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Sample records for bulking substance evaluation

  1. 78 FR 72841 - List of Bulk Drug Substances That May Be Used in Pharmacy Compounding; Bulk Drug Substances That...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... Used in Pharmacy Compounding; Bulk Drug Substances That May Be Used To Compound Drug Products in... Administration (FDA or Agency) is withdrawing the proposed rule to list bulk drug substances used in pharmacy... Pharmacopoeia chapter on pharmacy compounding; (II) if such a monograph does not exist, are drug substances that...

  2. 21 CFR 1301.33 - Application for bulk manufacture of Schedule I and II substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... manufacture of Schedule I and II substances. (a) In the case of an application for registration or reregistration to manufacture in bulk a basic class of controlled substance listed in Schedule I or II, the... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application for bulk manufacture of Schedule I and...

  3. Lazy Evaluation for Concurrent OLTP and Bulk Transactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wevers, L.; Huisman, Marieke; van Keulen, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    Existing concurrency control systems cannot execute transactions with overlapping updates concurrently. This is especially problematic for bulk updates, which usually overlap with all concurrent transactions. To solve this, we have developed a concurrency control mechanism based on lazy evaluation,

  4. The levitation characteristics of the magnetic substances using trapped HTS bulk annuli with various magnetic field distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S.B., E-mail: kim@ec.okayama-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, 3-1-1, Tsushima-Naka, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Ikegami, T.; Matsunaga, J.; Fujii, Y. [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, 3-1-1, Tsushima-Naka, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Onodera, H. [Japan Science and Technology Agency–Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (JST–CREST), Tokyo 102-0076 (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •The spherical solenoid magnet can make a various magnetic field distributions. •We generated a large magnetic gradient at inner space of HTS bulks. •The levitation height of samples was improved by the reapplied field method. •The levitation height depends on the variation rate of magnetic field gradient. -- Abstract: We have been investigating the levitation system without any mechanical contact which is composed of a field-cooled ring-shaped high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulks [1]. In this proposed levitation system, the trapped magnetic field distributions of stacked HTS bulk are very important. In this paper, the spherical solenoid magnet composed of seven solenoid coils with different inner and outer diameters was designed and fabricated as a new magnetic source. The fabricated spherical solenoid magnet can easily make a homogeneous and various magnetic field distributions in inner space of stacked HTS bulk annuli by controlling the emerging currents of each coil. By using this spherical solenoid magnet, we tried to make a large magnetic field gradient in inner space of HTS bulk annuli, and it is very important on the levitation of magnetic substances. In order to improve the levitation properties of magnetic substances with various sizes, the external fields were reapplied to the initially trapped HTS bulk magnets. We could generate a large magnetic field gradient along the axial direction in inner space of HTS bulk annuli, and obtain the improved levitation height of samples by the proposed reapplied field method.

  5. Evaluation and remediation of bulk soap dispensers for biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Lindsey A; Ramsay, Bradley D; Goeres, Darla M; Fields, Matthew W; Zapka, Carrie A; Macinga, David R

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies evaluating bulk soap in public restroom soap dispensers have demonstrated up to 25% of open refillable bulk-soap dispensers were contaminated with ~ 6 log(10)(CFU ml(-1)) heterotrophic bacteria. In this study, plastic counter-mounted, plastic wall-mounted and stainless steel wall-mounted dispensers were analyzed for suspended and biofilm bacteria using total cell and viable plate counts. Independent of dispenser type or construction material, the bulk soap was contaminated with 4-7 log(10)(CFU ml(-1)) bacteria, while 4-6 log(10)(CFU cm(-2)) biofilm bacteria were isolated from the inside surfaces of the dispensers (n = 6). Dispenser remediation studies, including a 10 min soak with 5000 mg l(-1) sodium hypochlorite, were then conducted to determine the efficacy of cleaning and disinfectant procedures against established biofilms. The testing showed that contamination of the bulk soap returned to pre-test levels within 7-14 days. These results demonstrate biofilm is present in contaminated bulk-soap dispensers and remediation studies to clean and sanitize the dispensers are temporary.

  6. RP-HPLC Method Development and Validation for Determination of Eptifibatide Acetate in Bulk Drug Substance and Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavand Savadkouhi, Maryam; Vahidi, Hossein; Ayatollahi, Abdul Majid; Hooshfar, Shirin; Kobarfard, Farzad

    2017-01-01

    A new, rapid, economical and isocratic reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed for the determination of eptifibatide acetate, a small synthetic antiplatelet peptide, in bulk drug substance and pharmaceutical dosage forms. The developed method was validated as per of ICH guidelines. The chromatographic separation was achieved isocratically on C18 column (150 x 4.60 mm i.d., 5 µM particle size) at ambient temperature using acetonitrile (ACN), water and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) as mobile phase at flow rate of 1 mL/min and UV detection at 275 nm. Eptifibatide acetate exhibited linearity over the concentration range of 0.15-2 mg/mL (r2=0.997) with limit of detection of 0.15 mg/mL The accuracy of the method was 96.4-103.8%. The intra-day and inter-day precision were between 0.052% and 0.598%, respectively. The present successfully validated method with excellent selectivity, linearity, sensitivity, precision and accuracy was applicable for the assay of eptifibatide acetate in bulk drug substance and pharmaceutical dosage forms.

  7. Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment: A Synthesis of Controlled Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Michael G.; Howard, Matthew O.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: A synthesis was conducted to assess outcome findings and methodological characteristics of controlled evaluations of adolescent substance abuse treatments. Method: Extensive computerized and manual bibliographic searches were employed to identify controlled evaluations of adolescent substance abuse treatment. Meta-analytic techniques…

  8. Scientific opinion on the evaluation of substances as acceptable previous cargoes for edible fats and oils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    Shipping of edible fats and oils into Europe is permitted in bulk tanks, provided that the previous cargo is included in a positive list. The European Commission requested EFSA to evaluate the acceptability as previous cargoes for fats and oils the substances calcium lignosulphonate, methyl acetate......, ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) and ammonium sulphate. The evaluation was based on the same criteria as those used for the evaluation of the substances currently on the list in the Annex to Commission Directive 96/3/EC as acceptable previous cargoes for edible fats and oils. Methyl acetate and ETBE meet...... the criteria for acceptability as previous cargoes. Due to uncertainties, mainly with regard to the composition and toxicity of the low molecular mass fraction, and the fact that the toxicological database is limited to the 40–65 grade and does not cover all grades of calcium lignosulphonate shipped...

  9. A Practice-Based Clinical Evaluation of a Bulk Fill Restorative Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, F J Trevor; Crisp, Russell John; Panchal, Ditesh; Redfearn, Philip; Sands, Peter

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the handling, by a group of practice-based researchers, of a recently introduced bulk fill resin-based composite restorative material, Filtek Bulk Fill Restorative (3M ESPE). The twelve selected evaluators were sent explanatory letters, a pack of the material under investigation to use for 8 weeks, and a questionnaire. The evaluators rated the ease of use of the bulk fill restorative the same as the previously used posterior composite material. The provision of one shade only for evaluation may have compromised the score for aesthetic quality. No post-operative sensitivity was reported. The bulk fill material was well received as indicated by the high number of evaluators who would both purchase the material and recommend it to colleagues. A recently introduced bulk fill restorative material achieved a rating for handling which was similar to the evaluators' previously used resin composite, although there were some concerns regarding the translucency of the material.

  10. Evaluation of Magnetic Cutting and Polishing with Superconducting Bulks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Y.; Takahashi, Y.; Otabe, E. S.; Suzuki, K.; Tanaka, Y.; Kiuchi, M.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, magnetic levitation tool with superconducting bulks is introduced as a new hollow machining technology. Magnetic levitation tool is the machine that magnet levitates above superconducting bulks and driving force of rotating magnet shaves the object. This tool is expected to use for a grinding machine and machining device because of hollow machining and micromachining by strong fixing. For using magnetic levitation tool, the attractive force, the repulsive force and rotating torque are important for grinding machine, machining outer surface and both, respectively. These forces are calculated by FEM, and compared with experimental results. The experimental results are agreed well with calculated results. However, the attractive force is one order smaller than that required in chemical mechanical polishing.

  11. Evaluation of marginal integrity of four bulk-fill dental composite materials: in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orłowski, Mirosław; Tarczydło, Bożena; Chałas, Renata

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare under in vitro conditions marginal sealing of 4 different bulk-fill materials composite restorations of class II. Comparative evaluation concerned 4 composites of a bulk-fill type: SonicFill, Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, Filtek Bulk Fill, and SDR. The study used 30 third molars without caries. In each tooth 4 cavities of class II were prepared. The prepared tooth samples were placed in a 1% methylene blue solution for 24 h, and after that in each restoration the depth of dye penetration along the side walls was evaluated. The highest rating (score 0, no dye penetration) was achieved by 93.33% of the restorations made of the SDR material, 90% of restorations of SonicFill system, 86.66% of restorations of the composite Filtek Bulk Fill, and 73.33% of restorations of the Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill. The performed study showed that bulk-fill flowable or sonic-activated flowable composite restorations have better marginal sealing (lack of discoloration) in comparison with bulk-fill paste-like composite.

  12. Environmental impact evaluation of chemical substances. Possibilities of bioindicator processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heublein, D.

    1986-02-01

    The chemicals law obliges manufacturers or importers of novel chemical substances to perform comprehensive tests in order to assess these substances for their impacts on health and environment prior to their marketing. However, the testing procedure is of a limited use for evaluating the effects of chemicals on ecological systems; this may be supplemented to by bioindicator processes. The first step of a comprehensive concept for detecting the environmental impacts of chemicals continuously in time and across territory was completed by the institution of the environmental samples bank which is to be supplemented to by a comprehensive monitoring programme and, correspondingly, by massive expansion of pertinent ecosystem research. (orig.).

  13. Evaluation of plant-wide WWTP control strategies including the effects of filamentous bulking sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores Alsina, Xavier; Comas, J.S.; Rodríguez Roda, I.

    2009-01-01

    Model No. 2 (BSM2). In a second series of simulations the parameters of the secondary settler model in the BSM2 are automatically changed on the basis of an on-line calculated risk of filamentous bulking, in order to mimic the effect of growth of filamentous bacteria in the plant. The results...... are presented using multivariate analysis. Including the effects of filamentous bulking in the simulation model gives a—more realistic—deterioration of the plant performance during periods when the conditions for development of filamentous bulking sludge are favourable: compared to the reference case where......The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the effect of filamentous bulking sludge on the predicted performance of simulated plant-wide WWTP control strategies. First, as a reference case, several control strategies are implemented, simulated and evaluated using the IWA Benchmark Simulation...

  14. A comprehensive study into fouling properties of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) extracted from bulk sludge and cake sludge in a mesophilic anaerobic membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yi; Tian, Yu; Li, Zhipeng; Zuo, Wei; Zhang, Jun

    2015-09-01

    This study focused on the fouling behaviors of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in a mesophilic anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) to obtain the relations of EPS specific constituents with membrane fouling. It was found that for the EPS extracted from bulk sludge, the LB-EPS induced the largest flux decline; however, for EPS extracted from cake sludge, the S-EPS caused the highest flux decline. The preferential rejection fraction by membrane further confirmed that the greater flux decline was exhibited with the higher percent rejection of EPS fractions. The adhesion and cohesion interactions of EPS fractions and membranes could explain the different rejection rates of the EPS components. The structural characteristics analysis indicated that the fouling layers of different EPS fractions with the greater loss of filterability had the smaller porosity. Further investigations demonstrated that these changes could be attributed to the different content of HPO-N in EPS fractions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Bulk electric system reliability evaluation incorporating wind power and demand side management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dange

    Electric power systems are experiencing dramatic changes with respect to structure, operation and regulation and are facing increasing pressure due to environmental and societal constraints. Bulk electric system reliability is an important consideration in power system planning, design and operation particularly in the new competitive environment. A wide range of methods have been developed to perform bulk electric system reliability evaluation. Theoretically, sequential Monte Carlo simulation can include all aspects and contingencies in a power system and can be used to produce an informative set of reliability indices. It has become a practical and viable tool for large system reliability assessment technique due to the development of computing power and is used in the studies described in this thesis. The well-being approach used in this research provides the opportunity to integrate an accepted deterministic criterion into a probabilistic framework. This research work includes the investigation of important factors that impact bulk electric system adequacy evaluation and security constrained adequacy assessment using the well-being analysis framework. Load forecast uncertainty is an important consideration in an electrical power system. This research includes load forecast uncertainty considerations in bulk electric system reliability assessment and the effects on system, load point and well-being indices and reliability index probability distributions are examined. There has been increasing worldwide interest in the utilization of wind power as a renewable energy source over the last two decades due to enhanced public awareness of the environment. Increasing penetration of wind power has significant impacts on power system reliability, and security analyses become more uncertain due to the unpredictable nature of wind power. The effects of wind power additions in generating and bulk electric system reliability assessment considering site wind speed

  16. 5-Year randomized clinical evaluation of posterior bulk-fill restorations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan WV; Pallesen, Ulla

    Purpose/aim: To evaluate in a randomized controlled study the 5-year clinical durability of a flowable resin composite bulk-fill technique in Class I and Class II restorations. Materials and methods: 38 pairs Class I and 62 pairs Class II restorations were placed in 44 male and 42 female (mean age...... 52.4 years). Each patient received at least two, as similar as possible, extended Class I or Class II restorations. In all cavities, a 1-step self-etch adhesive (Xeno V+) was applied. Randomized, one of the cavities of each pair received the flowable bulk-filled resin composite (SDR), in increments...... up to 4mm as needed to fill the cavity 2mm short of the occlusal cavosurface. The occlusal part was completed with the nano-hybrid resin composite (Ceram X mono+). In the other cavity, the resin composite-only (Ceram X mono+) was placed in 2mm increments. The restorations were evaluated using...

  17. Food Simulating Organic Solvents for Evaluating Crosslink Density of Bulk Fill Composite Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neveen M. Ayad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate crosslink densities of two bulk fill composite resins and determine if the used Food Simulating Organic Solvent (FSOS affected them. Methods. Forty specimens were prepared from SureFill and SonicFill bulk fill composite resins, 20 each. All specimens were stored dry for 24 h. Each group was divided into 2 subgroups: stored in ethanol (E 75% or in methyl ethyl ketone (MEK 100% for 24 h. Crosslink density was evaluated by calculating the difference between the Vickers hardness numbers of the specimens stored dry and after their storage in FSOS. The data were statistically analyzed using t-test. Results. The means of crosslink density in E and MEK were 6.99% and 9.44% for SureFill and 10.54% and 11.92% for SonicFill, respectively. t-test displayed significant differences between crosslink densities of SureFill and SonicFill: (P<0.0001 in E and (P=0.02 in MEK and between crosslink densities of SureFill in E and MEK (P=0.02. Conclusions. Crosslink density of bulk fill composite resin can be evaluated using E or MEK. SureFill has higher crosslink density than SonicFill in both E and MEK.

  18. Uniform System for the Evaluation of Substances (USES), version 4.0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linders JBHJ; Rikken MGJ; Bakker J; Poel P van der; CSR

    2002-01-01

    This report describes the fouth version of the Uniform System for the Evaluation of Substances, USES 4.0. USES 4.0 is an integrated risk assessment system for new and existing substances and agricultural and non-agricultural pesticides. The risk assessment system for new and existing substances in

  19. Monetary conversion factors for economic evaluations of substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollister, Kathryn; Yang, Xuan; Sayed, Bisma; French, Michael T; Leff, Jared A; Schackman, Bruce R

    2017-10-01

    Estimating the economic consequences of substance use disorders (SUDs) is important for evaluating existing programs and new interventions. Policy makers in particular must weigh program effectiveness with scalability and sustainability considerations in deciding which programs to fund with limited resources. This study provides a comprehensive list of monetary conversion factors for a broad range of consequences, services, and outcomes, which can be used in economic evaluations of SUD interventions (primarily in the United States), including common co-occurring conditions such as HCV and HIV. Economic measures were selected from standardized clinical assessment instruments that are used in randomized clinical trials and other research studies (e.g., quasi-experimental community-based projects) to evaluate the impact of SUD interventions. National datasets were also reviewed for additional SUD-related consequences, services, and outcomes. Monetary conversion factors were identified through a comprehensive literature review of published articles as well as targeted searches of other sources such as government reports. Eight service/consequence/outcome domains were identified containing more than sixty monetizable measures of medical and behavioral health services, laboratory services, SUD treatment, social services, productivity outcomes, disability outcomes, criminal activity and criminal justice services, and infectious diseases consequences. Unit-specific monetary conversion factors are reported, along with upper and lower bound estimates, whenever possible. Having an updated and standardized source of monetary conversion factors will facilitate and improve future economic evaluations of interventions targeting SUDs and other risky behaviors. This exercise should be repeated periodically as new sources of data become available to maintain the timeliness, comprehensiveness, and quality of these estimates. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc

  20. Hybrid biofilm-membrane bioreactor (Bf-MBR) for minimization of bulk liquid-phase organic substances and its positive effect on membrane permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, F Y; Li, P; Li, J; Li, H J; Ou, Q M; Sun, T T; Dong, Z J

    2015-12-01

    Four biofilm membrane bioreactors (Bf-MBRs) with various fixed carrier volumes (C:M) were operated in parallel to investigate the effect of attached-growth mode biomass involvement to the change of liquid-phase organics characteristics and membrane permeability, by comparing with conventional MBR. The experiments displayed that C:M and co-existence of biofilm with suspended solids in Bf-MBRs resulted in slight difference in pollutants removal effectiveness, and in rather distinct biomass properties and bacterial activities. The membrane permeability and specific resistance of bulk suspension of Bf-MBRs related closely with the liquid-phase organic substance, including soluble microbial products (SMP) and biopolymer cluster (BPC). Compared with conventional MBR, Bf-MBR with proper C:M had a low total biomass content and food-chain, where biofilm formation and its dominance affected liquid-phase organics, especially through reducing their content and minimizing strongly and weakly hydrophobic components with small molecular weight, and thus to mitigate membrane fouling significantly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Short communication: Evaluation of bulk tank milk microbiological quality of nine dairy farms in Tennessee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, B E; Lewis, M J; Boonyayatra, S; Maxwell, M L; Saxton, A; Oliver, S P; Almeida, R A

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bulk tank milk (BTM) quality of 9 East Tennessee dairy farms and to determine its relationship with selected quality milk parameters. Bulk tank milk samples (n=1,141) were collected over a 42-mo period (June 2006 through November 2009) from farms, based on their preliminary incubation count (PIC) history. Parameters of BTM quality evaluated in this study included somatic cell count (SCC), standard plate count (SPC), PIC, laboratory pasteurization count (LPC), Staphylococcus spp. count, Streptococcus spp. count, and coliform count. Strong correlations between SPC and Streptococcus spp. counts (0.72) and between SPC and PIC (0.70) were found. However, moderate correlations were seen among other milk quality parameters. In addition, seasonal variations for some milk quality parameters were noted. For example, milk quality parameters such as SCC, SPC, LPC, and coliform count were significantly higher in summer, whereas Streptococcus spp. counts were significantly higher in winter. No seasonal variation in PIC or Staphylococcus spp. counts was observed. Summarizing, results from this investigation showed the importance of using several bacterial counts (SCC, SPC, PIC, LPC, Streptococcus spp. count, Staphylococcus spp. count, and coliform counts) as simultaneous indicators of milk quality. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of Bulk and Surface Radiation Damage of Silicon Sensors for the ATLAS Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Mikeštíková, Marcela; Št'astný, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The electrical characteristics of different types of end-cap miniature n + -in- p strip sensors, ATLAS12A, were evaluated in Institute of Physics in Prague before and after proton and gamma irradiation. We report here on the bulk damage aspects, including the increase of leakage current and evaluation of the full depletion voltage and the surface damage, including the decrease of inter-strip resistance, changes in inter-strip capacitance and the effectiveness of punch-through protection structure. It was verified that different geometries of end-cap sensors do not influence their stability; the sensors should provide acceptable strip isolation and n ew gate PTP structure functions well even at the highest tested proton fluence 2× 10 15 n eq / cm 2

  3. The 10-Item Substance Use Disorder Outcome Scale: Psychometric evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermeyer, Joseph; Yoon, Gihyun; Thuras, Paul; Batres-Y-Carr, Tegan; McNairy, Scott; Swanson, Heather

    2017-01-01

    The current study describes the psychometric properties of a scale (entitled "Substance Use Disorder Outcome Scale-10 items" or 10-Item Substance Use Disorder Outcome Scale) designed for longitudinal studies. Sixteen male veterans attending a substance use disorder recovery clinic were studied over a 2-year period. The attending nurse and physician conducted four, 10-Item Substance Use Disorder Outcome Scale scale ratings, each encompassing a 6-month period, for each participant. Analyses involved scale descriptive results, Cronbach alpha scores, effects of deleting the item on Cronbach alpha scores for the remaining items, and item-to-scale correlations across the four periods, plus three exploratory studies. Scale scores showed skewness p ≤ 1.0 and Cronbach alphas of 0.89 to 0.93. Six of 10 items correlated with total scale scores at 3 or 4 rating periods at p ≤ 0.005. Two items showed p ≤ 0.005 correlations only in the first two periods, and two items showed p ≤ 0.005 correlations only in the last two periods. Exploratory analyses revealed some item convergence over time plus non-significant associations with long-standing demographic and clinical variables. Desirable 10-Item Substance Use Disorder Outcome Scale psychometric properties included normal distribution, excellent Cronbach alphas, and high item-to-score correlations, all of which persisted over time.

  4. Toxicity Evaluation of Through Fish Bioassay Raw Bulk Drug Industry Wastewater After Electrochemical Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Satyanarayan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering the high pollution potential that the synthetic Bulk Drug industry Wastewater (BDW possesses due to the presence of variety of refractory organics, toxicity evaluation is of prime importance in assessing the efficiency of the applied wastewater treatment system and in establishing the discharge standards. Therefore, in this study the toxic effects of high strength bulk drug industry wastewater before and after electrochemical treatment on common fish Lebistes reticulatus-(peter were studied under laboratory conditions. Results indicated that wastewater being very strong in terms of color, COD and BOD is found to be very toxic to the studied fish. The LC50 values for raw wastewater and after electrochemical treatment with carbon and aluminium electrodes for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours ranged between, 2.5-3.6%, 6.8-8.0%, 5.0-5.8% respectively. Carbon electrode showed marginally better removals for toxicity than aluminium electrode. It was evident from the studies that electrochemical treatment reduces toxicity in proportion to the removal efficiency shown by both the electrodes. The reduction in toxicity after treatment indicates the intermediates generated are not toxic than the parent compounds. Furthermore, as the electrochemical treatment did not result in achieving disposal standards it could be used only as a pre-treatment and the wastewater needs further secondary treatment before final disposal.

  5. Monitoring and Evaluation of Substance Abuse Services in South Africa: Implications for Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Bronwyn; Burnhams, Nadine Harker; Fakier, Nuraan

    2010-01-01

    Although outcomes monitoring and the collection of other performance data holds benefits for service managers and policy makers, the extent to which these data are collected by South African substance abuse service providers is unknown. To describe (i) the extent to which substance abuse service providers in South Africa monitor and evaluate their…

  6. Sex disparities in substance abuse research: Evaluating 23 years of structural neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Kimberly E; Gutierrez, Eric J; Yamamoto, Dorothy J; Regner, Michael F; McKee, Sherry A; Tanabe, Jody

    2017-04-01

    Sex differences in brain structure and clinical course of substance use disorders underscores the need to include women in structural brain imaging studies. The NIH has supported the need for research to address sex differences. We evaluated female enrollment in substance abuse structural brain imaging research and the methods used to study sex differences in substance effects. Structural brain imaging studies published through 2016 (n=230) were evaluated for number of participants by sex and substance use status and methods used to evaluate sex differences. Temporal trends in the numbers of participants by sex and substance use status were analyzed. We evaluated how often sex effects were appropriately analyzed and the proportion of studies that found sex by substance interactions on volumetric measures. Female enrollment increased over time, but remained significantly lower than male enrollment (p=0.01), with the greatest bias for alcohol and opiate studies. 79% of studies included both sexes; however, 74% did not evaluate sex effects or used an analytic approach that precluded detection of sex by substance use interactions. 85% of studies that stratified by sex reported different substance effects on brain volumes. Only 33% of studies examining two-way interactions found significant interactions, highlighting that many studies were underpowered to detect interactions. Although female participation in substance use studies of brain morphometry has increased, sex disparity persists. Studying adequate numbers of both sexes and employing correct analytic approaches is critical for understanding sex differences in brain morphometric changes in substance abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A research agenda for economic evaluation of substance abuse services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Michael T; Drummond, Michael

    2005-09-01

    Economic analyses of substance abuse interventions play a critical role in informing the decision makers involved in funding these programs. Despite the emergence of new and more effective interventions, the adoption of costlier services still demands justification based on economic evidence. Updated and more rigorous economic information allows patients, health care professionals, insurance companies, policymakers, and others to allocate scarce resources more efficiently. To prepare for the next wave of addiction health services research, this article presents background information on the economics of addiction health services, reviews recent empirical and methodological contributions, and provides 15 research recommendations.

  8. Evaluation of the physical properties, bulk density and aggregate stability of potential substrates in quarry restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, M.; Garcia-Orenes, F.; Mataix-Solera, J.; Garcia-Sanchez, E.

    2012-04-01

    Quarrying activity entails significant environmental impact affecting the soil, water, plants, landscape, etc. One of the most important impacts is the loss of the productive layer of the soil and its vegetation cover. However, mining activities are absolutely necessary for human development; keeping them sustainable implicates looking for viable solutions for the restoration of these areas to prevent degradation during and after the exploitation period. The aim of this study was to evaluate different substrates obtained from different mixes of sewage sludge and different mine spoils, to check how they are effective in quarry restoration, and to establish good practises in mining restoration. Also, the study tried to approach two refuses, one deriving from mining activity, as are the mine spoils that need to be reused for their valorisation, and the other, sewage sludge, obtained in the water depuration process to acquire a cheap substrate for soil rehabilitation. This preliminary work, which is included in a larger study, shows the results obtained from two physical properties studied, bulk density and aggregate stability, as key properties in the substrate structure for use in mining area restoration. Two doses of composted sewage sludge (30 and 90 Tm/Ha), both very rich in calcium carbonate, were applied to two different mine spoils under lab conditions. The first material, of poor quality, originated from the acquisition of arid particles in crushed limestone (Z). It is characterized by stable ''coarse elements'' predominance (up to 75% of its weight), and by the presence of elevated percentages of sand. The other waste material tested comes from limestone extraction (basically formed by the levels of interspersed non-limestone materials and the remains of stripped soils (D)). The results show that the high dose of sewage sludge applied to a mix of the two mine spoils significantly increased the percentage of stable aggregates by more than 50% than the control

  9. TOXICITY EVALUATION OF THROUGH FISH BIOASSAY RAW BULK DRUG INDUSTRY WASTEWATER AFTER ELECTROCHEMICAL TREATMENT

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A M Deshpande; S Satyanarayan

    2011-01-01

    ... the discharge standards. Therefore, in this study the toxic effects of high strength bulk drug industry wastewater before and after electrochemical treatment on common fish Lebistes reticulatus-(peter...

  10. Evaluation of bulk and surfaces absorption edge energy of sol-gel-dip-coating SnO2 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Aparecido Floriano

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The absorption edge and the bandgap transition of sol-gel-dip-coating SnO2 thin films, deposited on quartz substrates, are evaluated from optical absorption data and temperature dependent photoconductivity spectra. Structural properties of these films help the interpretation of bandgap transition nature, since the obtained nanosized dimensions of crystallites are determinant on dominant growth direction and, thus, absorption energy. Electronic properties of the bulk and (110 and (101 surfaces are also presented, calculated by means of density functional theory applied to periodic calculations at B3LYP hybrid functional level. Experimentally obtained absorption edge is compared to the calculated energy band diagrams of bulk and (110 and (101 surfaces. The overall calculated electronic properties in conjunction with structural and electro-optical experimental data suggest that the nature of the bandgap transition is related to a combined effect of bulk and (101 surface, which presents direct bandgap transition.

  11. Existing test data for the Act on Registration & Evaluation, etc. of Chemical Substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bong-In; Ryu, Byung-Taek; Na, Suk-Hyun; Chung, Seon-Yong

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the possibility of using existing test data provided in Korea and elsewhere for the registration of chemical substances was examined. Data on 510 chemical substances that are among the first subject to registration under the "Act on the Registration and Evaluation, etc. of Chemical Substances (K-REACH)" were analyzed. The possibility of using existing data from 16 reference databases was examined for 510 chemical substances notified in July 2015 as being subject to registration. Test data with the reliability required for the registration of chemical substances under the K-REACH constituted 48.4% of the required physicochemical characteristics, 6.5% of the required health hazards, and 9.4% of the required environmental hazards. Some existing test data were not within the scope of this research, including data used for registration in the European Union (EU). Thus, considering that 350 of these 510 species are registered in EU Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation & Restriction of Chemicals, more test data may exist that can be utilized in addition to the data identified in this study. Furthermore, the K-REACH states that non-testing data (test results predicted through Read Across, Quantitative Structure- Activity Relationships) and the weight of evidence (test results predicted based on test data with low reliability) can also be utilized for registration data. Therefore, if methods for using such data were actively reviewed, it would be possible to reduce the cost of securing test data required for the registration of chemical substances.

  12. New Concepts in the Evaluation of Biodegradation/Persistence of Chemical Substances using a Microbial Inoculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérald eThouand

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The European REACH Regulation (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization of CHemical substances implies, among other things, the evaluation of the biodegradability of chemical substances produced by industry. A large set of test methods is available including detailed information on the appropriate conditions for testing. However, the inoculum used for these tests constitutes a ‘black box’. If biodegradation is achievable from the growth of a small group of specific microbial species with the substance as the only carbon source, the result of the test depends largely on the cell density of this group at ‘time zero’. If these species are relatively rare in an inoculum that is normally used, the likelihood of inoculating a test with sufficient specific cells becomes a matter of probability. Normally this probability increases with total cell density and with the diversity of species in the inoculum. Furthermore the history of the inoculum e.g. a possible pre-exposure to the test substance or similar substances will have a significant influence on the probability. A high probability can be expected for substances that are widely used and regularly released into the environment, whereas a low probability can be expected for new xenobio

  13. Structure and property evaluation of a vacuum plasma sprayed nanostructured tungsten-hafnium carbide bulk composite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rea, K. E.; Viswanathan, V.; Kruize, A.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.; O'Dell, S.; McKechnie, T.; Rajagopalan, S.; Vaidyanathan, R.; Seal, S.; O’Dell, S.

    2008-01-01

    Vacuum plasma spray (VPS) forming of tungsten-based metal matrix nanocomposites (MMCs) has shown to be a cost effective and time saving method for the formation of bulk monolithic nanostructured then no-mechanical components. Spray drying of powder feedstock appears to have a significant effect on

  14. A randomized controlled three year evaluation of "bulk-filled" posterior resin restorations based on stress decreasing resin technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan W V; Pallesen, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this randomized controlled prospective clinical trial was to evaluate the efficacy of a flowable resin composite (SDR) bulk fill technique in posterior restorations and to compare it intraindividually with a conventional 2mm resin composite curing technique in a 3-year....... In all cavities a single step self-etch adhesive (Xeno V) was applied. In one of the cavities of each pair, a flowable resin composite (SDR) was placed, in bulk increments up to 4mm as needed to fill the cavity 2mm short of the occlusal cavosurface. The occlusal part was completed with a nano......-hybrid resin composite (Ceram X mono) layer. In the second cavity, the hybrid resin composite was placed in 2mm increments. The restorations were evaluated using slightly modified USPHS criteria at baseline and then yearly during 3 years. Caries risk and parafunctional habits of the participants were estimated...

  15. Screening of chemical substances ; Application of the Uniform System for the Evaluation of Substances, USES 1.0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gingnagel P; Vermeire TG; ACT

    1995-01-01

    Priority setting is a sequential process and can be regarded a first step in the risk management of substances. It is used to extract, from the many thousands of substances, those that are expected to be the most riskful to man and the environment and therefore deserve the highest attention from

  16. Evaluation of an information campaign about working safely with carcinogenic substances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moonen, I.P.P.; Rijt, G.A.J. van der; Koppen, K.F.C.J. van; Gulden, J.W.J. van der

    1995-01-01

    An information campaign, organised in the Netherlands to foster safer working conditions for those who find themselves exposed to carcinogenic substances, has been evaluated. Posters, leaflets, and booklets had been distributed to those who are liable to run a risk while at work, managers as well as

  17. Evaluation of a Family-based Substance Abuse Prevention Program Targeted for the Middle School Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Antonia; Pilgrim, Colleen; Hendrickson, Peggy; Buresl, Sue

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates family-based substance abuse prevention program implemented in a rural community for families with middle school students. In comparison with nonparticipants, students had higher family cohesion, less family fighting, greater school attachment, higher self-esteem, and believed alcohol should be consumed at an older age, at one-year…

  18. Substance Abuse Education for Undergraduate Nursing Students: A Target Approach to Program Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espelin, Jill M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure pre and post-test knowledge in response to an educational intervention. This program evaluation was completed on 68 undergraduate nursing students to determine if education related to substance use, alcohol poisoning and high risk behavior had an impact on knowledge base. The educational intervention was…

  19. The evaluation of treatment services and systems for substance use disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rush Brian

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific research and program evaluation have not played a major role in shaping the development of treatment services and systems in most countries. This has led to disparities in the development, management and monitoring of national treatment systems. In the evaluation of treatment for substance use disorders, the evaluation practitioner will usually be working at one of five levels: single case, treatment activity, treatment service, treatment agency or treatment system. One of the major barriers to undertaking internal program evaluation is the belief that it is a complicated research process best left to those with specific research training. Program managers and staff can plan and initiate an evaluation process for their program if they have access to research expertise when needed for certain parts of the process. There are seven main components of an evaluation process that can be planned and implemented: need assessment; evaluation planning, process evaluation, cost analysis, client satisfaction evaluation, outcome evaluation and economic evaluation. However, evaluation is more than the techniques and technology required to implement these types of activities. It also involves the routine questioning of current practice even if the feedback may be less positive than anticipated. A healthy culture for evaluation is one in which feedback loops are woven into the fabric of the treatment service or system. There are many barriers to evaluation in substance abuse services but these barriers can be overcome with careful planning and commitment to the delivery of evidence-based services.

  20. Evaluation of the Structure and Acid-Base Properties of Bulk Wood by FT-Raman Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen; Rahiala; Rosenholm

    1998-10-15

    The structure of pine wood (Pinus silvestris L.) has been analyzed by FT-Raman spectroscopy, taking birch wood and the wood components cellulose, hemicellulose (xylan), and lignin as well as previously characterized wood resins as references. The acid-base properties of bulk pine wood were evaluated by comparing the spectra recorded before and after the treatment with various solvents. After the treatment with the probe liquids having only a Lifshitz-van der Waals (LW) component, it was found that the LW interactions in pine wood take place without changing the main structure. After treatment with Lewis acid-base active probe liquids, the spectra indicate that, e.g., the intense peak located at approximately 2936 cm-1 (CH2 stretch) seems to disappear, suggesting that this peak may be related to Lewis acidity. In addition, after treatment with a Lewis acid, it was found that the intense peak located at approximately 1657 cm-1 (C&dbond;C) is shifted, relating to Lewis basicity. With the ratio approximately 2936/ approximately 1657 cm-1 as a measure of the acid-base properties of bulk wood, a value of about 2.00 indicates that the bulk pine wood is largely acidic. The pH determined supports the evaluation made by FT-Raman spectroscopy. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  1. Evaluation of the structure and acid-base properties of bulk wood by FT-Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Q.; Rahiala, H.; Rosenholm, J.B. [Aabo Akademi Univ, Turku (Finland). Dept. of Physical Chemistry

    1998-10-15

    The structure of pine wood (Pinus silvestris L.) has been analyzed by FT-Raman spectroscopy, taking birch wood and the wood components cellulose, hemicellulose (xylan), and lignin as well as previously characterized wood resins as references. The acid-base properties of bulk pine wood were evaluated by comparing the spectra recorded before and after the treatment with various solvents. After the treatment with the probe liquids having only a Lifshitz-van der Waals (LW) component, it was found that the LW interactions in pine wood take place without changing the main structure. After treatment with Lewis acid-base active probe liquids, the spectra indicate that, e.g., the intense peak located at {approximately}2936 cm{sup {minus}1} (CH{sub 2} stretch) seems to disappear, suggesting that this peak may be related to Lewis acidity. In addition, after treatment with a Lewis acid, it was found that the intense peak located at {approximately}1657 cm{sup {minus}1} (C{double_bond}C) is shifted, relating to Lewis basicity. With the ratio {approximately}2936/{approximately}1657 cm{sup {minus}1} as a measure of the acid-base properties of bulk wood, a value of about 2.00 indicates that the bulk pine wood is largely acidic. The pH determined supports the evaluation made by FT-Raman spectroscopy.

  2. Efficacy Evaluation of a Multifunctional Cosmetic Formulation: The Benefits of a Combination of Active Antioxidant Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela D. Gianeti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the association of active antioxidants substances in a multifunctional cosmetic formulation with established efficacy against signs of aging. A multifunctional cosmetic formulation containing an association of UV filters and antioxidant substances (liposoluble vitamins A, C and E, Ginkgo biloba and Phorphyra umbilicalis extracts was evaluated. This formulation was submitted to a clinical efficacy study using biophysics techniques and skin images analysis (digital photography imaging systems, 20 MHz ultrasound, and reflectance confocal microscopy. The volunteers applied the formulation containing the UV filters and antioxidant substances during the day and the formulation with antioxidant substances and without the UV filters at night, for 90 days. The formulation increased the hydration and protected the skin barrier function after a single application. At the long term assessment the formulation provided an improvement in skin barrier function and skin hydration to the deeper layers of the epidermis, leading to an improvement in skin appearance by reducing wrinkles and skin roughness. The multifunctional cosmetic formulation studied can be suggested to preventing signs of aging and improving skin conditions. In addition, this study presents the benefits of associating different active antioxidants substances in a single cosmetic formulation to prevent skin aging.

  3. Existing test data for the Act on Registration & Evaluation, etc. of Chemical Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong-In Choi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives In this study, the possibility of using existing test data provided in Korea and elsewhere for the registration of chemical substances was examined. Data on 510 chemical substances that are among the first subject to registration under the “Act on the Registration and Evaluation, etc. of Chemical Substances (K-REACH” were analyzed. Methods The possibility of using existing data from 16 reference databases was examined for 510 chemical substances notified in July 2015 as being subject to registration. Results Test data with the reliability required for the registration of chemical substances under the K-REACH constituted 48.4% of the required physicochemical characteristics, 6.5% of the required health hazards, and 9.4% of the required environmental hazards. Conclusions Some existing test data were not within the scope of this research, including data used for registration in the European Union (EU. Thus, considering that 350 of these 510 species are registered in EU Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation & Restriction of Chemicals, more test data may exist that can be utilized in addition to the data identified in this study. Furthermore, the K-REACH states that non-testing data (test results predicted through Read Across, Quantitative Structure- Activity Relationships and the weight of evidence (test results predicted based on test data with low reliability can also be utilized for registration data. Therefore, if methods for using such data were actively reviewed, it would be possible to reduce the cost of securing test data required for the registration of chemical substances.

  4. PD-related stresses in the bulk dielectric and their evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Aage; Crichton - Fratrådt, George C; McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1993-01-01

    The application of electromagnetic field theory to the subject of partial discharges shows that discharging in a void generates large field distortions within the bulk dielectric in the proximity of the void. Such inherent over-stressing of a dielectric could be the effect which triggers the onset...... of electrical treeing and other damaging processes, and which subsequently precipitates the breakdown of the insulation. If there were a train of partial discharge events per power frequency cycle, then, during each half period, these events would lead to cumulative stress levels within the solid dielectric...

  5. Analysis of the utilization of existing test data for phase-in substance registration under the Act on the Registration and Evaluation, etc. of Chemical Substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bong-In; Kwak, Yeong-Don; Jung, Yu-Mi; Ryu, Byung-Taek; Kim, Chang Gyun

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 2000 phase-in substances are subject to registration according to the Act on the Registration and Evaluation, etc. of Chemical Substances (KREACH), and the expected testing cost is 2.06 trillion Korean won assuming all the test data required for registration are acquired. The extent to which these enormous test costs can be reduced depends on the availability of existing data that can be used to meet the requirements of the K-REACH we examined the current availability of test data that can be used for chemical substance registration. We analyzed the possibility of utilizing the existing test data obtained from 16 reference databases for 369 of 518 kinds of phase-in substances subject to registration that were reported in last October 2014. The physical and chemical properties were available for 57.1% of substances, whereas data regarding human hazards and environmental hazards were available at considerably lower rates, 8.5% and 11.8%, respectively. Physical and chemical properties were available for a fairly high proportion, whereas human hazards and environmental hazards were reported for considerably fewer substances.

  6. Personality and substance use: psychometric evaluation and validation of the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS) in English, Irish, French, and German adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurk, Sarah; Kuitunen-Paul, Sören; Kroemer, Nils B; Artiges, Eric; Banaschewski, Tobias; Bokde, Arun L W; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Heinz, Andreas; Mann, Karl F; Nees, Frauke; Paus, Tomáš; Pausova, Zdenka; Poustka, Luise; Rietschel, Marcella; Schumann, Gunter; Struve, Maren; Smolka, Michael N

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present longitudinal study was the psychometric evaluation of the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS). We analyzed data from N = 2,022 adolescents aged 13 to 15 at baseline assessment and 2 years later (mean interval 2.11 years). Missing data at follow-up were imputed (N = 522). Psychometric properties of the SURPS were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis. We examined structural as well as convergent validity with other personality measurements and drinking motives, and predictive validity for substance use at follow-up. The hypothesized 4-factorial structure (i.e., anxiety sensitivity, hopelessness, impulsivity [IMP], and sensation seeking [SS]) based on all 23 items resulted in acceptable fit to empirical data, acceptable internal consistencies, low to moderate test-retest reliability coefficients, as well as evidence for factorial and convergent validity. The proposed factor structure was stable for both males and females and, to lesser degree, across languages. However, only the SS and the IMP subscales of the SURPS predicted substance use outcomes at 16 years of age. The SURPS is unique in its specific assessment of traits related to substance use disorders as well as the resulting shortened administration time. Test-retest reliability was low to moderate and comparable to other personality scales. However, its relation to future substance use was limited to the SS and IMP subscales, which may be due to the relatively low-risk substance use pattern in the present sample. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  7. Evaluation of physicochemical parameters influencing bulking episodes in a municipal WWTP; Evaluacion de la influencia de los parametros fisicoquimicos en los episodios de bulking en una EDAR muncipal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayo, J.; Angosto, J. M.; Serrano-Aniorte, J.; Lopez-Castellanos, J.; Puerta, J.

    2009-07-01

    A study of physicochemical parameters in a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was undertaken over 12-month period, to consider the presence of bulking phenomena by means of statistical and logistic regression analyses. the WWTP is situated in Cartagena, Southeast of Spain, with domestic and industrial wastewater contributions, and a mean flow rate of 27,000 m{sup 3}/day. (Author) 28 refs.

  8. Origin of soluble chemical species in bulk precipitation collected in Tokyo, Japan: Statistical evaluation of source materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurumi, Makoto; Takahashi, Akira; Ichikuni, Masami

    An iterative least-squares method with a receptor model was applied to the analytical data of the precipitation samples collected at 23 points in the suburban area of Tokyo, and the number and composition of the source materials were determined. Thirty-nine monthly bulk precipitation samples were collected in the spring and summer of 1987 from the hilly and mountainous area of Tokyo and analyzed for Na +, K +, NH 4+, Mg 2+, Ca 2+, F -, Cl -, Br -, NO 3- and SO 42- by atomic absorption spectrometry and ion chromatography. The pH of the samples was also measured. A multivariate ion balance approach (Tsurumi, 1982, Anal. Chim. Acta138, 177-182) showed that the solutes in the precipitation were derived from just three major sources; sea salt, acid substance (a mixture of 53% HNO 3, 39% H 2SO 4 and 8% HCl in equivalent) and CaSO 4. The contributions of each source to the precipitation were calculated for every sampling site. Variations of the contributions with the distance from the coast were also discussed.

  9. Notification of the commission on the eco-toxicity of chemical substances; Avis de la commission d'evaluation de l'ecotoxicite des substances chimiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The french commission on the evaluation of the chemical substances eco-toxicity, published recommendations concerning the use of additives for the automotive fuels, for the cooling circuit of electric power plants and for gases against fire. The risks for the public health are analysed and safety precautions are asked. (A.L.B.)

  10. Evaluation of esophageal injuries secondary to ingestion of unlabeled corrosive substances: pediatric case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucuk, Gonul; Gollu, Gulnur; Ates, Ufuk; Cakmak, Zeynep A; Kologlu, Meltem; Yagmurlu, Aydın; Aktug, Tanju; Dindar, Huseyin; Cakmak, Ahmet M

    2017-04-01

    Esophageal or gastric injuries secondary to caustic substance ingestion is still an important issue in developing countries. Its clinical spectrum can vary from absence of mucosal injury to complications such as severe burns, strictures and perforation. Physical examination and first endoscopic evaluation are very important in the diagnosis. The objective of this study is to present 154 children who were undergone upper gastrointestinal endoscopy because of caustic substance ingestion including descaler, degreaser, unlabeled bleach, drain opener, surface cleaner, dishwasher rinse aid, hydrochloric acid. Sixty-nine children had positive oropharyngeal findings. Sixtythree children were found to have burns in the first endoscopic examination and forty of these burns were severe burn. In the follow-up, twenty children developed strictures that were undergone dilatation program. Fourteen children in the dilatation program had successful dilatation and intralesional steroid injection. However three children had undergone colonic interposition and three undergone laparoscopic gastroduodenostomy and gastrojejunostomy. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  11. The risk evaluation of difficult substances in USES 2.0 and EUSES. A decision tree for data gap filling of Kow, Koc and BCF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beelen P van; ECO

    2000-01-01

    This report presents a decision tree for the risk evaluation of the so-called "difficult" substances with the Uniform System for the Evaluation of Substances (USES). The decision tree gives practical guidelines for the regulatory authorities to evaluate notified substances like organometallic

  12. Psychedelics as medicines for substance abuse rehabilitation: evaluating treatments with LSD, Peyote, Ibogaine and Ayahuasca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelman, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Substances known as psychedelics, hallucinogens and entheogens have been employed in ethnomedical traditions for thousands of years, but after promising uses in the 1950's and 1960's they were largely prohibited in medical treatment and human research starting in the 1970's as part of the fallout from the war on drugs. Nonetheless, there are a number of studies which suggest that these substances have potential applications in the treatment of addictions. While these substances are generally classified as Schedule I, alleging no established medical uses and a high drug abuse potential, there is nonetheless evidence indicating they might be safe and effective tools for short term interventions in addictions treatment. Evidence suggests that the psychedelics have a much greater safety profile than the major addictive drugs, having extremely low levels of mortality, and producing little if any physical dependence. This paper reviews studies evaluating the use of LSD, peyote, ibogaine and ayahuasca in the treatment of dependencies and the possible mechanisms underlying the indications of effectiveness. Evidence suggests that these substances help assist recovery from drug dependency through a variety of therapeutic mechanisms, including a notable "after-glow" effect that in part reflects their action on the serotonin neurotransmitter system. Serotonin has been long recognized as central to the psychedelics' well-known phenomenological, physical, emotional and cognitive dynamics. These serotonin-based dynamics are directly relevant to treatment of addiction because of depressed serotonin levels found in addict populations, as well as the role of serotonin as a neuromodulators affecting many other neurotransmitter systems.

  13. Evaluating two brief substance-use interventions for mandated college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Helene R; Morgan, Thomas J; Pugh, Lisa A; Celinska, Katarzyna; Labouvie, Erich W; Pandina, Robert J

    2006-03-01

    This study evaluated two brief personal feedback substance-use interventions for students mandated to the Rutgers University Alcohol and Other Drug Assistance Program for Students (ADAPS): (1) a brief motivational interview (BMI) intervention and (2) a written feedback-only (WF) intervention. A key question addressed by this study was whether there is a need for face-to-face feedback in the context of motivational interviewing to affect changes in substance-use behaviors or whether a written personal feedback profile is enough of an intervention to motivate students to change their substance use. The sample consisted of 222 students who were mandated to ADAPS, were eligible for the study, and completed the 3-month follow-up assessment. Eligible students completed a baseline assessment from which a personal feedback profile was created. They were then randomly assigned to the BMI or WF condition. Students were followed 3 months later. Students in both interventions reduced their alcohol consumption, prevalence of cigarette and marijuana use, and problems related to alcohol and drug use between baseline and follow-up. There were no differences between the two intervention conditions in terms of any substance-use outcomes. The results suggest that, under these circumstances and with these students, assessment and WF students changed similarly to those who had an assessment and WF within the context of a BMI. Given the fact that the former is less costly in terms of time and personnel, written profiles may be found to be a cost-effective means of reducing alcohol and drug use and related problems among low- to moderate-risk mandated college students. More research is needed with mandated students to determine the efficacy of feedback interventions and to isolate the effects of interventions from the effects of being caught and being reprimanded to treatment.

  14. Evaluation of alternative pollutant emission control strategies to urban water systems using substance flow analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundy, L.; Revitt, D. M.; Eriksson, Eva

    2011-01-01

    to develop semi-hypothetical case cities (SHCCs), which represent virtual platforms for the evaluation of ECSs using substance flow analysis. The results indicate that the full implementation of existing legislation is capable of reducing total emissions of Cd and Hg by between 11% and 20%. Consideration...... of emissions on a compartment-by-compartment basis indicates that the impact of a particular ECS is sensitive to both pollutant and city-specific characteristics. Whilst reductions in emissions to one compartment are typically associated with an increase in emissions to an alternative compartment, the final...

  15. Ab initio quantum chemical calculation as a tool of evaluating diamagnetic susceptibility of magnetically levitating substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Y [Department of Mathematical and Life Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Tanimoto, Y [Faculty of Pharmacy, Osaka Ohtani University, Nishikiorikita, Tondabayashi 584-8540 (Japan)], E-mail: fuji0710@sci.hiroshima-u.ac.jp

    2009-03-01

    On magnetic force evaluation necessary for magnetically levitated diamagnetic substances, isotropic diamagnetic susceptibility estimation by the ab initio quantum chemical calculation using Gaussian03W was verified for more than 300 molecules in a viewpoint of the accuracy in the absolute value and the calculation level affording good cost performance. From comparison, the method of B3PW91 / 6-311+G(d,p) was found to give the adequate absolute value by the relation of (observed) = (1.03 {+-} 0.005) x (calculated) - (1.22 {+-} 0.60) x 10{sup -6} in a unit of cm{sup 3} mol{sup -1} and good cost performance.

  16. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and substance misuse: an evaluation of causal hypotheses and treatment considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Susan; Sedgwick, Ottilie

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is known to co-occur with substance misuse at a high rate. This has important health and legal implications for those with ADHD. Mechanisms that may influence drug use among those with ADHD are discussed and evaluated in this review, including self-medication, behavioral disinhibition, comorbidity, and sensitization. While no one hypothesis is able to explain the complex phenomenon of drug taking behaviors, it is likely that self-medication, disinhibition and comorbidity play a part, with little evidence for sensitization. The development of efficacious treatment is necessary to help those with this debilitating comorbidity, as there are currently few evidence-based interventions.

  17. Implementation and Evaluation of an Intervention for Children in Afghanistan at Risk for Substance Use or Actively Using Psychoactive Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Subor Momand

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the impact of a novel intervention for children at risk for substance use or actively using substances that was provided to 783 children between 4 and 18 years of age in Afghanistan. They received the Child Intervention for Living Drug-free (CHILD protocol while in outpatient or residential treatment. CHILD included age-appropriate literacy and numeracy, drug education, basic living safety, and communication and trauma coping skills. A battery of measures examined multiple child health domains at treatment’s start and end and 12 weeks later. For younger children, there were no significant Gender or Gender X Time effects (all p’s > .16 and .35, resp.. The time main effect was significant for all outcomes (all p’s < .00192, the prespecified per-comparison error rate. Post hoc testing showed significant improvements from residential treatment entry to completion for all scales. For older children, a time main effect was significant for (all p’s < .00192, the prespecified per-comparison error rate all but one outcome. Community follow-up means were significantly lower than residential treatment entry means. CHILD had a positive impact on children, and treatment impact endured from posttreatment to follow-up assessment.

