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Sample records for bulking substance evaluation

  1. Leachables evaluation for bulk drug substance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Victor; Somma, Maria S; Zitzner, Linda A

    2009-01-01

    This study describes a comprehensive analytical approach for evaluating potential leachables from product-contacting material surfaces in the manufacture of bulk drug substance (BDS) for use in parenteral products. A qualitative step-by-step evaluation of the process stream for the production, purification, and storage of the BDS was performed. The product-contact equipment surfaces were then grouped based on their materials of construction and prioritized according to the potential risk of contributing leachables to the BDS. Based on this evaluation, 13 potential leachable species were identified and classified either as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), anions, cations, or trace metals. The BDS was first screened for the presence of VOCs, SVOCs, anions, cations, and trace metals using analytical methods that were qualified for their application with the BDS. Thirteen potential leachables were then spiked in the BDS and in the water for injection for spike-recovery studies. The analysis of the BDS for potential leachables showed that the potential impurities were not present in the BDS except for a trace amount of silicon, and that the residual solvent concentrations were lower than the recommended limits established by the International Committee on Harmonisation. The spike-recovery studies confirmed that the analytical methods could effectively determine the leachable compounds in the BDS. Moreover, the 13 contaminants did not form a complex with the protein in the BDS and did not represent a potential risk to the BDS's safety and stability. PMID:19634355

  2. TLC-densitometric analysis of α-escin in bulk drug substance and in pharmaceutical dosage forms

    OpenAIRE

    Dolowy Malgorzata; Pyka-Pajak Alina; Filip Katarzyna; Zagrodzka Joanna

    2015-01-01

    A quite simple and rapid TLC-densitometric method for the identification of α-escin (Aescin) in bulk drug substances was developed. In so doing, different chromatographic conditions, including various mobile and stationary phases, were tested. A TLC densitometric determination of the examined compound was performed without using visualizing reagent, yet with the use of appropriate dipping reagents, in order to obtain reliable UV-densitometric measurements of α-escin - a substance which has we...

  3. The levitation characteristics of the magnetic substances using trapped HTS bulk annuli with various magnetic field distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S.B., E-mail: kim@ec.okayama-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, 3-1-1, Tsushima-Naka, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Ikegami, T.; Matsunaga, J.; Fujii, Y. [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, 3-1-1, Tsushima-Naka, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Onodera, H. [Japan Science and Technology Agency–Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (JST–CREST), Tokyo 102-0076 (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •The spherical solenoid magnet can make a various magnetic field distributions. •We generated a large magnetic gradient at inner space of HTS bulks. •The levitation height of samples was improved by the reapplied field method. •The levitation height depends on the variation rate of magnetic field gradient. -- Abstract: We have been investigating the levitation system without any mechanical contact which is composed of a field-cooled ring-shaped high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulks [1]. In this proposed levitation system, the trapped magnetic field distributions of stacked HTS bulk are very important. In this paper, the spherical solenoid magnet composed of seven solenoid coils with different inner and outer diameters was designed and fabricated as a new magnetic source. The fabricated spherical solenoid magnet can easily make a homogeneous and various magnetic field distributions in inner space of stacked HTS bulk annuli by controlling the emerging currents of each coil. By using this spherical solenoid magnet, we tried to make a large magnetic field gradient in inner space of HTS bulk annuli, and it is very important on the levitation of magnetic substances. In order to improve the levitation properties of magnetic substances with various sizes, the external fields were reapplied to the initially trapped HTS bulk magnets. We could generate a large magnetic field gradient along the axial direction in inner space of HTS bulk annuli, and obtain the improved levitation height of samples by the proposed reapplied field method.

  4. Psychosis and Substance Use: Implications for Conditional Release Readiness Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabernik, Holly E; Vitacco, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    In Foucha v. Louisiana (1992), the United States Supreme Court ruled that individuals adjudicated not guilty by reason of insanity (NGRI) could not remain in a forensic hospital if they were no longer mentally ill and dangerous. Since this decision, a variety of important questions have arisen related to the insanity defense and what should happen to insanity acquittees post-adjudication. This article provides an analysis of clinical issues confronting forensic examiners when psychosis as a result of substance abuse is the underlying condition supporting an insanity defense. To accomplish this analysis, this article provides the reader with a review of literature showing the complex relationship between psychosis and substance abuse. Second, this article investigates how substance-induced psychosis may impact both insanity opinions and subsequent conditional release decisions. Third, the article aims to provide research-driven information to assist clinicians in conducting conditional release evaluations. Finally, this paper provides a model for evaluating dangerousness in the context of conditional release evaluations. Given the substantial comorbidity between substance abuse and psychosis, it is critical for researchers and clinicians to consider potential effects of substance abuse when evaluating insanity acquittees for conditional release, especially as substance use relates to future dangerousness. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27021306

  5. TLC-densitometric analysis of α-escin in bulk drug substance and in pharmaceutical dosage forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolowy Malgorzata

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A quite simple and rapid TLC-densitometric method for the identification of α-escin (Aescin in bulk drug substances was developed. In so doing, different chromatographic conditions, including various mobile and stationary phases, were tested. A TLC densitometric determination of the examined compound was performed without using visualizing reagent, yet with the use of appropriate dipping reagents, in order to obtain reliable UV-densitometric measurements of α-escin - a substance which has weak chromophore groups. Herein, the application of a mobile phase containing n-butanolacetic acid-water in volume composition 30:7:13, the use of silica gel 60F254 plates with concentrating zone, and subsequent application of 10% sulphuric acid in ethanol or 5% vanillin in methanol/sulphuric acid, respectively, provided the best results in a TLCdensitometric study of α-escin. The described method was successfully employed to identify α-escin in commercial samples that were in an oral dosage form (tablets and also in the form of gel containing 20 mg of α-escin.

  6. Evaluation of the Urotest AB antibacterial substance detection test.

    OpenAIRE

    Blondeau, J. M.; Yaschuk, Y; Galenzoski, D; Hrabok, D; Isaacson, M; Lee, L.(Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA); Link, H; Walshaw, L

    1994-01-01

    The Urotest AB was used to detect antimicrobial substances in urine samples. Of 1022 urine specimens evaluated, Urotest AB detected inhibitors in 38.9%. Of 159 urine specimens from patients thought to be taking an antibiotic, inhibitors were detected in 80.5%. This test may help to explain culture negative urine samples from symptomatic patients, and could help elucidate treatment failures and the epidemiology of antibiotic resistance.

  7. Evaluation of 968 children with corrosive substance ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Karaman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The aim of the study was to evaluate the etiology, treatment, and prognosis in children who had presented at our clinic with corrosive substance ingestion and comparison of our results with the literature. Materials and Methods: The patients were put on nil by mouth and broad-spectrum antibiotics were administered. Oral fluids were started for patients whose intraoral lesions resolved and who could swallow their saliva. Steroids were not given, a nasogastric catheter was not placed, and early endoscopy was not used. Results: A total of 968 children presented at our clinic for corrosive substance ingestion during the 22-year period. The stricture development rate was 13.5%. Alkali substance ingestion caused a stricture development rate of 23%. A total of 54 patients required 1-52 sessions (mean 15 ± 12 of dilatation. Conclusion: We do not perform early endoscopy, administer steroids, or place a nasogastric catheter at our clinic for patients who had ingested a corrosive substance. This approach has provided results similar to other series. We feel that determining the burn with early esophagoscopy when factors that prevent or decrease the development of corrosive strictures will be very important.

  8. Theoretical evaluation of bulk viscosity: Expression for relaxation time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossein Mohammad Zaheri, Ali; Srivastava, Sunita; Tankeshwar, K.

    2007-10-01

    A theoretical calculation of bulk viscosity has been carried out by deriving an expression for the relaxation time which appears in the formula for bulk viscosity derived by Okumura and Yonezawa. The expression involved a pair distribution function and interaction potential. Numerical results have been obtained over a wide range of densities and temperatures for Lennard-Jones fluids. It is found that our results provide a good description of bulk viscosity as has been judged by comparing the results with nonequilibrium molecular dynamics results. In addition, our results demonstrate the importance of the multiparticle correlation function.

  9. Evaluation of new aroma substances for feline minitablet formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaana Hautala

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the global interest in companion animal pharmaceuticals, feline peroral medication still lacks tailor-made, palatable and voluntarily accepted pharmaceuticals with suitable size and attractive taste. As a consequence, treating cats with canine and even human pharmaceuticals has weakened patient compliance and treatment commitment, and has even left many pet cats untreated. In future, the companion animal pharmaceutical business will therefore particularly concentrate on cats and the rapid and economic development of palatable feline medication. Following this goal, the overall aim of this study was to facilitate voluntary drug administration to felines. Specifically we aimed to develop sophisticated and tailor-made feline pharmaceuticals, with the focus on flavours in minitablets. Since excipients should be easily obtained and suitable for formulation, we conducted rapid preformulation compatibility and stability screening tests of synthetic flavours with commonly used tableting excipients. On the basis of the feline carnivorous diet, L-methionine, L-leucine, L-proline and thiamine hydrochloride were presented as new aroma substances for the improvement of feline medication palatability. These flavours and a model substance for a bitter taste, denatonium benzoate, were systematically evaluated for their physicochemical properties, stability and physical compatibility. This was done with substances alone and in binary combinations of flavours and excipients. Stability and compatibility were examined employing DSC and XRPD. The results showed that L-proline and denatonium benzoate anhydrate were hygroscopic. Thiamine hydrochloride was incompatible with talc and sodium stearyl fumarate. The known incompatibility between the amines contained in aromas, and α-lactose monohydrate was used in assessing method sensitivity. Overall, the study provided new information on the compatibility of novel aromas with the tableting excipients. The study

  10. Uniform System for the Evaluation of Substances (USES), version 4.0

    OpenAIRE

    Linders JBHJ; Rikken MGJ; Bakker J; van der Poel P; CSR

    2002-01-01

    This report describes the fouth version of the Uniform System for the Evaluation of Substances, USES 4.0. USES 4.0 is an integrated risk assessment system for new and existing substances and agricultural and non-agricultural pesticides. The risk assessment system for new and existing substances in USES 4.0 is fully equivalent to EUSES 1.00, the European Union System for the Evaluation of Substances. USES is a decision-support system to be used by central governments, research institutes and t...

  11. Evaluation of neutron techniques for illicit substance detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors are studying inspection systems based on the use of fast neutrons for detecting illicit substances such as explosives and drugs in luggage and cargo containers. Fast neutron techniques can determine the quantities of light elements such as carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen in a volume element. Illicit substances containing these elements are characterized by distinctive elemental densities or density ratios. They discuss modeling and tomographic reconstruction studies for fast-neutron transmission spectroscopy

  12. Evaluation of neutron techniques for illicit substance detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are studying inspection systems based on the use of fast neutrons for detecting illicit substances such as explosives and drugs in luggage and cargo containers. Fast-neutron techniques can determine the quantities of light elements such as carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen in a volume element. Illicit substances containing these elements are characterized by distinctive elemental densities or density ratios. We discuss modeling and tomographic reconstruction studies for fast-neutron transmission spectroscopy. (orig.)

  13. Toxicity Evaluation of Through Fish Bioassay Raw Bulk Drug Industry Wastewater After Electrochemical Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    S Satyanarayan; Deshpande, A M

    2011-01-01

    Considering the high pollution potential that the synthetic Bulk Drug industry Wastewater (BDW) possesses due to the presence of variety of refractory organics, toxicity evaluation is of prime importance in assessing the efficiency of the applied wastewater treatment system and in establishing the discharge standards. Therefore, in this study the toxic effects of high strength bulk drug industry wastewater before and after electrochemical treatment on common fish Lebistes reticulatus-(peter) ...

  14. Monitoring and Evaluation of Substance Abuse Services in South Africa: Implications for Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Bronwyn; Burnhams, Nadine Harker; Fakier, Nuraan

    2010-01-01

    Although outcomes monitoring and the collection of other performance data holds benefits for service managers and policy makers, the extent to which these data are collected by South African substance abuse service providers is unknown. To describe (i) the extent to which substance abuse service providers in South Africa monitor and evaluate their…

  15. Evaluating and Training Substance Abuse Counselors: A Pilot Study Assessing Standardized Patients as Authentic Clients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fussell, Holly E.; Lewy, Colleen S.; McFarland, Bentson H.

    2009-01-01

    Clinician training and supervision are needed to transfer evidence-based practices to community-based treatment organizations. Standardized patients (SPs) are used for clinician training and evaluating. However, to be effective for substance abuse counselors, SPs must realistically portray substance abuse treatment clients. The current study…

  16. Evaluation of plant-wide WWTP control strategies including the effects of filamentous bulking sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores Alsina, Xavier; Comas, J.S.; Rodríguez Roda, I.;

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the effect of filamentous bulking sludge on the predicted performance of simulated plant-wide WWTP control strategies. First, as a reference case, several control strategies are implemented, simulated and evaluated using the IWA Benchmark Simulation...

  17. A comprehensive study into fouling properties of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) extracted from bulk sludge and cake sludge in a mesophilic anaerobic membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yi; Tian, Yu; Li, Zhipeng; Zuo, Wei; Zhang, Jun

    2015-09-01

    This study focused on the fouling behaviors of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in a mesophilic anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) to obtain the relations of EPS specific constituents with membrane fouling. It was found that for the EPS extracted from bulk sludge, the LB-EPS induced the largest flux decline; however, for EPS extracted from cake sludge, the S-EPS caused the highest flux decline. The preferential rejection fraction by membrane further confirmed that the greater flux decline was exhibited with the higher percent rejection of EPS fractions. The adhesion and cohesion interactions of EPS fractions and membranes could explain the different rejection rates of the EPS components. The structural characteristics analysis indicated that the fouling layers of different EPS fractions with the greater loss of filterability had the smaller porosity. Further investigations demonstrated that these changes could be attributed to the different content of HPO-N in EPS fractions. PMID:26022972

  18. Scientific Opinion on the evaluation of the substances currently on the list in the annex to Commission Directive 96/3/EC as acceptable previous cargoes for edible fats and oils – Part III of III

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM)

    2012-01-01

    Shipping of edible fats and oils into Europe is permitted in bulk tanks, in which substances, included in a positive list, had been previously transported. The European Commission requested EFSA to evaluate the list of substances in the Annex to Commission Directive 96/3/EC as acceptable previous cargoes for edible fats and oils, taking into account its review of the Scientific Committee on Food criteria for acceptable previous cargoes and criteria proposed by the Codex Committee for Fats and...

  19. Substance abuse, relapse and treatment program evaluation in Malaysia: perspective of rehab patients and staff using the mixed method approach

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu Ting Chie; Cai Lian Tam; Gregory Bonn; Hoang Minh Dang; Rozainee Khairudin

    2016-01-01

    This study examined reasons for substance abuse and evaluated the effectiveness of substance treatment programs in Malaysia through interviews with rehab patients and staff. Substance rehab patients (aged 18-69 years; n=30) and staff (ages 30-72 years; n=10) participated in semi-structured interviews covering a range of topics including: family and peer relationships, substance use and treatment history, factors for substance use and relapse, motivation for entering treatment, work experience...

  20. Evaluation of Radiopacity of Bulk-fill Flowable Composites Using Digital Radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarcin, B; Gumru, B; Peker, S; Ovecoglu, H S

    2016-01-01

    New flowable composites that may be bulk-filled in layers up to 4 mm are indicated as a base beneath posterior composite restorations. Sufficient radiopacity is one of the several important requirements such materials should meet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiopacity of bulk-fill flowable composites and to provide a comparison with conventional flowable composites using digital imaging. Ten standard specimens (5 mm in diameter, 1 mm in thickness) were prepared from each of four different bulk-fill flowable composites and nine different conventional flowable composites. Radiographs of the specimens were taken together with 1-mm-thick tooth slices and an aluminum step wedge using a digital imaging system. For the radiographic exposures, a storage phosphor plate and a dental x-ray unit at 70 kVp and 8 mA were used. The object-to-focus distance was 30 cm, and the exposure time was 0.2 seconds. The gray values of the materials were measured using the histogram function of the software available with the system, and radiopacity was calculated as the equivalent thickness of aluminum. The data were analyzed statistically (p SDR (Dentsply DeTrey) ≥ Filtek Bulk Fill (3M ESPE). To conclude, the bulk-fill flowable restorative materials, which were tested in this study using digital radiography, met the minimum standard of radiopacity specified by the International Standards Organization. PMID:27045286

  1. Efficacy Evaluation of a Multifunctional Cosmetic Formulation: The Benefits of a Combination of Active Antioxidant Substances

    OpenAIRE

    Mirela D. Gianeti; Patrícia M. B. G. Maia Campos

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the association of active antioxidants substances in a multifunctional cosmetic formulation with established efficacy against signs of aging. A multifunctional cosmetic formulation containing an association of UV filters and antioxidant substances (liposoluble vitamins A, C and E, Ginkgo biloba and Phorphyra umbilicalis extracts) was evaluated. This formulation was submitted to a clinical efficacy study using biophysics techniques and skin images analysis (digital photogr...

  2. Model calculations for evaluation of bulk- and grain boundary diffusion coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Model calculations are developed for evaluation of bulk- and grain boundary diffusion coefficients in polycrystalline media in the case of a semi-infinite diffusion source. The Matrix is assumed to be either quasi-homogeneous or to be composed of grain material and ''grain boundary-material''. Using Whipple's solution of the diffusion equation the flux of material from the grain boundaries into the grain is considered additionally. Examples are given to show the possibility to classify experimentally found diffusion profiles. (author)

  3. Bulk electric system reliability evaluation incorporating wind power and demand side management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dange

    Electric power systems are experiencing dramatic changes with respect to structure, operation and regulation and are facing increasing pressure due to environmental and societal constraints. Bulk electric system reliability is an important consideration in power system planning, design and operation particularly in the new competitive environment. A wide range of methods have been developed to perform bulk electric system reliability evaluation. Theoretically, sequential Monte Carlo simulation can include all aspects and contingencies in a power system and can be used to produce an informative set of reliability indices. It has become a practical and viable tool for large system reliability assessment technique due to the development of computing power and is used in the studies described in this thesis. The well-being approach used in this research provides the opportunity to integrate an accepted deterministic criterion into a probabilistic framework. This research work includes the investigation of important factors that impact bulk electric system adequacy evaluation and security constrained adequacy assessment using the well-being analysis framework. Load forecast uncertainty is an important consideration in an electrical power system. This research includes load forecast uncertainty considerations in bulk electric system reliability assessment and the effects on system, load point and well-being indices and reliability index probability distributions are examined. There has been increasing worldwide interest in the utilization of wind power as a renewable energy source over the last two decades due to enhanced public awareness of the environment. Increasing penetration of wind power has significant impacts on power system reliability, and security analyses become more uncertain due to the unpredictable nature of wind power. The effects of wind power additions in generating and bulk electric system reliability assessment considering site wind speed

  4. Hybrid biofilm-membrane bioreactor (Bf-MBR) for minimization of bulk liquid-phase organic substances and its positive effect on membrane permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, F Y; Li, P; Li, J; Li, H J; Ou, Q M; Sun, T T; Dong, Z J

    2015-12-01

    Four biofilm membrane bioreactors (Bf-MBRs) with various fixed carrier volumes (C:M) were operated in parallel to investigate the effect of attached-growth mode biomass involvement to the change of liquid-phase organics characteristics and membrane permeability, by comparing with conventional MBR. The experiments displayed that C:M and co-existence of biofilm with suspended solids in Bf-MBRs resulted in slight difference in pollutants removal effectiveness, and in rather distinct biomass properties and bacterial activities. The membrane permeability and specific resistance of bulk suspension of Bf-MBRs related closely with the liquid-phase organic substance, including soluble microbial products (SMP) and biopolymer cluster (BPC). Compared with conventional MBR, Bf-MBR with proper C:M had a low total biomass content and food-chain, where biofilm formation and its dominance affected liquid-phase organics, especially through reducing their content and minimizing strongly and weakly hydrophobic components with small molecular weight, and thus to mitigate membrane fouling significantly. PMID:26454042

  5. The evaluation of treatment services and systems for substance use disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rush Brian

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific research and program evaluation have not played a major role in shaping the development of treatment services and systems in most countries. This has led to disparities in the development, management and monitoring of national treatment systems. In the evaluation of treatment for substance use disorders, the evaluation practitioner will usually be working at one of five levels: single case, treatment activity, treatment service, treatment agency or treatment system. One of the major barriers to undertaking internal program evaluation is the belief that it is a complicated research process best left to those with specific research training. Program managers and staff can plan and initiate an evaluation process for their program if they have access to research expertise when needed for certain parts of the process. There are seven main components of an evaluation process that can be planned and implemented: need assessment; evaluation planning, process evaluation, cost analysis, client satisfaction evaluation, outcome evaluation and economic evaluation. However, evaluation is more than the techniques and technology required to implement these types of activities. It also involves the routine questioning of current practice even if the feedback may be less positive than anticipated. A healthy culture for evaluation is one in which feedback loops are woven into the fabric of the treatment service or system. There are many barriers to evaluation in substance abuse services but these barriers can be overcome with careful planning and commitment to the delivery of evidence-based services.

  6. Evaluation of an information campaign about working safely with carcinogenic substances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moonen, I.P.P.; Rijt, G.A.J. van der; Koppen, K.F.C.J. van; Gulden, J.W.J. van der

    1995-01-01

    An information campaign, organised in the Netherlands to foster safer working conditions for those who find themselves exposed to carcinogenic substances, has been evaluated. Posters, leaflets, and booklets had been distributed to those who are liable to run a risk while at work, managers as well as

  7. Substance Abuse, Relapse, and Treatment Program Evaluation in Malaysia: Perspective of Rehab Patients and Staff Using the Mixed Method Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Chie, Qiu Ting; Tam, Cai Lian; Bonn, Gregory; Dang, Hoang Minh; Khairuddin, Rozainee

    2016-01-01

    This study examined reasons for substance abuse and evaluated the effectiveness of substance treatment programs in Malaysia through interviews with rehab patients and staff. Substance rehab patients (aged 18–69 years; n = 30) and staff (ages 30–72 years; n = 10) participated in semi-structured interviews covering a range of topics, including family and peer relationships, substance use and treatment history, factors for substance use and relapse, motivation for entering treatment, work experi...

  8. Efficacy Evaluation of a Multifunctional Cosmetic Formulation: The Benefits of a Combination of Active Antioxidant Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela D. Gianeti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the association of active antioxidants substances in a multifunctional cosmetic formulation with established efficacy against signs of aging. A multifunctional cosmetic formulation containing an association of UV filters and antioxidant substances (liposoluble vitamins A, C and E, Ginkgo biloba and Phorphyra umbilicalis extracts was evaluated. This formulation was submitted to a clinical efficacy study using biophysics techniques and skin images analysis (digital photography imaging systems, 20 MHz ultrasound, and reflectance confocal microscopy. The volunteers applied the formulation containing the UV filters and antioxidant substances during the day and the formulation with antioxidant substances and without the UV filters at night, for 90 days. The formulation increased the hydration and protected the skin barrier function after a single application. At the long term assessment the formulation provided an improvement in skin barrier function and skin hydration to the deeper layers of the epidermis, leading to an improvement in skin appearance by reducing wrinkles and skin roughness. The multifunctional cosmetic formulation studied can be suggested to preventing signs of aging and improving skin conditions. In addition, this study presents the benefits of associating different active antioxidants substances in a single cosmetic formulation to prevent skin aging.

  9. EFSA ; Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 66, Revision 1 (FGE.66Rev1): Consideration of Furfuryl Alcohol and Related Flavouring Substances Evaluated by JECFA (55th meeting)

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Lund, Pia; Binderup, Mona-Lise

    2011-01-01

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 14 flavouring substances in the Revision 1 of Flavouring Group Evaluation 66, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. None of the substances were considered to have genotoxic potential. The substances were evaluated through a stepwise approach (the Procedure) that integrates information on structure-activity relationships, intake...

  10. Short communication: Evaluation of bulk tank milk microbiological quality of nine dairy farms in Tennessee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, B E; Lewis, M J; Boonyayatra, S; Maxwell, M L; Saxton, A; Oliver, S P; Almeida, R A

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bulk tank milk (BTM) quality of 9 East Tennessee dairy farms and to determine its relationship with selected quality milk parameters. Bulk tank milk samples (n=1,141) were collected over a 42-mo period (June 2006 through November 2009) from farms, based on their preliminary incubation count (PIC) history. Parameters of BTM quality evaluated in this study included somatic cell count (SCC), standard plate count (SPC), PIC, laboratory pasteurization count (LPC), Staphylococcus spp. count, Streptococcus spp. count, and coliform count. Strong correlations between SPC and Streptococcus spp. counts (0.72) and between SPC and PIC (0.70) were found. However, moderate correlations were seen among other milk quality parameters. In addition, seasonal variations for some milk quality parameters were noted. For example, milk quality parameters such as SCC, SPC, LPC, and coliform count were significantly higher in summer, whereas Streptococcus spp. counts were significantly higher in winter. No seasonal variation in PIC or Staphylococcus spp. counts was observed. Summarizing, results from this investigation showed the importance of using several bacterial counts (SCC, SPC, PIC, LPC, Streptococcus spp. count, Staphylococcus spp. count, and coliform counts) as simultaneous indicators of milk quality. PMID:22818441

  11. Evaluation of Bulk and Surface Radiation Damage of Silicon Sensors for the ATLAS Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Mikeštíková, Marcela; Št'astný, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The electrical characteristics of different types of end-cap miniature n + -in- p strip sensors, ATLAS12A, were evaluated in Institute of Physics in Prague before and after proton and gamma irradiation. We report here on the bulk damage aspects, including the increase of leakage current and evaluation of the full depletion voltage and the surface damage, including the decrease of inter-strip resistance, changes in inter-strip capacitance and the effectiveness of punch-through protection structure. It was verified that different geometries of end-cap sensors do not influence their stability; the sensors should provide acceptable strip isolation and n ew gate PTP structure functions well even at the highest tested proton fluence 2× 10 15 n eq / cm 2

  12. An evaluation of organic substance fraction removal during ion exchange with Miex-DOC resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolska, Małgorzata

    2015-07-01

    In this study, the usefulness of Miex-DOC resin in eliminating organic substances and their fractions from water sources for drinking water was evaluated. The objects of study were samples from three surface water sources and one infiltration water source taken at water treatment plants before treatment in technical conditions. In particular, the effectiveness of removing biodegradable and non-biodegradable fractions as a function of resin dosages and water-resin contact times was evaluated. The ion exchange process with the Miex-DOC resin achieved a high effectiveness in removing aromatic non-biodegradable organic substances, and therefore a reduction in UV254 absorbance. The biodegradable fraction is much less susceptible to removal yet its removal effectiveness allows for a significant reduction in hazards connected with secondary microorganism development. The results of this study indicate the possibility of using ion exchange with the Miex-DOC resin for effective removal of disinfection by-product precursors. PMID:25976333

  13. The Minnesota model treatment for substance dependence: program evaluation in a Swedish setting

    OpenAIRE

    Bodin, Maria

    2006-01-01

    The Minnesota model treatment for substance dependence is a group-based psychosocial intervention program that rests on the principles and twelve-step program of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). The model was introduced to Sweden in 1983-84, and is currently used as the main treatment method in twenty-five percent of the addiction treatment units in the country. This thesis describes the results of a program evaluation in one private Minnesota model setting, with the general aims ...

  14. Evaluation of food, nutrition and functional substances, in the selected food materials for space agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Kimura, Yasuko; Yamashita, Masamichi; Kimura, Shunta; Sato, Seigo; Katoh, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    We have been studying the evaluation of food, nutrition and functional substances, in the selected organic materials for useful life-support systems in closed bio-ecosystems for space agriculture on Mars in the future. We have already proposed several species as food materials; cyanobacterium, Nostoc sp. HK-01 and the Japanese cherry tree. Nostoc sp. HK-01 is a terrestrial cyanobacterium which has high tolerances to several space environments. In addition to its high tolerances to serious environments, HK-01 has a high protein content. Total protein per 100 g of the dried colony of Nostoc sp. HK-01 was approximately 50 g. Woody plant materials also have several properties which can be utilized in our habitation environment and as food. We have already found abilities to produce important functional substances for humans in the selected trees. Here, we show the extended results of our experiments.

  15. European Union System for the Evaluation of Substances 2.0 (EUSES 2.0); background report

    OpenAIRE

    Lijzen JPA; Rikken MGJ; LER; SEC

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the second version of the PC-program 'European Union System for the Evaluation of Substances', EUSES 2.0. It completely replaces the EUSES 1.0 program and documentation. EUSES 2.0 is designed to be a decision-support system for the evaluation of the risks of substances to man and the environment. The system is fully based on the EU Technical Guidance Documents for the risk assessment of new and existing substances and biocides. The documentation and program can be obtain...

  16. Psychedelics as medicines for substance abuse rehabilitation: evaluating treatments with LSD, Peyote, Ibogaine and Ayahuasca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelman, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Substances known as psychedelics, hallucinogens and entheogens have been employed in ethnomedical traditions for thousands of years, but after promising uses in the 1950's and 1960's they were largely prohibited in medical treatment and human research starting in the 1970's as part of the fallout from the war on drugs. Nonetheless, there are a number of studies which suggest that these substances have potential applications in the treatment of addictions. While these substances are generally classified as Schedule I, alleging no established medical uses and a high drug abuse potential, there is nonetheless evidence indicating they might be safe and effective tools for short term interventions in addictions treatment. Evidence suggests that the psychedelics have a much greater safety profile than the major addictive drugs, having extremely low levels of mortality, and producing little if any physical dependence. This paper reviews studies evaluating the use of LSD, peyote, ibogaine and ayahuasca in the treatment of dependencies and the possible mechanisms underlying the indications of effectiveness. Evidence suggests that these substances help assist recovery from drug dependency through a variety of therapeutic mechanisms, including a notable "after-glow" effect that in part reflects their action on the serotonin neurotransmitter system. Serotonin has been long recognized as central to the psychedelics' well-known phenomenological, physical, emotional and cognitive dynamics. These serotonin-based dynamics are directly relevant to treatment of addiction because of depressed serotonin levels found in addict populations, as well as the role of serotonin as a neuromodulators affecting many other neurotransmitter systems. PMID:25563446

  17. Evaluation des produits émis lors d'incendies accidentels de substances dangereuses

    OpenAIRE

    Pineau, Jean-Philippe; Cwiklinski, Claude; Marlair, Guy; Michot, Christian

    1991-01-01

    L'evaluation de l'inflammabilite, l'explosibilite et la toxicite de substances dangereuses peut conduire à un classement. Diverses methodes de laboratoire sont utilisees et retenues dans des normes et reglementations, nationales et internationales. Les methodes indiquees dans les recommandations de l'ONU pour le transport des matieres dangereuses et les Directives de la Commission Economique Europeenne (84/449 et 82/501) sont d'abord examinees. Sur l'aspect de l'emission de produits toxiques ...

  18. Evaluation of simulation techniques for radiation damage in the bulk of fusion first wall materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An international workshop on 'Evaluation of Simulation Techniques for Radiation Damage in the Bulk of Fusion First Wall Materials' was held at Interlaken, Switzerland, June 27-30 1983. The idea was to gather a small group of people (∼20) actively engaged in experimental simulation of bulk radiation damage in the first wall material (e.g. damage by fusion neutrons). Because of the very positive response the number of participants ended up at 36 (from Belgium, Denmark, Federal Republic of Germany, France, Italy (ISPRA), Japan, Switzerland, U.K. and U.S.A.). The workshop was initially rather restrictive in the definition of experimental facilities for simulation of the first wall material, as it included only those facilities which simultaneously introduce helium (at high rate) and displacement damage . At the workshop a few simulation techniques that do not fulfill this requirement were discussed together with those that do. The basic programme of the workshop was composed of a series of invited presentations intended to cover the whole spectrum of simulation techniques and some of the underlying physics and basic technology. Time was also reserved for short presentations on any subject that the participants found relevant. Throughout the workshop ample time was allocated for discussions. As it turned out, the discussions tended to focus on the evaluation of the general situation for simulation of radiation damage in the first wall. The workshop covered the following topics: the concept of simulation; the important parameters (He generation to damage rate ratio; displacement damage rate; He generation rate; total doses; H generation; solid transmutation products; cascade effects; effect of beam pulsation; specimen dimension); and the irradiation effects (mechanical properties and swelling; microstructure). There was general agreement among the participants that ideal simulation, providing unambiguous information about the behaviour of the first wall material, is at

  19. Substance Abuse, Relapse, and Treatment Program Evaluation in Malaysia: Perspective of Rehab Patients and Staff Using the Mixed Method Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chie, Qiu Ting; Tam, Cai Lian; Bonn, Gregory; Dang, Hoang Minh; Khairuddin, Rozainee

    2016-01-01

    This study examined reasons for substance abuse and evaluated the effectiveness of substance treatment programs in Malaysia through interviews with rehab patients and staff. Substance rehab patients (aged 18–69 years; n = 30) and staff (ages 30–72 years; n = 10) participated in semi-structured interviews covering a range of topics, including family and peer relationships, substance use and treatment history, factors for substance use and relapse, motivation for entering treatment, work experience, job satisfaction, treatment evaluation, and patient satisfaction. Most patients did not demonstrate the substance progression trend and had normal family relationships. Most patients reported having peers from normal family backgrounds as well. Various environmental and personal factors was cited as contributing to substance abuse and relapse. There was no significant difference between patient and staff program evaluation scores although the mean score for patients was lower. A holistic treatment approach with a combination of cognitive–behavioral, medical, social, and spiritual components was favored by patients. Suggestions for improving existing programs include better tailoring treatment to individual needs, and providing more post-treatment group support. PMID:27303313

  20. Substance Abuse, Relapse, and Treatment Program Evaluation in Malaysia: Perspective of Rehab Patients and Staff Using the Mixed Method Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chie, Qiu Ting; Tam, Cai Lian; Bonn, Gregory; Dang, Hoang Minh; Khairuddin, Rozainee

    2016-01-01

    This study examined reasons for substance abuse and evaluated the effectiveness of substance treatment programs in Malaysia through interviews with rehab patients and staff. Substance rehab patients (aged 18-69 years; n = 30) and staff (ages 30-72 years; n = 10) participated in semi-structured interviews covering a range of topics, including family and peer relationships, substance use and treatment history, factors for substance use and relapse, motivation for entering treatment, work experience, job satisfaction, treatment evaluation, and patient satisfaction. Most patients did not demonstrate the substance progression trend and had normal family relationships. Most patients reported having peers from normal family backgrounds as well. Various environmental and personal factors was cited as contributing to substance abuse and relapse. There was no significant difference between patient and staff program evaluation scores although the mean score for patients was lower. A holistic treatment approach with a combination of cognitive-behavioral, medical, social, and spiritual components was favored by patients. Suggestions for improving existing programs include better tailoring treatment to individual needs, and providing more post-treatment group support. PMID:27303313

  1. A new parameter to evaluate the glass-forming ability of bulk metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Develop a new criterion, i.e., Q=((Tg+Tx)/Tl).(ΔE/ΔH). → The reliability and benefits of the new criterion have been demonstrated in a wide range of BMG alloys. → It corresponds well with the critical diameter of BMGs investigated up to now. - Abstract: Based on the consideration of the liquid phase stability, the resistance to crystallization and the glass transition enthalpy, a new criterion Q, defined as ((Tg + Tx)/Tl).(ΔE/ΔH), where the Tg, Tx, Tl, ΔE and ΔH are the glass transition temperature, the onset crystallization temperature, the liquidus temperature, the crystalline enthalpy and the fusion enthalpy, respectively, has been proposed for evaluating the glass-forming ability of bulk metallic glasses. The new criterion Q exhibits better correlation with the maximum cross section thickness (Dm) for glass formation compared with γ (=Tx/(Tl + Tg)), Trg (=Tg/Tl) and ΔTx (=Tx - Tg) respectively. The available data from literatures and experiments have confirmed the effectiveness of the newly developed criterion.

  2. Evaluation of the physical properties, bulk density and aggregate stability of potential substrates in quarry restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, M.; Garcia-Orenes, F.; Mataix-Solera, J.; Garcia-Sanchez, E.

    2012-04-01

    Quarrying activity entails significant environmental impact affecting the soil, water, plants, landscape, etc. One of the most important impacts is the loss of the productive layer of the soil and its vegetation cover. However, mining activities are absolutely necessary for human development; keeping them sustainable implicates looking for viable solutions for the restoration of these areas to prevent degradation during and after the exploitation period. The aim of this study was to evaluate different substrates obtained from different mixes of sewage sludge and different mine spoils, to check how they are effective in quarry restoration, and to establish good practises in mining restoration. Also, the study tried to approach two refuses, one deriving from mining activity, as are the mine spoils that need to be reused for their valorisation, and the other, sewage sludge, obtained in the water depuration process to acquire a cheap substrate for soil rehabilitation. This preliminary work, which is included in a larger study, shows the results obtained from two physical properties studied, bulk density and aggregate stability, as key properties in the substrate structure for use in mining area restoration. Two doses of composted sewage sludge (30 and 90 Tm/Ha), both very rich in calcium carbonate, were applied to two different mine spoils under lab conditions. The first material, of poor quality, originated from the acquisition of arid particles in crushed limestone (Z). It is characterized by stable ''coarse elements'' predominance (up to 75% of its weight), and by the presence of elevated percentages of sand. The other waste material tested comes from limestone extraction (basically formed by the levels of interspersed non-limestone materials and the remains of stripped soils (D)). The results show that the high dose of sewage sludge applied to a mix of the two mine spoils significantly increased the percentage of stable aggregates by more than 50% than the control

  3. Baseline risk evaluation for exposure to bulk wastes at the Weldon Spring Quarry, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), under its Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP), is responsible for cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, Weldon Spring, Missouri. The site consists of a raffinate pits and chemical plant area and a quarry. This baseline risk evaluation has been prepared to support a proposed response action for management of contaminated bulk wastes in the quarry. The quarry became chemically and radioactively contaminated as a result of various wastes that were disposed of there between 1942 and 1969. This risk evaluation assesses potential impacts on human health and the environment that may result from exposure to releases of contaminants from the quarry under current site conditions. Risk assessment is a key component of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process, as identified in guidance from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); this process addresses sites subject to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. Response actions at the Weldon Spring quarry are subject to CERCLA requirements because the quarry is listed on the EPA's National Priorities List. The DOE is also responsible for complying with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, which requires federal agencies to consider the environmental consequences of a proposed action as part of the decision-making process for that action. Although this document has not been prepared to fulfill specific NEPA requirements, the analyses contained herein --- along with the analyses provided in the remedial investigation, feasibility study, and other supporting documents --- are intended to meet the environmental assessment requirements of NEPA

  4. The Evaluation of a Workplace Program to Prevent Substance Abuse: Challenges and Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, Rebecca S; Miller, Ted R

    2016-08-01

    Workplace consequences of alcohol and drug abuse include poor performance, fighting, insubordination, and occupational injuries. To address the need for workplace substance abuse prevention, the PREVENT program, originally designed for the United States Navy, was adapted to the railroad workforce. This study evaluates the impact of the PREVENT program on alcohol use and smoking among young adults ages 18-29 in the railroad industry. We discuss challenges to study protocol faced by this evaluation in the reality of the workplace. PREVENT is a 2-day health promotion program that includes substance abuse and smoking modules. Using a prospective controlled before-after study design, we compare self-reported alcohol use and smoking pre- versus post-intervention among PREVENT participants versus a comparison group of workers. Comparison and case group non-equivalency at baseline is controlled for using a propensity score. The study sample suffered high losses to follow-up. In the analysis, we included those lost to follow up and applied an intent-to-treat approach that assumed, conservatively, that substance use by non-respondents was identical pre and post. In regression analysis PREVENT participants showed significant declines in drinking levels post-intervention compared to comparison workers, controlling for baseline and demographic factors. Relative to pre-intervention levels PREVENT participants consumed 56 % fewer drinks (relative rate = 0.44, 95 % CI 0.23-0.85) and consumed alcohol on 32 % fewer days (relative rate = 0.68, 95 % CI 0.50-0.93) compared to comparison workers. Changes in smoking behaviors were not significant. We conclude that PREVENT is a promising program for reducing alcohol abuse. PMID:27062500

  5. Evaluating Measures of Fidelity for Substance Abuse Group Treatment With Incarcerated Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Shayna S; Stein, L A R; Rossi, Joseph S; Martin, Rosemarie A

    2016-07-01

    The evaluation of treatment fidelity has become increasingly important as the demand for evidence-based practice grows. The purpose of the present study is to describe the psychometric properties of two measures of treatment fidelity that can be used by therapists and supervisors - one for group-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and one for combined Substance Education and Twelve-Step Introduction (SET) for adolescent substance use. At the end of group sessions (CBT n=307; SET n=279), therapists and supervisors completed an evaluation measure assessing adherence to certain core components of the intervention. The supervisor version of the fidelity measure also included items for rating the level of competency the therapist demonstrated when providing each component of the intervention. Results from split-half cross-validation analyses provide strong support for an 11-item, three-factor CBT fidelity measure. Somewhat less consistent but adequate support for a nine-item, two-factor SET fidelity measure was found. Internal consistencies ranged from acceptable to good for both the CBT and SET adherence scales and from acceptable to good for the CBT and SET competency scales, with the exception of the CBT practices competency scale. Preliminary validation of the measures suggests that both measures have adequate to strong factor structure, reliability, and concurrent and discriminant validity. The results of this study have implications for research and clinical settings, including the supervision process. PMID:27211991

  6. Evaluation of bulk and surfaces absorption edge energy of sol-gel-dip-coating SnO2 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Aparecido Floriano

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The absorption edge and the bandgap transition of sol-gel-dip-coating SnO2 thin films, deposited on quartz substrates, are evaluated from optical absorption data and temperature dependent photoconductivity spectra. Structural properties of these films help the interpretation of bandgap transition nature, since the obtained nanosized dimensions of crystallites are determinant on dominant growth direction and, thus, absorption energy. Electronic properties of the bulk and (110 and (101 surfaces are also presented, calculated by means of density functional theory applied to periodic calculations at B3LYP hybrid functional level. Experimentally obtained absorption edge is compared to the calculated energy band diagrams of bulk and (110 and (101 surfaces. The overall calculated electronic properties in conjunction with structural and electro-optical experimental data suggest that the nature of the bandgap transition is related to a combined effect of bulk and (101 surface, which presents direct bandgap transition.

  7. A novel integrated approach to quantitatively evaluate the efficiency of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) extraction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Min; Li, Wen-Wei; Yu, Han-Qing; Harada, Hideki

    2012-12-01

    A novel integrated approach is developed to quantitatively evaluate the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) extraction efficiency after taking into account EPS yield, EPS damage, and cell lysis. This approach incorporates grey relational analysis and fuzzy logic analysis, in which the evaluation procedure is established on the basis of grey relational coefficients generation, membership functions construction, and fuzzy rules description. The flocculation activity and DNA content of EPS are chosen as the two evaluation responses. To verify the feasibility and effectiveness of this integrated approach, EPS from Bacillus megaterium TF10 are extracted using five different extraction methods, and their extraction efficiencies are evaluated as one real case study. Based on the evaluation results, the maximal extraction grades and corresponding optimal extraction times of the five extraction methods are ordered as EDTA, 10 h > formaldehyde + NaOH, 60 min > heating, 120 min > ultrasonication, 30 min > H₂SO₄, 30 min > control. The proposed approach here offers an effective tool to select appropriate EPS extraction methods and determine the optimal extraction conditions. PMID:23064456

  8. Methodology to extract of humic substances of lombricompost and evaluation of their performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present works was developed at the facultad de ciencias agropecuarias of the Universidad Nacional de Colombia, located in Palmira City Valle del Cauca. The research consisted in the development of the appropriate methodology to extract humic substances contained in lombricompost and on the other hand to evaluate the performance in organic carbon of the fulvic and humic acids. The lombricompost source consisted in organic matter such as: dug cow, filter press cake, coffee pulp and Paspalum notatum with and without application of lime. The results showed sixteen steps, which are completely described in the work, obtain the proposal methodology. By the other hand this method showed that humic acids in the lombricompost are richer than fulvic ones; besides among the four sources used in the experiment the filter press cake was different and higher in carbon yield than coffee pulp and Paspalum notatum

  9. PD-related stresses in the bulk dielectric and their evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Aage; Crichton - Fratrådt, George C; McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1993-01-01

    The application of electromagnetic field theory to the subject of partial discharges shows that discharging in a void generates large field distortions within the bulk dielectric in the proximity of the void. Such inherent over-stressing of a dielectric could be the effect which triggers the onset...

  10. Introducing the Bulking Factor to Quantify Clogging in Petroleum Formation Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, E. D.; Mays, D. C.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the dynamics of both fluid and particle interactions in porous media is important for applications in groundwater hydrology, carbon sequestration, water filtration, and petroleum reservoir characterization. In particular, petroleum reservoir damage costs $10 billion annually, according to the Society of Petroleum Engineers. Petroleum reservoir damage, also called formation damage, results from various operations related to oil and gas production, including drilling, completions, and production phases. In this study, an extension to the widely applied Kozeny-Carman equation will be used to explore the characteristics of a dimensionless clogging parameter called the bulking factor, which was first introduced by Ojha and Graham in the 1990s. This present study will explore the tendency for fines, also called colloids, to cause clogging in initially clean porous media. Analysis proceeds using a mathematical model in which the dimensionless bulking factor is used to extend the widely utilized Kozeny-Carman equation to account for other clogging factors that are not correlated with the volume of deposited fines. The velocity dependence of the bulking factor is illustrated by considering several experimental studies from the literature that use a variety of porosities, fluids, colloid diameters and types, filter materials, and flow velocities. The filtration data sets had porosity from 35% to 46%, filter material diameters from 163 μm to 1400 μm, and colloid diameters from 0.10 μm to 8.00 μm. The filter materials were uniform sand, glass beads, or Clementine silica. Results indicate that with increasing velocity, the bulking factor decreases for all of the experiments analyzed. This correlation indicates that when other variables are held constant, filtration experiments conducted at higher flow velocity result in less clogging, at least for the case of initially clean porous media. Fitted values of the bulking factor were also correlated with the Peclet

  11. Evaluation and analysis of non-intrusive techniques for detecting illicit substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micklich, B.J.; Roche, C.T.; Fink, C.L.; Yule, T.J.; Demirgian, J.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Kunz, T.D.; Ulvick, S.J.; Cui, J. [Houston Advanced Research Center, The Woodlands, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC) have been tasked by the Counterdrug Technology Assessment Center of the Office of National Drug Control Policy to conduct evaluations and analyses of technologies for the non-intrusive inspection of containers for illicit substances. These technologies span the range of nuclear, X-ray, and chemical techniques used in nondestructive sample analysis. ANL has performed assessments of nuclear and X-ray inspection concepts and undertaken site visits with developers to understand the capabilities and the range of applicability of candidate systems. ANL and HARC have provided support to law enforcement agencies (LEAs), including participation in numerous field studies. Both labs have provided staff to assist in the Narcotics Detection Technology Assessment (NDTA) program for evaluating drug detection systems. Also, the two labs are performing studies of drug contamination of currency. HARC has directed technical evaluations of automated ballistics imaging and identification systems under consideration by law enforcement agencies. ANL and HARC have sponsored workshops and a symposium, and are participating in a Non-Intrusive Inspection Study being led by Dynamics Technology, Incorporated.

  12. Environmental monitoring results from the third periodic evaluation of progress towards the objective of the OSPAR radioactive substances strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general objective of the OSPAR radioactive substances strategy is to prevent pollution of the maritime area from ionising radiation through progressive and substantial reductions of discharges, emissions and losses of radioactive substances, so that concentrations in the environment are close to background for naturally occurring radioactive substances and close to zero for artificial radioactive substances. The third periodic evaluation of progress towards the objective of the OSPAR radioactive substances strategy concludes that, due to issues concerning the availability of reported data, it is not possible to come to firm conclusions as to whether the aims of the OSPAR radioactive substances strategy are currently being delivered. However, in general there is an indication of a reduction in average marine concentrations of selected radionuclides associated with the nuclear industry, while doses arising from these selected radionuclides in the OSPAR maritime area to humans are well within internationally recommended limits and are below the lowest levels at which any effects are likely to occur for marine biota. (author)

  13. Evaluation of lung epithelial permeability in the volatile substance abuse using Tc-99m DTPA aerosol scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic inhalant use is associated with significant toxic effects, including neurological, renal, hepatic, and pulmonary damage. However, there is a paucity of reports regarding respiratory complications in inhalant abusers. The aim of this study was to evaluate pulmonary epithelial permeability in the volatile substance abuse (VSA) using technetium-99m-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Tc-99m DTPA) aerosol scintigraphy. This study included 18 patients with volatile substance abuse and 18 volunteer controls. All of patients and controls were smokers. Tc-99m DTPA aerosol scintigraphy was performed in all cases. Time-activity curves from each lung were generated and clearance half-time (T1/2) of Tc-99m DTPA were calculated. T1/2 of whole lung was calculated as a mean of the T1/2 of left and right lung. The T1/2 values of Tc-99m DTPA clearance in the substance abusers were significantly decreased as compared to the control group with respective mean values of 28.86±8.44, and 62.14±26.12 min (p=0.001). It was seen Tc-99m DTPA clearance from lung was faster as the duration of substance abuse was increased. Tc-99m DTPA pulmonary clearance is markedly accelerated in the volatile substance abuse. This suggests that inhalant abuse of substance may produce abnormalities in pulmonary alveolo-capillary membrane function. (author)

  14. Evaluation of Exothermic Reactions from Bulk-Vitrification Melter Feeds Containing Cellulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheele, Randall D.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Bos, Stanley J.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; Berry, Pam

    2007-06-25

    PNNL has demonstrated that cellulose effectively reduces the amount of molten ionic salt during Bulk Vitrification of simulated Hanford Low Level Waste (LLW). To address concerns about the potential reactivity of cellulose-LLW, PNNL used thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis, and accelerating rate calorimetry to determine in these preliminary studies that these mixtures will support a self-sustaining reaction if heated to 110°C at adiabatic conditions. Additional testing is recommended.

  15. Evaluation of a Training to Reduce Provider Bias Toward Pregnant Patients With Substance Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    SEYBOLD, DARA; Calhoun,Byron; BURGESS, DENISE; LEWIS, TAMMI; GILBERT, KELLY; CASTO, ANGIE

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this article is not to present a scientific or systematic study, but to provide an initial framework for designing a training workshop to enhance health practitioners’ (nurses, social workers, physicians, etc.) knowledge regarding substance abuse treatment and to decrease their bias toward substance-abusing women, particularly pregnant women in rural communities. We incorporated the 4 Transdisciplinary Foundations from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administra...

  16. An in vivo invertebrate evaluation system for identifying substances that suppress sucrose-induced postprandial hyperglycemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yasuhiko; Ishii, Masaki; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2016-01-01

    Sucrose is a major sweetener added to various foods and beverages. Excessive intake of sucrose leads to increases in blood glucose levels, which can result in the development and exacerbation of lifestyle-related diseases such as obesity and diabetes. In this study, we established an in vivo evaluation system using silkworms to explore substances that suppress the increase in blood glucose levels caused by dietary intake of sucrose. Silkworm hemolymph glucose levels rapidly increased after intake of a sucrose-containing diet. Addition of acarbose or voglibose, α-glycosidase inhibitors clinically used for diabetic patients, suppressed the dietary sucrose-induced increase in the silkworm hemolymph glucose levels. Screening performed using the sucrose-induced postprandial hyperglycemic silkworm model allowed us to identify some lactic acid bacteria that inhibit the increase in silkworm hemolymph glucose levels caused by dietary intake of sucrose. The inhibitory effects of the Lactococcus lactis #Ll-1 bacterial strain were significantly greater than those of different strains of lactic acid bacteria. No effect of the Lactococcus lactis #Ll-1 strain was observed in silkworms fed a glucose diet. These results suggest that the sucrose diet-induced postprandial hyperglycemic silkworm is a useful model for evaluating chemicals and lactic acid bacteria that suppress increases in blood glucose levels. PMID:27194587

  17. Evaluation of Bulk Charging in Geostationary Transfer Orbit and Earth Escape Trajectories Using the Numit 1-D Charging Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Coffey, Victoria N.; Parker, Linda N.; Blackwell, William C., Jr.; Jun, Insoo; Garrett, Henry B.

    2007-01-01

    The NUMIT 1-dimensional bulk charging model is used as a screening to ol for evaluating time-dependent bulk internal or deep dielectric) ch arging of dielectrics exposed to penetrating electron environments. T he code is modified to accept time dependent electron flux time serie s along satellite orbits for the electron environment inputs instead of using the static electron flux environment input originally used b y the code and widely adopted in bulk charging models. Application of the screening technique ts demonstrated for three cases of spacecraf t exposure within the Earth's radiation belts including a geostationa ry transfer orbit and an Earth-Moon transit trajectory for a range of orbit inclinations. Electric fields and charge densities are compute d for dielectric materials with varying electrical properties exposed to relativistic electron environments along the orbits. Our objectiv e is to demonstrate a preliminary application of the time-dependent e nvironments input to the NUMIT code for evaluating charging risks to exposed dielectrics used on spacecraft when exposed to the Earth's ra diation belts. The results demonstrate that the NUMIT electric field values in GTO orbits with multiple encounters with the Earth's radiat ion belts are consistent with previous studies of charging in GTO orb its and that potential threat conditions for electrostatic discharge exist on lunar transit trajectories depending on the electrical proper ties of the materials exposed to the radiation environment.

  18. Evaluation of current distribution in bulk superconductors magnetized by pulsed-fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For theoretical clarification of mechanism of a pulsed-field magnetization (PFM) and development of more efficient PFM method, we carried out a detailed computer simulation in consideration of the difference in the superconducting characteristics between the growth sector boundary (GSB) and the growth sector region (GSR) parts of the material. The superconducting current was defined in each part and the magnetic field induced by the local current was calculated. The entire magnetic field distribution was obtained by adding individual distributions. The experiment with a Sm123 bulk superconductor was performed and it was confirmed that the calculated distribution reproduces the experimental one

  19. Evaluating the use of sub-tile Bulk Averaged inputs to simulate evapotranspiration within Heterogeneous Land-Atmosphere Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiting; Jia, Li; Hutjes, Ronald

    2016-04-01

    Evapotranspiration plays a crucial role in the regional water and energy balance and often takes place within heterogeneous land-atmosphere systems. Heterogeneity usually appears in the resolvable elements in Land Surface Models (LSMs). Typically, Land surface modelling to simulate evapotranspiration tends to oversimplify the sub-Tile heterogeneity of a Land-atmosphere parameter by a single representative value. This paper evaluates the inaccuracy of LSMs resulting from inaccurately representing the heterogeneity within resolvable elements by a bulk average value. In a synthetic experiment, seven Probability Density Functions (PDFs) were used to simulate the different scenarios of heterogeneity of Leaf Area Index (LAI) and top Soil Moisture (SM). Evapotranspiration estimates based on bulk averaged LAI and SM status were compared with the one obtained by the real distributed LAI and SM. Their difference is due to the combined effect of heterogeneities in LAI and SM, and the nonlinear processes in the LSMs. Besides the synthetic numerical experiment, we also tested the reliability of the bulk average scheme in a real world case for the Heihe river basin, northwest of China, to further demonstrate the importance of accounting for sub-Tile heterogeneity in evapotranspiration estimates and its implications for the regional and irrigation water management.

  20. Dosimetric evaluation of synthetic CT relative to bulk density assignment-based magnetic resonance-only approaches for prostate radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been incorporated as an adjunct to CT to take advantage of its excellent soft tissue contrast for contouring. MR-only treatment planning approaches have been developed to avoid errors introduced during the MR-CT registration process. The purpose of this study is to evaluate calculated dose distributions after incorporating a novel synthetic CT (synCT) derived from magnetic resonance simulation images into prostate cancer treatment planning and to compare dose distributions calculated using three previously published MR-only treatment planning methodologies. An IRB-approved retrospective study evaluated 15 prostate cancer patients that underwent IMRT (n = 11) or arc therapy (n = 4) to a total dose of 70.2-79.2 Gy. Original treatment plans were derived from CT simulation images (CT-SIM). T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and balanced turbo field echo images were acquired on a 1.0 T high field open MR simulator with patients immobilized in treatment position. Four MR-derived images were studied: bulk density assignment (10 HU) to water (MRW), bulk density assignments to water and bone with pelvic bone values derived either from literature (491 HU, MRW+B491) or from CT-SIM population average bone values (300 HU, MRW+B300), and synCTs. Plans were recalculated using fixed monitor units, plan dosimetry was evaluated, and local dose differences were characterized using gamma analysis (1 %/1 mm dose difference/distance to agreement). While synCT provided closest agreement to CT-SIM for D95, D99, and mean dose (<0.7 Gy (1 %)) compared to MRW, MRW+B491, and MRW+B300, pairwise comparisons showed differences were not significant (p < 0.05). Significant improvements were observed for synCT in the bladder, but not for rectum or penile bulb. SynCT gamma analysis pass rates (97.2 %) evaluated at 1 %/1 mm exceeded those from MRW (94.7 %), MRW+B300 (94.0 %), or MRW+B491 (90.4 %). One subject’s synCT gamma (1 %/1 mm) results (89.9 %) were lower than MRW

  1. Biomechanical Evaluation of Rat Skull Defects, 1, 3, and 6 Months after Implantation with Osteopromotive Substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Leigh Robert; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Mosekilde, Lis; Bosch, Carles; Melsen, Birte

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the mechanical strength of surgically created and healed rat calvarial defects having been filled with three different osteopromotive substances: hydroxyapatite, intramembraneous demineralised bone matrix (DBM), and autogenous bone chips. Material: Sixty adult male Wistar rats...

  2. Performance evaluation of bulk freeze dried starter cultures of dahi and yoghurt along with probiotic strains in standardized milk of cow and buffalo

    OpenAIRE

    Vijayendra, S. V. N.; Gupta, R. C.

    2013-01-01

    Performance of bulk freeze dried (BFD) cultures of dahi (D) and yoghurt (Y) either with or without probiotic cultures (AB -Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum) in standardized milk of cow and buffalo was evaluated. In buffalo milk, significantly (p 

  3. Recent Methods for the Automatic Evaluation of Thin-Layer and Paper Chromatograms of Labelled Substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development and results obtained with a new instrument for the automatic scanning of thin-layer and paper chromatograms of labelled substances is described. Using a novel type of gas-flow detector, it is possible to measure all beta-emitters, including 3H, without contact with the probe. Essentially the apparatus consists of a detector and a transport mechanism passing the chromatogram below the detector diaphragm. In view of the small half-value layer of beta-particles in air (approx. 0.3 mm) a strong dependence on distance between detector and chromatogram would be expected. However, there is practically no dependence between 0.5 and 2 mm distance. The explanation presented is that because of the special counter parameters the electrical field extends through the opening of the diaphragm into the space between counter and chromatogram, thereby pulling negative charge carriers produced by ionizing radiation even outside the counter volume into the region of gas amplification around the anode wire. Therefore, the instrument allows fast, direct and non-destructive measurement of thin-layer plates even for 3H, as opposed to the common practice of scraping off small areas of the thin layer and measuring the radioactivity in a liquid scintillation counter. The transport mechanism in its most recent version allows two-dimensional automatic scanning, with continuous or stepwise advance, and correspondingly analogous or digital registration. A ''dot'' recording allows simple visualization of the chromatogram, similar to an autoradiograph, however, in a much shorter time. Small available diaphragm openings down to 0.2 x 2 mm make the instrument useful also for histological preparations and small animal scanning. The instrument is also used for evaluating doubly-labelled chromatograms, for instance separate measurement of 3H and 14C activity in one chromatogram. (author)

  4. An evaluation of effective radiuses of bulk-wave ultrasonic transducers as circular piston sources for accurate velocity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Mototaka; Kushibiki, Jun-ichi; Aoki, Naoya

    2004-05-01

    The effective radius of a bulk-wave ultrasonic transducer as a circular piston source, fabricated on one end of a synthetic silica (SiO2) glass buffer rod, was evaluated for accurate velocity measurements of dispersive specimens over a wide frequency range. The effective radius was determined by comparing measured and calculated phase variations due to diffraction in an ultrasonic transmission line of the SiO2 buffer rod/water-couplant/SiO2 standard specimen, using radio-frequency (RF) tone burst ultrasonic waves. Fourteen devices with different device parameters were evaluated. The velocities of the nondispersive standard specimen (C-7940) were found to be 5934.10 +/- 0.35 m/s at 70 to 290 MHz, after diffraction correction using the nominal radius (0.75 mm) for an ultrasonic device with an operating center frequency of about 400 MHz. Corrected velocities were more accurately found to be 5934.15 +/- 0.03 m/s by using the effective radius (0.780 mm) for the diffraction correction. Bulk-wave ultrasonic devices calibrated by this experimental procedure enable conducting extremely accurate velocity dispersion measurements. PMID:15217227

  5. Scientific Opinion on the evaluation of the substances currently on the list in the annex to Commission Directive 96/3/EC as acceptable previous cargoes for edible fats and oils – Part III of III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Shipping of edible fats and oils into Europe is permitted in bulk tanks, in which substances, included in a positive list, had been previously transported. The European Commission requested EFSA to evaluate the list of substances in the Annex to Commission Directive 96/3/EC as acceptable previous cargoes for edible fats and oils, taking into account its review of the Scientific Committee on Food criteria for acceptable previous cargoes and criteria proposed by the Codex Committee for Fats and Oils. This is the third and last scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM Panel on this topic, in which sixteen of these substances or groups of substances have been evaluated. The CONTAM Panel concluded that sodium silicate (water glass solution, iso-octanol, iso-nonanol, iso-decanol, 1,3-propanediol, isobutyl acetate, sec-butyl acetate, tert-butyl acetate, n-butyl acetate, propylene tetramer, paraffin wax, candelilla wax, white mineral oils and glycerol would not be of health concern as previous cargoes. The CONTAM Panel concluded that carnauba wax was not acceptable as a previous cargo because of its insolubility in water and high melting point, which raise concerns regarding the efficiency of tank cleaning. There was insufficient information available on the composition of montan wax for the CONTAM Panel to conclude that it would be of no health concern when used as previous cargo and hence it does not meet the criteria for acceptability as previous cargo. The CONTAM Panel made several recommendations regarding the way in which the substances are described in the Annex to Commission Directive 96/3/EC, to correct inaccuracies and to better reflect current transport practices.

  6. Test and evaluation of a high-sensitivity assay system for bulk transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past year, we tested and evaluated the performance of an assay system that accommodates 55-gal drums of transuranic waste at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This neutron assay system provides a routine assay of fissile transuranic isotopes to the 1-mg sensitivity level with a pulsed active neutron interrogation based on the differential dieaway technique. A highly sensitive passive neutron measurement determines the content of spontaneous fission transuranic isotopes in each drum as well as an upper-bound estimate of the total alpha activity. All components of the combined, pulsed active and passive neutron assay system performed well on a routine basis during the test-and-evaluation period. We performed more than 400 combined passive and active assay measurements of waste drums at Oak Ridge. One-fifth of the initial set of waste drums measured contain less than 100 nCi/g of total transuranic isotopes and thus qualify legally as nontransuranic waste

  7. High speed laser activated membrane introduction mass spectrometric evaluation of bulk methylcyclohexane dehydrogenation catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser activated membrane introduction mass spectrometry (LAMIMS) is a modification of membrane introduction mass spectrometry where a silicone membrane serves as a separator between an analyte stream and the vacuum of a quadrupole mass spectrometer. Carbon paper, commonly used as a fuel cell gas diffusion layer, has been overlaid upon the silicone membrane to serve as a support for catalyst array libraries that are heated by a CO2 laser during evaluation. The LAMIMS reactor is a closed environment permitting steady state exposure of the catalyst library to the reactant stream. In this work, Pt/Al2O3 catalysts for the dehydrogenation of methylcyclohexane (MCH) to toluene have been ranked by LAMIMS. Spot-to-spot evaluation times (after preconditioning) are 1 min in this study. The data suggests that by optimization of signal-to-noise and spot-to-spot dwell times, ranking can be conducted at substantially under a minute per array spot candidate

  8. Students' Evaluations of the Effectiveness of Substance Abuse Education: The Impact of Different Delivery Modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykeman, Cass; Nelson, J. Ron

    1996-01-01

    Asked 96 students, grades 3, 6, 8, 12, about various teaching methods (expert-led, teacher-led, peer-led, and parent in home) commonly employed in substance abuse education. Students generally believed that each type of would positively influence drug- and alcohol-related knowledge but not behavior. Expert-led discussions were believed the most…

  9. Evaluating bulk Nb2O2F3 for Li-battery electrode applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Rafael B; Ahuja, Rajeev

    2016-02-01

    This investigation has the primary objective of elucidating the lithium intercalation process in the crystal structure of a new niobium oxyfluoride compound Nb2O2F3. The framework of the density functional theory was applied in a generalized gradient approximation together with the hybrid functional method. It is revealed that lithium atoms intercalate in this material in a maximum concentration of one Li atom per formula unit forming LiNb2O2F3. Moreover, octahedral positions in between the layers of Nb-O-F appear as the Li preferred occupancy resulting in a structural volume expansion of only 5%. Electronic structure evolution with the insertion of lithium displays a transformation from semi-conductor to metal when half of the lithium atoms are added. This transformation occurs due to a symmetry break induced by the transition from the +8 to +7 oxidation state of half of the Nb2 dimers. Then, after full lithiation the symmetry is recovered and the material becomes a semiconductor again with a band gap amounting to 1 eV. The evaluated average deintercalation potential reaches 1.29 V vs. Li/Li(+) with activation energy for lithium ion migration of 0.79 eV. The computed low potential of the redox reaction Nb2(8+) to Nb2(7+) includes niobium oxyfluoride in the map of possible materials for the anode application of Li-ion batteries. PMID:26751421

  10. Evaluating the service provision for ethnic minorities in Islington in the treatment of substance misuse

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    This project studied ethnic minorities with substance misuse problems to establish how services adapt to accommodate this presentation. It was conducted for the London Borough of Islington and its drug services to see how far they meet the needs of ethnic minorities. For Islington, the study identifies areas needing more focus to improve provision by comparing it with neighbouring Tower Hamlets. It takes a qualitative approach, looking at each borough and interviewing staff who run and struc...

  11. Evaluation of the efficiency of treatment techniques in removing perfluoroalkyl substances from water

    OpenAIRE

    Lundgren, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) are a group of synthetic compounds that have gained growing attention due to their environmental persistence, toxicity and their potential to bioaccumulate. Even though PFASs are not occurring naturally in our environment, they are globally distributed and can be found ubiquitously in air, water, soil, wildlife as well as in humans. PFASs have primarily been used, due to their unique properties of being both hydrophilic and hydrophobic, as surfactants in ...

  12. A Portuguese version of the Christo Inventory for Substance-Misuse Services: a simple outcome evaluation tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Christo Inventory for Substance-Misuse Services (CISS is a single page outcome evaluation tool completed by drug alcohol service workers either on the basis of direct client interviews or of personal experience of their client supplemented by existing assessment notes. It was developed to assist substance misuse services to empirically demonstrate the effectiveness of their treatments to their respective funding bodies. Its 0 to 20 unidimensional scale consists of 10 items reflecting clients' problems with social functioning, general health, sexual/injecting risk behavior, psychological functioning, occupation, criminal involvement, drug/alcohol use, ongoing support, compliance, and working relationships. Good reliability and validity has already been demonstrated for the CISS [Christo et al., Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2000; 59: 189-197] but the original was written in English and a Portuguese version is presented here. The present review explores its applicability to a Brazilian setting, summarizes its characteristics and uses, and describes the process of translation to Portuguese. A pilot study conducted in a substance misuse service for adolescents indicated it is likely to be suitable for use among a Brazilian population. The simplicity, flexibility and brevity of the CISS make it a useful tool allowing comparison of clients within and between many different service settings.

  13. A critical evaluation of how ancient DNA bulk bone metabarcoding complements traditional morphological analysis of fossil assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grealy, Alicia C.; McDowell, Matthew C.; Scofield, Paul; Murray, Dáithí C.; Fusco, Diana A.; Haile, James; Prideaux, Gavin J.; Bunce, Michael

    2015-11-01

    When pooled for extraction as a bulk sample, the DNA within morphologically unidentifiable fossil bones can, using next-generation sequencing, yield valuable taxonomic data. This method has been proposed as a means to rapidly and cost-effectively assess general ancient DNA preservation at a site, and to investigate temporal and spatial changes in biodiversity; however, several caveats have yet to be considered. We critically evaluated the bulk bone metabarcoding (BBM) method in terms of its: (i) repeatability, by quantifying sampling and technical variance through a nested experimental design containing sub-samples and replicates at several stages; (ii) accuracy, by comparing morphological and molecular family-level identifications; and (iii) overall utility, by applying the approach to two independent Holocene fossil deposits, Bat Cave (Kangaroo Island, Australia) and Finsch's Folly (Canterbury, New Zealand). For both sites, bone and bone powder sub-sampling were found to contribute significantly to variance in molecularly identified family assemblage, while the contribution of library preparation and sequencing was almost negligible. Nevertheless, total variance was small. Sampling over 80% fewer bones than was required to morphologically identify the taxonomic assemblages, we found that the families identified molecularly are a subset of the families identified morphologically and, for the most part, represent the most abundant families in the fossil record. In addition, we detected a range of extinct, extant and endangered taxa, including some that are rare in the fossil record. Given the relatively low sampling effort of the BBM approach compared with morphological approaches, these results suggest that BBM is largely consistent, accurate, sensitive, and therefore widely applicable. Furthermore, we assessed the overall benefits and caveats of the method, and suggest a workflow for palaeontologists, archaeologists, and geneticists that will help mitigate these

  14. EFSA ; Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 66, Revision 1 (FGE.66Rev1): Consideration of Furfuryl Alcohol and Related Flavouring Substances Evaluated by JECFA (55th meeting)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Lund, Pia; Binderup, Mona-Lise

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 14 flavouring substances in the Revision 1 of Flavouring Group Evaluation 66, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. None of the s...... Panel concluded that the 14 substances [FL-no: 13.001, 13.002, 13.003, 13.005, 13.018, 13.019, 13.025, 13.038, 13.057, 13.062, 13.067, 13.068, 13.073 and 13.128] do not give rise to safety concerns at their levels of dietary intake, estimated on the basis of the MSDI approach....

  15. Preparation and first biological evaluation of novel Re-188/Tc-99m peptide conjugates with substance-P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: New 188Re and 99mTc peptide conjugates with substance- P (SP) were prepared and biologically evaluated. The radiopharmaceuticals have been labelled with the [M≡N]2+ (M=99mTc, 188Re) core using a combination of π-donor tridentate and π-acceptor monodentate ancillary ligands. Methods: The new radiopharmaceuticals have been prepared through a two-step reaction by simultaneous addition of the tridentate and monodentate ligands to a vial containing a preformed [M≡N]2+ core. The tridentate ligand was formed by linking two cysteine residues to the terminal arginine of the undecapeptide SP, whereas the monodentate ligand was a tertiary phosphine. The preparation of the corresponding Re-188 derivative required developing a more complex chemical procedure to obtain the [Re≡N]2+ core in satisfactory yields. Characterization of the resulting products was obtained by chromatographic methods. Biological evaluation was performed for both Tc-99m and Re-188 derivatives by in-vitro studies on isolated cells expressing NK1-receptors. In-vivo imaging in mice was carried out using a small-animal YAP(S)PET tomograph. Conclusion: New Tc-99m and Re-188 peptide radiopharmaceuticals with SP have been prepared in high-yield and with high-specific activity. Both Tc-99m and Re-188 peptide radioconjugates exhibit high affinity for NK1 receptors, thus giving further evidence to the empirical rule that structurally related Tc-99m and Re-188 radiopharmaceuticals exhibit identical biological properties. - Highlights: • First application of a novel approach for labeling peptides to the preparation of Tc-99m and Re-188 with substance-P. • Characterization of new, structurally identical radioconjugates of substance-P with Tc-99m and Re-188. • Preliminary biological evaluation of the new Tc-99m and Re-188 peptide radioconjugates

  16. A comprehensive structural evaluation of humic substances using several fluorescence techniques before and after ozonation. Part I: Structural characterization of humic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this work (Part I) is to conduct a comprehensive structural characterization of humic substances, using all the current fluorescence techniques: emission scan fluorescence (ESF), synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS), total luminescence spectroscopy (TLS or EEM) through the use of both 2-D contour maps and 3-D plots, fluorescence index and the λ0.5 parameter. Four humic substances were studied in this work: three of them were provided by the International Humic Substances Society (Suwannee River Fulvic Acid Standard, Suwannee River Humic Acid Standard and Nordic Reservoir Fulvic Acid Reference) and the other one was a commercial humic acid widely used as a surrogate for aquatic humic substances in various studies (Aldrich Humic Acid: ALHA). The EEM spectra for the three natural aquatic substances were quite similar, showing two main peaks of maximum fluorescence intensity: one located in the ultraviolet region and centered at around Ex/Em values of 230/437 nm (peak A) and another one in the visible region, centered at around 335/460 nm (peak C); however, the EEM spectrum of ALHA is completely different to those of natural aquatic humic substances, presenting four poorly resolved main peaks with a high degree of spectral overlap, located at 260/462, 300/479, 365/483 and 450/524 nm. The synchronous spectra at Δλ = 18 and 44 nm (especially at Δλ = 18 nm) allowed the identification of a protein-like peak at λsyn around 290 nm, which was not detected in the EEM spectra; as it happened with EEM spectra, the synchronous spectra of ALHA are quite different from those of the aquatic humic substances, presenting a higher number of bands that suggest greater structural complexity and a higher degree of polydispersity. Good correlations were achieved between 13C NMR aromaticity and both fluorescence index and λ0.5 parameter. The different spectra presented by ALHA compared to those shown by the natural aquatic humic substances for all the

  17. Evaluation of the damage of cell wall and cell membrane for various extracellular polymeric substance extractions of activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xuesong; Liu, Junxin; Xiao, Benyi

    2014-10-20

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are susceptible to contamination by intracellular substances released during the extraction of EPS owing to the damage caused to microbial cell structures. The damage to cell walls and cell membranes in nine EPS extraction processes of activated sludge was evaluated in this study. The extraction of EPS (including proteins, carbohydrates and DNA) was the highest using the NaOH extraction method and the lowest using formaldehyde extraction. All nine EPS extraction methods in this study resulted in cell wall and membrane damage. The damage to cell walls, evaluated by 2-keto-3-deoxyoctonate (KDO) and N-acetylglucosamine content changes in extracted EPS, was the most significant in the NaOH extraction process. Formaldehyde extraction showed a similar extent of damage to cell walls to those detected in the control method (centrifugation), while those in the formaldehyde-NaOH and cation exchange resin extractions were slightly higher than those detected in the control. N-acetylglucosamine was more suitable than KDO for the evaluation of cell wall damage in the EPS extraction of activated sludge. The damage to cell membranes was characterized by two fluorochromes (propidium iodide and FITC Annexin V) with flow cytometry (FCM) measurement. The highest proportion of membrane-damaged cells was detected in NaOH extraction (26.54% of total cells) while membrane-damaged cells comprised 8.19% of total cells in the control. PMID:25173614

  18. Evaluation of American Indian Health Service Training in Pain Management and Opioid Substance Use Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzman, Joanna G; Fore, Chris; Bhatt, Snehal; Greenberg, Nina; Griffin Salvador, Julie; Comerci, George C; Camarata, Christopher; Marr, Lisa; Monette, Rebecca; Arora, Sanjeev; Bradford, Andrea; Taylor, Denise; Dillow, Jenny; Karol, Susan

    2016-08-01

    We examined the benefits of a collaboration between the Indian Health Service and an academic medical center to address the high rates of unintentional drug overdose in American Indians/Alaska Natives. In January 2015, the Indian Health Service became the first federal agency to mandate training in pain and opioid substance use disorder for all prescribing clinicians. More than 1300 Indian Health Service clinicians were trained in 7 possible 5-hour courses specific to pain and addiction. We noted positive changes in pre- and postcourse knowledge, self-efficacy, and attitudes as well as thematic responses showing the trainings to be comprehensive, interactive, and convenient. PMID:27196642

  19. ATSDR evaluation of health effects of chemicals. VI. Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, M; Donohue, J M; De Rosa, C

    1999-12-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (also known as DEHP, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, or BEHP; CAS Registry Number 117-81-7) is a widely-used plasticizer. It is found in numerous plastic articles, such as paints, inks, floor tiles, upholstery, shower curtains, footwear, plastic bags, food-packaging materials, toys, and medical tubing. Not surprisingly, DEHP appears at many waste sites. As part of its mandate, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) prepares toxicological profiles on hazardous chemicals that are of greatest public health concern at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) National Priority List (NPL) sites. These profiles comprehensively summarize toxicological and environmental information. This article constitutes the release of the bulk of ATSDR's profile for DEHP (ATSDR, 1993) into the mainstream scientific literature. An extensive listing of human and animal health effects, organized by route, duration, and endpoint, is presented. Toxicological information on toxicokinetics, biomarkers, interactions, sensitive subpopulations, reducing toxicity after exposure, and relevance to public health is also included. Environmental information encompasses physical properties, production and use, environmental fate, levels seen in the environment, analytical methods, and a listing of regulations. ATSDR, at the behest of Congress and therefore the citizenry, prepares these profiles to inform the public about site contaminants. PMID:10786378

  20. Evaluation of Ni-free Zr–Cu–Fe–Al bulk metallic glass for biomedical implant applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► A Zr62.5Cu22.5Fe5Al10 bulk metallic glass (BMG) with 50 GPa elastic modulus was used. ► This Ni-free Zr-based BMG had lower metal ion release rate than the commercial Ti. ► This Ni-free Zr-based BMG had better proteins adsorption than the commercial Ti. ► This Ni-free Zr-based BMG has a high potential for biomedical implant applications. -- Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate the surface characteristics, including the chemical composition, metal ion release, protein adsorption, and cell adhesion, of a Ni-free Zr-based (Zr62.5Cu22.5Fe5Al10) bulk metallic glass (BMG) with low elastic modulus for biomedical implant applications. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to identify the surface chemical composition and the protein (albumin and fibronectin) adsorption of the specimen. The metal ions released from the specimen in simulated blood plasma and artificial saliva solutions were measured using an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer. The cell adhesion, in terms of the morphology, focal adhesion complex, and skeletal arrangement, of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells was evaluated using scanning electron microscope observations and immunofluorescent staining. For comparison purposes, the above-mentioned tests were also carried out on the widely used biomedical metal, Ti. The results showed that the main component on the outermost surface of the amorphous Zr62.5Cu22.5Fe5Al10 BMG was ZrO2 with small amounts of Cu, Al, and Fe oxides. The released metal ions from Zr62.5Cu22.5Fe5Al10 BMG were well below the critical concentrations that cause negative biological effects. The Zr62.5Cu22.5Fe5Al10 BMG had a greater adsorption capacity for albumin and fibronectin than that of commercial biomedical Ti. The Zr62.5Cu22.5Fe5Al10 BMG surface showed an attached cell number similar to the Ti surface but had better cell adhesion morphology and cytoskeletal arrangement. Based on the present results, the Ni-free Zr62.5Cu22.5Fe5Al10

  1. Process evaluation of a technology-delivered screening and brief intervention for substance use in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J. Ondersma

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Psychotherapy process research examines the content of treatment sessions and their association with outcomes in an attempt to better understand the interactions between therapists and clients, and to elucidate mechanisms of behavior change. A similar approach is possible in technology-delivered interventions, which have an interaction process that is always perfectly preserved and rigorously definable. The present study sought to examine the process of participants' interactions with a computer-delivered brief intervention for drug use, from a study comparing computer- and therapist-delivered brief interventions among adults at two primary health care centers in New Mexico. Specifically, we sought to describe the pattern of participants' (N = 178 choices and reactions throughout the computer-delivered brief intervention, and to examine associations between that process and intervention response at 3-month follow-up. Participants were most likely to choose marijuana as the first substance they wished to discuss (n = 114, 64.0%. Most participants indicated that they had not experienced any problems as a result of their drug use (n = 108, 60.7%, but nearly a third of these (n = 32, 29.6% nevertheless indicated a desire to stop or reduce its use; participants who did report negative consequences were most likely to endorse financial or relationship concerns. However, participant ratings of the importance of change or of the helpfulness of personalized normed feedback were unrelated to changes in substance use frequency. Design of future e-interventions should consider emphasizing possible benefits of quitting rather than the negative consequences of drug use, and—when addressing consequences—should consider focusing on the impacts of substance use on relationship and financial aspects. These findings are an early but important step toward using process evaluation to optimize e-intervention content.

  2. Using Videogame Apps to Assess Gains in Adolescents’ Substance Use Knowledge: New Opportunities for Evaluating Intervention Exposure and Content Mastery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Background Videogame interventions are becoming increasingly popular as a means to engage people in behavioral interventions; however, strategies for examining data from such interventions have not been developed. Objective The objective of this study was to describe how a technology-based intervention can yield meaningful, objective evidence of intervention exposure within a behavioral intervention. This study demonstrates the analysis of automatic log files, created by software from a videogame intervention, that catalog game play and, as proof of concept, the association of these data with changes in substance use knowledge as documented with standardized assessments. Methods We analyzed 3- and 6-month follow-up data from 166 participants enrolled in a randomized controlled trial evaluating a videogame intervention, PlayForward: Elm City Stories (PlayForward). PlayForward is a videogame developed as a risk reduction and prevention program targeting HIV risk behaviors (substance use and sex) in young minority adolescents. Log files were analyzed to extract the total amount of time spent playing the videogame intervention and the total number of game levels completed and beaten by each player. Results Completing and beating more of the game levels, and not total game play time, was related to higher substance use knowledge scores at the 3- (P=.001) and 6-month (P=.001) follow-ups. Conclusions Our findings highlight the potential contributions a videogame intervention can make to the study of health behavior change. Specifically, the use of objective data collected during game play can address challenges in traditional human-delivered behavioral interventions. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01666496; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01666496 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6cV9fxsOg) PMID:26510775

  3. The evaluation of an analytical protocol for the determination of substances in waste for hazard classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennebert, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.hennebert@ineris.fr [INERIS – Institut National de l’Environnement Industriel et des Risques, Domaine du Petit Arbois BP33, F-13545 Aix-en-Provence (France); Papin, Arnaud [INERIS, Parc Technologique ALATA, BP No. 2, 60550 Verneuil en Halatte (France); Padox, Jean-Marie [INERIS – Institut National de l’Environnement Industriel et des Risques, Domaine du Petit Arbois BP33, F-13545 Aix-en-Provence (France); Hasebrouck, Benoît [INERIS, Parc Technologique ALATA, BP No. 2, 60550 Verneuil en Halatte (France)

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: • Knowledge of wastes in substances will be necessary to assess HP1–HP15 hazard properties. • A new analytical protocol is proposed for this and tested by two service laboratories on 32 samples. • Sixty-three percentage of the samples have a satisfactory analytical balance between 90% and 110%. • Eighty-four percentage of the samples were classified identically (Seveso Directive) for their hazardousness by the two laboratories. • The method, in progress, is being normalized in France and is be proposed to CEN. - Abstract: The classification of waste as hazardous could soon be assessed in Europe using largely the hazard properties of its constituents, according to the the Classification, Labelling and Packaging (CLP) regulation. Comprehensive knowledge of the component constituents of a given waste will therefore be necessary. An analytical protocol for determining waste composition is proposed, which includes using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) screening methods to identify major elements and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC–MS) screening techniques to measure organic compounds. The method includes a gross or indicator measure of ‘pools’ of higher molecular weight organic substances that are taken to be less bioactive and less hazardous, and of unresolved ‘mass’ during the chromatography of volatile and semi-volatile compounds. The concentration of some elements and specific compounds that are linked to specific hazard properties and are subject to specific regulation (examples include: heavy metals, chromium(VI), cyanides, organo-halogens, and PCBs) are determined by classical quantitative analysis. To check the consistency of the analysis, the sum of the concentrations (including unresolved ‘pools’) should give a mass balance between 90% and 110%. Thirty-two laboratory samples comprising different industrial wastes (liquids and solids) were tested by two routine service laboratories, to give circa 7000 parameter

  4. The evaluation of an analytical protocol for the determination of substances in waste for hazard classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Knowledge of wastes in substances will be necessary to assess HP1–HP15 hazard properties. • A new analytical protocol is proposed for this and tested by two service laboratories on 32 samples. • Sixty-three percentage of the samples have a satisfactory analytical balance between 90% and 110%. • Eighty-four percentage of the samples were classified identically (Seveso Directive) for their hazardousness by the two laboratories. • The method, in progress, is being normalized in France and is be proposed to CEN. - Abstract: The classification of waste as hazardous could soon be assessed in Europe using largely the hazard properties of its constituents, according to the the Classification, Labelling and Packaging (CLP) regulation. Comprehensive knowledge of the component constituents of a given waste will therefore be necessary. An analytical protocol for determining waste composition is proposed, which includes using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) screening methods to identify major elements and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC–MS) screening techniques to measure organic compounds. The method includes a gross or indicator measure of ‘pools’ of higher molecular weight organic substances that are taken to be less bioactive and less hazardous, and of unresolved ‘mass’ during the chromatography of volatile and semi-volatile compounds. The concentration of some elements and specific compounds that are linked to specific hazard properties and are subject to specific regulation (examples include: heavy metals, chromium(VI), cyanides, organo-halogens, and PCBs) are determined by classical quantitative analysis. To check the consistency of the analysis, the sum of the concentrations (including unresolved ‘pools’) should give a mass balance between 90% and 110%. Thirty-two laboratory samples comprising different industrial wastes (liquids and solids) were tested by two routine service laboratories, to give circa 7000 parameter

  5. Evaluation of WaySafe: A Disease-Risk Reduction Curriculum for Substance-Abusing Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Wayne E K; Rowan, Grace A; Greener, Jack M; Joe, George W; Yang, Yang; Knight, Kevin

    2015-11-01

    With a focus on reducing disease risk behavior in the community, a six-session curriculum, WaySafe, was developed to increase positive decision-making skills among soon-to-be-released inmates participating in a therapeutic community substance abuse treatment program. The intervention used TCU Mapping-Enhanced Counseling as an approach to focus on cognitive aspects of risky sexual and drug use behaviors in an effort to improve problem recognition, commitment to change, and strategies for avoiding behavioral risks of infections. A total of 1393 inmates from eight different institutions in two states were randomly assigned to receive WaySafe or treatment as usual (TAU). Baseline and follow-up surveys measured knowledge, confidence, and motivation regarding general HIV information, risky sex and drug use, HIV testing, and risk reduction skills. WaySafe participants had significantly better scores on all measures at follow-up than did TAU participants, supporting the efficacy of WaySafe in improving knowledge, motivation, and confidence in avoiding risky behaviors. PMID:26059002

  6. Bulk density of an alfisol under cultivation systems in a long-term experiment evaluated with gamma ray computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sustainability of irrigated rice (Oryza sativa L.) in lowland soils is based on the use of crop rotation and succession, which are essential for the control of red and black rice. The effects on the soil properties deserve studies, particularly on soil compaction. The objective of this study was to identify compacted layers in an albaqualf under different cultivation and tillage systems, by evaluating the soil bulk density (Ds) with Gamma Ray Computed Tomography (TC). The analysis was carried out in a long-term experiment, from 1985 to 2004, at an experimental station of EMBRAPA Clima Temperado, Capao do Leao, RS, Brazil, in a random block design with seven treatments, with four replications (T1 - one year rice with conventional tillage followed by two years fallow; T2 - continuous rice under conventional tillage; T4 - rice and soybean (Glycine Max L.) rotation under conventional tillage; T5 - rice, soybean and corn (Zea maize L.) rotation under conventional tillage; T6 - rice under no-tillage in the summer in succession to rye-grass (Lolium multiflorum L.) in the winter; T7 - rice under no-tillage and soybean under conventional tillage rotation; T8 - control: uncultivated soil). The Gamma Ray Computed Tomography method did not identify compacted soil layers under no tillage rice in succession to rye-grass; two fallow years in the irrigated rice production system did not prevent the formation of a compacted layer at the soil surface; and in the rice, soybean and corn rotation under conventional tillage two compacted layers were identified (0.0 to 1.5 cm and 11 to 14 cm), indicating that they may restrict the agricultural production in this cultivation system on Albaqualf soils. (author)

  7. The evaluation of an analytical protocol for the determination of substances in waste for hazard classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennebert, Pierre; Papin, Arnaud; Padox, Jean-Marie; Hasebrouck, Benoît

    2013-07-01

    The classification of waste as hazardous could soon be assessed in Europe using largely the hazard properties of its constituents, according to the the Classification, Labelling and Packaging (CLP) regulation. Comprehensive knowledge of the component constituents of a given waste will therefore be necessary. An analytical protocol for determining waste composition is proposed, which includes using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) screening methods to identify major elements and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) screening techniques to measure organic compounds. The method includes a gross or indicator measure of 'pools' of higher molecular weight organic substances that are taken to be less bioactive and less hazardous, and of unresolved 'mass' during the chromatography of volatile and semi-volatile compounds. The concentration of some elements and specific compounds that are linked to specific hazard properties and are subject to specific regulation (examples include: heavy metals, chromium(VI), cyanides, organo-halogens, and PCBs) are determined by classical quantitative analysis. To check the consistency of the analysis, the sum of the concentrations (including unresolved 'pools') should give a mass balance between 90% and 110%. Thirty-two laboratory samples comprising different industrial wastes (liquids and solids) were tested by two routine service laboratories, to give circa 7000 parameter results. Despite discrepancies in some parameters, a satisfactory sum of estimated or measured concentrations (analytical balance) of 90% was reached for 20 samples (63% of the overall total) during this first test exercise, with identified reasons for most of the unsatisfactory results. Regular use of this protocol (which is now included in the French legislation) has enabled service laboratories to reach a 90% mass balance for nearly all the solid samples tested, and most of liquid samples (difficulties were caused in some samples from polymers in solution and

  8. Evaluation of Antioxidant Capacity and Synergistic Associations of Quinonemethide Triterpenes and Phenolic Substances from Maytenus ilicifolia (Celastraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Castro-Gamboa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the isolation of the secondary metabolites identified as the quinonemethides maytenin (1 and pristimerin (2 from Maytenus ilicifolia extracts obtained from root barks of adult plants and roots of seedlings and their quantification by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector. The electrochemical profiles obtained from cyclic voltammetry and a coulometric detector coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography contributed to the evaluation of their antioxidant capacity. The antioxidant properties of individual components and the crude extracts of the root barks of Maytenus ilicifolia were compared and the possible synergistic associations of quinonemethide triterpenes and phenolic substances were investigated by using rutin as a model phenolic compound.

  9. The effect of wetting and drying cycles on soil chemical composition and their impact on bulk density evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gamma-ray attenuation technique has been applied successfully in several areas of knowledge such as medicine, industry, chemistry, biology, agriculture and so on. Before the technique application it is important to know the probability of gamma photons interaction with the matter. The linear attenuation coefficient (k) measures the probability per unit length of a photon to be absorbed or scattered while interacting with a sample. k represents the sum of several individual attenuation coefficients due mainly to the photoelectric absorption, coherent and incoherent scatterings and pair production. Soil is characterized as a three phase system composed by solid, liquid and gaseous phases. It is known that for a given photon energy the mass attenuation coefficient (μ) is directly related to the chemical composition of the soil. As a consequence by using the mixture rule, in which (μ) is calculated by adding the products of mass attenuation coefficients and the contents of the chemical components of the soil, it is possible to obtain a theoretical (μ) value. A possible cause of chemical composition changes in soil is the application of repeated wetting and drying (W-D) cycles. Another consequence of these changes in the chemical composition of the soil can be alterations in its (μ). This result can affect how well the gamma-ray attenuation or computed tomography (CT) techniques can determine soil bulk density (ds) or porosity (φ) when samples are submitted to W-D cycles. In this work the soil elemental (oxides) composition variation of three Brazilian soils submitted to the application of W-D cycles was measured in order to evaluate possible changes in the calculated μ as a function of the cycles. Measurements of μ by using radioactive sources of 241Am and 137Cs were also performed. Gamma-ray CT was used as a tool to evaluate the impact of changes in μ induced by the cycles in determinations of ds. The measured and calculated values of μ presented good

  10. Evaluation of Ni-free Zr–Cu–Fe–Al bulk metallic glass for biomedical implant applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Ying-Sui [Institute of Oral Biology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Zhang, Wei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian (China); Kai, Wu [Institute of Materials Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung, Taiwan (China); Liaw, Peter K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Huang, Her-Hsiung, E-mail: hhhuang@ym.edu.tw [Institute of Oral Biology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Taipei City Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Stomatology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: ► A Zr{sub 62.5}Cu{sub 22.5}Fe{sub 5}Al{sub 10} bulk metallic glass (BMG) with 50 GPa elastic modulus was used. ► This Ni-free Zr-based BMG had lower metal ion release rate than the commercial Ti. ► This Ni-free Zr-based BMG had better proteins adsorption than the commercial Ti. ► This Ni-free Zr-based BMG has a high potential for biomedical implant applications. -- Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate the surface characteristics, including the chemical composition, metal ion release, protein adsorption, and cell adhesion, of a Ni-free Zr-based (Zr{sub 62.5}Cu{sub 22.5}Fe{sub 5}Al{sub 10}) bulk metallic glass (BMG) with low elastic modulus for biomedical implant applications. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to identify the surface chemical composition and the protein (albumin and fibronectin) adsorption of the specimen. The metal ions released from the specimen in simulated blood plasma and artificial saliva solutions were measured using an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer. The cell adhesion, in terms of the morphology, focal adhesion complex, and skeletal arrangement, of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells was evaluated using scanning electron microscope observations and immunofluorescent staining. For comparison purposes, the above-mentioned tests were also carried out on the widely used biomedical metal, Ti. The results showed that the main component on the outermost surface of the amorphous Zr{sub 62.5}Cu{sub 22.5}Fe{sub 5}Al{sub 10} BMG was ZrO{sub 2} with small amounts of Cu, Al, and Fe oxides. The released metal ions from Zr{sub 62.5}Cu{sub 22.5}Fe{sub 5}Al{sub 10} BMG were well below the critical concentrations that cause negative biological effects. The Zr{sub 62.5}Cu{sub 22.5}Fe{sub 5}Al{sub 10} BMG had a greater adsorption capacity for albumin and fibronectin than that of commercial biomedical Ti. The Zr{sub 62.5}Cu{sub 22.5}Fe{sub 5}Al{sub 10} BMG surface showed an attached cell number similar

  11. Bulk undercooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattamis, T. Z.

    1984-01-01

    Bulk undercooling methods and procedures will first be reviewed. Measurement of various parameters which are necessary to understand the solidification mechanism during and after recalescence will be discussed. During recalescence of levitated, glass-encased large droplets (5 to 8 mm diam) high speed temperature sensing devices coupled with a rapid response oscilloscope are now being used at MIT to measure local thermal behavior in hypoeutectic and eutectic binary Ni-Sn alloys. Dendrite tip velocities were measured by various investigators using thermal sensors or high speed cinematography. The confirmation of the validity of solidification models of bulk-undercooled melts is made difficult by the fineness of the final microstructure, the ultra-rapid evolution of the solidifying system which makes measurements very awkward, and the continuous modification of the microstructure which formed during recalescence because of precipitation, remelting and rapid coarsening.

  12. Critical Evaluation of Animal Alternative Tests for the Identification of Endocrine Active Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    A significant amount of research is currently targeted to evaluate alternative test methods that may reduce, refine, or replace the use of animals, while ensuring human and environmental health and safety. It is important that the information gained from the alternative tests pr...

  13. Critical Evaluation of Animal Alternative Tests for the Identification of Endocrine Active Substances, oral presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the past 20 years, considerable progress in animal alternatives accompanied by advances in the toxicological sciences and new emphases on aquatic vertebrates has appeared. A significant amount of current research is targeted to evaluate alternative test methods that may reduce...

  14. Targeting children of substance-using parents with the community-based group intervention TRAMPOLINE: A randomised controlled trial - design, evaluation, recruitment issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bröning Sonja

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children of substance-abusing parents are at risk for developing psychosocial development problems. In Germany it is estimated that approx. 2.65 million children are affected by parental substance abuse or dependence. Only ten percent of them receive treatment when parents are treated. To date, no evaluated programme for children from substance-affected families exists in Germany. The study described in this protocol is designed to test the effectiveness of the group programme TRAMPOLINE for children aged 8-12 years with at least one substance-abusing or -dependent caregiver. The intervention is specifically geared to issues and needs of children from substance-affected families. Methods/Design The effectiveness of the manualised nine-session group programme TRAMPOLINE is tested among N = 218 children from substance-affected families in a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Outpatient counselling facilities across the nation from different settings (rural/urban, Northern/Southern/Eastern/Western regions of the country will deliver the interventions, as they hold the primary access to the target group in Germany. The control condition is a group programme with the same duration that is not addiction-specific. We expect that participants in the intervention condition will show a significant improvement in the use of adaptive coping strategies (in general and within the family compared to the control condition as a direct result of the intervention. Data is collected shortly before and after as well as six months after the intervention. Discussion In Germany, the study presented here is the first to develop and evaluate a programme for children of substance-abusing parents. Limitations and strengths are discussed with a special focus on recruitment challenges as they appear to be the most potent threat to feasibility in the difficult-to-access target group at hand (Trial registration: ISRCTN81470784.

  15. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance ethametsulfuron (evaluated variant ethametsulfuron-methyl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State the United Kingdom, for the pesticide active substance ethametsulfuron (evaluated variant ethametsulfuron-methyl are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Commission Regulation (EU No 188/2011 and Article 56 of Regulation (EC No 1107/2009. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of ethametsulfuron-methyl as a herbicide on oilseed rape. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. Missing information identified as being required by the regulatory framework as well as assessments that could not be finalised based on the available data are listed. Concerns are identified as regards the potential for groundwater contamination by some toxicologically relevant metabolites and the risk assessment for aquatic organisms.

  16. An Evaluation of an Hypothesized Paradigm: The Relationship between Childhood Abuse and Substance Use Mediated by Biopsychosocial Factors among Priority Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Loretta N.

    This study evaluated an hypothesized model of biopsychosocial factors that mediate the relationship between childhood abuse and substance abuse. A questionnaire packet consisting of self-report measures was administered to 160 drug dependent participants with and without co-occurring psychological disorders in residential, partial, and outpatient…

  17. The Effect of Substance Abuse Treatment on High Risk Behaviors in the National Treatment Improvement Evaluation Study (NTIES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Lawrence; Finkbiner, Richard; Bishop, Sharon

    Substance abusers are at particular risk for becoming infected with, and for spreading, a number of serious communicable diseases. The value of substance abuse treatment in helping to reduce the associated risk behaviors for these diseases is the focus of this technical report. This analysis examines the risk behaviors of injection drug use and…

  18. 76 FR 51401 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I The... customers. In reference to drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk manufacture cannabidiol...

  19. EVALUATION OF GLYCOLIPIDS OF SOME EGYPTIAN MARINE ALGAE AS A SOURCE OF BIOACTIVE SUBSTANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Baroty Gamal S

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Glycolipids in five species of marine algae: two species of Rhodophyta (Laurencia popillose, Galaxoura cylindriea; and one species of Chlorophyta (Ulva fasciata, and two species of Phaeophyta (Dilophys fasciola, Taonia atomaria collected from Red and Mediterranean sea, respectively were extracted, purified on silica gel column chromatography and identified by liquid chromatography MS/MS. Total glycolipid contents (GL (as % of total lipid were found to be in ranges 10.9 to 28.7%. T. atomaria had the highest level (28.7% followed by L. popillose (22.5 %. GL groups were analyzed for their sugars and fatty acids composition, and the result showed that the highest carbohydrate content of GLs were found in U. fasciata (6.05% and L. popillose (5.8%, and characterized by high content of monosaccharide: mannouronic acid, galactose and rhamnose. Amongst of the glycolipids of algal species, the most predominate fatty acid identified by GC were palmatic (C16:0 19.20 - 65.89% of total fatty acid, ecosatrienoic (C20:3 7.52 - 54.41%. GL analyzed by LC/MS/MS, revealed the peak at m/z 956 corresponding to the molecular formula of C51H104O17 was the most abundant molecular ion among all GLs of algal species and its fragments peaks at m/z 617(C37H58O4 and m/z 337 (C21H58O3, were tentatively identified as digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG. The in vitro anticancer, antimicrobial, and antiviral activities of algal glycolipids were evaluated. GL of all algae species showed a remarkable antiviral activity in dose dependent manner. GL from D. fasciola has shown the most potent effect against HSV1 (IC50 of 10 µg/ml, comparable to that of the current antiviral drug acyclovir (IC50 55 µg/ml. On the other hand, GL of all algal species possessed a moderate antimicrobial activity. GL of T. atomaria exhibited a high inhibition effects against all test microorganisms, with MIC value ranged from 60 to 80 µg/ml. Moreover, all algal GL exhibited remarkable anticancer activities

  20. Evaluation of the effects of the crystallinity of kinetically sprayed Ni-Ti-Zr-Si-Sn bulk metallic glass on the scratch response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bulk amorphous Ni-Ti-Zr-Si-Sn powder produced using an inert gas atomization was sprayed by a kinetic spraying process that is basically a solid-state deposition process onto a mild steel substrate and they were successfully overlaid onto the mild steel substrate. In order to evaluate the tribological behavior of the sprayed Ni-Ti-Zr-Si-Sn bulk metallic glass coatings, a partially crystallized coating and a fully crystallized coating were prepared by isothermal heat treatments. Tribological properties were investigated-friction coefficient, hardness and amorphous phase fraction of coating layer. Surface morphologies and depth in the wear tracks were observed and measured by scanning electron microscopy and α-step. From the examination of the scratch wear track microstructure, transition from ductile-like deformation micro-cutting to brittle-deformation micro-fracturing in the scratch groove was observed with the increase of the crystallinity

  1. In vitro evaluation of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances produced by lactic acid bacteria isolated during traditional Sicilian cheese making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giusi Macaluso

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriocins are antimicrobial proteins produced by bacteria that inhibit the growth of other bacteria with a bactericidal or bacteriostatic mode of action. Many lactic acid bacteria (LAB produce a high diversity of different bacteriocins. Bacteriocinogenic LAB are generally recognised as safe (GRAS and useful to control the frequent development of pathogens and spoilage microorganisms. For this reason they are commonly used as starter cultures in food fermentations. In this study, the authors describe the results of a screening on 699 LAB isolated from wooden vat surfaces, raw milk and traditional Sicilian cheeses, for the production of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances, by comparing two alternative methods. The antagonistic activity of LAB and its proteinaceous nature were evaluated using the spot-on-the-lawn and the well-diffusion assay (WDA and the sensitivity to proteolytic (proteinase K, protease B and trypsin, amylolytic (α-amylase and lipolytic (lipase enzymes. The indicator strains used were: Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis. A total of 223 strains (belonging to the species Enterococcus spp., Lactobacillus spp., Pediococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Leuconostoc spp. and Lactococcus lactis were found to inhibit the growth of Listeria monocytogenes by using the spot-on-the-lawn method; only 37 of these were confirmed by using the WDA. The direct addition of bacteriocin-producing cultures into dairy products can be a more practical and economic option for the improvement of the safety and quality of the final product.

  2. On the Perturbative Evaluation of Thermal Green's Functions in the Bulk and Shear Channels of Yang-Mills Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Yan

    2013-01-01

    In this PhD thesis, I will review recent progress in perturbative studies of energy momentum tensor correlators in high-temperature Yang-Mills theory. After briefly introducing the necessary tools and physical motivation, I proceed to discuss the machinery developed for the extraction of next-to-leading order Operator Product Expansions and thermal spectral functions and to introduce the results obtained in the bulk and shear channels of Yang-Mills theory. Particular emphasis is placed on the comparison of the results with recent lattice and gauge/gravity calculations, as well as on discussing their use in extracting the corresponding transport coefficients from Euclidean lattice data.

  3. Anxiety and severity of illicit substance use in adolescence: Evaluating the mediating role of perceived coping styles

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann G.; Cascone P.; Molinelli B. (ed.); Grimaldo V. (ed.)

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether coping styles (Active coping, Internal coping and Withdrawal coping) mediated the relationships between anxiety and severity of illicit substance use among a sample of 110 Swiss adolescents ages 12-19 (M=16.3, SD=1.66). The current study tested two competing models of anxiety on severity of illicit substance use. In the first model, we tested the direct effect of trait anxiety (STAI-Y anxiety score) on severity of illicit substance use (ADAD dr...

  4. Evaluation and Bulked Segregant Analysis of Major Yield QTL qtl12.1 Introgressed into Indigenous Elite Line for Low Water Availability under Water Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N.Manikanda BOOPATHI; Gat SWAPNASHRI; P.KAVITHA; S.SATHISH; R.NITHYA; Wickneswari RATNAM; Arvind KUMAR

    2013-01-01

    Near isogenic lines carrying large-effect QTL (qtl12.1),which has a consistent influence on grain yield under upland drought stress conditions in a wide range of environments,were evaluated under water stress in the fields.The line which gave higher yield under drought was crossed with a local elite line,PMK3,and forwarded to F2:3 generation.Significant variation was found among the F2:3 lines for agronomic traits under water stress in the fields.Low to high broad sense heritability (H) for investigated traits was also found.Water stress indicators such as leaf rolling and leaf drying were negatively correlated with plant height,biomass and grain yield under stress.Bulked segregant analysis (BSA) was performed with the markers in the vicinity of qtl12.1,and RM27933 was found to be segregated perfectly well in individual components of drought resistant and drought susceptible bulks which were bulked based on yield under water stress among F2:3 lines.Hence,this simple and breeder friendly marker,RM27933,may be useful as a potentially valuable candidate marker for the transfer of the QTL qtl12.1 in the regional breeding program.Bioinformatic analysis of the DNA sequence of the qtl12.1 region was also done to identify and analyze positional candidate genes associated with this QTL and to ascertain the putative molecular basis of qtl12.1.

  5. ZnS and ZnSe immersion gratings for astronomical high-resolution spectroscopy - evaluation of internal attenuation of bulk materials in the short NIR region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Y; Kobayashi, N; Kondo, S; Yasui, C; Kuzmenko, P J; Tokoro, H; Terada, H

    2009-08-12

    We measure the internal attenuation of bulk crystals of CVD-ZnS, CVD-ZnSe, Si, and GaAs, in the short near-infrared (sNIR) region to evaluate the possibility of astronomical immersion gratings with those high refractive index materials. We confirm that multispectral grade CVD-ZnS and CVD-ZnSe are best suited for the immersion gratings, with the smallest internal attenuation of {alpha}{sub att} = 0.01-0.03 cm{sup -1} among the major candidates. The measured attenuation is roughly in proportion to {lambda}{sup -2}, suggesting it is dominated by bulk scattering due to the polycrystalline grains rather than by absorption. The total transmittance in the immersion grating is estimated to be at least > 80 %, even for the spectral resolution of R = 300,000. Two potential problems, the scattered light by the bulk material and the degradation of the spectral resolution due to the gradient illumination in the diffracted beam, are investigated and found to be negligible for usual astronomical applications. Since the remaining problem, the difficulty of cutting grooves on CVD-ZnS and CVD-ZnSe, has recently been overcome by the nanoprecision fly-cutting technique, ZnS and ZnSe immersion gratings for astronomy can be technically realized.

  6. Bioactive substances

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.

    Chemistry related to certain bioactive molecules, from Indian Ocean Region, developed into drugs or which served as models for the synthesis of more effective bioactive substances or in use in fundamental studies of physiological and biochemical...

  7. Evaluation of performance including influence by interfering substances of the Innovance D-dimer assay on the Sysmex coagulation analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seo-Jin; Chi, Hyun-Sook; Chun, Soh Hyun; Jang, Seongsoo; Park, Chan-Jeoung

    2011-01-01

    D-dimer is formed during activation of the coagulation system and is commonly assayed in order to diagnose disseminated intravascular coagulation, deep vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay has been validated as the reference method, but it is a time-consuming procedure. The objective of this study was to evaluate a new immunoturbidimetric, particle-enhanced, Innovance(®) D-dimer immunoassay. A total of 129 plasma samples from apparently healthy individuals and 298 samples from patients were collected for linearity, precision, and correlation studies. Testing the precision of low- and high-controls yielded CV values of 2.08% and 1.76%, respectively. The central 95% non-parametric reference interval estimated from healthy controls was 0.093-0.68 mg/L Fibrinogen Equivalent Units (FEU; median, 0.26 mg/L FEU). Comparison analysis yielded acceptable correlation with the STA Liatest(®) D-dimer assay (R(2) = 0.9471). At a cut-off level of FEU, the sensitivity and specificity indices of the Innovance D-dimer assay were 99.7% and 89.1%, respectively. Thus the Innovance D-dimer method showed acceptable precision and linearity, and the assay results showed acceptable correlation with the STA Liatest D-dimer method. The Innovance method was relatively unaffected by potential interfering substances such as bilirubin and hemoglobin. In conclusion, the Innovance D-dimer assay is suitable for monitoring D-dimer concentrations in various clinical conditions and should be useful in clinical laboratories. PMID:21325250

  8. Direct genotoxicity and mutagenicity of endodontic substances and materials as evaluated by two prokaryotic test systems Genotoxicidade e mutagenicidade diretas de substâncias e materiais endodônticos avaliadas por dois testes procariotas

    OpenAIRE

    Sérgio Márcio Motta Gahyva; José Freitas Siqueira Junior

    2005-01-01

    Substances and materials used in endodontic therapy come into close contact with the periradicular tissues via apical foramen and foramina. Consequently, they should possess biocompatibility. There are currently few studies describing the genotoxic and mutagenic potentials of substances and materials used in endodontics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the direct genotoxic and mutagenic properties of several substances and materials used in different phases of the endodontic treatme...

  9. Qualitative evaluation of in-house immunoassays of T3 and T4 and TSH based on bulk reagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increase in cost of RIA (radioimmunoassay) kit assays has led to our attempts to seek cheaper alternates. Assays based on bulk reagents were started in 1988. Statistical and quality control data on 50,51 and 52 assay batches of T3,T4 and TSH respectively has been collected from the beginning. Cumulative assay parameters show that T3 and T4 assays are almost equally precise. TSH assay is most imprecise in the group especially at low concentration levels. The working ranges of T3 and T4 assays defined at 10% error limit are quite wide and cover low, medium and high levels of hormones. In TSH the assay working range does not cover levels below 10 micro lU/ml. The variability of curve parameters is similar in this group of assays. Quality control results are most reproducible in T4 assays with a batch variability of 11.9% T3 and TSH assay results are equally reproducible. Overall within assay drift is low in all assays. IQC charts of these assays show occasional significant positive or negative shift of results from mean which might be related to methodological variations of quality among various distributions of reagents. The reproducibility and precision of results could be further improved by harmonizing distributions of reagents. (author)

  10. Calcium Sulfoaluminate Sodalite (Ca 4 Al 6 O 12 SO 4 ) Crystal Structure Evaluation and Bulk Modulus Determination

    KAUST Repository

    Hargis, Craig W.

    2013-12-12

    The predominant phase of calcium sulfoaluminate cement, Ca 4(Al6O12)SO4, was investigated using high-pressure synchrotron X-ray diffraction from ambient pressure to 4.75 GPa. A critical review of the crystal structure of Ca4(Al 6O12)SO4 is presented. Rietveld refinements showed the orthorhombic crystal structure to best match the observed peak intensities and positions for pure Ca4(Al6O 12)SO4. The compressibility of Ca4(Al 6O12)SO4 was studied using cubic, orthorhombic, and tetragonal crystal structures due to the lack of consensus on the actual space group, and all three models provided similar results of 69(6) GPa. With its divalent cage ions, the bulk modulus of Ca4(Al6O 12)SO4 is higher than other sodalites with monovalent cage ions, such as Na8(AlSiO4)6Cl2 or Na8(AlSiO4)6(OH)2·H 2O. Likewise, comparing this study to previous ones shows the lattice compressibility of aluminate sodalites decreases with increasing size of the caged ions. Ca4(Al6O12)SO4 is more compressible than other cement clinker phases such as tricalcium aluminate and less compressible than hydrated cement phases such as ettringite and hemicarboaluminate. © 2013 The American Ceramic Society.

  11. 76 FR 51400 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... listed controlled substances in order to bulk manufacture controlled substances in Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) form. The company distributes the manufactured API's in bulk form only to its customers. As... 28, 2011, and published in the Federal Register on May 4, 2011 76 FR 25374, Rhodes Technologies,...

  12. First tier modeling of consumer dermal exposure to substances in consumer articles under REACH: a quantitative evaluation of the ECETOC TRA for consumers tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmaar, J E; Bokkers, B G H; ter Burg, W; van Engelen, J G M

    2013-02-01

    The demonstration of safe use of chemicals in consumer products, as required under REACH, is proposed to follow a tiered process. In the first tier, simple conservative methods and assumptions should be made to quickly verify whether risks for a particular use are expected. The ECETOC TRA Consumer Exposure Tool was developed to assist in first tier risk assessments for substances in consumer products. The ECETOC TRA is not a prioritization tool, but is meant as a first screening. Therefore, the exposure assessment needs to cover all products/articles in a specific category. For the assessment of the dermal exposure for substances in articles, ECETOC TRA uses the concept of a 'contact layer', a hypothetical layer that limits the exposure to a substance contained in the product. For each product/article category, ECETOC TRA proposes default values for the thickness of this contact layer. As relevant experimental exposure data is currently lacking, default values are based on expert judgment alone. In this paper it is verified whether this concept meets the requirement of being a conservative exposure evaluation method. This is done by confronting the ECETOC TRA expert judgment based predictions with a mechanistic emission model, based on the well established theory of diffusion of substances in materials. Diffusion models have been applied and tested in many applications of emission modeling. Experimentally determined input data for a number of material and substance combinations are available. The estimated emissions provide information on the range of emissions that could occur in reality. First tier tools such as ECETOC TRA tool are required to cover all products/articles in a category and to provide estimates that are at least as high as is expected on the basis of current scientific knowledge. Since this was not the case, it is concluded that the ECETOC TRA does not provide a proper conservative estimation method for the dermal exposure to articles. An

  13. Evaluating the Direction of Effects in the Relationship between Religious versus Non-Religious Activities, Academic Success, and Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Marie; Willoughby, Teena

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study tested the "influence of involvement" and "selection" hypotheses for the association between religious versus non-religious activity involvement and two salient indicators of adolescent psychosocial adjustment (substance use and academic achievement). Participants included 3,993 Canadian adolescents (49.4% girls) who were…

  14. Evaluating integrated MI and CBT for people with psychosis and substance misuse: recruitment, retention and sample characteristics of the MIDAS trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrowclough, Christine; Haddock, Gillian; Beardmore, Ruth; Conrod, Patricia; Craig, Tom; Davies, Linda; Dunn, Graham; Lewis, Shôn; Moring, Jan; Tarrier, Nick; Wykes, Til

    2009-10-01

    Major problems with existing RCTs evaluating psychosocial interventions for psychosis and substance misuse have been identified, in particular small sample sizes, high attrition rates, and short follow up periods. With a sample size of 327 and a follow up of 2 years, the MIDAS trial in the UK is to date the largest RCT for people with psychosis and substance use and is evaluating an integrated MI and CBT ("MiCBT") client therapy. Whilst the outcomes of the study are not yet available, data on recruitment and retention indicate that attrition rates in MIDAS are low and the majority of those allocated to treatment received a substantial number of therapy sessions. Sample characteristics are in line with those reported in epidemiological studies and are indicative of the challenges facing mental health services attempting to manage the client group: substance use is often longstanding, with frequent use at moderate or severe level and low motivation for change, and seen in the context of low levels of functioning and significant psychopathology. We conclude that this is a methodologically robust study that will have results generalisable to mental health services. PMID:19362429

  15. A randomized controlled three year evaluation of "bulk-filled" posterior resin restorations based on stress decreasing resin technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan W V; Pallesen, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    -hybrid resin composite (Ceram X mono) layer. In the second cavity, the hybrid resin composite was placed in 2mm increments. The restorations were evaluated using slightly modified USPHS criteria at baseline and then yearly during 3 years. Caries risk and parafunctional habits of the participants were estimated...

  16. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substance iron (II modified bentonite as oxygen absorber for use in active food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    This scientific opinion of EFSA deals with the safety evaluation of the active substance iron (II modified bentonite (FCM Substance No 1003 intended to be incorporated in monolayer or multilayer packages or in sachets for absorbing oxygen from the food environment. All starting substances of the oxygen absorber have been evaluated and approved for use as additives in plastic food contact materials or as food additives. From a toxicological point of view, migration of iron (incorporated and aluminium (naturally present ions from bentonite is of interest. Iron can be estimated to migrate up to 4.5 mg/kg acidic food, which is well below the SML value of 48 mg/kg food set in Regulation EU No 10/2011 based on the PMTDI of 0.8 mg/kg bw established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives in 1983 and the SCF in 1990. The iron (II modified bentonite is intended and expected to be present in the final article as non-nanoform. However, the formation of nanoparticles due to exfoliation cannot be excluded if the substance is incorporated in unpolar polymers with compatibilisers or without such additives in polar polymers. Aluminium can be estimated to migrate up to 0.3 mg /kg acidic food. This value corresponds to 3.5 % of the TWI set in 2008 by the EFSA AFC Panel. Therefore, under the intended conditions of use, the oxygen absorber formulation was considered toxicologically acceptable. The CEF Panel concluded that the substance iron (II modified bentonite does not raise a safety concern for the consumer when used as oxygen absorber incorporated without compatibilisers in polyolefin layers of food packages at levels up to 15% w/w. The substance equally does not raise a safety concern when it is used in sachets, placed in the headspace of the packaging, that prevent the physical release of their contents into the food and are not in direct contact with liquid foods, exudates, or foods with external aqueous liquid phase.

  17. Shared Substance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerlufsen, Tony; Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted; Eagan, James;

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a novel middleware for developing flexible interactive multi-surface applications. Using a scenario-based approach, we identify the requirements for this type of applications. We then introduce Substance, a data- oriented framework that decouples functionality from data, and S...

  18. Risks and Chemical Substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Avrom A.

    1994-01-01

    Examines exposure to chemicals within the home and three important ways in which hazardous substances can be identified and evaluated. Suggests a rational picture of human health risks and contains an introductory discussion of reasons for exposure, epidemiology, cancer causes and patterns, animal testing, toxins, and risk. (LZ)

  19. Evaluating the impact of a substance use intervention program on the peer status and influence of adolescent peer leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Christopher S; Golonka, Megan; Costanzo, Philip R

    2012-02-01

    The current study involved an examination of the impact of a peer-led substance use intervention program on the peer leaders beyond the substance use-related goals of the intervention. Specifically, unintended consequences of an adult-sanctioned intervention on the targeted peer leader change agents were investigated, including whether their participation affected their peer status, social influence, or self perceptions. Twenty-two 7th grade peer-identified intervention leaders were compared to 22 control leaders (who did not experience the intervention) and 146 cohort peers. Three groups of measures were employed: sociometric and behavioral nominations, social cognitive mapping, and leadership self-perceptions. Results indicated that unintended consequences appear to be a legitimate concern for females. Female intervention leaders declined in perceived popularity and liked most nominations over time, whereas males increased in total leader nominations. Explanations for these results are discussed and further directions suggested. PMID:21935657

  20. First Evaluation of the Biologically Active Substances and Antioxidant Potential of Regrowth Velvet Antler by means of Multiple Biochemical Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujiao Tang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the biologically active substances contained in RVA (regrowth velvet antler by comparing the composition of biologically active substances and antioxidant potential of different antler segments. RVA was subjected to extraction using DW (distilled water. RVA was divided into 3 segments: T-RVA (top RVA, M-RVA (middle RVA, and B-RVA (base RVA. The T-RVA section possessed the greatest amounts of uronic acid (36.251 mg/g, sulfated GAGs (sulfated glycosaminoglycans (555.76 mg/g, sialic acid (111.276 mg/g, uridine (0.957 mg/g, uracil (1.084 mg/g, and hypoxanthine (1.2631 mg/g. In addition, the T-RVA section possessed the strongest antioxidant capacity as determined by DPPH, H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl, and ABTS (2,2′-azinobis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate radical scavenging activity as well as FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power and ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity. The values of those were 53.44, 23.09, 34.12, 60.31, and 35.81 TE/μM at 1 mg/mL and 113.57 TE/μM at 20 μg/mL. These results indicate that the T-RVA section possesses the greatest amount of biologically active substances and highest antioxidant potential. This is the first report on the biologically active substances and antioxidant potential of RVA.

  1. Evaluation of milk yield losses associated with Salmonella antibodies in bulk tank milk in bovine dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T D; Green, L E; Kudahl, Anne Margrethe Braad; Østergaard, Søren; Nielsen, L R

    2012-01-01

    randomly allocated to the control herds. Hierarchical mixed effect models with the outcome test-day yield of energy-corrected milk (ECM)/cow were used to investigate daily milk yield before and after the estimated herd infection date for cows in parities 1, 2, and 3+. Control herds were used to evaluate...... consecutive three-monthly measurements in the Danish Salmonella surveillance program. All selected case herds were conventional Danish Holstein herds. Control herds (n = 40) were selected randomly from Danish Holstein herds with Salmonella antibody levels consistently <10 ODC%. A date of herd infection was...... whether the effects in the case herds could be reproduced in herds without Salmonella infection. Herd size, days in milk, somatic cell count, season, and year were included in the models. Yield in first-parity cows was reduced by a mean of 1.4 kg (95% confidence interval: 0.5 to 2.3) of ECM/cow per day...

  2. The temperature dependence of the isothermal bulk modulus at 1 bar pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Garai, J.; Laugier, A

    2006-01-01

    It is well established that the product of the volume coefficient of thermal expansion and the bulk modulus is nearly constant at temperatures higher than the Debye temperature. Using this approximation allows predicting the values of the bulk modulus. The derived analytical solution for the temperature dependence of the isothermal bulk modulus has been applied to ten substances. The good correlations to the experiments indicate that the expression may be useful for substances for which bulk ...

  3. Ozone-depleting substances and the greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and SF6. Danish consumption and emissions, 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sander Poulsen, T. [PlanMiljoe (Denmark)

    2006-05-19

    The objective of this project was to map the 2004 consumption of newly produced industrial ozone-depleting substances and the consumption and actual emissions of HFCs, PFCs, and SF6. The evaluation was made in accordance with the IPCC guidelines, and following the method employed in previous evaluations and it covers the net consumption of ozone-depleting substances. The term 'net consumption' is understood as the amount of imported goods in bulk or drums, less any re-export of substances as raw materials. Ozone-depleting substances contained in finished products that are imported and exported are not included in the evaluation. This delimitation is in full compliance with international guidelines. The evaluation does not account for the consumption of ozone-depleting substances used as raw material in the production of other substances, such as tetra chloromethane, and which are not subsequently emitted to the atmosphere. The information on consumption has been gathered from importers, suppliers and enterprise end-users (usually purchasing departments), and Statistics Denmark. This method of data gathering means that the information gathered is about the quantities of substances traded. Purchase and sales figures are used as an expression of consumption. This approach is considered to be suitable and adequate for the present purpose, since experience from previous projects shows that a levelling out occurs with time and that the substances sold/purchased are consumed within a relatively small time horizon. None of the substances covered here are produced in Denmark. Furthermore, ozone-depleting substances are treated at chemical waste processing plants in Denmark. Treatment and destruction data was gathered for the evaluation, but in line with all previous evaluations it has not been accounted for in the consumption figures. (BA)

  4. Synthesis and characterization of related substances and metabolite of tadalafil, a PDE-5 inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goverdhan Gilla

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Tadalafil (Cialis is a potent and selective inhibitor of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase type-5 (PDE-5 and it is administered orally for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED. Two synthetic schemes were evaluated to study the impurity profile of tadalafil. Six impurities were detected in the bulk substance (prepared by two methods at a level of 0.1-0.15%. Identification, synthesis, characterization of impurities (related substances and metabolite and origin of their formation is described .

  5. Comparative evaluation of acute and chronic toxicities of CuO nanoparticles and bulk using Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, Ana Letícia de O F; Melegari, Silvia Pedroso; Ouriques, Luciane Cristina; Matias, William Gerson

    2014-08-15

    Copper oxide (CuO) has various applications, as highlighted by the incorporation of this compound as a biocide of antifouling paints for coating ships and offshore oil platforms. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the aquatic toxicity of CuO nanoparticles (NPs) and microparticles (MPs) through acute and chronic toxicity tests with the freshwater microcrustacean Daphnia magna and an acute toxicity test with the bioluminescent marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri. Acute toxicity results for D. magna in tests with CuO NPs (EC50, 48 h=22 mg L(-1)) were ten times higher than those for tests with CuO MPs (EC50, 48 h=223.6 mg L(-1)). In both periods of exposure of V. fischeri, the CuO NPs (EC50, 15m 248±56.39 - equivalent to 12.40%; EC50, 30 m 257.6±30.8 mg L(-1) - equivalent to 12.88%) were more toxic than the CuO MPs (EC50, 15m 2404.6±277.4 - equivalent to 60.10%; EC50, 30 m 1472.9±244.7 mg L(-1) - equivalent to 36.82%). In chronic toxicity tests, both forms of CuO showed significant effects (pmagna relative to the control. Additionally, morphological changes, such as lack of apical spine development and malformed carapaces in D. magna, were observed for organisms after the chronic test. The toxicity results demonstrate that CuO NPs have a higher level of toxicity than CuO MPs, emphasizing the need for comparative toxicological studies to correctly classify these two forms of CuO with identical CAS registration numbers. PMID:24907615

  6. Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Biological Hazards on the Evaluation of the efficacy of peroxyacids for use as an antimicrobial substance applied on poultry carcasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørrung, Birgit

    The European Commission requested EFSA to evaluate the efficacy of peroxyacids as an antimicrobial substance applied to poultry carcasses. Particularly, the BIOHAZ panel was asked to assess the efficacy of the peroxyacids on the growth and/or prevalence of some microorganisms and pathogens on....../or prevalence of pathogenic microorganisms. However, according to the opinion of Scientific Committee on Veterinary Measure related to Public Health (SCVPH, 2003) and to the European Commission, decontamination should only be used as an additional measure to further reduce the load of pathogenic microorganisms...

  7. EVALUATION OF PLASMA SUBSTANCE P AND BETA‐ENDORPHIN LEVELS IN CHILDREN WITH PRADER‐WILLI SYNDROME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, M.G.; Nelson, T. A.; Driscoll, D.J.; Manzardo, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare obesity-related genetic disorder often caused by a deletion of the chromosome 15q11–q13 region inherited from the father or by maternal disomy 15. Growth hormone deficiency with short stature, hypogonadism, cognitive and behavioral problems, analgesia, decreased gastric motility and decreased ability to vomit with hyperphagia are common in PWS leading to severe obesity in early childhood, if not controlled. Substance P (SP) and beta-endorphin (BE) are neuropeptides involved with centrally and peripherally mediated pain perception, emotional regulation, and gastric motility impacting nausea, emesis and feeding patterns. Objective The goal of this study was to investigate potential mechanisms for PWS symptom development for pain, emotion and gastric motility and plasma levels of substance P and beta-endorphin between PWS and unrelated unaffected children. Methodology Plasma samples were collected from 23 Caucasian children with PWS and 18 unrelated, unaffected siblings with an average age of 8.2 ±2.0 years and age range of 5 to 11 years following an overnight fast and neuropeptide substance p and beta-endorphin levels were assessed using Multiplex sandwich immunoassays using the Luminex magnetic-bead based platform. Linear regression analysis was carried out on log-transformed values adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). Results The mean plasma SP (57 ± 23 pg/ml) and BE (592 ± 200 pg/ml) levels in PWS were significantly higher than SP (35 ± 20 pg/ml, F=10.5, PGABA or POMC precursors and may reflect loss of feedback inhibitory control. Further studies are needed to confirm and elucidate the biochemical basis for observed disturbances in neuropeptide levels seen in our study and may impact on the development and persistence of symptoms commonly seen in PWS.

  8. Evaluation des risques des substances prioritaires rejetées dans les effluents pour le milieu aquatique

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, L.

    2005-01-01

    Environmental stakes have contributed to raise a general awareness on a necessity to reduce toxic pollution. This has been included in the existing masterplan for the Rhône River Basin (SDAGE Rhône Méditerranée et Corse (RM&C)) and more recently in the Water Framework Directive, both aiming for the reduction and the elimination of hazardous substances in waste water. Considering this new regulation context, the Water Agency RM&C wishes to develop a methodology of risks assessment in order to ...

  9. meeting) structurally related to a subgroup of substances within the group of ‘ Furfuryl and furan derivatives with and without additional side - chain substituents and heteroatoms from chemical group 14’ evaluated by JECFA in FGE.13Rev2 (2011)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to consider evaluations of flavouring substances assessed since 2000 by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (the JECFA), and to decide whether further...... evaluation is necessary, as laid down in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The substances are evaluated through a stepwise approach that integrates information on structure-activity relationships, intake from current uses, toxicological threshold of concern, and available data on metabolism and...... toxicity. FGE.65 concerns a group of 33 sulfur-substituted furan derivatives evaluated by the JECFA at their 59th meeting. The Panel concluded in FGE.65 that the evaluation could not be finalised for four of the 33 substances [FL-no: 13.056, 13.160, 13.193 and 13.194] due to lack of toxicity data. In the...

  10. Evaluation of a substance abuse, HIV and hepatitis prevention initiative for urban Native American/span>s: the Native Voices program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Kyle; Tom, Nazbah

    2011-01-01

    Although many community-based prevention interventions are conducted in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities, few studies report the outcomes. This article is a mixed methods outcome evaluation of an HIV/AIDS, hepatitis, and substance abuse prevention intervention for an urban AI/AN community, Native Voices. The study group wascomposed of 100youth (ages 13 to 18) who lived in the San Francisco Bay Area. The outcome measures of interest were knowledge, perception of risk, sexual self-efficacy, ethnic identity, and sexual risk behavior. The findings indicate that knowledge, perception of risk, and sexual self-efficacy increased, while no change was shown in measures of ethnic identity and behavior. Findings extended prior research by evaluating the Gathering of Native Americans (GONA) curriculum, a promising intervention designed for AI/AN people. PMID:22400468

  11. In-Situ Generated Active Substances

    OpenAIRE

    Van de Plassche, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Biocidal active substances are called in-situ generated active substances if they are generated from one or more precursors at the place of use, like active chlorine generated from sodium chloride by electrolysis, active bromine generated from sodium bromide and sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide generated from sodium percarbonate by dissolution in water. The approval of these substances in the European Union (EU) requires evaluation of the generated active substance and of the precurs...

  12. Evaluation of the bulk and strip characteristics of large area n-in-p silicon sensors intended for a very high radiation environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohm, J.; Mikestikova, M.; Affolder, A. A.; Allport, P. P.; Bates, R.; Betancourt, C.; Brown, H.; Buttar, C.; Carter, J. R.; Casse, G.; Chen, H.; Chilingarov, A.; Cindro, V.; Clark, A.; Dawson, N.; Dewilde, B.; Doherty, F.; Dolezal, Z.; Eklund, L.; Fadeyev, V.; Ferrere, D.; Fox, H.; French, R.; Garcia, C.; Gerling, M.; Gonzalez Sevilla, S.; Gorelov, I.; Greenall, A.; Grillo, A. A.; Hara, K.; Hatano, H.; Hoeferkamp, M.; Hommels, L. B. A.; Ikegami, Y.; Jakobs, K.; Kierstead, J.; Kodys, P.; Köhler, M.; Kohriki, T.; Krambergen, G.; Lacasta, C.; Li, Z.; Lindgren, S.; Lynn, D.; Maddock, P.; Mandic, I.; Marti I Garcia, S.; Martinez-McKinney, F.; Maunu, R.; McCarthy, R.; Metcalfe, J.; Mikuz, M.; Minano, M.; Mitsui, S.; O'Shea, V.; Paganis, S.; Parzefall, U.; Puldon, D.; Robinson, D.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sattari, S.; Schamberger, D.; Seidel, S.; Seiden, A.; Soldevila, U.; Terada, S.; Toms, K.; Tsionou, D.; Unno, Y.; von Wilpert, J.; Wormald, M.; Wright, J.; Yamada, M.

    2011-04-01

    The ATLAS collaboration R&D group “Development of n-in-p Silicon Sensors for very high radiation environment” has developed single-sided p-type 9.75 cm×9.75 cm sensors with an n-type readout strips having radiation tolerance against the 1015 1-MeV neutron equivalent (neq)/cm2 fluence expected in the Super Large Hadron Collider. The compiled results of an evaluation of the bulk and strip parameter characteristics of 19 new non-irradiated sensors manufactured by Hamamatsu Photonics are presented in this paper. It was verified in detail that the sensors comply with the technical specifications required before irradiation. The reverse bias voltage dependence of various parameters, frequency dependence of tested capacitances, and strip scans of more than 23,000 strips as a test of parameter uniformity and strip quality over the whole sensor area have been carried out at Stony Brook University, Cambridge University, University of Geneva, and Academy of Sciences of CR and Charles University in Prague. No openings, shorts, or pinholes were observed on all tested strips, confirming the high quality of sensors made by Hamamatsu Photonics.

  13. Implementation and evaluation of a harm-reduction model for clinical care of substance using pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wright Tricia E

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methamphetamine (MA use during pregnancy is associated with many pregnancy complications, including preterm birth, small for gestational age, preeclampsia, and abruption. Hawaii has lead the nation in MA use for many years, yet prior to 2007, did not have a comprehensive plan to care for pregnant substance-using women. In 2006, the Hawaii State Legislature funded a pilot perinatal addiction clinic. The Perinatal Addiction Treatment Clinic of Hawaii was built on a harm-reduction model, encompassing perinatal care, transportation, child-care, social services, family planning, motivational incentives, and addiction medicine. We present the implementation model and results from our first one hundred three infants (103 seen over 3 years of operation of the program. Methods Referrals came from community health centers, hospitals, addiction treatment facilities, private physician offices, homeless outreach services and self-referral through word-of-mouth and bus ads. Data to describe sample characteristics and outcome was obtained prospectively and retrospectively from chart abstraction and delivery data. Drug use data was obtained from the women's self-report and random urine toxicology during the pregnancy, as well as urine toxicology at the time of birth on mothers, and urine and meconium toxicology on the infants. Post-partum depression was measured in mothers with the Edinburgh Post-Partum depression scale. Data from Path clinic patients were compared with a representative cohort of women delivering at Kapiolani Medical Center for Women and Children during the same time frame, who were enrolled in another study of pregnancy outcomes. Ethical approval for this study was obtained through the University of Hawaii Committee for Human Studies. Results Between April 2007 and August 2010, 213 women with a past or present history of addiction were seen, 132 were pregnant and 97 delivered during that time. 103 live-born infants were

  14. Hydrogen interstitial in H-ion implanted ZnO bulk single crystals: Evaluation by elastic recoil detection analysis and electron paramagnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaida, T.; Kamioka, K.; Nishimura, T.; Kuriyama, K.; Kushida, K.; Kinomura, A.

    2015-12-01

    The origins of low resistivity in H ion-implanted ZnO bulk single crystals are evaluated by elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and Van der Pauw methods. The H-ion implantation (peak concentration: 5.0 × 1015 cm-2) into ZnO is performed using a 500 keV implanter. The maximum of the concentration of the implanted H estimated by a TRIM simulation is at 3600 nm in depth. The resistivity decreases from ∼103 Ω cm for un implanted ZnO to 6.5 Ω cm for as-implanted, 2.3 × 10-1 Ω cm for 200 °C annealed, and 3.2 × 10-1 Ω cm for 400 °C annealed samples. The ERDA measurements can evaluate the concentration of hydrogens which move to the vicinity of the surface (surface to 300 nm or 100 nm) because of the diffusion by the annealing at 200 °C and 400 °C. The hydrogen concentration near the surface estimated using the 2.0 MeV helium beam is ∼3.8 × 1013 cm-2 for annealed samples. From EPR measurements, the oxygen vacancy of +charge state (Vo+) is observed in as-implanted samples. The Vo+ related signal (g = 1.96) observed under no illumination disappears after successive illumination with a red LED and appears again with a blue light illumination. The activation energy of as-implanted, 200 °C annealed, and 400 °C annealed samples estimated from the temperature dependence of carrier concentration lies between 29 meV and 23 meV, suggesting the existence of H interstitial as a shallow donor level.

  15. Evaluation of potentially inorganic toxic substances in sewage from treatment plants of the metropolitan region of Campinas by SR-TXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increased production of sludge is a consequence of the growth of the volume of treated sewage and of the number of Sewage Treatment Plants (STP) in Brazil and, it has demanded the search of alternatives for its final disposal. Amongst the some alternatives of disposal, the agricultural use is viable, a time that the sewage is rich in organic substances, macro and micronutrients necessary to the soil fertility. However, the illegal industrial releases at public sewage may contain the presence of elements that cause harm to human health and the environment as Pb, Hg, Cd, Cr and Se. This work evaluated the potentially inorganic toxic substances in the sewage, previously dried, of the STP Camanducaia in Jaguariuna city; Village Flora in Sumare city; Praia Azul and Carioba in Americana city; Samambaia, Anhumas, Picarrao and Barao Geraldo in Campinas city, SP, employing the Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (SR-TXRF). The sewage of Treatment Plants of the Metropolitan Region of Campinas take care of CONAMA 375/06 legislation. However, so that it can be commercialized as fertilizing or conditioning of soils, it must take care of to Normative Instruction 27/06, needing to reduce the contents of Ni and Cr. One of the alternatives would be a bigger supervising in the generating sources, in order to improve the quality of the tributary of the stations, being adjusted the sewage to the Brazilian legislations. (author)

  16. Evaluating a selective prevention program for substance use and comorbid behavioral problems in adolescents with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities: Study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background Substance use and abuse is a growing problem among adolescents with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities (ID). Substance use patterns in general population are similar to patterns among non-disabled peers, but substance use has more negative consequences for adolescents with mild to borderline ID, and they are at an increased risk for developing a substance use disorder. Nevertheless, effective and evidence based prevention programs for this groups are lacking. The study de...

  17. Creating bulk nanocrystalline metal.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredenburg, D. Anthony (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Saldana, Christopher J. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Gill, David D.; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Roemer, Timothy John (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Vogler, Tracy John; Yang, Pin

    2008-10-01

    Nanocrystalline and nanostructured materials offer unique microstructure-dependent properties that are superior to coarse-grained materials. These materials have been shown to have very high hardness, strength, and wear resistance. However, most current methods of producing nanostructured materials in weapons-relevant materials create powdered metal that must be consolidated into bulk form to be useful. Conventional consolidation methods are not appropriate due to the need to maintain the nanocrystalline structure. This research investigated new ways of creating nanocrystalline material, new methods of consolidating nanocrystalline material, and an analysis of these different methods of creation and consolidation to evaluate their applicability to mesoscale weapons applications where part features are often under 100 {micro}m wide and the material's microstructure must be very small to give homogeneous properties across the feature.

  18. A retrospective evaluation of a Bovine Herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) antibody ELISA on bulk-tank milk samples for classification of the BHV-1 status of Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nylin, Britta; Strøger, Ulla; Rønsholt, Leif

    2000-01-01

    Bulk-tank milk samples analysed in a Bovine Herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) blocking ELISA are still in use in the Danish BHV-1 programme as a tool to classify dairy herds as BHV-1 infected or BHV-1 free herds. in this retrospective study, we used data from the Danish BHV-1 eradication campaign to evaluate...

  19. [Qualitative evaluation of TAMARPP, the relapse prevention program for substance abusers at the Mental Health and Welfare Center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniai, Tomoko; Yottsuji, Naomi; Okuda, Hidemi; Karibe, Haruo; Miura, Kasumi; Hiraga, Masasi; Kondo, Ayumi; Matsumoto, Toshihiko

    2014-12-01

    The development of an effective treatment system for patients with addiction-related problems like substance abuse or pathological gambling is urgently needed. The purpose of this study was to clarify the therapeutic factors of the Tama Mental Health and Welfare Center Relapse Prevention Program (TAMARPP). The program is provided at the Tama Comprehensive Center for Mental Health and Welfare, which is operated publicly by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government. Seven personnel (3 clinical psychologists, 2 public health nurses, and 2 recovering counselors) searched the consultation records of 31 participants who had continued treatment longer than 1 year, and made a list of qualitative factors that may positively impact participant outcome. The following six factors were extracted: 1) a "no-blame" atmosphere that makes participants feel safe and free; 2) a mutual helping process that enables participants to empathize with one another; 3) an individual-centered approach that focuses on a participant's motivation to recover; 4) a psycho-educational process that establishes treatment goals; 5) a treatment goal that involves some type of social role; and 6) the referral of graduates to another long-term treatment program such as Narcotics Anonymous. Our results suggest the need of personnel to provide treatment as follows: 1) keep the circumstances safe; 2) use a method that matches the participant's motivation; 3) refer graduates to another in-depth treatment program; 4) emphasize the relationship between thinking, emotion, and behavior; and 5) improve the quality of life of the participant. The missions of our center, an official institution that runs such a program, are as follows: 1) to be the first place at which addicts seek aid during the early stage; 2) to cooperate with other facilities in order to provide social resources that support recovery; and 3) to support patients suffering from both addiction and comorbid psychiatric diseases. PMID:25831946

  20. 75 FR 32505 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... the listed controlled substance in bulk active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) form. There are no... the Federal Register on September 23, 1975 (40 FR 43745-46), all applicants for registration to...

  1. 76 FR 38209 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... controlled substance in bulk active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) form. There are no domestic sources of..., 2011, and published in the Federal Register on April 19, 2011, 76 FR 21915, Meda Pharmaceuticals,...

  2. 76 FR 21915 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ... listed controlled substance in bulk ] active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) form. There are no domestic... Federal Register on September 23, 1975, 40 FR 43745-46, all applicants for registration to import a...

  3. Substance Identification Information from EPA's Substance Registry

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Substance Registry Services (SRS) is the authoritative resource for basic information about substances of interest to the U.S. EPA and its state and tribal...

  4. Family discord is associated with increased substance use for pregnant substance users

    OpenAIRE

    Denton, Wayne H.; Adinoff, Bryon H.; Lewis, Daniel; Walker, Robrina; Winhusen, Theresa

    2013-01-01

    Childhood abuse and partner violence are associated with prenatal substance abuse but the potential impact of current family discord, which reflects broader family relationships and encompasses problems less severe than violence, has had little evaluation in pregnant substance users. Using data from 196 pregnant substance users participating in a NIDA Clinical Trials Network randomized clinical trial, we examined the relationship of baseline family discord to substance use a...

  5. In vitro pharmacological evaluation of the radiolabeled C-terminal substance P analogue Lys-Phe-Phe-Gly-Leu-Met-NH2: Does a specific binding site exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyszyn, Aleksandra; Csibrany, Balazs; Keresztes, Attila; Mallareddy, Jayapal Reddy; Dyniewicz, Jolanta; Misicka, Aleksandra; Toth, Geza; Lipkowski, Andrzej W

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper, we report the synthesis, radiolabeling and comprehensive pharmacological evaluation of a C-terminally truncated tachykinin derivative, 3H-KFFGLM-NH2. The C-terminal fragments of endogenous tachykinins are pharmacophores responsible for interaction with the tachykinin receptors NK1, NK2 and NK3. The N-terminal fragments are responsible for modulation of receptor selectivity and interactions with other receptor systems. To evaluate and separate the function of an NK-pharmacophore from the activity of its parent neurokinin, KFFGLM-NH2 was synthesized in both tritiated and unlabeled forms. It has been proposed that the obtained NK-binding profiles of specific reference ligands and KFFGLM-NH2 differentiate monomeric and dimeric forms of NK receptors. We hypothesize that dimers of NK receptors could be specific receptor(s) for C-terminal fragments of all neurokinins as well as their C-terminal fragments, including H-KFFGLM-NH2. Dissociation of dimers into monomers opens access to additional allosteric binding sites. Fully elongated undecapeptide substance P interacts with both the "tachykinin pocket" and the "allosteric pocket" on the monomeric NK1 receptor, resulting in high and selective activation. However, C-terminal hexapeptide fragment analogues, recognizing only the "tachykinin pocket", may have less specific interactions with all tachykinin receptors in both monomeric and dimeric forms. PMID:25574743

  6. 78 FR 33440 - Importer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration; Rhodes Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... the listed controlled substances in order to bulk manufacture controlled substances in Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) form. The company distributes the manufactured API's in bulk to its customers... Notice dated April 10, 2013, and published in the Federal Register on April 19, 2013, 78 FR 23594,...

  7. 77 FR 35057 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Rhodes Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... listed controlled substances in order to bulk manufacture controlled substances in Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) form. The company distributes the manufactured APIs in bulk form to its customers. Comments... Notice dated April 17, 2012, and published in the Federal Register on April 26, 2012, 77 FR 24984,...

  8. Associations of Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) with Lower Birth Weight: An Evaluation of Potential Confounding by Glomerular Filtration Rate Using a Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model (PBPK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loccisano, Anne E.; Morken, Nils-Halvdan; Yoon, Miyoung; Wu, Huali; McDougall, Robin; Maisonet, Mildred; Marcus, Michele; Kishi, Reiko; Miyashita, Chihiro; Chen, Mei-Huei; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Andersen, Melvin E.; Clewell, Harvey J.; Longnecker, Matthew P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) has been associated with lower birth weight in epidemiologic studies. This association could be attributable to glomerular filtration rate (GFR), which is related to PFAS concentration and birth weight. Objectives We used a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of pregnancy to assess how much of the PFAS–birth weight association observed in epidemiologic studies might be attributable to GFR. Methods We modified a PBPK model to reflect the association of GFR with birth weight (estimated from three studies of GFR and birth weight) and used it to simulate PFAS concentrations in maternal and cord plasma. The model was run 250,000 times, with variation in parameters, to simulate a population. Simulated data were analyzed to evaluate the association between PFAS levels and birth weight due to GFR. We compared simulated estimates with those from a meta-analysis of epidemiologic data. Results The reduction in birth weight for each 1-ng/mL increase in simulated cord plasma for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was 2.72 g (95% CI: –3.40, –2.04), and for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was 7.13 g (95% CI: –8.46, –5.80); results based on maternal plasma at term were similar. Results were sensitive to variations in PFAS level distributions and the strength of the GFR–birth weight association. In comparison, our meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies suggested that each 1-ng/mL increase in prenatal PFOS and PFOA levels was associated with 5.00 g (95% CI: –21.66, –7.78) and 14.72 g (95% CI: –8.92, –1.09) reductions in birth weight, respectively. Conclusion Results of our simulations suggest that a substantial proportion of the association between prenatal PFAS and birth weight may be attributable to confounding by GFR and that confounding by GFR may be more important in studies with sample collection later in pregnancy. Citation Verner MA, Loccisano AE, Morken NH, Yoon M, Wu H, Mc

  9. What Works for Preventing and Stopping Substance Use in Adolescents: Lessons from Experimental Evaluations of Programs and Interventions. Fact Sheet. Publication #2008-19

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandy, Tawana; Moore, Kristin A.

    2008-01-01

    Despite a decade-long decline in substance use among adolescents, research tells that about 80 percent of teens have begun to drink alcohol and 50 percent have used an illegal drug by their senior year in high school. Substance use among teens is related to poorer outcomes for adolescents and youth (e.g., unintentional injuries, homicides and…

  10. Technical Appendix: What Are Districts' Written Policies Regarding Student Substance-Related Incidents? NCEE Evaluation Brief--Appendix. NCEE 2012-4023

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, 2012

    2012-01-01

    To better understand the nature of substance-related discipline rules and guidelines that may be in use around the country, the U.S. Department of Education's Institute of Education Sciences (IES) commissioned an examination of the features of the written substance-related policies for high schools in the 100 largest school districts. The key…

  11. Evaluation of the risk of diffuse pollution of groundwater by nitrogen substances from agricultural land use as background for allocation of effective measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bujnovský Radoslav

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The risk of diffuse pollution of groundwater by nitrogen substances from agricultural land is perceived as a result of the interaction of groundwater vulnerability (determined by the characteristics of the environment overlying groundwater in relation to water transport or soil solution and loading of overlying environment by nitrogen. Index of groundwater vulnerability was assessed on the basis of four parameters, namely, the amount of effective rainfall in the period from October to March, the capacity of soil to accumulate water, the average depth of the groundwater table and the permeability of the rock environment. Assessment of the index of loading of overlying environment by nitrogen was based on two parameters, namely, nitrogen balance and crop cover on agricultural land in the winter half on districts level in 2012, which corresponds with current state of the load. The resulting risk of groundwater pollution by nitrogen was expressed by the formula counting with the transformed values of groundwater vulnerability index and the index of loading of overlying environment by nitrogen. From practical point of view, the above mentioned indexes, as well as the subsequent risk of diffuse groundwater pollution, were spatially expressed via three associated categories. Based on the evaluation of relevant parameters, 5.18% of agricultural land falls into the category of very high and high risk, 42.20% in the medium risk category and 52.62% in the category of low and very low risk of diffuse pollution of groundwater by nitrogen from agricultural land.

  12. Evaluation of the specificity of three enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for detection of antibodies against Salmonella in bovine bulk milk

    OpenAIRE

    Nyman, Ann-Kristin J; Ågren, Estelle CC; Bergström, Karin; Wahlström, Helene

    2013-01-01

    Background The Swedish Salmonella control program has been running for decades and has resulted in a low prevalence of Salmonella in Swedish food producing animals. Routine bacteriology is used to detect Salmonella, however, bacteriology is time consuming, costly and has a low sensitivity. Different enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) have been developed for detection of antibodies against Salmonella Dublin and S. Typhimurium in bovine bulk milk, individual milk samples as well as in ...

  13. REACH. Analytical characterisation of petroleum UVCB substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Graaff, R.; Forbes, S.; Gennart, J.P.; Gimeno Cortes, M.J.; Hovius, H.; King, D.; Kleise, H.; Martinez Martin, C.; Montanari, L.; Pinzuti, M.; Pollack, H.; Ruggieri, P.; Thomas, M.; Walton, A.; Dmytrasz, B.

    2012-10-15

    The purpose of this report is to summarise the findings of the scientific and technical work undertaken by CONCAWE to assess the feasibility and potential benefit of characterising petroleum UVCB substances (Substances of Unknown or Variable Composition, Complex reaction products or Biological Materials) beyond the recommendations issued by CONCAWE for the substance identification of petroleum substances under REACH. REACH is the European Community Regulation on chemicals and their safe use (EC 1907/2006). It deals with the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemical substances. The report is based on Member Company experience of the chemical analysis of petroleum UVCB substances, including analysis in support of REACH registrations undertaken in 2010. This report is structured into four main sections, namely: Section 1 which provides an introduction to the subject of petroleum UVCB substance identification including the purpose of the report, regulatory requirements, the nature of petroleum UVCB substances, and CONCAWE's guidance to Member Companies and other potential registrants. Section 2 provides a description of the capabilities of each of the analytical techniques described in the REACH Regulation. This section also includes details on the type of analytical information obtained by each technique and an evaluation of what each technique can provide for the characterisation of petroleum UVCB substances. Section 3 provides a series of case studies for six petroleum substance categories (low boiling point naphthas, kerosene, heavy fuel oils, other lubricant base oils, residual aromatic extracts and bitumens) to illustrate the value of the information derived from each analytical procedure, and provide an explanation for why some techniques are not scientifically necessary. Section 4 provides a summary of the conclusions reached from the technical investigations undertaken by CONCAWE Member Companies, and summarising the

  14. EVALUATION SYSTEM FOR PESTICIDES (ESPE) 2. Non-agricultural pesticides. To be incorporated into the Uniform System for the Evaluation of Substances (USES)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttik R; Emans HJB; Poel P van der; Linders JBHJ

    1993-01-01

    After the presentation of the Evaluation System for Pesticides (ESPE) 1. Agricultural pesticides (Emans et al. 1992) this present report is describing the logical successor ESPE 2: non-agricultural pesticides. Starting with an extensive emission analysis of the different types of nonagricultural p

  15. Evaluating whether direct-to-consumer marketing can increase demand for evidence-based practice among parents of adolescents with substance use disorders: rationale and protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Sara J

    2015-01-01

    Background Fewer than one in 10 adolescents with substance use disorders (ASUDs) will receive specialty treatment, and even fewer will receive treatment designated as evidence-based practice (EBP). Traditional efforts to increase the utilization of EBP by ASUDs typically focus on practitioners—either in substance use clinics or allied health settings. Direct-to-consumer (DTC) marketing that directly targets parents of ASUDs represents a potentially complementary paradigm that has yet to be ev...

  16. EVALUATION SYSTEM FOR PESTICIDES (ESPE) 2. Non-agricultural pesticides. To be incorporated into the Uniform System for the Evaluation of Substances (USES)

    OpenAIRE

    Luttik R; Emans HJB; Poel P van der; Linders JBHJ

    1993-01-01

    After the presentation of the Evaluation System for Pesticides (ESPE) 1. Agricultural pesticides (Emans et al. 1992) this present report is describing the logical successor ESPE 2: non-agricultural pesticides. Starting with an extensive emission analysis of the different types of nonagricultural pesticides the introduction into the environment is estimated. The distribution and risk-analysis follow thereafter the lines outlined in ESPE 1. The non-agricultural pesticides are distinguished in s...

  17. Substance, Reality, and Distinctness

    OpenAIRE

    Boris Hennig

    2008-01-01

    Descartes claims that God is a substance and that mind and body are two different and separable substances. This paper provides some background that renders these claims intelligible. For Descartes, that something is real means that it can exist in separation, and something is a substance if it does not depend on other substances for its existence. Further, separable objects are correlates of distinct ideas, since an idea is distinct (in an objective sense) if its object may be easily and cle...

  18. Assessment of dietary intake of flavouring substances within the procedure for their safety evaluation: advantages and limitations of estimates obtained by means of a per capita method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcella, D; Leclercq, C

    2005-01-01

    The procedure for the safety evaluation of flavourings adopted by the European Commission in order to establish a positive list of these substances is a stepwise approach which was developed by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and amended by the Scientific Committee on Food. Within this procedure, a per capita amount based on industrial poundage data of flavourings, is calculated to estimate the dietary intake by means of the maximised survey-derived daily intake (MSDI) method. This paper reviews the MSDI method in order to check if it can provide conservative intake estimates as needed at the first steps of a stepwise procedure. Scientific papers and opinions dealing with the MSDI method were reviewed. Concentration levels reported by the industry were compared with estimates obtained with the MSDI method. It appeared that, in some cases, these estimates could be orders of magnitude (up to 5) lower than those calculated considering concentration levels provided by the industry and regular consumption of flavoured foods and beverages. A critical review of two studies which had been used to support the statement that MSDI is a conservative method for assessing exposure to flavourings among high consumers was performed. Special attention was given to the factors that affect exposure at high percentiles, such as brand loyalty and portion sizes. It is concluded that these studies may not be suitable to validate the MSDI method used to assess intakes of flavours by European consumers due to shortcomings in the assumptions made and in the data used. Exposure assessment is an essential component of risk assessment. The present paper suggests that the MSDI method is not sufficiently conservative. There is therefore a clear need for either using an alternative method to estimate exposure to flavourings in the procedure or for limiting intakes to the levels at which the safety was assessed. PMID:15582202

  19. Radioactive substances decontamination exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In common with all hospitals prepared to accept casualties contaminated with radioactive substances, Aberdeen Royal Infirmary has a contingency plan for dealing with them. Such plans are prepared by each hospital after discussion between the hospital's radiation protection adviser and its accident and emergency staff. As in virtually all hospitals with such plans those in this hospital have never had to be used. As part of an ongoing evaluation of all contingency arrangements an exercise was held to see how well the arrangements for dealing with radioactive contamination worked in practice. We report the results of the exercise since the practical problems we experienced must be common to all similar plans and might be of use to other hospitals. (author)

  20. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substance, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked, for use in active food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of CEF Panel deals with the risk assessment of polyacrylic acid, sodium salt crosslinked, FCM substance No 1015, which is intended to be used as liquid absorber in the packaging of fresh or frozen meat, poultry, and fish as well as fresh fruits and vegetables. Specific migration tests were not performed due to the high absorption of liquids by the substance. The Panel noted that if polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked is used not in direct contact with food placed in a pad under conditions where its absorption capacity is not exceeded, then no migration is to be expected and therefore no exposure to the substance from the consumption of the packed food is expected. The CEF Panel concluded that the use of the substance polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked does not raise a safety concern when used in absorbent pads in the packaging of fresh or frozen meat, poultry, and fish as well as fresh fruits and vegetables. The absorbent pads must be used only under conditions in which the absorption capacity of the active substance is not exceeded and direct contact with food is excluded.

  1. Evaluation of surface energy state distribution and bulk defect concentration in DSSC photoanodes based on Sn, Fe, and Cu doped TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The structural, optical and optoelectronic properties of 1 mol.% Fe, Sn and Cu doped TiO2 have been compared. • Transient lifetimes for pure TiO2 and Sn doped TiO2 were considerably shorter than Fe and Cu doped TiO2. • A good correlation between the bulk defects and transient decay for the doped TiO2 powders was observed. • Photon to current conversion efficiency of DSSC based on the metal doped TiO2 were in order Sn-TiO2 > Cu-TiO2 > Pure >> Fe-TiO2. • DSSC based on Fe doped photoanodes is limited by a high concentration of surface free holes observed at 433 nm. - Abstract: Electron transfer dynamics in the oxide layers of the working electrodes in both dye-sensitized solar cells and photocatalysts greatly influences their performance. A proper understanding of the distribution of surface and bulk energy states on/in these oxide layers can provide insights into the associated electron transfer processes. Metal ions like Iron (Fe), Copper (Cu) and Tin (Sn) doped onto TiO2 have shown enhanced photoactivity in these processes. In this work, the structural, optical and transient properties of Fe, Cu and Sn doped TiO2 nanocrystalline powders have been investigated and compared using EDX, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Transient Absorption spectroscopy (TAS). Surface free energy states distributions were probed using Electrochemical Impedance spectroscopy (EIS) on Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC) based on the doped TiO2 photoanodes. Raman and XPS Ti2p3/2 peak shifts and broadening showed that the concentration of defects were in the order: Cu doped TiO2 > Fe doped TiO2 > Sn doped TiO2 > pure TiO2. Nanosecond laser flash photolysis of Fe and Cu doped TiO2 indicated slower transient decay kinetics than that of Sn doped TiO2 or pure TiO2. A broad absorption peak and fast transient decay at 430 nm for Fe doped TiO2 was ascribed to an increase in surface hole concentration resulting in poor

  2. Evaluation of surface energy state distribution and bulk defect concentration in DSSC photoanodes based on Sn, Fe, and Cu doped TiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ako, Rajour Tanyi [Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, BE1410, Negara (Brunei Darussalam); Ekanayake, Piyaisiri, E-mail: piyasiri.ekanayake@ubd.edu.bn [Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, BE1410, Negara (Brunei Darussalam); Young, David James [Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, BE1410, Negara (Brunei Darussalam); Institute of Materials Research and Engineering (IMRE), Agency for Science, Technology and Research -A*STAR, 3 Research Link, 117602 (Singapore); Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Locked Bag 4, Maroochydore DC, Queensland, 4558 (Australia); Hobley, Jonathan [Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, BE1410, Negara (Brunei Darussalam); Chellappan, Vijila [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering (IMRE), Agency for Science, Technology and Research - A*STAR, 3 Research Link, 117602 (Singapore); Tan, Ai Ling [Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, BE1410, Negara (Brunei Darussalam); Gorelik, Sergey; Subramanian, Gomathy Sandhya [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering (IMRE), Agency for Science, Technology and Research - A*STAR, 3 Research Link, 117602 (Singapore); Lim, Chee Ming [Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, BE1410, Negara (Brunei Darussalam)

    2015-10-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The structural, optical and optoelectronic properties of 1 mol.% Fe, Sn and Cu doped TiO{sub 2} have been compared. • Transient lifetimes for pure TiO{sub 2} and Sn doped TiO{sub 2} were considerably shorter than Fe and Cu doped TiO{sub 2}. • A good correlation between the bulk defects and transient decay for the doped TiO{sub 2} powders was observed. • Photon to current conversion efficiency of DSSC based on the metal doped TiO{sub 2} were in order Sn-TiO{sub 2} > Cu-TiO{sub 2} > Pure >> Fe-TiO{sub 2}. • DSSC based on Fe doped photoanodes is limited by a high concentration of surface free holes observed at 433 nm. - Abstract: Electron transfer dynamics in the oxide layers of the working electrodes in both dye-sensitized solar cells and photocatalysts greatly influences their performance. A proper understanding of the distribution of surface and bulk energy states on/in these oxide layers can provide insights into the associated electron transfer processes. Metal ions like Iron (Fe), Copper (Cu) and Tin (Sn) doped onto TiO{sub 2} have shown enhanced photoactivity in these processes. In this work, the structural, optical and transient properties of Fe, Cu and Sn doped TiO{sub 2} nanocrystalline powders have been investigated and compared using EDX, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Transient Absorption spectroscopy (TAS). Surface free energy states distributions were probed using Electrochemical Impedance spectroscopy (EIS) on Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC) based on the doped TiO{sub 2} photoanodes. Raman and XPS Ti2p{sub 3/2} peak shifts and broadening showed that the concentration of defects were in the order: Cu doped TiO{sub 2} > Fe doped TiO{sub 2} > Sn doped TiO{sub 2} > pure TiO{sub 2}. Nanosecond laser flash photolysis of Fe and Cu doped TiO{sub 2} indicated slower transient decay kinetics than that of Sn doped TiO{sub 2} or pure TiO{sub 2}. A broad absorption peak and fast

  3. Substance, Reality, and Distinctness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Hennig

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Descartes claims that God is a substance, and that mind and body are two different and separable substances. This paper provides some background that renders these claims intelligible. For Descartes, that something is real means it can exist in separation, and something is a substance if it does not depend on other substances for its existence. Further, separable objects are correlates of distinct ideas, for an idea is distinct (in an objective sense if its object may be easily and clearly separated from everything that is not its object. It follows that if our idea of God is our most distinct idea, as Descartes claims, then God must be a substance in the Cartesian sense of the term. Also, if we can have an idea of a thinking subject which does not in any sense refer to bodily things, and if bodily things are substances, then mind and body must be two different substances.

  4. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the substance, 1,3,5-tris(2,2-dimethylpropanamidobenzene, CAS No. 745070-61-5, for use in food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety evaluation of the additive 1,3,5-tris(2,2-dimethylpropanamidobenzene with the CAS No. 745070-61-5, the Ref. No 95420, the FCM Substance No 784, for use as a nucleating agent/clarifier at a maximum use level of 250 mg/kg in polyprolylene (PP. Final articles are intended to be used in contact with all type of foods for short term contact (1 hour at temperatures up to 100 ºC and/or for long term storage at ambient temperature or below. Specific migration of the substance into 3 % acetic acid, 10 % ethanol and olive oil, was measured to be up to 48 µg/kg, 79 µg/kg and 94 µg/kg, respectively. In vitro and in vivo genotoxicity tests showed no evidence for a genotoxic potential of the substance. A 90-day dietary toxicity study in Wistar rats showed no effects at any dose and the NOAEL was considered to be 961 mg/kg bw/day in males and 1104 mg/kg bw/day in females or higher. Therefore, the CEF Panel concluded that the substance 1,3,5-tris(2,2-dimethylpropanamidobenzene does not raise a safety concern for the consumer if it is used in polyolefins and the migration does not exceed 5 mg/kg food.

  5. Bulk chemicals from biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveren, van J.; Scott, E.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Given the current robust forces driving sustainable production, and available biomass conversion technologies, biomass-based routes are expected to make a significant impact on the production of bulk chemicals within 10 years, and a huge impact within 20-30 years. In the Port of Rotterdam there is a

  6. Ferromagnetic bulk glassy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the review on the formation, thermal stability and magnetic properties of the Fe-based bulk glassy alloys in as-cast bulk and melt-spun ribbon forms. A large supercooled liquid region over 50 K before crystallization was obtained in Fe-(Al, Ga)-(P, C, B, Si), Fe-(Cr, Mo, Nb)-(Al, Ga)-(P, C, B) and (Fe, Co, Ni)-Zr-M-B (M=Ti, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo and W) systems and bulk glassy alloys were produced in a thickness range below 2 mm for the Fe-(Al, Ga)-(P, C, B, Si) system and 6 mm for the Fe-Co-(Zr, Nb, Ta)-(Mo, W)-B system by copper-mold casting. The ring-shaped glassy Fe-(Al, Ga)-(P, C, B, Si) alloys exhibit much better soft magnetic properties as compared with the ring-shaped alloy made from the melt-spun ribbon because of the formation of the unique domain structure. The good combination of high glass-forming ability and good soft magnetic properties indicates the possibility of future development as a new bulk glassy magnetic material

  7. Heat transport in bulk/nanoporous/bulk silicon devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Criado-Sancho, M. [Departamento de Ciencias y Técnicas Físicoquimicas, Facultad de Ciencias, UNED, Senda del Rey 9, 20040 Madrid (Spain); Jou, D., E-mail: David.Jou@uab.cat [Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Institut d' Estudis Catalans, Carme 47, 08001 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2013-02-04

    We study heat transport in bulk/nanoporous/bulk silicon devices; we show that, despite bulk/nanoporous devices may act as thermal rectifiers, the non-linear aspects of their joint thermal conductance are not strong enough to lead to a negative differential thermal resistance, necessary to allow bulk/nanoporous/bulk Si devices to act as thermal transistors. Furthermore, we explicitly study the effective thermal conductivity of the mentioned devices for several temperatures, geometries, porosities, and pore size.

  8. Distress intolerance in substance dependent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdel, Kadir; Ekinci, Suat

    2014-05-01

    This study seeks to extend the literature by examining distress tolerance (DT) levels for a substance dependent group of individuals. Next, it considers the potential relationship of DT levels with substance dependence features and finally, it compares those factors with a healthy control group. This study included 93 individuals (49 substance dependent and 44 healthy controls). Participants were evaluated using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Diagnosis (SCID-I) and given the Distress Tolerance Scale (DTS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and State & Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Consistent with our expectations, the substance dependent group showed higher scores on the BDI and STAI, and lower scores on the DTS. There was no difference between the single drug dependent group and multiple substance-dependent groups, and their DT levels were not correlated with the duration of substance use, nor with the age of first substance use. Instead, DT was strongly correlated with trait anxiety, state anxiety, and depressive symptoms. The DT levels of this group of substance dependent individuals were very low in comparison to controls and to other groups reported in the literature. Our results suggest that distress tolerance may represent a therapeutic target factor in substance dependency treatment. Limitations and future research directions are also discussed. PMID:24439559

  9. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substances Sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, bentonite, aluminium potassium sulphate for use in active food contact materials

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF)

    2012-01-01

    This scientific opinion of EFSA deals with the risk assessment of the active substances sodium carboxymethylcellulose, bentonite and aluminium potassium sulphate dodecahydrate, CAS No 9004-32-4, 1302-78-9 and 7784-24-9 respectively. The active substances form a mixture that is incorporated in articles such as pads, trays, lids. It is intended to be used as a moisture and liquid absorber in packaging for foods with short shelf-life, which are stored and retailed at refrigeration tempe...

  10. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the substance, 1,3-bis(isocyanatomethyl)benzene, CAS No. 3634-83-1 for use in food contact materials

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF)

    2012-01-01

    This scientific opinion of EFSA deals with the risk assessment of the monomer 1,3-bis(isocyanatomethyl) benzene, CAS No. 3634-83-1, FCM Substance No 988. In water and gastric fluid simulant, immediate and complete hydrolysis of the substance to 1,3-benzenedimethanamine occurs. The toxicity of 1,3-bis(isocyanatomethyl)benzene was tested in three in vitro genotoxicity tests, with and without metabolic activation and in an in vivo micronucleus assay in rats and was considered as non-gen...

  11. Fate of bulk and trace organics during a simulated aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR)-ozone hybrid process

    KAUST Repository

    Yoon, Min

    2013-11-01

    The attenuation of bulk organic matter and trace organic contaminants (TOrCs) was evaluated for various aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR)-ozone (O3) hybrid treatment process combinations using soil-batch reactor and bench-scale ozonation experiments as a proof of concept prior to pilot and/or field studies. In water reclamation and especially potable reuse, refractory bulk organic matter and TOrCs are of potential health concern in recycled waters. In this study, the role of biotransformation of bulk organic matter and TOrCs was investigated considering different simulated treatment combinations, including soil passage (ARR) alone, ARR after ozonation (O3-ARR), and ARR prior to ozonation (ARR-O3). During oxic (aerobic) ARR simulations, soluble microbial-like substances (e.g., higher molecular weight polysaccharides and proteins) were easily removed while (lower molecular weight) humic substances and aromatic organic matter were not efficiently removed. During ARR-ozone treatment simulations, removals of bulk organic matter and TOrCs were rapid and effective compared to ARR alone. A higher reduction of effluent-derived organic matter, including aromatic organic matter and humic substances, was observed in the ARR-O3 hybrid followed by the O3-ARR hybrid. An enhanced attenuation of recalcitrant TOrCs was observed while increasing the ozone dose slightly (O3: DOC=1). TOrC removal efficiency also increased during the post-ozone treatment combination (i.e., ARR-O3). In addition, the carcinogenic wastewater disinfection byproduct N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) was eliminated below the method reporting limit (<5ngL-1) both during ARR treatment alone and the ARR-ozone hybrid. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Direct genotoxicity and mutagenicity of endodontic substances and materials as evaluated by two prokaryotic test systems Genotoxicidade e mutagenicidade diretas de substâncias e materiais endodônticos avaliadas por dois testes procariotas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Márcio Motta Gahyva

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Substances and materials used in endodontic therapy come into close contact with the periradicular tissues via apical foramen and foramina. Consequently, they should possess biocompatibility. There are currently few studies describing the genotoxic and mutagenic potentials of substances and materials used in endodontics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the direct genotoxic and mutagenic properties of several substances and materials used in different phases of the endodontic treatment. For this intent, two prokaryotic test systems were used: the SOS chromotest and the Ames test. No metabolization with S9 was investigated, since only the direct effects of the substances and materials were surveyed. Most of the substances and materials tested presented mild to moderate cytotoxicity and genotoxicity as revealed by the SOS chromotest. Formocresol was the only tested substance to present severe genotoxicity to the tester bacterial strains. However, no substance or material tested showed direct mutagenicity as revealed by the Ames test.Substâncias e materiais utilizados na terapia endodôntica entram em íntimo contato com os tecidos perirradiculares via forame apical e foraminas e, em decorrência disto, deveriam idealmente possuir as seguintes características: biocompatibilidade e ausência de mutagenicidade. Existem poucos estudos avaliando o potencial genotóxico e mutagênico de substâncias e materiais utilizados em Endodontia. Este estudo avaliou os efeitos citotóxicos, genotóxicos e mutagênicos diretos de várias substâncias e materiais utilizados em diferentes etapas do tratamento endodôntico. Para isto, dois sistemas procarióticos foram usados: o SOS chromotest e o teste de Ames. Metabolização com fração S9 não foi realizada, uma vez que tencionou-se avaliar os efeitos diretos das substâncias e materiais. Os resultados demonstraram que algumas substâncias e materiais foram citotóxicos e/ou genotóxicos no SOS

  13. Bulk materials handling review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-02-15

    The paper provides details of some of the most important coal handling projects and technologies worldwide. It describes development by Aubema Crushing Technology GmbH, Bedeschi, Cimbria Moduflex, DBT, Dynamic Air Conveying Systems, E & F Services, InBulk Technologies, Nord-Sen Metal Industries Ltd., Pebco Inc, Primasonics International Ltd., R.J.S. Silo Clean (International) Ltd., Takraf GmbH, and The ACT Group. 17 photos.

  14. Flows of Chemical Substances in Latvian Pine Forests Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Tērauda, Evija

    2008-01-01

    FLOWS OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES IN LATVIAN PINE FORESTS ECOSYSTEMS Annotation As a basis of the study, data from integrated monitoring stations of Latvia have been used. The objective of the study is to study turnover of substances in ecosystems of pine forests in the boreo-nemoral zone. The results of the study showed that the mean concentration of studied elements (except Pb) increased in the order: bulk precipitation

  15. Comparação de métodos de medida da densidade do solo = Comparison of methods to evaluate soil bulk density.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Pires

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A densidade do solo (ds tem sido usada como um parâmetro importante de caracterização física da estrutura do solo e como um indicador de sua compactação. Este trabalho teve como objetivo comparar os valores de ds obtidos através de métodos convencionais, como torrão parafinado (MTP e anel volumétrico (MAV, e nucleares, como tomografia computadorizada (MTC, atenuação gama (MAG e sonda de superfície nêutron-gama (MSN. Foram feitas coletas de amostras em áreas submetidas às práticas de manejo de plantio convencional e plantio direto. Para as análises pelos MAV, MTP, MTC e MAG foram coletadas 16 amostras na camada superficial do solo e para o MSN foramrealizadas leituras em 16 pontos distintos ao longo da área experimental. Os maiores valores de ds foram obtidos para os MTP, MTC e MAG (plantio convencional não diferindo estatisticamente entre si. Os menores valores de ds foram obtidos para os MSN e MAV não diferindo estatisticamente entre si. Com relação ao plantio direto foram comparados somente os MAV e MAG com os valores de ds diferindo estatisticamente entre si.Soil bulk density (ds is traditionally used as an indicator of soil structure and soil compaction. The objective of this work was to compare ds values obtained through conventional methods like paraffinsealed clod (MTP and volumetric ring (MAV, and nuclear methods like computerized tomography (MTC, gamma-ray attenuation (MAG and neutron-gamma surface gauge (MSN. Soil samples were collected in areas under conventional tillage and no-tillage systems. Sixteen samples were collected in the soil surface layer for the analyses by the MAV, MTP, MTC, and MAG. For the MSN, sixteen readings were carried out throughout the experimental area. The highest ds values for the conventional tillage system were obtained for the MTP, MPC, and MAG, without significant differences. Also the statistic test indicates that the lowest ds values obtained for the MSN and MAV did not differ

  16. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substances Sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, bentonite, aluminium potassium sulphate for use in active food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    This scientific opinion of EFSA deals with the risk assessment of the active substances sodium carboxymethylcellulose, bentonite and aluminium potassium sulphate dodecahydrate, CAS No 9004-32-4, 1302-78-9 and 7784-24-9 respectively. The active substances form a mixture that is incorporated in articles such as pads, trays, lids. It is intended to be used as a moisture and liquid absorber in packaging for foods with short shelf-life, which are stored and retailed at refrigeration temperature or at room temperature, such as fresh fruit, fresh vegetables, and meat products. The mixture is not in direct contact with food being separated from it by a permeable non-woven fabric.
    To measure the capacity of the absorbent, absorbency tests were performed. Moreover, it was demonstrated that in real conditions of use overload does not occur. If the absorbent capacity is not exceeded, the migration of the active substances is expected to be negligible not giving rise to any safety concern.
    The CEF Panel concluded that the substances sodium carboxymethylcellulose and bentonite do not raise a safety concern for the consumer when used as moisture and liquid absorbers. Aluminium potassium sulphate dodecahydrate can be used in formulations with sodium carboxymethylcellulose (50-90% w/w and bentonite (10-30% w/w at levels up to 4% w/w. In all cases the absorbers must be placed in components in the food packaging preventing them from being in direct contact with food and the fluid absorption capacity of these absorbers must not be exceeded.

  17. Evaluation of the risk of diffuse pollution of groundwater by nitrogen substances from agricultural land use as background for allocation of effective measures

    OpenAIRE

    Bujnovský Radoslav; Malík Peter; Švasta Jaromír

    2016-01-01

    The risk of diffuse pollution of groundwater by nitrogen substances from agricultural land is perceived as a result of the interaction of groundwater vulnerability (determined by the characteristics of the environment overlying groundwater in relation to water transport or soil solution) and loading of overlying environment by nitrogen. Index of groundwater vulnerability was assessed on the basis of four parameters, namely, the amount of effective rainfall in the period from October to March,...

  18. Psychometric Evaluation of the Parent Situation Inventory: A Role-Play Measure of Coping in Parents of Substance-Using Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    McGillicuddy, Neil B.; Rychtarik, Robert G.; Morsheimer, Elizabeth T.

    2004-01-01

    This article reports on the generalizability, reliability, and construct validity of the Parent Situation Inventory (PSI), a role-play measure of coping skills in parents experiencing problems from an adolescent’s drug and alcohol use. Generalizability was robust (.80) and alternate form and test–retest reliability were satisfactory. PSI skillfulness was negatively related to the parent’s own substance use and to the adolescent’s alcohol use. The PSI shows promise as a reliable and potentiall...

  19. Special Issue: Substance Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, Barbara S., Ed.; Washington, Craig S., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Presents ten articles about substance abuse: its effects, consequences, and strategies for intervention. Describes specific group therapy techniques and presents both a court service designed for assisting juveniles with drug/alcohol offenses, and a school-based substance abuse prevention program. Looks at strategies for counseling special…

  20. Drug and Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are common in later life. The Most Common Types of Drug and Substance Abuse Prescription and Over-the-Counter Medications Abuse Among ... older population than in younger people. But, other types of substance abuse, such as inappropriate use of prescription and over- ...

  1. Transport of radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report on the transport of radioactive substances covers the following topics: facts on radioactive materials transport, safety of the transport of radioactive substances, legal regulations and guidelines: a multiform but consistent system, transport of nuclear fuels, safety during the transport of nuclear fuel, future transport of spent fuel elements and high-level radioactive wastes in Germany.

  2. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the substance, 1,3-bis(isocyanatomethylbenzene, CAS No. 3634-83-1 for use in food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    This scientific opinion of EFSA deals with the risk assessment of the monomer 1,3-bis(isocyanatomethyl benzene, CAS No. 3634-83-1, FCM Substance No 988. In water and gastric fluid simulant, immediate and complete hydrolysis of the substance to 1,3-benzenedimethanamine occurs. The toxicity of 1,3-bis(isocyanatomethylbenzene was tested in three in vitro genotoxicity tests, with and without metabolic activation and in an in vivo micronucleus assay in rats and was considered as non-genotoxic in vivo. In addition, its hydrolysis product, 1,3-benzenedimethanamine, was tested in two in vitro tests, in the presence and absence of a metabolising system, and one in vivo mouse micronucleus assay. The tests were negative. No concern for genotoxicity in vivo is raised by 1,3-bis(isocyanatomethylbenzene and its hydrolysis product 1,3-benzenedimethanamine. The CEF Panel concluded that that the use of the substance 1,3-bis(isocyanatomethylbenzene as co-monomer in the manufacture of a middle layer coating in a multilayer film does not raise safety concern if the migration of its hydrolysis product, 1,3-benzenedimethanamine, does not exceed 0.05 mg/kg food.

  3. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substance, acrylic acid, sodium salt, co-polymer with acrylic acid, methyl ester, methacrylic acid, 2 hydroxypropylester, and acrylic acid cross-linked for use in active food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety evaluation of the acrylic acid, sodium salt, co-polymer with acrylic acid, methyl ester, methacrylic acid, 2 hydroxypropylester, and acrylic acid cross-linked (CAS No. 117675-55-5, FCM Substance No 1022, to be used as liquid absorber in the form of fibres in absorbent pads for the packaging of fresh or frozen meat, poultry, and fish as well as fresh fruits and vegetables. The Panel considered that migration is not expected when the absorption capacity of the pads is not exceeded. Therefore no exposure from the consumption of the packed food is expected. The Panel also considered that none of these starting substances and the cross-linked polymer gives rise to concern for genotoxicity. Therefore the CEF Panel concluded that the use of the substance acrylic acid, sodium salt, co-polymer with acrylic acid, methyl ester, methacrylic acid, 2 hydroxypropylester, and acrylic acid cross-linked does not raise a safety concern when used as fibres in absorber pads for the packaging of fresh or frozen meat, poultry, fish, fruits and vegetables under conditions under which the absorption capacity of the pads is not exceeded and mechanical release of the fibres from the pads is excluded.

  4. Environmental monitoring of hazardous substances. Final report of the HAASTE-project; Haitallisten aineiden ympaeristoeseurantojen tehostaminen: HAASTE-hankkeen loppuraportti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korhonen, H.; Londesborough, S. (eds.)

    2004-07-01

    Due to increasing requirements set by EC legislation and international conventions, the environmental monitoring programmes in Finland need to be developed to cover a larger amount of substances. The present programmes, which cover only a few substance groups (mainly classical organohalogen pollutants like DDT and PCB), do not give an adequate picture of the environmental pressures caused by chemicals. In 2002 the Ministry of Environment and the Finnish Environment Institute started a two-year project, the HAASTE-project, in which new working methods were developed to make monitoring programmes of hazardous substances more effective. The monitoring of large amounts of chemicals can be managed coast-efficiently by relatively short-term and focused screening exercises, to which substances are chosen on the basis of risk analysis. On the basis of the screening results, the need to include the substances in monitoring programmes can be evaluated. According to the polluter-pays principle, the bulk of the expenses from monitoring programmes should be allocated to industry. Environmental authorities are responsible for monitoring in back-ground (reference) areas, where as industry is responsible for the monitoring in areas under the impact of industrial installations. Monitoring requirements for industry are set as a part of the Environmental Permit. Information dissemination should be enhanced by developing a web portal. Harmonization of monitoring activities by different institutes and other stakeholders should be secured by a national working group. (orig.)

  5. Wormholes in Bulk Viscous Cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    Jamil, Mubasher

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the effects of the accretion of phantom energy with non-zero bulk viscosity onto a Morris-Thorne wormhole. We have found that if the bulk viscosity is large then the mass of wormhole increases rapidly as compared to small or zero bulk viscosity.

  6. 77 FR 38086 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Chemica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... methamphetamine will not be sold as a commercial product. The company plans to utilize a bulk active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), as an intermediate for the development of another controlled substance,...

  7. Extraction of groundwater humic substances and characterization by synthetic resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groundwater was sampled in depth of about 50m for extraction of humic substances in the groundwater. The extraction and concentration of the humic substances were performed with synthetic adsorption resins. The extracted humic substances and reference humic substances were made a comparison in chemical property. Aquatic humic substances from Nordic Lake and non-aquatic Aldrich Co. humic acids were selected for the reference material. The unprocessed groundwater and the humic substances extracted from the groundwater were compared in UV-vis spectra, fluorescence spectra and the concentration ratio of humic acid and fulvic acid which were important in order to know characteristics of humic substances. Humic substances extracted from the groundwater were compared with Nordic humic substances in molecular weight distribution, IR spectra and NMR spectra from a viewpoint of complexation with radionuclides. This resulted that the extracted humic substances showed similar characteristics to humic substances in the groundwater, and that the extracted humic substances had similar characteristics to Nordic humic substances in containing acidic functional group which contributed to complexation and in americium complexation where americium complexed uniformly, independent of the molecular weight distribution as important characteristics for evaluation of effects on migration of radionuclides. These obtained results imply that employed method was applicable to extract dissolved humic substances from groundwater in a non-destructive manner and the dissolved humic substances occurring in groundwater in Japan are similar to aquatic Nordic humic substances, which are available to purchase at IHSS (International Humic Substances Society), in complexation behavior with some kind of metal ions. (author)

  8. Pricing hazardous substance emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staring, Knut; Vennemo, Haakon

    1997-12-31

    This report discusses pricing of emissions to air of several harmful substances. It combines ranking indices for environmentally harmful substances with economic valuation data to yield price estimates. The ranking methods are discussed and a relative index established. Given the relative ranking of the substances, they all become valued by assigning a value to one of them, the `anchor` substance, for which lead is selected. Valuations are provided for 19 hazardous substances that are often subject to environmental regulations. They include dioxins, TBT, etc. The study concludes with a discussion of other categories of substances as well as uncertainties and possible refinements. When the valuations are related to CO, NOx, SOx and PM 10, the index system undervalues these pollutants as compared to other studies. The scope is limited to the outdoor environment and does not include global warming and eutrophication. The indices are based on toxicity and so do not apply to CO{sub 2} or other substances that are biologically harmless. The index values are not necessarily valid for all countries and should be considered as preliminary. 18 refs., 6 tabs.

  9. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the substance, 1,3,5-tris(2,2-dimethylpropanamido)benzene, CAS No. 745070-61-5, for use in food contact materials

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF)

    2013-01-01

    This scientific opinion of EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety evaluation of the additive 1,3,5-tris(2,2-dimethylpropanamido)benzene with the CAS No. 745070-61-5, the Ref. No 95420, the FCM Substance No 784, for use as a nucleating agent/clarifier at a maximum use level of 250 mg/kg in polyprolylene (PP). Final articles are intended to be used in contact with all type of foods for short term contact (1 hour) at temperatures up t...

  10. Process of health-related evaluation of environmental substances. Comparison of applied methods with the guideline for the implementation of REACH R.8; Verfahren umweltbezogener gesundheitlicher Stoffbewertungen. Vergleich angewandter Methoden mit der Leitlinie zur Umsetzung von REACH R.8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licht, Oliver; Mangelsdorf, Inge [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Toxikologie und Experimentelle Medizin ITEM, Hannover (Germany). Abteilung Chemikalienbewertung; Voss, Jens-Uwe

    2011-12-15

    The health-related evaluation of pollutants is a necessary basis for regulations in many sectors of environmental protection. It has been a concern of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature and Nuclear Safty (Dessau-Rosslau, Federal Republic of Germany) to documentate and to describe the methods and procedures for health assessment of substances in environmental media. The compilation provides a comparison of methods with each other and especially with the derivation method of 'derived no-effect levels' according to the EU legislation on chemicals. In addition to the substantial compliance of the derivation methodology, the comparison shows differences in some aspects of the derivation methodology.

  11. Preparation and optical and electrical evaluation of bulk SiO2 sonogel hybrid composites and vacuum thermal evaporated thin films prepared from molecular materials derived from (Fe, Co) metallic phthalocyanines and 1,8 dihydroxiantraquinone compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semiconducting molecular material of PcFe(CN)L1 and PcCo(CN)L1 (L1 = 1,8 dihydroxianthraquinone), PcFe(CN)L2 and PcCo(CN)L2 (L2 = double potassium salt of 1,8 dihydroxianthraquinone) have been successfully used to prepare thin film and bulk sol-gel hybrid optical materials. These samples were developed according to the vacuum thermal evaporation technique and the catalyst-free sonogel route, respectively. Thin films samples were deposited on Corning glass substrates and crystalline silicon wafers and were characterized by infrared (FTIR), Raman and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopies. IR-spectroscopy and Raman studies unambiguously confirmed that the molecular material thin films exhibit the same intra-molecular bonds, which suggests that the thermal evaporation process does not alter these bonds significantly. These results show that it is possible to deposit molecular materials of PcFe(CN)L2 and PcCo(CN)L2 on Corning glass substrates and silicon wafers. From the UV-vis studies the optical band gap (Eg) was evaluated. The effect of temperature on conductivity was also evaluated in these samples. Finally, the studied molecular systems dissolved at different concentrations in tetrahydrofuran (THF) were successfully embedded into a highly pure SiO2 sonogel network generated via sonochemical reactions to form several solid state, optically active sol-gel hybrid glasses. By this method, homogeneous and stable hybrid monoliths suitable for optical characterization can be produced. The linear optical properties of these amorphous bulk structures were determined by the Brewster angle method and by absorption-, Raman- and photoluminescent (PL)-spectroscopies, respectively

  12. Preparation and optical and electrical evaluation of bulk SiO{sub 2} sonogel hybrid composites and vacuum thermal evaporated thin films prepared from molecular materials derived from (Fe, Co) metallic phthalocyanines and 1,8 dihydroxiantraquinone compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Vergara, Maria Elena [Coordinacion de Ingenieria Mecatronica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Anahuac Mexico Norte. Avenida Universidad Anahuac 46, Col. Lomas Anahuac, 52786 Huixquilucan, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Morales-Saavedra, Omar G. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnologico, CCADET-UNAM, A.P. 70-186, Coyoacan, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: omar.morales@ccadet.unam.mx; Ontiveros-Barrera, Fernando G.; Torres-Zuniga, Vicente; Ortega-Martinez, Roberto [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnologico, CCADET-UNAM, A.P. 70-186, Coyoacan, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Ortiz Rebollo, Armando [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, IIM-UNAM, A.P. 70-360, Coyoacan, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-02-25

    Semiconducting molecular material of PcFe(CN)L1 and PcCo(CN)L1 (L1 = 1,8 dihydroxianthraquinone), PcFe(CN)L2 and PcCo(CN)L2 (L2 = double potassium salt of 1,8 dihydroxianthraquinone) have been successfully used to prepare thin film and bulk sol-gel hybrid optical materials. These samples were developed according to the vacuum thermal evaporation technique and the catalyst-free sonogel route, respectively. Thin films samples were deposited on Corning glass substrates and crystalline silicon wafers and were characterized by infrared (FTIR), Raman and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopies. IR-spectroscopy and Raman studies unambiguously confirmed that the molecular material thin films exhibit the same intra-molecular bonds, which suggests that the thermal evaporation process does not alter these bonds significantly. These results show that it is possible to deposit molecular materials of PcFe(CN)L2 and PcCo(CN)L2 on Corning glass substrates and silicon wafers. From the UV-vis studies the optical band gap (E{sub g}) was evaluated. The effect of temperature on conductivity was also evaluated in these samples. Finally, the studied molecular systems dissolved at different concentrations in tetrahydrofuran (THF) were successfully embedded into a highly pure SiO{sub 2} sonogel network generated via sonochemical reactions to form several solid state, optically active sol-gel hybrid glasses. By this method, homogeneous and stable hybrid monoliths suitable for optical characterization can be produced. The linear optical properties of these amorphous bulk structures were determined by the Brewster angle method and by absorption-, Raman- and photoluminescent (PL)-spectroscopies, respectively.

  13. Explosive bulk charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jacob Lee

    2015-04-21

    An explosive bulk charge, including: a first contact surface configured to be selectively disposed substantially adjacent to a structure or material; a second end surface configured to selectively receive a detonator; and a curvilinear side surface joining the first contact surface and the second end surface. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface form a bi-truncated hemispherical structure. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface are formed from an explosive material. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface each have a substantially circular shape. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface consist of planar structures that are aligned substantially parallel or slightly tilted with respect to one another. The curvilinear side surface has one of a smooth curved geometry, an elliptical geometry, and a parabolic geometry.

  14. The Incredible Bulk

    CERN Document Server

    Fukushima, Keita; Kumar, Jason; Sandick, Pearl; Yamamoto, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    Recent experimental results from the LHC have placed strong constraints on the masses of colored superpartners. The MSSM parameter space is also constrained by the measurement of the Higgs boson mass, and the requirement that the relic density of lightest neutralinos be consistent with observations. Although large regions of the MSSM parameter space can be excluded by these combined bounds, leptophilic versions of the MSSM can survive these constraints. In this paper we consider a scenario in which the requirements of minimal flavor violation, vanishing $CP$-violation, and mass universality are relaxed, specifically focusing on scenarios with light sleptons. We find a large region of parameter space, analogous to the original bulk region, for which the lightest neutralino is a thermal relic with an abundance consistent with that of dark matter. We find that these leptophilic models are constrained by measurements of the magnetic and electric dipole moments of the electron and muon, and that these models have ...

  15. Bulk muscles, loose cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyanage, Chamari R D G; Kodali, Venkata

    2014-01-01

    The accessibility and usage of body building supplements is on the rise with stronger internet marketing strategies by the industry. The dangers posed by the ingredients in them are underestimated. A healthy young man came to the emergency room with palpitations and feeling unwell. Initial history and clinical examination were non-contributory to find the cause. ECG showed atrial fibrillation. A detailed history for any over the counter or herbal medicine use confirmed that he was taking supplements to bulk muscle. One of the components in these supplements is yohimbine; the onset of symptoms coincided with the ingestion of this product and the patient is symptom free after stopping it. This report highlights the dangers to the public of consuming over the counter products with unknown ingredients and the consequential detrimental impact on health. PMID:25326558

  16. 76 FR 25374 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ... bulk manufacture controlled substances in Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) form. The company... of Application pertaining to Rhodes Technologies, 72 FR 3417 (2007), comments and requests for... published in the Federal Register on September 23, 1975, 40 FR 43745, all applicants for registration...

  17. 76 FR 17968 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... August 2, 2010, and published in the Federal Register on September 1, 2010, (75 FR 53720), Austin Pharma... controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I Alphamethadol (9605) I... code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk manufacture cannabidiol as a synthetic...

  18. 75 FR 64744 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... controlled substances listed in schedule I: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I The company plans to manufacture small quantities of marihuana derivatives for research purposes. In reference to drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk manufacture cannabidiol. In reference...

  19. 77 FR 2324 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... August 9, 2011, and published in the Federal Register on August 18, 2011, 76 FR 51401, Austin Pharma LLC... controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I The company plans to... drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk manufacture cannabidiol as a...

  20. Toxic Substances Portal- Arsenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Favorites Del.icio.us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Yahoo MyWeb Page last reviewed: February 12, 2013 Page ... Favorites Del.icio.us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Yahoo MyWeb Contact Us: Agency for Toxic Substances and ...

  1. Scintillation counting substance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to reduce the photosensitivity of scintillator fluids, stabilizing organic compounds of bivalent sulfur are added. A mercaptan whose dissociation constant is higher than that of phenol is a suitable substance. (DG)

  2. Substance Use in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Substance Abuse in the Military Treatment Approaches for Drug Addiction Get this Publication Español PDF (596KB) Cite this ... Intervention Yields Sustained Health Benefits for American Indian Teen Mothers and Their Children NIDA To Provide Travel ...

  3. Supervision: Substance and Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellerman, Saul W.

    1976-01-01

    Argues that managerial style and substance are inextricably intertwined, illustrating the discussion with excerpts from an extensive study and job analysis of first-line supervisors in a food packaging plant. (JG)

  4. Radioactive substances and man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution and excretion of radioactive substances after their inhalation, peroral and throughskin intake into the organism are considered. Data on the basis of the biological effect of radionuclides including the development of acute, subacute and delayed effects are presented; the levels of natural and technogenic backgrounds on the Earth planet are considered in this case. The most perspective preventive and protective measures against radioactive substances intake are discussed. 77 refs.; 12 figs.; 74 tabs

  5. Humic substances in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humic substances and their importance in groundwater is shortly outlined. A description of a method for isolating humic substances from groundwater in the field and for further characterisation is being tested with commercial humic acid (Aldrich), as well as gel-permeation method for determining the molecular weight. bedrock, it affords the opportunity of studying the stability and alteration of uraninite as an analogue for spent nuclear fuel under various redox conditions. (orig.) (6 refs.)

  6. Inflation from bulk viscosity

    CERN Document Server

    Bamba, Kazuharu

    2015-01-01

    We explore the perfect fluid description of the inflationary universe. In particular, we investigate a fluid model with the bulk-viscosity term. We find that the three observables of inflationary cosmology: the spectral index of the curvature perturbations, the tensor-to-scalar ratio of the density perturbations, and the running of the spectral index, can be consistent with the recent Planck results. We also reconstruct the explicit equation of state (EoS) of the viscous fluid from the spectral index of the curvature perturbations compatible with the Planck analysis. In the reconstructed models of the viscous fluid, the tensor-to-scalar ratio of the density perturbations can satisfy the constraints obtained from the Planck satellite. The running of the spectral index can explain the Planck data. In addition, it is demonstrated that in the reconstructed models of the viscous fluid, the graceful exit from inflation can be realized. Furthermore, we show that the singular inflation can occur in the viscous fluid ...

  7. Re-evaluation and reconstruction of water purification system using soil. I. Assessment of soil as a sorbent of humic substances and phosphate ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikawa, Y; Hamasaki, T; Sugahara, M; Ozaki, H; Prasai, G; Yano, T; Imada, R; Tainaka, Y; Nakamura, W; Haruki, F

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of our study is to develop a treatment procedure for humic substances (HS hereafter) and phosphate ion in wastewater and environmental water by percolation of the water through a constructed soil layer at the hydraulic loading of a few metres per day. In the present work, batch sorption tests were conducted for more than 80 samples of soil, sludge, mineral and organic materials in order to find good sorbents for fulvic acid (FA hereafter) and phosphate ion. The results showed that the sorption of FA was high for some charcoal, and apatite and goethite minerals. Comparatively high sorption of FA was found for some Andosols and volcanic ash soil. Significant sorption of phosphate ion, on the other hand, was found for various types of soil, sludge from water treatment plants and some waste materials. The linear isotherm was obtained for the sorption of FA to a charcoal, apatite and goethite minerals, and Andosols. PMID:15497870

  8. Bulk-Fill Resin Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Havndrup-Pedersen, Cæcilie; Honoré, Daniel;

    2015-01-01

    restorative procedure. The aim of this study, therefore, was to compare the depth of cure, polymerization contraction, and gap formation in bulk-fill resin composites with those of a conventional resin composite. To achieve this, the depth of cure was assessed in accordance with the International Organization...... for Standardization 4049 standard, and the polymerization contraction was determined using the bonded-disc method. The gap formation was measured at the dentin margin of Class II cavities. Five bulk-fill resin composites were investigated: two high-viscosity (Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, SonicFill) and...... three low-viscosity (x-tra base, Venus Bulk Fill, SDR) materials. Compared with the conventional resin composite, the high-viscosity bulk-fill materials exhibited only a small increase (but significant for Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill) in depth of cure and polymerization contraction, whereas the low...

  9. Relationships between substance initiation sequence and further substance use: A French nationwide retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attaiaa, Lalla-Asma; Beck, Francois; Richard, Jean-Baptiste; Marimoutou, Catherine; Mayet, Aurélie

    2016-06-01

    The Gateway theory (GT) proposes that tobacco or alcohol use lead to cannabis use, which can itself be followed by other illicit drugs (OID) onset. Aim of this study was to evaluate if the order of initiation sequence could influence further substance use. Data from a 2010 population-based survey were used (22,774 subjects aged 15-64). Using reported ages at initiations, 7 sequences were identified: initiation of tobacco only (T), cannabis or OID only, tobacco followed by cannabis (T-C), cannabis followed by tobacco (C-T), alternative 2-substance sequences, gateway sequence (T-C-OID) and 3-substance alternative sequences. Logistics regressions were performed to study the impact of sequence on further use (tobacco, alcohol, cannabis and OID), and substance use disorders (SUD) (tobacco, alcohol and cannabis). The most observed sequences were T (45.5%), T-C (20.5%), C-T (5.1%) and T-C-OID (3.5%). Further use and SUD likelihoods, whatever the substance considered, increased with the number of substances previously initiated. However, for a same number of substances initiated, current use and SUD likelihoods did not significantly vary according to sequence. Polysubstance initiation appears as a better predictor of further use and SUD than the initiation sequence, questioning the GT and being more in line with a common liability to substance use. PMID:26826476

  10. Substance abuse precedes internet addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Young Sik; Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Sun Mi; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate possible overlapping substance abuse and internet addiction in a large, uniformly sampled population, ranging in age from 13 to 18 years. Participants (N=73,238) in the current study were drawn from the 6th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-V) for students from 400 middle schools and 400 high schools in 16 cities within South Korea. Of adolescent internet users, 85.2% were general users (GU), 11.9% were users with potential ris...

  11. Mechanical properties of Ag added Dy123 low porosity bulks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanical properties of Ag added DyBa2Cu3Ox (Dy123) low porosity bulks were evaluated by bending tests of specimens cut from the bulks. The bending strength of the Ag added low porosity bulks was higher than that of a Dy123 low porosity bulk without Ag addition tested in the previous study. No significant difference in the area fraction of Ag particles was observed among the bending test specimens. On the other hand, an increase of the bending strength with decrease of the average Ag particle size was observed. It is deduced that small Ag particles effectively suppress the crack propagation.

  12. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substances, sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate coated with sodium carbonate and sodium silicate, bentonite, sodium chloride, sodium carbonate for use in active food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety evaluation of the powder mixture of the active substances sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate coated with sodium carbonate and sodium silicate (FCM substance No 1009, bentonite (CAS No 1302-78-9, FCM No 393, sodium chloride (CAS No 7647-14-5, FCM No 985, sodium carbonate (CAS No 497-19-8, FCM No 1008 which are intended to be used as combined oxygen generator and carbon dioxide absorber in packaging containing whole fresh fruits. The powder mixture is placed in a nonwoven polyethylene sachet separated from the food by a pad. In the presence of moisture, sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate first decomposes into sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide which decomposes into water and oxygen. Sodium carbonate reacts with carbon dioxide to form sodium bicarbonate. Because the sachet is not placed in direct contact with the food or food exudates, only hydrogen peroxide which decomposes to water and oxygen may be released with no other potential migration of volatile compounds. Based on the conclusion drawn in the EU Risk Assessment Report that hydrogen peroxide is not classified as a mutagen and the results from a subchronic toxicity study with hydrogen peroxide, the Panel concluded that hydrogen peroxide does not raise a safety concern under the intended conditions of use. Therefore the CEF Panel concluded that sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate coated with sodium carbonate and sodium silicate, bentonite, sodium chloride and sodium carbonate do not raise a safety concern for the consumer when used as combined oxygen generator and carbon dioxide absorber, for packaging of whole fruits. The substances should be used in sachets which prevent the release of the powder mixture into the food. Sachets should not be in direct contact with food or food exudates.

  13. Perfluorinated Alkyl Substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Clapp, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Perfluorinated alkyl substances have been in use for over sixty years. These highly stable substances were at first thought to be virtually inert and of low toxicity. Toxicity information slowly emerged on perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate. More than thirty years ago, early...... studies reported immunotoxicity and carcinogenicity effects. The substances were discovered in blood samples from exposed workers, then in the general population and in community water supplies near U.S. manufacturing plants. Only recently has research publication on perfluorooctanoic acid and...... perfluorooctane sulfonate intensified. While the toxicology database is still far from complete, carcinogenicity and immunotoxicity now appear to be relevant risks at prevalent exposure levels. Existing drinking water limits are based on less complete evidence that was available before 2008 and may be more than...

  14. Food contact materials, flavouring substances and smoke flavourings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engel K-H

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The EFSA Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food (AFC Panel and the subsequent Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF Panel have undertaken evaluations of the safety of flavourings (both chemically defined substances and mixtures such as smoke flavourings and food contact materials (FCM, as well as assessments on other substances used in food. The major progress in methodologies for the evaluation of the safety of these substances is highlighted in this article. By December 2011, scientific opinions had been adopted for 247 substances for food contact materials, mainly plastics. Adoption of a series of opinions on active and/or intelligent packaging substances and on recycling processes of plastics is planned between July 2012 and December 2013. Panel opinions, EFSA statements/reports and guidance documents were published on specific issues and on substances for which there was an urgent request for safety evaluation (for example isopropylthioxanthone (ITX, bisphenol A (BPA, phthalates, epoxidised soybean oil (ESBO, benzophenone and 4-methylbenzophenone. By 2009, the AFC and CEF Panels had completed the safety review of 2 067 flavourings substances used in the EU. Additional data, which were requested for 404 substances, are currently under evaluation or have been generated. Eleven smoke flavourings have been evaluated, and the CEF Panel has prepared a guidance document on the future data required for the evaluation of flavourings.

  15. SUBSTANCE ABUSE IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bano Rubeena

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The epidemic of substance abuse in young generation has assumed alarming dimensions in India. Changing cultural values, increasing economic stress and dwindling supportive bonds are leading to initiation into substance use. Cannabis, heroin, and Indian-produced pharmaceutical drugs are the most frequently abused drugs in India. Drug use, misuse or abuse is also primarily due to the nature of the drug abused, the personality of the individual and the addict’s immediate environment. The processes of industrialization, urbanization and migration have led to loosening of the traditional methods of social control rendering an individual vulnerable to the stresses and strains of modern life.

  16. In-vitro tests of the labeled peptide 177Lu-DOTA-Substance P and evaluation of the dosimetric calculations in the preclinical stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Substance P (SP) is the main ligand of neurokin type 1 receptors, which are consistently over expressed in malignant gliomas. Method: 177Lu-DOTA-SP was obtained with high radiochemical purity. Biodistribution in normal mice at different times, were done. Absorbed doses were calculated for different mice organs (cGy/μCi). Absorbed doses in human organs were calculated using two different methods, time scaling (A) and data extrapolation (B). Maximum tolerated doses were calculated according to critical organs (mCi/kg). Results: Maximum tolerated dose that can be injected without kidney toxicity is 11,2 mCi/kg (adult man) and 11,4 mCi/kg (adult woman) according to method A and 47,2 mCi/kg, 56,2 mCi/kg, respectively according to method B. Conclusion: So far, 177Lu-DOTA-SP was achieved with a specific activity (S.a) of 0,05 mCi/ μg of peptide. This S.a can be increased using 177LuCl3 of higher specific activity

  17. Evaluation of the extracellular polymeric substances by confocal laser scanning microscopy in conventional activated sludge and advanced membrane bioreactors treating hospital wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrhmoun, Mousaab; Carrion, Claire; Casellas, Magali; Dagot, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) combined with fluorescent viability indicators, was used in this study to investigate the impact of hospital wastewaters on floc structure and composition. In this work, three pilot-scale projects, two membrane bioreactors (MBRs) with a submerged or external membrane bioreactor and a conventional activated sludge, were installed and operated for 65 days. They were fed with an influent sampled directly from the hospital drainage system, which contained micropollutant concentrations ranging from ng/L to mg/L. Samples of flocs were observed using CLSM to characterize the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) stained with concanavalin A-tetra methylrhodamine and fluorescein isothiocyanate solution and combined with a fluorescent viability indicator (Baclight(®) Bacterial Viability Kit, Molecular Probes), allowing visualization of isolated stained cells in the three-dimensional structure of flocs (damaged or not). The results of CLSM of the sludge composition were compared with classical biochemical analysis of EPS made through a thermal extraction method. The results showed a good relation between these analyses and the statistical treatment of microscopic pictures. PMID:24901624

  18. Adolescent Substance Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Craig R.; DeBlassie, Richard R.

    1985-01-01

    Cummings (1979), citing evidence from the National Institute of Drug Abuse, reports that one of every eleven adult Americans suffers from a severe addictive problem. Drug addiction is epidemic among teenagers; one of every six teenagers suffers from a severe addictive problem. This paper focuses on adolescent drug/substance abuse. (Author)

  19. Yellow substance (gelbstoff)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The different values of the mean slope (S) of the absorption coefficient a(λ) of gelbstoff (yellow substance) for each region under the same hydrological conditions and the correlation between the quantity of absorption (CA) of gelbstoff and sea water parameter is discussed. 12 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  20. CHARACTERIZATION OF BULK SOIL HUMIN AND ITS ALKALINE-SOLUBLE AND ALKALINE-INSOLUBLE FRACTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Cuilan Li; Shuqing Gao; Qiang Gao,; Lichun Wang; Jinjing Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Humic substances are the major components of soil organic matter. Among the three humic substance components (humic acid, fulvic acid, and humin), humin is the most insoluble in aqueous solution at any pH value and, in turn, the least understood. Humin has poor solubility mainly because it is tightly bonded to inorganic soil colloids. By breaking the linkage between humin and inorganic soil colloids using inorganic or organic solvents, bulk humin can be partially soluble in alkali, enabling a...

  1. Crevice chemistry estimation from bulk water chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the first PWR plant in Japan started commercial operation in 1970, 22 plants are running in Japan as of the end of 1994. The main purpose of secondary water chemistry control is to minimize the corrosion possibility of the secondary system equipment, especially steam generators (SG). To achieve this objective, much effort has been concentrated on improving secondary water chemistry control. As a result of this effort, the recent secondary water chemistry in Japanese plants is well maintained in every stage of operation. However, to ensure and improve the reliability of SG, it is necessary to control crevice environments, which are located at tube/tube support plate intersections and under the sludge pile on the tube sheet. According to recent crevice monitoring examination results, the concentration behavior impurities in SG bulk water at the crevice is different for each species, and SG bulk water and crevice chemical compositions are not always equal. From these results, to control the crevice chemistry, improving bulk water chemistry control methods and a new type of molar ratio control index is needed. This paper introduces a brief summary of a recent crevice chemistry evaluation technique and bulk water chemistry control method, which is employed for crevice chemistry control, based on crevice monitoring examination results

  2. Xenobiotics and toxic substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mglinets, A.I.; Katserikova, N.V.

    2003-07-01

    This literature review focuses on health issues associated with the intake into the human body of xenobiotics (foreign substances) and toxic substances in foods, water and air. Toxicity is defined as being the ability of a substance to cause harm to a living organism. Of the factors that determine the action of xenobiotics on the human body, the most important are daily dose, duration of intake, route and conditions of intake, and the ability of specific substances to act, either at the time of consumption or at a later time. Hygiene regulations require experimental validation of maximum permissible concentrations of foreign compounds in different environments. In food hygiene, the emphasis is on the acceptable daily intake. It is necessary to determine the maximum levels at which substances can be present in a food without causing any harm to human health or to the sensory properties of the food or adversely affecting technological processes. Ways in which harmful chemical compounds (e.g.heavy metals) may arise in foods are discussed. These include corrosion of metals in equipment and vessels used in food preparation. Where aluminium vessels or foil is used in food preparation, this can lead to an accumulation of aluminium in the human body; this has been associated with the development of Alzheimer's Disease. For this reason the use of stainless steel vessels and equipment is recommended for food processing. The process of smoking food - in particular cold smoking of fish - can result in high levels of heavy metal contamination in smoked foods, particularly where poor-quality wood or coal is used. Ways of minimizing levels of heavy metals in smoked foods are briefly considered. 17 refs.

  3. Effects of boundary conditions on the cleaning efficiency of riverbank filtration and artificial groundwater recharge systems regarding bulk parameters and trace pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storck, Florian R; Schmidt, Carsten K; Wülser, Richard; Brauch, