WorldWideScience

Sample records for bull trout distribution

  1. Bull Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for BULL TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  2. Bull trout distribution and abundance in the waters on and bordering the Warm Springs Indian Reservation: 2001 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    of the total habitat. Multiple pass spawning ground surveys were conducted during late August through October in the Warm Springs R. and Shitike Cr. The number of redds enumerated in the Warm Springs R. declined substantially from 1998-2000 observations. Total redds recorded in Shitike Cr. was higher than 2000, but fewer than observed in 1998-1999. Spatial and temporal distribution in spawning within Warm Springs R. and Shitike Cr. is discussed. Juvenile emigration was monitored in Shitike Cr. The number of emigrants was the highest recorded since 1996. As in past years both a spring and fall migration period was observed. Adult escapement was monitored in the Warm Spring R. and Shitike Cr. The number of adults recorded passing the Warm Springs National Fish Hatchery weir was the second highest recorded since 1995. An adult trap was successfully operated in Shitike Cr. Eighty adult bull trout were enumerated during 2001

  3. Status of Oregon's Bull Trout.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, David V.; Hanson, Mary L.; Hooton, Robert M.

    1997-10-01

    Limited historical references indicate that bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in Oregon were once widely spread throughout at least 12 basins in the Klamath River and Columbia River systems. No bull trout have been observed in Oregon's coastal systems. A total of 69 bull trout populations in 12 basins are currently identified in Oregon. A comparison of the 1991 bull trout status (Ratliff and Howell 1992) to the revised 1996 status found that 7 populations were newly discovered and 1 population showed a positive or upgraded status while 22 populations showed a negative or downgraded status. The general downgrading of 32% of Oregon's bull trout populations appears largely due to increased survey efforts and increased survey accuracy rather than reduced numbers or distribution. However, three populations in the upper Klamath Basin, two in the Walla Walla Basin, and one in the Willamette Basin showed decreases in estimated population abundance or distribution.

  4. Bull Trout Life History, Genetics, Habitat Needs, and Limiting Factors in Central and Northeast Oregon. Annual Report 1996.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellerud, Blane L.; Gunckel, Stephanie; Hemmingsen, Alan R.; Buchanan, David V.; Howell, Philip J.

    1997-10-01

    This study is part of a multi-year research project studying aspects of bull trout life history, ecology and genetics. This report covers the activities of the project in 1996. Results and analysis are presented in the following five areas: (1) analysis of the genetic structure of Oregon bull trout populations; (2) distribution and habitat use of bull trout and brook trout in streams containing both species; (3) bull trout spawning surveys; (4) summary and analysis of historical juvenile bull trout downstream migrant trap catches in the Grande Ronde basin; and (5) food habits and feeding behavior of bull trout alone and in sympatry with brook trout.

  5. Bull trout life history, genetics, habitat needs, and limiting factors in Central and Northeast Oregon. Annual report 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is part of a multi-year research project studying aspects of bull trout life history, ecology and genetics. This report covers the activities of the project in 1996. Results and analysis are presented in the following five areas: (1) analysis of the genetic structure of Oregon bull trout populations; (2) distribution and habitat use of bull trout and brook trout in streams containing both species; (3) bull trout spawning surveys; (4) summary and analysis of historical juvenile bull trout downstream migrant trap catches in the Grande Ronde basin; and (5) food habits and feeding behavior of bull trout alone and in sympatry with brook trout

  6. Bull Trout Spawning Surveys: Kootenai National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bull trout are listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act and Myrtle Creek was designated as critical habitat for bull trout this year. Myrtle Creek...

  7. Malheur River Basin cooperative bull trout/redband trout research project, annual report FY 1999; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to document the seasonal distribution of adult/sub-adult bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Malheur River basin. Due to the decline of bull trout in the Columbia Basin, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service listed bull trout as a threatened species in June 1998. Past land management activities; construction of dams; and fish eradication projects in the North Fork and Middle Fork Malheur River by poisoning have worked in concert to cumulatively impact native species in the Malheur Basin (Bowers et. al. 1993). Survival of the remaining bull trout populations is severely threatened (Buchanan 1997). 1999 Research Objects are: (1) Document the migratory patterns of adult/sub-adult bull trout in the North Fork Malheur River; (2) Determine the seasonal bull trout use of Beulah Reservoir and bull trout entrainment; and (3) Timing and location of bull trout spawning in the North Fork Malheur River basin. The study area includes the Malheur basin from the mouth of the Malheur River located near Ontario, Oregon to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur River (Map 1). All fish collected and most of the telemetry effort was done on the North Fork Malheur River subbasin (Map 2). Fish collection was conducted on the North Fork Malheur River at the tailwaters of Beulah Reservoir (RK 29), Beulah Reservoir (RK 29-RK 33), and in the North Fork Malheur River at Crane Crossing (RK 69) to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur. Radio telemetry was done from the mouth of the Malheur River in Ontario, Oregon to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur. This report will reflect all migration data collected from 3/1/99 to 12/31/99

  8. Bull trout population assessment in the Columbia River Gorge/annual report fy2000; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We summarized existing knowledge regarding the known distribution of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) across four sub-basins in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington. The Wind River, Little White Salmon River, White Salmon River, and the Klickitat River sub-basins were analyzed. Cold water is essential to the survival, spawning, and rearing of bull trout. We analyzed existing temperature data, installed Onset temperature loggers in the areas of the four sub-basins where data was not available, and determined that mean daily water temperatures were and lt;15 C and appropriate for spawning and rearing of bull trout. We snorkel surveyed more than 74 km (46.25 mi.) of rivers and streams in the four sub-basins (13.8 km at night and 60.2 km during the day) and found that night snorkeling was superior to day snorkeling for locating bull trout. Surveys incorporated the Draft Interim Protocol for Determining Bull Trout Presence (Peterson et al. In Press). However, due to access and safety issues, we were unable to randomly select sample sites nor use block nets as recommended. Additionally, we also implemented the Bull Trout/Dolly Varden sampling methodology described in Bonar et al. (1997). No bull trout were found in the Wind River, Little White Salmon, or White Salmon River sub-basins. We found bull trout in the West Fork Klickitat drainage of the Klickitat River Sub-basin. Bull trout averaged 6.7 fish/100m(sup 2) in Trappers Creek, 2.6 fish/100m(sup 2) on Clearwater Creek, and 0.4 fish/100m(sup 2) in Little Muddy Creek. Bull trout was the only species of salmonid encountered in Trappers Creek and dominated in Clearwater Creek. Little Muddy Creek was the only creek where bull trout and introduced brook trout occurred together. We found bull trout only at night and typically in low flow regimes. A single fish, believed to be a bull trout x brook trout hybrid, was observed in the Little Muddy Creek. Additional surveys are needed in the West Fork Klickitat and mainstem

  9. Bull Trout Life History, Genetics, Habitat Needs, and Limiting Fact in Central and Northeast Oregon. Annual Report 1999.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmingsen, Alan R.; Gunckel, Stephanie L.; Howell, Philip J.

    2001-08-01

    This section describes work accomplished in 1999 that continued to address two objectives of this project. These objectives are (1) determine the distribution of juvenile and adult bull trout Salvelinus confluentus and habitats associated with that distribution, and (2) determine fluvial and resident bull trout life history patterns. Completion of these objectives is intended through studies of bull trout in the Grande Ronde, Walla Walla, and John Day basins. These basins were selected because they provide a variety of habitats, from relatively degraded to pristine, and bull trout populations were thought to vary from relatively depressed to robust. In all three basins we used radio telemetry to determine the seasonal movements of bull trout. In the John Day and Walla Walla basins we also used traps to capture migrant bull trout. With these traps, we intended to determine the timing of bull trout movements both upstream and downstream, determine the relative abundance, size and age of migrant fish, and capture bull trout to be implanted with radio transmitters. In the John Day basin, we captured adult and juvenile bull trout from the upper John Day River and its tributaries, Call Creek, Reynolds Creek, and Roberts Creek. In the Walla Walla basin, we captured adult and juvenile bull trout from Mill Creek.

  10. Monitor and Protect Wigwam River Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir; White River Bull Trout Enumeration Project Summary, Progress Report 2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cope, R.

    2004-02-01

    This report summarizes the first year of a three-year bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) enumeration project on the White River and is a co-operative initiative of the British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land, and Air Protection and Bonneville Power Administration. The White River has been identified as an important bull trout spawning tributary of the upper Kootenay River in southeastern British Columbia. The objective was to collect information on the returning adult spawning population to the White River through the use of a fish fence and traps, and to conduct redd surveys at the conclusion of spawning to provide an index of spawning escapement and distribution. The fence was installed on September 9th, 2003 and was operated continuously (i.e. no high-water or breaching events) until the fence was removed on October 9th, 2003. Estimation of the spawning population of White River bull trout was incomplete. This was due to a larger and more protracted out-migration than expected. As a result, the bull trout spawning population of the White River was estimated to be somewhere above 899 fish. In comparison, this represents approximately one third the population estimate of the 2003 Wigwam River bull trout spawning population. Based on redd index data, the number of bull trout per redd was over twice that of the Wigwam River or Skookumchuck Creek. This was expected as the index sites on the Wigwam River and Skookumchuck Creek cover the majority of the spawning area. This is not true on the White River. From previous redd counts, it is known that there are approximately twice as many redds in Blackfoot Creek as there are in the index site. Additionally, given the large size of the White River watershed and in particular, the large number of tributaries, there is a high likelihood that important bull trout spawning areas remain unidentified. Both floy tag and radio-telemetry data for the White River bull trout have identified extensive life history migrations

  11. Bull Trout Life History, Genetics, Habitat Needs, and Limiting Factors in Central and Northeast Oregon, Annual Report 2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmingsen, Alan R.; Gunckel, Stephanie L.; Sankovich, Paul M.; Howell, Philip J.

    2001-11-01

    This section describes work accomplished in 2000 that continued to address two objectives of this project. These objectives are (1) determine the distribution of juvenile and adult bull trout Salvelinus confluentus and habitats associated with that distribution, and (2) determine fluvial and resident bull trout life history patterns. Completion of these objectives is intended through studies of bull trout in the Grande Ronde, Walla Walla, and John Day basins. These basins were selected because they provide a variety of habitats, from relatively degraded to pristine, and bull trout populations were thought to vary from relatively depressed to robust. In all three basins we continued to monitor the movements of bull trout with radio transmitters applied in 1998 (Hemmingsen, Bellerud, Gunckel and Howell 2001) and 1999 (Hemmingsen, Gunckel and Howell 2001). No new radio transmitters were applied to bull trout of the upper John Day River subbasin, Mill Creek (Walla Walla Basin), or the Grande Ronde Basin in 2000. We did implant radio transmitters in two bull trout incidentally captured in the John Day River near the confluence of the North Fork John Day River. In Mill Creek, we used traps to capture migrant bull trout to obtain data for the third successive year in this stream. With these traps, we intended to determine the timing of bull trout movements both upstream and downstream, and to determine the relative abundance, size and age of migrant fish. Because we captured migrant bull trout with traps for three years in the upper John Day River and its tributaries (Hemmingsen, Bellerud, Buchanan, Gunckel, Shappart and Howell 2001; Hemmingsen, Bellerud, Gunckel and Howell 2001; Hemmingsen, Gunckel and Howell 2001) and traps were no longer needed to capture bull trout for radio-tagging, no traps were operated in the John Day Basin in 2000.

  12. Bull trout life history, genetics, habitat needs, and limiting fact in central and northeast Oregon, annual report 2000.; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section describes work accomplished in 2000 that continued to address two objectives of this project. These objectives are (1) determine the distribution of juvenile and adult bull trout Salvelinus confluentus and habitats associated with that distribution, and (2) determine fluvial and resident bull trout life history patterns. Completion of these objectives is intended through studies of bull trout in the Grande Ronde, Walla Walla, and John Day basins. These basins were selected because they provide a variety of habitats, from relatively degraded to pristine, and bull trout populations were thought to vary from relatively depressed to robust. In all three basins we continued to monitor the movements of bull trout with radio transmitters applied in 1998 (Hemmingsen, Bellerud, Gunckel and Howell 2001) and 1999 (Hemmingsen, Gunckel and Howell 2001). No new radio transmitters were applied to bull trout of the upper John Day River subbasin, Mill Creek (Walla Walla Basin), or the Grande Ronde Basin in 2000. We did implant radio transmitters in two bull trout incidentally captured in the John Day River near the confluence of the North Fork John Day River. In Mill Creek, we used traps to capture migrant bull trout to obtain data for the third successive year in this stream. With these traps, we intended to determine the timing of bull trout movements both upstream and downstream, and to determine the relative abundance, size and age of migrant fish. Because we captured migrant bull trout with traps for three years in the upper John Day River and its tributaries (Hemmingsen, Bellerud, Buchanan, Gunckel, Shappart and Howell 2001; Hemmingsen, Bellerud, Gunckel and Howell 2001; Hemmingsen, Gunckel and Howell 2001) and traps were no longer needed to capture bull trout for radio-tagging, no traps were operated in the John Day Basin in 2000

  13. Adaptive Management of Bull Trout Populations in the Lemhi Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, James T.; Tyre, Andrew J.; Converse, Sarah J.; Bogich, Tiffany L.; Miller, Damien; Post van der Burg, Max; Thomas, Carmen; Thompson, Ralph J.; Wood, Jeri; Brewer, Donna; Runge, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    The bull trout Salvelinus confluentus, a stream-living salmonid distributed in drainages of the northwestern United States, is listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act because of rangewide declines. One proposed recovery action is the reconnection of tributaries in the Lemhi Basin. Past water use policies in this core area disconnected headwater spawning sites from downstream habitat and have led to the loss of migratory life history forms. We developed an adaptive management framework to analyze which types of streams should be prioritized for reconnection under a proposed Habitat Conservation Plan. We developed a Stochastic Dynamic Program that identified optimal policies over time under four different assumptions about the nature of the migratory behavior and the effects of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis on subpopulations of bull trout. In general, given the current state of the system and the uncertainties about the dynamics, the optimal policy would be to connect streams that are currently occupied by bull trout. We also estimated the value of information as the difference between absolute certainty about which of our four assumptions were correct, and a model averaged optimization assuming no knowledge. Overall there is little to be gained by learning about the dynamics of the system in its current state, although in other parts of the state space reducing uncertainties about the system would be very valuable. We also conducted a sensitivity analysis; the optimal decision at the current state does not change even when parameter values are changed up to 75% of the baseline values. Overall, the exercise demonstrates that it is possible to apply adaptive management principles to threatened and endangered species, but logistical and data availability constraints make detailed analyses difficult.

  14. Are brown trout replacing or displacing bull trout populations in a changing climate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Schmetterling, David A.; Clancy, Chris; Saffel, Pat; Kovach, Ryan; Nyce, Leslie; Liermann, Brad; Fredenberg, Wade A.; Pierce, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how climate change may facilitate species turnover is an important step in identifying potential conservation strategies. We used data from 33 sites in western Montana to quantify climate associations with native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and non-native brown trout (Salmo trutta) abundance and population growth rates (λ). We estimated λ using exponential growth state space models and delineated study sites based on bull trout use for either Spawning and Rearing (SR) or Foraging, Migrating, and Overwintering (FMO) habitat. Bull trout abundance was negatively associated with mean August stream temperatures within SR habitat (r = -0.75). Brown trout abundance was generally highest at temperatures between 12 and 14°C. We found bull trout λ were generally stable at sites with mean August temperature below 10°C but significantly decreasing, rare, or extirpated at 58% of the sites with temperatures exceeding 10°C. Brown trout λ were highest in SR and sites with temperatures exceeding 12°C. Declining bull trout λs at sites where brown trout were absent suggests brown trout are likely replacing bull trout in a warming climate.

  15. Bull Trout Life History, Genetics, Habitat Needs, and Limiting Factors in Central and Northeast Oregon, Annual Report 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmingsen, Alan R.; Gunckel, Stephanie L.; Sankovich, Paul M.; Howell, Philip J.

    2002-12-01

    Bull trout Salvelinus confluentus exhibit a number of life history strategies. Stream-resident bull trout complete their life cycle in their natal tributaries. Migratory bull trout spawn in tributary streams where juvenile fish usually spend from one to four years before migrating to either a larger river (fluvial) or lake (adfluvial) where they rear before returning to the tributary stream to spawn (Fraley and Shepard 1989). These migratory forms occur where conditions allow movement from spawning locations to downstream waters that provide greater foraging opportunities (Dunham and Rieman 1999). Resident and migratory forms may occur together, and either form can produce resident or migratory offspring (Rieman and McIntyre 1993). The ability to migrate is important to the persistence of local bull trout populations (Rieman and McIntyre 1993). The identification of migratory corridors can help focus habitat protection efforts. Determining the life history form(s) that comprise local populations, the timing of seasonal movements, and the geographic extent of these movements are critical to bull trout protection and recovery efforts. This section describes work accomplished in 2001 that continued to address two objectives of this project. These objectives are (1) determine the distribution of juvenile and adult bull trout and habitats associated with that distribution, and (2) determine fluvial and resident bull trout life history patterns. Completion of these objectives is intended through studies of bull trout in the Grande Ronde, Walla Walla, and John Day basins. These basins were selected because they provide a variety of habitats, from relatively degraded to pristine, and bull trout populations were thought to vary from relatively depressed to robust. In the Grande Ronde and Walla Walla basins, we continued to monitor the movements of bull trout with radio transmitters applied in 1998 (Hemmingsen, Bellerud, Gunckel and Howell 2001) and 1999 (Hemmingsen, Gunckel

  16. Effects of roads on bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), a federally threatened species

    OpenAIRE

    Teachout, Emily; Quan, Jennifer

    2001-01-01

    The bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) is federally listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. Bull trout are apex predators requiring a large prey base and a large home range, and are known to move throughout and between basins in search of prey. However, bull trout are dependent upon very cold, clean waters for spawning (below 9 degrees Celsius) and are typically characterized as spawning in the upper-most reaches of watersheds. Bull trout have four life history forms: resident...

  17. Swimming endurance of bull trout, lake trout, arctic char, and rainbow trout following challenge with Renibacterium salmoninarum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D.T.; Moffitt, C.M.

    2004-01-01

    We tested the swimming endurance of juvenile bull trout Salvelinus confluentus, lake trout S. namaycush, Arctic char S. alpinus, and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss at 9??C and 15??C to determine whether sublethal infection from a moderate challenge of Renibacterium salmoninarum administered months before testing affected the length of time fish could maintain a swimming speed of 5-6 body lengths per second in an experimental flume. Rainbow trout and Arctic char swam longer in trials than did bull trout or lake trout, regardless of challenge treatment. When we tested fish 14-23 weeks postchallenge, we found no measurable effect of R. salmoninarum on the swimming endurance of the study species except for bull trout, which showed a mixed response. We conducted additional trials with bull trout 5-8 weeks postchallenge to determine whether increasing the challenge dose would affect swimming endurance and hematocrit. In those tests, bull trout with clinical signs of disease and those exposed to the highest challenge doses had significantly reduced swimming endurance compared with unchallenged control fish. Fish hematocrit levels measured at the end of all swimming endurance tests varied among species and between test temperatures, and patterns were not always consistent between challenged and control fish.

  18. Evaluate Bull Trout Movements in the Tucannon and Lower Snake Rivers, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faler, Michael P. (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Fishery Resource Office, Ahsahka, ID); Mendel, Glen W.; Fulton, Carl (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Fish Management Division, Dayton, WA)

    2003-06-01

    We collected, radio-tagged, and PIT-tagged 41 bull trout at the Tucannon River Hatchery trap from May 17, through June 14, 2002. An additional 65 bull trout were also collected and PIT tagged by June 24, at which time we ceased PIT tagging operations because water temperatures were reaching 16.0 C or higher on a regular basis. Six radio-tags were recovered shortly after tagging, and as a result, 35 remained in the river through November 30, 2002. During the month of July, radio-tagged bull trout exhibited a general upstream movement into the upper reaches of the Tucannon Subbasin. We began to observe some downstream movements of radio-tagged bull trout in mid to late September and throughout October. These movements appeared to be associated with post spawning migrations. As of November 30, radio tagged bull trout were relatively stationary, and distributed from the headwaters downstream to river mile 11.3, near Pataha Creek. None of the radio-tagged bull trout left the Tucannon Subbasin and entered the federal hydropower system on the mainstem Snake River. We conducted some initial transmission tests of submerged radio tags at depths of 25, 35, 45, and 55 ft. in Lower Monumental Pool to test our capability of detection at these depths. Equipment used included Lotek model MCFT-3A transmitters, an SRX 400 receiver, a 4 element Yagi antenna, and a Lotek ''H'' antenna. Test results indicated that depth transmission of these tags was poor; only the transmitter placed at 25 ft. was audibly detectable.

  19. Evaluate Bull Trout Movements in the Tucannon and Lower Snake Rivers, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faler, Michael P. (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Fishery Resource Office, Ahsahka, ID); Mendel, Glen W.; Fulton, Carl (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Fish Management Division, Dayton, WA)

    2004-04-01

    We collected 279 adult bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Tucannon River during the Spring and Fall of 2003. Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags were inserted in 191 of them, and we detected existing PIT tags in an additional 31bull trout. Thirty five of these were also surgically implanted with radio-tags, and we monitored the movements of these fish throughout the year. Fourteen radio-tags were recovered shortly after tagging, and as a result, 21 remained in the river through December 31, 2003. Four bull trout that were radio-tagged in spring 2002 were known to survive and carry their tags through the spring and/or summer of 2003. One of these fish spent the winter near river mile (RM) 13.0; the other 3 over-wintered in the vicinity of the Tucannon Hatchery between RM 34 and 36. Twenty-one radio tags from bull trout tagged in 2002 were recovered during the spring and summer, 2003. These tags became stationary the winter of 2002/2003, and were recovered between RM 11 and 55. We were unable to recover the remaining 15 tags from 2002. During the month of July, radio-tagged bull trout exhibited a general upstream movement into the upper reaches of the Tucannon subbasin. We observed some downstream movements of radio-tagged bull trout in mid to late September and throughout October. By late November and early December, radio tagged bull trout were relatively stationary, and were distributed from the headwaters downstream to river mile 6.4, near Lower Monumental Pool. As in 2002, we did not conduct work associated with objectives 2, 3, or 4 of this study, because we were unable to monitor migratory movement of radio-tagged bull trout into the Federal hydropower system on the mainstem Snake River. Transmission tests of submerged ATS model F1830 radio-tags in Lower Granite Pool showed that audible detection and individual tag identification was possible at depths of 20 and 30 ft. Tests were conducted using an ATS R-4000 Receiver equipped with an &apos

  20. Assessing the feasibility of native fish reintroductions: a framework and example applied to bull trout in the Clackamas River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Jason B.; Gallo, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    In a species conservation context, translocations can be an important tool, but they frequently fail to successfully establish new populations. We consider the case of reintroductions for bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), a federally-listed threatened species with a widespread but declining distribution in western North America. Our specific objectives in this work were to: 1) develop a general framework for assessing the feasibility of reintroduction for bull trout, 2) provide a detailed example of implementing this framework to assess the feasibility of reintroducing bull trout in the Clackamas River, Oregon, and 3) discuss the implications of this effort in the more general context of fish reintroductions as a conservation tool. Review of several case histories and our assessment of the Clackamas River suggest that an attempt to reintroduce bull trout could be successful, assuming adequate resources are committed to the subsequent stages of implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.

  1. Bull Trout Population and Habitat Surveys in the Middle Fork Willamette and McKenzie Rivers, Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seals, Jason; Reis, Kelly

    2003-10-01

    Bull trout in the Willamette River Basin were historically distributed throughout major tributaries including the Middle Fork Willamette and McKenzie rivers. Habitat degradation, over-harvest, passage barriers, fish removal by rotenone, and hybridization and competition with non-native brook trout are all likely factors that have led to the decline of bull trout in the Willamette Basin (Ratliff and Howell 1992). The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service listed the Columbia River bull trout population segment as Threatened under the federal Endangered Species Act in 1998. Four bull trout populations were isolated in the upper Willamette River following the construction of flood control dams on the South Fork McKenzie River, McKenzie River, and Middle Fork Willamette River that created Cougar, Trail Bridge, and Hills Creek reservoirs. Buchanan et al. (1997) described the population in the main stem McKenzie as 'of special concern', the South Fork McKenzie population as 'high risk of extinction', the population above Trail Bridge Reservoir as 'high risk of extinction', and bull trout in the Middle Fork Willamette as 'probably extinct'. Various management efforts such as strict angling regulations and passage improvement projects have been implemented to stabilize and rehabilitate bull trout habitat and populations in the McKenzie River over the past 10 years. Since 1997, bull trout fry from Anderson Creek on the upper McKenzie River have been transferred to the Middle Fork Willamette basin above Hills Creek Reservoir in an attempt to re-establish a reproducing bull trout population. This project was developed in response to concerns over the population status and management of bull trout in the McKenzie and Middle Fork Willamette Rivers by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife during the early 1990s. The project was conducted under measure 9.3G(2) of the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program to monitor the status, life history

  2. Evaluation of the Life History of Native Salmonids in the Malheur River Basin; Cooperative Bull Trout/Redband Trout Research Project, 1999-2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwabe, Lawrence; Tiley, Mark (Burns Paiute Tribe, Department of Fish and Wildlife, Burns, OR); Perkins, Raymond R. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Ontario, OR)

    2000-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to document the seasonal distribution of adult/sub-adult bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Malheur River basin. Due to the decline of bull trout in the Columbia Basin, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service listed bull trout as a threatened species in June 1998. Past land management activities; construction of dams; and fish eradication projects in the North Fork and Middle Fork Malheur River by poisoning have worked in concert to cumulatively impact native species in the Malheur Basin (Bowers et. al. 1993). Survival of the remaining bull trout populations is severely threatened (Buchanan 1997). 1999 Research Objects are: (1) Document the migratory patterns of adult/sub-adult bull trout in the North Fork Malheur River; (2) Determine the seasonal bull trout use of Beulah Reservoir and bull trout entrainment; and (3) Timing and location of bull trout spawning in the North Fork Malheur River basin. The study area includes the Malheur basin from the mouth of the Malheur River located near Ontario, Oregon to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur River (Map 1). All fish collected and most of the telemetry effort was done on the North Fork Malheur River subbasin (Map 2). Fish collection was conducted on the North Fork Malheur River at the tailwaters of Beulah Reservoir (RK 29), Beulah Reservoir (RK 29-RK 33), and in the North Fork Malheur River at Crane Crossing (RK 69) to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur. Radio telemetry was done from the mouth of the Malheur River in Ontario, Oregon to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur. This report will reflect all migration data collected from 3/1/99 to 12/31/99.

  3. Relative sensitivity of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to acute copper toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James A; Lipton, Josh; Welsh, Paul G

    2002-03-01

    Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) were recently listed as threatened in the United States under the federal Endangered Species Act. Past and present habitat for this species includes waterways contaminated with heavy metals released from mining activities. Because the sensitivity of this species to copper was previously unknown, we conducted acute copper toxicity tests with bull and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in side-by-side comparison tests. Bioassays were conducted using water at two temperatures (8 degrees C and 16 degrees C) and two hardness levels (100 and 220 mg/L as CaCO3). At a water hardness of 100 mg/L, both species were less sensitive to copper when tested at 16 degrees C compared to 8 degrees C. The two species had similar sensitivity to copper in 100-mg/ L hardness water, but bull trout were 2.5 to 4 times less sensitive than rainbow trout in 220-mg/L hardness water. However, when our results were viewed in the context of the broader literature on rainbow trout sensitivity to copper, the sensitivities of the two species appeared similar. This suggests that adoption of toxicity thresholds that are protective of rainbow trout would be protective of bull trout; however, an additional safety factor may be warranted because of the additional level of protection necessary for this federally threatened species. PMID:11878477

  4. Evaluate Bull Trout Movements in the Tucannon and Lower Snake Rivers, 2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faler, Michael P. (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Fishery Resource Office, Ahsahka, ID); Mendel, Glen W.; Fulton, Carl (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Fish Management Division, Dayton, WA)

    2005-11-01

    We sampled and released 313 bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) from the Tucannon River in 2004. Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags were inserted in 231 of these individuals, and we detected existing PIT tags in an additional 44 bull trout. Twenty-five of these were also surgically implanted with radio-tags, and we monitored the movements of these fish throughout the year. Ten bull trout that were radio-tagged in 2003 were known to survive and carry their tags through the spring of 2004. One of these fish outmigrated into the Snake River in the fall, and remained undetected until February, when it's tag was located near the confluence of Alkali Flat Creek and the Snake River. The remaining 9 fish spent the winter between Tucannon River miles 2.1 (Powers Road) and 36.0 (Tucannon Fish Hatchery). Seven of these fish retained their tags through the summer, and migrated to known spawning habitat prior to September 2004. During June and July, radio-tagged bull trout again exhibited a general upstream movement into the upper reaches of the Tucannon subbasin. As in past years, we observed some downstream movements of radio-tagged bull trout in mid to late September and throughout October, suggesting post spawning outmigrations. By late November and early December, radio tagged bull trout were relatively stationary, and were distributed from river mile 42 at Camp Wooten downstream to river mile 17, near the Highway 12 bridge. As in previous years, we did not collect data associated with objectives 2, 3, or 4 of this study, because we were unable to monitor migratory movement of radio-tagged bull trout into the vicinity of the hydropower dams on the main stem Snake River. Transmission tests of submerged Lotek model NTC-6-2 nano-tags in Lower Granite Pool showed that audible detection and individual tag identification was possible at depths of 20, 30, and 40 ft. We were able to maintain tag detection and code separation at all depths from both a boat and 200 ft

  5. Temporary Restoration of Bull Trout Passage at Albeni Falls Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paluch, Mark; Scholz, Allan; McLellan, Holly [Eastern Washington University Department of Biology; Olson, Jason [Kalispel Tribe of Indians Natural Resources Department

    2009-07-13

    This study was designed to monitor movements of bull trout that were provided passage above Albeni Falls Dam, Pend Oreille River. Electrofishing and angling were used to collect bull trout below the dam. Tissue samples were collected from each bull trout and sent to the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service Abernathy Fish Technology Center Conservation Genetics Lab, Washington. The DNA extracted from tissue samples were compared to a catalog of bull trout population DNA from the Priest River drainage, Lake Pend Oreille tributaries, and the Clark Fork drainage to determine the most probable tributary of origin. A combined acoustic radio or radio tag was implanted in each fish prior to being transported and released above the dam. Bull trout relocated above the dam were able to volitionally migrate into their natal tributary, drop back downstream, or migrate upstream to the next dam. A combination of stationary radio receiving stations and tracking via aircraft, boat, and vehicle were used to monitor the movement of tagged fish to determine if the spawning tributary it selected matched the tributary assigned from the genetic analysis. Seven bull trout were captured during electrofishing surveys in 2008. Of these seven, four were tagged and relocated above the dam. Two were tagged and left below the dam as part of a study monitoring movements below the dam. One was immature and too small at the time of capture to implant a tracking tag. All four fish released above the dam passed by stationary receivers stations leading into Lake Pend Oreille and no fish dropped back below the dam. One of the radio tags was recovered in the tributary corresponding with the results of the genetic test. Another fish was located in the vicinity of its assigned tributary, which was impassable due to low water discharge at its mouth. Two fish have not been located since entering the lake. Of these fish, one was immature and not expected to enter its natal tributary in the fall of 2008. The other

  6. Evaluation of Bull Trout Movements in the Tucannon and Lower Snake Rivers, 2002-2006 Project Completion Summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faler, Michael P. [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; Mendel, Glen; Fulton, Carl [Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife

    2008-11-20

    The Columbia River Distinct Population Segment of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) was listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 1998. One of the identified major threats to the species is fragmentation resulting from dams on over-wintering habitats of migratory subpopulations. A migratory subgroup in the Tucannon River appeared to utilize the Snake River reservoirs for adult rearing on a seasonal basis. As a result, a radio telemetry study was conducted on this subgroup from 2002-2006, to help meet Reasonable and Prudent Measures, and Conservation Recommendations associated with the lower Snake River dams in the FCRPS Biological Opinion, and to increase understanding of bull trout movements within the Tucannon River drainage. We sampled 1,109 bull trout in the Tucannon River; 124 of these were surgically implanted with radio tags and PIT tagged, and 681 were only PIT tagged. The remaining 304 fish were either recaptures, or released unmarked. Bull trout seasonal movements within the Tucannon River were similar to those described for other migratory bull trout populations. Bull trout migrated upstream in spring and early summer to the spawning areas in upper portions of the Tucannon River watershed. They quickly moved off the spawning areas in the fall, and either held or continued a slower migration downstream through the winter until early the following spring. During late fall and winter, bull trout were distributed in the lower half of the Tucannon River basin, down to and including the mainstem Snake River below Little Goose Dam. We were unable to adequately radio track bull trout in the Snake River and evaluate their movements or interactions with the federal hydroelectric dams for the following reasons: (1) none of our radio-tagged fish were detected attempting to pass a Snake River dam, (2) our radio tags had poor transmission capability at depths greater than 12.2 m, and (3) the sample size of fish that actually entered the Snake River

  7. Monitor and Protect Wigwam River Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir : Summary of the Skookumchuck Creek Bull Trout Enumeration Project, Annual Report 2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, James S.; Baxter, Jeremy

    2001-02-01

    An enumeration fence and traps were installed on Skookumchuck Creek from September 7 th to October 16 th to enable the capture of post-spawning bull trout emigrating out of the watershed. During the study period, a total of 252 bull trout were sampled through the enumeration fence. Length, weight, and sex were determined for all but one of the 252 bull trout captured. In total, one fish of undetermined sex, 63 males and 188 females were processed through the fence. A total of 67 bull trout were observed on a snorkel survey prior to the fence being removed on October 16 th . Coupled with the fence count, the total bull trout count during this project was 319 fish. Several other species of fish were captured at the enumeration fence including westslope cutthroat trout, Rocky Mountain whitefish, kokanee, sucker, and Eastern brook trout. Redds were observed during ground surveys in three different locations (river km 27.5- 28.5, km 29-30, and km 24-25). The largest concentration of redds were noted in the upper two sections which have served as the index sections over the past four years. A total of 197 bull trout redds were enumerated on the ground on October 4 th . The majority of redds (n=189) were observed in the 3.0 km index section (river km 27.5-30.5) that has been surveyed over the past four years. The additional 8 redds were observed in a 1.5 km section (river km 24.0-25.5). Summary plots of water temperature for Bradford Creek, Sandown Creek, Skookumchuck Creek at km 39.5, and Skookumchuck Creek at the fence site suggested that water temperatures were within the range preferred by bull trout for spawning, egg incubation, and rearing.

  8. Wigwam River juvenile bull trout and fish habitat monitoring program: 2000 data report; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Wigwam River bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and fish habitat monitoring program is a trans-boundary initiative implemented by the British Columbia Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks (MOE), in cooperation with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The Wigwam River is an important fisheries stream located in southeastern British Columbia that supports healthy populations of both bull trout and Westslope cutthroat trout (Figure 1.1). This river has been characterized as the single most important bull trout spawning stream in the Kootenay Region (Baxter and Westover 2000, Cope 1998). In addition, the Wigwam River supports some of the largest Westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) in the Kootenay Region. These fish are highly sought after by anglers (Westover 1999a, 1999b). Bull trout populations have declined in many areas of their range within Montana and throughout the northwest including British Columbia. Bull trout were blue listed as vulnerable in British Columbia by the B.C. Conservation Data Center (Cannings 1993) and although there are many healthy populations of bull trout in the East Kootenays they remain a species of special concern. Bull trout in the United States portion of the Columbia River were listed as threatened in 1998 under the Endangered Species Act by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The upper Kootenay River is within the Kootenai sub-basin of the Mountain Columbia Province, one of the eleven Eco-provinces that make up the Columbia River Basin. MOE applied for and received funding from BPA to assess and monitor the status of wild, native stocks of bull trout in tributaries to Lake Koocanusa (Libby Reservoir) and the upper Kootenay River. This task is one of many that was undertaken to ''Monitor and Protect Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir'' (BPA Project Number 2000-04-00)

  9. Wigwam River Juvenile Bull Trout and Fish Habitat Monitoring Program : 2002 Data Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cope, R.S. [Westslope Fisheries, Cranbrook, BC, Canada

    2003-03-01

    The Wigwam River bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and fish habitat monitoring program is a trans-boundary initiative implemented by the British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land, and Air Protection (MWLAP), in cooperation with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The Wigwam River is an important fisheries stream located in southeastern British Columbia that supports healthy populations of both bull trout and Westslope cutthroat trout (Figure 1). This river has been characterized as the single most important bull trout spawning stream in the Kootenay Region (Baxter and Westover 2000, Cope 1998). In addition, the Wigwam River supports some of the largest Westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) in the Kootenay Region. These fish are highly sought after by anglers (Westover 1999a, 1999b). Bull trout populations have declined in many areas of their range within Montana and throughout the northwest including British Columbia. Bull trout were blue listed as vulnerable in British Columbia by the B.C. Conservation Data Center (Cannings 1993) and although there are many healthy populations of bull trout in the East Kootenay they remain a species of special concern. Bull trout in the United States portion of the Columbia River were listed as threatened in 1998 under the Endangered Species Act by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The upper Kootenay River is within the Kootenai sub-basin of the Mountain Columbia Province, one of the eleven Eco-provinces that make up the Columbia River Basin. MWLAP applied for and received funding from BPA to assess and monitor the status of wild, native stocks of bull trout in tributaries to Lake Koocanusa (Libby Reservoir) and the upper Kootenay River. This task is one of many that were undertaken to ''Monitor and Protect Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir'' (BPA Project Number 2000-04-00).

  10. Kootenai River Fisheries Investigations; Rainbow and Bull Trout Recruitment, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, Jody P.

    2004-01-01

    Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss provide the most important sport fishery in the Kootenai River, Idaho, but densities and catch rates are low. Low recruitment is one possible factor limiting the rainbow trout population. Bull trout Salvelinus confluentus also exist in the Kootenai River, but little is known about this population. Research reported here addresses the following objectives for the Kootenai River, Idaho: increase rainbow trout recruitment, identify rainbow and bull trout spawning tributaries and migration timing, establish baseline data on bull trout redd numbers in tributaries, and improve the rainbow trout population size structure. Six adult rainbow trout were moved to spawning habitat upstream of a potential migration barrier on Caboose Creek, but numbers of redds and age-0 out-migrants did not appear to increase relative to a reference stream. Measurements taken on the Moyie River indicated the gradient is inadequate to deliver suitable flows to a proposed rainbow trout spawning channel. Summer water temperatures measured in the Deep Creek drainage sometimes exceeded 24 C, higher than those reported as suitable for rainbow trout. Radio-tagged rainbow trout were located in Boulder Creek during the spring spawning season, and bull trout were located in the Moyie River and O'Brien Creek, Montana in the fall. Bull trout spawning migration timing was related to increases in Kootenai River flows. Bull trout redd surveys documented 19 redds on Boulder Creek and North and South Callahan creeks. Fall 2002 electrofishing showed that the Kootenai River rainbow trout proportional stock density was 54, higher than prior years when more liberal fishing regulations were in effect. Boulder Creek produces the highest number of age-0 rainbow trout out-migrants upstream of Bonners Ferry, but the survival rate of these out-migrants upon reaching the Kootenai River is unknown. Determining juvenile survival rates and sources of mortality could aid management

  11. Sprint swimming performance of wild bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, M.G.; Phelps, J.; Weiland, L.K.

    2008-01-01

    We conducted laboratory experiments to determine the sprint swimming performance of wild juvenile and adult bull trout Salvelinus confluentus. Sprint swimming speeds were estimated using high-speed digital video analysis. Thirty two bull trout were tested in sizes ranging from about 10 to 31 cm. Of these, 14 fish showed at least one motivated, vigorous sprint. When plotted as a function of time, velocity of fish increased rapidly with the relation linear or slightly curvilinear. Their maximum velocity, or Vmax, ranged from 1.3 to 2.3 m/s, was usually achieved within 0.8 to 1.0 s, and was independent of fish size. Distances covered during these sprints ranged from 1.4 to 2.4 m. Our estimates of the sprint swimming performance are the first reported for this species and may be useful for producing or modifying fish passage structures that allow safe and effective passage of fish without overly exhausting them. ?? 2008 by the Northwest Scientific Association. All rights reserved.

  12. Temporary Restoration of Bull Trout Passage at Albeni Falls Dam, 2008 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellgraph, Brian J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2009-03-31

    The goal of this project is to provide temporary upstream passage of bull trout around Albeni Falls Dam on the Pend Oreille River, Idaho. Our specific objectives are to capture fish downstream of Albeni Falls Dam, tag them with combination acoustic and radio transmitters, release them upstream of Albeni Falls Dam, and determine if genetic information on tagged fish can be used to accurately establish where fish are located during the spawning season. In 2007, radio receiving stations were installed at several locations throughout the Pend Oreille River watershed to detect movements of adult bull trout; however, no bull trout were tagged during that year. In 2008, four bull trout were captured downstream of Albeni Falls Dam, implanted with transmitters, and released upstream of the dam at Priest River, Idaho. The most-likely natal tributaries of bull trout assigned using genetic analyses were Grouse Creek (N = 2); a tributary of the Pack River, Lightning Creek (N = 1); and Rattle Creek (N = 1), a tributary of Lightning Creek. All four bull trout migrated upstream from the release site in Priest River, Idaho, were detected at monitoring stations near Dover, Idaho, and were presumed to reside in Lake Pend Oreille from spring until fall 2008. The transmitter of one bull trout with a genetic assignment to Grouse Creek was found in Grouse Creek in October 2008; however, the fish was not found. The bull trout assigned to Rattle Creek was detected in the Clark Fork River downstream from Cabinet Gorge Dam (approximately 13 km from the mouth of Lightning Creek) in September but was not detected entering Lightning Creek. The remaining two bull trout were not detected in 2008 after detection at the Dover receiving stations. This report details the progress by work element in the 2008 statement of work, including data analyses of fish movements, and expands on the information reported in the quarterly Pisces status reports.

  13. Bull Trout (Salvelinus Confluentus) Population and Habitat Surveys in the McKenzie and Middle Fork Willamette Basins, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Greg

    2000-11-28

    Prior to 1978, Dolly Varden Salvelinus malma were classified into an anadromous and interior form. Cavender (1978) classified the interior form as a distinct species, Salvelinus confluentus, the bull trout. Bull trout are large char weighing up to 18 kg and growing to over one meter in length (Goetz 1989). They are distinguished by a broad flat head, large downward curving maxillaries that extend beyond the eye, a well developed fleshy knob and a notch in the lower terminus of the snout, and light colored spots normally smaller than the pupil of the eye (Cavender 1978). Bull trout are found throughout northwestern North America from lat. 41{sup o}N to lat. 60{sup o}N. In Oregon, bull trout were once distributed throughout 12 basins in the Klamath and Columbia River systems including the Clackamas, Santiam, McKenzie and Middle Fork Willamette sub-basins west of the Cascades (Buchanan et al. 1997). However, it is believed bull trout have been extirpated from west of the Cascades with the exception of the McKenzie sub-basin. Before 1963, bull trout in the McKenzie sub-basin were a contiguous population from the mouth to Tamolitch Falls. Following the construction of Cougar and Trail Bridge Reservoirs there are three isolated populations: (1) mainstem McKenzie and tributaries from the mouth to Trail Bridge Reservoir. (2) mainstem McKenzie and tributaries above Trail Bridge Reservoir to Tamolitch Falls. (3) South Fork McKenzie and tributaries above Cougar Reservoir. The study area includes the three aforementioned McKenzie populations, and the Middle Fork Willamette and tributaries above Hills Creek Reservoir. We monitored bull trout populations in the McKenzie and Middle Fork Willamette basins using a combination of sampling techniques including: spawning surveys, standard pool counts, juvenile trapping, radio tracking, electronic fish counters, and a modified Hankin and Reeves protocol to estimate juvenile abundance and density. In addition, we continued to

  14. Monitor and Protect Wigwam River Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir; Skookumchuck Creek Juvenile Bull Trout and Fish Habitat Monitoring Program, Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cope, R.

    2003-06-01

    The Skookumchuck Creek juvenile bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and fish habitat-monitoring program is a co-operative initiative of the British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land, and Air Protection and Bonneville Power Administration. This project was commissioned in planning for fish habitat protection and forest development within the Skookumchuck Creek watershed and was intended to expand upon similar studies initiated within the Wigwam River from 2000 to 2002. The broad intent is to develop a better understanding of juvenile bull trout and Westslope cutthroat trout recruitment and the ongoing hydrologic and morphologic processes, especially as they relate to spawning and rearing habitat quality. The 2002 project year represents the first year of a long-term bull trout-monitoring program with current studies focused on collecting baseline information. This report provides a summary of results obtained to date. Bull trout represented 72.4% of the catch. Fry dominated the catch because site selection was biased towards electrofishing sample sites which favored high bull trout fry capture success. The mean density of all juvenile bull trout was estimated to be 6.6 fish/100m{sup 2}. This represents one-half the densities reported for the 2002 Wigwam River enumeration program, even though enumeration of bull trout redds was an order of magnitude higher for the Wigwam River. Typically, areas with combined fry and juvenile densities greater than 1.5 fish per 100 m{sup 2} are cited as critical rearing areas. Trends in abundance appeared to be related to proximity to spawning areas, bed material size, and water depth. Cover components utilized by juvenile and adult bull trout and cutthroat trout were interstices, boulder, depth, overhead vegetation and LWD. The range of morphological stream types encompass the stable and resilient spectrum (C3(1), C3 and B3c). The Skookumchuck can be generalized as a slightly entrenched, meandering, riffle-pool, cobble dominated

  15. Development and evaluation of a bioenergetics model for bull trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, Matthew G.; Welland, Lisa K.; Christiansen, Helena E.; Sauter, Sally T.; Beauchamp, David A.

    2013-01-01

    We conducted laboratory experiments to parameterize a bioenergetics model for wild Bull Trout Salvelinus confluentus, estimating the effects of body mass (12–1,117 g) and temperature (3–20°C) on maximum consumption (C max) and standard metabolic rates. The temperature associated with the highest C max was 16°C, and C max showed the characteristic dome-shaped temperature-dependent response. Mass-dependent values of C max (N = 28) at 16°C ranged from 0.03 to 0.13 g·g−1·d−1. The standard metabolic rates of fish (N = 110) ranged from 0.0005 to 0.003 g·O2·g−1·d−1 and increased with increasing temperature but declined with increasing body mass. In two separate evaluation experiments, which were conducted at only one ration level (40% of estimated C max), the model predicted final weights that were, on average, within 1.2 ± 2.5% (mean ± SD) of observed values for fish ranging from 119 to 573 g and within 3.5 ± 4.9% of values for 31–65 g fish. Model-predicted consumption was within 5.5 ± 10.9% of observed values for larger fish and within 12.4 ± 16.0% for smaller fish. Our model should be useful to those dealing with issues currently faced by Bull Trout, such as climate change or alterations in prey availability.

  16. Investigations of Bull Trout (Salvelinus Confluentus), Steelhead Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss), and Spring Chinook Salmon (O. Tshawytscha) Interactions in Southeast Washington Streams : 1991 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Steven W.

    1992-07-01

    Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) are native to many tributaries of the Snake River in southeast Washington. The Washington Department of Wildlife (WDW) and the American Fisheries Society (AFS) have identified bull trout as a species of special concern which means that they may become threatened or endangered by relatively, minor disturbances to their habitat. Steelhead trout/rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and spring chinook salmon (O.tshawytscha) are also native to several tributaries of the Snake river in southeast Washington. These species of migratory fishes are depressed, partially due to the construction of several dams on the lower Snake river. In response to decreased run size, large hatchery program were initiated to produce juvenile steelhead and salmon to supplement repressed tributary stocks, a practice known as supplementation. There is a concern that supplementing streams with artificially high numbers of steelhead and salmon may have an impact on resident bull trout in these streams. Historically, these three species of fish existed together in large numbers, however, the amount of high-quality habitat necessary for reproduction and rearing has been severely reduced in recent years, as compared to historic amounts. The findings of the first year of a two year study aimed at identifying species interactions in southeast Washington streams are presented in this report. Data was collected to assess population dynamics; habitat utilization and preference, feeding habits, fish movement and migration, age, condition, growth, and the spawning requirements of bull trout in each of four streams. A comparison of the indices was then made between the study streams to determine if bull trout differ in the presence of the putative competitor species. Bull trout populations were highest in the Tucannon River (supplemented stream), followed by Mill Creek (unsupplemented stream). Young of the year bull trout utilized riffle and cascade habitat the most in all

  17. Bull Trout (Salvelinus Confluentus) Population and Habitat Surveys in the McKenzie and Middle Fork Willamette Basins, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Greg

    2003-02-01

    Prior to 1978, bull trout were commonly known as dolly varden (Salvelinus malma) and were classified into an anadromous and interior form. Cavender (1978) described the interior form as a distinct species, classifying it as Salvelinus confluentus, the bull trout. Bull trout are large char weighing up to 18 kg and growing to over one meter in length (Goetz 1994). They are distinguished by a broad flat head, large downward curving maxillaries that extend beyond the eye, a fleshy knob and a notch in the lower terminus of the snout, and light colored spots normally smaller than the pupil of the eye (Cavender 1978). Bull trout are found throughout northwestern North America from latitude 41{sup o}N to 60{sup o}N. In Oregon, bull trout were once distributed throughout 12 basins in the Klamath and Columbia River systems including the Clackamas, Santiam, McKenzie and Middle Fork Willamette subbasins west of the Cascades (Buchanan et al. 1997). However, it is likely that bull trout have been extirpated from west of the Cascades with the exception of the McKenzie sub-basin. McKenzie River bull trout were a contiguous population from the mouth to Tamolitch Falls prior to 1963. Three populations were isolated following the construction of Cougar and Trail Bridge Reservoirs which include the mainstem McKenzie and tributaries from the mouth to Trail Bridge Reservoir, mainstem McKenzie and tributaries above Trail Bridge Reservoir to Tamolitch Falls, and the South Fork McKenzie and tributaries above Cougar Reservoir. On June 10, 1998 the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) listed the Columbia River bull trout population segment as Threatened under the federal Endangered Species Act and Buchanan et al. (1997) listed the bull trout population in the mainstem McKenzie as ''of special concern'', the South Fork McKenzie population as ''high risk of extinction,'' and the population above Trail Bridge Reservoir as ''high risk of

  18. Kootenai River Fisheries Investigations; Rainbow and Bull Trout Recruitment, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, Jody P.

    2005-08-01

    Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss provide the most important sport fishery in the Kootenai River, Idaho, but densities and catch rates are low. Low recruitment is one possible factor limiting the rainbow trout population. Bull trout Salvelinus confluentus also exist in the Kootenai River, but little is known about this population. Research reported here addresses the following objectives for the Kootenai River, Idaho: identify sources of rainbow and bull trout recruitment, monitor the rainbow trout population size structure to evaluate regulation changes initiated in 2002, and identify factors potentially limiting rainbow trout recruitment. A screw trap was used to estimate juvenile redband and bull trout out-migration from the Callahan Creek drainage, and electrofishing was conducted to estimate summer densities of bull trout rearing in the Idaho portion of the drainage. An estimated 1,132 juvenile redband trout and 68 juvenile bull trout out-migrated from Callahan Creek to the Kootenai River from April 7 through July 15, 2003. Densities of bull trout {ge} age-1 in North and South Callahan creeks ranged from 1.6 to 7.7 fish/100m{sup 2} in August. Bull trout redd surveys were conducted in North and South Callahan creeks, Boulder Creek, and Myrtle Creek. Thirty-two bull trout redds were located in North Callahan Creek, while 10 redds were found in South Callahan Creek. No redds were found in the other two streams. Modeling of culverts in the Deep Creek drainage identified two as upstream migration barriers, preventing rainbow trout from reaching spawning and rearing habitat. Water temperature monitoring in Deep Creek identified two sites where maximum temperatures exceeded those suitable for rainbow trout. Boulder Creek produces the most rainbow trout recruits to the Kootenai River in Idaho upstream of Deep Creek, but may be below carrying capacity for rearing rainbow trout due to nutrient limitations. Monthly water samples indicate Boulder Creek is nutrient limited

  19. Kootenai River fisheries investigations: rainbow and bull trout recruitment: annual progress report 1999; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our 1999 objectives were to determine sources of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and bull trout Salvelinus confluentus spawning and recruitment in the Idaho reach of the Kootenai River. We used a rotary-screw trap to capture juvenile trout to determine age at out-migration and to estimate total out-migration from the Boundary Creek drainage to the Kootenai River. The out-migrant estimate for March through August 1999 was 1,574 (95% C. I.= 825-3,283) juvenile rainbow trout. Most juveniles out-migrated at age-2 and age-3. No out-migrating bull trout were caught. Five of 17 rainbow trout radio-tagged in Idaho migrated upstream into Montana waters during the spawning season. Five bull trout originally radio-tagged in O'Brien Creek, Montana in early October moved downstream into Idaho and British Columbia by mid-October. Annual angler exploitation for the rainbow trout population upstream of Bonners Ferry, Idaho was estimated to be 58%. Multi-pass depletion estimates for index reaches of Caboose, Curley, and Debt creeks showed 0.20, 0.01, and 0.13 rainbow trout juveniles/m(sup 2), respectively. We estimated rainbow trout (180-415 mm TL) standing stock of 1.6 kg/ha for the Hemlock Bar reach (29.4 ha) of the Kootenai River, similar to the 1998 estimate. Recruitment of juvenile rainbow and bull trout from Idaho tributaries is not sufficient to be the sole source of subsequent older fish in the mainstem Kootenai River. These populations are at least partly dependent on recruitment from Montana waters. The low recruitment and high exploitation rate may be indicators of a rainbow trout population in danger of further decline

  20. Kootenai River Fisheries Investigations; Rainbow and Bull Trout Recruitment, 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, Jody P.; Downs, Christopher C.

    2001-08-01

    Our 1999 objectives were to determine sources of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and bull trout Salvelinus confluentus spawning and recruitment in the Idaho reach of the Kootenai River. We used a rotary-screw trap to capture juvenile trout to determine age at out-migration and to estimate total out-migration from the Boundary Creek drainage to the Kootenai River. The out-migrant estimate for March through August 1999 was 1,574 (95% C. I. = 825-3,283) juvenile rainbow trout. Most juveniles out-migrated at age-2 and age-3. No out-migrating bull trout were caught. Five of 17 rainbow trout radio-tagged in Idaho migrated upstream into Montana waters during the spawning season. Five bull trout originally radio-tagged in O'Brien Creek, Montana in early October moved downstream into Idaho and British Columbia by mid-October. Annual angler exploitation for the rainbow trout population upstream of Bonners Ferry, Idaho was estimated to be 58%. Multi-pass depletion estimates for index reaches of Caboose, Curley, and Debt creeks showed 0.20, 0.01, and 0.13 rainbow trout juveniles/m{sup 2}, respectively. We estimated rainbow trout (180-415 mm TL) standing stock of 1.6 kg/ha for the Hemlock Bar reach (29.4 ha) of the Kootenai River, similar to the 1998 estimate. Recruitment of juvenile rainbow and bull trout from Idaho tributaries is not sufficient to be the sole source of subsequent older fish in the mainstem Kootenai River. These populations are at least partly dependent on recruitment from Montana waters. The low recruitment and high exploitation rate may be indicators of a rainbow trout population in danger of further decline.

  1. Investigations of Bull Trout (Salvelinus Confluentus), Steelhead Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss), and Spring Chinook Salmon (O. Tshawytscha) Interactions in Southeast Washington Streams. Final Report 1992.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Underwood, Keith D.

    1995-01-01

    The goal of this two year study was to determine if supplementation with hatchery reared steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) negatively impacted wild native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) through competitive interactions. Four streams with varying levels of fish supplementation activity were sampled in Southeast Washington. Tasks performed during this study were population density, relative abundance, microhabitat utilization, habitat availability, diet analysis, bull trout spawning ground surveys, radio telemetry of adult bull trout, and growth analysis. Results indicate that bull trout overlapped geographically with the supplemented species in each of the study streams suggesting competition among species was possible. Within a stream, bull trout and the supplemented species utilized dissimilar microhabitats and microhabitat utilization by each species was the same among streams suggesting that there was no shifts in microhabitat utilization among streams. The diet of bull trout and O. mykiss significantly overlapped in each of the study streams. The stream most intensely supplemented contained bull trout with the slowest growth and the non-supplemented stream contained bull trout with the fastest growth. Conversely, the stream most intensely supplemented contain steelhead with the fastest growth and the non-supplemented stream contained steelhead with the slowest growth. Growth indicated that bull trout may have been negatively impacted from supplementation, although other factors may have contributed. At current population levels, and current habitat quantity and quality, no impacts to bull trout as a result of supplementation with hatchery reared steelhead trout and spring chinook salmon were detected. Project limitations and future research recommendations are discussed.

  2. Investigations of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) interactions in Southeast Washington streams. Final report 1992; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this two year study was to determine if supplementation with hatchery reared steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) negatively impacted wild native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) through competitive interactions. Four streams with varying levels of fish supplementation activity were sampled in Southeast Washington. Tasks performed during this study were population density, relative abundance, microhabitat utilization, habitat availability, diet analysis, bull trout spawning ground surveys, radio telemetry of adult bull trout, and growth analysis. Results indicate that bull trout overlapped geographically with the supplemented species in each of the study streams suggesting competition among species was possible. Within a stream, bull trout and the supplemented species utilized dissimilar microhabitats and microhabitat utilization by each species was the same among streams suggesting that there was no shifts in microhabitat utilization among streams. The diet of bull trout and O. mykiss significantly overlapped in each of the study streams. The stream most intensely supplemented contained bull trout with the slowest growth and the non-supplemented stream contained bull trout with the fastest growth. Conversely, the stream most intensely supplemented contain steelhead with the fastest growth and the non-supplemented stream contained steelhead with the slowest growth. Growth indicated that bull trout may have been negatively impacted from supplementation, although other factors may have contributed. At current population levels, and current habitat quantity and quality, no impacts to bull trout as a result of supplementation with hatchery reared steelhead trout and spring chinook salmon were detected. Project limitations and future research recommendations are discussed

  3. Investigations of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) interactions in Southeast Washington streams. Final report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this two year study was to determine if supplementation with hatchery reared steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) negatively impacted wild native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) through competitive interactions. Four streams with varying levels of fish supplementation activity were sampled in Southeast Washington. Tasks performed during this study were population density, relative abundance, microhabitat utilization, habitat availability, diet analysis, bull trout spawning ground surveys, radio telemetry of adult bull trout, and growth analysis. Results indicate that bull trout overlapped geographically with the supplemented species in each of the study streams suggesting competition among species was possible. Within a stream, bull trout and the supplemented species utilized dissimilar microhabitats and microhabitat utilization by each species was the same among streams suggesting that there was no shifts in microhabitat utilization among streams. The diet of bull trout and O. mykiss significantly overlapped in each of the study streams. The stream most intensely supplemented contained bull trout with the slowest growth and the non-supplemented stream contained bull trout with the fastest growth. Conversely, the stream most intensely supplemented contain steelhead with the fastest growth and the non-supplemented stream contained steelhead with the slowest growth. Growth indicated that bull trout may have been negatively impacted from supplementation, although other factors may have contributed. At current population levels, and current habitat quantity and quality, no impacts to bull trout as a result of supplementation with hatchery reared steelhead trout and spring chinook salmon were detected. Project limitations and future research recommendations are discussed

  4. Wigwam River juvenile bull trout and fish habitat monitoring program : 2001 data report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Wigwam River juvenile bull trout and fish habitat monitoring program is a co-operative initiative of the British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land, and Air Protection and Bonneville Power Administration. The Wigwam River has been characterized as the single most important bull trout spawning stream in the Kootenay Region. This report provides a summary of results obtained during the second year (2001) of the juvenile bull trout enumeration and fish habitat assessment program. This project was commissioned in planning for fish habitat protection and forest development within the upper Wigwam River valley. The broad intent is to develop a better understanding of juvenile bull trout and Westslope cutthroat trout recruitment and the ongoing hydrologic and morphologic processes in the upper Wigwam River, especially as they relate to spawning and rearing habitat quality. Five permanent sampling sites were established August 2000 in the Wigwam river drainage (one site on Bighorn Creek and four sites on the mainstem Wigwam River). At each site, juvenile (0(sup+), 1(sup+) and 2(sup+) age classes) fish densities and stream habitat conditions were measured over two stream meander wavelengths. Bull trout represented 95.1% of the catch and the mean density of juvenile bull trout was estimated to be 20.7 fish/100m(sup 2) (range 0.9 to 24.0 fish/100m(sup 2)). This compares to 17.2 fish/100m(sup 2) (+20%) for the previous year. Fry (0(sup+)) dominated the catch and this was a direct result of juvenile bull trout ecology and habitat partitioning among life history stages. Site selection was biased towards sample sites which favored high bull trout fry capture success. Comparison of fry density estimates replicated across both the preliminary survey (1997) and the current study (Cope and Morris 2001) illustrate the stable nature of these high densities. Bull trout populations have been shown to be extremely susceptible to habitat degradation and over-harvest and are ecologically

  5. Bull Trout Population Assessment in the White Salmon and Klickitat Rivers, Columbia River Gorge, Washington, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiesfeld, Steven L.; McPeak, Ronald H.; McNamara, Brian S. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife); Honanie, Isadore (Confederated Tribes and Bands, Yakama Nation)

    2002-01-01

    We utilized night snorkeling and single pass electroshocking to determine the presence or absence of bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in 26 stream reaches (3,415 m) in the White Salmon basin and in 71 stream reaches (9,005 m) in the Klickitat River basin during summer and fall 2001. We did not find any bull trout in the White Salmon River basin. In the Klickitat River basin, bull trout were found only in the West Fork Klickitat River drainage. We found bull trout in two streams not previously reported: Two Lakes Stream and an unnamed tributary to Fish Lake Stream (WRIA code number 30-0550). We attempted to capture downstream migrant bull trout in the West Fork Klickitat River by fishing a 1.5-m rotary screw trap at RM 4.3 from July 23 through October 17. Although we caught other salmonids, no bull trout were captured. The greatest limiting factor for bull trout in the West Fork Klickitat River is likely the small amount of available habitat resulting in a low total abundance, and the isolation of the population. Many of the streams are fragmented by natural falls, which are partial or complete barriers to upstream fish movement. To date, we have not been able to confirm that the occasional bull trout observed in the mainstem Klickitat River are migrating upstream into the West Fork Klickitat River.

  6. Bull Trout life History, Genetics, Habitat Needs, and Limiting Factors in Central and Northeast Oregon, Annual Report 1995.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmingsen, Alan R.; Buchanan, David V.; Howell, Philip J.