  18. Recommended approaches to the scientific evaluation of ecotoxicological hazards and risks of endocrine-active substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthiessen, Peter; Ankley, Gerald T.; Biever, Ronald C.; Bjerregaard, Poul; Borgert, Christopher; Brugger, Kristin; Blankinship, Amy; Chambers, Janice; Coady, Katherine K.; Constantine, Lisa; Dang, Zhichao; Denslow, Nancy D.; Dreier, David; Dungey, Steve; Gray, L. Earl; Gross, Melanie; Guiney, Patrick D.; Hecker, Markus; Holbech, Henrik; Iguchi, Taisen; Kadlec, Sarah; Karouna-Renier, Natalie K.; Katsiadaki, Ioanna; Kawashima, Yukio; Kloas, Werner; Krueger, Henry; Kumar, Anu; Lagadic, Laurent; Leopold, Annegaaike; Levine, Steven L.; Maack, Gerd; Marty, Sue; Meador, James P.; Mihaich, Ellen; Odum, Jenny; Ortego, Lisa; Parrott, Joanne L.; Pickford, Daniel; Roberts, Mike; Schaefers, Christoph; Schwarz, Tamar; Solomon, Keith; Verslycke, Tim; Weltje, Lennart; Wheeler, James R.; Williams, Mike; Wolf, Jeffery C.; Yamazaki, Kunihiko

    2017-01-01

    A SETAC Pellston Workshop® “Environmental Hazard and Risk Assessment Approaches for Endocrine-Active Substances (EHRA)” was held in February 2016 in Pensacola, Florida, USA. The primary objective of the workshop was to provide advice, based on current scientific understanding, to regulators and policy makers; the aim being to make considered, informed decisions on whether to select an ecotoxicological hazard- or a risk-based approach for regulating a given endocrine-disrupting substance (EDS) under review. The workshop additionally considered recent developments in the identification of EDS. Case studies were undertaken on 6 endocrine-active substances (EAS—not necessarily proven EDS, but substances known to interact directly with the endocrine system) that are representative of a range of perturbations of the endocrine system and considered to be data rich in relevant information at multiple biological levels of organization for 1 or more ecologically relevant taxa. The substances selected were 17α-ethinylestradiol, perchlorate, propiconazole, 17β-trenbolone, tributyltin, and vinclozolin. The 6 case studies were not comprehensive safety evaluations but provided foundations for clarifying key issues and procedures that should be considered when assessing the ecotoxicological hazards and risks of EAS and EDS. The workshop also highlighted areas of scientific uncertainty, and made specific recommendations for research and methods-development to resolve some of the identified issues. The present paper provides broad guidance for scientists in regulatory authorities, industry, and academia on issues likely to arise during the ecotoxicological hazard and risk assessment of EAS and EDS. The primary conclusion of this paper, and of the SETAC Pellston Workshop on which it is based, is that if data on environmental exposure, effects on sensitive species and life-stages, delayed effects, and effects at low concentrations are robust, initiating environmental risk

  19. Recommended approaches to the scientific evaluation of ecotoxicological hazards and risks of endocrine-active substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthiessen, Peter; Ankley, Gerald T; Biever, Ronald C; Bjerregaard, Poul; Borgert, Christopher; Brugger, Kristin; Blankinship, Amy; Chambers, Janice; Coady, Katherine K; Constantine, Lisa; Dang, Zhichao; Denslow, Nancy D; Dreier, David A; Dungey, Steve; Gray, L Earl; Gross, Melanie; Guiney, Patrick D; Hecker, Markus; Holbech, Henrik; Iguchi, Taisen; Kadlec, Sarah; Karouna-Renier, Natalie K; Katsiadaki, Ioanna; Kawashima, Yukio; Kloas, Werner; Krueger, Henry; Kumar, Anu; Lagadic, Laurent; Leopold, Annegaaike; Levine, Steven L; Maack, Gerd; Marty, Sue; Meador, James; Mihaich, Ellen; Odum, Jenny; Ortego, Lisa; Parrott, Joanne; Pickford, Daniel; Roberts, Mike; Schaefers, Christoph; Schwarz, Tamar; Solomon, Keith; Verslycke, Tim; Weltje, Lennart; Wheeler, James R; Williams, Mike; Wolf, Jeffrey C; Yamazaki, Kunihiko

    2017-03-01

    A SETAC Pellston Workshop® "Environmental Hazard and Risk Assessment Approaches for Endocrine-Active Substances (EHRA)" was held in February 2016 in Pensacola, Florida, USA. The primary objective of the workshop was to provide advice, based on current scientific understanding, to regulators and policy makers; the aim being to make considered, informed decisions on whether to select an ecotoxicological hazard- or a risk-based approach for regulating a given endocrine-disrupting substance (EDS) under review. The workshop additionally considered recent developments in the identification of EDS. Case studies were undertaken on 6 endocrine-active substances (EAS-not necessarily proven EDS, but substances known to interact directly with the endocrine system) that are representative of a range of perturbations of the endocrine system and considered to be data rich in relevant information at multiple biological levels of organization for 1 or more ecologically relevant taxa. The substances selected were 17α-ethinylestradiol, perchlorate, propiconazole, 17β-trenbolone, tributyltin, and vinclozolin. The 6 case studies were not comprehensive safety evaluations but provided foundations for clarifying key issues and procedures that should be considered when assessing the ecotoxicological hazards and risks of EAS and EDS. The workshop also highlighted areas of scientific uncertainty, and made specific recommendations for research and methods-development to resolve some of the identified issues. The present paper provides broad guidance for scientists in regulatory authorities, industry, and academia on issues likely to arise during the ecotoxicological hazard and risk assessment of EAS and EDS. The primary conclusion of this paper, and of the SETAC Pellston Workshop on which it is based, is that if data on environmental exposure, effects on sensitive species and life-stages, delayed effects, and effects at low concentrations are robust, initiating environmental risk

  20. A critical evaluation of how ancient DNA bulk bone metabarcoding complements traditional morphological analysis of fossil assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grealy, Alicia C.; McDowell, Matthew C.; Scofield, Paul; Murray, Dáithí C.; Fusco, Diana A.; Haile, James; Prideaux, Gavin J.; Bunce, Michael

    2015-11-01

    When pooled for extraction as a bulk sample, the DNA within morphologically unidentifiable fossil bones can, using next-generation sequencing, yield valuable taxonomic data. This method has been proposed as a means to rapidly and cost-effectively assess general ancient DNA preservation at a site, and to investigate temporal and spatial changes in biodiversity; however, several caveats have yet to be considered. We critically evaluated the bulk bone metabarcoding (BBM) method in terms of its: (i) repeatability, by quantifying sampling and technical variance through a nested experimental design containing sub-samples and replicates at several stages; (ii) accuracy, by comparing morphological and molecular family-level identifications; and (iii) overall utility, by applying the approach to two independent Holocene fossil deposits, Bat Cave (Kangaroo Island, Australia) and Finsch's Folly (Canterbury, New Zealand). For both sites, bone and bone powder sub-sampling were found to contribute significantly to variance in molecularly identified family assemblage, while the contribution of library preparation and sequencing was almost negligible. Nevertheless, total variance was small. Sampling over 80% fewer bones than was required to morphologically identify the taxonomic assemblages, we found that the families identified molecularly are a subset of the families identified morphologically and, for the most part, represent the most abundant families in the fossil record. In addition, we detected a range of extinct, extant and endangered taxa, including some that are rare in the fossil record. Given the relatively low sampling effort of the BBM approach compared with morphological approaches, these results suggest that BBM is largely consistent, accurate, sensitive, and therefore widely applicable. Furthermore, we assessed the overall benefits and caveats of the method, and suggest a workflow for palaeontologists, archaeologists, and geneticists that will help mitigate these

  1. Image similarity evaluation of the bulk-density-assigned synthetic CT derived from MRI of intracranial regions for radiation treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Wook Kim

    Full Text Available Various methods for radiation-dose calculation have been investigated over previous decades, focusing on the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI only. The bulk-density-assignment method based on manual segmentation has exhibited promising results compared to dose-calculation with computed tomography (CT. However, this method cannot be easily implemented in clinical practice due to its time-consuming nature. Therefore, we investigated an automatic anatomy segmentation method with the intention of providing the proper methodology to evaluate synthetic CT images for a radiation-dose calculation based on MR images.CT images of 20 brain cancer patients were selected, and their MR images including T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and PETRA were retrospectively collected. Eight anatomies of the patients, such as the body, air, eyeball, lens, cavity, ventricle, brainstem, and bone, were segmented for bulk-density-assigned CT image (BCT generation. In addition, water-equivalent CT images (WCT with only two anatomies-body and air-were generated for a comparison with BCT. Histogram comparison and gamma analysis were performed by comparison with the original CT images, after the evaluation of automatic segmentation performance with the dice similarity coefficient (DSC, false negative dice (FND coefficient, and false positive dice (FPD coefficient.The highest DSC value was 99.34 for air segmentation, and the lowest DSC value was 73.50 for bone segmentation. For lens segmentation, relatively high FND and FPD values were measured. The cavity and bone were measured as over-segmented anatomies having higher FPD values than FND. The measured histogram comparison results of BCT were better than those of WCT in all cases. In gamma analysis, the averaged improvement of BCT compared to WCT was measured. All the measured results of BCT were better than those of WCT. Therefore, the results of this study show that the introduced methods, such as histogram comparison and

  2. Engaging health professional students in substance abuse research: development and early evaluation of the SARET program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truncali, Andrea; Kalet, Adina L; Gillespie, Colleen; More, Frederick; Naegle, Madeline; Lee, Joshua D; Huben, Laura; Kerr, David; Gourevitch, Marc N

    2012-09-01

    There is a need to build the ranks of health care professionals engaged in substance abuse (SA)-focused clinical research. The authors simultaneously developed and evaluated SARET, the Substance Abuse Research Education and Training program. The fundamental goal of this interprofessional program is to stimulate medical, dental, and nursing student interest and experience in SA research. Evaluation aims to understand program feasibility and acceptability and to assess short-term impact. SARET comprises 2 main components: stipend-supported research mentorships and a Web-based module series, consisting of 6, interactive, multimedia modules addressing core SA research topics, delivered via course curricula and in the research mentorships. Authors assessed program feasibility and impact on student interest in conducting SA research by tracking participation and conducting participant focus groups and online surveys. Thirty early health care professional students completed mentorships (25 summer, 5 yearlong) and 1324 completed at least 1 Web-module. SARET was considered attractive for the opportunity to conduct clinically oriented research and to work with health care professionals across disciplines. Mentorship students reported positive impact on their vision of SA-related clinical care, more positive attitudes about research, and, in some cases, change in career plans. Web-based modules were associated with enhanced interest in SA (35% increase, P = 0.005, in those somewhat/very interested for neurobiology module) and SA research (+38%, P research interest among students of nursing, medicine, and dentistry and may lend itself to dissemination.

  3. Evaluating the Marginal Integrity of Bulk Fill Fibre Reinforced Composites in Bio-mimetically Restored Tooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnana, Arun Kumar; Vanga, V Narsimha Rao; Chandrabhatla, Srinivas Kumar

    2017-06-01

    Over the past years, composites in aesthetic dentistry are showing a considerable progress, but mechanical strength and polymerization shrinkage are the two main drawbacks, which limit their use in high stress bearing areas. To evaluate the marginal integrity of short glass fibre reinforced composite restorations, fibre reinforced composites with composite superficial layer, and fibre reinforced composites with underlying flowable composite layer. This study was done on twenty eight sound premolar teeth with standardized class V cavities restored under four groups as Group I: Particulate filler composite (Filtek Z 250 XT, 3M ESPE); Group II: Short glass fibre reinforced composite (everX Posterior, GC); Group III: Short glass fibre reinforced composite with an overlying layer of particulate filler composite; Group IV: Short glass fibre reinforced composite with an underlying layer of flowable composite (Filtek Z 250 XT, 3M ESPE). Test samples were immersed in a 2% methylene blue dye for 24 hours at 37°C and each tooth was sectioned bucco-lingually. Staining along the tooth restoration interface was recorded and results were analysed statistically using Independent sample t-test and Tukey's post-hoc one-way ANOVA. The results showed significant difference in the dye penetration between the restorative materials in the occlusal and gingival margins (p=0.02). Short fibre reinforced composites showed a statistically significant difference in the microleakage scores when compared with the particulate filler composites (p=0.01). Short glass fibre reinforced composite restorations showed an improved marginal integrity when compared to the traditional particulate filler composite restorations.

  4. Preparation and Performance Evaluation of Biochars from Neem Seed Active Substance Extracted Residues (NSASER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jialei; Lu, Shuwen

    2017-05-01

    Neem seed active substance extracted residues (NSASER) is industrial by-product, which is often discarded as a waste. It would lead to a certain degree of harm to the environment. The aim of this study was to prepare the biochars with neem seed active substance extracted residues (NSASER) under the anaerobic pyrolysis conditions. The pyrolysis process was studied with different pyrolysis power (200W, 500W, 800W, 1100W and 1400W), and the performance of the prepared biochars was evaluated. The results showed that the required time was to complete the pyrolysis process that gradually decreased with pyrolysis power increased from 200 to 1400 W, and the final pyrolysis temperature was to complete the pyrolysis process that increased with pyrolysis power increased from 200 to 1400 W. The biochars yield decreased with pyrolysis power increased from 200 to 1400 W, and the biochars yield has the maximum value when the pyrolysis power was of 200W. And the prepared biochars still had some characteristics of the plant cell and kept uniform porous structure, which was beneficial to absorb the small molecule substance. The water content of the prepared biochars was 7.18±0.53, the ash content of the prepared biochars was 5.92±0.31 and the fixed carbon content of the prepared biochars was 81.27±0.89. Compared with the bamboo charcoal, the performance index of the prepared biochars was in according with National Standard of the People’s Republic of China GBT26913-2011 of the bamboo charcoal. The prepared biochars had a potential value in application.

  5. The Living the Example Social Media Substance Use Prevention Program: A Pilot Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Elizabeth; Goldmeer, Sandra; Smith, Michelle; Snider, Jeremy; Girardo, Gunilla

    2017-01-01

    Background Adolescent substance use rates in rural areas of the United States, such as upstate New York, have risen substantially in recent years, calling for new intervention approaches in response to this trend. The Mentor Foundation USA conducts the Living the Example (LTE) campaign to engage youth in prevention using an experiential approach. As part of LTE, youth create their own prevention messages following a training curriculum in techniques for effective messaging and then share them via social media. This paper reports on a pilot evaluation of the LTE program. Objective To conduct a pilot test of LTE in two rural high schools in upstate New York. We hypothesized that positive antidrug brand representations could be promoted using social media strategies to complement the Shattering the Myths (STM) in-person, event-based approach (hypothesis 1, H1), and that youth would respond positively and engage with prevention messages disseminated by their peers. We also hypothesized that exposure to the social media prevention messages would be associated with more positive substance use avoidance attitudes and beliefs, reductions in future use intentions, and decreased substance use at posttest (hypothesis 2, H2). Methods We adapted a previously published curriculum created by the authors that focuses on branding, messaging, and social media for prevention. The curriculum consisted of five, one-hour sessions. It was delivered to participating youth in five sequential weeks after school at the two high schools in late October and early November 2016. We designed a pre- and posttest pilot implementation study to evaluate the effects of LTE on student uptake of the intervention and short-term substance use and related outcomes. Working at two high schools in upstate New York, we conducted a pilot feasibility evaluation of LTE with 9th-grade students (ie, freshmen) at these high schools. We administered a 125-item questionnaire online to capture data on media use

  6. The Living the Example Social Media Substance Use Prevention Program: A Pilot Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, William; Andrade, Elizabeth; Goldmeer, Sandra; Smith, Michelle; Snider, Jeremy; Girardo, Gunilla

    2017-06-27

    Adolescent substance use rates in rural areas of the United States, such as upstate New York, have risen substantially in recent years, calling for new intervention approaches in response to this trend. The Mentor Foundation USA conducts the Living the Example (LTE) campaign to engage youth in prevention using an experiential approach. As part of LTE, youth create their own prevention messages following a training curriculum in techniques for effective messaging and then share them via social media. This paper reports on a pilot evaluation of the LTE program. To conduct a pilot test of LTE in two rural high schools in upstate New York. We hypothesized that positive antidrug brand representations could be promoted using social media strategies to complement the Shattering the Myths (STM) in-person, event-based approach (hypothesis 1, H1), and that youth would respond positively and engage with prevention messages disseminated by their peers. We also hypothesized that exposure to the social media prevention messages would be associated with more positive substance use avoidance attitudes and beliefs, reductions in future use intentions, and decreased substance use at posttest (hypothesis 2, H2). We adapted a previously published curriculum created by the authors that focuses on branding, messaging, and social media for prevention. The curriculum consisted of five, one-hour sessions. It was delivered to participating youth in five sequential weeks after school at the two high schools in late October and early November 2016. We designed a pre- and posttest pilot implementation study to evaluate the effects of LTE on student uptake of the intervention and short-term substance use and related outcomes. Working at two high schools in upstate New York, we conducted a pilot feasibility evaluation of LTE with 9th-grade students (ie, freshmen) at these high schools. We administered a 125-item questionnaire online to capture data on media use; attitudes toward social media

  7. Evaluation of free to grow: head start partnerships to promote substance-free communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, Mark; Champion, Heather; Rogers, Todd; Neiberg, Rebecca H; Barker, Dianne C; Talton, Jennifer W; Ip, Edward H; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Parries, Maria T; Easterling, Doug

    2011-04-01

    Free to Grow: Head Start Partnerships to Promote Substance-free Communities (FTG) was a national initiative in which local Head Start (HS) agencies, in partnership with other community organizations, implemented a mix of evidence-based family-strengthening and community-strengthening strategies. The evaluation of FTG used a quasi-experimental design to compare 14 communities that participated in the FTG intervention with 14 matched comparison communities. Telephone surveys were conducted with two cohorts of the primary caregivers of children in HS at baseline and then annually for 2 years. The survey was also administered to repeated cross-sectional samples of primary caregivers of young children who were not enrolled in HS. No consistent evidence was found in changes in family functioning or neighborhood conditions when the 14 FTG sites were compared to 14 matched sites. However, caregivers of young children who were not in HS in three high-implementing FTG sites showed evidence of improvements in neighborhood organization, neighborhood norms against substance abuse, and child disciplinary practices. Results provide highly limited support for the concept that family and neighborhood conditions that are likely to affect child development and well-being can be changed through organized efforts implemented by local HS programs.

  8. Tapentadol abuse potential: a postmarketing evaluation using a sample of individuals evaluated for substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Stephen F; McNaughton, Emily C; Black, Ryan A

    2015-01-01

    Abuse of prescription opioid pain relievers continues to be a serious public health concern. In contrast to opioids such as oxycodone or morphine, tapentadol, a prescription analgesic, has two mechanisms of action: μ-opioid receptor agonism and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition. As a result of differences in its receptor pharmacology, there may be differences in its abuse profile. As an initial step toward testing this hypothesis, we present a postmarketing examination of tapentadol's abuse liability relative to comparators. A sentinel sample of 113,914 individuals assessed for substance abuse treatment as part of the NAVIPPRO ASI-MV(®) surveillance system at 624 facilities in 38 states from January 2011 to September 2012 was examined for prevalence and prescription-adjusted prevalence of past 30-day abuse of tapentadol as a compound and its immediate-release (IR) and extended-release (ER) formulations with oxymorphone, hydromorphone, hydrocodone, morphine, fentanyl, oxycodone, tramadol, and buprenorphine as comparators. Tapentadol abuse was reported significantly less often (P Tapentadol IR abuse prevalence was significantly lower than all comparators except fentanyl IR, which had the next lowest unadjusted abuse prevalence. Prevalence of tapentadol ER abuse was lower than comparators except hydromorphone ER. Low prescription-adjusted estimates were observed for tapentadol as a compound as well as its IR and ER formulations, which were among the lowest observed and the lowest of the Schedule II comparators. Prescription-adjusted risk for tapentadol ER was less than comparators except hydromorphone ER (P = 0.06). Tapentadol abuse was seen infrequently in this study and, on a prescription basis, was less likely to be abused than most of the examined Schedule II analgesics. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Evaluation of metal biouptake from the analysis of bulk metal depletion kinetics at various cell concentrations: theory and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotureau, Elise; Billard, Patrick; Duval, Jérôme F L

    2015-01-20

    Bioavailability of trace metals is a key parameter for assessment of toxicity on living organisms. Proper evaluation of metal bioavailability requires monitoring the various interfacial processes that control metal partitioning dynamics at the biointerface, which includes metal transport from solution to cell membrane, adsorption at the biosurface, internalization, and possible excretion. In this work, a methodology is proposed to quantitatively describe the dynamics of Cd(II) uptake by Pseudomonas putida. The analysis is based on the kinetic measurement of Cd(II) depletion from bulk solution at various initial cell concentrations using electroanalytical probes. On the basis of a recent formalism on the dynamics of metal uptake by complex biointerphases, the cell concentration-dependent depletion time scales and plateau values reached by metal concentrations at long exposure times (>3 h) are successfully rationalized in terms of limiting metal uptake flux, rate of excretion, and metal affinity to internalization sites. The analysis shows the limits of approximate depletion models valid in the extremes of high and weak metal affinities. The contribution of conductive diffusion transfer of metals from the solution to the cell membrane in governing the rate of Cd(II) uptake is further discussed on the basis of estimated resistances for metal membrane transfer and extracellular mass transport.

  10. Quantitative evaluation on activated property-tunable bulk liquid water with reduced hydrogen bonds using deconvoluted Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiao-Chien; Mai, Fu-Der; Yang, Kuang-Hsuan; Chen, Liang-Yih; Yang, Chih-Ping; Liu, Yu-Chuan

    2015-01-06

    Interesting properties of water with distinguishable hydrogen-bonding structure on interfacial phase or in confined environment have drawn wide attentions. However, these unique properties of water are only found within the interfacial phase and confined environment, thus, their applications are limited. In addition, quantitative evaluation on these unique properties associating with the enhancement of water's physical and chemical activities represents a notable challenge. Here we report a practicable production of free-standing liquid water at room temperature with weak hydrogen-bonded structure naming Au nanoparticles (NPs)-treated (AuNT) water via treating by plasmon-induced hot electron transfer occurred on resonantly illuminated gold NPs (AuNPs). Compared to well-known untreated bulk water (deionized water), the prepared AuNT water exhibits many distinct activities in generally physical and chemical reactions, such as high solubilities to NaCl and O2. Also, reducing interaction energy within water molecules provides lower overpotential and higher efficiency in electrolytic hydrogen production. In addition, these enhanced catalytic activities of AuNT water are tunable by mixing with deionized water. Also, most of these tunable activities are linearly proportional to its degree of nonhydrogen-bonded structure (DNHBS), which is derived from the O-H stretching in deconvoluted Raman spectrum.

  11. Evaluation of Coxiella burnetii status in dairy cattle herds with bulk-tank milk positive by ELISA and PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñero, A; Barandika, J F; Hurtado, A; García-Pérez, A L

    2014-04-01

    Bulk-tank milk (BTM) samples are frequently used to evaluate the health status of dairy livestock. A large-scale investigation carried out in BTM samples from dairy cattle herds from a Q fever-endemic region in Northern Spain revealed a high degree of exposure to Coxiella burnetii. This study was aimed at assessing the value of BTM samples analysis as an indicator of the C. burnetii status in dairy cattle herds. Three herds with BTM samples positive for C. burnetii by ELISA and PCR were selected, and blood, faeces and individual milk and BTM samples were analysed by serology and PCR. In spite of the high antibodies titres found in BTM samples, only one of the three farms presented an active infection by C. burnetii, as revealed by the presence of bacterial DNA in vaginal mucus and in environmental samples collected in the calving area, a seroprevalence around 40% in heifers and the seroconversion rate observed in cows. Results obtained indicated that the analysis of BTM samples is a good epidemiological tool at the population level that can be used to discriminate between seropositive and seronegative herds, but at the herd level, additional tests are necessary to evaluate whether Q fever is a potential problem in the farm. When Q fever is suspected in a cattle herd, sera from a small group of 1- to 3-year-old animals need to be analysed to investigate recent contact with C. burnetii. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Evaluation of a Training to Reduce Provider Bias Toward Pregnant Patients With Substance Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    SEYBOLD, DARA; CALHOUN, BYRON; BURGESS, DENISE; LEWIS, TAMMI; GILBERT, KELLY; CASTO, ANGIE

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this article is not to present a scientific or systematic study, but to provide an initial framework for designing a training workshop to enhance health practitioners’ (nurses, social workers, physicians, etc.) knowledge regarding substance abuse treatment and to decrease their bias toward substance-abusing women, particularly pregnant women in rural communities. We incorporated the 4 Transdisciplinary Foundations from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administra...

  13. Evaluation of different school-based preventive interventions for reducing the use of psychotropic substances among students: a randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Marcelo Oliveira; De Micheli, Denise

    2015-08-01

    Although many schools perform preventive interventions for reducing drug use, little is known about their implementation processes and results. Accordingly, this study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of three different types of preventive intervention performed in the school setting for reducing substance use among students. The study comprised 1316 students from the 9th year of elementary school to the 3rd year of secondary school in 8 public schools in the city of Guarulhos, São Paulo state, Brazil. Students were randomly assigned to the intervention groups or a control group and were evaluated at two different time-points regarding substance use. The results indicated that interventions performed by teachers were most effective in reducing both substance use and the severity of substance-associated problems. Interventions performed by experts were partially effective, although they only reduced use among experimental users. The results of "Single lecture" interventions revealed that such approaches are counterproductive. In summary, preventive actions that were contextualized to the student's reality and the school environment and that included the active involvement of both teacher and student were most effective at reducing the prevalence of substance use and the severity of associated problems in students.

  14. Evaluation of Ni-free Zr–Cu–Fe–Al bulk metallic glass for biomedical implant applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Ying-Sui [Institute of Oral Biology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Zhang, Wei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian (China); Kai, Wu [Institute of Materials Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung, Taiwan (China); Liaw, Peter K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Huang, Her-Hsiung, E-mail: hhhuang@ym.edu.tw [Institute of Oral Biology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Taipei City Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Stomatology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: ► A Zr{sub 62.5}Cu{sub 22.5}Fe{sub 5}Al{sub 10} bulk metallic glass (BMG) with 50 GPa elastic modulus was used. ► This Ni-free Zr-based BMG had lower metal ion release rate than the commercial Ti. ► This Ni-free Zr-based BMG had better proteins adsorption than the commercial Ti. ► This Ni-free Zr-based BMG has a high potential for biomedical implant applications. -- Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate the surface characteristics, including the chemical composition, metal ion release, protein adsorption, and cell adhesion, of a Ni-free Zr-based (Zr{sub 62.5}Cu{sub 22.5}Fe{sub 5}Al{sub 10}) bulk metallic glass (BMG) with low elastic modulus for biomedical implant applications. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to identify the surface chemical composition and the protein (albumin and fibronectin) adsorption of the specimen. The metal ions released from the specimen in simulated blood plasma and artificial saliva solutions were measured using an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer. The cell adhesion, in terms of the morphology, focal adhesion complex, and skeletal arrangement, of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells was evaluated using scanning electron microscope observations and immunofluorescent staining. For comparison purposes, the above-mentioned tests were also carried out on the widely used biomedical metal, Ti. The results showed that the main component on the outermost surface of the amorphous Zr{sub 62.5}Cu{sub 22.5}Fe{sub 5}Al{sub 10} BMG was ZrO{sub 2} with small amounts of Cu, Al, and Fe oxides. The released metal ions from Zr{sub 62.5}Cu{sub 22.5}Fe{sub 5}Al{sub 10} BMG were well below the critical concentrations that cause negative biological effects. The Zr{sub 62.5}Cu{sub 22.5}Fe{sub 5}Al{sub 10} BMG had a greater adsorption capacity for albumin and fibronectin than that of commercial biomedical Ti. The Zr{sub 62.5}Cu{sub 22.5}Fe{sub 5}Al{sub 10} BMG surface showed an attached cell number similar

  15. Evaluating the Cognitive and Behavioral Outcomes of Incarcerated Adolescent Females Receiving Substance Abuse Treatment: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts-Lewis, Amelia C.; Parker, Sharon; Welch, Chiquitia; Wall, Ariana; Wiggins, Pam

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral approach in changing the behavioral and cognitive skills of incarcerated girls participating in a substance abuse treatment program. A repeated measures design was used. The findings of this study revealed that the behaviors (i.e., self-monitoring,…

  16. DSM-5 cannabis use disorder, substance use and DSM-5 specific substance-use disorders: Evaluating comorbidity in a population-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayley, Amie C; Stough, Con; Downey, Luke A

    2017-08-01

    Cannabis use disorder (CUD) is frequently associated with concurrent substance use and/or comorbid substance use disorders (SUDs); however there is little specificity with regard to commonly abused individual drug types/classes. This study therefore aimed to provide insight into the degree of these co-occurring relationships across several specific newer and older generation illicit and prescription drugs. 36,309 adults aged 18+ from wave 3 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC-III) were assessed. Weighted cross-tabulations and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate comorbidity between current DSM-5 CUD, substance use and DSM-5 SUD. Current DSM-5 CUD is associated with greater lifetime use of all examined drug classes, and previous 12-month use of several newer-class illicit and prescription stimulant-based substances (all pDSM-5 CUD was similarly associated with increased incidence of a range of DSM-5 SUDs and was independently associated with concurrently reporting current DSM-5; sedative (Adjusted OR= 5.1, 95%CI 2.9-9.0), cocaine (AOR= 9.3, 95%CI 5.6-15.5), stimulant (AOR= 4.3, 95%CI 2.3-7.9), club drug (AOR= 16.1, 95%CI 6.3-40.8), opioid (AOR= 4.6, 95%CI 3.0-6.8) and alcohol-use disorder (AOR= 3.0, 95%CI 2.5-3.7); but not heroin or 'other' drug use disorder (both p>0.05). High comorbidity exists between DSM-5 CUD and many specific DSM-5 SUDs. Newer-class illicit and prescription stimulant-based drug use disorders are overrepresented among those with DSM-5 CUD. These findings underscore the need for tailored treatment programs for those presenting with DSM-5 CUD, and for greater treatment specification where poly-drug use is evident. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  17. Crisis intervention related to the use of psychoactive substances in recreational settings--evaluating the Kosmicare Project at Boom Festival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Maria Carmo; de Sousa, Mariana Pinto; Frango, Paula; Dias, Pedro; Carvalho, Joana; Rodrigues, Marta; Rodrigues, Tania

    2014-01-01

    Kosmicare project implements crisis intervention in situations related to the use of psychoactive substances at Boom Festival (Portugal). We present evaluation research that aims to contribute to the transformation of the project into an evidence-based intervention model. It relies on harm reduction and risk minimization principles, crisis intervention models, and Grof's psychedelic psychotherapy approach for crisis intervention in situations related to unsupervised use of psychedelics. Intervention was expected to produce knowledge about the relation between substance use and mental health impact in reducing potential risk related to the use of psychoactive substances and mental illness, as well as an impact upon target population's views of themselves, their relationship to substance use, and to life events in general. Research includes data on process and outcome indicators through a mixed methods approach, collected next to a sample of n=176 participants. Sample size varied considerably, however, among different research measures. 52% of Kosmicare visitors reported LSD use. Over 40% also presented multiple drug use. Pre-post mental state evaluation showed statistically significant difference (pcrisis resolution. Crisis episodes that presented no resolution were more often related with mental health outburst episodes, with psychoactive substance use or not. Visitors showed high satisfaction with intervention (n=58) and according to follow-up (n=18) this perception was stable over time. Crisis intervention was experienced as very significant. We discuss limitations and implications of evaluating natural setting based interventions, and the relation between psychoactive substance use and psychopathology. Other data on visitor's profile and vulnerability to crisis showed inconclusive.

  18. EFSA ; Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 66, Revision 1 (FGE.66Rev1): Consideration of Furfuryl Alcohol and Related Flavouring Substances Evaluated by JECFA (55th meeting)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 14 flavouring substances in the Revision 1 of Flavouring Group Evaluation 66, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. None of the s...

  19. Children and the unborn child, Exposure and susceptibility to chemical substances – an evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Elsa; Thorup, I.; Schnipper, Anette

    Children are at risk of exposure to a lot of high-production-volume synthetic chemical substances which have been introduced into the market within the past 50 years; these chemical substances are used widely in consumer products and are dispersed in the environment. Children as well as the unborn...... child have in some cases appeared to be uniquely vulnerable to chemical toxicants because of their biological growth and development. Furthermore, children may be more heavily exposed than adults to certain chemicals and pollutants in the environment. This report summarises and discusses the current...... knowledge about the biological susceptibility and exposure of chemical substances to children during the embryonic, foetal, and postnatal periods....

  20. GRASr2 evaluation of aliphatic acyclic and alicyclic terpenoid tertiary alcohols and structurally related substances used as flavoring ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marnett, Lawrence J; Cohen, Samuel M; Fukushima, Shoji; Gooderham, Nigel J; Hecht, Stephen S; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Smith, Robert L; Adams, Timothy B; Bastaki, Maria; Harman, Christie L; McGowen, Margaret M; Taylor, Sean V

    2014-04-01

    This publication is the 1st in a series of publications by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Assoc. summarizing the Panel's 3rd re-evaluation of Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) status referred to as the GRASr2 program. In 2011, the Panel initiated a comprehensive program to re-evaluate the safety of more than 2700 flavor ingredients that have previously met the criteria for GRAS status under conditions of intended use as flavor ingredients. Elements that are fundamental to the safety evaluation of flavor ingredients include exposure, structural analogy, metabolism, pharmacokinetics, and toxicology. Flavor ingredients are evaluated individually and in the context of the available scientific information on the group of structurally related substances. Scientific data relevant to the safety evaluation of the use of aliphatic acyclic and alicyclic terpenoid tertiary alcohols and structurally related substances as flavoring ingredients are evaluated. The group of aliphatic acyclic and alicyclic terpenoid tertiary alcohols and structurally related substances was reaffirmed as GRAS (GRASr2) based, in part, on their rapid absorption, metabolic detoxication, and excretion in humans and other animals; their low level of flavor use; the wide margins of safety between the conservative estimates of intake and the no-observed-adverse effect levels determined from subchronic studies and the lack of significant genotoxic and mutagenic potential. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Recommended approaches to the scientific evaluation of ecotoxicological hazards and risks of endocrine-active substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiessen, Peter; Ankley, Gerald T.; Biever, Ronald C

    2017-01-01

    . Case studies were undertaken on 6 endocrine-active substances (EAS-not necessarily proven EDS, but substances known to interact directly with the endocrine system) that are representative of a range of perturbations of the endocrine system and considered to be data rich in relevant information......A SETAC Pellston Workshop(®) "Environmental Hazard and Risk Assessment Approaches for Endocrine-Active Substances (EHRA)" was held in February 2016 in Pensacola, Florida, USA. The primary objective of the workshop was to provide advice, based on current scientific understanding, to regulators...... and policy makers; the aim being to make considered, informed decisions on whether to select an ecotoxicological hazard- or a risk-based approach for regulating a given endocrine-disrupting substance (EDS) under review. The workshop additionally considered recent developments in the identification of EDS...

  2. [An evaluation of methods for the quantitative determination of praziquantel as a substance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopatin, B V; Bebris, N K; Lopatina, N B

    1989-01-01

    Feasibility of quantitative determination of a new helminthicide prasiquantel as a substance by spectral and chemical analytic procedures has been investigated. Chemical methods based on nitrogen measurement in the samples were shown to lack precision which is obligatory for drug analysis. The quantitative analytic procedures based on UV spectrophotometry are of low precision and selectivity. Infrared spectroscopy is the only method of prasiquantel assay that meets the requirements for drug substance measurement.

  3. Substance abuse may hasten motor onset of Huntington disease: Evaluating the Enroll-HD database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Jordan L; Kamholz, John A; Moser, David J; Feely, Shawna M E; Paulsen, Jane S; Nopoulos, Peg C

    2017-02-28

    To investigate the relationship between substances of abuse and age at motor onset (AMO) in patients with Huntington disease (HD) in a large and diverse patient population. This was a retrospective, observational study of the Enroll-HD database. Participants were determined to belong to 1 of 3 substance abuse groups: (1) tobacco abusers, (2) alcohol abusers, and (3) drug abusers. A group of participants who had never abused substances served as a control group. The average AMO of patients in the substance abuse groups was compared to the control group. The number of CAG repeats was used as a covariate in all analyses. The average difference in AMOs of participants in the tobacco (n = 566), alcohol (n = 374), and drug abuse groups (n = 217) compared to the control group (n = 692) were 2.3 (F1, 1,258 = 33.8, p < 0.0001), 1.0 (F1, 1,066 = 4.2, p = 0.04), and 3.3 (F1, 909 = 29.7, p < 0.0001) years earlier, respectively. In all substance abuse groups, the AMO was lowered to a greater degree in female participants than it was in male participants. Substances of abuse have a strong effect on the AMO in patients with HD. These effects seem to be amplified in women with HD compared to men. These results may provide a safe intervention capable of adding disease-free years to patients with HD. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  4. Toxicity evaluation of copper oxide bulk and nanoparticles in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, using hematological, bioaccumulation and histological biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Khalek, Amr A; Badran, Shereen R; Marie, Mohamed-Assem S

    2016-08-01

    The increased industrial applications of nanoparticles (NPs) augment the possibility of their deposition into aquatic ecosystems and threatening the aquatic life. So, this study aimed to provide a comparable toxicological effects of nano-CuO and bulk CuO on a common freshwater fish, Oreochromis niloticus. Fish were exposed to two selected doses (1/10 and 1/20 of the LC50/96 h) of both nano-/bulk CuO for 30 days. Based on the studied hematological parameters (RBCs count, hemoglobin content and hematocrit%), the two selected concentrations of CuO in their nano- and bulk sizes were found to induce significant decrease in all studied parameters. But, nano-CuO-treated fish showed the maximum decrease in all recorded parameters among the all studied groups especially at the low concentration of 1/20 LC50/96 h. Hematological status was also confirmed using the calculated blood indices (MCV, MHC and MCHC). In case of bulk CuO-treated groups, the significant decrease in the studied hematological parameters was not followed by any change in MCV and MCH (normocytic anemia), while fish that exposed to NPs showed a significant increase in all calculated blood parameters reflecting erythrocytes swelling which is related to the intracellular osmotic disorders (macrocytic anemia). Regarding metal bioaccumulation factor, the results showed that CuO NPs had more efficiency to internalize fish tissues (liver, kidneys, gills, skin and muscle). The accumulation pattern of Cu metal was ensured by histopathological investigation of liver, kidneys and gills. The histopathological analysis revealed various alterations that varied between adaptation responses and permanent tissue damage.

  5. Bioactive porous beads as an injectable urethral bulking agent: their in vitro evaluation on smooth muscle cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Se Heang; Kim, In Gul; Lee, Ji Young; Lee, Ji Youl; Lee, Jin Ho

    2011-03-01

    Growth factor (basic fibroblast growth factor or vascular endothelial growth factor)-immobilized polycaprolactone (PCL)/Pluronic F127 porous beads were prepared as an injectable bulking agent for effective treatment of urinary incontinence. The growth factor-immobilized porous beads may stimulate smooth muscle cell (SMC) differentiation of muscle-derived stem cells or defect tissues around urethra to improve the sphincter function (bioactive therapy) as well as to provide a bulking effect (passive therapy). The porous PCL/F127 beads were fabricated by an isolated particle-melting/melt-molding particulate-leaching method. The growth factors were easily immobilized onto the surfaces of the PCL/F127 porous beads via heparin binding and were continuously released for up to 28 days. Both growth factor-immobilized porous beads had a positive effect for the SMC differentiation of muscle-derived stem cells, as were demonstrated by the analyses of quantitative polymerase chain reactions, Western blot using SMC-specific markers, and immunohistochemical staining. In particular, the basic fibroblast growth factor-immobilized porous beads showed desirable SMC differentiation behavior that can be applied as an injectable bulking agent for the treatment of urinary incontinence.

  6. [In vitro evaluation of antibacterial substances produced by bacteria isolated from different marine organisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, I; Lodeiros, C; Núñez, M; Campos, I

    2001-01-01

    Bacteria from several groups of marine organisms were isolated and, using direct antibiograms, identified those that produce antibacterial substances, using a human pathogenic strain of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC6538 as revealing microorganism. Bacteria which produce substances that inhibited S. aureus growth were identified through morphological, physiological and biochemical tests. Out of 290 bacteria, 54 (18.6%) inhibited the growth of S. aureus, but only 27 survived for identification. Bivalves, sponges and corals were the most represented from which 41.2, 33.3 and 29.7%, respectively, produced antibacterial substances of the isolated bacteria in each group. The marine species with highest proportions of these bacteria were the hard coral Madracis decactis (62.5%), the sponges Cliona sp. (57.1%) and the octocoral Plexaura flexuosa (50.0%). Out of the 27 strains that produced antibacterial substances, 51.8% were Aeromonas spp. and 14.8% Vibrio spp. Marine bacteria that produce antibacterial substances are abundant, most belong in the Vibrionacea group and were isolated mainly from corals and bivalve mollusks.

  7. Promoting substance use education among generalist physicians: an evaluation of the Chief Resident Immersion Training (CRIT) program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, Daniel P; Bridden, Carly; Jackson, Angela H; Saitz, Richard; Amodeo, Maryann; Barnes, Henrietta N; Samet, Jeffrey H

    2009-01-01

    Education about substance use (SU) disorders remains inadequate in medical training. To describe the Chief Resident Immersion Training (CRIT) program in addiction medicine and to evaluate its impact on chief resident (CR) physicians' substance use knowledge, skills, clinical practice, and teaching. A controlled educational study of CRIT programs (2003, 2004, and 2005) for incoming CRs in generalist disciplines. Intervention CRs were trained to diagnose, manage, and teach about SU. The control CRs sought but did not receive the intervention. Eighty-six CR applicants to the CRIT program. Baseline and 6-month questionnaires assessing substance use knowledge, skills, clinical practice, and teaching. Outcomes were compared within groups from baseline to follow-up and between groups at follow-up. The intervention (n = 64) and control (n = 22) CRs were similar demographically. At 6-month follow-up, the intervention CRs reported a significant increase in SU knowledge, confidence, and preparedness to diagnose, manage, and teach and an increase in SU clinical and teaching practices compared to their baseline and control CRs. This intensive training for chief residents (CRs) improved knowledge, confidence, and preparedness to diagnose, manage, and teach about substance use (SU), affecting both the CRs' SU clinical and teaching practices. The CRIT program was an effective model for dissemination of SU knowledge and skills to educators in a key position to share this training with a broader audience of medical trainees. This model holds potential to address other high priority medical, yet under-addressed, content areas as well.

  8. Evaluation of characteristics on the bulk heterojunction solar cells prepared by PCDTBT: PC71BM composite thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Masakazu; Santhakumar, Kannappan; Kumar, Palanisamy; Kojima, Kenzo; Shin, Paik-Kyun; Ochiai, Shizuyasu

    2012-09-01

    Bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells based on blends comprising conjugated polymers and fullerene acceptors are the subject of considerable investigation because of their potential to enable the fabrication of low-cost devices that convert sunlight into electricity. Recently, poly(2,7-carbazole) derivatives have gained momentum as a class of promising alternative materials to poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) in organic solar cell applications. Among them, poly[N-900-hepta-decanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(40,70-di-2-thienyl-20,10,30-benzo thiadiazole)] (PCDTBT) has a relatively deeper highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of 5.45 eV compared to the HOMO of 5.1 eV of the P3HT. In this work we systematically study the effect of donor and acceptor ratio on the device performance of bulk heterojunction solar cells made with blends of PCDTBT and PC71BM. We used PEDOT: PSS as a hole transport layer, and TiOX as a hole-blocking layer in order to improve the power conversion efficiency. The current density-voltage (JV) characteristics of photovoltaic cells were measured under the illumination of simulated solar light with 100 mW/cm2 (AM 1.5G) by an Oriel 1000 W solar simulator. The power conversion efficiency of the solar cell is more than 5%.

  9. The evaluation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) biodegradation kinetics in soil amended with organic fertilizers and bulking agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włóka, Dariusz; Placek, Agnieszka; Rorat, Agnieszka; Smol, Marzena; Kacprzak, Małgorzata

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) biodegradation kinetics in soils fertilized with organic amendments (sewage sludge, compost), bulking agents (mineral sorbent, silicon dioxide in form of nano powder), and novel compositions of those materials. The scope of conducted works includes a cyclic CO2 production measurements and the determinations of PAHs content in soil samples, before and after 3-months of incubation. Obtained results show that the use of both type of organic fertilizers have a positive effect on the PAHs removal from soil. However, the CO2 emission remains higher only in the first stage of the process. The best acquired means in terms of PAHs removal as well as most sustained CO2 production were noted in samples treated with the mixtures of organic fertilizers and bulking agents. In conclusion the addition of structural forming materials to the organic fertilizers was critical for the soil bioremediation efficiency. Therefore, the practical implementation of collected data could find a wide range of applications during the design of new, more effective solutions for the soil bioremediation purposes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of the specificity of three enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for detection of antibodies against Salmonella in bovine bulk milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Ann-Kristin J; Ågren, Estelle C C; Bergström, Karin; Wahlström, Helene

    2013-01-30

    The Swedish Salmonella control program has been running for decades and has resulted in a low prevalence of Salmonella in Swedish food producing animals. Routine bacteriology is used to detect Salmonella, however, bacteriology is time consuming, costly and has a low sensitivity. Different enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) have been developed for detection of antibodies against Salmonella Dublin and S. Typhimurium in bovine bulk milk, individual milk samples as well as in sera. Screening bulk milk for antibodies against Salmonella spp. could improve the cost-effectiveness of the surveillance in Swedish dairy cattle, but as characteristics of tests may vary in different populations, tests should always be evaluated in the specific population where they will be used. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate the specificities of three bovine ELISAs when used to analyse bulk milk samples from Swedish dairy cattle. A second aim was to compare the performance of the two Dublin ELISAs tested. Bulk milk samples for analysis were randomly selected from samples collected within the Swedish bulk milk sampling scheme and analyzed with the three ELISAs; a Danish in-house Dublin ELISA, PrioCHECK(®) Salmonella Ab bovine Dublin ELISA and PrioCHECK(®) Salmonella Ab bovine ELISA (hereafter named mixed ELISA). The specificities of the ELISAs were calculated assuming a disease-free status in Sweden i.e. that all test positive samples were assumed to be false positive results. This assumption can be used when a disease is known to be infrequent. The calculated specificities of the two Dublin ELISAs and the mixed ELISA, when using the producer's recommended cut-off value of the corrected optic-density percent (ODC%) were 99.4% (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 98.8% -99.8%), 99.4% (95% CI: 98.8% -99.8%) and 97.9% (95% CI: 96.8% -98.7%), respectively. The correlation between the ODC% values of the two Dublin ELISAs was 0.83. We conclude that the evaluated ELISAs have

  11. An evaluation of fall speed characteristics in bin and bulk microphysical schemes and use of bin fall speeds to improve forecasts of warm-season rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aligo, Eric A.

    2011-12-01

    evaluated. First, various tests were performed with various microphysical schemes and cases in order to find the vertical grid configuration that provides the best rainfall forecast. Rainfall forecasts worsened when the number of vertical levels was doubled from a control configuration of 31 levels and an over prediction of rainfall occurred. The largest improvement in skill occurred when the levels above the melting level were doubled and this was attributed to better resolved cold-cloud microphysical processes. As such, simulations using the probability matching technique employed the vertical configuration with refined vertical grid resolution above the melting layer. The different convective morphologies responded similarly when the fall speed modifications were made with all systems simulating a narrower stratiform region, less stratiform rainfall and a larger anvil. Rainfall forecasts generally improved with the use of the probability matching technique with improvements in the lightest and heaviest rainfall. The reduced stratiform rainfall occurred as a result of slower falling snow and a reduction in downward fluxes of snow, while forecasts of convective rainfall intensity improved as a result of faster falling graupel. Sensitivity tests were performed by computing bulk-like fall speeds in the bin scheme, which resulted in a modification of the particle size distribution of snow, which led to faster falling snow, larger downward fluxes of snow and a larger stratiform rain region.

  12. Forms in Search of Substance: Quality and Evaluation in Romanian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geven, Koen; Maricut, Adina

    2015-01-01

    Romania's integration into the European Union is fraught with cultural stereotypes. One dominant narrative is that the country creates "forms without substance": meaningless institutions without adequate personnel or intellectual capital. In this paper, we investigate whether this popular stereotype adequately describes higher education…

  13. The National Cross-Site Evaluation of High-Risk Youth Programs: Understanding Risk, Protection, and Substance Use among High-Risk Youth. Monograph Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, J. Fred; Sambrano, Soledad; Sale, Elizabeth; Kasim, Rafa; Hermann, Jack

    This document summarizes findings from the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention's National Cross-Site Evaluation of High-Risk Youth Programs, which identified characteristics associated with strong substance abuse prevention outcomes in 48 prevention programs. Major findings include: as youth age, levels of risk and protection shift considerably,…

  14. Evaluation of problematic psychoactive substances use in people placed in police custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérardin, Marie; Guigand, Gabriel; Wainstein, Laura; Jolliet, Pascale; Victorri-Vigneau, Caroline; Clément, Renaud

    2017-07-01

    In France, the law states that any person held in custody could be examined by a doctor. The main objective of the medical examination is to give medical evidence of health compatibility with custody. This review identifies health risks such as addictive behaviour. We wanted to know which psychoactive substances are used in this particular population, and how problematic these uses are. A prospective, monocentric, open-ended study conducted via a structured questionnaire was carried out on detainees who reported having taken drugs or illegal substances. Practitioners investigated desired effects for each substance, and characteristics of use, by means of the dependence criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (American Psychiatric Association, 1994). Problematic use was assessed when at least 3 items of the DSM IV were positive. 604 questionnaires were examined. 90.7% of questionnaires reported tobacco use, 76.2% cannabis, 57.3% alcohol, 12.5% psychostimulants, 10.0% opiates and 0.7% benzodiazepines or Z-drugs. The frequency of problematic use was 74.6% for opiates, 44.9% for cocaine and 25.3% for cannabis. Compared to non-problematic users, problematic users were older, more likely to be jobless without financial means, more likely to have a medical history, including a greater likelihood of mental illness, and more chance of undergoing prescribed medical treatment. They included more women and more homeless people. These results show characteristics of psychoactive substance use in a sample of people in custody. Psychoactive substances mentioned by respondents are not different from those observed in the general population, but for certain users, the desired effects are far from the pharmacologically expected ones. For some, taking substances seems to be part of their way of life, for others it is a means to compensate for an underlying feeling of uneasiness. Furthermore, problematic users present severity criteria which

  15. ZnS and ZnSe immersion gratings for astronomical high-resolution spectroscopy - evaluation of internal attenuation of bulk materials in the short NIR region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Y; Kobayashi, N; Kondo, S; Yasui, C; Kuzmenko, P J; Tokoro, H; Terada, H

    2009-08-12

    We measure the internal attenuation of bulk crystals of CVD-ZnS, CVD-ZnSe, Si, and GaAs, in the short near-infrared (sNIR) region to evaluate the possibility of astronomical immersion gratings with those high refractive index materials. We confirm that multispectral grade CVD-ZnS and CVD-ZnSe are best suited for the immersion gratings, with the smallest internal attenuation of {alpha}{sub att} = 0.01-0.03 cm{sup -1} among the major candidates. The measured attenuation is roughly in proportion to {lambda}{sup -2}, suggesting it is dominated by bulk scattering due to the polycrystalline grains rather than by absorption. The total transmittance in the immersion grating is estimated to be at least > 80 %, even for the spectral resolution of R = 300,000. Two potential problems, the scattered light by the bulk material and the degradation of the spectral resolution due to the gradient illumination in the diffracted beam, are investigated and found to be negligible for usual astronomical applications. Since the remaining problem, the difficulty of cutting grooves on CVD-ZnS and CVD-ZnSe, has recently been overcome by the nanoprecision fly-cutting technique, ZnS and ZnSe immersion gratings for astronomy can be technically realized.

  16. Evaluation of intrapulpal temperature changes caused by bulk-fill composite resins cured with different light-source modes: ex vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çiğdem Atalayın

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim was to evaluate the effects on intrapulpal temperature change of two different LED light-source modes used during the polymerization of bulk-fill composite resins placed in deep cavities. Materials and Method: Human extracted mandibular molar teeth (n=5 were used to create single-tooth model with an occlusal dentin-thickness of 0.5 mm. Filtek Bulk Fill Posterior (3M ESPE and SDR (Dentsply were applied according to manufacturers’ instructions. A conventional composite resin, Filtek Z250 (3M ESPE was used as control. The soft and turbo modes of LED (Bluephase 20i, Ivoclar Vivadent were used for polymerization. Intrapulpal temperature changes were determined by using a device simulating pulpal blood microcirculation. For each material, initial and maximum temperature was determined during the curing. Difference between the initial and the highest temperature value was considered as the maximum temperature change (Δt. The data were analyzed with two-way variance analysis and post-hoc Tukey test (p<0.05. Results: The turbo mode was found to cause significantly greater temperature rise than the soft mode (p<0.001; Tukey test. When the filling material was taken as the variable, the greatest temperature change was observed in the SDR, whereas the least temperature change was observed in the control (p<0.05; Tukey test. Conclusion: The polymerization of bulk-fill composite resins in the turbo mode of the LED light-source led to greater pulpal temperature rise. The materials’ content and structure also affected the temperature increase. Using the soft mode of a LED light-source for the polymerization of bulk-fill composite resins in deep cavities is preferable to keep the intrapulpal temperature rise minimum.

  17. Comparative evaluation of tooth substance loss and its correlation with the abrasivity and chemical composition of different dentifrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ram Prakash; Sharma, Sidhartha; Logani, Ajay; Shah, Naseem; Singh, Surendra

    2016-01-01

    In India, teeth cleaning with tooth powder is common in rural and semi-urban areas. These dentifrices may contain low-quality abrasives, which may have a deleterious effect on dental hard tissues. This study aims to evaluate the tooth substance loss caused by different dentifrices and to correlate it with chemical composition, size, and shape of abrasives used. An indigenously made automated machine was used for brushing the specimens. Sixty-four freshly extracted premolars were allocated to eight groups (n = 8). Colgate toothpaste was used as the control group. Each specimen was brushed in a vertical motion for 2½ h at 200 strokes/min with a constant applied load of 200 g corresponding to 6-month brushing. The difference in weight (pre- and post-brushing) was determined by an analytical weighing machine. Chemical analysis was done to determine the presence of iron oxide by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry method. Shape and size of the abrasive particles was evaluated under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). One-way analysis of variance and Paired t-test were used to analyze the data. Tooth substance loss was maximum in the group brushed with red tooth powder, which was shown to contain the highest amount of iron oxide and also exhibited large, irregularly shaped abrasive particles under SEM. Tooth substance loss was documented to be correlated with chemical composition (iron oxide) and the size and shape of abrasive particles used in dentifrices.

  18. The Living the Example Social Media Substance Use Prevention Program: A Pilot Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, William D.; Andrade, Elizabeth; Goldmeer, Sandra; Smith, Michelle; Snider, Jeremy; Girardo, Gunilla

    2017-01-01

    Background Adolescent substance use rates in rural areas of the United States, such as upstate New York, have risen substantially in recent years, calling for new intervention approaches in response to this trend. The Mentor Foundation USA conducts the Living the Example (LTE) campaign to engage youth in prevention using an experiential approach. As part of LTE, youth create their own prevention messages following a training curriculum in techniques for effective messaging and then share them...

  19. IMPLEMENTATION OF IN VITRO ASSAY FOR EVALUATION OF BIOCORRECTIVE ACTION OF BIOACTIVE SUBSTANCES AN ANIMAL ORIGIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Fedulova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Slaughter products are good source of bioactive substances with different biological effects. Nowadays, approximately 220 functional peptides consisting of 2–10 amino acid residues have been identified. In this study, the biological activity of medium-molecular-weight substances (5–30 kDa, Mw and low-molecular-weight substances (less than 5 kDa, Mw extracted from aorta of Sus scrofa were investigated in vitro. Medium-molecular-weight and low-molecular-weight fractions possessed a tissue specific effect on organotypic tissue cultures of chicken embryos and laboratory rats. Biological activity depended on molecular weight. Medium-molecular-weight fractions possessed higher effect on aortas explants of chicken embryo: area index of cellular monolayer was 56.6±5.2 % (area index of the monolayer was 37.47±3.27 % for low-molecularweight fraction in comparison with control explants. The low-molecular-weight fractions stimulated aortic tissues explants of aging rats — area index exceeded area index formedium-molecularweight fractions by more than 30%.

  20. Evaluating the male and female reproductive toxicity of high-boiling petroleum substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, F Jay; Gray, Thomas M; Roberts, Linda G; Roth, Randy N; Nicolich, Mark J; Simpson, Barry J

    2013-11-01

    To meet the EPA HPV Chemical Challenge Program requirement for reproductive toxicity data on sponsored high-boiling petroleum substances (HBPS), an analysis was conducted using the results of 39 repeat-dose and 59 developmental rat dermal toxicity studies on HBPS samples spanning the boiling range of the sponsored substances, and the results of three one-generation reproductive toxicity studies on two samples spanning the concentration range of polycyclic aromatic compounds of sponsored substances. The analysis found little evidence of male or female reproductive tract toxicity based on histopathology, reproductive organ weight, and sperm parameters, and no evidence of effects on fertility, while significant developmental toxicity and/or systemic repeat-dose toxicity were frequently observed. Among 14 samples of HBPS tested in both repeat-dose toxicity and developmental toxicity studies, there were no studies in which an adverse reproductive tract finding occurred at a dose lower than that producing developmental toxicity or other adverse effects in repeat-dose toxicity studies. The current analysis supports the hypothesis that effects in developmental and/or repeat-dose toxicity studies of HBPS occur at doses lower than those that might affect fertility in rat one-generation reproductive studies. When adequate developmental and repeat-dose toxicity studies are available, a reproductive toxicity study of HBPS appears unnecessary. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. EVALUATION OF ERRORS OF NUTRIENTS AND BIOACTIVE SUBSTANCES IN ANIMAL FEED PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    .

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The definition of feed nutrients assumes the following: assessment of its chemical composition; estimate of the amount contained therein of digestible nutrients; estimate of the amount of energy released by them. We estimate the chemical composition of the components of the indices, which balanced diet. This seemingly simple requirement is not always fulfilled. In the practice of forage production are cases when during the chemical analysis of the finished feed is a discrepancy between the estimated and actual nutritional value, and with the same probability of deviation from the declared value of both in one and in the other direction. The database of contemporary programs for compiling feed rations contained digestibility coefficients of nutrients for all types of raw materials for all kinds of animals from the program of special factors, allow to balance feed rations on digestibility of nutrients and energy value component count. The paper proposes a mathematical tool for assessing the margin of variation of content of biologically active substances in the party regarding the premix recipe data. The reasons for the variations are considered random error methods of quantitative chemical analysis of biologically active substances (BAS and random error estimates of the masses of carriers of active substances when they are dosed into the mixer.

  2. A Portuguese version of the Christo Inventory for Substance-Misuse Services: a simple outcome evaluation tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Christo Inventory for Substance-Misuse Services (CISS is a single page outcome evaluation tool completed by drug alcohol service workers either on the basis of direct client interviews or of personal experience of their client supplemented by existing assessment notes. It was developed to assist substance misuse services to empirically demonstrate the effectiveness of their treatments to their respective funding bodies. Its 0 to 20 unidimensional scale consists of 10 items reflecting clients' problems with social functioning, general health, sexual/injecting risk behavior, psychological functioning, occupation, criminal involvement, drug/alcohol use, ongoing support, compliance, and working relationships. Good reliability and validity has already been demonstrated for the CISS [Christo et al., Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2000; 59: 189-197] but the original was written in English and a Portuguese version is presented here. The present review explores its applicability to a Brazilian setting, summarizes its characteristics and uses, and describes the process of translation to Portuguese. A pilot study conducted in a substance misuse service for adolescents indicated it is likely to be suitable for use among a Brazilian population. The simplicity, flexibility and brevity of the CISS make it a useful tool allowing comparison of clients within and between many different service settings.

  3. Calcium Sulfoaluminate Sodalite (Ca 4 Al 6 O 12 SO 4 ) Crystal Structure Evaluation and Bulk Modulus Determination

    KAUST Repository

    Hargis, Craig W.

    2013-12-12

    The predominant phase of calcium sulfoaluminate cement, Ca 4(Al6O12)SO4, was investigated using high-pressure synchrotron X-ray diffraction from ambient pressure to 4.75 GPa. A critical review of the crystal structure of Ca4(Al 6O12)SO4 is presented. Rietveld refinements showed the orthorhombic crystal structure to best match the observed peak intensities and positions for pure Ca4(Al6O 12)SO4. The compressibility of Ca4(Al 6O12)SO4 was studied using cubic, orthorhombic, and tetragonal crystal structures due to the lack of consensus on the actual space group, and all three models provided similar results of 69(6) GPa. With its divalent cage ions, the bulk modulus of Ca4(Al6O 12)SO4 is higher than other sodalites with monovalent cage ions, such as Na8(AlSiO4)6Cl2 or Na8(AlSiO4)6(OH)2·H 2O. Likewise, comparing this study to previous ones shows the lattice compressibility of aluminate sodalites decreases with increasing size of the caged ions. Ca4(Al6O12)SO4 is more compressible than other cement clinker phases such as tricalcium aluminate and less compressible than hydrated cement phases such as ettringite and hemicarboaluminate. © 2013 The American Ceramic Society.

  4. Integration and Evaluation of Substance Abuse Research Education Training (SARET) into a Master of Social Work program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuchman, Ellen; Hanley, Kathleen; Naegle, Madeline; More, Frederick; Bereket, Sewit; Gourevitch, Marc N

    2017-01-01

    The Substance Abuse Research and Education Training (SARET) program is funded by the National Institutes of Drug Abuse in 2006 as a novel approach to spark interest in substance abuse research among medical, dental, nursing, and social work graduate students through a Web-based curriculum and research mentorships. This report presents the initial integration of the intervention in a Master of Social Work (MSW) program, the components of the program, and the mixed-methods evaluation of its effect on students' attitudes towards substance abuse research and treatment. SARET comprises 2 main components: stipend-supported research mentorships and a Web-based module series, consisting of 6 interactive, multimedia modules addressing core SA research topics, delivered via course curricula and in the research mentorships. An initial evaluation was designed to assess SARET's acceptability and short-term impact on participants' interest in SA research. The components of this Web-based curriculum evaluation include focus group feedback on the relevance of the modules to SW students, number of courses into which the modules were integrated with number of module completions, changes in interest in SA research associated with module completion. The full series of Web-based modules has been integrated across several courses in the social work curriculum, and social work students have become integral participants in the summer mentored research experience. One hundred eighteen students completed at least 1 module and 42 students completed all 6 modules. Neurobiology, Screening, and Epidemiology were the most widely viewed modules. Students reported positive impact on their vision of SA-related clinical care, more positive attitudes about conducting research, and in some cases, change in career. The SARET program's modules and summer mentored research increased clinical and research interest related to SUDs, as well as interprofessional attitudes among social work students

  5. Evaluation of antioxidant capacity and synergistic associations of quinonemethide triterpenes and phenolic substances from Maytenus ilicifolia (Celastraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Vânia Aparecida de Freitas Formenton Macedo; Dos Santos, Daniela Pereira; Castro-Gamboa, Ian; Zanoni, Maria Valnice Boldrin; Furlan, Maysa

    2010-10-11

    This work describes the isolation of the secondary metabolites identified as the quinonemethides maytenin (1) and pristimerin (2) from Maytenus ilicifolia extracts obtained from root barks of adult plants and roots of seedlings and their quantification by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector. The electrochemical profiles obtained from cyclic voltammetry and a coulometric detector coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography contributed to the evaluation of their antioxidant capacity. The antioxidant properties of individual components and the crude extracts of the root barks of Maytenus ilicifolia were compared and the possible synergistic associations of quinonemethide triterpenes and phenolic substances were investigated by using rutin as a model phenolic compound.

  6. A Survey Evaluating Burnout, Health Status, Depression, Reported Alcohol and Substance Use, and Social Support of Anesthesiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, Steve Alan; Shotwell, Matthew S; Michaels, Damon R; Han, Xue; Card, Elizabeth Borg; Morse, Jennifer L; Weinger, Matthew B

    2017-12-01

    Burnout affects all medical specialists, and concern about it has become common in today's health care environment. The gold standard of burnout measurement in health care professionals is the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS), which measures emotional exhaustion, depersonalization (DP), and personal accomplishment. Besides affecting work quality, burnout is thought to affect health problems, mental health issues, and substance use negatively, although confirmatory data are lacking. This study evaluates some of these effects. In 2011, the American Society of Anesthesiologists and the journal Anesthesiology cosponsored a webinar on burnout. As part of the webinar experience, we included access to a survey using MBI-HSS, 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12), Social Support and Personal Coping (SSPC-14) survey, and substance use questions. Results were summarized using sample statistics, including mean, standard deviation, count, proportion, and 95% confidence intervals. Adjusted linear regression methods examined associations between burnout and substance use, SF-12, SSPC-14, and respondent demographics. Two hundred twenty-one respondents began the survey, and 170 (76.9%) completed all questions. There were 266 registrants total (31 registrants for the live webinar and 235 for the archive event), yielding an 83% response rate. Among respondents providing job titles, 206 (98.6%) were physicians and 2 (0.96%) were registered nurses. The frequency of high-risk responses ranged from 26% to 59% across the 3 MBI-HSS categories, but only about 15% had unfavorable scores in all 3. Mean mental composite score of the SF-12 was 1 standard deviation below normative values and was significantly associated with all MBI-HSS components. With SSPC-14, respondents scored better in work satisfaction and professional support than in personal support and workload. Males scored worse on DP and personal accomplishment and, relative to attending physicians

  7. Do environmental carcinogenic substances cause human cancer. ; What quantitative risk evaluation tells. Kankyo hatsugan busshitsu wa jingan hassei no yoin ka. ; Teiryoteki kikendo hyoka kara wakaru koto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, S. (Kobe University, Kobe (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1993-01-25

    This paper enumerates different kinds of substances that are believed to cause cancer, and discusses how they behave in their quantitative evaluation on carcinogenic effects in human bodies. About 600 carcinogenic substances have been discovered from experimental animals, of which about 50 substances have been identified to clearly cause human cancer. The quantitative risk evaluation is performed by combining mainly two items; information of intensities of carcinogenic effects and human intake of the substances. An amount of a substance that raises a carcinogenic frequency by as much as a one million fraction when lifetime experimental animals are dosed with the substance is called a virtually safe dosage (VSD). According to calculations, the amount of BHA, a food additive for example, that is taken by Japanese people from different kinds of oils is 1/70 of the VSD, a very small contribution to occurrences of human cancer. Carcinogenic substances cannot explain, with very few exceptions, the occurrence of human cancer quantitatively. Living practices should rather be changed and improved. 5 refs.

  8. Substance abuse patterns and psychiatric symptomatology among three healthcare provider groups evaluated in an out-patient program for impaired healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Julio I; Jeon-Slaughter, Haekyung; Brand, Michael; Koos, Erin

    2013-01-01

    Three impaired health care provider groups (N = 84) (nurses, pharmacists, and providers with prescriptive authority) referred for a substance abuse evaluation at an outpatient-based program were compared on demographic and family factors, substance abuse patterns, and psychiatric symptomology as assessed by the Personality Assessment Inventory. Nurses had the highest rates of family history of addiction, problems with benzodiazepines, and psychiatric comorbidity. Overall, health care professionals endorsed opioids twice as often as alcohol as a preferred substance. Family history of addiction, sex, and psychiatric comorbidity emerged as salient factors among these health care professionals. Clinical implications are examined in light of the current findings.

  9. 77 FR 2324 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I The company plans to... drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk manufacture cannabidiol as a synthetic...

  10. 76 FR 17968 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I Alphamethadol (9605) I... code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk manufacture cannabidiol as a synthetic intermediate...

  11. Process evaluation of a technology-delivered screening and brief intervention for substance use in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J. Ondersma

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Psychotherapy process research examines the content of treatment sessions and their association with outcomes in an attempt to better understand the interactions between therapists and clients, and to elucidate mechanisms of behavior change. A similar approach is possible in technology-delivered interventions, which have an interaction process that is always perfectly preserved and rigorously definable. The present study sought to examine the process of participants' interactions with a computer-delivered brief intervention for drug use, from a study comparing computer- and therapist-delivered brief interventions among adults at two primary health care centers in New Mexico. Specifically, we sought to describe the pattern of participants' (N = 178 choices and reactions throughout the computer-delivered brief intervention, and to examine associations between that process and intervention response at 3-month follow-up. Participants were most likely to choose marijuana as the first substance they wished to discuss (n = 114, 64.0%. Most participants indicated that they had not experienced any problems as a result of their drug use (n = 108, 60.7%, but nearly a third of these (n = 32, 29.6% nevertheless indicated a desire to stop or reduce its use; participants who did report negative consequences were most likely to endorse financial or relationship concerns. However, participant ratings of the importance of change or of the helpfulness of personalized normed feedback were unrelated to changes in substance use frequency. Design of future e-interventions should consider emphasizing possible benefits of quitting rather than the negative consequences of drug use, and—when addressing consequences—should consider focusing on the impacts of substance use on relationship and financial aspects. These findings are an early but important step toward using process evaluation to optimize e-intervention content.

  12. The evaluation of an analytical protocol for the determination of substances in waste for hazard classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennebert, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.hennebert@ineris.fr [INERIS – Institut National de l’Environnement Industriel et des Risques, Domaine du Petit Arbois BP33, F-13545 Aix-en-Provence (France); Papin, Arnaud [INERIS, Parc Technologique ALATA, BP No. 2, 60550 Verneuil en Halatte (France); Padox, Jean-Marie [INERIS – Institut National de l’Environnement Industriel et des Risques, Domaine du Petit Arbois BP33, F-13545 Aix-en-Provence (France); Hasebrouck, Benoît [INERIS, Parc Technologique ALATA, BP No. 2, 60550 Verneuil en Halatte (France)

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: • Knowledge of wastes in substances will be necessary to assess HP1–HP15 hazard properties. • A new analytical protocol is proposed for this and tested by two service laboratories on 32 samples. • Sixty-three percentage of the samples have a satisfactory analytical balance between 90% and 110%. • Eighty-four percentage of the samples were classified identically (Seveso Directive) for their hazardousness by the two laboratories. • The method, in progress, is being normalized in France and is be proposed to CEN. - Abstract: The classification of waste as hazardous could soon be assessed in Europe using largely the hazard properties of its constituents, according to the the Classification, Labelling and Packaging (CLP) regulation. Comprehensive knowledge of the component constituents of a given waste will therefore be necessary. An analytical protocol for determining waste composition is proposed, which includes using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) screening methods to identify major elements and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC–MS) screening techniques to measure organic compounds. The method includes a gross or indicator measure of ‘pools’ of higher molecular weight organic substances that are taken to be less bioactive and less hazardous, and of unresolved ‘mass’ during the chromatography of volatile and semi-volatile compounds. The concentration of some elements and specific compounds that are linked to specific hazard properties and are subject to specific regulation (examples include: heavy metals, chromium(VI), cyanides, organo-halogens, and PCBs) are determined by classical quantitative analysis. To check the consistency of the analysis, the sum of the concentrations (including unresolved ‘pools’) should give a mass balance between 90% and 110%. Thirty-two laboratory samples comprising different industrial wastes (liquids and solids) were tested by two routine service laboratories, to give circa 7000 parameter

  13. 19 CFR 149.4 - Bulk and break bulk cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bulk and break bulk cargo. 149.4 Section 149.4... TREASURY (CONTINUED) IMPORTER SECURITY FILING § 149.4 Bulk and break bulk cargo. (a) Bulk cargo exempted.... (b) Break bulk cargo exempted from time requirement. For break bulk cargo that is exempt from the...

  14. First Evaluation of a Contingency Management Intervention Addressing Adolescent Substance Use and Sexual Risk Behaviors: Risk Reduction Therapy for Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letourneau, Elizabeth J; McCart, Michael R; Sheidow, Ashli J; Mauro, Pia M

    2017-01-01

    There is a need for interventions that comprehensively address youth substance use disorders (SUD) and sexual risk behaviors. Risk Reduction Therapy for Adolescents (RRTA) adapts a validated family-focused intervention for youth SUD to include sexual risk reduction components in a single intervention. In this first evaluation of RRTA, drug court involved youth were randomly assigned to RRTA (N=45) or usual services (US; N=60) and followed through 12-months post-baseline. RRTA included weekly cognitive behavior therapy and behavior management training and contingency-contracting with a point earning system managed by caregivers targeting drug use and sexual risk antecedents. Longitudinal models estimated within-group change and between-group differences through 6- and 12-month follow-up on outcomes for substance use, sexual risk behaviors, and protective HIV behaviors. Robust effects of the intervention were not detected under conditions of the study that included potent background interventions by the juvenile drug court. Considerations about future development and testing of sexual risk reduction therapy for youth are discussed, including the potential role of contingency management in future interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of Antioxidant Capacity and Synergistic Associations of Quinonemethide Triterpenes and Phenolic Substances from Maytenus ilicifolia (Celastraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Castro-Gamboa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the isolation of the secondary metabolites identified as the quinonemethides maytenin (1 and pristimerin (2 from Maytenus ilicifolia extracts obtained from root barks of adult plants and roots of seedlings and their quantification by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector. The electrochemical profiles obtained from cyclic voltammetry and a coulometric detector coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography contributed to the evaluation of their antioxidant capacity. The antioxidant properties of individual components and the crude extracts of the root barks of Maytenus ilicifolia were compared and the possible synergistic associations of quinonemethide triterpenes and phenolic substances were investigated by using rutin as a model phenolic compound.

  16. Creating bulk nanocrystalline metal.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredenburg, D. Anthony (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Saldana, Christopher J. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Gill, David D.; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Roemer, Timothy John (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Vogler, Tracy John; Yang, Pin

    2008-10-01

    Nanocrystalline and nanostructured materials offer unique microstructure-dependent properties that are superior to coarse-grained materials. These materials have been shown to have very high hardness, strength, and wear resistance. However, most current methods of producing nanostructured materials in weapons-relevant materials create powdered metal that must be consolidated into bulk form to be useful. Conventional consolidation methods are not appropriate due to the need to maintain the nanocrystalline structure. This research investigated new ways of creating nanocrystalline material, new methods of consolidating nanocrystalline material, and an analysis of these different methods of creation and consolidation to evaluate their applicability to mesoscale weapons applications where part features are often under 100 {micro}m wide and the material's microstructure must be very small to give homogeneous properties across the feature.

  17. Comparative evaluation of acute and chronic toxicities of CuO nanoparticles and bulk using Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, Ana Letícia de O F; Melegari, Silvia Pedroso; Ouriques, Luciane Cristina; Matias, William Gerson

    2014-08-15

    Copper oxide (CuO) has various applications, as highlighted by the incorporation of this compound as a biocide of antifouling paints for coating ships and offshore oil platforms. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the aquatic toxicity of CuO nanoparticles (NPs) and microparticles (MPs) through acute and chronic toxicity tests with the freshwater microcrustacean Daphnia magna and an acute toxicity test with the bioluminescent marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri. Acute toxicity results for D. magna in tests with CuO NPs (EC50, 48 h=22 mg L(-1)) were ten times higher than those for tests with CuO MPs (EC50, 48 h=223.6 mg L(-1)). In both periods of exposure of V. fischeri, the CuO NPs (EC50, 15m 248±56.39 - equivalent to 12.40%; EC50, 30 m 257.6±30.8 mg L(-1) - equivalent to 12.88%) were more toxic than the CuO MPs (EC50, 15m 2404.6±277.4 - equivalent to 60.10%; EC50, 30 m 1472.9±244.7 mg L(-1) - equivalent to 36.82%). In chronic toxicity tests, both forms of CuO showed significant effects (p<0.05) on the growth and reproduction parameters of the D. magna relative to the control. Additionally, morphological changes, such as lack of apical spine development and malformed carapaces in D. magna, were observed for organisms after the chronic test. The toxicity results demonstrate that CuO NPs have a higher level of toxicity than CuO MPs, emphasizing the need for comparative toxicological studies to correctly classify these two forms of CuO with identical CAS registration numbers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Population-relevant endpoints in the evaluation of endocrine-active substances (EAS) for ecotoxicological hazard and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Mary S; Blankinship, Amy; Chambers, Janice; Constantine, Lisa; Kloas, Werner; Kumar, Anupama; Lagadic, Laurent; Meador, James; Pickford, Daniel; Schwarz, Tamar; Verslycke, Tim

    2017-03-01

    For ecotoxicological risk assessment, endocrine disruptors require the establishment of an endocrine mode of action (MoA) with a plausible link to a population-relevant adverse effect. Current ecotoxicity test methods incorporate mostly apical endpoints although some also include mechanistic endpoints, subcellular-through-organ level, which can help establish an endocrine MoA. However, the link between these endpoints and adverse population-level effects is often unclear. The case studies of endocrine-active substances (EAS) (tributyltin, ethinylestradiol, perchlorate, trenbolone, propiconazole, and vinclozolin) evaluated from the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) Pellston Workshop ® "Ecotoxicological Hazard and Risk Assessment Approaches for Endocrine-Active Substances (EHRA)" were used to evaluate the population relevance of toxicity endpoints in various taxa according to regulatory endocrine-disruptor frameworks such as the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Conceptual Framework for Testing and Assessment of Endocrine Disruptors. A wide variety of potentially endocrine-relevant endpoints were identified for mollusks, fish, amphibians, birds, and mammals, although the strength of the relationship between test endpoints and population-level effects was often uncertain. Furthermore, testing alone is insufficient for assessing potential adaptation and recovery processes in exposed populations. For this purpose, models that link effects observed in laboratory tests to the dynamics of wildlife populations appear to be necessary, and their development requires reliable and robust data. As our understanding of endocrine perturbations and key event relationships improves, adverse population-level effects will be more easily and accurately predicted. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:317-330. © 2017 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of

  19. A new approach to data evaluation in the non-target screening of organic trace substances in water analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Alexander; Schulz, Wolfgang; Ruck, Wolfgang K L; Weber, Walter H

    2011-11-01

    Non-target screening via high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) has gained increasingly in importance for monitoring organic trace substances in water resources targeted for the production of drinking water. In this article a new approach for evaluating the data from non-target HPLC-MS screening in water is introduced and its advantages are demonstrated using the supply of drinking water as an example. The crucial difference between this and other approaches is the comparison of samples based on compounds (features) determined by their full scan data. In so doing, we take advantage of the temporal, spatial, or process-based relationships among the samples by applying the set operators, UNION, INTERSECT, and COMPLEMENT to the features of each sample. This approach regards all compounds, detectable by the used analytical method. That is the fundamental meaning of non-target screening, which includes all analytical information from the applied technique for further data evaluation. In the given example, in just one step, all detected features (1729) of a landfill leachate sample could be examined for their relevant influences on water purification respectively drinking water. This study shows that 1721 out of 1729 features were not relevant for the water purification. Only eight features could be determined in the untreated water and three of them were found in the final drinking water after ozonation. In so doing, it was possible to identify 1-adamantylamine as contamination of the landfill in the drinking water at a concentration in the range of 20 ng L(-1). To support the identification of relevant compounds and their transformation products, the DAIOS database (Database-Assisted Identification of Organic Substances) was used. This database concept includes some functions such as product ion search to increase the efficiency of the database query after the screening. To identify related transformation products the database function

  20. Radiopacity of bulk fill flowable resin composite materials | Yildirim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiopacity of currently marketed bulk fill flowable dental composite materials (Beautifil Bulk Flowable, SDR Flow, Filtek Bulk Fill Flow, and x‑tra Base Bulk Fill). Materials and Methods: Six specimens of each material with a thickness of 1 mm were prepared, and ...

  1. Should computerised tomography replace endoscopy in the evaluation of symptomatic ingestion of corrosive substances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnici, K S; Wood, D M; Dargan, P I

    2014-11-01

    indicates the need for an endoscopy. In children, it appears that an even greater degree of caution is needed. How soon after ingestion should investigation be performed? For whom an endoscopy is required, it is prudent to enable surgery and other specifics regarding management of corrosives to be decided quickly (endoscopy has been done safely beyond 48 h although this is not needed frequently. Management recommendations Asymptomatic patients, particularly adults with a normal clinical examination and who can eat and drink normally, can be discharged safely without endoscopy. Endoscopy is preferred over CT in the assessment of risk in symptomatic patients with corrosive ingestion. If patients have any oropharyngeal injury and in particular symptoms of drooling, vomiting, dysphagia or pain (retrosternal or otherwise), the risk of having a high-grade injury is higher, and urgent endoscopy should be performed to grade the injury and determine whether surgical intervention is required. Patients who have non-specific symptoms, such as cough, should also undergo endoscopy, but this is less urgent. Despite the lack of high-quality clinical trial data, the available evidence and clinical experience support the use of early endoscopy (< 12 h) in patients who are symptomatic after ingestion of a corrosive substance. We propose a clinical guideline that can be used to help plan management of corrosives.

  2. Targeting children of substance-using parents with the community-based group intervention TRAMPOLINE: A randomised controlled trial - design, evaluation, recruitment issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bröning Sonja

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children of substance-abusing parents are at risk for developing psychosocial development problems. In Germany it is estimated that approx. 2.65 million children are affected by parental substance abuse or dependence. Only ten percent of them receive treatment when parents are treated. To date, no evaluated programme for children from substance-affected families exists in Germany. The study described in this protocol is designed to test the effectiveness of the group programme TRAMPOLINE for children aged 8-12 years with at least one substance-abusing or -dependent caregiver. The intervention is specifically geared to issues and needs of children from substance-affected families. Methods/Design The effectiveness of the manualised nine-session group programme TRAMPOLINE is tested among N = 218 children from substance-affected families in a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Outpatient counselling facilities across the nation from different settings (rural/urban, Northern/Southern/Eastern/Western regions of the country will deliver the interventions, as they hold the primary access to the target group in Germany. The control condition is a group programme with the same duration that is not addiction-specific. We expect that participants in the intervention condition will show a significant improvement in the use of adaptive coping strategies (in general and within the family compared to the control condition as a direct result of the intervention. Data is collected shortly before and after as well as six months after the intervention. Discussion In Germany, the study presented here is the first to develop and evaluate a programme for children of substance-abusing parents. Limitations and strengths are discussed with a special focus on recruitment challenges as they appear to be the most potent threat to feasibility in the difficult-to-access target group at hand (Trial registration: ISRCTN81470784.

  3. Targeting children of substance-using parents with the community-based group intervention TRAMPOLINE: A randomised controlled trial - design, evaluation, recruitment issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Children of substance-abusing parents are at risk for developing psychosocial development problems. In Germany it is estimated that approx. 2.65 million children are affected by parental substance abuse or dependence. Only ten percent of them receive treatment when parents are treated. To date, no evaluated programme for children from substance-affected families exists in Germany. The study described in this protocol is designed to test the effectiveness of the group programme TRAMPOLINE for children aged 8-12 years with at least one substance-abusing or -dependent caregiver. The intervention is specifically geared to issues and needs of children from substance-affected families. Methods/Design The effectiveness of the manualised nine-session group programme TRAMPOLINE is tested among N = 218 children from substance-affected families in a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Outpatient counselling facilities across the nation from different settings (rural/urban, Northern/Southern/Eastern/Western regions of the country) will deliver the interventions, as they hold the primary access to the target group in Germany. The control condition is a group programme with the same duration that is not addiction-specific. We expect that participants in the intervention condition will show a significant improvement in the use of adaptive coping strategies (in general and within the family) compared to the control condition as a direct result of the intervention. Data is collected shortly before and after as well as six months after the intervention. Discussion In Germany, the study presented here is the first to develop and evaluate a programme for children of substance-abusing parents. Limitations and strengths are discussed with a special focus on recruitment challenges as they appear to be the most potent threat to feasibility in the difficult-to-access target group at hand (Trial registration: ISRCTN81470784). PMID:22439919

  4. Targeting children of substance-using parents with the community-based group intervention TRAMPOLINE: a randomised controlled trial--design, evaluation, recruitment issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröning, Sonja; Wiedow, Annika; Wartberg, Lutz; Ruths, Sylvia; Haevelmann, Andrea; Kindermann, Sally-Sophie; Moesgen, Diana; Schaunig-Busch, Ines; Klein, Michael; Thomasius, Rainer

    2012-03-22

    Children of substance-abusing parents are at risk for developing psychosocial development problems. In Germany it is estimated that approx. 2.65 million children are affected by parental substance abuse or dependence. Only ten percent of them receive treatment when parents are treated. To date, no evaluated programme for children from substance-affected families exists in Germany. The study described in this protocol is designed to test the effectiveness of the group programme TRAMPOLINE for children aged 8-12 years with at least one substance-abusing or -dependent caregiver. The intervention is specifically geared to issues and needs of children from substance-affected families. The effectiveness of the manualised nine-session group programme TRAMPOLINE is tested among N = 218 children from substance-affected families in a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Outpatient counselling facilities across the nation from different settings (rural/urban, Northern/Southern/Eastern/Western regions of the country) will deliver the interventions, as they hold the primary access to the target group in Germany. The control condition is a group programme with the same duration that is not addiction-specific. We expect that participants in the intervention condition will show a significant improvement in the use of adaptive coping strategies (in general and within the family) compared to the control condition as a direct result of the intervention. Data is collected shortly before and after as well as six months after the intervention. In Germany, the study presented here is the first to develop and evaluate a programme for children of substance-abusing parents. Limitations and strengths are discussed with a special focus on recruitment challenges as they appear to be the most potent threat to feasibility in the difficult-to-access target group at hand (Trial registration: ISRCTN81470784).

  5. Mobile technology intervention to improve care coordination between HIV and substance use treatment providers: development, training, and evaluation protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claborn, Kasey; Becker, Sara; Ramsey, Susan; Rich, Josiah; Friedmann, Peter D

    2017-03-14

    People living with HIV (PLWH) with a substance use disorder (SUD) tend to receive inadequate medical care in part because of a siloed healthcare system in which HIV and substance use services are delivered separately. Ideal treatment requires an interdisciplinary, team-based coordinated care approach, but many structural and systemic barriers impede the integration of HIV and SUD services. The current protocol describes the development and preliminary evaluation of a care coordination intervention (CCI), consisting of a tablet-based mobile platform for HIV and SUD treatment providers, an interagency communication protocol, and a training protocol. We hypothesize that HIV and SUD treatment providers will find the CCI to be acceptable, and that after receipt of the CCI, providers will: exhibit higher retention in dual care among patients, report increased frequency and quality of communication, and report increased rates of relational coordination. A three phase approach is used to refine and evaluate the CCI. Phase 1 consists of in-depth qualitative interviews with 8 key stakeholders as well as clinical audits of participating HIV and SUD treatment agencies. Phase 2 contains functionality testing of the mobile platform with frontline HIV and SUD treatment providers, followed by refinement of the CCI. Phase 3 consists of a pre-, post-test trial with 30 SUD and 30 HIV treatment providers. Data will be collected at the provider, organization, and patient levels. Providers will complete assessments at baseline, immediately post-training, and at 1-, 3-, and 6-months post-training. Organizational data will be collected at baseline, 1-, 3-, and 6-months post training, while patient data will be collected at baseline and 6-months post training. This study will develop and evaluate a CCI consisting of a tablet-based mobile platform for treatment providers, an interagency communication protocol, and a training protocol as a means of improving the integration of care for PLWH

  6. Evaluation of Quality of Output Product in the Technology Group for Pyrolisis of Organic Waste Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav HONUS

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The issue of ecological removal of organic polymer materials and wastes polluting the environment is very much alive and it is clear that it will take on ever greater importance. a promising and innovative technology for environmentally friendly disposal of waste organic matter is pyrolysis. This method of thermal processing of waste for its degradation as well as a source of valuable energy products using the new system Pyromatic. This paper presents its technical description and evaluation of the quality of output product from the pyrolysis of tires, plastics and coal.

  7. A PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF THE MANAGING YOUTH TRAUMA EFFECTIVELY PROGRAM FOR SUBSTANCE-ABUSING WOMEN AND THEIR CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderzee, Karin L; John, Sufna G; Edge, Nicola; Pemberton, Joy R; Kramer, Teresa L

    2017-05-01

    This article provides a description of the development, implementation, and preliminary evaluation of feasibility and acceptability of the Managing Youth Trauma Effectively (MYTE) program and highlights perceptions of changes in mothers' trauma-informed parenting practices. The program consists of a training and consultation program for staff of the U.S. State of Arkansas' Specialized Women's Programs (SWS), and an 8-week, group psychoeducational program designed to help mothers with substance-abuse problems learn how traumatic experiences may affect their children and how they may help support their children by creating a safe and nurturing environment. A posttraining evaluation with leadership and staff at SWS centers, feedback provided on consultation calls with MYTE facilitators, and a retrospective pre/post survey were used to examine feasibility, acceptability, and perceptions of changes in mothers' trauma-informed parenting practices. Preliminary results suggest that the MYTE program is feasible to implement and is acceptable to training participants, facilitators, and mothers participating in the program. Mothers reported significant growth in their perceptions of use of trauma-informed parenting practices. Future research is necessary to confirm these results and examine the effectiveness of the program using a randomized clinical trial. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  8. Improving representation of convective transport for scale-aware parameterization: 1. Convection and cloud properties simulated with spectral bin and bulk microphysics: CRM Model Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Jiwen [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Liu, Yi-Chin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Air Resources Board, Sacramento California USA; Xu, Kuan-Man [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton Virginia USA; North, Kirk [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, McGill University, Montréal Québec Canada; Collis, Scott [Environmental Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois USA; Dong, Xiquan [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks North Dakota USA; Zhang, Guang J. [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla California USA; Chen, Qian [Key Laboratory for Aerosol-Cloud-Precipitation of China Meteorological Administration, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing China; Kollias, Pavlos [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Ghan, Steven J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA

    2015-04-27

    The ultimate goal of this study is to improve the representation of convective transport by cumulus parameterization for mesoscale and climate models. As Part 1 of the study, we perform extensive evaluations of cloud-resolving simulations of a squall line and mesoscale convective complexes in midlatitude continent and tropical regions using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with spectral bin microphysics (SBM) and with two double-moment bulk microphysics schemes: a modified Morrison (MOR) and Milbrandt and Yau (MY2). Compared to observations, in general, SBM gives better simulations of precipitation and vertical velocity of convective cores than MOR and MY2 and therefore will be used for analysis of scale dependence of eddy transport in Part 2. The common features of the simulations for all convective systems are (1) themodel tends to overestimate convection intensity in the middle and upper troposphere, but SBM can alleviate much of the overestimation and reproduce the observed convection intensity well; (2) the model greatly overestimates Ze in convective cores, especially for the weak updraft velocity; and (3) the model performs better for midlatitude convective systems than the tropical system. The modeled mass fluxes of the midlatitude systems are not sensitive to microphysics schemes but are very sensitive for the tropical case indicating strong microphysics modification to convection. Cloud microphysical measurements of rain, snow, and graupel in convective cores will be critically important to further elucidate issues within cloud microphysics schemes

  9. Bulk Nanostructured Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, C. C.; Langdon, T. G.; Lavernia, E. J.

    2017-11-01

    This paper will address three topics of importance to bulk nanostructured materials. Bulk nanostructured materials are defined as bulk solids with nanoscale or partly nanoscale microstructures. This category of nanostructured materials has historical roots going back many decades but has relatively recent focus due to new discoveries of unique properties of some nanoscale materials. Bulk nanostructured materials are prepared by a variety of severe plastic deformation methods, and these will be reviewed. Powder processing to prepare bulk nanostructured materials requires that the powders be consolidated by typical combinations of pressure and temperature, the latter leading to coarsening of the microstructure. The thermal stability of nanostructured materials will also be discussed. An example of bringing nanostructured materials to applications as structural materials will be described in terms of the cryomilling of powders and their consolidation.

  10. An Evaluation of an Hypothesized Paradigm: The Relationship between Childhood Abuse and Substance Use Mediated by Biopsychosocial Factors among Priority Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Loretta N.

    This study evaluated an hypothesized model of biopsychosocial factors that mediate the relationship between childhood abuse and substance abuse. A questionnaire packet consisting of self-report measures was administered to 160 drug dependent participants with and without co-occurring psychological disorders in residential, partial, and outpatient…

  11. Evaluation of natural antimicrobial substances in the conservation of sinuana oatmeal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenis Ibeth Pastrana-Puche

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of globalization of indigenous foods is to contribute to the expansion of exports and the spread of different food cultures, but in the global market, competition is strong and requires products to be different, to remain competitive. Currently, society demands natural products with less chemical additives, so that food producers have found it necessary to try to completely remove the use of chemical antimicrobial products and adopt natural alternatives for the maintenance or extension of the lifetime of their products. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the lifetime of Sinuana oatmeal, a native drink of the Department of Córdoba (Colombia, spiked with cloves (Syzygium aromaticum and cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum at three different concentrations (0.073, 0.146 and 0.219 % v/v, packaged in plastic bottles (PET and 500 mL glass and stored at 4 °C for 15 days. An analysis of variance and a Tukey comparison test (p≤0.05 was performed using the SAS statistical package, version 8 for Windows, licensed to University of Córdoba. Oats with the highest concentration of spices (0.219 % v/v achieved greater storage time

  12. [Evaluation of marine sponge extracts as new sources of antimicrobial substances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, J A; Newmark, F; Santos-Acevedo, M; Sánchez, J

    2008-09-01

    As part of the search for new natural sources of antibiotic compounds, in this study, carried out in the northeastern coast of Colombia, 15 sponge species were collected. A crude organic extract was obtained from each one and evaluated regarding their antimicrobial properties in vitro against microorganisms with clinical importance for humans (one strain for each specie of Streptococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans). Sponge extracts from Halichondria spp., Petromica ciocalyptoides and Xestospongia proxima exhibited antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria and antifungal activity against the fungi, while the sponge Dragmacidon reticulata showed activity only for the same yeast specie. Bioactivity of the extracts was compared with that of both a antibiotic (cefoperazone) and an antimicotic (nistatine). It was found that inhibition values of X. proxima extracts in vitro are, in some cases, higher than those observed for cefoperazone and nistatine. Crude extracts from the sponges Myrmekioderma gyroderma, Myrmekioderma rea, Biemna cribaria, Cinachyrella kuekenthali, Iotrochota imminuta, Oceanapia peltata, Polymastia tenax, Desmapsamma anchorata, Spirastrella coccinea, Cribrochalina infundibulum and Oceanapia bartschi did not show any antimicrobial activity whatsoever.

  13. Psychotoxic Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964-11-16

    substances, such as chlorpromazine , reserpine, meprobamate, and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-9-amino- acridine. From the results which have been arrived at up... synthesis - 32 - of structural and functional elements, such as proteins, lipids, or trans- mitter substances. Table 28/6 Influence of the Replacement

  14. In vitro evaluation of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances produced by lactic acid bacteria isolated during traditional Sicilian cheese making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giusi Macaluso

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriocins are antimicrobial proteins produced by bacteria that inhibit the growth of other bacteria with a bactericidal or bacteriostatic mode of action. Many lactic acid bacteria (LAB produce a high diversity of different bacteriocins. Bacteriocinogenic LAB are generally recognised as safe (GRAS and useful to control the frequent development of pathogens and spoilage microorganisms. For this reason they are commonly used as starter cultures in food fermentations. In this study, the authors describe the results of a screening on 699 LAB isolated from wooden vat surfaces, raw milk and traditional Sicilian cheeses, for the production of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances, by comparing two alternative methods. The antagonistic activity of LAB and its proteinaceous nature were evaluated using the spot-on-the-lawn and the well-diffusion assay (WDA and the sensitivity to proteolytic (proteinase K, protease B and trypsin, amylolytic (α-amylase and lipolytic (lipase enzymes. The indicator strains used were: Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis. A total of 223 strains (belonging to the species Enterococcus spp., Lactobacillus spp., Pediococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Leuconostoc spp. and Lactococcus lactis were found to inhibit the growth of Listeria monocytogenes by using the spot-on-the-lawn method; only 37 of these were confirmed by using the WDA. The direct addition of bacteriocin-producing cultures into dairy products can be a more practical and economic option for the improvement of the safety and quality of the final product.

  15. Exposure to hazardous substances in a standard molecular biology laboratory environment: evaluation of exposures in IARC laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapot, Brigitte; Secretan, Béatrice; Robert, Annie; Hainaut, Pierre

    2009-07-01

    Working in a molecular biology laboratory environment implies regular exposure to a wide range of hazardous substances. Several recent studies have shown that laboratory workers may have an elevated risk of certain cancers. Data on the nature and frequency of exposures in such settings are scanty. The frequency of use of 163 agents by staff working in molecular biology laboratories was evaluated over a period of 4 years by self-administered questionnaire. Of the agents listed, ethanol was used by the largest proportion of staff (70%), followed by ethidium bromide (55%). Individual patterns of use showed three patterns, namely (i) frequent use of a narrow range of products, (ii) occasional use of a wide range of products, and (iii) frequent and occasional use of an intermediate range of products. Among known or suspected carcinogens (International Agency for Research on Cancer Group 1 and 2A, respectively), those most frequently used included formaldehyde (17%), oncogenic viruses (4%), and acrylamide (32%). The type of exposure encountered in research laboratories is extremely diverse. Few carcinogenic agents are used frequently but many laboratory workers may be exposed occasionally to known human carcinogens. In addition, many of the chemicals handled by staff represent a health hazard. The results enabled the staff physician to develop an individual approach to medical surveillance and to draw a personal history of occupational exposures for laboratory staff.

  16. Country-wide distance training for delivery of screening and brief intervention for problematic substance use: A pilot evaluation of participant experiences and patient outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Ana Paula Leal; Souza-Formigoni, Maria Lucia Oliveira

    2017-08-11

    In this study, the authors evaluated if the 120-hour distance learning (DL) course SUPERA (an acronym in Portuguese meaning "System for detection of excessive use or dependence on psychoactive substances: brief Intervention, social reinsertion and follow-up") was an effective way to train health professionals and social workers to apply screening and brief intervention (SBI) for patients with substance use disorders. In the first phase, 2420 health professionals or social workers, who had completed the course, answered an online survey about their use of the SBI. In the second phase, 25 of those professionals applied the ASSIST (Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test) followed by a brief intervention (BI) to patients with substance use disorders. Three months after the SBI delivery, independent researchers followed up 79 patients who had received SBI, reapplying the ASSIST and a questionnaire to evaluate the patients'/clients' satisfaction with the intervention they received. In the first phase, it was found that most health professionals and social workers who completed the course applied the SBI in their work and felt very motivated to do it. In the second phase of the study, at a 3-month follow-up, most patients had significantly reduced their ASSIST scores in respect of alcohol and cocaine/crack in relation to their baseline levels. Those patients classified by their ASSIST score as "suggestive of dependence" presented a significant reduction in their scores regarding alcohol, tobacco, and cocaine/crack, whereas those classified as "at risk" presented a reduction in respect of alcohol problems only. Patients associated changes in their substance use with the SBI received. A reduction in substance use-related problems was associated with the SBI applied by the health professionals or social workers trained by the DL course SUPERA. Two significant limitations of this study were the small number of participants (professionals and patients in the

  17. Mental health care in post-genocide Rwanda: evaluation of a program specializing in posttraumatic stress disorder and substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, L C; Harerimana, B

    Following the genocide, millions of Rwandans are likely living with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Le Centre Psychothérapeutique Icyizere provides the only specialized treatment for PTSD in the Rwandan healthcare system. Demographics, diagnosis, treatment, outcomes, and scores on assessments of functioning and PTSD were recorded from clinical charts of all patients receiving care between October 2013 and 2014. Descriptive statistics and within-group t tests comparing functional impairment and PTSD symptoms at intake to discharge and follow-up were calculated. A total of 719 patients (55.08% male) received care. Patients were more educated, more likely to live in the capital, and less likely to be married than the general population. Patients reported high desire for, and strong satisfaction with, care. Most patients (55.60%) were still in care by the end of the program evaluation. Functioning improved from intake to discharge (p < 0.001), and improvements were sustained at follow-up (p < 0.001). Most adults were diagnosed with psychotic disorders, substance use disorders, or depression. Only 20 patients were diagnosed with PTSD, and symptoms were improved at discharge (p = 0.003). This program evaluation demonstrated the utility of a low-resource information management system to provide clarity about the patient population and outcomes. Results suggest that services are effective and sustainable, although people with PTSD were not the primary recipients of care. Disparities in care by diagnosis, education, marital status, and geography are discussed. Results have contributed to changes in service delivery and care and efforts to increase access to care.

  18. 76 FR 77257 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of Methamphetamine (1105), a basic class of controlled substance listed in schedule II. The above listed controlled substance is an intermediate in the manufacture of Benzphetamine, a schedule III non-narcotic controlled substance. The company plans to utilize a...

  19. An evaluation of the impact of 'Lifeskills' training on road safety, substance use and hospital attendance in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teyhan, Alison; Cornish, Rosie; Macleod, John; Boyd, Andy; Doerner, Rita; Sissons Joshi, Mary

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate if attendance at Lifeskills, a safety education centre for children in Year 6 (10-11 years), is associated with engagement in safer behaviours, and with fewer accidents and injuries, in adolescence. The sample are participants in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children who attended school in the Lifeskills catchment area in Year 6; 60% attended Lifeskills. At 14-15 years, participants (n approximately 3000, varies by outcome) self-reported road safety behaviours and accidents, and perceived health effects and use of alcohol, cannabis, and tobacco. Additional outcomes from linkage to Hospital Episodes Statistics were available for a sub-sample (n=1768): hospital admittance (for accident-related reason, from 11-16 years) and A&E attendance (for any reason, from approximately 14-16 years). Children who attended Lifeskills were more likely to report using pedestrian crossings on their way to school than children who did not attend (59% versus 52%). Lifeskills attendance was unrelated to the ownership of cycle helmets, or the use of cycle helmets, seat belts, or reflective/fluorescent clothing, or to A&E attendance. Use of cycle helmets (37%) and reflective/fluorescent clothing (<4%) on last cycle was low irrespective of Lifeskills attendance. Lifeskills attendance was associated with less reported smoking and cannabis use, but was generally unrelated to perceptions of the health impact of substance use. Lifeskills attendance was associated with some safer behaviours in adolescence. The overall low use of cycle helmets and reflective/fluorescent clothing evidences the need for powerful promotion of some safer behaviours at Lifeskills and at follow-up in schools. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 22, Revision 1 (FGE.22Rev1): Ring substituted phenolic substances from chemical groups 21 and 25

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 28 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 22, Revision 1, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The substance 3......,4-methylenedioxyphenol [FL-no: 04.080] was reported to have a genotoxic potential in vitro, while in vivo studies were not available. Therefore, the Panel concluded that the Procedure could not be applied to this substance until adequate genotoxicity data become available. The remaining 27 substances were evaluated...... through a stepwise approach (the Procedure) that integrates information on structure-activity relationships, intake from current uses, toxicological threshold of concern, and available data on metabolism and toxicity. The Panel concluded that these 27 candidate substances do not give rise to safety...

  1. Heat transport in bulk/nanoporous/bulk silicon devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Criado-Sancho, M. [Departamento de Ciencias y Técnicas Físicoquimicas, Facultad de Ciencias, UNED, Senda del Rey 9, 20040 Madrid (Spain); Jou, D., E-mail: David.Jou@uab.cat [Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Institut d' Estudis Catalans, Carme 47, 08001 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2013-02-04

    We study heat transport in bulk/nanoporous/bulk silicon devices; we show that, despite bulk/nanoporous devices may act as thermal rectifiers, the non-linear aspects of their joint thermal conductance are not strong enough to lead to a negative differential thermal resistance, necessary to allow bulk/nanoporous/bulk Si devices to act as thermal transistors. Furthermore, we explicitly study the effective thermal conductivity of the mentioned devices for several temperatures, geometries, porosities, and pore size.

  2. First tier modeling of consumer dermal exposure to substances in consumer articles under REACH: a quantitative evaluation of the ECETOC TRA for consumers tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmaar, J E; Bokkers, B G H; ter Burg, W; van Engelen, J G M

    2013-02-01

    The demonstration of safe use of chemicals in consumer products, as required under REACH, is proposed to follow a tiered process. In the first tier, simple conservative methods and assumptions should be made to quickly verify whether risks for a particular use are expected. The ECETOC TRA Consumer Exposure Tool was developed to assist in first tier risk assessments for substances in consumer products. The ECETOC TRA is not a prioritization tool, but is meant as a first screening. Therefore, the exposure assessment needs to cover all products/articles in a specific category. For the assessment of the dermal exposure for substances in articles, ECETOC TRA uses the concept of a 'contact layer', a hypothetical layer that limits the exposure to a substance contained in the product. For each product/article category, ECETOC TRA proposes default values for the thickness of this contact layer. As relevant experimental exposure data is currently lacking, default values are based on expert judgment alone. In this paper it is verified whether this concept meets the requirement of being a conservative exposure evaluation method. This is done by confronting the ECETOC TRA expert judgment based predictions with a mechanistic emission model, based on the well established theory of diffusion of substances in materials. Diffusion models have been applied and tested in many applications of emission modeling. Experimentally determined input data for a number of material and substance combinations are available. The estimated emissions provide information on the range of emissions that could occur in reality. First tier tools such as ECETOC TRA tool are required to cover all products/articles in a category and to provide estimates that are at least as high as is expected on the basis of current scientific knowledge. Since this was not the case, it is concluded that the ECETOC TRA does not provide a proper conservative estimation method for the dermal exposure to articles. An

  3. A simple and rapid extraction method for sensitive deterimination of perfluoroalkyl substances in blood serum suitable for exposure evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luque, N.; Ballesteros-Gomez, A.; Leeuwen, van S.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we propose a microextraction method based on a new supramolecular solvent (SUPRAS) made up of reverse aggregates of hexanoic acid, combined with liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC/QQQ MS-MS) for the determination of the perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in

  4. Experimental estimation of migration and transfer of organic substances from consumer articles to cotton wipes: Evaluation of underlying mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clausen, P.A.; Spaan, S.; Brouwer, D.H.; Marquart, H.; Feber, M. le; Engel, R.; Geerts, L.; Jensen, K.A.; Kofoed-Sørensen, V.; Hansen, B.; Brouwere, K. de

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to identify the key mechanisms governing transport of organic chemical substances from consumer articles to cotton wipes. The results were used to establish a mechanistic model to improve assessment of dermal contact exposure. Four types of PVC flooring, 10 types of textiles

  5. Evaluating the Direction of Effects in the Relationship between Religious versus Non-Religious Activities, Academic Success, and Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Marie; Willoughby, Teena

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study tested the "influence of involvement" and "selection" hypotheses for the association between religious versus non-religious activity involvement and two salient indicators of adolescent psychosocial adjustment (substance use and academic achievement). Participants included 3,993 Canadian adolescents…

  6. The National Cross-Site Evaluation of High-Risk Youth Programs: Making Prevention Effective for Adolescent Boys and Girls: Gender Differences in Substance Use and Prevention. Monograph Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, J. Fred; Sambrano, Soledad; Sale, Elizabeth; Kasim, Rafa; Hermann, Jack

    This document summarizes findings from the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention's National Cross-Site Evaluation of High-Risk Youth Programs, which identified characteristics associated with strong substance abuse prevention outcomes in 48 prevention programs. Results indicate that overall, boys and girls respond to prevention differently. Boys…

  7. "Understanding" cosmological bulk viscosity

    OpenAIRE

    Zimdahl, Winfried

    1996-01-01

    A universe consisting of two interacting perfect fluids with the same 4-velocity is considered. A heuristic mean free time argument is used to show that the system as a whole cannot be perfect as well but neccessarily implies a nonvanishing bulk viscosity. A new formula for the latter is derived and compared with corresponding results of radiative hydrodynamics.

  8. Bulk chemicals from biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveren, van J.; Scott, E.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Given the current robust forces driving sustainable production, and available biomass conversion technologies, biomass-based routes are expected to make a significant impact on the production of bulk chemicals within 10 years, and a huge impact within 20-30 years. In the Port of Rotterdam there is a

  9. 77 FR 47114 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; AMRI Rensselaer, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ... following basic classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols... distribution to its customers. In reference to drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk...

  10. Morphological size evaluation of the mid-substance insertion areas and the fan-like extension fibers in the femoral ACL footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suruga, Makoto; Horaguchi, Takashi; Iriuchishima, Takanori; Yahagi, Yoshiyuki; Iwama, Genki; Tokuhashi, Yasuaki; Aizawa, Shin

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the detailed anatomy of the femoral anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) insertion site, with special attention given to the morphology of the mid-substance insertion areas and the fan-like extension fibers. Twenty-three non-paired human cadaver knees were used (7 Males, 16 Females, median age 83, range 69-96). All soft tissues around the knee were resected except the ligaments. The ACL was divided into antero-medial (AM) and postero-lateral (PL) bundles according to the difference in macroscopic tension patterns. The ACL was carefully dissected and two outlines were made of the periphery of each bundle insertion site: those which included and those which excluded the fan-like extension fibers. An accurate lateral view of the femoral condyle was photographed with a digital camera, and the images were downloaded to a personal computer. The area of each bundle, including and excluding the fan-like extension fibers, was measured with Image J software (National Institution of Health). The width and length of the mid-substance insertion sites were also evaluated using same image. The femoral ACL footprint was divided into four regions (mid-substance insertion sites of the AM and PL bundles, and fan-like extensions of the AM and PL bundles). The measured areas of the mid-substance insertion sites of the AM and PL bundles were 35.5 ± 12.5, and 32.4 ± 13.8 mm(2), respectively. Whole width and length of the mid-substance insertion sites were 5.3 ± 1.4, and 15.5 ± 2.9 mm, respectively. The measured areas of the fan-like extensions of the AM and PL bundles were 27 ± 11.5, and 29.5 ± 12.4 mm(2), respectively. The femoral ACL footprint was divided into quarters of approximately equal size (mid-substance insertion sites of the AM and PL bundles, and fan-like extensions of the AM and PL bundles). For clinical relevance, to perform highly reproducible anatomical ACL reconstruction, the presence of the fan-like extension

  11. Ozone-depleting substances and the greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and SF6. Danish consumption and emissions, 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sander Poulsen, T. [PlanMiljoe (Denmark)

    2006-05-19

    The objective of this project was to map the 2004 consumption of newly produced industrial ozone-depleting substances and the consumption and actual emissions of HFCs, PFCs, and SF6. The evaluation was made in accordance with the IPCC guidelines, and following the method employed in previous evaluations and it covers the net consumption of ozone-depleting substances. The term 'net consumption' is understood as the amount of imported goods in bulk or drums, less any re-export of substances as raw materials. Ozone-depleting substances contained in finished products that are imported and exported are not included in the evaluation. This delimitation is in full compliance with international guidelines. The evaluation does not account for the consumption of ozone-depleting substances used as raw material in the production of other substances, such as tetra chloromethane, and which are not subsequently emitted to the atmosphere. The information on consumption has been gathered from importers, suppliers and enterprise end-users (usually purchasing departments), and Statistics Denmark. This method of data gathering means that the information gathered is about the quantities of substances traded. Purchase and sales figures are used as an expression of consumption. This approach is considered to be suitable and adequate for the present purpose, since experience from previous projects shows that a levelling out occurs with time and that the substances sold/purchased are consumed within a relatively small time horizon. None of the substances covered here are produced in Denmark. Furthermore, ozone-depleting substances are treated at chemical waste processing plants in Denmark. Treatment and destruction data was gathered for the evaluation, but in line with all previous evaluations it has not been accounted for in the consumption figures. (BA)

  12. Shared Substance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerlufsen, Tony; Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted; Eagan, James

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a novel middleware for developing flexible interactive multi-surface applications. Using a scenario-based approach, we identify the requirements for this type of applications. We then introduce Substance, a data- oriented framework that decouples functionality from data, and S...

  13. Evaluating the impact of a substance use intervention program on the peer status and influence of adolescent peer leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Christopher S; Golonka, Megan; Costanzo, Philip R

    2012-02-01

    The current study involved an examination of the impact of a peer-led substance use intervention program on the peer leaders beyond the substance use-related goals of the intervention. Specifically, unintended consequences of an adult-sanctioned intervention on the targeted peer leader change agents were investigated, including whether their participation affected their peer status, social influence, or self perceptions. Twenty-two 7th grade peer-identified intervention leaders were compared to 22 control leaders (who did not experience the intervention) and 146 cohort peers. Three groups of measures were employed: sociometric and behavioral nominations, social cognitive mapping, and leadership self-perceptions. Results indicated that unintended consequences appear to be a legitimate concern for females. Female intervention leaders declined in perceived popularity and liked most nominations over time, whereas males increased in total leader nominations. Explanations for these results are discussed and further directions suggested.

  14. A retrospective evaluation of a Bovine Herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) antibody ELISA on bulk-tank milk samples for classification of the BHV-1 status of Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nylin, Britta; Strøger, Ulla; Rønsholt, Leif

    2000-01-01

    performance characteristics of the BHV-1 blocking ELISA in 1039 BHV-1-seropositive and 502 repeatedly BHV-1-negative dairy herds using the results of blood testing of the individual animals as the true infection status. At a cut-off value of 30% blocking reaction, the herd-level relative sensitivity......Bulk-tank milk samples analysed in a Bovine Herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) blocking ELISA are still in use in the Danish BHV-1 programme as a tool to classify dairy herds as BHV-1 infected or BHV-1 free herds. in this retrospective study, we used data from the Danish BHV-1 eradication campaign to evaluate...... samples. The BHV-1 blocking ELISA on bulk-tank milk could detect seropositive herds (few), with prevalence proportions as low as one seropositive cow out of 70 cows....

  15. First Evaluation of the Biologically Active Substances and Antioxidant Potential of Regrowth Velvet Antler by means of Multiple Biochemical Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujiao Tang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the biologically active substances contained in RVA (regrowth velvet antler by comparing the composition of biologically active substances and antioxidant potential of different antler segments. RVA was subjected to extraction using DW (distilled water. RVA was divided into 3 segments: T-RVA (top RVA, M-RVA (middle RVA, and B-RVA (base RVA. The T-RVA section possessed the greatest amounts of uronic acid (36.251 mg/g, sulfated GAGs (sulfated glycosaminoglycans (555.76 mg/g, sialic acid (111.276 mg/g, uridine (0.957 mg/g, uracil (1.084 mg/g, and hypoxanthine (1.2631 mg/g. In addition, the T-RVA section possessed the strongest antioxidant capacity as determined by DPPH, H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl, and ABTS (2,2′-azinobis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate radical scavenging activity as well as FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power and ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity. The values of those were 53.44, 23.09, 34.12, 60.31, and 35.81 TE/μM at 1 mg/mL and 113.57 TE/μM at 20 μg/mL. These results indicate that the T-RVA section possesses the greatest amount of biologically active substances and highest antioxidant potential. This is the first report on the biologically active substances and antioxidant potential of RVA.

  16. [Evaluation of color perception in individuals addicted to narcotic substances in the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadolska, Krystyna; Goś, Roman

    2016-12-22

    The aim of the study was to assess color perception in the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue test in individuals addicted to narcotic substances, and to analyze the acquired color vision disorders, depending on the duration of addiction and abstinence. Ninety-five persons were qualified for the study. All the subjects were divided into 3 groups. Group I (drug addicts) comprised 45 individuals addicted to narcotic substances and nicotine. Group II (smokers) consisted of 30 individuals addicted only to nicotine, and group III (abstinents) included 20 individuals free of addictions. In all the study groups anamnesis, survey, standard ophthalmological examination and the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue test were performed. In the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue test the mean values of total error score (TES) for the purposes of the analysis, expressed in the values of square root (√TES), proved to be significantly higher in group I than in the two other groups (p colors. The Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue test proved useful in the detection and assessment of acquired dyschromatopsy induced by narcotic substances. The observed disorders appeared to be dependent on the duration of addiction and abstinence. Med Pr 2016;67(6):777-785.

  17. Diffusion or bulk flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    symplasmic pathway from mesophyll to sieve elements. Crucial for the driving force is the question where water enters the pre-phloem pathway. Surprisingly, the role of PD in water movement has not been addressed so far appropriately. Modeling of assimilate and water fluxes indicates that in symplasmic...... the concentration gradient or bulk flow along a pressure gradient. The driving force seems to depend on the mode of phloem loading. In a majority of plant species phloem loading is a thermodynamically active process, involving the activity of membrane transporters in the sieve-element companion cell complex. Since...... is currently matter of discussion, called passive symplasmic loading. Based on the limited material available, this review compares the different loading modes and suggests that diffusion is the driving force in apoplasmic loaders, while bulk flow plays an increasing role in plants having a continuous...

  18. Diffusion or bulk flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    is currently matter of discussion, called passive symplasmic loading. Based on the limited material available, this review compares the different loading modes and suggests that diffusion is the driving force in apoplasmic loaders, while bulk flow plays an increasing role in plants having a continuous...... the concentration gradient or bulk flow along a pressure gradient. The driving force seems to depend on the mode of phloem loading. In a majority of plant species phloem loading is a thermodynamically active process, involving the activity of membrane transporters in the sieve-element companion cell complex. Since...... assimilate movement includes an apoplasmic step, this mode is called apoplasmic loading. Well established is also the polymer-trap loading mode, where the phloem-transport sugars are raffinose-family oligomers in herbaceous plants. Also this mode depends on the investment of energy, here for sugar...

  19. Evaluating Carbon Isotope Signature of Bulk Organic Matter and Plant Wax Derived n-alkanes from Lacustrine Sediments as Climate Proxies along the Western Side of the Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, S.; Werne, J. P.; Araneda, A.; Conejero, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    Sedimentary carbon isotope values (δ13C) of bulk organic matter and long chain (C25 to C35) n-alkanes are among the most long-lived and widely utilized proxies of organic matter and vegetation source. The carbon distribution (e.g. average carbon chain length, ACL) and isotope signature from long chain n-alkanes had been intensively used on paleoclimate studies because they are less influenced by diagenesis, differential preservation of compound classes, and changes in the sources of organic matter than bulk δ13C values. Recently, studies of modern plant n-alkanes have challenged the use of carbon distribution and carbon isotope signature from sedimentary n-alkanes as reliable indicators of vegetation and climate change. The climate in central-south western South America (SA) is projected to become significantly warmer and drier over the next several decades to centuries in response to anthropogenically driven warming. Paleolimnological studies along western SA are critical to obtain more realistic and reliable regional reconstructions of past climate and environments, including vegetation and water budget variability. Here we discuss bulk δ13C, distribution and δ13C in long chain n-alkanes from a suite of ~40 lake surface sediment (core-top) samples spanning the transition from a Mediterranean climate with a patchwork of cultivated vegetation, pastureland, conifers in central Chile to a rainy temperate climate dominated by broadleaf deciduous and evergreen forest. Data are compared to the latitudinal and orographic climatic trends of the Andes based on the climatology (e.g. precipitation and temperature) of the locations of all lakes involved in this study, using monthly gridded reanalysis products of the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR), based on the NCEP global forecast model and meteorological stations available in the region, from January 1979 to December 2010 with a 0.5° horizontal resolution.

