, Idaho. In 1995, a total of 8,570 age-0 sockeye and 4,000 hatchery rainbow trout were released in Pettit Lake. After releasing the fish, gillnets were set in the pelagic and littoral zones to collected diet and spatial distribution data. Interactions were assessed monthly from June 1995 through March 1996. Competition for food was discounted based on extremely low diet overlap results observed throughout the sample period. Conversely, predation interactions were more significant. A total of 119 rainbow trout stomachs were analyzed, two contained O. nerka. The predation was limited to one sample period, but when extrapolated to the whole rainbow trout populations results in significant losses. Total consumption of O. nerka by rainbow trout ranged from an estimated 10 to 23% of initial stocking numbers. Predation results contradict earlier findings that stocked rainbow trout do not prey on wild kokanee or sockeye in the Sawtooth Lakes. The contradiction may be explained by a combination of poorly adapted hatchery sockeye and a littoral release site that forced spatial overlap that was not occurring in the wild populations. Releasing sockeye in the pelagic zone may have reduced or eliminated predation losses to rainbow trout.

  15. Farming of Freshwater Rainbow Trout in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokumsen, Alfred; Svendsen, Lars Moeslund

    Textbook on Farming of Freshwater Rainbow Trout in Denmark. Danish edition with the title: Opdræt af regnbueørred i Danmark......Textbook on Farming of Freshwater Rainbow Trout in Denmark. Danish edition with the title: Opdræt af regnbueørred i Danmark...

  16. Cloning, expression, cellular distribution, and role in chemotaxis of a C5a receptor in rainbow trout: the first identification of a C5a receptor in a nonmammalian species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshra, Hani; Li, Jun; Peters, Rodney; Hansen, John; Matlapudi, Anjan; Sunyer, J. Oriol

    2004-01-01

    C3a, C4a, and C5a anaphylatoxins generated during complement activation play a key role in inflammation. C5a is the most potent of the three anaphylatoxins in eliciting biological responses. The effects of C5a are mediated by its binding to C5a receptor (C5aR, CD88). To date, C5aR has only been identified and cloned in mammalian species, and its evolutionary history remains ill-defined. To gain insights into the evolution, conserved structural domains, and functions of C5aR, we have cloned and characterized a C5aR in rainbow trout, a teleost fish. The isolated cDNA encoded a 350-aa protein that showed the highest sequence similarity to C5aR from other species. Genomic analysis revealed the presence of one continuous exon encoding the entire open reading frame. Northern blot analysis showed significant expression of the trout C5a receptor (TC5aR) message in PBLs and kidney. Flow cytometric analysis showed that two Abs generated against two different areas of the extracellular N-terminal region of TC5aR positively stained the same leukocyte populations from PBLs. B lymphocytes and granulocytes comprised the majority of cells recognized by the anti-TC5aR. More importantly, these Abs inhibited chemotaxis of PBLs toward a chemoattractant fraction purified from complement-activated trout serum. Our data suggest that the split between C5aR and C3aR from a common ancestral molecule occurred before the emergence of teleost fish. Moreover, we demonstrate that the overall structure of C5aR as well as its role in chemotaxis have remained conserved for >300 million years.

  17. Simulating Spawning and Juvenile Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Habitat in Colorado River Based on High-Flow Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Yao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available High flow generates significant alterations in downstream river reaches, resulting in physical condition changes in the downstream regions of the river such as water depth, flow velocity, water temperature and river bed. These alterations will lead to change in fish habitat configuration in the river. This paper proposes a model system to evaluate the high flow effects on river velocity, water depth, substrates changes, temperature distribution and consequently assess the change in spawning and juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss habitats in the downstream region of the Glen Canyon Dam. Firstly, based on the 2 dimensional (2D depth-averaged CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics model and heat transfer equation applied for simulation, three indices were simulated, namely depth, flow velocity and temperature distribution. Then, the spawning and juvenile fish preference curves were obtained based on these three indices and substrates distribution. After that, the habitat model was proposed and used to simulate the high flow effects on juvenile and spawning rainbow trout habitat structure. Finally, the weighted usable area (WUA and overall suitability index (OSI of the spawning and juvenile fish species were quantitatively simulated to estimate the habitat sensitivity. The results illustrate that the high flow effect (HFE increased the juvenile rainbow trout habitat quality but decreased the spawning rainbow trout habitat quality. The juvenile trout were mainly affected by the water depth while the spawning rainbow trout were dominated by the bed elevation.

  18. Molecular, cellular, and physiological determinants of bull fertility

    OpenAIRE

    PARISI, Alexis Marie; THOMPSON, Shannon Kate; Kaya, Abdullah; MEMİLİ, Erdoğan

    2014-01-01

    Bull fertility, defined as the ability of the spermatozoon to fertilize and activate the ovum and then support embryonic and even fetal development, is a crucial factor influencing animal reproduction and production efficiency. Despite significant influences of fertility on herd genetic improvement and efficient cattle production, the mechanisms regulating this phenotype and reliable biomarkers associated with bull fertility are poorly defined. Specifically, there is a broad lack of knowledge...

  19. Yamaha BT1100 Bull Dog 斗牛

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹏飞; 卓鹏(摄影)

    2010-01-01

    提到雅马哈的重型街车大家首先想到的是XJR1300、FZ1000等,今天我们要说的是被大家所忽略的BT1100 Bull Dog,Bull Dong翻译成中文大概意思是斗牛犬,所以俗称斗牛犬。

  20. SPERM DNA INTEGRITY IN BUFFALO, BULL AND STALLION

    OpenAIRE

    Serafini, Rosanna

    2015-01-01

    The interest in sperm DNA integrity evaluation and its relationship to subfertility and infertility loaded to development of several sperm DNA assays. The aim of this study was to compare several sperm DNA assays in buffaloes, bulls and stallions, and to identify the relationships between those DNA assays and traditional sperm features. In Italian Mediterranean Buffalo (IMB) bulls traditional sperm features (motility, viability, acrosome integrity and morphology), sperm DNA integrity (neutral...

  1. Impacts of climatic variation on trout: A global synthesis and path forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovach, Ryan; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Dunham, Jason; Letcher, Benjamin; Kershner, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    Despite increasing concern that climate change may negatively impact trout—a globally distributed group of fish with major economic, ecological, and cultural value—a synthetic assessment of empirical data quantifying relationships between climatic variation and trout ecology does not exist. We conducted a systematic review to describe how temporal variation in temperature and streamflow influences trout ecology in freshwater ecosystems. Few studies (n = 42) have quantified relationships between temperature or streamflow and trout demography, growth, or phenology, and nearly all estimates (96 %) were for Salvelinus fontinalis and Salmo trutta. Only seven studies used temporal data to quantify climate-driven changes in trout ecology. Results from these studies were beset with limitations that prohibited quantitatively rigorous meta-analysis, a concerning inadequacy given major investment in trout conservation and management worldwide. Nevertheless, consistent patterns emerged from our synthesis, particularly a positive effect of summer streamflow on trout demography and growth; 64 % of estimates were positive and significant across studies, age classes, species, and locations, highlighting that climate-induced changes in hydrology may have numerous consequences for trout. To a lesser degree, summer and fall temperatures were negatively related to population demography (51 and 53 % of estimates, respectively), but temperature was rarely related to growth. To address limitations and uncertainties, we recommend: (1) systematically improving data collection, description, and sharing; (2) appropriately integrating climate impacts with other intrinsic and extrinsic drivers over the entire lifecycle; (3) describing indirect consequences of climate change; and (4) acknowledging and describing intrinsic resiliency.

  2. Breaking the speed limit--comparative sprinting performance of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and brown trout (Salmo trutta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Santos, Theodore; Sanz-Ronda, Francisco Javier; Ruiz-Legazpi, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Sprinting behavior of free-ranging fish has long been thought to exceed that of captive fish. Here we present data from wild-caught brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and brown trout (Salmo trutta), volitionally entering and sprinting against high-velocity flows in an open-channel flume. Performance of the two species was nearly identical, with the species attaining absolute speeds > 25 body lengths·s−1. These speeds far exceed previously published observations for any salmonid species and contribute to the mounting evidence that commonly accepted estimates of swimming performance are low. Brook trout demonstrated two distinct modes in the relationship between swim speed and fatigue time, similar to the shift from prolonged to sprint mode described by other authors, but in this case occurring at speeds > 19 body lengths·s−1. This is the first demonstration of multiple modes of sprint swimming at such high swim speeds. Neither species optimized for distance maximization, however, indicating that physiological limits alone are poor predictors of swimming performance. By combining distributions of volitional swim speeds with endurance, we were able to account for >80% of the variation in distance traversed by both species.

  3. Adrenal involvement in the biostimulatory effect of bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berardinelli James G

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective was to evaluate if cortisol concentrations are associated with the resumption of luteal activity in postpartum, primiparous cows exposed to bulls. The hypotheses were that 1 interval from start of exposure to resumption of luteal activity; 2 proportions of cows that resumed luteal function during the exposure period; and 3 cortisol concentrations do not differ among cows exposed or not exposed to bulls (Exp. 1, and cows continuously exposed to bull or steer urine (Exp. 2. Methods In Exp. 1, 28 anovular cows were exposed (BE; n = 13 or not exposed (NE; n = 15 to bulls for 30 d at 58 d after calving. In Exp. 2, 38 anovular cows were fitted with a controlled urine delivery device at 45 d after calving and exposed continuously (24 h/d to bull (BUE; n = 19 or steer (SUE; n = 19 urine. Length of exposure was ~64 d. Blood samples were collected from each cow on D 0 and every 3 d throughout exposure periods in both experiments and assayed for progesterone. Cortisol was assayed in samples collected on D 0, 8, 16, and 24 in Exp. 1; and, D 0, 19, 38, and 57 in Exp. 2. Results In Exp. 1, interval from the start of exposure to resumption of luteal activity was shorter (P Conclusion We conclude that the physical presence of bulls stimulates resumption of luteal activity and is coincident with increased cortisol concentrations, and hypothesize a possible association between adrenal activation and the biostimulatory effect of bulls.

  4. Lice pressure from salmon farms on wild sea trout (Salmo trutta in a Norwegian fjord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Arechavala-Lopez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis are external parasites on salmonids in the marine environment. However, during recent years, salmon lice abundance has increased due to the presence of salmon farming. Scientific studies shows that salmon farming increases the abundance of lice in the marine habitat and that salmon lice in the most intensively farmed areas have negatively affected wild fish populations. The present study assesses the spatiotemporal distribution of salmon lice infestations on wild sea trout population in the Romsdalsfjord region (Norway, and the potential relationship with fish-farming activity and environmental parameters in this area. Salmon lice at farms varied among localities or farming areas, although infestation levels were under the safety established thresholds (max: 0.5 adult females per fish in most of the cases. However, salmon farms with these levels might produce and release millions of copepods, potentially infecting wild salmonids. In accordance, low lice loads were recorded on wild sea trout captured in areas with low farming activity, while higher mean loads were recorded in areas with higher farming activity. A clear seasonal pattern and a positive correlation between lice on sea trout and sea water temperature were observed throughout the study period. The estimated production of copepods at farms and the mobile lice counted on wild sea trout one month later were correlated, suggesting the potential use of lice monitoring on sea trout as a proxy indicator of salmon lice infestation risks.

  5. Bath vaccination of rainbow trout against yersiniosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raida, Martin Kristian; Buchmann, Kurt

    2007-01-01

    disease (ERM), was investigated at 5, 15 and 25° C. Rainbow trout fry were kept at controlled temperatures for two month before they were immersed in a commercial Yersinia ruckeri O1 bacterin for 10 minutes. Control groups were sham vaccinated using pure water. Fish were challenged with Yersinia ruckeri O......Studies have been conducted on the temperature-dependent effect of bath vaccination of rainbow trout against Yersinia ruckeri O1. Protection of rainbow trout fry against challenge, following bath vaccination with a bacterin of Yersinia ruckeri O1, the bacterial pathogen causing enteric red mouth...

  6. Status and conservation of interior Redband Trout in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Albeke, Shannon E.; Gunckel, Stephanie L; Writer, Benjamin J; Shepard, Bradley B.; May, Bruce E

    2015-01-01

    In this article we describe the current status and conservation of interior (potamodromous) Redband Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss sspp. throughout its range in the western United States using extant data and expert opinion provided by fish managers. Redband Trout historically occupied 60,295 km of stream habitat and 152 natural lakes. Currently, Redband Trout occupy 25,417 km of stream habitat (42% of their historical range) and 124 lakes or reservoirs. Nonhybridized populations are assumed to occupy 11,695 km (46%) of currently occupied streams; however, fish from only 4,473 km (18%) have been genetically tested. Approximately 47% of the streams occupied by Redband Trout occur on private land, 45% on government lands, and 8% in protected areas. A total of 210 Redband Trout populations, occupying 15,252 km of stream habitat (60% of the current distribution) and 95,158 ha of lake habitat (52%), are being managed as “conservation populations.” Most conservation populations have been designated as weakly to strongly connected metapopulations (125; 60%) and occupy much more stream length (14,112 km; 93%) than isolated conservation populations (1,141 km; 7%). The primary threats to Redband Trout include invasive species, habitat degradation and fragmentation, and climate change. Although the historical distribution of interior Redband Trout has declined dramatically, we conclude that the species is not currently at imminent risk of extinction because it is still widely distributed with many populations isolated by physical barriers and active conservation efforts are occurring for many populations. However, the hybridization status of many populations has not been well quantified, and introgression may be more prevalent than documented here. We recommend (1) collecting additional genetic data and estimating distribution and abundance by means of a more rigorous spatial sampling design to reduce uncertainties, (2) collecting additional information to assess and

  7. Effect of frozen storage temperature on quality-related changes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgaard, Maria Garver; Jørgensen, Bo M.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of frozen storage temperature on quality-related parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) muscle was studied in the interval from -10 to -80°C on samples stored for 1 to 18 months. The following quantities were measured: drip loss, water holding capacity and water distribution...... compared to -30°C or higher resulted in a reduced level of secondary lipid oxidation (TBARS). No advantage was gained by using temperatures below -40°C for frozen storage of trout regarding any of the properties investigated....

  8. Reverse design of a bull's eye structure based on the plasmonic far-field pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Akira; Terakawa, Mitsuhiro

    2013-09-09

    We present a novel concept on designing a bull's eye structure for a single-wavelength optical source. The plasmonic far-field around a subwavelength aperture on a thin gold film is calculated by finite-difference time-domain method. Based on the annular field intensity distribution on the film surface, we present a method for determining a fairly optimal first groove radius and a periodicity of the grooves that show enhanced transmission. By additionally fine-tuning groove width and groove depth, we have achieved a transmission factor of 9.74. Our novel method has high potential in applications such as silicon infrared sensors.

  9. Snorkeling as an alternative to depletion electrofishing for assessing cutthroat trout and brown trout in stream pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, M.P.; Hubert, W.A.

    2003-01-01

    We compared abundance and length structure estimates of cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) of 15 cm total length or greater obtained by snorkeling in stream pools with estimates obtained by depletion electrofishing. We sampled 12 pools in each of two streams formed by large springs in the Salt River Valley of western Wyoming. Snorkeling counts provided a relatively accurate index of depletion electrofishing estimates of abundance of cutthroat trout, but not brown trout. Linear regression analysis showed that snorkeling counts were significantly related to depletion electrofishing estimates for both cutthroat trout (P snorkeling and depletion electrofishing were close to being significantly different for cutthroat trout (P = 0.066) and substantially different for brown trout (P = 0.005). Snorkeling frequently failed to observe fish in the shortest length class (15-29 cm total length) of both cutthroat trout and brown trout.

  10. Hydrography - Class A Wild Trout Streams - points

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Class A streams are streams that support a population of wild (natural reproduction) trout of sufficient size and abundance to support a long-term and rewarding...

  11. Hydrography - Class A Wild Trout Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Class A streams are streams that support a population of wild (natural reproduction) trout of sufficient size and abundance to support a long-term and rewarding...

  12. Toxicokinetics of PFOS in rainbow trout

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This ScienceHub entry was developed for the published paper: Consoer et al., 2016, Toxicokinetics of perfluorooctane sulfonate in rainow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss),...

  13. PREDICTION OF GROSS FEED EFFICIENCY IN ITALIAN HOLSTEIN FRIESIAN BULLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Finocchiaro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to predict gross feed efficiency of Italian Holstein Friesian bulls selected for production, functional and type traits. A total of 12,238 bulls, from the April 2015 genetic evaluation, were used. Predicted daily gross feed efficiency (pFE was obtained as ratio between milk yield (MY and predicted dry matter intake (pDMI. Phenotypic trend for MY, predicted body weight (pBW and pFE were calculated by the bull birth year. The results suggest that pFE can be successfully selected to increase profitability of dairy cattle using the current milk recording system. Direct measurements on DMI should be considered to confirm results of pFE obtained in the present study.

  14. Uroperitoneum attributable to ruptured urachus in a yearling bull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, G M; Zamos, D T; Mueller, P O

    1992-02-15

    Ruptured urachus was found to result in uroperitoneum in a yearling Beefmaster bull. The uroperitoneum was initially believed to be attributable to ruptured bladder secondary to urolithiasis; however, catheter decompression of the bladder through an ischiatic urethrotomy did not resolve the uroperitoneum. The persistent urachus was diagnosed and removed through caudal right flank laparotomy with the bull standing. The urachus was attached to the umbilicus, communicated with the lumen of the bladder, and had a mucosal lining. Ruptured urachus is an unusual cause of uroperitoneum, but can cause clinical signs identical to those of ruptured bladder. Persistent urachus is a congenital abnormality in many species, but may be hereditary in Beefmaster cattle. In addition, the bull in this report developed hyperkalemia, which is considered an unusual finding in cattle with uroperitoneum.

  15. Zinc and magnesium in bull and boar spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arver, S; Eliasson, R

    1980-11-01

    Mean +/- s.e.m. concentrations (nmol/10(8) cells) of zinc and magnesium in bull spermatozoa were 30.6 +/- 6.6 and 119 +/- 28.8, respectively. Corresponding values for boar spermatozoa were 16.9 +/- 1.98 and 57.1 +/- 4.3. Bull spermatozoa washed twice in a standard buffered salt solution, pH 7.75, lost 72.6% of their zinc and 46.5% of their magnesium. Boar spermatozoa lost 40% of Zn and 18% of Mg, respectively. Addition of albumin (4% final concentration) to the washing solution did not increase the loss of ions from bull spermatozoa but increased the loss of zinc and magnesium from boar spermatozoa to 52% and 41%, respectively.

  16. Pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema in a rabid bull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clairton Marcolongo-Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema in a bull with paralytic rabies. The bull displayed severe swelling in the head, neck, chest and forelimbs extending to the ventrum, including the prepuce, 7 days after the development of neurological signs. At necropsy, extensive subcutaneous emphysema was observed in the neck region, abdominal wall and proximal forelimbs. The lungs failed to collapse and had severe emphysema with bullae. Rabies was suspected due to an ongoing outbreak at the farm and was confirmed by histologic lesions and immunohistochemistry. Similar to humans, pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema should be considered as an unusual complication of rabies in cattle.

  17. Brown Trout removal effects on short-term survival and movement of Myxobolus cerebralis-resistant rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetherman, Eric R.; Winkelman, Dana L.; Bailey, Larissa L.; Schisler, George J.; Davies, K.

    2015-01-01

    Following establishment of Myxobolus cerebralis (the parasite responsible for salmonid whirling disease) in Colorado, populations of Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykissexperienced significant declines, whereas Brown Trout Salmo trutta densities increased in many locations across the state, potentially influencing the success of M. cerebralis-resistant Rainbow Trout reintroductions. We examined the effects of Brown Trout removal on the short-term (3-month) survival and movement of two crosses of reintroduced, M. cerebralis-resistant Rainbow Trout in the Cache la Poudre River, Colorado. Radio frequency identification passive integrated transponder tags and antennas were used to track movements of wild Brown Trout and stocked Rainbow Trout in reaches where Brown Trout had or had not been removed. Multistate mark–recapture models were used to estimate tagged fish apparent survival and movement in these sections 3 months following Brown Trout removal. A cross between the German Rainbow Trout and Colorado River Rainbow Trout strains exhibited similar survival and movement probabilities in the reaches, suggesting that the presence of Brown Trout did not affect its survival or movement. However, a cross between the German Rainbow Trout and Harrison Lake Rainbow Trout exhibited less movement from the reach in which Brown Trout had been removed. Despite this, the overall short-term benefits of the removal were equivocal, suggesting that Brown Trout removal may not be beneficial for the reintroduction of Rainbow Trout. Additionally, the logistical constraints of conducting removals in large river systems are substantial and may not be a viable management option in many rivers.

  18. The bull as a source of trichomonosis and lumpy skin disease: An African perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Irons, P.C.

    2007-01-01

    The use of bulls in breeding herds is regarded as a practical, labour-efficient way of producing a calf crop. However, the risks of a poor crop due to unsatisfactory performance of bulls are significant. The causes of sub- or infertility of the bull are classified under the headings Impotentia gener

  19. Whole-genome sequencing of 234 bulls facilitates mapping of monogenic and complex traits in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daetwyler, Hans D; Capitan, Aurélien; Pausch, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    The 1000 bull genomes project supports the goal of accelerating the rates of genetic gain in domestic cattle while at the same time considering animal health and welfare by providing the annotated sequence variants and genotypes of key ancestor bulls. In the first phase of the 1000 bull genomes p...

  20. Resazurin reduction and other tests of semen quality and fertility of bulls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RobertH.Foote

    1999-01-01

    Aim: This study was undertaken to compare the reduction in color of two dyes methylene blue (MBRT) anddye (RRT) with other tests of bull semen quality and to examine their relationship to fertility. Methods: One hundredsixty-four ejaculates from 59 bulls were examined, processed, fertility, and semen from these bulls averaged

  1. Movement and mortality of stocked brown trout in a stream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Kim; Jepsen, Niels; Koed, Anders;

    2005-01-01

    The movement and mortality of stocked brown trout Salmo trutta were investigated using radio telemetry. Four brown trout left the study area whereas the remaining fish were stationary. After 5 weeks, 13 out of 50 tagged brown trout were still alive in the stream. Surviving fish had a significantly...

  2. Sensitivity of Trout to Chronic Acute Exposure to Selenium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunnar Gissel; Nielsen, M. Gissel

    1978-01-01

    Trout were exposed to selenite (Na2SeO3) solutions of varying concentrations (0.1-100 ppm Se) for periods of up to 4 wk. A chronic exposure to 0.1 ppm Se or less is non-lethal to trout. Lethality at higher concentrations depends on the length of exposure. Trout that survive for 10 days in tap...

  3. Population and family structure of brown trout, Salmo trutta, in a Mediterranean stream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vera, Manuel; Sanz, Nuria; Hansen, Michael Møller

    2010-01-01

    The physical arrangement of closely related individuals is expected to significantly influence the pattern of population genetic structure. For example, if related individuals are non-randomly distributed and included in samples, this may lead to exaggerated conclusions about genetic differentiat......The physical arrangement of closely related individuals is expected to significantly influence the pattern of population genetic structure. For example, if related individuals are non-randomly distributed and included in samples, this may lead to exaggerated conclusions about genetic...... differentiation. In the present study, we compared population structure v. family relationships of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) along a Mediterranean stream (Pyrenees) by using eight microsatellite loci. Results showed low levels of genetic (FST) differentiation between collections in a 6.5-km transect along...... with limited dispersal of younger brown trout from spawning redds. Family relationships provided evidence, however, for movement of adult trout over distances of a few kilometres that probably contributed to the low observed differentiation. Dispersal of adult Mediterranean trout contrasts with the clustering...

  4. Characterization of cattle of a five-breed diallel: VI. Fat deposition patterns of serially slaughtered bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talamantes, M A; Long, C R; Smith, G C; Jenkins, T G; Ellis, W C; Cartwright, T C

    1986-05-01

    Dissection and chemical analysis data from 197 bulls of 15 breedtypes were used to examine the distribution of total fat (TOTFAT) among carcass fat (CFAT), viscera fat (VIF), kidney plus pelvic fat (KPF) and blood fat (BLF). The bulls were obtained from a five-breed diallel involving Angus, Brahman, Hereford, Holstein and Jersey; reciprocal crosses were pooled. One or two bulls of each breedtype were slaughtered at each of seven ages: 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 24 and 30 mo. An allometric equation was utilized to describe growth rate of each fat depot relative to either TOTFAT or carcass side weight (CSW). The pooled within-breedtype differential growth rates obtained from the allometric equation indicated that as TOTFAT or CSW increased, the proportion composed of CFAT and KPF increased (growth coefficients significantly greater than 1), whereas the proportion composed of VIF and BLF decreased (growth coefficients significantly less than 1). Holstein and Jersey tended to have more CFAT than Hereford, Angus and Brahman. Jersey had more KPF than other breeds. Crossbreds exhibited positive heterosis for CFAT and VIF, and negative heterosis for KPF. On a constant CSW basis, there were no significant breedtype differences in TOTFAT: nevertheless, differences in fat distribution among breedtypes persisted. There were different amounts of fat at the depots studied, but fat growth coefficients relative to TOTFAT tended to be homogeneous among breedtypes.

  5. How to Identify and Forecast Bull and Bear Markets?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J.W.G. Kole (Erik); D.J.C. van Dijk (Dick)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe state of the equity market, often referred to as a bull or a bear market, is of key importance for financial decisions and economic analyses. Its latent nature has led to several methods to identify past and current states of the market and forecast future states. These methods encom

  6. The White Bull effect: abusive coauthorship and publication parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, L S

    2005-09-01

    Junior researchers can be abused and bullied by unscrupulous senior collaborators. This article describes the profile of a type of serial abuser, the White Bull, who uses his academic seniority to distort authorship credit and who disguises his parasitism with carefully premeditated deception. Further research into the personality traits of such perpetrators is warranted.

  7. The effect of selected staining techniques on bull sperm morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaszewska, Dorota; Andraszek, Katarzyna; Czubaszek, Magdalena; Biesiada-Drzazga, Barbara

    2015-08-01

    Sperm morphometry has some value as an indicator of reproductive capacity in males. In laboratory practice a variety of slide-staining methods are used during morphological evaluation of semen to predict male fertility. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of staining of semen using four different techniques on the morphometry of the bull sperm cell. The material for the study consisted of semen collected from test bulls of the Black-and-White variety of Holstein-Friesians. The results obtained in the study indicate differences in the dimensions of bull sperm heads when different slide staining techniques were used. The most similar results for sperm head dimensions were obtained in the case of SpermBlue(®) and eosin+gentian violet complex, although statistically significant differences were found between all the staining techniques. Extreme values were noted for the other staining techniques - lowest for the Papanicolaou and highest for silver nitrate, which may indicate more interference in the cell by the reagents used in the staining process. However, silver nitrate staining was best at identifying the structures of the sperm cell. Hence it is difficult to determine which of the staining methods most faithfully reveals the dimensions and shape of the bull sperm.

  8. Consequences of hazardous dietary calcium deficiency for fattening bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Näkki Päivi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deficient mineral supplementation on a feedlot farm resulted in severe clinical manifestations in fattening bulls. Animals mistakenly received only 60–70% of the recommended calcium intake, while simultaneously receiving twice the amount of phosphorus recommended. Thus, the dietary Ca/P ratio was severely distorted. After approximately six months on such a diet, four fattening bulls were euthanized because of severe lameness and 15% of other animals on the farm were having clinical leg problems. Veterinary consultation revealed the mistake in mineral supplementation. Methods Fattening bulls were divided into three groups depending on the time of their arrival to the farm. This enabled the effect of mineral imbalance at different growth phases to be examined. After slaughtering, the bones of both front and hind limbs were macroscopically evaluated. Results Over 80% of the animals with a calcium-deficient diet had at least one severe osteoarthritic lesion. The economic impact of the calcium deficiency was statistically significant. Conclusion Calcium deficiency with distorted Ca/P ratio yielded a severe outbreak of osteoarthritis in fattening bulls. Calcium deficiency caused a more serious lesions in age group 5–12 months than age group 12–18 months. Besides causing obvious economic losses osteoarthritis is also a welfare issue for feedlot animals.

  9. Exploring Essential Conditions: A Commentary on Bull et al. (2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borthwick, Arlene; Hansen, Randall; Gray, Lucy; Ziemann, Irina

    2008-01-01

    The editorial by Bull et al. (2008) on connections between informal and formal learning made explicit one element of solving what Koehler and Mishra (2008) termed a "wicked problem." This wicked (complex, ill-structured) problem involves working with teachers for effective integration of technology in support of student learning. The…

  10. Reproductive characteristics of grass-fed, luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone-immunocastrated Bos indicus bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, J A; Zanella, E L; Bogden, R; de Avila, D M; Gaskins, C T; Reeves, J J

    2005-12-01

    Two field trials were conducted in Brazil to evaluate LHRH immunocastration of Bos indicus bulls (d 0 = 2 yr of age). In Study I, 72 bulls were assigned randomly to one of three treatment groups: LHRH0-immunized, castrated, and intact. Immunized animals (n = 25) received a primary and two booster injections of ovalbumin-LHRH-7 and thioredoxin-LHRH-7 fusion proteins on d 0, 141, and 287. Twenty-three bulls were surgically castrated on d 141, and 24 served as intact controls. All animals were slaughtered on d 385, at approximately 3 yr of age. In Study II, 216 bulls were assigned randomly to the same three treatments as in Study I; however, because of a drought in the area, bulls were kept on pasture an additional year, and a fourth treatment was added, in which one-half the LHRH-immunized bulls received an additional booster on d 639 (fourth immunization). All animals in Study II were slaughtered on d 741 (4 yr of age). Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone antibodies increased following each immunization for immunized bulls, but they were not detectable in castrate or intact animals in either study. Consequently, scrotal circumference was suppressed in immunized bulls compared with intact controls in both studies. By d 287, serum concentrations of testosterone in LHRH-immunized bulls were decreased compared with intact controls (P bulls (173 +/- 22 and 26 +/- 2 g, respectively) and fourth immunization bulls (78 +/- 23 and 20 +/- 2 g, respectively; Study II). At the end of each study, BW was greater (P bulls than for castrated and LHRH-immunized animals. In these two studies, the efficacy of the LHRH fusion proteins to induce an effect similar to that of surgical castration was considered 92 and 93%, respectively. These data support the concept that immunocastration of bulls at 2 yr of age was successful and that it has practical application as a tool for producing grass-fattened bulls in Brazil.

  11. Immunity to VHS virus in rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Niels; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Koch, C.

    1999-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is the rhabdovirus that causes most disease problems in farmed rainbow trout in Europe. Survivors of infection are usually immune to reinfection but as with other fish viruses, development of a modern recombinant vaccine has been complicated by the limited...... knowledge of the immune mechanisms and antigens involved in induction of immunity. Neutralizing and protective monoclonal antibodies recognize the envelope glycoprotein (G protein) which is the only viral protein known to be present on the surface of the virus particle. Immunoblotting analyses...... with monoclonal antibodies as well as with sera from immunized trout have indicated that protein conformation plays an important role in neutralization epitopes. The virus neutralizing activity often found in sera from convalescent trout is highly dependent on a poorly defined complementing activity in normal...

  12. Evaluation of myocarditis using Tl-201 myocardial scintigraphy with Bull's eye functional map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoh, Keiko; Utsumi, Jinji; Satoh, Hiroyuki (Juntendo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine) (and others)

    1991-04-01

    In order to evaluate myocardial damage in a patient with myocarditis, rest thallium-201 myocardial single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed in 15 patients with myocarditis. For qualitative and semiquantitative analysis, Bull's eye functional maps were made up with SPECT images. In the functional map, the abnormal area, where Tl uptake is less than mean-2SD of the Tl uptake of normal subjects, is generally distributed in the myocarditis group. But focal and sequential abnormal areas were recognized more often in the clinically severe cases. Abnormal area tended to be observed commonly at the antero-septal wall, but it was uncommon at the lateral wall. Extent score, i.e. degree of extension of abnormal area, and severity score, i. e. degree of abnormality, were in good negative correlation with left ventricular ejection fraction (r=0.6, r=0.7). Furthermore, existence of abnormal area was in good correlation with the left ventricular regional wall motion. Abnormal area existed 100% in the akinetic region , 71% in the region of severe hypokinesis, and 27% in the region of hypokinesis. Abnormal area occupied 30% of the normokinetic region in the myocarditis group, which was a higher rate than in the normal control group (p<0.05). It was suggested that latent myocardial damage existed in the normokinetic myocardium with myocarditis. Thus, rest Tl-201 SPECT with Bull's eye map is useful for clinical diagnosis in patients with myocarditis. (author).

  13. Summer habitat use by Columbia River redband trout in the Kootenai River drainage, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Bennett, David H.

    2001-01-01

    The reported decline in the abundance, distribution, and genetic diversity of Columbia River redband trout Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri (a rainbow trout subspecies) has prompted fisheries managers to investigate their habitat requirements, identify critical habitat, and develop effective conservation and recovery programs. We analyzed the microhabitat, mesohabitat, and macrohabitat use and distribution of Columbia River redband trout by means of snorkel surveys in two watersheds in the Kootenai River drainage, Montana and Idaho, during the summers of 1997 and 1998. Juvenile (36–125 mm total length, TL) and adult (>=126 mm TL) fish preferred deep microhabitats (>=0.4 m) with low to moderate velocities (<=0.5 m/s) adjacent to the thalweg. Conversely, age-0 (<=35 mm) fish selected slow water (<=0.1 m/s) and shallow depths (<=0.2 m) located in lateral areas of the channel. Age-0, juvenile, and adult fish strongly selected pool mesohabitats and avoided riffles; juveniles and adults generally used runs in proportion to their availability. At the macrohabitat scale, density of Columbia River redband trout (35 mm) was positively related to the abundance of pools and negatively related to stream gradient. The pool: riffle ratio, gradient, and stream size combined accounted for 80% of the variation in density among 23 stream reaches in five streams. Our results demonstrate that low-gradient, medium-elevation reaches with an abundance of complex pools are critical areas for the production of Columbia River redband trout. These data will be useful in assessing the impacts of land-use practices on the remaining populations and may assist with habitat restoration or enhancement efforts.

  14. The effects of overwinter flowson the spring condition of rainbow and brown trout size classes in the Green River downstream of Flaming Gorge Dam, Utah.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnusson, A. K.; LaGory, K. E.; Hayse, J. W.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-06-25

    Flaming Gorge Dam, a hydroelectric facility operated by the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), is located on the Green River in Daggett County, northeastern Utah. Until recently, and since the early 1990s, single daily peak releases or steady flows have been the operational pattern of the dam during the winter period. However, releases from Flaming Gorge Reservoir followed a double-peak pattern (two daily flow peaks) during the winters of 2006-2007 and 2008-2009. Because there is little recent long-term history of double-peaking at Flaming Gorge Dam, the potential effects of double-peaking operations on trout body condition in the dam's tailwater are not known. A study plan was developed that identified research activities to evaluate potential effects from winter double-peaking operations (Hayse et al. 2009). Along with other tasks, the study plan identified the need to conduct a statistical analysis of historical trout condition and macroinvertebrate abundance to evaluate the potential effects of hydropower operations. The results from analyses based on the combined size classes of trout (85-630 mm) were presented in Magnusson et al. (2008). The results of this earlier analysis suggested possible relationships between trout condition and flow, but concern that some of the relationships resulted from size-based effects (e.g., apparent changes in condition may have been related to concomitant changes in size distribution, because small trout may have responded differently to flow than large trout) prompted additional analysis of within-size class relationships. This report presents the results of analyses of three different size classes of trout (small: 200-299 mm, medium: 300-399 mm, and large: {ge}400 mm body length). We analyzed historical data to (1) describe temporal patterns and relationships among flows, benthic macroinvertebrate abundance, and condition of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the tailwaters of Flaming

  15. Ultrasound Imaging of Testes and Epididymides of Normal and Infertile Breeding Bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Mahmood Ali, Nazir Ahmad*, Nafees Akhtar, Shujait Ali, Maqbool Ahmad and Muhammad Younis1

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Echotexture of testes and epididymides from 10 slaughtered male buffaloes was studied. Diameter of testis and mediastinum testis was measured by ultrasound and compared with respective values taken by calipers. Testes and epididymides of another 10 fertile and 10 infertile breeding bulls were examined in vivo through manual palpation and ultrasound imaging. Semen quality of these bulls was also monitored. There were significant (P<0.01 positive correlations between ultrasound and calipers values of all parameters. The testicular parenchyma of fertile bulls was uniformly homogeneous and moderately echogenic. Epididymal tail was more heterogeneous and less echogenic, while epididymal head was homogeneous and less echogenic, than the testicular parenchyma. The epididymal body appeared as hypoechoic structure with echogenic margin. Among 10 infertile bulls, nine had poor semen quality, while one bull failed to give any ejaculate. On ultrasonography, six bulls showed abnormalities in their scrotal echotexture. Among these, one had an abundance of hyperechoic areas scattered in the testicular parenchyma, some of these showed acoustic shadowing, showing testicular degenerations with mineralization. The second bull showed many anechoic areas in the testes and epididymal head, demarcated from the rest of the organ by well defined margins. In the third bull, three-fourth of the right testis showed hyperechoic areas, suspected of testicular degeneration with mineralization. The fourth bull had two anechoic areas in one testis assumed to represent dilated blood vessel. The fifth bull showed small hyperechoic areas within the testicular parenchyma. The sixth bull showed an anechoic area with distinct hyperechogenic margin below the testicular tunics. The remaining four bulls had normal echogenicity of testes and epididymides in spite of poor semen quality. In conclusion, diagnostic ultrasound may be included in breeding soundness examination of breeding

  16. Bull breeding soundness, semen evaluation and cattle productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenoweth, P J; McPherson, F J

    2016-06-01

    The bull breeding soundness evaluation (BBSE) has evolved as a cost-effective veterinary procedure which provides benefits such as risk-reduction and improvements in strategic bull usage, herd fertility and economics. Semen evaluation is an important component of the BBSE when performed appropriately; a consideration that is increasingly addressed by third party andrology laboratories. The combination of competent physical/reproductive exams (including scrotal circumference measurements) and semen evaluations can contribute greatly to the fertility and economics of individual herds as well as adding to understanding of those factors which affect cattle fertility. Despite such advantages, there remain challenges in achieving full acceptance of BBSEs, particularly by the dairy industry and in developing countries.

  17. Candidate gene markers for sperm quality and fertility in bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinmoy Mishra

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Fertility is one of the primary traits of reproduction in bulls. Decrease in fertility is a multifactorial condition and is verydifficult to diagnose. Among various causes genetic abnormality holds a major share. By identifying various genes that haveeffects on fertility the genetic cause behind subferility can be explored and also other non genetic factors can be identified.Advancement of molecular genetic tools now easily enables us to explore individual genes in animals. Identification of thesegenes will eventually lead to genome assembly and development of novel tools for analysing complex genetic traits. Thispaper gives a brief idea about the candidate genes for bull fertility, including genes encoding hormones and their receptors,proteins of the seminal plasma, proteins involved in spermatozoa-ovum binding and genes influencing sexual development.The chromosomal location and gene structure are described, based on the bovine genome assembly.

  18. Analysis of High Reproductivity on Wild Yak Bull

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆仲璘

    2005-01-01

    Sperm concentration of wild yak bull is 2. 13 billion per milliliter. Survival time at 0-4 ℃ is 57hrs. After thawing survival time at 37 ℃ is 12 hrs. Resistance coefficient is 144,000. Abnormal sperm rate and acrosomal integrated rate of post-thawing is 9.17% and 87.53% respectively. Moving viscosity is 1. 169 cp. Total nitrogen is 1 437.7 mg/100 ml. Head of sperm is significantly shorter and end piece is significantly longer than that of domestic yak and yellow cattle. Activity of hyaluronidase is highly stronger than the domestic yak,and the activity of LDH is higher than the domestic yak by 48 %. Hence,the fertility of the wild yak bull is powerful and the artificial inseminated rate with domestic yak and yellow cattle is 88.9% and 71.58% respectively.

  19. Assessment of semen quality in pure and crossbred Jersey bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the seminal attributes of neat, pre-freeze (at equilibration, and post-freeze (24 h after freezing semen in pure and crossbred Jersey bulls. Materials and Methods: Total 36 ejaculates (3 ejaculates from each bull were collected from 6 pure Jersey and 6 crossbred Jersey bulls and evaluated for various seminal attributes during neat, pre-freeze, and post-freeze semen. Results: The mean (±standard error [SE] values of neat semen characteristics in pure and crossbred Jersey bulls were recorded such as volume (ml, color, consistency, mass activity (scale: 0-5, and sperm concentration (millions/ml. The extended semen was further investigated at pre-freeze and post-freeze stages and the mean (±SE values recorded at neat, pre-freeze, and post-freeze semen were compared between pure and crossbred Jersey bulls; sperm motility (80.55±1.70%, 62.77±1.35%, 46.11±1.43% vs. 80.00±1.80%, 65.00±1.66%, 47.22±1.08%, live sperm count (83.63±1.08%, 71.72±1.09%, 58.67±1.02% vs. 80.00±1.08%, 67.91±1.20%, 51.63±0.97%, total abnormal sperm count (8.38±0.32%, 12.30±0.39%, 16.75±0.42% vs. 9.00±0.45%, 12.19±0.48%, 18.11±0.64%, hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS reacted spermatozoa (71.88±0.77%, 62.05±0.80%, 47.27±1.05% vs. 72.77±1.02%, 62.11±0.89%, 45.94±1.33%, acrosome integrity (89.05±0.83%, 81.33±0.71%, 71.94±0.86% vs. 86.55±0.57%, 78.66±0.42%, 69.38±0.53%, and DNA integrity (99.88±0.07%, 100, 99.66±0.11% vs. 99.94±0.05%, 100, 99.44±0.18%,. The volume, color, consistency, sperm concentration, and initial motility in pure and crossbred Jersey bulls did not differ significantly (p>0.05. The mass activity was significantly (p0.05 was observed in abnormal sperm; HOS reacted spermatozoa and DNA integrity percentage among breeds. Conclusion: It may be concluded that the quality of pure Jersey bull semen was comparatively better than the crossbred Jersey bulls.

  20. In vitro fertility assessment of Kundhi buffalo bull semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzo Khan Kunbhar,

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on in-vitro fertility assessment of frozen thawed semen collected from Kundhi buffalo bull maintained at Department of Animal Reproduction, Faculty of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Sciences, Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam. Before freezing of semen, each ejaculate was assessed for volume, sperm concentration, mass activity and moss motility percentage. Twenty semen samples having motility 60% or above were frozen for post-thaw assessment. Frozen thawed semen was incubated at 250C for 5 hours and examined for progressive linear motility and live dead sperm count. The mean volume, mass activity, moss motility percentage sperm concentrations and pH of the semen were found to be 2.79±0.217 ml, 2.85±0.111, 71.75±2.621, 11.35±1.255 millions/ml and 5.8185±0.092 respectively of fresh semen. No significant difference was found between the parameters except pH, which was significantly different between the bulls. The mean sperm motility percentage and live dead sperm count % of Kundhi buffalo bull semen was found to be 20.46±1.62 and 6.9± 0.2% for frozen semen. A significant (P< 0.05 difference was found between the bulls for post-thaw motility percentage. It was found that at 01 hour incubation, 43.25±2.95% of sperms were motile having 11.78±0.28 % dead sperm count. It was gradually decline from 0 to 5 hours incubation, After 5 hours, all sperms were found dead. It is concluded that sperms maintaining long term motility and having less live dead sperms count were considered suitable for artificial insemination.

  1. Selection of bull dams in population of Simmental cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Pantelić V.; Novaković Ž.; Ostojić-Andrić D.

    2009-01-01

    Increase of production and improvement of the quality of milk, as well as of the intensity of fertility, are main prerequisites of modern cattle production. For the purpose of production of domestic Simmental bulls it is necessary to select the best cows from main herd. These heads as a rule represent approx. 1% of best cows in the controlled population primary in regard to production of milk and milk fat, but also in regard to body development, udder development and fertility traits. Fertili...

  2. Interrelationships Between Apoptosis and Fertility in Bull Sperm

    OpenAIRE

    Dogan, Sule; MASON, Melissa C.; Govindaraju, Aruna; BELSER, Lauren; Kaya, Abdullah; Stokes, John; ROWE, Dennis; Memili, Erdogan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Male fertility, the ability of sperm to fertilize and activate the egg and support early embryogenesis, is vital for mammalian reproduction. Despite producing adequate numbers of sperm with normal motility and morphology, some males suffer from low fertility whose molecular mechanisms are not known. The objective was to determine apoptosis in sperm from high and low fertility bulls and its relationship with male fertility. DNA damage, phosphatidylserine (PS) translocation, and expres...

  3. Gender Metaphor for Colonialism in John Bull's Other Island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹笑丽

    2015-01-01

    John Bull's Other Island is the only play of George Bernard Shaw dealing with the Irish problem.He manages to define and ridicule colonialism in it and satires English colonialist’s intention and nature.This paper studies colonialism in this play through sexual metaphor,to decipher how it works simultaneously as an intimation of the British colonial attitudes and a satire of economicexploitation.