    1996-03-01

    To fulfill one objective of the present study, genetic characteristics of Oregon bull trout will be determined by analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. During 1995, the authors collected and sampled a total of 1,217 bull trout from 46 streams in the Columbia River Basin. DNA analysis of those samples will be conducted at University of Montana. They primarily sampled juvenile fish near natal areas to increase the likelihood of identifying discrete populations while minimizing risk of injury to large spawners. Fork lengths of all fish sampled ranged from 2.6 to 60.5 cm with a median of 12 cm. Eighty-four percent of all bull trout sampled were less than 19 cm while two percent were larger than 27 cm. Bull trout were collected by several methods, mostly by electrofishing. Eighty-six percent of all bull trout sampled were collected by electrofishing with a programmable waveform electrofisher. They observed injuries caused by electrofishing to 8% of that proportion. Based on preliminary analysis, no waveform combination used appeared less injurious than others. Highest voltages appeared less injurious than some that were lower. Frequency of electrofishing injury was significantly correlated to fork length over the range-from 4 to 26 cm. There were indications for substantial risk for such injury to bull trout larger than 26 cm. Other species found in association with bull trout included chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, mountain whitefish Prosopium williamsoni, rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, sculpins Cottus spp., cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki, non-native brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, and tailed frogs Ascaphus truei. Rainbow trout was the species most frequently associated with bull trout. No injury or mortality was observed for any of the associated species captured.

  7. Bull trout life history, genetics, habitat needs, and limiting factors in central and northeast Oregon, Annual Report 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To fulfill one objective of the present study, genetic characteristics of Oregon bull trout will be determined by analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. During 1995, the authors collected and sampled a total of 1,217 bull trout from 46 streams in the Columbia River Basin. DNA analysis of those samples will be conducted at University of Montana. They primarily sampled juvenile fish near natal areas to increase the likelihood of identifying discrete populations while minimizing risk of injury to large spawners. Fork lengths of all fish sampled ranged from 2.6 to 60.5 cm with a median of 12 cm. Eighty-four percent of all bull trout sampled were less than 19 cm while two percent were larger than 27 cm. Bull trout were collected by several methods, mostly by electrofishing. Eighty-six percent of all bull trout sampled were collected by electrofishing with a programmable waveform electrofisher. They observed injuries caused by electrofishing to 8% of that proportion. Based on preliminary analysis, no waveform combination used appeared less injurious than others. Highest voltages appeared less injurious than some that were lower. Frequency of electrofishing injury was significantly correlated to fork length over the range-from 4 to 26 cm. There were indications for substantial risk for such injury to bull trout larger than 26 cm. Other species found in association with bull trout included chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, mountain whitefish Prosopium williamsoni, rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, sculpins Cottus spp., cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki, non-native brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, and tailed frogs Ascaphus truei. Rainbow trout was the species most frequently associated with bull trout. No injury or mortality was observed for any of the associated species captured

  8. Role of climate and invasive species in structuring trout distributions in the interior Columbia River Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Seth J.; Isaak, Daniel J.; Dunham, Jason B.; Fausch, Kurt D.; Luce, Charles H.; Neville, Helen M.; Rieman, Bruce E.; Young, Michael K.; Nagel, David E.; Horan, Dona L.; Chandler, Gwynne L.

    2011-01-01

    Recent and projected climate warming trends have prompted interest in impacts on coldwater fishes. We examined the role of climate (temperature and flow regime) relative to geomorphology and land use in determining the observed distributions of three trout species in the interior Columbia River Basin, USA. We considered two native species, cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii) and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), as well as nonnative brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). We also examined the response of the native species to the presence of brook trout. Analyses were conducted using multilevel logistic regression applied to a geographically broad database of 4165 fish surveys. The results indicated that bull trout distributions were strongly related to climatic factors, and more weakly related to the presence of brook trout and geomorphic variables. Cutthroat trout distributions were weakly related to climate but strongly related to the presence of brook trout. Brook trout distributions were related to both climate and geomorphic variables, including proximity to unconfined valley bottoms. We conclude that brook trout and bull trout are likely to be adversely affected by climate warming, whereas cutthroat trout may be less sensitive. The results illustrate the importance of considering species interactions and flow regime alongside temperature in understanding climate effects on fish.

  9. An ecological risk assessment of the acute and chronic toxicity of the herbicide picloram to the threatened bull trout (salvelinus confluentus) and the rainbow trout (onchorhyncus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, J.F.; Feltz, K.P.; Sappington, L.C.; Allert, A.L.; Nelson, K.J.; Valle, J.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted acute and chronic toxicity studies of the effects of picloram acid on the threatened bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and the standard coldwater surrogate rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Juvenile fish were chronically exposed for 30 days in a proportional flow-through diluter to measured concentrations of 0, 0.30, 0.60, 1.18, 2.37, and 4.75 mg/L picloram. No mortality of either species was observed at the highest concentration. Bull trout were twofold more sensitive to picloram (30-day maximum acceptable toxic concentration of 0.80 mg/L) compared to rainbow trout (30-day maximum acceptable toxic concentration of 1.67 mg/L) based on the endpoint of growth. Picloram was acutely toxic to rainbow trout at 36 mg/L (96-h ALC50). The acute:chronic ratio for rainbow trout exposed to picloram was 22. The chronic toxicity of picloram was compared to modeled and measured environmental exposure concentrations (EECs) using a four-tiered system. The Tier 1, worst-case exposure estimate, based on a direct application of the current maximum use rate (1.1 kg/ha picloram) to a standardized aquatic ecosystem (water body of 1-ha area and 1-m depth), resulted in an EEC of 0.73 mg/L picloram and chronic risk quotients of 0.91 and 0.44 for bull trout and rainbow trout, respectively. Higher-tiered exposure estimates reduced chronic risk quotients 10-fold. Results of this study indicate that picloram, if properly applied according to the manufacturer's label, poses little risk to the threatened bull trout or rainbow trout in northwestern rangeland environments on either an acute or a chronic basis. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  10. Influences of body size and environmental factors on autumn downstream migration of bull trout in the Boise River, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnot, L.; Dunham, J.B.; Hoem, T.; Koetsier, P.

    2008-01-01

    Many fishes migrate extensively through stream networks, yet patterns are commonly described only in terms of the origin and destination of migration (e.g., between natal and feeding habitats). To better understand patterns of migration in bull trout,Salvelinus confluentus we studied the influences of body size (total length [TL]) and environmental factors (stream temperature and discharge) on migrations in the Boise River basin, Idaho. During the autumns of 2001-2003, we tracked the downstream migrations of 174 radio-tagged bull trout ranging in size from 21 to 73 cm TL. The results indicated that large bull trout (>30 cm) were more likely than small fish to migrate rapidly downstream after spawning in headwater streams in early autumn. Large bull trout also had a higher probability of arriving at the current terminus of migration in the system, Arrowrock Reservoir. The rate of migration by small bull trout was more variable and individuals were less likely to move into Arrowrock Reservoir. The rate of downstream migration by all fish was slower when stream discharge was greater. Temperature was not associated with the rate of migration. These findings indicate that fish size and environmentally related changes in behavior have important influences on patterns of migration. In a broader context, these results and other recent work suggest, at least in some cases, that commonly used classifications of migratory behavior may not accurately reflect the full range of behaviors and variability among individuals (or life stages) and environmental conditions. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  11. Assessing the impacts of river regulation on native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) habitats in the upper Flathead River, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Jones, Leslie A.; Kotter, D.; Miller, William J.; Geise, Doran; Tohtz, Joel; Marotz, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Hungry Horse Dam on the South Fork Flathead River, Montana, USA, has modified the natural flow regimen for power generation, flood risk management and flow augmentation for anadromous fish recovery in the Columbia River. Concern over the detrimental effects of dam operations on native resident fishes prompted research to quantify the impacts of alternative flow management strategies on threatened bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) habitats. Seasonal and life‐stage specific habitat suitability criteria were combined with a two‐dimensional hydrodynamic habitat model to assess discharge effects on usable habitats. Telemetry data used to construct seasonal habitat suitability curves revealed that subadult (fish that emigrated from natal streams to the river system) bull trout move to shallow, low‐velocity shoreline areas at night, which are most sensitive to flow fluctuations. Habitat time series analyses comparing the natural flow regimen (predam, 1929–1952) with five postdam flow management strategies (1953–2008) show that the natural flow conditions optimize the critical bull trout habitats and that the current strategy best resembles the natural flow conditions of all postdam periods. Late summer flow augmentation for anadromous fish recovery, however, produces higher discharges than predam conditions, which reduces the availability of usable habitat during this critical growing season. Our results suggest that past flow management policies that created sporadic streamflow fluctuations were likely detrimental to resident salmonids and that natural flow management strategies will likely improve the chances of protecting key ecosystem processes and help to maintain and restore threatened bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout populations in the upper Columbia River Basin.

  12. Factors affecting daughters distribution among progeny testing Holstein bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino Cassandro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate factors influencing the number of daughters of Holstein bulls during the progeny testing using data provided by the Italian Holstein Friesian Cattle Breeders Association. The hypothesis is that there are no differences among artificial insemination studs (AIS on the daughters distribution among progeny testing bulls. For each bull and beginning from 21 months of age, the distribution of daughters over the progeny testing period was calculated. Data were available on 1973 bulls born between 1986 and 2004, progeny tested in Italy and with at least 4 paternal half-sibs. On average, bulls exited the genetic centre at 11.3±1.1 months and reached their first official genetic proof at 58.0±3.1 months of age. An analysis of variance was performed on the cumulative frequency of daughters at 24, 36, 48, and 60 months. The generalized linear model included the fixed effects of year of birth of the bull (18 levels, artificial insemination stud (4 levels and sire of bull (137 levels. All effects significantly affected the variability of studied traits. Artificial insemination stud was the most important source of variation, followed by year of birth and sire of bull. Significant differences among AI studs exist, probably reflecting different strategies adopted during progeny testing.

  13. A framework for assessing the feasibility of native fish conservation translocations: Applications to threatened bull trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Benjamin T.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Guy, Christopher S.; Downs, Christopher C.; Fredenberg, Wade A.

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need to consider more aggressive and direct interventions for the conservation of freshwater fishes that are threatened by invasive species, habitat loss, and climate change. Conservation introduction (moving a species outside its indigenous range to other areas where conditions are predicted to be more suitable) is one type of translocation strategy that fisheries managers can use to establish new conservation populations in areas of refugia. To date, however, there are few examples of successful conservation-based introductions. Many attempts fail to establish new populations—in part because environmental factors that might influence success are inadequately evaluated before the translocation is implemented. We developed a framework to assess the feasibility of rescuing threatened fish populations through translocation into historically unoccupied stream and lake habitats. The suitability of potential introduction sites was evaluated based on four major components: the recipient habitat, recipient community, donor population, and future threats. Specific questions were then developed to evaluate each major component. The final assessment was based on a scoring system that addressed each question by using criteria developed from characteristics representative of highly suitable habitats and populations. This framework was used to evaluate the proposed within-drainage translocation of three Bull Trout Salvelinus confluentus populations in Glacier National Park, Montana. Our results indicated that within-drainage translocation is a feasible strategy for conserving locally adapted populations of Bull Trout through the creation of new areas of refugia in Glacier National Park. The framework provides a flexible platform that can help managers make informed decisions for moving threatened fishes into new areas of refugia for conservation and recovery programs.

  14. Temperature-mediated differences in bacterial kidney disease expression and survival in Renibacterium salmoninarum-challenged bull trout and other salmonids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D.T.; Moffitt, C.M.; Peters, K.K.

    2007-01-01

    Resource managers considering restoration and reconnection of watersheds to protect and enhance threatened populations of bull trout Salvelinus confluentus have little information about the consequences of bacterial kidney disease (BKD) caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum. To better understand the response of bull trout to R. salmoninarum challenge, we conducted several laboratory experiments at two water temperatures. The extent, severity, and lethality of BKD in bull trout were compared with those of similarly challenged lake trout S. namaycush, Arctic char S. alpinus, Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and rainbow trout O. mykiss. The lethal dose of bacterial cells necessary to induce 50% mortality (LD50) was 10-fold lower at the 15??C challenge than at the 9??C challenge. Of the species tested, bull trout were relatively resistant to BKD, Arctic char were the most susceptible among Salvelinus species, and Chinook salmon were the most susceptible among Oncorhynchus species tested. Mean time to death was more rapid for all fish tested at 15??C than for fish challenged at 9??C. These results suggest that infection of bull trout with BKD likely poses a low risk to successful restoration of threatened populations. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  15. Evaluation of the Life History of Native Salmonids in the Malheur River Basin; Cooperative Bull Trout/Redband Trout Research Project, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Alan; Soupir, Jim (US Forest Service, Prairie City Ranger District, Prairie City, OR); Schwabe, Lawrence (Burns Paiute Tribe, Department of Fish and Wildlife, Burns, OR)

    2003-08-01

    The Malheur River is a 306-kilometer tributary to the Snake River, which drains 12,950 square kilometers. The Malheur River originates in the Blue Mountains and flows into the Snake River near Ontario, Oregon. The climate of the basin is characterized by hot dry summers, occasionally exceeding 38 C, and cold winters that may drop below -29 C. Average annual precipitation is 30 centimeters in the lower reaches. Wooded areas consist primarily of mixed fir and pine forest in the higher elevations. Sagebrush and grass communities dominate the flora in the lower elevations. Efforts to document salmonid life histories, water quality, and habitat conditions have continued in fiscal year 2002. Bull trout Salvelinus confluentus are considered to be cold water species and are temperature-dependant. Due to the interest of bull trout from various state and Federal agencies, a workgroup was formed to develop project objectives related to bull trout. Table 1 lists individuals that participated in the 2002 work group. This report will reflect work completed during the Bonneville Power Administration contract period starting April 1, 2002, and ending March 31, 2003. All tasks were conducted within this timeframe, and a more detailed timeframe may be referred to in each individual report.

  16. Assessing the feasibility of native fish reintroductions: a framework applied to threatened bull trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Jason B.; Gallo, Kirsten; Shively, Dan; Allen, Chris; Goehring, Brad

    2011-01-01

    Translocations to recover native fishes have resulted in mixed success. One reason for the failure of these actions is inadequate assessments of their feasibility prior to implementation. Here, we provide a framework developed to assess the feasibility of one type of translocation-reintroduction. The framework was founded on two simple components of feasibility: the potential for recipient habitats to support a reintroduction and the potential of available donor populations to support a reintroduction. Within each component, we developed a series of key questions. The final assessment was based on a scoring system that incorporated consideration of uncertainty in available information. The result was a simple yet transparent system for assessing reintroduction feasibility that can be rapidly applied in practice. We applied this assessment framework to the potential reintroduction of threatened bull trout Salvelinus confluentus into the Clackamas River, Oregon. In this case, the assessment suggested that the degree of feasibility for reintroduction was high based on the potential of recipient habitats and available donor populations. The assessment did not provide a comprehensive treatment of all possible factors that would drive an actual decision to implement a reintroduction,

  17. Evaluation of the Life History of Native Salmonids in the Malheur River Basin; Cooperative Bull Trout/Redband Trout Research Project, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, Dan; Schwabe, Lawrence; Wenick, Jess (Burns Paiute Tribe, Department of Fish and Wildlife, Burns, OR)

    2001-08-01

    The Malheur basin lies within southeastern Oregon. The Malheur River is a tributary to the Snake River, entering at about River Kilometer (RK) 595. The hydrological drainage area of the Malheur River is approximately 12,950 km{sup 2} and is roughly 306 km in length. The headwaters of the Malheur River originate in the Blue Mountains at elevations of 6,500 to 7,500 feet, and drops to an elevation of 2000 feet at the confluence with the Snake River near Ontario, Oregon. The climate of the Malheur basin is characterized by hot dry summers, occasionally exceeding 38 C and cold winters that may drop below -29 C. Average annual precipitation is 300 centimeters and ranges from 100 centimeters in the upper mountains to less than 25 centimeters in the lower reaches (Gonzalez 1999). Wooded areas consist primarily of mixed fir and pine forest in the higher elevations. Sagebrush and grass communities dominate the flora in the lower elevations. Efforts to document salmonid life histories, water quality, and habitat conditions have continued in fiscal year 2000. The Burns Paiute Tribe (BPT), United States Forest Service (USFS), and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), have been working cooperatively to achieve this common goal. Bull trout ''Salvenlinus confluentus'' have specific environmental requirements and complex life histories making them especially susceptible to human activities that alter their habitat (Howell and Buchanan 1992). Bull trout are considered to be a cold-water species and are temperature dependent. This presents a challenge for managers, biologists, and private landowners in the Malheur basin. Because of the listing of bull trout under the Endangered Species Act as threatened and the current health of the landscape, a workgroup was formed to develop project objectives related to bull trout. This report will reflect work completed during the Bonneville Power contract period starting 1 April 2000 and ending 31 March 2001. The

  18. Geographical Distribution of Trout Farming in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Şahin, Güven; Erbilen, Süheyla Üçışık

    2011-01-01

    Turkey is a peninsula, surrounded by seas on three sides, with a total coastline of 8.333km. As a result of its heritage from ancient inland living culture, Turkey has a limited development in fishery production. However, there have been significant efforts in developing Trout Farming, compared to the other aquaculture products in Turkey. The recent developments in trout farming in Turkey have led to an increase in trout productions, providing alternatives for public nutrition. This study aim...

  19. GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF TROUT FARMING IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Şahin, Güven; Erbilen, Süheyla Üçışık

    2011-01-01

    Turkey is a peninsula, surrounded by seas on three sides, with a total coastline of 8.333km. As a result of its heritage from ancient inland living culture, Turkey has a limited development in fishery production. However, there have been significant efforts in developing Trout Farming, compared to the other aquaculture products in Turkey. The recent developments in trout farming in Turkey have led to an increase in trout productions, providing alternatives for public nutrition. This study aim...

  20. Yellowstone Cutthroat Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for YELLOWSTONE CUTTHROAT TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based...

  1. Rainbow Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for RAINBOW TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear...

  2. Redband Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for REDBAND TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear...

  3. Lahontan Cutthroat Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for LAHONTAN CUTTHROAT TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on...

  4. Brown Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for BROWN TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  5. Westslope Cutthroat Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for WESTSLOPE CUTTHROAT TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based...

  6. Brook Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for BROOK TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  7. Acoustic estimates of abundance and distribution of spawning lake trout on Sheboygan Reef in Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, D.M.; Claramunt, R.M.; Janssen, J.; Jude, D.J.; Wattrus, N.

    2009-01-01

    Efforts to restore self-sustaining lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) populations in the Laurentian Great Lakes have had widespread success in Lake Superior; but in other Great Lakes, populations of lake trout are maintained by stocking. Recruitment bottlenecks may be present at a number of stages of the reproduction process. To study eggs and fry, it is necessary to identify spawning locations, which is difficult in deep water. Acoustic sampling can be used to rapidly locate aggregations of fish (like spawning lake trout), describe their distribution, and estimate their abundance. To assess these capabilities for application to lake trout, we conducted an acoustic survey covering 22 km2 at Sheboygan Reef, a deep reef (trout, that lake trout were 1–2 m above bottom, and that spawning took place over specific habitat. Lake trout density exhibited a high degree of spatial structure (autocorrelation) up to a range of ~190 m, and highest lake trout and egg densities occurred over rough substrates (rubble and cobble) at the shallowest depths sampled (36–42 m). Mean lake trout density in the area surveyed (~2190 ha) was 5.8 fish/ha and the area surveyed contained an estimated 9500–16,000 large lake trout. Spatial aggregation in lake trout densities, similarity of depths and substrates at which high lake trout and egg densities occurred, and relatively low uncertainty in the lake trout density estimate indicate that acoustic sampling can be a useful complement to other sampling tools used in lake trout restoration research.

  8. Extensive feeding on sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka smolts by bull trout Salvelinus confluentus during initial outmigration into a small, unregulated and inland British Columbia river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furey, N B; Hinch, S G; Lotto, A G; Beauchamp, D A

    2015-01-01

    Stomach contents were collected and analysed from 22 bull trout Salvelinus confluentus at the edge of the Chilko Lake and Chilko River in British Columbia, Canada, during spring outmigration of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka smolts. Twenty of the 22 (>90%) stomachs contained prey items, virtually all identifiable prey items were outmigrant O. nerka smolts and stomach contents represented a large portion (0·0-12·6%) of estimated S. confluentus mass. The results demonstrate nearly exclusive and intense feeding by S. confluentus on outmigrant smolts, and support recent telemetry observations of high disappearance rates of O. nerka smolts leaving large natural lake systems prior to entering high-order unregulated river systems. PMID:25494841

  9. Factors influencing the distribution of brown trout (Salmo trutta) in a mountain stream: Implications for brown trout invasion success

    OpenAIRE

    Meredith, Christy

    2012-01-01

    Brown trout (Salmo trutta), one of the world’s most successful introduced species, negatively impacts native aquatic communities through predation, competition, and ecosystemlevel effects. Thus, there is a need to understand factors controlling the distribution of exotic brown trout in river systems, in order to prioritize and develop conservation and management strategies. Within the context of invasion success, I investigated how the physical template of the Logan River influences the distr...

  10. Movement Patterns and Multi-Scale Factors That Influence Exotic Brook Trout And Endemic Bonneville Cutthroat Trout Distribution And Abundance In The Mill Creek Drainage, Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Nadolski, Benjamin Keith

    2008-01-01

    Introduced brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) are implicated as a primary factor leading to the decline in distribution and abundance of native cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii). However, not all introductions are successful, suggesting local conditions influence the success of invasions. Therefore, I sought to determine the multi-scale factor(s) that influence brook trouts’ invasion success of native Bonneville cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii utah) habitats in Mill Creek, Utah. I...

  11. FAT TISSUE DISTRIBUTION BETWEEN SUBCUTANEOUS AND INTERMUSCULAR FAT TISSUE IN SIMMENTAL AND BROWN BULLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Žgur

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Simmental and Brown bulls from progeny testing station were used to evaluate the effect of breed on fat tissue partition between subcutaneous and intermuscular fat. Bulls (37 Brown and 34 Simmental breed were slaughtered at the same degree of fatness. After slaughter carcasses were first cut into different carcass cuts and further on into lean meat, fat, bones and tendons. Fat was divided up into subcutaneous and intermuscular. Simmental bulls were heavier (average cold carcass side weight from Simmental bulls was 167 kg vs 147 kg from Brown bulls at the same percentage of total carcass fat (10.5 %. Breed has no effect on percentage of subcutaneous and intermuscular fat tissue nor on percentage of subcutaneous fat from total carcass fat. Simmental bulls had higher (p<0.05 subcutaneous fat percentage (subcutaneous fat in the cut / total fat in the cut in brisket and flank and lower (p<0.05 in shoulder than Brown bulls.

  12. FAT TISSUE DISTRIBUTION BETWEEN SUBCUTANEOUS AND INTERMUSCULAR FAT TISSUE IN SIMMENTAL AND BROWN BULLS

    OpenAIRE

    Silvester Žgur; Marko Čepon

    2007-01-01

    Simmental and Brown bulls from progeny testing station were used to evaluate the effect of breed on fat tissue partition between subcutaneous and intermuscular fat. Bulls (37 Brown and 34 Simmental breed) were slaughtered at the same degree of fatness. After slaughter carcasses were first cut into different carcass cuts and further on into lean meat, fat, bones and tendons. Fat was divided up into subcutaneous and intermuscular. Simmental bulls were heavier (average cold carcass side weight ...

  13. Distribution and dynamic habitat use of young bull sharks Carcharhinus leucas in a highly stratified northern Gulf of Mexico estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drymon, J Marcus; Ajemian, Matthew J; Powers, Sean P

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how animals alter habitat use in response to changing abiotic conditions is important for effective conservation management. For bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas), habitat use has been widely examined in the eastern and western Gulf of Mexico; however, knowledge of their movements and the factors influencing them is lacking for populations in the more temperate north-central Gulf of Mexico. To examine how changes in hydrographic conditions affected the presence of young bull sharks in Mobile Bay, Alabama, thirty-five sharks were fitted with internal acoustic transmitters and monitored with an acoustic monitoring array consisting of thirty-three receivers between June 2009 and December 2010. Tagged sharks ranged in size from 60 to 114 cm fork length and were detected between the upper and lower portions of Mobile Bay. Despite a variety of freshwater sources associated with this highly productive estuary, sharks were most consistently detected at the largest input to the system--the Mobile and Tensaw Rivers. Our findings suggest a combination of hydrographic factors interact to influence the distribution of juvenile bull sharks in Mobile Bay. The factors affecting the probability of detecting at least one bull shark varied both temporally (2009 vs 2010) and spatially (upper vs lower bay). Electivity analysis demonstrated that bull sharks showed highest affinity for warm water (29-32 °C), moderate salinities (10-11 psu) and normoxic waters (5-7 mg/l), although these patterns were not consistent between regions or across years. We suggest future studies coupling telemetry and hydrographic variables should, when possible, consider the interactions of multiple environmental parameters when defining the dynamic factors explaining the spatial distribution of coastal sharks. PMID:24841925

  14. Distribution and dynamic habitat use of young bull sharks Carcharhinus leucas in a highly stratified northern Gulf of Mexico estuary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Marcus Drymon

    Full Text Available Understanding how animals alter habitat use in response to changing abiotic conditions is important for effective conservation management. For bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas, habitat use has been widely examined in the eastern and western Gulf of Mexico; however, knowledge of their movements and the factors influencing them is lacking for populations in the more temperate north-central Gulf of Mexico. To examine how changes in hydrographic conditions affected the presence of young bull sharks in Mobile Bay, Alabama, thirty-five sharks were fitted with internal acoustic transmitters and monitored with an acoustic monitoring array consisting of thirty-three receivers between June 2009 and December 2010. Tagged sharks ranged in size from 60 to 114 cm fork length and were detected between the upper and lower portions of Mobile Bay. Despite a variety of freshwater sources associated with this highly productive estuary, sharks were most consistently detected at the largest input to the system--the Mobile and Tensaw Rivers. Our findings suggest a combination of hydrographic factors interact to influence the distribution of juvenile bull sharks in Mobile Bay. The factors affecting the probability of detecting at least one bull shark varied both temporally (2009 vs 2010 and spatially (upper vs lower bay. Electivity analysis demonstrated that bull sharks showed highest affinity for warm water (29-32 °C, moderate salinities (10-11 psu and normoxic waters (5-7 mg/l, although these patterns were not consistent between regions or across years. We suggest future studies coupling telemetry and hydrographic variables should, when possible, consider the interactions of multiple environmental parameters when defining the dynamic factors explaining the spatial distribution of coastal sharks.

  15. Histochemical distribution of zinc in the brain of the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchos myciss. I. The telencephalon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piñuela, C; Baatrup, E; Geneser, F A

    1992-01-01

    The present paper which describes the distribution of zinc in the telencephalon of the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchos myciss, is the first report on the distribution of a heavy metal in the fish brain. Zinc was demonstrated histochemically by silver enhancement using the Neo-Timm method. The stainin...

  16. Isolation and distribution of bacterial flora in farmed rainbow trout from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado-Miranda, Celene; Palomares, Elizabeth; Jurado, Mirsam; Marín, Aída; Vega, Fernando; Soriano-Vargas, Edgardo

    2010-12-01

    Trout farming is a growing aquaculture industry in Mexico, with stock mainly supplied by the importation of eyed eggs. The aim of the present study was to determine the frequency of bacterial isolations in farmed rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss from Mexico. Sixty-five farms distributed among seven states of Mexico were included in the study. Individual samples from gills, liver, spleen, intestine, and kidney were obtained from 563 apparently healthy fish. In total, 371 bacterial isolates were recovered from sampled fish; isolates of the genera Aeromonas, Edwardsiella, Enterobacter, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Plesiomonas, Pseudomonas, and Yersinia were identified. Aeromonads were the most frequently isolated bacteria. Renibacterium salmoninarum was not isolated from any of the sampled fish. Our results showed the presence of bacteria that are potential pathogens of both rainbow trout and humans. PMID:21413508

  17. Linking landscape characteristics, streamwater acidity and brown trout (Salmo trutta) distributions in a boreal stream network

    OpenAIRE

    Buffam, Ishi

    2007-01-01

    Perturbations of stream ecosystems are often mediated by the terrestrial watershed, making the understanding of linkages between watersheds and streams essential. In this thesis I explore the connections between landscape characteristics, streamwater acidity and brown trout (Salmo trutta) distributions in Krycklan, a 67 km2 boreal stream network in northern Sweden. The study focuses on hydrochemical changes during the snowmelt-driven spring flood, a period of episodic acidity which is thought...

  18. Micro-scale distribution of brown trout: an opportunity for kin selection?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsson, J.; Carlsson, J.E.L.

    2002-01-01

    Fourteen microsatellite loci were used to analyse the degree of relatedness between and within cohorts of stream-living brown trout (Salmo trutta L.). Differences in degree of relatedness were found between cohorts with mature and older having the highest intracohort relatedness. The higher genetic...... relatedness among the mature and older trout is interpreted as indications of clustering of related mature and older trout prior to spawning in the vicinity of spawning grounds. Young-of-the-year trout showed a lower degree of association with related trout of the same cohort than did mature and older trout....... It is argued that the clustering of mature and older trout may facilitate kin selection and that the low degree of association among related young-of-the-year trout could be explained by juvenile fish avoiding competition for territories with related individuals...

  19. Bull trout in the Boundary System: managing connectivity and the feasibility of a reintroduction in the lower Pend Oreille River, northeastern Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Jason B.; Taylor, Eric B.; Allendorf, Fred W.

    2014-01-01

    Many of the World’s rivers are influenced by large dams (>15 m high) most of which have fragmented formerly continuous habitats, and significantly altered fish passage, natural flow, temperature, and sediment fluxes (Nilsson and others, 2005; Arthington, 2012; Liermann and others, 2012). In the Pacific Northwest, dams on major rivers have been a major focus for fishery managers, primarily in regard to passage of anadromous salmonids (principally Pacific salmon and steelhead trout [Oncorhynchus mykiss], for example, Ferguson and others, 2011), but more recently other species, such as Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus) and resident (non-anadromous) salmonids, are receiving more attention (Neraas and Spruell, 2001; Moser and others, 2002; Muhlfeld and others, 2012). In the case of resident salmonids, fish can adopt a wide range of migratory behaviors that often bring them into mainstem rivers where they can come into direct contact with large dams. When this occurs, some of the most important direct effects of dams on salmonids include barriers to upstream and downstream movement and mortality associated with entrainment within the dam or spill over dams. Biologically, these direct impacts can lead to (1) disruption of natural historical (pre-dam) genetic and demographic connectivity among local populations, (2) loss of access to historically used migratory destinations, (3) loss of individuals to the population through mortality associated with entrainment.

  20. Variability of kokanee and rainbow trout food habits, distribution, and population dynamics, in an ultraoligotrophic lake with no manipulative management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buktenica, M.W.; Girdner, S.F.; Larson, G.L.; McIntire, C.D.

    2007-01-01

    Crater Lake is a unique environment to evaluate the ecology of introduced kokanee and rainbow trout because of its otherwise pristine state, low productivity, absence of manipulative management, and lack of lotic systems for fish spawning. Between 1986 and 2004, kokanee displayed a great deal of variation in population demographics with a pattern that reoccurred in about 10 years. We believe that the reoccurring pattern resulted from density dependent growth, and associated changes in reproduction and abundance, driven by prey resource limitation that resulted from low lake productivity exacerbated by prey consumption when kokanee were abundant. Kokanee fed primarily on small-bodied prey from the mid-water column; whereas rainbow trout fed on large-bodied prey from the benthos and lake surface. Cladoceran zooplankton abundance may be regulated by kokanee. And kokanee growth and reproductive success may be influenced by the availability of Daphnia pulicaria, which was absent in zooplankton samples collected annually from 1990 to 1995, and after 1999. Distribution and diel migration of kokanee varied over the duration of the study and appeared to be most closely associated with prey availability, maximization of bioenergetic efficiency, and fish density. Rainbow trout were less abundant than were kokanee and exhibited less variation in population demographics, distribution, and food habits. There is some evidence that the population dynamics of rainbow trout were in-part related to the availability of kokanee as prey. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  1. The distribution of 35S-sulfadiazine and 14C-trimethoprim in rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of 35S-labelled sulfadiazine and 14C-labelled trimethoprim was studied in rainbow trout by use of whole body autoradiography and liquid scintillation. As compared to mammals, gastrointestinal absorption and elimination were slow. Accumulation in the skin and the uveal tract of the eye was observed for both drugs tested. The results also indicated that the bile was an important route of excretion. Considerable radioactivity was still present in the skin at 144 hr. survival time. (author)

  2. Micro-scale distribution of brown trout: an opportunity for kin selection?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsson, J.; Carlsson, J.E.L.

    2002-01-01

    Fourteen microsatellite loci were used to analyse the degree of relatedness between and within cohorts of stream-living brown trout (Salmo trutta L.). Differences in degree of relatedness were found between cohorts with mature and older having the highest intracohort relatedness. The higher genet....... It is argued that the clustering of mature and older trout may facilitate kin selection and that the low degree of association among related young-of-the-year trout could be explained by juvenile fish avoiding competition for territories with related individuals...

  3. Components of bull and bear markets: bull corrections and bear rallies

    OpenAIRE

    Maheu, John M; Thomas H. McCurdy; Yong Song

    2010-01-01

    Existing methods of partitioning the market index into bull and bear regimes do not identify market corrections or bear market rallies. In contrast, our probabilistic model of the return distribution allows for rich and heterogeneous intra-regime dynamics. We focus on the characteristics and dynamics of bear market rallies and bull market corrections, including, for example, the probability of transition from a bear market rally into a bull market versus back to the primary bear state. A Baye...

  4. Red Bull Crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Additives make Red Bull the first company to test China’s new Food Safety Law "Drink Red Bull when you feel sleepy or tired" is a famous advertising slogan well-known to Chinese. But a recent German

  5. Distribution of T Cells in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Skin and Responsiveness to Viral Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Esther; Granja, Aitor G; Zarza, Carlos; Tafalla, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Although the skin constitutes the first line of defense against waterborne pathogens, there is a great lack of information regarding the skin associated lymphoid tissue (SALT) and whether immune components of the skin are homogeneously distributed through the surface of the fish is still unknown. In the current work, we have analyzed the transcription of several immune genes throughout different rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) skin areas. We found that immunoglobulin and chemokine gene transcription levels were higher in a skin area close to the gills. Furthermore, this skin area as well as other anterior sections also transcribed significantly higher levels of many different immune genes related to T cell immunity such as T cell receptor α (TCRα), TCRγ, CD3, CD4, CD8, perforin, GATA3, Tbet, FoxP3, interferon γ (IFNγ), CD40L and Eomes in comparison to posterior skin sections. In agreement with these results, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that anterior skin areas had a higher concentration of CD3(+) T cells and flow cytometry analysis confirmed that the percentage of CD8(+) T lymphocytes was also higher in anterior skin sections. These results demonstrate for the first time that T cells are not homogeneously distributed throughout the teleost skin. Additionally, we studied the transcriptional regulation of these and additional T cell markers in response to a bath infection with viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). We found that VHSV regulated the transcription of several of these T cell markers in both the skin and the spleen; with some differences between anterior and posterior skin sections. Altogether, our results point to skin T cells as major players of teleost skin immunity in response to waterborne viral infections. PMID:26808410

  6. Distribution of T Cells in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Skin and Responsiveness to Viral Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Leal

    Full Text Available Although the skin constitutes the first line of defense against waterborne pathogens, there is a great lack of information regarding the skin associated lymphoid tissue (SALT and whether immune components of the skin are homogeneously distributed through the surface of the fish is still unknown. In the current work, we have analyzed the transcription of several immune genes throughout different rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss skin areas. We found that immunoglobulin and chemokine gene transcription levels were higher in a skin area close to the gills. Furthermore, this skin area as well as other anterior sections also transcribed significantly higher levels of many different immune genes related to T cell immunity such as T cell receptor α (TCRα, TCRγ, CD3, CD4, CD8, perforin, GATA3, Tbet, FoxP3, interferon γ (IFNγ, CD40L and Eomes in comparison to posterior skin sections. In agreement with these results, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that anterior skin areas had a higher concentration of CD3(+ T cells and flow cytometry analysis confirmed that the percentage of CD8(+ T lymphocytes was also higher in anterior skin sections. These results demonstrate for the first time that T cells are not homogeneously distributed throughout the teleost skin. Additionally, we studied the transcriptional regulation of these and additional T cell markers in response to a bath infection with viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV. We found that VHSV regulated the transcription of several of these T cell markers in both the skin and the spleen; with some differences between anterior and posterior skin sections. Altogether, our results point to skin T cells as major players of teleost skin immunity in response to waterborne viral infections.

  7. Preparation and anatomical distribution study of 67Ga-alginic acid nanoparticles for SPECT purposes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidarieh Marzieh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ergosan contains 1% alginic acid extracted from two brown sea weeds. Little is known about the target organs and anatomical distribution of Ergosan (alginic acid in fish. Therefore, feasibility of developing alginic acid nanoparticles to detect target organ in rainbow trout is interesting. To make nanoparticles, Ergosan extract (alginic acid was irradiated at 30 kGy in a cobalt-60 irradiator and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Results from TEM images showed that particle sizes of irradiated alginic acid ranged from 30 to 70 nm. The FTIR results indicated that gamma irradiation had no significant influence on the basic structure of alginic acid. Later, alginic acid nanoparticles were successively labelled with 67Ga-gallium chloride. The biodistribution of irradiated Ergosan in normal rainbow trout showed highest uptake in intestine and kidney and then in liver and kidney at 4- and 24-h post injection, respectively. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT images also demonstrated target specific binding of the tracer at 4- and 24-h post injection. In conclusion, the feed supplemented with alginic acid nanoparticles enhanced SPECT images of gastrointestinal morphology and immunity system in normal rainbow trout.

  8. Broad-scale patterns of Brook Trout responses to introduced Brown Trout in New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna Jr, James E.; Slattery, Michael T.; Kean M. Clifford

    2013-01-01

    Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis and Brown Trout Salmo trutta are valuable sport fish that coexist in many parts of the world due to stocking introductions. Causes for the decline of Brook Trout within their native range are not clear but include competition with Brown Trout, habitat alteration, and repetitive stocking practices. New York State contains a large portion of the Brook Trout's native range, where both species are maintained by stocking and other management actions. We used artificial neural network models, regression, principal components analysis, and simulation to evaluate the effects of Brown Trout, environmental conditions, and stocking on the distribution of Brook Trout in the center of their native range. We found evidence for the decline of Brook Trout in the presence of Brown Trout across many watersheds; 22% of sampled reaches where both species were expected to occur contained only Brown Trout. However, a model of the direct relationship between Brook Trout and Brown Trout abundance explained less than 1% of data variation. Ordination showed extensive overlap of Brook Trout and Brown Trout habitat conditions, with only small components of the hypervolume (multidimensional space) being distinctive. Subsequent analysis indicated higher abundances of Brook Trout in highly forested areas, while Brown Trout were more abundant in areas with relatively high proportions of agriculture. Simulation results indicated that direct interactions and habitat conditions were relatively minor factors compared with the effects of repeated stocking of Brown Trout into Brook Trout habitat. Intensive annual stocking of Brown Trout could eliminate resident Brook Trout in less than a decade. Ecological differences, harvest behavior, and other habitat changes can exacerbate Brook Trout losses. Custom stocking scenarios with Brown Trout introductions at relatively low proportions of resident Brook Trout populations may be able to sustain healthy populations of both

  9. Density-dependent regulation of brook trout population dynamics along a core-periphery distribution gradient in a central Appalachian watershed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brock M Huntsman

    Full Text Available Spatial population models predict strong density-dependence and relatively stable population dynamics near the core of a species' distribution with increasing variance and importance of density-independent processes operating towards the population periphery. Using a 10-year data set and an information-theoretic approach, we tested a series of candidate models considering density-dependent and density-independent controls on brook trout population dynamics across a core-periphery distribution gradient within a central Appalachian watershed. We sampled seven sub-populations with study sites ranging in drainage area from 1.3-60 km(2 and long-term average densities ranging from 0.335-0.006 trout/m. Modeled response variables included per capita population growth rate of young-of-the-year, adult, and total brook trout. We also quantified a stock-recruitment relationship for the headwater population and coefficients of variability in mean trout density for all sub-populations over time. Density-dependent regulation was prevalent throughout the study area regardless of stream size. However, density-independent temperature models carried substantial weight and likely reflect the effect of year-to-year variability in water temperature on trout dispersal between cold tributaries and warm main stems. Estimated adult carrying capacities decreased exponentially with increasing stream size from 0.24 trout/m in headwaters to 0.005 trout/m in the main stem. Finally, temporal variance in brook trout population size was lowest in the high-density headwater population, tended to peak in mid-sized streams and declined slightly in the largest streams with the lowest densities. Our results provide support for the hypothesis that local density-dependent processes have a strong control on brook trout dynamics across the entire distribution gradient. However, the mechanisms of regulation likely shift from competition for limited food and space in headwater streams to

  10. Density-dependent regulation of brook trout population dynamics along a core-periphery distribution gradient in a central Appalachian watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntsman, Brock M; Petty, J Todd

    2014-01-01

    Spatial population models predict strong density-dependence and relatively stable population dynamics near the core of a species' distribution with increasing variance and importance of density-independent processes operating towards the population periphery. Using a 10-year data set and an information-theoretic approach, we tested a series of candidate models considering density-dependent and density-independent controls on brook trout population dynamics across a core-periphery distribution gradient within a central Appalachian watershed. We sampled seven sub-populations with study sites ranging in drainage area from 1.3-60 km(2) and long-term average densities ranging from 0.335-0.006 trout/m. Modeled response variables included per capita population growth rate of young-of-the-year, adult, and total brook trout. We also quantified a stock-recruitment relationship for the headwater population and coefficients of variability in mean trout density for all sub-populations over time. Density-dependent regulation was prevalent throughout the study area regardless of stream size. However, density-independent temperature models carried substantial weight and likely reflect the effect of year-to-year variability in water temperature on trout dispersal between cold tributaries and warm main stems. Estimated adult carrying capacities decreased exponentially with increasing stream size from 0.24 trout/m in headwaters to 0.005 trout/m in the main stem. Finally, temporal variance in brook trout population size was lowest in the high-density headwater population, tended to peak in mid-sized streams and declined slightly in the largest streams with the lowest densities. Our results provide support for the hypothesis that local density-dependent processes have a strong control on brook trout dynamics across the entire distribution gradient. However, the mechanisms of regulation likely shift from competition for limited food and space in headwater streams to competition for

  11. Behavioral avoidance: Possible mechanism for explaining abundance and distribution of trout species in a metal-impacted river

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, J.A.; Bergman, H.L. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Woodward, D.F. [Geological Survey, Jackson, WY (United States). Environmental and Contaminants Research Center; Little, E.E.; DeLonay, A.J. [Geological Survey, Columbia, MO (United States). Environmental and Contaminants Research Center

    1999-02-01

    Behavioral avoidance of metal mixtures by rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was determined in the laboratory under water quality conditions that simulated the upper Clark Fork River, Montana, USA. A metal mixture with a fixed ratio of observed ambient metal concentrations (12 {micro}g/L Cu:1.1 {micro}g/L Cd:3.2 {micro}g/L Pb:50 {micro}g/L Zn) was used to determine avoidance in a countercurrent avoidance chamber. Rainbow trout avoided all metal concentrations tested from 10 to 1,000% of the simulated ambient metal mixture. The behavioral response of rainbow trout to the metal mixture was more sensitive than the response of brown trout (Salmo trutta) previously reported from the same laboratory under the same experimental conditions. Additionally, rainbow trout that were acclimated to the simulated ambient metal mixture for 45 d preferred clean water and avoided higher metal concentrations. Therefore, laboratory experiments on the behavioral avoidance responses of rainbow trout, as well as previously reported experiments on brown trout, show that both species will avoid typical metal concentrations observed on the Clark Fork River. And the greater sensitivity of rainbow trout to the metal mixture may explain, in part, why rainbow trout populations appear to be more severely affected, compared to brown trout populations, in the upper Clark Fork River.

  12. Behavioral avoidance: Possible mechanism for explaining abundance and distribution of trout species in a metal-impacted river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, J.A.; Woodward, D.F.; Little, E.E.; DeLonay, A.J.; Bergman, H.L.

    1999-01-01

    Behavioral avoidance of metal mixtures by rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was determined in the laboratory under water quality conditions that simulated the upper Clark Fork River, Montana, USA. A metal mixture with a fixed ratio of observed ambient metal concentrations (12 mg/L Cu: 1.1 ??g/L Cd:3.2 ??g/L Pb:50 ??g/L Zn) was used to determine avoidance in a countercurrent avoidance chamber. Rainbow trout avoided all metal concentrations tested from 10 to 1,000% of the simulated ambient metal mixture. The behavioral response of rainbow trout to the metal mixture was more sensitive than the response of brown trout (Salmo trutta) previously reported from the same laboratory under the same experimental conditions. Additionally, rainbow trout that were acclimated to the simulated ambient metal mixture for 45 d preferred clean water and avoided higher metal concentrations. Therefore, our laboratory experiments on the behavioral avoidance responses of rainbow trout, as well as previously reported experiments on brown trout, show that both species will avoid typical metal concentrations observed on the Clark Fork River. And the greater sensitivity of rainbow trout to the metal mixture may explain, in part, why rainbow trout populations appear to be more severely affected, compared to brown trout populations; in the upper Clark Fork River.

  13. Kin-biased distribution in brown trout: an effect of redd location or kin recognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, J; Carlsson, J E L; Olsén, K H; Hansen, M M; Eriksson, T; Nilsson, J

    2004-02-01

    A wide range of animals have been reported to show kin-biased behaviours, such as reduced aggressiveness and increased food sharing among relatives. However, less is known about whether wild animals also associate with relatives under natural conditions, which is a prerequisite to facilitate kin-biased behaviours and hence kin selection. We tested, by means of microsatellite polymorphism, correlations between pair-wise relatedness and pair-wise metric distance in wild brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) under natural conditions in two streams. Our data show that young-of-the-year as well as older trout found close together also had a higher genetic relatedness in one of the two streams, whereas no relationship was found in the other stream. Very few half and full siblings were found in the second stream and under these conditions it is unlikely that kin-biased behaviours will receive positive selection. We discuss the underlying mechanisms for the observed structure and we specifically address the issue of whether the grouping of related individuals could reflect dispersal from the same spawning redds, or if it reflects active association with relatives, possibly conferring kin-selected advantages. PMID:14666124

  14. Density-Dependent Regulation of Brook Trout Population Dynamics along a Core-Periphery Distribution Gradient in a Central Appalachian Watershed

    OpenAIRE

    Huntsman, Brock M.; Petty, J. Todd

    2014-01-01

    Spatial population models predict strong density-dependence and relatively stable population dynamics near the core of a species' distribution with increasing variance and importance of density-independent processes operating towards the population periphery. Using a 10-year data set and an information-theoretic approach, we tested a series of candidate models considering density-dependent and density-independent controls on brook trout population dynamics across a core-periphery distribution...

  15. Epitheliocystis Distribution and Characterization in Brown Trout (Salmo trutta) from the Headwaters of Two Major European Rivers, the Rhine and Rhone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara Soto, Maricruz; Vaughan, Lloyd; Segner, Helmut; Wahli, Thomas; Vidondo, Beatriz; Schmidt-Posthaus, Heike

    2016-01-01

    We present a first description of the distribution and characterization of epitheliocystis infections in brown trout (Salmo trutta) from the upper catchments of two major European rivers, the Rhine and the Rhone. Overall, epitheliocystis was widely distributed, with 70% of the Rhine and 67% of the Rhone sites harboring epitheliocystis positive brown trout. The epitheliocystis agents Candidatus Piscichlamydia salmonis and Candidatus Clavichlamydia salmonicola could be identified in both catchments, although their relative proportions differed from site to site. Additionally, in two rivers in the Rhine catchment, a new species of Candidatus Similichlamydia was identified. Based on the histology, infection intensity, and severity of pathological changes were significantly more pronounced in mixed chlamydial infections, whereas single infections showed only low numbers of cysts and mild pathology. Infections could be found over a wide range of temperatures, which showed no correlation to infection prevalence or intensity. PMID:27148070

  16. Epitheliocystis Distribution and Characterization in Brown Trout (Salmo trutta) from the Headwaters of Two Major European Rivers, the Rhine and Rhone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara Soto, Maricruz; Vaughan, Lloyd; Segner, Helmut; Wahli, Thomas; Vidondo, Beatriz; Schmidt-Posthaus, Heike

    2016-01-01

    We present a first description of the distribution and characterization of epitheliocystis infections in brown trout (Salmo trutta) from the upper catchments of two major European rivers, the Rhine and the Rhone. Overall, epitheliocystis was widely distributed, with 70% of the Rhine and 67% of the Rhone sites harboring epitheliocystis positive brown trout. The epitheliocystis agents Candidatus Piscichlamydia salmonis and Candidatus Clavichlamydia salmonicola could be identified in both catchments, although their relative proportions differed from site to site. Additionally, in two rivers in the Rhine catchment, a new species of Candidatus Similichlamydia was identified. Based on the histology, infection intensity, and severity of pathological changes were significantly more pronounced in mixed chlamydial infections, whereas single infections showed only low numbers of cysts and mild pathology. Infections could be found over a wide range of temperatures, which showed no correlation to infection prevalence or intensity. PMID:27148070

  17. Tissue distribution of zinc and subtle oxidative stress effects after dietary administration of ZnO nanoparticles to rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Mona; Fernández, Marta; Conde, Estefanía; Torrent, Fernando; Navas, José M; Fernández-Cruz, María L

    2016-05-01

    The increasing use of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) in different fields has raised concerns about the possible environmental risks associated with these NPs entering aquatic systems. In this study, using a dietary exposure route, we have analysed the tissue distribution and depuration pattern of Zn as well as any associated redox balance disturbances in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) following exposure to ZnO NPs (20-30nm). Fish were fed a diet spiked with ZnO NPs prepared from a dispersion in sunflower oil at doses of 300 or 1000mg ZnO NPs/kg feed for 10days. This uptake phase was followed by a 28days depuration phase in which fish from all groups received untreated feed. While no overt signs of toxicity were observed and no important effects in fish growth (weight and length) or in the hepatosomatic index among groups were recorded, we observed high levels of Zn bioaccumulation in the gills and intestine of exposed fish following exposure to both dose levels. Zn levels were not eliminated during the depuration phase and we have evidenced oxidative stress responses in gills associated with such long term ZnO NPs bioaccumulation and lack of elimination. Furthermore, exposures to higher doses of ZnO NPs (1000mg/kg feed) resulted in Zn distribution to the liver of fish following 10days of exposure. Fish from this exposure group experienced biochemical disturbances associated with oxidative stress in the liver and ethoxy-resorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity which may point to the ability of ZnO NPs or its ions to interfere with cytochrome P450 metabolic processes. PMID:26878645

  18. Spawning Trout in Eastern Connemara

    OpenAIRE

    Fahy, E.; Nixon, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    Concentrations totalling 299 trout from nine spawning sites in eastern Connemara in 1981 were examined to elucidate the spawning biology of these stocks. Sea trout made up the majority. Brown liveried fish predominated among migratory males (75%) but were few among females (2.5%). Males were of younger sea and river age than females and the ratio of females to males was lowest among the younger age categories. Scars and marks were evenly distributed between the sexes and 51% of females showed...

  19. Distribution and elimination of [14C]octachlorostyrene in cod (Gadus morhua), rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), and blue mussel (Mytilus edulis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cod (Gadus morhua) and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) were given a single oral dose of 100 microCi/kg b.w. of [14C]octachlorostyrene [(14C]OCS) in peanut oil. Blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) was exposed to [14C]OCS in water. The distribution and elimination of the compound was studied by liquid scintillation counting and whole-body autoradiography. The highest degree of radioactivity in the cod and rainbow trout was measured in the liver and the visceral fat, respectively. The degree of radioactivity in the brain of cod exceeded that of the rainbow trout by a factor between 2 and 4 at all survival times. In addition to bile excretion of [14C]OCS-derived radioactivity, a possible excretion over the intestinal mucosa was suggested. The rate of elimination was slow in both species, and substantial amounts of radioactivity remained in the tissues 90 d after administration. In the blue mussel, the highest degree of radioactivity was found in the hepatopancreas. Substantial amounts of radioactivity were present in the mussel tissues 60 d after administration

  20. Distribution of individual inbreeding coefficients, relatedness and influence of stocking on native anadromous brown trout ( Salmo trutta ) population structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzzante, D.E.; Hansen, Michael Møller; Meldrup, Dorte

    2001-01-01

    inbreeding coefficients do not differ among locations within rivers. Relatedness varies between sites within rivers indicating varied local dynamics at a very small geographical scale. Relatedness is sometimes lower than expected among an equal number of simulated individuals with randomized genotypes...... origin but this proportion varies regionally, with rivers in the western area of the Limfjord showing a relatively high (mean 88%) and those in the eastern area showing a relatively low (mean 72%) proportion of locally assigned trout. These results can be interpreted as reflecting stocking impact. Also......, the proportion of locally assigned trout correlates with the populations' stocking histories, with rivers presently subjected to stocking (hatchery trout) showing low mean similar to0.73), and rivers where stocking was discontinued showing high (mean similar to0.84) proportions of local fish, probably...

  1. Effects of some chelating agents on the uptake and distribution of 54Mn(II) in the brown trout (Salmo trutta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of humic acids, which are natural metal-complexing compounds, and potassium ethylxanthate, sodium diethyldithiophosphate, sodium dimethyldithicarbamate, which are sulphur-containing man-made chelating agents, on the uptake and tissue distribution of 54Mn(II) were studied in brown trout (Salmo trutta). Fish were exposed for 7 days to 0.1 μg Mn(II)x.-2 as NmCl2 (l μCia 54Mnxl-1) with or without chelat agents. Examination of the partition of Mn between octanol and a Tris-HCl buffer in the presence of these compounds was also performed. Humic acids had only small effects on Mn uptake and distribution in trout, probably because of the low stability of Mn-humate complexes. Partition of Mn in the presence of potassium ethylxanthate, sodium diethyldithiophosphate, sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate, and sodium diethyldithiocarbamate between octanol and Tris-HCl buffer showed formation of lipophilic complex with the latter two compounds, but not with the former. However, these four chelating agents all decreased Mn uptake in the trout by 40-45%. These substances also changed the distribution of Mn within the fish, with a higher proportion of the metal being present in some visceral organs and a smaller proportion being localized in some non-parenchymateous tissues, such as skin, fins and bones. The mechanisms underlying these effects are not known. however, the interaction of chelating agents with the Mn, although weak, may have partially withdrawn the metal from the uptake process inthe gills. The redistribution of Mn in the fish may be due to the binding of the metal to complexing compounds which have reached the intestinal lumen. Previous studies with other metals have shown increased or unchanged metal levels in tissues of fish at exposure together with potasium ethylxanthate, sodium diethyldithiophosphate, sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate, and sodium diethyldithiocarbamate, but decreased metal levels have not been observed before. (au) (37 refs.)

  2. Evolution of specific antigen recognition: size reduction and restricted length distribution of the CDRH3 regions in the rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, T; De Guerra, A; Charlemagne, J

    1995-01-01

    The immunoglobulin heavy chain repertoire in fish was investigated by cloning a total of 88 rearranged VDJ junctions from the head kidney B cell mRNA of a salmonid, the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Trout DH segments are short and cannot be classified into independent DH families. Several of the ten identified putative DH segments had stretches of nucleotide sequence identity with mouse (DQ52, DFL 16.2 and Dsp 2.1), human (DM1) and chicken (DH4) DH. There was a clear preference for one or two of the three putative DH reading frames and a stop codon is often present in the less used reading frame. Four of the six JH segments are preferentially used, and analysis of the VH-DH and DH-JH junctions suggest the presence of N-nucleotides. The absolute size and size heterogeneity of the rainbow trout CDRH3 are smaller than those of the Xenopus, mouse and human CDRH3. About 75% of the 84 in-frame trout CDRH3 have 8, 9 or 10 residues and none of them have more than 11 residues. This homogeneization of the CDRH3 loop size may partly explain the restricted antibody diversity in lower vertebrates. PMID:7843242

  3. Distribution of individual inbreeding coefficients, relatedness and influence of stocking on native anadromous brown trout ( Salmo trutta ) population structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzzante, D.E.; Hansen, Michael Møller; Meldrup, Dorte

    2001-01-01

    We examined polymorphism at seven microsatellite loci in 4023 brown trout (Salmo trutta) collected from 32 tributaries to the Limfjord, Denmark (similar to 200 km) and from two hatcheries used for stocking. Populations differ in their estimated sizes and stocking histories. Mean individual...

  4. Effects of bull elk demographics on age categories of harem bulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, L.C.

    2002-01-01

    Many management strategies for elk (Cervus elaphus) emphasize increasing numbers of mature bulls in the population. These strategies are usually assumed to enhance productivity via increased breeding by mature bulls. I compared age classes of harem bulls during the peak of the rut under 4 bull harvest strategies that resulted in different bull:cow ratios, mature bull:cow ratios, bull mortality rates, and proportions of mature bulls in the autumn (pre-hunting season) population. Proportions of harems held by differing age classes of bulls [mature (P84% of harems only in populations where mature bull:cow ratios exceeded 21:100 in the autumn population. Interaction of mature bull ratios in the autumn population, harem size, and bull selectivity in the harvest strategy must be considered if increased breeding by mature harem bulls is a management goal.

  5. Estimation of Bull.s Gene Effects for Milk Amount

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Rimac

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we tried to estimate gene effects of three bulls that are mated with five populations of half-sisters by sire line for milk amount. We wanted to fortify whether the order of bull.s gene effects was unchangeable or it was modified. Totally we analyzed 2824 lactation. Investigation was made on two different generations of Holstein cows (mothers and daughters. Analysis of results for milk production of mothers showed that between different populations of mothers exist significant differences (P<0.05 and P<0.01.It was fortified that order of bulls wasn.t same i.e. that their breeding value (like sum of all present genes in one individual was various on the different populations of cows.

  6. Assessing the Effects of Myxobolus cerebralis and Other Environmental Factors on the Dynamics, Abundance, and Distribution of Trout Populations in the Logan River, Utah

    OpenAIRE

    de la Hoz Franco, Ernesto A.

    2003-01-01

    The presence of nonnative trout and the recent introduction of Myxobolus cerebralis in the Logan River drainage pose a threat to the native Bonneville cutthroat trout population (Oncorhynchus clarki Utah). The variability in the response of susceptible trout populations to M. cerebralis, causing agent of whirling disease, suggests that environmental factors may influence the effects of the parasite in infected environments. I investigated the relationship between temperature, discharge, subst...

  7. Fine-scale population structure and riverscape genetics of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) distributed continuously along headwater channel networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Y.; Vokoun, J.C.; Letcher, B.H.

    2011-01-01

    Linear and heterogeneous habitat makes headwater stream networks an ideal ecosystem in which to test the influence of environmental factors on spatial genetic patterns of obligatory aquatic species. We investigated fine-scale population structure and influence of stream habitat on individual-level genetic differentiation in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) by genotyping eight microsatellite loci in 740 individuals in two headwater channel networks (7.7 and 4.4 km) in Connecticut, USA. A weak but statistically significant isolation-by-distance pattern was common in both sites. In the field, many tagged individuals were recaptured in the same 50-m reaches within a single field season (summer to fall). One study site was characterized with a hierarchical population structure, where seasonal barriers (natural falls of 1.5-2.5 m in height during summer base-flow condition) greatly reduced gene flow and perceptible spatial patterns emerged because of the presence of tributaries, each with a group of genetically distinguishable individuals. Genetic differentiation increased when pairs of individuals were separated by high stream gradient (steep channel slope) or warm stream temperature in this site, although the evidence of their influence was equivocal. In a second site, evidence for genetic clusters was weak at best, but genetic differentiation between individuals was positively correlated with number of tributary confluences. We concluded that the population-level movement of brook trout was limited in the study headwater stream networks, resulting in the fine-scale population structure (genetic clusters and clines) even at distances of a few kilometres, and gene flow was mitigated by 'riverscape' variables, particularly by physical barriers, waterway distance (i.e. isolation-by-distance) and the presence of tributaries. ?? 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Microsatellite analyses of the trout of northwest Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, J.L.; Sage, G.K.

    2001-01-01

    The trout of northwest Mexico represent an undescribed group of fish considered part of the Oncorhynchus mykiss (Pacific trout) complex of species and subspecies. Recent genetic studies have shown these fish to have important genetic diversity and a unique evolutionary history when compared to coastal rainbow trout. Increased levels of allelic diversity have been found in this species at the southern extent of its range. In this study we describe the trout in the Sierra Madre Occidental from the rios Yaqui, Mayo, Casas Grandes and de Bavispe, and their relationship to the more southern distribution of Mexican golden trout (O. chrysogaster) using 11 microsatellite loci. Microsatellite allelic diversity in Mexican trout was high with a mean of 6.6 alleles/locus, average heterozygosity = 0.35, and a mean Fst = 0.43 for all loci combined. Microsatellite data were congruent with previously published mtDNA results showing unique panmictic population structure in the Rio Yaqui trout that differs from Pacific coastal trout and Mexican golden trout. These data also add support for the theory of headwaters transfer of trout across the Continental Divide from tributaries of the Rio de Bavispe into the Rio Casas Grandes. Rio Mayo trout share a close genetic relationship to trout in Rio Yaqui, but sample sizes from the Rio Mayo prevent significant comparisons in this study. Microsatellite analyses show significant allelic frequency differences between Rio Yaqui trout and O. chrysogaster in Sinaloa and Durango Mexico, adding further support for a unique evolutionary status for this group of northwestern Mexican trout.

  9. Identification of differentially expressed genes of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in response to Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa)

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Gokhlesh; Abd-Elfattah, Ahmed; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2015-01-01

    Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae Canning et al., 1999 (Myxozoa) is the causative agent of proliferative kidney disease in various species of salmonids in Europe and North America. We have shown previously that the development and distribution of the European strain of T. bryosalmonae differs in the kidney of brown trout (Salmo trutta) Linnaeus, 1758 and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Walbaum, 1792, and that intra-luminal sporogonic stages were found in brown trout but not in rainbow trout. ...

  10. Breeding soundness evaluation of young beef bulls

    OpenAIRE

    Persson, Ylva

    2007-01-01

    The overall aims were to learn more about factors affecting fertility in Swedish beef sires in general and in yearling beef bulls in particular, focusing mainly on sexual maturity and hind limb health finding useful tools in order to be able to routinely perform a complete bull breeding soundness evaluations in Swedish beef bulls. Semen was collected from yearling beef bulls, postmortem, and the sperm morphology was evaluated. Using a strict definition, based on sperm morphology, we could dem...

  11. Concentration and distribution of contaminants in lake trout and walleye from the Laurentian Great Lakes (2008-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGoldrick, Daryl J; Murphy, Elizabeth W

    2016-10-01

    Biomonitoring programs for persistent, bioaccumulative, and/or toxic chemicals of concern in fish tissues have been operated by the governments of Canada and the United States in the Great Lakes since the 1970's. The objectives of these programs are to assess concentrations of harmful chemicals in whole body top predator fish as an indicator of ecosystem health and to infer potential harm to fish and fish consuming wildlife in the Great Lakes Basin. Chemicals of interest are selected based upon national and binational commitments, risk assessment, and regulation, and include a wide range of compounds. This review summarizes all available data generated by Environment Canada and the United States Environmental Protection Agency for chemicals measured in whole body homogenates of Lake Trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and Walleye (Sander vitreus) for the time period spanning 2008 to 2012 from each of the five Great Lakes. The summary shows that concentrations of legacy compounds, such as, POPs listed in the Stockholm Convention and mercury continue to dominate the chemical burden of Great Lakes fish. This assessment, and others like it, can guide the creation of environmental quality targets where they are lacking, optimize chemical lists for monitoring, and prioritize chemicals of concern under agreements such as the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement and the Stockholm Convention. PMID:26740246

  12. Landscape-scale evaluation of asymmetric interactions between Brown Trout and Brook Trout using two-species occupancy models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Tyler; Jefferson T. Deweber; Jason Detar; John A. Sweka

    2013-01-01

    Predicting the distribution of native stream fishes is fundamental to the management and conservation of many species. Modeling species distributions often consists of quantifying relationships between species occurrence and abundance data at known locations with environmental data at those locations. However, it is well documented that native stream fish distributions can be altered as a result of asymmetric interactions between dominant exotic and subordinate native species. For example, the naturalized exotic Brown Trout Salmo trutta has been identified as a threat to native Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis in the eastern United States. To evaluate large-scale patterns of co-occurrence and to quantify the potential effects of Brown Trout presence on Brook Trout occupancy, we used data from 624 stream sites to fit two-species occupancy models. These models assumed that asymmetric interactions occurred between the two species. In addition, we examined natural and anthropogenic landscape characteristics we hypothesized would be important predictors of occurrence of both species. Estimated occupancy for Brook Trout, from a co-occurrence model with no landscape covariates, at sites with Brown Trout present was substantially lower than sites where Brown Trout were absent. We also observed opposing patterns for Brook and Brown Trout occurrence in relation to percentage forest, impervious surface, and agriculture within the network catchment. Our results are consistent with other studies and suggest that alterations to the landscape, and specifically the transition from a forested catchment to one that contains impervious surface or agriculture, reduces the occurrence probability of wild Brook Trout. Our results, however, also suggest that the presence of Brown Trout results in lower occurrence probability of Brook Trout over a range of anthropogenic landscape characteristics, compared with streams where Brown Trout were absent.

  13. An epizootic among rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    1953-01-01

    An epizootic among rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii) in a private trout farm, resulting from a species of Ichthyosporidium that caused very high mortality rates in all ages of trout, reported from the State of Washington.

  14. The 1000 bull genome project

    Science.gov (United States)

    To meet growing global demands for high value protein from milk and meat, rates of genetic gain in domestic cattle must be accelerated. At the same time, animal health and welfare must be considered. The 1000 bull genomes project supports these goals by providing annotated sequence variants and ge...

  15. Effects of some chelating agents on the uptake and distribution of 203Hg2+ in the brown trout (Salmo trutta): Studies on ethyl- and isopropylxanthate diethyl- and diisopropyldithiophosphate, dimethyl- and diethyldithiocarbamate and pyridinethione

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown trout, Salmo trutta, were exposed to water containing 0.1 μg/l 203Hg2+, alone or with potassium ethylxanthate (PEX), sodium isopropylxanthate (SIX), sodium diethyldithiophosphate (SEP), sodium diisopropyldithiophosphate (SIP), sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate (SMC), sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (SEC) or sodium pyridinethione (SPyr), respectively. After 1 week the uptake and distribution of the 203Hg2+ in the fish were examined by gamma spectrometry, SIX, SIP, SMC, SEC and SPyr induced 2-3 times higher 203Hg2+ concentrations in most tissues in comparison with trout exposed to 203Hg2+ only. In the trout exposed to PEX slightly enhanced 203Hg2+ levels were found only in some tissues, and after exposure to SEP a few tissues showed decreased 203Hg2+ concentrations. Determinations of chloroform/water partition coefficients showed that lipophilic chelates are formed between all the examined substances and the 203Hg2+. However, SIX, SIP, SMC, SEC and SPyr, which induced markedly increased tissue levels of the metal, formed 203Hg2+ complexes with higher lipophilicities than SEX and SEP. A facilitated penetration of the lipophilic 203Hg2+ complexes over the gill membranes may underly the increment in the tissue levels of the metal, and the relative lipophilicity of the complexes may be of importance for this effect. In some instances, as with SEP, the 203Hg2+ chelated in complexes with low lipophilicity may even be less able to acumulate in some tissues than the non-complexed metal. (orig.)

  16. Neuroretinitis following bull ant sting

    OpenAIRE

    Ullrich, Katja; Saha, Niladri; Lake, Stewart

    2012-01-01

    Cat scratch disease causes the majority of cases of neuroretinitis. Neuroretinitis is characterised by clinical features of papillitis, macular oedema and macular star. We report a case study of infection with Bartonella henselae most likely transmitted by a bull ant sting. The patient presented with blurred vision and reduced visual acuity after being stung by an ant in her garden some 7 days earlier. Further testing revealed positive serology to B henselae and the patient improved with appr...

  17. Examining indirect effects of lake trout recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the recovery of lake trout populations in Lake Superior, there are indications of decreased forage fish abundance and density-dependence in lake trout. In Lake Superior, lean lake trout historically occupied depths trout occupied depths > 60 m...

  18. Probabilistic accounting of uncertainty in forecasts of species distributions under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Seth J.; Som, Nicholas A.; Dauwalter, Daniel C.; Isaak, Daniel J.; Neville, Helen M.; Luce, Charles H.; Dunham, Jason B.; Young, Michael K.; Fausch, Kurt D.; Rieman, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    Forecasts of species distributions under future climates are inherently uncertain, but there have been few attempts to describe this uncertainty comprehensively in a probabilistic manner. We developed a Monte Carlo approach that accounts for uncertainty within generalized linear regression models (parameter uncertainty and residual error), uncertainty among competing models (model uncertainty), and uncertainty in future climate conditions (climate uncertainty) to produce site-specific frequency distributions of occurrence probabilities across a species’ range. We illustrated the method by forecasting suitable habitat for bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Interior Columbia River Basin, USA, under recent and projected 2040s and 2080s climate conditions. The 95% interval of total suitable habitat under recent conditions was estimated at 30.1–42.5 thousand km; this was predicted to decline to 0.5–7.9 thousand km by the 2080s. Projections for the 2080s showed that the great majority of stream segments would be unsuitable with high certainty, regardless of the climate data set or bull trout model employed. The largest contributor to uncertainty in total suitable habitat was climate uncertainty, followed by parameter uncertainty and model uncertainty. Our approach makes it possible to calculate a full distribution of possible outcomes for a species, and permits ready graphical display of uncertainty for individual locations and of total habitat.

  19. Characterization of melatonin synthesis in the gastrointestinal tract of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): distribution, relation with serotonin, daily rhythms and photoperiod regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Pérez, José L; López-Patiño, Marcos A; Álvarez-Otero, Rosa; Gesto, Manuel; Soengas, José L; Míguez, Jesús M

    2016-05-01

    Melatonin is synthesized in peripheral locations of vertebrates, including the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). In teleost, information regarding this topic is scarce. Here we studied the presence and synthesis of melatonin at the rainbow trout GIT. Different sections of trout GIT (from esophagus to hindgut) were dissected out and assayed for contents of melatonin, serotonin (5-HT) and its metabolite, 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid, as well as for aanat1, aanat2 and hiomt mRNA abundance. A trout group was pinealectomized to evaluate changes in plasma and gut melatonin content. Finally, the daily profile of melatonin and 5-HT content, and aanat1, aanat2 and hiomt mRNA abundance were analyzed in gut of trout kept under normal lighting, and then under constant darkness. Melatonin was detected in all GIT regions with higher concentrations in the muscular wall than in the mucosa, a similar trend to that of 5-HT. In contrast, transcripts of melatonin synthesis enzymes were more abundant in the mucosa. Pinealectomy did not affect melatonin levels in midgut and hindgut either at day or at night. Additionally, no daily rhythms could be defined for melatonin content in gut tissues but increases during late light phase and at midnight occurred. However, aanat1, aanat2 and hiomt mRNA abundance showed clear daily rhythms with peaks at night. These rhythms remained with a 3-h phase advanced peak in fish exposed to constant darkness. Our results provide clear evidence for a local synthesis of melatonin in trout GIT that might be influenced by the content of 5-HT in the tissue. The process is affected by environmental light cycle and is likely to be under circadian regulation. PMID:26873742

  20. Factors affecting spermatozoa morphology in beef bulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate factors affecting sperm morphology of bulls (n=908) collected at 320 days of age. Bulls were a composite breed (50% Red Angus, 25% Charolais, and 25% Tarentaise) born from 2002 to 2008 to dams fed levels of feed during mid and late gestation that were expe...

  1. Sperm macromolecules associated with bull fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Abdullah; Memili, Erdoğan

    2016-06-01

    Bull fertility, ability of the sperm to fertilize and activate the egg that sustain embryo development, is vitally important for effective and efficient production of cattle. Fertility is a complex trait with low heritability. Despite recent advances in genomic selection and possibility of enormous paternal benefits to profitable cattle production, there exist no reliable tests for evaluating semen quality and predicting bull fertility. This review focuses on sperm macromolecules such as transcripts, proteins and the epigenome, i.e., the functional genome that are associated with bull fertility. Generating new information in these systems is important beyond agriculture because such progress advances the fundamental science of the mammalian male gamete while at the same time introduces biotechnology into livestock production. Sperm macromolecules and epigenome markers associated with bull fertility can be used alone or in combination with the current SNP microarrays to determine sperm quality and to indicate bull fertility. PMID:26925808

  2. Trout Stream Special Regulations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This layer shows Minnesota trout streams that have a special regulation as described in the 2006 Minnesota Fishing Regulations. Road crossings were determined using...

  3. Pedigree Analysis of Holstein Bulls in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Pavlík

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the genetic diversity in Holstein bulls population in Slovakia by the methods of pedigree analysis. The population was represented by the bulls with reserve of frozen semen doses in AI centers. Whole reference population consisted of 169 bulls born from 1997 to 2009. For calculation of diversity parameters the program Endog v.4.8 (Gutiérrez, Goyache, 2005 was used. An average maximal number of generations traced was 9.35, 3.06 complete generations and equivalent number of generations traced was 5.71. An average coefficient of inbreeding was 2.48%, individual increase in inbreeding was 0.53% and average relatedness was 2.72%. The 167 bulls from 169 were inbred (98.82%. An average number of offsprings per bull was 107.70 with maximal number 1,641 offsprings. The effective population size computed via individual increase in inbreeding was 94.50. The effective number of founders was 88, effective number of ancestors 31 and only 13 ancestors described 50% of diversity. From these results we can conclude that the diversity of Holstein bulls is reduced by more factors (inbreeding, high relatedness, bottlenecks. Obtained results point out the need to use new outbred bull lines for mating cows.

  4. Yakima River Radio-Telemetry Study, Rainbow Trout, 1993 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hockersmith, Eric E.

    1995-04-01

    Rainbow trout populations in the upper Yakima River Basin have increased due to reduced competition from declining populations of steelhead, chinook salmon, and coho salmon. Changing population abundances have increased the potential for interactions between rainbow trout and steelhead. In 1993, NMFS, in cooperation with WDW, proposed a 1-year radio-telemetry study to determine the spawning distribution, timing, and behavior of rainbow trout in the upper Yakima River Basin. Specific objectives were to: (1) Determine the spatial and temporal spawning distributions of rainbow trout in the upper Yakima River Basin. (2) Describe post-spawning behavior of rainbow trout in the upper Yakima River Basin. (3) Determine the magnitude and causes of mortalities to rainbow trout that were radio- tagged.

  5. Genetic Structure of Pacific Trout at the Extreme Southern End of Their Native Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadía-Cardoso, Alicia; Garza, John Carlos; Mayden, Richard L; García de León, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    Salmonid fishes are cold water piscivores with a native distribution spanning nearly the entire temperate and subarctic northern hemisphere. Trout in the genus Oncorhynchus are the most widespread salmonid fishes and are among the most important fish species in the world, due to their extensive use in aquaculture and valuable fisheries. Trout that inhabit northwestern Mexico are the southernmost native salmonid populations in the world, and the least studied in North America. They are unfortunately also facing threats to their continued existence. Previous work has described one endemic species, the Mexican golden trout (O. chrysogaster), and one endemic subspecies, Nelson's trout (O. mykiss nelsoni), in Mexico, but previous work indicated that there is vastly more biodiversity in this group than formally described. Here we conducted a comprehensive genetic analysis of this important group of fishes using novel genetic markers and techniques to elucidate the biodiversity of trout inhabiting northwestern Mexico, examine genetic population structure of Mexican trout and their relationships to other species of Pacific trout, and measure introgression from non-native hatchery rainbow trout. We confirmed substantial genetic diversity and extremely strong genetic differentiation present in the Mexican trout complex, not only between basins but also between some locations within basins, with at least four species-level taxa present. We also revealed significant divergence between Mexican trout and other trout species and found that introgression from non-native rainbow trout is present but limited, and that the genetic integrity of native trout is still maintained in most locations. This information will help to guide effective conservation strategies for this important group of fishes. PMID:26509445

  6. Watershed boundaries and geographic isolation: patterns of diversification in cutthroat trout from western North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loxterman Janet L

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For wide-ranging species, intraspecific variation can occur as a result of reproductive isolation from local adaptive differences or from physical barriers to movement. Cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii, a widely distributed fish species from North America, has been divided into numerous putative subspecies largely based on its isolation in different watersheds. In this study, we examined mtDNA sequence variation of cutthroat trout to determine the major phylogenetic lineages of this polytypic species. We use these data as a means of testing whether geographic isolation by watershed boundaries can be a primary factor organizing intraspecific diversification. Results We collected cutthroat trout from locations spanning almost the entire geographic range of this species and included samples from all major subspecies of cutthroat trout. Based on our analyses, we reveal eight major lineages of cutthroat trout, six of which correspond to subspecific taxonomy commonly used to describe intraspecific variation in this species. The Bonneville cutthroat trout (O. c. utah and Yellowstone cutthroat trout (O. c. bouvieri did not form separate monophyletic lineages, but instead formed an intermixed clade. We also document the geographic distribution of a Great Basin lineage of cutthroat trout; a group typically defined as Bonneville cutthroat trout, but it appears more closely related to the Colorado River lineage of cutthroat trout. Conclusion Our study indicates that watershed boundaries can be an organizing factor isolating genetic diversity in fishes; however, historical connections between watersheds can also influence the template of isolation. Widely distributed species, like cutthroat trout, offer an opportunity to assess where historic watershed connections may have existed, and help explain the current distribution of biological diversity across a landscape.

  7. Marine migration and habitat use of anadromous brown trout Salmo trutta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldøy, Sindre Håvarstein; Davidsen, Jan Grimsrud; Thorstad, Eva Bonsak;

    2015-01-01

    The biology and ecology of anadromous brown trout (Salmo trutta) at sea is poorly understood. This study provided information on spatial and temporal distribution of sea trout in the ocean. The behaviour of 115 individuals (veteran migrants, 270–700 mm) was tracked by using acoustic telemetry in a...

  8. Conservation of Yellowstone Cutthroat Trout in Yellowstone National Park: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Michael B.; Murphy, Brian R.; Zale, Alexander V.

    2009-01-01

    The Yellowstone cutthroat trout (YCT; "Oncorhynchus clarki bouvieri") has become a species of special concern for Yellowstone National Park (YNP) fisheries biologists. Although this subspecies formerly occupied a greater area than any other inland cutthroat trout, the current distribution of YCT is now limited to several watersheds within the…

  9. Bull's-eye map of myocardial perfusion MR imaging. Comparison with SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When diagnosing heart disease, chest roentgenograms, ultrasonography, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and coronary arteriography are usually performed. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is not widely used for evaluating heart disease. Recent technological progress has allowed high quality images of the heart to be reliably obtained. A routine MR study taking about 30-40 minutes can provide a large amount of diagnostic information, such as cardiac structure, function, perfusion, and myocardial viability. The analysis software that can offer Bull's-eye maps from myocardial perfusion images has recently become commercially available. In this study, the characteristics of Bull's-eye mapping of MR imaging is compared with that of Bull's-eye mapping of SPECT using the same heart phantom. The difference in the image quality of the Bull's-eye maps was evaluated among the receiver coils of MR imaging. On Bull's-eye maps from both MR imaging and SPECT, decreased signal intensity was noted in the posterolateral wall. The degree of decrease in the signal of the MR imaging was more prominent than of SPECT. The decrease was severe for the general-purpose receive-only flexible (GPFLEX) coil, moderate for the cardiac and TORSO coil, and slight for the body coil. In the selection of a coil, it is necessary to take into consideration the trade-off between the distribution of signal intensity and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). (author)

  10. Energy conversion efficiency of trout and sea bass production in the Black Sea, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examined the current energy balance, energy conversion efficiency, and farm-level efficiency of trout and sea bass production in the Black Sea of Turkey. Using a structured survey, we collected data from nine monoculture trout farms and five polyculture trout and sea bass farms during the 2005-2006 production season. Energy values were calculated using energy equivalents of the inputs and outputs for the farms. Data envelopment analysis was used to calculate farm-level efficiency. The total energy use per cubic meter was 46.57 MJ for trout production and 87.13 MJ for sea bass production. The main energy inputs were feed and diesel oil for both trout and sea bass production. Indirect energy use was dominant in trout production, while direct energy use was more common in sea bass production. The energy input-to-output ratio of trout production was higher than that of sea bass production. Sea bass production was more economically energy efficient compared to trout production. The allocative and economic energy efficiencies for trout and sea bass production were 0.788 and 0.881, respectively. For both types of farms, the most discriminative variable affecting economic efficiency was operator experience. Increasing focus on product distribution costs could decrease total energy costs by approximately 12%

  11. Brand image and identity of Red Bull

    OpenAIRE

    Kubátová, Karolína

    2009-01-01

    The thesis is focused on a comparison of the image perception and brand identity of Red Bull. The theoretical part explains the difference between the concepts of identity and brand image, how the brand sees itself and how it is perceived from the perspective of consumers. Further information is also given in the context of the topic. This analysis yields a comparison between the brand's identity and the inaccuracies in the perceptions of the brand image, and reveals the real image of Red Bull.

  12. Production and quality of beef from young bulls fed diets supplemented with peanut cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, B R; Carvalho, G G P; Oliveira, R L; Pires, A J V; Ribeiro, O L; Silva, R R; Leão, A G; Simionato, J I; Carvalho, B M A

    2016-08-01

    Peanut cake is a biodiesel byproduct that has been tested as an alternative feed additive for use in cattle production. This study aimed to assess the importance of dietary peanut cake inclusion for young bull growth rate, beef production, and beef quality. In total, 32 Nellore young bulls individually housed in stalls with a mean initial body weight of 390±43.5kg were distributed in a completely randomized design for the experiment. The animals were fed Tifton 85 hay and one of four concentrate mixtures with 0, 33, 66 or 100% peanut cake instead of soybean meal. There was a linear reduction (Pcake at levels up to 100% in the diet of feedlot-finished young bulls promotes a beneficial increase in the levels of PUFAs and the following nutraceutical compounds: conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and Ω3 and Ω6 fatty acids. PMID:27050756

  13. On the occurrence of the Bull Ray Pteromylaeus bovinus (Chondrichthyes: Myliobatidae in the Amvrakikos Gulf, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. ZOGARIS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We document in this note the occurrence of the Bull Ray Pteromylaeus bovinus (Geoffroy St-Hilaire, 1817 (Chondrichthyes: Myliobatidae in the Amvrakikos Gulf (eastern Ionian Sea, within a recently designated Wetlands National Park. Although distributional data for this species are scant, there is circumstantial evidence depicting the species as rare in Greece and the Mediterranean.

  14. Preparing Bulls for the Breeding Season

    OpenAIRE

    Bagley, Clell V., DVM

    1997-01-01

    With proper care prior to and during the breeding season, cattlemen can increase the breeding capacity of bulls. Breeding soundness evaluations and trichomoniasis testing are tools which can aid a herd manager as he makes critical decisions for next year’s calf crop.

  15. Bull Riding Injuries In Central Queensland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan James Livingston

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Bull riding is an increasingly popular and growing professional sport in Australia. This is the first national study that investigates bull riding-related injuries. Method A six-year retrospective study of patients admitted to Rockhampton Base Hospital with acute injuries sustained whilst bull riding. Patients were identified from the Rockhampton Hospital international coding system and surgical audit excel databases. Supporting information was found from patient chart review. Results Thirty-eight patients were admitted during the study. Injuries increased from 2008. The most common injuries were to limbs (52%, chest (15% and brain (10%. Life-threatening injuries were all caused by a direct kick or trampling by the bull; 5% of patients needed air transfer to Brisbane, and 10% to Rockhampton for their acute care. The only complication was infection of open wounds. The average hospital stay was 2.2 (range= 1-5, SD= 1.1 days and 64% of patients required operative intervention. Conclusion Patients that had been kicked or trampled should be identified as having potentially life-threatening injuries, and transferred for review at an appropriate facility. Due to the high risk of infection all contaminated wounds should be washed out formally and receive antibiotics. Protective equipment should be encouraged among riders.

  16. The Sea Trout Year 1985

    OpenAIRE

    Fahy, E

    1986-01-01

    The wet year of 1985 yielded good catches to the rod and to commercial engines. Salmon were taken in reasonable numbers in the drift nets although only small numbers of sea trout were captured by this method. The wet angling season is thought to have provided productive fishing conditions contributing largely to a 22% increase over the previous year's landings of sea trout.

  17. Trout in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Trout in the Classroom (TIC) is a conservation-oriented environmental education program for elementary, middle, and high school students. During the year each teacher tailors the program to fit his or her curricular needs. Therefore, each TIC program is unique. TIC has interdisciplinary applications in science, social studies, mathematics, language arts, fine arts, and physical education. In the program, students and teachers raise trout from fertilized eggs supplied by Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries (VGIF) hatcheries, in aquariums equipped with special chillers designed to keep the water near 50 degrees F. The students make daily temperature measurements, and monitor pH, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, and ammonia levels. They record their data, plot trends, and make sure that the water quality is sufficient to support trout development. The fingerlings, which hatch in late October, are almost an inch and a half long by mid-January. And towards the end of the school year, students will release the fry into VGIF approved watersheds. TIC programs have been in place all across the country for more than 20 years, and are the result of numerous collaborations between teachers, volunteers, government agencies, and local organizations like Trout Unlimited. The programs were designed specifically for teachers who wanted to incorporate more environmental education into their curriculum. While the immediate goal of Trout in the Classroom is to increase student knowledge of water quality and cold water conservation, its long-term goal is to reconnect an increasingly urbanized population of youth to the system of streams, rivers, and watersheds that sustain them. Successful programs have helped: connect students to their local environments and their local watersheds; teach about watershed health and water quality, and; get students to care about fish and the environment. In Virginia, the TIC program is now in its 8th year. Over the past year, the program

  18. Embryotoxicity of an extract from Great Lakes lake trout to rainbow trout and lake trout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, P.J.; Tillitt, D.E. [National Biological Service, Columbia, MO (United States). Midwest Science Center

    1995-12-31

    Aquatic ecosystems such as the Great Lakes are known to be contaminated with chemicals that are toxic to fish. However, the role of these contaminants in reproductive failures of fishes, such as lake trout recruitment, has remained controvertible. It was the objective to evaluate dioxin-like embryotoxicity of a complex mixture of chemicals and predict their potential to cause the lack of recruitment in Great Lakes lake trout. Graded doses of a complex environmental extract were injected into eggs of both rainbow trout and lake trout. The extract was obtained from whole adult lake trout collected from Lake Michigan in 1988. The extract was embryotoxic in rainbow trout, with LD50 values for Arlee strain and Erwin strain of 33 eggEQ and 14 eggEQ respectively. The LOAEL for hemorrhaging, yolk-sac edema, and craniofacial deformities in rainbow trout were 2, 2, and 4 eggEQ, respectively. Subsequent injections of the extract into lake trout eggs were likewise embryotoxic, with an LD50 value of 7 eggEQ. The LOAEL values for the extract in lake trout for hemorrhaging, yolk-sac edema, and craniofacial deformities were 0.1, 1, and 2 eggEQ, respectively. The current levels of contaminants in lake trout eggs are above the threshold for hemorrhaging and yolk-sac edema. The results also support the use of an additive model of toxicity to quantify PCDDs, PCDFs, Non-o-PCBs, and Mono-o-PCBs in relation to early life stage mortality in Lake Michigan lake trout.

  19. Plump Cutthroat Trout and Thin Rainbow Trout in a Lentic Ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Courtney, Joshua; Abbott, Jessica; Schmidt, Kerri; Courtney, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Background: Much has been written about introduced rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) interbreeding and outcompeting cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii). However, the specific mechanisms by which rainbow trout and their hybrids outcompete cutthroat trout have not been thoroughly explored, and the published data is limited to lotic ecosystems. Materials and Methods: Samples of rainbow trout and cutthroat trout were obtained from a lentic ecosystem by angling. The total length and weight of...

  20. Evidence of source-sink metapopulations in a vulnerable native galaxiid fish driven by introduced trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodford, Darragh J; McIntosh, Angus R

    2010-06-01

    Introduced predators with patchy distributions can create demographic sinks within native prey populations. Such invasions may give rise to source-sink metapopulations if there are still sources of native species colonists in the landscape. In New Zealand, introduced brown trout (Salmo trutta) and rainbow trout (Oncorhychus mykiss) are linked with declines in native non-diadromous galaxiids but co-occur with these galaxiids in some locations. We investigated whether trout create sinks in Galaxias vulgaris populations, and whether trout-free reaches could act as sources, allowing persistence in the sink habitat. We conducted quantitative seasonal monitoring of G. vulgaris population structure across two subcatchments of the Waimakariri River, South Island. Two trout-free and seven trout-invaded sites in the Porter River catchment and two trout-free and five trout-invaded sites in the Broken River catchment were monitored over two winters and the adjoining summer. Spatially continuous monitoring of young-of-the-year (YOY) galaxiid distributions and apparent survival across the Broken River catchment was also undertaken. Galaxias vulgaris YOY recruitment was high in trout-free reaches, indicating positive population growth. Galaxias vulgaris was absent from three trout-invaded sites, and the remaining invaded sites had significantly depleted juvenile recruitment. Information-theoretic model selection indicated that trout, rather than habitat, drove recruitment failure. Trout-invaded sites could be divided into "sinks" that retained no YOY galaxiids, indicating no local recruitment, and "pseudosinks," which had very few recruits. Absence of small G. vulgaris at sink sites suggested population maintenance through immigration of adults from sources, whereas pseudosink sites appear capable of self-recruitment at low carrying capacities. Trout-free reaches appear to act as sources in a river network but are susceptible to future invasions by trout. Thus, not only may

  1. Sea growth of anadromous brown trout ( Salmo trutta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, J. J.; ter Hofstede, R.; Winter, H. V.

    2007-08-01

    Sea growth rates were studied in anadromous brown trout caught in Lake IJsselmeer, The Netherlands. Growth in the first year at sea was estimated at 26 cm from length-frequency distributions, and at 21 cm from back-calculated growth rates from scale readings. These estimates are considerably higher than sea growth rates observed in populations at higher latitudes (Norway, Sweden), but compare well with the limited information on sea growth rates estimated for anadromous trout in the River Rhine and rivers in Normandy (France).

  2. ECONOMICS OF PURCHASING GENETICALLY SUPERIOR BEEF BULLS

    OpenAIRE

    Clary, Gregory M.; Jordan, Johnny W.; Thompson, Carl Eugene

    1984-01-01

    Net present value analysis is used to derive the marginal bid price for a beef herd sire from after-tax net revenues and cash flow influenced by genetic improvements. Marginal bid price represents the additional amount a producer could pay, above the present value of the current beef herd sire, for a sire expected to exhibit superior performance as reflected by increased average weaning weights of offspring. An analysis of the profitability of purchasing a breeding bull for a commercial beef ...

  3. Organic contaminants in thermal plume resident brown trout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pilot study was conducted to identify possible contaminants accumulated by thermal plume-resident fish in Lake Michigan. Brown trout were maintained in tanks receiving intake and discharge (less than or equal to 210C) water from a power plant and were fed a diet of frozen alewife. Fish were sampled over a period of 127 days in order to estimate uptake rates and equilibrium levels for toxic organic and inorganic materials occurring in Lake Michigan fish and water. Experimental fish and natural samples were analyzed to determine the distribution of contaminants in various tissues and the corresponding pollutant levels in similar size brown trout from Lake Michigan. The quantitative analyses for the major organic contaminants are summarized. Without exception, the pyloric caecum of brown trout contained the highest concentration of lipids, PCB's, and chlorinated pesticides. Gill and kidney samples contained lower concentrations of contaminants than the caecum, while liver and muscle values were lowest

  4. Sea growth of anadromous brown trout (Salmo trutta)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, de J.J.; Hofstede, ter R.; Winter, H.V.

    2007-01-01

    Sea growth rates were studied in anadromous brown trout caught in Lake IJsselmeer, The Netherlands. Growth in the first year at sea was estimated at 26 cm from length-frequency distributions, and at 21 cm from back-calculated growth rates from scale readings. These estimates are considerably higher

  5. Spatial segregation of spawning habitat limits hybridization between sympatric native Steelhead and Coastal Cutthroat Trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehrens, T.W.; Glasgow, J.; Ostberg, Carl O.; Quinn, T.P.

    2013-01-01

    Native Coastal Cutthroat Trout Oncorhynchus clarkii clarkii and Coastal Steelhead O. mykiss irideus hybridize naturally in watersheds of the Pacific Northwest yet maintain species integrity. Partial reproductive isolation due to differences in spawning habitat may limit hybridization between these species, but this process is poorly understood. We used a riverscape approach to determine the spatial distribution of spawning habitats used by native Coastal Cutthroat Trout and Steelhead as evidenced by the distribution of recently emerged fry. Molecular genetic markers were used to classify individuals as pure species or hybrids, and individuals were assigned to age-classes based on length. Fish and physical habitat data were collected in a spatially continuous framework to assess the relationship between habitat and watershed features and the spatial distribution of parental species and hybrids. Sampling occurred in 35 reaches from tidewaters to headwaters in a small (20 km2) coastal watershed in Washington State. Cutthroat, Steelhead, and hybrid trout accounted for 35%, 42%, and 23% of the fish collected, respectively. Strong segregation of spawning areas between Coastal Cutthroat Trout and Steelhead was evidenced by the distribution of age-0 trout. Cutthroat Trout were located farther upstream and in smaller tributaries than Steelhead were. The best predictor of species occurrence at a site was the drainage area of the watershed that contributed to the site. This area was positively correlated with the occurrence of age-0 Steelhead and negatively with the presence of Cutthroat Trout, whereas hybrids were found in areas occupied by both parental species. A similar pattern was observed in older juveniles of both species but overlap was greater, suggesting substantial dispersal of trout after emergence. Our results offer support for spatial reproductive segregation as a factor limiting hybridization between Steelhead and Coastal Cutthroat Trout.

  6. Infertility of the breeding bull in insemination technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predojević Mirko R.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of very strict breeding bull selection, especialy for A.I programes their infertility is a very serius problem in everyday practice. Especially bull semen has been marked as the main factor for unsatisfied cow fertility in the A.I.programme. The reason could be the bull semen which really may play as the spreading factor of the specific or non-specific reproductive infective disoders – IBR, IPV, BVD, Campylobacter-Vibrio fetus, brucellosis leptospirosis, tuberculosis and other reproductive diseases. Secondarily, the percentage of vitality, motility, penetration abilities, and immonological properties of bull spermatozoa also have an important role in unsuccessful bovine fecundation. That is, why it is necessary to secure professional health care for breedig bull in AI centres, becase only healthy bulls can ensure good bovine genetic transmission and progress in cattle production for today's growing population.

  7. Infertility of the breeding bull in insemination technology

    OpenAIRE

    Predojević Mirko R.; Marinković Miroslav; Jovičin Milovan; Prka Igor

    2004-01-01

    In spite of very strict breeding bull selection, especialy for A.I programes their infertility is a very serius problem in everyday practice. Especially bull semen has been marked as the main factor for unsatisfied cow fertility in the A.I.programme. The reason could be the bull semen which really may play as the spreading factor of the specific or non-specific reproductive infective disoders – IBR, IPV, BVD, Campylobacter-Vibrio fetus, brucellosis leptospirosis, tuberculosis and other reprod...

  8. Debunking the Effects of Taurine in Red Bull Energy Drink

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Woojae

    2003-01-01

    Red Bull is a carbonated beverage that initially gained wide popularity in the U.S. during the late nineties. Taking root amongst college campuses, it appeared throughout underground clubs and eventually entered mainstream pop-culture. The manufactures claim that drinking Red Bull enhances physical endurance, concentration and reaction speed (1,6). The main ingredients of Red Bull include sugar, taurine, glucuronolactone and caffeine. It is hypothesized that the combinatorial influences o...

  9. Annual variation of spawning Cutthroat Trout in a small Western USA stream: A case study with implications for the conservation of potamodromous trout life history diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Stephen; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Roper, Brett B.; Budy, Phaedra

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the variability in the spatial and temporal distribution of spawning potamodromous trout despite decades of research directed at salmonid spawning ecology and the increased awareness that conserving life history diversity should be a focus of management. We monitored a population of fluvial–resident Bonneville Cutthroat Trout Oncorhynchus clarkii utah in a tributary to the Logan River, Utah, from 2006 to 2012 to gain insight into the distribution and timing of spawning and what factors may influence these spawning activities. We monitored Bonneville Cutthroat Trout using redd surveys with multiple observers and georeferenced redd locations. We documented an extended spawning period that lasted from late April to mid-July. The onset, median, and end of spawning was best predicted by the mean maximum water temperature during the first 13 weeks of the year (F = 130. 4, df = 5, R2 = 0.96, P Trout appeared to establish and defend a redd for up to 2 d, and spawning most often occurred between similar-sized individuals. Spawning surveys for potamodromous trout are an underutilized tool that could be used to better understand the distribution and timing of spawning as well as determine the size and trends of the reproducing portion of populations of management concern. Without efforts to document the diversity of this important aspect of potamodromous trout life history, prioritization of conservation will be problematic.

  10. Effect of zeranol on sexual development of crossbred bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, R W; Randel, R D; Rouquette, F M

    1989-07-01

    Three groups of 1/2 Simmental X 1/4 Brahman X 1/4 Hereford bull calves were used during two different years to study effects of zeranol on sexual development. At 154 d of age, half the calves were implanted with 36 mg zeranol and half, not implanted, served as controls. Implanted calves were reimplanted at 90-d intervals throughout the trial (9 mo) each year. Trial 1 was conducted with 24 calves and Trial 2 was conducted the following year with 10 bulls. Twenty-four days after weaning (200 d of age) and at 28-d intervals thereafter, bulls in drylot in Trial 1 were weighted, scrotal circumference (SC) was measured and an ejaculate of semen was collected by electroejaculation to determine puberty. At these times, bulls were given 200 micrograms of GnRH i.m. and blood was collected at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 h after GnRH. Serum concentrations of LH and testosterone (TEST) were determined. At slaughter, testis weight, length and circumference and pubertal status were recorded. Bulls implanted with zeranol had smaller SC than control bulls during the entire 9-mo period (P less than .0001). More control bulls reached puberty than did implanted bulls (82.4 vs 23.5%, respectively; P less than .001). Control bulls had larger testis measurements at slaughter (P less than .0001). Implants did not alter total weight gain or ADG (P greater than .10).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2768123

  11. Bull- og Bearfond under lupen : volum og avkastningssammenhenger

    OpenAIRE

    Eidsaa, Andreas; Bergan, Carl-Fredrik Iuell

    2010-01-01

    Bull- og Bearfondene har etter hvert blitt meget populære som spekulasjonsprodukter. Denne oppgaven har som mål å avdekke sammenhenger mellom avkastning og volum for OBX Total Return Index og Bull- og Bearfond på Oslo Børs. Det kan ikke konkluderes med at det finnes en klar signifikant direkte sammenheng mellom avkastning i OBX og volum i Bull- og Bearfondene, bortsett fra for DnB Nor Bull. Det finnes en signifikant Granger-kausal sammenheng fra avkastningen i OBX indeksen til ...

  12. Effects of arsenic on bull trout: An investigation of mine cleanup practices in the Pacific Northwest

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study evaluated the effects of arsenic and heavy metals on individual salmonids and the aquatic community within Gold Creek, Idaho. Gold Creek is a tributary...

  13. Do Rainbow Trout and Their Hybrids Outcompete Cutthroat Trout in a Lentic Ecosystem?

    OpenAIRE

    Courtney, Joshua M.; Courtney, Amy C.; Courtney, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    Much has been written about introduced rainbow trout interbreeding and outcompeting native cutthroat trout. However, specific mechanisms have not been thoroughly explored, and most data is limited to lotic ecosystems. Samples of Snake River cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii bouvieri), the rainbow-cutthroat hybrid, the cutbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss x clarkii), and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), were obtained from a lentic ecosystem (Eleven Mile Reservoir, Colorado) by creel surv...

  14. 33 CFR 117.337 - Trout River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trout River. 117.337 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.337 Trout River. The draw of the CSX Railroad Bridge across the Trout River, mile 0.9 at Jacksonville, operates as follows: (a) The bridge is...

  15. [PCB concentration in hair, blood, tissues and secretions of chronically exposed dairy cows, fattening bulls and calves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, U; Nagorny, C; Forschner, E; Johannes, B; Drochner, W

    1994-05-01

    Fattening bulls (n = 8) and cows (n = 10) affected chronically with PCB were kept in barns on PCB-free feeding (silage, straw, concentrates). The cows were dried off. The kinetics of PCB-concentrations in hair, blood and feces were examined. Fattening bulls (mean 460 kg bw, german black and white and interbreeding german black and white and Simmental) with low (320 g) and medium (730 g) daily weight gain for a period of 5 months and 3 bulls with medium (640 g) weight gain within 18 months were examined. A drying off period of 3-5 months was recorded for the cows. The distribution of PCB in the carcass of some animals was registered in addition. The following results are to be emphasized: Reduction of PCB in the studied substrates in the fattening bulls depends on a high degree on daily weight gain. This is important in order to calculate biological half life times of PCB. By standardized weight gain of 10 kg in bulls, fed PCB-free diets for a 5 months period, a reduction of PCB-concentrations from 1 to 3% was found (hair and feces: 1%, blood 3%). Within a period of 18 months and with higher weights, in the examined substrates (blood, hair, feces) mean declines of the PCB-concentrations of 2% were found. On knowledge so far this value is an essential point to estimate biological half life times, because metabolic PCB-elimination is negligible.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8013297

  16. SEMEN COLLECTION AND CONSERVATION OF BULLS SEMEN PODOL TYPE CATTLE

    OpenAIRE

    Premzl, B.; Božić, P.; Viduč, D.; Dejanović, Dubravka; Geceg, I.

    1994-01-01

    Semen collection, artificial vagina, electro-ejaculation, freeze semen We tray to collection ejaculates from bulls Podol Type Cattle with artificial vagina. Fantoms for collecting were cows in heat from the same herd or from another herd. We were not successafuly. With electro-ejaculation we collected ejaculates from bulls Podol Type Cattle and freeze semen in our Institute or in field.

  17. Cellulitis in a Red Kandhari Bull : A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M M Pathan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A case of cellulitis caused by mixed infection of Staphylococcus spp. and Corynebacterium spp in a Red Kandhari bull leading to death of animal was autopsied at the department. It is being a case of cellulitis in a Red Kandhari bull and placed on record. [Vet. World 2012; 5(3.000: 183-184

  18. Short communication: Use of young bulls in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The availability of genomic evaluations since 2008 has resulted in many changes to dairy cattle breeding programs. One such change has been the increased contribution of young bulls (0.8 to 3.9 yr old) to those programs. The increased use of young bulls was investigated using pedigree data and b...

  19. Genetic Structure of Pacific Trout at the Extreme Southern End of Their Native Range

    OpenAIRE

    Alicia Abadía-Cardoso; John Carlos Garza; Mayden, Richard L.; Francisco Javier García León

    2015-01-01

    Salmonid fishes are cold water piscivores with a native distribution spanning nearly the entire temperate and subarctic northern hemisphere. Trout in the genus Oncorhynchus are the most widespread salmonid fishes and are among the most important fish species in the world, due to their extensive use in aquaculture and valuable fisheries. Trout that inhabit northwestern Mexico are the southernmost native salmonid populations in the world, and the least studied in North America. They are unfortu...

  20. Have Introduced Brown Trout (Salmo Trutta) Affected Native Aquatic Vertebrates in Western United States Streams?

    OpenAIRE

    Burbank, Nora K.

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of exotic species is one of the greatest threats to freshwater biodiversity. Brown trout are native to Eurasia, but have been introduced to much of the rest of the world, including the United States. In other parts of their introduced range, brown trout have caused substantial negative effects to native species‟ abundances and distributions, and have altered the structure of some aquatic communities. In the United States, studies of some streams and watersheds have shown that...

  1. Utilising spatial distribution in two-tank systems to investigate the level of aversiveness to crowding in farmed rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Danielle Caroline; Andersson, Madelene Åberg; Silva, Patricia Isabel Mota;

    2013-01-01

    distribution of the fish between the tanks. Fish were stocked at equal quantities in each tank of the system. The doorway was opened and the fish moved between the two tanks. Typically, this resulted in one tank being occupied by a few highly aggressive dominant individuals (“dominant” tank) and the majority...... determined every three days throughout the duration of the experiment and the percentage of fish in the “crowded” tank was used as an indicator of the distribution pattern in the two-tank systems. The results indicated a negative relationship between the total density stocked (20, 40 and 80kgm−3) and the...

  2. Reduction of the bull: cow ratio in the Brazilian Pantanal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sereno José Robson Bezerra

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was conducted to study alternatives for reduction of the bull:cow ratio in the Brazilian lowland and, therefore, lower the production costs for the local beef cattle industry. The ratios 1:10, 1:25, and 1:40 were used in native pastures with a mean stocking rate of 0.27 mature animal unit per hectare over two consecutive breeding seasons. Statistical analysis did not show any effect (P>0.05 of year (P = 0.2097, animal category (P = 0.0773, bull:cow ratio (0.8134 on reproductive performance. However, the pregnancy rate in a multiple bull system was higher (P = 0.0228 than in the individual bull system. An evaluation of the economic impact of this management system in the extensive Lowland herds showed that at the ratio of 1:10 the bulls were sub utilized.

  3. Homeopathic treatment for infertility in a prize Nelore bull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobreiro, J

    2007-01-01

    Treatments for infertility in bulls are not described in homeopathic literature. A few treatments, such as changing the protein content of the diet, giving extra minerals, etc have been proposed. This case report describes homeopathic treatment for infertility in a prize bull. A Nelore bull, considered infertile for 3 years, was treated with homeopathic Pulsatilla nigricans 200 CH. Decreased total sperm defects, increased sperm motility and a very impressive increased number of doses of semen produced were observed. The bull relapsed after treatment was withdrawn, but again responded when it was resumed. Since only one animal was observed one cannot assume that the observed changes were due only to this treatment. Further studies may establish the real benefits of a homeopathic medicine in bull infertility. PMID:17227749

  4. Testicular Histomorphometric Evaluation of Zebu Bull Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Antônio Terrabuio Andreussi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the quantitative histology and testicular biometrics in zebu bulls of different breeds. Testicular fragments of Nelore (n=10, Polled Nelore (n=6, Gir (n=5, Guzerat (n=5 and Tabapuã bulls (n=5 were used. The fragments were perfusion-fixed in Karnovsky solution, embedded in glycol methacrylate and stained with toluidine blue-1% sodium borate. The Nelore animals had a higher tubular volumetric proportion (85.2% and greater height of the seminiferous epithelium (73.2 µm than the Gir, Guzerat and Tabapuã breeds. The Nelore animals also had a higher volumetric proportion of Leydig cells (5.2% than the Guzerat and Tabapuã breeds. There was no significant difference for any of these parameters between the Nelore and Polled Nelore breeds. The gonadosomatic index, seminiferous tubule diameter, cross-sectional area of the seminiferous tubule and tubule length (total length and length per gram of testicular parenchyma did not vary among the breeds studied. The morphometric parameters evaluated suggested that the genetic selection applied to the Nelore and Polled Nelore breeds improved the efficiency of spermatogenesis in these breeders.

  5. A STUDY ON TROUT BREEDING IN DUZCE PROVINCE

    OpenAIRE

    Akbulut, Süleyman; KETEN, Akif

    2009-01-01

    In this study, trout breeding facilities of Duzce Province, a suitable place for trout breeding, were evaluated. As a result of this evaluation, current status, capacities, and problems of trout breeding facilities were determined. Some suggestions were provided to solve these problems and increase the capacity of trout breeding facilities. Keywords: Duzce, Trout Breeding.

  6. Comparison of pigment cell ultrastructure and organisation in the dermis of marble trout and brown trout, and first description of erythrophore ultrastructure in salmonids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djurdjevič, Ida; Kreft, Mateja Erdani; Sušnik Bajec, Simona

    2015-11-01

    Skin pigmentation in animals is an important trait with many functions. The present study focused on two closely related salmonid species, marble trout (Salmo marmoratus) and brown trout (S. trutta), which display an uncommon labyrinthine (marble-like) and spot skin pattern, respectively. To determine the role of chromatophore type in the different formation of skin pigment patterns in the two species, the distribution and ultrastructure of chromatophores was examined with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The presence of three types of chromatophores in trout skin was confirmed: melanophores; xanthophores; and iridophores. In addition, using correlative microscopy, erythrophore ultrastructure in salmonids was described for the first time. Two types of erythrophores are distinguished, both located exclusively in the skin of brown trout: type 1 in black spot skin sections similar to xanthophores; and type 2 with a unique ultrastructure, located only in red spot skin sections. Morphologically, the difference between the light and dark pigmentation of trout skin depends primarily on the position and density of melanophores, in the dark region covering other chromatophores, and in the light region with the iridophores and xanthophores usually exposed. With larger amounts of melanophores, absence of xanthophores and presence of erythrophores type 1 and type L iridophores in the black spot compared with the light regions and the presence of erythrophores type 2 in the red spot, a higher level of pigment cell organisation in the skin of brown trout compared with that of marble trout was demonstrated. Even though the skin regions with chromatophores were well defined, not all the chromatophores were in direct contact, either homophilically or heterophilically, with each other. In addition to short-range interactions, an important role of the cellular environment and long-range interactions between chromatophores in promoting adult pigment pattern

  7. Genetic diversity in Chilean populations of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia B Cárcamo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, was first introduced in Chile between 1905 and 1920 and is currently widely distributed in Chile from Antofagasta (23°S to Patagonia (55°S. The broad range of the geographic and climatic distributions of this species in Chile offers a unique opportunity to study the effect of naturalization of an introduced species on its genetic variability. It is of particular importance to observe the genetic variability of populations in the northern range of this species distribution, in a transition zone where a Mediterranean-type climate changes to an arid climate. The present study analyzed allozymic variability and distribution within and between populations of O. mykiss from the river basins of Elqui and Limari rivers, and six culture strains, using starch-gel protein electrophoresis. Populations were found to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and the average values of He (0.045, polymorphism (13.9% and allele per locus (1.19 are similar to rainbow trout in its native distributional range. About 77.8% of the genetic variability was within population, similar to the variability reported for wild populations in the northern hemisphere. However, a marked genetic differentiation between wild populations was also found. This is likely to be the consequence of initial founder effects followed by subsequent introgression of resident populations caused by reseeding with trout of different origins in both basins.

  8. Fertility management of bulls to improve beef cattle productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thundathil, Jacob C; Dance, Alysha L; Kastelic, John P

    2016-07-01

    Global demand for animal proteins is increasing, necessitating increased efficiency of global food production. Improving reproductive efficiency of beef cattle, especially bull fertility, is particularly critical, as one bull can breed thousands of females (by artificial insemination). Identifying the genetic basis of male reproductive traits that influence male and female fertility, and using this information for selection, would improve herd fertility. Early-life selection of elite bulls by genomic approaches and feeding them to optimize postpubertal reproductive potential are essential for maximizing profitability. Traditional bull breeding soundness evaluation, or systematic analysis of frozen semen, eliminates bulls or semen samples that are grossly abnormal. However, semen samples classified as satisfactory on the basis of traditional approaches differ in fertility. Advanced sperm function assays developed for assessing compensatory and noncompensatory (submicroscopic) sperm traits can predict such variations in bull fertility. New knowledge on epigenetic modulations of sperm DNA, messenger RNA, and proteins is fundamental to refine and expand sperm function assays. Sexed semen, plus advanced reproductive technologies (e.g., ovum pickup and in vitro production of embryos) can maximize the efficiency of beef cattle production. This review is focused on genetic considerations for bull selection, physiology of reproductive development, breeding soundness evaluation, recent advances in assessing frozen semen, and existing and emerging uses of sexed semen in beef cattle production. PMID:27173954

  9. Testicle size as indicator of fertility in bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prka Igor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Male calves from the high value parents, bull fathers and bull dams, enter the selection for artificial insemination. After laboratory tests, the calves are taken to the center for artificial insemination, and after a stay in quarantine the are moved to a test station. At the age of twelve months they are measured for assessing the value of each calf exterior. One of the measures recorded was the testicle scope. On the basis of testicle size, it is possible to predict sperm production potential. For the determination of testicle size (testicular biometry, tapes or rulers were used. The aim of this work was to investigate the possible effect of testicle size on sperm production in young bulls used for artificial insemination. For that purpose there were used the data on circumference of testicles of one year old bulls just starting production of sperm, and then compared with certain semen quality parameters such as: volume of ejaculate and concentration and percentage of alive and progressively mobile spermatozoa. The investigation included all young bulls that started production in the period from 2010. to 2012., that is 36 bulls of various breeds (Simmental, Holstein Friesian, Montafon. After the testicle scope measuring in these bulls, there were observed the parameters of the sperm quality during the following one year period. The obtained results showed that the increased testicle size was followed by the increased average ejaculate quantity, in other words: 3.7 ml in group of bulls with testicle circumference below 30 cm, to 6.7 ml in bulls whose testicle circumference was over 40 cm. Also, the results showed that there was a correlation between the increased testicle size and the increased spermatozoa concentration. The values grow to testicle scope of 36 cm, and above that they were still high but with some oscillations. When it came to relation between testicle scope and the percentage of alive and progressively mobile spermatozoa, the

  10. Bull Bear fond : effekten av volatilitet, tid og vekting

    OpenAIRE

    Myre, Roy Egil

    2010-01-01

    Det grunnleggende formålet med denne oppgaven er å analysere effekten volatilitet, tid og vekting har på bull bear fondene. Flere tidligere studier har vist at store svingninger i markedet kan føre til tap for investorer som holder bull bear fondene, og at den effektive avkastningen til bull bear fondene dermed er sti-avhengig. Ved bruk av matlab kjører jeg en Monte Carlo simulering med Geometrisk Brownsk bevegelse, hvor jeg endrer på parametrene volatilitet (sigma), tidshorisonten og vek...

  11. Radio-transmitted electromyogram signals as indicators of swimming speed in lake trout and brown trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorstad, E.B.; Økland, F.; Koed, Anders;

    2000-01-01

    Swimming speed and average electromyogram (EMG) pulse intervals were highly correlated in individual lake trout Salvelinus namaycush (r(2)=0.52-0.89) and brown trout Salmo trutta (r(2)=0.45-0.96). High correlations were found also for pooled data in both lake trout (r(2)=0.90) and brown trout of...... the Ema stock (r(2)=0.96) and Laerdal stock (r(2)=0.96). The linear relationship between swimming speed and average EMG pulse intervals differed significantly among lake trout and the brown trout stocks. This successful calibration of EMGs to swimming speed opens the possibility of recording swimming...... speed of free swimming lake trout and brown trout in situ. EMGs can also be calibrated to oxygen consumption to record energy expenditure. (C) 2000 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles...

  12. Survival of Trout Strains as Affected by Limnological Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Wurtsbaugh, Wayne A.

    1988-01-01

    Prior work at East Canyon Reservoir, Utah indicated that adult trout are important predators of stocked juvenile rainbow trout. Brown trout, in particular, were exclusively piscivorous when th~y exceeded 185 mm standard length. Fish became increasingly important in the diet of cutthroat trout greater than 330 mm. The purpose of this study was to further document the effect of adult trout on survival of juvenile rainbow trout in mid-elevation reservoirs. Causey Reservoir was chosen because it ...

  13. Mexican native trouts: A review of their history and current systematic and conservation status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, D.A.; Perez, H.E.; Findley, L.T.; Forbes, W.; Tomelleri, J.R.; Mayden, Richard L.; Nielsen, J.L.; Jensen, B.; Campos, G.R.; Romero, A.V.; van der Heiden, A.; Camarena, F.; Garcia de Leon, F.J.

    2002-01-01

    While biologists have been aware of the existence of native Mexican trouts for over a century, they have received little study. The few early studies that did much more than mention their existence began in the 1930s and continued into the early 1960s, focusing primarily on distributional surveys and taxonomic analyses. Starting in the 1980s the Baja California rainbow trout became the subject of more detailed studies, but very little remains known of mainland trouts of the Sierra Madre Occidental. We review earlier studies and report on our own collections and observations made between 1975 and 2000. We present newly discovered historical evidence that leads us to conclude that a "lost" cutthroat trout, a lineage not previously known from Mexico, was collected more than a century ago from headwaters of the Ri??o Conchos (a major tributary of the Rio Grande (= Ri??o Bravo)), a basin not previously considered to harbor a native trout. We review the last century of regional natural resource management and discuss our own observations of trout habitats. Impacts of logging, road building and overgrazing are widespread and expanding. Many streams suffer from heavy erosion, siltation and contamination, and though long-term hydrologic data are generally not available, there is evidence of decreased discharge in many streams. These problems appear related to region-wide land management practices as well as recent regional drought. Trout culture operations using exotic rainbow trout have rapidly proliferated throughout the region, threatening genetic introgression and/or competition with native forms and predation on them. Knowledge of distribution, abundance, relationships and taxonomy, not to mention ecology and population biology, of native trouts of the Sierra Madre Occidental remains inadequate. Vast areas of most mainland drainages are still unexplored by fish collectors, and even rudimentary information regarding basic biology, ecology and population structure of

  14. Copper uptake across rainbow trout gills: mechanisms of apical entry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosell, Martin Hautopp; Wood, C. M.

    2002-01-01

    Copper, Homeostasis, sodium uptake, copper/sodium interactions, gill, rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss......Copper, Homeostasis, sodium uptake, copper/sodium interactions, gill, rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss...

  15. An ecological risk assessment of the acute and chronic effects of the herbicide clopyralid to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, J.F.; Allert, A.L.; Feltz, K.P.; Nelson, K.J.; Valle, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Clopyralid (3,6-dichloro-2-pyridinecarboxylic acid) is a pyridine herbicide frequently used to control invasive, noxious weeds in the northwestern United States. Clopyralid exhibits low acute toxicity to fish, including the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and the threatened bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus). However, there are no published chronic toxicity data for clopyralid and fish that can be used in ecological risk assessments. We conducted 30-day chronic toxicity studies with juvenile rainbow trout exposed to the acid form of clopyralid. The 30-day maximum acceptable toxicant concentration (MATC) for growth, calculated as the geometric mean of the no observable effect concentration (68 mg/L) and the lowest observable effect concentration (136 mg/L), was 96 mg/L. No mortality was measured at the highest chronic concentration tested (273 mg/L). The acute:chronic ratio, calculated by dividing the previously published 96-h acutely lethal concentration (96-h ALC50; 700 mg/L) by the MATC was 7.3. Toxicity values were compared to a four-tiered exposure assessment profile assuming an application rate of 1.12 kg/ha. The Tier 1 exposure estimation, based on direct overspray of a 2-m deep pond, was 0.055 mg/L. The Tier 2 maximum exposure estimate, based on the Generic Exposure Estimate Concentration model (GEENEC), was 0.057 mg/L. The Tier 3 maximum exposure estimate, based on previously published results of the Groundwater Loading Effects of Agricultural Management Systems model (GLEAMS), was 0.073 mg/L. The Tier 4 exposure estimate, based on published edge-of-field monitoring data, was estimated at 0.008 mg/L. Comparison of toxicity data to estimated environmental concentrations of clopyralid indicates that the safety factor for rainbow trout exposed to clopyralid at labeled use rates exceeds 1000. Therefore, the herbicide presents little to no risk to rainbow trout or other salmonids such as the threatened bull trout. ?? 2009 US Government.

  16. Evidence of excretion of Schmallenberg virus in bull semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsart, Claire; Pozzi, Nathalie; Bréard, Emmanuel; Catinot, Virginie; Viard, Guillaume; Sailleau, Corinne; Viarouge, Cyril; Gouzil, Julie; Beer, Martin; Zientara, Stéphan; Vitour, Damien

    2014-01-01

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is a novel orthobunyavirus, discovered in Germany in late 2011. It mainly infects cattle, sheep and goats and could lead to congenital infection, causing abortion and fetal abnormalities. SBV is transmitted by biting midges from the Culicoides genus and there is no evidence that natural infection occurs directly between ruminants. Here, we could detect SBV RNA in infected bull semen using qRT-PCR (three bulls out of seven tested positive; 29 positive semen batches out of 136). We also found that highly positive semen batches from SBV infected bulls can provoke an acute infection in IFNAR-/- mice, suggesting the potential presence of infectious virus in the semen of SBV infected bulls. PMID:24708245

  17. Bull Mountain Basin Boundary from 1999 National Coal Resource Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This ArcView shapefile contains a polygon representing the extent of the Bull Mountain coal basin boundary. This theme was created specifically for the National...

  18. Perineal Bull Gore with Urinary Bladder Perforation and Pneumoperitoneum

    OpenAIRE

    R, Santhosh; Barad, Arun Kumar; Ghalige, Hemanth Sureshwara; K, Sridartha; Sharma M, Birkumar

    2013-01-01

    Animal related injuries are frequently reported in India and other countries, where bulls are used for sporting events as well as in places where farming and livestock rearing is practised. The presentation is, many times, atypical and misleading as well.

  19. Larger eggs in resident brown trout living in sympatry with anadromous brown trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olofsson, H.; Mosegaard, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    Freshwater resident brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) in the stream Jorlandaan (southwestern Sweden) had larger eggs (range of actual mean egg wet weights, 65.9-108.5 mg) than both sympatric migratory trout (76.8-84.2 mg) and trout from five other Swedish streams with allopatric resident (23.7-80.1 mg...

  20. Growth, morphology, and developmental instability of rainbow trout, Yellowstone cutthroat trout, and four hybrid generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostberg, C.O.; Duda, J.J.; Graham, J.H.; Zhang, S.; Haywood, K. P., III; Miller, B.; Lerud, T.L.

    2011-01-01

    Hybridization of cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii with nonindigenous rainbow trout O. mykiss contributes to the decline of cutthroat trout subspecies throughout their native range. Introgression by rainbow trout can swamp the gene pools of cutthroat trout populations, especially if there is little selection against hybrids. We used rainbow trout, Yellowstone cutthroat trout O. clarkii bouvieri, and rainbow trout × Yellowstone cutthroat trout F1 hybrids as parents to construct seven different line crosses: F1 hybrids (both reciprocal crosses), F2 hybrids, first-generation backcrosses (both rainbow trout and Yellowstone cutthroat trout), and both parental taxa. We compared growth, morphology, and developmental instability among these seven crosses reared at two different temperatures. Growth was related to the proportion of rainbow trout genome present within the crosses. Meristic traits were influenced by maternal, additive, dominant, overdominant, and (probably) epistatic genetic effects. Developmental stability, however, was not disturbed in F1 hybrids, F2 hybrids, or backcrosses. Backcrosses were morphologically similar to their recurrent parent. The lack of developmental instability in hybrids suggests that there are few genetic incompatibilities preventing introgression. Our findings suggest that hybrids are not equal: that is, growth, development, character traits, and morphology differ depending on the genomic contribution from each parental species as well as the hybrid generation.

  1. A blood chemistry profile for lake trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edsall, Carol Cotant

    1999-01-01

    A blood chemistry profile for lake trout Salvelinus namaycush was developed by establishing baseline ranges for several clinical chemistry tests (glucose, total protein, amylase, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, calcium, and magnesium). Measurements were made accurately and rapidly with a Kodak Ektachem DT60 Analyzer and the Ektachem DTSC Module. Blood serum was collected from both laboratory-reared lake trout (1978 and 1986 year-classes) and feral spawning trout from Lake Michigan and then analyzed in the laboratory. No clinically significant differences were found between samples analyzed fresh and those frozen for 1 or 6 weeks. The ranges in chemistry variables for feral lake trout were generally wider than those for laboratory-reared lake trout, and significant differences existed between male and female feral lake trout for several tests. Blood chemistry profiles also varied seasonally on fish sampled repeatedly.

  2. Spatial and temporal distribution and habitat use of sea trout Salmo trutta in a fjord system in Central Norway: - influence of morphology and life history on marine behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Eldøy, Sindre Håvarstein

    2014-01-01

    Marine migration and habitat use of sea trout Salmo trutta from the watercourse Søa and the river Snilldalselva in Sør-Trøndelag in Central Norway was studied during summer in 2012 and 2013. Fishes were tagged with acoustic transmitters and their movements and behaviour recorded by automatic listening stations. Significant individual variation in the time spent in the marine environment was found, ranging from 7 days to 183 days during the months from April to September. The sp...

  3. Evidence of excretion of Schmallenberg virus in bull semen

    OpenAIRE

    Ponsart, Claire; Pozzi, Nathalie; Bréard, Emmanuel; Catinot , Virginie; Viard, Guillaume; Sailleau, Corinne; Viarouge, Cyril; Gouzil, Julie; Beer, Martin; Zientara, Stephan; Vitour, Damien

    2014-01-01

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is a novel orthobunyavirus, discovered in Germany in late 2011. It mainly infects cattle, sheep and goats and could lead to congenital infection, causing abortion and fetal abnormalities. SBV is transmitted by biting midges from the Culicoides genus and there is no evidence that natural infection occurs directly between ruminants. Here, we could detect SBV RNA in infected bull semen using qRT-PCR (three bulls out of seven tested positive; 29 positive semen batches ou...

  4. SPERM DNA INTEGRITY IN BUFFALO, BULL AND STALLION

    OpenAIRE

    Serafini, Rosanna

    2015-01-01

    The interest in sperm DNA integrity evaluation and its relationship to subfertility and infertility loaded to development of several sperm DNA assays. The aim of this study was to compare several sperm DNA assays in buffaloes, bulls and stallions, and to identify the relationships between those DNA assays and traditional sperm features. In Italian Mediterranean Buffalo (IMB) bulls traditional sperm features (motility, viability, acrosome integrity and morphology), sperm DNA integrity (neutral...

  5. The role of groundwater in the effect of climatic warming on stream habitat of brook trout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freshwater fisheries are linked to climate through the variables of water temperature, water quality and water quantity. These three ecosystem linkages provide a basis for assessments of potential impacts of climate change on fisheries resources. A characteristic of fisheries resources, whether it be the size or distribution of fish populations, or a measure of yield, which can be related to climate through one or more of these linkages, is a useful tool with which to forecast the effects of climate change. A stream population of brook trout is a coldwater fisheries resource that is linked to climate by groundwater. Stream dwelling brook trout at low altitudes rely heavily on groundwater discharge in summer to maintain low stream temperature. Groundwater temperature tracks mean annual air temperature due to the insulative effect of the lower troposphere on the surface of the earth. The effect of elevated groundwater temperature on the stream habitat of brook trout was investigated in two brook trout streams north of Toronto, Ontario, with an energy balance stream temperature model, calibrated to both streams to simulate maximum water temperature observed in the brook trout zones. Simulated maximum summer temperatures from the Goddard Institute for Space Studies scenario reduced the brook trout zones by up to 42%. 17 refs., 2 figs

  6. Side-scan sonar mapping of lake trout spawning habitat in northern Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Poe, Thomas P.; Nester, Robert T.; Brown, Charles L.

    1989-01-01

    Native stocks of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush were virtually or completely extirpated from the lower four Great Lakes by the early 1960s. The failure of early attempts to reestablish self-sustaining populations of lake trout was attributed partly to the practice of stocking hatcheryreared juveniles at locations and over substrates that had not been used in the past for spawning by native fish. Subsequent attempts to improve the selection of stocking locations were impeded by the lack of reliable information on the distribution of substrates on historical spawning grounds. Here we demonstrate the potential of side-scan sonar to substantially expand the data base needed to pinpoint the location of substrates where lake trout eggs, fry, or juveniles could be stocked to maximize survival and help ensure that survivors returning to spawn would encounter suitable substrates. We also describe the substrates and bathymetry of large areas on historical lake trout spawning grounds in the Fox Island Lake Trout Sanctuary in northern Lake Michigan. These areas could be used to support a contemporary self-sustaining lake trout population in the sanctuary and perhaps also in adjacent waters.

  7. Danish focus on organic trout fry

    OpenAIRE

    Jokumsen, Alfred

    2015-01-01

    RobustFish will strengthen the development of Danish organic trout production. According to the EU Regulation on Organic Aquaculture, the fish production shall exclusively be based on organic fry from 2016. Particularly, in organic farming, medication is only allowed within very strict limits. Therefore, the robustness of the fry to diseases is crucial. Especially, this concerns the most serious trout fry disease in Danish aquaculture, Rainbow Trout Fry Syndrome (RTFS). The robustness of the ...

  8. Boosting the quality of organic trout fry

    OpenAIRE

    Jokumsen, Alfred

    2015-01-01

    RobustFish will strengthen the development of Danish organic trout production. According to the EU Regulation on Organic Aquaculture, the fish production shall exclusively be based on organic fry from 2016. Particularly, in organic farming, medication is only allowed within very strict limits. Therefore, the robustness of the fry to diseases is crucial. Especially, this concerns the most serious trout fry disease in Danish aquaculture, Rainbow Trout Fry Syndrome (RTFS). The robustness of the ...

  9. 虹鳟PPARα基因克隆、序列分析及其组织表达分布%Cloning, sequence analysis, and expression distribution of PPARα from rainbow trout

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾成霞; 张照斌; 张清靖; 刘盼; 朱华

    2012-01-01

    克隆了虹鳟(Oncorhynchus mykiss)过氧化物酶体增殖物激活受体(peroxisome proliferator activated receptor,PPAR)αmRNA全序列.对其序列分析发现,虹鳟PPARα与其他脊椎动物PPARα有较高的同源性,其中mRNA序列有66.4%~97.5%相同,氨基酸序列有69.2%~98.9%相同.DNA结合结构域和配体结合结构域从鱼类到人类高度保守,其中DNA结合结构域有88.0%~98.8%的氨基酸序列相同;配体结合结构域有74.6%~99.6%的氨基酸序列相同.系统发生树分析表明,虹鳟的PPARα基因与同属鲑科鱼类的大西洋鲑(Salmo salar)属于同一分支.实时定量RT-PCR方法分析虹鳟不同组织中的表达发现,PPARα基因在脂肪、肌肉、卵巢、肾脏和肠中表达量较高.%Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) belong to the nuclear receptor superfamily, which regulates the biosynthesis and metabolism of lipids, and the differentiation and formation of lipocytes. PPARa mRNA from the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was cloned by RT-PCR. Sequence homology analysis showed that rainbow trout PPARa gene was similar to those reported in other vertebrate species. The mRNA sequence and the deduced amino acid sequence of rainbow trout PPARa showed identities of 66.4%-97.5% and 72.5%-93.8%, respectively, with those of other vertebrates. The DNA-binding domain and the ligand-binding domain of PPARa have been highly conserved in the evolution from fish to humans, which show 88.0%-98.8% and 74.6%-99.6% amino acid sequence identities, respectively, with those of other vertebrates. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that PPARa of rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) belong to the same branch of the phylogenetic tree. Using quantitative real-time RT-PCR, we observed that rainbow trout mRNA was expressed predominantly in lipid, muscle, ovarian, renal, and intestinal tissues.

  10. Ultrastructural appearance of renal and other basement membranes in the Bull terrier model of autosomal dominant hereditary nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, J C; Savige, J; Seymour, A E; Dowling, J; Martinello, P; Colville, D; Sinclair, R; Naito, I; Jennings, G; Huxtable, C

    2000-08-01

    Bull terrier hereditary nephritis may represent a model for autosomal dominant Alport's syndrome because affected dogs have the typically lamellated glomerular basement membrane (GBM) and father-to-son disease transmission occurs. This study examined the ultrastructural appearance of the renal and extrarenal basement membranes and their composition in affected Bull terriers. Affected stillborn animals and puppies had subepithelial frilling and vacuolation of the GBM. In adult dogs, lamellation was common, and subepithelial frilling and vacuolation were less prominent. Foot-process effacement and mesangial matrix expansion occurred frequently. Basement membranes in the glomeruli, tubules, and Bowman's capsule were significantly thickened and often mineralized. Immunohistochemical examination showed alpha 1(IV) and alpha 2(IV) collagen chains in all renal basement membranes; alpha 3(IV), alpha 4(IV), and alpha 5(IV) chains in the GBM, distal tubular basement membrane, and Bowman's capsule; and the alpha 6(IV) chain in Bowman's capsule. Conversely, the basement membranes from the affected Bull terrier cornea, lens capsule, retina, skin, lung, and muscle had a normal ultrastructural appearance and were not thickened compared with membranes in normal age-matched dogs. The distribution of basement membrane abnormalities in Bull terrier hereditary nephritis may occur because the defective protein is present exclusively or more abundantly in the kidney and is structurally more important in the kidney or because of local intrarenal stresses. PMID:10922317

  11. Use of similar habitat by cutthroat trout and brown trout in a regulated river during winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dare, M.R.; Hubert, W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Few differences in habitat use were observed between cutthroat trout and brown trout during winter in the Shoshone River, a regulated river in northwestern Wyoming. Radio-tagged fish of 20-30 cm total length were found in pool habitat five to six times more frequently than would be expected if they were using pools in proportion to pool availability. Nevertheless, run habitat was most frequently used by both species. The microhabitat characteristics at locations of each species were similar when in both pools and runs, however, habitat use was variable suggesting that a variety of microhabitats were suitable over-wintering habitat. Brown trout were more frequently associated with boulder cover than were cutthroat trout. Cutthroat trout used large pools that provided refuge from high water velocities more frequently that brown trout. Cutthroat trout and brown trout were found at similar distances from the bank except in late February when cutthroat trout were farther from the bank. Both species moved frequently during the winter, but cutthroat trout showed a greater propensity than brown trout to move long distances. This study suggests that during a mild winter in a stable environment, these species were able to overwinter successfully in a variety of habitats.

  12. Adrenal involvement in the biostimulatory effect of bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berardinelli James G

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective was to evaluate if cortisol concentrations are associated with the resumption of luteal activity in postpartum, primiparous cows exposed to bulls. The hypotheses were that 1 interval from start of exposure to resumption of luteal activity; 2 proportions of cows that resumed luteal function during the exposure period; and 3 cortisol concentrations do not differ among cows exposed or not exposed to bulls (Exp. 1, and cows continuously exposed to bull or steer urine (Exp. 2. Methods In Exp. 1, 28 anovular cows were exposed (BE; n = 13 or not exposed (NE; n = 15 to bulls for 30 d at 58 d after calving. In Exp. 2, 38 anovular cows were fitted with a controlled urine delivery device at 45 d after calving and exposed continuously (24 h/d to bull (BUE; n = 19 or steer (SUE; n = 19 urine. Length of exposure was ~64 d. Blood samples were collected from each cow on D 0 and every 3 d throughout exposure periods in both experiments and assayed for progesterone. Cortisol was assayed in samples collected on D 0, 8, 16, and 24 in Exp. 1; and, D 0, 19, 38, and 57 in Exp. 2. Results In Exp. 1, interval from the start of exposure to resumption of luteal activity was shorter (P Conclusion We conclude that the physical presence of bulls stimulates resumption of luteal activity and is coincident with increased cortisol concentrations, and hypothesize a possible association between adrenal activation and the biostimulatory effect of bulls.

  13. Review of potential interactions between stocked rainbow trout and listed Snake River sockeye salmon in Pettit Lake Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teuscher, D.

    1996-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if hatchery rainbow trout compete with or prey on juvenile Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka in Pettit Lake, Idaho. In 1995, a total of 8,570 age-0 sockeye and 4,000 hatchery rainbow trout were released in Pettit Lake. After releasing the fish, gillnets were set in the pelagic and littoral zones to collected diet and spatial distribution data. Interactions were assessed monthly from June 1995 through March 1996. Competition for food was discounted based on extremely low diet overlap results observed throughout the sample period. Conversely, predation interactions were more significant. A total of 119 rainbow trout stomachs were analyzed, two contained O. nerka. The predation was limited to one sample period, but when extrapolated to the whole rainbow trout populations results in significant losses. Total consumption of O. nerka by rainbow trout ranged from an estimated 10 to 23% of initial stocking numbers. Predation results contradict earlier findings that stocked rainbow trout do not prey on wild kokanee or sockeye in the Sawtooth Lakes. The contradiction may be explained by a combination of poorly adapted hatchery sockeye and a littoral release site that forced spatial overlap that was not occurring in the wild populations. Releasing sockeye in the pelagic zone may have reduced or eliminated predation losses to rainbow trout.

  14. Review of potential interactions between stocked rainbow trout and listed Snake River sockeye salmon in Pettit Lake Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to determine if hatchery rainbow trout compete with or prey on juvenile Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka in Pettit Lake, Idaho. In 1995, a total of 8,570 age-0 sockeye and 4,000 hatchery rainbow trout were released in Pettit Lake. After releasing the fish, gillnets were set in the pelagic and littoral zones to collected diet and spatial distribution data. Interactions were assessed monthly from June 1995 through March 1996. Competition for food was discounted based on extremely low diet overlap results observed throughout the sample period. Conversely, predation interactions were more significant. A total of 119 rainbow trout stomachs were analyzed, two contained O. nerka. The predation was limited to one sample period, but when extrapolated to the whole rainbow trout populations results in significant losses. Total consumption of O. nerka by rainbow trout ranged from an estimated 10 to 23% of initial stocking numbers. Predation results contradict earlier findings that stocked rainbow trout do not prey on wild kokanee or sockeye in the Sawtooth Lakes. The contradiction may be explained by a combination of poorly adapted hatchery sockeye and a littoral release site that forced spatial overlap that was not occurring in the wild populations. Releasing sockeye in the pelagic zone may have reduced or eliminated predation losses to rainbow trout

  15. Distribution of Neomycin in Bull Calves After Intramuscular Injection

    OpenAIRE

    Black, W. D.; Claxton, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    Neomycin sulfate was injected intramuscularly in calves. Blood and tissue samples were taken at zero, one, two, four, six, eight and 24 hours after administration. The tissues with high levels (greater than 10 μg/g) of drug at the one hour period were kidney cortex and medulla, urine, blood serum and the injection site. By 24 hours after administration only the kidney cortex and urine had high levels of neomycin. The drug could not be detected in any brain tissues and very small amounts (less...

  16. Rainbow Trout Innate Immunity against Flavobacterium psychrophilum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum infection is associated with significant loss of rainbow trout production in the U.S. and other parts of the world. In 2005, a selective breeding program was initiated at the National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture to improve rainbow trout innate resistance ...

  17. Farming of Freshwater Rainbow Trout in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokumsen, Alfred; Svendsen, Lars Moeslund

    Textbook on Farming of Freshwater Rainbow Trout in Denmark. Danish edition with the title: Opdræt af regnbueørred i Danmark......Textbook on Farming of Freshwater Rainbow Trout in Denmark. Danish edition with the title: Opdræt af regnbueørred i Danmark...

  18. Replacement of corn by babassu mesocarp bran in diets for feedlot young bulls

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrícia Rocha Chaves Miotto; João Restle; José Neuman Miranda Neiva; Kélvia Jácome de Castro; Luciano Fernandes Sousa; Rafael de Oliveira da Silva; Beatriz Barroso de Freitas; Jean Pacheco Leão

    2013-01-01

    Nutrient intake and digestibility and productive performance of 30 feedlot young bulls fed diets containing babassu mesocarp bran in replacement of corn were evaluated. Animals were distributed in a completely randomized design with five levels of replacement of corn by babassu mesocarp bran (BMB): 0, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 g/kg of dry matter, and six replications. The dry matter (DM) intake in kg/day, g/kg body weight (BW) and g/kgBW0.75 increased as the corn was replaced by BMB. The intake ...

  19. Bath vaccination of rainbow trout against yersiniosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raida, Martin Kristian; Buchmann, Kurt

    2007-01-01

    Studies have been conducted on the temperature-dependent effect of bath vaccination of rainbow trout against Yersinia ruckeri O1. Protection of rainbow trout fry against challenge, following bath vaccination with a bacterin of Yersinia ruckeri O1, the bacterial pathogen causing enteric red mouth...... disease (ERM), was investigated at 5, 15 and 25° C. Rainbow trout fry were kept at controlled temperatures for two month before they were immersed in a commercial Yersinia ruckeri O1 bacterin for 10 minutes. Control groups were sham vaccinated using pure water. Fish were challenged with Yersinia ruckeri O......1 one and two month post vaccination at the three temperatures. Protection of vaccinated fish was seen one and two month post vaccination in rainbow trout reared at 15° C. There was no effect of vaccination in rainbow trout reared at 5 and 25° C. Spleen tissue was sampled from 5 vaccinated and 5...

  20. Evaluating bull fertility based on non-return method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prka Igor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the results of reproductive cows and heifers, different parameters of fertility are used, such as the service period, insemination index, intercalving time and others, and of the breeding bulls the values obtained through non-return. An ejaculate is taken up for further processing by veterinary centres only provided it meets the prescribed quality parameters. Rating semen parameters includes a macroscopic (volume, colour, consistency, smell and pH and a microscopic evaluation (mobility, density, percentage of live sperm and abnormal and damaged sperm. In addition to sperm quality and the fertility of the female animal, the results of the non-return method are also influenced by a number of exogenous causes (season, age, race, insemination techniques that have no small impact on the end result of insemination - pregnancy. In order to obtain more objective results of the fertility of bulls the following tasks were undertaken, namely: 1. to calculate with the non-return method the fertility of bulls in over 10,000 cows inseminated for the first time during a period of 6 years; and 2. to analyze the impact of semen quality, season, age of cow and bull, and the bull breed on the results of fertility.

  1. Interactions Between Trout and Sculpin: Consequences of Trout Introductions for a Native Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry Zimmerman, J. K.; Vondracek, B.

    2005-05-01

    We examined interactions between a native (brook) and a nonnative (brown) trout with native slimy sculpin, to test whether introductions of a nonnative salmonid has an effect on growth and diet of sculpin where a native trout was present. Enclosures (1m2) were stocked with fish (five treatments: juvenile brown trout with sculpin, juvenile brook trout with sculpin, and single species controls) at three densities. Replicates of each treatment were placed in Valley Creek, MN, and fish growth rates were measured over six 38-day experiments, conducted over three years. We examined growth of each species in combined-species treatments versus growth of each species alone. We did not find evidence of competition between brook trout and sculpin, regardless of density or fish size. However, we observed competition between brown trout and sculpin, which depended on initial mass of each species. Sculpin gained greater mass when alone than with brown trout when sculpin size was large (>17g). Likewise, brown trout gained greater mass alone than with sculpin when brown trout size was large (>26g). We suggest that differences in morphology and foraging modes between the two native species allow them to coexist without competition, whereas nonnative brown trout compete with sculpin.

  2. Intercohort density dependence drives brown trout habitat selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayllón, Daniel; Nicola, Graciela G.; Parra, Irene; Elvira, Benigno; Almodóvar, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Habitat selection can be viewed as an emergent property of the quality and availability of habitat but also of the number of individuals and the way they compete for its use. Consequently, habitat selection can change across years due to fluctuating resources or to changes in population numbers. However, habitat selection predictive models often do not account for ecological dynamics, especially density dependent processes. In stage-structured population, the strength of density dependent interactions between individuals of different age classes can exert a profound influence on population trajectories and evolutionary processes. In this study, we aimed to assess the effects of fluctuating densities of both older and younger competing life stages on the habitat selection patterns (described as univariate and multivariate resource selection functions) of young-of-the-year, juvenile and adult brown trout Salmo trutta. We observed all age classes were selective in habitat choice but changed their selection patterns across years consistently with variations in the densities of older but not of younger age classes. Trout of an age increased selectivity for positions highly selected by older individuals when their density decreased, but this pattern did not hold when the density of younger age classes varied. It suggests that younger individuals are dominated by older ones but can expand their range of selected habitats when density of competitors decreases, while older trout do not seem to consider the density of younger individuals when distributing themselves even though they can negatively affect their final performance. Since these results may entail critical implications for conservation and management practices based on habitat selection models, further research should involve a wider range of river typologies and/or longer time frames to fully understand the patterns of and the mechanisms underlying the operation of density dependence on brown trout habitat

  3. Influence of hydrologic attributes on brown trout recruitment in low-latitude range margins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicola, Graciela G; Almodóvar, Ana; Elvira, Benigno

    2009-06-01

    Factors controlling brown trout Salmo trutta recruitment in Mediterranean areas are largely unknown, despite the relevance this may have for fisheries management. The effect of hydrological variability on survival of young brown trout was studied during seven consecutive years in five resident populations from the southern range of the species distribution. Recruit density at the end of summer varied markedly among year-classes and rivers during the study period. Previous work showed that egg density the previous fall did not account for more than 50% of the observed variation in recruitment density. Thus, we expected that climatic patterns, as determinants of discharge and water temperature, would play a role in the control of young trout abundance. We tested this by analyzing the effects of flow variation and predictability on young trout survival during the spawning to emergence and the summer drought periods. Both hatching and emergence times and length of hatching and emergence periods were similar between years within each river but varied considerably among populations, due to differences in water temperature. Interannual variation in flow attributes during spawning to emergence and summer drought affected juvenile survival in all populations, once the effect of endogenous factors was removed. Survival rate was significantly related to the timing, magnitude and duration of extreme water conditions, and to the rate of change in discharge during hatching and emergence times in most rivers. The magnitude and duration of low flows during summer drought appeared to be a critical factor for survival of young trout. Our findings suggest that density-independent factors, i.e., hydrological variability, play a central role in the population dynamics of brown trout in populations from low-latitude range margins. Reported effects of hydrologic attributes on trout survival are likely to be increasingly important if, as predicted, climate change leads to greater extremes

  4. Impacts of climatic variation on trout: A global synthesis and path forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovach, Ryan; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Dunham, Jason; Letcher, Benjamin; Kershner, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    Despite increasing concern that climate change may negatively impact trout—a globally distributed group of fish with major economic, ecological, and cultural value—a synthetic assessment of empirical data quantifying relationships between climatic variation and trout ecology does not exist. We conducted a systematic review to describe how temporal variation in temperature and streamflow influences trout ecology in freshwater ecosystems. Few studies (n = 42) have quantified relationships between temperature or streamflow and trout demography, growth, or phenology, and nearly all estimates (96 %) were for Salvelinus fontinalis and Salmo trutta. Only seven studies used temporal data to quantify climate-driven changes in trout ecology. Results from these studies were beset with limitations that prohibited quantitatively rigorous meta-analysis, a concerning inadequacy given major investment in trout conservation and management worldwide. Nevertheless, consistent patterns emerged from our synthesis, particularly a positive effect of summer streamflow on trout demography and growth; 64 % of estimates were positive and significant across studies, age classes, species, and locations, highlighting that climate-induced changes in hydrology may have numerous consequences for trout. To a lesser degree, summer and fall temperatures were negatively related to population demography (51 and 53 % of estimates, respectively), but temperature was rarely related to growth. To address limitations and uncertainties, we recommend: (1) systematically improving data collection, description, and sharing; (2) appropriately integrating climate impacts with other intrinsic and extrinsic drivers over the entire lifecycle; (3) describing indirect consequences of climate change; and (4) acknowledging and describing intrinsic resiliency.

  5. An ecological risk assessment of the exposure and effects of 2,4-D acid to rainbow trout (Onchorhyncus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, J.F.; Feltz, K.P.; Allert, A.L.; Sappington, L.C.; Nelson, K.J.; Valle, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    30-day safety factor of 559 (e.g., 76/0.163). Assessment of the exposure and response data presented herein indicates that use of 2,4-D acid for invasive weed control in aquatic and terrestrial habitats poses no substantial risk to growth or survival of rainbow trout or other salmonids, including the threatened bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus). ?? 2009 US Government.

  6. Breaking the speed limit--comparative sprinting performance of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and brown trout (Salmo trutta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Santos, Theodore; Sanz-Ronda, Francisco Javier; Ruiz-Legazpi, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Sprinting behavior of free-ranging fish has long been thought to exceed that of captive fish. Here we present data from wild-caught brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and brown trout (Salmo trutta), volitionally entering and sprinting against high-velocity flows in an open-channel flume. Performance of the two species was nearly identical, with the species attaining absolute speeds > 25 body lengths·s−1. These speeds far exceed previously published observations for any salmonid species and contribute to the mounting evidence that commonly accepted estimates of swimming performance are low. Brook trout demonstrated two distinct modes in the relationship between swim speed and fatigue time, similar to the shift from prolonged to sprint mode described by other authors, but in this case occurring at speeds > 19 body lengths·s−1. This is the first demonstration of multiple modes of sprint swimming at such high swim speeds. Neither species optimized for distance maximization, however, indicating that physiological limits alone are poor predictors of swimming performance. By combining distributions of volitional swim speeds with endurance, we were able to account for >80% of the variation in distance traversed by both species.

  7. Effects of Dietary Zilpaterol Hydrochloride on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, and Serum Compositions of Hanwoo Bulls

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jong Kyoo; Chung, Ki Yong; Kim, Hyeong Cheol; Lee, Eun Mi; Chang, Sun Sik; Kwon, Eung Gi; Johnson, Bradley J.; Gotoh, Takafumi; Goto, Takafumi

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on the growth performance and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo bulls. Twenty Hanwoo bulls (653 ± 22.1) were randomly assigned by body weight (BW) to determine the effects of feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride (Ten bulls with 8.3 mg/kg ZH and ten bulls without ZH) on the ultrasound measurement, carcass traits, and serum compositions. Treatments comprised diets with and without ZH supplemented for 20 days prior to...

  8. BRUCELLOSIS IN BULLS: AN OVERVIEW OF THE DISEASE IN BRAZIL, EMPHASIZING DIAGNOSES IN BULLS AND ITS IMPORTANCE IN AGRIBUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MÁRCIO GARCIA RIBEIRO

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Bovine brucellosis, caused by Brucella abortus, is recognized as a chronical evolution disease with zoonotic potential what causes great loss in cattle herd due to abortion, impaired births, early animal discarding, reduction on milk and meat production as well as restriction within animal product international trade which is of high importance for national agribusiness. In bulls the disease is restricted to genital tract, characterized by seminal vesiculite and inflamation of accessory glands of the male reproductive system. Unlike cows, in bulls infection by B. abortus induces low levels or absence of serum antibodies what makes it difficult serodiagnosis by conventional methods. This paper reviewed the main aspects of brucellosis in bulls in Brazil, emphasizing diagnosis methodology and its importance to agribusiness.

  9. Patterns of hybridization among cutthroat trout and rainbow trout in northern Rocky Mountain streams

    OpenAIRE

    McKelvey, Kevin S.; Young, Michael K.; Taylor M Wilcox; Bingham, Daniel M.; Pilgrim, Kristine L.; Schwartz, Michael K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introgressive hybridization between native and introduced species is a growing conservation concern. For native cutthroat trout and introduced rainbow trout in western North America, this process is thought to lead to the formation of hybrid swarms and the loss of monophyletic evolutionary lineages. Previous studies of this phenomenon, however, indicated that hybrid swarms were rare except when native and introduced forms of cutthroat trout co‐occurred. We used a panel of 86 diagnost...

  10. Field study of Ra accumulation in trout with assessment of radiation dose to man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the concentrations of 226Ra in edible fish from surface ponds near an open pit U mine. Because one reclamation plan for the U mine proposed formation of an artificial lake in the open pit, potential radiation dose to man from ingestion of fish needed to be investigated. Trout were collected from four existing ponds which varied in mean 226Ra concentration from 12-33 pCi/l and in Ca concentration from 30-330 mg Ca/l. Radium and Ca accumulation in trout flesh, skin, fins and bone were measured. Geometric mean concentrations of 226Ra in trout flesh from four ponds ranged from 6.3-30 pCi/kg wet weight. The distribution of Ra in the trout body was similar to that of Ca. The calculated dose equivalent commitment to human endosteal tissue range from 0.2-2 mrem per fish consumed, depending on the assumed dietary and environmental parameters. Neglecting the consumption of trout skin underestimated the ingestion dose from 226Ra by a factor of 5-10. Estimated annual dose equivalent rates to human endosteal tissue ranged from 1.0-83 mrem/yr for an individual who consumed one fish per week for a 50-yr period. The dose to man from ingestion of 226Ra in fish would not likely preclude the establishment of a recreational lake at this site

  11. Phylogeographic study of brown trout from Serbia, based on mitochondrial DNA control region analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snoj Aleš

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to illuminate the phylogeography of brown trout (Salmo trutta populations in the Balkan state of Serbia, the 561 bp 5'-end of mtDNA control region of 101 individuals originating from upland tributaries of the Danubian, Aegean and Adriatic drainages were sequenced and compared to corresponding brown trout sequences obtained in previous studies. Among 15 haplotypes found, 14 were considered native, representing the Danubian and Adriatic lineages of the brown trout, while one haplotype (ATcs1, found only in two individuals originating from two stocked rivers, corresponded to the Atlantic lineage and was considered introduced. Native haplotypes exhibited a strong geographic pattern of distribution: the Danubian haplotypes were strictly confined to the Danubian drainage, while the Adriatic haplotypes dominated in the Aegean and Adriatic drainages; most of the total molecular variance (69% was attributed to differences among the drainages. Phylogenetic reconstruction, supplemented with seven haplotypes newly described in this study, suggested a sister position of the Atlantic-Danubian and Adriatic-Mediterranean-marmoratus ("southern" phylogenetic group, and pointed to the existence of a distinct clade, detected within the "southern" group. The data obtained confirmed our expectation of the existence of high genetic diversity in Balkan trout populations, and we recommend more widespread surveys covering trout stocks from the region.

  12. Lice pressure from salmon farms on wild sea trout (Salmo trutta in a Norwegian fjord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Arechavala-Lopez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis are external parasites on salmonids in the marine environment. However, during recent years, salmon lice abundance has increased due to the presence of salmon farming. Scientific studies shows that salmon farming increases the abundance of lice in the marine habitat and that salmon lice in the most intensively farmed areas have negatively affected wild fish populations. The present study assesses the spatiotemporal distribution of salmon lice infestations on wild sea trout population in the Romsdalsfjord region (Norway, and the potential relationship with fish-farming activity and environmental parameters in this area. Salmon lice at farms varied among localities or farming areas, although infestation levels were under the safety established thresholds (max: 0.5 adult females per fish in most of the cases. However, salmon farms with these levels might produce and release millions of copepods, potentially infecting wild salmonids. In accordance, low lice loads were recorded on wild sea trout captured in areas with low farming activity, while higher mean loads were recorded in areas with higher farming activity. A clear seasonal pattern and a positive correlation between lice on sea trout and sea water temperature were observed throughout the study period. The estimated production of copepods at farms and the mobile lice counted on wild sea trout one month later were correlated, suggesting the potential use of lice monitoring on sea trout as a proxy indicator of salmon lice infestation risks.

  13. Effects of seasonal habitat limitations on the distribution and energetics of stocked salmonids in Lake Moomaw, Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Hampton, Thomas M.

    1993-01-01

    Lake Moomaw, a 1024 ha flood control reservoir in western Virginia, retains sufficient cold, oxygenated water (< 21°C, ⠥ 5.0 mg/L) to allow trout survival throughout most of the summer. However, trout habitat declines to an annual minimum in September. vertical gillnets and ultrasonic telemetry were used to determine the horizontal and vertical distribution of two cohorts of brown trout, Salmo trutta, and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, relative to ambient tempe...

  14. Seasonal Variations in Relative Weight of Lake Trout (Salvelinus namaycush), Kokanee Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), Rainbow Trout (Onocorhynchus mykiss), and Brown Trout (Salmo trutta) in Blue Mesa Reservoir, Colorado

    OpenAIRE

    Midas, Madeline; Williams, Asia; Cooper, Cindy; Courtney, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Blue Mesa Reservoir is the largest body of water in Colorado and is located on the western slope of the Rocky Mountains at an elevation of 7520 feet. Blue Mesa Reservoir contains recreationally important populations of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), kokanee salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), rainbow trout (Onocorhynchus mykiss), and brown trout (Salmo trutta). A management challenge in recent years has been the overpopulation of lake trout, which has led to a steep decline in abundance of kokan...

  15. Dynamics of microRNAs in bull spermatozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govindaraju Aruna

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression and thus play important roles in mammalian development. However, the comprehensive lists of microRNAs, as well as, molecular mechanisms by which microRNAs regulate gene expression during gamete and embryo development are poorly defined. The objectives of this study were to determine microRNAs in bull sperm and predict their functions. Methods To accomplish our objectives we isolated miRNAs from sperm of high and low fertility bulls, conducted microRNA microarray experiments and validated expression of a panel of microRNAs using real time RT-PCR. Bioinformatic approaches were carried out to identify regulated targets. Results We demonstrated that an abundance of microRNAs were present in bovine spermatozoa, however, only seven were differentially expressed; hsa-aga-3155, -8197, -6727, -11796, -14189, -6125, -13659. The abundance of miRNAs in the spermatozoa and the differential expression in sperm from high vs. low fertility bulls suggests that the miRNAs possibly play important functions in the regulating mechanisms of bovine spermatozoa. Conclusion Identification of specific microRNAs expressed in spermatozoa of bulls with different fertility phenotypes will help better understand mammalian gametogenesis and early development.

  16. Characterization of cattle of a five-breed diallel: VI. Fat deposition patterns of serially slaughtered bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talamantes, M A; Long, C R; Smith, G C; Jenkins, T G; Ellis, W C; Cartwright, T C

    1986-05-01

    Dissection and chemical analysis data from 197 bulls of 15 breedtypes were used to examine the distribution of total fat (TOTFAT) among carcass fat (CFAT), viscera fat (VIF), kidney plus pelvic fat (KPF) and blood fat (BLF). The bulls were obtained from a five-breed diallel involving Angus, Brahman, Hereford, Holstein and Jersey; reciprocal crosses were pooled. One or two bulls of each breedtype were slaughtered at each of seven ages: 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 24 and 30 mo. An allometric equation was utilized to describe growth rate of each fat depot relative to either TOTFAT or carcass side weight (CSW). The pooled within-breedtype differential growth rates obtained from the allometric equation indicated that as TOTFAT or CSW increased, the proportion composed of CFAT and KPF increased (growth coefficients significantly greater than 1), whereas the proportion composed of VIF and BLF decreased (growth coefficients significantly less than 1). Holstein and Jersey tended to have more CFAT than Hereford, Angus and Brahman. Jersey had more KPF than other breeds. Crossbreds exhibited positive heterosis for CFAT and VIF, and negative heterosis for KPF. On a constant CSW basis, there were no significant breedtype differences in TOTFAT: nevertheless, differences in fat distribution among breedtypes persisted. There were different amounts of fat at the depots studied, but fat growth coefficients relative to TOTFAT tended to be homogeneous among breedtypes. PMID:3722018

  17. Hydrography - Class A Wild Trout Streams - points

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Class A streams are streams that support a population of wild (natural reproduction) trout of sufficient size and abundance to support a long-term and rewarding...

  18. Hydrography - Class A Wild Trout Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Class A streams are streams that support a population of wild (natural reproduction) trout of sufficient size and abundance to support a long-term and rewarding...

  19. Longevity of Lake Superior lake trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schram, Stephen T.; Fabrizio, Mary C.

    1998-01-01

    The age structure of mature lake trout Salvelinus namaycush from the Wisconsin waters of Lake Superior increased following a population recovery that has taken place since the 1960s. As the population aged, it became apparent that scales were unreliable aging structures. Beginning in 1986, we examined both scale and sagittal otolith ages from tagged fish with a known period at liberty. We found large discrepancies in scale and sagittal otolith ages of mature fish, such that scale ages were biased low. We estimated lake trout living up to 42 years, which is greater than previously reported from Lake Superior. Investigators studying lake trout population dynamics in the Great Lakes should be aware that lake trout can live longer than previously thought.

  20. A Vegetation Survey of Trout Brook Flowage

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Trout Brook structure was started in 1963 under the Accelerated Public Works Program and finished in the summer of 1965. There is a 200 foot earthdike, a metal...

  1. Spawning Behaviour and the Softmouth Trout Dilemma

    OpenAIRE

    Esteve Manu; McLennan Deborah Ann; Zablocki John Andrew; Pustovrh Gašper; Doadrio Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Morphological, ecological and molecular data sets do not completely agree on the phylogenetic placement of the softmouth trout, Salmo (Salmothymus) obtusirostris (Heckel). Molecules posit that softmouths are closely related to brown trout, Salmo trutta L. while some morphological, ecological and life history traits place them in the most basal position of the Salmoninae subfamily between grayling (Thymallus) and lenok (Brachymystax). Here we add an additional source of data, behavioural chara...

  2. Movement and survival of brown trout and rainbow trout in an ozark tailwater river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, J.W.; Kwak, T.J.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the movement of adult brown trout Salmo trutta and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in relation to a catch-andrelease area in the White River downstream from Beaver Dam, Arkansas. Nine fish of each species were implanted with radio transmitters and monitored from July 1996 to July 1997. The 1.5- km river length of a catch-and-release area (closed to angler harvest) was greater than the total linear range of 72% of the trout (13 of 18 fish), but it did not include two brown trout spawning riffles, suggesting that it effectively protects resident fish within the catch-and-release area except during spawning. The total detected linear range of movement varied from 172 to 3,559 m for brown trout and from 205 to 3,023mfor rainbow trout. The movements of both species appeared to be generally similar to that in unregulated river systems. The annual apparent survival of both trout species was less than 0.40, and exploitation was 44%.Management to protect fish on spawning riffles may be considered if management for wild brown trout becomes a priority. ?? American Fisheries Society 2011.

  3. Does the introduced brook trout ( Salvelinus fontinalis) affect growth of the native brown trout ( Salmo trutta)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsu, Kai; Huusko, Ari; Muotka, Timo

    2009-03-01

    Non-native brook trout have become widely established in North European streams. We combined evidence from an artificial-stream experiment and drainage-scale field surveys to examine whether brook trout suppressed the growth of the native brown trout (age 0 to age 2). Our experimental results demonstrated that brown trout were unaffected by the presence of brook trout but that brook trout showed reduced growth in the presence of brown trout. However, the growth reduction only appeared in the experimental setting, indicating that the reduced spatial constraint of the experimental system may have forced the fish to unnaturally intense interactions. Indeed, in the field, no effect of either species on the growth of the putative competitor was detected. These results caution against uncritical acceptance of findings from small-scale experiments because they rarely scale up to more complex field situations. This and earlier work suggest that the establishment of brook trout in North European streams has taken place mainly because of the availability of unoccupied (or underutilized) niche space, rather than as a result of species trait combinations or interspecific competition per se.

  4. Brown Trout removal effects on short-term survival and movement of Myxobolus cerebralis-resistant rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetherman, Eric R.; Winkelman, Dana L.; Bailey, Larissa L.; Schisler, George J.; Davies, K.

    2015-01-01

    Following establishment of Myxobolus cerebralis (the parasite responsible for salmonid whirling disease) in Colorado, populations of Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykissexperienced significant declines, whereas Brown Trout Salmo trutta densities increased in many locations across the state, potentially influencing the success of M. cerebralis-resistant Rainbow Trout reintroductions. We examined the effects of Brown Trout removal on the short-term (3-month) survival and movement of two crosses of reintroduced, M. cerebralis-resistant Rainbow Trout in the Cache la Poudre River, Colorado. Radio frequency identification passive integrated transponder tags and antennas were used to track movements of wild Brown Trout and stocked Rainbow Trout in reaches where Brown Trout had or had not been removed. Multistate mark–recapture models were used to estimate tagged fish apparent survival and movement in these sections 3 months following Brown Trout removal. A cross between the German Rainbow Trout and Colorado River Rainbow Trout strains exhibited similar survival and movement probabilities in the reaches, suggesting that the presence of Brown Trout did not affect its survival or movement. However, a cross between the German Rainbow Trout and Harrison Lake Rainbow Trout exhibited less movement from the reach in which Brown Trout had been removed. Despite this, the overall short-term benefits of the removal were equivocal, suggesting that Brown Trout removal may not be beneficial for the reintroduction of Rainbow Trout. Additionally, the logistical constraints of conducting removals in large river systems are substantial and may not be a viable management option in many rivers.

  5. Survival of Trout Strains as Affected by Limnological Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Wurtsbaugh, Wayne A.; Modde, Timothy; Luecke, Chris; Courtney, Cheryl

    1990-01-01

    Juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. (ca. 80 mm S.L.) stocked into mid-elevation reservoirs in Utah are vulnerable to predation from piscivorous fish and birds. I determined how effectively juvenile trout used cover to avoid these predators by using direct observations (snorkel transects) on habitat selection in two reservoirs. Observations of juvenile trout were conducted within five weeks of stocking in 1988 and 1989. During the day juvenile trout were abundant in complex inshore hab...

  6. THE PERFORMANCE OF JAVA AND ONGOLE CROSSBRED BULL UNDER INTENSIVE FEEDING MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M.S. Lestari

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was set up to evaluate the performance of Java and Ongole Crossbred (OC bulls fed concentrate and rice straw. A total of four Java bulls and four OC bulls were used in this experiment. The bulls were fed concentrates (50% of the total dry matter feed requirement and rice straw (ad libitum. The concentrates were consisted of rice bran, beer waste product, copra meal, minerals, with crude protein (CP and total digestible nutrients (TDN contents of 15.32% and 73.09%, respectively. The average daily gain (ADG, dry matter intake (DMI, protein and energy intake, and feed conversion ratio (FCR were observed. The results of this study showed that the ADG, DMI, CP and TDN intake, and FCR were not significantly different (p> 0.05. The ADG of Java and OC bulls were 0.58 kg and 0.78 kg, respectively. The averages of DMI, CP and TDN intake were 6.59 kg (2.09% of BW, 0.81 kg and 4.34 kg for Java bulls whereas for OC bulls were 6.42 kg (2.11% of BW, 0.78 kg, and 4.20 kg, respectively. The FCR of Java bulls was 11.49 and those of OC bulls was 9.21. It can be concluded that Java and OC bulls raised intensively and fed concentrate and rice straw had the similar performance.

  7. Concentrate levels of crossbred bulls slaughtered at 16 or 22 months: performance and carcass characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pinto

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to assess the animal performance of 97 bulls, ½ Purunã vs. ½ Canchim, that were slaughtered at 16 (16M or 22 (22M months with three concentrate levels (0.8, 1.2, and 1.6% of body weight (BW. The initial body weight was lower for the 16M bulls. The final body weight and hot carcass weights were similar between the two slaughter ages. The hot carcass dressing was higher for 22M bulls. The average daily gain was higher for 16M bulls. The feed intake and dry matter feed conversion were similar between 16 and 22M bulls. The carcass length, marbling, and bone percentage were lower for 16M bulls. However, the Longissimus dorsi muscle area was higher for 16M bulls. The leg length, cushion thickness, fat thickness, conformation, colour, texture, muscle percent, and fat percent were similar between 16 and 22M bulls. The final and hot carcass weights were lower for bulls that were fed with 0.8% of BW. The carcass dressing was similar for the three concentrate levels. The average daily gain was higher for bulls that were fed with 1.6% of BW of concentrate and lower for those that were fed with 0.8%. The concentrate levels had no effect on carcass characteristics, feed intake, and dry matter conversion.

  8. Ultrasound Imaging of Testes and Epididymides of Normal and Infertile Breeding Bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Mahmood Ali, Nazir Ahmad*, Nafees Akhtar, Shujait Ali, Maqbool Ahmad and Muhammad Younis1

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Echotexture of testes and epididymides from 10 slaughtered male buffaloes was studied. Diameter of testis and mediastinum testis was measured by ultrasound and compared with respective values taken by calipers. Testes and epididymides of another 10 fertile and 10 infertile breeding bulls were examined in vivo through manual palpation and ultrasound imaging. Semen quality of these bulls was also monitored. There were significant (P<0.01 positive correlations between ultrasound and calipers values of all parameters. The testicular parenchyma of fertile bulls was uniformly homogeneous and moderately echogenic. Epididymal tail was more heterogeneous and less echogenic, while epididymal head was homogeneous and less echogenic, than the testicular parenchyma. The epididymal body appeared as hypoechoic structure with echogenic margin. Among 10 infertile bulls, nine had poor semen quality, while one bull failed to give any ejaculate. On ultrasonography, six bulls showed abnormalities in their scrotal echotexture. Among these, one had an abundance of hyperechoic areas scattered in the testicular parenchyma, some of these showed acoustic shadowing, showing testicular degenerations with mineralization. The second bull showed many anechoic areas in the testes and epididymal head, demarcated from the rest of the organ by well defined margins. In the third bull, three-fourth of the right testis showed hyperechoic areas, suspected of testicular degeneration with mineralization. The fourth bull had two anechoic areas in one testis assumed to represent dilated blood vessel. The fifth bull showed small hyperechoic areas within the testicular parenchyma. The sixth bull showed an anechoic area with distinct hyperechogenic margin below the testicular tunics. The remaining four bulls had normal echogenicity of testes and epididymides in spite of poor semen quality. In conclusion, diagnostic ultrasound may be included in breeding soundness examination of breeding

  9. Factors influencing the spawning migration of female anadromous brown trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jon Christian; Koed, Anders; Aarestrup, Kim

    2004-01-01

    Radio telemetry was employed to study movements of adult female anadromous brown trout Salmo trutta (sea trout) during upstream spawning migration and following spawning in a stream with tributaries. Sea trout were monitored by manual tracking and by automatic listening stations. The latter...

  10. Movement and mortality of stocked brown trout in a stream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Kim; Jepsen, Niels; Koed, Anders;

    2005-01-01

    The movement and mortality of stocked brown trout Salmo trutta were investigated using radio telemetry. Four brown trout left the study area whereas the remaining fish were stationary. After 5 weeks, 13 out of 50 tagged brown trout were still alive in the stream. Surviving fish had a significantly...

  11. Sensitivity of Trout to Chronic Acute Exposure to Selenium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunnar Gissel; Nielsen, M. Gissel

    1978-01-01

    Trout were exposed to selenite (Na2SeO3) solutions of varying concentrations (0.1-100 ppm Se) for periods of up to 4 wk. A chronic exposure to 0.1 ppm Se or less is non-lethal to trout. Lethality at higher concentrations depends on the length of exposure. Trout that survive for 10 days in tap...

  12. Analysis of High Reproductivity on Wild Yak Bull

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆仲璘

    2005-01-01

    Sperm concentration of wild yak bull is 2. 13 billion per milliliter. Survival time at 0-4 ℃ is 57hrs. After thawing survival time at 37 ℃ is 12 hrs. Resistance coefficient is 144,000. Abnormal sperm rate and acrosomal integrated rate of post-thawing is 9.17% and 87.53% respectively. Moving viscosity is 1. 169 cp. Total nitrogen is 1 437.7 mg/100 ml. Head of sperm is significantly shorter and end piece is significantly longer than that of domestic yak and yellow cattle. Activity of hyaluronidase is highly stronger than the domestic yak,and the activity of LDH is higher than the domestic yak by 48 %. Hence,the fertility of the wild yak bull is powerful and the artificial inseminated rate with domestic yak and yellow cattle is 88.9% and 71.58% respectively.

  13. Noise in the surrounding farms for fattening bulls.

    OpenAIRE

    KRAJÍČEK, Karel

    2011-01-01

    This Bachelor Thesis studies the Noise Pollution Issue in the surrounding of a Bull Farm. In Theoretical Part there are explained the basic noise concepts, its circumscription, sources, effects on Human health and basic prevention and antinoise protective agents. There is a brief introduction of the examined Farm and Livestock as well. In Practical Part there are indicated measurement procedures, their subsequent evaluation and assessment according to relevant standards and regulations.

  14. COMPARISON OF MEAT QUALITY IN BULLS AND COWS

    OpenAIRE

    Jozef Mojto; Kvetoslav Zaujec; Martina Gondeková

    2012-01-01

    Comparison of quality and sensorial evaluation of meat was performed in two categories of animals: cows (n=69) and bulls (n=52). We found highly significant differences between the categories in basic characteristics of animals. The greatest differences were found in age, weight of carcass, conformation, fatness and marbling of meat. Observation of meat quality in these categories showed approximately the same qualitative parameters in both categories. Significant results were noticed in the ...

  15. Snorkeling as an alternative to depletion electrofishing for assessing cutthroat trout and brown trout in stream pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, M.P.; Hubert, W.A.

    2003-01-01

    We compared abundance and length structure estimates of cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) of 15 cm total length or greater obtained by snorkeling in stream pools with estimates obtained by depletion electrofishing. We sampled 12 pools in each of two streams formed by large springs in the Salt River Valley of western Wyoming. Snorkeling counts provided a relatively accurate index of depletion electrofishing estimates of abundance of cutthroat trout, but not brown trout. Linear regression analysis showed that snorkeling counts were significantly related to depletion electrofishing estimates for both cutthroat trout (P brown trout (P = 0.002), but the coefficient of determination for brown trout (r2 = 0.33) was low compared to cutthroat trout (r2 = 0.95). Frequencies of fish in three length classes observed by snorkeling and depletion electrofishing were close to being significantly different for cutthroat trout (P = 0.066) and substantially different for brown trout (P = 0.005). Snorkeling frequently failed to observe fish in the shortest length class (15-29 cm total length) of both cutthroat trout and brown trout.

  16. Use of microsatellite markers for identification of indigenous brown trout in a geographical region heavily influenced by stocked domesticated trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritzner, Niels G.; Møller Hansen, Michael; Madsen, Steffen;

    2001-01-01

    Based on estimates of genetic differentiation between populations, assignment tests and analysis of isolation by distance, stocked populations of brown trout Salmo trutta of Funen Island, Denmark, had been genetically affected by domesticated trout, whereas the stocking of wild exogenous trout into...

  17. Diel resource partitioning among juvenile Atlantic Salmon, Brown Trout, and Rainbow Trout during summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James H.; McKenna Jr, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Interspecific partitioning of food and habitat resources has been widely studied in stream salmonids. Most studies have examined resource partitioning between two native species or between a native species and one that has been introduced. In this study we examine the diel feeding ecology and habitat use of three species of juvenile salmonids (i.e., Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar, Brown Trout Salmo trutta, and Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss) in a tributary of Skaneateles Lake, New York. Subyearling Brown Trout and Rainbow Trout fed more heavily from the drift than the benthos, whereas subyearling Atlantic Salmon fed more from the benthos than either species of trout. Feeding activity of Atlantic Salmon and Rainbow Trout was similar, with both species increasing feeding at dusk, whereas Brown Trout had no discernable feeding peak or trough. Habitat availability was important in determining site-specific habitat use by juvenile salmonids. Habitat selection was greater during the day than at night. The intrastream, diel, intraspecific, and interspecific variation we observed in salmonid habitat use in Grout Brook illustrates the difficulty of acquiring habitat use information for widespread management applications.

  18. Brown trout and food web interactions in a Minnesota stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, J.K.H.; Vondracek, B.

    2007-01-01

    1. We examined indirect, community-level interactions in a stream that contained non-native brown trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus), native brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis Mitchill) and native slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus Richardson). Our objectives were to examine benthic invertebrate composition and prey selection of fishes (measured by total invertebrate dry mass, dry mass of individual invertebrate taxa and relative proportion of invertebrate taxa in the benthos and diet) among treatments (no fish, juvenile brook trout alone, juvenile brown trout alone, sculpin with brook trout and sculpin with brown trout). 2. We assigned treatments to 1 m2 enclosures/exclosures placed in riffles in Valley Creek, Minnesota, and conducted six experimental trials. We used three designs of fish densities (addition of trout to a constant number of sculpin with unequal numbers of trout and sculpin; addition of trout to a constant number of sculpin with equal numbers of trout and sculpin; and replacement of half the sculpin with an equal number of trout) to investigate the relative strength of interspecific versus intraspecific interactions. 3. Presence of fish (all three species, alone or in combined-species treatments) was not associated with changes in total dry mass of benthic invertebrates or shifts in relative abundance of benthic invertebrate taxa, regardless of fish density design. 4. Brook trout and sculpin diets did not change when each species was alone compared with treatments of both species together. Likewise, we did not find evidence for shifts in brown trout or sculpin diets when each species was alone or together. 5. We suggest that native brook trout and non-native brown trout fill similar niches in Valley Creek. We did not find evidence that either species had an effect on stream communities, potentially due to high invertebrate productivity in Valley Creek. ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Growth and reproductive development from weaning through 20 months of age among breeds of bulls in subtropical Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, C C; Chenoweth, P J; Larsen, R E; Olson, T A; Hammond, A C; Menchaca, M A; Randel, R D

    1997-02-01

    To determine the effect of breed on growth and reproductive development, weaned bulls in each of 2 yr were managed as a single group for approximately a year. In Year 1, the study group consisted of 24 Angus, 24 Brahman, 20 Hereford and 14 Senepol bulls, while in Year 2, it contained 25 Angus, 17 Brahman. 13 Romosinuano and 9 Nellore x Brahman bulls. Body and testicular growth measurements were recorded at 6-wk intervals. At approximately 1 yr of age and quarterly thereafter (4 periods), bulls were evaluated for libido, pubertal status, and GnRH-induced LH and testosterone secretion. Significant breed-by-age interactions occurred for most growth measurements. Brahman bulls (Bos indicus ) were (P Angus, Hereford, Senepol and Romosinuano bulls (Bos taurus ). Libido scores were lowest for Brahman and Nell ore x Brahman bulls (Bos indicus ). highest for Angus and Hereford bulls (temperate Bos taurus breeds) and intermediate for Senepol and Romosinuano bulls (tropical Bos taurus breeds; P Angus and Hereford bulls (temperate breeds) than for Brahman, Senepol, Romosinuano and Nellore x Brahman bulls (tropical breeds). In conclusion, reproductive development of Senepol and Romosinuano bulls (tropical Bos taurus breeds) was more similar to Angus and Hereford bulls (temperate Bos taurus breeds) than to Brahman and Nellore x Brahman bulls (Bos indicus ). PMID:16728024

  20. The study of myocardial ischemic quality with weighted-subtraction-bull's-eye analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weighted-Subtraction-Bull's-eye analysis was studied in 33 normal subjects and 58 patients with coronary artery disease after dipyridamole 99mTc-MIBI myocardial SPECT imaging. Two kinds of Bull's-eye were produced: (1) subtract rest from 1.2 times dipyridamole from 1.2 times rest Bull's-eye; (2) subtract dipyridamole Bull's-eye. The results showed that the weighted-subtraction-Bull's-eye could clearly displayed the location and puality of ischemic myocardium. And also 74% segments showed so called combined ischemic i.e the blood perfusion reduced, increased and sustained simultaneously after dipyridamole. Therefore weighted-subtraction-Bull's-eye analysis had provided a new method for determination of the quality of ischemia

  1. Joint disorder; a contributory cause to reproductive failure in beef bulls?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekman Stina

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The lame sire, unsound for breeding, can cause substantial economic loss due to reduced pregnancies in the beef-producing herd. To test the hypothesis that joint disorder is a possible cause of infertility in beef sires, right and left hind limb bones from 34 beef sires were examined postmortem to identify lesions in the femorotibial, femoropatellar (stifle, tarsocrural, talocalcaneus, and proximal intertarsal (tarsal joints. The bulls were slaughtered during or after the breeding season due to poor fertility results. Aliquots of the cauda epididymal contents taken postmortem from 26 bulls were used for sperm morphology evaluation. As a control, hind limbs (but no semen samples from 11 beef bulls with good fertility results were included. Almost all infertile bulls (30/34 had lesions in at least one joint. Twenty-eight bulls (28/30, 93% had lesions in the stifle joint, and 24 (24/28, 86% of these were bilateral. Fourteen bulls (14/30, 47% had lesions in the tarsal joint, and 10 (10/14, 71% of these were bilateral. Four bulls (4/34, 12% had no lesions, three bulls (3/34, 9% had mild osteoarthritis (OA, 5 (5/34, 15% moderate OA, 17 (17/34, 50% severe OA and 5 (5/34, 15% deformed OA. Almost all OA lesions (97% were characterized as lesions secondary to osteochondrosis dissecans. All the bulls with satisfactory sperm morphology (n = 12/34 had joint lesions, with mostly severe or deformed bilateral lesions (83%. Consequently, the most likely cause of infertility in these 12 bulls was joint disease. Almost all control bulls (10/11 had OA lesions, but most of them were graded as mild (55% or moderate (36%. None of the control bulls had severe lesions or deformed OA. We suggest that joint lesions should be taken into consideration as a contributory cause of reproductive failure in beef sires without symptoms of lameness.

  2. Fixation of femoral capital physeal fractures with 7.0 mm cannulated screws in five bulls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salter-Harris type I fractures of the femoral capital physis were repaired in five Holstein bulls with three 7.0 mm cannulated screws placed in lag fashion. Radiographically at months 7 to 10, the fractures were healed and there was periarticular bone production on the femoral necks and the dorsal acetabular rims. Four bulls had normal gaits, and one bull had muscle atrophy and barely detectable lameness

  3. Pracovní využití teriérů typu bull

    OpenAIRE

    TÖRÖKOVÁ, Jacquelina

    2013-01-01

    This work deals with the history of born, origin, domestication of the dog and various types of bull terriers. Pointing at the crossing of the Bulldog with a black terrier. This work also deals with the different types of dogs Bull, their character, description. This work answers the question, ?Why the pit bull is not dangerous to people", evaluates conflict situations, and shows how conflicts can occur. It mentions the current differences and cons of each breed. It places an attempt to creat...

  4. Immunity to VHS virus in rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Niels; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Koch, C.

    1999-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is the rhabdovirus that causes most disease problems in farmed rainbow trout in Europe. Survivors of infection are usually immune to reinfection but as with other fish viruses, development of a modern recombinant vaccine has been complicated by the limited...... knowledge of the immune mechanisms and antigens involved in induction of immunity. Neutralizing and protective monoclonal antibodies recognize the envelope glycoprotein (G protein) which is the only viral protein known to be present on the surface of the virus particle. Immunoblotting analyses with...... monoclonal antibodies as well as with sera from immunized trout have indicated that protein conformation plays an important role in neutralization epitopes. The virus neutralizing activity often found in sera from convalescent trout is highly dependent on a poorly defined complementing activity in normal...

  5. Genetic parameters estimation and genetic evaluation for longevity in Italian Brown Swiss bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Nicoletti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct longevity EBV of Italian Brown Swiss sires were predicted using a Weibull proportional hazards model. This trait was defined as the risk of culling from first calving. Records from 511,596 Brown Swiss cows with first calving from 1985 to 2005 were used. The model include fixed (age at first calving and random (sire’s additive genetic time independent effects, fixed (herd, parity, quantile of mature equivalent deviation from the yearly herd mature equivalent average, and regression on the dynamic herd size and random (herd-year with log-gamma distribution time dependent effects. Predicted breeding values for functional longevity, expressed as relative risk ratios, ranged from 0.58 to 1.69. The EBV were standardized with mean 100 and standard deviation 12. EBV were positively submitted to Interbull trend validation procedure in order to assess EBV variation over time and the possibility of including them in the international exchange of bull indexes.

  6. Effect of behaviour of Holstein Friesian and Simmental bulls on semen quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Adamczyk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between the behaviour of Holstein-Friesian and Simmental bulls and the quality of their semen. A total of 76 breeding bulls of the Holstein-Friesian and dual-purpose Simmental breeds were investigated. Analysis was made of the response of bulls to humans and other bulls, facial hair whorl position and length, scrotal circumference, and semen characteristics (mean ejaculate volume, mean sperm concentration, and sperm wave motion. The age and breed of the bulls had a statistically significant effect on semen quality, scrotal circumference and the animals response to an unfamiliar human (Plt,0.05, Plt,0.01. The coefficients of correlation between the bull s response to a handler and to other bulls averaged 0.73. In general, only weak correlations were found between behavioural traits of the bulls and quality of their semen. It is worth noting a good correlation (r=0.50; Plt;0.05 between hair whorl position and sperm concentration in Simmental bulls.

  7. Enhanced early-life nutrition promotes hormone production and reproductive development in Holstein bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dance, Alysha; Thundathil, Jacob; Wilde, Randy; Blondin, Patrick; Kastelic, John

    2015-02-01

    Holstein bull calves often reach artificial insemination centers in suboptimal body condition. Early-life nutrition is reported to increase reproductive performance in beef bulls. The objective was to determine whether early-life nutrition in Holstein bulls had effects similar to those reported in beef bulls. Twenty-six Holstein bull calves were randomly allocated into 3 groups at approximately 1 wk of age to receive a low-, medium-, or high-nutrition diet, based on levels of energy and protein, from 2 to 31 wk of age. Calves were on their respective diets until 31 wk of age, after which they were all fed a medium-nutrition diet. To evaluate secretion profiles and concentrations of blood hormones, a subset of bulls was subjected to intensive blood sampling every 4 wk from 11 to 31 wk of age. Testes of all bulls were measured once a month; once scrotal circumference reached 26cm, semen collection was attempted (by electroejaculation) every 2 wk to confirm puberty. Bulls were maintained until approximately 72 wk of age and then slaughtered at a local abattoir. Testes were recovered and weighed. Bulls fed the high-nutrition diet were younger at puberty (high=324.3 d, low=369.3 d) and had larger testes for the entire experimental period than bulls fed the low-nutrition diet. Bulls fed the high-nutrition diet also had an earlier and more substantial early rise in LH than those fed the low-nutrition diet and had increased concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) earlier than the bulls fed the low-nutrition diet. Furthermore, we detected a temporal association between increased IGF-I concentrations and an early LH rise in bulls fed the high-nutrition diet. Therefore, we inferred that IGF-I had a role in regulating the early gonadotropin rise (in particular, LH) and thus reproductive development of Holstein bulls. Overall, these results support our hypothesis that Holstein bull calves fed a high-nutrition diet reach puberty earlier and have larger testes than

  8. Effects of herd origin, AI stud and sire identification on genetic evaluation of Holstein Friesian bulls

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Bittante; Paolo Carnier; Luigi Gallo Gallo; Riccardo Dal Zotto; Martino Cassandro

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the effects of herd origin of bull, AI stud and sire identification number (ID)  on official estimated breeding values (EBV) for production traits of Holstein Friesian proven bulls. The data included 1,005  Italian Holstein-Friesian bulls, sons of 76 sires, born in 100 herds and progeny tested by 10 AI studs. Bulls were required  to have date of first proof between September 1992 and September 1997, to be born in a herd with at least on...

  9. THE PERFORMANCE OF JAVA AND ONGOLE CROSSBRED BULL UNDER INTENSIVE FEEDING MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    C.M.S. Lestari; R. Adiwinarti; M Arifin; A. Purnomoadi

    2011-01-01

    This study was set up to evaluate the performance of Java and Ongole Crossbred (OC) bulls fed concentrate and rice straw. A total of four Java bulls and four OC bulls were used in this experiment. The bulls were fed concentrates (50% of the total dry matter feed requirement) and rice straw (ad libitum). The concentrates were consisted of rice bran, beer waste product, copra meal, minerals, with crude protein (CP) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) contents of 15.32% and 73.09%, respectively...

  10. THE PERFORMANCE OF JAVA AND ONGOLE CROSSBRED BULL UNDER INTENSIVE FEEDING MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M.S. Lestari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was set up to evaluate the performance of Java and Ongole Crossbred (OC bulls fedconcentrate and rice straw. A total of four Java bulls and four OC bulls were used in this experiment. Thebulls were fed concentrates (50% of the total dry matter feed requirement and rice straw (ad libitum.The concentrates were consisted of rice bran, beer waste product, copra meal, minerals, with crudeprotein (CP and total digestible nutrients (TDN contents of 15.32% and 73.09%, respectively. Theaverage daily gain (ADG, dry matter intake (DMI, protein and energy intake, and feed conversion ratio(FCR were observed. The results of this study showed that the ADG, DMI, CP and TDN intake, andFCR were not significantly different (p> 0.05. The ADG of Java and OC bulls were 0.58 kg and 0.78kg, respectively. The averages of DMI, CP and TDN intake were 6.59 kg (2.09% of BW, 0.81 kg and4.34 kg for Java bulls whereas for OC bulls were 6.42 kg (2.11% of BW, 0.78 kg, and 4.20 kg,respectively. The FCR of Java bulls was 11.49 and those of OC bulls was 9.21. It can be concluded thatJava and OC bulls raised intensively and fed concentrate and rice straw had the similar performance.

  11. Concentrate levels of crossbred bulls slaughtered at 16 or 22 months: performance and carcass characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Pinto; Rodrigo Augusto Cortêz Passetti; Ana Guerrero; Dayane Cristina Rivaroli; Daniel Perotto; Ivanor Nunes do Prado

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to assess the animal performance of 97 bulls, ½ Purunã vs. ½ Canchim, that were slaughtered at 16 (16M) or 22 (22M) months with three concentrate levels (0.8, 1.2, and 1.6%) of body weight (BW). The initial body weight was lower for the 16M bulls. The final body weight and hot carcass weights were similar between the two slaughter ages. The hot carcass dressing was higher for 22M bulls. The average daily gain was higher for 16M bulls. The feed intake and dry matter fe...

  12. Use of microsatellite markers for identification of indigenous brown trout in a geographical region heavily influenced by stocked domesticated trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritzner, N.G.; Hansen, Michael Møller; Madsen, S.S.;

    2001-01-01

    Based on estimates of genetic differentiation between populations, assignment tests and analysis of isolation by distance, stocked populations of brown trout Salmo trutta of Funen Island, Denmark, had been genetically affected by domesticated trout, whereas the stocking of wild exogenous trout into...... one of the rivers had little or no impact. At the same time, there were clear indications of remaining indigenous gene pools in the Funen populations. The management implications of these findings are discussed and changes in trout release activity are recommended to avoid further mixing of trout gene...

  13. Laboratory evaluation of a lake trout bioenergetics model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; O'Connor, Daniel V.

    1999-01-01

    Lake trout Salvelinus namaycush, aged 3 and 6 years and with average weights of 700 and 2,000 g, were grown in laboratory tanks for up to 407 d under a thermal regime similar to that experienced by lake trout in nearshore Lake Michigan. Lake trout were fed alewifeAlosa pseudoharengus and rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax, prey typical of lake trout in Lake Michigan. Of the 120 lake trout used in the experiment, 40 were fed a low ration (0.25% of their body weight per day), 40 were fed a medium ration (0.5% of their body weight per day), and 40 were fed a high ration (ad libitum). We measured consumption and growth, and we compared observed consumption with that predicted by the Wisconsin bioenergetics model. For lake trout fed the medium ration, model predictions for monthly consumption were unbiased. Moreover, predicted cumulative consumption by medium-ration lake trout for the entire experiment (320 d for smaller lake trout and 407 d for larger lake trout) agreed quite well with observed cumulative consumption; predictions were as close as within 0.1 to 5.2% of observed cumulative consumption. Even so, the model consistently overestimated consumption by low-ration fish and underestimated consumption by high-ration fish. The bias was significant in both cases, but was more severe for the low-ration trout. Because the low-ration and high-ration regimes were probably unrealistic for lake trout residing in Lake Michigan and because the model fit our laboratory data rather well for medium-ration trout, we conclude that applying the Wisconsin bioenergetics model to the Lake Michigan lake trout population in order to estimate the amount of prey fish consumed by lake trout each year is appropriate.

  14. Soil Geochemical Control Over Nematode Populations in Bull Pass, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poage, M. A.; Barrett, J. E.; Virginia, R. A.; Wall, D. H.

    2005-12-01

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys occupy the largest ice-free region of Antarctica and are characterized by climatic conditions among the most extreme on Earth. Despite the harsh environmental conditions, some soils of the dry valleys host simple low-diversity ecosystems dominated by microbes and several taxa of metazoans, predominantly nematodes. Distributions, abundance, and diversity of these biota appear to be related to the highly variable soil geochemistry (pH, conductivity, nitrate, sulfate, chloride) of the dry valleys. Bull Pass is a glacially carved valley within the dry valleys. An ancient lake margin near the valley floor creates a continuous gradient spanning the full range of geochemical parameters found across the entire McMurdo Dry Valleys system. This unique setting provides the opportunity to systematically investigate the soil geochemical control on local biodiversity and establish, on the spatial scale of hundreds of meters, correlations between nematode populations and individual geochemical parameters that have application at the regional scale. We measured soil geochemistry and nematode population data from a 1500-meter transect across this ancient lake margin. There were significant negative correlations between live nematode abundance and concentrations of soil nitrate, sulfate and chloride as well as total soil salinity, consistent with recent laboratory experiments showing strong salinity inhibition of nematode survival. A logistical regression analysis based on a compilation of published datasets from across the dry valleys was designed to calculate the probably of live nematode populations occurring given a particular soil chemistry, using the dataset from the Bull Pass transect as a case study to field-test the model. Small-scale chemical and biological gradients can provide insights on the distribution of soil biota at much larger regional scales.

  15. Do native brown trout and non-native brook trout interact reproductively?

    OpenAIRE

    Cucherousset, Julien; Aymes, J.-C.; Poulet, Nicolas; Santoul, Frédéric; Céréghino, Régis

    2008-01-01

    International audience Reproductive interactions between native and non-native species of fish have received little attention compared to other types of interactions such as predation or competition for food and habitat. We studied the reproductive interactions between non-native brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and native brown trout (Salmo trutta) in a Pyrenees Mountain stream (SW France). We found evidence of significant interspecific interactions owing to consistent spatial and temp...

  16. The effects of overwinter flows on the spring condition of rainbow and brown trout size classes in the Green River downstream of Flaming Gorge Dam, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flaming Gorge Dam, a hydroelectric facility operated by the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), is located on the Green River in Daggett County, northeastern Utah. Until recently, and since the early 1990s, single daily peak releases or steady flows have been the operational pattern of the dam during the winter period. However, releases from Flaming Gorge Reservoir followed a double-peak pattern (two daily flow peaks) during the winters of 2006-2007 and 2008-2009. Because there is little recent long-term history of double-peaking at Flaming Gorge Dam, the potential effects of double-peaking operations on trout body condition in the dam's tailwater are not known. A study plan was developed that identified research activities to evaluate potential effects from winter double-peaking operations (Hayse et al. 2009). Along with other tasks, the study plan identified the need to conduct a statistical analysis of historical trout condition and macroinvertebrate abundance to evaluate the potential effects of hydropower operations. The results from analyses based on the combined size classes of trout (85-630 mm) were presented in Magnusson et al. (2008). The results of this earlier analysis suggested possible relationships between trout condition and flow, but concern that some of the relationships resulted from size-based effects (e.g., apparent changes in condition may have been related to concomitant changes in size distribution, because small trout may have responded differently to flow than large trout) prompted additional analysis of within-size class relationships. This report presents the results of analyses of three different size classes of trout (small: 200-299 mm, medium: 300-399 mm, and large: (ge)400 mm body length). We analyzed historical data to (1) describe temporal patterns and relationships among flows, benthic macroinvertebrate abundance, and condition of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the tailwaters of Flaming

  17. The effects of overwinter flowson the spring condition of rainbow and brown trout size classes in the Green River downstream of Flaming Gorge Dam, Utah.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnusson, A. K.; LaGory, K. E.; Hayse, J. W.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-06-25

    Flaming Gorge Dam, a hydroelectric facility operated by the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), is located on the Green River in Daggett County, northeastern Utah. Until recently, and since the early 1990s, single daily peak releases or steady flows have been the operational pattern of the dam during the winter period. However, releases from Flaming Gorge Reservoir followed a double-peak pattern (two daily flow peaks) during the winters of 2006-2007 and 2008-2009. Because there is little recent long-term history of double-peaking at Flaming Gorge Dam, the potential effects of double-peaking operations on trout body condition in the dam's tailwater are not known. A study plan was developed that identified research activities to evaluate potential effects from winter double-peaking operations (Hayse et al. 2009). Along with other tasks, the study plan identified the need to conduct a statistical analysis of historical trout condition and macroinvertebrate abundance to evaluate the potential effects of hydropower operations. The results from analyses based on the combined size classes of trout (85-630 mm) were presented in Magnusson et al. (2008). The results of this earlier analysis suggested possible relationships between trout condition and flow, but concern that some of the relationships resulted from size-based effects (e.g., apparent changes in condition may have been related to concomitant changes in size distribution, because small trout may have responded differently to flow than large trout) prompted additional analysis of within-size class relationships. This report presents the results of analyses of three different size classes of trout (small: 200-299 mm, medium: 300-399 mm, and large: {ge}400 mm body length). We analyzed historical data to (1) describe temporal patterns and relationships among flows, benthic macroinvertebrate abundance, and condition of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the tailwaters of Flaming

  18. Influence of Genotype and Diet on the Characteristics of Semitendinosus Muscle in Crossbred Young Bulls Derived from Brown Swiss Cow and Double Muscled Bulls

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Bittante; Rina Verdiglione

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of genotype and diet on the characteristics of muscle fibers and adipocytes of the semitendinosus muscle in crossbred young bulls derived from Brown Swiss cows (B) and double-muscled Piemontese (PI) or Belgian Blue (BB) bulls. For this purpose 24 young bulls divided in 6 groups fed 3 diets have been used: a control diet without supplementation of rumen protected CLA (rpCLA), two other diets added with 8 or 80 g/d of a supplement of rpCLA. Th...

  19. SEMEN PRODUCTION AND PRODUCTIVE LIFE OF SAHIWAL BULLS: RELATIONSHIP WITH GENETIC WORTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. KHAN, A. A. BHATTI, S. A. BHATTI1 AND M. ASHIQ2

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective of the present study was to document the semen producing ability, productive life and genetic ability for lactation milk yield of Sahiwal bulls used for artificial insemination (AI in Punjab and to find the impact of AI bulls on the improvement of Sahiwal cattle. Data from Semen Production Unit (SPU, Qadirabad, Sahiwal, Pakistan were used for this purpose. A repeatability animal model was used for estimation of breeding values for lactation milk yield. Productive life of a bull was calculated as a difference between culling age and the age at first ejaculation. Number of bulls brought to SPU varied from 9 to 102 for any year. Average number of doses of semen produced by any bull for a year varied from 724 to 5745. On the average, 238 bulls produced 17143 ± 1164 semen doses during their average stay of 5.4 ± 0.2 years. About 50% of the bulls stayed for less than four years at the SPU; with a maximum range of 14 years. Progeny tested bulls (n=90 produced 5000 and 10000 semen doses (Y in three and four years of stay (X, respectively (Y = 24.8 + 2.3635 X - 0.0112 X2. To produce 20,000 doses, it is predicted that bulls need to stay for six and a half years at the SPU. There was no association between breeding values for lactation milk yield estimated under a repeatability animal model (EBVs and number of semen doses produced (r = 0.17 and EBVs and number of daughters. Lack of genetic superiority of bulls used indicated that AI did not bring desired genetic improvement in Sahiwal cattle in the present situation. Modifications for judicious utilization of bulls are suggested along with improvements in data recording.

  20. 75 FR 38768 - Ashley National Forest, UT, High Uintas Wilderness-Colorado River Cutthroat Trout Habitat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... Forest Service Ashley National Forest, UT, High Uintas Wilderness--Colorado River Cutthroat Trout Habitat...) proposes to restore genetically pure Colorado River cutthroat trout (CRCT; Onchorhynchus clarki pleuriticus... District. Nonnative fish species to be removed are primarily brook trout (Salvelinus...

  1. The problem of sampling families rather than populations: Relatedness among individuals in samples of juvenile brown trout Salmo trutta L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Mensberg, Karen-Lise Dons

    1997-01-01

    In species exhibiting a nonrandom distribution of closely related individuals, sampling of a few families may lead to biased estimates of allele frequencies in populations. This problem was studied in two brown trout populations, based on analysis of mtDNA and microsatellites. In both samples mtDNA...... haplotype frequencies differed significantly between age classes, and in one sample 17 out of 18 individuals less than 1 year of age shared one particular mtDNA haplotype. Estimates of relatedness showed that these individuals most likely represented only three full-sib families. Older trout exhibiting the...

  2. An immunohistochemical study of Flexibacter psychrophilus infection in experimentally and naturally infected rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evensen, O.; Lorenzen, Ellen

    1996-01-01

    An immunohistochemical method is described for the detection of Flexibacter psychrophilus in formalin-fixed, parafiin-wax-embedded fry of rainbow trout. Rabbit antiserum as well as rainbow trout hyperimmune serum were used in the study. The distribution and tissue localization of the bacterium wa...... the lesions which are typically found during the chronic stage of the disease....... accompanied by inflammatory cell infiltrates in which polymorphonuclear inflammatory cells were shown to contain the bacterium in the cytoplasm by immunostaining. The eye changes were likewise a common finding in chronic cases with severe inflammatory changes in the retina and with numerous bacteria in...

  3. AEROMONAS SALMONICIDA INFECTION IN VACCINATED RAINBOW TROUT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Skov, Jakob; Mohammad, Rezkar Jaafar;

    causing furunculosis. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were vaccinated with two trivalent adjuvanted experimental vaccines containing formalin-killed A. salmonicida, Vibrio anguillarum O1 and O2a and a commercial corresponding vaccine (Alpha Ject 3000). Fish were challenged by i.p. injection or...

  4. "Buzz marketing" : estudo de caso da marca Red Bull

    OpenAIRE

    Conceição, Miguel David

    2012-01-01

    Este relatório é baseado no estágio efetuado na agência de publicidade Ogilvy & Mather e é dedicado à temática do Buzz Marketing. De modo a poder explorar a fundo as dinâmicas deste tema foi feita uma análise à estratégia de marketing da marca Red Bull, considerada como um dos principais estudos de caso no âmbito do Buzz Marketing. Este tema pode ser definido como uma estratégia de marketing inovadora cujo objetivo principal é a criação de conversas entre os consumidores, colocando-os a falar...

  5. The complete mitochondrial DNA of the bull shark (Carcharhinus leucas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Jaimes, Pindaro; Uribe-Alcocer, Manuel; Hinojosa-Alvarez, Silvia; Sandoval-Laurrabaquio, Nadia; Adams, Douglas H; García De León, Francisco J

    2016-01-01

    The bull shark mitochondrial structure is similar to that of other elasmobranchs; it has a total length of 16,100 bp, the base composition of the genomes was as follows: A (31.35%), T (31.35%), C (24.38%) and G (12.90%). It contains 13 protein-coding genes and 23 tRNA genes. The tRNA genes range from 70-72 bp. Gene order is the same as in other vertebrates and teleosts. PMID:24810063

  6. Use of NMR and NMR Prediction Software to Identify Components in Red Bull Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Andre J.; Shirzadi, Azadeh; Burrow, Timothy E.; Dicks, Andrew P.; Lefebvre, Brent; Corrin, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    A laboratory experiment designed as part of an upper-level undergraduate analytical chemistry course is described. Students investigate two popular soft drinks (Red Bull Energy Drink and sugar-free Red Bull Energy Drink) by NMR spectroscopy. With assistance of modern NMR prediction software they identify and quantify major components in each…

  7. Duration Dependence in Stock Prices: An Analysis of Bull and Bear Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde, Asger; Timmermann, Allan

    2004-01-01

    This article studies time series dependence in the direction of stock prices by modeling the (instantaneous) probability that a bull or bear market terminates as a function of its age and a set of underlying state variables, such as interest rates. A random walk model is rejected both for bull an...

  8. Does bovine besnoitiosis affect the sexual function of chronically infected bulls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Gil, A; Jacquiet, P; Florentin, S; Decaudin, A; Berthelot, X; Ronsin, P; Grisez, C; Prevot, F; Alzieu, J P; Marois, M; Corboz, N; Peglion, M; Vilardell, C; Liénard, E; Bouhsira, E; Castillo, J A; Franc, M; Picard-Hagen, N

    2016-09-15

    Bovine besnoitiosis is a reemerging disease in Europe. The clinically Besnoitia besnoiti infection in bulls is characterized by fever, nasal discharge, and orchitis in the acute phase and by scleroderma in the chronic phase. However, in many bulls, B besnoiti infection remains at a subclinical stage. Bull infertility is an economically relevant consequence of besnoitiosis infection. It is not clear, however, if semen quality returns to normal levels when infected animals have clinically recovered. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between chronic besnoitiosis and bull sexual function in a region of eastern France, where the disease is reemerging, by comparing semen quality and genital lesions in 11 uninfected, 17 subclinically infected, and 12 clinically infected bulls. The presence of anti-B besnoiti antibodies was detected by Western blot test. Semen was collected by electroejaculation. Bulls clinically infected with B besnoiti showed significantly more genital tract alterations than uninfected or subclinically infected bulls. No relationship was evidenced between besnoitiosis infectious status and semen quality, whereas a significant relationship was noted between genital lesions and semen score. This means that in the absence of moderate to severe genital lesions, chronic bovine besnoitiosis is unlikely to alter semen quality. However, as the presence of infected animals could lead to spread of the disease, culling or separation of clinically infected bulls from the remaining healthy animals is strongly recommended. PMID:27264738

  9. Detection of copy number variations and their effects in Chinese bulls

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Liangzhi

    2014-06-17

    Background: Copy number variations (CNVs) are a main source of genomic structural variations underlying animal evolution and production traits. Here, with one pure-blooded Angus bull as reference, we describe a genome-wide analysis of CNVs based on comparative genomic hybridization arrays in 29 Chinese domesticated bulls and examined their effects on gene expression and cattle growth traits.Results: We identified 486 copy number variable regions (CNVRs), covering 2.45% of the bovine genome, in 24 taurine (Bos taurus), together with 161 ones in 2 yaks (Bos grunniens) and 163 ones in 3 buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). Totally, we discovered 605 integrated CNVRs, with more " loss" events than both " gain" and " both" ones, and clearly clustered them into three cattle groups. Interestingly, we confirmed their uneven distributions across chromosomes, and the differences of mitochondrion DNA copy number (gain: taurine, loss: yak & buffalo). Furthermore, we confirmed approximately 41.8% (253/605) and 70.6% (427/605) CNVRs span cattle genes and quantitative trait loci (QTLs), respectively. Finally, we confirmed 6 CNVRs in 9 chosen ones by using quantitative PCR, and further demonstrated that CNVR22 had significantly negative effects on expression of PLA2G2D gene, and both CNVR22 and CNVR310 were associated with body measurements in Chinese cattle, suggesting their key effects on gene expression and cattle traits.Conclusions: The results advanced our understanding of CNV as an important genomic structural variation in taurine, yak and buffalo. This study provides a highly valuable resource for Chinese cattle\\'s evolution and breeding researches. 2014 Zhang et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  10. Crude glycerin levels in pearl millet-based diets for Nellore young bulls in feedlot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werney da Silva Moreira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT - The objective of this study was to find the best level of inclusion of crude glycerin (0, 60, 120, and 240 g kg−1 of dry matter of diet in substitution of pearl millet in a feedlot diet. Twenty-eight Nellore young bulls with mean age of 18 months and average weight of 357±23.56 kg were used. The animals were distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments and seven replications. The intakes of dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and total digestible nutrients were similar among the dietary levels of crude glycerin. The ether extract intake decreased with increase in the levels of crude glycerol in the diets. Apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, and extract ether was similar among the dietary crude glycerin levels. Apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber was lower in the diets with inclusion of crude glycerin in relation the other diets. The increase in the levels of crude glycerin did not affect the total digestible nutrients content of the diets. Average daily gain increased linearly with the increase in crude glycerin. Feed conversion was not altered by the increase in the levels of crude glycerin in the diets. The dietary increase in crude glycerin level did not affect the carcass characteristics. The inclusion of up to 240 g kg−1 of crude glycerin in pearl millet grain-based diets for feedlot-finished Nellore young bulls increases average daily gain, but does not change the main carcass characteristics of economic importance.

  11. Demographic changes following mechanical removal of exotic brown trout in an Intermountain West (USA), high-elevation stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, W. Carl; Budy, Phaedra E.; Thiede, Gary P.

    2015-01-01

    Exotic species present a great threat to native fish conservation; however, eradicating exotics is expensive and often impractical. Mechanical removal can be ineffective for eradication, but nonetheless may increase management effectiveness by identifying portions of a watershed that are strong sources of exotics. We used mechanical removal to understand processes driving exotic brown trout (Salmo trutta) populations in the Logan River, Utah. Our goals were to: (i) evaluate the demographic response of brown trout to mechanical removal, (ii) identify sources of brown trout recruitment at a watershed scale and (iii) evaluate whether mechanical removal can reduce brown trout densities. We removed brown trout from 2 km of the Logan River (4174 fish), and 5.6 km of Right Hand Fork (RHF, 15,245 fish), a low-elevation tributary, using single-pass electrofishing. We compared fish abundance and size distributions prior to, and after 2 years of mechanical removal. In the Logan River, immigration to the removal reach and high natural variability in fish abundances limited the response to mechanical removal. In contrast, mechanical removal in RHF resulted in a strong recruitment pulse, shifting the size distribution towards smaller fish. These results suggest that, before removal, density-dependent mortality or emigration of juvenile fish stabilised adult populations and may have provided a source of juveniles to the main stem. Overall, in sites demonstrating strong density-dependent population regulation, or near sources of exotics, short-term mechanical removal has limited effects on brown trout populations but may help identify factors governing populations and inform large-scale management of exotic species.

  12. Growth, puberty, and carcass characteristics of Brahman-, Senepol-, and Tuli-sired F1 Angus bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, C C; Chenoweth, P J; Larsen, R E; Hammond, A C; Olson, T A; West, R L; Johnson, D D

    2001-08-01

    Postweaning growth, sexual development, libido, and carcass data were collected from two consecutive calf crops using 31 Brahman x Angus (B x A), 41 Senepol x Angus (S x A), and 38 Tuli x Angus (T x A) F1 bulls. Following weaning (by mid-September) and preconditioning, at the start of the study (late September) bulls were fed concentrate (three times each week at a rate equivalent to 4.5 kg/d) on bahiagrass pasture for approximately 250 d. At the start of the study and at 28-d intervals, BW, hip height, and scrotal circumference (SC) were measured. Concurrently at 28-d intervals, when the SC of a bull was > or = 23 cm, semen collection was attempted using electroejaculation. Ejaculates were evaluated for presence of first spermatozoa (FS), 50 x 10(6) sperm with at least 10% motility (PU), and 500 x 10(6) sperm with at least 50% motility (PP). After all bulls reached PP they were subjected to two libido tests. Carcass data were collected on all bulls (n = 110) and Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) force values were assessed on a subset (n = 80). For both years, B x A bulls were heavier (P 0.10) gain in BW or hip height during the study. Scrotal circumference of T x A bulls was larger (P 0.10) of breed type by the end of the study. At PU and PP, B x A bulls were older (P yield grade than T x A bulls but greatest (P 0.10) USDA quality grade. In conclusion, tropically adapted F1 bulls produced from Senepol (Bos taurus) and Tuli (Sanga) sires bred to Angus cows in Florida had lighter BW, shorter hip heights, and smaller carcasses than those from Brahman sires but reached puberty earlier and had higher libido scores and lower WBS force values. PMID:11518209

  13. Fate of the isoprenoid hydrocarbon, pristane, in rainbow trout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The excretion routes and tissue distribution of [3H]pristane were measured in rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri, after a single intragastric dose (0.1 mg). This branched-alkane was quickly and largely absorbed. The balance study showed that the major routes of excretion were fecal (40.4% of the dose) and branchial (39.6%). In feces radioactivity was exclusively due to [3H]pristane, whereas 3H resulting from gill excretion was principally associated with tritiated water. Only 2.6% of the radioactivity was cleared via the kidneys and found in the urine as metabolites. After 48 hr, no hydrocarbon accumulation was observed in gall bladder, while in liver and fat, respectively, 69 and 34% of the radioactivity originated from pristane, the rest of the labeling being mostly associated with lipid components

  14. Cod and rainbow trout as freeze-chilled meal elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard; Nielsen, Jette; Jørgensen, Bo;

    2010-01-01

    Meal elements' are elements of a meal, e.g. portions of pre-fried meat, sauces, frozen fish or pre-processed vegetables typically prepared industrially. The meal elements are distributed to professional satellite kitchens, where the staff can combine them into complete meals. Freeze-chilling is a...... process consisting of freezing and frozen storage followed by thawing and chilled storage. Combining the two would enable the manufacturer to produce large quantities of frozen meal elements to be released into the chill chain according to demand. We have studied the influence of freeze-chilling on the...... quality attributes of cod and rainbow trout portions. Sensory profiling and chemical analyses were used to determine the changes in quality after slow thawing and subsequent chill storage and to find the high-quality shelf life. RESULTS: Cod had a consistent and high sensory quality during the first 6...

  15. Effects of probiotic bacteria on survival, growth and body composition of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) larvae fed diets with various ifsh meal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hadi Jamali; Horiye Moghadam; Nafiseh Pariche; Hojatolah Jafaryan

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To compare the the effects of the diets containing various fish viscera meal and effects of probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus sp., Biifdobacterium sp. and Streptococcus sp.) on the growth, survival and carcass composition of rainbow trout larvae. Methods:Twelve tanks consisting of triplicates for each treatment group were used. Triplicate groups of rainbow trout (176 mg bodyweight) were fed with three diets formulated with viscera meal (VM) derived from common carp (Cyprinus carpio), or VM derived from mullet (Liza saliens and Liza auratus) or commercial diet with in-tank probiotic respectively, and three diets without probiotic 4 times a day at 5%to 6%of body weight for 45 d. Rainbow trout larvae (average individual weight, 176 mg) were randomly distributed with density of 4 fish/L into 18 fiberglass tanks. In probiotic treatments a blend of selected bacteria at 104 CFU/mL were added into rearing tanks four times a day. At the end of the 45-day experiment, growth performance, survival rates and carcass composition of larvae were determined. Results:The results indicated that change to probiotic diets significantly affect growth and survival of rainbow trout larvae (P Conclusions:VM derived from common carp can successfully replace more than half of marine fish meal in formulated diets for rainbow trout. Use of in-tank blends of Lactobacillus sp., Biifdobacterium sp. and Streptococcus sp., can increase survival rates and specific growth rates in rainbow trout larvae.

  16. DENMARK – EUROPEAN CHAMPION IN ORGANIC RAINBOW TROUT

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Erling P.; Nielsen, Max; Larsen, Villy J.; Jokumsen, Alfred

    2016-01-01

    In 2014 Denmark was the biggest producer of organic rainbow trout in Europe with a total amount of 1,080 tons. The producers of the organic trout had a better economic earning than the conventional producers, measured per unit produced. The value wason average 8 % higher per unit than for the conventional producers. The solvency ratio was in 2012 an average of 28 %, which was higher than the traditional trout producers’ solvency ratio (solvency ratio measure an enterprises ability to meet its...

  17. TROUT STEAKS: CONSUMER PERCEPTIONS OF A NEW FOOD ITEM

    OpenAIRE

    Dasgupta, Siddhartha; Foltz, John C.; Jacobsen, Bonnie

    2000-01-01

    Water quality standards and a limited water supply have dramatically restricted the expansion of the U.S. trout industry. Faced with production restrictions, producers have turned to value-added products to strengthen the economic growth of the industry. In the near future, trout steaks could surface in retail outlets as a new revenue source for the mature trout industry. A telephone survey of consumers in Chicago and Los Angeles was conducted by the University of Idaho in the spring of 1997 ...

  18. CONSUMER PERCEPTIONS OF TROUT AS A FOOD ITEM

    OpenAIRE

    Foltz, John C.; Dasgupta, Siddhartha; Devadoss, Stephen

    1999-01-01

    The impacts of socioeconomic/demographic characteristics, experiences and preferences of consumers on trout purchasing decisions were estimated using Probit and Ordered Probit regression techniques. Data from a survey of consumer purchasing behavior and personal attributes were used to deduce factors that led to either a high or low likelihood of purchasing trout products. Analysis of data pertaining to whole trout and value-added products yielded consistently different characteristics of con...

  19. The economic value of trout fishery management programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contingent valuation method is used to estimate the economic value of a trout fishing day at the Cache la Poudre River in Colorado. In addition, changes in daily economic value and yearly participation are estimated for changes in the quality of fishing such as: (1) change in catch or size of catch; (2) wild trout fishing versus hatchery trout fishing; (3) change in catch or size under catch and release management. Anglers are grouped by a distinguishing characteristic, skill level, and the economic value of trout fishing and changes in the quality of fishing are compared at different skill levels

  20. Residency patterns and migration dynamics of adult bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) on the east coast of southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Ryan; Smale, Malcolm J; Cowley, Paul D; Froneman, Pierre W

    2014-01-01

    Bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) are globally distributed top predators that play an important ecological role within coastal marine communities. However, little is known about the spatial and temporal scales of their habitat use and associated ecological role. In this study, we employed passive acoustic telemetry to investigate the residency patterns and migration dynamics of 18 adult bull sharks (195-283 cm total length) tagged in southern Mozambique for a period of between 10 and 22 months. The majority of sharks (n = 16) exhibited temporally and spatially variable residency patterns interspersed with migration events. Ten individuals undertook coastal migrations that ranged between 433 and 709 km (mean  = 533 km) with eight of these sharks returning to the study site. During migration, individuals exhibited rates of movement between 2 and 59 km x d(-1) (mean = 17.58 km x d(-1)) and were recorded travelling annual distances of between 450 and 3760 km (mean = 1163 km). Migration towards lower latitudes primarily took place in austral spring and winter and there was a significant negative correlation between residency and mean monthly sea temperature at the study site. This suggested that seasonal change is the primary driver behind migration events but further investigation is required to assess how foraging and reproductive activity may influence residency patterns and migration. Results from this study highlight the need for further understanding of bull shark migration dynamics and suggest that effective conservation strategies for this vulnerable species necessitate the incorporation of congruent trans-boundary policies over large spatial scales. PMID:25295972

  1. Residency patterns and migration dynamics of adult bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas on the east coast of southern Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Daly

    Full Text Available Bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas are globally distributed top predators that play an important ecological role within coastal marine communities. However, little is known about the spatial and temporal scales of their habitat use and associated ecological role. In this study, we employed passive acoustic telemetry to investigate the residency patterns and migration dynamics of 18 adult bull sharks (195-283 cm total length tagged in southern Mozambique for a period of between 10 and 22 months. The majority of sharks (n = 16 exhibited temporally and spatially variable residency patterns interspersed with migration events. Ten individuals undertook coastal migrations that ranged between 433 and 709 km (mean  = 533 km with eight of these sharks returning to the study site. During migration, individuals exhibited rates of movement between 2 and 59 km x d(-1 (mean = 17.58 km x d(-1 and were recorded travelling annual distances of between 450 and 3760 km (mean = 1163 km. Migration towards lower latitudes primarily took place in austral spring and winter and there was a significant negative correlation between residency and mean monthly sea temperature at the study site. This suggested that seasonal change is the primary driver behind migration events but further investigation is required to assess how foraging and reproductive activity may influence residency patterns and migration. Results from this study highlight the need for further understanding of bull shark migration dynamics and suggest that effective conservation strategies for this vulnerable species necessitate the incorporation of congruent trans-boundary policies over large spatial scales.

  2. Effects of herd origin, AI stud and sire identification on genetic evaluation of Holstein Friesian bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Bittante

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to estimate the effects of herd origin of bull, AI stud and sire identification number (ID  on official estimated breeding values (EBV for production traits of Holstein Friesian proven bulls. The data included 1,005  Italian Holstein-Friesian bulls, sons of 76 sires, born in 100 herds and progeny tested by 10 AI studs. Bulls were required  to have date of first proof between September 1992 and September 1997, to be born in a herd with at least one other  bull and to have sire and dam with official EBV when bull was selected for progeny testing. Records of sires with only one  son were also discarded. The dependent variable analyzed was the official genetic evaluation for a “quantity and quality  of milk” index (ILQ. The linear model to predict breeding values of bulls included the fixed class effects of herd origin of  bull, AI testing organization, birth year of bull, and estimated breeding values of sire and dam, both as linear covariates.  The R2of the model was 45% and a significant effect was found for genetic merit of sire (P   for herd origin of bull (P   nificant. The range of herd origin effect was 872 kg of ILQ. However, in this study, the causes of this result were not  clear; it may be due to numerous factors, one of which may be preferential treatment on dams of bulls. Analyses of resid-  uals on breeding value of proven bulls for ILQ showed a non significant effect of sire ID, after adjusting for parent aver-  age, herd origin effect and birth year effect. Although the presence of bias in genetic evaluation of dairy bulls is not evi-  dent, further research is recommended firstly to understand the reasons of the significant herd origin effect, secondly to  monitor and guarantee the greatest accuracy and reliability of genetic evaluation procedures. 

  3. A trial of two trouts: Comparing the impacts of rainbow and brown trout on a native galaxiid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, K.A.; Dunham, J.B.; Stephenson, J.F.; Terreau, A.; Thailly, A.F.; Gajardo, G.; de Leaniz, C. G.

    2010-01-01

    Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and brown trout Salmo trutta are the world's two most widespread exotic fishes, dominate the fish communities of most cold-temperate waters in the southern hemisphere and are implicated in the decline and extirpation of native fish species. Here, we provide the first direct comparison of the impacts of rainbow and brown trout on populations of a native fish by quantifying three components of exotic species impact: range, abundance and effect. We surveyed 54 small streams on the island of Chilo?? in Chilean Patagonia and found that the rainbow trout has colonized significantly more streams and has a wider geographic range than brown trout. The two species had similar post-yearling abundances in allopatry and sympatry, and their abundances depended similarly on reach-level variation in the physical habitat. The species appeared to have dramatically different effects on native drift-feeding Aplochiton spp., which were virtually absent from streams invaded by brown trout but shared a broad sympatric range with rainbow trout. Within this range, the species' post-yearling abundances varied independently before and after controlling for variation in the physical habitat. In the north of the island, Aplochiton spp. inhabited streams uninvaded by exotic trouts. Our results provide a context for investigating the mechanisms responsible for apparent differences in rainbow and brown trout invasion biology and can help inform conservation strategies for native fishes in Chilo?? and elsewhere. ?? 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation ?? 2010 The Zoological Society of London.

  4. Brown trout ( Salmo trutta ) stocking impact assessment using microsatellite DNA markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Ruzzante, D.E.; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Mensberg, Karen-Lise Dons

    2001-01-01

    The genetic integrity of many salmonid fish populations is threatened by stocking of domesticated conspecifics. The purpose of this study was to assess the utility of microsatellite DNA markers for detecting loss of genetic diversity in hatchery strains, for estimating their genetic relationships...... diversity was distributed between the wild and hatchery populations. We assessed whether wild populations were introgressed by stocked hatchery trout by performing assignment tests to determine population of origin and estimating maximum potential introgression rates. The results suggested that genetic...... introgression by hatchery trout had occurred for only two of the five populations potentially influenced by stocking. In one of these two rivers, microsatellite data obtained from a limited number of old scale samples indicated that individuals from the original population were genetically divergent from these...

  5. Microhabitat selection of Discocotyle sagittata (Monogenea: Polyopisthocotylea) in farmed rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Godoy, Miguel

    2008-12-01

    Microhabitat preference of the monogenean Discocotyle sagittata (Leuckart, 1842) was determined in late spring and late autumn in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), reared in the Isle of Man, U.K. Discocotyle sagittata exhibits a preference for attachment to anterior gill arches: 29% of all worms occurred on gill arch I, 28% on II, 25% on III and 18% on IV. This distribution pattern on the introduced salmonid species is the same as reported for its native European host, the brown trout Salmo trutta (L.). Previous experimental work suggested that invasion is a passive process followed by post-invasion migration to anterior gill arches; the present work provides evidence of equivalent site selection taking place in fishes maintained under conditions promoting continuous reinfection in aquaculture. Migration may be density-dependent, since a significant inverse association was found between the intensity of mature parasites and their proportion on anteriormost gill arch I. PMID:19175205

  6. Associations between endotoxin-induced metabolic changes and temperament in Brahman bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick Sanchez, N C; Carroll, J A; Randel, R D; Vann, R C; Welsh, T H

    2014-02-01

    The influence of temperament on the alteration of metabolic parameters in response to a lipopolysaccharide(LPS) challenge was investigated. Brahman bulls were selected based on temperament score. Bulls (10 months; 211±5kg BW; n = 6, 8 and 7 for Calm, Intermediate and Temperamental groups, respectively) were fitted with indwelling jugular catheters to evaluate peripheral blood concentrations of glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN),non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), insulin, epinephrine and cortisol before and after LPS administration (0.5 μg/kg BW LPS). Feed intake was also recorded. Intermediate bulls consumed more feed than the Temperamental bulls during the challenge (p = 0.046). Pre-LPS glucose (p = 0.401) and BUN (p = 0.222) did not differ among the temperament groups. However, pre-LPS insulin (p = 0.023) was lower, whereas pre-LPS NEFA (p Brahman bulls following a provocative endotoxin challenge.Specifically, Temperamental bulls may preferentially utilize an alternate energy source (i.e. NEFA) to a greater degree than do bulls of Calm and Intermediate temperaments. The use of circulating NEFA from lipolysis may reduce the negative metabolic consequences of an immune response by allowing for a prompt answer to increasing energy demands required during immunological challenge, compared with the time required for glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. PMID:25225707

  7. Do native brown trout and non-native brook trout interact reproductively?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucherousset, J.; Aymes, J. C.; Poulet, N.; Santoul, F.; Céréghino, R.

    2008-07-01

    Reproductive interactions between native and non-native species of fish have received little attention compared to other types of interactions such as predation or competition for food and habitat. We studied the reproductive interactions between non-native brook trout ( Salvelinus fontinalis) and native brown trout ( Salmo trutta) in a Pyrenees Mountain stream (SW France). We found evidence of significant interspecific interactions owing to consistent spatial and temporal overlap in redd localizations and spawning periods. We observed mixed spawning groups composed of the two species, interspecific subordinate males, and presence of natural hybrids (tiger trout). These reproductive interactions could be detrimental to the reproduction success of both species. Our study shows that non-native species might have detrimental effects on native species via subtle hybridization behavior.

  8. Factors influencing brown trout reproductive success in Ozark tailwater rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pender, D.R.; Kwak, T.J.

    2002-01-01

    The reproductive success of brown trout Salmo trutta in White River, Arkansas, tailwater reaches is highly variable, resulting in the need for supplemental stocking. A better understanding of the physical and biotic factors affecting reproduction and survival would enhance the contribution of wild fish. We compared fecundity, reproductive chronology, physical habitat, water quality, trout density, food availability, diet, predation, and competitive interactions among four tailwater reaches to identify factors influencing brown trout reproductive success. The fecundity and condition factor of prespawning brown trout were significantly lower at Beaver Tailwater, a reach known for reproductive failure, than at other sites, among which no differences were found. Brown trout spawning was observed from 11 October to 23 November 1996, and juvenile emergence began on 28 February 1997. Significant among-site differences were detected for spawning and juvenile microhabitat variables, but the variables fell within or near suitable or optimal ranges reported in the literature for this species. Age-0 brown trout density differed significantly among sites, but growth and condition did not. Predation by Ozark sculpin Cottus hypselurus on trout eggs or age-0 trout of any species was not observed among the 418 stomachs examined. Ozark sculpin density and diet overlap with age-0 brown trout were highest and invertebrate food availability and water fertility were lowest at Beaver Tailwater relative to the other reaches. Our findings indicate that differences in trophic conditions occur among tailwater reaches, and a lower system productive capacity was identified at Beaver Tailwater. We suggest that management efforts include refining the multispecies trout stocking regime to improve production efficiency, enhancing flow regulation, and increasing habitat complexity to increase invertebrate and fish productivity. Such efforts may lead to improved natural reproduction and the

  9. Modelling Waste Output from Trout Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frier, J. O.; From, J.; Larsen, Torben;

    1995-01-01

    The aim of waste modelling in aquaculture is to provide tools for simulating input, transformation, output and subsidiary degradation in recipients of organic compounds, nitrogen, and phosphorus. The direct purpose of this modelling is to make it possible for caretakers and water authorities to...... lacking. Within trout farming this work attempts to establish the different submodels and outlines future possibilities for synthesizing the knowledge to a numerical model....

  10. Brook trout passage performance through culverts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerig, Elsa; Castro-Santos, Theodore R.; Bergeron, Normand

    2016-01-01

    Culverts can restrict access to habitat for stream-dwelling fishes. We used passive integrated transponder telemetry to quantify passage performance of >1000 wild brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) attempting to pass 13 culverts in Quebec under a range of hydraulic and environmental conditions. Several variables influenced passage success, including complex interactions between physiology and behavior, hydraulics, and structural characteristics. The probability of successful passage was greater through corrugated metal culverts than through smooth ones, particularly among smaller fish. Trout were also more likely to pass at warmer temperatures, but this effect diminished above 15 °C. Passage was impeded at higher flows, through culverts with steep slopes, and those with deep downstream pools. This study provides insight on factors influencing brook trout capacity to pass culverts as well as a model to estimate passage success under various conditions, with an improved resolution and accuracy over existing approaches. It also presents methods that could be used to investigate passage success of other species, with implications for connectivity of the riverscape.

  11. TVA's Bull Run is most efficient plant in 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Utility Data Institute report ranked the Tennessee Valley Authority's Bull Run plant the most efficient generating station in 1983 because of its heat rate of 8910 Btu/kWh. The report includes plant-by-plant data on heat rate, production expense, and net output for the top 100 plants in each category. The 100 most efficient plants includes 82 coal-fired, 11 oil-fired, and 7 gas-fired stations, with nuclear plants excluded. Gulf States Utilities and West Texas Utilities gas-fired stations led the list on production expenses ranking, but nuclear stations had the lowest average production expense. Nuclear plants also had an advantage in fuel costs. Two tables describe the top 20 plants ranked by average expenses per net megawatt hour and by Btu per kilowatt hour. The report is available from UDI for $120

  12. Evidence for reproductive philopatry in the bull shark Carcharhinus leucas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillett, B J; Meekan, M G; Field, I C; Thorburn, D C; Ovenden, J R

    2012-05-01

    Reproductive philopatry in bull sharks Carcharhinus leucas was investigated by comparing mitochondrial (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4, 797 base pairs and control region genes 837 base pairs) and nuclear (three microsatellite loci) DNA of juveniles sampled from 13 river systems across northern Australia. High mitochondrial and low microsatellite genetic diversity among juveniles sampled from different rivers (mitochondrial φ(ST) = 0·0767, P 0·05) supported female reproductive philopatry. Genetic structure was not further influenced by geographic distance (P > 0·05) or long-shore barriers to movement (P > 0·05). Additionally, results suggest that C. leucas in northern Australia has a long-term effective population size of 11 000-13 000 females and has undergone population bottlenecks and expansions that coincide with the timing of the last ice-ages. PMID:22551174

  13. Mitochondrial genome of the bull shark Carcharhinus leucas (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Liu, Min; Peng, Zaiqing; Shi, Xiaofang

    2015-01-01

    The bull shark Carcharhinus leucas is a large elasmobranch species widespread in tropical and warm oceans, rivers and lakes. We first determine the complete mitogenome of C. leucas in this article. It is 16,704 bp in length, consists 37 genes and one control region with the typical gene order in vertebrates. The ND6 gene used the rare AGG as stop codon. The 22 tRNA genes ranged from 67 to 75 bp. The tRNA-Ser2 lacks the dihydrouridine arm and cannot form the typical cloverleaf structure. The control region is 1066 bp in length with high A+T and low G contents. PMID:24409857

  14. MEAT QUALITY FROM CHAROLAIS BULLS FED DIETS WITH DIFFERENT LEVELS OF CORN SILAGE INCLUSION

    OpenAIRE

    Giulio Cozzi; Alessandro Mazzenga

    2007-01-01

    A sample of 6 intensive beef farms was selected according to the feeding plan adopted during the fattening period of Charolais bulls. Two farms did not include any corn silage in the diet (CS0), while corn silage represented 22% of the dietary DM in the second group of 2 farms (CS22), and it raised up to 44% of the dietary DM in the last 2 farms (CS44). Five bulls were randomly selected from each farm to be slaughtered in the same abattoir. Bulls age was similar across treatments but the CS44...

  15. Performance of continuous biodigestors supplied by young bull waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Monica Sarolli S. de M. [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil)], E-mail: monicas@unioeste.br; Lucas Junior, Jorge de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias; Pivetta, Laercio Augusto [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Marechal C. Rondon, PR (Brazil); Costa, Luiz A. de Mendonca

    2008-07-01

    The various systems of livestock farming in the industrial model promote physical and chemical changes on waste. In the fattening of cattle in the model of confinement for young bulls has been a reversal in the proportion between roughage and concentrate, or the animals receive a higher amount of protein compared to the traditional system of confinement. This change of the waste characteristics involves modification in the system of treatment used. In this work, it was aimed to evaluate the performance of batch biodigestors operated in continuous system, supplied by young bulls waste which received two differentiated diets by the proportion between roughage and concentrate, whether or not containing inoculum in the substrate composition and subjected to three levels of temperature (25, 35 and 40 deg C). The parameters evaluated were: reduction of total solids (TS) and volatile (VS), and the potential for biogas production. The results showed a reduction of TS higher in the treatment which was not used inoculum for diet 1 and 2 with the exception of the treatment which the substrate was referred to temperature of 40 deg C on diet 2. For the reduction of VS there was no interference from the use of inoculum on diet 1. On diet 2, the largest reductions were observed without the use of inoculum, with the exception of the 40 deg C temperature. For the potential for biogas production the treatment where they used waste derived from animals fed with diet 2, with the use of inoculum, in the temperature of 40 deg C showed the greatest value, or 0.53 m{sup 3} of biogas per kg TS added. (author)

  16. Seminal plasma proteome of electroejaculated Bos indicus bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rego, J P A; Crisp, J M; Moura, A A; Nouwens, A S; Li, Y; Venus, B; Corbet, N J; Corbet, D H; Burns, B M; Boe-Hansen, G B; McGowan, M R

    2014-07-01

    The present study describes the seminal plasma proteome of Bos indicus bulls. Fifty-six, 24-month old Australian Brahman sires were evaluated and subjected to electroejaculation. Seminal plasma proteins were separated by 2-D SDS-PAGE and identified by mass spectrometry. The percentage of progressively motile and morphologically normal sperm of the bulls were 70.4 ± 2.3 and 64 ± 3.2%, respectively. A total of 108 spots were identified in the 2-D maps, corresponding to 46 proteins. Binder of sperm proteins accounted for 55.8% of all spots detected in the maps and spermadhesins comprised the second most abundant constituents. Other proteins of the Bos indicus seminal plasma include clusterin, albumin, transferrin, metalloproteinase inhibitor 2, osteopontin, epididymal secretory protein E1, apolipoprotein A-1, heat shock 70 kDa protein, glutathione peroxidase 3, cathelicidins, alpha-enolase, tripeptidyl-peptidase 1, zinc-alpha-2-glycoprotein, plasma serine protease inhibitor, beta 2-microglobulin, proteasome subunit beta type-4, actin, cathepsins, nucleobinding-1, protein S100-A9, hemoglobin subunit alpha, cadherin-1, angiogenin-1, fibrinogen alpha and beta chain, ephirin-A1, protein DJ-1, serpin A3-7, alpha-2-macroglobulin, annexin A1, complement factor B, polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, seminal ribonuclease, ribonuclease-4, prostaglandin-H2 d-isomerase, platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase, and phosphoglycerate kinase 1. In conclusion, this work uniquely portrays the Bos indicus seminal fluid proteome, based on samples from a large set of animals representing the Brahman cattle of the tropical Northern Australia. Based on putative biochemical attributes, seminal proteins act during sperm maturation, protection, capacitation and fertilization. PMID:24889044

  17. Production of homozygous transgenic rainbow trout with enhanced disease resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Pinwen Peter; Chen, Maria J; Lin, Chun-Mean; Khoo, Jenny; Larson, Jon; Holt, Rich; Leong, Jo-Ann; Thorgarrd, Gary; Chen, Thomas T

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies conducted in our laboratory showed that transgenic medaka expressing cecropin B transgenes exhibited resistant characteristic to fish bacterial pathogens, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Vibrio anguillarum. To confirm whether antimicrobial peptide gene will also exhibit anti-bacterial and anti-viral characteristics in aquaculture important fish species, we produced transgenic rainbow trout expressing cecropin P1 or a synthetic cecropin B analog, CF-17, transgene by sperm-mediated gene transfer method. About 30 % of fish recovered from electroporation were shown to carry the transgene as determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification assay. Positive P₁ transgenic fish were crossed to non-transgenic fish to establish F₁ transgenic founder families, and subsequently generating F₂, and F₃ progeny. Expression of cecropin P1 and CF-17 transgenes was detected in transgenic fish by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR analysis. The distribution of body sizes among F₁ transgenic fish were not significantly different from those of non-transgenic fish. Results of challenge studies revealed that many families of F₂ and F₃ transgenic fish exhibited resistance to infection by Aeromonas salmonicida and infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). All-male homozygous cecropin P1 transgenic families were produced by androgenesis from sperm of F₃ heterozygous transgenic fish in one generation. The resistant characteristic to A. salmonicida was confirmed in progeny derived from the outcross of all-male fish to non-transgenic females. Results of our current studies confirmed the possibility of producing disease-resistant homozygous rainbow trout strains by transgenesis of cecropin P1 or CF-17 gene and followed by androgenesis. PMID:24085608

  18. Estrogenic effects of phytoestrogens in brown trout (Salmo trutta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Louise Marie; Holbech, Henrik; Bjerregaard, Poul;

    2010-01-01

    , the potential effect of the waterborne phytoestrogens on endemic fish species is largely unknown. In the present investigation, the estrogenic effect of biochanin A was tested in brown trout through water exposure experiments. Juvenile brown trout of both sexes were exposed to different concentrations...

  19. SuchThatCast Episode 3: J.D. Trout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Søraker, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    SuchThatCast goes mobile in the third episode, as I interview J.D. Trout on the appr. 2 hour train ride between Enschede and Schiphol airport. Trout received his PhD in Philosophy at Cornell University and is currently Professor of Philosophy and Psychology at Loyola University Chicago. He was recen

  20. Challenge models for RTFS in rainbow trout fry (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Maya Maria Mihályi; Madsen, Lone; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2011-01-01

    The fish pathogen Flavobacterium psychrophilum is one of the main causes of mortality in fry of farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and other salmonid fish. The disease following infection is often called bacterial coldwater disease (BCWD) in USA and rainbow trout fry syndrome (RTFS) in...

  1. The Effects of Acute Stress on Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    OpenAIRE

    KUBİLAY, Ayşegül

    2002-01-01

    The physiological effects of acute stressors (transport, handling, netting and confinement) on rainbow trout in an aquaculture system were investigated. Serum cortisol level, serum glucose and lysozyme activity were determined in rainbow trout stressed by acute stressors, and compared with those of unstressed (control) fish. Serum cortisol, glucose levels and lysozyme activity were significantly higher(P

  2. Some Direct Gillnet Selectivity Tests for Brown Trout Populations

    OpenAIRE

    O Grady, M. F.

    1981-01-01

    Direct gillnet selectivity tests for introduced brown trout populations in three Irish lakes are outlined. The net gangs and netting procedure utilised are described. Data indicates that the gear used was capable of capturing a random cross section of a trout stock in the length frequency range 19.8 to 47.7 centimetres.

  3. Otter ( Lutra lutra ) predation on stocked brown trout ( Salmo trutta ) in two Danish lowland rivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lene

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate otter predation on stocked trout. Large hatchery-reared trout (16-30 cm) were stocked into two Danish rivers with different fish populations. Otter diet before and after trout stocking was determined by analysing 685 spraints, collected regularly during the 35-day study...... period. Fish composition in the rivers before stocking was assessed by electrofishing. In River Trend, a typical trout river, the proportion of trout in the otter diet increased from 8% before stocking to 33% a few days after stocking. Moreover, trout lengths in the diet changed significantly towards the...... lengths of stocked trout, indicating that newly stocked trout were preferred to wild trout. In River Skals, dominated by cyprinids, there was no change in otter diet after stocking of hatchery trout, i.e., these were ignored by otter. Otter predation should be taken into account together with fish and...

  4. EFFECT OF FLUCTUATING EXPOSURES ON THE ACUTE TOXICITY OF AMMONIA TO RAINBOW TROUT (SALMO GAIRDNERI) AND CUTTHROAT TROUT (S. CLARKI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute toxicity bioassays in which fish were exposed to short-term cyclic fluctuations of ammonia were conducted on rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) and on cutthroat trout (S. clarki). Companion tests were also conducted in which test fish were subjected to ammonia at constant conc...

  5. Effects of water temperature and fish size on predation vulnerability of juvenile humpback chub to rainbow trout and brown trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, David L.; Morton-Starner, Rylan

    2015-01-01

    Predation on juvenile native fish by introduced Rainbow Trout and Brown Trout is considered a significant threat to the persistence of endangered Humpback Chub Gila cypha in the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon. Diet studies of Rainbow Trout and Brown Trout in Glen and Grand canyons indicate that these species do eat native fish, but impacts are difficult to assess because predation vulnerability is highly variable, depending on prey size, predator size, and the water temperatures under which the predation interactions take place. We conducted laboratory experiments to evaluate how short-term predation vulnerability of juvenile native fish changes in response to fish size and water temperature using captivity-reared Humpback Chub, Bonytail, and Roundtail Chub. Juvenile chub 45–90 mm total length (TL) were exposed to adult Rainbow and Brown trouts at 10, 15, and 20°C to measure predation vulnerability as a function of water temperature and fish size. A 1°C increase in water temperature decreased short-term predation vulnerability of Humpback Chub to Rainbow Trout by about 5%, although the relationship is not linear. Brown Trout were highly piscivorous in the laboratory at any size > 220 mm TL and at all water temperatures we tested. Understanding the effects of predation by trout on endangered Humpback Chub is critical in evaluating management options aimed at preserving native fishes in Grand Canyon National Park.

  6. Metals-contaminated benthic invertebrates in the Clark Fork River, Montana: Effects on age-0 brown trout and rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Daniel F.; Farag, Aïda M.; Bergman, Harold L.; Delonay, Aaron J.; Little, Edward E.; Smiths, Charlie E.; Barrows, Frederic T.

    1995-01-01

    Benthic organisms in the upper Clark Fork River have recently been implicated as a dietary source of metals that may be a chronic problem for young-of-the-year rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). In this present study, early life stage brown trout (Salmo trutta) and rainbow trout were exposed for 88 d to simulated Clark Fork River water and a diet of benthic invertebrates collected from the river. These exposures resulted in reduced growth and elevated levels of metals in the whole body of both species. Concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, and Pb increased in whole brown trout; in rainbow trout, As and Cd increased in whole fish, and As also increased in liver. Brown trout on the metals-contaminated diets exhibited constipation, gut impaction, increased cell membrane damage (lipid peroxidation), decreased digestive enzyme production (zymogen), and a sloughing of intestinal mucosal epithelial cells. Rainbow trout fed the contaminated diets exhibited constipation and reduced feeding activity. We believe that the reduced standing crop of trout in the Clark Fork River results partly from chronic effects of metals contamination in benthic invertebrates that are important as food for young-of-the-year fish.

  7. Admixture analysis of stocked brown trout populations using mapped microsatellite DNA markers: indigenous trout persist in introgressed populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Mensberg, Karen-Lise Dons

    2009-01-01

    , but resolution is low if genetic differentiation is weak. Here, we analyse stocked brown trout populations represented by historical (1943-1956) and contemporary (2000s) samples, where genetic differentiation between wild populations and stocked trout is weak (pair-wise F-ST of 0.047 and 0.053). By...

  8. Effect of frozen storage temperature on quality-related changes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgaard, Maria Garver; Jørgensen, Bo M.

    2011-01-01

    , color, lipid oxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, TBARS), and membrane stability (enzyme activity). No effect of temperature on drip loss, water holding capacity, water distribution, or membrane stability was observed for samples stored below -20°C, whereas storage at -40°C or lower......The effect of frozen storage temperature on quality-related parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) muscle was studied in the interval from -10 to -80°C on samples stored for 1 to 18 months. The following quantities were measured: drip loss, water holding capacity and water distribution...

  9. Physical examination of the reproductive organs of range beef bulls in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, A; Mackinnon, D; Mandlhate, F

    1986-03-01

    Physical examinations were performed on 3991 bulls reared in subtropical (75%) and tropical (25%) Mozambique. A culling rate of 16.3% (651 sires) was found. The range of culling rate between farms varied from 3 to 44%. The main culling reasons were a) epididymitis, b) atrophy and/or hypoplasia, and c) testicular fibrosis (contributing to 30.4, 20.9, and 15.2%, respectively, of the culled bulls). Epididymitis-vaginitis (epivag) syndrome was considered the main reason for the high incidence of epididymitis and testicular fibrosis. A highly significant difference (PSimmental (37.7%) and Brahman (13.1%) bulls was found. A more comprehensive investigation of culling rate of different breeds used in the country is needed, as well as a program for controlling epivag in the more affected areas. Examining the reproductive organs of the beef bulls in Mozambique before the breeding season is very important to improve fertility in the beef herds. PMID:16726130

  10. Quality Traits of Meat from Young Limousin, Charolais and Hereford Bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Pogorzelska*, Jan Miciński, Halina Ostoja1, Ireneusz M. Kowalski2, Józef Szarek3 and Emilia Strzyżewska3

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of beef cattle breed and muscle type on the proximate chemical composition and quality traits of meat, including processing suitability. The experimental materials comprised samples of musculus longissimus dorsi (LD muscle and musculus semitendinosus (ST muscle collected from the carcasses of young Limousin, Charolais and Hereford bulls. The chemical composition, texture, hydration and color parameters of LD and ST muscles were determined. Meat from Limousin and Charolais bulls, characterized by higher body mass at slaughter contained more protein than meat from Hereford bulls. Meat from Hereford bulls had a higher fat content, compared with the other two breeds. Texture parameters, including hardness, gumminess and chewiness, varied depending on muscle type and cattle breed. An analysis of the maximum shear force values showed that the mechanical properties of beef also varied depending on cattle breed and muscle type.

  11. Longitudinal strain bull's eye plot patterns in patients with cardiomyopathy and concentric left ventricular hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Hu, Kai; Nordbeck, Peter; Ertl, Georg; Störk, Stefan; Weidemann, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Despite substantial advances in the imaging techniques and pathophysiological understanding over the last decades, identification of the underlying causes of left ventricular hypertrophy by means of echocardiographic examination remains a challenge in current clinical practice. The longitudinal strain bull's eye plot derived from 2D speckle tracking imaging offers an intuitive visual overview of the global and regional left ventricular myocardial function in a single diagram. The bull's eye mapping is clinically feasible and the plot patterns could provide clues to the etiology of cardiomyopathies. The present review summarizes the longitudinal strain, bull's eye plot features in patients with various cardiomyopathies and concentric left ventricular hypertrophy and the bull's eye plot features might serve as one of the cardiac workup steps on evaluating patients with left ventricular hypertrophy. PMID:27165726

  12. Growth rate differences between resident native brook trout and non-native brown trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, S.M.; Hendry, A.P.; Letcher, B.H.

    2007-01-01

    Between species and across season variation in growth was examined by tagging and recapturing individual brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and brown trout Salmo trutta across seasons in a small stream (West Brook, Massachusetts, U.S.A.). Detailed information on body size and growth are presented to (1) test whether the two species differed in growth within seasons and (2) characterize the seasonal growth patterns for two age classes of each species. Growth differed between species in nearly half of the season- and age-specific comparisons. When growth differed, non-native brown trout grew faster than native brook trout in all but one comparison. Moreover, species differences were most pronounced when overall growth was high during the spring and early summer. These growth differences resulted in size asymmetries that were sustained over the duration of the study. A literature survey also indicated that non-native salmonids typically grow faster than native salmonids when the two occur in sympatry. Taken together, these results suggest that differences in growth are not uncommon for coexisting native and non-native salmonids. ?? 2007 The Authors.

  13. Diurnal stream habitat use of juvenile Atlantic salmon, brown trout and rainbow trout in winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J.H.; Douglass, K.A.

    2009-01-01

    The diurnal winter habitat of three species of juvenile salmonids was examined in a tributary of Skaneateles Lake, NY to compare habitat differences among species and to determine if species/age classes were selecting specific habitats. A total of 792 observations were made on the depth, velocity, substrate and cover (amount and type) used by sympatric subyearling Atlantic salmon, subyearling brown trout and subyearling and yearling rainbow trout. Subyearling Atlantic salmon occurred in shallower areas with faster velocities and less cover than the other salmonid groups. Subyearling salmon was also the only group associated with substrate of a size larger than the average size substrate in the study reach during both winters. Subyearling brown trout exhibited a preference for vegetative cover. Compared with available habitat, yearling rainbow trout were the most selective in their habitat use. All salmonid groups were associated with more substrate cover in 2002 under high flow conditions. Differences in the winter habitat use of these salmonid groups have important management implications in terms of both habitat protection and habitat enhancement.

  14. Compensatory growth response of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum following short starvation periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azodi, Maryam; Ebrahimi, Eisa; Farhadian, Omidvar; Mahboobi-Soofiani, Nasrollah; Morshedi, Vahid

    2015-07-01

    This sixty-day study was performed to determine the effects of short-term starvation and re-feeding cycles on growth, feeding performances and body composition of rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss). Three hundred trout fingerlings with an average initial weight of 17.5±0.06 g were randomly distributed in 15 circular fiberglass tanks. The fish were exposed to 5 different feeding regimes; control: continuously fed twice daily to apparent satiation; T1: starved for 1 day and re-fed for 2 days; T2: starved for 1 day and re-fed for 4 days; T3: starved for 3 days and re-fed for 12 days; T4: starved for 4 days and re-fed for 16 days. At the end of the experiment, growth performance, feed utilization, whole body ash and moisture contents were not significantly ( P>0.05) different among the treatments. However, whole body protein content in T3 was significantly higher than other treatments ( Pschedules involving starvation (1-4 days) and re-feeding cycles are a promising feed management tool for rainbow trout culture.

  15. Evaluation of a rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mikyss culture water recirculating system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Sánchez O.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate a water recirculation system for rainbow trout fish cultures at the recirculating laboratory of the Aquaculture Engineering Production Program of University of Nariño. Materials and Methods. 324 rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mikyss fries were cultured in 12 plastic tanks with a capacity of 250 L in an aquaculture recirculating system the treatment system of which was made up by a conventional sedimentation tank, a fixed stand upflow biofilter with recycled PVC tube pieces and a natural degassing system; the sedimentation unit effluent was pumped up to a reservoir tank using a 2 HP centrifugal pump after being subject to gravity through the biofilter and to be then distributed to the 12 culture units to which a constant amount of air from a blower was injected. Results. The water treatment system removed 31% of total suspended solids, 9.5% of total ammonia nitrogen, and increased dissolved oxygen to the final effluent in 6.5%. An increase of 305% in biomass was calculated during 75 days, the mortality percentage registered throughout the study period was 4.9%. Conclusions. The water treatment system maintained the physicochemical water quality parameters within the values recommended for the species. The increase in weight and size, food conversion, mortality and biomass production reported normal values for rainbow trout fish culture in recirculating systems.

  16. Komunikační strategie značky Red Bull

    OpenAIRE

    Úblová, Tamara

    2012-01-01

    The thesis analyses current marketing strategy of Red Bull. The thesis examines the connection between specific marketing activities of Red Bull and their impact on energy drink's consumers. In the theoretical part of the thesis terms such as marketing communication concepts and their developing trends are coined and examined. The biggest part is focused on event marketing -- both from theoretical and practical point of view. The second part examines the competitive environment of the energy ...

  17. Who does Red Bull give wings to? Sensation seeking moderates sensitivity to subliminal advertisement

    OpenAIRE

    Bustin, Gaëlle M.; Jones, Daniel N.; Hansenne, Michel; Quoidbach, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed whether subliminal priming of a brand name of a drink can affect people’s choices for the primed brand, and whether this effect is moderated by personality traits. Participants with different levels of sensation seeking were presented subliminally with the words Red Bull or Lde Ublr. Results revealed that being exposed to Red Bull lead on average to small increases in participants’ preferences for the primed brand. However, this effect was twice as strong for participants ...

  18. Water bulls of Balkan and other world’s traditions: Origins of conception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trubarac-Matić Đorđina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The efforts to determine the origin of beliefs in the aquatic daimon called water bull (which are ethnographically attested in Serbia, Macedonia and Bulgaria, and for which there have not been found parallels in other Slavic traditions, led the scholarship to see it as a recidive from the Greco-Roman period. The two major hypotheses tried to link the stories about killing of the water bull with: 1 the Athenian bouphonia; 2 the mithraic scene of tauroctony. The paper discusses these hypotheses and their weaknesses, and proposes a new approach: shifting attention towards other worlds’ traditions in which the water bulls are attested - those of Yakuts, Mongols, Celts, Mapuche, Khoekhoe and San - with the aim to establish the level, and determine the type of the possible similarities between them. The results of the comparative analysis show a very high degree of overlapping of ideas - those that probably were parts of a pristine concept of a water bull. They concern: the appearance, habitat, characteristics, behavior, as well as a number of phenomena associated with water bulls (predictions, thunder, lightning, storm, medicine. This leads the author to conclude that the conception of the water bull is very archaic and probably originating from a same, although uncertain source, which cannot be explained by intercultural contacts. The beliefs and the religious and magical practice of the Khoisan show that water bulls operate functionally - with the fullness of their religious potential - in animistic type of religious traditions (where the origin of the concept should be looked for. This indicates that these animistic ideas might lie at the root of the bull-like features of the storm gods from the posterior polytheistic religions. Further investigation in this direction is proposed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47016: Interdisciplinarno istraživanje kulturnog i jezičkog nasleđa Srbije. Izrada multimedijalnog portala

  19. Victims and offenders in a situation of bulling: who are they?

    OpenAIRE

    Ekimova V.I.; Zalaldinova A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Bulling is one of the most common form of violence in the school environment, adversely affecting the physical and mental health of all its members. The article provides a brief review of foreign studies of this phenomenon, the actual statistics of its prevalence and forms of manifestation. Research focuses on the General characteristics of the bulling participants – aggressors and victims of aggression. The article points to the descriptive character of the studies and contradictory results....

  20. EFFECT OF TWO DIFFERENT ANTIBIOTIC COMBINATIONS ON FERTILITY OF FROZEN BUFFALO AND SAHIW AL BULL SEMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M.H. Andrabi, N. Ahmad, A. Abbas and M. Anzar

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to identify the suitable antibiotic combinations in semen extender for improvement in fertility of frozen semen of buffalo and cow (Sahiwal bulls to obtain better pregnancy rate through artificial insemination (AI. For this study eight first ejaculates, four each from a buffalo and a cow (Sahiwal bull were used. The ejaculates were split-sampled and diluted with Tris-citric acid extender (at 37°C; 50x 106 spermatozoa/mI, containing either SP (streptomycin 1000 ~g/ml and penicillin 1000 IU/ml or GTLS (gentamycin 500 µg/ml, Tylosin 100 µg/ml and linco-spectin 300/600 µg/ml. There was no difference in post-thaw motility for these samples. Fertility test based on 75-days first service pregnancy rate was determined under field conditions. A total of 400 inseminations were recorded, 200 for each buffalo and cow (Sahiwal with J 00 of each antibiotic combination, respectively. Fertility rates for SP-based frozen semen of buffalo bull were 41.66% and were 55.2% for GTLS-containing frozen semen, respectively. The results for GTLS were higher (P<0.0001 than SP. Similarly, fertility rates were higher (P<0.0001 for GTLS-based frozen semen of Sahiwal bull (78.78% than SP-containing frozen semen (69.6% of the same specie. Fertility rates also differed due to species of donor bulls. They were better (P<0.0001 for the frozen Sahiwal bull semen than that of the buffalo bull in both SP and GTLS- based frozen semen samples, respectively. In conclusion. seminal quality measured by field fertility trial indicated GTLS combination of antibiotics added to the semen extender was better for improvement in the fertility of frozen buffalo and Sahiwal bull semen, by yielding better pregnancy rates through AI.

  1. Effects of selection for scrotal circumference in Limousin bulls on reproductive and growth traits of progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, D W; Bertrand, J K; Benyshek, L L; McCann, M A; Kiser, T E

    1996-09-01

    Nine pairs of Limousin bulls from nine contemporary groups were acquired, with each pair consisting of one large scrotal circumference (SC) bull and one small SC bull. Average adjusted yearling scrotal circumferences were 36.3 cm (SD 1.6 cm) and 28.5 cm (SD .9 cm) for large SC (LP) and small SC (SP) bulls, respectively. In addition to the phenotypic grouping, non-parent SC EPD were used to group bulls into high (HE, > .53 cm), average (AE), and low (LE, Brangus x Hereford cows each yr for 1 to 3 yr. Birth weights, weaning and yearling weights and heights, and ultrasound measurements for backfat and ribeye measurements were taken on 407 progeny. Blood samples were collected on 210 heifer progeny when they averaged 11, 13, and 15 mo of age to determine whether they had reached puberty. When subjected to a breeding soundness exam (BSE), LP bulls scored higher (P < .01) for motility as well as total BSE score. The LP calves had heavier birth weights (P < .05) and greater testicular mass at weaning (P < .01) than SP calves. The HE and AE bull calves had greater (P < .02) testicular mass than did the LE bull calves. A greater (P < .05) percentage of HE heifers had reached puberty by the 11- and 13-mo measurements than either the AE or LE heifers. The HE heifers reached puberty at a younger age than AE (P < .01) or LE (P < .001) heifers. Selection using SC EPD was more effective than phenotypic selection in reducing age at puberty in daughters. PMID:8880405

  2. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ULTRASONIC ESTIMATES OF CARCASS TRAITS AND BODY MEASUREMENTS OF JAPANESE BLACK BULL

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Rachma, Aprilita Bugiwati

    2008-01-01

    This experiment was done at 292 head of Japanese black bull at Kagoshima and Miyazaki Prefectural Experimental Stations Japan to find out the relationship between ultrasonic estimates of carcass traits and body measurements as one of criteria to select Japanese black bull. The carcass traits of 20 months of age were predicted using the ultrasonic machine. The body dimensions were measured at the end of performance test (12 months of age) and 16 months of age. The ultrasonic evaluati...

  3. Intake, physiological parameters and behavior of Angus and Nellore bulls subjected to heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ériton Egidio Lisboa Valente

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetics differences between breeds may determine the tolerance to high temperature, effect dry matter intake and consequently cattle performance. The effect of temperature and humidity index (THI on diurnal, nocturnal and daily intake, water intake, physiologic parameters and behavior of Nellore (B. indicus and Angus (B. taurus bulls were evaluated. Eight Angus and eight Nellore young bulls (337±7.4 kg and 16 months of age were allocated in two climate-controlled rooms for 32 days. In the period 1, all bulls were housed in thermoneutral conditions (TN, THI = 72.6 for 10 days. In period 2 (10 days, four Angus and four Nellore bulls were subjected to low heat stress (LHS, THI = 76.4 in daytime, and four Angus and four Nellore bulls were subjected to high heat stress (HHS, THI = 81.5 in daytime. The diurnal and daily dry matter intake (DMI of Nellore were not affected (P>0.05 by heat stress. However, Angus bulls decreased diurnal DMI by 24% and daily DMI decreased (P<0.05 by 15% on HHS. In TN Angus bulls had higher (P<0.05 daily DMI (36.2 g/kg of BW than Nellore (29.1 g/kg of BW, but in HHS they had similar (P>0.05 daily DMI (31.6 and 30.2 g/kg of BW, respectively. We observed an increase (P<0.05 in respiratory frequency, but water intake was not affected (P>0.05 by heat stress. The heart rate decreased (P<0.05 with heat stress. No differences were found (P>0.05 in feeding behavior. Therefore, THI stress threshold should distinct for Angus and Nellore bulls. The use of feed intake information may improve the prediction of thermic discomfort on specific climate condition. 

  4. Sensitivity of early life stages of white sturgeon, rainbow trout, and fathead minnow to copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardy, David W; Oellers, Johanna; Doering, Jon A; Hollert, Henner; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Populations of white sturgeon (WS; Acipenser transmontanus) are in decline in several parts of the United States and Canada, attributed primarily to poor recruitment caused by degradation of habitats, including pollution with contaminants such as metals. Little is known about sensitivity of WS to contaminants or metals such as copper (Cu). Here, acute (96 h) mortalities of WS early life stages due to exposure to Cu under laboratory conditions are reported. Two standard test species, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), were exposed in parallel to determine relative sensitivity among species. Swim-up larvae [15 days post-hatch (dph)] and early juveniles (40-45 dph) of WS were more sensitive to Cu (LC(50) = 10 and 9-17 μg/L, respectively) than were yolksac larvae (8 dph; LC(50) = 22 μg/L) and the later juvenile life stage (100 dph; LC(50) = 54 μg/L). WS were more sensitive to Cu than rainbow trout and fathead minnow at all comparable life stages tested. Yolksac larvae of rainbow trout and fathead minnow were 1.8 and 4.6 times, respectively, more tolerant than WS, while swim-up and juvenile life stages of rainbow trout were between 1.4- and 2.4-times more tolerant than WS. When plotted in a species sensitivity distribution with other fishes, the mean acute toxicity value for early life stage WS was ranked between the 1st and 2nd centile. The WS life stage of greatest Cu sensitivity coincides with the beginning of active feeding and close association with sediment, possibly increasing risk. WS early life stages are sensitive to aqueous copper exposure and site-specific water quality guidelines and criteria should be evaluated closely to ensure adequate protection. PMID:23124699

  5. Measurement of peroxisomal enzyme activities in the liver of brown trout (Salmo trutta, using spectrophotometric methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resende Albina D

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was aimed primarily at testing in the liver of brown trout (Salmo trutta spectrophotometric methods previously used to measure the activities of catalase and hydrogen peroxide producing oxidases in mammals. To evaluate the influence of temperature on the activities of those peroxisomal enzymes was the second objective. A third goal of this work was the study of enzyme distribution in crude cell fractions of brown trout liver. Results The assays revealed a linear increase in the activity of all peroxisomal enzymes as the temperature rose from 10° to 37°C. However, while the activities of hydrogen peroxide producing oxidases were strongly influenced by temperature, catalase activity was only slightly affected. A crude fraction enriched with peroxisomes was obtained by differential centrifugation of liver homogenates, and the contamination by other organelles was evaluated by the activities of marker enzymes for mitochondria (succinate dehydrogenase, lysosomes (aryl sulphatase and microsomes (NADPH cytochrome c reductase. For peroxisomal enzymes, the activities per mg of protein (specific activity in liver homogenates were strongly correlated with the activities per g of liver and with the total activities per liver. These correlations were not obtained with crude peroxisomal fractions. Conclusions The spectrophotometric protocols originally used to quantify the activity of mammalian peroxisomal enzymes can be successfully applied to the study of those enzymes in brown trout. Because the activity of all studied peroxisomal enzymes rose in a linear mode with temperature, their activities can be correctly measured between 10° and 37°C. Probably due to contamination by other organelles and losses of soluble matrix enzymes during homogenisation, enzyme activities in crude peroxisomal fractions do not correlate with the activities in liver homogenates. Thus, total homogenates will be used in future seasonal and

  6. A dynamic-bioenergetics model to assess depth selection and reproductive growth by lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumb, John M; Blanchfield, Paul J; Abrahams, Mark V

    2014-06-01

    We coupled dynamic optimization and bioenergetics models to assess the assumption that lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) depth distribution is structured by temperature, food availability, and predation risk to maximize reproductive mass by autumn spawning. Because the model uses empirical daily thermal-depth profiles recorded in a small boreal shield lake (lake 373 at the Experimental Lakes Area, northwestern Ontario) during 2 years of contrasting thermal stratification patterns, we also assessed how climate-mediated changes in lakes may affect the vertical distribution, growth, and fitness of lake trout, a cold-water top predator. The depths of acoustic-tagged lake trout were recorded concurrently with thermal-depth profiles and were compared to model output, enabling an assessment of model performance in relation to the observed fish behavior and contrasting thermal conditions. The depths and temperatures occupied by simulated fish most closely resembled those of the tagged fish when risk of predation was included in the model, indicating the model may incorporate the most important underlying mechanisms that determine lake trout depth. Annual differences suggest less use of shallow (warm), productive habitats, resulting in markedly less reproductive mass, during the year with the warm stratification pattern. Mass for reproduction may be lower in warmer conditions because of reduced reproductive investment, yet survival may be inadvertently higher because risky surface waters may be avoided more often in warmer, shallower, and metabolically costly conditions. At a minimum our study suggests that lake trout reproductive mass and fitness may be expected to change under the anticipated longer and warmer stratification patterns. PMID:24682254

  7. Relationships between boron concentrations and trout in the Firehole River, Wyoming: historical information and preliminary results of a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, J S; Boelter, A M; Woodward, D F; Goldstein, J N; Farag, A M; Hubert, W A

    1998-01-01

    The Firehole River (FHR) in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) is a world-renowned recreational fishery that predominantly includes rainbow trout (RBT, Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brown trout (BNT, Salmo trutta). The trout populations apparently are closed to immigration and have been self-sustaining since 1955. Inputs from hot springs and geysers increase the temperature and mineral content of the water, including elevating the boron (B) concentrations to a maximum of approximately 1 mg B/L. Both RBT and BNT reside in warm-water reaches, except when the water is extremely warm (> or = approximately 25 degrees C) during midsummer. They spawn in late fall and early winter, with documented spawning of BNT in the cold-water reach upstream from the Upper Geyser Basin and of RBT in the Lower Geyser Basin reach, where water temperatures presumably are the warmest; however, successful recruitment of RBT in waters containing approximately 1 mg B/L has not been demonstrated conclusively. Thus, we began investigating the relationships among temperature, B concentrations, other water-quality parameters, and the distribution and reproduction of trout in the FHR in spring 1997. However, atypical high water flows and concomitant lower than historical temperatures and B concentrations during summer 1997 preclude conclusions about avoidance of high B concentrations. PMID:10050918

  8. Cloning of two chemokine receptor homologs (CXC-R4 and CC-R7) in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, G D; Zou, J; Charlemagne, J; Partula, S; Cunningham, C; Secombes, C J

    1999-05-01

    Two rainbow trout chemokine receptors have been sequenced, with homology to CXC-R4 and CC-R7 molecules. The CXC-R4 sequence consisted of 1681 nucleotides, which translated into a mature protein of 357 amino acids, with 80.7% similarity to human CXC-R4. The CC-R7 sequence consisted of 2287 nucleotides, which translated into a 368-amino acid mature protein with 64.5% similarity to human CC-R7. Both sequences contained seven hydrophobic regions, representing the seven transmembrane domains (TM) typical of G-protein-coupled receptors. Extracellular cysteines, transmembrane prolines, and the DRY motif immediately following TM3 were conserved. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed a tight clustering of trout CXC-R4 with CXC-R3-5 genes. Trout CC-R7 clustered with CC-R6-7 and CXC-R1-2. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated a wide tissue distribution of CXC-R4 and CC-R7 message in trout, being present in head-kidney leukocytes, blood, gill, brain, spleen, and liver. PMID:10331499

  9. Study on the reproductive capacity of bulls of the autochthonous Rhodope Shorthorn cattle breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radka Malinova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The sperm production of bulls from the autochthonous Rhodope Shorthorn cattle breed was studied. The breed is among the smallest in Europe, the average weight of the cows ranging from 200 to 250 kg, and of the bulls from 330 to 370 kg. It was found that during the first 6 months from the start of exploitation, at the age of the bulls from 18 to 24 months, AI bulls had high reproductive capacity. The ejaculate volume was 1,74±0,09 ml in average (LS, the percentage of motile spermatozoa was 74,3±3,48% and the concentration 1268±13,1 x 106/ml. It was established that the bull had a significant impact on the reproductive performance, but the individual differences in the main characteristics were not high – motility 71,8-77,0%, concentration – 1222-1324 х 106/ml. The season also had a significant effect on the percentage of motile spermatozoa. Within the period from January to June, the highest reproductive capacity of the bulls was observed from February to May and the lowest in June.

  10. Are the Scaling Properties of Bull and Bear Markets Identical? Evidence from Oil and Gold Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samet Günay

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the scaling properties of the oil and gold return volatilities have been analyzed in the context of bull and bear periods. In the determination of bull and bear turning points, we used the Modified Bry-Boschan Quarterly (MBBQ algorithm. Results showed that the business cycle phase shapes of the bear periods in the oil market are almost linear, whereas the bull and bear periods of the gold and bull period of the oil market are convex. This means that there are sharper declines in the bear period of the oil market. Following the detection of bull and bear periods, scaling exponent H analysis was performed via the aggregated variance, Higuchi’s statistic, Peng’s statistic, rescaled range, boxed periodogram and wavelet fit models, which are from the time, frequency and wavelet domains. As there are conflicts about the credibility of these methods in the literature, we have used the shuffling procedure in order to determine the most robust methods. According to the results, bear periods have higher volatility persistency than bull periods.

  11. Concurrent testing of breeding bulls for bovine herpesvirus 1 infection (BHV-1 in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chintu Ravishankar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, sera from 65 breeding and 19 training bulls from Uttar Pradesh State in north India were tested for bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1 antibodies by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and virus neutralization test (VNT. The VNT test could detect 56 (86.15% and 9 (47.37% of the samples from breeding and training bulls as positive for BHV-1 antibodies whereas in ELISA 63 (96.92% and 10 (52.63% were found positive, respectively. Semen samples from the breeding bulls were simultaneously tested by the Taqman based real time PCR (qPCR. Of the 65 samples screened, only 40 (61.54% were found to contain BHV-1 DNA indicating that all the seropositive bulls are not shedding the virus in semen. When the RT-PCR positive samples were subjected to virus isolation on Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK cells, no virus isolates could be obtained. The advantages of concomitant testing of serum and semen of breeding bulls and measures for control of BHV-1 infections in bull farms are discussed.

  12. Growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of finishing bulls fed crude glycerin-supplemented diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Chaves Françozo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the performance, carcass characteristics and chemical composition of Longissimusmuscle (LM of the bulls. Twenty-four Nellore bulls were used in a complete randomised design. The bulls were randomly assigned to one of the three diets containing 0, 5 or 12% glycerin. Final BW and ADG were similar (P>0.05 between the bulls fed with 5 or 12% of glycerin but were higher (P0.05 by glycerin level. Hot carcass weight increased (P0.05 the conformation, colour, texture, marbling and pH. There was difference (P>0.05 for moisture, ashes and crude protein among glycerin levels. Bulls fed 12% glycerin present the highest (P<0.03 total lipids on LM. The percentage of saturated fatty acids (SFA, monounsaturated acids (MUFA, polyunsaturated acids (PUFA, n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and PUFA/SFA and n-6:n-3 ratios of the LM were similar among the diets. In conclusion, glycerin level did not affect the animal performance and carcass characteristics of Nellore bulls finished in feedlot.

  13. Correlation between hypoosmotic swelling test and breeding soundness evaluation of adult Nelore bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamires Miranda Neto

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the relationship between physical and morphological semen features with the hypoosmotic swelling (HOS test in raw semen of adult Nelore bulls classified as sound and unsound for breeding. Two hundred and six Nelore bulls aging from 3-10 years old were subjected to breeding soundness examination. After physical and morphological semen examination, HOS test was done. After the breeding soundness examination, 94.2% of the bulls were classified as sound for breeding. There was no difference between the average scrotal circumference of bulls classified as sound and unsound for breeding (P>0.05, but there was difference between all semen physical and morphological aspects of bulls classified as sound and unsound for breeding (P>0.05, but there was no difference in the mean percentage of reactive spermatozoa to HOS test results both for sound (38.4±17.9 and unsound animals (39.5±16.4; P>0.05, with no Pearson correlation between the HOS test and variables. According to these results HOS test can not be used alone to predict the reproductive potential of adult Nelore bulls.

  14. Rainbow Trout Haematology Coinciding with Metabolic Requirement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Nabi LONE

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss are an important aquaculture species yet there are few diagnostic tools available to assess their health. There is little published information regarding age-related changes in blood values of juvenile fish. It is important to evaluate juvenile fish, as this is the time they are raised in aquaculture settings. Determining age-related changes in the blood values of fishes would further develop clinical pathology as a diagnostic tool, enhancing both fish medicine and the aquaculture industry. The results of standard hematology and clinical chemistry analysis were evaluated in juvenile rainbow trout at 4, 6, 9, 15 and 19 months of age. Values for PCV and RBC indices were significantly lower, and plasma protein concentration was significantly higher in younger fish. Total WBC and lymphocyte counts were significantly higher in fish at 6 and 9 months of age, while neutrophil and monocyte counts were higher at 6, 9 and 15 months. Eosinophil counts were significantly higher in 9 month old fish. The majority of hematologic values fell within previously established reference intervals, indicating that only slight modification to the intervals is necessary for evaluating hematologic results of rainbow trout at different ages. The following analytes deviated sufficiently from adult reference intervals to warrant separate reference values: plasma protein concentration at 4 months, WBC and lymphocyte counts at 15 and 19 months, and thrombocyte-like-cells at 9 months of age. Values for most biochemical analytes were significantly different among age groups except for creatinine and potassium concentrations. Comparisons with reference intervals were not made for biochemical analytes, because established reference intervals were not available.

  15. Replacement of corn by babassu mesocarp bran in diets for feedlot young bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrícia Rocha Chaves Miotto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient intake and digestibility and productive performance of 30 feedlot young bulls fed diets containing babassu mesocarp bran in replacement of corn were evaluated. Animals were distributed in a completely randomized design with five levels of replacement of corn by babassu mesocarp bran (BMB: 0, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 g/kg of dry matter, and six replications. The dry matter (DM intake in kg/day, g/kg body weight (BW and g/kgBW0.75 increased as the corn was replaced by BMB. The intake of neutral detergent fiber (NDF and crude protein (CP increased linearly, whereas the intake of non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC had quadratic behavior. The digestibility of DM, CP, NDF and NFC and the total digestible nutrients (TDN showed quadratic behavior with points of minimum digestibility of 850.0, 638.0, 867.0, 638.0 and 833.0 g/kg dry matter of replacement of corn by BMB, respectively. The final weight (476.82 kg and average daily gain (1.55 kg/day were not affected by experimental diets. The feed efficiencies of DM and CP decreased with increase in the levels of BMB, but the feed efficiency of TDN was not changed. Babassu mesocarp bran enables satisfactory performance, and depending on the price and opportunity cost, it can be utilized in the feeding of feedlot cattle totally replacing the corn of the diet.

  16. Acrosome membrane integrity and cryocapacitation are related to cholesterol content of bull spermatozoa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Srivastava N; Srivastava SK; Ghosh SK; Amit Kumar; Perumal P; Jerome A

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the cryoinjury prediction of spermatozoa in relation to its cholesterol content at fresh and frozen-thaw stages. Methods: Ejaculates (n=12) were processed for cryopreservation, acrosome integrity (fluorescent and giemsa stains), cryoinjury (distribution of non capacitated, capacitated and acrosome reacted, pattern F, B and AR, respectively of Chlortetracycline, CTC assay), in vitro fertiltiy (IVF) and cholesterol content of spermatozoa at fresh, pre-freeze and frozen-thaw stages were evaluated. Values were fitted in prediction equation to predict acrosome integrity (AI) and cryoinjury. Results: Study indicated that cholesterol content of fresh spermatozoa can be used to predict cholesterol content of spermatozoa at pre-freeze and frozen-thaw stages of cryopreservation protocol with medium to high level of accuracy (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively). Cholesterol content of fresh spermatozoa can be used to predict AI, pattern B and AR and Penetration Index (PI) of IVF with medium level of accuracy (P<0.05) at frozen-thaw but not at pre-freeze stage. Similarly cholesterol content of frozen-thaw spermatozoa can be used to predict AI and pattern AR of frozen-thaw spermatozoa with medium level of accuracy (P<0.05). Conclusion: This study revealed strong evidence that cholesterol content of fresh as well as frozen-thaw bull spermatozoa can be a good predictor of level of cryoinjury following preservation at ultra low temperature.

  17. An obscure disease of rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, R.R.; Yasutake, W.T.; Wedemeyer, G.

    1970-01-01

    An annul mortality among Rainbow Trout (Salmo gairdneri) has plagued the Shelton Hatchery of the Washington State Department of Game for the last several years. No infectious agent could be isolated from the moribund fish, but histopathologica1 changes in the liver of 1-month-old fish suggested the presence of a toxic substance. Scoliosis in 3-month-old fish suggested a possible deficiency in vitamin C. With this background in mind, we designed studies to determine the nature and source of possible toxicants and the role of vitamin C deficiency in the etiology of this disease.

  18. Diel movement of brown trout in a southern Appalachian River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnell, D.B., Jr.; Isely, J.J.; Burrell, K.H.; Van Lear, D. H.

    1998-01-01

    Radio telemetry was used to monitor the diel movement of 22 brown trout Salmo trutta (268-446 mm in total length, TL) in the Chattooga River watershed. Forty-seven diel tracks, locating individuals once per hour for 24 consecutive hours, were collected for four consecutive seasons. High variability in movement both within and among individual brown trout resulted in similar seasonal means in total distance moved, diel range, and displacement. The majority of fish moved a total distance of less than 80 m within a diel range of less than 80 m and had a displacement of less than 10 m. Brown trout were more likely to occur in pool habitat independent of season or period of the day. Hourly movement patterns differed among seasons. During the winter and fall, trout moved only around sunrise; during the spring, they moved around sunrise, sunset, and intermittently throughout the night. Large brown trout (>375 mm, TL) were found to move greater total distances and establish wider diel ranges than small brown trout. Overall, most brown trout exhibited restricted diel movement within a single riffle-pool or run-pool sequence.

  19. Reevaluation of lake trout and lake whitefish bioenergetics models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Pothoven, Steve A.; Kao, Yu-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Using a corrected algorithm for balancing the energy budget, we reevaluated the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the laboratory and for lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in the laboratory and in the field. For lake trout, results showed that the bioenergetics model slightly overestimated food consumption by the lake trout when they were fed low and intermediate rations, whereas the model predicted food consumption by lake trout fed ad libitum without any detectable bias. The slight bias in model predictions for lake trout on restricted rations may have been an artifact of the feeding schedule for these fish, and we would therefore recommend application of the Wisconsin lake trout bioenergetics model to lake trout populations in the field without any revisions to the model. Use of the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for coregonids resulted in overestimation of food consumption by lake whitefish both in the laboratory and in the field by between 20 and 30%, on average. This overestimation of food consumption was most likely due to overestimation of respiration rate. We therefore adjusted the respiration component of the bioenergetics model to obtain a good fit to the observed consumption in our laboratory tanks. The adjusted model predicted the consumption in the laboratory and the field without any detectable bias. Until a detailed lake whitefish respiration study can be conducted, we recommend application of our adjusted version of the Wisconsin generalized coregonid bioenergetics model to lake whitefish populations in the field.

  20. Use of Bayesian Inference to Correlate In Vitro Embryo Production and In Vivo Fertility in Zebu Bulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudano, Mateus José; Crespilho, André Maciel; Fernandes, Claudia Barbosa; Junior, Alicio Martins; Papa, Frederico Ozanam; Rodrigues, Josemar; Machado, Rui; Landim-Alvarenga, Fernanda Da Cruz

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to test in vitro embryo production (IVP) as a tool to estimate fertility performance in zebu bulls using Bayesian inference statistics. Oocytes were matured and fertilized in vitro using sperm cells from three different Zebu bulls (V, T, and G). The three bulls presented similar results with regard to pronuclear formation and blastocyst formation rates. However, the cleavage rates were different between bulls. The estimated conception rates based on combined data of cleavage and blastocyst formation were very similar to the true conception rates observed for the same bulls after a fixed-time artificial insemination program. Moreover, even when we used cleavage rate data only or blastocyst formation data only, the estimated conception rates were still close to the true conception rates. We conclude that Bayesian inference is an effective statistical procedure to estimate in vivo bull fertility using data from IVP. PMID:21547211

  1. Exposure of prepubertal beef bulls to cycling females does not enhance sexual development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, N A; Fike, K E

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether continuous, long-term, fenceline exposure of prepubertal beef bulls to cycling beef females reduced age at puberty and influenced the percentage of bulls that passed an initial breeding soundness examination (BSE). Bulls (Angus, n = 37; Simmental, n = 22; Hereford, n = 10; Simmental × Angus, n = 8) at an average age of 202 ± 21.5 days were given either continuous fenceline and visual exposure to cycling females (exposed, n = 41) or no exposure (control, n = 36). Estrus was induced in cycling beef females so at least three females were in standing estrus each week during the 182 days of exposure to bulls. Scrotal circumference (SC), body weight, and blood samples were collected every 28 days. When bulls had SC of 26 cm or more, semen samples were obtained monthly via electroejaculation until puberty was achieved (≥50 × 10(6) sperm/mL with at least 10% progressive motility). Behavioral observations were conducted twice monthly: once when females were in estrus and once during diestrus. Homosexual mounting, flehmen responses, and number of times near penned females were recorded for each observation period. Breeding soundness examinations were conducted when the average age of bulls was 364 ± 21.5 days. Normal sperm morphology of at least 70% and sperm motility of at least 30% were required to pass the BSE. Age, body weight, and SC at puberty did not differ between exposed and control bulls (320 ± 28 and 311 ± 29 days; 466.2 ± 12.2 and 437.7 ± 13.5 kg; and 34.4 ± 2.5 and 34.9 ± 2.5 cm, respectively). Percentage of bulls passing their initial BSE did not differ between treatments (exposed, 87.8%; control, 75.0%). Treatment, month, and female estrous stage interacted (P = 0.05) to affect the number of mount attempts and flehmen responses. Exposed bulls entered the cow area more times (P < 0.001) during estrus than diestrus in Months 1, 2, and 3. We concluded that bulls given continuous, long

  2. Introduced brown trout alter native acanthocephalan infections in native fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Rachel A; Townsend, Colin R; Poulin, Robert; Tompkins, Daniel M

    2011-09-01

    1. Native parasite acquisition provides introduced species with the potential to modify native host-parasite dynamics by acting as parasite reservoirs (with the 'spillback' of infection increasing the parasite burdens of native hosts) or sinks (with the 'dilution' of infection decreasing the parasite burdens of native hosts) of infection. 2. In New Zealand, negative correlations between the presence of introduced brown trout (Salmo trutta) and native parasite burdens of the native roundhead galaxias (Galaxias anomalus) have been observed, suggesting that parasite dilution is occurring. 3. We used a multiple-scale approach combining field observations, experimental infections and dynamic population modelling to investigate whether native Acanthocephalus galaxii acquisition by brown trout alters host-parasite dynamics in native roundhead galaxias. 4. Field observations demonstrated higher infection intensity in introduced trout than in native galaxias, but only small, immature A. galaxii were present in trout. Experimental infections also demonstrated that A. galaxii does not mature in trout, although parasite establishment and initial growth were similar in the two hosts. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that trout may serve as an infection sink for the native parasite. 5. However, dynamic population modelling predicts that A. galaxii infections in native galaxias should at most only be slightly reduced by dilution in the presence of trout. Rather, model exploration indicates parasite densities in galaxias are highly sensitive to galaxias predation on infected amphipods, and to relative abundances of galaxias and trout. Hence, trout presence may instead reduce parasite burdens in galaxias by either reducing galaxias density or by altering galaxias foraging behaviour. PMID:21426342

  3. Seasonal movement of brown trout in a southern appalachian river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, K.H.; Isely, J.J.; Bunnell, D.B., Jr.; Van Lear, D. H.; Dolloff, C.A.

    2000-01-01

    Radio telemetry was used to evaluate the seasonal movement, activity level, and home range size of adult brown trout Salmo trutta in the Chattooga River watershed, one of the southernmost coldwater stream systems in the United States. In all, 27 adult brown trout (262-452 mm total length) were successfully monitored from 16 November 1995 to 15 December 1996. During the day, adult brown trout were consistently found in small, well-established home ranges of less than 270 m in stream length. However, 8 of a possible 18 study fish made spawning migrations during a 2-week period in November 1996. The daytime locations of individual fish were restricted to a single pool or riffle-pool combination, and fish were routinely found in the same location over multiple sampling periods. Maximum upstream movement during spawning was 7.65 km, indicating that brown trout in the Chattooga River have the ability to move long distances. Spawning brown trout returned to their prespawning locations within a few days after spawning. Brown trout maintained larger home ranges in winter than in other seasons. When spawning-related movement was deleted from the analysis, brown trout moved more on a weekly basis in fall than in summer. Brown trout were more active in fall and winter than in spring and summer. Apart from spawning migrations, displacement from established home ranges was not observed for any fish in the study. Although summer water temperatures reached and exceeded reported upper thermal-preference levels, brown trout did not move to thermal refuge areas in nearby tributaries during the stressful summer periods.

  4. Improved assay for measuring heparin binding to bull sperm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The binding of heparin to sperm has been used to study capacitation and to rank relative fertility of bulls. Previous binding assays were laborious, used 107 sperm per assay point, and required large amounts of radiolabeled heparin. A modified heparin-binding assay is described that used only 5 x 104 cells per incubation well and required reduced amounts of [3H] heparin. The assay was performed in 96-well Millititer plates, enabling easy incubation and filtering. Dissociation constants and concentrations of binding sites did not differ if analyzed by Scatchard plots, Woolf plots, or by log-logit transformed weighted nonlinear least squares regression, except in the case of outliers. In such cases, Scatchard analysis was more sensitive to outliers. Nonspecific binding was insignificant using nonlinear logistic fit regression and a proportion graph. The effects were tested of multiple free-thawing of sperm in either a commercial egg yolk extender, 40 mM Tris buffer with 8% glycerol, or 40 mM Tris buffer without glycerol. Freeze-thawing in extender did not affect the dissociation constant or the concentration of binding sites. However, freeze-thawing three times in 40 mM Tris reduced the concentration of binding sites and lowered the dissociation constant (raised the affinity). The inclusion of glycerol in the 40 mM Tris did not significantly affect the estimated dissociation constant or the concentration of binding sites as compared to 40 mM Tris without glycerol

  5. Behaviour and meat quality of Podolian young bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Napolitano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available From April to August 2008, twelve Podolian subjects, aged about 11 months at the beginning of the experimental period, were used to evaluate the effect of rearing system (Confined vs. Freerange and season (spring vs. summer on their behaviour and meat quality. Nine sessions of behavioural observations were performed. During a 6-h period, the behaviour of a focal animal, was continuously monitored. In each session a different animal was chosen. All the animals were slaughtered at 18 months of age. Walking (P<0.001 and standing (P<0.05 were lower in summer, whereas inactivity was higher (P<0.05. Free-range bulls spent more time walking (P<0.05, feeding (P<0.001 and standing (P<0.01 and showed a lower number of agonistic (P<0.05 and non-agonistic social interaction than confined animals (P<0.01. Self- and allo-grooming were not affected by rearing system, whereas season influenced self-grooming with higher values in spring (P<0.05. Confined animals showed higher final weights (P<0.05 and a lighter meat (P<0.05, whereas no differences between groups were observed for average daily gains, carcass yield, water holding capacity and a* and b* indexes. Confinement markedly affected the behaviour of the animals, whereas free-ranging had only minor negative effects on meat lightness.

  6. Vaccination against GnRH may suppress aggressive behaviour and musth in African elephant (Loxodonta africana) bulls - a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    H. M. De Nys; H.J. Bertschinger; J. A. Turkstra; B. Colenbrander; Palme, R; A. M. Human

    2010-01-01

    Aggressive behaviour and musth are constant problems in captive and sometimes in free-ranging African elephant bulls. Aggressive bulls are difficult and musth bulls almost impossible to manage without severely restricting their movement either by leg-chaining or using tranquillisers. This study investigated the relationship between faecal androgen metabolites (FAM) and faecal cortisol metabolites (FCM) concentrations and aggressive behaviour and tested a GnRH vaccine as a means of down-regula...

  7. Analysis of Beta-Lactoglobuline Gene (LGB) Polymorphism in Different Breeds of Bulls by High Resolution Melting

    OpenAIRE

    Martina Miluchová; Anna Trakovická; Michal Gábor

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the paper was to identify  - lactoglobulin gene polymorphism in bulls. The  - lactoglobulin (LGB) is expressed in milk and is important in the evaluation of milk production potential and butterfat and protein content. LGB is localized on bovine chromosome 11. The AA genotype of LGB is associated with higher milk yield, the BB genotype with higher fat and casein content and is more desirable for cheese making. The material involved 46 bulls (Slovak spotted breed – 41 bulls, Pinzg...

  8. Sensitivity of Trout to Chronic Acute Exposure to Selenium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunnar Gissel; Nielsen, M. Gissel

    1978-01-01

    Trout were exposed to selenite (Na2SeO3) solutions of varying concentrations (0.1-100 ppm Se) for periods of up to 4 wk. A chronic exposure to 0.1 ppm Se or less is non-lethal to trout. Lethality at higher concentrations depends on the length of exposure. Trout that survive for 10 days in tap......-water after contamination will not die as a result of Se toxicity and can safely be used for human consumption....

  9. Vertebral column deformities in farmed rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lone; Dalsgaard, Inger

    1999-01-01

    Farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were fed diets with either different levels of vitamin C, or diets enriched with glucan or chitin, from feeding start and 6 months onwards. At an average weight of 100 g, the trout were X-rayed to determine the deformity level. The investigations showed...... deformities (4.8%). In all groups examined, the deformities were spread over the whole vertebral column. The deformities in the group fed the low vitamin C diet were more severe than those found in the other groups. An outbreak of the disease rainbow trout fry syndrome (RTFS) caused by the bacterium...

  10. ERM booster vaccination of Rainbow trout using diluted bacterin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jacob Günther; Henriksen, Niels H.; Buchmann, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Enteric Red Mouth Disease ERM caused by Yersinia ruckeri infection is associated with morbidity and mortality in salmonid farming but immersion vaccination of fry may confer some protection for a number of months. Revaccination of rainbow trout, even by use of diluted ERM immersion vaccine, can......:10) in April 2015 was followed 3 months later (July 2015) by 1 h bathing of rainbow trout in bacterin (diluted 1:650 or 1:1700) in order to evaluate if this time saving vaccination methodology can improve immunity and protection. Trout were subjected in farms to natural Y. ruckeri exposure in June and...

  11. Breeding soundness evaluation of bulls by semen analysis, testicular fine needle aspiration cytology and trans-scrotal ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chapwanya A

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of trans-scrotal ultrasonography and testicular fine needle aspiration cytology in assessing bulls for breeding suitability. These two techniques were also compared with semen analysis. Bulls presented for breeding soundness evaluation were assessed using all three techniques. The findings of each technique were compared. There was agreement in classification of fertile bulls using all three techniques, suggesting that the combined use of these techniques enhances routine breeding soundness examination. Use of the three techniques also enhances detailed investigation of suspected sub-fertile bulls while accurately identifying testicular cause(s of sire sub-fertility.

  12. Natural or artificial? Habitat-use by the bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan M Werry

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite accelerated global population declines due to targeted and illegal fishing pressure for many top-level shark species, the impacts of coastal habitat modification have been largely overlooked. We present the first direct comparison of the use of natural versus artificial habitats for the bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas, an IUCN 'Near-threatened' species--one of the few truly euryhaline sharks that utilises natural rivers and estuaries as nursery grounds before migrating offshore as adults. Understanding the value of alternate artificial coastal habitats to the lifecycle of the bull shark is crucial for determining the impact of coastal development on this threatened but potentially dangerous species. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: We used longline surveys and long-term passive acoustic tracking of neonate and juvenile bull sharks to determine the ontogenetic value of natural and artificial habitats to bull sharks associated with the Nerang River and adjoining canals on the Gold Coast, Australia. Long-term movements of tagged sharks suggested a preference for the natural river over artificial habitat (canals. Neonates and juveniles spent the majority of their time in the upper tidal reaches of the Nerang River and undertook excursions into adjoining canals. Larger bull sharks ranged further and frequented the canals closer to the river mouth. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our work suggests with increased destruction of natural habitats, artificial coastal habitat may become increasingly important to large juvenile bull sharks with associated risk of attack on humans. In this system, neonate and juvenile bull sharks utilised the natural and artificial habitats, but the latter was not the preferred habitat of neonates. The upper reaches of tidal rivers, often under significant modification pressure, serve as nursery sites for neonates. Analogous studies are needed in similar systems elsewhere to assess the spatial and temporal generality of

  13. Spawning Behaviour and the Softmouth Trout Dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteve Manu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Morphological, ecological and molecular data sets do not completely agree on the phylogenetic placement of the softmouth trout, Salmo (Salmothymus obtusirostris (Heckel. Molecules posit that softmouths are closely related to brown trout, Salmo trutta L. while some morphological, ecological and life history traits place them in the most basal position of the Salmoninae subfamily between grayling (Thymallus and lenok (Brachymystax. Here we add an additional source of data, behavioural characters based on the first reported observations of softmouth spawning. During spawning softmouth females present three important behaviours not found in the other Salmo members: they continually abandon their nests, rarely staying on them for periods over nine minutes; they expel different batches of eggs at the same nest at intervals of several minutes; and they do not cover their eggs immediately after spawning. These three behaviours are intriguing for two reasons: 1 they are possible homologous to behaviours found in grayling females; 2 when coupled to the nest digging behaviour-widespread in all the salmonines, including softmouths, they seem to be mal-adaptive.

  14. Extended spawning in brown trout (Salmo trutta) populations from the Southern Iberian Peninsula: the role of climate variability

    OpenAIRE

    José E. Larios-López; José M. Tierno de Figueroa; Miguel Galiana-García; Javier Gortázar; Carlos Alonso

    2015-01-01

    The reproductive periods of brown trout (Salmo trutta) populations in 12 rivers in the Baetic Mountains in southern Spain were studied from 2008 to 2013. This area is an ecological and geographical limit for the distribution of this species in Europe. We found that the spawning period has been markedly extended in these fish. The mean spawning dates in the studied populations are consistent with the European trend at this latitude, but our data suggest that females from most of the population...

  15. Nucléation, ascension et éclatement d'une bulle de champagne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liger-Belair, G.

    2006-03-01

    People have long been fascinated by bubbles and foams dynamics, and since the pioneering work of Leonardo da Vinci in the early 16th century, this subject has generated a huge bibliography. However, only quite recently, much interest was devoted to bubbles in Champagne wines and carbonated beverages. Since the time of the benedictine monk dom Pierre Perignon (1638-1715), champagne is the wine of celebration. This fame is largely linked to the elegance of its effervescence and foaming properties. In this book, the latest results about the chemical physics behind the bubbling properties of Champagne and sparkling wines are collected and fully illustrated. The first chapter is devoted to the history of champagne and to a presentation of the tools of the physical chemistry of interfaces needed for a whole comprehension of the book. Then, the three main steps of a fleeting champagne bubble's life are presented in chronological order, that is, the bubble nucleation on the glass wall (Chap.2), the bubble ascent and growth through the liquid matrix (Chap.3), and the bursting of bubbles at the liquid surface (Chap.4), which constitutes the most intriguing, functional, and visually appealing step. L'objectif général de ce travail consacré à l'étude des processus physicochimiques liés à l'effervescence des vins de Champagne était de décortiquer les différentes étapes de la vie d'une bulle de champagne en conditions réelles de consommation, dans une flûte. Nous résumons ci-après les principaux résultats obtenus pour chacune des étapes de la vie de la bulle, depuis sa naissance sur les parois d'une flûte, jusqu'à son éclatement en surface. Nucléation À l'aide d'une caméra rapide munie d'un objectif de microscope, nous avons pu mettre à mal une idée largement répandue. Ce ne sont pas les anfractuosités de la surface du verre ou de la flûte qui sont responsable de la nucléation hétérogène des bulles, mais des particules adsorbées sur les parois du

  16. Great Smoky Mountains National Park Brook Trout Genetics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM) is committed to monitoring ecological and evolutionary functions and processes of park ecosystems. Brook trout...

  17. Environmental contaminants in brook trout from Aroostook National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In June 2012, four brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) were collected by angling from Chapman Pond and East Loring Lake at Aroostook NWR in northeast Maine. Two...

  18. Species status assessment report for the Rio Grande cutthroat trout

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Rio Grande cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii virginalis) lives in high elevation, coldwater streams in New Mexico and southern Colorado. It is a subspecies...

  19. Effect of age on spermiogram of Holstein Friesian × Sahiwal crossbred bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, D K; Kumar, M; Tyagi, S

    2010-04-01

    This study was conducted on 94 Frieswal (5/8 Holstein Friesian 3/8 Sahiwal) crossbred bulls of three different grades, categorized based on their semen freezability visualising Group 1 (consistently freezable semen producer bulls, N = 11), Group 2 (inconsistent freezable, N = 16) and Group 3 (Non freezable, N = 67). Each group was further divided into two classes that is young (up to 30 months) and adult (31 to 70 months) bulls depending upon their age. Sperm morphology was studied by using the eosin-nigrosin staining technique. Bulls age significantly (P stage (6.69 ± 0.64, 3.82 ± 0.32, 9.14 ± 0.64 and 19.66 ± 1.31, respectively). Significant reduction (P stage. In bulls of consistent freezing category, abnormal sperm heads significantly decreased from 4.40 ± 0.31% to 3.28 ± 0.02% on maturity. Similarly, in inconsistent freezing grade bulls sperm head abnormality (9.28 ± 0.75% to 5.13 ± 1.20%) and total abnormal sperm percent (24.89 ± 1.43 to 18.73 ± 3.40) was decreased over the age. On the contrary, in non-freezing category bulls' sperm morphology did not show significant (P > 0.05) improvement with age advancement, rather some abnormalities like long slender head, under developed/deformed head, abaxial implantation of mid piece, double mid piece, stump tail and distal protoplasmic droplets tend to increased significantly (P stage, where as, in poor quality (non-freezing) semen producer bulls neither the morphology nor the semen quality showed any improvement with maturity. It was recommended that crossbred bulls producing more than 25% morphologically abnormal sperms in young age (below 30 months) along with poor progressive motility (<50%) and low sperm concentration (<1000 million/ml) need immediate culling with out any expectation of further improvement in semen quality with age advancement. PMID:22444047

  20. Gene expression profiling of differentially expressed genes in bull testicle between different scrotal circumference using DDRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To identify tissue-specific expression gene in testicle of differential scrotal circumference bulls and analyze the function of the specific gene on the development of the bull's scrotum in this study. The DDRT-PCR and Reverse Northern Blot Analysis were used to identify tissue-specific expression genes in bulls with differential scrotal circumference. The experiment was designed sixty 6-month-old crossbreeds (Charolais with indigenous Fuzhou female). These were raised under the same age, cross generation, raising condition and management. When the feeding was over after 6 months, the scrotal circumferences of bulls were measured. Four bulls were selected and classified into two groups, and the difference of scrotal circumference is significant between the two groups (P < 0.01). A group was consisted of two bulls with larger scrotal circumference 26±2.5cm. The control group was two crossbreed bulls with smaller scrotal circumference 17±2.2 cm. When the scrotal circumferences were measured, the bulls were castrated by surgical operations. A piece of tissue (2 by 2 by 2 cm) was removed from the deeper area of the testis and stored in liquid nitrogen. A small section (0.5 by 0.5 by 0.5 cm) was used for total RNA extraction by using the TRIZOL reagent kit (GIBCO/BRL, Bethesda, MA, USA). The RNA was prepared for DDRT-PCR experiments and quantitative real-time PCR. The results were shown that six genes corresponded to genes of known or inferred function; either the bovine gene or the likely human orthologue and three genes or ESTs were unknown. Bos taurus similar to galactosidase, beta 1-like; Bos taurus similar to Kinesin heavy chain isoform 5C; Bos taurus similar to ankyrin repeat domain protein 15 isoform and Bos taurus ebd-P2 pseudogene were founded both highly expressed in bulls which had bigger scrotal circumference by qRT-PCR. Their functions may be involved with sperm maturation in the epididymis, sperm protection and preventing the ascent of microorganisms

  1. Comparison of biochemical parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) reared in two different trout farms'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Tayfun

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare biochemical parameters of cultured rainbow trouts (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum, 1972) reared in two different trout farms' (Agri and Erzurum). The average weights of fish were 150±10gr for first station (Agri), 230±10gr for second station (Erzurum). Fishes used in research were randomly caught from pools, and fifteen pieces were used for each group. Fishes were fed with commercial trout feed with 45-50% crude protein twice a day. The levels of AST, ALT, LDL, total cholesterol and triglyceride in the second station (Erzurum) were found to be higher (p<0.05) than that of first station (Agri). Whereas, the levels of HDL in the second station (Erzurum) were found to be lower (p<0.05) than that of first station (Agri). Differences in the levels of total cholesterol and AST, ALT, HDL, LDL, triglyceride may be associated with size, sex, sexual maturity and environmental conditions (temperature, pH, hardness and dissolved oxygen).

  2. Food Intake and Feed Conversion Ratios in Abant Trout (Salmo trutta abanticus T., 1954) and Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss W., 1792) in Pond Culture

    OpenAIRE

    UYSAL, İrfan

    2002-01-01

    This study was carried out at DSI-Gölköy Fish Production Station in Bolu and lasted for 350 days. Food consumption (FC) and feed conversion ratios (FCR) in Abant and rainbow trout in pond culture were compared. Abant trout larvae obtained from eggs of wild Abant trout broodstocks in Lake Abant and rainbow trout larvae obtained from eggs of the cultured broodstocks in Gölköy Fish Production Station were used in this study. Trial I involved 4 groups (2 Abant and rainbow trout experimental gr...

  3. Comparison of the Growth Performance and Mortality in Abant Trout (Salmo trutta abanticus Tortonese, 1954) and Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792) under Farming Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    UYSAL, İrfan

    2002-01-01

    This experiment was conducted between 15th February 2000 (day 1) and 31st January 2001 (day 350) at the DSI-Gölköy Fish Production Station, Bolu (Turkey). Abant trout larvae obtained from eggs of wild Abant trout broodstocks in Lake Abant and rainbow trout larvae obtained from eggs of the hatchery broodstocks in Gölköy Fish Production Station were used. Trials I and II involved eight groups (four Abant and rainbow trout experimental groups, and four Abant and rainbow trout parallel groups). A...

  4. Effects of trout bradykinin on the motility of the trout stomach and intestine: evidence for a receptor distinct from mammalian B1 and B2 subtypes

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Jorgen; J. Michael Conlon

    1997-01-01

    Trout bradykinin ([Arg0,Trp5,Leu8]-bradykinin; trout BK), recently isolated from kallikrein-treated trout plasma, produced sustained and concentration-dependent contractions of isolated longitudinal muscle from rainbow trout stomach (pD2=7.01±0.03) and proximal small intestine (pD2=7.37±0.07). The maximum responses were 85±2% (stomach) and 101±35% (intestine) of the corresponding responses to 10−5 M acetylcholine. Strips of circular smooth muscle from trout stomach and intestine did not contr...

  5. Eggs Incubation, Early Development and growth in Frys of Brown Trout (Salmo trutta macrostigma) and Black Sea Trout (Salmo trutta labrax)

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet ALP; Erer, Mesut; KAMALAK, Adem

    2010-01-01

    Some of the embryonic development stages and growth of the frys of brown trout (Salmo trutta macrostigma) and Black Sea trout (Salmo trutta labrax) were examined. The first eye pigmentation in the brown trout eggs were realised on the 35 days (244 day-degree) at 7.23°C and 31 days (260 day-degree) at 8.21°C post fertilisation. First eye pigmentation of the Black Sea trout eggs were seen on day 25 (215 day-degree) at 8.21°C. Brown trout larvae were hatched on day 56 (387 day-degree) at 7.23°C ...

  6. Evaluation of bull prolificacy on commercial beef cattle ranches using DNA paternity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eenennaam, A L; Weber, K L; Drake, D J

    2014-06-01

    SNP-based DNA testing was used to assign paternity to 5,052 calves conceived in natural service multisire breeding pastures from 3 commercial ranches in northern California representing 15 calf crops over 3 yr. Bulls present for 60 to 120 d at a 25:1 cow to bull ratio in both fall and spring breeding seasons in ∼40 ha or smaller fenced breeding pastures sired a highly variable (P breeding season) to 64 calves per bull per breeding season, with an average of 18.9 ± 13.1. There was little variation in Ncalf among ranches (P = 0.90), years (P = 0.96), and seasons (P = 0.94). Bulls varied widely (P breeding season was positively linearly related (P breeding seasons, explaining about 20% of the subsequent variation. Prolificacy was also positively linearly related (P heifers, with the genetics of those bulls siring an increased number of calves being disproportionately represented in the early-born replacement heifer pool. PMID:24753384

  7. Beef quality traits of heifer in comparison with steer, bull and cow at various feeding environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkata Reddy, Bandugula; Sivakumar, Allur S; Jeong, Dawoon W; Woo, Yang-Byung; Park, Sang-June; Lee, So-Young; Byun, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Chang-Ho; Cho, Soo-Hyun; Hwang, Inho

    2015-01-01

    The present review has been focused largely on the sex type differences in beef quality among heifers, cows, steers and bulls in various feeding environments. Genetic groups, feeding systems and gender are the major factors that change carcass characteristics and fatty acid profiles of cattle. Studies identified that heifer beef has super characteristics in eating quality and a better healthy composition in fatty acids than steer, cow and bull. Diet influences the variation of fatty acid profile; particularly the level of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) interacts with breed and sex. Animals finished in pasture systems were reported to show better ratios of PUFA/ saturated fatty acids and n-6/n-3. Carcasses of roughage-fed beef are lighter and have less marbling and lower quality grades but have higher cutability than carcasses of grain-fed bulls. Heifers and cows are reported to deposit more fat than steers and bulls. Among males, lower production of testosterone by steers favors more fat thickness compared with bulls. Marbling greatly varies among cattle belonging to different sexes, and particularly, females have genetic makeup that efficiently controls deposition. The current review identified that heifers can be a premium beef brand, while steer beef currently take a large part of market share across the world. PMID:25236779

  8. Daughter performance based buffalo bull ranking for boosting milk production in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghaffar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The first lactation milk yield records of 2329 daughters of 180 bulls, (11 batches during 1983-2005 were used in this study. BLUP breeding values for male and female were computed using DFREML. The fixed effects like herd-year-season and batch number of bulls had significant effect on milk yield as determined by HARVEY Model-1. In addition to these fixed effects, age at first calving was included in the model as covariate to estimate the BLUP breeding values (EBV for milk yield. The year-wise least square means of milk yield for Nili Ravi buffaloes showed a sharp increase from 1984 to 1989 and then a significant yearly variation with the slight decrease in overall milk production under field conditions at private farmers door step. Among these candidate bulls 92 bulls were positive for milk yield EBV. The overall milk production was (Mean±S.E 2481.82±493.33 Kg. The heritability of milk yield was 0.15. There is wide variation over the years making the over all regression line (Y = - 146944 + 74.349X for milk yield negative. This emphasizes to review the policy of semen usage and production of candidate young bulls for future generations. Recently born male calves had better breeding values showing the positive regression line ( Y = 142.77 + 22.065X.

  9. Brown trout redd superimposition in relation to spawning habitat availability

    OpenAIRE

    Gortázar Rubial, Javier; Alonso González, Carlos; García de Jalón Lastra, Diego

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between redd superimposition and spawning habitat availability was investigated in the brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) population inhabiting the river Castril (Granada, Spain). Redd surveys were conducted in 24 river sections to estimate the rate of redd superimposition. Used and available microhabitat was evaluated to compute the suitable spawning habitat (SSH) for brown trout. After analysing the microhabitat characteristics positively selected by females, SSH was defined as ...

  10. Long-term brown trout populations responses to flow manipulation

    OpenAIRE

    SABATON C.; Souchon, Y.; Capra, H.; Gouraud, V.; LASCAUX J. M.; Tissot, L.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the many habitat simulations that have been undertaken around the world, not enough biological monitoring has been performed following flow manipulations. It is difficult, however, to refine flow management decisions without a better understanding of the links between amounts, durations and seasonality of flow deliveries and population dynamics. Trout populations were monitored before and after flow alterations in five trout streams, involving 17 study sites over a 4- to 12-year perio...

  11. Brown trout population dynamics versus long term habitat history

    OpenAIRE

    Capra, H.; Souchon, Y.; Lamouroux, N.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of stream discharge and habitat suitability history was investigated over 12 years on three natural brown trout (Salmo trutta) population dynamics. Discharge and habitat (described by Weighted Usable Area, WUA) variability during three "bottleneck" periods of population dynamics (spawning, fry, and summer) were used to explain variability of trout age-class densities (young of the year, juveniles, and adults). Discharge and WUA variability for each period was described with mean...

  12. SuchThatCast Episode 3: J.D. Trout

    OpenAIRE

    Søraker, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    SuchThatCast goes mobile in the third episode, as I interview J.D. Trout on the appr. 2 hour train ride between Enschede and Schiphol airport. Trout received his PhD in Philosophy at Cornell University and is currently Professor of Philosophy and Psychology at Loyola University Chicago. He was recently awarded the prestigious Phi Beta Kappa Romanell Professorship for 2012-13. His chief interests include the nature of scientific explanation, the psychology of human judgment, scientific realism...

  13. Evolutionary Genetics of Rainbow Trout, Parasalmo gairdnerii (Richardson)

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, William J.

    1987-01-01

    Starch-gel electrophoresis was used to obtain allozyme data from 114 populations of rainbow-series trout. Seventy-three alleles were segregating at 24 genetic loci. An additional seven loci were monomorphic in all populations. Eight genetically discrete intraspecific population-groups were identified and formal nomenclatural recognition of their subspecific status was suggested. The widespread coastal rainbow trout subspecies, Parasalmo gairdnerii gairdnerii was found to have higher levels of...

  14. Virulence of Flavobacterium columnare genomovars in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenhuis, Jason P; LaFrentz, Benjamin R

    2016-08-01

    Flavobacterium columnare is the causative agent of columnaris disease and is responsible for significant economic losses in aquaculture. F. columnare is a Gram-negative bacterium, and 5 genetic types or genomovars have been described based on restriction fragment length polymorphism of the 16S rRNA gene. Previous research has suggested that genomovar II isolates are more virulent than genomovar I isolates to multiple species of fish, including rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. In addition, improved genotyping methods have shown that some isolates previously classified as genomovar I, and used in challenge experiments, were in fact genomovar III. Our objective was to confirm previous results with respect to genomovar II virulence, and to determine the susceptibility of rainbow trout to other genomovars. The virulence of 8 genomovar I, 4 genomovar II, 3 genomovar II-B, and 5 genomovar III isolates originating from various sources was determined through 3 independent challenges in rainbow trout using an immersion challenge model. Mean cumulative percent mortality (CPM) of ~49% for genomovar I isolates, ~1% for genomovar II, ~5% for the II-B isolates, and ~7% for the III isolates was observed. The inability of genomovar II isolates to produce mortalities in rainbow trout was unanticipated based on previous studies, but may be due to a number of factors including rainbow trout source and water chemistry. The source of fish and/or the presence of sub-optimal environment may influence the susceptibility of rainbow trout to different F. columnare genomovars. PMID:27503917

  15. Seasonal movement of brown trout in the Clinch River, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettinger, J.M.; Bettoli, P.W.

    2004-01-01

    We used radiotelemetry to monitor the seasonal movements of trophy-size brown trout Salmo trutta in the Clinch River below Norris Dam, Tennessee, to determine whether establishing a special-regulation reach to reduce fishing mortality was a viable management option. Fifteen brown trout (size range, 430-573 mm total length) collected from the river were implanted with radio transmitters between November 1997 and May 1998. Forty-seven percent of these fish died or expelled their transmitters within 50 d postsurgery. The range of movement for surviving brown trout was significantly larger in fall (geometric mean range = 5,111 m) than in any other season. Four brown trout that were monitored for more than 1 year exhibited a limited range of movement (5 km) during the fall season, presumably to spawn. Brown trout also moved more during the fall than in any other season. Harvest restrictions applied to a specific reach of the Clinch River would reduce the exploitation of brown trout in that reach for most of the year but not during the fall, when many fish undertake extensive spawning migrations.

  16. Kootenai River Fisheries Investigations: Salmonid Studies Project Progress Report, 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paragamian, Vaughn L.; Walters, Jody; Maiolie, Melo [Idaho Department of Fish and Game

    2009-04-09

    This research report addresses bull trout Salvelinus confluentus and Redband trout Oncorhynchus mykiss redd surveys, population monitoring, trout distribution, and abundance surveys in the Kootenai River drainage of Idaho. The bull trout is one of several sport fish native to the Kootenai River, Idaho that no longer supports a fishery. Because bull trout are listed under the Endangered Species Act, population data will be vital to monitoring status relative to recovery goals. Thirty-three bull trout redds were found in North and South Callahan creeks and Boulder Creek in 2007. This is a decrease from 2006 and 2005 and less than the high count in 2003. However, because redd numbers have only been monitored since 2002, the data series is too short to determine bull trout population trends based on redd counts. Redband trout still provide an important Kootenai River sport fishery, but densities are low, at least partly due to limited recruitment. The redband trout proportional stock density (PSD) in 2007 increased from 2006 for a second year after a two-year decline in 2004 and 2005. This may indicate increased recruitment to or survival in the 201-305 mm length group due to the minimum 406 mm (16 inches) length limit initiated in 2002. We conducted 13 redd surveys and counted 44 redband trout redds from May 7 to June 3, 2007 in a 3.8 km survey reach on Twentymile Creek. We surveyed streams in the Kootenai River valley to look for barriers to trout migration. Man-made barriers, for at least part of the year, were found on Caboose, Debt, Fisher, and Twenty Mile creeks. Removing these barriers would increase spawning and rearing habitat for trout and help to restore trout fisheries in the Kootenai River.

  17. Embryotoxicity of quantum dots in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss during hatching period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nijolė Kazlauskienė

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Research on quantum dots (QD has become a major interdisciplinary area of science. Unique physic-chemical properties of QD significantly expanded areas of their application and increased the potential impact on hydrosystems. The objectives of complex study (using toxicological, physical, chemical methods were: to determine the toxicity of QD to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss during ontogenesis (embryos, larvae depending on the duration of exposure; to estimate QD stability; to investigate QD uptake routes, distribution, accumulation, localization in tissues and different organs of embryos and larvae. This study examined the toxic effects of CdSe/ZnS-COOH at sublethal concentration. Bioassay testing was carried out under controlled laboratory conditions. Short-term (24-, 96-hour and long-term toxicity tests (14-day on fish at early stages of development (starting from “eye-egg” embryos were performed under static conditions. Mortality, physiological parameters, blood circulatory system, development disorders, behavioural responses and growth parameters of larvae were investigated. The results indicated that toxic effects of QD to rainbow trout in early life stages of development depended on the duration of exposure. Long-term exposure of QD induced remarkable deleterious changes in various systems of the developing fish organism: increased mortality, alterations in cardio-respiratory system, disturbed behavioural responses, caused developmental disorders and adversely affected the growth of larvae. Using physical methods it was determined: QD stability, uptake routes, distribution, accumulation and localization in tissues as well as in different organs of embryos and larvae of rainbow trout. Fish toxicity tests results will help to understand ecotoxicity of nanoparticles and will be used as nanoparticle embryotoxicity model in humans and other organisms.

  18. Fate of Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa) after infection of brown trout Salmo trutta and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Gokhlesh; Abd-Elfattah, Ahmed; Saleh, Mona; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2013-01-01

    Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa) is the causative agent of proliferative kidney disease in salmonids. We assessed differences in intensity of T. bryosalmonae infection between brown trout Salmo trutta and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss from the clinical phase of infection onwards. Specific pathogen-free fish were exposed to T. bryosalmonae spores under controlled laboratory conditions and sampled at 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 17 wk post exposure (wpe), and the transmission of T. bryosalm...

  19. Reproductive isolation and genetic differentiation of ferox trout from sympatric brown trout in Loch Aweand Loch Laggan, Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Duguid, A.; Prodohl, Paulo; Ferguson, A.

    2006-01-01

    Molecular marker studies reported here, involving allozymes, mitochondrial DNA and microsatellites, demonstrate that ferox brown trout Salmo trutta in Lochs Awe and Laggan, Scotland, are reproductively isolated and genetically distinct from co-occurring brown trout. Ferox were shown to spawn primarily, and possibly solely, in a single large river in each lake system making them particularly vulnerable to environmental changes. Although a low level of introgression seems to have occurred with ...

  20. Whole-genome sequencing of 234 bulls facilitates mapping of monogenic and complex traits in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daetwyler, Hans D; Capitan, Aurélien; Pausch, Hubert;

    2014-01-01

    The 1000 bull genomes project supports the goal of accelerating the rates of genetic gain in domestic cattle while at the same time considering animal health and welfare by providing the annotated sequence variants and genotypes of key ancestor bulls. In the first phase of the 1000 bull genomes...... project, we sequenced the whole genomes of 234 cattle to an average of 8.3-fold coverage. This sequencing includes data for 129 individuals from the global Holstein-Friesian population, 43 individuals from the Fleckvieh breed and 15 individuals from the Jersey breed. We identified a total of 28.3 million...... variants, with an average of 1.44 heterozygous sites per kilobase for each individual. We demonstrate the use of this database in identifying a recessive mutation underlying embryonic death and a dominant mutation underlying lethal chrondrodysplasia. We also performed genome-wide association studies for...

  1. Genomic Prediction from Whole Genome Sequence in Livestock: The 1000 Bull Genomes Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayes, Benjamin J; MacLeod, Iona M; Daetwyler, Hans D;

    Advantages of using whole genome sequence data to predict genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) include better persistence of accuracy of GEBV across generations and more accurate GEBV across breeds. The 1000 Bull Genomes Project provides a database of whole genome sequenced key ancestor bulls......, for imputing sequence variant genotypes into reference sets for genomic prediction. Run 3.0 included 429 sequences, with 31.8 million variants detected. BayesRC, a new method for genomic prediction, addresses some challenges associated with using the sequence data, and takes advantage of biological...... information. In a dairy data set, predictions using BayesRC and imputed sequence data from 1000 Bull Genomes were 2% more accurate than with 800k data. We could demonstrate the method identified causal mutations in some cases. Further improvements will come from more accurate imputation of sequence variant...

  2. Effect of a β-agonist on meat quality and myofibrillar protein fragmentation in bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiems, L O; Buts, B; Boucqué, C V; Demeyer, D I; Cottyn, B G

    1990-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to study the effect of cimaterol on meat quality and myofibrillar protein fragmentation of the Longissimus dorsi muscle. In two experiments (Experiments 1 and 2), conducted with 16 double-muscled Belgian white-blue bulls and 15 Charolais bulls, respectively, half of the animals received 60 μg cimaterol daily per kg liveweight in the diet, during 135 and 93 days, respectively. In a third experiment, 46 normal Belgian white-blue bulls received no or 4 ppm cimaterol in the diet for 246, 127 or 71 days on average. A withdrawal period of 6 days was always applied for cimaterol-treated animals. Ultimate pH, colour and waterholding capacity were not significantly affected. The effect of cimaterol on moisture content was variable, while protein content was increased and fat was reduced. Warner-Bratzler shear force values were increased by cimaterol P meat quality. PMID:22055115

  3. The Effect of Sperm Morphology and Sire Fertility on Calving Rate of Finnish Ayrshire AI Bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, S; Katila, T; Andersson, M

    2016-02-01

    Good-quality semen is a prerequisite for successful and profitable artificial insemination (AI) of modern dairy cattle. Fertility of the bulls is evaluated with andrological examinations and semen analyses, such as morphology. However, little attention has been paid to the inheritance of bull fertility. In this study, we correlated sperm morphology, birth year and station of 695 AI bulls with calving rate (CR). Sperm morphology was clearly associated with CR underlining the usefulness of morphological examination in the assessment of fertility. The correlation between the proportion of normal spermatozoa and CR was significant (p sires to study the inheritance of fertility. Sire's CR did not correlate with the CR of the sons (p = 0.218). This result indicates that at least when sires of acceptable CR are used to produce sons for use in AI the inheritance of CR is not significantly correlated. PMID:26660630

  4. Manipulation of extraordinary acoustic transmission by a tunable bull's eye structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extraordinary acoustic transmission (EAT) has been investigated in a tunable bull's eye structure. We demonstrate that the transmission coefficient of acoustic waves can be modulated by a grating structure. When the grating is located at a distance of 0.5 mm from the base plate, the acoustic transmission shows an 8.77-fold enhancement compared to that by using a traditional bull's eye structure. When the distance increases to 1.5 mm, the transmission approaches zero, indicating a total reflection. Thus, we can make an efficient modulation of acoustic transmission from 0 to 877%. The EAT effects have been ascribed to the coupling of structure-induced resonance with the diffractive wave and the waveguide modes, as well as the Fabry-Perot resonances. As a potential application, the modulation of far-field collimation is illustrated in the proposed bull's eye structure. (rapid communication)

  5. Morphological differences in the skin of marble trout Salmo marmoratus and of brown trout Salmo trutta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urška Sivka

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite being genetically very closely related, the marble trout Salmo marmoratus and the brown trout Salmo trutta exhibit marked phenotypic differences, particularly with regard to skin pigmentation. Histological analysis of skin from the head and gill cover of differently aged individuals of the two species was carried out in order to characterize differences in skin structure. The basic structure of skin of the individuals studied corresponded with that described for other salmonids, though the head epidermis was somewhat thicker in S. marmoratus than in S. trutta, thickening with age in both species. Numerous secretory goblet cells and sporadic secretory sacciform cells were observed in the upper and middle part of the epidermis in both species. Melanophores were present in both species only in the dermis, and were bigger in S. marmoratus and present at lower average density than in S. trutta, and more or less constant across all age classes. In adult S. marmoratus with fully established marble pigmentation, light areas at low density with small (i.e. aggregated melanophores were present, while in S. trutta melanophores were more uniformly distributed.

  6. Effects of slaughter weight and carcass electrical stimulation on the quality and palatability of beef from young purebred bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, M B; West, R L; Hentges, J F

    1986-12-01

    Seventy-eight purebred Angus and Brahman bulls (10 to 18 mo at slaughter) were used to determine the effects of slaughter weight (60, 80, 90 or 100% of the average mature-cow weight for the respective breed) and carcass electrical stimulation (500 V, 20 2-s impulses on the right side) on carcass and meat characteristics. Angus bulls grazed summer forage (millet) after weaning, while Brahman bulls were fed to stimulate gains achieved on forage by Angus bulls. Bulls were then placed in the feedlot for finishing to their designated slaughter weight (293, 381, 412 and 463 kg for Angus and 316, 420, 463 and 516 kg for Brahman). Coarse dark band formation and lean color problems normally associated with bullock carcasses were either eliminated or reduced by stimulation. Increasing slaughter weight from 60 to 90% was associated with an increase in panel tenderness scores for loin steaks. However, increasing slaughter weight from 90 to 100% little change was detected. On the other hand, shear values for loin steaks decreased with increasing slaughter weight. Stimulation increased the tenderness of loin steaks as determined by both panel scores and shear values, and of bottom round steaks (shear-force values). The data from this study suggest that meat from the bulls slaughtered at lighter weights was generally tough, but was improved when bulls were fed to heavier, yet acceptable weights. This research encourages implementation of electrical stimulation on carcasses from young bulls to improve quality-indicating factors. PMID:3818464

  7. 75 FR 25794 - Regulated Navigation Area: Red Bull Air Race World Championship, Upper New York Bay, Lower Hudson...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA08 Regulated Navigation Area: Red Bull Air Race World... State Park, New Jersey and Ellis Island, New Jersey and New York for the Red Bull Air Race World..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a...

  8. MEAT QUALITY FROM CHAROLAIS BULLS FED DIETS WITH DIFFERENT LEVELS OF CORN SILAGE INCLUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Cozzi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A sample of 6 intensive beef farms was selected according to the feeding plan adopted during the fattening period of Charolais bulls. Two farms did not include any corn silage in the diet (CS0, while corn silage represented 22% of the dietary DM in the second group of 2 farms (CS22, and it raised up to 44% of the dietary DM in the last 2 farms (CS44. Five bulls were randomly selected from each farm to be slaughtered in the same abattoir. Bulls age was similar across treatments but the CS44 bulls had a lower carcass weight (396 kg than the other two treatments (436 and 446 kg for CS0 and CS22, respectively. Carcass fleshiness (SEUROP and fatness scores were not affected by the level of corn silage in the diet. Meat quality was evaluated on a joint sample of the m. Longissimus thoracis, excised from the 5th to the 9th rib of each right half carcass 24 h post-mortem, after an ageing period of 10 d vacuum packaged at 4°C. Meat chemical analysis showed no variations in pH, DM, intramuscular fat and protein content due to the different silage inclusion in the diet. Only the cholesterol content was progressively reduced in the meat of bulls fed increasing quantities of corn silage according to a significant negative linear trend. Meat colour, cooking losses and shear force values were not affected by the diet. Therefore, based on these findings there are no substantial arguments against the use of a large amount of corn silage in the fattening diets of Charolais bulls.

  9. Intracellular diffusion restrictions in isolated cardiomyocytes from rainbow trout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birkedal Rikke

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Restriction of intracellular diffusion of adenine nucleotides has been studied intensively on adult rat cardiomyocytes. However, their cause and role in vivo is still uncertain. Intracellular membrane structures have been suggested to play a role. We therefore chose to study cardiomyocytes from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, which are thinner and have fewer intracellular membrane structures than adult rat cardiomyocytes. Previous studies suggest that trout permeabilized cardiac fibers also have diffusion restrictions. However, results from fibers may be affected by incomplete separation of the cells. This is avoided when studying permeabilized, isolated cardiomyocytes. The aim of this study was to verify the existence of diffusion restrictions in trout cardiomyocytes by comparing ADP-kinetics of mitochondrial respiration in permeabilized fibers, permeabilized cardiomyocytes and isolated mitochondria from rainbow trout heart. Experiments were performed at 10, 15 and 20°C in the absence and presence of creatine. Results Trout cardiomyocytes hypercontracted in the solutions used for mammalian cardiomyocytes. We developed a new solution in which they retained their shape and showed stable steady state respiration rates throughout an experiment. The apparent ADP-affinity of permeabilized cardiomyocytes was different from that of fibers. It was higher, independent of temperature and not increased by creatine. However, it was still about ten times lower than in isolated mitochondria. Conclusions The differences between fibers and cardiomyocytes suggest that results from trout heart fibers were affected by incomplete separation of the cells. However, the lower ADP-affinity of cardiomyocytes compared to isolated mitochondria indicate that intracellular diffusion restrictions are still present in trout cardiomyocytes despite their lower density of intracellular membrane structures. The lack of a creatine effect indicates that

  10. Breed and other effects on reproductive traits and breeding soundness categorization in young beef bulls in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenoweth, P J; Chase, C C; Thatcher, M J; Wilcox, C J; Larsen, R E

    1996-11-01

    Yearling, grass-fed, beef bulls at the USDA Subtropical Agricultural Research Station, Brooksville, Florida, were assessed for physical and semen traits in January, April, July and October of 1991 (Trial 1) and 1992 (Trial 2). Bulls were given a breeding soundness evaluation (BSE) using revised semen and scrotal circumference (SC) criteria. In Trial 1, the bulls consisted of Angus (n = 15), Brahman (n = 14), Hereford (n = 15) and Senepol (n = 14). In Trial 2, the breeds were Angus (n = 15), Brahman (n = 16), Romosinuano (n = 13) and Nellore x Brahman (n = 9). Trial bulls generally showed delayed growth compared with grain-fed bulls in temperate environments. Breed influenced semen traits (percentage sperm motility, normal spermatozoa and those with primary abnormalities) in both trials. Temperate Bos taurus breeds (Angus, Hereford) were generally superior to Bos indicus breeds (Brahman, Nellore x Brahman). Tropically-adapted Bos taurus breeds (Senepol, Romosinuano) were intermediate for those traits tested. In general, tropically-adapted Bos taurus breeds were more similar in reproductive development to temperate Bos taurus than to Bos indicus breeds. Breed by test period interactions occurred and were mainly influenced by delayed sexual maturity of Bos indicus bulls. Qualitative semen traits increased with bull age, particularly from 12 to 18 mo. Scrotal circumference development was slower in the Bos indicus breeds. Bulls of satisfactory BSE status at 18.1 to 22 mo of age were 73.9% in Trial 1 and 58.5% in Trial 2. Brahman bulls had the least satisfactory BSE scores in both years (Trial 1, 44.4%; Trial 2, 22.2%). Most bulls failed to achieve satisfactory BSE status due to a small SC relative to age (Trial 1, 66%; Trial 2, 72%). The most efficacious use of the BSE was > or = 15 mo in Bos taurus bulls and > 18 mo for Bos indicus bulls. Although the BSE has proven to be useful for the assessment of young, pasture-raised bulls in semi-tropical environments, use of SC

  11. The effect of paternal bull on milk fat composition of dairy cows of different breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Kirchnerová

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Intake of milk fat in human nutrition is important because of unsaturated and especially essential fatty acids (FAs, linoleic and α-linolenic acid, and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, which is found only in meat and milk of ruminants. The objective of our study was to investigate the effect of paternal bulls on fatty acids composition in milk fat of dairy cows of different breeds. The milk samples were taken in total from 299 dairy cows from 11 dairy farms. In experiment Holstein (H, n = 105, Red Holstein (R, n = 120 and Pinzgau (P, n = 74 breeds originated from different bulls were used. Individual milk samples were analyzed for fatty acids in milk fat using gas chromatography (apparatus GC Varian 3800, Techtron, USA, using FID detector in capillary column Omegawax 530; 30 m. In the chromatography records there were identified 54 fatty acids inclusive of particular isomers. Their relative proportions were expressed in percent's (%. Among the studied breeds, the highest content of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA - 0.67%, essential FAs (EFA - 2.98%, monounsaturated FAs (MUFA - 25.84% and the lowest atherogenic index (AI - 3.10 was at breed P. Within this breed there was high variability and daughters of bull COS1 achieved significant above-average values of CLA content 1.07%, EFA 3.71%, MUFA 29.93% and under breed average AI = 2.40. The group of daughters of NOB3 was significant lower in CLA, 0.50% as compared with an average of P breed. . From the breed H bull MTY2 showed significantly higher value of 0.62% CLA, EFA 3.42%, 34.29% MUFA and lower value of AI, 1.9 as compared to H breed average. Statistically significantly lower levels of CLA 0.29% and 21.46% MUFA and higher AI 3.72 in milk fat of his daughters, bull STY3 may be considered as potential worser of these properties. At the breed R bull MOR506 showed in compar to the breed average significantly higher value of the EFA 3.80% and also the higher content of CLA 0.50% and MUFA 25

  12. Larval density and the Charnov–Bull model of adaptive environmental sex determination in a copepod

    OpenAIRE

    Voordouw, Maarten J.; Robinson, H. Eve; Stebbins, Gabe; Albert, Arianne Y. K.; Anholt, Bradley R

    2011-01-01

    Charnov et Bull avancent que la variation de la taille adulte induite par le milieu en combinaison avec les différences sexuelles de fitness peut sélectionner l'évolution de la détermination sexuelle adaptative due au milieu (ESD). Dans notre étude, nous déterminons si la densité larvaire affecte la détermination sexuelle chez le copépode Tigriopus californicus (Baker, 1912) comme le prédisent Charnov et Bull. Les individus élevés à densités faibles se développent plus rapidement et sont sign...

  13. Growth and carcass traits of young bulls sired by Charolais and Limousin

    OpenAIRE

    Silvester Žgur; Marko Čepon; Mojca Simčič

    2010-01-01

    A brown cattle is dual purpose cattle in Slovenia mainly used for milk production. This study included 90 crossbred young bulls of two genotypes, 70 Brown x Limousin (BRxLIM) and 20 Brown x Charolais (BRxCHA). The aim of this study was to determine some growth and carcass characteristics of crossbred young bulls. Data were analysed by GLM procedure considering sire breed and year nested within sire breed as fixed effects and slaughter age as linear regression. Sire breed statistically signifi...

  14. Viability of bull spermatozoa collected from the epididymis stored at 18-20°C

    OpenAIRE

    Melina Andrea Formighieri Bertol; Romildo Romualdo Weiss; Vanete Thomaz-Soccol; Luiz Ernandes Kozicki; Aline Silva Fujita; Renata Azevedo de Abreu; Kerriel Thandile Green

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the viability of bull spermatozoa collected from the cauda epididymis stored at 18-20°C, which were compared with semen collected by electro-ejaculation method and preserved at 5°C. Ten pairs of testes from Tabapuã bulls were removed by orchiectomy and stored for 6 (G6), 12 (G12), 18 (G18), 24 (G24) and 30 (G30) h at room temperature (18-20°C). Seven days before orchiectomy, semen was collected by electro-ejaculation method. The sperm parameters evaluated...

  15. Quantitative Histology Studies on the Test in Hybrid Bull of Wild and Domestic Yak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎萍

    2005-01-01

    The testicular tissue of three types of yak bull (1/2 wild yak,cross 1/2 wild yak and domestic yak) were studied quantitatively at 6,12,18 and 24 months old. The results showed that the average values changed from breed to breed at the same age. But there were no significant difference. The volume density and the height of seminiferous tubule and epithelium increased with the age and testicular weight. The capacity rate of the testicular seminiferous tubule in three types were 78.71% ,75.78% and 78.58% respectively, which nearly reached the level of mature bull.

  16. Asymmetric Responses of CAPM - Beta to the Bull and Bear Markets on the Bucharest Stock Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    RĂZVAN ŞTEFĂNESCU; COSTEL NISTOR; RAMONA DUMITRIU

    2009-01-01

    The CAPM - beta is one of the most used tools to estimate the systematic risks associated to stock. In the last decades different behaviours of beta were revealed for the circumstances of the bull and the bear markets. This paper analyses the CAPM – beta responses for bad and good news for ten representative stocks from the Bucharest Stock Exchange. We identify the bull, the bear and the tranquil markets using a univariate kernal density function and we calculate for each stage the single and...

  17. The internationalization process of Red Bull from the perspectives of global expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Watthanachai, Thitiporn; Sarasalin, Karakawat

    2010-01-01

    Date: 23rd November, 2009   Level: Master Thesis in International Business and Entrepreneurship (EFO705), 15 credits   Authors: Karakawat Sarasalin (830117-T255)    Thitiporn Watthanachai (831031-T124)                        Title: The internationalization process of Red Bull from the perspectives of global expansion Supervisor: Jean-Charles Languilaire Problem Statement: How did RED BULL manage to be as an important central international market ...

  18. Heavy metal contamination and hepatic toxicological responses in brown trout (Salmo trutta) from the Kerguelen Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Jaffal, Ali; Betoulle, Stéphane; Biagianti-Risbourg, Sylvie; Terreau, Alexandre; Sanchez, Wilfried; Paris-Palacios, Séverine

    2015-01-01

    The Kerguelen Islands include various species of freshwater fish such as brown trout (Salmo trutta). These trout are among the most isolated from direct anthropogenic impact worldwide. This study was designed to analyse cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) concentrations in the liver of Kerguelen brown trout, and to assess the possible impacts of these metals on hepatic histopathology and oxidative stress parameters (superoxide dismutase and catalase activity and glutathione levels). Trout were caugh...

  19. Spatial and temporal movement dynamics of brook Salvelinus fontinalis and brown trout Salmo trutta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, L.A.; Wagner, Tyler; Barton, Meredith L.

    2015-01-01

    Native eastern brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and naturalized brown trout Salmo trutta occur sympatrically in many streams across the brook trout’s native range in the eastern United States. Understanding within- among-species variability in movement, including correlates of movement, has implications for management and conservation. We radio tracked 55 brook trout and 45 brown trout in five streams in a north-central Pennsylvania, USA watershed to quantify the movement of brook trout and brown trout during the fall and early winter to (1) evaluate the late-summer, early winter movement patterns of brook trout and brown trout, (2) determine correlates of movement and if movement patterns varied between brook trout and brown trout, and (3) evaluate genetic diversity of brook trout within and among study streams, and relate findings to telemetry-based observations of movement. Average total movement was greater for brown trout (mean ± SD = 2,924 ± 4,187 m) than for brook trout (mean ± SD = 1,769 ± 2,194 m). Although there was a large amount of among-fish variability in the movement of both species, the majority of movement coincided with the onset of the spawning season, and a threshold effect was detected between stream flow and movement: where movement increased abruptly for both species during positive flow events. Microsatellite analysis of brook trout revealed consistent findings to those found using radio-tracking, indicating a moderate to high degree of gene flow among brook trout populations. Seasonal movement patterns and the potential for relatively large movements of brook and brown trout highlight the importance of considering stream connectivity when restoring and protecting fish populations and their habitats.

  20. The role of environmental transfer of macro-elements in the Brown trout Salmo trutta

    OpenAIRE

    Baszyński, Jędrzej; Kamiński, Piotr; Koim-Puchowska, Beata

    2015-01-01

    In natural habitat of river Słupia researchers observe the fall condition among Brown trouts and their morbidity on ulcerative dermal necrosis. Trout's shape is strictly connected with elemental economy. In recent study we analyse the macroelements economy (Na, Mg, K, Ca, P) in trout's organism on different growth stages: young and adult individuals, inside trout's organs (muscles, gills, liver, fins), in periods of 2006-2007 and 2011-2012. We analyse the concentrations of chosen chemical ele...

  1. Admixture analysis and stocking impact assessment in brown trout ( Salmo trutta ), estimated with incomplete baseline data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Bekkevold, Dorte; Mensberg, Karen-Lise Dons

    2001-01-01

    . Consequently, stocking had little effect on improving fisheries. In one population, the genetic contribution by domesticated trout was small, whereas in the other population, some genetic impact was suggested. Admixture in this sample of anadromous trout despite absence of stocked domesticated trout could be...

  2. Exploring trends, causes, and consequences of declining lipids in Lake Superior lake trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of lake trout to forage in deepwater habitats is facilitated by high lipid content, which affords buoyancy. In Lake Superior, lean lake trout historically occupied depths < 80 m, and siscowet lake trout occupied depths > 80 m. Siscowets have been known f...

  3. Stocking impact and migration pattern in an anadromous brown trout (Salmo trutta) complex: where have all the stocked spawning sea trout gone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzzante, Daniel E; Hansen, Michael M; Meldrup, Dorte; Ebert, Kaare M

    2004-06-01

    We examined polymorphism at seven microsatellite loci among sea trout (Salmo trutta) (n = 846) collected from three areas in the Limfjord (Denmark). We then assessed their potential population source by comparing, using a mixed stock analysis (MSA) Bayesian framework, their genetic composition to that of brown trout collected from 32 tributaries pooled into nine geographical regions (n = 3801) and two hatcheries (n = 222) used for stocking. For each of the three regional sea trout groups (western, central and eastern Limfjord, n = 91, n = 426, n = 329, respectively), MSA was conducted with (i) all individuals in the group, (ii) with the subset of spawning sea trout only and (iii) with the subset of foraging, nonspawning individuals only, a subset that consisted primarily of sea trout caught during their first year at sea. For all three regional sea trout groups, a higher proportion of individuals (regardless of whether they were foraging or spawning) appear to have originated from the rivers that drain locally, than from the rivers that drain in other parts of the Limfjord. This suggests (1) that sea trout, at least during their first year at sea, undertake limited migrations within the Limfjord system and (2) that sea trout on their spawning run were caught close to their natal rivers. The proportion of sea trout of hatchery origin varied widely among all three Limfjord areas and broadly reflected regional stocking histories, with high proportions of sea trout of domestic origin in the east (39.3%), where stocking with domestic trout was practised intensely at the time of sampling, and in the west (57.2%), where a programme of coastal stocking of post smolts took place over several years in the early 1990s. In contrast, in the central Limfjord, where stocking with domestic trout was largely abandoned in the early 1990s, the proportion of sea trout of domestic origin was only 8.5%. Interestingly, for all three regional sea trout groups, virtually no sea trout of

  4. Magnetite-Based Magnetoreceptor Cells in the Olfactory Organ of Rainbow Trout and Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschvink, J. L.; Cadiou, H.; Dixson, A. D.; Eder, S.; Kobayashi, A.; McNaughton, P. A.; Muhamad, A. N.; Raub, T. D.; Walker, M. M.; Winklhofer, M.; Yuen, B. B.

    2011-12-01

    with narrow particle size distribution concentrated in the trunk, similar to biogenic magnetofossils. In SQUID microscopy images numerous dipole spots are widely distributed throughout the flank, not correlated with skin pigments or the spinal cord and neural arches. We interpret this to indicate a lateral line location for trunk magnetite in zebrafish. In contrast to trout in which rock magnetic experiments and TEM suggest highly interacting bundled ropes of crystals, similar to those in the large magnetotactic bacterium, M. bavaricum, zebrafish magnetic aggregates apparently arrange in clumps or mixed chains and clumps. We report trout olfactory epithelium containing magnetite magnetoreceptors that transduce the external magnetic field, then encode and transmit it to the brain, while zebrafish contain magnetite in the lateral line region.

  5. Influence of Genotype and Diet on the Characteristics of Semitendinosus Muscle in Crossbred Young Bulls Derived from Brown Swiss Cow and Double Muscled Bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Bittante

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of genotype and diet on the characteristics of muscle fibers and adipocytes of the semitendinosus muscle in crossbred young bulls derived from Brown Swiss cows (B and double-muscled Piemontese (PI or Belgian Blue (BB bulls. For this purpose 24 young bulls divided in 6 groups fed 3 diets have been used: a control diet without supplementation of rumen protected CLA (rpCLA, two other diets added with 8 or 80 g/d of a supplement of rpCLA. The histochemical methods (succinic dehydrogenase and mATPase pointed out the presence of three fiber types: type I, type IIA and type IIX. Results demonstrated that genotype affected both fiber type number and size. While there was no significant difference among the percentages of type I fibers (PI×B 12.73%, BB×B 12.95%, the difference was significant (P<0.05 for IIA fiber type (PI×B 23.03%, BB×B 29.13% and for IIX fiber type (PI×B 64.53%, BB×B 57.84%. All the fiber types of the BB×B genotype had a significantly bigger size (P<0.05 than the fibers of PI×B genotype. The adipocytes analyses showed a significant effect (P<0.05 of genotype on the adipocytes total surface. The level of CLA addition did not affected neither muscle fiber nor adipocytes characteristics.

  6. Immunohistochemical evaluation of experimental Vagococcus salmoninarum infection in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum 1792).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yardimci, B; Didinen, B I; Onuk, E E; Metin, S; Ciftci, A; Kubilay, A; Pekmezci, G Z; Eralp, H

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the pathogenesis and histopathological and immunohistochemical findings in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) following experimental vagococcosis. For this purpose, 60 rainbow trout were used. The experimental study used the pathogen Vagococcus salmoninarum. The fish were intraperitoneally (IP) administered with an inoculate containing 0.1 mL of the bacteria, resulting in a dose of 1.2 × 10(9)  cfu mL(-1) per fish. For histopathological observations, tissue samples were taken from fish that died during the experiment and fish that survived until the end of the trial (60th day). All the tissue samples were immunohistochemically stained by the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex and immunofluorescence methods using polyclonal antibody to detect V. salmoninarum antigens. In immunoperoxidase staining, positive reactions to bacterial antigens were most commonly seen in the kidney, heart and liver. In the immunofluorescence analysis, the distribution of antigens in the tissue and organs was similar to that observed with the immunoperoxidase staining. The results reveal an important correlation between histochemical and immunohistochemical staining in demonstrating the distribution of V. salmoninarum antigens in the affected tissues. PMID:26095881

  7. 77 FR 62500 - Peabody Trout Creek Reservoir LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Peabody Trout Creek Reservoir LLC; Notice of Intent To File License...: Peabody Trout Creek Reservoir LLC. e. Name of Project: Trout Creek Reservoir Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: On Trout Creek, 15 miles southwest of Steamboat Springs, Colorado. The project occupies 4.3...

  8. Genetic Background and Population Genetics of Hungarian Brown Trout Populations Using PCR-RFLP and Microsatellite Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ágnes Ősz

    2015-12-01

    4 University of West Hungary, Mosonmagyaróvár Vár 2., 9200 Mosonmagyaróvár, Hungary Based on the analyses of the mitochondrial DNA of several European brown trout populations, five evolutionary lineages of brown trout were indentified (Atlantic, Danubian, Mediterranean, Adriatic, Marble. The species is bred primarily for stock enhancement of natural waters, however the most hatchery-maintained broodstocks originate from the Atlantic lineage. Due to the hydrogeography of Hungary our stocks should theoretically belong to the Danubian lineage; however, this has not been investigated earlier by genetic studies. For our genetic analysis, 702 fin clips were collected from two brown trout broodstocks (Lillafüred and Szilvásvárad as well as populations of natural streams (Bán, Jósva, Kemence, Apátkút, Bittva and Kölöntés in Hungary. Sequencing of the control region in mitochondrial DNA, three PCR-RFLP (mitochondrial DNA control region, lactate dehydrogenase and somatolactin genes and five microsatellite markers were used to distinguish between Danubian and Atlantic lineages of brown trout. The proportion of the mitochondrial haplotype of the Danubian lineage was low, with the exception of the Apátkúti, Kölöntés streams and Szilvásvárad broodstock. Analyses of nuclear PCR-RFLP and microsatellites markers showed various distributions of alleles characteristic of the Atlantic or Danubian lineages, although the Atlantic genotype has dominated in all population. In case of the analyses of microsatellites the polymorphism varied greatly at all locations. In addition we found several alleles that were not described earlier in other populations. Those alleles probably would be typical of Hungarian brown trout populations. Overall the populations were effectively in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for both PCR-RFLP and microsatellite markers. The remarkably high proportion of allochthonous Atlantic alleles in the analyzed sites is a clear indicator of the import

  9. Bisphenol A in oocytes leads to growth suppression and altered stress performance in juvenile rainbow trout.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelakanteswar Aluru

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bisphenol A (BPA, used in the manufacture of plastics, is ubiquitously distributed in the aquatic environment. However, the effect of maternal transfer of these xenobiotics on embryonic development and growth is poorly understood in fish. We tested the hypothesis that BPA in eggs, mimicking maternal transfer, impact development, growth and stress performance in juveniles of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Trout oocytes were exposed to 0, 30 and 100 microg.mL(-1 BPA for 3 h in ovarian fluid, followed by fertilization. The embryos were maintained in clean water and sampled temporally over 156-days post-fertilization (dpf, and juveniles were sampled at 400-dpf. The egg BPA levels declined steadily after exposure and were undetectable after 21- dpf. Oocyte exposure to BPA led to a delay in hatching and yolk absorption and a consistently lower body mass over 152-dpf. The growth impairment, especially in the high BPA group, correlated with higher growth hormone (GH content and lower GH receptors gene expression. Also, mRNA abundances of insulin-like growth factors (IGF-1 and IGF-2 and their receptors were suppressed in the BPA treated groups. The juvenile fish grown from the BPA-enriched eggs had lower body mass and showed perturbations in plasma cortisol and glucose response to an acute stressor. CONCLUSION: BPA accumulation in eggs, prior to fertilization, leads to hatching delays, growth suppression and altered stress response in juvenile trout. The somatotropic axis appears to be a key target for BPA impact during early embryogenesis, leading to long term growth and stress performance defects in fish.

  10. Population biology of coral trout species in eastern Torres Strait: Implications for fishery management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ashley J.; Currey, Leanne M.; Begg, Gavin A.; Murchie, Cameron D.; Ballagh, Aaron C.

    2008-09-01

    Coral trout ( Plectropomus spp.) are the main target species for commercial fishers in the eastern Torres Strait Reef Line Fishery (ETS RLF). The four species of coral trout known to occur in Torres Strait: Plectropomus leopardus, Plectropomus maculatus, Plectropomus areolatus and Plectropomus laevis are currently managed as a single species in Torres Strait, as there is no species-specific biological information available for the region which could be used to assess whether species differ in their response to fishing pressure. The aim of our study was to determine whether it is appropriate (biologically) to manage coral trout in the ETS RLF as a single species group or whether different management arrangements are required for some species. We used catch data and biological data from samples collected by commercial fishers to examine the distribution within Torres Strait and estimate a range of biological parameters for P. leopardus, P. maculatus and P. areolatus. Insufficient P. laevis samples were collected to reliably examine this species. Results indicated that the population biology, particularly the reproductive biology, of P. areolatus was substantially different to both P. leopardus and P. maculatus. Although it is difficult to predict the response to fishing, P. areolatus may be more vulnerable to fishing than P. leopardus and P. maculatus, due to the larger size at sex change observed for this species and the very low proportion of males protected by the current minimum size limit. Therefore, while the common management arrangements for P. leopardus and P. maculatus appear to be adequate for these species, separate management arrangements are needed for the sustainable harvest of P. areolatus populations in the ETS. Specifically, we recommend the introduction of a maximum size limit for P. areolatus, in addition to the current minimum size limit, which may allow a proportion of males some protection from fishing.

  11. Evaluation of an Unsuccessful Brook Trout Electrofishing Removal Project in a Small Rocky Mountain Stream.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Kevin A.; Lamansky, Jr., James A.; Schill, Daniel J.

    2006-01-26

    In the western United States, exotic brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis frequently have a deleterious effect on native salmonids, and biologists often attempt to remove brook trout from streams by means of electrofishing. Although the success of such projects typically is low, few studies have assessed the underlying mechanisms of failure, especially in terms of compensatory responses. A multiagency watershed advisory group (WAG) conducted a 3-year removal project to reduce brook trout and enhance native salmonids in 7.8 km of a southwestern Idaho stream. We evaluated the costs and success of their project in suppressing brook trout and looked for brook trout compensatory responses, such as decreased natural mortality, increased growth, increased fecundity at length, and earlier maturation. The total number of brook trout removed was 1,401 in 1998, 1,241 in 1999, and 890 in 2000; removal constituted an estimated 88% of the total number of brook trout in the stream in 1999 and 79% in 2000. Although abundance of age-1 and older brook trout declined slightly during and after the removals, abundance of age-0 brook trout increased 789% in the entire stream 2 years after the removals ceased. Total annual survival rate for age-2 and older brook trout did not decrease during the removals, and the removals failed to produce an increase in the abundance of native redband trout Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri. Lack of a meaningful decline and unchanged total mortality for older brook trout during the removals suggest that a compensatory response occurred in the brook trout population via reduced natural mortality, which offset the removal of large numbers of brook trout. Although we applaud WAG personnel for their goal of enhancing native salmonids by suppressing brook trout via electrofishing removal, we conclude that their efforts were unsuccessful and suggest that similar future projects elsewhere over such large stream lengths would be costly, quixotic enterprises.

  12. Acute sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to copper, cadmium, or zinc in water-only laboratory exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calfee, Robin D.; Little, Edward E.; Puglis, Holly J.; Scott, Erinn L.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Mebane, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    The acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were determined for 7 developmental life stages in flow-through water-only exposures. Metal toxicity varied by species and by life stage. Rainbow trout were more sensitive to cadmium than white sturgeon across all life stages, with median effect concentrations (hardness-normalized EC50s) ranging from 1.47 µg Cd/L to 2.62 µg Cd/L with sensitivity remaining consistent during later stages of development. Rainbow trout at 46 d posthatch (dph) ranked at the 2nd percentile of a compiled database for Cd species sensitivity distribution with an EC50 of 1.46 µg Cd/L and 72 dph sturgeon ranked at the 19th percentile (EC50 of 3.02 µg Cd/L). White sturgeon were more sensitive to copper than rainbow trout in 5 of the 7 life stages tested with biotic ligand model (BLM)-normalized EC50s ranging from 1.51 µg Cu/L to 21.9 µg Cu/L. In turn, rainbow trout at 74 dph and 95 dph were more sensitive to copper than white sturgeon at 72 dph and 89 dph, indicating sturgeon become more tolerant in older life stages, whereas older trout become more sensitive to copper exposure. White sturgeon at 2 dph, 16 dph, and 30 dph ranked in the lower percentiles of a compiled database for copper species sensitivity distribution, ranking at the 3rd (2 dph), 5th (16 dph), and 10th (30 dph) percentiles. White sturgeon were more sensitive to zinc than rainbow trout for 1 out of 7 life stages tested (2 dph with an biotic ligand model–normalized EC50 of 209 µg Zn/L) and ranked in the 1st percentile of a compiled database for zinc species sensitivity distribution.

  13. Viimane valik / Malcolm Bull ; tõlk. Märt Väljataga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bull, Malcolm

    2006-01-01

    Genotsiidi mõistest ja teostamisest. Rets. rmt.: Michael Mann. The dark side of democracy: explaining ethnic cleansing. Cambridge, 2005; Marc Levene. Genocide in the age of the nation state. Volume I: The meaning of genocide; Volume II: The rise of the West and the coming of genocide. Tauris, 2005. Lisa: Malcolm Bull

  14. HSP90 expression correlation with the freezing resistance of bull sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Wang, Yan-Feng; Wang, Hong; Wang, Chun-Wei; Zan, Lin-Sen; Hu, Jian-Hong; Li, Qing-Wang; Jia, Yong-Hong; Ma, Guo-Ji

    2014-05-01

    To date, there has been little improvement in cryopreservation of bull sperm due to lack of understanding of the freezing mechanisms. Therefore, this study set out to investigate expression levels of fertility-associated proteins in bull sperm, and in particular the relationship between the 90 kDa heat-shock protein (HSP90) and the sperm characteristics after freezing-thawing. Semen was collected from eight Holstein bulls by artificial vagina. Characteristics of these fresh semen, including sperm motility, morphology, viability and concentration, were evaluated. Sperm quality was also assessed after freezing-thawing. Eight ejaculates were divided into two groups based on freezing resistance and sperm motility. Sperm proteins were extracted and sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis and western blotting were performed. SDS-PAGE results showed that there was substantial diversity in 90 kDa proteins in the frozen-thawed sperm and HSP90 was confirmed as one of the 90 kDa proteins by western blot. This study indicated that HSP90 expression correlated positively with sperm quality. The amount of expressed 90 kDa proteins in the high freezing resistance (HFR) group was significantly higher than that in the low freezing resistance (LFR) group (P HSP90 could probably lead to the higher motility and freezing resistance of sperm found after freezing-thawing. Therefore, we concluded that level of HSP90 expression could be used to predict reliably and simply the freezing resistance of bull sperm. PMID:23506739

  15. A feed forward neural network for classification of bull's-eye myocardial perfusion images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Identification of hypoperfused areas in myocardial perfusion single-photon emission tomography studies can be aided by bull's-eye representation of raw counts, lesion extent and lesion severity, the latter two being produced by comparison of the raw bull's-eye data with a normal data base. An artificial intelligence technique which is presently becoming widely popular and which is particularly suitable for pattern recognition is that of artificial neural network. We have studied the ability of feed forward neural networks to extract patterns from bull's-eye data by assessing their capability to predict lesion presence without direct comparison with a normal data base. Studies were undertaken on both simulation data and on real stress-rest data obtained from 410 male patients undergoing routine thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. The ability of trained neural networks to predict lesion presence was quantified by calculating the areas under receiver operating characteristic curves. Figures as high as 0.96 for non-preclassified patient data were obtained, corresponding to an accuracy of 92%. The results demonstrate that neural networks can accurately classify patterns from bull's-eye myocardial perfusion images and detect the presence of hypoperfused areas without the need for comparison with a normal data base. Preliminary work suggests that this technique could be used to study perfusion patterns in the myocardium and their correlation with clinical parameters. (orig.)

  16. Evaluation of carcass traits and meat characteristics of Guzerat-crossbred bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Frederico B; Villela, Severino D J; Mourthé, Mário H F; Paulino, Pedro V R; Boari, Cleube A; Ribeiro, Julimar S; Barroso, Jorge A; Pires, Aldrin V; Martins, Paulo G M A

    2016-02-01

    Our objective was to evaluate carcass and meat characteristics of Guzerat-crossbred bulls finished in feedlot. Carcasses from 18 bulls, randomly selected from a larger group of 36 bulls, consisting of F1 Guzerat×Holstein ("Guzholstein"); F1 Guzerat×Nellore ("Guzonell"); and 1/2 Simmental+1/4 Guzerat+1/4 Nellore (Three-Cross; n=6 each group) were used. Cold carcass weight was greater (P=0.01) for Three-Cross compared with "Guzonell" and "Guzholstein". Three-Cross carcasses had greater (P0.05) among groups, but depth was greater (P<0.01) for Three-Cross compared with other groups. "Guzholtein" had lesser (P=0.05) shear force compared with "Guzonell", with Three-Cross being intermediate. We conclude that "Guzholstein" is an adequate option for producers willing to finish this kind of genetic group, as it is comparable or better than Bos indicus crosses and B. indicus×Bos taurus bulls. PMID:26546913

  17. Effects of pedigree and exotic genetic inheritance on semen production traits of dairy bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijetha Bajjalli Thippeswamy

    2014-03-01

    Conclusions: It may be inferred that the “acceptable quality semen producing ability” decreased from grandsire through sire to male progeny and among the increasing exotic genetic levels of CB cattle, F1 bulls produced significantly higher “low grade ejaculates” that were unfit for cryopreservation.

  18. Increased conception rates in beef cattle inseminated with nanopurified bull semen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reproductive performance is of paramount importance to the cattle industry. Since recent progress has been achieved by optimizing estrus and ovulation synchronization protocols in cows, improvements are desired to increase the fertility of bulls enrolled in artificial insemination (AI) programs. Thi...

  19. Candidate causative mutation on BTA18 associated with calving and conformation traits in Holstein bulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Complementing quantitative methods with sequence data analysis is a major goal of the post-genome era of biology. In this study, we analyzed Illumina HiSeq sequence data derived from 11 US Holstein bulls in order to identify putative causal mutations associated with calving and conformation traits. ...

  20. The use of integer programming to select bulls across breeding companies with volume price discounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnel, M B; Galligan, D T

    2004-10-01

    Optimization programs are currently used to aid in the selection of bulls to be used in herd breeding programs. While these programs offer a systematic approach to the problem of semen selection, they ignore the impact of volume discounts. Volume discounts are discounts that vary depending on the number of straws purchased. The dynamic nature of volume discounts means that, in order to be adequately accounted for, they must be considered in the optimization routine. Failing to do this creates a missed economic opportunity because the potential benefits of optimally selecting and combining breeding company discount opportunities are not captured. To address these issues, an integer program was created which used binary decision variables to incorporate the effects of quantity discounts into the optimization program. A consistent set of trait criteria was used to select a group of bulls from 3 sample breeding companies. Three different selection programs were used to select the bulls, 2 traditional methods and the integer method. After the discounts were applied using each method, the integer program resulted in the lowest cost portfolio of bulls. A sensitivity analysis showed that the integer program also resulted in a low cost portfolio when the genetic trait goals were changed to be more or less stringent. In the sample application, a net benefit of the new approach over the traditional approaches was a 12.3 to 20.0% savings in semen cost. PMID:15377634

  1. The effect of streptomycin, oxytetracycline, tilmicosin and phenylbutazone on spermatogenesis in bulls.

    OpenAIRE

    Barth, A D; Wood, M R

    1998-01-01

    To determine whether declining semen quality associated with health problems may be due to certain antibiotic or anti-inflammatory treatments, semen was collected 3 times per week for up to 42 d from 6 normal bulls after treatment with oxytetracycline, tilmicosin, dihydrostreptomycin, or phenylbutazone. No adverse effects on semen quality were observed.

  2. Chronological age and breed-type effects on carcass characteristics and palatability of bull beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, R R; Smith, G C; Cross, H R; Savell, J W; Long, C R; Cartwright, T C

    1986-01-01

    Bulls (n = 115) of four slaughter ages (9, 12, 15 or 18 months) and of 15 genotypes were studied. In this analysis, each bullock was assigned to one of four breed groups-British and British crosses, Brahman and Brahman crosses. Jersey and Jersey crosses or Holstein and Holstein crosses. Slaughter age had an (P yield grade while breed group had an (P grade. In general, British and British cross bullocks produced carcasses with the thickest subcutaneous fat, the highest marbling score and the highest USDA quality grade while Jersey and Jersey cross bullocks yielded carcasses with the lowest weight, smallest longissimus muscle area and the lowest USDA quality grade of the four breed-type groups. Increases in chronological age (from 9 to 18 months) were generally associated with a decrease in USDA maturity score, and increases in marbling score, USDA quality grade, longissimus muscle area, subcutaneous fat thickness and USDA yield grade. Shear force values decreased as bulls matured from 9 to 18 months of age. The meat from Brahman-type bulls had higher shear force values (P Brahman-type carcasses were assigned the lowest numerical ratings for juiciness. Breed-type had a greater effect on tenderness of bull beef than did chronological age. PMID:22055275

  3. Marketingová strategie firmy Red Bull ČR, s.r.o.

    OpenAIRE

    Janík, Dan

    2008-01-01

    Work consider theoretic information related to marketing strategy and brand marketing. There is description of Red Bull Czech Republic company and its organization in second part of work. In practical part of work is analyze of marketing research about influence of marketing activities and analyze of consumer preferences.

  4. No detection of Besnoitia besnoiti DNA in the semen of chronically infected bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Gil, A; Grisez, C; Prevot, F; Florentin, S; Decaudin, A; Picard-Hagen, N; Berthelot, X; Ronsin, P; Alzieu, J P; Marois, M; Corboz, N; Peglion, M; Vilardell, C; Liénard, E; Bouhsira, E; Castillo, J A; Franc, M; Jacquiet, P

    2014-06-01

    Bovine besnoitiosis is a chronic and debilitating disease observed in many European countries that may cause important economic losses in cattle. The recent widespread of the parasite in Europe had led the European Food Safety Authority to declare bovine besnoitiosis as a re-emerging disease in Europe. Many aspects of the epidemiology of bovine besnoitiosis such as the main routes of transmission are still unclear and need to be further studied. Among the different hypotheses, a sexual transmission has not yet been investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of Besnoitia besnoiti DNA in the semen of naturally infected bulls by using a highly sensitive method (real-time qPCR). Both pre-sperm and sperm fractions of 40 bulls, including seronegative (n = 11), seropositive subclinically (n = 17), and seropositive clinically (n = 12) infected animals, were collected by electroejaculation and analyzed by real-time qPCR. No B. besnoiti DNA was detected in 27 pre-sperm and 28 sperm fractions of the 40 examined bulls, suggesting that the transmission of B. besnoiti infection by the semen of chronically infected bulls is very unlikely. PMID:24802865

  5. Mechanistic identification of cutting force coefficients in bull-nose milling process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Ge; Wu Baohai; Zhang Dinghua; Luo Ming

    2013-01-01

    An improved method to determine cutting force coefficients for bull-nose cutters is proposed based on the semi-mechanistic cutting force model.Due to variations of cutting speed along the tool axis in bull-nose milling,they affect coefficients significantly and may bring remarkable discrepancies in the prediction of cutting forces.Firstly,the bull-nose cutter is regarded as a finite number of axial discs piled up along the tool axis,and the rigid cutting force model is exerted.Then through discretization along cutting edges,the cutting force related to each element is recalculated,which equals to differential force value between the current and previous elements.In addition,coefficient identification adopts the cubic polynomial fitting method with the slice elevation as its horizontal axis.By calculating relations of cutting speed and cutting depth,the influences of speed variations on cutting force can be derived.Thereby,several tests are conducted to calibrate the coefficients using the improved method,which are applied to later force predictions.Eventually,experimental evaluations are discussed to verify the effectiveness.Compared to the conventional method,the results are more accurate and show satisfactory consistency with the simulations.For further applications,the method is instructive to predict the cutting forces in bull-nose milling with lead or tilt angles and can be extended to the selection of cutting parameters.

  6. Body composition and deposition efficiency of protein and energy in grazing young bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriton Egidio Lisboa Valente

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of supplementation with different protein: carbohydrate ratios on body composition, carcass characteristics and protein and energy deposition efficiency of young were assessed. Twenty-four Nellorecalves (132.5 ± 5.5 kgand 90-150 days of age were kept on pasture for a 430 day experimental period. The treatments were: Control = mineral mixture only; HPHC = high-protein and high-carbohydrate supplement; HPLC = high-protein and low-carbohydrate supplement; LPHC = low-protein and high-carbohydrate supplement; LPLC = low-protein and low-carbohydrate supplement. Four animals at begning and 20 animal at end of experiment were slaughtered to evaluate the carcass composition. Control bulls had the lowest (p 0.05 between supplemented bulls (13 Mcal day-1. Although non-supplemented bulls had less (p 0.05 between supplemented bulls. High-carbohydrate supplements were associated with more (p 0.05 in the energy efficiency between the groups. Therefore, supplementation increases the intake and retention of protein and energy without changing the retention efficiency.

  7. EFFECT OF ANTIBIOTICS IN EXTENDER ON FERTILITY OF LIQUID BUFFALO BULL SEMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. AKHTER, M. SAJJAD, S. M. H. ANDRABI1, N. ULLAH1 AND M. QAYYUM

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine if a new antibiotic combination comprising of gentamycin, tylosin and linco-spectin (GTLS in extender is suitable for improvement in fertility of liquid buffalo bull semen through artificial insemination (AI. Two consecutive ejaculates per week (4 weeks were collected from three Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls of known fertility by using artificial vagina. The pooled ejaculates were split-sampled and diluted with skimmed milk extender (37oC; 10x106 motile spermatozoa/ml containing either SP (streptomycin 1000 μg/ml and penicillin 1000 iu/ml or GTLS (gentamycin 500 μg/ml, tylosin 100 μg/ml, lincomycin 300 μg/ml, and spectinomycin 600 μg/ml. Liquid semen was stored at 5°C for seven days. Fertility, based on 90-days first service pregnancy rate, was determined under field conditions. The fertility rates for SP-based vs. GTLS-containing liquid semen of buffalo bull were 58.55 and 60.00%, respectively, the difference was non significant. The fertility rates also did not differ (P>0.05 due to antibiotics at different days of storage of liquid semen at 5oC. In conclusion, GTLS, in skimmed milk extender compared to SP, did not significantly improve the fertility of chilled buffalo bull semen.

  8. BIOMASS AND DENSITY OF BROWN AND RAINBOW TROUT IN NEW MEXICO STREAMS

    OpenAIRE

    Srečko Lainer

    1995-01-01

    Mean stream numerical density of the brown trout (Salmo trutta m. fario Linnaeus, 1758) and the rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792) was 0.090 fish/m2 of which brown trout averaged 69% (72% in total biomass) in 15 high-elevation New Mexico streams (1,661-2,560 m above sea level). Total trout density varied from 0.008/m2 in 1988 and 1989. Mean trout density ranged between 0.023-0.121 fish/m2 at site s open to public fishing. Considerably higher densities (0.142-0.409 fish/m2) wer...

  9. Effects of Basella alba and Hibiscus macranthus extracts on testosterone production of adult rat and bull Leydig cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paul F. Moundipa; Nathalie Sara E. Beboy; Fabien Zelefack; Silvère Ngouela; Etienne Tsamo; Wolf-Bernhard Schill; Thomas K. Monsees

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To determine the androgenic effects of Basella alba and Hibiscus macranthus extracts in the rat and the bull,and to develop a novel in vitro test system using Leydig cells from bull testes. Methods: The effect of methanol extracts from both plants on testosterone production in isolated Leydig cells from the rat and the bull was analyzed using 125I-radioimmunoassay (125I-RIA). Rat Leydig cells were obtained by common methods, whereas a novel technique was used to purify Leydig cells from bull testes. Results: Bull testes from the slaughter house were a cheap source of pure Leydig cells. In culture, these cells produced testosterone for 5-6 days, which can be stimulated by human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG). Basella alba extracts significantly enhanced testosterone production in bull and rat Leydig cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Hibiscus macranthus showed no androgenic effect but was shown to inhibit testosterone production at higher concentrations. Conclusion: Leydig cells purified from bull testes can be used as an alternative tool in experimental animal research. Certain fractions of Basella alba extract demonstrated androgenic potential whereas Hibiscus macranthus extracts did not.

  10. Laboratory diagnosis and transmissibility of bovine viral diarrhea virus from a bull with a persistent testicular infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomer, Benjamin W; Toohey-Kurth, Kathy; Zhang, Yan; Brodersen, Bruce W; Marley, M Shonda; Joiner, Kellye S; Zhang, Yijing; Galik, Patricia K; Riddell, Kay P; Givens, M Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Recently, in the United States, a dairy bull was diagnosed as the second confirmed case of persistent testicular infection (PTI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). The first objective of this study was to evaluate the testing methodologies currently used by the artificial insemination industry in order to improve the detection of bulls with PTI. This study evaluated the impact of multiple factors ([1] sample tested, [2] sample handling, [3] assay used, and [4] assay methodology) on the sensitivity of detection of BVDV. The second objective of this study was to evaluate the transmissibility of BVDV from the bull through casual or sexual contact. Results from this study indicate that straws of semen should be transported to the diagnostic laboratory in liquid nitrogen dry shippers. PCR proved to be a more sensitive assay than virus isolation; however, certain PCR protocols exhibited greater diagnostic sensitivity than others. Insemination with cryopreserved semen from this infected bull caused viral transmission to a seronegative heifer resulting in viremia and seroconversion. After 42 months of age, the bull appeared to clear the infection. In conclusion, this bull validates that natural exposure to a 1a strain of BVDV can result in a unique PTI causing contamination of semen with detectable infectious virus. Appropriate handling and testing of samples is necessary in order to detect bulls exhibiting PTI. Additionally, PTI with BVDV may potentially be cleared after an extended duration. PMID:24656648

  11. Breeding soundness evaluations of 3,648 yearling beef bulls using the 1993 Society for Theriogenology guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, S P; Spitzer, J C; Hopkins, F M; Higdon, H L; Bridges, W C

    2002-09-01

    Our objective was to perform a retrospective analysis of breeding soundness evaluations (BSEs) as classified by the 1993 Society for Theriogenology (SFT) guidelines [Chenoweth et al., Guidelines for using the bull breeding soundness evaluation form, in: Theriogenology Handbook, 1993, pp. B-10]. Data included BSE information obtained from five performance-testing stations in South Carolina (SC1, SC2, SC3) and Tennessee (TN1, TN2) from 1986 through 1999 on 3648 Angus, Brangus, Charolais, Chianina, Gelbvieh, Limousin, Polled Hereford, Santa Gertrudis, Simbrah, and Simmental bulls. Analyses were simplified by classifying all bulls as either satisfactory or unsatisfactory potential breeders. Of the 3648 bulls evaluated, 76.2% were classified as satisfactory potential breeders. Of all bulls evaluated, 4.0% were unsatisfactory due to inadequate spermatozoal motility, 7.0% due to inadequate spermatozoal morphology and 2.6% due to a combination of inadequate motility and morphology. Unsatisfactory classifications due to non-spermatozoal parameters out of all bulls were 10.2%, with 7.1% for inadequate scrotal circumference and 3.1% for physical abnormalities. For satisfactory and unsatisfactory bulls, respectively, means and standard deviations were 35.8 +/- 2.7 and 33.0 +/- 4.1 cm (P < 0.001) for scrotal circumference, 63 +/- 18 and 35 +/- 24% (P < 0.001) for percent motility, and 86 +/- 7 and 63 +/- 21% (P < 0.001) for percent normal morphology. PMID:12212894

  12. Estimating the long-term effects of stocking domesticated trout into wild brown trout ( Salmo trutta ) populations : an approach using microsatellite DNA analysis of historical and contemporary samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller

    2002-01-01

    Indigenous salmonid fish gene pools are affected by domesticated conspecifics, derived from aquaculture escapes and deliberate releases. Variability was examined at nine microsatellite loci in order to assess the long-term impact of stocking domesticated trout in two brown trout populations. The ...... of stocked trout, could explain the observed introgression. Few nonadmixed individuals remained in the introgressed population, and I discuss how individual admixture analysis can be used to identify and conserve nonintrogressed remains of the population....... study was based on analysis of two historical samples (194556), represented by old scale collections, and seven contemporary samples (1986-2000). In one population historical and contemporary samples were remarkably genetically similar despite more than a decade of intense stocking. Estimation of...... admixture proportions showed a small genetic contribution from domesticated trout (approximately 6%), and individual admixture analysis demonstrated a majority of nonadmixed individuals. The expected genetic contribution by domesticated trout was 64%, assessed from the number of stocked trout and assuming...

  13. Comparison of the macroparasite communities of stocked and wild trout (Salmo trutta) from the West of Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    HOLLAND, CELIA

    2002-01-01

    PUBLISHED The aim of the present study was to compare the helminth infra and component communities of wild and stocked brown trout in Lough Feeagh, in the west of Ireland, and also to examine the establishment and development of helminth communities in stocked brown trout. Fish were sampled in May, August and November 1997 and 1998 and an additional sample of wild brown trout was examined in April 1997. In total 217 wild trout and 122 stocked trout were examined. The acanthocephalans Acant...

  14. Evidence of salmon lice-induced mortality of anadromous brown trout (Salmo trutta) in the Hardangerfjord, Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Skaala, Øystein; Kålås, Steinar; Borgstrøm, Reidar

    2013-01-01

    The Hardangerfjord, western Norway, is an area with a high concentration of salmon farms, high levels of infection of salmon lice in anadromous brown trout, and declining trout populations. This study assessed the marine survival rate of anadromous trout from the River Guddalselva, in the central part of the fjord, and tested the hypothesis that trout populations in this area are depressed by salmon lice infection. From 2001 to 2011, all descending smolts and trout returning from the fjord we...

  15. Carcass Composition and Cuts of Bulls and Steers Fed with Three Concentrate Levels in the Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Prado, Ivanor Nunes; Passetti, Rodrigo Augusto Cortêz; Rivaroli, Dayane Cristina; Ornaghi, Mariana Garcia; de Souza, Kennyson Alves; Carvalho, Camila Barbosa; Perotto, Daniel; Moletta, José Luiz

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, weight, carcass dressing, weights of the primary cuts, weights of the physical components of the primary cuts, and weights of the main commercial cuts of 66 Purunã animals, of which 33 were bulls and 33 were steers were evaluated. These animals, with an average age of 19 months at the beginning of the experiment, were finished in a feedlot system during 116 days, and were fed with diets containing three levels of concentrate (0.8%, 1.1%, and 1.4% of body weight). The concentrate was formulated with 25% soybean meal, 73% ground corn grain, 1% of a mineral mix, and 1% of limestone. The interaction between sexual groups and the concentrate level was not significant for any of the variables. Likewise, no effect of the concentrate level was detected on the same variable traits. The bulls demonstrated higher hot carcass weights (265.1 vs 221.7 kg) and a higher proportion of forequarter (38.4% vs 36.1%) however the steers presented with higher proportions of side (19.7% vs 18.5%) and hindquarter (44.2% vs 43.1%). The bulls produced higher yields of muscle in the three primary cuts, there by resulting in higher yields of edible portions of the carcass. The bulls also produced higher weights of tenderloin, knuckle, topside, flat, eye round, rump, and rump cover. The finishing of young bulls in feedlot is to be recommended, since the animals produce carcasses with higher amounts of edible meat and higher yields of commercial cuts, thus allowing for a better price for the carcass. Low concentrate level could be used due to the lower cost of production for farmers. PMID:26194216

  16. Growth and muscle development characteristics of purebred Angus and Brahman bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, M B; West, R L; Hentges, J F

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-eight purebred bulls (10 to 17 mo of age) were used to determine the effects of breed (Angus or Brahman) and slaughter weight (60, 80, 90 or 100% of the average mature dam's weight for the respective breed) on growth and muscle development characteristics. Angus bulls grazed summer forage after weaning whereas Brahman bulls were fed to simulate gains achieved on forage by Angus. Bulls were then placed in a confinement feedlot for finishing to their appropriate slaughter weight (293, 369, 411, and 469 kg for Angus and 307, 427, 464 and 520 kg for Brahman). No major differences due to breed were found for predicted carcass composition. The LD muscle from Brahman bulls contained more total DNA (2.27 v. 1.19 g), more total protein (768.22 v. 593.59 g) and generally less total lipid (70.56 v. 101.26 g) when expressed on a total muscle (wet tissue) basis. The percentages and areas for all three muscle fiber types were not affected by breed. As carcass weight increased, muscle weights, total protein, lipid, protein:DNA and muscle fiber size for the three fiber types increased. Total DNA content increased only up to the 90% weight group and then leveled off. The percentage of alpha R fibers decreased while the percentage of alpha W fibers increased with increasing carcass weight. These data suggest that slaughtering animals based on a percentage of their dam's mature weight seems to be a practical method for making comparisons of animals on an equivalent compositional basis. Moreover, it appears that histochemical and biochemical evaluations of skeletal muscle can successfully identify what point in the growth cycle an animal is in. PMID:3732867

  17. Admixture analysis of stocked brown trout populations using mapped microsatellite DNA markers: indigenous trout persist in introgressed populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Michael M; Mensberg, Karen-Lise D

    2009-10-23

    Admixture between wild and captive populations is an increasing concern in conservation biology. Understanding the extent of admixture and the processes involved requires identification of admixed and non-admixed individuals. This can be achieved by statistical methods employing Bayesian clustering, but resolution is low if genetic differentiation is weak. Here, we analyse stocked brown trout populations represented by historical (1943-1956) and contemporary (2000s) samples, where genetic differentiation between wild populations and stocked trout is weak (pairwise F(ST) of 0.047 and 0.053). By analysing a high number of microsatellite DNA markers (50) and making use of linkage map information, we achieve clear identification of admixed and non-admixed trout. Moreover, despite strong population-level admixture by hatchery strain trout in one of the populations (70.8%), non-admixed individuals nevertheless persist (7 out of 53 individuals). These remnants of the indigenous population are characterized by later spawning time than the majority of the admixed individuals. We hypothesize that isolation by time mediated by spawning time differences between wild and hatchery strain trout is a major factor rescuing a part of the indigenous population from introgression. PMID:19515653

  18. Ultrastructural changes in the hepatocytes of juvenile rainbow trout and mature brown trout exposed to copper or zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leland, H.V.

    1983-01-01

    Morphological changes in hepatocytes of mature brown trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus) and juvenile rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri Richardson), accompanying chronic exposures to copper and zinc, were examined by transmission electron microscopy. At a concentration of copper not inhibitory to the final stages of gonadal development or spawning of brown trout, structural alterations included contraction of mitochondria and a tendency for nuclei to be slightly enlarged. Concentrations of copper or zinc lethal to a small fraction (10% and 4%, respectively) of a population of juvenile rainbow trout exposed for 42 d during larval and early juvenile development caused hepatocyte changes in survivors indicative of a reduction in ability to maintain intracellular water and cation balance and possible intranuclear metal sequestering. Specific structural alterations included increased vesiculation of rough endoplasmic reticulum, an increase in the abundance of electron-dense particles in the nucleus, increases in the numbers of multilaminar and globular inclusions, pooling of glycogen, increased autophagocytic activity and an increase in the number of necrotic cells. At advanced stages of toxicosis (concentrations of copper or zinc lethal to approximately 50% of the juveniles exposed for 42 d during development), loss in integrity of mitochondrial membranes, rupturing of plasma and nuclear membranes, separation of granular and fibrillar nuclear components, fragmentation of endoplasmic reticulum, and extensive autophagic vacuolization were significant features of hepatocytes of surviving juvenile rainbow trout. ?? 1983.

  19. Cadmium-mediated disruption of cortisol biosynthesis involves suppression of corticosteroidogenic genes in rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Navdeep; Vijayan, Mathilakath M

    2011-05-01

    Cadmium is widely distributed in the aquatic environment and is toxic to fish even at sublethal concentrations. This metal is an endocrine disruptor, and one well established role in teleosts is the suppression of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-stimulated cortisol biosynthesis by the interrenal tissue. However the mechanism(s) leading to this steroid suppression is poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that cadmium targets genes encoding proteins critical for corticosteroid biosynthesis, including melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). To test this, head kidney slices (containing the interrenal tissues) were incubated in vitro with cadmium chloride (0, 10, 100 and 1000nM) for 4h either in the presence or absence of ACTH (0.5IU/mL). In the unstimulated head kidney slices, cadmium exposure did not affect basal cortisol secretion and the mRNA levels of MC2R and P450scc, while StAR gene expression was significantly reduced. Cadmium exposure significantly suppressed ACTH-stimulated cortisol production in a dose-related fashion. This cadmium-mediated suppression in corticosteroidogenesis corresponded with a significant reduction in MC2R, StAR and P450scc mRNA levels in trout head kidney slices. The inhibition of ACTH-stimulated cortisol production and suppression of genes involved in corticosteroidogenesis by cadmium were completely abolished in the presence of 8-Bromo-cAMP (a cAMP analog). Overall, cadmium disrupts the expression of genes critical for corticosteroid biosynthesis in rainbow trout head kidney slices. However, the rescue of cortisol production as well as StAR and P450scc gene expressions by cAMP analog suggests that cadmium impact occurs upstream of cAMP production. We propose that MC2R signaling, the primary step in ACTH-induced cortocosteroidogenesis, is a key target for cadmium-mediated disruption of

  20. Cadmium-mediated disruption of cortisol biosynthesis involves suppression of corticosteroidogenic genes in rainbow trout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandhu, Navdeep [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Vijayan, Mathilakath M., E-mail: mvijayan@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2011-05-15

    Cadmium is widely distributed in the aquatic environment and is toxic to fish even at sublethal concentrations. This metal is an endocrine disruptor, and one well established role in teleosts is the suppression of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-stimulated cortisol biosynthesis by the interrenal tissue. However the mechanism(s) leading to this steroid suppression is poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that cadmium targets genes encoding proteins critical for corticosteroid biosynthesis, including melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). To test this, head kidney slices (containing the interrenal tissues) were incubated in vitro with cadmium chloride (0, 10, 100 and 1000 nM) for 4 h either in the presence or absence of ACTH (0.5 IU/mL). In the unstimulated head kidney slices, cadmium exposure did not affect basal cortisol secretion and the mRNA levels of MC2R and P450scc, while StAR gene expression was significantly reduced. Cadmium exposure significantly suppressed ACTH-stimulated cortisol production in a dose-related fashion. This cadmium-mediated suppression in corticosteroidogenesis corresponded with a significant reduction in MC2R, StAR and P450scc mRNA levels in trout head kidney slices. The inhibition of ACTH-stimulated cortisol production and suppression of genes involved in corticosteroidogenesis by cadmium were completely abolished in the presence of 8-Bromo-cAMP (a cAMP analog). Overall, cadmium disrupts the expression of genes critical for corticosteroid biosynthesis in rainbow trout head kidney slices. However, the rescue of cortisol production as well as StAR and P450scc gene expressions by cAMP analog suggests that cadmium impact occurs upstream of cAMP production. We propose that MC2R signaling, the primary step in ACTH-induced cortocosteroidogenesis, is a key target for cadmium-mediated disruption of

  1. Cadmium-mediated disruption of cortisol biosynthesis involves suppression of corticosteroidogenic genes in rainbow trout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium is widely distributed in the aquatic environment and is toxic to fish even at sublethal concentrations. This metal is an endocrine disruptor, and one well established role in teleosts is the suppression of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-stimulated cortisol biosynthesis by the interrenal tissue. However the mechanism(s) leading to this steroid suppression is poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that cadmium targets genes encoding proteins critical for corticosteroid biosynthesis, including melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). To test this, head kidney slices (containing the interrenal tissues) were incubated in vitro with cadmium chloride (0, 10, 100 and 1000 nM) for 4 h either in the presence or absence of ACTH (0.5 IU/mL). In the unstimulated head kidney slices, cadmium exposure did not affect basal cortisol secretion and the mRNA levels of MC2R and P450scc, while StAR gene expression was significantly reduced. Cadmium exposure significantly suppressed ACTH-stimulated cortisol production in a dose-related fashion. This cadmium-mediated suppression in corticosteroidogenesis corresponded with a significant reduction in MC2R, StAR and P450scc mRNA levels in trout head kidney slices. The inhibition of ACTH-stimulated cortisol production and suppression of genes involved in corticosteroidogenesis by cadmium were completely abolished in the presence of 8-Bromo-cAMP (a cAMP analog). Overall, cadmium disrupts the expression of genes critical for corticosteroid biosynthesis in rainbow trout head kidney slices. However, the rescue of cortisol production as well as StAR and P450scc gene expressions by cAMP analog suggests that cadmium impact occurs upstream of cAMP production. We propose that MC2R signaling, the primary step in ACTH-induced cortocosteroidogenesis, is a key target for cadmium-mediated disruption of

  2. South Fork Flathead Watershed Westslope Cutthroat Trout Conservation Program, Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grisak, Grant; Marotz, Brian

    2003-06-01

    In 1999, Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks (MFWP) began a program aimed at conserving the genetically pure populations of westslope cutthroat trout in the South Fork Flathead River drainage. The objective of this program is to eliminate all of the exotic and hybrid trout that threaten the genetically pure westslope cutthroat populations in the South Fork Flathead. The exotic and hybrid trout populations occur in several headwater lakes and their outflow streams. In 2001 MFWP released a draft environmental assessment, pursuant to the Montana Environmental Policy Act (MEPA), that addressed the use of motorized equipment to deliver personnel and materials to some of these lakes in the Bob Marshall and Great Bear Wildernesses (Grisak 2001). After a 30-day public comment period, MFWP determined that the complexity of issues was too great and warranted a more detailed analysis. These issues included transportation options for personnel, equipment and materials, the use of motorized equipment in wilderness, fish removal methods, fish stocking, and the status and distribution of amphibian populations in the project area. Because the program also involves the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the environmental analysis needs to comply with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). In October 2001, pursuant to NEPA, MFWP, along with the USFS and BPA initiated an environmental assessment to address these issues. In June 2002, the three agencies determined that the scope of these issues warranted an Environmental Impact Statement. This specialist report describes the logistical, technical and biological issues associated with this project and provides an analysis of options for fish removal, transportation and fish stocking. It further analyzes issues and concerns associated with amphibian populations and creating new domesticated stocks of westslope cutthroat trout. Finally, this document provides a description of each lake, the best

  3. THE EFFECT OF THE SECOND GRAZING PERIOD ON THE FATTY ACID COMPOSITION IN MEAT OF INDIGENOUS CIKA AND SIMMENTAL BULLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Voljč

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine fatty acid composition in meat of Cika and Simmental bulls from two different fattening technologies. The herd of 39 young bulls was housed during the winter time and fed the same total mixed ration diet (TMR based on corn and grass silage with a limited amount of concentrates. In the spring bulls of both breeds were divided into two subgroups. Bulls in the first subgroup (10 Cika, 9 Simmental; S-INT were fattened indoors with the semi-intensive TMR. Bulls in the second subgroup (10 Cika, 10 Simmental; G+S-INT were put on all-day grazing in the pasture. After grazing period bulls were housed under the same conditions as the first subgroup. Samples of M. longissimus dorsi were collected from the right carcass side to determine the total fat content and the fatty acid composition. The breed significantly influenced fatty acid composition in meat. The beef of Simmental bulls resulted in higher percentage of PUFA and lower percentage of SFA and MUFA. Higher percentage of n-3 and n-6 PUFA was determined in meat of Simmental bulls but the n-6/n-3 ratio was lower in Cika bulls meat. The fattening technology had less effect on FA composition in meat. The second grazing period produced higher percentage of SFA, beneficially lower values of n-6/n-3 ratio and higher values of long-chain C20-22n-3 PUFA. Higher CLA percentage was determined in beef from S-INT group.

  4. A comparison of spatial and movement patterns between sympatric predators: bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas and Atlantic tarpon (Megalops atlanticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Hammerschlag

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Predators can impact ecosystems through trophic cascades such that differential patterns in habitat use can lead to spatiotemporal variation in top down forcing on community dynamics. Thus, improved understanding of predator movements is important for evaluating the potential ecosystem effects of their declines. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We satellite-tagged an apex predator (bull sharks, Carcharhinus leucas and a sympatric mesopredator (Atlantic tarpon, Megalops atlanticus in southern Florida waters to describe their habitat use, abundance and movement patterns. We asked four questions: (1 How do the seasonal abundance patterns of bull sharks and tarpon compare? (2 How do the movement patterns of bull sharks and tarpon compare, and what proportion of time do their respective primary ranges overlap? (3 Do tarpon movement patterns (e.g., straight versus convoluted paths and/or their rates of movement (ROM differ in areas of low versus high bull shark abundance? and (4 Can any general conclusions be reached concerning whether tarpon may mitigate risk of predation by sharks when they are in areas of high bull shark abundance? CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite similarities in diet, bull sharks and tarpon showed little overlap in habitat use. Bull shark abundance was high year-round, but peaked in winter; while tarpon abundance and fishery catches were highest in late spring. However, presence of the largest sharks (>230 cm coincided with peak tarpon abundance. When moving over deep open waters (areas of high shark abundance and high food availability tarpon maintained relatively high ROM in directed lines until reaching shallow structurally-complex areas. At such locations, tarpon exhibited slow tortuous movements over relatively long time periods indicative of foraging. Tarpon periodically concentrated up rivers, where tracked bull sharks were absent. We propose that tarpon trade-off energetic costs of both food assimilation and

  5. Fat content of the flesh of siscowets and lake trout from Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschmeyer, Paul H.; Phillips, Arthur M., Jr.

    1965-01-01

    Samples of flesh were excised from the middorsal region of 67 siscowets (Salvelinus namaycush siscowet) and 46 lake trout (Salvelinus n. namaycush) collected from Lake Superior. Chemical analysis of the samples revealed a range in fat content (dry weight) of 32.5 to 88.8 per cent in siscowets and 6.6 to 52.3 per cent in lake trout. Percentage fat increased progressively with increase in length of fish in both forms, but the average rate of increase was far greater for siscowets than for lake trout at lengths between 12 and 20 inches. Despite substantial individual variation, the percentage fat in the two forms was widely different and without overlap at all comparable lengths. The range in iodine number of the fat was 100 to 160 for siscowets and 103 to 161 for lake trout; average values were generally lower for siscowets than for lake trout among fish of comparable length. Percentage fat and relative weight were not correlated significantly in either subspecies. The fat content of flesh samples from a distinctive subpopulation of Lake Superior lake trout known as 'humpers' was more closely similar to that of typical lean lake trout than to siscowets, but the rate of increase in fat with increasing length was greater than for lean lake trout. Flesh samples from hatchery-reared stocks of lake trout, hybrid lake trout X siscowets, and siscowets tended to support the view that the wide difference in fat content between siscowets and lake trout is genetically determined.

  6. Radiocaesium turnover in Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) in a Norwegian lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactivity of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) and Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus (L.)) was monitored in a Norwegian lake from 1986 to 1989. A distinct difference was observed between brown trout and Arctic charr in the accumulation of radiocaesium (134Cs and 137Cs) from the Chernobyl fallout, and the study focused on the understanding of this difference. Brown trout had a large food consumption and a corresponding high intake of radiocaesium. Excretion was 20% faster in brown trout than Arctic charr as brown trout lived at high temperatures in epilimnic water. Arctic charr had a lower food consumption (less than one-third of trout) and lived in colder meta-and hypolimnic water. Arctic charr therefore had a lower intake and slower excretion of radiocaesium. Brown trout an Arctic charr had different diets. For brown trout zoobenthos was the dominant food item, whereas Artic charr mainly fed on zooplankton. The radioactivity in the stomach contents of the two species was different in 1986, but similar for the rest of the period. Higher levels of radiocaesium in brown trout than Arctic charr in 1986 were due to a higher food consumption and more radioactive food items in its diet. The parallel development in accumulated radiocaesium through summer 1987 was probably formed by brown trout balancing a higher intake with a faster excretion. The ecological half-lives of radiocaesium in brown trout (357 days) and Arctic charr (550 days) from Lake Hoeysjoeen indicated a slow removal of the isotopes from the food webs. (author)

  7. Immunity to rhabdoviruses in rainbow trout: the antibody response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Niels; Lapatra, S.E.

    1999-01-01

    detail so far. Analysis of the specificity of anti-virus trout antibodies has been complicated by a generally insufficient ability of the antibodies to bind the viral proteins in assays such as immunoblotting. However, other assays, specifically designed for detection of fish anti IHNV/VHSV antibodies...... occasional detrimental effect on rainbow trout farming. Research efforts have been focused on understanding the mechanisms involved in protective immunity. Several specific and nonspecific cellular and humoral parameters are believed to be involved, but only the antibody response has been characterised in......, have demonstrated that rainbow trout can produce specific and highly functional antibodies that are able to neutralise virus pathogenicity in vitro as well as in vivo. The apparently more restricted antibody response to IHNV and VHSV antigens in fish compared to mammals could possibly be explained by...

  8. Marine Model Trout Farms: developments in marine RAS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

    2011-01-01

    . This development and demonstration unit in commercial scale will during the next four years hopefully provide scientific and practical basis and support for further development in coming generations of Marine Model Trout Farms for large salmonids. The unit consist in the recirculation loop of one large......Economical and environmentally sustainable production of large salmonids in sea water has in Denmark been called for during some years. Based on the experience gained from the Danish Model Trout Farms in freshwater, a rather similar concept has been developed for farming of larger fish in sea water...... operation production will be focussed on rainbow trout production, mimicking the typical Danish net cage farming cycle, where the cages are stocked with fish of 750 – 1,000 g in April/May and all harvested before Christmas weighing some 4 kg/pcs. During these two years important production parameters such...

  9. Life+ Trout Project (LIFE12 NAT/IT/0000940) for the recovery and conservation of Mediterranean trout (Salmo trutta complex) in the central Apennines (Italy).

    OpenAIRE

    Vincenzo Caputo Barucchi; Antonella Carosi

    2015-01-01

    The Mediterranean brown trout (Salmo trutta complex) is one of the freshwater fish species complex at greater risk of extinction in the Mediterranean area. The introduction of alien invasive species and their interaction with the native fauna represent some of the major threats to the survival of this species (Caputo et al., 2004). Currently, the genetic integrity of the Mediterranean trout is being compromised by the introgressive hybridization with the Atlantic trout. This hybridization, wh...

  10. Chromosome rearrangements, recombination suppression, and limited segregation distortion in hybrids between Yellowstone cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii bouvieri) and rainbow trout (O. mykiss)

    OpenAIRE

    Carl O Ostberg; Hauser, Lorenz; Pritchard, Victoria L; Garza, John C; Naish, Kerry A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Introgressive hybridization is an important evolutionary process that can lead to the creation of novel genome structures and thus potentially new genetic variation for selection to act upon. On the other hand, hybridization with introduced species can threaten native species, such as cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii) following the introduction of rainbow trout (O. mykiss). Neither the evolutionary consequences nor conservation implications of rainbow trout introgression in cu...

  11. Utilisation of brown trout by Acanthocephalus clavula (Acanthocephala) in brown trout (Salmo trutta) in an Irish lake: is this evidence of a host shift?

    OpenAIRE

    HOLLAND, CELIA

    2004-01-01

    PUBLISHED The population biology of the fish acanthocephalan Acanthocephalus clavula was described from 161 wild brown trout, Salmo trutta sampled over a two-year period in Clogher Lake in the west of Ireland. Overall prevalence of the parasite was 86% and the mean abundance was 53 worms per fish. Despite the presence of large numbers of worms in the trout very few females (2%) attained full reproductive maturity. This suggests that trout is an accidental host. A sample of yellow eels, Ang...

  12. Lake trout demographics in relation to burbot and coregonine populations in the Algonquin Highlands, Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl, L.M.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that lake trout populations change in relation to cisco, lake whitefish, round whitefish and burbot populations in lakes in the Algonquin Highlands region of Ontario. Lake trout population change is greatest where cisco and lake whitefish are present. Lake trout populations in lakes without either coregonine tend to have small adults and many juveniles. Where cisco or lake whitefish are present, adult lake trout are large, juvenile abundance is low, and the stock-recruit relationship appears to be uncoupled likely due to a larval bottleneck. Lake trout populations in these lakes may be sensitive to overfishing and recruitment failure. Lake trout populations do not appear to change in relation to round whitefish. There appears to be an indirect positive change on juvenile lake trout abundance through reductions in the density of benthic coregonines in the presence of large, hypolimnetic burbot. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  13. Susceptibility to Myxobolus cerebralis among Tubifex tubifex populations from ten major drainage basins in Colorado where Cutthroat Trout are endemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehring, R Barry; Lukacs, P M; Baxa, D V; Stinson, M E T; Chiaramonte, L; Wise, S K; Poole, B; Horton, A

    2014-03-01

    Establishment of Myxobolus cerebralis (Mc) resulted in declines of wild Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss populations in streams across Colorado during the 1990s. However, the risk for establishment and spread of this parasite into high-elevation habitats occupied by native Cutthroat Trout O. clarkii was unknown. Beginning in 2003, tubificid worms were collected from all major drainages where Cutthroat Trout were endemic and were assayed by quantitative PCR to determine the occurrence and distribution of the various lineages of Tubifex tubifex (Tt) oligochaetes. Over a 5-year period, 40 groups of Tt oligochaetes collected from 27 streams, 3 natural lakes, 2 private ponds, and a reservoir were evaluated for their relative susceptibility to Mc. Exposure groups were drawn from populations of pure lineage III Tt, mixed-lineage populations where one or more of the highly resistant (lineage I) or nonsusceptible lineages (V or VI) were the dominant oligochaete and susceptible lineage III worms were the subdominant worm, or pure lineage VI Tt. Experimental replicates of 250 oligochaetes were exposed to 50 Mc myxospores per worm. The parasite amplification ratio (total triactinomyxons [TAMs] produced / total myxospore exposure) was very high among all pure lineage III Colorado exposure groups, averaging 363 compared with 8.24 among the mixed-lineage exposure groups. Lineage III oligochaetes from Mt. Whitney Hatchery in California, which served as the laboratory standard for comparative purposes, had an average parasite amplification ratio of 933 among 10 exposed replicates over a 5-year period. Lineage I oligochaetes were highly resistant to infection and did not produce any TAMs. Lineages V and VI Tt did not become infected and did not produce any TAMs. These results suggest that the risk of establishment of Mc is high for aquatic habitats in Colorado where Cutthroat Trout and lineage III Tt are sympatric. PMID:24689955

  14. A first generation integrated map of the rainbow trout genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabet-Canale Kamila

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss are the most-widely cultivated cold freshwater fish in the world and an important model species for many research areas. Coupling great interest in this species as a research model with the need for genetic improvement of aquaculture production efficiency traits justifies the continued development of genomics research resources. Many quantitative trait loci (QTL have been identified for production and life-history traits in rainbow trout. An integrated physical and genetic map is needed to facilitate fine mapping of QTL and the selection of positional candidate genes for incorporation in marker-assisted selection (MAS programs for improving rainbow trout aquaculture production. Results The first generation integrated map of the rainbow trout genome is composed of 238 BAC contigs anchored to chromosomes of the genetic map. It covers more than 10% of the genome across segments from all 29 chromosomes. Anchoring of 203 contigs to chromosomes of the National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture (NCCCWA genetic map was achieved through mapping of 288 genetic markers derived from BAC end sequences (BES, screening of the BAC library with previously mapped markers and matching of SNPs with BES reads. In addition, 35 contigs were anchored to linkage groups of the INRA (French National Institute of Agricultural Research genetic map through markers that were not informative for linkage analysis in the NCCCWA mapping panel. The ratio of physical to genetic linkage distances varied substantially among chromosomes and BAC contigs with an average of 3,033 Kb/cM. Conclusions The integrated map described here provides a framework for a robust composite genome map for rainbow trout. This resource is needed for genomic analyses in this research model and economically important species and will facilitate comparative genome mapping with other salmonids and with model fish species. This resource will also

  15. Comparative bioenergetics modeling of two Lake Trout morphotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepler, Megan V.; Wagner, Tyler; Sweka, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Efforts to restore Lake Trout Salvelinus namaycush in the Laurentian Great Lakes have been hampered for decades by several factors, including overfishing and invasive species (e.g., parasitism by Sea Lampreys Petromyzon marinus and reproductive deficiencies associated with consumption of Alewives Alosa pseudoharengus). Restoration efforts are complicated by the presence of multiple body forms (i.e., morphotypes) of Lake Trout that differ in habitat utilization, prey consumption, lipid storage, and spawning preferences. Bioenergetics models constitute one tool that is used to help inform management and restoration decisions; however, bioenergetic differences among morphotypes have not been evaluated. The goal of this research was to investigate bioenergetic differences between two actively stocked morphotypes: lean and humper Lake Trout. We measured consumption and respiration rates across a wide range of temperatures (4–22°C) and size-classes (5–100 g) to develop bioenergetics models for juvenile Lake Trout. Bayesian estimation was used so that uncertainty could be propagated through final growth predictions. Differences between morphotypes were minimal, but when present, the differences were temperature and weight dependent. Basal respiration did not differ between morphotypes at any temperature or size-class. When growth and consumption differed between morphotypes, the differences were not consistent across the size ranges tested. Management scenarios utilizing the temperatures presently found in the Great Lakes (e.g., predicted growth at an average temperature of 11.7°C and 14.4°C during a 30-d period) demonstrated no difference in growth between the two morphotypes. Due to a lack of consistent differences between lean and humper Lake Trout, we developed a model that combined data from both morphotypes. The combined model yielded results similar to those of the morphotype-specific models, suggesting that accounting for morphotype differences may

  16. BACTERIAL FLORA OF RAINBOW TROUT LARVAE AND FRY (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Kapetanović

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available There are no information in available literature about the structure of bacterial flora in rainbow trout larvae and fry in the first days of their lives. The objective of our work has been to follow bacteroflora between the third and the eighth week of their lives. During 35 days of experiment bacteroflora of rainbow trout has been examined, along with following physico–chemical characteristics of water quality as well as it’s influence on health. Samples for bacteriological examination were taken from gill, heart and kidney areas and innoculated on the plates. Bacterial colonies were examined macroscopically, slides with Gram staining, and afterwords biochemical tests were performed. For identification, APILAB Plus programme (bio Mérieux, France was used. Bacterial population of rainbow trout larvae and fry changed in dependence with their age. Physico–chemical characteristics of water ranged within optimal values. Most of bacterial colonies originated from gill isolates (64,4 %, than from heart (21,8 % and kidney areas (13,8 %. The bacterial flora of larvae in incubator was composed mostly of Gram–positive bacteria (75,1 %, genera: Renibacterium (25 %, Lactobacillus (16,7 %, Staphilococcus (16,7 % and Corynebacterium (16,7 %. The transfer of larvae from incubator into the pools resulted in reducing bacterial flora (–66,7 % after 45 minute stay in the pool. Gram–negative bacteria, which have been represented in larvae in incubator with low percent (24, 9 %, after the transfer of larvae to the pools became dominant and represented more than 95 % of rainbow trout larvae and fry bacterial flora. Flavobacterium, Acinetobacter and Yersinia were the predominant Gram–negative genera in larvae in incubator, whereas Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium and Pasteurella were the main isolates from rainbow trout larvae and fry until the end of experiment. Bacterial flora of larvae in incubator mostly consists of Gram–positive bacteria

  17. Effect of supplementation of butylated hydroxytoluene on post-thaw sperm viability, motility and membrane integrity of Hariana bulls

    OpenAIRE

    Akhil Patel; Atul Saxena; Dilip Kumar Swain; Dushyant Yadav; Sanjay Singh Yadav; Abhishek Kumar; Anuj Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was aimed to see the beneficial effect of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) as a semen additive of Hariana bull semen. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in Hariana bulls. Twenty-four ejaculates from two bulls were used for this study. Each ejaculate was extended with standard glycerolated egg yolk tris extender and supplemented with BHT at two concentrations as 0.5 mM (T1) and 1.0 mM (T2). After dilution, equilibration and 24 h of cryopreservation, the samples w...

  18. Effect of supplementation of feed with Flaxseed (Linumusitatisimum) oil on libido and semen quality of Nilli-Ravi buffalo bulls

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Syed Mazhar Hussain; Ali, Shujait; Zubair, Muhammad; Jamil, Huma; Ahmad, Nazir

    2016-01-01

    Background The current study was designed to investigate the effect of supplementation of Flaxseed (Linumusitatisimum) oil on libido and semen quality of Nilli-Ravi buffalo bulls. Methods In this study, 12 adult healthy bulls kept at the Semen Production Unit, Qadirabad district Sahiwal, were used. These bulls were divided into three equal groups, A, B and C. Group A was kept as control, while in groups B and C supplementation of feed was provided by using flaxseed oil @125 ml/day and 250 ml/...

  19. Restricted gene flow at the micro- and macro-geographical scale in marble trout based on mtDNA and microsatellite polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patarnello Tomaso

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genetic structure of the marble trout Salmo trutta marmoratus, an endemic salmonid of northern Italy and the Balkan peninsula, was explored at the macro- and micro-scale level using a combination of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA and microsatellite data. Results Sequence variation in the mitochondrial control region showed the presence of nonindigenous haplotypes indicative of introgression from brown trout into marble trout. This was confirmed using microsatellite markers, which showed a higher introgression at nuclear level. Microsatellite loci revealed a strong genetic differentiation across the geographical range of marble trout, which suggests restricted gene flow both at the micro-geographic (within rivers and macro-geographic (among river systems scale. A pattern of Isolation-by-Distance was found, in which genetic samples were correlated with hydrographic distances. A general West-to-East partition of the microsatellite polymorphism was observed, which was supported by the geographic distribution of mitochondrial haplotypes. Conclusion While introgression at both mitochondrial and nuclear level is unlikely to result from natural migration and might be the consequence of current restocking practices, the pattern of genetic substructuring found at microsatellites has been likely shaped by historical colonization patterns determined by the geological evolution of the hydrographic networks.

  20. Selective breeding provides an approach to increase resistance of rainbow trout ( Onchorhynchus mykiss ) to the diseases, enteric redmouth disease, rainbow trout fry syndrome, and viral haemorrhagic septicaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henryon, M.; Berg, P.; Olesen, Niels Jørgen;

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we reasoned that if we challenged rainbow trout with the causative agents of enteric redmouth disease (ERM), rainbow trout fry syndrome (RTFS), and viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS), we would: 1) detect additive genetic variation for resistance to ERM, RTFS, and VHS; and 2) find...... that resistance of the trout to ERM and RTFS are favourably correlated genetically, while resistance to VHS is unfavourably correlated with resistance to ERM and RTFS. We tested these premises by challenging 63 full-sib families of rainbow trout (50 sires, 38 dams) with Yersinia ruckeri, Flavobacterium...

  1. Stocking impact and migration pattern in an anadromous brown trout ( Salmo trutta ) complex: where have all the stocked spawning sea trout gone?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzzante, D.E.; Hansen, Michael Møller; Meldrup, Dorte;

    2004-01-01

    that of brown trout collected from 32 tributaries pooled into nine geographical regions (n = 3801) and two hatcheries (n = 222) used for stocking. For each of the three regional sea trout groups (western, central and eastern Limfjord, n = 91, n = 426, n = 329, respectively), MSA was conducted with (i....... These results suggest that stocked domestic brown trout that become anadromous experience high mortality at sea and are therefore largely absent among the larger, spawning individuals. We conclude that sea trout of domestic origin exhibit much reduced ability to reproduce and are unlikely to contribute...

  2. Animal welfare in brown trout farming: hematological results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Forneris

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of stress resulting from fish farming has received considerable attention in this last period and fish welfare in aquaculture is a relevant topic, very important for the future of aquaculture (Watson et al., 2004; Klinger et al., 1996; Peres et al., 2004; Ron et al., 1995;Wagner et al., 1995;Watson et al., 1998. Brown trout farming is less developed then rainbow trout farming, but this kind of fish farming is increasing, mainly for fish conservation and restocking aquaculture.

  3. Muscle wound healing in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jacob Günther; Andersen, Elisabeth Wreford; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær;

    2016-01-01

    We followed the progression of healing of deep excisional biopsy punch wounds over the course of 365 days in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by monitoring visual wound healing and gene expression in the healing muscle at regular intervals (1, 3, 7, 14, 38 and 100 days post-wounding). In...... until at least 100 days post-wounding. The gene expression patterns and histology reveal limited capacity for muscle regeneration in rainbow trout, and muscle texture analyses one year after wound infliction confirm that wounds heal with fibrosis. At 100 dpw epidermis had fully regenerated, and dermis...

  4. Immunity to rhabdoviruses in rainbow trout: the antibody response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Niels; Lapatra, S.E.

    1999-01-01

    occasional detrimental effect on rainbow trout farming. Research efforts have been focused on understanding the mechanisms involved in protective immunity. Several specific and nonspecific cellular and humoral parameters are believed to be involved, but only the antibody response has been characterised in......, have demonstrated that rainbow trout can produce specific and highly functional antibodies that are able to neutralise virus pathogenicity in vitro as well as in vivo. The apparently more restricted antibody response to IHNV and VHSV antigens in fish compared to mammals could possibly be explained by...

  5. INHIBITION OF LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES ON RAINBOW TROUT (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS) USING TROUT SKIN GELATIN EDIBLE FILMS CONTAINING NISIN

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Rasco; Gülhan Ünlü; Nageshwar Tammineni; YooTak Han; Caleb Nindo

    2013-01-01

    Contaminated food can pose high risk of listeriosis for susceptible populations. Listeria monocytogenes has been isolated from fresh, frozen and processed seafood products. Our goal in this study was to develop nisin-containing edible films using trout skin gelatin and test their effectiveness against L. monocytogenes on raw trout fillets (stored at 4 °C and 10 °C) as a strategy for reducing the risk of contamination. Films with 18 μg nisin/cm2 showed consistent inhibition and were chosen for...

  6. Kinetics and effects of dichloroacetic acid in rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons, Patrick N; Hoffman, Alex D; Lien, Gregory J; Hammermeister, Dean E; Nichols, John W

    2009-09-14

    Halogenated acetic acids (HAAs) produced by chlorine disinfection of municipal drinking water represent a potentially important class of environmental contaminants. Little is known, however, about their potential to adversely impact fish and other aquatic life. In this study we examined the kinetics and effects of dichloroacetic acid (DCA) in rainbow trout. Branchial uptake was measured in fish confined to respirometer-metabolism chambers. Branchial uptake efficiency was passive diffusion through aqueous channels in the gill epithelium. DCA concentrations in tissues following prolonged (72, 168, or 336 h) waterborne exposures were expressed as tissue:plasma concentration ratios. Concentration ratios for the kidney and muscle at 168 and 336 h were consistent with the suggestion that DCA distributes primarily to tissue water. Reduced concentration ratios for the liver, particularly at 72 h, indicated that DCA was highly metabolized by this tissue. Routes and rates of elimination were characterized by injecting chambered animals with a high (5.0mg/kg) or low (50 microg/kg) bolus dose. DCA was rapidly cleared by naïve animals resulting in elimination half-lives (t(1/2)) of less than 4h. Waterborne pre-treatment of fish with DCA increased the persistence of a subsequently injected dose. In high dose animals, pre-treatment caused a 4-fold decrease in whole-body clearance (CL(B)) and corresponding increases in the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (extrapolated to infinity; AUC(0-->infinity)) and t(1/2). Qualitatively similar results were obtained in low dose fish, although the magnitude of the pre-treatment effect ( approximately 2.5-fold) was reduced. Renal and branchial clearance contributed little (combined, <3% of CL(B)) to the elimination of DCA. Biliary elimination of DCA was also negligible. The steady-state volume of distribution (V(SS)) did not vary among treatment groups and was consistent with results of the tissue distribution study. DCA had no

  7. Carcass and meat quality characteristics of Brahman cross bulls and steers finished on tropical pastures in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Julio; Unruh, John; Villarreal, Milton; Murillo, Olger; Rojas, Sailim; Camacho, Jorge; Jaeger, John; Reinhardt, Chris

    2014-03-01

    Forty-eight male calves (3/4 Brahman×1/4 Charolais) were used to determine carcass cutability and meat tenderness of Longissimus lumborum (LL), Gluteus medius (GM), Semitendinosus (ST) and Psoas major (PM) steaks from lighter weight carcasses of bulls and steers castrated at 3, 7, or 12 mo of age grown under tropical pasture conditions. Steaks from steers had lower (more tender) LL Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values than those from bulls. Steaks from steers castrated at 3 mo had lower GM WBSF than those from bulls. For PM steaks, those aged 28 d had lower WBSF than those aged 2d. Steaks aged 28 d had the lowest LL and GM WBSF and steaks aged 2d had the highest LL, GM, and ST WBSF. Castration at younger ages is recommended because it provides improvement in LL and GM tenderness over bulls with no differences in carcass traits or subprimal yields. PMID:24342184

  8. Influence of stall finishing of Podolian young bulls raised on pasture on fatty acid composition and oxidative status of meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Scerra

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen Podolian young bulls were used to study the effects of two different feeding systems on fatty acids composition and oxidative stability of meat: C group, eight young bulls were kept indoors and fed with commercial concentrate for all experimental period (260 days; PC group, eight young bulls were allowed to graze a pasture for 200 days and shifted indoor, fed with concentrate, 60 days before being slaughtered. Meat from young bulls that were allowed, before stall finishing with concentrate, to graze a natural pasture showed lower levels of some n-6 PUFA and higher levels of some n-3 PUFA than meat from animals that were offered only concentrate for the whole experimental period. Lipid oxidation was not affected by the dietary treatment. After a period of 60-day-indoor finishing with concentrate, meat retained part of the health benefits, with regard to fatty acid composition, occurring from grazing.

  9. Kinetics of fertilization and development, and sex ratio of bovine embryos produced using the semen of different bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alomar, M; Tasiaux, H; Remacle, S; George, F; Paul, D; Donnay, I

    2008-08-01

    The between bulls variation in in vitro fertility and the shift of sex ratio towards male embryos are two problems affecting the in vitro production (IVP) of bovine embryos. Our objective was to evaluate the kinetics of fertilization, embryo development and the sex ratio of the resulting embryos using the frozen/thawed semen of four different bulls. In a first experiment, the kinetics of pronucleus (PN) formation was evaluated at 8, 12 and 18 h post-insemination (hpi). Based upon the pronuclei sizes and the distance between the two pronuclei, inseminated oocytes were classified in three PN stages. Differences between bulls were observed at each time point, but were more important at 12 hpi. At 8 and 12 hpi bull III showed a significantly faster PN evolution by comparison with the three other bulls (Pcinematography. The analysis of embryos reaching the blastocyst stage revealed significant differences in the mean time of first cleavage (range of 22.7-25.6h, P<0.05), while the lengths of the subsequent three cell cycles did not differ between bulls. The early mean time of first cleavage with bull III was associated with an early blastulation and a high blastocyst rate at Day 7, in opposition to what was observed with bull II showing a later timing of first cleavage (first cleavage 22.1 hpi versus 25.5 hpi; blastulation 140.4 hpi versus 152.5 hpi; D7 blastocyst rates: 31.3% versus 21.9%; P<0.05). In a third experiment, 65-76 Day 8 blastocysts per bull were sexed by PCR. Only blastocysts obtained with bull III showed a shift in sex ratio towards male embryos (76% male embryos; P<0.05). Such shift was already observed at the 2-cell and morula stages. In conclusion, the bull influences the kinetics of PN formation, of embryo development and the sex ratio of the embryos. Moreover, those parameters might be related. PMID:17629423

  10. Spatial distributions and productivity in salmonid populations

    OpenAIRE

    Foldvik, Anders

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents analysis and fieldwork investigating how the effect spatial distributions and spatial relationships have on population growth in two anadromous salmonid species, Atlantic salmon and brown trout. The thesis looks at how the spatial distribution of spawning within a river can shape the distribution of juveniles within a river throughout their freshwater stage, and investigates how habitat characteristics, ranging in spatial scale from micro-habitat to catchment, affect popu...

  11. BIOMASS AND DENSITY OF BROWN AND RAINBOW TROUT IN NEW MEXICO STREAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srečko Lainer

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available Mean stream numerical density of the brown trout (Salmo trutta m. fario Linnaeus, 1758 and the rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792 was 0.090 fish/m2 of which brown trout averaged 69% (72% in total biomass in 15 high-elevation New Mexico streams (1,661-2,560 m above sea level. Total trout density varied from 0.008/m2 in 1988 and 1989. Mean trout density ranged between 0.023-0.121 fish/m2 at site s open to public fishing. Considerably higher densities (0.142-0.409 fish/m2 were observed at sites closed for fishing. In the seven selected streams shared by both species, brown trout density exceeded rainbow trout density except at the two sites closed to fishing. Brown trout were stocked only as fingerlings (average 7,000 fish/stream/year while rainbow trout were stocked only in harvestable sizes (11,000 fish/stream/year. Reported total trout yield rates exceeded the total number of fish estimated to be in the stream by 1.01 to 11.63 in most small streams open to fishing. The proportional stock density (PSD ranged between O and 50 percent. Streams with low to moderate intensities of fishing had the highest PSD.

  12. Interspecific interactions between brown trout and slimy sculpin in stream enclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruetz, C. R., III; Hurford, A.L.; Vondracek, B.

    2003-01-01

    We conducted a 30-d manipulative experiment in Valley Creek, Minnesota, to examine interspecific interactions between juvenile brown trout Salmo trutta and adult slimy sculpin Cottus cognatus. We measured the instantaneous growth of each species in the presence and absence of the other in 1-m2 enclosures. We tested single-species (three slimy sculpins/m2 or three brown trout/m2) and combined-species (three sculpins/m2 and three trout/m2) combinations in each of six riffles. We placed a clay tile in each enclosure to evaluate the effects of fish combinations on benthic macroinvertebrates. Growth of brown trout was unaffected by the presence of slimy sculpins (P = 0.647, power [to detect 50% increase in growth] = 0.92), whereas slimy sculpin growth was less in the presence of brown trout (P = 0.038). Densities of total benthic macroinvertebrates, Chironomidae, Trichoptera, and Physa did not differ among fish combinations (P > 0.3). However, densities of Gammarus pseudolimnaeus were significantly less in the presence of brown trout irrespective of the presence of slimy sculpins (P = 0.024), which could be a causal factor underlying the interaction between brown trout and slimy sculpins. We found asymmetrical competition between brown trout and slimy sculpins in stream enclosures, with brown trout being the superior competitor. Nevertheless, the size of enclosures may have biased our results, making it more likely to detect an effect of brown trout on slimy sculpins than vice versa.

  13. Eating quality of Holstein bull calves fed only grass or purely herbs matches that of concentrate-fed veal calves

    OpenAIRE

    Therkildsen, M.; Jensen, S. K.; Vestergaard, M.

    2012-01-01

    Organic meat production from Holstein calves born in dairy herds require that the bull calves are raised outdoor at least 6 months a year, and on large quantities of roughage in the diet. This study aimed at elucidating if Holstein bull calves fed either purely grass or purely herbs prior to slaughter would differ in meat quality traits, fatty acid composition and sensory profile and if they differed in quality aspects from concentrate-fed veal calves.

  14. Efficacy of caudal epidural injection of lidocaine, xylazine and xylazine plus hyaluronidase in reducing discomfort produced by electroejaculation in bulls

    OpenAIRE

    PAGLIOSA, Ronaldo C.; DEROSSI, Rafael; COSTA, Deiler S.; FARIA, Fabio J.C.

    2015-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that epidural administration of lidocaine, xylazine or xylazine plus hyaluronidase provides reduced pain and stress during electroejaculation in bulls, eight 30-month-old Nellore bulls received saline solution (control), 2% lidocaine, 2% xylazine or 2% xylazine plus hyaluronidase injected into the first intercoccygeal (Co1–Co2) epidural space in randomized order. Heart rate, respiratory rate, mean arterial pressure, analgesia, animal behavior and motor blockade were eva...

  15. Relationship between the Rumen Microbiome and Residual Feed Intake-Efficiency of Brahman Bulls Stocked on Bermudagrass Pastures

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua C McCann; Leanne M Wiley; Forbes, T. David; Rouquette, Francis M.; Tedeschi, Luis O.

    2014-01-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) testing has increased selection pressure on biological efficiency in cattle. The objective of this study was to assess the association of the rumen microbiome in inefficient, positive RFI (p-RFI) and efficient, negative RFI (n-RFI) Brahman bulls grazing ‘Coastal’ bermudagrass [Cynodondactylon (L.) Pers.]under two levels of forage allowance (high and low stocking intensity). Sixteen Brahman bulls were previously fed in confinement for 70 d to determine the RFI phenot...

  16. Propolis or cashew and castor oils effects on composition of Longissimus muscle of crossbred bulls finished in feedlot

    OpenAIRE

    Maribel Velandia Valero; Juliana Akamine Torrecilhas; Fernando Zawadzki; Elton Guntendorfer Bonafe; Grasiele Scaramal Madrona; Rodolpho Martin do Prado; Rodrigo Augusto Cortêz Passetti; Dayane Cristina Rivaroli; Jesuí Vergilio Visentainer; Ivanor Nunes do Prado

    2014-01-01

    The natural additive products (propolis or essential oils), in replacing antibiotics, could be used as an alternative for feed strategies to improve animal production. This work was performed to evaluate the effect of natural additives as propolis or essential oils on meat quality of crossbred (Aberdeen Angus vs. Nellore) bulls. Thirty bulls were kept in feedlot (individual pen) for 55 d and randomly assigned to one of three diets (n = 10): control (CON), propolis (PRO), or essential oils (OI...

  17. Allelic Frequency of Kappa-Casein and Beta-Lactoglobulin in Indian Crossbred (Bos taurus X Bos indicus) Dairy Bulls

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Rajesh K.; Chauhan, Jenabhai B.; Singh, Krishna M.; Kalpesh J. Soni

    2007-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism test was performed on DNA samples extracted from blood samples of 256 Holstein Friesian crossbred and 112 from Jersey crossbred bulls/bull calves to detect allelic frequency of the bovine kappa-casein and beta-lactoglobulin gene responsible for milk production traits. A 350 bp fragment of kappa-casein and a 247 bp fragment of beta-lactoglobulin were amplified and digested with Hinf I and Hae III restriction enzymes, respec...

  18. Productive performance and blood parameters of bulls fed diets containing babassu mesocarp bran and whole or ground corn

    OpenAIRE

    Aline Evangelista Machado Santana; José Neuman Miranda Neiva; João Restle; Fabrícia Rocha Chaves Miotto; Luciano Fernandes Sousa; Vera Lúcia Araújo; Ranniere Rodrigues Pereira Parente; Rhaiza Alves de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of corn milling and the inclusion of babassu mesocarp bran (BMB) on productive performance, digestibility of dietary nutrients, and blood parameters of dairy crossbred (Holstein-Gyr) bulls finished in confinement. Twenty-four bulls were fed four different experimental diets, containing two levels of inclusion of BMB (0 and 41.24%) and corn supplied in two different forms (ground and whole), for 98 days (77 days of data collection ...

  19. Selective breeding of food sized rainbow trout against Flavobacteriosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selective breeding of rainbow trout is an important component of an integrated fish health management program. The current goals of our selective breeding program are to improve disease resistance, growth and survival in a reuse water environment. To improve these traits, data are recorded on thousa...

  20. Selective breeding of food size rainbow trout against Flavobacteriosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selective breeding of rainbow trout is an important component of an integrated fish health management program. The current goals of our selective breeding program are to improve disease resistance, growth and survival in a reuse water environment. To improve these traits, data are recorded on thousa...

  1. ACUTE TOXICITY OF AMMONIA AND NITRITE TO CUTTHROAT TROUT FRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The toxicity of ammonia and of nitrite was tested on cutthroat trout (Salmo clarki) fry (1-3 g) for periods up to a month in eight laboratory flow-through bioassays. Median lethal concentration (LC50) values for ammonia (mg/liter un-ionized NH3) were 0.5-0.8 for 96 hours, and 0.3...

  2. DNA Fingerprinting of Trout Lilies: A High School Student Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vann, Carolyn N.; Saxon, Herbert L.; Brblic, Tom; Elliades, Stacie; Lambert, Scott; Shaw, Jake; Smith, Ryan; Inman, Megan

    1998-01-01

    Reports on a student's research project on the degree of genetic diversity within the trout lily species. Enables a rough prediction of the continuance of the species and provides insight into how to manage plants that might be endangered. Contains 16 references. (DDR)

  3. Rainbow trout offspring with different resistance to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slierendrecht, W.J.; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Juul-Madsen, H.R.;

    2001-01-01

    To study immunological and immunogenetical parameters related to resistance against viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS), attempts to make gynogenetic strains of rainbow trout selected for high and low resistance to VHS were initiated in 1988. The first gynogenetic generation of inbreeding resulted...

  4. Halogenated contaminants in farmed salmon, trout, tilapia, pangasius, and shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, S P J; van Velzen, M J M; Swart, C P; van der Veen, I; Traag, W A; de Boer, J

    2009-06-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-p-furans (PCDD/Fs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane diastereomers (HBCDs), and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were analyzed in popular farmed fish such as salmon, trout, tilapia, and pangasius and in farmed shrimp. The samples originated from southeast Asia, Europe, and South America. Results show the following: (i) Carnivorous species contained higher contaminant concentrations than omnivorous species. (ii) Contaminant concentrations generally decreased per species in the following order of salmon > trout > tilapia approximately equal to pangasius approximately equal to shrimp. (iii) Most contaminant concentrations decreased in the following order of PCBs approximately equal to dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs) > hexachlorobenzene approximately equal to pentachlorobenzene approximately equal to dieldrin approximately equal to PBDEs approximately equal to alpha-HBCD approximately equal to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) > World Health Organization toxic equivalents (WHO-TEQ) [PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like (dl)-PCBs]. (iv) Contaminant concentrations were very low (mostly <1 ng/g wet weight) and far below the European and Dutch legislative limits. (v) Contaminant concentrations in farmed shrimp, pangasius, and tilapia were lower than those in wild fish, whereas contaminant concentrations in farmed salmon and trout were higher than those in lean wild marine fish. From the five species investigated, salmon is predominantly responsible (97%) for human exposure to the sum of the investigated contaminants. The contribution of trout, tilapia, pangasius, and shrimp is small (3%) because contaminant concentrations and consumption volumes were much lower. PMID:19569323

  5. Estrogenic response of bisphenol A in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Christian; Pedersen, Knud Ladegaard; Pedersen, Søren Nørby

    2000-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) previously shown to possess xenoestrogenic activities was administered to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) through a continuos flow system. The estrogenic response expressed as the induction of vitellogenin (VTG) synthesis was measured during 12 days of exposure, using a direct...

  6. Toxicokinetics of perfluorooctane sulfonate in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) confined to respirometer-metabolism chambers were dosed with perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) by intra-arterial injection and sampled to obtain concentration time-course data for plasma, and either urine or expired water. The data were then an...

  7. Lake Michigan lake trout PCB model forecast post audit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scenario forecasts for total PCBs in Lake Michigan (LM) lake trout were conducted using the linked LM2-Toxics and LM Food Chain models, supported by a suite of additional LM models. Efforts were conducted under the Lake Michigan Mass Balance Study and the post audit represents th...

  8. Induction and viability of tetraploids in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) populations are threatened by introduction of invasive species, habitat loss, and habitat degradation in their native range; and are a problem invasive species in western Unites States and Canada, and in Europe. Stocking sterile triploids has been promoted as an ...

  9. Bioavailability of metals in stream food webs and hazards to brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in the upper Animas River watershed, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, J.M.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; May, T.W.; Church, S.E.; Kimball, B.A.

    2001-01-01

    metals in stream food webs are significant components of metal exposure for stream biota of the upper Animas River watershed and suggest that chronic toxicity of Cu is an important factor limiting the distribution and abundance of brook trout populations in the watershed.

  10. Copper avoidance and mortality of juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) in tests with copper-sulfate-treated water from West Branch Reservoir, Putnam County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldigo, Barry P.; Baudanza, T.P.

    2001-01-01

    Copper-avoidance tests and acute-toxicity (mortality) tests on hatchery-reared, young-of- the-year brown trout (salmo trutta) were conducted with water from West Branch Reservoir to assess the avoidance response to copper sulfate treatment, which is used occasionally by New York City Department of Environmental Protection to decrease phytoplankton populations in the reservoir. Avoidance-test results indicate that juvenile brown trout tend to avoid dissolved copper concentrations greater than about 55 ?g/L (micrograms per liter), which is the approximate avoidance-response threshold. The mean net avoidance response of brown trout to dissolved copper concentrations of 70 and 100 ?g/L, and possibly 80 ?g/L, was significantly different (at a = 0.1) from the mean net avoidance response of fish to control (untreated) water and to treated water at most other tested concentrations. Mortality-test results indicate that the 96-hr median lethal concentration (LC50) of dissolved copper was 61.5 ?g/L. All (100 percent) of the brown trout died at a dissolved copper concentration of 85 ?g/L, many died at concentrations of 62 ?g/L and 70 ?g/L, and none died in the control waters (7 ?g/L) or at concentrations of 10, 20, or 45 ?g/L. The estimated concentration of dissolved copper that caused fish mortality (threshold) was 53.5 ?g/L, virtually equivalent to the avoidance-response threshold. Additional factors that could affect the copper-avoidance and mortality response of individual brown trout and their populations in West Branch Reservoir include seasonal variations in certain water-quality parameters, copper-treatment regimes, natural fish distributions during treatment, and increased tolerance due to acclimation. These warrant additional study before the findings from this study can be used to predict the effects that copper sulfate treatments have on resident fish populations in New York City reservoirs.

  11. Effects of fluctuating flows and a controlled flood on incubation success and early survival rates and growth of age-0 rainbow trout in a large regulated river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korman, Josh; Kaplinski, Matthew; Melis, Theodore S.

    2011-01-01

    Hourly fluctuations in flow from Glen Canyon Dam were increased in an attempt to limit the population of nonnative rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in the Colorado River, Arizona, due to concerns about negative effects of nonnative trout on endangered native fishes. Controlled floods have also been conducted to enhance native fish habitat. We estimated that rainbow trout incubation mortality rates resulting from greater fluctuations in flow were 23-49% (2003 and 2004) compared with 5-11% under normal flow fluctuations (2006-2010). Effects of this mortality were apparent in redd excavations but were not seen in hatch date distributions or in the abundance of the age-0 population. Multiple lines of evidence indicated that a controlled flood in March 2008, which was intended to enhance native fish habitat, resulted in a large increase in early survival rates of age-0 rainbow trout. Age-0 abundance in July 2008 was over fourfold higher than expected given the number of viable eggs that produced these fish. A hatch date analysis indicated that early survival rates were much higher for cohorts that hatched about 1 month after the controlled flood (~April 15) relative to those that hatched before this date. The cohorts that were fertilized after the flood were not exposed to high flows and emerged into better-quality habitat with elevated food availability. Interannual differences in age-0 rainbow trout growth based on otolith microstructure supported this hypothesis. It is likely that strong compensation in survival rates shortly after emergence mitigated the impact of incubation losses caused by increases in flow fluctuations. Control of nonnative fish populations will be most effective when additional mortality is applied to older life stages after the majority of density-dependent mortality has occurred. Our study highlights the need to rigorously assess instream flow decisions through the evaluation of population-level responses.

  12. Long-term Effects of Pyrethrin and Cyfluthrin, a Type II Synthetic Pyrethroid, Insecticide Applications on Bull Reproductive Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, J L; Shipley, C F; Ireland, F A; Jarrell, V L; Timlin, C L; Shike, D W; Felix, T L

    2016-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine effects of cyfluthrin and pyrethrin spray products, used in combination with cyfluthrin topical and ear tag applications, on bull reproductive parameters over 18 weeks. Angus or Angus x Simmental bulls were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: (i) no exposure to pyrethrins/cyfluthrin (CONT; n = 10), (ii) cyfluthrin ear tag and topical applications (ET; n = 10), or (iii) cyfluthrin ear tag, topical, premise spray and pyrethrin fog spray applications (ET+S; n = 8). Bull body weight was measured every 3 week, and body condition score and scrotal circumference were recorded on weeks 0, 9 and 18. Semen and serum were collected every 3 weeks for sperm evaluation and testosterone measurement, respectively. There was a treatment × week interaction (p testosterone concentrations changed (p < 0.01) over time in all bulls; however, treatment did not affect (p ≥ 0.13) any of these parameters. There were also no treatment effects (p ≥ 0.08) on bull body weight, body condition score or scrotal circumference. The use of pyrethrin- and cyfluthrin-based insecticides, regardless of application, did not negatively affect reproductive parameters in beef bulls when administered over 18 weeks. PMID:27411861

  13. Sero-prevalence of Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in bulls originated from Borena pastoral area of Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemayehu, Gezahegn; Leta, Samson; Hailu, Berhanu

    2015-06-01

    Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a highly infectious cattle disease, which is widespread in pastoral areas of Africa, and it imposes a major problem on Ethiopian livestock export market. Cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011 on bulls originated from Borena pastoral area to determine seroprevalence of CBPP. Forty batches of bulls containing 38,187 Borana bulls were tested using c-ELISA. Of the total 40 batches tested for the presence of antibodies, 25 (62.5 %) of them contained at least one seropositive bull. From the total of 38,187 bulls tested, 150 (0.4 %) bulls were positive. The number of seropositive animals increases as the herd size increases (P 1000, and the difference was found statistically significant (P opportunity to livestock producers and live animal and meat exporters by improving the demand of Ethiopian livestock on international market. Regular reintroduction of infected cattle from neighboring countries or herds where the disease remains endemic may change the disease dynamics again. Therefore, mass blanket vaccinations coupled with prompt diagnosis, isolation and stamping out of the outbreaks, intensive surveillance, followed by strict cattle movement control should be implemented by concerned parties. PMID:25863957

  14. Polymorphism of SREBP1 is associated with beef fatty acid composition in Simmental bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, L; Zhang, L P; Yuan, Z R; Guo, L P; Zhu, M; Gao, X; Gao, H J; Li, J Y; Xu, S Z

    2013-01-01

    The sterol regulatory element binding factor 1 gene (SREBP1) plays an important role in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol, and in lipid metabolism. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of genetic polymorphisms of SREBP1 on the fatty acid composition of muscle and carcass traits in Simmental bulls and Snow Dragon black cattle. The 84-bp insertion/deletion (indel) in intron 5 of the bovine SREBP1 gene was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction to investigate its associations with traits. The results showed that the 84-bp indel in intron 5 was significantly associated with palmitoleic acid (C16:1), stearic acid (C18:0), saturated fatty acids (SFA), triglycerides (TAG), and the C16 index in Simmental bulls (P Simmental breeding stock for healthier fatty acid composition. PMID:24301949

  15. Associations between feed efficiency, sexual maturity and fertility-related measures in young beef bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontoura, A B P; Montanholi, Y R; Diel de Amorim, M; Foster, R A; Chenier, T; Miller, S P

    2016-01-01

    The beef industry has emphasized the improvement of feed utilization, as measured by modeling feed intake through performance traits to calculate residual feed intake (RFI). Evidence supports an inverse relationship between feed efficiency and reproductive function. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship of reproductive assessments and RFI unadjusted (RFI(Koch)) or adjusted for body composition (RFI(us)) and the relationship among fertility-related parameters. In total, 34 crossbred bulls were housed together for 112 days of performance evaluation, followed by assessment of scrotum IR imaging, scrotal circumference, testes ultrasonography and semen quality parameters at 377±33.4 days of age. Bulls were slaughtered at 389±34.0 days of age, and analyses of carcass composition, biometrics and histomorphometry of the testis and epididymis were conducted. Bulls were grouped into two subpopulations based on divergence of RFI, and within each RFI model either by including 50% of the population (Halves, high and low RFI, n=17) or 20.6% extremes of the population (Tails, high and low RFI, n=7). The means of productive performance and fertility-related measures were compared through these categories. Pearson's correlation was calculated among fertility-related measures. In the Halves subpopulation of the RFI(us), sperm of low-RFI bulls had decreased progressive motility (47.30% v. 59.90%) and higher abundance of tail abnormalities (4.30% v. 1.80%) than that of high-RFI bulls. In the Tails subpopulation of the RFI(Koch), low RFI displayed less variation in the scrotum surface temperature (0.62°C v. 1.16°C), decreased testis echogenicity (175.50 v 198.00 pixels) and larger (60.90 v. 56.80 mm(2)) but less-developed seminiferous tubules than high-RFI bulls. The evaluation of fertility-related parameters indicated that a higher percentage of immature seminiferous tubules was correlated with occurrence of sperm with distal droplets (r=0.59), a larger

  16. The uses of infrared thermography to evaluate the effects of climatic variables in bull's reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegassi, Silvio Renato Oliveira; Pereira, Gabriel Ribas; Dias, Eduardo Antunes; Koetz, Celso; Lopes, Flávio Guiselli; Bremm, Carolina; Pimentel, Concepta; Lopes, Rubia Branco; da Rocha, Marcela Kuczynski; Carvalho, Helena Robattini; Barcellos, Júlio Otavio Jardim

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the seasonal effects of the environment on sperm quality in subtropical region determined by temperature and humidity index (THI). We used 20 Brangus bulls (5/8 Angus × 3/8 Nellore) aged approximately 24 months at the beginning of the study. Semen evaluations were performed twice per season during 1 year. Climate THI data were collected from an automatic weather station from the National Institute of Meteorology. Infrared thermography images were used to determine the temperature of the proximal and distal poles of the testis to assess the testicular temperature gradient (TG). The seasonal effects on seminal and climatic variables were analyzed with ANOVA using MIXED procedure of SAS. Sperm motility in spring (60.1 %), summer (57.6 %), and autumn (64.5 %) showed difference compared to winter (73.0 %; P Brangus bulls.

  17. Who does Red Bull give wings to? Sensation seeking moderates sensitivity to subliminal advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustin, Gaëlle M; Jones, Daniel N; Hansenne, Michel; Quoidbach, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed whether subliminal priming of a brand name of a drink can affect people's choices for the primed brand, and whether this effect is moderated by personality traits. Participants with different levels of sensation seeking were presented subliminally with the words Red Bull or Lde Ublr. Results revealed that being exposed to Red Bull lead on average to small increases in participants' preferences for the primed brand. However, this effect was twice as strong for participants high in sensation seeking and did not occur for participants low in sensation seeking. Going beyond previous research showing that situational factors (e.g., thirst, fatigue…) can increase people's sensitivity to subliminal advertisement, our results suggest that some dispositional factors could have the same potentiating effect. These findings highlight the necessity of taking personality into account in non-conscious persuasion research. PMID:26150795

  18. Who does Red Bull give wings to? Sensation seeking moderates sensitivity to subliminal advertisement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëlle Marie Bustin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed whether subliminal priming of a brand name of a drink can affect people’s choices for the primed brand, and whether this effect is moderated by personality traits. Participants with different levels of sensation seeking were presented subliminally with the words Red Bull or Lde Ublr. Results revealed that being exposed to Red Bull lead on average to small increases in participants’ preferences for the primed brand. However, this effect was twice as strong for participants high in sensation seeking and did not occur for participants low in sensation seeking. Going beyond previous research showing that situational factors (e.g., thirst, fatigue… can increase people’s sensitivity to subliminal advertisement, our results suggest that some dispositional factors could have the same potentiating effect. These findings highlight the necessity of taking personality into account in non-conscious persuasion research.

  19. Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points System for a Bull Semen Production Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goularte, K L; Madeira, E M; Ferreira, C E R; Duval, E H; Vieira, A D; Mondadori, R G; Lucia, T

    2015-12-01

    Bull semen production centres (SPC) generally present satisfactory quality control for sperm processing, but non-standardized hygiene procedures. This study describes a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) system developed for bull SPC and subsequently implemented in a commercial SPC. After the identification of hazards at each step of semen processing and the determination of their risk and severity, monitoring and corrective procedures were designed to assess the system's efficiency. The HACCP system identified six microbiological hazards, 10 physical hazards, four chemical hazards and three critical control points. After the establishment of Good Processing Practices, Standard Operating Procedures and Standard Sanitizing Operating Procedures, the system was validated through an audit, to identify eventual failures and to define measures to correct them. PMID:26477334

  20. Inter relationship between some routine semen evaluation parameters in Jersey X local hill cattle crossbred bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kapoor

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted with an objective of establishing a relationship between various routine semen evaluation parameters. Work was conducted at Sperm Station Palampur, Himachal Pradesh, on the semen from five Jersey X local hill cattle crossbred breeding bulls. A total of 40 ejaculates (8 from each bull, were analysed at five different stages of processing namely post dilution, post equilibration, post thaw and after 1 and 2 hours incubation post thaw at 37°C for progressive motility, live dead count, reaction to hypo-osmotic solution, acrosomal integrity and gross morphological abnormalities. The results of the study revealed a highly significant (P<0.01 correlation between the various semen evaluation parameters except for the gross morphological abnormalities where there was a significant (P<0.05 negative correlation between the acrosomal integrity and gross morphological abnormalities.