  20. Micromegas in a bulk

    CERN Document Server

    Giomataris, Ioanis; Andriamonje, Samuel A; Aune, S; Charpak, Georges; Colas, P; Giganon, Arnaud; Rebourgeard, P C; Salin, P; Rebourgeard, Ph.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel way to manufacture the bulk Micromegas detector. A simple process based on the PCB (Printed Circuit Board) technology is employed to produce the entire sensitive detector. Such fabrication process could be extended to very large area detectors made by the industry. The low cost fabrication together with the robustness of the electrode materials will make it extremely attractive for several applications ranging from particle physics and astrophysics to medicine

  1. Micromegas in a bulk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giomataris, I. [DAPNIA, CEA Saclay, F91191 Gif sur Yvette CEDEX (France)]. E-mail: ioa@hep.saclay.cea.fr; De Oliveira, R. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Andriamonje, S. [DAPNIA, CEA Saclay, F91191 Gif sur Yvette CEDEX (France); Aune, S. [DAPNIA, CEA Saclay, F91191 Gif sur Yvette CEDEX (France); Charpak, G. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Colas, P. [DAPNIA, CEA Saclay, F91191 Gif sur Yvette CEDEX (France); Fanourakis, G. [Institute of Nuclear Physcis, NCSR Demokritos, Aghia Paraskevi 15310 (Greece); Ferrer, E. [DAPNIA, CEA Saclay, F91191 Gif sur Yvette CEDEX (France); Giganon, A. [DAPNIA, CEA Saclay, F91191 Gif sur Yvette CEDEX (France); Rebourgeard, Ph. [DAPNIA, CEA Saclay, F91191 Gif sur Yvette CEDEX (France); Salin, P. [DAPNIA, CEA Saclay, F91191 Gif sur Yvette CEDEX (France)

    2006-05-10

    In this paper, we present a novel way to manufacture the bulk Micromegas detector. A simple process based on the Printed Circuit Board (PCB) technology is employed to produce the entire sensitive detector. Such a fabrication process could be extended to very large area detectors made by the industry. The low cost fabrication together with the robustness of the electrode materials will make it attractive for several applications ranging from particle physics and astrophysics to medicine.

  2. 75 FR 1813 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... Fentanyl (9801) II The company plans on manufacturing the listed controlled substances in bulk for sale to... history. Therefore, pursuant to 21 U.S.C. 823, and in accordance with 21 CFR 1301.33, the above named...

  3. 76 FR 14690 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ... Fentanyl (9801) II The company plans to manufacture the listed controlled substances in bulk for... and history. Therefore, pursuant to 21 U.S.C. 823(a), and in accordance with 21 CFR 1301.33, the above...

  4. 76 FR 51401 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I The... customers. In reference to drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk manufacture cannabidiol as...

  5. 76 FR 30970 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I Amphetamine (1100) II... distribution to its customers. In reference to drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk...

  6. 76 FR 5829 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I Amphetamine (1100) II... distribution to its customers. In reference to drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk...

  7. EVALUATION OF AIR POLLUTION FROM ROVINARI (GORJ WITH SUBSTANCES IN SOSPENSION (PM10 AS A RESULT OF AUTO TRAFFIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Cătălin ŞCHIOPU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a short introduction of the impact that auto transportation has on air quality and on the main pollutants resulting from fuel burning in the engines with internal combustion. Also here are presented the results obtained as a result of monitoring substances in suspension, fraction PM10, realized in the proximity of the most important auto traffic roads of Rovinari. The comparison of the results obtained was realized according to Law 104/2011 on the protection of ambient air quality

  8. Evaluating climate signal recorded in tree-ring δ13C and δ18O values from bulk wood and α-cellulose for six species across four sites in the northeastern US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrieri, Rossella; Jennings, Katie; Belmecheri, Soumaya; Asbjornsen, Heidi; Ollinger, Scott

    2017-12-30

    We evaluated the applicability of tree-ring δ 13 C and δ 18 O values in bulk wood - instead of the more time and lab-consuming α-cellulose δ 13 C and δ 18 O values, to assess climate and physiological signals across multiple sites and for six tree species along a latitudinal gradient (35°97'N to 45°20'N) of the northeastern United States. Wood cores (n = 4 per tree) were sampled from ten trees per species. Cores were cross-dated within and across trees at each site, and for the last 30 years. Seven years, including the driest on record, were selected for this study. The δ 13 C and δ 18 O values were measured on two of the ten trees from the bulk wood and the α-cellulose. The offsets between materials in δ 13 C and δ 18 O values were assessed. Correlation and multiple regression analyses were used to evaluate the strength of the climate signal across sites. Finally the relationship between δ 13 C and δ 18 O values in bulk wood vs α-cellulose was analyzed to assess the consistency of the interpretation, in terms of CO 2 assimilation and stomatal conductance, from both materials. We found offsets of 1.1‰ and 5.6‰ between bulk and α-cellulose for δ 13 C and δ 18 O values, respectively, consistent with offset values reported in the literature. Bulk wood showed similar or stronger correlations to climate parameters than α-cellulose for the investigated sites. In particular, temperature and vapor pressure deficit and standard precipitation-evaporation index (SPEI) were the most visible climate signals recorded in δ 13 C and δ 18 O values, respectively. For most of the species, there was no relationship between δ 13 C and δ 18 O values, regardless of the wood material considered. Extraction of α-cellulose was not necessary to detect climate signals in tree rings across the four investigated sites. Furthermore, the physiological information inferred from the dual isotope approach was similar for most of the species regardless of the material

  9. A six-year evaluation of methadone prescribing practices at a substance misuse treatment centre in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, G L; Rostami-Hodjegan, A; Lagundoye, O; Seivewright, N; Pratt, P; Lennard, M S

    2006-10-01

    To document changes in prescribing practice at a specialized substance misuse service in the UK occurring since the introduction of the 1999 UK National Guidelines on the management of drug misuse, and to explore a possible link between the length of time spent in methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) and the dosage prescribed. A retrospective analysis of a computerized prescription database between 1996 and 2002 obtained from Sheffield Care Trust Substance Misuse Service was performed. The relationship between various measures of dosage and the length of time spent in MMT was investigated. In accordance with the 1999 UK National Guidelines, the proportion of injectable methadone prescribed decreased from 22% to 16%. This was offset by an increase in the prescribing of methadone elixir from 74% to 79%. The 'maximum dose' of methadone prescribed correlated significantly with patient retention, explaining 14% of the variation in time spent in MMT. Our findings indicate that publication of the UK National Guidelines had a measurable effect on prescribing practice at the Service. We found that a higher methadone dose is associated with increased patient retention in MMT. However, as only a maximum of 14% of the variation in the length of stay is related to methadone dose, the importance of other aspects of treatment such as counselling and rehabilitation programmes, should be considered for the successful treatment of opioid abusers.

  10. Reticular substance

    OpenAIRE

    Trelles, J. O.; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Beteta, Edmunod; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    In addressing the issue of the reticular substance, nothing better than to repeat the phrase HARVEY CUSHING, who opens his book on the hypothalamus, "there is nothing really new and exciting in the sun, which is new to us seems to be something new something old "and JEAN LHERMITTE adds," that doubted the accuracy of this reflection, which is nothing more than an old idea, we would advise you to take the actual evolution of neurology ". And we paraphrase the master, we reopened the debate on t...

  11. Evaluation of the validity of the UN SADT H.4 test for solid organic peroxides and self-reactive substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensma, M; Schuurman, P; Malow, M; Krause, U; Wehrstedt, K-D

    2005-01-31

    Many self-accelerating decomposition temperatures (SADTs) of solid organic peroxides and self-reactive substances have been determined with the UN test method H.4, which is a scaled down test in a small Dewar vessel. For solid organic peroxides and solid self-reactive substances Fierz has questioned this procedure in a recent paper. Fierz concluded that the Dewar test results should not be extrapolated to beyond 8l packages, owing to the thermal insulation value of solids. On the other hand, long term experience with the test, with a great variety of solid organic peroxides and self-reactive substances show about equal critical temperatures in the small Dewar vessel and on 50 kg scale. In the present work, we first checked, by numerical simulations, the Dewar scale versus the larger scale, in a way comparable with Fierz' method: both scales are simulated by spheres, consisting of a number of annular layers, for the large scale the usual external heat loss term is used but for the small scale the outside heat transfer is strongly limited. The outcome of these simulations, covering a variety of physical parameters, supports the concerns expressed by Fierz. After this, we performed accurate cooling and heating experiments with solid organic peroxide in the usual Dewar vessel, provided with a large set of thermocouples. The results of these experiments showed that the simulation model for the Dewar vessel has to be changed from a spherical analogue to a short cylinder of solid material with heat exchange mainly via its top (U(top) approximately 3.5 W/(m(2)K), overall heat transfer coefficient) and some heat exchange (U(side) approximately 0.29 W/(m(2)K)) through its cylindrical and bottom part. With this "modified cylinder" model (being neither an infinitely long cylinder nor a slab) of the Dewar vessel, we found that the UN method H.4 enables an accurate prediction of the SADT, with small deviations of 0+/-2.5 degrees C. Further, by performing a truly three

  12. Bulk-Fill Resin Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Havndrup-Pedersen, Cæcilie; Honoré, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    the restorative procedure. The aim of this study, therefore, was to compare the depth of cure, polymerization contraction, and gap formation in bulk-fill resin composites with those of a conventional resin composite. To achieve this, the depth of cure was assessed in accordance with the International Organization...... for Standardization 4049 standard, and the polymerization contraction was determined using the bonded-disc method. The gap formation was measured at the dentin margin of Class II cavities. Five bulk-fill resin composites were investigated: two high-viscosity (Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, SonicFill) and three low......-viscosity (x-tra base, Venus Bulk Fill, SDR) materials. Compared with the conventional resin composite, the high-viscosity bulk-fill materials exhibited only a small increase (but significant for Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill) in depth of cure and polymerization contraction, whereas the low-viscosity bulk...

  13. Fate of bulk and trace organics during a simulated aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR)-ozone hybrid process

    KAUST Repository

    Yoon, Min

    2013-11-01

    The attenuation of bulk organic matter and trace organic contaminants (TOrCs) was evaluated for various aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR)-ozone (O3) hybrid treatment process combinations using soil-batch reactor and bench-scale ozonation experiments as a proof of concept prior to pilot and/or field studies. In water reclamation and especially potable reuse, refractory bulk organic matter and TOrCs are of potential health concern in recycled waters. In this study, the role of biotransformation of bulk organic matter and TOrCs was investigated considering different simulated treatment combinations, including soil passage (ARR) alone, ARR after ozonation (O3-ARR), and ARR prior to ozonation (ARR-O3). During oxic (aerobic) ARR simulations, soluble microbial-like substances (e.g., higher molecular weight polysaccharides and proteins) were easily removed while (lower molecular weight) humic substances and aromatic organic matter were not efficiently removed. During ARR-ozone treatment simulations, removals of bulk organic matter and TOrCs were rapid and effective compared to ARR alone. A higher reduction of effluent-derived organic matter, including aromatic organic matter and humic substances, was observed in the ARR-O3 hybrid followed by the O3-ARR hybrid. An enhanced attenuation of recalcitrant TOrCs was observed while increasing the ozone dose slightly (O3: DOC=1). TOrC removal efficiency also increased during the post-ozone treatment combination (i.e., ARR-O3). In addition, the carcinogenic wastewater disinfection byproduct N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) was eliminated below the method reporting limit (<5ngL-1) both during ARR treatment alone and the ARR-ozone hybrid. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Evaluation of HepaRG cells for the assessment of indirect drug-induced hepatotoxicity using INH as a model substance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Anika; Pelz, Thomas; Rennert, Knut; Mosig, Alexander; Decker, Michael; Lupp, Amelie

    2017-10-01

    HepaRG cells are widely used as an in vitro model to assess drug-induced hepatotoxicity. However, only few studies exist so far regarding their suitability to detect the effects of drugs requiring a preceding activation via the cytochrome P450 (CYP) system. A prototypic substance is the anti-tuberculosis agent INH, which is metabolized into N-acetylhydrazine, which then triggers hepatotoxicity. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to test if this effect can also be detected in HepaRG cells and if it can be counteracted by the known hepatoprotectant silibinin. For this purpose, differentiated HepaRG cells were treated with increasing concentrations of INH (0.1-100 mM) or 10 mM INH plus escalating concentrations of silibinin (1-100 µM). After 48 h of treatment, cell morphology and parameters indicating cell vitality, oxidative stress, and liver cell function were assessed. High concentrations of INH led to severe histopathological changes, reduced cell vitality and glutathione content, increased LDH and ASAT release into the medium, enhanced lipid peroxidation, and elevated cleaved caspase-3 expression. Additionally, glycogen depletion and reduced biotransformation capacity were seen at high INH concentrations, whereas at low concentrations an induction of biotransformation enzymes was noticed. Silibinin caused clear-cut protective effects, but with few parameters INH toxicity was even aggravated, most probably due to increased metabolization of INH into its toxic metabolite. In conclusion, HepaRG cells are excellently suited to evaluate the effects of substances requiring prior toxification via the CYP system, such as INH. They additionally enable the identification of complex substance interactions.

  15. Implementation and evaluation of a harm-reduction model for clinical care of substance using pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Tricia E; Schuetter, Renee; Fombonne, Eric; Stephenson, Jessica; Haning, William F

    2012-01-19

    Methamphetamine (MA) use during pregnancy is associated with many pregnancy complications, including preterm birth, small for gestational age, preeclampsia, and abruption. Hawaii has lead the nation in MA use for many years, yet prior to 2007, did not have a comprehensive plan to care for pregnant substance-using women. In 2006, the Hawaii State Legislature funded a pilot perinatal addiction clinic. The Perinatal Addiction Treatment Clinic of Hawaii was built on a harm-reduction model, encompassing perinatal care, transportation, child-care, social services, family planning, motivational incentives, and addiction medicine. We present the implementation model and results from our first one hundred three infants (103) seen over 3 years of operation of the program. Referrals came from community health centers, hospitals, addiction treatment facilities, private physician offices, homeless outreach services and self-referral through word-of-mouth and bus ads. Data to describe sample characteristics and outcome was obtained prospectively and retrospectively from chart abstraction and delivery data. Drug use data was obtained from the women's self-report and random urine toxicology during the pregnancy, as well as urine toxicology at the time of birth on mothers, and urine and meconium toxicology on the infants. Post-partum depression was measured in mothers with the Edinburgh Post-Partum depression scale. Data from Path clinic patients were compared with a representative cohort of women delivering at Kapiolani Medical Center for Women and Children during the same time frame, who were enrolled in another study of pregnancy outcomes. Ethical approval for this study was obtained through the University of Hawaii Committee for Human Studies. Between April 2007 and August 2010, 213 women with a past or present history of addiction were seen, 132 were pregnant and 97 delivered during that time. 103 live-born infants were delivered. There were 3 first-trimester Spontaneous

  16. Implementation and evaluation of a harm-reduction model for clinical care of substance using pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wright Tricia E

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methamphetamine (MA use during pregnancy is associated with many pregnancy complications, including preterm birth, small for gestational age, preeclampsia, and abruption. Hawaii has lead the nation in MA use for many years, yet prior to 2007, did not have a comprehensive plan to care for pregnant substance-using women. In 2006, the Hawaii State Legislature funded a pilot perinatal addiction clinic. The Perinatal Addiction Treatment Clinic of Hawaii was built on a harm-reduction model, encompassing perinatal care, transportation, child-care, social services, family planning, motivational incentives, and addiction medicine. We present the implementation model and results from our first one hundred three infants (103 seen over 3 years of operation of the program. Methods Referrals came from community health centers, hospitals, addiction treatment facilities, private physician offices, homeless outreach services and self-referral through word-of-mouth and bus ads. Data to describe sample characteristics and outcome was obtained prospectively and retrospectively from chart abstraction and delivery data. Drug use data was obtained from the women's self-report and random urine toxicology during the pregnancy, as well as urine toxicology at the time of birth on mothers, and urine and meconium toxicology on the infants. Post-partum depression was measured in mothers with the Edinburgh Post-Partum depression scale. Data from Path clinic patients were compared with a representative cohort of women delivering at Kapiolani Medical Center for Women and Children during the same time frame, who were enrolled in another study of pregnancy outcomes. Ethical approval for this study was obtained through the University of Hawaii Committee for Human Studies. Results Between April 2007 and August 2010, 213 women with a past or present history of addiction were seen, 132 were pregnant and 97 delivered during that time. 103 live-born infants were

  17. A mechanistic analysis of bulk powder caking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, G.; Curcic, N.; Ghadiri, M.

    2013-06-01

    Bulk powder transformations, such as caking, can lead to numerous problems within industry when storing or processing materials. In this paper a new Environmental Caking Rig (ECR) is introduced and has been used to evaluate the caking propensity of a hygroscopic powder as a function of temperature, Relative Humidity (RH), mechanical stress and also when RH is cycled. A linear relationship exists between cake strength and the extent of bulk deformation, here defined by the engineering strain. An empirical model has been used to predict the caking behaviour based on consolidation stress and environmental conditions.

  18. APROBA-Plus: A probabilistic tool to evaluate and express uncertainty in hazard characterization and exposure assessment of substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokkers, Bas G H; Mengelers, Marcel J; Bakker, Martine I; Chiu, Weihsueh A; Slob, Wout

    2017-12-01

    To facilitate the application of probabilistic risk assessment, the WHO released the APROBA tool. This tool applies lognormal uncertainty distributions to the different aspects of the hazard characterization, resulting in a probabilistic health-based guidance value. The current paper describes an extension, APROBA-Plus, which combines the output from the probabilistic hazard characterization with the probabilistic exposure to rapidly characterize risk and its uncertainty. The uncertainty in exposure is graphically compared with the uncertainty in the target human dose, i.e. the dose that complies with the specified protection goals. APROBA-Plus is applied to several case studies, resulting in distinct outcomes and illustrating that APROBA-Plus could serve as a standard extension of routine risk assessments. By visualizing the uncertainties, APROBA-Plus provides a more transparent and informative outcome than the more usual deterministic approaches, so that risk managers can make better informed decisions. For example, APROBA-Plus can help in deciding whether risk-reducing measures are warranted or that a refined risk assessment would first be needed. If the latter, the tool can be used to prioritize possible refinements. APROBA-Plus may also be used to rank substances into different risk categories, based on potential health risks without being compromised by different levels of conservatism that may be associated with point estimates of risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of Arthrobacter aurescens Strain TC1 as Bioaugmentation Bacterium in Soils Contaminated with the Herbicidal Substance Terbuthylazine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera P Silva

    Full Text Available In the last years the chloro-s-triazine active substance terbuthylazine has been increasingly used as an herbicide and may leave residues in the environment which can be of concern. The present study aimed at developing a bioaugmentation tool based on the soil bacterium Arthrobacter aurescens strain TC1 for the remediation of terbuthylazine contaminated soils and at examining its efficacy for both soil and aquatic compartments. First, the feasibility of growing the bioaugmentation bacterium inocula on simple sole nitrogen sources (ammonium and nitrate instead of atrazine, while still maintaining its efficiency to biodegrade terbuthylazine was shown. In sequence, the successful and quick (3 days bioremediation efficacy of ammonium-grown A. aurescens TC1 cells was proven in a natural soil freshly spiked or four-months aged with commercial terbuthylazine at a dose 10× higher than the recommended in corn cultivation, to mimic spill situations. Ecotoxicity assessment of the soil eluates towards a freshwater microalga supported the effectiveness of the bioaugmentation tool. Obtained results highlight the potential to decontaminate soil while minimizing terbuthylazine from reaching aquatic compartments via the soil-water pathway. The usefulness of this bioaugmentation tool to provide rapid environment decontamination is particularly relevant in the event of accidental high herbicide contamination. Its limitations and advantages are discussed.

  20. Evaluation of Arthrobacter aurescens Strain TC1 as Bioaugmentation Bacterium in Soils Contaminated with the Herbicidal Substance Terbuthylazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Vera P; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Mateus, Carla; Teixeira, Tânia; Ribeiro, Rui; Viegas, Cristina A

    2015-01-01

    In the last years the chloro-s-triazine active substance terbuthylazine has been increasingly used as an herbicide and may leave residues in the environment which can be of concern. The present study aimed at developing a bioaugmentation tool based on the soil bacterium Arthrobacter aurescens strain TC1 for the remediation of terbuthylazine contaminated soils and at examining its efficacy for both soil and aquatic compartments. First, the feasibility of growing the bioaugmentation bacterium inocula on simple sole nitrogen sources (ammonium and nitrate) instead of atrazine, while still maintaining its efficiency to biodegrade terbuthylazine was shown. In sequence, the successful and quick (3 days) bioremediation efficacy of ammonium-grown A. aurescens TC1 cells was proven in a natural soil freshly spiked or four-months aged with commercial terbuthylazine at a dose 10× higher than the recommended in corn cultivation, to mimic spill situations. Ecotoxicity assessment of the soil eluates towards a freshwater microalga supported the effectiveness of the bioaugmentation tool. Obtained results highlight the potential to decontaminate soil while minimizing terbuthylazine from reaching aquatic compartments via the soil-water pathway. The usefulness of this bioaugmentation tool to provide rapid environment decontamination is particularly relevant in the event of accidental high herbicide contamination. Its limitations and advantages are discussed.

  1. Evaluating a selective prevention program for substance use and comorbid behavioral problems in adolescents with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities: Study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijven, E.P.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Kleinjan, M.; Poelen, E.A.P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Substance use and abuse is a growing problem among adolescents with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities (ID). Substance use patterns in general population are similar to patterns among non-disabled peers, but substance use has more negative consequences for adolescents with mild

  2. Evaluation of potentially inorganic toxic substances in sewage from treatment plants of the metropolitan region of Campinas by SR-TXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Silvana; Broleze, Silvana Turolla, E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEC/UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Saneamento e Ambiente

    2013-07-01

    The increased production of sludge is a consequence of the growth of the volume of treated sewage and of the number of Sewage Treatment Plants (STP) in Brazil and, it has demanded the search of alternatives for its final disposal. Amongst the some alternatives of disposal, the agricultural use is viable, a time that the sewage is rich in organic substances, macro and micronutrients necessary to the soil fertility. However, the illegal industrial releases at public sewage may contain the presence of elements that cause harm to human health and the environment as Pb, Hg, Cd, Cr and Se. This work evaluated the potentially inorganic toxic substances in the sewage, previously dried, of the STP Camanducaia in Jaguariuna city; Village Flora in Sumare city; Praia Azul and Carioba in Americana city; Samambaia, Anhumas, Picarrao and Barao Geraldo in Campinas city, SP, employing the Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (SR-TXRF). The sewage of Treatment Plants of the Metropolitan Region of Campinas take care of CONAMA 375/06 legislation. However, so that it can be commercialized as fertilizing or conditioning of soils, it must take care of to Normative Instruction 27/06, needing to reduce the contents of Ni and Cr. One of the alternatives would be a bigger supervising in the generating sources, in order to improve the quality of the tributary of the stations, being adjusted the sewage to the Brazilian legislations. (author)

  3. Microfabricated Bulk Piezoelectric Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barham, Oliver M.

    Piezoelectric voltage transformers (PTs) can be used to transform an input voltage into a different, required output voltage needed in electronic and electro- mechanical systems, among other varied uses. On the macro scale, they have been commercialized in electronics powering consumer laptop liquid crystal displays, and compete with an older, more prevalent technology, inductive electromagnetic volt- age transformers (EMTs). The present work investigates PTs on smaller size scales that are currently in the academic research sphere, with an eye towards applications including micro-robotics and other small-scale electronic and electromechanical sys- tems. PTs and EMTs are compared on the basis of power and energy density, with PTs trending towards higher values of power and energy density, comparatively, indicating their suitability for small-scale systems. Among PT topologies, bulk disc-type PTs, operating in their fundamental radial extension mode, and free-free beam PTs, operating in their fundamental length extensional mode, are good can- didates for microfabrication and are considered here. Analytical modeling based on the Extended Hamilton Method is used to predict device performance and integrate mechanical tethering as a boundary condition. This model differs from previous PT models in that the electric enthalpy is used to derive constituent equations of motion with Hamilton's Method, and therefore this approach is also more generally applica- ble to other piezoelectric systems outside of the present work. Prototype devices are microfabricated using a two mask process consisting of traditional photolithography combined with micropowder blasting, and are tested with various output electri- cal loads. 4mm diameter tethered disc PTs on the order of .002cm. 3 , two orders smaller than the bulk PT literature, had the followingperformance: a prototype with electrode area ratio (input area / output area) = 1 had peak gain of 2.3 (+/- 0.1), efficiency of 33 (+/- 0

  4. Bulk density and relationship air/water of horticultural substrate

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes,Carolina; Corá, José Eduardo

    2004-01-01

    Change on substrate bulk density during the growing period may negatively affect other substrate physical properties and, consequently, plant growth. The objectives of this research were 1) to characterize physical properties of two horticultural substrates (S1 and S2), 2) to evaluate the effect of different bulk densities values of those substrates on their air/water relationship, and 3) to develop mathematical functions to estimate the air/water relationship by increasing substrates bulk de...

  5. Evaluating whether direct-to-consumer marketing can increase demand for evidence-based practice among parents of adolescents with substance use disorders: rationale and protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Sara J

    2015-02-10

    Fewer than one in 10 adolescents with substance use disorders (ASUDs) will receive specialty treatment, and even fewer will receive treatment designated as evidence-based practice (EBP). Traditional efforts to increase the utilization of EBP by ASUDs typically focus on practitioners-either in substance use clinics or allied health settings. Direct-to-consumer (DTC) marketing that directly targets parents of ASUDs represents a potentially complementary paradigm that has yet to be evaluated. The current study is the first to evaluate the relevance of a well-established marketing framework (the Marketing Mix) and measurement approach (measurement of perceived service quality [PSQ]) with parents of ASUDs in need of treatment. A mixed-methods design is employed across three study phases, consistent with well-established methods used in the field of marketing science. Phase 1 consists of formative qualitative research with parents (and a supplementary sample of adolescents) in order to evaluate and potentially adapt a conceptual framework (Marketing Mix) and measure of PSQ. Phase 2 is a targeted survey of ASUD parents to elucidate their marketing preferences, using the adapted Marketing Mix framework, and to establish the psychometric properties of the PSQ measure. The survey will also gather data on parents' preferences for different targeted marketing messages. Phase 3 is a two-group randomized controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of targeted marketing messages versus standard clinical information. Key outcomes will include parents' ratings of PSQ (using the new measure), behavioral intentions to seek out information about EBP, and actual information-seeking behavior. The current study will inform the field whether a well-established marketing framework and measurement approach can be used to increase demand for EBP among parents of ASUDs. Results of this study will have the potential to immediately inform DTC marketing efforts by professional organizations

  6. Developing bulk exchange spring magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mccall, Scott K.; Kuntz, Joshua D.

    2017-06-27

    A method of making a bulk exchange spring magnet by providing a magnetically soft material, providing a hard magnetic material, and producing a composite of said magnetically soft material and said hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet. The step of producing a composite of magnetically soft material and hard magnetic material is accomplished by electrophoretic deposition of the magnetically soft material and the hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet.

  7. Randomized 3-year Clinical Evaluation of Class I and II Posterior Resin Restorations Placed with a Bulk-fill Resin Composite and a One-step Self-etching Adhesive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan Wv; Pallesen, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the 3-year clinical durability of the flowable bulk-fill resin composite SDR in Class I and Class II restorations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-eight pairs of Class I and 62 pairs of Class II restorations were placed in 44 male and 42 female patients (mean age 52.4 years......). Each patient received at least two extended Class I or Class II restorations that were as similar as possible. In all cavities, a one-step self-etching adhesive (XenoV+) was applied. One of the cavities of each pair was randomly assigned to receive the flowable bulk-fill resin composite SDR...... in increments up to 4 mm as needed to fill the cavity 2 mm short of the occlusal cavosurface. The occlusal part was completed with an ormocer-based nanohybrid resin composite (Ceram X mono+). In the other cavity, only the resin composite CeramX mono+ was placed in 2 mm increments. The restorations were...

  8. Radiopacity of bulk fill flowable resin composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, T; Ayar, M K; Akdag, M S; Yesilyurt, C

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiopacity of currently marketed bulk fill flowable dental composite materials (Beautifil Bulk Flowable, SDR Flow, Filtek Bulk Fill Flow, and x-tra Base Bulk Fill). Six specimens of each material with a thickness of 1 mm were prepared, and digital radiographs were taken, using a CCD sensor along with an aluminum stepwedge and 1 mm-thick tooth slice. The mean gray level of each aluminum stepwedge and selected materials was measured, using the equal-density area tool of Kodak Dental Imaging software. The equivalent thickness of aluminum for each material was then calculated by using the stepwedge values in the CurveExpert version 1.4 program. The radiopacity of bulk fill flowable composites sorted in descending order as follows: Beautifil Bulk Flowable (2.96 mm Al) = x-tra base bulk fill (2.92 mm Al) = SureFil SDR Flow (2.89 mm Al) > Filtek Bulk Fill Flow (2.51 mm Al) (P materials had a radiopacity greater than dentin and enamel; their adequate radiopacity will help the clinicians during radiographic examination of restorations. Bulk fill composite materials have greater radiopacity, enabling clinicians to distinguish the bulk fill composites from dentin and enamel.

  9. Substance Identification Information from EPA's Substance Registry

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Substance Registry Services (SRS) is the authoritative resource for basic information about substances of interest to the U.S. EPA and its state and tribal...

  10. 78 FR 64019 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration, Penick Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... class of controlled substance listed in schedule II. The company plans to manufacture the listed... of Penick Corporation to manufacture the listed basic class of controlled substance is consistent... as a bulk manufacturer of the basic class of controlled substance listed. Dated: October 16, 2013...

  11. The National Cross-Site Evaluation of High-Risk Youth Programs. Preventing Substance Abuse: Major Findings from the National Cross-Site Evaluation of High-Risk Youth Programs. Monograph Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, J. Fred; Sambrano, Soledad; Sale, Elizabeth; Kasim, Rafa; Herman, Jack

    This multiple-site study assessed 48 prevention programs for high-risk youth funded by the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, identifying program characteristics associated with strong substance abuse prevention outcomes. Data analysis indicated that substance abuse programs reduced rates of substance use, and the positive effects of program…

  12. GRASr2 Evaluation of aliphatic acyclic and alicyclic terpenoid tertiary alcohols and structurally related substances used as flavoring ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marnett, L.J.; Cohen, S.M.; Fukushima, S.; Gooderham, N.J.; Hecht, S.S.; Rietjens, I.; Smith, R.L.; Adams, T.B.; Bastaki, M.; Harman, C.L.; McGowen, M.M.; Taylor, S.V.

    2014-01-01

    This publication is the 1st in a series of publications by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Assoc. summarizing the Panel's 3rd re-evaluation of Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) status referred to as the GRASr2 program. In 2011, the Panel initiated a comprehensive program

  13. Preparation and optical and electrical evaluation of bulk SiO{sub 2} sonogel hybrid composites and vacuum thermal evaporated thin films prepared from molecular materials derived from (Fe, Co) metallic phthalocyanines and 1,8 dihydroxiantraquinone compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Vergara, Maria Elena [Coordinacion de Ingenieria Mecatronica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Anahuac Mexico Norte. Avenida Universidad Anahuac 46, Col. Lomas Anahuac, 52786 Huixquilucan, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Morales-Saavedra, Omar G. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnologico, CCADET-UNAM, A.P. 70-186, Coyoacan, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: omar.morales@ccadet.unam.mx; Ontiveros-Barrera, Fernando G.; Torres-Zuniga, Vicente; Ortega-Martinez, Roberto [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnologico, CCADET-UNAM, A.P. 70-186, Coyoacan, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Ortiz Rebollo, Armando [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, IIM-UNAM, A.P. 70-360, Coyoacan, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-02-25

    Semiconducting molecular material of PcFe(CN)L1 and PcCo(CN)L1 (L1 = 1,8 dihydroxianthraquinone), PcFe(CN)L2 and PcCo(CN)L2 (L2 = double potassium salt of 1,8 dihydroxianthraquinone) have been successfully used to prepare thin film and bulk sol-gel hybrid optical materials. These samples were developed according to the vacuum thermal evaporation technique and the catalyst-free sonogel route, respectively. Thin films samples were deposited on Corning glass substrates and crystalline silicon wafers and were characterized by infrared (FTIR), Raman and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopies. IR-spectroscopy and Raman studies unambiguously confirmed that the molecular material thin films exhibit the same intra-molecular bonds, which suggests that the thermal evaporation process does not alter these bonds significantly. These results show that it is possible to deposit molecular materials of PcFe(CN)L2 and PcCo(CN)L2 on Corning glass substrates and silicon wafers. From the UV-vis studies the optical band gap (E{sub g}) was evaluated. The effect of temperature on conductivity was also evaluated in these samples. Finally, the studied molecular systems dissolved at different concentrations in tetrahydrofuran (THF) were successfully embedded into a highly pure SiO{sub 2} sonogel network generated via sonochemical reactions to form several solid state, optically active sol-gel hybrid glasses. By this method, homogeneous and stable hybrid monoliths suitable for optical characterization can be produced. The linear optical properties of these amorphous bulk structures were determined by the Brewster angle method and by absorption-, Raman- and photoluminescent (PL)-spectroscopies, respectively.

  14. Evaluation of residual toxic substances in the stomach using upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for management of patients with oral drug overdose on admission: a prospective, observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyauchi, Masato; Hayashida, Makiko; Yokota, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    The guidelines on the indications for gastric lavage were published in 1997, and a less-aggressive initial approach has been used for poisoned patients. Clinical studies have shown that the outcomes of retrieval of residual toxic substances in the stomach are variable and that no beneficial effect is obtained. However, the presence of residual toxic substances in the stomach before gastric lavage has not been estimated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the residual stomach contents on admission of patients with oral drug overdoses using upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. A 2-year prospective study of 167 patients with oral drug overdoses was performed. Endoscopy was performed on admission to observe the gastric body, fornix, and pyloric antrum. Patients were classified into 3 groups according to the digestive phase (tablet/food phase, soluble/fluid phase, and reticular/empty phase). The groups were compared with respect to time elapsed since ingestion, and numbers and variety of orally overdosed drugs. The numbers of patients in each phase were as follows: tablet/food phase, 73; soluble/fluid phase, 50; and reticular/empty phase, 44. The tablet/food and soluble/fluid phase groups contained the greatest numbers of patients who presented within 1 to 2 hours since ingestion. In the tablet/food group, only 12 of 73 patients (16%) presented within 1 hour since ingestion, and 3 patients presented >12 hours since ingestion. In the soluble/fluid phase group, only 9 of 50 patients (18%) presented within 1 hour since ingestion, and 2 patients presented >12 hours since ingestion. The reticular/empty phase group contained the greatest number of patients presenting within 2 to 4 hours since ingestion, and 3 patients presented within 1 hour since ingestion. The residual stomach contents before lavage were variable in all of the groups. The residual gastric content before the performance of gastric lavage is variable in overdosed patients on admission. This may

  15. Design of an internet-based health economic evaluation of a preventive group-intervention for children of parents with mental illness or substance use disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woolderink Marla

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preventive interventions are developed for children of parents with mental and substance use disorders (COPMI, because these children have a higher risk of developing a psychological or behavioral disorder in the future. Mental health and substance use disorders contribute significantly to the global burden of disease. Although the exact number of parents with a mental illness is unclear, the subject of mentally ill parents is gaining attention. Moreover there is a lack of interventions for COPMI-children, as well of (cost- effectiveness studies evaluating COPMI interventions. Innovative interventions such as e-health provide a new field for exploration. There is no knowledge about the opportunities for using the internet to prevent problems in children at risk. In the current study we will focus on the (cost- effectiveness of an online health prevention program for COPMI-children. Methods/Design We designed a randomized controlled trial to examine the (cost- effectiveness of the Kopstoring intervention. Kopstoring is an online intervention for COPMI-children to strengthen their coping skills and prevent behavioral and psychological problems. We will compare the Kopstoring intervention with (waiting list care as usual. This trial will be conducted entirely over the internet. An economic evaluation, from a societal perspective will be conducted, to examine the trial's cost-effectiveness. Power calculations show that 214 participants are needed, aged 16-25. Possible participants will be recruited via media announcements and banners on the internet. After screening and completing informed consent procedures, participants will be randomized. The main outcome is internalizing and externalizing symptoms as measured by the Youth Self Report. For the economic evaluation, healthcare costs and costs outside the healthcare sector will be measured at the same time as the clinical measures, at baseline, 3, 6 and 9 months. An extended

  16. A cluster-randomized controlled trial evaluating the effects of delaying onset of adolescent substance abuse on cognitive development and addiction following a selective, personality-targeted intervention programme: the Co-Venture trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary-Barrett, Maeve; Mâsse, Benoit; Pihl, Robert O; Stewart, Sherry H; Séguin, Jean R; Conrod, Patricia J

    2017-10-01

    Substance use and binge drinking during early adolescence are associated with neurocognitive abnormalities, mental health problems and an increased risk for future addiction. The trial aims to evaluate the protective effects of an evidence-based substance use prevention programme on the onset of alcohol and drug use in adolescence, as well as on cognitive, mental health and addiction outcomes over 5 years. Thirty-eight high schools will be recruited, with a final sample of 31 schools assigned to intervention or control conditions (3826 youth). Brief personality-targeted interventions will be delivered to high-risk youth attending intervention schools during the first year of the trial. Control school participants will receive no intervention above what is offered to them in the regular curriculum by their respective schools. Public/private French and English high schools in Montreal (Canada). All grade 7 students (12-13 years old) will be invited to participate. High-risk youth will be identified as those scoring one standard deviation or more above the school mean on one of the four personality subscales of the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (40-45% youth). Self-reported substance use and mental health symptoms and cognitive functioning measured annually throughout 5 years. Primary outcomes are the onset of substance use disorders at 4 years post-intervention (year 5). Secondary intermediate outcomes are the onset of alcohol and substance use 2 years post-intervention and neuropsychological functions; namely, the protective effects of substance use prevention on cognitive functions generally, and executive functions and reward sensitivity specifically. This longitudinal, cluster-randomized controlled trial will investigate the impact of a brief personality-targeted intervention program on reducing the onset of addiction 4 years-post intervention. Results will tease apart the developmental sequences of uptake and growth in substance use and cognitive

  17. Evaluating the effectiveness of the SMART contract-signing strategy in reducing the growth of Swedish Adolescents’ substance use and problem behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Bortes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2013, around 40 % of the schools in Sweden had structured programs to prevent tobacco and alcohol debut in compulsory school. There has unfortunately been a lack of scientific evidence to support most of the prevention methods focusing on primary prevention in schools in Sweden. The aim and purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the Non-Governmental Organization SMART contract-signing strategy in reducing the growth of youth substance use and other problem behaviors amongst Swedish adolescents. Methods Students from five schools in a medium-sized Swedish municipality were surveyed in three waves from 7th to 9th grade of compulsory school. We used General Linear Model (GLM repeated-measures ANOVA to test if the outcome measures smoking, use of snus and alcohol, drunkenness, delinquency, and bullying significantly changed different amounts over time in groups that had participated in the SMART program for long time, a short time, sporadically- or not at all. Groups were compared on demographic background variables, and outcome measures were assessed on all measurement occasions by a one-way ANOVA. The magnitude of group differences at the end of the study was estimated according to Cohen’s d. Results Number of years with a contract has an effect on the levels of self-reported youth problems in 9th grade. We found small to medium-sized differences in measured outcomes between students who participated in the program for the longest period of time, 5 years, and who participated for the shortest time, 0–2 years. Conclusion Findings suggests that the SMART program has preventive effects on adolescent substance use.

  18. Processes for Risk Evaluation and Chemical Prioritization for Risk Evaluation under the Amended Toxic Substances Control Act; Notice of Public Meetings and Opportunities for Public Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This notice provides information for two public meetings to obtain input into the Agency’s development of processes for risk evaluation and chemical prioritization for risk evaluation under amended TSCA.

  19. Radiation effects in bulk silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claeys, Cor; Vanhellemont, Jan

    1994-01-01

    This paper highlights important aspects related to irradiation effects in bulk silicon. Some basic principles related to the interaction of radiation with material, i.e. ionization and atomic displacement, are briefly reviewed. A physical understanding of radiation effects strongly depends on the availability of appropriate analytical tools. These tools are critically accessed from a silicon bulk viewpoint. More detailed information, related to the properties of the bulk damage and some dedicated application aspects, is given for both electron and proton irradiations. Emphasis is placed on radiation environments encountered during space missions and on their influence on the electrical performance of devices such as memories and image sensors.

  20. Polonium bulk and surface vibrational dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tigrine, Rachid; Bourahla, Boualem [Laboratoire de Physique PEC UMR 6087, Universite du Maine, Le Mans (France); Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie Quantique, Universite de Tizi Ouzou (Algeria); Khater, Antoine

    2009-07-15

    Calculations are presented for the bulk phonons and for surface Rayleigh phonons and resonances for Polonium, the only element known to form in the simple cubic lattice. The static stability of this lattice has been confirmed recently by ab initio simulations which yield two bulk elastic constants, c{sub 11} and c{sub 12}. Constitutive equations are derived for the isotropic cubic lattice based upon the Fuchs's method. This permits effectively a numerical evaluation of central potential force constants for Polonium from the ab initio results. Numerical calculations are then made for the material vibration dynamics in the force constant model with the use of the matching method. The numerical applications yield for Polonium the bulk phonon branches along[100],[110], and [111], and the Rayleigh phonons and surface resonances along the[010] direction in an unreconstructed (001) surface. The local vibration densities of states are calculated for bulk and surface sites for this element. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Biological Hazards on the Evaluation of the efficacy of peroxyacids for use as an antimicrobial substance applied on poultry carcasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørrung, Birgit

    The European Commission requested EFSA to evaluate the efficacy of peroxyacids as an antimicrobial substance applied to poultry carcasses. Particularly, the BIOHAZ panel was asked to assess the efficacy of the peroxyacids on the growth and/or prevalence of some microorganisms and pathogens on pou...... and it must not be used as a substitute for normal good hygienic practice. Moreover, the experimental evaluation of the efficacy of peroxyacids must be under conditions comparable to European industrial processing conditions and practices....... of treating visibly contaminated carcasses. In addition the processing conditions did not reflect the conditions and practices in Europe. In the trial on commercial processing lines Salmonella was the only pathogen considered while data on thermophilic Campylobacter spp., which are the most important...... pathogens of concern in poultry, were not provided. Two experiments were adequately described but they were small laboratory experiments, not adequate to demonstrate the efficacy of peroxyacids under commercial conditions. Decontamination of poultry carcasses is generally intended to reduce the number and...

  2. An evaluation of a service to keep children safe in families with mental health and/or substance abuse issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Dominiek; Howe, Deborah

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a specialised service designed to improve parenting capacity, child safety and family functioning in the context of parental mental health, drug and alcohol and child protection concerns. Client data was collected over a period of 3 years and 3 months, including demographic characteristics, service usage, presenting issues and pre and post revised North Carolina Family Assessment Scale (NCFAS-G) scores. A significant improvement between intake and discharge occurred on the majority of the 58 NCFAS-G subscale items (32/58). In particular, most significant change occurred in the domains 'family safety' (p < 0.001) and 'family interactions' (p < 0.001). Specialised programs can assist families with child safety concerns suffering from mental health and/or drug and alcohol problems. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  3. What Works for Preventing and Stopping Substance Use in Adolescents: Lessons from Experimental Evaluations of Programs and Interventions. Fact Sheet. Publication #2008-19

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandy, Tawana; Moore, Kristin A.

    2008-01-01

    Despite a decade-long decline in substance use among adolescents, research tells that about 80 percent of teens have begun to drink alcohol and 50 percent have used an illegal drug by their senior year in high school. Substance use among teens is related to poorer outcomes for adolescents and youth (e.g., unintentional injuries, homicides and…

  4. Design of an internet-based health economic evaluation of a preventive group-intervention for children of parents with mental illness or substance use disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woolderink, M; Smit, H.F.E.; Zanden, R.; Beecham, J; Knapp, M.; Paulus, A; Evers, S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Preventive interventions are developed for children of parents with mental and substance use disorders (COPMI), because these children have a higher risk of developing a psychological or behavioral disorder in the future. Mental health and substance use disorders contribute significantly

  5. Silicon Bulk Micromachined Vibratory Gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, T. K.; Gutierrez, R. C.; Wilcox, J. Z.; Stell, C.; Vorperian, V.; Calvet, R.; Li, W. J.; Charkaborty, I.; Bartman, R.; Kaiser, W. J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports on design, modeling, fabrication, and characterization of a novel silicon bulk micromachined vibratory rate gyroscope designed for microspacecraft applications. The new microgyroscope consists of a silicon four leaf cloverstructure with a post attached to the center.

  6. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 96 (FGE.96): Consideration of 88 flavouring substances considered by EFSA for which EU production volumes / anticipated production volumes have been submitted

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to consider evaluations of flavouring substances assessed since 2000 by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (the JECFA), and to decide whether further...

  7. DUTCH PRIORITY SETTING SYSTEM FOR EXISTING CHEMICALS: a systematic procedure for ranking chemicals according to increasing estimated hazards. To be incorporated into the UNIFORM SYSTEM FOR THE EVALUATION OF SUBSTANCES (USES)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Meent D; Toet C

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the Dutch PRiority Setting system for Existing Chemicals (PRISEC). PRISEC is designed to be incorporated into the Uniform System for Evaluation of Substances together with the Dutch Risk Assessment System for New Chemicals and the Dutch Risk Assessment System for Pesticides.

  8. Proceedings of BulkTrans '89

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    Papers were presented on bulk commodity demand; steel industry bulk trades; grains and the world food economy; steam coal and cement demand; shipping profitability; bulk carrier design and economics; bulk ports and terminals; ship unloading; computers in bulk terminals; and conveyors and stockyard equipment.

  9. Combatting bulking sludge with ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuensch, B.; Heine, W.; Neis, U. [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering

    2002-07-01

    Bulking and floating sludge cause great problems in many waste water treatment plants with biological nutrient removal. The purification as well as the sludge digestion process can be affected. These problems are due to the interlaced structure of filamentous microorganisms, which have an impact on the sludge's settling behaviour. Foam is able to build up a stable layer, which does not settle in the secondary clarifier. Foam in digestion causes a reduction of the degree of stabilisation and of the biogas production. We use low-frequency ultrasound to combat filamentous organisms in bulking sludge. Low-frequency ultrasound is suitable to create high local shear stresses, which are capable of breaking the filamentous structures of the sludge. After preliminary lab-scale tests now a full-scale new ultrasound equipment is operating at Reinfeld sewage treatment plant, Germany. The objective of this study is to explore the best ultrasound configuration to destroy the filamentous structure of bulking and foaming sludge in a substainable way. Later this study will also look into the effects of ultrasound treated bulking sludge on the anaerobic digestion process. Up to now results show that the settling behaviour of bulking sludge is improved. The minimal ultrasound energy input for destruction of bulking structure was determined. (orig.)

  10. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substances, sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate coated with sodium carbonate and sodium silicate, bentonite, sodium chloride, sodium carbonate for use in active food contact materials

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF)

    2013-01-01

    This scientific opinion of the Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety evaluation of the powder mixture of the active substances sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate coated with sodium carbonate and sodium silicate (FCM substance No 1009), bentonite (CAS No 1302-78-9, FCM No 393), sodium chloride (CAS No 7647-14-5, FCM No 985), sodium carbonate (CAS No 497-19-8, FCM No 1008) which are intended to be used as combined oxygen generator and carbon...

  11. Evaluation of the risk of diffuse pollution of groundwater by nitrogen substances from agricultural land use as background for allocation of effective measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bujnovský Radoslav

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The risk of diffuse pollution of groundwater by nitrogen substances from agricultural land is perceived as a result of the interaction of groundwater vulnerability (determined by the characteristics of the environment overlying groundwater in relation to water transport or soil solution and loading of overlying environment by nitrogen. Index of groundwater vulnerability was assessed on the basis of four parameters, namely, the amount of effective rainfall in the period from October to March, the capacity of soil to accumulate water, the average depth of the groundwater table and the permeability of the rock environment. Assessment of the index of loading of overlying environment by nitrogen was based on two parameters, namely, nitrogen balance and crop cover on agricultural land in the winter half on districts level in 2012, which corresponds with current state of the load. The resulting risk of groundwater pollution by nitrogen was expressed by the formula counting with the transformed values of groundwater vulnerability index and the index of loading of overlying environment by nitrogen. From practical point of view, the above mentioned indexes, as well as the subsequent risk of diffuse groundwater pollution, were spatially expressed via three associated categories. Based on the evaluation of relevant parameters, 5.18% of agricultural land falls into the category of very high and high risk, 42.20% in the medium risk category and 52.62% in the category of low and very low risk of diffuse pollution of groundwater by nitrogen from agricultural land.

  12. Modelling of bulk superconductor magnetization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainslie, M. D.; Fujishiro, H.

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a topical review of the current state of the art in modelling the magnetization of bulk superconductors, including both (RE)BCO (where RE = rare earth or Y) and MgB2 materials. Such modelling is a powerful tool to understand the physical mechanisms of their magnetization, to assist in interpretation of experimental results, and to predict the performance of practical bulk superconductor-based devices, which is particularly important as many superconducting applications head towards the commercialization stage of their development in the coming years. In addition to the analytical and numerical techniques currently used by researchers for modelling such materials, the commonly used practical techniques to magnetize bulk superconductors are summarized with a particular focus on pulsed field magnetization (PFM), which is promising as a compact, mobile and relatively inexpensive magnetizing technique. A number of numerical models developed to analyse the issues related to PFM and optimise the technique are described in detail, including understanding the dynamics of the magnetic flux penetration and the influence of material inhomogeneities, thermal properties, pulse duration, magnitude and shape, and the shape of the magnetization coil(s). The effect of externally applied magnetic fields in different configurations on the attenuation of the trapped field is also discussed. A number of novel and hybrid bulk superconductor structures are described, including improved thermal conductivity structures and ferromagnet-superconductor structures, which have been designed to overcome some of the issues related to bulk superconductors and their magnetization and enhance the intrinsic properties of bulk superconductors acting as trapped field magnets. Finally, the use of hollow bulk cylinders/tubes for shielding is analysed.

  13. Internal shear cracking in bulk metal forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter; Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Bay, Niels Oluf

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an uncoupled ductile damage criterion for modelling the opening and propagation of internal shear cracks in bulk metal forming. The criterion is built upon the original work on the motion of a hole subjected to shear with superimposed tensile stress triaxiality and its overall...... performance is evaluated by means of side-pressing formability tests in Aluminium AA2007-T6 subjected to different levels of pre-strain. Results show that the new proposed criterionis able to combine simplicity with efficiency for predicting the onset of fracture and the crack propagation path for the entire...... cracking to internal cracks formed undert hree-dimensional states of stress that are typical of bulk metal forming....

  14. High Force Magnetic Levitation Using Magnetized Superconducting Bulks as a Field Source for Bearing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, A.; Giunchi, G.; Albisetti, A. Figini; Shi, Y.; Hopkins, S. C.; Palka, R.; Cardwell, D. A.; Glowacki, B. A.

    The ability of high temperature superconducting bulks to trap magnetic fields of several tesla allows them to generate very high levitation force. This paper reports the development of a bulk-bulk superconducting rotary bearing design which uses superconducting bulks on both the rotor and the stator. An evaluation is made of the effectiveness of pulsed fields for magnetizing bulks. Modeling of the bulks using the perfectly trapped flux model is also reported to assess the limits of the bearing design. The results demonstrate the feasibility of a (RE)BCO-MgB2 bulk bearing capable of force densities of the order of 100N/cm2. The design and construction of a unique system capable of magnetizing a 25 mm (RE)BCO bulk and measuring levitation force between this bulk and a coaxial MgB2 hollow cylinder is outlined.

  15. EVALUATION SYSTEM FOR PESTICIDES (ESPE) 2. Non-agricultural pesticides. To be incorporated into the Uniform System for the Evaluation of Substances (USES)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttik R; Emans HJB; Poel P van der; Linders JBHJ

    1993-01-01

    After the presentation of the Evaluation System for Pesticides (ESPE) 1. Agricultural pesticides (Emans et al. 1992) this present report is describing the logical successor ESPE 2: non-agricultural pesticides. Starting with an extensive emission analysis of the different types of nonagricultural

  16. Matters of Substance: Students' Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Gertrude

    2007-01-01

    America's romance with certainty leads to a belief that substances improve life and fits with the New Psychiatry. It's use of psychotropic medications to treat an array of mental illnesses changes evaluations, treatment and emergency coverage. The rising abuse of its prescription drugs alters the campus party scene, and challenges pretenses about…

  17. Conducting substance use research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Begun, Audrey L; Gregoire, Thomas K

    2014-01-01

    ... to address overlapping issues of substance use. Organised around a translational science framework, the contents address substance use research about epidemiology, etiology, intervention efficacy and effectiveness, and implementation of evidence...

  18. Substance Use in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Viral) HIV/AIDS Mental Health Military Opioid Overdose Reversal with Naloxone (Narcan, Evzio) Pain Prevention Recovery Substance ... in Women Email Facebook Twitter Revised April 2017 Sex and Gender Differences in Substance Use Women may ...

  19. Toxicity of 56 substances to trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lauge Peter Westergaard; Trapp, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Toxicity data of substances to higher plants is needed for the purpose of risk assessment, site evaluation, phytoremediation, and plant protection. However, the results from the most common phytotoxicity tests, like the OECD algae and Lemna test, are not necessarily valid for higher terrestrial...... toxicity test is a robust method for relating uptake, accumulation, and metabolism of substances to the toxicity to trees....

  20. 78 FR 49547 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration, Rhodes Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ... (9668) II Fentanyl (9801) II The company plans to manufacture the listed controlled substances in bulk..., and a review of the company's background and history. Therefore, pursuant to 21 U.S.C. 823(a), and in...

  1. 77 FR 30028 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Cedarburg Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... (8333).. II Fentanyl (9801) II The company plans to manufacture the listed controlled substances in bulk... compliance with state and local laws, and a review of the company's background and history. Therefore...

  2. 77 FR 75670 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration, AMRI Rensselaer, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... basic classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I... reference to drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk manufacture cannabidiol as a synthetic...

  3. 78 FR 30332 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application, Austin Pharma, Llc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ... Marihuana (7360), a basic class of controlled substance listed in schedule I. The company plans to... drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk manufacture cannabidiol as a synthetic...

  4. 77 FR 52368 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Austin Pharma, LLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... basic classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I... customers. In reference to drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk manufacture cannabidiol as...

  5. Associations of Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) with Lower Birth Weight: An Evaluation of Potential Confounding by Glomerular Filtration Rate Using a Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model (PBPK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verner, Marc-André; Loccisano, Anne E; Morken, Nils-Halvdan; Yoon, Miyoung; Wu, Huali; McDougall, Robin; Maisonet, Mildred; Marcus, Michele; Kishi, Reiko; Miyashita, Chihiro; Chen, Mei-Huei; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Andersen, Melvin E; Clewell, Harvey J; Longnecker, Matthew P

    2015-12-01

    Prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) has been associated with lower birth weight in epidemiologic studies. This association could be attributable to glomerular filtration rate (GFR), which is related to PFAS concentration and birth weight. We used a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of pregnancy to assess how much of the PFAS-birth weight association observed in epidemiologic studies might be attributable to GFR. We modified a PBPK model to reflect the association of GFR with birth weight (estimated from three studies of GFR and birth weight) and used it to simulate PFAS concentrations in maternal and cord plasma. The model was run 250,000 times, with variation in parameters, to simulate a population. Simulated data were analyzed to evaluate the association between PFAS levels and birth weight due to GFR. We compared simulated estimates with those from a meta-analysis of epidemiologic data. The reduction in birth weight for each 1-ng/mL increase in simulated cord plasma for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was 2.72 g (95% CI: -3.40, -2.04), and for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was 7.13 g (95% CI: -8.46, -5.80); results based on maternal plasma at term were similar. Results were sensitive to variations in PFAS level distributions and the strength of the GFR-birth weight association. In comparison, our meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies suggested that each 1-ng/mL increase in prenatal PFOS and PFOA levels was associated with 5.00 g (95% CI: -21.66, -7.78) and 14.72 g (95% CI: -8.92, -1.09) reductions in birth weight, respectively. Results of our simulations suggest that a substantial proportion of the association between prenatal PFAS and birth weight may be attributable to confounding by GFR and that confounding by GFR may be more important in studies with sample collection later in pregnancy.

  6. Longitudinal bulk acoustic mass sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hales, Jan Harry; Teva, Jordi; Boisen, Anja

    2009-01-01

    A polycrystalline silicon longitudinal bulk acoustic cantilever is fabricated and operated in air at 51 MHz. A mass sensitivity of 100 Hz/fg (1 fg=10(-15) g) is obtained from the preliminary experiments where a minute mass is deposited on the device by means of focused ion beam. The total noise...

  7. Bulk fields with brane terms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguila, F. del [Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos and Centro Andaluz de Fisica de Particulas Elementales (CAFPE), Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Perez-Victoria, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' G. Galilei' ' , Universita di Padova and INFN, Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua (Italy); Santiago, J. [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    In theories with branes, bulk fields get in general divergent corrections localized on these defects. Hence, the corresponding brane terms are renormalized and should be included in the effective theory from the very beginning. We review the phenomenology associated to brane kinetic terms for different spins and backgrounds, and point out that renormalization is required already at the classical level. (orig.)

  8. Translating Developmental Neuroscience to Substance Use Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Nathaniel R

    2015-06-01

    Several preventive interventions have demonstrated efficacy in reducing substance use. However, opportunities exist to further improve prevention approaches. The application of recent advances in developmental neuroscience can inform the design, implementation, and evaluation of substance use prevention programs. This paper first briefly describes the developmental integration of the prefrontal cortex with emotion and motivation centers of the brain, and the implications of this process for substance use vulnerability. Discussed next are specific examples of how developmental neuroscience can inform prevention timing, development, and evaluation. Contextual considerations are then suggested including a critical role for schools in substance misuse prevention. Finally, current theoretical and methodological challenges to the translation of developmental neuroscience to substance use prevention are discussed.

  9. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of terrestrial humic substances and their size fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piccolo, A. [Dipartimento di Scienze del Suolo, della Pianta e dell' Ambiente, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Via Universita 100, 80055, Portici (Italy); Spiteller, M. [Institute of Environmental Research (INFU), University of Dortmund, Otto-Hahn-Strasse 6, 44227, Dortmund (Germany)

    2003-11-01

    Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was used to evaluate the average molecular mass of terrestrial humic substances, such as humic (HA) and fulvic (FA) acids from a soil, and humic acid from a lignite (NDL). Their ESI mass spectra, by direct infusion, gave average molecular masses comparable to those previously obtained for aquatic humic materials. The soil HA and FA were further separated in size-fractions by preparative high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) and analyzed with ESI-MS by both direct infusion and a further on-line analytical HPSEC. Unexpectedly, their average molecular mass was only slightly less than for the bulk sample and, despite different nominal molecular size, did not substantially vary among size-fractions. The values increased significantly (up to around 1200 Da) after on-line analytical HPSEC for the HA bulk sample, at both pH 8 and 4, and for the HA size-fractions when pH was reduced from 8 to 4. It was noticed that HA size-fractions at pH 8 were separated by on-line HPSEC in further peaks showing average masses which progressively increased with elution volume. Furthermore, when the HA and NDL bulk samples were sequentially ultracentrifuged at increasing rotational speed, their supernatants showed mass values which were larger than bulk samples and increased with rotational speed. These variations in mass values indicate that the electrospray ionization is dependent on the composition of the humic molecular mixtures and increases when their heterogeneity is progressively reduced. It is suggested that the dominance of hydrophobic compounds in humic supramolecular associations may inhibit the electrospray ionization of hydrophilic components. Our results show that ESI-MS is reasonably applicable to humic substances only after an extensive reduction of their chemical complexity. (orig.)

  10. Effects of boundary conditions on the cleaning efficiency of riverbank filtration and artificial groundwater recharge systems regarding bulk parameters and trace pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storck, Florian R; Schmidt, Carsten K; Wülser, Richard; Brauch, Heinz-Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Drinking water is often produced from surface water by riverbank filtration (RBF) or artificial groundwater recharge (AGR). In this study, an AGR system was exemplarily investigated and results were compared with those of RBF systems, in which the effects of redox milieu, temperature and surface water discharge on the cleaning efficiency were evaluated. Besides bulk parameters such as DOC (dissolved organic carbon), organic trace pollutants including iodinated X-ray contrast media, personal care products, complexing agents, and pharmaceuticals were investigated. At all studied sites, levels of TOC (total organic carbon), DOC, AOX (adsorbable organic halides), SAC (spectral absorption coefficient at 254 nm), and turbidity were reduced significantly. DOC removal was stimulated at higher groundwater temperatures during AGR. Several substances were generally easily removable during both AGR and RBF, regardless of the site, season, discharge or redox regime. For some more refractory substances, however, removal efficiency turned out to be significantly influenced by redox conditions.

  11. Bulk density of an alfisol under cultivation systems in a long-term experiment evaluated with gamma ray computed tomography;Densidade de um planossolo sob sistemas de cultivo por meio da tomografia computadorizada de raios gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bamberg, Adilson Luis; Silva, Thiago Rech da, E-mail: adillbamberg@hotmail.co [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Agronomia Eliseu Maciel], E-mail: thiago_cccp@hotmail.com; Pauletto, Eloy Antonio; Pinto, Luiz Fernando Spinelli; Lima, Ana Claudia Rodrigues de, E-mail: pauletto@ufpel.edu.b [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Agronomia Eliseu Maciel. Dept. de Solos], E-mail: lfspin@ufpel.edu.b, E-mail: anacrlima@hotmail.co, E-mail: Gome, E-mail: Algenor da Silv, E-mail: algenor@cpact.embrapa.b [EMBRAPA, Pelotas, RS (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuaria Clima Temperado. Estacao Experimental Terras Baixas; Timm, Luis Carlos, E-mail: lctimm@ufpel.edu.b [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Agronomia Eliseu Maciel. Dept. de Engenharia Rural

    2009-09-15

    The sustainability of irrigated rice (Oryza sativa L.) in lowland soils is based on the use of crop rotation and succession, which are essential for the control of red and black rice. The effects on the soil properties deserve studies, particularly on soil compaction. The objective of this study was to identify compacted layers in an albaqualf under different cultivation and tillage systems, by evaluating the soil bulk density (Ds) with Gamma Ray Computed Tomography (TC). The analysis was carried out in a long-term experiment, from 1985 to 2004, at an experimental station of EMBRAPA Clima Temperado, Capao do Leao, RS, Brazil, in a random block design with seven treatments, with four replications (T1 - one year rice with conventional tillage followed by two years fallow; T2 - continuous rice under conventional tillage; T4 - rice and soybean (Glycine Max L.) rotation under conventional tillage; T5 - rice, soybean and corn (Zea maize L.) rotation under conventional tillage; T6 - rice under no-tillage in the summer in succession to rye-grass (Lolium multiflorum L.) in the winter; T7 - rice under no-tillage and soybean under conventional tillage rotation; T8 - control: uncultivated soil). The Gamma Ray Computed Tomography method did not identify compacted soil layers under no tillage rice in succession to rye-grass; two fallow years in the irrigated rice production system did not prevent the formation of a compacted layer at the soil surface; and in the rice, soybean and corn rotation under conventional tillage two compacted layers were identified (0.0 to 1.5 cm and 11 to 14 cm), indicating that they may restrict the agricultural production in this cultivation system on Albaqualf soils. (author)

  12. 77 FR 5847 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application Pursuant to Sec. 1301..., Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics Inc., 100 GBC Drive, Mail Stop 514, Newark, Delaware 19702, made application by renewal to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of...

  13. 76 FR 21917 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ... controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I The company plans to manufacture small quantities of marihuana derivatives for research purposes. In reference to drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk manufacture cannabidiol. In reference to drug code 7370...

  14. 75 FR 9614 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ... controlled substances listed in schedule I: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I The company plans to manufacture small quantities of marihuana derivatives for research purposes. In reference to drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk manufacture cannabidiol. In reference to...

  15. 75 FR 64744 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... controlled substances listed in schedule I: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I The company plans to manufacture small quantities of marihuana derivatives for research purposes. In reference to drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk manufacture cannabidiol. In reference to...

  16. Role of the antiferromagnetic bulk spins in exchange bias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuller, Ivan K. [Center for Advanced Nanoscience and Physics Department, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Morales, Rafael, E-mail: rafael.morales@ehu.es [Department of Chemical-Physics & BCMaterials, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, 48011 Bilbao (Spain); Batlle, Xavier [Departament Física Fonamental and Institut de Nanociència i Nanotecnologia, Universitat de Barcelona, c/ Martí i Franqués s/n, 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Nowak, Ulrich [Department of Physics, University of Konstanz, 78464 Konstanz (Germany); Güntherodt, Gernot [Physics Institute (IIA), RWTH Aachen University, Campus RWTH-Melaten, 52074 Aachen (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    This “Critical Focused Issue” presents a brief review of experiments and models which describe the origin of exchange bias in epitaxial or textured ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic bilayers. Evidence is presented which clearly indicates that inner, uncompensated, pinned moments in the bulk of the antiferromagnet (AFM) play a very important role in setting the magnitude of the exchange bias. A critical evaluation of the extensive literature in the field indicates that it is useful to think of this bulk, pinned uncompensated moments as a new type of a ferromagnet which has a low total moment, an ordering temperature given by the AFM Néel temperature, with parallel aligned moments randomly distributed on the regular AFM lattice. - Highlights: • We address the role of bulk antiferromagnetic spins in the exchange bias phenomenon. • Significant experiments on how bulk AFM spins determine exchange bias are highlighted. • We explain the model that accounts for experimental results.

  17. Toxicogenomics in vitro as an alternative tool for safety evaluation of petroleum substances and PAHs with regard to prenatal developmental toxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsitou, Polyxeni; Heneweer, Marjoke; Boogaard, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    The REACH legislation requires chemicals - including petroleum substances - that are put on the EU market in quantities greater than 1000 tonnes/year, to be tested for prenatal developmental toxicity. This will require large numbers of animals since prenatal development toxicity testing is

  18. Diagnostic Efficiency of DSM-IV Criteria for Borderline Personality Disorder: An Evaluation in Hispanic Men and Women with Substance Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Becker, Daniel F.; Anez, Luis Miguel; McGlashan, Thomas H.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined diagnostic efficiency of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV), criteria for borderline personality disorder (BPD). One hundred thirty monolingual Hispanic adults (90 men, 40 women) at an outpatient psychiatric and substance abuse clinic were assessed with the Spanish-Language Version of…

  19. Direct genotoxicity and mutagenicity of endodontic substances and materials as evaluated by two prokaryotic test systems Genotoxicidade e mutagenicidade diretas de substâncias e materiais endodônticos avaliadas por dois testes procariotas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Márcio Motta Gahyva

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Substances and materials used in endodontic therapy come into close contact with the periradicular tissues via apical foramen and foramina. Consequently, they should possess biocompatibility. There are currently few studies describing the genotoxic and mutagenic potentials of substances and materials used in endodontics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the direct genotoxic and mutagenic properties of several substances and materials used in different phases of the endodontic treatment. For this intent, two prokaryotic test systems were used: the SOS chromotest and the Ames test. No metabolization with S9 was investigated, since only the direct effects of the substances and materials were surveyed. Most of the substances and materials tested presented mild to moderate cytotoxicity and genotoxicity as revealed by the SOS chromotest. Formocresol was the only tested substance to present severe genotoxicity to the tester bacterial strains. However, no substance or material tested showed direct mutagenicity as revealed by the Ames test.Substâncias e materiais utilizados na terapia endodôntica entram em íntimo contato com os tecidos perirradiculares via forame apical e foraminas e, em decorrência disto, deveriam idealmente possuir as seguintes características: biocompatibilidade e ausência de mutagenicidade. Existem poucos estudos avaliando o potencial genotóxico e mutagênico de substâncias e materiais utilizados em Endodontia. Este estudo avaliou os efeitos citotóxicos, genotóxicos e mutagênicos diretos de várias substâncias e materiais utilizados em diferentes etapas do tratamento endodôntico. Para isto, dois sistemas procarióticos foram usados: o SOS chromotest e o teste de Ames. Metabolização com fração S9 não foi realizada, uma vez que tencionou-se avaliar os efeitos diretos das substâncias e materiais. Os resultados demonstraram que algumas substâncias e materiais foram citotóxicos e/ou genotóxicos no SOS

  20. Analysis of carprofen dosage forms and drug substance by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, A J; Del Mauro, M D; Sokoloff, H K; Casey, D L

    1984-09-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the analysis of carprofen in solid dosage forms and as the bulk drug substance was developed. The simple, accurate, reproducible, and stability-indicating method was shown to be applicable to drug substance and dosage form stability studies, as well as the quality control of carprofen dosage forms.

  1. Bulk density of small meteoroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikwaya, J.-B.; Campbell-Brown, M.; Brown, P. G.

    2011-06-01

    Aims: Here we report on precise metric and photometric observations of 107 optical meteors, which were simultaneously recorded at multiple stations using three different intensified video camera systems. The purpose is to estimate bulk meteoroid density, link small meteoroids to their parent bodies based on dynamical and physical density values expected for different small body populations, to better understand and explain the dynamical evolution of meteoroids after release from their parent bodies. Methods: The video systems used had image sizes ranging from 640 × 480 to 1360 × 1036 pixels, with pixel scales from 0.01° per pixel to 0.05° per pixel, and limiting meteor magnitudes ranging from Mv = +2.5 to +6.0. We find that 78% of our sample show noticeable deceleration, allowing more robust constraints to be placed on density estimates. The density of each meteoroid is estimated by simultaneously fitting the observed deceleration and lightcurve using a model based on thermal fragmentation, conservation of energy and momentum. The entire phase space of the model free parameters is explored for each event to find ranges of parameters which fit the observations within the measurement uncertainty. Results: (a) We have analysed our data by first associating each of our events with one of the five meteoroid classes. The average density of meteoroids whose orbits are asteroidal and chondritic (AC) is 4200 kg m-3 suggesting an asteroidal parentage, possibly related to the high-iron content population. Meteoroids with orbits belonging to Jupiter family comets (JFCs) have an average density of 3100 ± 300 kg m-3. This high density is found for all meteoroids with JFC-like orbits and supports the notion that the refractory material reported from the Stardust measurements of 81P/Wild 2 dust is common among the broader JFC population. This high density is also the average bulk density for the 4 meteoroids with orbits belonging to the Ecliptic shower-type class (ES) also

  2. Characteristics of low polymerization shrinkage flowable resin composites in newly-developed cavity base materials for bulk filling technique

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    NITTA, Keiko; NOMOTO, Rie; TSUBOTA, Yuji; TSUCHIKAWA, Masuji; HAYAKAWA, Tohru

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate polymerization shrinkage and other physical properties of newly-developed cavity base materials for bulk filling technique, with the brand name BULK BASE (BBS...

  3. Bulk Moisture and Salinity Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurge, Mark; Monje, Oscar; Prenger, Jessica; Catechis, John

    2013-01-01

    Measurement and feedback control of nutrient solutions in plant root zones is critical to the development of healthy plants in both terrestrial and reduced-gravity environments. In addition to the water content, the amount of fertilizer in the nutrient solution is important to plant health. This typically requires a separate set of sensors to accomplish. A combination bulk moisture and salinity sensor has been designed, built, and tested with different nutrient solutions in several substrates. The substrates include glass beads, a clay-like substrate, and a nutrient-enriched substrate with the presence of plant roots. By measuring two key parameters, the sensor is able to monitor both the volumetric water content and salinity of the nutrient solution in bulk media. Many commercially available moisture sensors are point sensors, making localized measurements over a small volume at the point of insertion. Consequently, they are more prone to suffer from interferences with air bubbles, contact area of media, and root growth. This makes it difficult to get an accurate representation of true moisture content and distribution in the bulk media. Additionally, a network of point sensors is required, increasing the cabling, data acquisition, and calibration requirements. measure the dielectric properties of a material in the annular space of the vessel. Because the pore water in the media often has high salinity, a method to measure the media moisture content and salinity simultaneously was devised. Characterization of the frequency response for capacitance and conductance across the electrodes was completed for 2-mm glass bead media, 1- to 2-mm Turface (a clay like media), and 1- to 2-mm fertilized Turface with the presence of root mass. These measurements were then used to find empirical relationships among capacitance (C), the dissipation factor (D), the volumetric water content, and the pore water salinity.

  4. Gold based bulk metallic glass

    OpenAIRE

    Schroers, Jan; Lohwongwatana, Boonrat; Johnson, William L.; Peker, Atakan

    2005-01-01

    Gold-based bulk metallic glass alloys based on Au-Cu-Si are introduced. The alloys exhibit a gold content comparable to 18-karat gold. They show very low liquidus temperature, large supercooled liquid region, and good processibility. The maximum casting thickness exceeds 5 mm in the best glassformer. Au49Ag5.5Pd2.3Cu26.9Si16.3 has a liquidus temperature of 644 K, a glass transition temperature of 401 K, and a supercooled liquid region of 58 K. The Vickers hardness of the alloys in this system...

  5. Formative evaluation of home visitors' role in addressing poor mental health, domestic violence, and substance abuse among low-income pregnant and parenting women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, S Darius; Parillo, Kathleen M; Jenkins, Carrie; Duggan, Anne K

    2005-09-01

    This research assessed home visitor effectiveness in communicating about and responding to poor mental health, domestic violence, and substance abuse among pregnant and parenting women home visited as part of a comprehensive family support strategy in seven urban communities. Cross-sectional studies were conducted with mothers (n = 189) actively engaged in home visitation programs and home visitors (n = 45). Maternal interviews assessed need for and receipt of mental health, domestic violence, and substance abuse services, and home visitor discussion of these risk areas. Home visitor surveys assessed perceived adequacy of training and personal effectiveness in addressing these risk areas. Over half of mothers needed mental health, domestic violence, or substance abuse services; however, only 27% of mothers in need of service received services. Most mothers reported having communicated with their home visitor about the three risk areas, but there were no differences in communication frequency based on whether services were needed. Most home visitors perceived themselves as effective in communicating about and responding to these risk factors but rated the training they had received in these areas as less than adequate. Home visitors could benefit from more intensive training in the formal assessment of risks and the protocols for communication about those risks with their clients. Home visitors could also receive support from and work in collaboration with professionals in addressing client risks. Further research on home visit content is needed to determine which strategies facilitate home visitors' ability to effectively communicate about and address client risks.

  6. Special Issue: Substance Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, Barbara S., Ed.; Washington, Craig S., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Presents ten articles about substance abuse: its effects, consequences, and strategies for intervention. Describes specific group therapy techniques and presents both a court service designed for assisting juveniles with drug/alcohol offenses, and a school-based substance abuse prevention program. Looks at strategies for counseling special…

  7. Substance Abuse Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzzolino, Robert

    This brochure outlines the substance abuse policy for students at the Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine (PCOM/Pennsylvania). Noted are the dangers of substance abuse during the stressful time of medical training and later for the doctor and clients during professional practice. The policy's five goals are briefly stated. Described next…

  8. EFFECT OF SUBSTANCE (1)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    countries including Ethiopia are alcohol, tobacco,. Substance use and associated problems are of current cannabis or marihuana and khat (2, 3). Reports showed global concern. It has become an epidemic in some parts that these substances are widely used among students of of the African region with adolescents being ...

  9. Interpersonal guilt and substance use in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Geoffrey W; Shilkret, Robert; Everett, Joyce E; Petry, Nancy M

    2015-01-01

    The college years are a time for developing independence and separating from one's family, and they are also a time in which substance use often escalates. This study examined the relationships between use of substances and interpersonal guilt, an emotion that can arise from feelings about separation among college students. In total, 1865 college students completed a survey evaluating substance use and interpersonal guilt. Regular users of alcohol, cigarettes, cannabis, and other illicit drugs were compared with nonregular users of each substance. Sequential linear regression, controlling for confounding variables, examined relationships between regular use of each substance and scores on a guilt index. Risky drinkers and daily smokers had significantly more interpersonal guilt than their peers who did not regularly use these substances. In contrast, regular cannabis users had significantly less guilt than nonregular cannabis users. These data suggest that substance use among college students may be related to interpersonal guilt and family separation issues, and this relationship may vary across substances.

  10. Handling of bulk solids theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Shamlou, P A

    1990-01-01

    Handling of Bulk Solids provides a comprehensive discussion of the field of solids flow and handling in the process industries. Presentation of the subject follows classical lines of separate discussions for each topic, so each chapter is self-contained and can be read on its own. Topics discussed include bulk solids flow and handling properties; pressure profiles in bulk solids storage vessels; the design of storage silos for reliable discharge of bulk materials; gravity flow of particulate materials from storage vessels; pneumatic transportation of bulk solids; and the hazards of solid-mater

  11. Pricing hazardous substance emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staring, Knut; Vennemo, Haakon

    1997-12-31

    This report discusses pricing of emissions to air of several harmful substances. It combines ranking indices for environmentally harmful substances with economic valuation data to yield price estimates. The ranking methods are discussed and a relative index established. Given the relative ranking of the substances, they all become valued by assigning a value to one of them, the `anchor` substance, for which lead is selected. Valuations are provided for 19 hazardous substances that are often subject to environmental regulations. They include dioxins, TBT, etc. The study concludes with a discussion of other categories of substances as well as uncertainties and possible refinements. When the valuations are related to CO, NOx, SOx and PM 10, the index system undervalues these pollutants as compared to other studies. The scope is limited to the outdoor environment and does not include global warming and eutrophication. The indices are based on toxicity and so do not apply to CO{sub 2} or other substances that are biologically harmless. The index values are not necessarily valid for all countries and should be considered as preliminary. 18 refs., 6 tabs.

  12. Age of onset of substance use and psychosocial problems among individuals with substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudel, Anju; Gautam, Sital

    2017-01-11

    Substance use is generally initiated in adolescence or early adulthood and is commonly associated with several physical, psychological, emotional and social problems. The objective of this study is to assess the age of onset of substance use differences on psychosocial problems among individuals with substance use disorders (SUDs) residing in drug rehabilitation centers. A descriptive cross sectional research design was carried out. Probability Proportional to Size (PPS) sampling technique was used to select the drug rehabilitation centers and all the respondents meeting the inclusion criteria of the selected seven rehabilitation centers were taken as a sample and comprised of 221 diagnosed individuals with SUDs. A semi structured self administered questionnaires were used to collect the information regarding demographic and substance use related characteristics. A standard tool Drug Use Screening Inventory-Revised (DUSI-R) was used to assess the psychosocial problems among individuals with SUDs. Data were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Multivariate general linear model (MANOVA and MANCOVA) was used to evaluate differences in psychosocial problems between early vs late onset substance users. The age of onset of substance use was significantly associated with psychosocial problems. The mean psychosocial problem scores were higher in early onset substance user (17 years or younger) than late onset substance user (18 years or higher) in various domains of DUSI-R even after controlling confounding factors. The two groups (early vs late) differed significantly in relation to age, gender, occupational status, current types of substance use, frequency of use, mode of substance use and relapse history. The study indicated that early onset substance users are at higher risk for psychosocial problems in various areas of life such as Behavior Pattern, Psychiatric disorder, Family system, Peer relationship, Leisure/Recreation and Work adjustment

  13. Process of health-related evaluation of environmental substances. Comparison of applied methods with the guideline for the implementation of REACH R.8; Verfahren umweltbezogener gesundheitlicher Stoffbewertungen. Vergleich angewandter Methoden mit der Leitlinie zur Umsetzung von REACH R.8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licht, Oliver; Mangelsdorf, Inge [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Toxikologie und Experimentelle Medizin ITEM, Hannover (Germany). Abteilung Chemikalienbewertung; Voss, Jens-Uwe

    2011-12-15

    The health-related evaluation of pollutants is a necessary basis for regulations in many sectors of environmental protection. It has been a concern of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature and Nuclear Safty (Dessau-Rosslau, Federal Republic of Germany) to documentate and to describe the methods and procedures for health assessment of substances in environmental media. The compilation provides a comparison of methods with each other and especially with the derivation method of 'derived no-effect levels' according to the EU legislation on chemicals. In addition to the substantial compliance of the derivation methodology, the comparison shows differences in some aspects of the derivation methodology.

  14. Organic carbon organic matter and bulk density relationships in arid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of their stocks requires knowledge about BD. BD is affected by factors such as water, aeration status, root penetrate, clay content, texture, land use and management, therefore it is a very important soil parameter. Key words: Soil organic carbon, soil organic matter, soil bulk density, arid-semi arid soils.

  15. Postharvest quality of carrot cultivars, packaged and in bulk | Gioppo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at evaluating the postharvest durability of different carrot cultivars stored in bulk. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four repetitions. The treatments were arranged in a 3 x 2 factorial design comprising three cultivars (Brasília RL and AF-1620 from SAKATA, and Alvorada from ...

  16. Estimating forest canopy bulk density using six indirect methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane; Elizabeth D. Reinhardt; Joe Scott; Kathy Gray; James Reardon

    2005-01-01

    Canopy bulk density (CBD) is an important crown characteristic needed to predict crown fire spread, yet it is difficult to measure in the field. Presented here is a comprehensive research effort to evaluate six indirect sampling techniques for estimating CBD. As reference data, detailed crown fuel biomass measurements were taken on each tree within fixed-area plots...

  17. Population-Level Evaluation of School-Based Interventions to Prevent Problem Substance Use among Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Adolescents in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Chiaki; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Homma, Yuko; Poon, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study examined whether students’ odds of recent substance use were lower in the presence of GSAs or explicit anti-homophobia policy that had been established at their school recently, or at least three years prior. Methods We analyzed a population-based sample of students in grades 8 through 12 from the British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey of 2008 (weighted N = 21,708). We used multi-nomial logistic regressions to test the hypothesized effects of GSAs and policies on substance use outcomes for LGB and 100% heterosexual students separately. Results Results indicated that GSAs and anti-homophobic bullying policies were linked to significantly lower odds of some but not all types of recent risky alcohol use, and past-year harms from alcohol or drug use, for LGB adolescents, but these were predominantly among girls, and almost exclusively in schools where the policies or GSAs had been established for at least three years. Conclusions Our findings suggest that these school-based strategies (GSAs and anti-homophobia policies) to reduce homophobia and foster school inclusion may be beneficial in reducing problem alcohol use among all students, not just sexual minority students. PMID:23850517

  18. Population-level evaluation of school-based interventions to prevent problem substance use among gay, lesbian and bisexual adolescents in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Chiaki; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Homma, Yuko; Poon, Colleen

    2013-12-01

    This study examined whether students' odds of recent substance use were lower in the presence of gay-straight alliances or explicit anti-homophobia policy that had been established at their school recently, or at least 3 years prior. We analyzed a population-based sample of students in grades 8 through 12 from the British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey of 2008 (weighted N=21,708). We used multi-nomial logistic regressions to test the hypothesized effects of gay-straight alliances and policies on substance use outcomes for lesbian, gay and bisexual students, and heterosexual students separately. Results indicated that gay-straight alliances and anti-homophobic bullying policies were linked to significantly lower odds of some but not all types of recent risky alcohol use, and past-year harms from alcohol or drug use, but almost exclusively in schools where the policies or gay-straight alliances had been established for at least 3 years; and among lesbian, gay and bisexual adolescents, only for girls. Our findings suggest that these school-based strategies (gay-straight alliances and anti-homophobia policies) to reduce homophobia and foster school inclusion may be beneficial in reducing problem alcohol use among all students, not just sexual minority students. © 2013.

  19. Effect of layer thickness on the elution of bulk-fill composite components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothmund, Lena; Reichl, Franz-Xaver; Hickel, Reinhard; Styllou, Panorea; Styllou, Marianthi; Kehe, Kai; Yang, Yang; Högg, Christof

    2017-01-01

    An increment layering technique in a thickness of 2mm or less has been the standard to sufficiently convert (co)monomers. Bulk fill resin composites were developed to accelerate the restoration process by enabling up to 4mm thick increments to be cured in a single step. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of layer thickness on the elution of components from bulk fill composites. The composites ELS Bulk fill, SDR Bulk fill and Venus Bulkfill were polymerized according to the instruction of the manufacturers. For each composite three groups with four samples each (n=4) were prepared: (1) samples with a layer thickness of 2mm; (2) samples with a layer thickness of 4mm and (3) samples with a layer thickness of 6mm. The samples were eluted in methanol and water for 24h and 7 d. The eluates were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A total of 11 different elutable substances have been identified from the investigated composites. Following methacrylates showed an increase of elution at a higher layer thickness: TEGDMA (SDR Bulk fill, Venus Bulk fill), EGDMA (Venus Bulk fill). There was no significant difference in the elution of HEMA regarding the layer thickness. The highest concentration of TEGDMA was 146μg/mL for SDR Bulk fill at a layer thickness of 6mm after 7 d in water. The highest HEMA concentration measured at 108μg/mL was detected in the methanol eluate of Venus Bulk fill after 7 d with a layer thickness of 6mm. A layer thickness of 4mm or more can lead to an increased elution of some bulk fill components, compared to the elution at a layer thickness of 2mm. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ozone depleting substances management inventory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Ivan Romero Rodríguez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: The care of the ozone layer is an activity that contributes to the planet's environmental stability. For this reason, the Montreal Protocol is created to control the emission of substances that deplete the ozone layer and reduce its production from an organizational point of view. However, it is also necessary to have control of those that are already circulating and those present in the equipment that cannot be replaced yet because of the context of the companies that keep it. Generally, the control mechanisms for classifying the type of substances, equipment and companies that own them, are carried in physical files, spreadsheets and text documents, which makes it difficult to control and manage the data stored in them. Method: The objective of this research is to computerize the process of control of substances that deplete the ozone layer. An evaluation and description of all process to manage Ozone-Depleting Substances (ODS, and its alternatives, is done. For computerization, the agile development methodology SCRUM is used, and for the technological solution tools and free open source technologies are used. Result: As a result of the research, a computer tool was developed that automates the process of control and management of substances that exhaust the ozone layer and its alternatives. Conclusions: The developed computer tool allows to control and manage the ozone-depleting substances and the equipment that use them. It also manages the substances that arise as alternatives to be used for the protection of the ozone layer.

  1. Supervision: Substance and Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellerman, Saul W.

    1976-01-01

    Argues that managerial style and substance are inextricably intertwined, illustrating the discussion with excerpts from an extensive study and job analysis of first-line supervisors in a food packaging plant. (JG)

  2. Substance use - inhalants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance abuse - inhalants; Drug abuse - inhalants; Drug use - inhalants; Glue - inhalants ... Gases, such as butane (lighter fluid), computer cleaning spray, ... fast-drying glue, felt-tip marker, gasoline, nail polish remover, ...

  3. Some aspects of ionic liquid blends and additives influencing bulk conductivity of commercial base paper

    OpenAIRE

    Javaid, Salman

    2013-01-01

    In this study, bulk conductivity of commercial base paper impregnated with different ionic liquids blends and additives, through bench coating was investigated. Bulk conductivity of base paper, ion conductive paper and surface sized ion conductive papers with and without the influence of calendering were evaluated at different concentrations of ionic liquids using at resistivity cell and four point probe technique. It was shown that bulk conductivity of base paper was increased by increasing ...

  4. Prevalence of substance use and correlates of multiple substance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of substance use and correlates of multiple substance use among school-going adolescents in Botswana. ... substance use were common in Botswana and as such require immediate programme intervention. Keywords: Smoking, drinking, drug prevalence, multiple substance use, adolescents, Botswana ...

  5. Stability analysis of bulk viscous anisotropic universe model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, M.; Mumtaz, Saadia

    2017-11-01

    This paper is devoted to study the phase space analysis of locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type I universe model by taking three different cases for bulk viscosity coefficient. An autonomous system of equations is established by defining normalized dimensionless variables. In order to investigate stability of the system, we evaluate corresponding critical points for different values of the parameters. In the case of bulk viscous matter and radiation, the parameters η=η0 and m≥0.8 show realistic evolution of the universe (prior radiation dominated era, conventional decelerated matter dominated state and ultimately accelerated expansion). We conclude that stable solutions exist in the presence of bulk viscosity with different choices of parameter m.

  6. Color of bulk-fill composite resin restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barutcigil, Çağatay; Barutcigil, Kubilay; Özarslan, Mehmet Mustafa; Dündar, Ayşe; Yilmaz, Burak

    2017-09-28

    To evaluate the color stability of novel bulk-fill composite resins. Color measurements of a nanohybrid composite resin (Z550) and 3 bulk-fill composite resins (BLK, AFX, XTF; n = 45) were performed before polymerization. After polymerization, color measurements were repeated and specimens were immersed in distilled water or red wine, or coffee. Color change [CIEDE2000 (ΔE00 )] was calculated after 24 h, 1 and 3 weeks. Data were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon tests (α = 0.05). Color changes observed after polymerization were significant for all groups. Color changes observed in distilled water for Z550 and AFX were significant. Color changes after stored in red wine and coffee were significant for all groups. Bulk-fill composite resin color change increased over time for all groups in red wine and coffee (P composite resin and bulk-fill composite resins. AFX had the highest color change in distilled water. The color of tested bulk-fill composite resins significantly changed after immersion in beverages and over time. Color change observed with the nanohybrid composite resin after 1 week was stable. Clinicians should keep in mind that tested composite resins may change color when exposed to water and significantly change color immediately after they are polymerized. In addition, the color change continues over time should the patient is a coffee and/or red wine consumer. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Coupling brane fields to bulk supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parameswaran, Susha L. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Theoretical Physics; Schmidt, Jonas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    In this note we present a simple, general prescription for coupling brane localized fields to bulk supergravity. We illustrate the procedure by considering 6D N=2 bulk supergravity on a 2D orbifold, with brane fields localized at the fixed points. The resulting action enjoys the full 6D N=2 symmetries in the bulk, and those of 4D N=1 supergravity at the brane positions. (orig.)

  8. Use of endogenous event-related potentials (ERP) in the evaluation of psychotropic substances: towards an ERP profile of drug effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münte, T F; Heinze, H J; Künkel, H

    1986-01-01

    Although endogenous event-related potentials (ERPs) have been successfully used in psychology, they have largely been neglected in the study of psychotropic substances. In the present paper an overview is given of the diversified concepts of ERP research and useful adaptations of these approaches to psychopharmacological questions are shown. In particular, the influence of drugs on the various stages of information processing and the description of individual differences in drug reactions seem suitable for the use of endogenous ERPs. Other possible uses of ERPs in psychopharmacological research are briefly discussed and the problems of the technique are pointed out. It is concluded that future research should aim at the recording of 'ERP profiles' of a drug, monitoring pharmacological effects on the different levels of cognitive functions by a set of selected paradigms.

  9. Trends in the quality and hygiene parameters of bulk Italian Mediterranean buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) milk: A three year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquini, Marina; Osimani, Andrea; Tavoletti, Stefano; Moreno, Itzhak; Clementi, Francesca; Trombetta, Maria Federica

    2017-09-29

    Buffalo milk represents an indispensable source of nourishment in many parts of the world and it is the second most consumed milk worldwide. Buffalo milk is actually used for the production of many dairy products such as pasteurized or concentrated milk, butter, yogurt, ice-cream, dehydrated milk products and cheeses. Due to its high nutritional value and the presence of natural bioactive substances, buffalo milk can also provide health benefits to consumers. In Italy, buffalo milk is used mainly for cheese making, mozzarella PDO (Protected Designation of Origin), which is a highly valued dairy product. This 3-year study, carried out between 2011 and 2013, was aimed at evaluating the quality of bulk Italian Mediterranean buffalo milk by monitoring physico-chemical parameters, somatic cell and total bacterial counts. A total of 51 samples of bulk milk were collected from one herd throughout the monitored period. Analysis of variance, carried out to test month, season and year main effects, highlighted remarkable seasonal effects for fat, protein and lactose content, as well as for predicted mozzarella cheese yield, and somatic cell counts. The calculation of simple correlations allowed the identification of positive correlations between estimated cheese yield and fat and protein content. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  10. Survey of transportation of liquid bulk chemicals in the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posti, A.; Hakkinen, J.

    2012-07-01

    This study is made as a part of the Chembaltic (Risks of Maritime Transportation of Chemicals in Baltic Sea) project which gathers information on the chemicals transported in the Baltic Sea. The purpose of this study is to provide an overview of handling volumes of liquid bulk chemicals (including liquefied gases) in the Baltic Sea ports and to find out what the most transported liquid bulk chemicals in the Baltic Sea are. Oil and oil products are also viewed in this study but only in a general level. Oils and oil products may also include chemical-related substances (e.g. certain bio-fuels which belong to MARPOL annex II category) in some cargo statistics. Chemicals in packaged form are excluded from the study. Most of the facts about the transport volumes of chemicals presented in this study are based on secondary written sources of Scandinavian, Russian, Baltic and international origin. Furthermore, statistical sources, academic journals, periodicals, newspapers and in later years also different homepages on the Internet have been used as sources of information. Chemical handling volumes in Finnish ports were examined in more detail by using a nationwide vessel traffic system called PortNet. Many previous studies have shown that the Baltic Sea ports are annually handling more than 11 million tonnes of liquid chemicals transported in bulk. Based on this study, it appears that the number may be even higher. The liquid bulk chemicals account for approximately 4 % of the total amount of liquid bulk cargoes handled in the Baltic Sea ports. Most of the liquid bulk chemicals are handled in Finnish and Swedish ports and their proportion of all liquid chemicals handled in the Baltic Sea is altogether over 50 %. The most handled chemicals in the Baltic Sea ports are methanol, sodium hydroxide solution, ammonia, sulphuric and phosphoric acid, pentanes, aromatic free solvents, xylenes, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and ethanol and ethanol solutions. All of these chemicals

  11. Pragmatic randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of a multi-component intervention to reduce substance use and risk-taking behaviour in adolescents involved in the criminal justice system: A trial protocol (RISKIT-CJS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simon Coulton; Kelly Stockdale; Catherine Marchand; Nadine Hendrie; Jenny Billings; Sadie Boniface; Steve Butler; Paolo Deluca; Colin Drummond; Dorothy Newbury-Birch; Tracy Pellatt-Higgins; Alex Stevens; Alex Sutherland; Ed Wilson

    2017-01-01

    .... The relationship between substance use and criminal activity is complex but there is clear evidence that the prevalence of problematic substance use is far higher among adolescent offenders than...

  12. Densidade de um planossolo sob sistemas de cultivo avaliada por meio da tomografia computadorizada de raios gama Bulk density of an alfisol under cultivation systems in a long-term experiment evaluated with gamma ray computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Luís Bamberg

    2009-10-01

    lowland soils is based on the use of crop rotation and succession, which are essential for the control of red and black rice. The effects on the soil properties deserve studies, particularly on soil compaction. The objective of this study was to identify compacted layers in an Albaqualf under different cultivation and tillage systems, by evaluating the soil bulk density (Ds with Gamma Ray Computed Tomography (TC. The analysis was carried out in a long-term experiment, from 1985 to 2004, at an experimental station of Embrapa Clima Temperado, Capão do Leão, RS, Brazil, in a random block design with seven treatments, with four replications (T1 - one year rice with conventional tillage followed by two years fallow; T2 - continuous rice under conventional tillage; T4 - rice and soybean (Glycine Max L. rotation under conventional tillage; T5 - rice, soybean and corn (Zea maize L. rotation under conventional tillage; T6 - rice under no-tillage in the summer in succession to rye-grass (Lolium multiflorum L. in the winter; T7 - rice under no-tillage and soybean under conventional tillage rotation; T8 - control: uncultivated soil. The Gamma Ray Computed Tomography method did not identify compacted soil layers under no-tillage rice in succession to rye-grass; two fallow years in the irrigated rice production system did not prevent the formation of a compacted layer at the soil surface; and in the rice, soybean and corn rotation under conventional tillage two compacted layers were identified (0.0 to 1.5 cm and 11 to 14 cm, indicating that they may restrict the agricultural production in this cultivation system on Albaqualf soils.

  13. Targets for bulk hydrogen analysis using thermal neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    Csikai, J; Buczko, C M

    2002-01-01

    The reflection property of substances can be characterized by the reflection cross-section of thermal neutrons, sigma subbeta. A combination of the targets with thin polyethylene foils allowed an estimation of the flux depression of thermal neutrons caused by a bulk sample containing highly absorbing elements or compounds. Some new and more accurate sigma subbeta values were determined by using the combined target arrangement. For the ratio, R of the reflection and the elastic scattering cross-sections of thermal neutrons, R=sigma subbeta/sigma sub E sub L a value of 0.60+-0.02 was found on the basis of the data obtained for a number of elements from H to Pb. Using this correlation factor, and the sigma sub E sub L values, the unknown sigma subbeta data can be deduced. The equivalent thicknesses, to polyethylene or hydrogen, of the different target materials were determined from the sigma subbeta values.

  14. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids) , 2016. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 90, Revision 1 (FGE.90Rev1): consideration of six substances evaluated by JECFA (68th meeting) structurally related to aliphatic, alicyclic and aromatic saturated and unsaturated tertiary alcohols, aromatic tertiary alcohols and their esters evaluated by EFSA in FGE.18Rev1 and FGE.75Rev1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Nørby, Karin Kristiane

    , as laid down in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The present consideration concerns a group of six aliphatic, acyclic and alicyclic terpenoid tertiary alcohols and structurally related substances evaluated by JECFA at the 68th meeting in 2007. This revision of FGE.90 is made because additional...

  15. [Psychotropic substances and driving].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordini, L; Riboldi, L; Ferrario, M M

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of psychotropic substances (alcohol, drugs, medication) has a major impact on complex activity performance such as driving. This issue is of relevant social interest for the high number of potentially involved subjects and the often fatale outcomes, and affects also occupational physicians because of the high number of people whose job is driving. There are still few studies trying to assess the presence of a possible association between increased risk of accident/injury at work and consumption of psychotropic substances and results are not always in agreement. In spite of such uncertainties and some Italian regulations still worth being amended by Legislator, the possible impact of consumption of psychoactive substances on driving is an issue to be still better defined for which occupational physicians may play a basic role in the field of prevention, clinics and rehabilitation.

  16. 27 CFR 20.191 - Bulk articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bulk articles. 20.191... Users of Specially Denatured Spirits Operations by Users § 20.191 Bulk articles. Users who convey articles in containers exceeding one gallon may provide the recipient with a photocopy of subpart G of this...

  17. Factors affecting bulk to total bacteria ratio in drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Soumya; Harrington, Gregory W; Xagoraraki, Irene; Goel, Ramesh

    2008-07-01

    Bacteria in drinking water systems can grow in bulk water and as biofilms attached to pipe walls, both causing regrowth problems in the distribution system. While studies have focused on evaluating the factors influencing the bacteria in bulk water and in biofilms separately, there is a need for understanding biofilm characteristics relative to the bulk water phase. The current study evaluated the effects of chlorine and residence time on the presence of culturable bacteria in biofilms relative to that in bulk water. The results showed that when no chlorine residual was present in the system, the median ratio of bulk to total bacteria was 0.81, indicating that 81% of the bacteria were present in bulk water, whereas only 19% were present in the biofilm. As chlorine concentration increased to 0.2, 0.5, and 0.7 mg/L, the median percentage of bacteria present in bulk water decreased to 37, 28, and 31, respectively. On the other hand, as the residence times increased to 8.2, 12, 24, and 48h, the median percentage of bacteria present in bulk water increased to 7, 37, 58, and 88, respectively, in the presence of a 0.2mg/L chlorine residual. The common notion that biofilms dominate the distribution system is not true under all conditions. These findings suggest that bulk water bacteria may dominate in portions of a distribution system that have a low chlorine residual.

  18. Changes in optical properties caused by UV-irradiation of aquatic humic substances from the amazon river basin: seasonal variability evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Zúñiga, Ursula Fabiola; Milori, Débora Marcondes Bastos Pereira; da Silva, Wilson Tadeu Lopes; Martin-Neto, Ladislau; Oliveira, Luciana Camargo; Rocha, Julio Cesar

    2008-03-15

    Aquatic humic substances (AHS) isolated from two characteristic seasons of the Negro river, winter and summer corresponding to floody and dry periods, were structurally characterized by 13C nuclear magnetic ressonance. Subsequently, AHS aqueous solutions were irradiated with a polychromatic lamp (290-475 nm) and monitored by its total organic carbon (TOC) content, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorbance, fluorescence, and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). As a result, a photobleaching up to 80% after irradiation of 48 h was observed. Conformational rearrangements and formation of low molecular complexity structures were formed during the irradiation, as deduced from the pH decrement and the fluorescence shifting to lower wavelengths. Additionally a significant mineralization with the formation of CO2, CO, and inorganic carbon compounds was registered, as assumed by TOC losses of up to 70%. The differences in photodegradation between samples expressed by photobleaching efficiency were enhanced in the summer sample and related to its elevated aromatic content. Aromatic structures are assumed to have high autosensitization capacity effects mediated by the free radical generation from quinone and phenolic moieties.

  19. Helping concerned family members of individuals with substance use and concurrent disorders: An evaluation of a family member-oriented treatment program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denomme, William James; Benhanoh, Orry

    2017-08-01

    There is a growing body of research demonstrating that families of individuals with substance use and concurrent disorders (SUCD) experience a wide range of biopsychosocial problems that significantly impedes their quality of life and health. However, there has been a relative lack of treatment programs primarily focused on improving the well-being and quality of life of these family members. The current study assessed the efficacy of such a program at reducing stress, increasing perceived social support from family and friends, and increasing general, dyadic, and self-rated family functioning within these concerned family members. A sample of 125 family members of individuals with SUCDs was recruited, of which 97 participated in the treatment program and 28 were used as the comparison group. Results indicated that the treatment program significantly reduced stress, increased perceived social support from family and friends, and increased general, dyadic and self-rated family functioning. A perceived personal benefits questionnaire demonstrated that participants had a better understanding of SUCDs, better coping capabilities in regard to emotional difficulties, adopted stronger coping methods, participated in more leisure activities, and improved their relationship with the individual with a SUCD. The results of the current study further demonstrate the need to implement more of these family-member oriented psycho-educational treatment programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Substance abuse in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Shelly F; Back, Sudie E; Lawson, Katie; Brady, Kathleen T

    2010-06-01

    Gender differences in substance use disorders (SUDs) and treatment outcomes for women with SUDs have been a focus of research in the last 15 years. This article reviews gender differences in the epidemiology of SUDs, highlighting the convergence of male/female prevalence ratios of SUDs in the last 20 years. The telescoping course of SUDs, recent research on the role of neuroactive gonadal steroid hormones in craving and relapse, and sex differences in stress reactivity and relapse to substance abuse are described. The role of co-occurring mood and anxiety, eating, and posttraumatic stress disorders is considered in the epidemiology, natural history, and treatment of women with SUDs. Women's use of alcohol, stimulants, opioids, cannabis, and nicotine are examined in terms of recent epidemiology, biologic and psychosocial effects, and treatment. Although women may be less likely to enter substance abuse treatment than men over the course of the lifetime, once they enter treatment, gender itself is not a predictor of treatment retention, completion, or outcome. Research on gender-specific treatments for women with SUDs and behavioral couples treatment has yielded promising results for substance abuse treatment outcomes in women. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Adolescent Substance Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Craig R.; DeBlassie, Richard R.

    1985-01-01

    Cummings (1979), citing evidence from the National Institute of Drug Abuse, reports that one of every eleven adult Americans suffers from a severe addictive problem. Drug addiction is epidemic among teenagers; one of every six teenagers suffers from a severe addictive problem. This paper focuses on adolescent drug/substance abuse. (Author)

  2. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 21, Revision 2 (FGE.21Rev2): Thiazoles, thiophene, thiazoline and thienyl derivatives from chemical group 29. Miscellaneous substances from chemical group 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 56 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 21, Revision 2, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. Seven...

  3. Use of thermal neutron reflection method for chemical analysis of bulk samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papp, A., E-mail: papppa@atomki.hu [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, (ATOMKI), 4001 Debrecen, Pf. 51 (Hungary); Csikai, J. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, (ATOMKI), 4001 Debrecen, Pf. 51 (Hungary); Institute of Experimental Physics, University Debrecen (IEP), 4010 Debrecen-10, Pf. 105 (Hungary)

    2014-09-11

    Microscopic, σ{sub β}, and macroscopic, Σ{sub β}, reflection cross-sections of thermal neutrons averaged over bulk samples as a function of thickness (z) are given. The σ{sub β} values are additive even for bulk samples in the z=0.5–8 cm interval and so the σ{sub βmol}(z) function could be given for hydrogenous substances, including some illicit drugs, explosives and hiding materials of ∼1000 cm{sup 3} dimensions. The calculated excess counts agree with the measured R(z) values. For the identification of concealed objects and chemical analysis of bulky samples, different neutron methods need to be used simultaneously. - Highlights: • Check the proposed analytical expression for the description of the flux. • Determination of the reflection cross-sections averaged over bulk samples. • Data rendered to estimate the excess counts for various materials.

  4. MICROHARDNESS OF BULK-FILL COMPOSITE MATERIALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelić, Katarina; Matić, Sanja; Marović, Danijela; Klarić, Eva; Tarle, Zrinka

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine microhardness of high- and low-viscosity bulk-fill composite resins and compare it with conventional composite materials. Four materials of high-viscosity were tested, including three bulk-fills: QuiXfi l (QF), x-tra fi l (XTF) and Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill (TEBCF), while nanohybrid composite GrandioSO (GSO) served as control. The other four were low-viscosity composites, three bulk-fill materials: Smart Dentin Replacement (SDR), Venus Bulk Fill (VBF) and x-tra base (XB), and conventional control material X-Flow (XF). Composite samples (n=5) were polymerized for 20 s with Bluephase G2 curing unit. Vickers hardness was used to determine microhardness of each material at the surface, and at 2-mm and 4-mm depth. GSO on average recorded significantly higher microhardness values than bulk-fill materials (pcomposite XF revealed similar microhardness values as SDR, but significantly lower than XB (pmaterials was lower than microhardness of the conventional composite material (GSO). Surface microhardness of low-viscosity materials was generally even lower. The microhardness of all tested materials at 4 mm was not different from their surface values. However, additional capping layer was a necessity for low-viscosity bulk-fill materials due to their low microhardness.

  5. A COMPREHENSIVE TECHNICAL REVIEW OF THE DEMONSTRATION BULK VITRIFICATION SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SCHAUS, P.S.

    2006-09-29

    In May 2006, CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc. chartered an Expert Review Panel (ERP) to review the current status of the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS). It is the consensus of the ERP that bulk vitrification is a technology that requires further development and evaluation to determine its potential for meeting the Hanford waste stabilization mission. No fatal flaws (issues that would jeopardize the overall DBVS mission that cannot be mitigated) were found, given the current state of the project. However, a number of technical issues were found that could significantly affect the project's ability to meet its overall mission as stated in the project ''Justification of Mission Need'' document, if not satisfactorily resolved. The ERP recognizes that the project has changed from an accelerated schedule demonstration project to a formally chartered project that must be in full compliance with DOE 413.3 requirements. The perspective of the ERP presented herein, is measured against the formally chartered project as stated in the approved Justification of Mission Need document. A justification of Mission Need document was approved in July 2006 which defined the objectives for the DBVS Project. In this document, DOE concluded that bulk vitrification is a viable technology that requires additional development to determine its potential applicability to treatment of a portion of the Hanford low activity waste. The DBVS mission need statement now includes the following primary objectives: (1) process approximately 190,000 gallons of Tank S-109 waste into fifty 100 metric ton boxes of vitrified product; (2) store and dispose of these boxes at Hanford's Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF); (3) evaluate the waste form characteristics; (4) gather pilot plant operability data, and (5) develop the overall life cycle system performance of bulk vitrification and produce a comparison of the bulk vitrification process to building a second LAW

  6. Geodesic bulk diagrams on the Bruhat-Tits tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubser, Steven S.; Parikh, Sarthak

    2017-09-01

    Geodesic bulk diagrams were recently shown to be the geometric objects which compute global conformal blocks. We show that this duality continues to hold in p -adic AdS /CFT , where the bulk is replaced by the Bruhat-Tits tree, an infinite regular graph with no cycles, and the boundary is described by p -adic numbers, rather than reals. We apply the duality to evaluate the four-point function of scalar operators of generic dimensions using tree-level bulk diagrams. Relative to standard results from the literature, we find intriguing similarities as well as significant simplifications. Notably, all derivatives disappear in the conformal block decomposition of the four-point function. On the other hand, numerical coefficients in the four-point function as well as the structure constants take surprisingly universal forms, applicable to both the reals and the p -adics when expressed in terms of local zeta functions. Finally, we present a minimal bulk action with nearest neighbor interactions on the Bruhat-Tits tree, which reproduces the two-, three-, and four-point functions of a free boundary theory.

  7. Effect of resin thickness on the microhardness and optical properties of bulk-fill resin composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Ha; Jung, Kyoung-Hwa; Son, Sung-Ae; Hur, Bock; Kwon, Yong-Hoon; Park, Jeong-Kil

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluated the effects of the resin thickness on the microhardness and optical properties of bulk-fill resin composites. Four bulk-fill (Venus Bulk Fill, Heraeus Kulzer; SDR, Dentsply Caulk; Tetric N-Ceram Bulk Fill, Ivoclar vivadent; SonicFill, Kerr) and two regular resin composites (Charisma flow, Heraeus Kulzer; Tetric N-Ceram, Ivoclar vivadent) were used. Sixty acrylic cylindrical molds were prepared for each thickness (2, 3 and 4 mm). The molds were divided into six groups for resin composites. The microhardness was measured on the top and bottom surfaces, and the colors were measured using Commission Internationale d'Eclairage (CIE) L (*) a (*) b (*) system. Color differences according to the thickness and translucency parameters and the correlations between the microhardness and translucency parameter were analyzed. The microhardness and color differences were analyzed by ANOVA and Scheffe's post hoc test, and a student t-test, respectively. The level of significance was set to α = 0.05. The microhardness decreased with increasing resin thickness. The bulk-fill resin composites showed a bottom/top hardness ratio of almost 80% or more in 4 mm thick specimens. The highest translucency parameter was observed in Venus Bulk Fill. All resin composites used in this study except for Venus Bulk Fill showed linear correlations between the microhardness and translucency parameter according to the thickness. Within the limitations of this study, the bulk-fill resin composites used in this study can be placed and cured properly in the 4 mm bulk.

  8. Illicit substance use among adolescents: a matrix of prospective predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraitis, J; Flay, B R; Miller, T Q; Torpy, E J; Greiner, B

    1998-11-01

    This paper reviews findings from 58 prospective studies of illicit substance use (ISU) among adolescents. It arranges 384 findings according to three types of influence (viz., social, attitudinal, and intrapersonal) and four levels of influence (viz., ultimate, distal, proximal, and immediate). The bulk of evidence reconfirms the importance of several predictors of ISU (e.g., intentions and prior substance-related behavior, friendship patterns and peer behaviors, absence of supportive parents, psychological temperament), reveals that a few variables thought to be well-established predictors may not be (e.g., parental behaviors, parental permissiveness, depression, low self-esteem), and uncovers several variables where findings were either sparse or inconsistent (e.g., the role of public policies concerning ISU, mass media depictions of ISU, certain parenting styles, affective states, perceptions of parental disapproval for ISU, and substance-specific refusal skills). Directions for future research are discussed.

  9. Diet and substance abuse recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or support groups on a regular basis. Take vitamin and mineral supplements if recommended by the health care provider. Alternative Names Substance use recovery and diet; Nutrition and substance use References Kowalchuk A, Reed BC. ...

  10. Substance abuse and first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. The Danish OPUS trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lone; Jeppesen, Pia; Thorup, Anne

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate whether integrated treatment (given by OPUS), in comparison with standard treatment, significantly reduced the number of patients with substance abuse and improved clinical and social outcome in the group of substance abusers after 2 years....

  11. A brief overview of bulk metallic glasses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mingwei Chen

    2011-01-01

      The discovery of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) has stimulated widespread research enthusiasm because of their technological promise for practical applications and scientific importance in understanding glass formation and glass phenomena...

  12. Initial findings from a mixed-methods evaluation of computer-assisted therapy for substance misuse in prisoners: Development, implementation and clinical outcomes from the ‘Breaking Free Health & Justice’ treatment and recovery programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Elison

    2015-08-01

    examine the processes of implementation of this novel digital health programme and the various barriers and facilitators of this, including the practicalities of providing an online treatment programme in an environment in which there are multiple, complex security requirements and considerations. Additionally, the acceptability of the BFHJ programme to prisoners who may have limited experience of using online technologies was also explored. Clinical outcomes in terms of the programmes impact on substance dependence and use were also examined. Methods: In line with the Medical Research Council (MRC guidelines around development and evaluation of complex interventions (Craig et al., 2008, a mixed-methods approach was used including a qualitative study to explore the implementation of this online treatment programme within the secure prison environment, and offender perceptions of this novel, technology-enhanced approach to substance misuse treatment. In addition, quantitative data derived from a battery of standardised psychometric assessments was used to examine clinical effectiveness of BFHJ. Results: In order to meet MoJ security requirements prior to implementation, the BFHJ programme had to be reviewed and ‘white listed’ by NOMS and their security partner XMA to ensure the programme met all security, quality and information assurance processes and standards. This was a lengthy and costly process that entailed freshly developing the programme in partnership with VC experts at NOMS to ensure the programme is ‘sterile’ i.e., there are no holes in the system or links to external websites – this comprised some aspects of the programme content and resulted in some clinical techniques requiring reworking e.g., removing Google maps from one section of the programme. Themes emerging from qualitative data around offenders experiences of BFHJ illustrate its potential for use in prison settings and also to provide, for the first time, genuine continuity of care during

  13. Prevalence and correlates of substance use among persons with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Few studies in Nigeria have investigated the relationship between psychiatric disorders and substance use. Yet, evidence worldwide suggests that substance related problems might be a major burden among persons with psychiatric disorders. One hundred and five persons with mental illness (105) were evaluated for ...

  14. Parental Influence on Substance Use in Adolescent Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Shakya, Holly B; Christakis, Nicholas; Fowler, James H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the relationship between the parenting style of an adolescent's peers' parents and an adolescent's substance use. Design Longitudinal survey. Setting Adolescents across the United States were interviewed at school and at home. Participants Nationally representative sample of adolescents in the United States. Main Exposure Authoritative vs neglectful parenting style of adolescent's parents and adolescent's friends' parents and adolescent substance use. ...

  15. Silicon bulk micromachined hybrid dimensional artifact.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claudet, Andre A.; Tran, Hy D.; Bauer, Todd Marks; Shilling, Katherine Meghan; Oliver, Andrew David

    2010-03-01

    A mesoscale dimensional artifact based on silicon bulk micromachining fabrication has been developed and manufactured with the intention of evaluating the artifact both on a high precision coordinate measuring machine (CMM) and video-probe based measuring systems. This hybrid artifact has features that can be located by both a touch probe and a video probe system with a k=2 uncertainty of 0.4 {micro}m, more than twice as good as a glass reference artifact. We also present evidence that this uncertainty could be lowered to as little as 50 nm (k=2). While video-probe based systems are commonly used to inspect mesoscale mechanical components, a video-probe system's certified accuracy is generally much worse than its repeatability. To solve this problem, an artifact has been developed which can be calibrated using a commercially available high-accuracy tactile system and then be used to calibrate typical production vision-based measurement systems. This allows for error mapping to a higher degree of accuracy than is possible with a glass reference artifact. Details of the designed features and manufacturing process of the hybrid dimensional artifact are given and a comparison of the designed features to the measured features of the manufactured artifact is presented and discussed. Measurement results from vision and touch probe systems are compared and evaluated to determine the capability of the manufactured artifact to serve as a calibration tool for video-probe systems. An uncertainty analysis for calibration of the artifact using a CMM is presented.

  16. PETROTOX: an aquatic toxicity model for petroleum substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Aaron D; Parkerton, Thomas F; McGrath, Joy A; Di Toro, Dominic M

    2012-11-01

    A spreadsheet model (PETROTOX) is described that predicts the aquatic toxicity of complex petroleum substances from petroleum substance composition. Substance composition is characterized by specifying mass fractions in constituent hydrocarbon blocks (HBs) based on available analytical information. The HBs are defined by their mass fractions within a defined carbon number range or boiling point interval. Physicochemical properties of the HBs are approximated by assigning representative hydrocarbons from a database of individual hydrocarbons with associated physicochemical properties. A three-phase fate model is used to simulate the distribution of each structure among the water-, air-, and oil-phase liquid in the laboratory test system. Toxicity is then computed based on the predicted aqueous concentrations and aquatic toxicity of each structure and the target lipid model. The toxicity of the complex substance is computed assuming additivity of the contribution of the individual assigned hydrocarbons. Model performance was evaluated by using direct comparisons with measured toxicity data for petroleum substances with sufficient analytical characterization to run the model. Indirect evaluations were made by comparing predicted toxicity distributions using analytical data on petroleum substances from different product categories with independent, empirical distributions of toxicity data available for the same categories. Predictions compared favorably with measured aquatic toxicity data across different petroleum substance categories. These findings demonstrate the utility of PETROTOX for assessing environmental hazards of petroleum substances given knowledge of substance composition. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  17. Welfare Reform and Addiction: A Priori Hypotheses, Post Hoc Explorations, and Assisted Sensemaking in Evaluating the Effects of Terminating Benefits for Chronic Substance Abusers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orwin, Robert G.; Campbell, Bernadette; Campbell, Kevin; Krupski, Antoinette

    2004-01-01

    The passage of the Contract with America Advancement Act terminated the Social Security Administrations Disability Insurance and Supplemental Security Income benefits for persons diagnosed with drug or alcohol addiction (also known as DA&A recipients), effective January 1, 1997. From an evaluation standpoint, the law created the opportunity…

  18. REVERSED-PHASE HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID-CHROMATOGRAPHY FOR EVALUATING THE LIPOPHILICITY OF PHARMACEUTICAL SUBSTANCES WITH IONIZATION UP TO LOG PAPP = 8

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BELSNER, K; PFEIFER, M; WILFFERT, B

    1993-01-01

    The RP-HPLC determination of drug lipophilicity was evaluated for its potency as a substitute for the determination of log P(Oct-W) values. The relation of log k(w) to log P(app) (= log P(Oct-W) at pH 7.4) is linear for a testset including protonable nitrogen bases. The method is reproducible on

  19. Boundary-bulk relation in topological orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Liang; Wen, Xiao-Gang; Zheng, Hao

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we study the relation between an anomaly-free n + 1D topological order, which are often called n + 1D topological order in physics literature, and its nD gapped boundary phases. We argue that the n + 1D bulk anomaly-free topological order for a given nD gapped boundary phase is unique. This uniqueness defines the notion of the "bulk" for a given gapped boundary phase. In this paper, we show that the n + 1D "bulk" phase is given by the "center" of the nD boundary phase. In other words, the geometric notion of the "bulk" corresponds precisely to the algebraic notion of the "center". We achieve this by first introducing the notion of a morphism between two (potentially anomalous) topological orders of the same dimension, then proving that the notion of the "bulk" satisfies the same universal property as that of the "center" of an algebra in mathematics, i.e. "bulk" = center". The entire argument does not require us to know the precise mathematical description of a (potentially anomalous) topological order. This result leads to concrete physical predictions.

  20. Toxic Substances Control Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Toxic Substances Control Act and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  1. Substance abuse and first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. The Danish OPUS trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lone; Jeppesen, Pia; Thorup, Anne

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate whether integrated treatment (given by OPUS), in comparison with standard treatment, significantly reduced the number of patients with substance abuse and improved clinical and social outcome in the group of substance abusers after 2 years.......To evaluate whether integrated treatment (given by OPUS), in comparison with standard treatment, significantly reduced the number of patients with substance abuse and improved clinical and social outcome in the group of substance abusers after 2 years....

  2. Avaliação da sensibilidade da cultura de leite do tanque para isolamento de agentes contagiosos da mastite bovina Evaluation of the sensitivity of bulk tank milk cultures for the isolation of contagious bovine mastitis pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida V. P. Brito

    1998-01-01

    ,7% para os quartos mamários. S. aureus foi isolado de todas três amostras do tanque dos rebanhos A, B e D. Somente a terceira amostra do rebanho C foi positiva para S. aureus. S agalactiae foi recuperado de todas as amostras do rebanho D, duas do rebanho C e de uma do rebanho A. Todas as amostras do tanque dos rebanhos A, B, C e D apresentaram contaminação com coliformes e somente uma das amostras coletadas na plataforma de recepção da indústria foi negativa para coliformes. Leveduras foram isoladas de 16 amostras coletadas na indústria e de todas amostras do tanque dos rebanhos A, B, C e D. Não foram isolados coliformes ou leveduras dos quartos mamários dos animais destes rebanhos, sugerindo que ocorreu contaminação do leite durante ou após a ordenha, provavelmente devido a deficiências nos processos de limpeza e higienização. A análise dos resultados das culturas do leite do tanque mostrou que o exame foi específico para detectar os patógenos contagiosos da mastite. A sensibilidade do teste aumentou quando se examinaram mais de duas amostras consecutivas.Samples of bulk tank milk from 33 herds were collected at the dairy processing plant and cultured, as a means of detecting specific (contagious bovine mastitis pathogens. Somatic cell counts (SCC were made on a Fossomatic 90. Two and three weekly consecutive samples were obtained from 13 and 12 herds, respectively. Only one sample was examined from eight herds. Three daily consecutive samples of bulk milk and individual quarter samples from all lactating cows from four herds (A, B, C and D were also examined. Milk from individual quarters were cultured on blood agar, while tank milk samples were cultured on TKT, Mannitol Salt, MacConkey agars and Sabouraud containing chloramphenicol. Staphylococcus aureus was recovered from 26 of the 33 herds sampled in the dairy processing plant. Nine of these samples also contained Streptococcus agalactiae. Nine herds had SCC above 500,000 ml-1. The remaining 23

  3. Preparation of Chemicals and Bulk Drug Substances for the U.S. Army Drug Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-12-01

    satisfactorily, the solubility characteristics of the product differed considerably from those of the p- methoxyphenyl compound. As a result, product...gave acetanilide 3 which was treated successively with sodium hydride and cyclopropanecarbonyl chloride to give the title propenamide 4. 2-43 (SVrN-3...by TLC, analysis by HPLC showed product purity to be in excess of 99%. Due to poor solubility characteristics, purification of the compound by column

  4. Preparation of Chemicals and Bulk Drug Substances for the U.S. Army Drug Development Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blumbergs, Peter

    1997-01-01

    .... Types of compounds delivered include substituted quinolines, pyridines, oxazolidines, N-arylpropenamides, carboxylic acids, disulfides, sulfones, thiols and thiol ethers, benzimidazoles, benzoxazoles...

  5. Sensory processing disorders among substance dependents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batya Engel-Yeger

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: (1 To compare sensory processing patterns as expressed in daily life between substance dependents and typical controls; (2 profile the prevalence of sensory processing disorders (SPD among substance dependents; and (3 examine gender effect on SPD within and between groups. Methods: Two hundred ninety people aged 19-64 participated in this study. The study group included 145 individuals who lived in the community or took part in an outpatient program because of addiction to drugs/alcohol and had been clean for over three months. The control group included 145 individuals who were not exposed to drugs or alcohol on a regular basis and did not suffer from addictive behavior. All participants filled a demographic questionnaire. Those who met the inclusion criteria completed the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile (AASP so that their sensory processing patterns could be assessed. Results: When comparing both groups, the study group showed greater sensory sensitivity and significantly higher prevalence of SPD. Significant group/gender interaction was found in regard to sensation seeking. Discussion: SPD among substance dependents may be expressed in daily life by either hypersensitivity or hyposensitivity. The behavioral outcomes reflected by the AASP support neurophysiological manifestations about SPD of substance dependents. The evaluation process of substance dependents should refer to their sensory processing abilities. In case SPD is diagnosed, Occupational Therapy and specific sensory–based interventions should be considered in order to fit the specific needs of individuals and enhance their performance, meaningful participation, and quality of life.

  6. Leibniz on Corporeal Substance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peeter Müürsepp

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available As an idealist, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz could not recognize anything corporeal as substantial. However, under the influence of Cartesian terminology, he devoted considerable effort to analysing the corporeal world, while not recognizing its real substantiality of course. Leibniz took the concept of substance from Plato, Aristotle and the scholastics, but developed it in two ways. It is a well-known fact that Leibniz introduced the term ‘corporeal substance’ in his letter to Antoine Arnauld dated to October 1687. In the letter, Leibniz understands an object of nature, like an animal or a plant, as ‘corporeal substance’. In the very same letter, Leibniz introduces the terms ‘indivisibility’ and ‘phenomenon’. Every corporeal substance can be real only as a unity, i.e. by being indivisible. Such entity must have a soul or at least an entelechy. In an opposite case, that entity would not be a real unity but just a phenomenon. No corporeal entity is indivisible and therefore not a substance. The paper aims at introducing Leibniz’s distinction between substances and phenomena and taking a closer look at the historicalphilosophical influences Leibniz experienced while developing his views of the corporeal world. Aristotle and Descartes will receive most of the attention, of course, as the concepts of ‘entelechy’ and ‘hylomorphism’ were introduced by the former, and the understanding of corporeal substance as determined by extension alone is part of the latter. The core of the original critique by Leibniz takes off from the properties of the continuum as well as the nature of shape, motion and extension. The case of continuum will receive special attention. It is analysed with the help of the novel approaches by Samuel Levey and Vassil Vidinsky. Leibniz was critical about our poor understanding of the continuum but his own interpretation of it was not fully consistent either. Although the new developments enable us to take a

  7. Substance use among lesbian, gay, and bisexual clients entering substance abuse treatment: Comparisons to heterosexual clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flentje, Annesa; Heck, Nicholas C; Sorensen, James L

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated whether sexual orientation-specific differences in substance use behaviors exist among adults entering substance abuse treatment. Admissions records (July 2007-December 2009) were examined for treatment programs in San Francisco, California receiving government funding. Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) persons (n = 1,441) were compared to heterosexual persons (n = 11,770) separately by sex, examining primary problem substance of abuse, route of administration, age of first use, and frequency of use prior to treatment. Regarding bisexual males, the only significant finding of note was greater prevalence of methamphetamine as the primary substance of abuse. When compared to heterosexual men, gay and bisexual men evidenced greater rates of primary problem methamphetamine use (44.5% and 21.8%, respectively, vs. 7.7%, adjusted odds ratios [ORs] 6.43 and 2.94), and there was lower primary heroin use among gay men (9.3% vs. 25.8%, OR 0.35). Among LGB individuals, race and ethnicity did not predict primary problem substance, except that among LGB men and women, a non-White race predicted cocaine use (OR 4.83 and 6.40, respectively), and among lesbian and bisexual women, Hispanic ethnicity predicted lower odds of primary cocaine use (OR 0.24). When compared to heterosexual men, gay men were more likely to smoke their primary problem substance (OR 1.61), first used this substance at an older age (M = 23.16 vs. M = 18.55, p substance fewer days prior to treatment (M = 8.75 vs. M = 11.41, p substance use for gay and bisexual men entering substance abuse treatment, but women did not evidence differences. Gay men evidenced unique factors that may reflect less severity of use when entering treatment including fewer days of use and a later age of initiation of their primary problem substances. The results underscore the importance of being sensitive to differences between gay, bisexual, and heterosexual males when considering substance use disorders. (Psyc

  8. Substance use in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Suzanne; Ordean, Alice; Kahan, Meldon

    2011-04-01

    To improve awareness and knowledge of problematic substance use in pregnancy and to provide evidence-based recommendations for the management of this challenging clinical issue for all health care providers. This guideline reviews the use of screening tools, general approach to care, and recommendations for clinical management of problematic substance use in pregnancy. Evidence-based recommendations for screening and management of problematic substance use during pregnancy and lactation. Medline, PubMed, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library were searched for articles published from 1950 using the following key words: substance-related disorders, mass screening, pregnancy complications, pregnancy, prenatal care, cocaine, cannabis, methadone, opioid, tobacco, nicotine, solvents, hallucinogens, and amphetamines. Results were initially restricted to systematic reviews and randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials. A subsequent search for observational studies was also conducted because there are few RCTs in this field of study. Articles were restricted to human studies published in English. Additional articles were located by hand searching through article reference lists. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline up to December 2009. Grey (unpublished) literature was also identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology assessment-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of evidence was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on the Preventive Health Care. Recommendations for practice were ranked according to the method described in that report (Table 1). This guideline is intended to increase the knowledge and comfort level of health care providers caring for pregnant women who have substance use disorders. Improved access to

  9. The Effect of Bulk Depth and Irradiation Time on the Surface Hardness and Degree of Cure of Bulk-Fill Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahat F

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: For many years, application of the composite restoration with a thickness less than 2 mm for achieving the minimum polymerization contraction and stress has been accepted as a principle. But through the recent development in dental material a group of resin based composites (RBCs called Bulk Fill is introduced whose producers claim the possibility of achieving a good restoration in bulks with depths of 4 or even 5 mm. Objectives: To evaluate the effect of irradiation times and bulk depths on the degree of cure (DC of a bulk fill composite and compare it with the universal type. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on two groups of dental RBCs including Tetric N Ceram Bulk Fill and Tetric N Ceram Universal. The composite samples were prepared in Teflon moulds with a diameter of 5 mm and height of 2, 4 and 6 mm. Then, half of the samples in each depth were cured from the upper side of the mould for 20s by LED light curing unit. The irradiation time for other specimens was 40s. After 24 hours of storage in distilled water, the microhardness of the top and bottom of the samples was measured using a Future Tech (Japan- Model FM 700 Vickers hardness testing machine. Data were analyzed statistically using the one and multi way ANOVAand Tukey’s test (p = 0.050. Results: The DC of Tetric N Ceram Bulk Fill in defined irradiation time and bulk depth was significantly more than the universal type (p < 0.001. Also, the DC of both composites studied was significantly (p < 0.001 reduced by increasing the bulk depths. Increasing the curing time from 20 to 40 seconds had a marginally significant effect (p ≤ 0.040 on the DC of both bulk fill and universal studied RBC samples. Conclusions: The DC of the investigated bulk fill composite was better than the universal type in all the irradiation times and bulk depths. The studied universal and bulk fill RBCs had an appropriate DC at the 2 and 4 mm bulk depths respectively and

  10. Microtensile bond strength of bulk-fill restorative composites to dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandava, Jyothi; Vegesna, Divya-Prasanna; Ravi, Ravichandra; Boddeda, Mohan-Rao; Uppalapati, Lakshman-Varma; Ghazanfaruddin, M D

    2017-08-01

    To facilitate the easier placement of direct resin composite in deeper cavities, bulk fill composites have been introduced. The Mechanical stability of fillings in stress bearing areas restored with bulk-fill resin composites is still open to question, since long term clinical studies are not available so far. Thus, the objective of the study was to evaluate and compare the microtensile bond strength of three bulk-fill restorative composites with a nanohybrid composite. Class I cavities were prepared on sixty extracted mandibular molars. Teeth were divided into 4 groups (n= 15 each) and in group I, the prepared cavities were restored with nanohybrid (Filtek Z250 XT) restorative composite in an incremental manner. In group II, III and IV, the bulk-fill composites (Filtek, Tetric EvoCeram, X-tra fil bulk-fill restoratives) were placed as a 4 mm single increment and light cured. The restored teeth were subjected to thermocycling and bond strength testing was done using instron testing machine. The mode of failure was assessed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The bond strength values obtained in megapascals (MPa) were subjected to statistical analysis, using SPSS/PC version 20 software.One-way ANOVA was used for groupwise comparison of the bond strength. Tukey's Post Hoc test was used for pairwise comparisons among the groups. The highest mean bond strength was achieved with Filtek bulk-fill restorative showing statistically significant difference with Tetric EvoCeram bulk-fill ( p composites. Adhesive failures are mostly observed with X-tra fil bulk fill composites, whereas mixed failures are more common with other bulk fill composites. Bulk-fill composites exhibited adequate bond strength to dentin and can be considered as restorative material of choice in posterior stress bearing areas. Key words: Bond strength, Bulk-fill restoratives, Configuration factor, Polymerization shrinkage.

  11. [Evaluation of the Family-based Familien stärken-Program for Preventing Substance Abuse and Behavior Problems in Youth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stappenbeck, J; Wendell, A; Thomasius, R

    2015-09-01

    The Strengthening Families Program was developed in the USA and is regarded as an effective family-based prevention programme for youth. The evaluation of an adapted German version was carried out as a randomised-controlled multicentre trial. 292 families were recruited, 150 followed the intervention, and 142 received a minimal intervention. Acceptance from families and programme facilitators was high. Results about the effectiveness will be reported as soon as follow-up assessments are completed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Bulk Vitrification Castable Refractory Block Protection Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Beck, Andrew E.; Brouns, Thomas M.; Caldwell, Dustin D.; Elliott, Michael L.; Matyas, Josef; Minister, Kevin BC; Schweiger, Michael J.; Strachan, Denis M.; Tinsley, Bronnie P.; Hollenberg, Glenn W.

    2005-05-01

    Bulk vitrification (BV) was selected for a pilot-scale test and demonstration facility for supplemental treatment to accelerate the cleanup of low-activity waste (LAW) at the Hanford U.S. DOE Site. During engineering-scale (ES) tests, a small fraction of radioactive Tc (and Re, its nonradioactive surrogate) were transferred out of the LAW glass feed and molten LAW glass, and deposited on the surface and within the pores of the castable refractory block (CRB). Laboratory experiments were undertaken to understand the mechanisms of the transport Tc/Re into the CRB during vitrification and to evaluate various means of CRB protection against the deposition of leachable Tc/Re. The tests used Re as a chemical surrogate for Tc. The tests with the baseline CRB showed that the molten LAW penetrates into CRB pores before it converts to glass, leaving deposits of sulfates and chlorides when the nitrate components decompose. Na2O from the LAW reacts with the CRB to create a durable glass phase that may contain Tc/Re. Limited data from a single CRB sample taken from an ES experiment indicate that, while a fraction of Tc/Re is present in the CRB in a readily leachable form, most of the Tc/Re deposited in the refractory is retained in the form of a durable glass phase. In addition, the molten salts from the LAW, mainly sulfates, chlorides, and nitrates, begin to evaporate from BV feeds at temperatures below 800 C and condense on solid surfaces at temperatures below 530 C. Three approaches aimed at reducing or preventing the deposition of soluble Tc/Re within the CRB were proposed: metal lining, sealing the CRB surface with a glaze, and lining the CRB with ceramic tiles. Metal liners were deemed unsuitable because evaluations showed that they can cause unacceptable distortions of the electric field in the BV system. Sodium silicate and a low-alkali borosilicate glaze were selected for testing. The glazes slowed down molten salt condensate penetration, but did little to reduce the

  13. An Evaluation of the Hoʻouna Pono Curriculum: A Pilot Study of Culturally Grounded Substance Abuse Prevention for Rural Hawaiian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Scott K.; Kulis, Stephen; Helm, Susana; Lauricella, Michela; Valdez, Jessica K.

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study evaluated the Hoʻouna Pono curriculum, which is a culturally grounded, school-based, drug prevention curriculum tailored to rural Native Hawaiian youth. The curriculum focuses on culturally relevant drug resistance skills training and is aligned with the State of Hawaiʻi academic standards. Six Hawaiʻi Island public middle/intermediate schools randomly assigned to intervention or treatment-as-usual comparison conditions (N = 213) were evaluated in this study. Paired sample t-tests separating intervention and comparison groups were conducted, as well as mixed models that adjusted for random effects (nesting) at the school level. Findings suggested that the curriculum was effective in maintaining youths’ use of culturally relevant drug resistance skills, as well as decreasing girls’ aggressive behaviors, at six-month follow up. Unanticipated findings also suggested areas for curricular improvement, including more emphasis on normative drug education. Implications for future research and development of the curriculum are discussed. PMID:27180710

  14. [Staphylococcus aureus in bulk milk samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benda, P; Vyletĕlová, M

    1995-07-01

    In the years 1993-1994 the occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus was investigated in bulk milk samples in the area where a Baby Food Factory at Zábreh in Moravia is located, and in Bruntál, Zlín and Policka districts. Evaluation of the results was based on ECC Directive 92/46, while the dynamics of S. aureus presence was followed for the whole period of observation as well as in the particular seasons. A total of 4,485 samples was processed. Out of these, 50.7% contained less than 100 CFU/ml of S. aureus, 41.4% contained 100-500 CFU/ml, 6.73% 500-2,000 CFU/ml and 1.14% contained more than 2,000 CFU/ml (Fig. 1). The samples were divided into three categories: private new-established farms, cooperative and State-owned enterprises in the area of the Zábĕh Factory and others (Zlín, Bruntál and Policka districts). There were highly significant differences in the content of staphylococci (P = 0.01%) between the three categories of samples. Ninety-eight percent of samples from private farms, 96% samples from the Zábreh Factory area and 85% of the other samples comply with the regulation EEC 92/64 (Tab. I) for raw cow's milk for the manufacture of products "made with raw milk" whose manufacturing process does not involve any heat treatment (Fig. 2). The occurrence of S. aureus in the Zábreh Factory area shows an expressive seasonal dynamics (P = 0.005%) with maximum values in winter months (December-March) and minimum values in summer months (July-October)-Fig. 3. The same relationship can be seen on more extensive data files for the particular producers (Fig. 4).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Direct observation of cerebrospinal fluid bulk flow in the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestre, Humberto; Tithof, Jeffrey; Thomas, John; Kelley, Douglas; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2017-11-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) serves a vital role in normal brain function. Its adequate flow and exchange with interstitial fluid through perivascular spaces (PVS) has been shown to be important in the clearance of toxic metabolites like amyloid- β, and its disturbance can cause severe neurological diseases. It has long been suspected that bulk flow may transport CSF, but limitations in imaging techniques have prevented direct observation of such flows in the PVS. In this talk, we describe a novel approach using high speed two photon laser scanning microscopy which has allowed for the first ever direct observation of CSF flow in the PVS of a mouse brain. By performing particle tracking velocimetry, we quantify the CSF bulk flow speeds and PVS geometry. This technique enables future studies of CSF flow disturbances on a new scale and will pave the way for evaluating the role of these fluxes in neurodegenerative disease. R01NS100366 (to M.N.).

  16. Role of the antiferromagnetic bulk spins in exchange bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, Ivan K.; Morales, Rafael; Batlle, Xavier; Nowak, Ulrich; Güntherodt, Gernot

    2016-10-01

    This "Critical Focused Issue" presents a brief review of experiments and models which describe the origin of exchange bias in epitaxial or textured ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic bilayers. Evidence is presented which clearly indicates that inner, uncompensated, pinned moments in the bulk of the antiferromagnet (AFM) play a very important role in setting the magnitude of the exchange bias. A critical evaluation of the extensive literature in the field indicates that it is useful to think of this bulk, pinned uncompensated moments as a new type of a ferromagnet which has a low total moment, an ordering temperature given by the AFM Néel temperature, with parallel aligned moments randomly distributed on the regular AFM lattice.

  17. Ion-water clusters, bulk medium effects, and ion hydration

    CERN Document Server

    Merchant, Safir; Dean, Kelsey R; Asthagiri, D

    2011-01-01

    Thermochemistry of gas-phase ion-water clusters together with estimates of the hydration free energy of the clusters and the water ligands are used to calculate the hydration free energy of the ion. Often the hydration calculations use a continuum model of the solvent. The primitive quasichemical approximation to the quasichemical theory provides a transparent framework to anchor such efforts. Here we evaluate the approximations inherent in the primitive quasichemical approach and elucidate the different roles of the bulk medium. We find that the bulk medium can stabilize configurations of the cluster that are usually not observed in the gas phase, while also simultaneously lowering the excess chemical potential of the ion. This effect is more pronounced for soft ions. Since the coordination number that minimizes the excess chemical potential of the ion is identified as the optimal or most probable coordination number, for such soft ions, the optimum cluster size and the hydration thermodynamics obtained with...

  18. Substance abuse precedes Internet addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Sik; Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Sun Mi; Renshaw, Perry F

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate possible overlapping substance abuse and internet addiction in a large, uniformly sampled population, ranging in age from 13 to 18 years. Participants (N=73,238) in the current study were drawn from the 6th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-V) for students from 400 middle schools and 400 high schools in 16 cities within South Korea. Of adolescent internet users, 85.2% were general users (GU), 11.9% were users with potential risk for internet addiction (PR), and 3.0% were users with high risk for internet addiction (HR). There was a difference in the number of students with alcohol drinking among the GU, PR, and HR groups (20.8% vs 23.1% vs 27.4%). There was a difference in the number of students who smoked among the GS, PR, and HR groups (11.7% vs 13.5% vs 20.4%). There was a difference in the number of students with drug use among the GU, PR, and HR groups (1.7% vs 2.0% vs 6.5%). After adjusting for sex, age, stress, depressed mood, and suicidal ideation, smoking may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=1.203, p=0.004). In addition, drug use may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=2.591, pinternet addiction have vulnerability for addictive behaviors, co-morbid substance abuse should be evaluated and, if found, treated in adolescents with internet addiction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Integration of bulk piezoelectric materials into microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktakka, Ethem Erkan

    Bulk piezoelectric ceramics, compared to deposited piezoelectric thin-films, provide greater electromechanical coupling and charge capacity, which are highly desirable in many MEMS applications. In this thesis, a technology platform is developed for wafer-level integration of bulk piezoelectric substrates on silicon, with a final film thickness of 5-100microm. The characterized processes include reliable low-temperature (200°C) AuIn diffusion bonding and parylene bonding of bulk-PZT on silicon, wafer-level lapping of bulk-PZT with high-uniformity (+/-0.5microm), and low-damage micro-machining of PZT films via dicing-saw patterning, laser ablation, and wet-etching. Preservation of ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties is confirmed with hysteresis and piezo-response measurements. The introduced technology offers higher material quality and unique advantages in fabrication flexibility over existing piezoelectric film deposition methods. In order to confirm the preserved bulk properties in the final film, diaphragm and cantilever beam actuators operating in the transverse-mode are designed, fabricated and tested. The diaphragm structure and electrode shapes/sizes are optimized for maximum deflection through finite-element simulations. During tests of fabricated devices, greater than 12microm PP displacement is obtained by actuation of a 1mm2 diaphragm at 111kHz with sleep-mode (simulated). Under lg vibration at 155Hz, a 70mF ultra-capacitor is charged from OV to 1.85V in 50 minutes.

  20. Development of superconductor bulk for superconductor bearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chan Joong; Jun, Byung Hyuk; Park, Soon Dong (and others)

    2008-08-15

    Current carrying capacity is one of the most important issues in the consideration of superconductor bulk materials for engineering applications. There are numerous applications of Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO) bulk superconductors e.g. magnetic levitation train, flywheel energy storage system, levitation transportation, lunar telescope, centrifugal device, magnetic shielding materials, bulk magnets etc. Accordingly, to obtain YBCO materials in the form of large, single crystals without weak-link problem is necessary. A top seeded melt growth (TSMG) process was used to fabricate single crystal YBCO bulk superconductors. The seeded and infiltration growth (IG) technique was also very promising method for the synthesis of large, single-grain YBCO bulk superconductors with good superconducting properties. 5 wt.% Ag doped Y211 green compacts were sintered at 900 .deg. C {approx} 1200 .deg.C and then a single crystal YBCO was fabricated by an infiltration method. A refinement and uniform distribution of the Y211 particles in the Y123 matrix were achieved by sintering the Ag-doped samples. This enhancement of the critical current density was ascribable to a fine dispersion of the Y211 particles, a low porosity and the presence of Ag particles. In addition, we have designed and manufactured large YBCO single domain with levitation force of 10-13 kg/cm{sup 2} using TSMG processing technique.

  1. Correlations Between Magnetic Flux and Levitation Force of HTS Bulk Above a Permanent Magnet Guideway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huan; Zheng, Jun; Zheng, Botian; Qian, Nan; Li, Haitao; Li, Jipeng; Deng, Zigang

    2017-10-01

    In order to clarify the correlations between magnetic flux and levitation force of the high-temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk, we measured the magnetic flux density on bottom and top surfaces of a bulk superconductor while vertically moving above a permanent magnet guideway (PMG). The levitation force of the bulk superconductor was measured simultaneously. In this study, the HTS bulk was moved down and up for three times between field-cooling position and working position above the PMG, followed by a relaxation measurement of 300 s at the minimum height position. During the whole processes, the magnetic flux density and levitation force of the bulk superconductor were recorded and collected by a multipoint magnetic field measurement platform and a self-developed maglev measurement system, respectively. The magnetic flux density on the bottom surface reflected the induced field in the superconductor bulk, while on the top, it reveals the penetrated magnetic flux. The results show that the magnetic flux density and levitation force of the bulk superconductor are in direct correlation from the viewpoint of inner supercurrent. In general, this work is instructive for understanding the connection of the magnetic flux density, the inner current density and the levitation behavior of HTS bulk employed in a maglev system. Meanwhile, this magnetic flux density measurement method has enriched present experimental evaluation methods of maglev system.

  2. Parental Substance Use Impairment, Parenting and Substance Use Disorder Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arria, Amelia M.; Mericle, Amy A.; Meyers, Kathleen; Winters, Ken C.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from a nationally representative sample, this study investigated substance use disorder (SUD) among respondents ages 15-54 as a function of their parents’ substance-related impairment and parents’ treatment history. Additionally, associations among maternal and paternal substance-related impairment, specific parenting behaviors, and the risk for SUD in the proband were examined. As expected, parental substance-related impairment was associated with SUD. Paternal treatment history was associated with a decreased risk for SUD in the proband, but did not appear to be associated with positive parenting practices. Results of post-hoc analyses suggested that parenting behaviors might operate differently to influence SUD risk in children where parents are affected by substance use problems compared to non-affected families. Future research is warranted to better understand the complex relationships among parental substance use, treatment, parenting behaviors, and SUD risk in offspring. Opportunities might exist within treatment settings to improve parenting skills. PMID:22112506

  3. Extraction of structural extracellular polymeric substances from aerobic granular sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felz, S.; Al-zuhairy, S.H.K.; Aarstad, Olav Andreas; van Loosdrecht, Mark C.M.; Lin, Y.

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate and develop methodologies for the extraction of gel-forming extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), EPS from aerobic granular sludge (AGS) was extracted using six different methods (centrifugation, sonication, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), formamide with sodium hydroxide

  4. Holographic bulk reconstruction with α' corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Shubho R.; Sarkar, Debajyoti

    2017-10-01

    We outline a holographic recipe to reconstruct α' corrections to anti-de Sitter (AdS) (quantum) gravity from an underlying CFT in the strictly planar limit (N →∞ ). Assuming that the boundary CFT can be solved in principle to all orders of the 't Hooft coupling λ , for scalar primary operators, the λ-1 expansion of the conformal dimensions can be mapped to higher curvature corrections of the dual bulk scalar field action. Furthermore, for the metric perturbations in the bulk, the AdS /CFT operator-field isomorphism forces these corrections to be of the Lovelock type. We demonstrate this by reconstructing the coefficient of the leading Lovelock correction, also known as the Gauss-Bonnet term in a bulk AdS gravity action using the expression of stress-tensor two-point function up to subleading order in λ-1.

  5. Bulk amorphous Mg-based alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryds, Nini

    2004-01-01

    and a low glass transition temperature. The alloys were prepared by using a relatively simple technique, i.e. rapid cooling of the melt in a copper wedge mould. The essential structural changes that are achieved by going from the amorphous to the crystalline state through the supercooled liquid state...... are discussed in this paper. On the basis of these measurements phase diagrams of the different systems were constructed. Finally, it is demonstrated that when pressing the bulk amorphous alloy onto a metallic dies at temperatures within the supercooled liquid region, the alloy faithfully replicates the surface......The present paper describes the preparation and properties of bulk amorphous quarternary Mg-based alloys and the influence of additional elements on the ability of the alloy to form bulk amorphous. The main goal is to find a Mg-based alloy system which shows both high strength to weight ratio...

  6. Orchestrating Bulk Data Movement in Grid Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazhkudai, SS

    2005-01-25

    Data Grids provide a convenient environment for researchers to manage and access massively distributed bulk data by addressing several system and transfer challenges inherent to these environments. This work addresses issues involved in the efficient selection and access of replicated data in Grid environments in the context of the Globus Toolkit{trademark}, building middleware that (1) selects datasets in highly replicated environments, enabling efficient scheduling of data transfer requests; (2) predicts transfer times of bulk wide-area data transfers using extensive statistical analysis; and (3) co-allocates bulk data transfer requests, enabling parallel downloads from mirrored sites. These efforts have demonstrated a decentralized data scheduling architecture, a set of forecasting tools that predict bandwidth availability within 15% error and co-allocation architecture, and heuristics that expedites data downloads by up to 2 times.

  7. 78 FR 64016 - Importer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration, Akorn, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... Administration (DEA) to be registered as an importer of Remifentanil (9739), a basic class of controlled substance listed in schedule II. The company plans to import Remifentanil in bulk for use in dosage form... and with United States obligations under international treaties, conventions, or protocols in effect...

  8. 78 FR 12103 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; GE Healthcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; GE Healthcare... August 31, 2012, GE Healthcare, 3350 North Ridge Avenue, Arlington Heights, Illinois 60004- 1412, made application by renewal to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of...

  9. 78 FR 64018 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; GE Healthcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; GE Healthcare... September 12, 2013, GE Healthcare, 3350 North Ridge Avenue, Arlington Heights, Illinois 60004- 1412, made application by renewal to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of...

  10. Thermal relics in cosmology with bulk viscosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iorio, A. [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Prague (Czech Republic); Lambiase, G. [Universita di Salerno, Dipartimento di Fisica E.R. Caianiello, Fisciano (Italy); INFN, Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy)

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we discuss some consequences of cosmological models in which the primordial cosmic matter is described by a relativistic imperfect fluid. The latter takes into account the dissipative effects (bulk viscosity) arising from different cooling rates of the fluid components in the expanding Universe. We discuss, in particular, the effects of the bulk viscosity on Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and on the thermal relic abundance of particles, looking at recent results of PAMELA experiment. The latter has determined an anomalous excess of positron events, which cannot be explained by conventional cosmology and particle physics. (orig.)

  11. Synthesis of Bulk Superconducting Magnesium Diboride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margie Olbinado

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Bulk polycrystalline superconducting magnesium diboride, MgB2, samples were successfully prepared via a one-step sintering program at 750°C, in pre Argon with a pressure of 1atm. Both electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements confirmed the superconductivity of the material at 39K, with a transition width of 5K. The polycrystalline nature, granular morphology, and composition of the sintered bulk material were confirmed using X-ray diffractometry (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX.

  12. Substance Use Stigma: Reliability and validity of a theory-based scale for substance-using populations*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Laramie R.; Earnshaw, Valerie A.; Copenhaver, Michael M.; Cunningham, Chinazo O.

    2016-01-01

    Background Substance use disorders consistently rank among the most stigmatized conditions worldwide. Thus, substance use stigma fosters health inequities among persons with substance use disorders and remains a key barrier to successful screening and treatment efforts. Current efforts to measure substance use stigma are limited. This study aims to advance measurement efforts by drawing on stigma theory to develop and evaluate the Substance Use Stigma Mechanisms Scale (SU-SMS). The SU-SMS was designed to capture enacted, anticipated, and internalized substance use stigma mechanisms among persons with current and past substance use disorders, and distinguish between key stigma sources most likely to impact this target population. Methods This study was a cross-sectional evaluation of the validity, reliability, and generalizability of the SU-SMS across two independent samples with diverse substance use and treatment histories. Results Findings support the structural and construct validity of the SU-SMS, suggesting the scale was able to capture enacted, anticipated, and internalized stigma as distinct stigma experiences. It also further differentiated between two distinct stigma sources (family and healthcare providers). Analysis of these mechanisms and psychosocial metrics suggests that the scale is also associated with other health-related outcomes. Furthermore, the SU-SMS demonstrated high levels of internal reliability and generalizability across two independent samples of persons with diverse substance use disorders and treatment histories. Conclusion The SU-SMS may serve as a valuable tool for better understanding the processes through which substance use stigma serves to undermine key health behaviors and outcomes among persons with substance use disorders. PMID:26972790

  13. Development and evaluation of the efficacy of a web-based ‘social norms’-intervention for the prevention and reduction of substance use in a cluster-controlled trial conducted at eight German universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie M. Helmer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research suggests that perceptions of peer substance use are associated with personal use. Specifically, overestimating use in the peer group is predictive of higher rates of personal substance use. ‘Social norms’-interventions are based on the premise that changing these misperceived social norms regarding substance use by providing feedback on actual norms is associated with a reduction in personal substance use. Studies conducted in the U.S.A. suggest that ‘social norms’-feedback is an effective strategy for reducing substance use among university students. It is unknown whether the effects of a ‘social norms’-feedback on substance use can be replicated in a sample of German university students. The objective of this article is to describe the study design and aims of the ‘INternet-based Social norms-Intervention for the prevention of substance use among Students’ (INSIST-study, a cluster-controlled trial examining the effects of a web-based ‘social norms’- intervention in students enrolled at four intervention universities with those enrolled at four delayed intervention control universities. The INSIST-study is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Health. Methods/Design Eight universities in four regions in Germany will take part in the study, four serving as intervention and four as delayed intervention control universities (randomly selected within a geographic region. Six hundred students will be recruited at each university and will be asked to complete a web-based survey assessing personal and perceived substance use/attitudes towards substance use at baseline. These data will be used to develop the web-based ‘social norms’-feedback tailored to gender and university. Three months after the baseline survey, students at intervention universities will receive the intervention. Two months after the launch of the intervention, students of all eight universities will be asked to

  14. Proposal of an analytical methodology to evaluate asbestos content into bulk samples by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; Una proposta di metodica analitica per la determinazione del contenuto di amianto in campioni massivi tramite spettroscopia infrarossa in trasformata di Fourier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cioffi, R. [Potenza Universita' della Basilicata, Potenza (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria e Fisica dell' Ambiente; De Stefano, L. [Area Ambiente Ricerca, Segrate, MI (Italy); Lavorgna, M.; Palumbo, M. [Naples Univ. Federico 2., Naples (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria dei Materiali e della Produzione

    2001-04-01

    The Italian act 257/92 imposes the identification and classification of asbestos containing materials in order to opportune programs of control and maintenance or of reclamation and disposal. In this work is presented a proposal of an analytical methodology to evaluate the content of asbestos in bulk samples by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The accuracy and the precision of the method have been verified on test mixtures with a known content of asbestos. [Italian] La legge 257/92 impone di individuare e classificare i materiali contenenti amianto per stabilire opportuni programmi di controllo e manutenzione o di bonifica e smaltimento. In questo lavoro e' presentata in dettaglio una proposta di metodica analitica per la determinazione del contenuto di amianto in campioni massivi tramite spettroscopia infrarossa in trasformata di Fourier (FT-IR). L'accuratezza e la precisione della metodica sono state verificate con miscele di prova a contenuto noto di amianto.

  15. Substance abuse and child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Kathryn

    2009-04-01

    Pediatricians and other medical providers caring for children need to be aware of the dynamics in the significant relationship between substance abuse and child maltreatment. A caregiver's use and abuse of alcohol, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, and other drugs place the child at risk in multiple ways. Members of the medical community need to understand these risks because the medical community plays a unique and important role in identifying and caring for these children. Substance abuse includes the abuse of legal drugs as well as the use of illegal drugs. The abuse of legal substances may be just as detrimental to parental functioning as abuse of illicit substances. Many substance abusers are also polysubstance users and the compounded effect of the abuse of multiple substances may be difficult to measure. Often other interrelated social features, such as untreated mental illness, trauma history, and domestic violence, affect these families.

  16. Elution of monomer from different bulk fill dental composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebe, Mehmet Ata; Cebe, Fatma; Cengiz, Mehmet Fatih; Cetin, Ali Rıza; Arpag, Osman Fatih; Ozturk, Bora

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the elution of Bis-GMA, TEGDMA, HEMA, and Bis-EMA monomers from six bulk fill composite resins over four different time periods, using HPLC. Six different composite resin materials were used in the present study: Tetric Evo Ceram Bulk Fill (Ivoclar Vivadent, Amherst, NY), X-tra Fill (VOCO, Cuxhaven, Germany), Sonic Fill (Kerr, Orange, CA, USA), Filtek Bulk Fill (3M ESPE Dental Product, St. Paul, MN), SDR (Dentsply, Konstanz, Germany), EQUIA (GC America INC, Alsip, IL). The samples (4mm thickness, 5mm diameter) were prepared and polymerized for 20s with a light emitted diode unit. After fabrication, each sample was immediately immersed in 75wt% ethanol/water solution used as extraction fluid and stored in the amber colored bottles at room temperature. Ethanol/water samples were taken (0.5mL) at predefined time intervals:10m (T1), 1h (T2), 24h (T3) and 30 days (T4). These samples were analyzed by HPLC. The obtained data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD at significance level of presins in all time periods and the amount of eluted monomers was increased with time. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cellulosic ethanol byproducts as a bulking agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.M. Considine; D. Coffin; J.Y. Zhu; D.H. Mann; X. Tang

    2017-01-01

    Financial enhancement of biomass value prior to pulping requires subsequent use of remaining materials; e.g., high value use of remaining stock material after cellulosic ethanol production would improve the economics for cellulosic ethanol. In this work, use of enzymatic hydrolysis residual solids (EHRS), a cellulosic ethanol byproduct, were investigated as a bulking...

  18. THE OPTIMIZATION OF PLUSH YARNS BULKING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VINEREANU Adam

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the experiments that were conducted on the installation of continuous bulking and thermofixing “SUPERBA” type TVP-2S for optimization of the plush yarns bulking process. There were considered plush yarns Nm 6.5/2, made of the fibrous blend of 50% indigenous wool sort 41 and 50% PES. In the first stage, it performs a thermal treatment with a turboprevaporizer at a temperature lower than thermofixing temperature, at atmospheric pressure, such that the plush yarns - deposed in a freely state on a belt conveyor - are uniformly bulking and contracting. It was followed the mathematical modeling procedure, working with a factorial program, rotatable central composite type, and two independent variables. After analyzing the parameters that have a direct influence on the bulking degree, there were selected the pre-vaporization temperature (coded x1,oC and the velocity of belt inside pre-vaporizer (coded x 2, m/min. As for the dependent variable, it was chosen the plush yarn diameter (coded y, mm. There were found the coordinates of the optimal point, and then this pair of values was verified in practice. These coordinates are: x1optim= 90oC and x 2optim= 6.5 m/min. The conclusion is that the goal was accomplished: it was obtained a good cover degree f or double-plush carpets by reducing the number of tufts per unit surface.

  19. Characteristics of bulk liquid undercooling and crystallization ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    157–161. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Characteristics of bulk liquid undercooling and crystallization behaviors of jet electrodeposition Ni–W–P alloy. J K YU. ∗. , Y H WANG, G Z XING, Q QIAO, B LIU, Z J CHU, C L LI and F YOU. State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University,.

  20. Characteristics of bulk liquid undercooling and crystallization ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 38; Issue 1. Characteristics of bulk liquid undercooling and crystallization behaviors of jet electrodeposition Ni–W–P alloy. J K Yu Y H Wang G Z Xing Q Qiao B Liu Z J Chu C L Li F You. Volume 38 Issue 1 February 2015 pp 157-161 ...

  1. Failure by fracture in bulk metal forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, C.M.A.; Alves, Luis M.; Nielsen, Chris Valentin

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits formability in bulk metal forming in the light of fundamental concepts of plasticity,ductile damage and crack opening modes. It proposes a new test to appraise the accuracy, reliability and validity of fracture loci associated with crack opening by tension and out-of-plane shear...

  2. Thermal bulk polymerization of cholesteryl acrylate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Visser, A.C.; de Groot, K.; Feijen, Jan; Bantjes, A.

    1971-01-01

    The thermal bulk polymerization of cholesteryl acrylate was carried out in the solid phase, the mesomorphic phase, and the liquid phase to study the effect of monomer ordering on polymerization rate and polymer properties. The rate increased with decreasing ordering (or enhanced mobility) of the

  3. A large-scale biomass bulk terminal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, M.R.

    2012-01-01

    This research explores the possibility of a large-scale bulk terminal in West Europe dedicated to handle solid and liquid biomass materials. Various issues regarding the conceptual design of such a terminal have been investigated and demonstrated in this research: the potential biomass materials

  4. Bulk metamaterials: Design, fabrication and characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Malureanu, Radu; Alabastri, Alessandro

    2009-01-01

    Bulk metamaterials claim a lot of attention worldwide. We report about our activity and advances in design, fabrication and characterization of metal-dielectric composites with three-dimensional lattices. The nomenclature of designs exhibiting negative index behaviour in the near infrared includes...

  5. Modelling ventilated bulk storage of agromaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grubben, N.L.M.; Keesman, K.J.

    2015-01-01

    Storage of season-dependent agro-materials is a key process in providing food, feed and biomass throughout the whole year. We review the state of the art in physical modelling, simulation and control of ventilated bulk storage facilities, and in particular the storage of potatoes, from a

  6. Teaching Advanced SQL Skills: Text Bulk Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, David; Hauser, Karina

    2007-01-01

    Studies show that advanced database skills are important for students to be prepared for today's highly competitive job market. A common task for database administrators is to insert a large amount of data into a database. This paper illustrates how an up-to-date, advanced database topic, namely bulk insert, can be incorporated into a database…

  7. Transformation kinetics for surface and bulk nucleation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa, Elena, E-mail: elena.villa@unimi.it [University of Milan, Department of Mathematics, via Saldini 50, 20133 Milano (Italy); Rios, Paulo R., E-mail: prrios@metal.eeimvr.uff.br [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Escola de Engenharia Industrial Metalurgica de Volta Redonda, Av. dos Trabalhadores 420, 27255-125 Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil)] [RWTH Aachen University, Institut fuer Metallkunde und Metallphysik, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    A rigorous mathematical approach based on the causal cone and stochastic geometry concepts is used to derive new exact expressions for transformation kinetics theory. General expressions for the mean volume density and the volume fraction are derived for both surface and bulk nucleation in a general Borel subset of R{sup 3}. In practice, probably any specimen shape of engineering interest is going to be a Borel set. An expression is also derived for the important case of polyhedral shape, in which surface nucleation may take place on the faces, edges and vertices of the polyhedron as well as within the bulk. Moreover, explicit expressions are given for surface and bulk nucleation for three specific shapes of engineering relevance: two parallel planes, an infinitely long cylinder and a sphere. Superposition is explained in detail and it permits the treatment of situations in which surface and bulk nucleation take place simultaneously. The new exact expressions presented here result in a significant increase in the number of exactly solvable cases available to formal kinetics.

  8. Scientific computing on bulk synchronous parallel architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisseling, R.H.; McColl, W.F.

    1993-01-01

    Bulk synchronous parallel architectures oer the prospect of achieving both scalable parallel performance and architecture independent parallel software. They provide a robust model on which to base the future development of general purpose parallel computing systems. In this paper, we theoretically

  9. Personality Disorders, Narcotics, and Stimulants; Relationship in Iranian Male Substance Dependents Population

    OpenAIRE

    Noorbakhsh, Simasadat; Zeinodini, Zahra; Khanjani, Zeynab; Poorsharifi, Hamid; Rajezi Esfahani, Sepideh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Individuals with certain personality disorders, especially the antisocial and borderline personality disorders, are more prone to substance use disorders. Objectives: Regarding the importance of substance use disorders, this study aimed to explore the association between personality disorders and types of used drugs (narcotics and stimulants) in Iranian male substance users. Patients and Methods: The current study was a correlation study. We evaluated 285 male substance users and ...

  10. Enhanced Case Management versus Substance Abuse Treatment Alone among Substance Abusers with Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striley, Catherine W.; Nattala, Prasanthi; Ben Abdallah, Arbi; Dennis, Michael L.; Cottler, Linda B.

    2013-01-01

    This pilot study evaluated the effectiveness of enhanced case management for substance abusers with comorbid major depression, which was an integrated approach to care. One hundred and 20 participants admitted to drug treatment who also met Computerized Diagnostic Interview Schedule criteria for major depression at baseline were randomized to…

  11. Soldiering with Substance: Substance and Steroid Use among Military Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    The military provides a unique social environment given the organization and culture of the institution. Understanding substance use by those inside this institution provides insight into both the population as well as substance use in general. Using data collected from in-depth interviews, this article explores the nature and extent of substance…

  12. Addiction and substance abuse in anesthesiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, Ethan O; Silverstein, Jeffrey H

    2008-11-01

    Despite substantial advances in our understanding of addiction and the technology and therapeutic approaches used to fight this disease, addiction still remains a major issue in the anesthesia workplace, and outcomes have not appreciably changed. Although alcoholism and other forms of impairment, such as addiction to other substances and mental illness, impact anesthesiologists at rates similar to those in other professions, as recently as 2005, the drug of choice for anesthesiologists entering treatment was still an opioid. There exists a considerable association between chemical dependence and other psychopathology, and successful treatment for addiction is less likely when comorbid psychopathology is not treated. Individuals under evaluation or treatment for substance abuse should have an evaluation with subsequent management of comorbid psychiatric conditions. Participation in self-help groups is still considered a vital component in the therapy of the impaired physician, along with regular monitoring if the anesthesiologist wishes to attempt reentry into clinical practice.

  13. Factors associated with substance use in adolescents with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Andrea P; Accurso, Erin C; Stiles-Shields, Colleen; Capra, Lauren; Labuschagne, Zandre; Karnik, Niranjan S; Le Grange, Daniel

    2014-08-01

    To examine the prevalence and potential risk factors associated with substance use in adolescents with eating disorders (EDs). This cross-sectional study included 290 adolescents, aged 12-18 years, who presented for an initial ED evaluation at The Eating Disorders Program at the University of Chicago Medicine between 2001 and 2012. Several factors including DSM-5 diagnosis, diagnostic scores, and demographic characteristics were examined. Multinomial logistic regression was used to test associations between several factors and patterns of drug use for alcohol, cannabis, tobacco, and any other substance. Lifetime prevalence of any substance use was found to be 24.6% in those with anorexia nervosa, 48.7% in bulimia nervosa (BN), and 28.6% in ED not otherwise specified. Regular substance use (monthly, daily, and bingeing behaviors) or a substance use disorder was found in 27.9% of all patients. Older age was the only factor associated with regular use of any substance in the final multinomial model. Older age and non-white race was associated with greater alcohol and cannabis use. Although binge-purge frequency and bulimia nervosa diagnosis were associated with regular substance use in bivariate analyses, gender, race, and age were more robustly associated with substance use in the final multinomial models. Co-morbid substance use in adolescents with EDs is an important issue. Interventions targeting high-risk groups reporting regular substance use or substance use disorders are needed. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Bulk sulfur (S) deposition in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Zhang, Xiuying; Wang, Shanqian; Zhang, Wuting; Lu, Xuehe

    2016-06-01

    A systematic dataset of an observation network on a national scale has been organized to investigate the spatial distribution of bulk sulfur (S) deposition (Sdep) throughout China during 2000-2013, representing by far the most detailed data set to track the bulk sulfur deposition throughout China since 2000. Such a dataset is needed for ecosystem studies and for developing emission control policies. Bulk Sdep values showed great variations, ranging from 2.17 to 70.55 kg ha-1 y-1, with an average of 22.99 kg ha-1 y-1. The average rate of bulk Sdep located in East Coastal region (35.97 kg ha-1 y-1), Middle Yangtze region (57.90 kg ha-1 y-1), Middle Yellow River region (23.42 kg ha-1 y-1), North Coastal region (42.19 kg ha-1 y-1), Northeast region (34.28 kg ha-1 y-1), South Coastal region (36.97 kg S ha-1 y-1), Southwest region (33.85 kg ha-1 y-1) was 4.50, 7.24, 2.93, 5.28, 4.29, 4.63 and 4.24 times than that in Northwest region (7.99 kg ha-1 y-1). Bulk Sdep over China was mainly from fossil fuel combustion (76.96%), biomass burning (7.64%), crust (6.22%), aged sea salt (5.48%) and agriculture (3.68%). A systematic observation network on a national scale should be established to conduct a long-term monitoring atmospheric Sdep (including wet and dry deposition), based on exiting ecological stations administrated by different departments in China.

  15. Substance abuse in older adults: policy issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Susan; Melillo, Karen Devereaux

    2011-12-01

    By 2020, it is projected that the number of older adults needing treatment for drug and alcohol addictions will increase dramatically. Although Medicare covers treatment for mental health issues, copayments can be prohibitive for those with lower incomes. The Positive Aging Act, an amendment to the Public Health Service Act, is a policy alternative that could address substance abuse in the older adult population by (a) demonstrating ways of integrating mental health services for older adults into primary care settings, and (b) supporting the establishment and maintenance of interdisciplinary geriatric mental health outreach teams in community settings where older adults reside or receive social services. Increasing funding to states to emphasize primary care provider education on the detection, evaluation, and treatment of substance abuse problems of older adults has the potential to better meet the substance abuse needs of this population. Educating primary care providers, including gerontological nurses, to recognize signs of substance abuse in this population and providing age-appropriate treatment options is critically important but will require funding beyond what is currently available. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Substance use disorders and employability among welfare recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzler, Scott; Schwartz, Bruce; Swanson, Arthur; Cahill, Rachel

    2010-11-01

    The 2006 welfare reform legislation (Deficit Reduction Act of 2005) imposed more stringent work requirements and defined the amount of time cash assistance recipients are allowed to be exempted from the work requirement because of substance use treatment. As there is little empirical literature on the employability of substance users, it is difficult to know whether it is realistic to expect individuals with substance use disorders to meet the increased work requirement. Based on a comprehensive evaluation of nearly 9,000 substance-misusing welfare recipients from 2001 to 2007, University Behavioral Associates (UBA) Comprehensive Services Model program in Bronx, New York, found that 60% of recipients were not exempted from the work requirement owing to substance misuse at the outset, and an additional 24% were found nonexempt after 3 months of intensive outpatient treatment coupled with case management, resulting in a total of 84% of the UBA clients not being exempted from the work requirement because of substance misuse by Day 90. UBA also found that 25% of substance-misusing clients were able to obtain employment, and most successfully retained those jobs over the course of 6 months. These findings are discussed in relation to the new law's work requirements and the issue of the employability of substance misusers. Finally, the value of case management in serving this hard-to-engage population is discussed.

  17. [Impacts of filamentous bulking on treatment effect and fouling characteristics of nonwoven bioreactor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Kuan; Xue, Gang; Gao, Pin; Wu, Fan

    2014-06-01

    Sludge flocs morphology and effluent qualities of nonwoven bioreactor during filamentous bulking and normal sludge status were compared. Flux variations, analysis of filtration resistances and extracellular polymer substances (EPS) contents during filamentous bulking and normal sludge status were studied. The results showed that the average particle size of bulking sludge flocs and normal sludge flocs was 448.6 microm and 234.8 microm, respectively. During the bulking sludge status, the average COD and NH4(+) -N removal rate and effluent turbidity were 90.1%, 93.1% and 1.33 NTU, respectively, compared with 91.4% , 97.0% and 0.99 NTU during the normal sludge status. Filamentous bulking had little impact on COD removal, while it inhibited NH4(+) -N removal to a certain extent and had slight impact on effluent turbidity. Average membrane flux decay rates during the bulking sludge status and the normal sludge status were 3.29 L x (m2 x h2)(-1) and 4.87 L x (m2 x h2)(-1), respectively, and the fouling during bulking sludge status was slighter. Reversible fouling was the main fouling when sludge was bulking while irreversible fouling was the main fouling when the sludge was in normal status. The prior occurrence of reversible fouling could reduce irreversible fouling therefore slow down the flux decline. Soluble microbial products (SMP) contents in normal sludge mixed liquid and bulking sludge mixed liquid were 21.369 mg x L(-1) and 10.182 mg x L(-1), respectively, protein/polysaccharide (P/C) was 0.370 and 0.497, respectively, SMP gross was related to fouling resistance and P/C was associated with reversible fouling proportion. The relation between loosely bound EPS in mixed liquid sludge and membrane fouling was similar to SMP. Sludge with more EPS could accumulate on membrane more easily, and the EPS that accumulated on membrane was mainly protein. EPS gross in mixed liquid sludge, EPS in membrane surface sludge and their P/C all had positive correlations to

  18. Development of a Bulk-Format System to Harvest, Handle, Store, and Deliver High-Tonnage Low-Moisture Switchgrass Feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Womac, Alvin [Genera Energy LLC, Vonore, TN (United States); Groothuis, Mitch [Genera Energy LLC, Vonore, TN (United States); Westover, Tyler [Genera Energy LLC, Vonore, TN (United States); Phanphanich, Manunya [Genera Energy LLC, Vonore, TN (United States); Webb, Erin [Genera Energy LLC, Vonore, TN (United States); Sokhansanj, Shahab [Genera Energy LLC, Vonore, TN (United States); Turhollow, Anthony [Genera Energy LLC, Vonore, TN (United States)

    2013-09-24

    This project evaluates and compares comprehensive feedstock logistics systems (FLS), where a FLS is defined to comprehensively span from biomass material standing in a field to conveyance of a uniform, industrial-milled product into the throat of a biomass conversion facility (BCF). Elements of the bulk-format FLS evaluated in this project include: field-standing switchgrass dry chopped into bulk format on the farm, hauled (either loose or bulk compacted) to storage, stored with confining overburden in a protective facility, reclaimed and conveyed to bulk-format discharge, bulk compacted into an ejector trailer, and conveyed as bulk flow into the BCF. In this FLS evaluation, bulk storage bins served as a controlled and sensored proxy for large commercial stacks protected from moisture with a membrane cover.

  19. Bulk-bronzied graphites for plasma-facing components in ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirooka, Y.; Conn, R.W.; Doerner, R.; Khandagle, M. (California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (USA). Inst. of Plasma and Fusion Research); Causey, R.; Wilson, K. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (USA)); Croessmann, D.; Whitley, J. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Holland, D.; Smolik, G. (Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (USA)); Matsuda, T.; Sogabe, T. (Toyo Tanso Co. Ltd., O

    1990-06-01

    Newly developed bulk-boronized graphites and boronized C-C composites with a total boron concentration ranging from 1 wt % to 30 wt % have been evaluated as plasma-facing component materials for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Bulk-boronized graphites have been bombarded with high-flux deuterium plasmas at temperatures between 200 and 1600{degree}C. Plasma interaction induced erosion of bulk-boronized graphites is observed to be a factor of 2--3 smaller than that of pyrolytic graphite, in regimes of physical sputtering, chemical sputtering and radiation enhanced sublimation. Postbombardment thermal desorption spectroscopy indicates that bulk-boronized graphites enhance recombinative desorption of deuterium, which leads to a suppression of the formation of deuterocarbon due to chemical sputtering. The tritium inventory in graphite has been found to decrease by an order of magnitude due to 10 wt % bulk-boronization at temperatures above 1000{degree}C. The critical heat flux to induce cracking for bulk-boronized graphites has been found to be essentially the same as that for non-boronized graphites. Also, 10 wt % bulk-boronization of graphite hinders air oxidation nearly completely at 800{degree}C and reduces the steam oxidation rate by a factor of 2--3 at around 1100 and 1350{degree}C. 38 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Substance Use and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Alcohol Tobacco Learn More Substance Use and Mental Health Drugs and Alcohol Did you know that addiction ... Plus – also en Español Treatment Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration (SAMHSA): SAMHSA’s National Helpline: 1-800-662- ...

  1. Adolescent Substance Abuse and Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Anju; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Natasha, M. Phil.

    2007-01-01

    Adolescent substance abuse is a major public health concern. It is associated with an increased incidence of various psychiatric disorders like depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and conduct disorders and the relationship between mental and behavioral disorders and the substance use problems seems…

  2. Perbandingan tingkat kebocoran mikro resin komposit bulk-filldengan teknik penumpatan oblique incremental dan bulk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas Puja Permana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Micoleakage comparison of bulk-fillcomposite beetwen oblique incremental and bulk placement techniques. Resin composite bulk-fill was a new type of resin composite that speed up application process of composite. The concept of bulk-fill composite allows composite to fill at a depth of 4 mm and minimizes polymerization shrinkage. This study aims to determine the comparison of placement techniques (oblique incremental/bulk of bulk-fill composite on microleakage in class I preparations. Thirty two human maxillary premolar were stored in distilled water, then Class I preparations were made with the depth of the cavity which was 4 mm (3 x 3 x 4. The teeth were randomly divided into two groups, group 1 uses oblique incremental placement technique and group 2 with bulk placement technique. Samples were stored in an incubator at a temperature of 37 °C for 24 hours, then it was thermocycled manually, 100 cycles at temperature between 5 °C and 55 °C. Microleakage was measured using a digital microscope with a 100 X magnification in millimeters using a microscope micrometer calibration ruler with 0,1 mm level of accuracy after immersion in 0,3% methylene blue and sectioned using separating disc. The result of this study revealed that in group 1 microleakage range was 1.0 mm - 2.7 mm with an average 1.625 mm, and in group 2 microleakage range was 3.6 mm - 4.0 mm with an average of 3.763 mm. The data were analyzed using T-test. The analysis showed a significant difference between two groups (p <0.05. The conclusion of this study was bulk-fill composite in class I cavities with oblique incremental placement technique produces less microleakage than bulk placement technique.   ABSTRAK Resin komposit bulk-fill adalah resin komposit yang dirancang untuk mempercepat proses aplikasi resin komposit. Konsep bulk-fill memungkinkan resin komposit ditumpat sekaligus 4 mm dan mengalami pengerutan polimerisasi minimal. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui efek teknik

  3. Medical marijuana users in substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Ronald

    2010-03-05

    The rise of authorized marijuana use in the U.S. means that many individuals are using cannabis as they concurrently engage in other forms of treatment, such as substance abuse counseling and psychotherapy. Clinical and legal decisions may be influenced by findings that suggest marijuana use during treatment serves as an obstacle to treatment success, compromises treatment integrity, or increases the prevalence or severity of relapse. In this paper, the author reviews the relationship between authorized marijuana use and substance abuse treatment utilizing data from a preliminary pilot study that, for the first time, uses a systematic methodology to collect data examining possible effects on treatment. Data from the California Outcomes Measurement System (CalOMS) were compared for medical (authorized) marijuana users and non-marijuana users who were admitted to a public substance abuse treatment program in California. Behavioral and social treatment outcomes recorded by clinical staff at discharge and reported to the California Department of Alcohol and Drug Programs were assessed for both groups, which included a sample of 18 reported medical marijuana users. While the findings described here are preliminary and very limited due to the small sample size, the study demonstrates that questions about the relationship between medical marijuana use and involvement in drug treatment can be systematically evaluated. In this small sample, cannabis use did not seem to compromise substance abuse treatment amongst the medical marijuana using group, who (based on these preliminary data) fared equal to or better than non-medical marijuana users in several important outcome categories (e.g., treatment completion, criminal justice involvement, medical concerns). This exploratory study suggests that medical marijuana is consistent with participation in other forms of drug treatment and may not adversely affect positive treatment outcomes. These findings call for more extensive

  4. Structural determinants in the bulk heterojunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acocella, Angela; Höfinger, Siegfried; Haunschmid, Ernst; Pop, Sergiu C; Narumi, Tetsu; Yasuoka, Kenji; Yasui, Masato; Zerbetto, Francesco

    2018-02-21

    Photovoltaics is one of the key areas in renewable energy research with remarkable progress made every year. Here we consider the case of a photoactive material and study its structural composition and the resulting consequences for the fundamental processes driving solar energy conversion. A multiscale approach is used to characterize essential molecular properties of the light-absorbing layer. A selection of bulk-representative pairs of donor/acceptor molecules is extracted from the molecular dynamics simulation of the bulk heterojunction and analyzed at increasing levels of detail. Significantly increased ground state energies together with an array of additional structural characteristics are identified that all point towards an auxiliary role of the material's structural organization in mediating charge-transfer and -separation. Mechanistic studies of the type presented here can provide important insights into fundamental principles governing solar energy conversion in next-generation photovoltaic devices.

  5. Bulk and shear viscosity in Hagedorn fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawfik, A.; Wahba, M. [Egyptian Center for Theoretical Physics (ECTP), MTI University, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo (Egypt)

    2010-11-15

    Assuming that the Hagedorn fluid composed of known particles and resonances with masses m <2 GeV obeys the first-order theory (Eckart) of relativistic fluid, we discuss the transport properties of QCD confined phase. Based on the relativistic kinetic theory formulated under the relaxation time approximation, expressions for bulk and shear viscosity in thermal medium of hadron resonances are derived. The relaxation time in the Hagedorn dynamical fluid exclusively takes into account the decay and eventually van der Waals processes. We comment on the in-medium thermal effects on bulk and shear viscosity and averaged relaxation time with and without the excluded-volume approach. As an application of these results, we suggest the dynamics of heavy-ion collisions, non-equilibrium thermodynamics and the cosmological models, which require thermo- and hydro-dynamics equations of state. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  6. Enhanced bulk polysilicon production using silicon tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafri, Ijaz; Chandra, Mohan; Zhang, Hui; Prasad, Vish; Reddy, Chandra; Amato-Wierda, Carmela; Landry, Marc; Ciszek, Ted

    2001-05-01

    A novel technique using silicon tubes for the production of bulk polysilicon via chemical vapor deposition is presented. Our experimental studies with a model reactor indicate that the polysilicon growth inside the silicon tube (15.3 g) exceeds that of the calculated polysilicon growth on silicon slim rods (4.3 g) over 55 h of deposition time. A computational model is also being developed to simulate the growth rates of the model reactor. Preliminary computational results from this model show a slightly asymmetric temperature distribution at the reactor center line with a 1000 sccm argon flow at 850°C reactor temperature. Both these experimental and computational modeling studies have identified key criteria for the prototype reactor being designed for bulk polysilicon growth.

  7. Microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Roy H.; El-Kady, Ihab F.; McCormick, Frederick; Fleming, James G.; Fleming, Carol

    2010-06-08

    A microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device comprises a periodic two-dimensional array of scatterers embedded within the matrix material membrane, wherein the scatterer material has a density and/or elastic constant that is different than the matrix material and wherein the periodicity of the array causes destructive interference of the acoustic wave within an acoustic bandgap. The membrane can be suspended above a substrate by an air or vacuum gap to provide acoustic isolation from the substrate. The device can be fabricated using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies. Such microfabricated bulk wave phononic bandgap devices are useful for acoustic isolation in the ultrasonic, VHF, or UHF regime (i.e., frequencies of order 1 MHz to 10 GHz and higher, and lattice constants of order 100 .mu.m or less).

  8. Multilayer Integrated Film Bulk Acoustic Resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yafei

    2013-01-01

    Multilayer Integrated Film Bulk Acoustic Resonators mainly introduces the theory, design, fabrication technology and application of a recently developed new type of device, multilayer integrated film bulk acoustic resonators, at the micro and nano scale involving microelectronic devices, integrated circuits, optical devices, sensors and actuators, acoustic resonators, micro-nano manufacturing, multilayer integration, device theory and design principles, etc. These devices can work at very high frequencies by using the newly developed theory, design, and fabrication technology of nano and micro devices. Readers in fields of IC, electronic devices, sensors, materials, and films etc. will benefit from this book by learning the detailed fundamentals and potential applications of these advanced devices. Prof. Yafei Zhang is the director of the Ministry of Education’s Key Laboratory for Thin Films and Microfabrication Technology, PRC; Dr. Da Chen was a PhD student in Prof. Yafei Zhang’s research group.

  9. A large-scale biomass bulk terminal

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, M.R.

    2012-01-01

    This research explores the possibility of a large-scale bulk terminal in West Europe dedicated to handle solid and liquid biomass materials. Various issues regarding the conceptual design of such a terminal have been investigated and demonstrated in this research: the potential biomass materials that will be the major international trade flows in the future, the characteristics of these potential biomass materials, the interaction between the material properties and terminal equipment, the pe...

  10. Raman characterization of bulk ferromagnetic nanostructured graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardo, Helena, E-mail: hpardo@fq.edu.uy [Centro NanoMat, Polo Tecnologico de Pando, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Cno. Aparicio Saravia s/n, 91000, Pando, Canelones (Uruguay); Crystallography, Solid State and Materials Laboratory (Cryssmat-Lab), DETEMA, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Gral. Flores 2124, P.O. Box 1157, Montevideo (Uruguay); Divine Khan, Ngwashi [Mantfort University, Leicester (United Kingdom); Faccio, Ricardo [Centro NanoMat, Polo Tecnologico de Pando, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Cno. Aparicio Saravia s/n, 91000, Pando, Canelones (Uruguay); Crystallography, Solid State and Materials Laboratory (Cryssmat-Lab), DETEMA, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Gral. Flores 2124, P.O. Box 1157, Montevideo (Uruguay); Araujo-Moreira, F.M. [Grupo de Materiais e Dispositivos-CMDMC, Departamento de Fisica e Engenharia Fisica, UFSCar, Caixa Postal 676, 13565-905, Sao Carlos SP (Brazil); Fernandez-Werner, Luciana [Centro NanoMat, Polo Tecnologico de Pando, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Cno. Aparicio Saravia s/n, 91000, Pando, Canelones (Uruguay); Crystallography, Solid State and Materials Laboratory (Cryssmat-Lab), DETEMA, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Gral. Flores 2124, P.O. Box 1157, Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2012-08-15

    Raman spectroscopy was used to characterize bulk ferromagnetic graphite samples prepared by controlled oxidation of commercial pristine graphite powder. The G:D band intensity ratio, the shape and position of the 2D band and the presence of a band around 2950 cm{sup -1} showed a high degree of disorder in the modified graphite sample, with a significant presence of exposed edges of graphitic planes as well as a high degree of attached hydrogen atoms.

  11. Depleted Bulk Heterojunction Colloidal Quantum Dot Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Barkhouse, D. Aaron R.

    2011-05-26

    The first solution-processed depleted bulk heterojunction colloidal quantum dot solar cells are presented. The architecture allows for high absorption with full depletion, thereby breaking the photon absorption/carrier extraction compromise inherent in planar devices. A record power conversion of 5.5% under simulated AM 1.5 illumination conditions is reported. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Longitudinal bulk a coustic mass sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hales, Jan Harry; Teva, Jordi; Boisen, Anja

    2009-01-01

    Design, fabrication and characterization, in terms of mass sensitivity, is presented for a polycrystalline silicon longitudinal bulk acoustic cantilever. The device is operated in air at 51 MHz, resulting in a mass sensitivity of 100 HZ/fg (1 fg = 10{su−15 g). The initial characterization...... is conducted by depositing a minute mass by means of focused ion beam. The total noise in the currently applied measurement system allows for a mass resolution of 0.4 fg in air....

  13. Scaling Bulk Data Analysis with Mapreduce

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Writing Bulk_Extractor MapReduce 101 List of References 105 viii Initial Distribution List 113 ix THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK x List of Figures...dedicated Experts -Formal definition presented -Large technology growth
 -Everyone has email, cell phones, networks Adolescence
 -Growth in Academics ...period is where we see those requirements come to fruition with an explosive growth into the academic community. This period marks a point where research

  14. An Extended Hardness Limit in Bulk Nanoceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    to fabricate bulk, fully dense and high-purity nanocrystalline ceramics with unprecedentedly small nanometer- sized grains. Using magnesium aluminate ...nanocrystalline ceramic sintered at 2 GPa and 795 C. The diffraction peaks correspond to stoichiometric magnesium aluminate [42] and a nickel ring that holds...is found to be 3.6005 ± 0.0079 g cm3, which is equal to that of stoichiometric magnesium aluminate [43] and reveals that the produced ceramics are

  15. Environmental risks of substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, G. [Gottingen Universitat, Institute for Soil Science and Forest Nutrition, Busgenweg 2 (Germany); Lammel, G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Meteorologisches Inst

    1998-07-01

    Many chemicals, natural and man-made, are progressing towards critical concentrations in environmental compartments (the atmosphere, soils, surface and groundwater bodies). In an early stage, system changes are small and no effects occur. Sudden mobilization and harmful effects can be triggered by exhausted buffering systems (e.g. acidification of soils with little and decreasing cation exchange capacities under the influence of acid deposition), by small changes in environmental conditions (e.g. imbalances in heterogenous stratospheric chemistry like in the case of the famous 'ozone hole'; 'chemical time bombs' set free from immobilisation in soils; or by particularly vulnerable states of organisms (e.g. tetra-genic and mutagenic action). Nonlinearity is not an exception but an inherent property of environmental systems which comprise many individual processes and coupled subsystems. In the following we highlight risks related to the anthropogenic perturbation of the nitrogen and sulfur cycles and those coming the release of xenobiotics into the environment. Large scale emissions of natural substances. Potential destabilization of forest ecosystems by nitrogen fertilization and acid deposition. (authors)

  16. Rat animal model for preclinical testing of microparticle urethral bulking agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann-Gow, Travis K; Blaivas, Jerry G; King, Benjamin J; El-Ghannam, Ahmed; Knabe, Christine; Lam, Michael K; Kida, Masatoshi; Sikavi, Cameron S; Plante, Mark K; Krhut, Jan; Zvara, Peter

    2015-04-01

    To develop an economic, practical and readily available animal model for preclinical testing of urethral bulking therapies, as well as to establish feasible experimental methods that allow for complete analysis of hard microparticle bulking agents. Alumina ceramic beads suspended in hyaluronic acid were injected into the proximal urethra of 15 female rats under an operating microscope. We assessed overall lower urinary tract function, bulking material intraurethral integrity and local host tissue response over time. Microphotographs were taken during injection and again 6 months postoperatively, before urethral harvest. Urinary flow rate and voiding frequency were assessed before and after injection. At 6 months, the urethra was removed and embedded in resin. Hard tissue sections were cut using a sawing microtome, and processed for histological analysis using scanning electron microscopy, light microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Microphotographs of the urethra showed complete volume retention of the bulking agent at 6 months. There was no significant difference between average urinary frequency and mean urinary flow rate at 1 and 3 months postinjection as compared with baseline. Scanning electron microscopy proved suitable for evaluation of microparticle size and integrity, as well as local tissue remodeling. Light microscopy and immunohistochemistry allowed for evaluation of an inflammatory host tissue reaction to the bulking agent. The microsurgical injection technique, in vivo physiology and novel hard tissue processing for histology, described in the present study, will allow for future comprehensive preclinical testing of urethral bulking therapy agents containing microparticles made of a hard material. © 2015 The Japanese Urological Association.

  17. Consommation de substances psychoactives des étudiants universitaires libanais : prévalence et facteurs associés

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    P Salameh; S Rachidi; A Al-Hajje; S Awada; K Chouaib; N Saleh; W Bawab

    2015-01-01

      Scientific research on use and misuse of substances in Lebanon is scarce. This study aimed to evaluate the rate of use and abuse of substances among Lebanese youth and identify the determinants and risk factors behind these behaviours...

  18. Psychoactive substance use by truck drivers: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto, Edmarlon; Mesas, Arthur Eumann; de Andrade, Selma Maffei; Birolim, Marcela Maria

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to summarise the scientific evidence on the prevalence of psychoactive substance use and on the factors associated with their intake among truck drivers. A systematic review was performed in the databases PubMed, Scientific Electronic Library Online, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences, and Cochrane and 36 cross-sectional studies were identified with quantitative results about the use of psychoactive substances by truck drivers. Out of these, 28 were carried out in countries with large land areas and 23 obtained their information through self-reporting. The most frequently studied substances were alcohol (n=25), amphetamines (n=17), marijuana (n=16) and cocaine (n=13). The prevalence of the use of these substances greatly varied: alcohol (0.1–91.0%); amphetamines (0.2–82.5%), marijuana (0.2–29.9%), cocaine (0.1–8.3%). The frequency of substance use was lower in studies that investigated the presence of these substances in biological samples than in those based on self-reported use. In 12 studies that evaluated factors associated with the intake of psychoactive substances, the following stood out: younger age, higher income, longer trips, alcohol consumption, driving in the night shift, travelling interstate routes, long or short sleep, fewer hours of rest, little experience of the driver, connection with small and medium sized companies, income below levels determined by labour agreements, productivity-based earnings and prior involvement in accidents. The frequency of psychoactive substance use by truck drivers seems to be high, although that greatly varies according to the type of substance and the method of collecting the information. The use of these substances was mainly associated with indicators of poor working conditions. PMID:24145953

  19. Evaluation of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the miR-183-96-182 cluster in adulthood attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance use disorders (SUDs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Mora, Cristina; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep-Antoni; Garcia-Martínez, Iris; Fernàndez-Castillo, Noelia; Bosch, Rosa; Richarte, Vanesa; Palomar, Gloria; Nogueira, Mariana; Corrales, Montse; Daigre, Constanza; Martínez-Luna, Nieves; Grau-Lopez, Lara; Toma, Claudio; Cormand, Bru; Roncero, Carlos; Casas, Miguel; Ribasés, Marta

    2013-11-01

    Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by inappropriate and impaired levels of hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention. Around 75% of adults with ADHD show comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders such as disruptive behavior disorders or substance use disorders (SUDs). Recently, there has been growing interest in studying the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the susceptibility to complex disorders. Interestingly, converging evidence suggests that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within miRNAs or miRNA target sites may modulate the miRNA-mediated regulation of gene expression through the alteration of the miRNA maturation, structure or expression pattern as well as the silencing mechanisms of target genes. Genetic studies and animal models support the involvement of the serotonin receptor (HTR1B) in ADHD. We evaluated the contribution of one SNP in the miR-96 target site at HTR1B and eight tagSNPs within the genomic region containing this miRNA in 695 adults with ADHD (266 and 396 subjects with and without comorbid SUD, respectively), 403 subjects with SUD without life-time diagnosis of ADHD and 485 sex-matched controls from Spain. Single and multiple marker analyses revealed association between two SNPs located at the 3' region of miR-96 (rs2402959 and rs6965643) and ADHD without SUD. Our results provide preliminary evidence for the contribution of two sequence variants at the miR-183-96-182 cluster to ADHD without comorbid SUD, and emphasize the need to take comorbidities into account in genetic studies to minimize the effect of heterogeneity and to clarify these complex phenotypes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  20. Tailoring Magnetic Properties in Bulk Nanostructured Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Jason Rolando

    Important magnetic properties and behaviors such as coercivity, remanence, susceptibility, energy product, and exchange coupling can be tailored by controlling the grain size, composition, and density of bulk magnetic materials. At nanometric length scales the grain size plays an increasingly important role since magnetic domain behavior and grain boundary concentration determine bulk magnetic behavior. This has spurred a significant amount of work devoted to developing magnetic materials with nanometric features (thickness, grain/crystallite size, inclusions or shells) in 0D (powder), 1D (wires), and 2D (thin films) materials. Large 3D nanocrystalline materials are more suitable for many applications such as permanent magnets, magneto-optical Faraday isolators etc. Yet there are relatively few successful demonstrations of 3D magnetic materials with nanoscale influenced properties available in the literature. Making dense 3D bulk materials with magnetic nanocrystalline microstructures is a challenge because many traditional densification techniques (HIP, pressureless sintering, etc.) move the microstructure out of the "nano" regime during densification. This dissertation shows that the Current Activated Pressure Assisted Densification (CAPAD) method, also known as spark plasma sintering, can be used to create dense, bulk, magnetic, nanocrystalline solids with varied compositions suited to fit many applications. The results of my research will first show important implications for the use of CAPAD for the production of exchange-coupled nanocomposite magnets. Decreases in grain size were shown to have a significant role in increasing the magnitude of exchange bias. Second, preferentially ordered bulk magnetic materials were produced with highly anisotropic material properties. The ordered microstructure resulted in changing magnetic property magnitudes (ex. change in coercivity by almost 10x) depending on the relative orientation (0° vs. 90°) of an externally

  1. Risk assessment of flavouring substances used in foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norby, Karin; Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Greve, Krestine

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present project, the FLAVIS project, is to perform risk assessment of chemically defined flavouring substances. The evaluations are then presented to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) for final adoption in its Scientific Panel on food additives, flavourings, processing aids...... the EU Commission (DG SANCO) plans to issue the first European Positive list on flavouring substances. The project is financial supported by EFSA and the Danish Institute for Food and Veterinary Research....

  2. Treating Adolescents for Substance Abuse and Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Riggs, Paula D.

    2003-01-01

    Recent research has identified a cluster of standardized approaches that effectively treat adolescents with substance abuse disorders. Many of these approaches share elements that may be adopted to improve outcomes in substance treatment programs. In adolescents, treatment goals should be informed by a comprehensive assessment that includes the adolescent patient?s developmental history and evaluation of psychiatric comorbidity. Treatment for behavioral, psychosocial, and psychiatric problems...

  3. Isolation of haloorganic groundwater humic substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog, M.; Grøn, C.

    1995-01-01

    Humic substances were isolated from groundwater according to a revised method designed to avoid organohalogen artefacts. The prepared humic substances exhibited lower halogen contents than humic substances isolated according to the conventionally used method. Excessive oxidation or hydrolysis...

  4. Definition of Substance and Non-substance Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhiling; Wang, Huijun; d'Oleire Uquillas, Federico; Wang, Xiaomei; Ding, Jianrui; Chen, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Substance addiction (or drug addiction) is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by a recurring desire to continue taking the drug despite harmful consequences. Non-substance addiction (or behavioral addiction) covers pathological gambling, food addiction, internet addiction, and mobile phone addiction. Their definition is similar to drug addiction but they differ from each other in specific domains. This review aims to provide a brief overview of past and current definitions of substance and non-substance addiction, and also touches on the topic of diagnosing drug addiction and non-drug addiction, ultimately aiming to further the understanding of the key concepts needed for a foundation to study the biological and psychological underpinnings of addiction disorders.

  5. Ability of Substance Abusers to Escape Detection on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory–Adolescent (MMPI-A) in a Juvenile Correctional Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, L. A. R.; Graham, John R.

    2010-01-01

    The ability of respondents to underreport successfully on substance abuse and validity scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent was evaluated. Incarcerated teens (67 substance abusing, 59 non-substance abusing) completed the MMPI-A twice: once under standard instructions (SI) and once under instructions to fake good (FG). Under SI, substance scales correctly classified about 60% to 85% of adolescents. Under FG, substance- and non-substance-abusing juveniles produced lower scores on substance scales. However, the Lie Scale (L) was able to detect more than 75% of deceptive profiles and about 77% of honest profiles. When scale L and the best substance scale were used in combination, only about 18% of faking substance abusers were not identified as either substance abusers or as underreporting. For feigning substance abusers, only about 10% of substance abusers were detected, with about 72% being categorized as faking and needing further assessment. PMID:15695741

  6. Substance abuse disorders in nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, J

    1999-01-01

    Substance abuse is a serious concern in the profession of nursing. The American Nurses Association (1997) estimates that 10% to 20% of nurses have substance abuse problems, and that 6% to 8% of registered nurses are impaired due to their abuse of alcohol and other drugs. Chemical dependency is considered a disease that requires treatment. Early identification and treatment of the chemically dependent nurse is important for the safety of the public and for the well-being of the nurse and her profession. This article addresses substance abuse from a biopsychosocial perspective, and includes a description of an approach to treatment and suggestions for the role of nursing administration.

  7. Stroke And Substance Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Chitsaz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: stroke in recreational substance users can be an indirect complication, like endocarditis and cardio embolism in parenteral drug users. With some drug like cocaine, stroke appear to be the result of a direct effect. In young subjects without other risk factors provide persuasive evidence for causality . OPIATES: Heroine is the most abused opiate drug, which is administered by injection, by snorting or by smoking. Stroke affects heroin users by diverse mechanisms,. Injectors are at risk of infections endocarditis, which carries risk for both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. Cerebral or subarachnoid hemorrhage usually occurs after rupture of a septic (mycotic aneurysm. Heroine users can are also at risk for hemorrhagic stroke secondary to liver failure with deranged clotting and to heroin nephropathy with uremia or malignant hypertension. In some heroin users the drug it self is directly causal due to vasculitis, hypersensitivity and immunologic changes. Embolization of foreign material to brain due to mixed of heroine with quinine can cause cerebral embolism. AMPHETAMINE AND other psychostimulants: In abuser of amphetamine hemorrhagic stroke can occur, oral, intravenous, nasal, and inhalational routes of administration have been reported. Most were chronic user, but in several patients, stroke followed a first exposure. Some of amphetamine induced intracranial hemorrhages are secondary to acute hypertension, some to cerebral vacuities, and some to a combination of two. Decongestants and diet pills: Phenylpropanolamine (PPA, an amphetamine – like drug, in decongestants and diet pills, induce acute hypertension, sever headache, psychiatric symptoms, seizures and hemorrhagic stroke. Ephedrine and pseudo ephedrine are present in decongestants and bronchodilators and induce headache, tachyarrhythmia, hypertensive emergency, and hemorrhagic and occlusive stroke. Ecstasy, 3,4 Methylenedioxymethamphetamin (MDMA with amphetamine like can

  8. The fundamental study to control the magnetic field for MDDS using shielding currents of HTS tapes and bulks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S.B., E-mail: kim@ec.okayama-u.ac.jp; Eritate, I.; Abe, T.; Shima, S.; Takahashi, M.

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • MDDS is a key technology to reduce the side effects. • The field control method for MDDS was studied using HTS tapes and bulks. • The shielding current due to Meissner effect was used to generate the field gradient. • HTS bulks and films were combined with iron blocks, and they are very effective. • The magnetic field gradient which is higher than the external field was obtained. - Abstract: The magnetic drug delivery system (MDDS) is a key technology to reduce the side effects in the medical applications, and the magnetic force control is a very important issue in MDDS. In general, the high magnetic field along the axial direction and high magnetic field gradient along the longitudinal direction are very useful for MDDS. So, we proposed the new magnetic force control system that consists of superconducting magnet, high temperature superconductors (HTS) bulks or tapes and ferromagnetic substances. In this new system, the shielding currents in HTS bulks and tapes due to diamagnetism of the superconductor generate the magnetic field with same direction of external magnetic field, and we can control the magnetic field gradient along the longitudinal direction by the arrangement of the HTS bulks, tapes and ferromagnetic substances. In this study, the stacked GdBCO tapes without stabilizer were used in experiments and electromagnetic analysis based on finite element method (FEM) was carried out to optimize the arrangement of the superconductors and the irons. It was confirmed that the control of magnetic field gradient along the longitudinal direction was possible by arranging the HTS bulks, tapes and irons on the superconducting magnet and then it was possible to obtain a magnetic field higher than the external field.

  9. quality evaluation of paracetamol in the bulk, dosage forms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prince Acheampong

    Riker Paracetamol, 0.1578g of PZ. Paracetamol and 0.2001g of Tylenol Forte) was weighed and quantitatively transferred into a 200ml volumetric flask with 50ml of 0.1M NaOH and then diluted with 100ml of distilled water and shaken mechanically ...

  10. Dermal uptake of petroleum substances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakasa, Ivone; Kezic, Sanja; Boogaard, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Petroleum products are complex substances comprising varying amounts of linear and branched alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics which may penetrate the skin at different rates. For proper interpretation of toxic hazard data, understanding their percutaneous absorption is of paramount

  11. Ozone-depleting Substances (ODS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This site includes all of the ozone-depleting substances (ODS) recognized by the Montreal Protocol. The data include ozone depletion potentials (ODP), global warming...

  12. Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Culture in Elder Abuse Mental capacity, consent, and undue influence The relationship between elder abuse and substance abuse ... older person's financial resources and to wield significant ... financially or, in the case of illegal drug use, less likely to report. ...

  13. Materials for Bulk Acoustic Resonators and Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loebl, Hans-Peter

    2003-03-01

    Highly selective solidly mounted bulk acoustic wave (BAW) band pass filters are suited for mobile and wireless systems in the GHz frequency range between 0.8 and 10 GHz. Electro-acoustic thin film BAW resonators are the building blocks these BAW filters. Piezoelectric materials used in these resonators include mainly AlN or ZnO which can be deposited by dedicated thin film sputter deposition techniques. Using these piezo-electric materials and using suited materials for the acoustic Bragg reflector, BAW resonators with high quality factors can be fabricated. The achievable filter bandwidth is approximately 4Alternatively, also ferroelectric thin films might be used to achieve higher coupling coefficient and thus filter bandwidth. BAW resonators and filters have been designed and fabricated on 6" Silicon and glass wafers. Results are presented for resonators and filters operating between 1.95 and 8 GHz. The talk will give an overview of the material aspects which are important for BAW devices. It will be shown that modeling of the resonator and filter response using 1D electro-acoustic simulation (1,2) which includes losses is essential to extract acoustic and electrical material parameters. (1) Solidly Mounted Bulk Acoustic Wave Filters for the Ghz Frequency Range, H.P. Loebl, C. Metzmacher , D.N.Peligrad , R. Mauczok , M. Klee , W. Brand , R.F. Milsom , P.Lok , F.van Straten , A. Tuinhout , J.W.Lobeek, IEEE 2002 Ultrasonics Symposium Munich, October 2002. (2) Combined Acoustic-Electromagnetic Simulation Of Thin-Film Bulk Acoustic Wave Filters, R.F. Milsom, H-P. Löbl, D.N. Peligrad, J-W. Lobeek, A. Tuinhout, R. H. ten Dolle IEEE 2002 Ultrasonics Symposium Munich, October 2002.

  14. Extraordinary plasticity of ductile bulk metallic glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingwei; Inoue, Akihisa; Zhang, Wei; Sakurai, Toshio

    2006-06-23

    Shear bands generally initiate strain softening and result in low ductility of metallic glasses. In this Letter, we report high-resolution electron microscope observations of shear bands in a ductile metallic glass. Strain softening caused by localized shearing was found to be effectively prevented by nanocrystallization that is in situ produced by plastic flow within the shear bands, leading to large plasticity and strain hardening. These atomic-scale observations not only well explain the extraordinary plasticity that was recently observed in some bulk metallic glasses, but also reveal a novel deformation mechanism that can effectively improve the ductility of monolithic metallic glasses.

  15. "Work-Hardenable" ductile bulk metallic glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Jayanta; Tang, Mei Bo; Kim, Ki Buem; Theissmann, Ralf; Baier, Falko; Wang, Wei Hua; Eckert, Jürgen

    2005-05-27

    Usually, monolithic bulk metallic glasses undergo inhomogeneous plastic deformation and exhibit poor ductility (glass, which exhibits high strength of up to 2265 MPa together with extensive "work hardening" and large ductility of 18%. Significant increase in the flow stress was observed during deformation. The "work-hardening" capability and ductility of this class of metallic glass is attributed to a unique structure correlated with atomic-scale inhomogeneity, leading to an inherent capability of extensive shear band formation, interactions, and multiplication of shear bands.

  16. Multiphase composites with extremal bulk modulus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibiansky, L. V.; Sigmund, Ole

    2000-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the analytical and numerical study of isotropic elastic composites made of three or more isotropic phases. The ranges of their effective bulk and shear moduli are restricted by the Hashin-Shtrikman-Walpole (HSW) bounds. For two-phase composites, these bounds are attainabl...... isotropic three-dimensional three-phase composites with cylindrical inclusions of arbitrary cross-sections (plane strain problem) or transversely isotropic thin plates (plane stress or bending of plates problems). (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  17. Towards bulk based preconditioning for quantum dotcomputations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, Jack; Langou, Julien; Tomov, Stanimire; Channing,Andrew; Marques, Osni; Vomel, Christof; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2006-05-25

    This article describes how to accelerate the convergence of Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient (PCG) type eigensolvers for the computation of several states around the band gap of colloidal quantum dots. Our new approach uses the Hamiltonian from the bulk materials constituent for the quantum dot to design an efficient preconditioner for the folded spectrum PCG method. The technique described shows promising results when applied to CdSe quantum dot model problems. We show a decrease in the number of iteration steps by at least a factor of 4 compared to the previously used diagonal preconditioner.

  18. Improving the bulk data transfer experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guok, Chin; Guok, Chin; Lee, Jason R.; Berket, Karlo

    2008-05-07

    Scientific computations and collaborations increasingly rely on the network to provide high-speed data transfer, dissemination of results, access to instruments, support for computational steering, etc. The Energy Sciences Network is establishing a science data network to provide user driven bandwidth allocation. In a shared network environment, some reservations may not be granted due to the lack of available bandwidth on any single path. In many cases, the available bandwidth across multiple paths would be sufficient to grant the reservation. In this paper we investigate how to utilize the available bandwidth across multiple paths in the case of bulk data transfer.

  19. Binary Ni-Nb bulk metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, L.; Li, W. H.; Fang, S. S.; Wei, B. C.; Dong, Y. D.

    2006-01-01

    We studied the glass forming ability of Ni-Nb binary alloys and found that some of the alloys can be prepared into bulk metallic glasses by a conventional Cu-mold casting. The best glass former within the compositional range studied is off-eutectic Ni62Nb38 alloy, which is markedly different from those predicted by the multicomponent and deep eutectic rules. The glass formation mechanism for binary Ni-Nb alloys was studied from the thermodynamic point of view and a parameter γ* was proposed to approach the ability of glass formation against crystallization.

  20. Music, Substance Use, and Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meng-Jinn; Miller, Brenda A.; Grube, Joel W.; Waiters, Elizabeth D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study investigated whether young people’s substance use and aggressive behaviors are related to their listening to music containing messages of substance use and violence. Method Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires and from a sample of community college students aged 15-25 (N = 1056; 43% male). A structural equation modeling method was used to simultaneously assess the associations between listening to various genres of music, alcohol use, illicit drug use, and aggressive behaviors, taking into account respondents’ age, gender, race/ethnicity, and level of sensation seeking. Results Listening to rap music was significantly and positively associated with alcohol use, problematic alcohol use, illicit drug use, and aggressive behaviors when all other variables were controlled. Additionally, alcohol and illicit drug use were positively associated with listening to musical genres of techno and reggae. Control variables such as sensation seeking, age, gender and race/ethnicity were significantly related to substance use and aggressive behaviors. Conclusion The findings suggest that young people’s substance use and aggressive behaviors may be related to their frequent exposure to music containing references to substance use and violence. Conversely, music listening preference may reflect some personal predispositions or lifestyle preferences. Alternatively, substance use, aggression and music preference are independent constructs, but share common “third factors.” PMID:16608146

  1. Cosmological Brane World Solutions with Bulk Scalar Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Stephen C.

    2001-01-01

    Cosmological brane world solutions are found for five-dimensional bulk spacetimes with a scalar field. A supergravity inspired method for obtaining static solutions is combined with a method for finding brane cosmologies with constant bulk energies. This provides a way to generate full (bulk and brane) cosmological solutions to brane worlds with bulk scalar fields. Examples of these solutions, and their cosmological evolution, are discussed.

  2. 19 CFR 151.24 - Unlading facilities for bulk sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. 151.24 Section... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.24 Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. When dutiable sugar is to be imported in bulk, a full...

  3. Volatile substance misuse: toward a research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Matthew O; Garland, Eric L

    2013-01-01

    Volatile substance misuse (VSM) is a significant but under-researched global health problem. This perspective calls for additional VSM research in key areas including the phenomenology and adverse health and social consequences of acute inhalant intoxication and for prospective longitudinal studies of the natural history of VSM and related deleterious long-term biomedical and psychosocial outcomes. Taxonomic investigations are needed to identify subtypes of volatile substance misusers (VSMs), whereas qualitative and mixed methods evaluations would provide important information about cultural and interpersonal contexts and specific patterns, modalities and agents of VSM. Treatment outcome and health services studies have rarely been conducted with reference to VSMs and are needed. Studies of specific inhalants and high-risk populations for VSM would also contribute to current knowledge regarding VSM and help reduce the toll taken by this prevalent form of drug misuse. The authors draw on VSM studies that they and other researchers have conducted to exemplify the types of research needed in each of the domains identified above. Despite the global ubiquity of VSM, much remains to be learned about this form of substance use. This perspective identifies key elements of a systematic program for research in this area.

  4. Perceived discrimination, depressive symptoms, and substance use in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Trenette T

    2014-06-01

    Perceived discrimination is an important health-related stressor. As suggested by the stress-coping model, substance use often serves as a means to reduce the negative effects of perceived discrimination. This study uses data from the National Survey of American Life-Adults to examine the structural relationship of perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms with lifetime and recent substance use among African American and African Caribbean young adults. Respondents (N=1910) were 18-35 years old. Compared with African Caribbeans, African Americans report significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms and both lifetime and recent substance use. Multiple-group structural equation modeling is used to evaluate model fit and test hypothesized models. Results show good fit of the hypothesized models in both African Americans and African Caribbeans. Full measurement and structural invariance is found across ethnicity. Mediation models explain 18.5% and 47.4% of the variance in lifetime substance use for African Americans and African Caribbeans, respectively, and 23.5% and 35.0% of the variance in recent substance use for African Americans and African Caribbeans, respectively. Mediation tests indicate depressive symptoms partially mediate the relationship between perceived discrimination and lifetime substance use and fully mediated this relationship for recent substance use. This study is the first to demonstrate a positive association between perceived racial discrimination and substance use among African Caribbean young adults. Study findings illuminate the influence of perceived discrimination on substance use and the mechanisms of this relationship among African American and African Caribbean young adults. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Preventing and Reducing Substance Use among Institutionalized Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morehouse, Ellen; Tobler, Nancy S.

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates the Residential Student Assistance Program for its ability to prevent or decrease alcohol and other drug use in high-risk, multi-problem, inner-city minority adolescents. A fifth-year outcome evaluation documented the program's effectiveness in both preventing and reducing substance use among participants. (Author/MKA)

  6. Peripheral mechanisms of dental pain: the role of substance P.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacerdote, Paola; Levrini, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Current evidence supports the central role of neuropeptides in the molecular mechanisms underlying dental pain. In particular, substance P, a neuropeptide produced in neuron cell bodies localised in dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia, contributes to the transmission and maintenance of noxious stimuli and inflammatory processes. The major role of substance P in the onset of dental pain and inflammation is increasingly being recognised. Well-grounded experimental and clinical observations have documented an increase in substance P concentration in patients affected by caries, pulpitis, or granulomas and in those undergoing standard orthodontic or orthodontic/dental care procedures. This paper focuses on the role of substance P in the induction and maintenance of inflammation and dental pain, in order to define future lines of research for the evaluation of therapeutic strategies aimed at modulating the complex effects of this mediator in oral tissues.

  7. Peripheral Mechanisms of Dental Pain: The Role of Substance P

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Sacerdote

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Current evidence supports the central role of neuropeptides in the molecular mechanisms underlying dental pain. In particular, substance P, a neuropeptide produced in neuron cell bodies localised in dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia, contributes to the transmission and maintenance of noxious stimuli and inflammatory processes. The major role of substance P in the onset of dental pain and inflammation is increasingly being recognised. Well-grounded experimental and clinical observations have documented an increase in substance P concentration in patients affected by caries, pulpitis, or granulomas and in those undergoing standard orthodontic or orthodontic/dental care procedures. This paper focuses on the role of substance P in the induction and maintenance of inflammation and dental pain, in order to define future lines of research for the evaluation of therapeutic strategies aimed at modulating the complex effects of this mediator in oral tissues.

  8. Use of containers to carry bulk and break bulk commodities and its impact on gulf region ports and international trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The University of New Orleans Transportation Institute was tasked by the Louisiana Transportation Research Center (LTRC) in mid-2012 to assess the use of containers to transport bulk and break bulk commodities and to determine what their impact would...

  9. Implications of PCR and ELISA results on the routes of bulk-tank contamination with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, A; Cazer, C L; Ruegg, P L; Gröhn, Y T; Schukken, Y H

    2016-02-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the etiologic agent of Johne's disease in dairy cattle, may enter the bulk tank via environmental contamination or direct excretion into milk. Traditionally, diagnostics to identify MAP in milk target either MAP antibodies (by ELISA) or the organism itself (by culture or PCR). High ELISA titers may be directly associated with excretion of MAP into milk but only indirectly linked to environmental contamination of the bulk tank. Patterns of bulk-milk ELISA and bulk-milk PCR results could therefore provide insight into the routes of contamination and level of infection or environmental burden. Coupled with questionnaire responses pertaining to management, the results of these diagnostic tests could reveal correlations with herd characteristics or on-farm practices that distinguish herds with high and low environmental bulk-tank MAP contamination. A questionnaire on hygiene, management, and Johne's specific parameters was administered to 292 dairy farms in New York, Oregon, and Wisconsin. Bulk-tank samples were collected from each farm for evaluation by real-time PCR and ELISA. Before DNA extraction and testing of the unknown samples, bulk-milk template preparation was optimized with respect to parameters such as MAP fractionation patterns and lysis. Two regression models were developed to explore the relationships among bulk-tank PCR, ELISA, environmental predictors, and herd characteristics. First, ELISA optical density (OD) was designated as the outcome in a linear regression model. Second, the log odds of being PCR positive in the bulk tank were modeled using binary logistic regression with penalized maximum likelihood. The proportion of PCR-positive bulk tanks was highest for New York and for organic farms, providing a clue as to the geographical patterns of MAP-positive bulk-tank samples and relationship to production type. Bulk-milk PCR positivity was also higher for large relative to small herds. The models

  10. Bulk magnetic domain stability controls paleointensity fidelity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Greig A.; Muxworthy, Adrian R.; Yamamoto, Yuhji; Pan, Yongxin

    2017-12-01

    Nonideal, nonsingle-domain magnetic grains are ubiquitous in rocks; however, they can have a detrimental impact on the fidelity of paleomagnetic records—in particular the determination of ancient magnetic field strength (paleointensity), a key means of understanding the evolution of the earliest geodynamo and the formation of the solar system. As a consequence, great effort has been expended to link rock magnetic behavior to paleointensity results, but with little quantitative success. Using the most comprehensive rock magnetic and paleointensity data compilations, we quantify a stability trend in hysteresis data that characterizes the bulk domain stability (BDS) of the magnetic carriers in a paleomagnetic specimen. This trend is evident in both geological and archeological materials that are typically used to obtain paleointensity data and is therefore pervasive throughout most paleomagnetic studies. Comparing this trend to paleointensity data from both laboratory and historical experiments reveals a quantitative relationship between BDS and paleointensity behavior. Specimens that have lower BDS values display higher curvature on the paleointensity analysis plot, which leads to more inaccurate results. In-field quantification of BDS therefore reflects low-field bulk remanence stability. Rapid hysteresis measurements can be used to provide a powerful quantitative method for preselecting paleointensity specimens and postanalyzing previous studies, further improving our ability to select high-fidelity recordings of ancient magnetic fields. BDS analyses will enhance our ability to understand the evolution of the geodynamo and can help in understanding many fundamental Earth and planetary science questions that remain shrouded in controversy.

  11. Boundary-bulk relation in topological orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Kong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the relation between an anomaly-free n+1D topological order, which are often called n+1D topological order in physics literature, and its nD gapped boundary phases. We argue that the n+1D bulk anomaly-free topological order for a given nD gapped boundary phase is unique. This uniqueness defines the notion of the “bulk” for a given gapped boundary phase. In this paper, we show that the n+1D “bulk” phase is given by the “center” of the nD boundary phase. In other words, the geometric notion of the “bulk” corresponds precisely to the algebraic notion of the “center”. We achieve this by first introducing the notion of a morphism between two (potentially anomalous topological orders of the same dimension, then proving that the notion of the “bulk” satisfies the same universal property as that of the “center” of an algebra in mathematics, i.e. “bulk = center”. The entire argument does not require us to know the precise mathematical description of a (potentially anomalous topological order. This result leads to concrete physical predictions.

  12. Substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement via nanolayering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fenggong; Young, Steve M.; Zheng, Fan; Grinberg, Ilya; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous polarization and inversion symmetry breaking in ferroelectric materials lead to their use as photovoltaic devices. However, further advancement of their applications are hindered by the paucity of ways of reducing bandgaps and enhancing photocurrent. By unravelling the correlation between ferroelectric materials' responses to solar irradiation and their local structure and electric polarization landscapes, here we show from first principles that substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement can be achieved by nanolayering PbTiO3 with nickel ions and oxygen vacancies ((PbNiO2)x(PbTiO3)1-x). The enhancement of the total photocurrent for different spacings between the Ni-containing layers can be as high as 43 times due to a smaller bandgap and photocurrent direction alignment for all absorption energies. This is due to the electrostatic effect that arises from nanolayering. This opens up the possibility for control of the bulk photovoltaic effect in ferroelectric materials by nanoscale engineering of their structure and composition.

  13. Perovskite oxides: Oxygen electrocatalysis and bulk structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonio, R. E.; Fierro, C.; Tryk, D.; Scherson, D.; Yeager, Ernest

    1987-01-01

    Perovskite type oxides were considered for use as oxygen reduction and generation electrocatalysts in alkaline electrolytes. Perovskite stability and electrocatalytic activity are studied along with possible relationships of the latter with the bulk solid state properties. A series of compounds of the type LaFe(x)Ni1(-x)O3 was used as a model system to gain information on the possible relationships between surface catalytic activity and bulk structure. Hydrogen peroxide decomposition rate constants were measured for these compounds. Ex situ Mossbauer effect spectroscopy (MES), and magnetic susceptibility measurements were used to study the solid state properties. X ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to examine the surface. MES has indicated the presence of a paramagnetic to magnetically ordered phase transition for values of x between 0.4 and 0.5. A correlation was found between the values of the MES isomer shift and the catalytic activity for peroxide decomposition. Thus, the catalytic activity can be correlated to the d-electron density for the transition metal cations.

  14. Proficiency testing for psychoactive substances in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, S D; Brusini, G; Maietti, S; Frison, G; Castagna, F; Allevi, S; Menegus, A M; Tedeschi, L

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the general design and main results of the Italian proficiency testing program for the analysis of psychoactive substances in urine, a long-term initiative created in 1995 on an educational basis and characterized by an innovative internet-based service for data exchange between laboratories and the organizing body. Batches of six urine samples, validated by reference laboratories, are sent every 3 months to participating laboratories, which may choose which classes of substances to test from those planned by the program panel and, within those classes, which type of analytical commitment to work on: identification of just one class (Option 1), identification of single substances (Option 2), or identification and quantification of single substances (Option 3). Comprehensive periodical reports and annual reports are provided to participants with evaluation of their performance and an annual workshop is organized to discuss technical-scientific topics related to clinical, forensic and analytical toxicology. About 200 laboratories currently participate in the program and a total of 67,059 analyses have been carried out since 1995. The mean percentage of correct results was 96.8%, with a yearly improvement of about 0.4%. The best average false positive and false negative rates were obtained for methadone (0.2% and 2.1% respectively) and cocaine (0.3% and 2.2%). The worst average false positive rates were obtained for amphetamines and opiates (3.2% and 5.0%) and worst average false negative rates for amphetamines, barbiturates and cannabinoids (17.4%, 30.7% and 19.9%).

  15. Amino acid quantification in bulk soybeans by transmission Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulmerich, Matthew V; Gelber, Matthew K; Azam, Hossain M; Harrison, Sandra K; McKinney, John; Thompson, Dennis; Owen, Bridget; Kull, Linda S; Bhargava, Rohit

    2013-12-03

    Soybeans are a commodity crop of significant economic and nutritional interest. As an important source of protein, buyers of soybeans are interested in not only the total protein content but also in the specific amino acids that comprise the total protein content. Raman spectroscopy has the chemical specificity to measure the twenty common amino acids as pure substances. An unsolved challenge, however, is to quantify varying levels of amino acids mixed together and bound in soybeans at relatively low concentrations. Here we report the use of transmission Raman spectroscopy as a secondary analytical approach to nondestructively measure specific amino acids in intact soybeans. With the employment of a transmission-based Raman instrument, built specifically for nondestructive measurements from bulk soybeans, spectra were collected from twenty-four samples to develop a calibration model using a partial least-squares approach with a random-subset cross validation. The calibration model was validated on an independent set of twenty-five samples for oil, protein, and amino acid predictions. After Raman measurements, the samples were reduced to a fine powder and conventional wet chemistry methods were used for quantifying reference values of protein, oil, and 18 amino acids. We found that the greater the concentrations (% by weight component of interest), the better the calibration model and prediction capabilities. Of the 18 amino acids analyzed, 13 had R(2) values greater than 0.75 with a standard error of prediction c.a. 3-4% by weight. Serine, histidine, cystine, tryptophan, and methionine showed poor predictions (R(2) soybeans.

  16. PETRORISK: a risk assessment framework for petroleum substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Aaron D; Parkerton, Thomas F; Comber, Mike H I; Paumen, Miriam Leon; Eadsforth, Charles V; Dmytrasz, Bhodan; King, Duncan; Warren, Christopher S; den Haan, Klaas; Djemel, Nadia

    2014-07-01

    PETRORISK is a modeling framework used to evaluate environmental risk of petroleum substances and human exposure through these routes due to emissions under typical use conditions as required by the European regulation for the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH). Petroleum substances are often complex substances comprised of hundreds to thousands of individual hydrocarbons. The physicochemical, fate, and effects properties of the individual constituents within a petroleum substance can vary over several orders of magnitude, complicating risk assessment. PETRORISK combines the risk assessment strategies used on single chemicals with the hydrocarbon block approach to model complex substances. Blocks are usually defined by available analytical characterization data on substances that are expressed in terms of mass fractions for different structural chemical classes that are specified as a function of C number or boiling point range. The physicochemical and degradation properties of the blocks are determined by the properties of representative constituents in that block. Emissions and predicted exposure concentrations (PEC) are then modeled using mass-weighted individual representative constituents. Overall risk for various environmental compartments at the regional and local level is evaluated by comparing the PECs for individual representative constituents to corresponding predicted no-effect concentrations (PNEC) derived using the Target Lipid Model. Risks to human health are evaluated using the overall predicted human dose resulting from multimedia environmental exposure to a substance-specific derived no-effect level (DNEL). A case study is provided to illustrate how this modeling approach has been applied to assess the risks of kerosene manufacture and use as a fuel. © 2014 SETAC.

  17. Pragmatic randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of a multi-component intervention to reduce substance use and risk-taking behaviour in adolescents involved in the criminal justice system: A trial protocol (RISKIT-CJS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Coulton

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescence is a critical developmental stage when young people make lifestyle choices that have the potential to impact on their current and future health and social wellbeing. The relationship between substance use and criminal activity is complex but there is clear evidence that the prevalence of problematic substance use is far higher among adolescent offenders than the general adolescent population. Adolescent offenders are a marginalized and vulnerable population who are significantly more likely to experience health and social inequalities in later life than their non-offending peers. There is a paucity of evidence on effective interventions to address substance use and risk-taking behaviours in adolescent offender populations but it is clear that preventative or abstinence orientated interventions are not effective. RISKIT-CJS is an intervention developed in collaboration with young people taking account of the current best evidence. Feasibility and pilot studies have found the intervention addresses the needs of adolescents, is acceptable and has demonstrated potential in reducing substance use and risk-taking behavior. Methods The study is a mixed method, two-armed, prospective, pragmatic randomized controlled trial with individual randomisation to either treatment as usual alone or the RISKIT-CJS intervention in addition to treatment as usual. Adolescents, aged 13 to 17 years inclusive, engaged with the criminal justice system who are identified as having problematic substance use are eligible to participate. The study will be conducted across three geographical areas; South and South East England, London and North East England between March 2017 and February 2019. Discussion The study represents an ambitious programme of work to address an area of need for a marginalized and vulnerable population. Trial registration ISRCTN77037777 registered 15/09/2016.

  18. Pragmatic randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of a multi-component intervention to reduce substance use and risk-taking behaviour in adolescents involved in the criminal justice system: A trial protocol (RISKIT-CJS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulton, Simon; Stockdale, Kelly; Marchand, Catherine; Hendrie, Nadine; Billings, Jenny; Boniface, Sadie; Butler, Steve; Deluca, Paolo; Drummond, Colin; Newbury-Birch, Dorothy; Pellatt-Higgins, Tracy; Stevens, Alex; Sutherland, Alex; Wilson, Ed

    2017-03-11

    Adolescence is a critical developmental stage when young people make lifestyle choices that have the potential to impact on their current and future health and social wellbeing. The relationship between substance use and criminal activity is complex but there is clear evidence that the prevalence of problematic substance use is far higher among adolescent offenders than the general adolescent population. Adolescent offenders are a marginalized and vulnerable population who are significantly more likely to experience health and social inequalities in later life than their non-offending peers. There is a paucity of evidence on effective interventions to address substance use and risk-taking behaviours in adolescent offender populations but it is clear that preventative or abstinence orientated interventions are not effective. RISKIT-CJS is an intervention developed in collaboration with young people taking account of the current best evidence. Feasibility and pilot studies have found the intervention addresses the needs of adolescents, is acceptable and has demonstrated potential in reducing substance use and risk-taking behavior. The study is a mixed method, two-armed, prospective, pragmatic randomized controlled trial with individual randomisation to either treatment as usual alone or the RISKIT-CJS intervention in addition to treatment as usual. Adolescents, aged 13 to 17 years inclusive, engaged with the criminal justice system who are identified as having problematic substance use are eligible to participate. The study will be conducted across three geographical areas; South and South East England, London and North East England between March 2017 and February 2019. The study represents an ambitious programme of work to address an area of need for a marginalized and vulnerable population. ISRCTN77037777 registered 15/09/2016.

  19. How is substance use linked to psychosis? A study of the course and patterns of substance dependence in psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddichha, Sahoo; Sur, Shravani; Sinha, Baxi Neeraj Prasad; Khess, Christoday Raja Jayant

    2010-01-01

    Substance use in mentally ill patients is now a major problem that influences the course and outcome of psychosis. With prevalence ranging up to 60%, several theories were postulated to explain the link. It would be interesting to know if substances have different effects in persons with psychosis than in those without. This study aimed to explore patterns of symptomatology of dependence and comorbid psychiatric illness by comparing and contrasting it with a group suffering from pure substance dependence. Consecutively admitted patients who were matched for age, sex, and tobacco use were divided into 3 groups. These were substance dependence without any comorbid psychiatric disorder (SD; n = 32), schizophrenia with substance dependence (SC; n = 31), and bipolar disorder with substance dependence (BD; n = 31). Patients were administered the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN) and Mini International Neuropsychiatric Inventory (MINI) to evaluate the chronology of criterion of International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 dependence. Results showed that cannabis was the most common substance used by both the SC (100%) and BD (80%) groups. This was followed by alcohol as the most common substance used, with prevalence of 87% in SC and 77% in BD groups. There was a significant difference in the pattern of use of cannabis in patients with psychosis, who developed tolerance much faster (P = .018) and had longer durations of cannabis use (P = .001) than the SD group. The presence of "loss of control" over drug use criterion seems to be a specific marker predicting development of dependence and psychosis. Cannabis use is more strongly associated with development of psychosis than any other substance.

  20. Determinants of psychoactive substance use among incarcerated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determinants of psychoactive substance use among incarcerated delinquents in Nigeria. ... substance use prevalence is high among incarcerated delinquents, the incorporation of substance abuse screening and treatment as part of their programmeme is advocated. Key Words: Substance use, delinquents, incarceration, ...

  1. 75 FR 34573 - Bulk Solid Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With the International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency IMDG Code International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code IMO... authorized for bulk transportation by vessel and include special handling procedures based on the IMSBC Code... Management Facility (M-30), U.S. Department of Transportation, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200...

  2. Evaluación de inductores de la floración en tres cultivares de mango (Mangifera indica L. Evaluation offlowering inductive substances in three mango (Mangifera indica L. cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Diego

    2001-12-01

    cuando se aplicó KN03 se favoreció la retención de 71frutos, en segundo lugar el PBZ que amarró 67 frutos, el testigo 42 y la mezcla de inductores solo 28 frutos. La mezcla de inductores, si bien produjo una reducción del crecimiento vegetativo en los cultivares evaluados, no incrementó en forma significativa el número de estructuras reproductivas (número de racimos florales y al final parece ir en detrimento del número final de frutos producidos y retenidos.In order to determine the effect of two promoting substances
    on the flowering induction ofmango cultivars, an experiment
    was carried out at the Nataima Research Center during the
    second semester of 1994. Nataima is located at Espinal
    (municipality of the Tolima State and has the following
    geographic characteristics: altitud aboye sea level420 m, average annual rain fall 1300 mm, average annual temperature 28°C. The substances evaluated were Paclobutrazol (PBZ at 25% active ingredient, with a dosage of 32 mLlL H20 and 2% Potasium nitrate (KNO. They were applied solely or mixed, two application forms were used: foliar and drench to the soil. The evaluated cultivars were Vandyke, Haden and Kent, with five years of age. The statistic design used was split plots. The cultivars response to the treatments was a reduction of the vegetative growth, visible until the floral differentiation fase; the best response showed Kent cultivar with a length of 5,1 cm, Haden had 11,0 cm and finally Vandyke with 15,0 cm. Significant statistical differences were found between the cultivars with respect to the number of leaves produced with in each growth flush. Vandyke produced the highest leafnumber (l8, Haden (l3 and Kent (7.1. Vandyke has the largest number of panicles with 199, compared with Kent (24 and Haden (33. There was a significative interaction between the cultivars and application form ofthe flowering inductor regard the number of panicles produced with an increase of 31% when the application

  3. Diffusion and bulk flow in phloem loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dölger, Julia; Rademaker, Hanna; Liesche, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    diffusing back requires that the plasmodesmata connecting the bundle sheath with the intermediary cell act as extremely precise filters, which are able to distinguish between molecules that differ by less than 20% in size. In our modeling, we take into account the coupled water and sugar movement across......%-20% to the sucrose flux into the intermediary cells, while the main part is transported by diffusion. On the other hand, the subsequent sugar translocation into the sieve elements would very likely be carried predominantly by bulk water flow through the plasmodesmata. Thus, in contrast to apoplasmic loaders, all...... of molecular sizes. Comparing with the somewhat uncertain experimental values for sugar export rates, we expect the pores to be only 5%-10% larger than the hydraulic radius of the sucrose molecules. We find that the water flow through the plasmodesmata, which has not been quantified before, contributes only 10...

  4. Organoboron polymers for photovoltaic bulk heterojunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Sebastiano; Fabiano, Simone; Ferrante, Francesco; Previti, Francesco; Patanè, Salvatore; Pignataro, Bruno

    2010-07-15

    We report on the application of three-coordinate organoboron polymers, inherently strong electron acceptors, in flexible photovoltaic (PV) cells. Poly[(1,4-divinylenephenylene)(2,4,6-triisopropylphenylborane)] (PDB) has been blended with poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) to form a thin film bulk heterojunction (BHJ) on PET/ITO substrates. Morphology may be modulated to give a high percentage of domains (10-20 nm in size) allowing exciton separation. The photoelectric properties of the BHJs in devices with aluminium back electrodes were imaged by light beam induced current (LBIC) and light beam induced voltage (LBIV) techniques. Open circuit voltages, short circuit currents and overall external quantum efficiencies obtained are among the highest reported for all-polymer PV cells. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. A route to transparent bulk metals

    KAUST Repository

    Schwingenschlögl, Udo

    2012-07-23

    Hypothetical compounds based on a sapphire host are investigated with respect to their structural as well as electronic features. The results are obtained by electronic structure calculations within density functional theory and the generalized gradient approximation. A quarter of the Al atoms in Al 2O 3 is replaced by a 4d transition metal M ion, with d 0 to d 9 electronic configuration. We perform structure optimizations for all the compounds and analyze the electronic states. Due to the sizeable band gap of the Al 2O 3 host, we can identify promising candidates for transparent bulk metals. We explain the mechanisms leading to this combination of materials properties. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Holographic bulk viscosity: GPR vs EO

    CERN Document Server

    Buchel, Alex; Kiritsis, Elias

    2011-01-01

    Recently Eling and Oz (EO) proposed a formula for the holographic bulk viscosity, in arXiv:1103.1657, derived from the null horizon focusing equation. This formula seems different from that obtained earlier by Gubser, Pufu and Rocha (GPR) in arXiv:0806.0407 calculated from the IR limit of the two-point function of the trace of the stress tensor. The two were shown to agree only for some simple scaling cases. We point out that the two formulae agree in two non-trivial holographic theories describing RG flows. The first is the strongly coupled N=2* gauge theory plasma. The second is the semi-phenomenological model of Improved Holographic QCD.

  7. Tuneable film bulk acoustic wave resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Gevorgian, Spartak Sh; Vorobiev, Andrei K

    2013-01-01

    To handle many standards and ever increasing bandwidth requirements, large number of filters and switches are used in transceivers of modern wireless communications systems. It makes the cost, performance, form factor, and power consumption of these systems, including cellular phones, critical issues. At present, the fixed frequency filter banks based on Film Bulk Acoustic Resonators (FBAR) are regarded as one of the most promising technologies to address performance -form factor-cost issues. Even though the FBARs improve the overall performances the complexity of these systems remains high.  Attempts are being made to exclude some of the filters by bringing the digital signal processing (including channel selection) as close to the antennas as possible. However handling the increased interference levels is unrealistic for low-cost battery operated radios. Replacing fixed frequency filter banks by one tuneable filter is the most desired and widely considered scenario. As an example, development of the softwa...

  8. Interface control of bulk ferroelectric polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, P [University of California, Berkeley; Luo, Weidong [ORNL; Yi, D. [University of California, Berkeley; Zhang, J.-X. [University of California, Berkeley; Rossell, M.D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Yang, C.-H. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology; You, L. [University of California, Berkeley; Singh-Bhalla, G. B. [University of California, Berkeley & LBNL; Yang, S.Y [University of California, Berkeley; He, Q [University of California, Berkeley; Ramasse, Q. M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Erni, R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Martin, L. W. [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Chu, Y. H. [University of California, Berkeley; Pantelides, Sokrates T [ORNL; Pennycook, Stephen J [ORNL; Ramesh, R. [University of California, Berkeley

    2012-01-01

    The control of material interfaces at the atomic level has led to no- vel interfacial properties and functionalities. In particular, the study of polar discontinuities at interfaces between complex oxides lies at the frontier of modern condensed matter research. Here we em- ploy a combination of experimental measurements and theoretical calculations to demonstrate the control of a bulk property, namely ferroelectric polarization, of a heteroepitaxial bilayer by precise atomic-scale interface engineering. More specifically, the control is achieved by exploiting the interfacial valence mismatch to influence the electrostatic potential step across the interface, which manifests itself as the biased-voltage in ferroelectric hysteresis loops and determines the ferroelectric state. A broad study of diverse systems comprising different ferroelectrics and conducting perovskite un- derlayers extends the generality of this phenomenon.

  9. Criticality in Bulk Metallic Glass Constituent Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Rodrigo Miguel Ojeda; Graedel, T. E.; Pekarskaya, Evgenia; Schroers, Jan

    2017-11-01

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), which readily form amorphous phases during solidification, are increasingly being used in first applications of watch components, electronic casings, and sporting goods. The compositions of BMGs typically include four to six elements. Various political and geological factors have recently led to supply disruptions for several metals, including some present in BMG compositions. In this work, we assess the "criticality" of 22 technologically interesting BMG compositions, compare the results with those for three common engineering alloy groups, and derive recommendations for BMG composition choices from a criticality perspective. The criticality of BMGs is found to be generally much higher compared with those for the established engineering alloys. Therefore, criticality concerns should also be considered in the choice between existing and developing novel BMGs.

  10. Bulk disk resonator based ultrasensitive mass sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cagliani, Alberto; Davis, Zachary James

    2009-01-01

    In the framework of developing an innovative label-free sensor for multiarrayed biodetection applications, we present a novel bulk resonator based mass sensor. The sensor is a polysilicon disk which shows a Q-factor of 6400 in air at 68.8 MHz, resulting in mass resolutions down in the femtogram...... range. The sensor has been characterized in terms of sensitivity both for distributed mass detection, performing six consecutive depositions of e-beam evaporated Au, and localized mass detection, depositing approximately 7.5 pg of Pt/Ga/C three times consecutively with a Focused Ion Beam system....... The sensor has an extremely high distributed mass to frequency shift sensitivity of 60104 Hzcm2/¿g and shows a localized mass to frequency sensitivity up to 4405 Hz/pg with a localized mass resolution down to 15 fg. The device has been fabricated with a new microfabrication process that uses only two...

  11. How Many Bulk Metallic Glasses Are There?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanglin; Zhao, Shaofan; Liu, Yanhui; Gong, Pan; Schroers, Jan

    2017-11-13

    Quantitative prediction of glass forming ability using a priori known parameters is highly desired in metallic glass development; however proven to be challenging because of the complexity of glass formation. Here, we estimate the number of potential metallic glasses (MGs) and bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) forming systems and alloys, from empirically determined alloy design rules based on a priori known parameters. Specifically, we take into account atomic size ratio, heat of mixing, and liquidus temperature, which we quantify on binary glasses and centimeter-sized BMGs. When expanding into higher order systems that can be formed among 32 practical elements, we reduce the composition space for BMG formation using developed criteria by 106 times and estimate ∼3 million binary, ternary, quaternary, and quinary BMGs alloys.

  12. Rotary adsorbers for continuous bulk separations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Frederick S [Oak Ridge, TN

    2011-11-08

    A rotary adsorber for continuous bulk separations is disclosed. The rotary adsorber includes an adsorption zone in fluid communication with an influent adsorption fluid stream, and a desorption zone in fluid communication with a desorption fluid stream. The fluid streams may be gas streams or liquid streams. The rotary adsorber includes one or more adsorption blocks including adsorbent structure(s). The adsorbent structure adsorbs the target species that is to be separated from the influent fluid stream. The apparatus includes a rotary wheel for moving each adsorption block through the adsorption zone and the desorption zone. A desorption circuit passes an electrical current through the adsorbent structure in the desorption zone to desorb the species from the adsorbent structure. The adsorbent structure may include porous activated carbon fibers aligned with their longitudinal axis essentially parallel to the flow direction of the desorption fluid stream. The adsorbent structure may be an inherently electrically-conductive honeycomb structure.

  13. Solid state properties from bulk to nano

    CERN Document Server

    Dresselhaus, Mildred; Cronin, Stephen; Gomes Souza Filho, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    This book fills a gap between many of the basic solid state physics and materials science books that are currently available. It is written for a mixed audience of electrical engineering and applied physics students who have some knowledge of elementary undergraduate quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics. This book, based on a successful course taught at MIT, is divided pedagogically into three parts: (I) Electronic Structure, (II) Transport Properties, and (III) Optical Properties. Each topic is explained in the context of bulk materials and then extended to low-dimensional materials where applicable. Problem sets review the content of each chapter to help students to understand the material described in each of the chapters more deeply and to prepare them to master the next chapters.

  14. Generation and Stability of Bulk Nanobubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seung Hoon; Kim, Jong-Min

    2017-04-18

    Recently, extremely small bubbles, referred to as nanobubbles, have drawn increased attention due to their novel properties and great potential for various applications. In this study, a novel method for the generation of bulk nanobubbles (BNBs) was introduced, and stability of fabricated BNBs was investigated. BNBs were created from CO2 gas with a mixing method; the chemical identity and phase state of these bubbles can be determined via infrared spectroscopy. The presence of BNBs was observed with a nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). The ATR-FTIR spectra of BNBs indicate that the BNBs were filled with CO2 gas. Furthermore, the BNB concentration and its ζ-potential were about 2.94 × 108 particles/mL and -20 mV, respectively (24 h after BNB generation with a mixing time of 120 min). This indicates the continued existence and stability of BNBs in water for an extended period of time.

  15. Assessment of bioburden encapsulated in bulk materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Wayne W.; Newlin, Laura; Chung, Shirley Y.; Ellyin, Raymond

    2016-05-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) imposes bioburden limitations on all spacecraft destined for solar system bodies that might harbor evidence of extant or extinct life. The subset of microorganisms trapped within solid materials during manufacture and assembly is referred to as encapsulated bioburden. In the absence of spacecraft-specific data, NASA relies on specification values to estimate total spacecraft encapsulated bioburden, typically 30 endospores/cm3 or 300 viable cells/cm3 in non-electronic materials. Specification values for endospores have been established conservatively, and represent no less than an order of magnitude greater abundance than that derived from empirical assessments of actual spacecraft materials. The goal of this study was to generate data germane to determining whether revised bulk encapsulated material values (lower than those estimated by historical specifications) tailored specifically to the materials designated in modern-day spacecraft design could be used, on a case-by-case basis, to comply with planetary protection requirements. Organic materials having distinctly different chemical properties and configurations were selected. This required more than one experimental and analytical approach. Filtration was employed for liquid electrolytes, lubricants were suspended in an aqueous solution and solids (wire and epoxy sealant) were cryogenically milled. The final data characteristic for all bioburden estimates was microbial colony formation in rich agar growth medium. To assess survival potential, three non-spore-forming bacterial cell lines were systematically encapsulated in an epoxy matrix, liberated via cryogenic grinding, and cultured. Results suggest that bulk solid materials harbor significantly fewer encapsulated microorganisms than are estimated by specification values. Lithium-ion battery electrolyte reagents housed fewer than 1 CFU/cm3. Results also demonstrated that non-spore-forming microorganisms

  16. Thermal conductivity of bulk and monolayer MoS2

    KAUST Repository

    Gandi, Appala

    2016-02-26

    © Copyright EPLA, 2016. We show that the lattice contribution to the thermal conductivity of MoS2 strongly dominates the carrier contribution in a broad temperature range from 300 to 800 K. Since theoretical insight into the lattice contribution is largely missing, though it would be essential for materials design, we solve the Boltzmann transport equation for the phonons self-consistently in order to evaluate the phonon lifetimes. In addition, the length scale for transition between diffusive and ballistic transport is determined. The low out-of-plane thermal conductivity of bulk MoS2 (2.3 Wm-1K-1 at 300 K) is useful for thermoelectric applications. On the other hand, the thermal conductivity of monolayer MoS2 (131 Wm-1K-1 at 300 K) is comparable to that of Si.

  17. Bulk characterization of pharmaceutical powders by low-pressure compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, A.H.; Sonnergaard, Jørn; Hovgaard, L.

    2005-01-01

    for characterization purposes. Significant correlation was demonstrated between several of the compression and tapping-derived parameters. The discriminative power of the low-pressure compression test was discussed using the compressed density at 0.2 MPa, correlated with the tapped density, and the relative Walker...... coefficient, correlated with the Compressibility Index, as examples. The compressed density at 0.2 MPa and the relative Walker coefficient demonstrated excellent discriminative power, superior to the discriminative power of the correlated tapping derived parameters. The low-pressure compression test......Low-pressure compression of pharmaceutical powders using small amounts of sample (50 mg) was evaluated as an alternative to traditional bulk powder characterization by tapping volumetry. Material parameters were extrapolated directly from the compression data and by fitting with the Walker...

  18. Anticancer substances of mushroom origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, T S; Krupodorova, T A; Barshteyn, V Y; Artamonova, A B; Shlyakhovenko, V A

    2014-06-01

    The present status of investigations about the anticancer activity which is inherent to medicinal mushrooms, as well as their biomedical potential and future prospects are discussed. Mushroom products and extracts possess promising immunomodulating and anticancer effects, so the main biologically active substances of mushrooms responsible for immunomodulation and direct cytoto-xicity toward cancer cell lines (including rarely mentioned groups of anticancer mushroom proteins), and the mechanisms of their antitumor action were analyzed. The existing to date clinical trials of mushroom substances are mentioned. Mushroom anticancer extracts, obtained by the different solvents, are outlined. Modern approaches of cancer treatment with implication of mushroom products, including DNA vaccinotherapy with mushroom immunomodulatory adjuvants, creation of prodrugs with mushroom lectins that can recognize glycoconjugates on the cancer cell surface, development of nanovectors etc. are discussed. The future prospects of mushroom anticancer substances application, including chemical modification of polysaccharides and terpenoids, gene engineering of proteins, and implementation of vaccines are reviewed.

  19. Medical marijuana users in substance abuse treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swartz Ronald

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rise of authorized marijuana use in the U.S. means that many individuals are using cannabis as they concurrently engage in other forms of treatment, such as substance abuse counseling and psychotherapy. Clinical and legal decisions may be influenced by findings that suggest marijuana use during treatment serves as an obstacle to treatment success, compromises treatment integrity, or increases the prevalence or severity of relapse. In this paper, the author reviews the relationship between authorized marijuana use and substance abuse treatment utilizing data from a preliminary pilot study that, for the first time, uses a systematic methodology to collect data examining possible effects on treatment. Methods Data from the California Outcomes Measurement System (CalOMS were compared for medical (authorized marijuana users and non-marijuana users who were admitted to a public substance abuse treatment program in California. Behavioral and social treatment outcomes recorded by clinical staff at discharge and reported to the California Department of Alcohol and Drug Programs were assessed for both groups, which included a sample of 18 reported medical marijuana users. Results While the findings described here are preliminary and very limited due to the small sample size, the study demonstrates that questions about the relationship between medical marijuana use and involvement in drug treatment can be systematically evaluated. In this small sample, cannabis use did not seem to compromise substance abuse treatment amongst the medical marijuana using group, who (based on these preliminary data fared equal to or better than non-medical marijuana users in several important outcome categories (e.g., treatment completion, criminal justice involvement, medical concerns. Conclusions This exploratory study suggests that medical marijuana is consistent with participation in other forms of drug treatment and may not adversely affect

  20. Substance Abuse Screening and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenegra, Johnny C; Leebold, Bobby

    2016-06-01

    One of the more prevalent and often undiagnosed problems seen by primary care clinicians is substance misuse. Resulting in increased morbidity and mortality, loss of productivity, and increased health care costs, substance misuse in our society remains a significant public health issue. Primary care physicians are on the front lines of medical care, and as such, are in a distinctive position to recognize potential problems in this area and assist. This article outlines office-based screening approaches and strategies for managing and treating this complex issue confronting primary care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Substance Use Among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, Chloe R; Kaufman, Erin A; Crowell, Sheila E

    2016-10-01

    Emerging adulthood has heightened risk for substance use. College students experience unique challenges, making them prone to use of alcohol, marijuana, and nonmedical use of prescription drugs. This article reviews rates of college students' substance use, risk factors, and populations at elevated risk. Consequences include legal, academic, and mental health problems; engagement in other risky behaviors; increased rates of injury; and death. Researchers, clinicians, and university administrators must identify those at greatest risk and provide prevention and intervention programs. Despite broad evidence supporting such programs, many students fail to access appropriate treatment. Future research should elucidate treatment barriers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Psychometric properties of the IES-R in traumatized substance dependent individuals with and without PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rash, Carla J; Coffey, Scott F; Baschnagel, Joseph S; Drobes, David J; Saladin, Michael E

    2008-08-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is common among treatment-seeking substance abusers. Despite the high prevalence of these co-occurring conditions, few PTSD screening tools have been evaluated for their utility in identifying PTSD in substance use disorder (SUD) populations. The present study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) in a sample of 124 substance dependent individuals. All participants had a history of a DSM-IV Criterion A traumatic event, and 71 individuals met diagnostic criteria for PTSD. Participants with comorbid PTSD reported significantly more symptoms of anxiety, depression, and PTSD compared to substance dependent individuals without PTSD. Acceptable internal consistency and convergent validity of the IES-R were established among a substance dependent sample. Examination of diagnostic effectiveness suggested a cutoff value of 22 as optimal for a substance using population, resulting in adequate classification accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity.

  3. Perceived stress and substance use in methadone-maintained smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moitra, Ethan; Anderson, Bradley J; Stein, Michael D

    2013-12-01

    In methadone maintenance treatment programs (MMTPs), 80-90% of participants smoke cigarettes. Patients in MMTPs are at particular risk for life stress, and nicotine, as well as other substances like alcohol, benzodiazepines, cocaine, marijuana, and opiates have been shown to reduce the effects of stress. Use of these addictive substances to cope with stress may precipitate illicit opiate relapse in MMTP patients. In the current study, we examined the relationship between perceived stress and substance abuse. Participants were 315 cigarette smokers recruited from nine MMTPs for a smoking cessation study. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the adjusted association of perceived stress with dichotomous indicators of hazardous alcohol use and recent substance use at baseline. After controlling for demographic and smoking-related variables, perceived stress was associated positively and significantly with the likelihood of screening positive for hazardous drinking or alcohol-related problems (OR=1.13, 95%CI 1.02; 1.25), with the likelihood of recent cocaine use (OR=1.18, 95%CI 1.02; 1.37), and with the likelihood of recent benzodiazepine use (OR=1.24, 95%CI 1.07). Perceived stress may be a marker of patients' risk for illicit substance use, a known risk factor for illicit opiate relapse. These findings indicate that cigarette use might not be sufficient in managing stress and methadone-maintained persons turn to other substances for relief. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterizing bulk modulus of fine-grained subgrade soils under large capacity construction equipment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available correlation models for the soil sample tested. These models can be used for evaluating the impact of moisture on bulk modulus of fine-grained soils with similar characteristics for their sustainable use in foundation applications under off-road construction...

  5. Today’s and tomorrow’s bio-based bulk chemicals from white biotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermann, B.G.; Patel, M.K.

    2007-01-01

    Little information is yet available on the economic viability of the production of bio-based bulk chemicals and intermediates from white biotechnology (WB). This paper details a methodology to systematically evaluate the techno-economic prospects of present and future production routes of bio-based

  6. Prevalence of Alcohol and Substance Use Disorder among Psychiatric Inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonca Karakus

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of alcohol and substance use disorders in psychiatric inpatient clinics and determine the frequencies of alcohol and substance use disorder among psychiatric disease groups and find out the differences in between these groups. Material and Methods: Thus all patients admitted to inpatients psychiatric clinics of in one year period were approached for inclusion into this study, and 155 patients with a hospitalization period longer than one day who provided informed consent were included in the study. All patients included in the study were interviewed with a semi structured interview scale to get information regarding the presence of alcohol, nicotine and other substance use disorder. Results: The results of this study confirmed high rates of alcohol, nicotine and substance use disorder comorbidity in psychiatric inpatients. The results of one year prospective follow up study revealed that 57.4% of patients had nicotine dependence, 21.9% alcohol dependence and misuse and 9% had sedative misuse or dependence. The rate of substance use disorder was high among all psychiatric disorder subgroups. Considering all substances including nicotine together, 55% of patients with psychotic disorder had at least one substance use disorder whereas these figures were 61% and 81% for affective disorders and anxiety disorders respectively. Conclusion: Professionals dealing with treatment of psychiatric disorders should always be aware of substance use disorder comorbidity, and start treatment immediately without causing any delay in treatment. Obviously we need future large prospective studies to get more insight into these dual-diagnose disorders. [Cukurova Med J 2012; 37(1.000: 37-48

  7. Locality, bulk equations of motion and the conformal bootstrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabat, Daniel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lehman College, City University of New York,250 Bedford Park Blvd. W, Bronx NY 10468 (United States); Lifschytz, Gilad [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Natural Science, University of Haifa,199 Aba Khoushy Ave., Haifa 31905 (Israel)

    2016-10-18

    We develop an approach to construct local bulk operators in a CFT to order 1/N{sup 2}. Since 4-point functions are not fixed by conformal invariance we use the OPE to categorize possible forms for a bulk operator. Using previous results on 3-point functions we construct a local bulk operator in each OPE channel. We then impose the condition that the bulk operators constructed in different channels agree, and hence give rise to a well-defined bulk operator. We refer to this condition as the “bulk bootstrap.” We argue and explicitly show in some examples that the bulk bootstrap leads to some of the same results as the regular conformal bootstrap. In fact the bulk bootstrap provides an easier way to determine some CFT data, since it does not require knowing the form of the conformal blocks. This analysis clarifies previous results on the relation between bulk locality and the bootstrap for theories with a 1/N expansion, and it identifies a simple and direct way in which OPE coefficients and anomalous dimensions determine the bulk equations of motion to order 1/N{sup 2}.

  8. The Effect of Subbandgap Illumination on the Bulk Resistivity of CdZnTe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Jonathan S.; Washington II, Aaron L.; Duff, Martine C.; Burger, Arnold; Groza, Michael; Matei, Liviu; Buliga, Vladimir

    2013-08-24

    The variation in bulk resistivity during infrared (IR) illumination above 950 nm of state-of-the-art CdZnTe (CZT) crystals grown using the traveling heating method or the modified Bridgman method is documented. The change in steady-state current with and without illumination is also evaluated. The influence of secondary phases (SP) on current-voltage (I-V) characteristics is discussed using IR transmission microscopy to determine the defect concentration within the crystal bulk. SP present within the CZT are connected to the existence of deep, IR-excitable traps within the bandgap.

  9. Chloride diffusivity of the interfacial transition zone and bulk paste in concrete from microscale analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, P.; De Lorenzis, L.

    2017-06-01

    The chloride diffusive behavior of the interfacial transition zone (ITZ) and of the bulk hardened cement paste (HCP) in concrete is studied at the microscale level and accounts for the coupling between diffusion and binding under steady state conditions. Plain HCP is also studied as a reference. All the microstructures are obtained using the cement hydration model CEMHYD3D, and the relevant diffusive parameters are upscaled from the microscale to the mesoscale using volume averaging. The phenomena characterizing the diffusive behavior of ITZ and bulk paste are identified and quantitatively evaluated.

  10. Mass spectrometry study of increased breakdown of an anticonvulsivant drug substance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buret, D.; Breton, D.; Clair, P.; Lafosse, M.

    2006-06-01

    The French Military Health Service (SSA) developed a new pharmaceutic speciality as a treatment against neurotoxic organophosphate poisoning (NSP), as a substitute for existing therapeutics. The Armed Forces Central Pharmacy (PCA) is in charge of the development of therapeutic formulation and stability studies. This product includes three drug substances: atropine, pralidoxime and avizafone, an amine prodrug of diazepam, soluble in water. The PCA performed a stability study of this formulation according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) recommendations: it was used to display interaction between the molecules and the plastic of the cartridge (the container turned yellow). Since no degradation product of atropine and pralidoxime was observed, a complementary evaluation of avizafone and its main known degradation products (diazepam, carbostyril and methylaminobenzochlorophenone [MACB]) was initiated. The results were used to determine the degradation products obtained under different conditions and the kind of mechanisms, which may occur as the formulation ages: adsorption or absorption by the bulk and/or increasing degradation products. The analytical methods developed here are a direct sample analysis by mass spectrometry (MS) using different ionization modes and liquid chromatography (LC) with UV detection to confirm the results obtain with MS.

  11. Evaluasi Status Bahan Organik Dan Sifat Fisik Tanah (Bulk Density, Tekstur, Suhu Tanah) Pada Lahan Tanaman Kopi (Coffea SP.) Di Beberapa Kecamatan Kabupaten Dairi

    OpenAIRE

    Br.Tarigan, Emalia Sinarta; Guchi, Hardy; Marbun, Posma

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation Status of Organic Matter Content and Soil Physical Properties (Bulk Density, Texture and Soil Temperature) the Coffee Crop Land (Coffeea Sp.) in Some Districts Dairipurpose to makeevaluation status of the organic matter and soil physical properties (bulk density, texture and soil temperature) the coffee crop land (Coffeea Sp.) in some districts Dairi. Sampling using free methods tosurvey the level of review and analysis of data C- organic by Walkey and Black method, bulk densityby ...

  12. The Operational Priority Substances model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaarsveld JA van; LED

    2004-01-01

    This report describes in detail, OPS-Pro 4.1, the latest version of the Operational Priority Substances (OPS) model. OPS is a model that simulates the atmospheric process sequence of emission, dispersion, transport, chemical conversion and finally deposition. The model is set up as a universal

  13. Substance Use as Impression Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Mark J.; Getz, J. Greg

    1996-01-01

    Examines the function of substance use as an impression management tactic. Introductory psychology students (n=377) responded to a survey instrument measuring self-monitoring, perceived success in impression management, interaction anxiety, and self-esteem. Results suggest that alcohol use may serve an impression management function. (JPS)

  14. Substance Abuse Treatment Facility Locator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... certification/accreditation All / None / Reverse   State substance abuse agency   State mental health department   State department of health   Hospital licensing authority   The Joint Commission   Commission on Accreditation ...

  15. Analytical Chemistry of Perfluoroalkylated Substances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Voogt, P.; Saez Ribas, M.

    2006-01-01

    Polyfluorinated alkylated substances have recently gainedscientific interest because they have been found to be present in appreciable concentrations in human serum, in surface waters, and in tissues of wildlife from remote areas. The developments in analytical chemistry of these mainly neutral or

  16. Bulk Modulus Relaxation in Partially Molten Dunite?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, I.; Cline, C. J., II

    2016-12-01

    Synthetic solgel-derived Fo90 olivine was mixed with 3.5 wt % basaltic glass and hot-pressed within Ni/Fe foil to produce a dense aggregate expected to contain a small melt fraction at temperatures ≥ 1100°C. This specimen was precision ground and tested in both torsional and flexural forced oscillation to determine the relaxation behavior of both shear (G) and bulk (K) moduli at seismic frequencies. A recent upgrade of our experimental facility allows such measurements to be made without alteration of the driver/detector geometry, and uses an oscillating bending force rather than a bending moment, as previously described. The torsional and flexural tests were conducted in a gas apparatus at 200 MPa confining pressure, with oscillation periods ranging between 1 and 1000 s, during slow staged-cooling from 1300 to 25°C. Shear modulus and associated dissipation data are consistent with those for melt-bearing olivine specimens previously tested in torsion, with a pronounced dissipation peak superimposed on high-temperature background within the 1-1000 s observational window at temperatures of 1100-1200°C. A filament elongation model relates the observed flexural measurements to the variations along the experimental assembly of the complex Young's modulus (E*), bending moment and diametral moment of inertia. With E* given by 1/E*=1/(3G*) + 1/(9K*), and the complex shear modulus (G*) derived from torsional oscillation, any relaxation of K can be identified. Preliminary modeling shows that the viscoelastic properties in flexure are broadly consistent with those expected from the shear-mode viscoelasticity with anharmonic (real) values of K. However, some discrepancies between modeled results and flexure data at super-solidus temperatures require further investigation of possible differences in shear modulus relaxation between the torsional and flexural modes, and of potential relaxation of the bulk modulus through stress-induced changes in melt redistribution and

  17. Substance use pattern, self-control and social network are associated with crime in a substance-using population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjaervø, Ingeborg; Skurtveit, Svetlana; Clausen, Thomas; Bukten, Anne

    2017-03-01

    Crime rates are high in substance-using populations; therefore, investigation of factors associated with crime in these populations is highly relevant. We describe crime prevalence and associations between crime, pattern of substance use and psychosocial factors, such as self-control and social network. This is a cross-sectional study including substance users (n = 549; mean age 34 years; 27% women) entering treatment at 21 treatment centres across Norway (December 2012 to April 2015). Data on demographics, substance use, psychosocial variables and crime in the 6 months prior to treatment were obtained through interviews. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated through logistic regression. Sixty-four percent of participants had committed crime in the 6 months prior to treatment. Of these, 93% committed income-generating crime. Several factors were associated with increased likelihood of having committed crime: use of stimulants (aOR = 1.82, 95% CI 1.04-3.17), use of a higher number of different substances (aOR = 1.16, 95% CI 1.04-1.31) and spending most of their time with family or friends using addictive substances (aOR = 2.38, 95% CI 1.10-5.16 and aOR = 2.22, 95% CI 1.32-3.73). Protective factors associated with decreased likelihood of committing crime were being older (aOR = 0.95, 95% CI 0.92-0.97) and having higher self-control (aOR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.91-0.97). Stimulant use, higher number of different substances used, lower self-control, primarily a substance-using social network and being younger were associated with crime in this substance-using population. Treatment clinics should consider these risk factors for crime, and suitable interventions should be implemented and evaluated. [Skjaervø I, Skurtveit S, Clausen T, Bukten A. Substance use pattern, self-control and social network are associated with crime in a substance-using population. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:245-252]. © 2016

  18. Isolation and characterization of culturable bacteria from bulk soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Olaf _SK

    2015-03-18

    Mar 18, 2015 ... pods with large brownish-black oil and protein-rich seeds. (Holse et al., 2010). ... nutrition and increase food availability in arid ecological zones. .... 3. Bulk. Eight. BP6, BP7, BP8, BP9, BP10, BP11, BP12, BP13. 4. Bulk. Three. BP14, BP15, BP16. 5. Bulk. Three. BP17, BP18, BP19. 6. Rhizosphere. Two.

  19. Effect of preheating and light-curing unit on physicochemical properties of a bulk fill composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobaldo, Jéssica Dias; Aguiar, Flávio Henrique Baggio; Pini, Núbia Inocencya Pavesi; Lima, Débora Alves Nunes Leite; Liporoni, Priscila Christiane Suzy; Catelan, Anderson

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of composite preheating and polymerization mode on degree of conversion (DC), microhardness (KHN), plasticization (P), and depth of polymerization (DP) of a bulk fill composite. Forty disc-shaped samples (n = 5) of a bulk fill composite were prepared (5 × 4 mm thick) and randomly divided into 4 groups according to light-curing unit (quartz-tungsten-halogen [QTH] or light-emitting diode [LED]) and preheating temperature (23 or 54 °C). A control group was prepared with a flowable composite at room temperature. DC was determined using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, KHN was measured with a Knoop indenter, P was evaluated by percentage reduction of hardness after 24 h of ethanol storage, and DP was obtained by bottom/top ratio. Data were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). Regardless of light-curing, the highest preheating temperature increased DC compared to room temperature on bottom surface. LED showed a higher DC compared to QTH. Overall, DC was higher on top surface than bottom. KHN, P, and DP were not affected by curing mode and temperature, and flowable composite showed similar KHN, and lower DC and P, compared to bulk fill. Composite preheating increased the polymerization degree of 4-mm-increment bulk fill, but it led to a higher plasticization compared to the conventional flowable composite evaluated.

  20. Determination of Bulk Dimensional Variation in Castings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. James F. Cuttino Dr. Edward P. Morse

    2005-04-14

    The purpose of this work is to improve the efficiency of green sand foundries so that they may continue to compete as the most cost-effective method of fabrication while meeting tightening constraints on near-net shape manufacturing. In order to achieve this objective, the study is divided into two major components. The first component concentrated on identifying which processes control surface finish on the castings and which provide potential reductions in variations. The second component identified metrological methods that effectively discern between the geometry of bulk material versus surface finish in order to more accurately determine the quality of a part. The research resulted in the determination of an empirical relationship relating pouring parameters to dimensional variation, with an R2 value of greater than 0.79. A significant difference in variations obtained from vertical vs. horizontal molding machines was also noticed. When analyzed separately, however, the resulting empirical relationships for horizontal and vertical machines had reduced R2 values, probably due to the reduced data sets. Significant parameters when considering vertical and horizontal molding machines together included surface roughness, pattern type, iron type, pouring rate, copper content, amount of Western Bentonite, and permeability.

  1. FAA bulk technology overview for explosives detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakoff, Alan K.

    1993-04-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is the leading federal agency responsible for encouraging and fostering the development of a safe, secure, and efficient national airspace system (NAS). Our goal is to establish an operating environment that ensures a threat-free system to preclude acts of terrorism and fatalities. As part of the process to meet this goal, our research and development activities continually search for technologies to ensure aviation security. Recent acts of terrorism against the aviation community have demonstrated an increasing level of sophistication in the design and deployment of explosive devices. In order to prevent the introduction of explosives onto an aircraft they must be detected prior to passenger and baggage loading. The Bulk Detection program is one method of developing a number of technologies that 'see' into and 'alarm' on suspect baggage. These detection devices must be capable of providing this serve with a confidence commensurate with the state-of-the- art available today. This program utilizes the expertise of government agencies, universities and industries working toward constructing their plans and executing their designs to produce the best available equipment.

  2. Recent developments of film bulk acoustic resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Junning; Liu, Guorong; Li, Jie; Li, Guoqiang

    2016-06-01

    Film bulk acoustic wave resonator (FBAR) experienced skyrocketing development in the past 15 years, owing to the explosive development of mobile communication. It stands out in acoustic filters mainly because of high quality factor, which enables low insertion loss and sharp roll off. Except for the massive application in wireless communication, FBARs are also promising sensors because of the high sensitivity and readily integration ability to miniaturize circuits. On the ground of summarizing FBAR’s application in wireless communication as filters and in sensors including electronic nose, bio field, and pressure sensing, this paper review the main challenges of each application faced. The number of filters installed in the mobile phone has being grown explosively, which leads to overcrowded bands and put harsh requirements on component size and power consumption control for each unit. Data flow and rate are becoming increasingly demanding as well. This paper discusses three promising technical strategies addressing these issues. Among which coupled resonator filter is given intense attention because it is able to vigorously reduce the filter size by stacking two or more resonators together, and it is a great technique to increase data flow and rate. Temperature compensation methods are discussed considering their vital influence on frequency stability. Finally, materials improvement and novel materials exploration for band width modulation, tunable band acquisition, and quality factor improvement are discussed. The authors appeal attention of the academic society to bring AlN epitaxial thin film into the FBAR fabrication and have proposed a configuration to implement this idea.

  3. Tip-enhanced bulk photovoltaic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturman, B.; Podivilov, E.

    2017-10-01

    Using the conventional macroscopic description of the bulk photovoltaic effect we analyze the light-induced currents and electric fields arising in the optical configuration with a continuous bottom electrode and a small circular top electrode. This scheme is relevant to recent experiments on the tip-enhanced photovoltaic effect in ferroelectrics. It is shown that a light-induced electric field remains nonzero inside the sample even in the short-circuit regime. Moreover, it is enhanced compared to the photovoltaic field in a large area and strongly enhanced near the top electrode. A field-assisted collection of charge carriers from the illuminated area produces a strong local enhancement of the current density near the top electrode. The tip-enhanced electric field is typically parallel to the photovoltaic current. It is sufficient to repolarize the crystal near the top electrode. The effect of the tip enhancement on the light-current transformation efficiency is considered, and predictions for the tip radius and sample thickness dependencies of the total light-induced current are made.

  4. Photoelectron spectroscopy bulk and surface electronic structures

    CERN Document Server

    Suga, Shigemasa

    2014-01-01

    Photoelectron spectroscopy is now becoming more and more required to investigate electronic structures of various solid materials in the bulk, on surfaces as well as at buried interfaces. The energy resolution was much improved in the last decade down to 1 meV in the low photon energy region. Now this technique is available from a few eV up to 10 keV by use of lasers, electron cyclotron resonance lamps in addition to synchrotron radiation and X-ray tubes. High resolution angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) is now widely applied to band mapping of materials. It attracts a wide attention from both fundamental science and material engineering. Studies of the dynamics of excited states are feasible by time of flight spectroscopy with fully utilizing the pulse structures of synchrotron radiation as well as lasers including the free electron lasers (FEL). Spin resolved studies also made dramatic progress by using higher efficiency spin detectors and two dimensional spin detectors. Polarization depend...

  5. Dilepton radiation and bulk viscosity in heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujanovic, Gojko; Paquet, Jean-François; Shen, Chun; Denicol, Gabriel S.; Jeon, Sangyong; Gale, Charles; Heinz, Ulrich

    2017-08-01

    Starting from IP-Glasma initial conditions, we investigate the effects of bulk pressure on thermal dilepton production at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) energies. Though results of the thermal dilepton v2 under the influence of both bulk and shear viscosity is presented for top RHIC energy, more emphasis is put on LHC energy where such a calculation is computed for the first time. The effects of the bulk pressure on thermal dilepton v2 at the LHC are explored through bulk-induced modifications on the dilepton yield.

  6. Influence of carrier concentration on the control of Galactomyces geotrichum bulking and bacterial community of biofilm reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Matos, M.; Pereira, M A; Nicolau, Ana; A.L. Rodrigues; Brito, A. G.; Nogueira, R.

    2012-01-01

    The present work aims to evaluate a strategy to solve Galactomyces geotrichum bulking based on the incorporation of a biofilm carrier in activated sludge systems. For this study, four sequencing batch reactors (SBR) were operated without (SBR1) and with a carrier for biofilm growth (5% [SBR2], 10% [SBR3], and 20% [SBR4] of the reactor volume). As expected, G. geotrichum bulking was observed in the SBR operating just with suspended biomass, as ascertained by direct microscopic inspection. The ...

  7. Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Adolescent Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Holly Barrett; Turner, Charles W.

    2008-01-01

    This review synthesized findings from 17 studies since 1998 regarding evaluation of outpatient treatments for adolescent substance abuse. These studies represented systematic design advances in adolescent clinical trial science. The research examined 46 different intervention conditions with a total sample of 2,307 adolescents. The sample included…

  8. The effect of nutrients on extracellular polymeric substance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of nutrients on extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) production and its impact on sludge properties and removal efficiencies were investigated in an in-depth field survey of wastewater treatment plants. Thereafter, laboratory studies were performed to evaluate the effect of a combination of nutrients - nitrogen ...

  9. The prevalence of substance use and its associations amongst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: In South Africa, there has been an increase in illicit drug trafficking and consumption and associated problems since the 1990s. Mitchells Plain in Cape Town is seen as a community battling with crime, gangsterism, unemployment, overcrowding, substance abuse and poverty. This study evaluated the actual ...

  10. Risk factors for gambling and substance use among recent college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Kimberly M; Arria, Amelia M; O'Grady, Kevin E; Vincent, Kathryn B; Robertson, Carl; Welsh, Christopher J

    2017-10-01

    While it is well known that substance use and gambling overlap, the degree to which this overlap can be explained by shared risk factors has not been fully explored. This study aimed to identify common and unique risk factors for gambling and substance use among young adults. Young adults (n=1,019) in a longitudinal study since college entry were interviewed annually. Past-year frequency of seven gambling activities was assessed once (Year 5). Structural equation models evaluated suspected risk factors in two models, one for gambling with substance use as an intermediary variable, and one for substance use with gambling as the intermediary variable. Sixty percent gambled; 6% gambled weekly or more. Examination of the two structural models supported the existence of significant paths (a) from two of the five substance use variables (alcohol, drugs) to gambling frequency, and (b) from gambling frequency to all five substance use variables. Every risk factor associated with gambling was also associated with one or more substance use variables. Risk factors common to gambling and substance use were sex, race/ethnicity, extracurricular involvement (fraternity/sorority, athletics), impulsive sensation-seeking, and behavioral dysregulation. Risk factors unique to substance use were conduct problems, anxiety, and parent's history of alcohol and mental health problems. Gambling and substance use are interrelated, but with incomplete overlap in their respective risk factors. Results underscore the need for longitudinal research to elucidate their distinct etiologies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Dual Diagnosis: Substance Abuse and Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is a term for when someone experiences a mental illness and a substance use disorder simultaneously. Either disorder—substance use or mental illness—can develop first. People experiencing a mental health ...

  12. Risk Assessment of New Chemical Substances: System Realisation and Validation II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet C; de Nijs ACM; Vermeire TG; van der Poel P; Tuinstra J

    1991-01-01

    In the project "Evaluation System new substances", methods are developed to systematically predict and assess the hazards for man and environment related to the production and use of new chemical substances. Part of the project is the realisation of a Risk Assessment System for New

  13. Severity of Victimization and Co-Occurring Mental Health Disorders among Substance Using Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, Bushra

    2012-01-01

    Background: Co-occurring mental health disorders are widespread among substance using adolescents. Severity of victimization may be an important factor in explaining co-occurrence of mental health problems among adolescents with substance misuse problems. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether severe victimization experiences…

  14. Latent Model Analysis of Substance Use and HIV Risk Behaviors among High-Risk Minority Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min Qi; Matthew, Resa F.; Chiu, Yu-Wen; Yan, Fang; Bellamy, Nikki D.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: This study evaluated substance use and HIV risk profile using a latent model analysis based on ecological theory, inclusive of a risk and protective factor framework, in sexually active minority adults (N=1,056) who participated in a federally funded substance abuse and HIV prevention health initiative from 2002 to 2006. Methods: Data…

  15. Caregiver Substance Abuse among Maltreated Children Placed in Out-of-Home Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besinger, Bridgett A.; Garland, Ann F.; Litrownik, Alan J.; Landsverk, John A.

    1999-01-01

    Reviewed child protective services' case records of 639 children placed in out-of-home care due to maltreatment, and systematically evaluated substance abuse by the child's parents or guardian prior to placement. Found that 79% of caregivers met criteria for caregiver substance abuse (CSA); children with and without CSA differed in age, ethnicity,…

  16. 75 FR 74738 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Online Skills Training for PCPs on Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... research will evaluate the effectiveness of the Online Skills Training for PCPs on Substance Abuse, via the... clinical skills of primary care physicians in the US who treat substance abuse patients. The Online Skills... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  17. Xerophilic mycopopulations of teas in bulk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škrinjar Marija M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available d.o.o., Novi Sad AU Krunić Vesna J. AF EKOLd.o.o., Novi Sad KW teas % mould contamination % thermal treatment KR nema Other the water, tea is the most popular beverage in the world today. They are used for ages, in the beginning as refreshing drinks, and later more for their healing properties. Teas have been demonstrated to show antioxidative, anti-carcinogenic, and anti-microbial properties. Considering that the teas, during the production, are not treated with any temperature, there is high risk for contamination with different type of microorganisms, especially with moulds. Moulds are ubiquitously distributed in nature and their spores can be found in the atmosphere even at high altitudes and under favorable conditions of temperature and humidity, moulds grow on many commodities including cereals, oil seeds, nuts, herbs and spices. Most of them are potential producers of mycotoxins which present a real hazard to human health. The aim of this work was to investigate total mould count and to identify moulds isolated from teas in bulk, than from teas treated with hot, sterile, distilled water and from the tea filtrates. Tested teas were peppermint, sage, yarrow, black tea, bearberry, lemon balm, mixture of teas from Zlatibor. In teas in balk was observed high contamination with different kinds of moulds (1.84-4.55 cfu/g, such as Aspergillus awamori, A. lovaniensis, A niger, A. phoenicus, A. repens, A. restrictus, A. sydowii, A. versicolor, Eurotium amstelodami, E. chevalieri, E. herbariorum, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. The most frequent were species from Aspergillus and Eurotium genera. Thermal treatment with hot, sterile, distilled water reduced the number of fungal colonies. Aspergillus awamori was the most resistant and appeared in six samples of filtrates of tea, Aspergillus niger in one sample and Penicillium chrysogenum in one sample.

  18. Psychotropic substances in indoor environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecinato, Angelo; Romagnoli, Paola; Perilli, Mattia; Patriarca, Claudia; Balducci, Catia

    2014-10-01

    The presence of drugs in outdoor air has been established, but few investigations have been conducted indoors. This study focused on psychotropic substances (PSs) at three schools, four homes and one office in Rome, Italy. The indoor drug concentrations and the relationships with the outdoor atmosphere were investigated. The optimised monitoring procedure allowed for the determination of cocaine, cannabinoids and particulate fractions of nicotine and caffeine. In-field experiments were performed during the winter, spring and summer seasons. Psychotropic substances were observed in all indoor locations. The indoor concentrations often exceeded those recorded both outdoors at the same sites and at the atmospheric pollution control network stations, indicating that the drugs were released into the air at the inside sites or were more persistent. During winter, the relative concentrations of cannabinol, cannabidiol and tetrahydrocannabinol depended on site and indoor/outdoor location at the site. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of subjective wellbeing in substance users and the parents or partners of substance users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Robert J

    2017-10-12

    There is growing interest in the impact of substance use on both the individual consumer's subjective wellbeing (SWB) and the reduced SWB of those closely connected to him or her. The study aimed to compare SWB among substance users ('consumers') and the parents or partners affected by another's substance use, and to evaluate the effect of counselling on changed SWB to 6 months. The study used longitudinal data from a not-for-profit treatment service based in Perth, Australia. Subjective wellbeing was assessed with the Personal Wellbeing Index (PWI) at baseline and 6 months. Data were compared to national norms (mean 75.97) with one sample t tests. Change in PWI scores was assessed with generalised linear mixed models, controlling for age, gender, group (consumers versus parents or partners), psychological distress (Kessler-10) and social connectedness (Lubben). Of 220 participants, 136 (62%) were consumers and 84 (38%) were parents or partners. At 6 months 123 (56%) were re-interviewed. At baseline, both consumers (mean 53.7) and parents or partners (mean 66.1) had significantly lower PWI scores than national norms. At 6 months, only the substance users' PWI scores remained significantly lower (mean 67.8). Subjective wellbeing significantly increased with time (β = 5.52; 95% confidence interval 3.15, 7.90), with no significant time by group interaction. Both groups showed significant decrements in SWB compared with the general population but with improvements over the study period. However, the lack of a control group prevents definitive assertions on causality for improved SWB. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  20. Substance use during pregnancy and postnatal outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irner, Tina Birk; Teasdale, Thomas William; Tine, Nielsen

    2012-01-01

    Substance exposure in utero has been associated with physical birth defects and increased risk of regulatory and neuropsychological difficulties. The aims of this study were to describe women who use substances and are in treatment with respect to the type and number of substances used during pre...

  1. Substance Abuse Policy. ERIC Digest, Number 80.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaustad, Joan

    Substance abuse affects American children across all geographic and economic boundaries and has been linked to poor academic performance, truancy, and dropping out. Schools lacking clear alcohol and drug policies are more likely to experience problems with substance abuse. A districtwide substance abuse policy makes a public statement that…

  2. Gateway Psychoactive Substances and Adolescent Secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Use of gateway substances by adolescents usually precedes use of hard substances. Aims: Determine prevalence of use of gateway substances, age at first use and associated factors. Methods: Instruments consisting of sociodemographic variables and alcohol , tobacco, cannabis, stimulant use sections of ...

  3. TOXICOLOGICAL ENDPOINTS OF DOPING SUBSTANCES

    OpenAIRE

    BASARAN, A. Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    Athletes and non athletes weighlifters have tried to gain an unfairadvantage through the use doping substances since ancient times. Dopingsubstances although enhance sports performance, represent a risk to the healthof individuals and violate the sprit of competition. The use of prohibitedperformance enhancing drugs (PED’s) or methods to improve results incompetitive sports is referred as doping. Among the PED’s used areandrogenic-anabolic steroids (AASs), diuretics and masking agents, narkot...

  4. 30 CFR 56.6802 - Bulk delivery vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Maintenance § 56.6802 Bulk delivery vehicles. No welding or cutting shall be performed on a bulk delivery vehicle...

  5. 77 FR 12293 - PCBs Bulk Product v. Remediation Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... Docket, EPA/DC, EPA West, Room 3334, 1301 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20460. The Public Reading... telephone number for the Public Reading Room is (202) 566-1744, and the telephone number for the RCRA Docket... defined as PCB bulk product waste in 40 CFR 761.3. The definition of PCB bulk product waste includes ``non...

  6. Bulk metallic glasses: A new class of engineering materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A number of processes is available to synthesise bulk metallic glasses. The crystallisation behaviour and mechanical properties of these alloys pose interesting scientific questions. Upon crystallisation many of these glasses transform to bulk nanocrystals and nanoquasicrystals. A detailed study of the structure and the ...

  7. Simulation-integrated Design of Dry Bulk Terminals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Vianen, T.A.

    2015-01-01

    To meet the expected increase of seaborne trade flows for coal and iron ore dry bulk terminals need to be designed or expanded. A comprehensive design method for dry bulk terminals is missing. Designs are currently based on rules-of-thumb, practical experiences and average values for specific design

  8. Influence of bulk dielectric polarization upon PD transients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Aage; Crichton, George C; McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1995-01-01

    associated with the actual space charge in the void, and one related to changes in the bulk polarization brought about by changes in the field external to the void due to this space charge. The magnitude of the induced charge and its components are discussed in relation to a heterogeneous bulk dielectric...

  9. A new approximate sum rule for bulk alloy properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Ferrante, John

    1992-01-01

    A new, approximate sum rule is introduced for determining bulk properties of multicomponent systems, in terms of the pure components properties. This expression is applied for the study of lattice parameters, cohesive energies, and bulk moduli of binary alloys. The correct experimental trends (i.e., departure from average values) are predicted in all cases.

  10. Bianchi Type-I bulk viscous fluid string dust magnetized ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bianchi Type-I magnetized bulk viscous fluid string dust cosmological model is investigated. To get a determinate model, we have assumed the conditions and = constant where is the shear, the expansion in the model and the coefficient of bulk viscosity. The behaviour of the model in the presence and ...

  11. Advanced and new developments in bulk metal forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Wanheim, Tarras; Ravn, Bjarne Gottlieb

    2000-01-01

    Increasing demands to manufacturing industry of faster, better and cheaper production has intensified the research and development of bulk metal forming. The present paper gives examples on European industrial research on secondary bulk metal forming processes. The R&D follows three lines...

  12. Bulk viscosity of accretion disks around non rotating black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeen Moghaddas, M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we study the Keplerian, relativistic accretion disks around the non rotating black holes with the bulk viscosity. Many of authors studied the relativistic accretion disks around the black holes, but they ignored the bulk viscosity. We introduce a simple method to calculate the bulk in these disks. We use the simple form for the radial component of the four velocity in the Schwarzschild metric, then the other components of the four velocity and the components of the shear and the bulk tensor are calculated. Also all components of the bulk viscosity, the shear viscosity and stress tensor are calculated. It is seen that some components of the bulk tensor are comparable with the shear tensor. We calculate some of the thermodynamic quantities of the relativistic disks. Comparison of thermodynamic quantities shows that in some states influences of the bulk viscosity are important, especially in the inner radiuses. All calculations are done analytically and we do not use the boundary conditions. Finally, we find that in the relativistic disks around the black holes, the bulk viscosity is non-negligible in all the states.

  13. Role of bulking agents in bladder exstrophyepispadias complexes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three out of five girls had improved bladder prolapse. There was no Complication, infection or migration of bulking agents. Patients had increased in soft tissue according to MRI. Conclusion: Using bulking agents is a good alternative to sling pelvic floor not only cosmetically but also for ease of patients and operation.

  14. Effect of Bulk and Interfacial Rheological Properties on Bubble Dissolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloek, W.; Vliet, van T.; Meinders, M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes theoretical calculations of the combined effect of bulk and interracial rheological properties on dissolution behavior of a bubble in an infinite medium at saturated conditions. Either bulk or interracial elasticity can stop the bubble dissolution process, and stability criteria

  15. Modelling and Forecasting in the Dry Bulk Shipping Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, S.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation proposes strategies not only for modelling price behavior in the dry bulk market, but also for modelling relationships between economic and technical variables of dry bulk ships, by using modern time series approaches, Monte Carlo simulation and other economic techniques. The time

  16. Bulk modulus of metals according to structureless pseudopotential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    structureless pseudopotential model was fully developed. The developed method was used to calculate the bulk modulus and kinetic energy contribution to the bulk modulus of 46 elemental metals. The results obtained were compared with experimental values and their variation with electron density parameter was studied ...

  17. Nucleation of bulk superconductivity close to critical magnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fournais, Søren; Kachmar, Ayman

    2011-01-01

    threshold value of the applied magnetic field for which bulk superconductivity contributes to the leading order of the energy. Furthermore, the energy of the bulk is related to that of the Abrikosov problem in a periodic lattice. A key ingredient of the proof is a novel L∞ -bound which is of independent...

  18. 27 CFR 24.301 - Bulk still wine record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bulk still wine record. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.301 Bulk still wine record. A proprietor who produces or receives still wine in bond, (including wine intended for use as distilling material or vinegar...

  19. Bulk forming of industrial micro components in conventional metals and bulk metallic glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Mogens; Paldan, Nikolas Aulin; Eriksen, Rasmus Solmer

    2007-01-01

    For production of micro components in large numbers, forging is an interesting and challenging process. The conventional metals like silver, steel and aluminum often require multi-step processes, but high productivity and increased strength justify the investment. As an alternative, bulk metallic...... glasses will at elevated temperatures behave like a highly viscous liquid, which can easily form even complicated geometries in 1 step. The strengths and limitations of forming the 2 materials are analyzed for a micro 3D component in a silver alloy and an Mg-Cu-Y BMG. ©2007 American Institute of Physics...

  20. Street Children in Tehran and Risk Factors for Substance Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Mohammadian

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background:Economy,lack of welfare and social services, AIDS and civil war,and also substance abuse are predominant factors that attributes with street children.Method:576 street children of 10-19 years were evaluated.Data were gathered by demographic and substance use check list.Theses check lists were designed by the researchers and included some simple question about type and duration of substance use.Several psychiatrists confirmed the content of check list.Results:36.7% of the children had lifetime smoking of cigarette.The frequency of smoking in boys was significantly higher than girls (P<0.05.Conclusion:It should be noted that street children are at high risk group for using tobacco. Theses children are also exposed to the dangerous behaviors and sexually transmitted