  4. Computing mating bull fertility from DHI nonreturn data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, J S; McDaniel, B T

    2001-05-01

    Animal model methodology was used to compute yearly measures of relative fertility of Holstein AI mating bulls based upon 70-d nonreturn of first breedings as reported to U.S. DHIA from 1988 through 1997. Estimated Relative Conception Rates (ERCR) were computed for bulls with a minimum of 50 first breedings in a single year using variance ratios 45.5 for mating bull, 45.5 for animal genetic effects, and 31 for permanent environment. The model assumed repeatability across lactations of 0.05 and included fixed effects of herd-year-month bred and classes of parity, early lactation energy-corrected milk and days open when bred. Estimates of fertility were greater for breedings to cows that were young, had low early lactation production, and were in late stages of lactation. ERCR were expressed as difference in nonreturn from the average AI mating bull of herdmates. Values ranged from -18 to +13. For ERCR computed from a minimum of 1000 breedings, 90% were within four units of zero. Early ERCR computed from a few breedings in a single year were tested for ability to predict later ERCR computed from a minimum of 1000 different breedings. Early ERCR computed from 300 or more matings accurately predicted later independent ERCR. For yearly estimates each based upon a minimum of 1000 breedings, 8% changed more than three units, and 4% declined more than three units. Correlations between ERCR and predicted transmitting abilities protein and type production index were significant but accounted for little variance. Correlations between ERCR and other traits were not significant.

  5. The problem of sampling families rather than populations: Relatedness among individuals in samples of juvenile brown trout Salmo trutta L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Mensberg, Karen-Lise Dons

    1997-01-01

    In species exhibiting a nonrandom distribution of closely related individuals, sampling of a few families may lead to biased estimates of allele frequencies in populations. This problem was studied in two brown trout populations, based on analysis of mtDNA and microsatellites. In both samples mt......DNA haplotype frequencies differed significantly between age classes, and in one sample 17 out of 18 individuals less than 1 year of age shared one particular mtDNA haplotype. Estimates of relatedness showed that these individuals most likely represented only three full-sib families. Older trout exhibiting...

  6. Lake trout in northern Lake Huron spawn on submerged drumlins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Stephen C.; Binder, Thomas; Wattrus, Nigel J.; Faust, Matthew D.; Janssen, John; Menzies, John; Marsden, J. Ellen; Ebener, Mark P.; Bronte, Charles R.; He, Ji X.; Tucker, Taaja R.; Hansen, Michael J.; Thompson, Henry T.; Muir, Andrew M.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2014-01-01

    Recent observations of spawning lake trout Salvelinus namaycush near Drummond Island in northern Lake Huron indicate that lake trout use drumlins, landforms created in subglacial environments by the action of ice sheets, as a primary spawning habitat. From these observations, we generated a hypothesis that may in part explain locations chosen by lake trout for spawning. Most salmonines spawn in streams where they rely on streamflows to sort and clean sediments to create good spawning habitat. Flows sufficient to sort larger sediment sizes are generally lacking in lakes, but some glacial bedforms contain large pockets of sorted sediments that can provide the interstitial spaces necessary for lake trout egg incubation, particularly if these bedforms are situated such that lake currents can penetrate these sediments. We hypothesize that sediment inclusions from glacial scavenging and sediment sorting that occurred during the creation of bedforms such as drumlins, end moraines, and eskers create suitable conditions for lake trout egg incubation, particularly where these bedforms interact with lake currents to remove fine sediments. Further, these bedforms may provide high-quality lake trout spawning habitat at many locations in the Great Lakes and may be especially important along the southern edge of the range of the species. A better understanding of the role of glacially-derived bedforms in the creation of lake trout spawning habitat may help develop powerful predictors of lake trout spawning locations, provide insight into the evolution of unique spawning behaviors by lake trout, and aid in lake trout restoration in the Great Lakes.

  7. 3D visualization of the initial Yersinia ruckeri infection route in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by optical projection tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otani, Maki; Villumsen, Kasper Rømer; Kragelund Strøm, Helene;

    2014-01-01

    , optical projection tomography (OPT), a novel three-dimensional (3D) bio-imaging technique, was applied. OPT not only enables the visualization of Y. ruckeri on mucosal surfaces but also the 3D spatial distribution in whole organs, without sectioning. Rainbow trout were infected by bath challenge exposure...... as 1 minute post infection. Both OPT and IHC analysis confirmed that the secondary gill lamellae were the only tissues infected at this early time point, indicating that Y. ruckeri initially infects gill epithelial cells. The experimentally induced infection caused septicemia, and Y. ruckeri was found...... trout. Using OPT scanning it was possible to visualize the initial route of entry, as well as secondary infection routes along with the proliferation and spread of Y. ruckeri, ultimately causing significant mortality in the exposed rainbow trout. These results demonstrate that OPT is a state...

  8. A new single-nucleotide polymorphisms database for rainbow trout generated through whole genome resequencing of selected samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are highly abundant markers, which are broadly distributed in animal genomes. For rainbow trout, SNP discovery has been done through sequencing of restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) libraries, reduced representation libraries (RRL), RNA sequencing, and whole...

  9. Lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrod, Joseph H.; O'Gorman, Robert; Schneider, Clifford P.; Eckert, Thomas H.; Schaner, Ted; Bowlby, James N.; Schleen, Larry P.

    1995-01-01

    Attempts to maintain the native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) population in Lake Ontario by stocking fry failed and the species was extirpated by the 1950s. Hatchery fish stocked in the 1960s did not live to maturity because of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) predation and incidental commercial harvest. Suppression of sea lampreys began with larvicide treatments of Lake Ontario tributaries in 1971 and was enhanced when the tributaries of Oneida Lake and Lake Erie were treated in the 1980s. Annual stocking of hatchery fish was resumed with the 1972 year class and peaked at about 1.8 million yearlings and 0.3 million fingerlings from the 1985–1990 year classes. Survival of stocked yearlings declined over 50% in the 1980 s and was negatively correlated with the abundance of lake trout > 550 mm long (r = −0.91, P < 0.01, n = 12). A slot length limit imposed by the State of New York for the 1988 fishing season reduced angler harvest. Angler harvest in Canadian waters was 3 times higher in eastern Lake Ontario than in western Lake Ontario. For the 1977–1984 year classes, mean annual survival rate of lake trout age 6 and older was 0.45 (range: 0.35–0.56). In U.S. waters during 1985–1992, the total number of lake trout harvested by anglers was about 2.4 times greater than that killed by sea lampreys. The number of unmarked lake trout < 250 mm long in trawl catches in 1978–1992 was not different from that expected due to loss of marks and failure to apply marks at the hatchery, and suggested that recruitment of naturally-produced fish was nil. However, many of the obstacles which may have impeded lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Ontario during the 1980s are slowly being removed, and there are signs of a general ecosystem recovery. Significant recruitment of naturally produced lake trout by the year 2000, one interim objective of the rehabilitation plan for the Lake, may be achieved.

  10. Infectious pancreatic necrosis the trout farmers' dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisot, T.J.

    1965-01-01

    Induction of the innate immune pathways is critical for early anti-viral defense but there is limited understanding of how teleost fish recognize viral molecules and activate these pathways. In mammals, Toll-like receptors (TLR) 7 and 8 bind single-stranded RNA of viral origin and are activated by synthetic anti-viral imidazoquinoline compounds. Herein, we identify and describe the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) TLR7 and TLR8 gene orthologs and their mRNA expression. Two TLR7/8 loci were identified from a rainbow trout bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library using DNA fingerprinting and genetic linkage analyses. Direct sequencing of two representative BACs revealed intact omTLR7and omTLR8a1 open reading frames (ORFs) located on chromosome 3 and a second locus on chromosome 22 that contains an omTLR8a2 ORF and a putative TLR7pseudogene. We used the omTLR8a1/2 nomenclature for the two trout TLR8 genes as phylogenetic analysis revealed that they and all the other teleost TLR8 genes sequenced to date are similar to the zebrafish TLR8a, but are distinct from the zebrafish TLR8b. The duplicated trout loci exhibit conserved synteny with other fish genomes extending beyond the tandem of TLR7/8 genes. The trout TLR7 and 8a1/2 genes are composed of a single large exon similar to all other described TLR7/8 genes. The omTLR7 ORF is predicted to encode a 1049 amino acid (aa) protein with 84% similarity to the Fugu TLR7and a conserved pattern of predicted leucine-rich repeats (LRR). The omTLR8a1 andomTLR8a2 are predicted to encode 1035- and 1034-aa proteins, respectively, and have 86% similarity to each other. omTLR8a1 is likely the ortholog of the only Atlantic salmonTLR8 gene described to date as they have 95% aa sequence similarity. The tissue expression profiles of omTLR7, omTLR8a1 and omTLR8a2 in healthy trout were highest in spleen tissue followed by anterior and then posterior kidney tissues. Rainbow trout anterior kidney leukocytes produced elevated levels of

  11. Bull selection and use in northern Australia. 5. Social behaviour and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordyce, G; Fitzpatrick, L A; Cooper, N J; Doogan, V J; De Faveri, J; Holroyd, R G

    2002-05-15

    Calf output of bulls was derived using DNA typing for paternity following multiple-sire mating at two sites in northern Australia. At Swan's Lagoon Beef Cattle Research Station, 12, mixed-age, Brahman cross bulls were continuously mated with an average of 325 females in a 22km2 open-savannah paddock. Water was available in two troughs. Behaviour of the bulls and location of cows were monitored. At Kamilaroi Station, 2- to 2.5-year-old Brahman bulls were introduced to the study. Twenty-four bulls (HIGH%) were mated in an 84km2 paddock for 3.5 months to 411 heifers in 1995/1995 and for 4.5 months to 350 heifers and 320 first-lactation cows in 1995/1996. A second group of 10 bulls (LOW%) selected on reproductive soundness was mated concurrently in a neighbouring 60km2 paddock to 411 heifers in 1995/1995 and to 350 heifers and 298 first-lactation cows in 1995/1996. In each paddock in both years, 300-350 females were expected to cycle during mating. Both paddocks were flat and semi-forested and water was available only at troughs. At both sites, detailed physical and reproductive examinations of all bulls were conducted prior to and post-mating.Calf output of individual bulls was highly variable but repeatable (r=0.6-0.7) between years. Up to 90% of the 270-380 calves resulting from each mating were sired by between 6 and 8 bulls. Reducing from 3.7 to 2.8% bulls:females at Swan's Lagoon did not delay conceptions. At Kamilaroi, reproductively sound bulls achieved an estimated 5-6 conceptions per week over the peak mating period when sufficient cycling females were available. Differences in pregnancy rates between paddocks appeared due to differences in nutrition and it appeared that conceptions were not delayed with LOW% vs. HIGH% bulls. Variance between bulls in calf output was substantially lower when fewer bulls were used. Bull attrition occurred each year in the HIGH% paddock but not in the LOW% paddock. Calf output was unrelated to body condition of bulls. Seven of

  12. Defining desired genetic gains for rainbow trout breeding objective using analytic hierarchy process

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Distributing animals from a single breeding program to a global market may not satisfy all producers, as they may differ in market objectives and farming environments. Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is used to estimate preferences, which can be aggregated to consensus preference values using weighted goal programming (WGP). The aim of this study was to use an AHP-WGP based approach to derive desired genetic gains for rainbow trout breeding, and to study whether breeding trait preferences va...

  13. Changes in mean scrotal circumference in performance tested Swedish beef bulls over time

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson Pernilla; Lundeheim Nils; Söderquist Lennart

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background There is a growing interest in beef cattle breeding in Sweden. The majority of the females are bred naturally, which is why it is important to choose healthy fertile bulls to obtain good reproduction and profitability. The breeding soundness evaluation includes measurement of scrotal circumference (SC). Our aim was to analyze if the SC of performance tested beef bulls has changed over the years. In total, 1332 bulls (Angus, Charolais, Hereford and Simmental) from 13 batche...

  14. Joint disorder; a contributory cause to reproductive failure in beef bulls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Ylva; Söderquist, Lennart; Ekman, Stina

    2007-11-05

    The lame sire, unsound for breeding, can cause substantial economic loss due to reduced pregnancies in the beef-producing herd. To test the hypothesis that joint disorder is a possible cause of infertility in beef sires, right and left hind limb bones from 34 beef sires were examined postmortem to identify lesions in the femorotibial, femoropatellar (stifle), tarsocrural, talocalcaneus, and proximal intertarsal (tarsal) joints. The bulls were slaughtered during or after the breeding season due to poor fertility results. Aliquots of the cauda epididymal contents taken postmortem from 26 bulls were used for sperm morphology evaluation. As a control, hind limbs (but no semen samples) from 11 beef bulls with good fertility results were included. Almost all infertile bulls (30/34) had lesions in at least one joint. Twenty-eight bulls (28/30, 93%) had lesions in the stifle joint, and 24 (24/28, 86%) of these were bilateral. Fourteen bulls (14/30, 47%) had lesions in the tarsal joint, and 10 (10/14, 71%) of these were bilateral. Four bulls (4/34, 12%) had no lesions, three bulls (3/34, 9%) had mild osteoarthritis (OA), 5 (5/34, 15%) moderate OA, 17 (17/34, 50%) severe OA and 5 (5/34, 15%) deformed OA. Almost all OA lesions (97%) were characterized as lesions secondary to osteochondrosis dissecans. All the bulls with satisfactory sperm morphology (n = 12/34) had joint lesions, with mostly severe or deformed bilateral lesions (83%). Consequently, the most likely cause of infertility in these 12 bulls was joint disease. Almost all control bulls (10/11) had OA lesions, but most of them were graded as mild (55%) or moderate (36%). None of the control bulls had severe lesions or deformed OA. We suggest that joint lesions should be taken into consideration as a contributory cause of reproductive failure in beef sires without symptoms of lameness.

  15. Joint disorder; a contributory cause to reproductive failure in beef bulls?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekman Stina

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The lame sire, unsound for breeding, can cause substantial economic loss due to reduced pregnancies in the beef-producing herd. To test the hypothesis that joint disorder is a possible cause of infertility in beef sires, right and left hind limb bones from 34 beef sires were examined postmortem to identify lesions in the femorotibial, femoropatellar (stifle, tarsocrural, talocalcaneus, and proximal intertarsal (tarsal joints. The bulls were slaughtered during or after the breeding season due to poor fertility results. Aliquots of the cauda epididymal contents taken postmortem from 26 bulls were used for sperm morphology evaluation. As a control, hind limbs (but no semen samples from 11 beef bulls with good fertility results were included. Almost all infertile bulls (30/34 had lesions in at least one joint. Twenty-eight bulls (28/30, 93% had lesions in the stifle joint, and 24 (24/28, 86% of these were bilateral. Fourteen bulls (14/30, 47% had lesions in the tarsal joint, and 10 (10/14, 71% of these were bilateral. Four bulls (4/34, 12% had no lesions, three bulls (3/34, 9% had mild osteoarthritis (OA, 5 (5/34, 15% moderate OA, 17 (17/34, 50% severe OA and 5 (5/34, 15% deformed OA. Almost all OA lesions (97% were characterized as lesions secondary to osteochondrosis dissecans. All the bulls with satisfactory sperm morphology (n = 12/34 had joint lesions, with mostly severe or deformed bilateral lesions (83%. Consequently, the most likely cause of infertility in these 12 bulls was joint disease. Almost all control bulls (10/11 had OA lesions, but most of them were graded as mild (55% or moderate (36%. None of the control bulls had severe lesions or deformed OA. We suggest that joint lesions should be taken into consideration as a contributory cause of reproductive failure in beef sires without symptoms of lameness.

  16. Duration Dependence in Stock Prices: An Analysis of Bull and Bear Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Asger Lunde; Allan Timmermann

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates the presence of bull and bear market states in stock price dynamics. A new definition of bull and bear market states based on sequences of stopping times tracing local peaks and troughs in stock prices is proposed. Duration dependence in stock prices is investigated through posterior mode estimates of the hazard function in bull and bear markets. We find that the longer a bull market has lasted, the lower is the probability that it will come to a termination. In contra...

  17. Effect of behaviour of Holstein Friesian and Simmental bulls on semen quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Adamczyk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between the behaviour of Holstein-Friesian and Simmental bulls and the quality of their semen. A total of 76 breeding bulls of the Holstein-Friesian and dual-purpose Simmental breeds were investigated. Analysis was made of the response of bulls to humans and other bulls, facial hair whorl position and length, scrotal circumference, and semen characteristics (mean ejaculate volume, mean sperm concentration, and sperm wave motion. The age and breed of the bulls had a statistically significant effect on semen quality, scrotal circumference and the animals response to an unfamiliar human (Plt,0.05, Plt,0.01. The coefficients of correlation between the bull s response to a handler and to other bulls averaged 0.73. In general, only weak correlations were found between behavioural traits of the bulls and quality of their semen. It is worth noting a good correlation (r=0.50; Plt;0.05 between hair whorl position and sperm concentration in Simmental bulls.

  18. Tarsal lameness of dairy bulls housed at two artificial insemination centers: 24 cases (1975-1987).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargai, U; Cohen, R

    1992-10-01

    Degenerative joint disease of the tarsi was diagnosed in 20 of 24 Holstein bulls with tarsal lameness at 2 artificial insemination centers from 1975 to 1987. Each of the 2 centers housed about 100 bulls/yr. Of the 24 bulls with tarsal lameness, 22 were from the artificial insemination center designated as A, and 2 were from the center designated as B. Examination of the housing and management procedures revealed that center A had concrete floors with cuboidal-shaped yards, whereas center B had deep sand flooring, with long, narrow yards. The only other difference between the 2 centers was that center A used 1- and 2-year-old bulls as teasers for older, heavier bulls to mount, whereas center B used bulls that were at least 6 years old to withstand the stress placed on their hind limbs by the weight of bulls undergoing semen collection. Radiographic lesions of tarsi of bulls from both centers ranged from distention of the tibiotarsal joint pouch to hypertrophic degenerative osteoarthritis of the distal, intertarsal, and tarsometatarsal joints. It was concluded that the concrete flooring and the semen collecting practices were responsible for the high prevalence of tarsal lameness and degenerative joint disease of the tarsi in bulls housed at center A.

  19. Cod and rainbow trout as freeze-chilled meal elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard; Nielsen, Jette; Jørgensen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Meal elements' are elements of a meal, e.g. portions of pre-fried meat, sauces, frozen fish or pre-processed vegetables typically prepared industrially. The meal elements are distributed to professional satellite kitchens, where the staff can combine them into complete meals. Freeze...... and cod and rainbow trout seem potential candidates for freeze-chilled meal elements. (C) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry......-chilling is a process consisting of freezing and frozen storage followed by thawing and chilled storage. Combining the two would enable the manufacturer to produce large quantities of frozen meal elements to be released into the chill chain according to demand. We have studied the influence of freeze...

  20. Soil Geochemical Control Over Nematode Populations in Bull Pass, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poage, M. A.; Barrett, J. E.; Virginia, R. A.; Wall, D. H.

    2005-12-01

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys occupy the largest ice-free region of Antarctica and are characterized by climatic conditions among the most extreme on Earth. Despite the harsh environmental conditions, some soils of the dry valleys host simple low-diversity ecosystems dominated by microbes and several taxa of metazoans, predominantly nematodes. Distributions, abundance, and diversity of these biota appear to be related to the highly variable soil geochemistry (pH, conductivity, nitrate, sulfate, chloride) of the dry valleys. Bull Pass is a glacially carved valley within the dry valleys. An ancient lake margin near the valley floor creates a continuous gradient spanning the full range of geochemical parameters found across the entire McMurdo Dry Valleys system. This unique setting provides the opportunity to systematically investigate the soil geochemical control on local biodiversity and establish, on the spatial scale of hundreds of meters, correlations between nematode populations and individual geochemical parameters that have application at the regional scale. We measured soil geochemistry and nematode population data from a 1500-meter transect across this ancient lake margin. There were significant negative correlations between live nematode abundance and concentrations of soil nitrate, sulfate and chloride as well as total soil salinity, consistent with recent laboratory experiments showing strong salinity inhibition of nematode survival. A logistical regression analysis based on a compilation of published datasets from across the dry valleys was designed to calculate the probably of live nematode populations occurring given a particular soil chemistry, using the dataset from the Bull Pass transect as a case study to field-test the model. Small-scale chemical and biological gradients can provide insights on the distribution of soil biota at much larger regional scales.

  1. Effects of probiotic bacteria on survival, growth and body composition of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) larvae fed diets with various ifsh meal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hadi Jamali; Horiye Moghadam; Nafiseh Pariche; Hojatolah Jafaryan

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To compare the the effects of the diets containing various fish viscera meal and effects of probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus sp., Biifdobacterium sp. and Streptococcus sp.) on the growth, survival and carcass composition of rainbow trout larvae. Methods:Twelve tanks consisting of triplicates for each treatment group were used. Triplicate groups of rainbow trout (176 mg bodyweight) were fed with three diets formulated with viscera meal (VM) derived from common carp (Cyprinus carpio), or VM derived from mullet (Liza saliens and Liza auratus) or commercial diet with in-tank probiotic respectively, and three diets without probiotic 4 times a day at 5%to 6%of body weight for 45 d. Rainbow trout larvae (average individual weight, 176 mg) were randomly distributed with density of 4 fish/L into 18 fiberglass tanks. In probiotic treatments a blend of selected bacteria at 104 CFU/mL were added into rearing tanks four times a day. At the end of the 45-day experiment, growth performance, survival rates and carcass composition of larvae were determined. Results:The results indicated that change to probiotic diets significantly affect growth and survival of rainbow trout larvae (P Conclusions:VM derived from common carp can successfully replace more than half of marine fish meal in formulated diets for rainbow trout. Use of in-tank blends of Lactobacillus sp., Biifdobacterium sp. and Streptococcus sp., can increase survival rates and specific growth rates in rainbow trout larvae.

  2. CONSUMER PERCEPTIONS OF TROUT AS A FOOD ITEM

    OpenAIRE

    Foltz, John C.; Dasgupta, Siddhartha; Devadoss, Stephen

    1999-01-01

    The impacts of socioeconomic/demographic characteristics, experiences and preferences of consumers on trout purchasing decisions were estimated using Probit and Ordered Probit regression techniques. Data from a survey of consumer purchasing behavior and personal attributes were used to deduce factors that led to either a high or low likelihood of purchasing trout products. Analysis of data pertaining to whole trout and value-added products yielded consistently different characteristics of con...

  3. Rainbow trout can discriminate between feeds with different oil sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurden, I; Cuvier, A; Gondouin, E; Olsen, R E; Ruohonen, K; Kaushik, S; Boujard, T

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of present two-choice trials was to examine the capacity of groups of juvenile rainbow trout to differentiate between two isolipidic diets containing distinct oils and to detect an eventual preference. The choice was offered by means of two self-feeders per tank. One feeder distributed a standard diet with fish oil (FO), the other a diet containing vegetable oil, either rich in linolenic acid (linseed oil, LO), linoleic acid (sunflower oil, SO), or oleic acid (rapeseed oil, RO). Each 15-day preference test was preceded by a 15-day adaptation period during which both feeders distributed the same diet. The tests were followed by a 10- to 15-day validation period in order to confirm that feeder solicitations were steered by the characteristics of the diets. Preferences were expressed as relative changes in feed demands for a specific feeder. Averaged over all groups, the preference tests demonstrated the capacity of rainbow trout to discriminate between a diet with FO and a diet containing vegetable oil, and indicated a general preference for the diet with FO over the other diets irrespective of whether they received the diet with fish oil (Experiment 1) or with vegetable oil (Experiment 2) prior to the preference test. The tests also indicated a difference in the extent of relative avoidance of each of the three vegetable oil diets. Diet LO was the most avoided, as indicated by the 37-39% decrease in demands for the feeder with diet LO (P0.05). The avoidance of diet SO at the end of the preference test was 30% (P>0.05) after an initially higher avoidance of 43% (Poil diets were compensated by increased demands for diet FO. Hence, changes in diet selection had no effect on total feed or energy intakes, measured as the sum of both selections.

  4. Metabolism of 2-acetylaminofluorene by Shasta rainbow trout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, H.C.; Elmarakaby, S.A.; Steward, R.; Maslanka, R.; Shappell, N.; Kumar, S. [State University of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States); Devanaboyina, U.; Gupta, R.C. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1994-12-31

    In contrast to several mammalian species, Shasta strain rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), is resistant to the hepatocarcinogenic effects of 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF). In order to understand the mechanism underlying this resistance, the authors have investigated the in vitro metabolism of AAF by trout liver and examined the formation of AAF-DNA adducts in the liver of Shasta trout treated with AAF. The major AAF metabolites produced by trout liver microsomes were 7-hydroxy-AAF and 5-hydroxy-AAF which accounted for more than 95% of the total AAF metabolites. N-hydroxy-AAF was a minor metabolite representing about 1% of total AAF metabolites. The levels of N-hydroxy-AAF sulfotransferase and N-hydroxy-AAF acyltransferase, the cytosolic enzymes implicated in the metabolic activation of N-hydroxy-AAF to reactive intermediates capable of binding to cellular macromolecules were extremely low in trout liver. AAF exhibited a low degree of binding to the liver DNA of trout treated with 15 mg AAF/kg body wt. The total AAF-DNA adduct level reached a maximum 24 hours after treatment, persisted until 11 days and declined to nearly 20% of the maximum level after 18 days. N-deoxyguanosin-8-yl-2-aminofluorene was the major AAF-DNA adduct in the trout liver. The ability of trout liver to form relatively large amounts of detoxification products of AAF with little formation of activation products may partly explain the resistance of Shasta trout to AAF-induced hepatocarcinogenesis.

  5. SEMEN PRODUCTION AND PRODUCTIVE LIFE OF SAHIWAL BULLS: RELATIONSHIP WITH GENETIC WORTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. KHAN, A. A. BHATTI, S. A. BHATTI1 AND M. ASHIQ2

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective of the present study was to document the semen producing ability, productive life and genetic ability for lactation milk yield of Sahiwal bulls used for artificial insemination (AI in Punjab and to find the impact of AI bulls on the improvement of Sahiwal cattle. Data from Semen Production Unit (SPU, Qadirabad, Sahiwal, Pakistan were used for this purpose. A repeatability animal model was used for estimation of breeding values for lactation milk yield. Productive life of a bull was calculated as a difference between culling age and the age at first ejaculation. Number of bulls brought to SPU varied from 9 to 102 for any year. Average number of doses of semen produced by any bull for a year varied from 724 to 5745. On the average, 238 bulls produced 17143 ± 1164 semen doses during their average stay of 5.4 ± 0.2 years. About 50% of the bulls stayed for less than four years at the SPU; with a maximum range of 14 years. Progeny tested bulls (n=90 produced 5000 and 10000 semen doses (Y in three and four years of stay (X, respectively (Y = 24.8 + 2.3635 X - 0.0112 X2. To produce 20,000 doses, it is predicted that bulls need to stay for six and a half years at the SPU. There was no association between breeding values for lactation milk yield estimated under a repeatability animal model (EBVs and number of semen doses produced (r = 0.17 and EBVs and number of daughters. Lack of genetic superiority of bulls used indicated that AI did not bring desired genetic improvement in Sahiwal cattle in the present situation. Modifications for judicious utilization of bulls are suggested along with improvements in data recording.

  6. Comparison of biochemical parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) reared in two different trout farms'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Tayfun

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare biochemical parameters of cultured rainbow trouts (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum, 1972) reared in two different trout farms' (Agri and Erzurum). The average weights of fish were 150±10gr for first station (Agri), 230±10gr for second station (Erzurum). Fishes used in research were randomly caught from pools, and fifteen pieces were used for each group. Fishes were fed with commercial trout feed with 45-50% crude protein twice a day. The levels of AST, ALT, LDL, total cholesterol and triglyceride in the second station (Erzurum) were found to be higher (pHDL in the second station (Erzurum) were found to be lower (pHDL, LDL, triglyceride may be associated with size, sex, sexual maturity and environmental conditions (temperature, pH, hardness and dissolved oxygen).

  7. ASSESSMENT OF CHAROLAIS BULLS POPULATION STRUCTURE BASED ON SNPs ANALYSES

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Moravčíková; Tomáš Minarovič; Anna Trakovická

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was identification of SNPs in leptin (LEP), leptin receptor (LEPR), growth hormone (GH) and specific pituitary transcription factor (Pit-1) genes in order to analyze genetic structure of Charolais bulls’ population. The total numbers of genomic DNA samples were taken from 52 breeding bulls and analyzed by PCR-RFLP method. After digestion with restriction enzymes were detected in bulls’ population alleles with frequency: LEP/Sau3AI A 0.83 and B 0.17 (±0.037); LEPR/BseGI C...

  8. Detection of copy number variations and their effects in Chinese bulls

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Liangzhi

    2014-06-17

    Background: Copy number variations (CNVs) are a main source of genomic structural variations underlying animal evolution and production traits. Here, with one pure-blooded Angus bull as reference, we describe a genome-wide analysis of CNVs based on comparative genomic hybridization arrays in 29 Chinese domesticated bulls and examined their effects on gene expression and cattle growth traits.Results: We identified 486 copy number variable regions (CNVRs), covering 2.45% of the bovine genome, in 24 taurine (Bos taurus), together with 161 ones in 2 yaks (Bos grunniens) and 163 ones in 3 buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). Totally, we discovered 605 integrated CNVRs, with more " loss" events than both " gain" and " both" ones, and clearly clustered them into three cattle groups. Interestingly, we confirmed their uneven distributions across chromosomes, and the differences of mitochondrion DNA copy number (gain: taurine, loss: yak & buffalo). Furthermore, we confirmed approximately 41.8% (253/605) and 70.6% (427/605) CNVRs span cattle genes and quantitative trait loci (QTLs), respectively. Finally, we confirmed 6 CNVRs in 9 chosen ones by using quantitative PCR, and further demonstrated that CNVR22 had significantly negative effects on expression of PLA2G2D gene, and both CNVR22 and CNVR310 were associated with body measurements in Chinese cattle, suggesting their key effects on gene expression and cattle traits.Conclusions: The results advanced our understanding of CNV as an important genomic structural variation in taurine, yak and buffalo. This study provides a highly valuable resource for Chinese cattle\\'s evolution and breeding researches. 2014 Zhang et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  9. Kilgore Trout - He Tried : en tematisk analyse av Kilgore Trouts rolle i forfatterskapet til Kurt Vonnegut

    OpenAIRE

    Glomsrød, Jannicke Storm

    2007-01-01

    Hvilke roller og funksjoner innehar Kilgore Trout-karakteren i Kurt Vonneguts forfatterskap? Hvilken betydning har han og hva ligger til grunn for denne gjennomgangsfigurens ankomst og endelige avgang i litteraturen? I denne oppgaven søker jeg å undersøke og finne svaret på disse spørsmålene. Kilgore Trout går igjen i syv av Vonneguts fjorten romaner og er en gjennomgangsfigur i drøye 32 år av dennes forfatterskap, som strekker seg over 53 år med Player Piano fra 1952 i den ene enden og A ...

  10. The effect of fenceline bull exposure on expression of oestrus in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, J.B.; Soede, N.M.; Voskamp-Harkema, W.; Kemp, B.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether dairy cows visit and interact with a fenceline-housed bull more during oestrus than outside oestrus and whether fenceline bull contact affects expression of oestrus. At one end of a free stall a fence with vertical open bars was placed behind wh

  11. Effects of pedigree and exotic genetic inheritance on semen production traits of dairy bulls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VijethaBajjalliThippeswamy; SiddarthaShankar Layek; ArumugamKumaresan; TusharKumar Mohanty; Ashok Kumar Gupta; Atish Kumar Chakravarty; Ayyasamy Manimaran; Shiv Prasad

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study the effects of different levels of exotic inheritance on ejaculate quality in bulls and its passage through different generations.Methods:Data on semen production traits and ejaculate quality were obtained for38 crossbred bulls and grandsire-sire-progeny relationship in relation to semen quality was studied.The bulls were classified into three groups based on the level of exotic inheritance viz.F1,50.0%-62.5% exotic germplasm and >75% exotic germplasm.Results:Results of the present study indicated that about40% of the ejaculates obtained from the crossbred bulls were rejected from further processing due to poor ejaculate quality.TheF1 bulls produced significantly higher proportions(57.00±10.00) of poor quality ejaculates compared to the interse mated bulls.The age at first semencollection in crossbred bulls ranged from567 to1010 days with an average of738.89±18.18 days while the mean age at first semen freezing was865.72±34.60 days.Conclusions:It may be inferred that the“acceptable quality semen producing ability” decreased from grandsire through sire to male progeny and among the increasing exotic genetic levels ofCB cattle,F1 bulls produced significantly higher“low grade ejaculates” that were unfit for cryopreservation.

  12. Use of NMR and NMR Prediction Software to Identify Components in Red Bull Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Andre J.; Shirzadi, Azadeh; Burrow, Timothy E.; Dicks, Andrew P.; Lefebvre, Brent; Corrin, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    A laboratory experiment designed as part of an upper-level undergraduate analytical chemistry course is described. Students investigate two popular soft drinks (Red Bull Energy Drink and sugar-free Red Bull Energy Drink) by NMR spectroscopy. With assistance of modern NMR prediction software they identify and quantify major components in each…

  13. 7 CFR 59.102 - Mandatory daily reporting for cows and bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mandatory daily reporting for cows and bulls. 59.102... (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Cattle Reporting § 59.102 Mandatory daily reporting for cows and bulls. (a) In General. The corporate officers or officially designated representatives of each cow...

  14. Evaluation of Semen Quality of Holstein Friesian and Jersey Bulls Maintained under Subtropical Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fiaz*, R. H. Usmani1, M. Abdullah and T. Ahmad2

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Semen production data of Holstein-Friesian and Jersey bulls collected over a period of three years was analyzed to examine seasonal effects on quantity and quality of semen. Purebred breeding bulls of Holstein-Friesian and Jersey breeds (n = 18 for each breed, maintained under naturally ventilated open-sided sheds, were used for semen collection. Meteorological information on ambient temperature, relative humidity and rainfall was used to divide the calendar year into two stressful summer seasons viz; dry summer (April - June and wet summer (July–September and a stress free season (October - March. The number of ejaculates per bull recorded during three seasons were not significantly different (P>0.05 in both breeds. Friesian bulls produced lower ejaculatory volume during dry summer season, whereas Jersey bulls produced higher (P0.05 but in Jersey bulls it was lower during wet summer than other seasons. Wet summer resulted in reduced number of semen doses frozen per bull in both breeds. The results of this study indicated that wet summer season deteriorated semen quality in terms of mass motility, individual motility and number of doses in both breeds, except individual motility in semen of Friesian bulls.

  15. Associations between endotoxin-induced metabolic changes and temperament in Brahman bulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of temperament on the alteration of metabolic parameters in response to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge was investigated. Brahman bulls were selected for this study based on temperament score. Bulls were fitted with indwelling jugular catheters for serial sampling to evaluate peri...

  16. The effects of varied densities on the growth and emigration of adult cutthroat trout and brook trout in fenced stream enclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buys, D.J.; Hilderbrand, R.H.; Kershner, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of various density treatments on adult fish growth and emigration rates between Bonneville cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki utah and brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in stream enclosures in Beaver Creek, Idaho, We used 3 density treatments (low, ambient, and high fish densities) to evaluate density-related effects and to ensure a response. Intraspecific ambient-density tests using cutthroat trout only were also performed. Results indicated an absence of cage effects in the stream enclosures and no differences in fish growth between ambient-density stream-enclosure fish and free-range fish. Brook trout outgrew and moved less than cutthroat trout in the stream enclosures, especially as density increased, In all 3 density treatments, brook trout gained more weight than cutthroat trout, with brook trout gaining weight in each density treatment and cutthroat trout losing weight at the highest density. At high densities, cutthroat trout attempted to emigrate more frequently than brook trout in sympatry and allopatry. We observed a negative correlation between growth and emigration for interspecific cutthroat trout, indicating a possible competitive response due to the presence of brook trout. We observed similar responses for weight and emigration in trials of allopatric cutthroat trout, indicating strong intraspecific effects as density increased. While cutthroat trout showed a response to experimental manipulation with brook trout at different densities, there has been long-term coexistence between these species in Beaver Creek, This system presents a unique opportunity to study the mechanisms that lead cutthroat trout to coexist with rather than be replaced by nonnative brook trout.

  17. SuchThatCast Episode 3: J.D. Trout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Søraker, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    SuchThatCast goes mobile in the third episode, as I interview J.D. Trout on the appr. 2 hour train ride between Enschede and Schiphol airport. Trout received his PhD in Philosophy at Cornell University and is currently Professor of Philosophy and Psychology at Loyola University Chicago. He was recen

  18. Innate immune responses of young bulls to a novel environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzuoli, Elisabetta; Olzi, Emilio; Calà, Pietro; Cafazzo, Simona; Magnani, Diego; Vitali, Andrea; Lacetera, Nicola; Archetti, Laura; Lazzara, Fabrizio; Ferrari, Angelo; Nanni Costa, Leonardo; Amadori, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    Animal welfare during transportation has been investigated in several studies, as opposed to post-transportation phases. In this study, we evaluated the effect of a novel environment after transportation on 26 Friesian bulls, 242 ± 42 day-old, from ten different dairy farms. Animals were shipped to a breeding center in different seasons, and selected parameters of innate immunity (serum bactericidal activity, hemolytic complement, serum albumin, α, β, and γ-globulins, interleukin-6, TNF-α) were monitored before and after the arrival at days--4/0/4/15/30. Our results showed significant differences of IL-6 and TNF-α protein levels at destination in December (94 ± 1.3 pg/ml) and June (+788 pg/ml), respectively. Moreover, the serum levels of these cytokines increased between days 0 and 15 after the arrival, the modulation of IL-6 being in agreement with established models of physical and/or psychological stress. Concerning the modulation of albumin, alpha and beta-globulins, the highest levels were detected in April, whereas a significant decrease was observed between day 15 and 30 after arrival; on the contrary, γ-globulin levels significantly increased after day 15. The results of this study highlight the occurrence of innate immune responses of young bulls to the combined effects of climate (season) and novel farming conditions.

  19. Growth, puberty, and carcass characteristics of Brahman-, Senepol-, and Tuli-sired F1 Angus bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, C C; Chenoweth, P J; Larsen, R E; Hammond, A C; Olson, T A; West, R L; Johnson, D D

    2001-08-01

    Postweaning growth, sexual development, libido, and carcass data were collected from two consecutive calf crops using 31 Brahman x Angus (B x A), 41 Senepol x Angus (S x A), and 38 Tuli x Angus (T x A) F1 bulls. Following weaning (by mid-September) and preconditioning, at the start of the study (late September) bulls were fed concentrate (three times each week at a rate equivalent to 4.5 kg/d) on bahiagrass pasture for approximately 250 d. At the start of the study and at 28-d intervals, BW, hip height, and scrotal circumference (SC) were measured. Concurrently at 28-d intervals, when the SC of a bull was > or = 23 cm, semen collection was attempted using electroejaculation. Ejaculates were evaluated for presence of first spermatozoa (FS), 50 x 10(6) sperm with at least 10% motility (PU), and 500 x 10(6) sperm with at least 50% motility (PP). After all bulls reached PP they were subjected to two libido tests. Carcass data were collected on all bulls (n = 110) and Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) force values were assessed on a subset (n = 80). For both years, B x A bulls were heavier (P 0.10) gain in BW or hip height during the study. Scrotal circumference of T x A bulls was larger (P 0.10) of breed type by the end of the study. At PU and PP, B x A bulls were older (P carcass traits; B x A bulls had the heaviest (P carcass weight, greatest (P 0.10) USDA quality grade. In conclusion, tropically adapted F1 bulls produced from Senepol (Bos taurus) and Tuli (Sanga) sires bred to Angus cows in Florida had lighter BW, shorter hip heights, and smaller carcasses than those from Brahman sires but reached puberty earlier and had higher libido scores and lower WBS force values.

  20. Otter ( Lutra lutra ) predation on stocked brown trout ( Salmo trutta ) in two Danish lowland rivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lene

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate otter predation on stocked trout. Large hatchery-reared trout (16-30 cm) were stocked into two Danish rivers with different fish populations. Otter diet before and after trout stocking was determined by analysing 685 spraints, collected regularly during the 35-day study...... period. Fish composition in the rivers before stocking was assessed by electrofishing. In River Trend, a typical trout river, the proportion of trout in the otter diet increased from 8% before stocking to 33% a few days after stocking. Moreover, trout lengths in the diet changed significantly towards...... the lengths of stocked trout, indicating that newly stocked trout were preferred to wild trout. In River Skals, dominated by cyprinids, there was no change in otter diet after stocking of hatchery trout, i.e., these were ignored by otter. Otter predation should be taken into account together with fish...

  1. Metals-contaminated benthic invertebrates in the Clark Fork River, Montana: Effects on age-0 brown trout and rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Daniel F.; Farag, Aïda M.; Bergman, Harold L.; Delonay, Aaron J.; Little, Edward E.; Smiths, Charlie E.; Barrows, Frederic T.

    1995-01-01

    Benthic organisms in the upper Clark Fork River have recently been implicated as a dietary source of metals that may be a chronic problem for young-of-the-year rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). In this present study, early life stage brown trout (Salmo trutta) and rainbow trout were exposed for 88 d to simulated Clark Fork River water and a diet of benthic invertebrates collected from the river. These exposures resulted in reduced growth and elevated levels of metals in the whole body of both species. Concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, and Pb increased in whole brown trout; in rainbow trout, As and Cd increased in whole fish, and As also increased in liver. Brown trout on the metals-contaminated diets exhibited constipation, gut impaction, increased cell membrane damage (lipid peroxidation), decreased digestive enzyme production (zymogen), and a sloughing of intestinal mucosal epithelial cells. Rainbow trout fed the contaminated diets exhibited constipation and reduced feeding activity. We believe that the reduced standing crop of trout in the Clark Fork River results partly from chronic effects of metals contamination in benthic invertebrates that are important as food for young-of-the-year fish.

  2. Feeding habits of the alien brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and the native brown trout Salmo trutta in Czech mountain streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horká Petra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying patterns of prey resource use is fundamental to identify mechanisms enabling the coexistence of related fish species. Trophic interactions between the native brown trout, Salmo trutta, and the introduced brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, were studied monthly from May to October in three mountain streams in Central Europe (Czech Republic. To evaluate whether the feeding habits differ between separated and coexisting populations of these species, one locality where both species coexist, and two allopatric populations of either species were studied. Across the study period, the mean stomach fullness of fish varied, being highest in spring and declining through autumn. The diet overlap (Schoener's overlap index between the species increased through the studied season (from 54.5% in July to 81.5% in October. In allopatry, both species had nearly the same feeding habits. However, in sympatry, brook trout consumed higher proportion of terrestrial invertebrates, while brown trout showed no changes either in the proportions of aquatic and terrestrial prey utilized or in the selectivity for prey categories in comparison to allopatric conditions. The dietary shift observed for brook trout, but not for brown trout, suggests that brown trout is a stronger competitor in the studied sympatric locality, leading the brook trout to change its feeding habits to reduce interspecific competition.

  3. Effect of sex sorting on CTC staining, actin cytoskeleton and tyrosine phosphorylation in bull and boar spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, D; Galeati, G; Tamanini, C; Vallorani, C; Rodriguez-Gil, J E; Spinaci, M

    2012-04-01

    Sperm sorting is a useful technology that permits sex preselection. It presents some troubles because of low fertility after the process. The main aim of this work was to analyze the putative existence of capacitation-like changes in both boar and bull sperm subjected to sex sorting that could lead to a detriment of semen quality. The parameters used were CTC staining patterns, actin cytoskeleton organization and tyrosine phosphorylation patterns; the last two were determined by both western blotting and immunofluorescence. Sex sorted spermatozoa were compared with fresh, in vitro capacitated and in vitro acrosome reacted sperm. In both species, sex sorted sperm showed a CTC staining pattern similar to that observed after in vitro capacitation. The actin pattern distribution after sperm sorting also tended to be similar to that observed after in vitro capacitation, but this effect was more pronounced in bull than in boar spermatozoa. However, actin expression analysis through western blot did not show any change in either species. The tyrosine phosphorylation pattern in boar sperm was practically unaltered after the sex sorting process, but in bulls about 40% of spermatozoa had a staining pattern indicative of capacitation. Additionally, western blotting analysis evidenced some differences in the expression of protein tyrosine phosphorylation among fresh, capacitated, acrosome reacted and sex sorted sperm cells in both species. Our results indicate that not all the sex-sorted-related modifications of the studied parameters were similar to those occurring after "in vitro" capacitation, thus suggesting that sex sorting-induced alterations of sperm function and structure do not necessarily indicate the achievement of the capacitated status of sorted sperm.

  4. Residency patterns and migration dynamics of adult bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) on the east coast of southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Ryan; Smale, Malcolm J; Cowley, Paul D; Froneman, Pierre W

    2014-01-01

    Bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) are globally distributed top predators that play an important ecological role within coastal marine communities. However, little is known about the spatial and temporal scales of their habitat use and associated ecological role. In this study, we employed passive acoustic telemetry to investigate the residency patterns and migration dynamics of 18 adult bull sharks (195-283 cm total length) tagged in southern Mozambique for a period of between 10 and 22 months. The majority of sharks (n = 16) exhibited temporally and spatially variable residency patterns interspersed with migration events. Ten individuals undertook coastal migrations that ranged between 433 and 709 km (mean  = 533 km) with eight of these sharks returning to the study site. During migration, individuals exhibited rates of movement between 2 and 59 km x d(-1) (mean = 17.58 km x d(-1)) and were recorded travelling annual distances of between 450 and 3760 km (mean = 1163 km). Migration towards lower latitudes primarily took place in austral spring and winter and there was a significant negative correlation between residency and mean monthly sea temperature at the study site. This suggested that seasonal change is the primary driver behind migration events but further investigation is required to assess how foraging and reproductive activity may influence residency patterns and migration. Results from this study highlight the need for further understanding of bull shark migration dynamics and suggest that effective conservation strategies for this vulnerable species necessitate the incorporation of congruent trans-boundary policies over large spatial scales.

  5. Evaluation of a rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mikyss culture water recirculating system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Sánchez O.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate a water recirculation system for rainbow trout fish cultures at the recirculating laboratory of the Aquaculture Engineering Production Program of University of Nariño. Materials and Methods. 324 rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mikyss fries were cultured in 12 plastic tanks with a capacity of 250 L in an aquaculture recirculating system the treatment system of which was made up by a conventional sedimentation tank, a fixed stand upflow biofilter with recycled PVC tube pieces and a natural degassing system; the sedimentation unit effluent was pumped up to a reservoir tank using a 2 HP centrifugal pump after being subject to gravity through the biofilter and to be then distributed to the 12 culture units to which a constant amount of air from a blower was injected. Results. The water treatment system removed 31% of total suspended solids, 9.5% of total ammonia nitrogen, and increased dissolved oxygen to the final effluent in 6.5%. An increase of 305% in biomass was calculated during 75 days, the mortality percentage registered throughout the study period was 4.9%. Conclusions. The water treatment system maintained the physicochemical water quality parameters within the values recommended for the species. The increase in weight and size, food conversion, mortality and biomass production reported normal values for rainbow trout fish culture in recirculating systems.

  6. Interactions between introduced trout and larval salamanders (Ambystoma macrodactylum) in high-elevation lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, T.; Liss, W.J.; Ganio, L.; Larson, Gary L.; Hoffman, Robert L.; Deimling, E.; Lomnicky, G.A.

    1998-01-01

    The larval stage of the long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum) is the top vertebrate predator in high-elevation fishless lakes in the North Cascades National Park Service Complex, Washington (U.S.A.). Although most of these high-elevation lakes were naturally fishless, trout have been stocked in many of them. We sought to determine the effects of physicochemical factors and introduced trout on abundance and behavior of A. macrodactylum larvae. Larval salamander densities were estimated by snorkeling. Snorkelers carefully searched through substrate materials within 2 m of the shoreline and recorded the number of larvae observed and if larvae were hidden in benthic substrates. Physicochemical factors were measured in each lake on the same day that snorkel surveys were conducted. In fishless lakes, larval salamander densities were positively related to total Kjeldahl-N concentration and negatively related to lake elevation. Crustacean zooplankton, especially cladocerans, were important food resources for larval A. macrodactylum. Crustacean zooplankton and cladoceran densities were positively related to total Kjeldahl-N, suggesting that increased food resources contributed to increased densities of larval A. macrodactylum. Differences in larval salamander densities between fish and fishless lakes were related to total Kjeldahl-N concentrations and the reproductive status of trout. Mean larval salamander densities for fishless lakes with total Kjeldahl-N amphibians requires an understanding of natural abiotic and biotic factors and processes influencing amphibian distribution and abundance.

  7. Preferences, specialization, and management attitudes of trout anglers fishing in Tennessee tailwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutt, C.P.; Bettoli, P.W.

    2007-01-01

    Efforts to manage several trout fisheries in Tennessee have been stymied by conflicts between management agencies and angler groups. To assist in preventing such conflicts in the future, we examined attitudes and motivations of trout anglers who fished eight tailwater fisheries in Tennessee during 2001-2002. Using a stratified random sampling design, anglers were contacted and interviewed on site (n = 2,643). Those anglers who agreed to complete a questionnaire (n = 1,942) were mailed a 10-page survey. Response rate to the mail survey was 55% after excluding surveys that were undeliverable. Angler subgroups were created using hierarchical cluster analyses of 14 variables related to experience, resource use, investment, and centrality of fishing to their lifestyle. Five subgroups of minimally to highly specialized anglers were identified, and nonhierarchical cluster analysis determined the size of each group (n = 178-369 anglers/group). Subgroups differed in the importance they attached to harvesting trout and catching trophy trout. The most disparate mean ratings among subgroups were for the motive of "obtaining fish to eat." Specialized anglers placed greater importance on catching a trophy fish, experiencing the catch, developing their skills, releasing fish, and restrictive regulations than did less-specialized anglers. Mean ratings for most of nine fishing regulations presented to anglers differed among tailwaters; however, bait restrictions and closed seasons received little support across all rivers. The Caney Fork, Clinch, and Hiwassee rivers had the most uniform distributions of anglers among the five subgroups and thus had a relatively high potential for conflicts over management decisions. The fisheries on the Elk, South Fork Holston, and Watauga rivers were dominated by the most specialized subgroups, indicating that the majority of anglers on those rivers would accept restrictive regulations. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  8. Sensitivity of early life stages of white sturgeon, rainbow trout, and fathead minnow to copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardy, David W; Oellers, Johanna; Doering, Jon A; Hollert, Henner; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Populations of white sturgeon (WS; Acipenser transmontanus) are in decline in several parts of the United States and Canada, attributed primarily to poor recruitment caused by degradation of habitats, including pollution with contaminants such as metals. Little is known about sensitivity of WS to contaminants or metals such as copper (Cu). Here, acute (96 h) mortalities of WS early life stages due to exposure to Cu under laboratory conditions are reported. Two standard test species, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), were exposed in parallel to determine relative sensitivity among species. Swim-up larvae [15 days post-hatch (dph)] and early juveniles (40-45 dph) of WS were more sensitive to Cu (LC(50) = 10 and 9-17 μg/L, respectively) than were yolksac larvae (8 dph; LC(50) = 22 μg/L) and the later juvenile life stage (100 dph; LC(50) = 54 μg/L). WS were more sensitive to Cu than rainbow trout and fathead minnow at all comparable life stages tested. Yolksac larvae of rainbow trout and fathead minnow were 1.8 and 4.6 times, respectively, more tolerant than WS, while swim-up and juvenile life stages of rainbow trout were between 1.4- and 2.4-times more tolerant than WS. When plotted in a species sensitivity distribution with other fishes, the mean acute toxicity value for early life stage WS was ranked between the 1st and 2nd centile. The WS life stage of greatest Cu sensitivity coincides with the beginning of active feeding and close association with sediment, possibly increasing risk. WS early life stages are sensitive to aqueous copper exposure and site-specific water quality guidelines and criteria should be evaluated closely to ensure adequate protection.

  9. Measurement of peroxisomal enzyme activities in the liver of brown trout (Salmo trutta, using spectrophotometric methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resende Albina D

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was aimed primarily at testing in the liver of brown trout (Salmo trutta spectrophotometric methods previously used to measure the activities of catalase and hydrogen peroxide producing oxidases in mammals. To evaluate the influence of temperature on the activities of those peroxisomal enzymes was the second objective. A third goal of this work was the study of enzyme distribution in crude cell fractions of brown trout liver. Results The assays revealed a linear increase in the activity of all peroxisomal enzymes as the temperature rose from 10° to 37°C. However, while the activities of hydrogen peroxide producing oxidases were strongly influenced by temperature, catalase activity was only slightly affected. A crude fraction enriched with peroxisomes was obtained by differential centrifugation of liver homogenates, and the contamination by other organelles was evaluated by the activities of marker enzymes for mitochondria (succinate dehydrogenase, lysosomes (aryl sulphatase and microsomes (NADPH cytochrome c reductase. For peroxisomal enzymes, the activities per mg of protein (specific activity in liver homogenates were strongly correlated with the activities per g of liver and with the total activities per liver. These correlations were not obtained with crude peroxisomal fractions. Conclusions The spectrophotometric protocols originally used to quantify the activity of mammalian peroxisomal enzymes can be successfully applied to the study of those enzymes in brown trout. Because the activity of all studied peroxisomal enzymes rose in a linear mode with temperature, their activities can be correctly measured between 10° and 37°C. Probably due to contamination by other organelles and losses of soluble matrix enzymes during homogenisation, enzyme activities in crude peroxisomal fractions do not correlate with the activities in liver homogenates. Thus, total homogenates will be used in future seasonal and

  10. Bull Fertility and Its Relation with Density Gradient Selected Sperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allouche Lynda ,

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Sperm selection method is usually used to collect these cells for in vitro-assisted reproduction. Few studies reported the relationship of in vivo fertility and semen parameters after sperm selection; hence, the present study attempted to assess different semen parameters after post-thaw or sperm selection, using density gradient separation BoviPure®, to predict in vivo fertility. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, frozen semen quality of four Montbeliarde bulls were assessed after post-thaw (PT or after sperm selection (SSp, using density gradient separation BoviPure®, to predict the fertility rate in vivo. In addition to PT or SSp, semen was examined for concentration, motility, morphology abnormalities, viability, acrosome and plasma membrane integrities. Fertility was measured as non-return rates within 56 days after the first insemination (NRR or as corrected NRR, expressed as CNRR, to the factors influencing fertility using linear mixed model. Non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test was performed to compare semen parameter variables. Fertility rates were compared using Chi-square test. Pearson correlation analysis was used to test the relationship between CNRR and semen parameters. Data was analysed using SPSS package program, version 21.0. Results Most of the examined bulls exhibited a high fertility rate (3/4 bulls, 62.1- 81.8% for NRR or 67.2-98.5% for CNRR. Fertility rate, expressed as CNRR, was significantly related to semen parameters after SSp, but not after PT. Thus, CNRR was increased with decrease of total motility, progressive spermatozoa and abaxial implantation frequencies after SSp (r=-0.999, P=0.001; r=-0.990, P=0.010; r=-0.988, P= 0.012, respectively; while, CNRR was decreased with decrease of SSp immotile spermatozoa (r=+0.995, P=0.005, underlying that maximal limit of determined immotile spermatozoa is 47%. Conclusion High frequencies of total and progressive motility spermatozoa, and abaxial

  11. Effect of some permeating cryoprotectants on CASA motility results in cryopreserved bull spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, M M

    2011-02-01

    Computer-assisted sperm analyzers (CASA) have become the standard tool for evaluating sperm motility because they provide objective results for thousands of mammalian spermatozoa. Mammalian spermatozoa experience osmotic stress when the glycerol is added to the cells prior to freezing and removal from the cells after thawing. In order to minimize osmotic damage, cryoprotectants having lower molecular weights and greater membrane permeability than glycerol, were evaluated to determine their effectiveness for cryopreserving bull spermatozoa. The aim of this study was to compare the cryopreservation effects of low molecular weight cryoprotectants (ethylene glycol and methanol) to glycerol, on post-thaw CASA sperm parameters. Bull semen was diluted with tris-egg yolk extender containing 3% glycerol, 3, 2 and 1% ethylene glycol or 3, 2 and 1% methanol. Bull semen was frozen in 0.5 straws. Bull spermatozoa exhibited higher percentages (p<0.01) for total (Mot, 72.4%) and progressively (Prog, 29.5%) motilities when frozen in extender containing 3% glycerol compared to 3, 2 and 1% ethylene glycol or 3, 2 and 1% methanol. In conclusion, no advantages were found in using ethylene glycol or methanol to replace glycerol in bull semen freezing. Glycerol provided the best sperm characteristics for bull spermatozoa after freezing and thawing. The possibility of using ethylene glycol or methanol as permeating cryoprotectants for bull semen deserves further investigation, and these cryoprotectants should also be evaluated in extenders that contain disaccharides or cholesterol.

  12. Evaluation of bull prolificacy on commercial beef cattle ranches using DNA paternity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eenennaam, A L; Weber, K L; Drake, D J

    2014-06-01

    SNP-based DNA testing was used to assign paternity to 5,052 calves conceived in natural service multisire breeding pastures from 3 commercial ranches in northern California representing 15 calf crops over 3 yr. Bulls present for 60 to 120 d at a 25:1 cow to bull ratio in both fall and spring breeding seasons in ∼40 ha or smaller fenced breeding pastures sired a highly variable (P paternity testing of the subset of those calves born in wk 3 of the calving season was highly predictive of overall bull prolificacy and may offer a reduced-cost DNA-based option for assessing prolificacy. Prolificacy of young bulls in their first breeding season was positively linearly related (P < 0.05) to subsequent breeding seasons, explaining about 20% of the subsequent variation. Prolificacy was also positively linearly related (P < 0.05) to scrotal circumference (SC) EPD for Angus bulls that had SC EPD Beef Improvement Federation accuracies greater than 0.05. Varying prolificacy of herd bulls has implications for the genetic composition of replacement heifers, with the genetics of those bulls siring an increased number of calves being disproportionately represented in the early-born replacement heifer pool.

  13. Evaluation of sperm DNA damage in bulls by TUNEL assay as a parameter of semen quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Kumiko; Uchiyama, Kyoko; Kinukawa, Masashi; Tagami, Takahiro; Kaneda, Masahiro; Watanabe, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    Sperm DNA damage affects the conception rate resulting from human assisted reproduction technology. The objective of this study was to adapt the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay to provide a quality parameter for bull semen based on the detection of sperm DNA damage. Fresh semen was collected from two Japanese Black bulls (A, B) several times over the course of a year, and the percentage of TUNEL-positive spermatozoa (sperm TUNEL index) was determined. Individual differences in semen were detected using the sperm TUNEL index in these bulls (P bulls with a conception rate lower than 10%) and Holstein (n = 34) bulls were analyzed. The average sperm TUNEL index and conception rate resulting from artificial insemination (AI) were 4.7% and 55.7% for Japanese Black, and 4.9% and 39.5% for Holstein, respectively. A weak negative correlation between sperm TUNEL index and conception rate was observed in Holstein bulls (P bulls with more than 10% sperm TUNEL index were studied, and these samples showed low sperm viability. However, semen resulting in a very low conception rate did not have a high sperm TUNEL index. Although it would be difficult to predict a low conception rate resulting from AI using the sperm TUNEL index alone, the index can be used as an additional parameter to provide a more comprehensive description of semen quality.

  14. Impact of maturity rate of daughters on genetic ranking of Holstein bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, H D; Wright, J R; Powell, R L; Vanraden, P M

    2005-09-01

    If genetic evaluations are calculated with a single-trait repeatability model, evaluation changes may be attributed in part to bulls that have daughters that deviate considerably from the typical response to aging. Differences in maturity rate of bull daughters were examined to determine whether they influence change in bull evaluations. Standardized milk records for Holsteins that first calved between 1960 and 1998 were used to calculate 12 tailored predicted transmitting abilities (PTA) for each bull. Predicted transmitting abilities were tailored from combinations of 4 annual cut-off dates and 3 parities. Date screening selected cows first calving before January of 1996, 1997, 1998, or 1999. Parity screening selected milk records from the first 1, 2, or 3 parities. Therefore, 4 evaluations (PTA1) included only first-parity records available for daughters and contemporaries prior to the respective years designated. Four more evaluations (PTA(1,2)) included the records from the first 2 parities for cows first calving prior to those same year cutoffs; likewise, the last 4 evaluations (PTA(1,2,3)) included records from the first 3 parities. Stability of bull evaluations (standard deviations of differences as well as correlations between bull evaluations) across time was compared. Bulls born after 1984 with > or =500 daughters were of interest because of the high precision of evaluations and recent activity. Tailored PTA of those bulls had more uniformity across years in mean records per daughter than did official USDA PTA. Standard deviation of differences in PTA1, PTA(1,2), and PTA(1,2,3) for milk between evaluation years 1996 and 1997 were 28, 28, and 27 kg compared with 63 kg for official evaluations; similarly, between 1996 and 1999, SD were 36, 32, and 32 kg compared with 80 kg. Results suggested that a modification to the current evaluation model to account for maturity rate should reduce fluctuations in individual bull PTA across time and may improve accuracy

  15. The chemical disinfection of trout ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, F.F.

    1933-01-01

    The need for knowledge concerning the prevention and control of fish diseases has never been greater than it is in this present era of economy when two fish must be raised in the same water which once supported but one. Fish pathologists have contributed a great deal to our knowledge of fish diseases, but there is still much to be learned, particularly concerning better methods of preventing and eliminating diseases among our trout. In this era of circular pools and raceways, our disease elimination is way back in the early days of standard troughs.

  16. The effect of Cu2+ on osmoregulation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) assayed by changes in plasma salinity and gill lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heinz J.M.; Olsen, Allan Gylling; Rosenkilde, Per

    1993-01-01

    Zoofysiologi, Osmoregulation, Lipid metabolism, Ecotoxicology, Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.......Zoofysiologi, Osmoregulation, Lipid metabolism, Ecotoxicology, Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss....

  17. Re-evaluating the Contribution and Legacy of Hedley Bull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Maione Souza

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The article aims, in the first instance, to make a detailed analysis of the work of Hedley Bull, approaching the main themes and concepts developed by him. Secondly, it aims to re-evaluate the potential of the author’s contribution, given the new conditions of the post-Cold War period. With this in mind, the article critically analyses the most recent interpretations of this work, which seek to highlight its critical and normative potential, as well as to dissociate it from the realist tradition in international relations. These two facts differentiate the new commentators from older ones and reaffirm the continuing relevance of Hedley Bull’s work, the latter being the article’s chief conclusion.

  18. Triangle zone beer and bull May 11, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newson, A. C.; Kubli, T. E.; Dechesne, R. G.; MacKay, P. E.; Reid, J. P.; Varsek, J. L.

    1996-06-01

    A review and a summing up of the papers contributed to this special issue of the Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology on triangle zones was prepared in an informal `beer and bull` session by an ad hoc panel of contributors. There was no consensus as to the precise meaning, or the accuracy of the term `triangle zone`, although there was some agreement that if one wants to define structures with a roughly triangular shape, based on seismic expression alone, the term `wedge` might be more appropriate, since the focus of triangle zone development is tectonic activity creating a wedge that delaminates crust as it propagates towards the foreland. It was generally agreed (for now at least) that triangle zones are just one type of thrust front structure when viewed in the larger context of mountain belts around the world. In the classical sense, triangle zones appear to be restricted to the Alberta and Montana segment of the Cordilleran thrust belt. 1 ref.

  19. Reevaluation of lake trout and lake whitefish bioenergetics models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Pothoven, Steve A.; Kao, Yu-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Using a corrected algorithm for balancing the energy budget, we reevaluated the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the laboratory and for lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in the laboratory and in the field. For lake trout, results showed that the bioenergetics model slightly overestimated food consumption by the lake trout when they were fed low and intermediate rations, whereas the model predicted food consumption by lake trout fed ad libitum without any detectable bias. The slight bias in model predictions for lake trout on restricted rations may have been an artifact of the feeding schedule for these fish, and we would therefore recommend application of the Wisconsin lake trout bioenergetics model to lake trout populations in the field without any revisions to the model. Use of the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for coregonids resulted in overestimation of food consumption by lake whitefish both in the laboratory and in the field by between 20 and 30%, on average. This overestimation of food consumption was most likely due to overestimation of respiration rate. We therefore adjusted the respiration component of the bioenergetics model to obtain a good fit to the observed consumption in our laboratory tanks. The adjusted model predicted the consumption in the laboratory and the field without any detectable bias. Until a detailed lake whitefish respiration study can be conducted, we recommend application of our adjusted version of the Wisconsin generalized coregonid bioenergetics model to lake whitefish populations in the field.

  20. Lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Erie: a case history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Floyd C.; Muth, Kenneth M.; Kenyon, Roger

    1995-01-01

    Native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) once thrived in the deep waters of eastern Lake Erie. The impact of nearly 70 years of unregulated exploitation and over 100 years of progressively severe cultural eutrophication resulted in the elimination of lake trout stocks by 1950. Early attempts to restore lake trout by stocking were unsuccessful in establishing a self-sustaining population. In the early 1980s, New York's Department of Environmental Conservation, Pennsylvania's Fish and Boat Commission, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service entered into a cooperative program to rehabilitate lake trout in the eastern basin of Lake Erie. After 11 years of stocking selected strains of lake trout in U.S. waters, followed by effective sea lamprey control, lake trout appear to be successfully recolonizing their native habitat. Adult stocks have built up significantly and are expanding their range in the lake. Preliminary investigations suggest that lake trout reproductive habitat is still adequate for natural reproduction, but natural recruitment has not been documented. Future assessments will be directed toward evaluation of spawning success and tracking age-class cohorts as they move through the fishery.

  1. Cupuassu cake in feeding feedlot Nellore young bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Azevedo Mota

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the intake, digestibility and feeding behavior of Nellore young bulls, fed with diets containing different levels of cupuassu cake. Five animals with an average body weight (BW of 186.8 ± 19.5 kg and approximately 13 months of age were used. The animals were divided into five treatments with different levels of cupuassu cake (CC: 0.0%; 5.0%; 10%; 15% and 20%, in substitution of corn and soybean meal and were subjected to the experiment 5 × 5 latin square, composed of five animals and five periods. Each of the five experimental periods lasted 15 days: 10 days for diet adaptation and five days for the assessment of nutrient digestibility. The feeding behavior (visual observation was measured at the end of each experimental period (15th day for 24 h. The dry matter (DMI, ether extract (EEI and crude protein intake (CPI, all expressed in kg/day and %BW, presented a quadratic effect (P<0.10 related to the inclusion of different levels of cupuassu cake, where it was observed that the major consumption of these fractions occurred in the treatment with 5% CC. For digestibility of dry matter (DMD; crude protein (DPB; ether extract (EED; neutral detergent fiber (NDFD; acid detergent fiber (ADFD; This study aimed to evaluate the intake, digestibility and feeding behavior of Nellore young bulls, fed with diets containing different levels of cupuassu cake. Five animals with an average body weight (BW of 186.8 ± 19.5 kg and approximately 13 months of age were used. The animals were divided into five treatments with different levels of cupuassu cake (CC: 0.0%; 5.0%; 10%; 15% and 20%, in substitution of corn and soybean meal and were subjected to the experiment 5 × 5 latin square, composed of five animals and five periods. Each of the five experimental periods lasted 15 days

  2. ASSESSMENT OF CHAROLAIS BULLS POPULATION STRUCTURE BASED ON SNPs ANALYSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Moravčíková

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was identification of SNPs in leptin (LEP, leptin receptor (LEPR, growth hormone (GH and specific pituitary transcription factor (Pit-1 genes in order to analyze genetic structure of Charolais bulls’ population. The total numbers of genomic DNA samples were taken from 52 breeding bulls and analyzed by PCR-RFLP method. After digestion with restriction enzymes were detected in bulls’ population alleles with frequency: LEP/Sau3AI A 0.83 and B 0.17 (±0.037; LEPR/BseGI C 0.95 and T 0.05 (±0.021, GH/AluI L 0.62 and V 0.38 (±0.048 and Pit1/HinfI A 0.40 and B 0.60 (±0.048. Based on the observed vs. expected genotypes frequencies population across loci were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P>0.05, only in case of Pit-1 locus was detected disequilibrium. Predominant were in analyzed breeding bulls LEP/Sau3AIAA (0.69, LEPR/T945MCC (0.90, GH/AluILL (0.43 and Pit-1/HinfIAB (0.65 genotypes. The observed heterozygosity of SNPs was also transferred to the low (LEP/Sau3AI/0.248 and LEPR/T945M/0.088 or median polymorphic information content (GH/AluI/0.366 and Pit-1/HinfI/0.370. Within genetic variability estimating negative (LEPR/T945M and Pit-1/HinfI and positive values (LEP/Sau3AI and GH/AluI of fixation indexes FIS indicating slight heterozygote excess or deficiency based on analyzed genetic marker were observed.

  3. Performance of continuous biodigestors supplied by young bull waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Monica Sarolli S. de M. [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil)], E-mail: monicas@unioeste.br; Lucas Junior, Jorge de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias; Pivetta, Laercio Augusto [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Marechal C. Rondon, PR (Brazil); Costa, Luiz A. de Mendonca

    2008-07-01

    The various systems of livestock farming in the industrial model promote physical and chemical changes on waste. In the fattening of cattle in the model of confinement for young bulls has been a reversal in the proportion between roughage and concentrate, or the animals receive a higher amount of protein compared to the traditional system of confinement. This change of the waste characteristics involves modification in the system of treatment used. In this work, it was aimed to evaluate the performance of batch biodigestors operated in continuous system, supplied by young bulls waste which received two differentiated diets by the proportion between roughage and concentrate, whether or not containing inoculum in the substrate composition and subjected to three levels of temperature (25, 35 and 40 deg C). The parameters evaluated were: reduction of total solids (TS) and volatile (VS), and the potential for biogas production. The results showed a reduction of TS higher in the treatment which was not used inoculum for diet 1 and 2 with the exception of the treatment which the substrate was referred to temperature of 40 deg C on diet 2. For the reduction of VS there was no interference from the use of inoculum on diet 1. On diet 2, the largest reductions were observed without the use of inoculum, with the exception of the 40 deg C temperature. For the potential for biogas production the treatment where they used waste derived from animals fed with diet 2, with the use of inoculum, in the temperature of 40 deg C showed the greatest value, or 0.53 m{sup 3} of biogas per kg TS added. (author)

  4. Chronological age and breed-type effects on carcass characteristics and palatability of bull beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, R R; Smith, G C; Cross, H R; Savell, J W; Long, C R; Cartwright, T C

    1986-01-01

    Bulls (n = 115) of four slaughter ages (9, 12, 15 or 18 months) and of 15 genotypes were studied. In this analysis, each bullock was assigned to one of four breed groups-British and British crosses, Brahman and Brahman crosses. Jersey and Jersey crosses or Holstein and Holstein crosses. Slaughter age had an (P Brahman-type bulls had higher shear force values (P Brahman-type carcasses were assigned the lowest numerical ratings for juiciness. Breed-type had a greater effect on tenderness of bull beef than did chronological age.

  5. Content of heavy metals in the semen of bulls from various environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monkiewicz, J.; Jaczewski, S.; Dynarowicz, I.

    1975-01-01

    The content of metal ions (Cu, Pb, Zn) was examined in the semen of bulls kept under different environments. It was found that the content of Cu and Pb ions in the semen of bulls living near the copperworks and near to a highway was higher than that in the semen of bulls kept under normal conditions. The differences appeared to be highly significant statistically (P < 0.001). No significant statistical differences were found in the content of Zn. In addition, it was stated that the higher content of Pb influenced the survival of spermatozoons at highers temperature (46.5/sup 0/C). Further investigations will be performed under model conditions.

  6. Duration Dependence in Stock Prices: An Analysis of Bull and Bear Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde, Asger; Timmermann, Allan

    2004-01-01

    This article studies time series dependence in the direction of stock prices by modeling the (instantaneous) probability that a bull or bear market terminates as a function of its age and a set of underlying state variables, such as interest rates. A random walk model is rejected both for bull...... and bear markets. Although it . ts the data better, a generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity model is also found to be inconsistent with the very long bull markets observed in the data. The strongest effect of increasing interest rates is found to be a lower bear market hazard rate...

  7. Selected proteins of "prostasome-like particles" from epididymal cauda fluid are transferred to epididymal caput spermatozoa in bull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenette, Gilles; Lessard, Carl; Sullivan, Robert

    2002-07-01

    During epididymal transit, spermatozoa acquire selected proteins secreted by epithelial cells. We recently showed that P25b, a protein with predictive properties for bull fertility, is transferred from prostasome-like particles present in the cauda epididymal fluid (PLPCd) to the sperm surface. To further characterize the interactions between PLPCd and epididymal spermatozoa, PLPCd were prepared by ultracentrifugation of bull epididymal fluid, then surface-exposed proteins were biotinylated and coincubated in different conditions with caput epididymal spermatozoa. Western blot analysis revealed that only selected proteins are transferred from PLPCd to spermatozoa. MALDI-TOF analysis revealed that these transferred proteins are closely related. The pattern of distribution of the PLPCd transferred varied from one sperm cell to the other, with a bias toward the acrosomal cap. This transfer appeared to be temperature sensitive, being more efficient at 32-37 degrees C than at 22 degrees C. Transfer of PLPCd proteins to spermatozoa was also pH dependant, the optimal pH for transfer being 6.0-6.5. The effect of divalent cations on PLPCd protein transfer to caput spermatozoa was investigated. Whereas Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) have no effect on the amount of proteins remaining associated with spermatozoa following coincubation, Zn(2+) had a beneficial effect. These results are discussed with regard to the function of PLPCd in epididymal sperm maturation.

  8. A bioinformatics-based update on microRNAs and their targets in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liandong; He, Shunping

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) participate in various vitally biological processes via controlling target genes activity and thousands of miRNAs have been identified in many species to date, including 18,698 known animal miRNA in miRBase. However, there are only limited studies reported in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) especially via the computational-based approaches. In present study, we systematically investigated the miRNAs in rainbow trout using a well-developed comparative genome-based homologue search. A total of 196 potential miRNAs, belonging to 124 miRNA families, were identified, most of which were firstly reported in rainbow trout. The length of miRNAs ranged from 17 to 24 nt with an average of 20 nt while the length of their precursors varied from 47 to 152 nt with an average of 85 nt. The identified miRNAs were not evenly distributed in each miRNA family, with only one member per family for a majority, and multiple members were also identified for several families. Nucleotide U was dominant in the pre-miRNAs with a percentage of 30.04%. The rainbow trout pre-miRNAs had relatively high negative minimal folding free energy (MFE) and adjusted MFE (AMFE). Not only the mature miRNAs but their precursor sequences are conserved among the living organisms. About 2466 O. mykiss genes were predicted as potential targets for 189 miRNAs. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis showed that nearly 2093, 2107, and 2081 target genes are involved in cellular component, molecular function, and biological processes respectively. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis illuminated that these miRNAs targets might regulate 105 metabolic pathways, including those of purine metabolism, nitrogen metabolism, and oxidative phosphorylation. This study has provided an update on rainbow trout miRNAs and their targets, which represents a foundation for future studies.

  9. Morphological Divergence of Snow Trout (Schizothorax Richardsonii, Gray 1932) from Rivers of Nepal with Insights from a Morphometric Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Suresh Kumar Wagle; Neeta Pradhan; Madhav Kumar Shrestha

    2015-01-01

    Asala or snow trout (Schizothorax richardsonii, Cyprinidae), one of highly valued freshwater fish of Transhimalayan regions, is distributed in upper reaches of all major river systems of Nepal. Morphometric diversification between six river populations of S. richardsonii was examined to identify intraspecific unit for enabling better management of the resources. Significant differences were observed in 17 measured morphometric characters of 207 specimens among the six river populations. Multi...

  10. Kinetics data from bovine sex-specific embryo development from three different bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.S. Oliveira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Here we present kinetics data from bovine sex-specific embryo development. Embryos were originated using sex-sorted semen from three different Nelore bulls, and semen from the same batch was used for X-and Y-chromosome spermatozoa sorting. Data was obtained for six time points (24, 48, 96, 120, and 144 h.p.i.. Analyses for each bull׳s embryos (1, 2 and 3 is presented for female and male groups separately. Also, grouped data analysis, considering bull and sex interaction, is shown. For further interpretation and discussion, see "Cell death is involved in sexual dimorphism during preimplantation development" (Oliveira et al., 2015 [1].

  11. SPERM MORPHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENTS OF FRIESIAN HOLSTEIN BULL SEMEN COLLECTED FROM THREE ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION CENTERS IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Purwantara

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Morphologically abnormal sperm in semen has been associated with the sub fertility and sterilityfor many years. This study assessed the sperm morphology of Friesian Holstein bull semen which wascollected from three Artificial Insemination centers in Indonesia. Total of 22 bulls were used in thisstudy; an ejaculate from each bull was examined. Three to four glass slides were prepared for each bullsample; a drop of semen was placed on each glass slide, smeared, and air-dried. The smeared sampleswere stained with carbolfuchsin-eosin (Williams stain. Morphological abnormality types were recordedfrom total of 500 spermatozoa. Results demonstrated that all 22 bulls had low sperm abnormality(<10%. Pearshaped was the most frequently type of sperm abnormality found in the samples(0.81±0.93%; while detached head was the lowest (0.01±0.04%.

  12. USFWS Land Interests Associated with Bull Mountain Game Range [Land Status Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Bull Mountain Game Range. It was generated from rectified aerial photography, cadastral...

  13. Longitudinal strain bull's eye plot patterns in patients with cardiomyopathy and concentric left ventricular hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Hu, Kai; Nordbeck, Peter; Ertl, Georg; Störk, Stefan; Weidemann, Frank

    2016-05-10

    Despite substantial advances in the imaging techniques and pathophysiological understanding over the last decades, identification of the underlying causes of left ventricular hypertrophy by means of echocardiographic examination remains a challenge in current clinical practice. The longitudinal strain bull's eye plot derived from 2D speckle tracking imaging offers an intuitive visual overview of the global and regional left ventricular myocardial function in a single diagram. The bull's eye mapping is clinically feasible and the plot patterns could provide clues to the etiology of cardiomyopathies. The present review summarizes the longitudinal strain, bull's eye plot features in patients with various cardiomyopathies and concentric left ventricular hypertrophy and the bull's eye plot features might serve as one of the cardiac workup steps on evaluating patients with left ventricular hypertrophy.

  14. The Effect of Sperm Morphology and Sire Fertility on Calving Rate of Finnish Ayrshire AI Bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, S; Katila, T; Andersson, M

    2016-02-01

    Good-quality semen is a prerequisite for successful and profitable artificial insemination (AI) of modern dairy cattle. Fertility of the bulls is evaluated with andrological examinations and semen analyses, such as morphology. However, little attention has been paid to the inheritance of bull fertility. In this study, we correlated sperm morphology, birth year and station of 695 AI bulls with calving rate (CR). Sperm morphology was clearly associated with CR underlining the usefulness of morphological examination in the assessment of fertility. The correlation between the proportion of normal spermatozoa and CR was significant (p bulls with the CR of their 27 sires to study the inheritance of fertility. Sire's CR did not correlate with the CR of the sons (p = 0.218). This result indicates that at least when sires of acceptable CR are used to produce sons for use in AI the inheritance of CR is not significantly correlated.

  15. Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular effects in response to red bull consumption combined with mental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasser, Erik Konrad; Dulloo, Abdul G; Montani, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-15

    The sale of energy drinks is often accompanied by a comprehensive and intense marketing with claims of benefits during periods of mental stress. As it has been shown that Red Bull negatively impacts human hemodynamics at rest, we investigated the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular consequences when Red Bull is combined with mental stress. In a randomized cross-over study, 20 young healthy humans ingested either 355 ml of a can Red Bull or water and underwent 80 minutes after the respective drink a mental arithmetic test for 5 minutes. Continuous cardiovascular and cerebrovascular recordings were performed for 20 minutes before and up to 90 minutes after drink ingestion. Measurements included beat-to-beat blood pressure (BP), heart rate, stroke volume, and cerebral blood flow velocity. Red Bull increased systolic BP (+7 mm Hg), diastolic BP (+4 mm Hg), and heart rate (+7 beats/min), whereas water drinking had no significant effects. Cerebral blood flow velocity decreased more in response to Red Bull than to water (-9 vs -3 cm/s, p <0.005). Additional mental stress further increased both systolic BP and diastolic BP (+3 mm Hg, p <0.05) and heart rate (+13 beats/min, p <0.005) in response to Red Bull; similar increases were also observed after water ingestion. In combination, Red Bull and mental stress increased systolic BP by about 10 mm Hg, diastolic BP by 7 mm Hg, and heart rate by 20 beats/min and decreased cerebral blood flow velocity by -7 cm/s. In conclusion, the combination of Red Bull and mental stress impose a cumulative cardiovascular load and reduces cerebral blood flow even under a mental challenge.

  16. EFFECT OF TWO DIFFERENT ANTIBIOTIC COMBINATIONS ON FERTILITY OF FROZEN BUFFALO AND SAHIW AL BULL SEMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M.H. Andrabi, N. Ahmad, A. Abbas and M. Anzar

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to identify the suitable antibiotic combinations in semen extender for improvement in fertility of frozen semen of buffalo and cow (Sahiwal bulls to obtain better pregnancy rate through artificial insemination (AI. For this study eight first ejaculates, four each from a buffalo and a cow (Sahiwal bull were used. The ejaculates were split-sampled and diluted with Tris-citric acid extender (at 37°C; 50x 106 spermatozoa/mI, containing either SP (streptomycin 1000 ~g/ml and penicillin 1000 IU/ml or GTLS (gentamycin 500 µg/ml, Tylosin 100 µg/ml and linco-spectin 300/600 µg/ml. There was no difference in post-thaw motility for these samples. Fertility test based on 75-days first service pregnancy rate was determined under field conditions. A total of 400 inseminations were recorded, 200 for each buffalo and cow (Sahiwal with J 00 of each antibiotic combination, respectively. Fertility rates for SP-based frozen semen of buffalo bull were 41.66% and were 55.2% for GTLS-containing frozen semen, respectively. The results for GTLS were higher (P<0.0001 than SP. Similarly, fertility rates were higher (P<0.0001 for GTLS-based frozen semen of Sahiwal bull (78.78% than SP-containing frozen semen (69.6% of the same specie. Fertility rates also differed due to species of donor bulls. They were better (P<0.0001 for the frozen Sahiwal bull semen than that of the buffalo bull in both SP and GTLS- based frozen semen samples, respectively. In conclusion. seminal quality measured by field fertility trial indicated GTLS combination of antibiotics added to the semen extender was better for improvement in the fertility of frozen buffalo and Sahiwal bull semen, by yielding better pregnancy rates through AI.

  17. Ruptured urinary bladder attributable to urethral compression by a haematoma after vertebral fracture in a bull

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, U.; Trösch, L; Sydler, T.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In male cattle, rupture of the urinary bladder is usually associated with urethral obstruction by uroliths. Less common causes include urethral compression or stricture. This case report describes the findings in a young Limousion breeding bull with rupture of the urinary bladder because of urethral compression by a haematoma after coccygeal fracture. CASE PRESENTATION: The bull had been introduced into a 40-head Red-Holstein herd one week before being injured. One week after intr...

  18. Population Structure Analysis of Bull Genomes of European and Western Ancestry

    OpenAIRE

    Neo Christopher Chung; Joanna Szyda; Magdalena Frąszczak

    2017-01-01

    Since domestication, population bottlenecks, breed formation, and selective breeding have radically shaped the genealogy and genetics of Bos taurus. In turn, characterization of population structure among diverse bull (males of Bos taurus) genomes enables detailed assessment of genetic resources and origins. By analyzing 432 unrelated bull genomes from 13 breeds and 16 countries, we demonstrate genetic diversity and structural complexity among the European/Western cattle population. Important...

  19. Traumatic Brain Injury Due to Bull Assault in a Girl: a Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALVIS-MIRANDA, Hernando Raphael; CASTELLAR-LEONES, Sandra Milena; VELÁSQUEZ-LOPERENA, Dufays Danith; VILLA-DELGADO, Rosmery; ALCALA-CERRA, Gabriel; MOSCOTE-SALAZAR, Luis Rafael

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Traumatic brain injury is a common condition in the emergency services, affecting the pediatric and adult population significantly. Patterns of head injury as well as management principles in children are important differences compared to adults. Traumatic brain injury by bull rush is usually seen in adults but has not been described in children-report a pediatric cranial trauma present bull rush, which to our knowledge is the first report in the literature of this nature. PMID:24790672

  20. Evaluation of sperm DNA damage in bulls by TUNEL assay as a parameter of semen quality

    OpenAIRE

    TAKEDA, Kumiko; UCHIYAMA, Kyoko; KINUKAWA, Masashi; Tagami, Takahiro; Kaneda, Masahiro; Watanabe, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    Sperm DNA damage affects the conception rate resulting from human assisted reproduction technology. The objective of this study was to adapt the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay to provide a quality parameter for bull semen based on the detection of sperm DNA damage. Fresh semen was collected from two Japanese Black bulls (A, B) several times over the course of a year, and the percentage of TUNEL-positive spermatozoa (sperm TUNEL index) was d...

  1. Great Smoky Mountains National Park Brook Trout Genetics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM) is committed to monitoring ecological and evolutionary functions and processes of park ecosystems. Brook trout (Salvelinus...

  2. Environmental contaminants in brook trout from Aroostook National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In June 2012, four brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) were collected by angling from Chapman Pond and East Loring Lake at Aroostook NWR in northeast Maine. Two...

  3. Study on the reproductive capacity of bulls of the autochthonous Rhodope Shorthorn cattle breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radka Malinova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The sperm production of bulls from the autochthonous Rhodope Shorthorn cattle breed was studied. The breed is among the smallest in Europe, the average weight of the cows ranging from 200 to 250 kg, and of the bulls from 330 to 370 kg. It was found that during the first 6 months from the start of exploitation, at the age of the bulls from 18 to 24 months, AI bulls had high reproductive capacity. The ejaculate volume was 1,74±0,09 ml in average (LS, the percentage of motile spermatozoa was 74,3±3,48% and the concentration 1268±13,1 x 106/ml. It was established that the bull had a significant impact on the reproductive performance, but the individual differences in the main characteristics were not high – motility 71,8-77,0%, concentration – 1222-1324 х 106/ml. The season also had a significant effect on the percentage of motile spermatozoa. Within the period from January to June, the highest reproductive capacity of the bulls was observed from February to May and the lowest in June.

  4. Growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of finishing bulls fed crude glycerin-supplemented diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Chaves Françozo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the performance, carcass characteristics and chemical composition of Longissimusmuscle (LM of the bulls. Twenty-four Nellore bulls were used in a complete randomised design. The bulls were randomly assigned to one of the three diets containing 0, 5 or 12% glycerin. Final BW and ADG were similar (P>0.05 between the bulls fed with 5 or 12% of glycerin but were higher (P0.05 by glycerin level. Hot carcass weight increased (P0.05 the conformation, colour, texture, marbling and pH. There was difference (P>0.05 for moisture, ashes and crude protein among glycerin levels. Bulls fed 12% glycerin present the highest (P<0.03 total lipids on LM. The percentage of saturated fatty acids (SFA, monounsaturated acids (MUFA, polyunsaturated acids (PUFA, n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and PUFA/SFA and n-6:n-3 ratios of the LM were similar among the diets. In conclusion, glycerin level did not affect the animal performance and carcass characteristics of Nellore bulls finished in feedlot.

  5. Acute BRSV infection in young AI bulls: effect on sperm quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm, K; Koskinen, E; Vahtiala, S; Andersson, M

    2009-06-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) infection is an important part of the calf pneumonia complex, occasionally affecting even adult cattle. However, the pathogenicity of BRSV in animals older than 6 months is often neglected. Finland is free of many contagious diseases in farm animals, and this gives a good opportunity to study the effects of specific pathogens on bovine reproduction. This report describes the deteriorating effects of BRSV epizootics on sperm morphology and fertility of young dairy bulls (n = 79) at a bull station. More than half of the young bulls had a clinical respiratory disease caused by BRSV during their quarantine when they were 6 months old. Four of seven subsequent quarantine groups were affected. Six months later, when these seropositive bulls (n = 54) came into semen production, they had poorer sperm morphology, and the proportion of normal spermatozoa was 74.1% in BRSV-seropositive animals compared with 81.2% in seronegative bulls (n = 25) (p = 0.035). Field fertility was also slightly affected, the 60-day non-return rates were 75.2% and 76.8% for BRSV seropositive and seronegative bulls respectively (p = 0.014). Potential reasons for lowered sperm quality are discussed here.

  6. SuchThatCast Episode 3: J.D. Trout

    OpenAIRE

    Søraker, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    SuchThatCast goes mobile in the third episode, as I interview J.D. Trout on the appr. 2 hour train ride between Enschede and Schiphol airport. Trout received his PhD in Philosophy at Cornell University and is currently Professor of Philosophy and Psychology at Loyola University Chicago. He was recently awarded the prestigious Phi Beta Kappa Romanell Professorship for 2012-13. His chief interests include the nature of scientific explanation, the psychology of human judgment, scientific realism...

  7. Delineation of sympatric morphotypes of lake trout in Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Seth A.; Bronte, Charles R.

    2001-01-01

    Three morphotypes of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush are recognized in Lake Superior: lean, siscowet, and humper. Absolute morphotype assignment can be difficult. We used a size-free, whole-body morphometric analysis (truss protocol) to determine whether differences in body shape existed among lake trout morphotypes. Our results showed discrimination where traditional morphometric characters and meristic measurements failed to detect differences. Principal components analysis revealed some separation of all three morphotypes based on head and caudal peduncle shape, but it also indicated considerable overlap in score values. Humper lake trout have smaller caudal peduncle widths to head length and depth characters than do lean or siscowet lake trout. Lean lake trout had larger head measures to caudal widths, whereas siscowet had higher caudal peduncle to head measures. Backward stepwise discriminant function analysis retained two head measures, three midbody measures, and four caudal peduncle measures; correct classification rates when using these variables were 83% for leans, 80% for siscowets, and 83% for humpers, which suggests the measures we used for initial classification were consistent. Although clear ecological reasons for these differences are not readily apparent, patterns in misclassification rates may be consistent with evolutionary hypotheses for lake trout within the Laurentian Great Lakes.

  8. Conservation of native Pacific trout diversity in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penaluna, Brooke E.; Abadía-Cardoso, Alicia; Dunham, Jason; García de León, Francisco J; Gresswell, Robert E.; Luna, Arturo Ruiz; Taylor, Eric B.; Shepard, Bradley B.; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Bestgen, Kevin R.; Rogers, Kevin H.; Escalante, Marco A; Keeley, Ernest R; Temple, Gabriel; Williams, Jack E.; Matthews, Kathleen; Pierce, Ron; Mayden, Richard L.; Kovach, Ryan; Garza, John Carlos; Fausch, Kurt D.

    2016-01-01

    Pacific trout Oncorhynchus spp. in western North America are strongly valued in ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural views, and have been the subject of substantial research and conservation efforts. Despite this, the understanding of their evolutionary histories, overall diversity, and challenges to their conservation is incomplete. We review the state of knowledge on these important issues, focusing on Pacific trout in the genus Oncorhynchus. Although most research on salmonid fishes emphasizes Pacific salmon, we focus on Pacific trout because they share a common evolutionary history, and many taxa in western North America have not been formally described, particularly in the southern extent of their ranges. Research in recent decades has led to the revision of many hypotheses concerning the origin and diversification of Pacific trout throughout their range. Although there has been significant success at addressing past threats to Pacific trout, contemporary and future threats represented by nonnative species, land and water use activities, and climate change pose challenges and uncertainties. Ultimately, conservation of Pacific trout depends on how well these issues are understood and addressed, and on solutions that allow these species to coexist with a growing scope of human influences.

  9. Nonnative trout invasions combined with climate change threaten persistence of isolated cutthroat trout populations in the southern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James J.; Kurt D. Fausch,; Hooten, Mevin B.; Peterson, Douglas P.

    2017-01-01

    Effective conservation of Cutthroat Trout Oncorhynchus clarkii lineages native to the Rocky Mountains will require estimating effects of multiple stressors and directing management toward the most important ones. Recent

  10. Acrosome membrane integrity and cryocapacitation are related to cholesterol content of bull spermatozoa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Srivastava N; Srivastava SK; Ghosh SK; Amit Kumar; Perumal P; Jerome A

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the cryoinjury prediction of spermatozoa in relation to its cholesterol content at fresh and frozen-thaw stages. Methods: Ejaculates (n=12) were processed for cryopreservation, acrosome integrity (fluorescent and giemsa stains), cryoinjury (distribution of non capacitated, capacitated and acrosome reacted, pattern F, B and AR, respectively of Chlortetracycline, CTC assay), in vitro fertiltiy (IVF) and cholesterol content of spermatozoa at fresh, pre-freeze and frozen-thaw stages were evaluated. Values were fitted in prediction equation to predict acrosome integrity (AI) and cryoinjury. Results: Study indicated that cholesterol content of fresh spermatozoa can be used to predict cholesterol content of spermatozoa at pre-freeze and frozen-thaw stages of cryopreservation protocol with medium to high level of accuracy (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively). Cholesterol content of fresh spermatozoa can be used to predict AI, pattern B and AR and Penetration Index (PI) of IVF with medium level of accuracy (P<0.05) at frozen-thaw but not at pre-freeze stage. Similarly cholesterol content of frozen-thaw spermatozoa can be used to predict AI and pattern AR of frozen-thaw spermatozoa with medium level of accuracy (P<0.05). Conclusion: This study revealed strong evidence that cholesterol content of fresh as well as frozen-thaw bull spermatozoa can be a good predictor of level of cryoinjury following preservation at ultra low temperature.

  11. Geology of Bull Canyon quadrangle, Montrose and San Miguel counties, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cater, Fred W.

    1953-01-01

    The Bull Canyon quadrangle is one of eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of southwestern Colorado. The geology of these quadrangles was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite depots. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that range in age from late Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by high-angle faults and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confined to the Salt Wash sandstone member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as the "Uravan Mineral Belt". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing only a few tons of ore to large, tabular masses containing many thousands of tones. The ore consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear to be related to certain sedimentary structures in sandstones of favorable composition.

  12. Early Marine Migration Patterns of Wild Coastal Cutthroat Trout (Oncorhynchus clarki clarki), Steelhead Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and Their Hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hybridization between coastal cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki clarki) and steelhead or rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) has been documented in several streams along the North American west coast. The two species occupy similar freshwater habitats but the anadromous forms differ greatly in the duration of marine residence and migration patterns at sea. Intermediate morphological, physiological, and performance traits have been reported for hybrids but little information has...

  13. Embryotoxicity of quantum dots in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss during hatching period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nijolė Kazlauskienė

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Research on quantum dots (QD has become a major interdisciplinary area of science. Unique physic-chemical properties of QD significantly expanded areas of their application and increased the potential impact on hydrosystems. The objectives of complex study (using toxicological, physical, chemical methods were: to determine the toxicity of QD to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss during ontogenesis (embryos, larvae depending on the duration of exposure; to estimate QD stability; to investigate QD uptake routes, distribution, accumulation, localization in tissues and different organs of embryos and larvae. This study examined the toxic effects of CdSe/ZnS-COOH at sublethal concentration. Bioassay testing was carried out under controlled laboratory conditions. Short-term (24-, 96-hour and long-term toxicity tests (14-day on fish at early stages of development (starting from “eye-egg” embryos were performed under static conditions. Mortality, physiological parameters, blood circulatory system, development disorders, behavioural responses and growth parameters of larvae were investigated. The results indicated that toxic effects of QD to rainbow trout in early life stages of development depended on the duration of exposure. Long-term exposure of QD induced remarkable deleterious changes in various systems of the developing fish organism: increased mortality, alterations in cardio-respiratory system, disturbed behavioural responses, caused developmental disorders and adversely affected the growth of larvae. Using physical methods it was determined: QD stability, uptake routes, distribution, accumulation and localization in tissues as well as in different organs of embryos and larvae of rainbow trout. Fish toxicity tests results will help to understand ecotoxicity of nanoparticles and will be used as nanoparticle embryotoxicity model in humans and other organisms.

  14. Use of Bayesian Inference to Correlate In Vitro Embryo Production and In Vivo Fertility in Zebu Bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus José Sudano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to test in vitro embryo production (IVP as a tool to estimate fertility performance in zebu bulls using Bayesian inference statistics. Oocytes were matured and fertilized in vitro using sperm cells from three different Zebu bulls (V, T, and G. The three bulls presented similar results with regard to pronuclear formation and blastocyst formation rates. However, the cleavage rates were different between bulls. The estimated conception rates based on combined data of cleavage and blastocyst formation were very similar to the true conception rates observed for the same bulls after a fixed-time artificial insemination program. Moreover, even when we used cleavage rate data only or blastocyst formation data only, the estimated conception rates were still close to the true conception rates. We conclude that Bayesian inference is an effective statistical procedure to estimate in vivo bull fertility using data from IVP.

  15. Determination of benzocaine in rainbow trout plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardy, Jeffery A.; Coleman, K.S.; Stehly, G.R.; Gingerich, William H.

    1996-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic method is described for analysis of benzocaine (BZ), a proposed fish anesthetic, in rainbow trout plasma, Mean recoveries of BZ from plasma samples fortified at 44-10 100 ng/mL were 96-100%. The method detection limit is 10 ng/mL, and the limit of quantitation is 37 ng/mL. Acetylation of BZ occurs in whole blood after storage at room temperature (i.e., 21 degrees C) for 10 min. However, no acetylation of BZ was detected in plasma samples held at room temperature for 4 h, Mean method precision for plasma samples with incurred BZ residue is similar to that for fortified samples in the same concentration range (relative standard deviations of 0.9 and 1.2%, respectively).

  16. Morphological differences in the skin of marble trout Salmo marmoratus and of brown trout Salmo trutta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urška Sivka

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite being genetically very closely related, the marble trout Salmo marmoratus and the brown trout Salmo trutta exhibit marked phenotypic differences, particularly with regard to skin pigmentation. Histological analysis of skin from the head and gill cover of differently aged individuals of the two species was carried out in order to characterize differences in skin structure. The basic structure of skin of the individuals studied corresponded with that described for other salmonids, though the head epidermis was somewhat thicker in S. marmoratus than in S. trutta, thickening with age in both species. Numerous secretory goblet cells and sporadic secretory sacciform cells were observed in the upper and middle part of the epidermis in both species. Melanophores were present in both species only in the dermis, and were bigger in S. marmoratus and present at lower average density than in S. trutta, and more or less constant across all age classes. In adult S. marmoratus with fully established marble pigmentation, light areas at low density with small (i.e. aggregated melanophores were present, while in S. trutta melanophores were more uniformly distributed.

  17. DAG defect in Murrah buffalo bulls in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.G. Vale

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Dag defect sperms have an abnormal tail coiled morphology are totally or almost totally immotile and have severe abnormalities on the fibers in the axial filament. This defect in bovine was shown to be due an autosomal recessive gene. In the present study 23 buffalo bulls age 18-34 months examined for BSE (Breeding Soundness Examination showed sperm motility varied between 0 to 70% accomplished with 10 a 65% of sperm pathology with or not a predominance of strong coiled tails with or without persistence of droplet. In Brazil Murrah breed have had only eight female PO (pure of origin - India gave origin of the herd and not more than four males where also imported from India, although in the last two decades some quantity of frozen semen were introduced in the country imported from India. As in the other domestic species inbreed seems to be the main cause of this abnormalities in different breeds. The knowledge and further study of such abnormalities is the only way to overcome a problem that if not controlled will tend to spread out without control causing in the future more problem for development of some herds.

  18. Behaviour and meat quality of Podolian young bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Napolitano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available From April to August 2008, twelve Podolian subjects, aged about 11 months at the beginning of the experimental period, were used to evaluate the effect of rearing system (Confined vs. Freerange and season (spring vs. summer on their behaviour and meat quality. Nine sessions of behavioural observations were performed. During a 6-h period, the behaviour of a focal animal, was continuously monitored. In each session a different animal was chosen. All the animals were slaughtered at 18 months of age. Walking (P<0.001 and standing (P<0.05 were lower in summer, whereas inactivity was higher (P<0.05. Free-range bulls spent more time walking (P<0.05, feeding (P<0.001 and standing (P<0.01 and showed a lower number of agonistic (P<0.05 and non-agonistic social interaction than confined animals (P<0.01. Self- and allo-grooming were not affected by rearing system, whereas season influenced self-grooming with higher values in spring (P<0.05. Confined animals showed higher final weights (P<0.05 and a lighter meat (P<0.05, whereas no differences between groups were observed for average daily gains, carcass yield, water holding capacity and a* and b* indexes. Confinement markedly affected the behaviour of the animals, whereas free-ranging had only minor negative effects on meat lightness.

  19. Intracellular diffusion restrictions in isolated cardiomyocytes from rainbow trout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birkedal Rikke

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Restriction of intracellular diffusion of adenine nucleotides has been studied intensively on adult rat cardiomyocytes. However, their cause and role in vivo is still uncertain. Intracellular membrane structures have been suggested to play a role. We therefore chose to study cardiomyocytes from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, which are thinner and have fewer intracellular membrane structures than adult rat cardiomyocytes. Previous studies suggest that trout permeabilized cardiac fibers also have diffusion restrictions. However, results from fibers may be affected by incomplete separation of the cells. This is avoided when studying permeabilized, isolated cardiomyocytes. The aim of this study was to verify the existence of diffusion restrictions in trout cardiomyocytes by comparing ADP-kinetics of mitochondrial respiration in permeabilized fibers, permeabilized cardiomyocytes and isolated mitochondria from rainbow trout heart. Experiments were performed at 10, 15 and 20°C in the absence and presence of creatine. Results Trout cardiomyocytes hypercontracted in the solutions used for mammalian cardiomyocytes. We developed a new solution in which they retained their shape and showed stable steady state respiration rates throughout an experiment. The apparent ADP-affinity of permeabilized cardiomyocytes was different from that of fibers. It was higher, independent of temperature and not increased by creatine. However, it was still about ten times lower than in isolated mitochondria. Conclusions The differences between fibers and cardiomyocytes suggest that results from trout heart fibers were affected by incomplete separation of the cells. However, the lower ADP-affinity of cardiomyocytes compared to isolated mitochondria indicate that intracellular diffusion restrictions are still present in trout cardiomyocytes despite their lower density of intracellular membrane structures. The lack of a creatine effect indicates that

  20. Identifying factors affecting age at first semen freezing and age at first semen use in Sahiwal bulls

    OpenAIRE

    Naha, B. C.; Chakravarty, A. K.; Mir, M. A.; V. Jamuna; Singh, A. P.; Maher, D

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of non-genetic factors on reproduction traits viz. age at first semen freezing and age at first semen use of breeding bulls in Sahiwal bulls by fitting least-squares analysis. Materials and Methods: The information on reproduction traits of 43 Sahiwal breeding bulls belonging to 8 sets of Sahiwal breeding program at Indian Council of Agricultural Research-National Dairy Research Institute (ICAR-NDRI), Karnal (Haryana), India durin...

  1. Cellular and humoral factors involved in the response of rainbow trout gills to Ichthyophthirius multifiliis infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Moonika Marana; Kania, Per Walter; Heinecke, Rasmus Demuth;

    2011-01-01

    The parasitic ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis infecting skin, fins and gills of fish induces a protective immune response in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) surviving the infection and a similar protection can be conferred by i.p. injection of live theronts. A combined molecular and immu......The parasitic ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis infecting skin, fins and gills of fish induces a protective immune response in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) surviving the infection and a similar protection can be conferred by i.p. injection of live theronts. A combined molecular...... cells) were detected in the intraepithelial lymphoid tissue located at the base of gill filaments and in hyperplastic gill tissue but following infection a clear efflux of these cells was detected. MHC II positive cells were distributed across the gill filaments and accumulated in hyperplastic tissue...

  2. Breeding soundness evaluation of bulls by semen analysis, testicular fine needle aspiration cytology and trans-scrotal ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chapwanya A

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of trans-scrotal ultrasonography and testicular fine needle aspiration cytology in assessing bulls for breeding suitability. These two techniques were also compared with semen analysis. Bulls presented for breeding soundness evaluation were assessed using all three techniques. The findings of each technique were compared. There was agreement in classification of fertile bulls using all three techniques, suggesting that the combined use of these techniques enhances routine breeding soundness examination. Use of the three techniques also enhances detailed investigation of suspected sub-fertile bulls while accurately identifying testicular cause(s of sire sub-fertility.

  3. The Effect of Production System on Fatty Acid Composition in Beef Meat of Cika Young Bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Simčič

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine chemical and fatty acid composition in meat of Cika bulls fattened in two production systems. Eight bulls were semi-intensively fattened with a total mix ratio (TMR, while ten were grazed without cereals supplementation. Housed bulls were slaughtered at the age of 20.0 months while grazed bulls were slaughtered at the age of 23.5 months. Samples of M. longissimus dorsi located between the 7th and 8th rib were used to determine the chemical and fatty acid composition. Data were analysed using the GLM procedure of the SAS/ STAT. Model 1 was used to test the effect of production system on the chemical composition of meat. Model 2 was used to test the effects of production system and the intramuscular fat content nested within the production system as linear regression on the fatty acid composition. Significant differences were determined in intramuscular fat (14.54 vs. 8.57 g/kg, P = 0.015 and in dry matter content (231.85 vs. 239.49 g/kg, P = 0.032 in beef meat of TMR fed and in grazed bulls, respectively. Beef meat of grazed bulls contained significantly lower palmitic acid (19.87 vs. 21.03 wt.%, P = 0.002, oleic acid (26.18 vs. 30.01 wt.%, P = 0.007 and MUFA (29.88 vs. 33.80 wt.%, P = 0.010 and higher α-linolenic (3.33 vs. 1.45 wt.%, P = 0.014, EPA (1.40 vs. 0.57 wt.%, P = 0.002, DPA (1.84 vs. 1.06 wt.%, P = 0.001, PUFA (21.42 vs. 19.43 wt.%, P = 0.047 and n-3PUFA (6.80 vs. 3.24 wt.%, P = 0.001 compared to TMR fed bulls.

  4. Biochemical and organoleptic characteristics of muscle from early and late maturing bulls in different production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezgebo, G B; Monahan, F J; McGee, M; O'Riordan, E G; Picard, B; Richardson, R I; Moloney, A P

    2016-12-28

    In grass-based beef production systems (PS), early maturing (EM) breed types may be preferable to late maturing (LM) breed types in achieving adequate carcass fat cover. Biochemical and organoleptic characteristics of muscle from suckler bulls were investigated in EM and LM (n=28/breed) assigned to one of two PS (ad libitum concentrates and grass silage to slaughter (C) or ad libitum silage plus 2 kg concentrate daily during winter followed by 99 days at pasture and then an indoor finishing period on C (GSPC)) in a 2 breed type×2 PS factorial arrangement of treatments. Bulls were managed to have a common target carcass weight of 380 kg. Intramuscular fat (IMF) content was higher (P<0.05) for EM than LM, and for C than GSPC bulls. Collagen solubility was higher (P<0.05) for C than GSPC bulls. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and phosphofructokinase activities were higher (P<0.05) for LM than EM. Isocitrate dehydrogenase activity and the Type I myosin heavy chain (MyHC) proportion were higher (P<0.05) for EM than LM. The LDH activity and the Type IIX MyHC proportion were higher (P<0.05) for C than GSPC bulls. Sensory ratings for tenderness and juiciness were higher (P<0.01) for beef from EM than LM while sensory ratings for tenderness, flavour liking and overall liking were higher (P<0.001) for C than for GSPC bulls. Differences in sensory quality were largely eliminated when adjusted for IMF. Overall, carcass fat scores, IMF and sensory scores were higher in EM than LM and in C than GSPC bulls but most differences in sensory quality could be attributed to differences in IMF.

  5. Natural or artificial? Habitat-use by the bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan M Werry

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite accelerated global population declines due to targeted and illegal fishing pressure for many top-level shark species, the impacts of coastal habitat modification have been largely overlooked. We present the first direct comparison of the use of natural versus artificial habitats for the bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas, an IUCN 'Near-threatened' species--one of the few truly euryhaline sharks that utilises natural rivers and estuaries as nursery grounds before migrating offshore as adults. Understanding the value of alternate artificial coastal habitats to the lifecycle of the bull shark is crucial for determining the impact of coastal development on this threatened but potentially dangerous species. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: We used longline surveys and long-term passive acoustic tracking of neonate and juvenile bull sharks to determine the ontogenetic value of natural and artificial habitats to bull sharks associated with the Nerang River and adjoining canals on the Gold Coast, Australia. Long-term movements of tagged sharks suggested a preference for the natural river over artificial habitat (canals. Neonates and juveniles spent the majority of their time in the upper tidal reaches of the Nerang River and undertook excursions into adjoining canals. Larger bull sharks ranged further and frequented the canals closer to the river mouth. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our work suggests with increased destruction of natural habitats, artificial coastal habitat may become increasingly important to large juvenile bull sharks with associated risk of attack on humans. In this system, neonate and juvenile bull sharks utilised the natural and artificial habitats, but the latter was not the preferred habitat of neonates. The upper reaches of tidal rivers, often under significant modification pressure, serve as nursery sites for neonates. Analogous studies are needed in similar systems elsewhere to assess the spatial and temporal generality of

  6. Kootenai River Fisheries Investigations: Salmonid Studies Project Progress Report, 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paragamian, Vaughn L.; Walters, Jody; Maiolie, Melo [Idaho Department of Fish and Game

    2009-04-09

    This research report addresses bull trout Salvelinus confluentus and Redband trout Oncorhynchus mykiss redd surveys, population monitoring, trout distribution, and abundance surveys in the Kootenai River drainage of Idaho. The bull trout is one of several sport fish native to the Kootenai River, Idaho that no longer supports a fishery. Because bull trout are listed under the Endangered Species Act, population data will be vital to monitoring status relative to recovery goals. Thirty-three bull trout redds were found in North and South Callahan creeks and Boulder Creek in 2007. This is a decrease from 2006 and 2005 and less than the high count in 2003. However, because redd numbers have only been monitored since 2002, the data series is too short to determine bull trout population trends based on redd counts. Redband trout still provide an important Kootenai River sport fishery, but densities are low, at least partly due to limited recruitment. The redband trout proportional stock density (PSD) in 2007 increased from 2006 for a second year after a two-year decline in 2004 and 2005. This may indicate increased recruitment to or survival in the 201-305 mm length group due to the minimum 406 mm (16 inches) length limit initiated in 2002. We conducted 13 redd surveys and counted 44 redband trout redds from May 7 to June 3, 2007 in a 3.8 km survey reach on Twentymile Creek. We surveyed streams in the Kootenai River valley to look for barriers to trout migration. Man-made barriers, for at least part of the year, were found on Caboose, Debt, Fisher, and Twenty Mile creeks. Removing these barriers would increase spawning and rearing habitat for trout and help to restore trout fisheries in the Kootenai River.

  7. Introgression and susceptibility to disease in a wild population of rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currens, K.P.; Hemmingsen, A.R.; French, R.A.; Buchanan, D.V.; Schreck, C.B.; Li, H.W.

    1997-01-01

    We examined susceptibility of wild rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss from the Metolius River, a tributary of the Deschutes River, Oregon, to genetic introgression and ceratomyxosis as a result of stocking nonnative hatchery rainbow trout. Ceratomyxa shasta, an enzootic myxosporean parasite that can be lethal to nonnative hatchery rainbow trout, might have been limiting the interbreeding of hatchery and wild rainbow trout in the river. However, rainbow trout from the Metolius River had allozyme frequencies intermediate between those of wild and hatchery fish at LDH-B2* and sSOD-1*, two diagnostic genetic loci that allow the inland subspecies of rainbow trout to be distinguished from hatchery strains of coastal origin. They also had notable frequencies of ADA-1*85, an allele documented in hatchery rainbow trout but rarely seen in wild populations. We also found that rainbow trout in the Metolius River averaged 138.9 scales in the lateral series, intermediate between the counts for 9 coastal or nonnative hatchery populations, which always had fewer than 140 scales, and 10 inland populations, which always had more than 140 scales. Disease challenges revealed that rainbow trout from the Metolius River had much greater susceptibility to C. shasta than rainbow trout from the Deschutes River, which have genetic resistance to the lethal disease. Based on these data, we concluded that introgression with nonnative hatchery rainbow trout has reduced the abilities of wild rainbow trout in the Metolius River to survive when conditions for ceratomyxosis infection occur.

  8. Exploring trends, causes, and consequences of declining lipids in Lake Superior lake trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of lake trout to forage in deepwater habitats is facilitated by high lipid content, which affords buoyancy. In Lake Superior, lean lake trout historically occupied depths < 80 m, and siscowet lake trout occupied depths > 80 m. Siscowets have been known f...

  9. Agonistic behavior among three stocked trout species in a novel reservoir fish community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budy, Phaedra; Hafen, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    The popularity of reservoirs to support sport fisheries has led to the stocking of species that did not co-evolve, creating novel reservoir fish communities. In Utah, the Bear Lake strain of Bonneville Cutthroat Trout Oncorhynchus clarkii utah and tiger trout (female Brown Trout Salmo trutta × male Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis) are being more frequently added to a traditional stocking regimen consisting primarily of Rainbow TroutO. mykiss. Interactions between these three predatory species are not well understood, and studies evaluating community interactions have raised concern for an overall decrease of trout condition. To evaluate the potential for negative interactions among these species, we tested aggression in laboratory aquaria using three-species and pairwise combinations at three densities. Treatments were replicated before and after feeding. During the three-species trials Rainbow Trout initiated 24.8 times more aggressive interactions than Cutthroat Trout and 10.2 times more aggressive interactions than tiger trout, and tiger trout exhibited slightly (1.9 times) more aggressive initiations than Cutthroat Trout. There was no significant difference in behavior before versus after feeding for any species, and no indication of increased aggression at higher densities. Although Rainbow Trout in aquaria may benefit from their bold, aggressive behavior, given observations of decreased relative survival in the field, these benefits may be outweighed in reservoirs, possibly through unnecessary energy expenditure and exposure to predators.

  10. Synthetic Musk fragrances in Trout from Danish fish farms and human milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Cederberg, Tommy Licht; Pedersen, K. H.

    2005-01-01

    /HRMS in Danish farmed trout and human milk from primiparous mothers are reported. The polycyclic musk, HHCB, dominated the synthetic musk compounds found in trout samples from 1999 with a median concentration of 5.0 mu g/kg fresh weight (n.d.-52.6 mu g/kg fresh weight) and in trout samples collected in 2003...

  11. Magnetite-Based Magnetoreceptor Cells in the Olfactory Organ of Rainbow Trout and Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschvink, J. L.; Cadiou, H.; Dixson, A. D.; Eder, S.; Kobayashi, A.; McNaughton, P. A.; Muhamad, A. N.; Raub, T. D.; Walker, M. M.; Winklhofer, M.; Yuen, B. B.

    2011-12-01

    with narrow particle size distribution concentrated in the trunk, similar to biogenic magnetofossils. In SQUID microscopy images numerous dipole spots are widely distributed throughout the flank, not correlated with skin pigments or the spinal cord and neural arches. We interpret this to indicate a lateral line location for trunk magnetite in zebrafish. In contrast to trout in which rock magnetic experiments and TEM suggest highly interacting bundled ropes of crystals, similar to those in the large magnetotactic bacterium, M. bavaricum, zebrafish magnetic aggregates apparently arrange in clumps or mixed chains and clumps. We report trout olfactory epithelium containing magnetite magnetoreceptors that transduce the external magnetic field, then encode and transmit it to the brain, while zebrafish contain magnetite in the lateral line region.

  12. Nucléation, ascension et éclatement d'une bulle de champagne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liger-Belair, G.

    2006-03-01

    People have long been fascinated by bubbles and foams dynamics, and since the pioneering work of Leonardo da Vinci in the early 16th century, this subject has generated a huge bibliography. However, only quite recently, much interest was devoted to bubbles in Champagne wines and carbonated beverages. Since the time of the benedictine monk dom Pierre Perignon (1638-1715), champagne is the wine of celebration. This fame is largely linked to the elegance of its effervescence and foaming properties. In this book, the latest results about the chemical physics behind the bubbling properties of Champagne and sparkling wines are collected and fully illustrated. The first chapter is devoted to the history of champagne and to a presentation of the tools of the physical chemistry of interfaces needed for a whole comprehension of the book. Then, the three main steps of a fleeting champagne bubble's life are presented in chronological order, that is, the bubble nucleation on the glass wall (Chap.2), the bubble ascent and growth through the liquid matrix (Chap.3), and the bursting of bubbles at the liquid surface (Chap.4), which constitutes the most intriguing, functional, and visually appealing step. L'objectif général de ce travail consacré à l'étude des processus physicochimiques liés à l'effervescence des vins de Champagne était de décortiquer les différentes étapes de la vie d'une bulle de champagne en conditions réelles de consommation, dans une flûte. Nous résumons ci-après les principaux résultats obtenus pour chacune des étapes de la vie de la bulle, depuis sa naissance sur les parois d'une flûte, jusqu'à son éclatement en surface. Nucléation À l'aide d'une caméra rapide munie d'un objectif de microscope, nous avons pu mettre à mal une idée largement répandue. Ce ne sont pas les anfractuosités de la surface du verre ou de la flûte qui sont responsable de la nucléation hétérogène des bulles, mais des particules adsorbées sur les parois du

  13. Genetic Background and Population Genetics of Hungarian Brown Trout Populations Using PCR-RFLP and Microsatellite Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ágnes Ősz

    2015-12-01

    4 University of West Hungary, Mosonmagyaróvár Vár 2., 9200 Mosonmagyaróvár, Hungary Based on the analyses of the mitochondrial DNA of several European brown trout populations, five evolutionary lineages of brown trout were indentified (Atlantic, Danubian, Mediterranean, Adriatic, Marble. The species is bred primarily for stock enhancement of natural waters, however the most hatchery-maintained broodstocks originate from the Atlantic lineage. Due to the hydrogeography of Hungary our stocks should theoretically belong to the Danubian lineage; however, this has not been investigated earlier by genetic studies. For our genetic analysis, 702 fin clips were collected from two brown trout broodstocks (Lillafüred and Szilvásvárad as well as populations of natural streams (Bán, Jósva, Kemence, Apátkút, Bittva and Kölöntés in Hungary. Sequencing of the control region in mitochondrial DNA, three PCR-RFLP (mitochondrial DNA control region, lactate dehydrogenase and somatolactin genes and five microsatellite markers were used to distinguish between Danubian and Atlantic lineages of brown trout. The proportion of the mitochondrial haplotype of the Danubian lineage was low, with the exception of the Apátkúti, Kölöntés streams and Szilvásvárad broodstock. Analyses of nuclear PCR-RFLP and microsatellites markers showed various distributions of alleles characteristic of the Atlantic or Danubian lineages, although the Atlantic genotype has dominated in all population. In case of the analyses of microsatellites the polymorphism varied greatly at all locations. In addition we found several alleles that were not described earlier in other populations. Those alleles probably would be typical of Hungarian brown trout populations. Overall the populations were effectively in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for both PCR-RFLP and microsatellite markers. The remarkably high proportion of allochthonous Atlantic alleles in the analyzed sites is a clear indicator of the import

  14. Population biology of coral trout species in eastern Torres Strait: Implications for fishery management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ashley J.; Currey, Leanne M.; Begg, Gavin A.; Murchie, Cameron D.; Ballagh, Aaron C.

    2008-09-01

    Coral trout ( Plectropomus spp.) are the main target species for commercial fishers in the eastern Torres Strait Reef Line Fishery (ETS RLF). The four species of coral trout known to occur in Torres Strait: Plectropomus leopardus, Plectropomus maculatus, Plectropomus areolatus and Plectropomus laevis are currently managed as a single species in Torres Strait, as there is no species-specific biological information available for the region which could be used to assess whether species differ in their response to fishing pressure. The aim of our study was to determine whether it is appropriate (biologically) to manage coral trout in the ETS RLF as a single species group or whether different management arrangements are required for some species. We used catch data and biological data from samples collected by commercial fishers to examine the distribution within Torres Strait and estimate a range of biological parameters for P. leopardus, P. maculatus and P. areolatus. Insufficient P. laevis samples were collected to reliably examine this species. Results indicated that the population biology, particularly the reproductive biology, of P. areolatus was substantially different to both P. leopardus and P. maculatus. Although it is difficult to predict the response to fishing, P. areolatus may be more vulnerable to fishing than P. leopardus and P. maculatus, due to the larger size at sex change observed for this species and the very low proportion of males protected by the current minimum size limit. Therefore, while the common management arrangements for P. leopardus and P. maculatus appear to be adequate for these species, separate management arrangements are needed for the sustainable harvest of P. areolatus populations in the ETS. Specifically, we recommend the introduction of a maximum size limit for P. areolatus, in addition to the current minimum size limit, which may allow a proportion of males some protection from fishing.

  15. Larger eggs in resident brown trout living in sympatry with anadromous brown trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olofsson, H.; Mosegaard, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    ) or migratory populations (44.5-121.9 mg), after accounting for differences in body size. In Jorlandaan, some resident females even had a larger absolute mean egg weight than any of the migratory females found in the stream Resident trout had low absolute fecundity, and our data suggest that resident females...... in Jorlandan produce large eggs at the expense of their fecundity The extremely large relative egg size in resident Jorlandaan females suggests that the production of large offspring enhances fitness, possibly through increased fry survival....

  16. Changes in mean scrotal circumference in performance tested Swedish beef bulls over time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriksson Pernilla

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a growing interest in beef cattle breeding in Sweden. The majority of the females are bred naturally, which is why it is important to choose healthy fertile bulls to obtain good reproduction and profitability. The breeding soundness evaluation includes measurement of scrotal circumference (SC. Our aim was to analyze if the SC of performance tested beef bulls has changed over the years. In total, 1332 bulls (Angus, Charolais, Hereford and Simmental from 13 batches (1997-2010 were included in the study. Case book entries from final evaluation of the bulls, 11-13 months old, were compiled and analyzed. Results An overall mean SC of 34.7 cm independent of breed and age was found which is above the set minimum level. Only eleven bulls did not reach the minimum level. An increase in SC of 0.06-0.07 cm/year was shown for all breeds. In all (1997-2010, the increase of the average SC (independent of breed and age was approximately 1 cm. The positive trend was apparent for all breeds but only statistically significant for the Charolais breed. Conclusions In conclusion, our results indicated an increase in the SC over time, which improves the possibilities to obtain performance tested beef sires in Sweden with the potential for achieving better fertility results.

  17. Collection of preputial material by scraping and aspiration for the diagnosis of Tritrichomonas foetus in bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. Irons

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Two trials were carried out to assess the diagnostic sensitivity and practicability of preputial scraping as a method of collecting preputial material from bulls infected with Tritrichomonas foetus. In the 1st trial, preputial material was collected by simultaneous scraping and aspiration from 3 infected and 1 uninfected bull 10 times over a 5-week period. In the 2nd trial, samples from 5 infected bulls were collected by both sheath washing and scraping on 6 occasions, while 8 uninfected animals were sampled 3 times. Samples were cultured using a modified Trichomonas culture medium (Oxoid. In the first trial, 29 of 30 samples from infected bulls were found to be positive. In the second trial, 83 % of samples collected by both methods tested positive. In neither trial were any samples from the control bulls found to be positive. Scraping was found to be quick and safe, and offered advantages over preputial washing in that urine contamination was easily avoided, samples were smaller and more concentrated and contamination was reduced. It may, however, be subject to greater operator variability than sheath washing. It is concluded that preputial scraping is as effective as washing and represents a suitable alternative for the collection of material for direct examination and culture of Tritrichomonas foetus.

  18. Collection of preputial material by scraping and aspiration for the diagnosis of Tritrichomonas foetus in bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irons, P C; Henton, M M; Bertschinger, H J

    2002-06-01

    Two trials were carried out to assess the diagnostic sensitivity and practicability of preputial scraping as a method of collecting preputial material from bulls infected with Tritrichomonas foetus. In the 1st trial, preputial material was collected by simultaneous scraping and aspiration from 3 infected and 1 uninfected bull 10 times over a 5-week period. In the 2nd trial, samples from 5 infected bulls were collected by both sheath washing and scraping on 6 occasions, while 8 uninfected animals were sampled 3 times. Samples were cultured using a modified Trichomonas culture medium (Oxoid). In the first trial, 29 of 30 samples from infected bulls were found to be positive. In the second trial, 83 % of samples collected by both methods tested positive. In neither trial were any samples from the control bulls found to be positive. Scraping was found to be quick and safe, and offered advantages over preputial washing in that urine contamination was easily avoided, samples were smaller and more concentrated and contamination was reduced. It may, however, be subject to greater operator variability than sheath washing. It is concluded that preputial scraping is as effective as washing and represents a suitable alternative for the collection of material for direct examination and culture of Tritrichomonas foetus.

  19. Serum gonadotropins after gonadotropin-releasing hormone injection in bulls subjected to spacial restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwazdauskas, F C; Bindas, E M; Anderson, G W; McGilliard, M L

    1984-12-01

    Response patterns of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and testosterone after injection of gonadotropin-releasing hormone were investigated in bulls grouped by weight (250 to 459 kg body weight) and confined five per pen in 9.2 or 6.4 m2 space per bull in two replicates. Blood samples were collected for 1 h prior to injection of 100 micrograms gonadotropin releasing hormone and 5 h after injection at 15-min intervals. Overall mean luteinizing hormone concentrations were not affected by spacial restriction or replicate. Interaction of treatment by time revealed that luteinizing hormone response curves were not similar. Restricted bulls had a higher response of luteinizing hormone to gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Follicle-stimulating hormone increased in all groups within 15 min and peaked at 219.4 ng/ml at 45 min. Both gonadotropin responses returned to preinjection concentrations by 4 h. Testosterone was affected by treatment, replicate, and time of sampling. Testosterone was higher in restricted bulls and higher in replicate 2. Mean testosterone peak following gonadotropin-releasing hormone was 3.86 ng/ml and occurred between 105 and 120 min which was approximately 90 min after the gonadotropin peaks. It appears that hormone responses to gonadotropin-releasing hormone were not depressed by spacial restriction, and additional spacial restriction of young bulls could be used commercially.

  20. Profiling of sperm gene transcripts in crossbred (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    H M, Yathish; Kumar, Subodh; Dubey, Prem P; Modi, Rajendra P; Chaudhary, Rajni; A, Siva Kumar; Ghosh, Subrata K; Sarkar, Mihir; B, Sivamani

    2017-02-01

    Crossbred cattle in some sectors of the world have a significant role in enhancing milk production thereby enhancing the per capita milk availability as a human food source. However, there are certain constraints associated with crossbred animals, such as disease susceptibility, increased reproductive problems, repeat breeding and poor seminal quality. The semen of crossbred bulls has a poor freezing capacity, increased cryo-damage, poor mass cell motility, greater percentages of dead/abnormal sperm and poor initial and post-freeze cell motility. The rejection rate of crossbred bulls for cryostorage of semen has been reported to be as great as 50% as a result of unacceptable semen quality. The identification of superior bulls using molecular technologies is needed which necessitates identification of the genes having a role in sperm function. The present study was, therefore, conducted to gain information on identification and expression of genes having a role in sperm motility in crossbred bulls. The gene transcripts in bulls with sperm of superior and inferior quality were profiled in Vrindavani crossbred cattle by microarray analyses and the results were verified by real time-quantitative PCR. Microarray analyses revealed 19,454 genes which were differentially expressed. At a two-fold cut off, 305 genes were differentially (Pbulls with superior motility.

  1. Evaluation of an Unsuccessful Brook Trout Electrofishing Removal Project in a Small Rocky Mountain Stream.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Kevin A.; Lamansky, Jr., James A.; Schill, Daniel J.

    2006-01-26

    In the western United States, exotic brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis frequently have a deleterious effect on native salmonids, and biologists often attempt to remove brook trout from streams by means of electrofishing. Although the success of such projects typically is low, few studies have assessed the underlying mechanisms of failure, especially in terms of compensatory responses. A multiagency watershed advisory group (WAG) conducted a 3-year removal project to reduce brook trout and enhance native salmonids in 7.8 km of a southwestern Idaho stream. We evaluated the costs and success of their project in suppressing brook trout and looked for brook trout compensatory responses, such as decreased natural mortality, increased growth, increased fecundity at length, and earlier maturation. The total number of brook trout removed was 1,401 in 1998, 1,241 in 1999, and 890 in 2000; removal constituted an estimated 88% of the total number of brook trout in the stream in 1999 and 79% in 2000. Although abundance of age-1 and older brook trout declined slightly during and after the removals, abundance of age-0 brook trout increased 789% in the entire stream 2 years after the removals ceased. Total annual survival rate for age-2 and older brook trout did not decrease during the removals, and the removals failed to produce an increase in the abundance of native redband trout Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri. Lack of a meaningful decline and unchanged total mortality for older brook trout during the removals suggest that a compensatory response occurred in the brook trout population via reduced natural mortality, which offset the removal of large numbers of brook trout. Although we applaud WAG personnel for their goal of enhancing native salmonids by suppressing brook trout via electrofishing removal, we conclude that their efforts were unsuccessful and suggest that similar future projects elsewhere over such large stream lengths would be costly, quixotic enterprises.

  2. Indirect benefits for female salmon from mating with brown trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Ana G F; Beall, Edward; Morán, Paloma; Martinez, Jose L; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2010-01-01

    By genetic analysis of 1625 samples from 10 south European rivers, we have found that Atlantic salmon Salmo salar hybridize with sympatric brown trout S. trutta in the wild and provide the female in most heterospecific crosses. Hybrids exhibit reduced fertility and could be considered a wasted reproductive effort by salmon females. In 7 experiments involving salmon females, large brown trout males, and small salmon male sneakers, reproductive success of Atlantic salmon females mating with brown trout males was not significantly different from that of 5 experiments of females mating with conspecific males because small Atlantic salmon sneakers fertilized most ova (mean 93%) in salmon x trout matings. Although egg retention tended to be higher in heterospecific than in conspecific crosses (mean 5.7% vs. 20.5% respectively), mean offspring survival was 24.4% and 30.3%, respectively (t = 1.5 x 10(-8), not significant). Brown trout males taking on a courting role may benefit late-maturing females in absence or scarcity of anadromous salmon males because they play a protective role against disturbances from other fishes (including cannibal sneakers).

  3. Acute sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to copper, cadmium, or zinc in water-only laboratory exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calfee, Robin D; Little, Edward E; Puglis, Holly J; Scott, Erinn; Brumbaugh, William G; Mebane, Christopher A

    2014-10-01

    The acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were determined for 7 developmental life stages in flow-through water-only exposures. Metal toxicity varied by species and by life stage. Rainbow trout were more sensitive to cadmium than white sturgeon across all life stages, with median effect concentrations (hardness-normalized EC50s) ranging from 1.47 µg Cd/L to 2.62 µg Cd/L with sensitivity remaining consistent during later stages of development. Rainbow trout at 46 d posthatch (dph) ranked at the 2nd percentile of a compiled database for Cd species sensitivity distribution with an EC50 of 1.46 µg Cd/L and 72 dph sturgeon ranked at the 19th percentile (EC50 of 3.02 µg Cd/L). White sturgeon were more sensitive to copper than rainbow trout in 5 of the 7 life stages tested with biotic ligand model (BLM)-normalized EC50s ranging from 1.51 µg Cu/L to 21.9 µg Cu/L. In turn, rainbow trout at 74 dph and 95 dph were more sensitive to copper than white sturgeon at 72 dph and 89 dph, indicating sturgeon become more tolerant in older life stages, whereas older trout become more sensitive to copper exposure. White sturgeon at 2 dph, 16 dph, and 30 dph ranked in the lower percentiles of a compiled database for copper species sensitivity distribution, ranking at the 3rd (2 dph), 5th (16 dph), and 10th (30 dph) percentiles. White sturgeon were more sensitive to zinc than rainbow trout for 1 out of 7 life stages tested (2 dph with an biotic ligand model-normalized EC50 of 209 µg Zn/L) and ranked in the 1st percentile of a compiled database for zinc species sensitivity distribution.

  4. SEASONAL INFLUENCE ON SEMINAL PATTERN AND FREEZABILITY OF PANTANEIRO BULL SEMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia Hack Moreira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to investigate the effect of the season of the year on testicular morphology, fresh and frozen/thawed semen quality from Pantaneiro bulls bred in Brasilia, DF. Six bulls were submitted, once a month for one year, to evaluation of testicular measurements, semen collection using an artificial vagina and cryopreserved with medium containing Tris-based, egg  yolk and glycerol. The testicular length and volume were greater (P 0.05. In conclusion, Pantaneiro bulls, bred in the Midwest region of Brazil, can be used in natural mating programs in all seasons. Aiming to improve the Brazilian Animal Germplasm Bank with a higher number of samples collected, we suggest that the freezing of the semen is done between June and August, although there will be no losses of semen quality at any time. Keywords: bovine; conservation; cryopreservation; reproduction; seasonality.

  5. Polarization-independent split bull's eye antennas for infrared nano-photodetectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Meng; Ren, Fang-Fang; Pu, Lin; Xiao, Long; Sheng, Yun; Wang, Junzhuan; Lu, Hai; Zheng, Youdou; Shi, Yi

    2016-12-19

    Split bull's eye (SBE) antennas exhibit much larger extraordinary optical transmission and strong polarization dependence rather than bull's eye (BE) antennas in the infrared range due to the introduced sub-wavelength slit. Here, we demonstrate a dual-split bull's eye (DSBE) antenna, which consists of two sub-wavelength slits crossing through the center of the BE antenna with an intersection angle θ. The polarization dependence in transmission can be flexibly tailored by adjusting the intersection angle, following a cos(2) (Φ + θ/2) angular dependence on polarization angle Φ. When θ = 90°, the DSBE antenna yields high and polarization-independent transmission enhancement over the entire infrared spectrum. It presents highly promising applications for polarization-insensitive photodetectors and other optoelectronic devices.

  6. THE SPECTACLE OF REDEMPTION: GUILT AND VIOLENCE IN MARTIN SCORSESE’S RAGING BULL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Serrano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Of all the characters that undertake a search for redemption in Martin Scorsese’s films, perhaps it is the story of Jake La Motta in Raging Bull that for many reasons presents the greatest challenge to understanding redemption’s role in the narratives of his films. Is Jake La Motta a redeemed character at the end of Raging Bull? I argue that Scorsese uses Raging Bull to criticize a ritualistic view of redemption by portraying the beginning of Jake’s search as a futile attempt to submit himself to a public spectacle of ritual violence in the boxing ring while visually relating this to the Catholic sacraments and the crucifixion. It will only be later—in the loneliness of a jail cell, estranged from his family and without having to have had gone through a rite—that Jake achieves the self-awareness redemption requires.

  7. Cadmium-mediated disruption of cortisol biosynthesis involves suppression of corticosteroidogenic genes in rainbow trout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandhu, Navdeep [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Vijayan, Mathilakath M., E-mail: mvijayan@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2011-05-15

    Cadmium is widely distributed in the aquatic environment and is toxic to fish even at sublethal concentrations. This metal is an endocrine disruptor, and one well established role in teleosts is the suppression of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-stimulated cortisol biosynthesis by the interrenal tissue. However the mechanism(s) leading to this steroid suppression is poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that cadmium targets genes encoding proteins critical for corticosteroid biosynthesis, including melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). To test this, head kidney slices (containing the interrenal tissues) were incubated in vitro with cadmium chloride (0, 10, 100 and 1000 nM) for 4 h either in the presence or absence of ACTH (0.5 IU/mL). In the unstimulated head kidney slices, cadmium exposure did not affect basal cortisol secretion and the mRNA levels of MC2R and P450scc, while StAR gene expression was significantly reduced. Cadmium exposure significantly suppressed ACTH-stimulated cortisol production in a dose-related fashion. This cadmium-mediated suppression in corticosteroidogenesis corresponded with a significant reduction in MC2R, StAR and P450scc mRNA levels in trout head kidney slices. The inhibition of ACTH-stimulated cortisol production and suppression of genes involved in corticosteroidogenesis by cadmium were completely abolished in the presence of 8-Bromo-cAMP (a cAMP analog). Overall, cadmium disrupts the expression of genes critical for corticosteroid biosynthesis in rainbow trout head kidney slices. However, the rescue of cortisol production as well as StAR and P450scc gene expressions by cAMP analog suggests that cadmium impact occurs upstream of cAMP production. We propose that MC2R signaling, the primary step in ACTH-induced cortocosteroidogenesis, is a key target for cadmium-mediated disruption of

  8. South Fork Flathead Watershed Westslope Cutthroat Trout Conservation Program, Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grisak, Grant; Marotz, Brian

    2003-06-01

    In 1999, Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks (MFWP) began a program aimed at conserving the genetically pure populations of westslope cutthroat trout in the South Fork Flathead River drainage. The objective of this program is to eliminate all of the exotic and hybrid trout that threaten the genetically pure westslope cutthroat populations in the South Fork Flathead. The exotic and hybrid trout populations occur in several headwater lakes and their outflow streams. In 2001 MFWP released a draft environmental assessment, pursuant to the Montana Environmental Policy Act (MEPA), that addressed the use of motorized equipment to deliver personnel and materials to some of these lakes in the Bob Marshall and Great Bear Wildernesses (Grisak 2001). After a 30-day public comment period, MFWP determined that the complexity of issues was too great and warranted a more detailed analysis. These issues included transportation options for personnel, equipment and materials, the use of motorized equipment in wilderness, fish removal methods, fish stocking, and the status and distribution of amphibian populations in the project area. Because the program also involves the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the environmental analysis needs to comply with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). In October 2001, pursuant to NEPA, MFWP, along with the USFS and BPA initiated an environmental assessment to address these issues. In June 2002, the three agencies determined that the scope of these issues warranted an Environmental Impact Statement. This specialist report describes the logistical, technical and biological issues associated with this project and provides an analysis of options for fish removal, transportation and fish stocking. It further analyzes issues and concerns associated with amphibian populations and creating new domesticated stocks of westslope cutthroat trout. Finally, this document provides a description of each lake, the best

  9. Trophic relationships between a native and a nonnative predator in a system of natural lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeuwig, Michael H.; Guy, Christopher S.; Fedenberg, Wade A.

    2011-01-01

    Bull trout, a species of char listed as threatened under the US Endangered Species Act, have been displaced from portions of their historic range following the introduction of nonnative lake trout. It has been suggested that competitive exclusion as a result of trophic overlap between bull trout and lake trout may be the causal mechanism associated with displacement of bull trout. This study used stable isotope data to evaluate trophic relationships among native bull trout, nonnative lake trout and other fishes in seven lakes in Glacier National Park (GNP), Montana. Bull trout and lake trout had greater δ15N values relative to other fishes among lakes (δ15N = 3.0‰). Lake trout had greater δ15N values relative to bull trout (δ15N = +1.0‰). Bull trout had greater δ13C values relative to lake trout in six of the seven lakes examined. Although both bull trout and lake trout had greater δ15N values relative to other fishes within lakes in GNP, differences in δ15N and 13C between bull trout and lake trout suggest that they are consuming different prey species or similar prey species in different proportions. Therefore, displacement of bull trout as a direct result of complete overlap in food resource use is not anticipated unless diet shifts occur or food resources become limiting. Additionally, future studies should evaluate food habits to identify important prey species and sources of partial dietary overlap between bull trout and lake trout.

  10. Evidence of Lake Trout reproduction at Lake Michigan's mid-lake reef complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, J.; Jude, D.J.; Edsall, T.A.; Paddock, R.W.; Wattrus, N.; Toneys, M.; McKee, P.

    2006-01-01

    The Mid-Lake Reef Complex (MLRC), a large area of deep (> 40 m) reefs, was a major site where indigenous lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Michigan aggregated during spawning. As part of an effort to restore Lake Michigan's lake trout, which were extirpated in the 1950s, yearling lake trout have been released over the MLRC since the mid-1980s and fall gill net censuses began to show large numbers of lake trout in spawning condition beginning about 1999. We report the first evidence of viable egg deposition and successful lake trout fry production at these deep reefs. Because the area's existing bathymetry and habitat were too poorly known for a priori selection of sampling sites, we used hydroacoustics to locate concentrations of large fish in the fall; fish were congregating around slopes and ridges. Subsequent observations via unmanned submersible confirmed the large fish to be lake trout. Our technological objectives were driven by biological objectives of locating where lake trout spawn, where lake trout fry were produced, and what fishes ate lake trout eggs and fry. The unmanned submersibles were equipped with a suction sampler and electroshocker to sample eggs deposited on the reef, draw out and occasionally catch emergent fry, and collect egg predators (slimy sculpin Cottus cognatus). We observed slimy sculpin to eat unusually high numbers of lake trout eggs. Our qualitative approaches are a first step toward quantitative assessments of the importance of lake trout spawning on the MLRC.

  11. Immunity to rhabdoviruses in rainbow trout: the antibody response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Niels; Lapatra, S.E.

    1999-01-01

    to their occasional detrimental effect on rainbow trout farming. Research efforts have been focused on understanding the mechanisms involved in protective immunity. Several specific and nonspecific cellular and humoral parameters are believed to be involved, but only the antibody response has been characterised...... in detail so far. Analysis of the specificity of anti-virus trout antibodies has been complicated by a generally insufficient ability of the antibodies to bind the viral proteins in assays such as immunoblotting. However, other assays, specifically designed for detection of fish anti IHNV/VHSV antibodies......, have demonstrated that rainbow trout can produce specific and highly functional antibodies that are able to neutralise virus pathogenicity in vitro as well as in vivo. The apparently more restricted antibody response to IHNV and VHSV antigens in fish compared to mammals could possibly be explained...

  12. Effects of slaughter weight and carcass electrical stimulation on the quality and palatability of beef from young purebred bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, M B; West, R L; Hentges, J F

    1986-12-01

    Seventy-eight purebred Angus and Brahman bulls (10 to 18 mo at slaughter) were used to determine the effects of slaughter weight (60, 80, 90 or 100% of the average mature-cow weight for the respective breed) and carcass electrical stimulation (500 V, 20 2-s impulses on the right side) on carcass and meat characteristics. Angus bulls grazed summer forage (millet) after weaning, while Brahman bulls were fed to stimulate gains achieved on forage by Angus bulls. Bulls were then placed in the feedlot for finishing to their designated slaughter weight (293, 381, 412 and 463 kg for Angus and 316, 420, 463 and 516 kg for Brahman). Coarse dark band formation and lean color problems normally associated with bullock carcasses were either eliminated or reduced by stimulation. Increasing slaughter weight from 60 to 90% was associated with an increase in panel tenderness scores for loin steaks. However, increasing slaughter weight from 90 to 100% little change was detected. On the other hand, shear values for loin steaks decreased with increasing slaughter weight. Stimulation increased the tenderness of loin steaks as determined by both panel scores and shear values, and of bottom round steaks (shear-force values). The data from this study suggest that meat from the bulls slaughtered at lighter weights was generally tough, but was improved when bulls were fed to heavier, yet acceptable weights. This research encourages implementation of electrical stimulation on carcasses from young bulls to improve quality-indicating factors.

  13. 78 FR 20133 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Bull Mountain Unit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) to analyze a Master Development Plan (MDP) that proposes to drill up to 150... preparing an Environmental Assessment (EA) for the 150-well Bull Mountain Unit MDP from September 21 to... April 23, 2012. ADDRESSES: You may submit comments related to the proposed Bull Mountain Unit MDP by...

  14. Histopathological and histomorphometric testicular characteristics associated to reproductive condition in Bos indicus (Nellore bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kethleen Mesquita da Silva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate morphological, morphometric and functional aspects of spermatogenesis based on reproductive conditions of Nellore bulls. The study used 25 bulls Bos indicus (Nellore, which were classified as satisfactory (n=10 and unsatisfactory (n=15 for reproduction. After orchiectomy, fragments of the right testis of each animal were processed routinely and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS. The slides were analyzed in bright field microscopy at different magnifications. The tubular segments were classified into four levels (normal, mild and moderate degeneration, severe degeneration, and tubular hypoplasia based on the organization and architecture of the tubular tissue. The average height of the seminiferous epithelium, the average thickness of propria tunic and the average tubular diameter were obtained and the proportion of seminiferous tubules, interstitial tissue, lymphatic vessel and blood vessel of each bull testicle were recorded. Furthermore, the frequency of the three classifications of the spermatogenic cycle A, B and C (A = group of stages I, II, and III which comprise the initial phases of the cycle and mitotic proliferation, B = group of stages IV and V, which comprise intermediate phases and intensive mitosis, C = group stages VI, VII and VIII which comprise the final phases and post-meiosis was compared. The results showed that the degenerative changes in germ cells are associated with histomorphometric variations, including those in the density of the structures that comprise the testicular parenchyma, and are more representative in bulls with poor semen quality. In addition, the unsatisfactory bulls for reproduction showed reduced meiotic potential compared to that of satisfactory reproductive bulls.

  15. Effect of preputial washing on bacterial load and preservability of semen in Murrah buffalo bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Meena

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the effect of preputial washing on bacterial load, preservability and semen quality in Murrah buffalo bulls Materials and Methods: A total of 36 collections of three Murrah buffalo bulls maintained at Artificial Breeding Research Centre, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, were collected at weekly intervals from each bull without preputial washing and latter ejaculates from same bull with preputial washing by infusing normal saline (0.85%, KMnO4 (0.02% and savlon (2.0% to first, second and third bull, respectively. The microbial load and semen quality were evaluated during different hours of storage at refrigerated temperature (0, 24 and 48 h and after thrawing of cryopreserved (at −196°C semen. Results: The results of preservation of semen at refrigerated temperature showed that bacterial load was markedly lower in ejaculates of bulls subjected to preputial washing. Semen preserved at refrigerator temperature and cryopreserved, the effect of washing solution was significant for individual motility (IM, non-eosiniphilic count, hypo-osmotic swelling reactivity (HOST, total plate count (TPC and acrosome integrity. KMnO4 was found to be the best in lowering bacterial load, sperm abnormalities and in improving semen quality such as motility, non-eosinophilic count, HOST and acrosome integrity even up to 48 h of preservation and cryopreserved semen. Effect of duration of preservation and stage of cryopreservation was also significant for IM, non-eosiniphilic count, HOST, sperm abnormalities and acrosome integrity. Conclusion: Overall the results suggested that preputial washing with KMnO4 solution improved the semen quality and reduced microbial load of Murrah buffalo bull’s semen preserved at refrigerated temperature and cryopreservation.

  16. MEAT QUALITY FROM CHAROLAIS BULLS FED DIETS WITH DIFFERENT LEVELS OF CORN SILAGE INCLUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Cozzi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A sample of 6 intensive beef farms was selected according to the feeding plan adopted during the fattening period of Charolais bulls. Two farms did not include any corn silage in the diet (CS0, while corn silage represented 22% of the dietary DM in the second group of 2 farms (CS22, and it raised up to 44% of the dietary DM in the last 2 farms (CS44. Five bulls were randomly selected from each farm to be slaughtered in the same abattoir. Bulls age was similar across treatments but the CS44 bulls had a lower carcass weight (396 kg than the other two treatments (436 and 446 kg for CS0 and CS22, respectively. Carcass fleshiness (SEUROP and fatness scores were not affected by the level of corn silage in the diet. Meat quality was evaluated on a joint sample of the m. Longissimus thoracis, excised from the 5th to the 9th rib of each right half carcass 24 h post-mortem, after an ageing period of 10 d vacuum packaged at 4°C. Meat chemical analysis showed no variations in pH, DM, intramuscular fat and protein content due to the different silage inclusion in the diet. Only the cholesterol content was progressively reduced in the meat of bulls fed increasing quantities of corn silage according to a significant negative linear trend. Meat colour, cooking losses and shear force values were not affected by the diet. Therefore, based on these findings there are no substantial arguments against the use of a large amount of corn silage in the fattening diets of Charolais bulls.

  17. The effects of Red Bull energy drink compared with caffeine on cycling time-trial performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlivan, Alannah; Irwin, Christopher; Grant, Gary D; Anoopkumar-Dukie, Sheilandra; Skinner, Tina; Leveritt, Michael; Desbrow, Ben

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the ergogenic effects of a commercial energy drink (Red Bull) or an equivalent dose of anhydrous caffeine in comparison with a noncaffeinated control beverage on cycling performance. Eleven trained male cyclists (31.7 ± 5.9 y 82.3 ± 6.1 kg, VO2max = 60.3 ± 7.8 mL · kg-1 · min-1) participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover-design study involving 3 experimental conditions. Participants were randomly administered Red Bull (9.4 mL/kg body mass [BM] containing 3 mg/kg BM caffeine), anhydrous caffeine (3 mg/kg BM given in capsule form), or a placebo 90 min before commencing a time trial equivalent to 1 h cycling at 75% peak power output. Carbohydrate and fluid volumes were matched across all trials. Performance improved by 109 ± 153 s (2.8%, P = .039) after Red Bull compared with placebo and by 120 ± 172 s (3.1%, P = .043) after caffeine compared with placebo. No significant difference (P > .05) in performance time was detected between Red Bull and caffeine treatments. There was no significant difference (P > .05) in mean heart rate or rating of perceived exertion among the 3 treatments. This study demonstrated that a moderate dose of caffeine consumed as either Red Bull or in anhydrous form enhanced cycling time-trial performance. The ergogenic benefits of Red Bull energy drink are therefore most likely due to the effects of caffeine, with the other ingredients not likely to offer additional benefit.

  18. Lake trout demographics in relation to burbot and coregonine populations in the Algonquin Highlands, Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl, L.M.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that lake trout populations change in relation to cisco, lake whitefish, round whitefish and burbot populations in lakes in the Algonquin Highlands region of Ontario. Lake trout population change is greatest where cisco and lake whitefish are present. Lake trout populations in lakes without either coregonine tend to have small adults and many juveniles. Where cisco or lake whitefish are present, adult lake trout are large, juvenile abundance is low, and the stock-recruit relationship appears to be uncoupled likely due to a larval bottleneck. Lake trout populations in these lakes may be sensitive to overfishing and recruitment failure. Lake trout populations do not appear to change in relation to round whitefish. There appears to be an indirect positive change on juvenile lake trout abundance through reductions in the density of benthic coregonines in the presence of large, hypolimnetic burbot. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  19. Comparative bioenergetics modeling of two Lake Trout morphotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepler, Megan V.; Wagner, Tyler; Sweka, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Efforts to restore Lake Trout Salvelinus namaycush in the Laurentian Great Lakes have been hampered for decades by several factors, including overfishing and invasive species (e.g., parasitism by Sea Lampreys Petromyzon marinus and reproductive deficiencies associated with consumption of Alewives Alosa pseudoharengus). Restoration efforts are complicated by the presence of multiple body forms (i.e., morphotypes) of Lake Trout that differ in habitat utilization, prey consumption, lipid storage, and spawning preferences. Bioenergetics models constitute one tool that is used to help inform management and restoration decisions; however, bioenergetic differences among morphotypes have not been evaluated. The goal of this research was to investigate bioenergetic differences between two actively stocked morphotypes: lean and humper Lake Trout. We measured consumption and respiration rates across a wide range of temperatures (4–22°C) and size-classes (5–100 g) to develop bioenergetics models for juvenile Lake Trout. Bayesian estimation was used so that uncertainty could be propagated through final growth predictions. Differences between morphotypes were minimal, but when present, the differences were temperature and weight dependent. Basal respiration did not differ between morphotypes at any temperature or size-class. When growth and consumption differed between morphotypes, the differences were not consistent across the size ranges tested. Management scenarios utilizing the temperatures presently found in the Great Lakes (e.g., predicted growth at an average temperature of 11.7°C and 14.4°C during a 30-d period) demonstrated no difference in growth between the two morphotypes. Due to a lack of consistent differences between lean and humper Lake Trout, we developed a model that combined data from both morphotypes. The combined model yielded results similar to those of the morphotype-specific models, suggesting that accounting for morphotype differences may

  20. BACTERIAL FLORA OF RAINBOW TROUT LARVAE AND FRY (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Kapetanović

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available There are no information in available literature about the structure of bacterial flora in rainbow trout larvae and fry in the first days of their lives. The objective of our work has been to follow bacteroflora between the third and the eighth week of their lives. During 35 days of experiment bacteroflora of rainbow trout has been examined, along with following physico–chemical characteristics of water quality as well as it’s influence on health. Samples for bacteriological examination were taken from gill, heart and kidney areas and innoculated on the plates. Bacterial colonies were examined macroscopically, slides with Gram staining, and afterwords biochemical tests were performed. For identification, APILAB Plus programme (bio Mérieux, France was used. Bacterial population of rainbow trout larvae and fry changed in dependence with their age. Physico–chemical characteristics of water ranged within optimal values. Most of bacterial colonies originated from gill isolates (64,4 %, than from heart (21,8 % and kidney areas (13,8 %. The bacterial flora of larvae in incubator was composed mostly of Gram–positive bacteria (75,1 %, genera: Renibacterium (25 %, Lactobacillus (16,7 %, Staphilococcus (16,7 % and Corynebacterium (16,7 %. The transfer of larvae from incubator into the pools resulted in reducing bacterial flora (–66,7 % after 45 minute stay in the pool. Gram–negative bacteria, which have been represented in larvae in incubator with low percent (24, 9 %, after the transfer of larvae to the pools became dominant and represented more than 95 % of rainbow trout larvae and fry bacterial flora. Flavobacterium, Acinetobacter and Yersinia were the predominant Gram–negative genera in larvae in incubator, whereas Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium and Pasteurella were the main isolates from rainbow trout larvae and fry until the end of experiment. Bacterial flora of larvae in incubator mostly consists of Gram–positive bacteria

  1. Victims and offenders in a situation of bulling: who are they?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekimova V.I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bulling is one of the most common form of violence in the school environment, adversely affecting the physical and mental health of all its members. The article provides a brief review of foreign studies of this phenomenon, the actual statistics of its prevalence and forms of manifestation. Research focuses on the General characteristics of the bulling participants – aggressors and victims of aggression. The article points to the descriptive character of the studies and contradictory results. It also draws attention to the scarcity of diagnostic tools and a lack of understanding of the psychological component of the problem

  2. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MOTILITY AND VIABILITY PARAMETERS OF FROZEN-THAWED BULL SPERMATOZOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliška Špaleková

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine relationship between parameters of spermatozoa motility (total motility - TM and progressive movement - PM and viability of bull frozen-thawed spermatozoa (dead spermatozoa ratio, apoptotic spermatozoa ratio and plasma membrane integrity. Motility parameters were evaluated using computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA. Parameters of spermatozoa viability were analysed using fluorescent dyes PNA-FITC (plasma membrane, Yo-Pro-1 and propidium iodide (PI. All bulls (n=6 were divided into two groups. First group (n=3 A – better bulls with total motility after thawing over 40% and the second group (n=3 B – with total motility lower than 40%. It was observed significantly (P<0.001 higher TM and PM in group A. No significant differences in velocity parameters and ALH between the group A and B were detected. Occurrence of spermatozoa with disrupted membranes, dead/necrotic spermatozoa and apoptotic spermatozoa was significantly lower in the group A. Bulls in the group A showed significantly higher cleavage rate of embryos. These motility and viability characteristics are associated with a higher embryo cleavage rate in in vitro fertilizatioThe aim of this study was to determine relationship between parameters of spermatozoa motility (total motility - TM and progressive movement - PM and viability of bull frozen-thawed spermatozoa (dead spermatozoa ratio, apoptotic spermatozoa ratio and plasma membrane integrity. Motility parameters were evaluated using computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA. Parameters of spermatozoa viability were analysed using fluorescent dyes PNA-FITC (plasma membrane, Yo-Pro-1 and propidium iodide (PI. All bulls (n=6 were divided into two groups. First group (n=3 A – better bulls with total motility after thawing over 40% and the second group (n=3 B – with total motility lower than 40%. It was observed significantly (P<0.001 higher TM and PM in group A. No significant differences in

  3. Quantitative Histology Studies on the Test in Hybrid Bull of Wild and Domestic Yak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎萍

    2005-01-01

    The testicular tissue of three types of yak bull (1/2 wild yak,cross 1/2 wild yak and domestic yak) were studied quantitatively at 6,12,18 and 24 months old. The results showed that the average values changed from breed to breed at the same age. But there were no significant difference. The volume density and the height of seminiferous tubule and epithelium increased with the age and testicular weight. The capacity rate of the testicular seminiferous tubule in three types were 78.71% ,75.78% and 78.58% respectively, which nearly reached the level of mature bull.

  4. The marine life of sea trout (Salmo trutta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Villar, Diego

    During my PhD. research project I have studied the marine migratory behaviour and survival of wild sea trout (Salmo trutta L.) juveniles when moving from freshwater to saltwater (i.e. smolts/post-smolts) in two different fjord systems. These studies are focused on the initial marine stage of post......-smolts as well as on the fish returning to freshwater after the marine stage. The results of my experiments increase the current knowledge of specific behavioural traits that sea trout displays during their marine life. Additionally, it provides new information on the early and late marine survival which...

  5. Lake trout otolith chronologies as multidecadal indicators of high-latitude freshwater ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, B.A.; Von Biela, V.R.; Zimmerman, C.E.; Brown, Randy J.

    2013-01-01

    High-latitude ecosystems are among the most vulnerable to long-term climate change, yet continuous, multidecadal indicators by which to gauge effects on biology are scarce, especially in freshwater environments. To address this issue, dendrochronology (tree-ring analysis) techniques were applied to growth-increment widths in otoliths from lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from the Chandler Lake system, Alaska (68.23°N, 152.70°W). All otoliths were collected in 1987 and exhibited highly synchronous patterns in growth-increment width. Increments were dated, the widths were measured, and age-related growth declines were removed using standard dendrochronology techniques. The detrended time series were averaged to generate an annually resolved chronology, which continuously spanned 1964–1984. The chronology positively and linearly correlated with August air temperature over the 22-year interval (p productivity. Given the broad distribution of lake trout within North America, this study suggests that otolith chronologies could be used to examine responses between freshwater ecosystems and environmental variability across a range of temporal and spatial scales.

  6. Vaccination against GnRH may suppress aggressive behaviour and musth in African elephant (Loxodonta africana bulls - a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. De Nys

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive behaviour and musth are constant problems in captive and sometimes in free-ranging African elephant bulls. Aggressive bulls are difficult and musth bulls almost impossible to manage without severely restricting their movement either by leg-chaining or using tranquillisers. This study investigated the relationship between faecal androgen metabolites (FAM and faecal cortisol metabolites (FCM concentrations and aggressive behaviour and tested a GnRH vaccine as a means of down-regulating aggressive behaviour and musth in 1 free-ranging and 5 captive elephant bulls. The bulls were non-aggressive (n = 3, aggressive (n = 2 or in musth (n = 1 at the onset of the study. The bulls were injected with a GnRH vaccine-adjuvant combination 3 or 4 times at 3- to 7-week intervals. Behaviour, FAM and FCM concentrations were measured during every week prior to vaccination until 4 months after the last vaccination. FAM concentrations were positively correlated with aggressive behaviour before the 1st vaccination. Androgen production, as reflected by FAM concentrations, was down-regulated in 3 of the 6 immunised bulls. At least 2 bulls and possibly a 3rd showed behavioural improvement following GnRH vaccination and in all 3 temporal gland secretion ceased. No further aggressive behaviour was observed until the end of the study in any of the bulls. The results of this 1st GnRH immunisation study suggest that it could be a useful method to control aggressive behaviour and musth in African elephant bulls.

  7. Effect of whole linseed and rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid enriched diets on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and adipose tissue development in young Holstein bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertí, P; Gómez, I; Mendizabal, J A; Ripoll, G; Barahona, M; Sarriés, V; Insausti, K; Beriain, M J; Purroy, A; Realini, C

    2013-06-01

    Forty-eight young Holstein bulls (slaughtered at 458.6±9.79 kg body weight) were used to evaluate the effect of whole linseed and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation on animal performance, adipose tissue development, and carcass characteristics. The animals were fed with one of four isoenergetic and isoproteic diets: control (0% linseed, 0% CLA), linseed (10% linseed, 0% CLA), CLA (0% linseed, 2% CLA), and linseed plus CLA (10% linseed, 2% CLA). Animal performance and carcass characteristics were unaffected by diet composition. Adding linseed or CLA to the concentrate diet did not result in significant differences in adipocyte size and number or lipogenic enzyme activity. However, while the frequency distribution of subcutaneous adipocyte diameters followed a normal distribution, the frequency distribution of intramuscular adipocyte diameters was not normal in any dietary group (skewness coefficients: 0.8, 1.2, 0.9, 0.8 for control, linseed, CLA, and linseed plus CLA, respectively; Padipose tissue.

  8. BIOMASS AND DENSITY OF BROWN AND RAINBOW TROUT IN NEW MEXICO STREAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srečko Lainer

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available Mean stream numerical density of the brown trout (Salmo trutta m. fario Linnaeus, 1758 and the rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792 was 0.090 fish/m2 of which brown trout averaged 69% (72% in total biomass in 15 high-elevation New Mexico streams (1,661-2,560 m above sea level. Total trout density varied from 0.008/m2 in 1988 and 1989. Mean trout density ranged between 0.023-0.121 fish/m2 at site s open to public fishing. Considerably higher densities (0.142-0.409 fish/m2 were observed at sites closed for fishing. In the seven selected streams shared by both species, brown trout density exceeded rainbow trout density except at the two sites closed to fishing. Brown trout were stocked only as fingerlings (average 7,000 fish/stream/year while rainbow trout were stocked only in harvestable sizes (11,000 fish/stream/year. Reported total trout yield rates exceeded the total number of fish estimated to be in the stream by 1.01 to 11.63 in most small streams open to fishing. The proportional stock density (PSD ranged between O and 50 percent. Streams with low to moderate intensities of fishing had the highest PSD.

  9. Polymyxin B changes the plasma membrane integrity of cryopreserved bull semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Rashedi

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: Our study indicates that adding PMB to bull extender is efficient and appropriate, but, it must be mentioned that addictive amount will be due to extender composition, existence of other antibiotics and, importantly, the load of bacterial contamination in the semen.

  10. Viimane valik / Malcolm Bull ; tõlk. Märt Väljataga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bull, Malcolm

    2006-01-01

    Genotsiidi mõistest ja teostamisest. Rets. rmt.: Michael Mann. The dark side of democracy: explaining ethnic cleansing. Cambridge, 2005; Marc Levene. Genocide in the age of the nation state. Volume I: The meaning of genocide; Volume II: The rise of the West and the coming of genocide. Tauris, 2005. Lisa: Malcolm Bull

  11. Virulence and genotype of a bovine herpesvirus 1 isolate from semen of a subclinically infected bull

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oirschot, van J.T.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Straver, P.J.; Ruuls, R.C.; Quak, J.; Davidse, A.; Westenbrink, E.; Gielkens, A.L.J.; Dijk, van J.E.; Moerman, A.

    1995-01-01

    A bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) isolate from the semen of a subclinically infected bull was administered to cattle by various routes to assess its virulence. Cattle that were artificially inseminated or inoculated intrapreputially did not develop clinical signs, but did transmit the virus to contact

  12. Organic zinc supplementation in the dry season in nelore bulls and its effect on spermiogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Cardin Hofig Ramos

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a diet supplementation with 500mg organic zinc (Zn on sperm morphological characteristics (mass motility, individual motility, and sperm livability as well as minor and major sperm defects in Nelore bulls during the dry season of 2010, the pluviometric precipitation during the experimental period which occurred from April to October, was 69mm from April to August. Thirty-six bulls were selected and divided into two groups of 18 bulls. They were fed the supplemented diet for 180 days. The animals in the first group (G1 were supplemented with an average of 48,89ppm/kg MS Zn, and the animals in the second group (G2 were supplemented with 115,09ppm/ kg DM Zn. Data was analyzed with Minitab 13.0. The results of the morphological characteristic of sperm G1 and G2 were higher at 180 days compared to Day zero, especially in vigor and mass motility, with only statistically significant difference in each group, not differentiating between groups. The organic zinc did not affect the morphological characteristic of sperm in Nellore bulls in the dry season.

  13. Mechanistic identification of cutting force coefficients in bull-nose milling process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Ge; Wu Baohai; Zhang Dinghua; Luo Ming

    2013-01-01

    An improved method to determine cutting force coefficients for bull-nose cutters is proposed based on the semi-mechanistic cutting force model.Due to variations of cutting speed along the tool axis in bull-nose milling,they affect coefficients significantly and may bring remarkable discrepancies in the prediction of cutting forces.Firstly,the bull-nose cutter is regarded as a finite number of axial discs piled up along the tool axis,and the rigid cutting force model is exerted.Then through discretization along cutting edges,the cutting force related to each element is recalculated,which equals to differential force value between the current and previous elements.In addition,coefficient identification adopts the cubic polynomial fitting method with the slice elevation as its horizontal axis.By calculating relations of cutting speed and cutting depth,the influences of speed variations on cutting force can be derived.Thereby,several tests are conducted to calibrate the coefficients using the improved method,which are applied to later force predictions.Eventually,experimental evaluations are discussed to verify the effectiveness.Compared to the conventional method,the results are more accurate and show satisfactory consistency with the simulations.For further applications,the method is instructive to predict the cutting forces in bull-nose milling with lead or tilt angles and can be extended to the selection of cutting parameters.

  14. Carcass and meat quality in double-muscled Belgian Blue bulls and cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiems, L O; De Campeneere, S; Van Caelenbergh, W; De Boever, J L; Vanacker, J M

    2003-03-01

    Carcass and meat quality of 37 bulls and 91 cows of the Belgian Blue breed (double-muscled type) were compared. Age at slaughter averaged 648±73 and 1820±689 days, respectively. Both groups of cattle were finished on maize silage supplemented with concentrate, and were slaughtered at about 750 kg live weight. Females had a lower (P=0.004) cold carcass weight (469.7 kg) in comparison with bulls (500.8 kg), due to a reduced dressing percentage (63.8 vs. 66.6; P waterholding capacity (P⩽0.063) and was slightly more tender (P=0.120) than the LT of bulls. Increasing parity reduced dressing percentage and increased LT lightness (L*-value) in cows. Several carcass (SEUROP-grading, composition, LT-area) and meat quality traits (protein and fat contents, drip and cooking losses, a*-value) were better correlated with carcass weight than parity. It is concluded that meat quality of the aged LT of cows is not negatively affected by age, while some carcass quality traits decreased with advancing age. Carcass quality traits adjusted for age at slaughter were better for bulls, but LT meat quality characteristics were at least as good for females as for males.

  15. Neurosurgical considerations after bull goring during festivities in Spain and Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiotta, Alejandro M; Matoses, Salvador Martorell

    2011-08-01

    Bullfighting is a highly popular activity during festivities in Spain and Latin America. A scientific society for bullfight injuries, Congreso Internacional de Cirugía Taurina, was founded on November 24, 1974, in recognition of the distinctive pattern of injury that results from bull goring, and a subspecialty of general surgical trauma with emphasis on the acute surgical management of bull-goring injuries has emerged. Injuries to the head and neck are less frequent than genitourinary, inguinal, and abdominal injuries, but are more severe and more likely to result in death. This report reviews the primary venues in which bull goring and associated injuries occur, including the bullfight and the running of the bulls. The biomechanics of the primary and secondary goring injuries are reviewed, with an emphasis on those with the potential to result in neurosurgical injuries. This results in a very unique and devastating pattern of injury that combines penetrating and blunt mechanisms and results in polytrauma. Neurosurgical expertise should be immediately available on-site in the event of a life-threatening neurological injury.

  16. Comparison of organoleptic quality and composition of beef from suckler bulls from different production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezgebo, G B; Moloney, A P; O'Riordan, E G; McGee, M; Richardson, R I; Monahan, F J

    2017-03-01

    Bull beef production is traditionally based on high concentrate rations fed indoors. Inclusion of grazed grass, which is generally a cheaper feed, would decrease the cost of bull beef production, but may affect beef quality. Accordingly, the organoleptic quality and composition of beef from continental-sired suckler bulls (n=126) assigned to either ad libitum concentrates to slaughter (C), grass silage (GS) ad libitum for 120 days followed by C (GSC) or GS followed by 100 days at pasture and then C (GSPC) and slaughtered at target carcass weights (CW) of 360, 410 or 460 kg was examined. Tenderness, flavour liking and overall liking were lower (P<0.05) for GSPC than for C and GSC. Intramuscular fat content and soluble collagen proportion were lower (P<0.05) for GSPC than GSC which was lower (P<0.05) than C. Soluble collagen proportion was lower (P<0.05) for 460 kg than 410 kg CW, which was lower (P<0.05) than 360 kg CW. Inclusion of a grazing period decreased the ratings of tenderness, flavour liking and overall liking, but age of the bulls at slaughter had no clear influence on sensory characteristics.

  17. EFFECT OF ANTIBIOTICS IN EXTENDER ON FERTILITY OF LIQUID BUFFALO BULL SEMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. AKHTER, M. SAJJAD, S. M. H. ANDRABI1, N. ULLAH1 AND M. QAYYUM

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine if a new antibiotic combination comprising of gentamycin, tylosin and linco-spectin (GTLS in extender is suitable for improvement in fertility of liquid buffalo bull semen through artificial insemination (AI. Two consecutive ejaculates per week (4 weeks were collected from three Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls of known fertility by using artificial vagina. The pooled ejaculates were split-sampled and diluted with skimmed milk extender (37oC; 10x106 motile spermatozoa/ml containing either SP (streptomycin 1000 μg/ml and penicillin 1000 iu/ml or GTLS (gentamycin 500 μg/ml, tylosin 100 μg/ml, lincomycin 300 μg/ml, and spectinomycin 600 μg/ml. Liquid semen was stored at 5°C for seven days. Fertility, based on 90-days first service pregnancy rate, was determined under field conditions. The fertility rates for SP-based vs. GTLS-containing liquid semen of buffalo bull were 58.55 and 60.00%, respectively, the difference was non significant. The fertility rates also did not differ (P>0.05 due to antibiotics at different days of storage of liquid semen at 5oC. In conclusion, GTLS, in skimmed milk extender compared to SP, did not significantly improve the fertility of chilled buffalo bull semen.

  18. Relationship between sperm viability as determined by flow cytometry and nonreturn rate of dairy bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Preben; Boelling, Dorothee; Pedersen, Kurt Myrup; Korsgaard, Inge Riis; Jensen, Just

    2005-01-01

    A newly developed flow cytometric method for determination of sperm concentration and viability was tested in an insemination trial with cryopreserved bull sperm to establish the relationship between sperm viability and nonreturn rates. Semen for experimental inseminations was produced from 157 young sires (114 Holstein and 43 Jersey), each contributing 4 experimental semen collections. Straws containing approximately 15 x 10(6) motile sperm before freezing were used in 118,680 experimental inseminations performed by 254 artificial insemination technicians in 6352 Danish herds. Statistical analysis based on 44,946 experimental first inseminations showed that the major part (95.4%) of variation in the 56-day nonreturn rate (NRR56) was residual. Only 0.38% of the total variation in NRR56 was due to bulls and differences between ejaculate within bull. However, bulls were preselected, and a relatively high insemination dose was used. Correlations between sperm viability as assessed by flow cytometry and NRR56 was slightly lower than observed for microscopic assessment of sperm motility. However, flow cytometry makes it possible to achieve an objective and precise determination of sperm viability. It was therefore possible to calculate the effect on NRR56 provided selection of semen is based on the flow cytometric method. Three freezing extenders were used in this experiment, but a significant difference in NRR56 was not observed. Flow cytometric results for 1 extender (Biociphos Plus) indicated poorer sperm survival during postthaw incubation compared with Triladyl extender with whole and with clarified egg yolk.

  19. Schmallenberg virus detection in bovine semen after experimental infection of bulls.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, van der W.H.M.; Parlevliet, J.M.; Verstraten, E.R.A.M.; Kooi, E.A.; Hakze-van der Honing, van der R.W.; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N.

    2014-01-01

    To study Schmallenberg virus (SBV) excretion in bovine semen after experimental infection, two bulls were inoculated subcutaneously with a SBV isolate (1 ml Vero cell culture 106 TCID50). After inoculation (at day 0), semen was collected daily from both animals for 21 days and samples were tested fo

  20. The complete amino acid sequence of the basic nuclear protein of bull spermatozoa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coelingh, J.P.; Monfoort, Cornelis H.; Rozijn, Thomas H.; Gevers Leuven, Jan A.; Schiphof, R.; Steyn-Parvé, Elizabeth P.; Braunitzer, Gerhard; Schrank, Barbara; Ruhfus, Annette

    1972-01-01

    The complete amino acid sequence of the basic nuclear protein of bull spermatozoa has been established. The sequence was partially deduced by characterization of peptides isolated from thermolysine and chymotryptic digests of the reduced and S-aminoethylated protein. The complete sequence of the fir

  1. Relationship between temperament and transportation with rectal temperature and secretion of cortisol and epinephrine in bulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated whether temperament influences rectal temperature and the secretion of cortisol and epinephrine in response to transportation. Brahman bulls were selected based on temperament score (average of exit velocity, EV, and pen score, PS) measured 28 days prior to weaning with the 8...

  2. Body composition and deposition efficiency of protein and energy in grazing young bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriton Egidio Lisboa Valente

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of supplementation with different protein: carbohydrate ratios on body composition, carcass characteristics and protein and energy deposition efficiency of young were assessed. Twenty-four Nellorecalves (132.5 ± 5.5 kgand 90-150 days of age were kept on pasture for a 430 day experimental period. The treatments were: Control = mineral mixture only; HPHC = high-protein and high-carbohydrate supplement; HPLC = high-protein and low-carbohydrate supplement; LPHC = low-protein and high-carbohydrate supplement; LPLC = low-protein and low-carbohydrate supplement. Four animals at begning and 20 animal at end of experiment were slaughtered to evaluate the carcass composition. Control bulls had the lowest (p 0.05 between supplemented bulls (13 Mcal day-1. Although non-supplemented bulls had less (p 0.05 between supplemented bulls. High-carbohydrate supplements were associated with more (p 0.05 in the energy efficiency between the groups. Therefore, supplementation increases the intake and retention of protein and energy without changing the retention efficiency.

  3. Candidate causative mutation on BTA18 associated with calving and conformation traits in Holstein bulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Complementing quantitative methods with sequence data analysis is a major goal of the post-genome era of biology. In this study, we analyzed Illumina HiSeq sequence data derived from 11 US Holstein bulls in order to identify putative causal mutations associated with calving and conformation traits. ...

  4. Effects of pedigree and exotic genetic inheritance on semen production traits of dairy bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijetha Bajjalli Thippeswamy

    2014-03-01

    Conclusions: It may be inferred that the “acceptable quality semen producing ability” decreased from grandsire through sire to male progeny and among the increasing exotic genetic levels of CB cattle, F1 bulls produced significantly higher “low grade ejaculates” that were unfit for cryopreservation.

  5. Impact of nutritional programming on the growth, health, and sexual development of bull calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollwein, H; Janett, F; Kaske, M

    2016-07-01

    The growth, health, and reproductive performance of bull calves are important prerequisites for a successful cattle breeding program. Therefore, several attempts have been made to improve these parameters via nutritional programming. Although an increase in energy uptake during the postweaning period (7-8 mo of age) of the calves leads to a faster growing rate, it has no positive effects on sexual development. In contrast, a high-nutrition diet during the prepubertal period (8-20 wk of age) reduced the age at puberty of the bulls and increased the size and/or weight of the testis and the epididymal sperm reserves. This faster sexual development is associated with an increased transient LH peak, which seems to be mediated by an increase in serum IGF-I concentrations. However, the exact mechanisms responsible for the interaction between nutrition and the subsequent development of the calves are not clear. The sexual development of bull calves depends not only on the nutrition of the calves after birth but also on the feed intake of their mothers during pregnancy. In contrast to the effects of the feed intake of the bull calves, a high-nutrition diet fed to the mother during the first trimester has negative effects on the reproductive performance of their offspring. In conclusion, it has been clearly demonstrated that growth, health, and reproductive performance can be improved by nutritional programming, but further studies are necessary to obtain a better understanding about the mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon.

  6. Genomic analysis of the rainbow trout response to crowding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomic analyses have the potential to impact selective breeding programs by identifying markers as proxies for traits which are expensive or difficult to measure. One such set of traits is the physiological responses of rainbow trout to the stresses of the aquaculture environment. Typical stresso...

  7. Induction and viability of tetraploids in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) populations are threatened by introduction of invasive species, habitat loss, and habitat degradation in their native range; and are a problem invasive species in western Unites States and Canada, and in Europe. Stocking sterile triploids has been promoted as an ...

  8. Genetics of growth reaction norms in farmed rainbow trout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sae-Lim, P.; Mulder, H.A.; Gjerde, B.; Koskinen, H.; Lillehammer, M.; Kause, A.

    2015-01-01

    Rainbow trout is farmed globally under diverse uncontrollable environments. Fish with low macroenvironmental sensitivity (ES) of growth is important to thrive and grow under these uncontrollable environments. The ES may evolve as a correlated response to selection for growth in one environment when

  9. Marine Model Trout Farms: developments in marine RAS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

    2011-01-01

    . This development and demonstration unit in commercial scale will during the next four years hopefully provide scientific and practical basis and support for further development in coming generations of Marine Model Trout Farms for large salmonids. The unit consist in the recirculation loop of one large fish tank...

  10. Vertebral column deformities in farmed rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lone; Dalsgaard, Inger

    1999-01-01

    of deformities (4.8%). In all groups examined, the deformities were spread over the whole vertebral column. The deformities in the group fed the low vitamin C diet were more severe than those found in the other groups. An outbreak of the disease rainbow trout fry syndrome (RTFS) caused by the bacterium...

  11. Induction of peroxisome proliferation in rainbow trout exposed to ciprofibrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J H; Kostecki, P T; Calabrese, E J; Baldwin, L A

    1990-07-01

    Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), average body weight of 450 g, were treated with 15, 25, or 35 mg/kg of ciprofibrate via intraperitoneal injection every other day for 2 to 3 weeks. The effects on hepatic peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase, polypeptide PPA-80, catalase, and liver weight were measured. The treatment of trout with ciprofibrate showed significant dose-related increases in peroxisomal acyl-CoA activity, polypeptide PPA-80, and catalase after 3 weeks of exposure. Peroxisomal oxidase activity showed a significant (p = 0.0008) increase (78%) at 35 mg/kg and a marginal (p = 0.1) increase (27%) at 25 mg/kg after 3 weeks of exposure. Densitometric analysis of polypeptide PPA-80 and catalase showed increases up to 48 and 236% at 35 mg/kg, respectively. Morphometric analysis on livers of trout administered 35 mg/kg for 3 weeks showed a 2.3-fold increase of peroxisomal volume density, as compared to control. This study demonstrates the induction of peroxisome proliferation in rainbow trout administered ciprofibrate, a known peroxisome proliferator in rodents.

  12. ERM booster vaccination of Rainbow trout using diluted bacterin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jacob Günther; Henriksen, Niels H.; Buchmann, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Enteric Red Mouth Disease ERM caused by Yersinia ruckeri infection is associated with morbidity and mortality in salmonid farming but immersion vaccination of fry may confer some protection for a number of months. Revaccination of rainbow trout, even by use of diluted ERM immersion vaccine, can u...

  13. Lake Michigan lake trout PCB model forecast post audit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scenario forecasts for total PCBs in Lake Michigan (LM) lake trout were conducted using the linked LM2-Toxics and LM Food Chain models, supported by a suite of additional LM models. Efforts were conducted under the Lake Michigan Mass Balance Study and the post audit represents th...

  14. Estrogenic response of bisphenol A in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Christian; Pedersen, Knud Ladegaard; Pedersen, Søren Nørby

    2000-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) previously shown to possess xenoestrogenic activities was administered to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) through a continuos flow system. The estrogenic response expressed as the induction of vitellogenin (VTG) synthesis was measured during 12 days of exposure, using a direct...

  15. Chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Dorman, Rebecca A.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Kunz, James L.; Hardesty, Douglas K.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was evaluated in water-only exposures started with newly hatched larvae or approximately 1-mo-old juveniles. The 20% effect concentration (EC20) for cadmium from the sturgeon tests was higher than the EC20 from the trout tests, whereas the EC20 for copper, lead, or zinc for the sturgeon were lower than those EC20s for the trout. When the EC20s from the present study were included in compiled toxicity databases for all freshwater species, species mean chronic value for white sturgeon was in a relatively low percentile of the species sensitivity distribution for copper (9th percentile) and in the middle percentile for cadmium (55th percentile), zinc (40th percentile), or lead (50th percentile). However, the species mean chronic value for rainbow trout was in a high percentile for copper, lead, and zinc (∼68th–82nd percentile), but in a low percentile for cadmium (23rd percentile). The trout EC20s for each of the 4 metals and the sturgeon EC20s for cadmium or lead were above US Environmental Protection Agency chronic ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) or Washington State chronic water quality standards (WQS), whereas the sturgeon EC20s for copper or zinc were approximately equal to or below the chronic AWQC and WQS. In addition, acute 50% effect concentrations (EC50s) for copper obtained in the first 4 d of the chronic sturgeon test were below the final acute value used to derive acute AWQC and below acute WQS for copper.

  16. Chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Dorman, Rebecca A; Brumbaugh, William G; Mebane, Christopher A; Kunz, James L; Hardesty, Doug K

    2014-10-01

    Chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was evaluated in water-only exposures started with newly hatched larvae or approximately 1-mo-old juveniles. The 20% effect concentration (EC20) for cadmium from the sturgeon tests was higher than the EC20 from the trout tests, whereas the EC20 for copper, lead, or zinc for the sturgeon were lower than those EC20s for the trout. When the EC20s from the present study were included in compiled toxicity databases for all freshwater species, species mean chronic value for white sturgeon was in a relatively low percentile of the species sensitivity distribution for copper (9th percentile) and in the middle percentile for cadmium (55th percentile), zinc (40th percentile), or lead (50th percentile). However, the species mean chronic value for rainbow trout was in a high percentile for copper, lead, and zinc (∼68th-82nd percentile), but in a low percentile for cadmium (23rd percentile). The trout EC20s for each of the 4 metals and the sturgeon EC20s for cadmium or lead were above US Environmental Protection Agency chronic ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) or Washington State chronic water quality standards (WQS), whereas the sturgeon EC20s for copper or zinc were approximately equal to or below the chronic AWQC and WQS. In addition, acute 50% effect concentrations (EC50s) for copper obtained in the first 4 d of the chronic sturgeon test were below the final acute value used to derive acute AWQC and below acute WQS for copper.

  17. Effects of fluctuating flows and a controlled flood on incubation success and early survival rates and growth of age-0 rainbow trout in a large regulated river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korman, Josh; Kaplinski, Matthew; Melis, Theodore S.

    2011-01-01

    Hourly fluctuations in flow from Glen Canyon Dam were increased in an attempt to limit the population of nonnative rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in the Colorado River, Arizona, due to concerns about negative effects of nonnative trout on endangered native fishes. Controlled floods have also been conducted to enhance native fish habitat. We estimated that rainbow trout incubation mortality rates resulting from greater fluctuations in flow were 23-49% (2003 and 2004) compared with 5-11% under normal flow fluctuations (2006-2010). Effects of this mortality were apparent in redd excavations but were not seen in hatch date distributions or in the abundance of the age-0 population. Multiple lines of evidence indicated that a controlled flood in March 2008, which was intended to enhance native fish habitat, resulted in a large increase in early survival rates of age-0 rainbow trout. Age-0 abundance in July 2008 was over fourfold higher than expected given the number of viable eggs that produced these fish. A hatch date analysis indicated that early survival rates were much higher for cohorts that hatched about 1 month after the controlled flood (~April 15) relative to those that hatched before this date. The cohorts that were fertilized after the flood were not exposed to high flows and emerged into better-quality habitat with elevated food availability. Interannual differences in age-0 rainbow trout growth based on otolith microstructure supported this hypothesis. It is likely that strong compensation in survival rates shortly after emergence mitigated the impact of incubation losses caused by increases in flow fluctuations. Control of nonnative fish populations will be most effective when additional mortality is applied to older life stages after the majority of density-dependent mortality has occurred. Our study highlights the need to rigorously assess instream flow decisions through the evaluation of population-level responses.

  18. MARCH5 gene is duplicated in rainbow trout, but only fish-specific gene copy is up-regulated after VHSV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebl, Alexander; Köbis, Judith M; Fischer, Uwe; Takizawa, Fumio; Verleih, Marieke; Wimmers, Klaus; Goldammer, Tom

    2011-12-01

    Ubiquitination regulates the activity, stability, and localization of a wide variety of proteins. Several mammalian MARCH ubiquitin E3 ligase proteins have been suggested to control cell surface immunoreceptors. The mitochondrial protein MARCH5 is a positive regulator of Toll-like receptor 7-mediated NF-κB activation in mammals. In the present study, duplicated MARCH5-like cDNA sequences were isolated from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) comprising open reading frames of 882 bp (MARCH5A) and 885 bp (MARCH5B), respectively. Trout MARCH5A and MARCH5B-encoding sequences share only 65% sequence identity. Phylogenetic analyses including an additionally isolated MARCH5-like sequence from whitefish (Coregonus maraena) suggest that teleosts possess an additional MARCH5 gene copy resulting from a fish-specific whole genome duplication. Coding sequences of MARCH5A and MARCH5B genes from trout are distributed over six exons. Hypothetical MARCH5 proteins from trout comprise four transmembrane helices and a single motif similar to a RING variant domain (RINGv) including eight highly conserved cysteine and histidine residues. A 'reverse-northern blot' analysis revealed furthermore a MARCH5B Δexon5 transcript variant. Both MARCH5 genes from trout show a strain-, tissue- and cell-specific expression profile indicating different functional roles. Fish-specific MARCH5A gene for instance might be involved in defense mechanisms, since in vivo-challenge with the viral pathogen VHSV caused a significant 1.7-fold elevated copy number of the respective gene in gills four days after infection, whereas MARCH5B transcript level did not increase.

  19. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide induces apoptosis in the trout ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasnov Aleksei

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In mammals it is well known that infections can lead to alterations in reproductive function. As part of the innate immune response, a number of cytokines and other immune factors is produced during bacterial infection or after treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS and acts on the reproductive system. In fish, LPS can also induce an innate immune response but little is known about the activation of the immune system by LPS on reproduction in fish. Therefore, we conducted studies to examine the in vivo and in vitro effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS on the reproductive function of sexually mature female trout. Methods In saline- and LPS -injected brook trout, we measured the concentration of plasma steroids as well as the in vitro steroidogenic response (testosterone and 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone of ovarian follicles to luteinizing hormone (LH, the ability of 17alpha,20beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one to induce germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD in vitro, and that of epinephrine to stimulate follicular contraction in vitro. We also examined the direct effects of LPS in vitro on steroid production, GVBD and contraction in brook trout ovarian follicles. The incidence of apoptosis was evaluated by TUNEL analysis. Furthermore, we examined the gene expression pattern in the ovary of saline- and LPS-injected rainbow trout by microarray analysis. Results LPS treatment in vivo did not affect plasma testosterone concentration or the basal in vitro production of steroids, although a small but significant potentiation of the effects of LH on testosterone production in vitro was observed in ovarian follicles from LPS-treated fish. In addition, LPS increased the plasma concentration of cortisol. LPS treatment in vitro did not affect the basal or LH-stimulated steroid production in brook trout ovarian follicles. In addition, we did not observe any effects of LPS in vivo or in vitro on GVBD or follicular contraction. Therefore, LPS did not

  20. Effects of fescue toxicosis on bull growth, semen characteristics, and breeding soundness evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowe, H M; Miller, M; Burns, M G; Calcatera, S M; Andrae, J G; Aiken, G E; Schrick, F N; Cushing, T; Bridges, W C; Pratt, S L

    2013-08-01

    Tall fescue possesses heat, drought, and pest resistance conferred to the plant by its mutualistic relationship with the ergot alkaloid producing fungal endophyte, Neotyphodium coenophialum. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of ergot alkaloid consumption on growth, scrotal circumference (SC), and semen quality. The SC measurement and percentage of motile and normal sperm were used to determine if a bull passed the breeding soundness exam (BSE) requirements. Bulls (n = 14) between 13 and 16 mo of age exhibiting ≥32 cm SC and having passed a BSE were assigned to 1 of 2 dietary treatments accounting for BCS and BW. Bulls were fed the treatment diet containing toxic tall fescue seed (E+; 0.8 μg of ergovaline and ergovalanine/g DM) or the control diet containing endophyte-free nontoxic tall fescue seed (E-) for 126 d. Blood samples were collected and BSE and BCS accessed at the start of the test (d 0) and every 21 d to the end of test (d 126). Weights were obtained on d 0 and d 126. Serum prolactin (PRL) concentrations were affected by treatment × day interactions (P = 0.04) verifying the effectiveness of the E+ diet. Bulls consuming the E+ diet exhibited declining PRL concentrations from 250 ± 52.1 ng/mL on d 0 to 30.6 ± 46.9 ng/mL by d 126 whereas bulls receiving the E- ration maintained serum PRL concentrations greater than or equal to 226.7 ± 50.4 ng/mL across the 126-d study. Body condition score (P = 0.4) and BW (P = 0.4) were not different between treatments. No difference due to treatment was observed for the percentage of bulls passing a standard BSE exam (P = 0.6) and no treatment effect was observed for any semen characteristic measured by computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA; P ≥ 0.2). The SC was negatively affected by treatment × day interaction (P = 0.04) with E- bulls exhibiting a larger SC at d 126 compared with E+ bulls of 36.7 ± 0.8 versus 34.3 ± 0.8 cm, respectively. Within treatment, E+ bulls exhibited a decrease in

  1. Effect of Red Bull energy drink on repeated Wingate cycle performance and bench-press muscle endurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Scott C; Candow, Darren G; Little, Jonathan P; Magnus, Charlene; Chilibeck, Philip D

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of Red Bull energy drink on Wingate cycle performance and muscle endurance. Healthy young adults (N = 15, 11 men, 4 women, 21 +/- 5 y old) participated in a crossover study in which they were randomized to supplement with Red Bull (2 mg/kg body mass of caffeine) or isoenergetic, isovolumetric, noncaffeinated placebo, separated by 7 d. Muscle endurance (bench press) was assessed by the maximum number of repetitions over 3 sets (separated by 1-min rest intervals) at an intensity corresponding to 70% of baseline 1-repetition maximum. Three 30-s Wingate cycling tests (load = 0.075 kp/kg body mass), with 2 min recovery between tests, were used to assess peak and average power output. Red Bull energy drink significantly increased total bench-press repetitions over 3 sets (Red Bull = 34 +/- 9 vs. placebo = 32 +/- 8, P %%%lt; 0.05) but had no effect on Wingate peak or average power (Red Bull = 701 +/- 124 W vs. placebo = 700 +/- 132 W, Red Bull = 479 +/- 74 W vs. placebo = 471 +/- 74 W, respectively). Red Bull energy drink significantly increased upper body muscle endurance but had no effect on anaerobic peak or average power during repeated Wingate cycling tests in young healthy adults.

  2. Breeding soundness evaluations of 3,648 yearling beef bulls using the 1993 Society for Theriogenology guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, S P; Spitzer, J C; Hopkins, F M; Higdon, H L; Bridges, W C

    2002-09-01

    Our objective was to perform a retrospective analysis of breeding soundness evaluations (BSEs) as classified by the 1993 Society for Theriogenology (SFT) guidelines [Chenoweth et al., Guidelines for using the bull breeding soundness evaluation form, in: Theriogenology Handbook, 1993, pp. B-10]. Data included BSE information obtained from five performance-testing stations in South Carolina (SC1, SC2, SC3) and Tennessee (TN1, TN2) from 1986 through 1999 on 3648 Angus, Brangus, Charolais, Chianina, Gelbvieh, Limousin, Polled Hereford, Santa Gertrudis, Simbrah, and Simmental bulls. Analyses were simplified by classifying all bulls as either satisfactory or unsatisfactory potential breeders. Of the 3648 bulls evaluated, 76.2% were classified as satisfactory potential breeders. Of all bulls evaluated, 4.0% were unsatisfactory due to inadequate spermatozoal motility, 7.0% due to inadequate spermatozoal morphology and 2.6% due to a combination of inadequate motility and morphology. Unsatisfactory classifications due to non-spermatozoal parameters out of all bulls were 10.2%, with 7.1% for inadequate scrotal circumference and 3.1% for physical abnormalities. For satisfactory and unsatisfactory bulls, respectively, means and standard deviations were 35.8 +/- 2.7 and 33.0 +/- 4.1 cm (P < 0.001) for scrotal circumference, 63 +/- 18 and 35 +/- 24% (P < 0.001) for percent motility, and 86 +/- 7 and 63 +/- 21% (P < 0.001) for percent normal morphology.

  3. Effects of Basella alba and Hibiscus macranthus extracts on testosterone production of adult rat and bull Leydig cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paul F. Moundipa; Nathalie Sara E. Beboy; Fabien Zelefack; Silvère Ngouela; Etienne Tsamo; Wolf-Bernhard Schill; Thomas K. Monsees

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To determine the androgenic effects of Basella alba and Hibiscus macranthus extracts in the rat and the bull,and to develop a novel in vitro test system using Leydig cells from bull testes. Methods: The effect of methanol extracts from both plants on testosterone production in isolated Leydig cells from the rat and the bull was analyzed using 125I-radioimmunoassay (125I-RIA). Rat Leydig cells were obtained by common methods, whereas a novel technique was used to purify Leydig cells from bull testes. Results: Bull testes from the slaughter house were a cheap source of pure Leydig cells. In culture, these cells produced testosterone for 5-6 days, which can be stimulated by human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG). Basella alba extracts significantly enhanced testosterone production in bull and rat Leydig cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Hibiscus macranthus showed no androgenic effect but was shown to inhibit testosterone production at higher concentrations. Conclusion: Leydig cells purified from bull testes can be used as an alternative tool in experimental animal research. Certain fractions of Basella alba extract demonstrated androgenic potential whereas Hibiscus macranthus extracts did not.

  4. Growth and muscle development characteristics of purebred Angus and Brahman bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, M B; West, R L; Hentges, J F

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-eight purebred bulls (10 to 17 mo of age) were used to determine the effects of breed (Angus or Brahman) and slaughter weight (60, 80, 90 or 100% of the average mature dam's weight for the respective breed) on growth and muscle development characteristics. Angus bulls grazed summer forage after weaning whereas Brahman bulls were fed to simulate gains achieved on forage by Angus. Bulls were then placed in a confinement feedlot for finishing to their appropriate slaughter weight (293, 369, 411, and 469 kg for Angus and 307, 427, 464 and 520 kg for Brahman). No major differences due to breed were found for predicted carcass composition. The LD muscle from Brahman bulls contained more total DNA (2.27 v. 1.19 g), more total protein (768.22 v. 593.59 g) and generally less total lipid (70.56 v. 101.26 g) when expressed on a total muscle (wet tissue) basis. The percentages and areas for all three muscle fiber types were not affected by breed. As carcass weight increased, muscle weights, total protein, lipid, protein:DNA and muscle fiber size for the three fiber types increased. Total DNA content increased only up to the 90% weight group and then leveled off. The percentage of alpha R fibers decreased while the percentage of alpha W fibers increased with increasing carcass weight. These data suggest that slaughtering animals based on a percentage of their dam's mature weight seems to be a practical method for making comparisons of animals on an equivalent compositional basis. Moreover, it appears that histochemical and biochemical evaluations of skeletal muscle can successfully identify what point in the growth cycle an animal is in.

  5. A comparison of spatial and movement patterns between sympatric predators: bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas and Atlantic tarpon (Megalops atlanticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Hammerschlag

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Predators can impact ecosystems through trophic cascades such that differential patterns in habitat use can lead to spatiotemporal variation in top down forcing on community dynamics. Thus, improved understanding of predator movements is important for evaluating the potential ecosystem effects of their declines. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We satellite-tagged an apex predator (bull sharks, Carcharhinus leucas and a sympatric mesopredator (Atlantic tarpon, Megalops atlanticus in southern Florida waters to describe their habitat use, abundance and movement patterns. We asked four questions: (1 How do the seasonal abundance patterns of bull sharks and tarpon compare? (2 How do the movement patterns of bull sharks and tarpon compare, and what proportion of time do their respective primary ranges overlap? (3 Do tarpon movement patterns (e.g., straight versus convoluted paths and/or their rates of movement (ROM differ in areas of low versus high bull shark abundance? and (4 Can any general conclusions be reached concerning whether tarpon may mitigate risk of predation by sharks when they are in areas of high bull shark abundance? CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite similarities in diet, bull sharks and tarpon showed little overlap in habitat use. Bull shark abundance was high year-round, but peaked in winter; while tarpon abundance and fishery catches were highest in late spring. However, presence of the largest sharks (>230 cm coincided with peak tarpon abundance. When moving over deep open waters (areas of high shark abundance and high food availability tarpon maintained relatively high ROM in directed lines until reaching shallow structurally-complex areas. At such locations, tarpon exhibited slow tortuous movements over relatively long time periods indicative of foraging. Tarpon periodically concentrated up rivers, where tracked bull sharks were absent. We propose that tarpon trade-off energetic costs of both food assimilation and

  6. Estimating the long-term effects of stocking domesticated trout into wild brown trout ( Salmo trutta ) populations : an approach using microsatellite DNA analysis of historical and contemporary samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller

    2002-01-01

    . The study was based on analysis of two historical samples (194556), represented by old scale collections, and seven contemporary samples (1986-2000). In one population historical and contemporary samples were remarkably genetically similar despite more than a decade of intense stocking. Estimation...... equal survival and reproductive performance of wild and domesticated trout. This demonstrates poor performance and low fitness of domesticated trout in the wild. In another population there was a strong genetic contribution from domesticated trout (between 57% and 88% in different samples), both...... in samples from a broodstock thought to represent the indigenous population and in a sample of wild spawners. Survival of domesticated trout and admixture with indigenous fish in the broodstock and subsequent stocking into the river, combined with a low population size of native trout relative to the number...

  7. Evaluation of Optimum Dietary Threonine Requirement by Plasma Free Threonine and Ammonia Concentrations in Surgically Modified Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, Hyeonho; Park, Gunjun; Ok, Imho; Katya, Kumar; Heung, Silas; Sungchul C. Bai

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the dietary threonine requirement by measuring the plasma free threonine and ammonia concentrations in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss after dorsal aorta cannulation. A total of 70 fish (average initial weight 506±8.2 g) were randomly distributed into each of the 14 net cages (5 fish/cage). After 48 hours (h) of feed deprivation, each group was intubated at 1% body weight with one of the seven L-amino acid based diets containing graded levels of threo...

  8. A comparison of oxolinic acid concentrations in farmed and laboratory held rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) following oral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coyne, R.; Samuelsen, O.; Kongshaug, H.;

    2004-01-01

    laboratory held rainbow trout (O. mykiss) following the administration of OXA under similar conditions of salinity, temperature and dosing regimen. In these laboratory held fish, the mean plasma OXA concentration was 0.133±0.068 mg/l. The major difference between the distributions of OXA concentrations...... in the farm and laboratory populations was in the extent of fish to fish variation observed. In the healthy farmed fish, the percentage coefficient of variation (%CV) was 97% compared to a %CV of 51% in the laboratory held fish. The patterns of the daily mortality in the farmed population were analysed from...

  9. Thermal onset of cellular and endocrine stress responses correspond to ecological limits in brook trout, an iconic cold-water fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Joseph G; Nislow, Kieth H; McCormick, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is predicted to change the distribution and abundance of species, yet underlying physiological mechanisms are complex and methods for detecting populations at risk from rising temperature are poorly developed. There is increasing interest in using physiological mediators of the stress response as indicators of individual and population-level response to environmental stressors. Here, we use laboratory experiments to show that the temperature thresholds in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) for increased gill heat shock protein-70 (20.7°C) and plasma glucose (21.2°C) are similar to their proposed thermal ecological limit of 21.0°C. Field assays demonstrated increased plasma glucose, cortisol and heat shock protein-70 concentrations at field sites where mean daily temperature exceeded 21.0°C. Furthermore, population densities of brook trout were lowest at field sites where temperatures were warm enough to induce a stress response, and a co-occurring species with a higher thermal tolerance showed no evidence of physiological stress at a warm site. The congruence of stress responses and proposed thermal limits supports the use of these thresholds in models of changes in trout distribution under climate change scenarios and suggests that the induction of the stress response by elevated temperature may play a key role in driving the distribution of species.

  10. Potential population and assemblage influences of non-native trout on native nongame fish in Nebraska headwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turek, Kelly C.; Pegg, Mark A.; Pope, Kevin L.; Schainost, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Non-native trout are currently stocked to support recreational fisheries in headwater streams throughout Nebraska. The influence of non-native trout introductions on native fish populations and their role in structuring fish assemblages in these systems is unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine (i) if the size structure or relative abundance of native fish differs in the presence and absence of non-native trout, (ii) if native fish-assemblage structure differs in the presence and absence of non-native trout and (iii) if native fish-assemblage structure differs across a gradient in abundances of non-native trout. Longnose dace Rhinichthys cataractae were larger in the presence of brown trout Salmo trutta and smaller in the presence of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss compared to sites without trout. There was also a greater proportion of larger white suckers Catostomus commersonii in the presence of brown trout. Creek chub Semotilus atromaculatus and fathead minnow Pimephales promelas size structures were similar in the presence and absence of trout. Relative abundances of longnose dace, white sucker, creek chub and fathead minnow were similar in the presence and absence of trout, but there was greater distinction in native fish-assemblage structure between sites with trout compared to sites without trout as trout abundances increased. These results suggest increased risk to native fish assemblages in sites with high abundances of trout. However, more research is needed to determine the role of non-native trout in structuring native fish assemblages in streams, and the mechanisms through which introduced trout may influence native fish populations.

  11. First evidence of successful natural reproduction by planted lake trout in Lake Huron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nester, Robert T.; Poe, Thomas P.

    1984-01-01

    Twenty-two lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) swim-up fry, 24-27 mm long, were captured with emergent fry traps and a tow net in northwestern Lake Huron on a small nearshore reef off Alpena, Michigan, between May 10 and June 1, 1982. These catches represent the first evidence of successful production of swim-up fry by planted, hatchery-reared lake trout in Lake Huron since the lake trout rehabilitation program began in 1973.

  12. EFFECT OF BULL AND SPERM PREPARATION METHOD ON IN VITRO FERTILIZATION OF BUFFALO OOCYTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. JAMIL, H. A. SAMAD, Z. I. QURESHI, N. REHMAN AND L. A. LODHI

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to compare fertilization rates following oocyte exposure to spermatozoa from different buffalo bulls, using three sperm preparation methods i.e. percoll density gradient, swim-up (modified Ca2 free Tyrode’s medium and TALP medium and sodium citrate washing prior to co-incubation with oocytes. Buffalo oocytes were aspirated from ovarian follicles within 1.5 to 2 hours after slaughter. They were matured in TCM-199 supplemented with 20% oestrus buffalo serum drops under mineral oil in CO2 incubator at 39C for 24 hours. Matured oocytes were transferred to the fertilization droplets and inseminated with 1x106 capacitated sperms prepared by different experimental methods. Data collected on recovered sperm motility immediately after treatment and 24 hours after incubation (at 37C and cleavage rate of co-incubated oocytes were subjected to statistical analysis. The percentage of motile spermatozoa was significantly higher (P<0.05 in semen samples prepared by swim-up method in Ca2 free Tyrode’s medium compared to other experimental techniques. Bull wise comparison showed significantly higher (P<0.05 motility in bull B1 (50.50 ± 5.92%, followed by bull B2 (46.46 ± 5.99% and B3 (45.96 ± 5.79%. Fertilization rate was also significantly (P<0.05 higher for spermatozoa prepared by Swim-up method in Ca2 free Tyrode’s medium (63.75 ± 2.81%, followed by sodium citrate (26.70 ± 5.08%, swim-up TALP (29.14 ± 3.74% and Percoll gradient density (23.89 ± 3.88%. Fertilization rate was significantly higher (P<0.05 in oocytes inseminated with semen from bull B1 (43.43 ± 8.59%, followed by B2 (33.38 ± 9.95% and B3 (30.80 ± 9.56%. The results of present study indicate that bulls and sperm preparation methods differ in their contribution to in vitro fertilization rate. Further studies are suggested to ascertain the factors responsible for such specific effects.

  13. Carcass and meat quality characteristics of Brahman cross bulls and steers finished on tropical pastures in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Julio; Unruh, John; Villarreal, Milton; Murillo, Olger; Rojas, Sailim; Camacho, Jorge; Jaeger, John; Reinhardt, Chris

    2014-03-01

    Forty-eight male calves (3/4 Brahman×1/4 Charolais) were used to determine carcass cutability and meat tenderness of Longissimus lumborum (LL), Gluteus medius (GM), Semitendinosus (ST) and Psoas major (PM) steaks from lighter weight carcasses of bulls and steers castrated at 3, 7, or 12 mo of age grown under tropical pasture conditions. Steaks from steers had lower (more tender) LL Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values than those from bulls. Steaks from steers castrated at 3 mo had lower GM WBSF than those from bulls. For PM steaks, those aged 28 d had lower WBSF than those aged 2d. Steaks aged 28 d had the lowest LL and GM WBSF and steaks aged 2d had the highest LL, GM, and ST WBSF. Castration at younger ages is recommended because it provides improvement in LL and GM tenderness over bulls with no differences in carcass traits or subprimal yields.

  14. Quantifying resource use and diet overlap between non-native cutthroat trout hybrids and arctic grayling, Red Rock Lakes NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Status and final report on the study to quantify resource use overlap between Yellowstone cutthroat trout, rainbow trout, and Arctic grayling found on Red Rock Lakes...

  15. Determination of astaxanthin stereoisomers and colour attributes in flesh of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) as a tool to distinguish the dietary pigmentation source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, V M; Mentasti, T; Bellagamba, F; Luzzana, U; Caprino, F; Turchini, G M; Giani, I; Valfrè, F

    2006-11-01

    The presence of carotenoids in animal tissue reflects their sources along the food chain. Astaxanthin, the main carotenoid used for salmonid pigmentation, is usually included in the feed as a synthetic product. However, other dietary sources of astaxanthin such as shrimp or krill wastes, algae meal or yeasts are also available on the market. Astaxanthin possesses two identical asymmetric atoms at C-3 and C-3' making possible three optical isomers with all-trans configuration of the chain: 3S,3'S, 3R,3'S, and 3R,3'R. The distribution of the isomers in natural astaxanthin differs from that of the synthetic product. This latter is a racemic mixture, with a typical ratio of 1:2:1 (3S,3'S:3R,3'S:3R,3'R), while astaxanthin from natural sources has a variable distribution of the isomers deriving from the different biological organism that synthesized it. The high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis of all-trans isomers of astaxanthin was performed in different pigment sources, such as red yeast Phaffia rhodozyma, alga meal Haematococcus pluvialis, krill meal and oil, and shrimp meal. With the aim to investigate astaxanthin isomer ratios in flesh of fish fed different carotenoid sources, three groups of rainbow trout were fed for 60 days diets containing astaxanthin from synthetic source, H. pluvialis algae meal and P. rhodozyma red yeast. Moreover, the distribution of optical isomers of astaxanthin in trout purchased on the Italian market was investigated. A characteristic distribution of astaxanthin stereoisomers was detected for each pigment sources and such distribution was reproduced in the flesh of trout fed with that source. Colour values measured in different sites of fillet of rainbow trout fed with different pigment sources showed no significant differences. Similarly, different sources of pigment (natural or synthetic) produced colour values of fresh fillet with no relevant or significant differences. The coefficient of distance computed amongst

  16. Wild Estonian and Russian sea trout (Salmo trutta) in Finnish coastal sea trout catches: results of genetic mixed-stock analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koljonen, Marja-Liisa; Gross, Riho; Koskiniemi, Jarmo

    2014-12-01

    For responsible fisheries management of threatened species, it is essential to know the composition of catches and the extent to which fisheries exploit weak wild populations. The threatened Estonian, Finnish and Russian sea trout populations in the Gulf of Finland are targets of mixed-stock fisheries. The fish may originate from rivers with varying production capacities, from different countries, and they may also have either a wild or hatchery origin. In order to resolve the composition of Finnish coastal sea trout catches, we created a standardized baseline dataset of 15 DNA microsatellite loci for 59 sea trout populations around the Gulf of Finland and tested its resolution for mixed-stock analysis of 1372 captured fish. The baseline dataset provided sufficient resolution for reliable mixture analysis at regional group level, and also for most of the individual rivers stocks. The majority (76-80%) of the total catch originated from Finnish sea trout populations, 6-9% came from Russian and 12-15% from Estonian populations. Nearly all Finnish trout in the catch were of hatchery origin, while the Russian and Estonian trout were mostly of wild origin. The proportion of fish in the Finnish catches that originated from rivers with natural production was at least one fifth (22%, 19-23%). Two different spotting patterns were observed among the captured trout, with a small and sparsely spotted form being markedly more common among individuals of Russian (28%) and Estonian origin (22%) than among fish assigned to a Finnish origin (0.7%).

  17. Testing experimental subunit furunculosis vaccines for rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marana, Moonika H.; Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Skov, Jakob;

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida (AS) is the etiological agent of typical furunculosis in salmonid fish. The disease causes bacterial septicemia and is a major fish health problem in salmonid aquaculture worldwide, inducing high morbidity and mortality. In this study we vaccinated rainbow...... trout with subunit vaccines containing protein antigens that were selected based on an in silico antigen discovery approach. Thus, the proteome of AS strain A449 was analyzed by an antigen discovery platform and its proteins consequently ranked by their predicted ability to evoke protective immune...... response against AS. Fourteen proteins were prepared in 3 different experimental subunit vaccine combinations and used to vaccinate rainbow trout by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. We tested the proteins for their ability to elicit antibody production and protection. Thus, fish were exposed to virulent...

  18. The uses of infrared thermography to evaluate the effects of climatic variables in bull's reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegassi, Silvio Renato Oliveira; Pereira, Gabriel Ribas; Dias, Eduardo Antunes; Koetz, Celso; Lopes, Flávio Guiselli; Bremm, Carolina; Pimentel, Concepta; Lopes, Rubia Branco; da Rocha, Marcela Kuczynski; Carvalho, Helena Robattini; Barcellos, Júlio Otavio Jardim

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the seasonal effects of the environment on sperm quality in subtropical region determined by temperature and humidity index (THI). We used 20 Brangus bulls (5/8 Angus × 3/8 Nellore) aged approximately 24 months at the beginning of the study. Semen evaluations were performed twice per season during 1 year. Climate THI data were collected from an automatic weather station from the National Institute of Meteorology. Infrared thermography images were used to determine the temperature of the proximal and distal poles of the testis to assess the testicular temperature gradient (TG). The seasonal effects on seminal and climatic variables were analyzed with ANOVA using MIXED procedure of SAS. Sperm motility in spring (60.1 %), summer (57.6 %), and autumn (64.5 %) showed difference compared to winter (73.0 %; P bulls.

  19. 互联网时代Red bull(中国)的竞争战略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛金鑫; 葛富强

    2016-01-01

    互联网的快速发展,极大改变了年轻人的生活方式,传统企业的运营模式亟待改革.以Red bull(中国)为例,通过综合评估红牛公司在中国互联网环境下所面临的威胁和机遇,分析出Red Bull(中国)的互联网战略方向.可以总结为三点:用互联网思维推进品牌建设的品牌战略;用品牌理念推进企业平台化的平台战略;以及在平台化的基础上推进商业生态圈建设的商业生态圈战略.

  20. Acute renal failure following Bull ant mass envenomation in two dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, L A; Hinkley, C J; Tatarczuch, L; Holloway, S A

    2004-01-01

    Acute renal failure was diagnosed in a German Short Haired Pointer bitch and a Kelpie cross-bred dog following envenomation by Bull ants. Both dogs had been tethered over a Bull ant nest and had experienced mass envenomation. There was local reaction at the envenomation sites and each dog had experienced vomiting that was poorly controlled by symptomatic therapy. Intensive treatment of renal failure was successful in the German Short Haired Pointer and the bitch remains well 19 months after envenomation. The Kelpie cross-bred deteriorated despite intensive treatment and was euthanased 36 hours after presentation. Necropsy examination revealed haemorrhage and necrosis of the small intestine and myocardium, bilateral nephrosis with tubular necrosis, and patchy haemorrhage of the lung alveoli, pancreas and adrenal cortices. Electron microscopy revealed necrosis of the small intestine and hydropic swelling of proximal renal tubules with necrosis of medullary tubules.

  1. Who does Red Bull give wings to? Sensation seeking moderates sensitivity to subliminal advertisement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëlle Marie Bustin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed whether subliminal priming of a brand name of a drink can affect people’s choices for the primed brand, and whether this effect is moderated by personality traits. Participants with different levels of sensation seeking were presented subliminally with the words Red Bull or Lde Ublr. Results revealed that being exposed to Red Bull lead on average to small increases in participants’ preferences for the primed brand. However, this effect was twice as strong for participants high in sensation seeking and did not occur for participants low in sensation seeking. Going beyond previous research showing that situational factors (e.g., thirst, fatigue… can increase people’s sensitivity to subliminal advertisement, our results suggest that some dispositional factors could have the same potentiating effect. These findings highlight the necessity of taking personality into account in non-conscious persuasion research.

  2. Genetic parameters and alternatives for evaluation and ranking of Nellore young bulls in pasture performance tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno de Oliveira Fragomeni

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate (covariance components for weight at 550 days, average daily gain and an index with both traits, and to compare alternatives for evaluation and ranking of Nellore young bulls in pasture performance tests. The heritability estimates were 0.73, 0.31 and 0.44 for weight at 550 days, average daily gain and index, respectively. Animals were ranked according to their predicted breeding values or the phenotypic deviations in relation to the mean of the test. Although the correlations between breeding values and phenotypic deviations were high, there were differences in the number of animals selected in common when the selection criteria were the predicted breeding values or the phenotypic deviations. Mixed models are more appropriate than the least squares method and should be utilized in the evaluation of young bulls in performance tests.

  3. Quantitative protein and fat metabolism in bull calves treated with beta-adrenergic agonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chwalibog, André; Jensen, K; Thorbek, G

    1996-01-01

    Protein and energy utilization and quantitative retention of protein, fat and energy was investigated with 12 Red Danish bulls during two subsequent 6 weeks trials (Sections A and B) at a mean live weight of 195 and 335 kg respectively. Treatments were control (Group 1) and beta-agonist (L-644...... matter, metabolizable energy and digestible protein was of the same magnitude for all groups. The beta-agonist had no significant effect on protein digestibility and metabolizability of energy, but daily live weight gain was significantly higher in the treated bulls. The utilization of digested protein...... was strongly influenced by treatment, with the highest values for Group 2 in both sections. The protein retention increased with 25% in Group 2, with the highest increment of 113 g/d in Section B. The fat retention decreased in treated animals, most pronounced in Group 3, where the reduction was about 50...

  4. Who does Red Bull give wings to? Sensation seeking moderates sensitivity to subliminal advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustin, Gaëlle M; Jones, Daniel N; Hansenne, Michel; Quoidbach, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed whether subliminal priming of a brand name of a drink can affect people's choices for the primed brand, and whether this effect is moderated by personality traits. Participants with different levels of sensation seeking were presented subliminally with the words Red Bull or Lde Ublr. Results revealed that being exposed to Red Bull lead on average to small increases in participants' preferences for the primed brand. However, this effect was twice as strong for participants high in sensation seeking and did not occur for participants low in sensation seeking. Going beyond previous research showing that situational factors (e.g., thirst, fatigue…) can increase people's sensitivity to subliminal advertisement, our results suggest that some dispositional factors could have the same potentiating effect. These findings highlight the necessity of taking personality into account in non-conscious persuasion research.

  5. Associations between feed efficiency, sexual maturity and fertility-related measures in young beef bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontoura, A B P; Montanholi, Y R; Diel de Amorim, M; Foster, R A; Chenier, T; Miller, S P

    2016-01-01

    The beef industry has emphasized the improvement of feed utilization, as measured by modeling feed intake through performance traits to calculate residual feed intake (RFI). Evidence supports an inverse relationship between feed efficiency and reproductive function. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship of reproductive assessments and RFI unadjusted (RFI(Koch)) or adjusted for body composition (RFI(us)) and the relationship among fertility-related parameters. In total, 34 crossbred bulls were housed together for 112 days of performance evaluation, followed by assessment of scrotum IR imaging, scrotal circumference, testes ultrasonography and semen quality parameters at 377±33.4 days of age. Bulls were slaughtered at 389±34.0 days of age, and analyses of carcass composition, biometrics and histomorphometry of the testis and epididymis were conducted. Bulls were grouped into two subpopulations based on divergence of RFI, and within each RFI model either by including 50% of the population (Halves, high and low RFI, n=17) or 20.6% extremes of the population (Tails, high and low RFI, n=7). The means of productive performance and fertility-related measures were compared through these categories. Pearson's correlation was calculated among fertility-related measures. In the Halves subpopulation of the RFI(us), sperm of low-RFI bulls had decreased progressive motility (47.30% v. 59.90%) and higher abundance of tail abnormalities (4.30% v. 1.80%) than that of high-RFI bulls. In the Tails subpopulation of the RFI(Koch), low RFI displayed less variation in the scrotum surface temperature (0.62°C v. 1.16°C), decreased testis echogenicity (175.50 v 198.00 pixels) and larger (60.90 v. 56.80 mm(2)) but less-developed seminiferous tubules than high-RFI bulls. The evaluation of fertility-related parameters indicated that a higher percentage of immature seminiferous tubules was correlated with occurrence of sperm with distal droplets (r=0.59), a larger

  6. Inter relationship between some routine semen evaluation parameters in Jersey X local hill cattle crossbred bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kapoor

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted with an objective of establishing a relationship between various routine semen evaluation parameters. Work was conducted at Sperm Station Palampur, Himachal Pradesh, on the semen from five Jersey X local hill cattle crossbred breeding bulls. A total of 40 ejaculates (8 from each bull, were analysed at five different stages of processing namely post dilution, post equilibration, post thaw and after 1 and 2 hours incubation post thaw at 37°C for progressive motility, live dead count, reaction to hypo-osmotic solution, acrosomal integrity and gross morphological abnormalities. The results of the study revealed a highly significant (P<0.01 correlation between the various semen evaluation parameters except for the gross morphological abnormalities where there was a significant (P<0.05 negative correlation between the acrosomal integrity and gross morphological abnormalities.

  7. The effect of slaughter weight and fattening intensity on changes in carcass fatness in young Holstein-Friesian bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenon Nogalski

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of body weight (BW at slaughter and fattening intensity on carcass fatness and meat fatty acid profile in young Holstein- Friesian bulls. One-hundred bulls fattened on two levels of intensity a semi-intensive (SI and an intensive (I were used. Fattening was carried out to BW of 500, 550, 600, 650 and 700 kg. Live ultrasound measurements were performed to determine back fat thickness. Carcass dressing percentage, carcass conformation and fatness, intramuscular fat content of m. longissimus dorsi and fatty acid profile (by gas chromatography were determined after slaughter. Intensively fattened bulls were characterised by a greater carcass dressing percentage – by 1.17% on average, greater carcass conformation scores, greater external fat thickness and a greater intramuscular fat content than bulls SI fattened. Fat from intensively fattened bulls contained higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs – by 0.96/100 g on average. Semi-intensive fattening contributed to a decrease in the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio and to a significant increase in the concentrations of C18:2 and C20:4 fatty acids. Regardless of the fattening intensity, the n- 6/n-3 ratio was greater in heavier animals. The best results were achieved when young Holstein-Friesian bulls were fattened intensively to BW of 650 kg.

  8. Is that dog a pit bull? A cross-country comparison of perceptions of shelter workers regarding breed identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Christy L; Harrison, Natalie; Wolff, London; Westgarth, Carri

    2014-01-01

    Bull breeds are commonly kept as companion animals, but the pit bull terrier is restricted by breed-specific legislation (BSL) in parts of the United States and throughout the United Kingdom. Shelter workers must decide which breed(s) a dog is. This decision may influence the dog's fate, particularly in places with BSL. In this study, shelter workers in the United States and United Kingdom were shown pictures of 20 dogs and were asked what breed each dog was, how they determined each dog's breed, whether each dog was a pit bull, and what they expected the fate of each dog to be. There was much variation in responses both between and within the United States and United Kingdom. UK participants frequently labeled dogs commonly considered by U.S. participants to be pit bulls as Staffordshire bull terriers. UK participants were more likely to say their shelters would euthanize dogs deemed to be pit bulls. Most participants noted using dogs' physical features to determine breed, and 41% affected by BSL indicated they would knowingly mislabel a dog of a restricted breed, presumably to increase the dog's adoption chances.

  9. Association between floor type and behaviour, skin lesions, and claw dimensions in group-housed fattening bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platz, Siegfried; Ahrens, Frank; Bahrs, Elisabeth; Nüske, Stefan; Erhard, Michael H

    2007-07-16

    Rubber mats covering concrete slatted flooring are a developing market in dairy barns but remain rare in beef cattle facilities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of covering slatted concrete floor with perforated rubber mats on behaviour and occurrence of skin and claw lesions in fattening bulls. The groups of six bulls each with a total average age of 9.8 months were kept over 1 year on either slatted concrete (CONCRETE PEN) or on slatted concrete covered completely (RUBBER PEN) or partially (CHOICE PEN) with perforated rubber mats. Every quarter-year, behaviour (preference of flooring, lying, aggression, mounting) was recorded. In two-weekly intervals the incidence of skin lesions was examined. At 12 and 18 months of age the rising time of the bulls was measured. At the beginning of the study and after slaughter claw dimensions were recorded. Bulls in the CHOICE PEN preferred (Prubber coated area throughout the experiment. Animals in the RUBBER and the CHOICE PENS showed more lying periods (PCONCRETE PEN. Bulls in the CHOICE PEN needed less time for rising (2.7+/-0.3s) than bulls in the CONCRETE PEN (4.4+/-0.5s, PRUBBER>CHOICE>CONCRETE; Prubber coated slatted flooring has a positive influence on the housing conditions of beef cattle.

  10. Effect of growth rate from 6 to 16 months of age on sexual development and reproductive function in beef bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, L F C; Barth, A D; Wilde, R E; Kastelic, J P

    2012-04-15

    Sexual development and reproductive function were studied in 22 Angus × Charolais and 17 Angus bulls from 6 to 16 mo of age. Associations of average daily gain (ADG) and body weight with ages at puberty and at maturity (satisfactory semen quality), scrotal circumference, paired-testes volume and weight, testicular vascular cone diameter and fat thickness, scrotal temperature, sperm production and morphology, and testicular histology, were determined. There were no significant correlations between cumulative average daily gain and any of the end points investigated. Body weight at various ages was negatively correlated with ages at puberty and maturity in Angus × Charolais bulls, positively correlated with paired-testes weight in Angus × Charolais and Angus bulls, and positively correlated with seminiferous tubule volume in Angus bulls (P reproductive function in beef bulls. However, greater body weight at various ages was associated with reduced age at puberty and maturity, and with larger testes at 16 mo of age, indicating that improved nutrition might be beneficial, but only when offered before 6 mo of age. Average daily gains of approximately 1 to 1.6 kg/day did not result in excessive fat accumulation in the scrotum, increased scrotal temperature, or reduction in sperm production and semen quality, and could be considered "safe" targets for growing beef bulls.

  11. Evaluation of angler effort and harvest of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Lake Scanewa, Washington, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedtke, Theresa L.; Kock, Tobias J.; Ekstrom, Brian K.; Tomka, Ryan G.; Rondorf, Dennis W.

    2011-01-01

    A creel evaluation was conducted in Lake Scanewa, a reservoir on the Cowlitz River, to monitor catch rates of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and determine if the trout fishery was having negative impacts on juvenile anadromous salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) in the system. The trout fishery, which is supported by releases of 20,000 fish (2 fish per pound) per year from June to August, was developed to mitigate for the construction of the Cowlitz Falls Dam in 1994. The trout fishery has a target catch rate of at least 0.50 fish per hour. Interviews with 1,214 anglers during the creel evaluation found that most anglers targeted rainbow trout (52 percent) or Chinook and coho salmon (48 percent). The interviewed anglers caught a total of 1,866 fish, most of which were rainbow trout (1,213 fish; 78 percent) or coho salmon (311 fish; 20 percent). We estimated that anglers spent 17,365 hours fishing in Lake Scanewa from June to November 2010. Catch rates for boat anglers (1.39 fish per hour) exceeded the 0.50 fish per hour target, whereas catch rates for shore anglers (0.35 fish per hour) fell short of the goal. The combined catch rates for all trout anglers in the reservoir were 0.96 fish per hour. We estimated that anglers harvested 7,584 (95 percent confidence interval = 2,795-12,372 fish) rainbow trout during the study period and boat anglers caught more fish than shore anglers (5,975 and 1,609 fish, respectively). This estimate suggests that more than 12,000 of the 20,000 rainbow trout released into Lake Scanewa during 2010 were not harvested, and could negatively impact juvenile salmon in the reservoir through predation or competition. We examined 1,236 stomach samples from rainbow trout and found that 2.1 percent (26 fish) of these samples contained juvenile fish. Large trout (greater than 300 millimeters) had a higher incidence of predation than small trout (less than 300 millimeters; 8.50 and 0.06 percent, respectively). A total of 39 fish were found in rainbow

  12. Complex interaction between proliferative kidney disease, water temperature and concurrent nematode infection in brown trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Posthaus, Heike; Steiner, Pascale; Müller, Barbara; Casanova-Nakayama, Ayako

    2013-04-29

    Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) is a temperature-dependent disease caused by the myxozoan Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae. It is an emerging threat to wild brown trout Salmo trutta fario populations in Switzerland. Here we examined (1) how PKD prevalence and pathology in young-of-the-year (YOY) brown trout relate to water temperature, (2) whether wild brown trout can completely recover from T. bryosalmonae-induced renal lesions and eliminate T. bryosalmonae over the winter months, and (3) whether this rate and/or extent of the recovery is influenced by concurrent infection. A longitudinal field study on a wild brown trout cohort was conducted over 16 mo. YOY and age 1+ fish were sampled from 7 different field sites with various temperature regimes, and monitored for infection with T. bryosalmonae and the nematode Raphidascaris acus. T. bryosamonae was detectable in brown trout YOY from all sampling sites, with similar renal pathology, independent of water temperature. During winter months, recovery was mainly influenced by the presence or absence of concurrent infection with R. acus larvae. While brown trout without R. acus regenerated completely, concurrently infected brown trout showed incomplete recovery, with chronic renal lesions and incomplete translocation of T. bryosalmonae from the renal interstitium into the tubular lumen. Water temperature seemed to influence complete excretion of T. bryosalmonae, with spores remaining in trout from summer-warm rivers, but absent in trout from summer-cool rivers. In the following summer months, we found PKD infections in 1+ brown trout from all investigated river sites. The pathological lesions indicated a re-infection rather than a proliferation of remaining T. bryosalmonae. However, disease prevalence in 1+ trout was lower than in YOY.

  13. Evaluation of offshore stocking of Lake Trout in Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantry, B.F.; O'Gorman, R.; Strang, T.G.; Lantry, J.R.; Connerton, M.J.; Schanger, T.

    2011-01-01

    Restoration stocking of hatchery-reared lake trout Salvelinus namaycush has occurred in Lake Ontario since 1973. In U.S. waters, fish stocked through 1990 survived well and built a large adult population. Survival of yearlings stocked from shore declined during 1990–1995, and adult numbers fell during 1998–2005. Offshore stocking of lake trout was initiated in the late 1990s in response to its successful mitigation of predation losses to double-crested cormorants Phalacrocorax auritus and the results of earlier studies that suggested it would enhance survival in some cases. The current study was designed to test the relative effectiveness of three stocking methods at a time when poststocking survival for lake trout was quite low and losses due to fish predators was a suspected factor. The stocking methods tested during 2000–2002 included May offshore, May onshore, and June onshore. Visual observations during nearshore stockings and hydroacoustic observations of offshore stockings indicated that release methods were not a direct cause of fish mortality. Experimental stockings were replicated for 3 years at one site in the southwest and for 2 years at one site in the southeast. Offshore releases used a landing craft to transport hatchery trucks from 3 to 6 km offshore out to 55–60-m-deep water. For the southwest site, offshore stocking significantly enhanced poststocking survival. Among the three methods, survival ratios were 1.74 : 1.00 : 1.02 (May offshore : May onshore : June onshore). Although not statistically significant owing to the small samples, the trends were similar for the southeast site, with survival ratios of 1.67 : 1.00 : 0.72. Consistent trends across years and sites indicated that offshore stocking of yearling lake trout during 2000–2002 provided nearly a twofold enhancement in survival; however, this increase does not appear to be great enough to achieve the 12-fold enhancement necessary to return population abundance to restoration

  14. A second generation genetic map for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gahr Scott A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic maps characterizing the inheritance patterns of traits and markers have been developed for a wide range of species and used to study questions in biomedicine, agriculture, ecology and evolutionary biology. The status of rainbow trout genetic maps has progressed significantly over the last decade due to interest in this species in aquaculture and sport fisheries, and as a model research organism for studies related to carcinogenesis, toxicology, comparative immunology, disease ecology, physiology and nutrition. We constructed a second generation genetic map for rainbow trout using microsatellite markers to facilitate the identification of quantitative trait loci for traits affecting aquaculture production efficiency and the extraction of comparative information from the genome sequences of model fish species. Results A genetic map ordering 1124 microsatellite loci spanning a sex-averaged distance of 2927.10 cM (Kosambi and having 2.6 cM resolution was constructed by genotyping 10 parents and 150 offspring from the National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture (NCCCWA reference family mapping panel. Microsatellite markers, representing pairs of loci resulting from an evolutionarily recent whole genome duplication event, identified 180 duplicated regions within the rainbow trout genome. Microsatellites associated with genes through expressed sequence tags or bacterial artificial chromosomes produced comparative assignments with tetraodon, zebrafish, fugu, and medaka resulting in assignments of homology for 199 loci. Conclusion The second generation NCCCWA genetic map provides an increased microsatellite marker density and quantifies differences in recombination rate between the sexes in outbred populations. It has the potential to integrate with cytogenetic and other physical maps, identifying paralogous regions of the rainbow trout genome arising from the evolutionarily recent genome duplication event, and

  15. Impact of mannanoligo saccharides on performance traits of rainbow trout

    OpenAIRE

    Obradović S.; Živković B.; Đekić V.; Šekler M.; Živkov-Baloš M.; Marković M.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of mannanoligo saccharides (MOS) as a food additive, applied at a concentration of 0.2% (O-I group of fish) and 0.3% (O-II group of fish) on morphometric characteristics and primary production of the Californian trout was investigated. The experiment was conducted on 450 fish divided into three groups with 150 individuals in each group, and lasted 40 days. The analysis of obtained results established the beneficial effect of the applied additives...

  16. Preservation of salted and smoked rainbow trout by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiszer, W. (Agricultural Univ., Poznan (Poland). Dept. of Nuclear Technique in Agriculture); Zabielski, J. (Agricultural Univ., Poznan (Poland). Dept. of Nuclear Technique in Agriculture); Magnuski, T. (Agricultural Univ., Poznan (Poland). Dept. of Nuclear Technique in Agriculture)

    1993-01-01

    The benefits of radiation treatment of ready-to-eat rainbow trout fillets manifest through the extention of lag period of bacterial regrowth during storage. The shelf-life of the fillets, which is declared by the producer as 14 days, may be doubled. No significant decrease in eating quality due to the treatment was found. The dose of 2 kGy combined with the smoking, salting, vacuum packaging and storage in 2 -3 C is satisfactory to achieve the goal. (orig.)

  17. Developing recreational harvest regulations for an unexploited lake trout population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenker, Melissa A; Weidel, Brian C.; Jensen, Olaf P.; Solomon, Christopher T.

    2016-01-01

    Developing fishing regulations for previously unexploited populations presents numerous challenges, many of which stem from a scarcity of baseline information about abundance, population productivity, and expected angling pressure. We used simulation models to test the effect of six management strategies (catch and release; trophy, minimum, and maximum length limits; and protected and exploited slot length limits) on an unexploited population of Lake Trout Salvelinus namaycush in Follensby Pond, a 393-ha lake located in New York State’s Adirondack Park. We combined field and literature data and mark–recapture abundance estimates to parameterize an age-structured population model and used the model to assess the effects of each management strategy on abundance, catch per unit effort (CPUE), and harvest over a range of angler effort (0–2,000 angler-days/year). Lake Trout density (3.5 fish/ha for fish ≥ age 13, the estimated age at maturity) was similar to densities observed in other unexploited systems, but growth rate was relatively slow. Maximum harvest occurred at levels of effort ≤ 1,000 angler-days/year in all the scenarios considered. Regulations that permitted harvest of large postmaturation fish, such as New York’s standard Lake Trout minimum size limit or a trophy size limit, resulted in low harvest and high angler CPUE. Regulations that permitted harvest of small and sometimes immature fish, such as a protected slot or maximum size limit, allowed high harvest but resulted in low angler CPUE and produced rapid declines in harvest with increases in effort beyond the effort consistent with maximum yield. Management agencies can use these results to match regulations to management goals and to assess the risks of different management options for unexploited Lake Trout populations and other fish species with similar life history traits.

  18. Effects of red bull energy drink on repeated sprint performance in women athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, Todd A; Matera, Angela J; Basinger, Jency; Evans, Mindy; Schurman, Taylor; Marquez, Rodney

    2012-05-01

    Energy drinks are frequently consumed by athletes prior to competition to improve performance. This study examined the effect of Red Bull™ on repeated sprint performance in women athletes. Fifteen collegiate soccer players participated, with mean age, height, and body mass equal to 19.5±1.1 year, 168.4±5.8 cm, and 63.4±6.1 kg, respectively. After performing a familiarization trial, subjects performed three sets of eight bouts of the modified t test after ingestion of 255 mL of placebo or Red Bull 1 h pre-exercise in a randomized, placebo-controlled crossover design. Throughout testing, sprint time, heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were continuously obtained. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to examine differences in variables between drink conditions. Across athletes, t test time ranged from 10.4 to 12.7 s. Mean sprint time was similar (p>0.05) between Red Bull (11.31±0.61 s) and placebo (11.35±0.61 s). HR and RPE increased (p0.05) of Red Bull on either variable versus placebo. Findings indicate that 255 mL of Red Bull containing 1.3 mg/kg of caffeine and 1 g of taurine does not alter repeated sprint performance, RPE, or HR in women athletes versus placebo. One serving of this energy drink provides no ergogenic benefit for women athletes engaging in sprint-based exercise.

  19. Leg lesions and cleanliness of finishing bulls kept in housing systems with different lying area surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze Westerath, H; Gygax, L; Mayer, C; Wechsler, B

    2007-07-01

    The influence of the quality of different lying surfaces on lesions and swellings at the joints as well as on the cleanliness of finishing bulls throughout the fattening period was studied. On 17 farms (623 bulls), pens with fully slatted concrete floors (CONCRETE), with rubber coated slats (RUBBER), with cubicles (CUBICLES, provided with five different types of soft lying mat) and with a littered lying area (STRAW) were compared. Bulls kept on STRAW developed the smallest lesion scores at the joints. In CUBICLES, there was a huge variability in the lesion scores depending on the type of lying mat, ranging from values comparable to STRAW up to and greater than the values for CONCRETE. The highest lesion scores at the carpal joints were found on CONCRETE, with intermediate values on RUBBER and in CUBICLES. At the tarsal joints, lesion scores were similar on CONCRETE and RUBBER and in the same range or worse on most mats in the CUBICLES. Swelling scores were highest on CONCRETE and intermediate on RUBBER and in CUBICLES compared to STRAW. In general, there was a steady increase in the lesion scores of the leg joints throughout the fattening period on CONCRETE, RUBBER and STRAW, whereas on some of the mats in CUBICLES these scores were at a high level from early on in the fattening period. Animals in all the housing systems were clean over the whole fattening period. Littering the lying area in CUBICLES affected neither the lesion scores nor the swelling scores at the joints nor animal cleanliness. In conclusion, both rubber coated slats and cubicles provided with soft lying mats were favourable with regard to the levels of lesions and swellings of the leg joints of finishing bulls compared to concrete slats. However, these levels were even lower in pens with a straw bedded lying area.

  20. Growth performance, fillet quality, and reproductive maturity of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) cultured to 5 kilograms within freshwater recirculating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainbow trout are commonly cultured within aquaculture systems to one pound or less and marketed as pan-sized fillets. Production of larger rainbow trout provides a distinguishable product. Research that describes the growth performance and fillet quality of large rainbow trout is limited, particula...

  1. NUTRITIVE VALUE OF TROUT (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS FARMED IN ADRIATIC SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Janči

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of fresh and cold smoked rainbow trout fillets (Oncorhynchus mykiss farmed in the Adriatic sea by measuring water, fat, protein, salt and ash content, fatty acid profile with an emphasis on eicosapentaenoic (EPA and docosahexaenoic (DHA fatty acids. Physical characteristics were determined by pH and color measurements. Analysis was performed on homogenized fish muscles without skin and bones. Determination of moisture, ash, fat and protein was conducted according to AOAC (1995. Determination of fatty acid content of previously prepared methyl esters (HRN EN ISO 5509, 2004 was conducted by gas chromatography according to HRN EN ISO 5508 (1999. Results showed that fresh rainbow trout farmed in the Adriatic sea is an excellent protein source (21.21% but has slightly lower fat (5.21% and omega-3 fatty acid content (12.52 % compared to the results of other studies. Fat and omega-3 fatty acid content was not decreased by the process of cold smoking. Overall, fresh and smoked trout farmed in the Adriatic may be regarded as food high in nutritional value.

  2. Silver nanoparticles stimulate glycogenolysis in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massarsky, Andrey; Labarre, Justine; Trudeau, Vance L; Moon, Thomas W

    2014-02-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are found in many consumer products yet their biological effects on non-target aquatic organisms are yet to be fully understood. This research aimed to investigate the effects of AgNPs on cell signaling in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes. We focused on the β-adrenoreceptor (AR), which mediates glycogenolysis, and the glucocorticoid receptor (GCR), which mediates gluconeogenesis. These two receptors have been extensively studied in trout hepatocytes due to their key roles during the stress response to increase glucose availability (among other things), allowing the organisms to cope with the stressor. We show for the first time that AgNPs at a concentration of 1 μg/mL did not interfere with the function of either the β-AR or the GCR systems in rainbow trout hepatocytes, but at the concentration of 10 μg/mL AgNPs stimulated glycogenolysis which was apparently receptor-independent. This study suggests that AgNPs could affect hormone-regulated cell signaling pathways at a concentration of 10 μg/mL.

  3. Effect of a β-agonist on meat quality and myofibrillar protein fragmentation in bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiems, L O; Buts, B; Boucqué, C V; Demeyer, D I; Cottyn, B G

    1990-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to study the effect of cimaterol on meat quality and myofibrillar protein fragmentation of the Longissimus dorsi muscle. In two experiments (Experiments 1 and 2), conducted with 16 double-muscled Belgian white-blue bulls and 15 Charolais bulls, respectively, half of the animals received 60 μg cimaterol daily per kg liveweight in the diet, during 135 and 93 days, respectively. In a third experiment, 46 normal Belgian white-blue bulls received no or 4 ppm cimaterol in the diet for 246, 127 or 71 days on average. A withdrawal period of 6 days was always applied for cimaterol-treated animals. Ultimate pH, colour and waterholding capacity were not significantly affected. The effect of cimaterol on moisture content was variable, while protein content was increased and fat was reduced. Warner-Bratzler shear force values were increased by cimaterol P < 0·05 in Experiments 2 and 3 and P = 0·07 in Experiment 1). The lower tenderness cannot be explained by differences in sarcomere length or hydroxyproline content. Myofibrillar protein fragmentation was lower when cimaterol was fed, suggesting that cimaterol may reduce myofibrillar protein degradation via a lower activity of the proteolytic enzymes. Length of cimaterol administration only exerted minor effects on meat quality.

  4. Soya-lecithin in extender improves the freezability and fertility of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bull spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, S; Ansari, M S; Andrabi, S M H; Rakha, B A; Ullah, N; Khalid, M

    2012-10-01

    Egg yolk is routinely used as a cryoprotectant in semen extenders. However, it may contain cryoprotective antagonists, and there are hygienic risks associated with its use. Proteins of plant origin, like soya-lecithin, lack these hazards. The aim of this study was to use soya-lecithin as a cryoprotectant in extender and to investigate its effects on in vitro quality and in vivo fertility of buffalo semen. Semen from three buffalo bulls was frozen in tris-citric extender containing 5.0%, 10% or 15% soya-lecithin or 20% egg yolk. Sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity and viability were assessed post-dilution, pre-freezing and post-thaw. In Post-dilution and pre-freezing, the values for motility, plasma membrane integrity and viability remained higher (p ≤ 0.05) in extenders containing 10% soya-lecithin and control compared with extender containing 5% and 15% soya-lecithin. However, motility, plasma membrane integrity and viability were higher (p soya-lecithin compared with control and extenders containing 5% and 15% soya-lecithin. Semen from two buffalo bulls was frozen in tris-citric extender containing either 10% soya-lecithin or 20% egg yolk. Higher (p soya-lecithin (56%) compared with 20% egg yolk (41.5%). The results suggest that 10% soya-lecithin in extender improves the freezability and fertility of buffalo bull spermatozoa and can be used as an alternate to egg yolk in cryopreservation of buffalo semen.

  5. Risks, Returns, and Portfolio Diversification Benefits of Country Index Funds in Bear and Bull Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhan Meric,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the risk-return performance of 23 Ishares country index funds in the U.S. during the May 19, 2008-March 9, 2009 bear market and the March 9, 2009-January 19, 2010 bull market. Our findings with the Sharpe and Treynor portfolio performance measures indicate that the Malaysia, Japan, U.S., and Switzerland country index funds had the best performance in both markets. The statistics indicate that, in terms of loss recovery from the bear market to the bull market, the Malaysia, Singapore, South Africa, and Australia funds had the best performance and the Belgium, Austria, Italy, and Germany funds had the worst performance. Exchange-traded country index funds make it easy for investors to achieve global diversification. Our findings with the PCA (Principal Components Analysis methodology indicate that investors had more global diversification opportunities in the March 9, 2009-January 19, 2010 bull market than in the May 19, 2008-March 9, 2009 bear market.

  6. Population Structure Analysis of Bull Genomes of European and Western Ancestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Neo Christopher; Szyda, Joanna; Frąszczak, Magdalena; Fries, Hans Rudolf; SandøLund, Mogens; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Boichard, Didier; Stothard, Paul; Veerkamp, Roel; Goddard, Michael; Van Tassell, Curtis P.; Hayes, Ben

    2017-01-01

    Since domestication, population bottlenecks, breed formation, and selective breeding have radically shaped the genealogy and genetics of Bos taurus. In turn, characterization of population structure among diverse bull (males of Bos taurus) genomes enables detailed assessment of genetic resources and origins. By analyzing 432 unrelated bull genomes from 13 breeds and 16 countries, we demonstrate genetic diversity and structural complexity among the European/Western cattle population. Importantly, we relaxed a strong assumption of discrete or admixed population, by adapting latent variable models for individual-specific allele frequencies that directly capture a wide range of complex structure from genome-wide genotypes. As measured by magnitude of differentiation, selection pressure on SNPs within genes is substantially greater than that on intergenic regions. Additionally, broad regions of chromosome 6 harboring largest genetic differentiation suggest positive selection underlying population structure. We carried out gene set analysis using SNP annotations to identify enriched functional categories such as energy-related processes and multiple development stages. Our population structure analysis of bull genomes can support genetic management strategies that capture structural complexity and promote sustainable genetic breadth. PMID:28084449

  7. A cytoarchitectonic and myeloarchitectonic study of the insular cortex of the bull, Bos taurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Domenico; Paparcone, Rosa; Genovese, Angelo

    2008-01-01

    The mammalian Insula is characterised by considerable morphologic variability, however, it shows a cytoarchitectonic homogeneity within the species so far studied. Three cytoarchitectonic areas are generally recognisable in the Insula: an "agranular", a "dysgranular" and a "granular" area. The numerous functions attributed to the Insula (visceral sensory, visceral motor, somatosensorial, supplementary motor area, area speech and/or language related, etc.) have recently attracted renewed interest. Considering the involvement of the Insula in the control of gastroenteric motility and the structural and functional complexity of this region in ruminants, it seemed interesting to analyse the cyto- and myelo-architectonic arrangement of the Insula of the bull, Bos taurus. Unlike that of the other species described, all the insular Neocortex of the bull, is of the "agranular" type. The latter includes at least four variants that differ according to the organisation of the cortical layer pattern. Considering the available evidence in laboratory animals and primates of a role played by the agranular insular cortex in gastroenteric motility control, the trademark presence of a very much extended insular agranular cortex in the Insula of the bull may be related to the necessity of motor activity control of a gastroenteric complex that is extensively more developed than in the monogastric species.

  8. Effects of Tyrode's solution osmolarities and milk on bull sperm storage above zero temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Afrough

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Control of the medium osmolarity and temperature during long or short time sperm manipulation is essential.Objective: The objectives of the present study were to find the effects of different osmolarities of modified Tyrode's solution and milk on the bull sperm during incubation at above zero temperatures.Materials and Methods: Semen samples were collected twice from five Najdi bull. Centrifuged and most parts of seminal plasma were removed. First experiment: The concentrated semen were splited into nine aliquots to incubate in three different osmolarities (200, 300 and 400 mOsm at three temperatures (5, 25 and 39°C for 15 and 60 min of incubation. Second experiment: The semen samples were splited, mixed with the same volume of whole cow milk (5 and 25°C and milk with 7% glycerol (5°C and incubated for 15 and 60 min. Results: Sperm motility severely affected (p0.05 by increasing temperature during 1 h of incubation. Milk can protect the sperm viability and motility at cool conditions and there is no beneficial effect of glycerol in combination of milk on sperm incubation at above zero temperatures (p<0.05.Conclusion: Iso- and hyper-osmotic solutions protect bull sperm motility and viability at 25 and 39°C, while milk can be used for protecting sperm at 5°C.

  9. Stocking impact and migration pattern in an anadromous brown trout ( Salmo trutta ) complex: where have all the stocked spawning sea trout gone?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzzante, D.E.; Hansen, Michael Møller; Meldrup, Dorte

    2004-01-01

    We examined polymorphism at seven microsatellite loci among sea trout (Salmo trutta) (n = 846) collected from three areas in the Limfjord (Denmark). We then assessed their potential population source by comparing, using a mixed stock analysis (MSA) Bayesian framework, their genetic composition...... to that of brown trout collected from 32 tributaries pooled into nine geographical regions (n = 3801) and two hatcheries (n = 222) used for stocking. For each of the three regional sea trout groups (western, central and eastern Limfjord, n = 91, n = 426, n = 329, respectively), MSA was conducted with (i) all...

  10. Intraspecific growth variation among rainbow trout and brook trout: Impact of initial body weight and feeding level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Richard Skøtt; Ostenfeld, T.

    2010-01-01

    for RT-L (5.91) than for all other groups (RT-H: 1.50, P feed was restricted. Overall, ration level had large impact on slopes (H: 1.63, L: 4.39, P ...This study describes growth variation within groups of salmonids and the relation to initial fish weights and feeding levels. PIT-tagged rainbow trout (RT) and brook trout (BT) of start weight 120–170 g were reared in separate tanks for 9 weeks. Both species were fed each day either a high ration...... in each tank in each period was applied as indicator for this propensity (termed “slope”). All calculated slopes in the experiment were positive which indicates the general ability of weighty fish to gain more weight than smaller individuals. The average slope during all 9 weeks was 2–4 times higher...

  11. Cutthroat Trout Virus—Towards a Virus Model to Support Hepatitis E Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Nordheim, Marcus; Boinay, Michel; Leisi, Remo; Kempf, Christoph; Ros, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Cutthroat trout virus (CTV) is a non-pathogenic fish virus belonging to the Hepeviridae family, and it is distantly related to hepatitis E virus (HEV). Here, we report the development of an efficient cell culture system where CTV can consistently replicate to titers never observed before with a hepevirus. By using the rainbow trout gill (RTGill-W1) cell line, CTV reaches 1010 geq/mL intracellularly and 109 geq/mL extracellularly within 5–6 days in culture. We additionally established a qPCR system to investigate CTV infectivity, and developed a specific antibody directed against the viral capsid protein encoded by ORF2. With these methods, we were able to follow the progressive accumulation of viral RNA and the capsid protein, and their intracellular distribution during virus replication. Virus progeny purified through iodixanol density gradients indicated—that similar to HEV—CTV produced in cell culture is also lipid-associated. The lack of an efficient cell culture system has greatly impeded studies with HEV, a major human pathogen that causes hepatitis worldwide. Although several cell culture systems have recently been established, the replication efficiency of HEV is not robust enough to allow studies on different aspects of the virus replication cycle. Therefore, a surrogate virus that can replicate easily and efficiently in cultured cells would be helpful to boost research studies with hepeviruses. Due to its similarities, but also its key differences to HEV, CTV represents a promising tool to elucidate aspects of the replication cycle of Hepeviridae in general, and HEV in particular. PMID:27775612

  12. Effect of temperature on the pharmacokinetics of benzocaine in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after bath exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehly, G.R.; Meinertz, J.R.; Gingerich, W.H.

    1998-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of benzocaine during bath exposures at 1 mg/L were determined in rainbow trout acclimated at 6 °C, 12 °C or 18 °C for at least 1 month. Individual fish were exposed to benzocaine in a recirculating system for 4 h and pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated in a unique manner from the concentration of benzocaine in the bath water vs. time curve. Elimination from plasma was also determined after the 4 h exposure. The uptake clearance and metabolic clearance increased with increased acclimatization temperatures (uptake clearance 581 ± 179 mL/min/kg at 6 °C and 1154 ± 447 mL/ min/kg at 18 °C; metabolic clearance 15.2 ± 4.1 mL/min/kg at 6 °C and 22.3 ± 4.2 mL/min/kg at 18 °C). The apparent volume of distribution had a trend for increasing with temperature that was not significant at the 5% level (2369 ± 678 mL/kg at 6 °C to 3260 ± 1182 mL/kg at 18 °C). The elimination half-life of benzocaine in plasma was variable and did not differ significantly with temperature (60.8 ± 30.3 min at 6 °C to 35.9 ± 13.0 min at 12 °C). Elimination of benzocaine from rainbow trout is relatively rapid and even more rapid at higher acclimatization temperatures based on calculated metabolic clearances and measured plasma concentrations, but was not evident by measurement of terminal plasma half-lifes.

  13. Performance of different biofilters in a recirculating system for rainbow trout farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Sánchez O

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the performance of different biofilters in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS for trout farming. Materials and methods. It was used a 1m3 plastic tank for fries farming; fabric bags to solids retention; a submersible pump; a constant water level and flow distribution box; six up flow biofilters in 3” PVC tube; sand of D10=0.45mm as carrier. The reactors were operated at local temperature and with hydraulic retention time (HRT of 11 min, the biofilters were inoculated in the next way: R1-Control: RAS water; R2-Fish culture farm sludges; R3- Water from aerated lagoon of Antanas landfill (AL; R4-Aquarium sediments; R5- Aerated lagoon of AL sludges; R6-Sludges from sulfidogenic reactor of AL. The weight gain (WG and the food conversion (FC were evaluated, some physic-chemical parameters were monitored and the nitrogen and suspended solids removal efficiency were evaluated. Results. The WG of the cultured animals was 1.58 g/d and the FC was 1.41. There were no differences for ammonium and nitrite removal between the reactors; the average removal efficiencies were: ammonium 4.78%, nitrite 27.2%, nitrate 32.3%, suspended solids 37.5%; R4 and R5 reactors presented the best performance on nitrate removal, with average efficiencies of 47.4% and 42.8%. R3 presented the best SS removal with an average of 58.2%. Conclusions. The RAS water treatment system guaranteed appropriated liquid quality conditions for trout farming; the most efficient reactor for removal of the different forms of nitrogen was the inoculated with the aerated lagoon of AL sludges.

  14. Differential susceptibility in steelhead trout populations to an emergent MD strain of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyta, R.; Jones, Amelia; Kurath, Gael

    2014-01-01

    A significant emergence of trout-adapted MD subgroup infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) began in the coastal region of Washington State, USA, in 2007. This emergence event lasted until 2011 and caused both asymptomatic adult fish infection and symptomatic epidemic disease and mortality in juvenile fish. Incidence of virus during this emergence demonstrated a heterogeneous distribution among rivers of the coastal region, leaving fish populations of some rivers apparently untouched while others suffered significant and recurrent infection and mortality (Breyta et. al. 2013; Dis Aquat Org 104:179-195). In this study, we examined the possible contribution of variations in susceptibility of fish populations, age-related resistance, and virus virulence to the observed landscape heterogeneity. We found that the most significant variable was host susceptibility: by controlled experimental challenge studies steelhead trout populations with no history of IHNV infection were 1 to 3 orders of magnitude more sensitive than a fish population with a long history of IHNV infection. In addition, 2 fish populations from the same river, which descended relatively recently from a common ancestral population, demonstrated 1 to 2 orders of magnitude difference in susceptibility. Fish age-related development of resistance was most evident in the more susceptible of 2 related fish populations. Finally, the strain of virus involved in the 2007 coastal Washington emergence had high virulence but was within the range of other known M group viruses tested. These results suggest that one major driver of landscape heterogeneity in the 2007 coastal Washington IHNV emergence was variation in fish population susceptibility and that this trait may have a heritable component.

  15. First Proliferative Kidney Disease outbreak in Austria, linking to the aetiology of Black Trout Syndrome threatening autochthonous trout populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgoglione, Bartolomeo; Kotob, Mohamed H; Unfer, Günter; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2016-05-01

    Proliferative Kidney Disease (PKD) was diagnosed in juvenile autochthonous brown trout Salmo trutta for the first time in Austria during summer 2014. Cytology showed Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae sporoblasts, and histology revealed sporogonic (coelozoic) and extrasporogonic (histozoic) stages. Analysis of malacosporean ribosomal small subunit revealed that this strain is closely related to European isolates, although its source is unknown. Infection and high pathogenicity were reproduced upon a pre-restocking test with specific pathogen free (SPF) juvenile trout, resulting in 100% mortality between 28 and 46 d post exposure (dpe), with high ectoparasitosis. Fish showed grade 2 of the Kidney Swelling Index and grade 3 of the PKD histological assessment. T. bryosalmonae enzootic waters were demonstrated in further locations along the River Kamp, with infected bryozoans retrieved up to 6 km upstream of the farm with the PKD outbreak. Fredericella sultana colonies collected from these locations were cultivated in laboratory conditions. Released malacospores successfully induced PKD, and contextually Black Trout Syndrome (BTS), in SPF brown trout. In the absence of co-infections mortality occurred between 59 and 98 dpe, with kidneys enlarged up to 6.74% of total body weight (normal 1.23%). This study confirms the first isolation of a pathogenic myxozoan from an Austrian river tributary of the Danube, where its 2-host life cycle is fully occurring. Its immunosuppressant action could link PKD as a key factor in the multifactorial aetiology of BTS. This T. bryosalmonae isolation provides an impetus to undertake further multi-disciplinary research, aiming to assess the impact of PKD and BTS spreading to central European regions.

  16. Use of naturally occurring mercury to determine the importance of cutthroat trout to Yellowstone grizzly bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felicetti, L.A.; Schwartz, C.C.; Rye, R.O.; Gunther, K.A.; Crock, J.G.; Haroldson, M.A.; Waits, L.; Robbins, C.T.

    2004-01-01

    Spawning cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki (Richardson, 1836)) are a potentially important food resource for grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis Ord, 1815) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. We developed a method to estimate the amount of cutthroat trout ingested by grizzly bears living in the Yellowstone Lake area. The method utilized (i) the relatively high, naturally occurring concentration of mercury in Yellowstone Lake cutthroat trout (508 ± 93 ppb) and its virtual absence in all other bear foods (6 ppb), (ii) hair snares to remotely collect hair from bears visiting spawning cutthroat trout streams between 1997 and 2000, (iii) DNA analyses to identify the individual and sex of grizzly bears leaving a hair sample, (iv) feeding trials with captive bears to develop relationships between fish and mercury intake and hair mercury concentrations, and (v) mercury analyses of hair collected from wild bears to estimate the amount of trout consumed by each bear. Male grizzly bears consumed an average of 5 times more trout/kg bear than did female grizzly bears. Estimated cutthroat trout intake per year by the grizzly bear population was only a small fraction of that estimated by previous investigators, and males consumed 92% of all trout ingested by grizzly bears.

  17. Heavy metal contamination and hepatic toxicological responses in brown trout (Salmo trutta from the Kerguelen Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Jaffal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Kerguelen Islands include various species of freshwater fish such as brown trout (Salmo trutta. These trout are among the most isolated from direct anthropogenic impact worldwide. This study was designed to analyse cadmium (Cd and copper (Cu concentrations in the liver of Kerguelen brown trout, and to assess the possible impacts of these metals on hepatic histopathology and oxidative stress parameters (superoxide dismutase and catalase activity and glutathione levels. Trout were caught in the Château River, the Studer Lakes and the Ferme Pond, close to the scientific station of the Kerguelen Islands, corresponding to three morphotypes (river, lake and station. Kerguelen trouts’ hepatic concentrations of Cd and Cur were similar to those reported in previous studies in salmonids populations from areas under anthropological impacts. Clear hepatic disturbances (fibrosis, nuclear alteration, increased immune response, melanomacrophage centres [MMCs] were observed in all tested trout. A similar histo-pathological trend was observed among the trout from the three morphotypes but anti-oxidative responses were higher in the trout from the “station” morphotype. Hepatic alterations and the presence of MMCs in the livers of Kerguelen brown trout may be related to the high levels of Cd and Cu measured in this fish at all sampling sites.

  18. Performance of Yellowstone and Snake River Cutthroat Trout Fry Fed Seven Different Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five commercial diets and two formulated feeds were fed to initial-feeding Yellowstone cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii bouvieri fry and Snake River cutthroat trout O. clarkii spp. (currently being petitioned for classification as O. clarkii behnkei) fry for 18 weeks to evaluate fish performance...

  19. Estrogenic effect of propylparaben (propylhydroxybenzoate) in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss after exposure via food and water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Poul; Andersen, Dorthe N; Pedersen, Knud L

    2003-01-01

    The estrogenic effect of propylparaben was investigated in a rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss test system. Propylparaben was administered orally to sexually immature rainbow trout every second day for up to 10 days in doses between 7 and 1830 mg kg(-1) 2 d(-1) and in the water at 50 and 225 micr...

  20. Larval long-toed salamanders incur nonconsumptive effects in the presence of nonnative trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenison, Erin K.; Litt, Andrea R.; Pilliod, David; McMahon, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Predators can influence prey directly through consumption or indirectly through nonconsumptive effects (NCEs) by altering prey behavior, morphology, and life history. We investigated whether predator-avoidance behaviors by larval long-toed salamanders (Ambystoma macrodactylum) in lakes with nonnative trout result in NCEs on morphology and development. Field studies in lakes with and without trout were corroborated by experimental enclosures, where prey were exposed only to visual and chemical cues of predators. We found that salamanders in lakes with trout were consistently smaller than in lakes without trout: 38% lower weight, 24% shorter body length, and 29% shorter tail length. Similarly, salamanders in protective enclosures grew 2.9 times slower when exposed to visual and olfactory trout cues than when no trout cues were present. Salamanders in trout-free lakes and enclosures were 22.7 times and 1.48 times, respectively, more likely to metamorphose during the summer season than those exposed to trout in lakes and/or their cues. Observed changes in larval growth rate and development likely resulted from a facultative response to predator-avoidance behavior and demonstrate NCEs occurred even when predation risk was only perceived. Reduced body size and growth, as well as delayed metamorphosis, could have ecological consequences for salamander populations existing with fish if those effects carry-over into lower recruitment, survival, and fecundity.

  1. Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis (IPN), a New Threat of Cultured Rainbow Trout in Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghasemi, Mohaddes; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Skall, Helle Frank

    province, north of Iran, reported unusually high losses of reared rainbow trout fry with average weight of 560 mg. same mortality were reported from 4 other farms in fryes under 1 gram weight in 2010. Clinical signs included darkening, exophthalmia, distended abdomen, fecal cast and a spiral swimming...... rainbow trout fry in Iran....

  2. Assessing the impact of natural service bulls and genotype by environment interactions on genetic gain and inbreeding in organic dairy cattle genomic breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, T; Wensch-Dorendorf, M; Simianer, H; Swalve, H H; König, S

    2014-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare genetic gain and inbreeding coefficients of dairy cattle in organic breeding program designs by applying stochastic simulations. Evaluated breeding strategies were: (i) selecting bulls from conventional breeding programs, and taking into account genotype by environment (G×E) interactions, (ii) selecting genotyped bulls within the organic environment for artificial insemination (AI) programs and (iii) selecting genotyped natural service bulls within organic herds. The simulated conventional population comprised 148 800 cows from 2976 herds with an average herd size of 50 cows per herd, and 1200 cows were assigned to 60 organic herds. In a young bull program, selection criteria of young bulls in both production systems (conventional and organic) were either 'conventional' estimated breeding values (EBV) or genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) for two traits with low (h 2=0.05) and moderate heritability (h 2=0.30). GEBV were calculated for different accuracies (r mg), and G×E interactions were considered by modifying originally simulated true breeding values in the range from r g=0.5 to 1.0. For both traits (h 2=0.05 and 0.30) and r mg⩾0.8, genomic selection of bulls directly in the organic population and using selected bulls via AI revealed higher genetic gain than selecting young bulls in the larger conventional population based on EBV; also without the existence of G×E interactions. Only for pronounced G×E interactions (r g=0.5), and for highly accurate GEBV for natural service bulls (r mg>0.9), results suggests the use of genotyped organic natural service bulls instead of implementing an AI program. Inbreeding coefficients of selected bulls and their offspring were generally lower when basing selection decisions for young bulls on GEBV compared with selection strategies based on pedigree indices.

  3. Comparative studies of elemental composition on ejaculated fowl, bull, rat, dog and boar spermatozoa by electron probe X-ray microanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashizawa, K; Ozawa, Y; Okauchi, K

    1987-01-01

    1. Comparative analyses of the concentrations of bulk and trace elements on the head, midpiece and tail regions of the ejaculated fowl, bull, rat, dog and boar spermatozoa were performed using X-ray microanalysis with scanning electron microscopy. 2. Although the pattern of distribution of elements on the surface of the three different subcellular regions was, in general, similar among all the species, there were substantial shifts in absolute concentrations. 3. Concentration of magnesium on the dog spermatozoa was significantly higher (about 2 times) than those of the other species. 4. Zinc, copper, iron and manganese concentrations were higher on fowl spermatozoa compared with those of the other species studied. 5. The Na-to-K ratios on the midpiece ranged from 1.46 (rat) to 2.26 (dog).

  4. Influence of small hydropower plants on brown trout (Salmo trutta L. population in Mislinja River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaž Cokan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The brown trout (Salmo trutta L. in the Mislinja River has been endangered for years because of small hydroelectric power plants. To find out how they are affecting the population of the brown trout in the Mislinja River, we conducted a sampling of the brown trout, using a generating set. We measured the length and weight of all caught specimens and analysed the obtained data. The results are presented in this paper, e.g., biomass, estimations of abundance, average weight, average length and number of captured brown trout. We discovered that the population of the brown trout has decreased in all the sections where water has been taken away for small hydroelectric power plants.

  5. Morphometric evaluation of seminiferous tubule and proportionate numerical analysis of Sertoli and spermatogenic cells indicate differences between crossbred and purebred bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utkarsh K. Tripathi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study compared the testicular cytology and histology between crossbred (Holstein–Friesian [HF] × Tharparkar and purebred (HF and Tharparkar bulls to find out differences if any. Materials and Methods: Four peripubertal bulls from each breed were utilized for the study. Through percutaneous needle aspiration biopsy, Sertoli and spermatogenic cells were extracted, and morphometry was studied. For histological studies, testicular tissues obtained through unilateral castration were utilized. Sertoli cells specific GATA4 antibody was used to study the population of Sertoli cells in the seminiferous tubule through immunofluorescence. Results: The testicular weight, volume, and scrotal circumference differed significantly among the breeds. The diameter and area of the seminiferous tubule was high in HF, followed by Karan Fries (KF, and Tharparkar bulls. However, the degree of compactness, based on qualitative evaluation, was high in Tharparkar followed by KF and HF bulls. The intensity of Leydig cells was higher in Tharparkar bulls followed by KF and HF. The proportion of Sertoli cells was higher (p<0.05 in HF and Tharparkar bulls compared to KF bulls. Conclusion: It may be concluded that variations exist in testicular components of the breeds studied and the proportion of Sertoli cells in relation to spermatogenic cells was significantly lower in crossbred bulls compared to purebred bulls.

  6. Breeding capacity, behavior and fertility of bulls with Brahman genetic influence during synchronized breeding of beef females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, G L

    1988-07-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the feasibility of using bulls of Brahman-derived breeds for synchronized breeding of females treated with Syncro-Mate-B (SMB). Suckled, postpartum cows (n = 261) and virgin heifers (n = 227) were given the standard SMB treatment. Calves were removed from cows for 48 h beginning at implant removal, and individual bulls were placed in pens with 15 to 20 females (x = 1:15.7 ) for 48 h beginning at implant removal. Bulls (n = 31) were 18 to 36 mo of age and had scored satisfactorily on a breeding soundness evaluation (BSE). The mean +/- SEM percentage of females in estrus, percentage of estrous females serviced and percentage of total females serviced were 77.2 +/- 2.4, 72.9 +/- 2.9 and 55.7 +/- 3%, respectively. Total average services per bull was 23.6 +/- 1.6; however, average number of individuals serviced was only 8.6 +/- 0.42. Mean +/- SEM percentage of females conceiving of those serviced, percentage conceiving of those in estrus and percentage conceiving of total females available were 57.3 +/- 3.7, 40.6 +/- 2.6 and 32.6 +/- 2.5%, respectively. Mean BSE scores of eight Simbrah bulls tested immediately before and 5 d after synchronized breeding did not differ (P > 0.05). These data suggest that the conception rate of Brahman-influenced bulls servicing SMB-synchronized cows is within the normal range. However, the total number of individual females serviced and the total pregnancy rate under the protocol employed was low. This occurred because all estrous females were not inseminated, and some bulls exhibited unpredicted low fertility.

  7. Effect of slaughter weight on the carcass value of young crossbred ('Polish Holstein Friesian' x 'Limousin' steers and bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenon Nogalski

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Apart from others factors, carcass quality is determined by the animal's age and body weight (BW at the end of the fattening period. The aim of this study was to determine the optimum finishing weight of young crossbred 'Polish Holstein Friesian' (PHF x 'Limousin' (LIM steers and bulls, based on their slaughter value. The experimental materials comprised 60 animals, including 30 bulls and 30 steers, fed farm-made feeds. At 2 or 3 wk of age, one half of calves were castrated. Bloodless castration was carried out using a rubber elastrator. Calves were reared under a conventional system, and were fattened semi-intensively. Daily gains ranged from 800 to 950 g. Calves were fattened to 450, 500, 550, or 600 kg BW. Carcass value was estimated after slaughter. Fatty acid profile was determined by gas chromatography in fat extracted from samples of muscle longissimus dorsi (MLD. Bulls, compared with steers, were characterized by a higher slaughter value, including a higher carcass dressing percentage by 1.07-2.60%, higher carcass conformation, and lower carcass fatness. In steers, an increase in live BW was accompanied by a considerable increase in fat content (higher than bulls, as confirmed by a significant (p ≤ 0.01 interaction. The intramuscular fat of bulls was characterized by higher concentrations of fatty acids delivering health benefits, and a more desirable polyunsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids (PUFA/SFA ratio. Fat from bulls contained higher levels of PUFAs by 2.34 g 100 g-1 on average. Semi-intensive fattening of PHF x LIM bulls to slaughter weight of 600 kg BW is recommended due to an increase in carcass value. Steers should be fattened to slaughter weight of 500-550 kg BW to prevent excessive fat deposition.

  8. Assessing effects of stocked trout on nongame fish assemblages in southern Appalachian Mountain streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, D.; Kwak, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Fisheries managers are faced with the challenge of balancing the management of recreational fisheries with that of conserving native species and preserving ecological integrity. The negative effects that nonnative trout species exert on native trout are well documented and include alteration of competitive interactions, habitat use, and production. However, the effects that nonnative trout may exert on nongame fish assemblages are poorly understood. Our objectives were to quantify the effects of trout stocking on native nongame fish assemblages intensively on one newly stocked river, the North Toe River, North Carolina, and extensively on other southern Appalachian Mountain streams that are annually stocked with trout. In the intensive study, we adopted a before-after, control-impact (BACI) experimental design to detect short-term effects on the nongame fish assemblage and found no significant differences in fish density, species richness, species diversity, or fish microhabitat use associated with trout stocking. We observed differences in fish microhabitat use between years, however, which suggests there is a response to environmental changes, such as the flow regime, which influence available habitat. In the extensive study, we sampled paired stocked and unstocked stream reaches to detect long-term effects from trout stocking; however, we detected no differences in nongame fish density, species richness, species diversity, or population size structure between paired sites. Our results revealed high inherent system variation caused by natural and anthropogenic factors that appear to overwhelm any acute or chronic effect of stocked trout. Furthermore, hatchery-reared trout may be poor competitors in a natural setting and exert a minimal or undetectable impact on native fish assemblages in these streams. These findings provide quantitative results necessary to assist agencies in strategic planning and decision making associated with trout fisheries, stream

  9. Movement of resident rainbow trout transplanted below a barrier to anadromy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilzbach, Margaret A.; Ashenfelter, Mark J.; Ricker, Seth J.

    2012-01-01

    We tracked the movement of resident coastal rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss irideus that were experimentally transplanted below a migration barrier in a northern California stream. In 2005 and 2006, age-1 and older rainbow trout were captured above a 5-m-high waterfall in Freshwater Creek and individually marked with passive integrated transponder tags. Otolith microchemistry confirmed that the above-barrier trout were the progeny of resident rather than anadromous parents, and genetic analysis indicated that the rainbow trout were introgressed with cutthroat trout O. clarkii. At each of three sampling events, half of the tagged individuals (n = 22 and 43 trout in 2005 and 2006, respectively) were released 5 km downstream from the waterfall (approximately 10 km upstream from tidewater), and an equal number of tagged individuals were released above the barrier. Tagged individuals were subsequently relocated with stationary and mobile antennae or recaptured in downstream migrant traps, or both, until tracking ceased in October 2007. Most transplanted individuals remained within a few hundred meters of their release location. Three individuals, including one rainbow trout released above the waterfall, were last detected in the tidally influenced lower creek. Two additional tagged individuals released above the barrier were found alive in below-barrier reaches and had presumably washed over the falls. Two of seven tagged rainbow trout captured in downstream migrant traps had smolted and one was a presmolt. The smoltification of at least some individuals, coupled with above-barrier "leakage" of fish downstream, suggests that above-barrier resident trout have the potential to exhibit migratory behavior and to enter breeding populations of steelhead (anadromous rainbow trout) within the basin.

  10. A longitudinal study of LH, gonadal and adrenal steroids in four intact Asian bull elephants (Elephas maximus) and one castrate African bull (Loxodonta africana) during musth and non-musth periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yon, Lisa; Kanchanapangka, Sumolya; Chaiyabutr, Narongsak; Meepan, Sompast; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Dahl, Nancy; Lasley, Bill

    2007-05-01

    During their annual musth cycle, adult African and Asian bull elephants have increased gonadal androgens (testosterone [T], dihydrotestosterone [DHT], androstenedione [A4]). Because musth is a physiologically and psychologically stressful time, this study was conducted to investigate whether the adrenal glands (stimulated by stress) increase production of both glucocorticoids and androgens during musth. Weekly serum samples were taken for 11-15 months from four intact adult Asian bull elephants, and from a castrate African bull elephant who exhibits musth. Testosterone, androstenediol (A5), A4, luteinizing hormone (LH), cortisol, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) were measured in each sample. In three of the four intact bulls, all hormones measured increased during musth. Adrenal androgens were strongly correlated with LH and testicular androgens, though not to cortisol. None of the hormones measured in the castrate bull increased during his musth cycles. While the significance of adrenal activity in the elephant during musth has yet to be determined, this study provides evidence that the adrenal gland actively produces both glucocorticoids and androgens during musth in the Asian elephant.

  11. Elephant distribution around a volcanic shield dominated by a mosaic of forest and savanna (Marsabit, Kenya)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngene, S.M.; Skidmore, A.K.; Gils, H.; Douglas-Hamilton, I.; Omondi, P.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the factors that influenced the distribution of the African elephant around a volcanic shield dominated by a mosaic of forest and savanna in northern Kenya. Data on elephant distribution were acquired from four female and five bull elephants, collared with satellite-linked geographic

  12. Short-and long term niche segregation and individual specialization of brown trout (Salmo trutta) in species poor Faroese lakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Jakob; Malmquist, Hilmar J.; Landkildehus, Frank

    2012-01-01

    by comparing relative abundance, stable isotope ratios and diet in multiple habitats. In the presence of three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus), a higher proportion of the trout population was found in the pelagic habitat, and trout in general relied on a more pelagic diet base as compared to trout...... living in allopatry or in sympatry with Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). Diet analyses revealed, however, that niche-segregation may be more complex than described on a one-dimensional pelagic-littoral axis. Trout from both littoral and offshore benthic habitats had in the presence of sticklebacks...... a less benthic diet as compared to trout living in allopatry or in sympatry with charr. Furthermore, we found individual habitat specialization between littoral/benthic and pelagic trout in deep lakes. Hence, our findings indicate that for trout populations interspecific competition can drive shifts...

  13. Microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA polymorphism reveals life history dependent interbreeding between hatchery and wild brown trout ( Salmo trutta L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Ruzzante, D.E.; Eg Nielsen, Einar

    2000-01-01

    The effects of stocking hatchery trout into wild populations were studied in a Danish river, using microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers. Baseline samples were taken from hatchery trout and wild trout assumed to be unaffected by previous stocking. Also, samples were taken from...... resident and sea trout from a stocked section of the river. Genetic differentiation between the hatchery strain and the local wild population was modest (microsatellite F-ST = 0.06). Using assignment tests, more than 90% of individuals from the baseline samples were classified correctly. Assignment tests...... to the hatchery strain suggested that interbreeding took place between hatchery and wild trout. The latter result also indicated that male hatchery trout contributed more to interbreeding than females. We suggest that stronger selection acts against stocked hatchery trout that become anadromous compared...

  14. Molecular and biochemical analysis of rainbow trout LCK suggests a conserved mechanism for T-cell signaling in gnathostomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, K.J.; Dutton, S.; Hansen, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    Two genes were identified in rainbow trout that display high sequence identity to vertebrate Lck. Both of the trout Lck transcripts are associated with lymphoid tissues and were found to be highly expressed in IgM-negative lymphocytes. In vitro analysis of trout lymphocytes indicates that trout Lck mRNA is up-regulated by T-cell mitogens, supporting an evolutionarily conserved function for Lck in the signaling pathways of T-lymphocytes. Here, we describe the generation and characterization of a specific monoclonal antibody raised against the N-terminal domains of recombinant trout Lck that can recognize Lck protein(s) from trout thymocyte lysates that are similar in size (???57 kDa) to mammalian Lck. This antibody also reacted with permeabilized lymphocytes during FACS analysis, indicating its potential usage for cellular analyses of trout lymphocytes, thus representing an important tool for investigations of salmonid T-cell function.

  15. Analysis of Beta-Lactoglobuline Gene (LGB Polymorphism in Different Breeds of Bulls by High Resolution Melting

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    Martina Miluchová

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the paper was to identify  - lactoglobulin gene polymorphism in bulls. The  - lactoglobulin (LGB is expressed in milk and is important in the evaluation of milk production potential and butterfat and protein content. LGB is localized on bovine chromosome 11. The AA genotype of LGB is associated with higher milk yield, the BB genotype with higher fat and casein content and is more desirable for cheese making. The material involved 46 bulls (Slovak spotted breed – 41 bulls, Pinzgau breed – 3 bulls and Holstein breed – 2 bulls. Bovine genomic DNA was isolated from sperm using commercial kit NucleoSpin Tissue and used in order to estimate LGB genotypes by means of PCR RFLP method and high resolution melting analysis (HRMA. In the population of Slovak spotted breed we detected all genotypes AA, AB and BB with frequency 0.3415, 0.4390 and 0.2195, subsequently. In Pinzgau breed was detected homozygote genotypes AA and BB with frequency 0.3333 and 0.6667. In Holstein breed was observed only heterozygote genotype AB with frequency 1.

  16. A High Percentage of Beef Bull Pictures in Semen Catalogues Have Feet and Lower Legs that Are Not Visible

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    Marcy K. Franks

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 1379 beef bull pictures were surveyed to determine visibility of feet and legs from four American semen company websites. Five different breeds were represented: Angus, Red Angus, Hereford (polled and horned, Simmental, and Charolais. In addition to visibility, data on other variables were collected to establish frequencies and correlations. These included breed, color, material that obscured visibility, such as grass, picture taken at livestock show or outside, semen company, photographer, video, and age of bull. A foot and leg visibility score was given to each bull picture. Only 19.4% of the pictures had fully visible feet and legs. Both the hooves and dewclaws were hidden on 32.5% of the pictures. Correlation between bull’s birthdate and the first four visibility scores was statistically significant (P < 0.0001. As age increased the feet and legs were more likely to be visible in the bull’s picture. This may possibly be due to greater availability of both photo editing software and digital photography. One positive finding was that 6% of the bulls had a video of the bull walking which completely showed his feet and legs.

  17. Glycerin and essential oils in the diet of Nellore bulls finished in feedlot: animal performance and apparent digestibility

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    Lorrayny Galoro da Silva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Current research studied the effect of partial replacing corn by glycerin and essential oils addition in the diet of Nellore bulls finished in feedlot on feed intake, animal performance and three markers were assessed to estimate apparent digestibility. Thirty bulls with average weight 400 ± 34.1 kg and 22 ± 2 months old were housed in collective pens (10 x 20 m2 for 63 days. The bulls were randomly assigned to 3 diets (10 bulls per treatment: CON – Control (without glycerin or Essential® oils; GLY – Glycerin (15% on dry matter - DM; and GEO – Glycerin (15% on DM and Essential® oils (3 g animal day-1. Three different markers were used to estimate apparent digestibility in the diets: indigestible dry matter –iDM; indigestible neutral detergent fiber – iNDF; and purified lignin – LIPE®. Feed efficiency and animal performance were not affected by the corn partial replacing by glycerin. No effects were found in partial corn replacing by glycerin and Essential® oils addition in the diets on the fecal output, crude protein and ether extract digestibility among the diets. The DM and OM apparent digestibility were higher for bulls fed with glycerin and Essential® oils. The CHO digestibility was higher for CON diet. The markers iDM, iNDF and LIPE® were similarly to estimate apparent digestibility to all nutrients in the diets.

  18. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program; Evaluation of Limiting Factors for Stocked Kokanee and Rainbow Trout in Lake Roosevelt, Washington, 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, Casey; Polacek, Matt

    2009-03-01

    Hatchery supplementation of kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka and rainbow trout O. mykiss has been the primary mitigation provided by Bonneville Power Administration for loss of anadromous fish to the waters above Grand Coulee Dam (GCD). The hatchery program for rainbow trout has consistently met management goals and provided a substantial contribution to the fishery; however, spawner returns and creel survey results for kokanee have been below management goals. Our objective was to identify factors that limit limnetic fish production in Lake Roosevelt by evaluating abiotic conditions, food limitations, piscivory, and entrainment. Dissolved oxygen concentration was adequate throughout most of the year; however, levels dropped to near 6 mg/L in late July. For kokanee, warm water temperatures during mid-late summer limited their nocturnal distribution to 80-100 m in the lower section of the reservoir. Kokanee spawner length was consistently several centimeters longer than in other Pacific Northwest systems, and the relative weights of rainbow trout and large kokanee were comparable to national averages. Large bodied daphnia (> 1.7 mm) were present in the zooplankton community during all seasons indicating that top down effects were not limiting secondary productivity. Walleye Stizostedion vitreum were the primary piscivore of salmonids in 1998 and 1999. Burbot Lota lota smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieui, and northern pikeminnow Ptychocheilus oregonensis preyed on salmonids to a lesser degree. Age 3 and 4 walleye were responsible for the majority (65%) of the total walleye consumption of salmonids. Bioenergetics modeling indicated that reservoir wide consumption by walleye could account for a 31-39% loss of stocked kokanee but only 6-12% of rainbow trout. Size at release was the primary reason for differential mortality rates due to predation. Entrainment ranged from 2% to 16% of the monthly abundance estimates of limnetic fish, and could account for 30% of total

  19. PECULIARITIES OF THE GENETIC STRUCTURE OF RAINBOW TROUT (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS GROUPS AT THE FISH FARM “SLOBODA BANILOV”, CHERNIVTSI REGION

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    Р. Mendrishora

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Study of the peculiarities of the genetic structure based on genetic-biochemical markers in age-1+ and 2+ rainbow trout of the fish farm “Sloboda Banilov”, Chernivtsi region Methodology. We used the methods of vertical polyacrylamide and horizontal starch electrophoresis with own modification. Sampling of biological material and histochemical and staining of gel plates were performed according to generally accepted methods. The frequency of allele and genotypic variants were calculated, actual and expected level of heterozygosis for each individual locus and the level of mean heterozygosis per locus were determined, Wright F fixation index was calculated. Statistical processing of experimental data was performed with the use "Biosys-1" software. Findings. We performed an analysis of the genetic structure of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss groups with the use of genetic-biochemical markers — esterase loci (EST, EC 3.1.1.1, carboanhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1, isocitrate dehydrohenase (IDH, EC1.1.1.41, superoxide dismutase (SОD, EC 1.15.1.1. We showed the peculiarities of the distribution of allele variants of the studied loci of rainbow trout. The genotypic composition of biochemical system loci supposed the surplus of fish with heterozygous genotypes by SOD locus in age-1+ fish (Go=26; Ge=15.3, χ2=15.4, Р<0.001, as well as by EST loci (Go=22; Ge=14.6, χ2=7.9, Р<0.01 Originality. For the first time we performed an assessment of the genetic structure based on genetic-biochemical markers and calculated the level of heterozygosis in age-1+ and 2+ rainbow trout reared at the fish farm “Sloboda Banyliv” of Chernivtsi region. Practical value. Results of the study can be used for solving various tasks of group and individual identification of populations when forming the stocks for optimizing their genetic structure. Experimental data of the frequency of allele and genotype distribution will be used for studying the effect of

  20. Sexual behavior and its relationship with semen quality parameters in Sahiwal breeding bulls

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    Shushant Singh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was conducted at Artificial Breeding Research Centre, NDRI, Karnal, to determine the sexual behavior and its relationship with semen quality parameters in Sahiwal breeding bulls. Materials and Methods: A total of 63 ejaculates were collected from six adult Sahiwal bulls (age ~47 mo and bwt ~466 kg, to study the relationship of sexual behavior and semen quality. The degree of association between different variables was estimated by Pearson’s correlation coefficient method. Results: The results depicted that, sexual aggressiveness showed significantly high positive correlation with libido score (LS and sexual behavior score (SBS. Reaction time (RT and total time taken in mounts (TTTM had a significant negative correlation with LS and SBS. Penile erection score and penile protrusion score (PPS both had a significant positive correlation with ejaculatory thrust score, mating ability score, and SBS. Results of correlation among seminal attributes and with sexual behavior depicted that ejaculate volume had positive significant correlation with initial progressive motility (IPM, sperm concentration (SCON, head abnormality, total abnormality, hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST, acrosomal integrity (AI whereas, mass activity had positive significant correlation with IPM, SCON, non-eosinophilic spermatozoa count (NESC, HOST, AI, RT and TTTM and IPM had positive significant correlation with SCON, NESC, HOST, AI, and TTTM, whereas and HOST had positive significant correlation with AI. Among seminal attributes, SCON had a positive significant correlation with PPS where as head abnormalities had a positive significant correlation with RT and TTTM. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the relationship of sexual behavior and semen quality parameters are reflecting that the sexual behavior of individual bulls is important to harvest good quality and quantity of semen as desired type of sexual preparation can be provided.

  1. A highly concentrated diet increases biogas production and the agronomic value of young bull's manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça Costa, Mônica Sarolli Silva de; Lucas, Jorge de; Mendonça Costa, Luiz Antonio de; Orrico, Ana Carolina Amorim

    2016-02-01

    The increasing demand for animal protein has driven significant changes in cattle breeding systems, mainly in feedlots, with the use of young bulls fed on diets richer in concentrate (C) than in forage (F). These changes are likely to affect animal manure, demanding re-evaluation of the biogas production per kg of TS and VS added, as well as of its agronomic value as a biofertilizer, after anaerobic digestion. Here, we determined the biogas production and agronomic value (i.e., the macronutrient concentration in the final biofertilizer) of the manure of young bulls fed on diets with more (80% C+20% F; 'HighC' diet) or less (65% C+35% F; 'LowC' diet) concentrate, evaluating the effects of temperature (25, 35, and 40°C) and the use of an inoculum, during anaerobic digestion. A total of 24 benchtop reactors were used, operating in a semi-continuous system, with a 40-day hydraulic retention time (HRT). The manure from animals given the HighC diet had the greatest potential for biogas production, when digested with the use of an inoculum and at 35 or 40°C (0.6326 and 0.6207m(3)biogas/kg volatile solids, or VS, respectively). We observed the highest levels of the macronutrients N, P, and K in the biofertilizer from the manure of animals given HighC. Our results show that the manure of young bulls achieves its highest potential for biogas production and agronomic value when animals are fed diets richer in concentrate, and that biogas production increases if digestion is performed at higher temperatures, and with the use of an inoculum.

  2. Feeding biomechanics and theoretical calculations of bite force in bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) during ontogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habegger, Maria L; Motta, Philip J; Huber, Daniel R; Dean, Mason N

    2012-12-01

    Evaluations of bite force, either measured directly or calculated theoretically, have been used to investigate the maximum feeding performance of a wide variety of vertebrates. However, bite force studies of fishes have focused primarily on small species due to the intractable nature of large apex predators. More massive muscles can generate higher forces and many of these fishes attain immense sizes; it is unclear how much of their biting performance is driven purely by dramatic ontogenetic increases in body size versus size-specific selection for enhanced feeding performance. In this study, we investigated biting performance and feeding biomechanics of immature and mature individuals from an ontogenetic series of an apex predator, the bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas (73-285cm total length). Theoretical bite force ranged from 36 to 2128N at the most anterior bite point, and 170 to 5914N at the most posterior bite point over the ontogenetic series. Scaling patterns differed among the two age groups investigated; immature bull shark bite force scaled with positive allometry, whereas adult bite force scaled isometrically. When the bite force of C. leucas was compared to those of 12 other cartilaginous fishes, bull sharks presented the highest mass-specific bite force, greater than that of the white shark or the great hammerhead shark. A phylogenetic independent contrast analysis of anatomical and dietary variables as determinants of bite force in these 13 species indicated that the evolution of large adult bite forces in cartilaginous fishes is linked predominantly to the evolution of large body size. Multiple regressions based on mass-specific standardized contrasts suggest that the evolution of high bite forces in Chondrichthyes is further correlated with hypertrophication of the jaw adductors, increased leverage for anterior biting, and widening of the head. Lastly, we discuss the ecological significance of positive allometry in bite force as a possible

  3. Histopathology of fish. IV. A granuloma of brook trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, E.M.; Yasutake, W.T.

    1956-01-01

    In the summer of 1952, Snieszko and Griffin (1955) diagnosed kidney disease in brook trout from the Fish and Wildlife Service's station at Berlin, New Hampshire. During the examination of these fish, a peculiar lesion was observed in the vicinity of the gastric caeca. In very advanced cases, hard, glistening, white masses of tissue bearing a striking resemblance to mature testes often filled the abdominal cavity. In the initial examinations, the material was actually mistaken for normal testicular tissue. Subsequently, it was recognized as an entirely aberrant, proliferating tumor-like mass.

  4. Uptake of strontium from diet and water by rainbow trout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffman, R.H.

    1960-09-01

    The concentration (..mu..C/g) of /sup 90/Sr-/sup 90/Y in trout approached about 1.5 times the concentration (..mu..C/ml) in the surrounding water in three weeks. Approximately 21% of the isotope administered in gelatin capsules was retained after one day but when the isotope was incorporated into natural food, the retention was only about 7%. It is inferred that, under the conditions of the experiment, uptake from the environmental water is greater than uptake through the food chain.

  5. Histochemistry of leucine aminonaphthylamidase (LAN) in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouck, Gerald R.

    1979-01-01

    The histochemistry of leucine aminonaphthylamidase (LAN) was studied in frozen tissue sections of rainbow trout both in yearling and adult fish. Age of fish had relatively little effect upon the results. The most intense LAN color production was in epithelial cells of midgut, pyloric ceca, hindgut, and in some segments of kidney tubules. Lower levels of LAN were evident in liver cells of Kupffer, and still lower or slight levels of LAN activity were found in blood cells, muscle, nerve, connective tissue, gonad, and pancreas. The results indicate that LAN might be useful in assessing histotoxicity to LAN-rich areas of the body.

  6. Egg fatty acid composition from lake trout fed two Lake Michigan prey fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Fitzsimons, J.D.; Tillitt, D.E.; Brown, S.B.

    2009-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that there were significant differences in the egg thiamine content in lake trout Salvelinus namaycush fed two Lake Michigan prey fish (alewife Alosa pseudoharengus and bloater Coregonus hoyi). Lake trout fed alewives produced eggs low in thiamine, but it was unknown whether the consumption of alewives affected other nutritionally important components. In this study we investigated the fatty acid composition of lake trout eggs when females were fed diets that resulted in different egg thiamine concentrations. For 2 years, adult lake trout were fed diets consisting of four combinations of captured alewives and bloaters (100% alewives; 65% alewives, 35% bloaters; 35% alewives, 65% bloaters; and 100% bloaters). The alewife fatty acid profile had higher concentrations of arachidonic acid and total omega-6 fatty acids than the bloater profile. The concentrations of four fatty acids (cis-13, 16-docosadienoic, eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids) were higher in bloaters than in alewives. Although six fatty acid components were higher in lake trout eggs in 2001 than in 2000 and eight fatty acids were lower, diet had no effect on any fatty acid concentration measured in lake trout eggs in this study. Based on these results, it appears that egg fatty acid concentrations differ between years but that the egg fatty acid profile does not reflect the alewife-bloater mix in the diet of adults. The essential fatty acid content of lake trout eggs from females fed alewives and bloaters appears to be physiologically regulated and adequate to meet the requirements of developing embryos.

  7. Diet and prey selection by Lake Superior lake trout during springs 1986-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, B.A.; Hrabik, T.R.; Ebener, M.P.; Gorman, O.T.; Schreiner, D.R.; Schram, S.T.; Sitar, S.P.; Mattes, W.P.; Bronte, C.R.

    2007-01-01

    We describe the diet and prey selectivity of lean (Salvelinus namaycush namaycush) and siscowet lake trout (S. n. siscowet) collected during spring (April–June) from Lake Superior during 1986–2001. We estimated prey selectivity by comparing prey numerical abundance estimates from spring bottom trawl surveys and lake trout diet information in similar areas from spring gill net surveys conducted annually in Lake Superior. Rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) was the most common prey and was positively selected by both lean and siscowet lake trout throughout the study. Selection by lean lake trout for coregonine (Coregonus spp.) prey increased after 1991 and corresponded with a slight decrease in selection for rainbow smelt. Siscowet positively selected for rainbow smelt after 1998, a change that was coincident with the decrease in selection for this prey item by lean lake trout. However, diet overlap between lean and siscowet lake trout was not strong and did not change significantly over the study period. Rainbow smelt remains an important prey species for lake trout in Lake Superior despite declines in abundance.

  8. The abundance of large, piscivorous Ferox Trout (Salmo trutta in Loch Rannoch, Scotland

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    Alastair Thorne

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Ferox Trout are large, long-lived piscivorous Brown Trout (Salmo trutta. Due to their exceptionally large size, Ferox Trout are highly sought after by anglers while their life-history strategy, which includes delayed maturation, multiphasic growth and extended longevity, is of interest to ecological and evolutionary modelers. However, despite their recreational and theoretical importance, little is known about the typical abundance of Ferox Trout. Methods To rectify this situation a 16 year angling-based mark-recapture study was conducted on Loch Rannoch, which at 19 km2 is one of the largest lakes in the United Kingdom. Results A hierarchical Bayesian Jolly-Seber analysis of the data suggest that if individual differences in catchability are negligible the population of Ferox Trout in Loch Rannoch in 2009 was approximately 71 fish. The results also suggest that a single, often unaccompanied, highly-experienced angler was able to catch roughly 8% of the available fish on an annual basis. Discussion It is recommended that anglers adopt a precautionary approach and release all trout with a fork length ≥400 mm caught by trolling in Loch Rannoch. There is an urgent need to assess the status of Ferox Trout in other lakes.

  9. Effect of electric barrier on passage and physical condition of juvenile and adult rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layhee, Megan J.; Sepulveda, Adam; Shaw, Amy; Smuckall, Matthew; Kapperman, Kevin; Reyes, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Electric barriers can inhibit passage and injure fish. Few data exist on electric barrier parameters that minimize these impacts and on how body size affects susceptibility, especially to nontarget fish species. The goal of this study was to determine electric barrier voltage and pulse-width settings that inhibit passage of larger bodied rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (215–410 mm fork length) while allowing passage of smaller bodied juvenile rainbow trout (52–126 mm) in a static laboratory setting. We exposed rainbow trout to 30-Hz pulsed-direct current voltage gradients (0.00–0.45 V cm−1) and pulse widths (0.0–0.7 ms) and recorded their movement, injury incidence, and mortality. No settings tested allowed all juveniles to pass while impeding all adult passage. Juvenile and adult rainbow trout avoided the barrier at higher pulse widths, and fewer rainbow trout passed the barrier at 0.7-ms pulse width compared to 0.1 ms and when the barrier was turned off. We found no effect of voltage gradient on fish passage. No mortality occurred, and we observed external bruising in 5 (7%) juvenile rainbow trout and 15 (21%) adult rainbow trout. This study may aid managers in selecting barrier settings that allow for increased juvenile passage.

  10. Proliferative kidney disease in brown trout: infection level, pathology and mortality under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Posthaus, Heike; Hirschi, Regula; Schneider, Ernst

    2015-05-21

    Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) is an emerging disease threatening wild salmonid populations. In temperature-controlled aquaria, PKD can cause mortality rates of up to 85% in rainbow trout. So far, no data about PKD-related mortality in wild brown trout Salmo trutta fario are available. The aim of this study was to investigate mortality rates and pathology in brown trout kept in a cage within a natural river habitat known to harbor Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae. Young-of-the-year (YOY) brown trout, free of T. bryosalmonae, were exposed in the River Wutach, in the northeast of Switzerland, during 3 summer months. Samples of wild brown trout caught by electrofishing near the cage location were examined in parallel. The incidence of PKD in cage-exposed animals (69%) was not significantly different to the disease prevalence of wild fish (82 and 80% in the upstream and downstream locations, respectively). The mortality in cage-exposed animals, however, was as low as 15%. At the termination of the exposure experiment, surviving fish showed histological lesions typical for PKD regression, suggesting that many YOY brown trout survive the initial infection. Our results at the River Wutach suggest that PKD in brown trout does not always result in high mortality under natural conditions.

  11. Net trophic transfer efficiencies of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners to lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from its prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; David, Solomon R.; Rediske, Richard R.; O’Keefe, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were fed bloater (Coregonus hoyi) in eight laboratory tanks over a 135-d experiment. At the start of the experiment, four to nine fish in each tank were sacrificed, and the concentrations of 75 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners within these fish were determined. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener concentrations were also determined in the 10 lake trout remaining in each of the eight tanks at the end of the experiment as well as in the bloater fed to the lake trout. Each lake trout was weighed at the start and the end of the experiment, and the amount of food eaten by the lake trout was recorded. Using these measurements, net trophic transfer efficiency (γ) from the bloater to the lake trout in each of the eight tanks was calculated for each of the 75 congeners. Results showed that γ did not vary significantly with the degree of chlorination of the PCB congeners, and γ averaged 0.66 across all congeners. However,γ did show a slight, but significant, decrease as logKOW increased from 6.0 to 8.2. Activity level of the lake trout did not have a significant effect on γ.

  12. Egg fatty acid composition from lake trout fed two Lake Michigan prey fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeyfield, Dale C; Fitzsimons, John D; Tillitt, Donald E; Brown, Scott B

    2009-12-01

    We previously demonstrated that there were significant differences in the egg thiamine content in lake trout Salvelinus namaycush fed two Lake Michigan prey fish (alewife Alosa pseudoharengus and bloater Coregonus hoyi). Lake trout fed alewives produced eggs low in thiamine, but it was unknown whether the consumption of alewives affected other nutritionally important components. In this study we investigated the fatty acid composition of lake trout eggs when females were fed diets that resulted in different egg thiamine concentrations. For 2 years, adult lake trout were fed diets consisting of four combinations of captured alewives and bloaters (100% alewives; 65% alewives, 35% bloaters; 35% alewives, 65% bloaters; and 100% bloaters). The alewife fatty acid profile had higher concentrations of arachidonic acid and total omega-6 fatty acids than the bloater profile. The concentrations of four fatty acids (cis-13, 16-docosadienoic, eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids) were higher in bloaters than in alewives. Although six fatty acid components were higher in lake trout eggs in 2001 than in 2000 and eight fatty acids were lower, diet had no effect on any fatty acid concentration measured in lake trout eggs in this study. Based on these results, it appears that egg fatty acid concentrations differ between years but that the egg fatty acid profile does not reflect the alewife-bloater mix in the diet of adults. The essential fatty acid content of lake trout eggs from females fed alewives and bloaters appears to be physiologically regulated and adequate to meet the requirements of developing embryos.

  13. a bull in a china shop的来源及用法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨华; 马明

    2006-01-01

    a bull in a china shop这个成语在英美心目中的形象是:一头喷着鼻息、怒气冲冲的公牛闯进摆满精致瓷器的店里。现指在一个需要举止灵巧得体、细致周密的场合闯进一个行为粗鲁、手脚笨拙、会惹麻烦的人。

  14. Determining vaccination frequency in farmed rainbow trout using Vibrio anguillarum O1 specific serum antibody measurements.

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    Lars Holten-Andersen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite vaccination with a commercial vaccine with a documented protective effect against Vibrio anguillarum O1 disease outbreaks caused by this bacterium have been registered among rainbow trout at Danish fish farms. The present study examined specific serum antibody levels as a valid marker for assessing vaccination status in a fish population. For this purpose a highly sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was developed and used to evaluate sera from farmed rainbow trout vaccinated against V. anguillarum O1. STUDY DESIGN: Immune sera from rainbow trout immunised with an experimental vaccine based on inactivated V. anguillarum O1 bacterin in Freund's incomplete adjuvant were used for ELISA optimisation. Subsequently, sera from farmed rainbow trout vaccinated with a commercial vaccine against V. anguillarum were analysed with the ELISA. The measured serum antibody levels were compared with the vaccine status of the fish (vaccinated/unvaccinated as evaluated through visual examination. RESULTS: Repeated immunisation with the experimental vaccine lead to increasing levels of specific serum antibodies in the vaccinated rainbow trout. The farmed rainbow trout responded with high antibody levels to a single injection with the commercial vaccine. However, the diversity in responses was more pronounced in the farmed fish. Primary visual examinations for vaccine status in rainbow trout from the commercial farm revealed a large pool of unvaccinated specimens (vaccination failure rate=20% among the otherwise vaccinated fish. Through serum analyses using the ELISA in a blinded set-up it was possible to separate samples collected from the farmed rainbow trout into vaccinated and unvaccinated fish. CONCLUSIONS: Much attention has been devoted to development of new and more effective vaccines. Here we present a case from a Danish rainbow trout farm indicating that attention should also be directed to the vaccination procedure in

  15. Expert judgment-based risk assessment using statistical scenario analysis: a case study-running the bulls in Pamplona (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallor, Fermín; García-Olaverri, Carmen; Gómez-Elvira, Sagrario; Mateo-Collazas, Pedro

    2008-08-01

    In this article, we present a methodology to assess the risk incurred by a participant in an activity involving danger of injury. The lack of high-quality historical data for the case considered prevented us from constructing a sufficiently detailed statistical model. It was therefore decided to generate a risk assessment model based on expert judgment. The methodology is illustrated in a real case context: the assessment of risk to participants in a San Fermin bull-run in Pamplona (Spain). The members of the panel of "experts on the bull-run" represented very different perspectives on the phenomenon: runners, surgeons and other health care personnel, journalists, civil defense workers, security staff, organizers, herdsmen, authors of books on the bull-run, etc. We consulted 55 experts. Our methodology includes the design of a survey instrument to elicit the experts' views and the statistical and mathematical procedures used to aggregate their subjective opinions.

  16. Bovine Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput (CLOCK) and Clusterin (CLU) mRNA Quantitation in Ejaculated Crossbred Bull Spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S; Deb, R; Singh, U; Ganguly, I; Mandal, D K; Tyagi, S; Kumar, M; Sengar, G; Sharma, S; Singh, R; Singh, R

    2015-06-01

    Mammalian circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (CLOCK) gene encodes a transcription factor that affects both the persistence and the period of circadian rhythms. Earlier reports suggested that CLOCK gene might be associated with male infertility in human. Present investigation, for the first time, reports that CLOCK gene expresses differentially between good and poor quality crossbred bull semen. The relative expression of CLOCK was significantly (p < 0.05) higher among good quality bull semen than motility-impaired ones. Clusterins (CLU) are series of genes associated with a variety of physiological activities including spermatogenesis, apoptosis and degenerative disease conditions. In the present context, we also investigated that the expression of CLU gene was significantly (p < 0.05) higher among motility-impaired crossbred bull semen compared to the good quality one.

  17. Adrenergic System Activation Mediates Changes in Cardiovascular and Psychomotoric Reactions in Young Individuals after Red Bull© Energy Drink Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cavka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To assess the effect of Red Bull© on (1 blood glucose and catecholamine levels, (2 cardiovascular and respiratory function changes before, during, and after exercise, (3 reaction time, (4 cognitive functions, and (5 response to mental stress test and emotions in young healthy individuals (N=38. Methods. Heart rate (HR and arterial blood pressure (ABP, blood glucose, adrenaline, and noradrenalin plasma levels were measured before and after Red Bull© intake. Participants were subjected to 4 different study protocols by randomized order, before and 30 minutes after consumption of 500 mL of Red Bull©. Results. Mean ABP and HR were significantly increased at rest after Red Bull© intake. Blood glucose level and plasma catecholamine levels significantly increased after Red Bull© consumption. Heart rate, respiration rate, and respiratory flow rate were significantly increased during exercise after Red Bull© consumption compared to control condition. Intake of Red Bull© significantly improved reaction time, performance in immediate memory test, verbal fluency, and subject’s attention as well as performance in mental stress test. Conclusion. This study demonstrated that Red Bull© has beneficial effect on some cognitive functions and effect on cardiovascular and respiratory system at rest and during exercise by increasing activity of the sympathetic nervous system.

  18. The effect of farmed trout on cardiovascular risk markers in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallund, Jesper; Madsen, Birgitte Overgaard; Bügel, Susanne H.;

    2010-01-01

    was to examine the effect of farmed trout on novel and traditional CVD risk markers in healthy men, and to evaluate whether this was affected by the aquacultural feed regime. We performed a parallel, 8-week intervention study in which sixty-eight healthy male volunteers were randomised to consume either a daily...... risk markers after daily consumption of trout with high or low n-3 LCPUFA content. However, trout raised on vegetable-based feed had less pronounced impact on RBC n-3 LCPUFA status....

  19. Identification of differentially expressed protective genes in liver of two rainbow trout strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebl, Alexander; Verleih, Marieke; Korytář, Thomáš; Kühn, Carsten; Wimmers, Klaus; Köllner, Bernd; Goldammer, Tom

    2012-01-15

    Since 1975, the rainbow trout strain BORN (Germany) has been bred in brackish water from a coastal form imported from Denmark. Accompanying phenotypic monitoring of the adapted BORN trout until now revealed that this selection strain manifested a generally elevated resistance towards high stress and pathogenic challenge including lower susceptibility towards Aeromonas salmonicida infections in comparison to other trout strains in local aqua farms. We focus on the elucidation of both, genetic background and immunological basis for the increased survivorship to infections. A first comparison of gene expression profiles in liver tissue of healthy rainbow trout from the local selection strain BORN and imported trout using a GRASP 16K cDNA microarray revealed six differentially expressed genes evoking pathogen and wounding responses, LEAP2A (encoding for liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide), SERPINA1 (alpha-1 antitrypsin), FTH1 (middle subunit of ferritin), FGL2 (fibroleukin), CLEC4E (macrophage-inducible C-type lectin), and SERPINF2 (alpha-2 antiplasmin). Since the latter gene is not described in salmonid species so far, our first aim was to characterize the respective sequence in rainbow trout. Two trout SERPINF2 genes were identified, which share only 48% identical amino acid residues and a characteristic SERPIN domain. Second, we aimed to analyse the expression of those genes after temperature challenge (8 °C and 23 °C). Only FTH1 was upregulated in BORN and import trout after increase of temperature, while SERPINA1 and FGL2 were only elevated in import trout. Third, the expression of all named genes was analyzed after pathogen challenge with A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. As a main finding, we detected a comparably faster regeneration of LEAP2A mRNA abundance in BORN trout following bacterial infection. Ingenuity Pathways Analysis suggested a functional interplay among the mentioned factors and the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF, whose stronger expression

  20. Virulence of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) genotype III in rainbow trout

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, Takafumi; Kurita, Jun; Mori, Koh-Ichiro; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    In general, viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) isolates from marine fish species in European waters (genotypes GIb, GII and GIII) are non- to low virulent in rainbow trout. However, a VHSV isolation was made in 2007 from a disease outbreak in sea farmed rainbow trout in Norway. The isolate, named NO-2007-50-385, was demonstrated to belong to GIII. This isolate has attracted attention to assess which of the viral genome/proteins might be associated with the virulence in rainbow trout....

  1. Carcass and meat characteristics of steers or bulls, finished in feedlot and fed with diets containing three levels of concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Moletta

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate quantitative and qualitative characters of carcass and meat from bulls and steers finished in feedlot during a 116 day period, in individual stalls and fed with a diet of corn silage and three levels of concentrate (0.70; 0.97 and 1.23% of body weight. The concentrate was formulated with 25% soybean meal, 73% of ground corn grain 1% of a mineral mix and 1% of limestone. A total of 169 composite Purunã animals, being 94 bulls and 75 steers with average age of 20 months. The interaction between physiological condition and level of concentrate was not significant (P>0.05 for any of the studied variables. Likewise, no effect of level of concentrate was detected upon the same traits. The bulls presented heavier slaughter weight (493.1 kg in comparison with the steers (450.0 kg as well as higher carcass yield (55.2 vs. 53.5%, resulting in a hot carcass weight 12.1% heavier than bulls animals, though with a lower degree of carcass finishing (3.6 vs. 4.2 mm, respectively. Bulls produced carcasses with better conformation and higher area of Longissimus dorsi (68.6 vs. 63.3 cm2, and higher percentage of muscle in comparison with castrated (66.5 vs. 62.8%. The meat from bulls was darker and with lower degree of marbling in relation to steers. Nevertheless, no differences were observed for tenderness nor for juiciness, though steers had more palatable meat.

  2. Identifying factors affecting age at first semen freezing and age at first semen use in Sahiwal bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. Naha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of non-genetic factors on reproduction traits viz. age at first semen freezing and age at first semen use of breeding bulls in Sahiwal bulls by fitting least-squares analysis. Materials and Methods: The information on reproduction traits of 43 Sahiwal breeding bulls belonging to 8 sets of Sahiwal breeding program at Indian Council of Agricultural Research-National Dairy Research Institute (ICAR-NDRI, Karnal (Haryana, India during 27 years (1987-2013 were analyzed using fixed linear model. The information was collected from AI records, reproduction sheets, and bull AI register maintained at different sections of Institute viz. record room of Dairy Cattle Breeding Division (DCB, Cattle Yard, Artificial Breeding Research Centre, ICAR-NDRI, Karnal. Results: The average age at first semen freezing and age at first semen use of Sahiwal breeding bulls was estimated as 3.17±0.01 years and 5.35±0.01 years, with the coefficient of variation 18.93% and 20%, respectively. The overall least squares mean for age at first semen freezing and age at first semen use was estimated as 3.14±0.09 years and 5.25±0.02 years, respectively, in Sahiwal breeding bulls. Period of freezing/use had significant effects on reproductive traits (p<0.01. Season had no significant effect on any of the traits considered in this study. Conclusion: It can be concluded that management inputs such as nutrition, breeding, and optimum environment should be taken care of to optimize age at first semen freezing and age at first semen use for better utilization of superior germplasm.

  3. BILL E. KUNKLE INTERDISCIPLINARY BEEF SYMPOSIUM: Does tall fescue toxicosis negatively impact bull growth and breeding potential?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, S L; Andrae, J G

    2015-12-01

    The predominant cool-season forage in the southeastern United States is the tall fescue cultivar Kentucky 31 (KY31). Kentucky 31 possesses an endophyte (), which produces a family of toxins called ergot alkaloids. These toxins negatively affect the physiology of animals on consumption and result in the syndrome known as fescue toxicosis. Currently, the United States annually produces approximately 11.4 billion kg of beef, of which 25% originates in the southeastern region of the United States where forage systems frequently are tall fescue based. Cattle within this forage system exhibit reduced gains and reproductive performance. The result is a reduction in the nation's beef supply with annual revenue losses recently estimated at approximately US$1 billion. Our hypothesis is that exposure to these ergot alkaloids in conjunction with limited availability of nutrients decreases bull semen quality and fertility. Although the literature is clear that these toxins affect BW, body temperature, blood flow, hair growth, and female reproduction in cattle, their effect on bull reproduction and the mechanisms through which the toxins act are not well defined. Six studies published from 2004 to 2015 assessed bull growth, body composition, and semen quality of young beef bulls exposed to ergot alkaloids. If semen quality or fertility is altered, the mechanisms involved may be either direct effects of ergot alkaloids through neurotransmitter receptors or indirect effects such as inhibiting the release of prolactin (PRL). The possible effects of ergot alkaloids or PRL require establishing the presence or absence of dopamine, adrenergic, serotonin, or PRL receptors in the testis, epididymis, and sperm cell of the bull. The objective of this review is to relate our findings to the few previous studies conducted that evaluated the impact of fescue toxicosis on bull reproduction and to propose possible mechanisms of action for lowered semen quality.

  4. Genome-wide association study for semen volume and total number of sperm in Holstein-Friesian bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hering, D M; Oleński, K; Ruść, A; Kaminski, S

    2014-12-30

    In artificial insemination industry bulls producing high volume of semen with relatively high concentration of sperm are very desirable since they ensure stable production of commercial straws especially in case of top bulls. The aim of the study was to screen the entire bull genome to identify markers and candidate genes underlying semen volume (SV) and total number of sperm (TNS) in ejaculate produced by Holstein-Friesian bulls. Data on semen production were retrieved from records of AI center and included a population of 877 Holstein-Friesian bulls. Each bull was genotyped using the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip. Genome-wide association analysis was performed with the use of GoldenHelix SVS7 software. An additive model for Linear Regression Analysis was used to estimate the effect of SNP marker for SV and TNS. After Bonferroni correction, 3 markers located on chromosome 22 reached the highest significance (rs41625599, rs41584616, rs42012507) for both traits. In the vicinity of these significant markers 3 genes are located (DCP1A, SFMBT1, TMEM110). Moreover, marker rs110109069 located on chromosome 25 was significantly associated with TNS and marker rs42438348 located on chromosome 10 has been found to be associated with SV. Some additional candidate genes were suggested to be potentially involved in analyzed traits (GALC, PRKCD, PHF7, TLR9, SPATA7). Identifying SNPs associated with the lower total number of sperm may be very useful for early recognition of a young sire as less suitable for effective semen production in artificial insemination centers.

  5. Hybridization between Yellowstone Cutthroat Trout and Rainbow Trout Alters the Expression of Muscle Growth-Related Genes and Their Relationships with Growth Patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl O Ostberg

    Full Text Available Hybridization creates novel gene combinations that may generate important evolutionary novelty, but may also reduce existing adaptation by interrupting inherent biological processes, such as genotype-environment interactions. Hybridization often causes substantial change in patterns of gene expression, which, in turn, may cause phenotypic change. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss and cutthroat trout (O. clarkii produce viable hybrids in the wild, and introgressive hybridization with introduced rainbow trout is a major conservation concern for native cutthroat trout. The two species differ in body shape, which is likely an evolutionary adaptation to their native environments, and their hybrids tend to show intermediate morphology. The characterization of gene expression patterns may provide insights on the genetic basis of hybrid and parental morphologies, as well as on the ecological performance of hybrids in the wild. Here, we evaluated the expression of eight growth-related genes (MSTN-1a, MSTN-1b, MyoD1a, MyoD1b, MRF-4, IGF-1, IGF-2, and CAST-L and the relationship of these genes with growth traits (length, weight, and condition factor in six line crosses: both parental species, both reciprocal F1 hybrids, and both first-generation backcrosses (F1 x rainbow trout and F1 x cutthroat trout. Four of these genes were differentially expressed among rainbow, cutthroat, and their hybrids. Transcript abundance was significantly correlated with growth traits across the parent species, but not across hybrids. Our findings suggest that rainbow and cutthroat trout exhibit differences in muscle growth regulation, that transcriptional networks may be modified by hybridization, and that hybridization disrupts intrinsic relationships between gene expression and growth patterns that may be functionally important for phenotypic adaptations.

  6. Hybridization between Yellowstone Cutthroat Trout and Rainbow Trout Alters the Expression of Muscle Growth-Related Genes and Their Relationships with Growth Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostberg, Carl O; Chase, Dorothy M; Hauser, Lorenz

    2015-01-01

    Hybridization creates novel gene combinations that may generate important evolutionary novelty, but may also reduce existing adaptation by interrupting inherent biological processes, such as genotype-environment interactions. Hybridization often causes substantial change in patterns of gene expression, which, in turn, may cause phenotypic change. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and cutthroat trout (O. clarkii) produce viable hybrids in the wild, and introgressive hybridization with introduced rainbow trout is a major conservation concern for native cutthroat trout. The two species differ in body shape, which is likely an evolutionary adaptation to their native environments, and their hybrids tend to show intermediate morphology. The characterization of gene expression patterns may provide insights on the genetic basis of hybrid and parental morphologies, as well as on the ecological performance of hybrids in the wild. Here, we evaluated the expression of eight growth-related genes (MSTN-1a, MSTN-1b, MyoD1a, MyoD1b, MRF-4, IGF-1, IGF-2, and CAST-L) and the relationship of these genes with growth traits (length, weight, and condition factor) in six line crosses: both parental species, both reciprocal F1 hybrids, and both first-generation backcrosses (F1 x rainbow trout and F1 x cutthroat trout). Four of these genes were differentially expressed among rainbow, cutthroat, and their hybrids. Transcript abundance was significantly correlated with growth traits across the parent species, but not across hybrids. Our findings suggest that rainbow and cutthroat trout exhibit differences in muscle growth regulation, that transcriptional networks may be modified by hybridization, and that hybridization disrupts intrinsic relationships between gene expression and growth patterns that may be functionally important for phenotypic adaptations.

  7. Hybridization between Yellowstone cutthroat trout and rainbow trout alters the expression of muscle growth-related genes and their relationships with growth patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostberg, Carl O.; Chase, Dorothy M.; Hauser, Lorenz

    2015-01-01

    Hybridization creates novel gene combinations that may generate important evolutionary novelty, but may also reduce existing adaptation by interrupting inherent biological processes, such as genotype-environment interactions. Hybridization often causes substantial change in patterns of gene expression, which, in turn, may cause phenotypic change. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and cutthroat trout (O. clarkii) produce viable hybrids in the wild, and introgressive hybridization with introduced rainbow trout is a major conservation concern for native cutthroat trout. The two species differ in body shape, which is likely an evolutionary adaptation to their native environments, and their hybrids tend to show intermediate morphology. The characterization of gene expression patterns may provide insights on the genetic basis of hybrid and parental morphologies, as well as on the ecological performance of hybrids in the wild. Here, we evaluated the expression of eight growth-related genes (MSTN-1a, MSTN-1b, MyoD1a, MyoD1b, MRF-4, IGF-1, IGF-2, and CAST-L) and the relationship of these genes with growth traits (length, weight, and condition factor) in six line crosses: both parental species, both reciprocal F1 hybrids, and both first-generation backcrosses (F1 x rainbow trout and F1 x cutthroat trout). Four of these genes were differentially expressed among rainbow, cutthroat, and their hybrids. Transcript abundance was significantly correlated with growth traits across the parent species, but not across hybrids. Our findings suggest that rainbow and cutthroat trout exhibit differences in muscle growth regulation, that transcriptional networks may be modified by hybridization, and that hybridization disrupts intrinsic relationships between gene expression and growth patterns that may be functionally important for phenotypic adaptations.

  8. Does dispersal from landlocked trout explain the coexistence of resident and migratory trout females in a small stream?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettersson, J.C.E.; Hansen, Michael Møller; Bohlin, T.

    2001-01-01

    The hypothesis that stream-resident females of brown trout Salmo trutta occurring in sympatry with sea-migrant females in a small stream were immigrants from an up-stream allopatric landlocked population was rejected. Genetic differentiation was not detected between the sympatric forms whereas...... the landlocked population into the down-stream population, However. it cannot be precluded that a modest degree of gene Row takes place from the landlocked population and that this may play a role in maintaining the two co-existing life-history forms among females in the down-stream population. (C) 2001...

  9. Association of bGH and Pit-1 gene variants with milk production traits in dairy Gyr bulls.

    OpenAIRE

    Mattos Keiko Kusamura de; Del Lama Silvia Nassif; Martinez Mario Luiz; Freitas Ary Ferreira de

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain genetic marker information in the Gyr breed by analyzing bGH and Pit-1 gene polymorphisms and to verify their association with milk production traits. One sample including 40 Gyr bulls were genotyped at two bGH gene restriction sites (bGH- AluI and bGH-MspI) and at one restriction site in the Pit-1 gene (Pit-1 HinfI). The bGH-MspI(-) allele was favorable for fat milk percentage. The heterozigous Pit-1 HinfI (+/-) bulls were superior for fat milk produ...

  10. Is That Dog a Pit Bull? A Cross-Country Comparison of Perceptions of Shelter Workers Reg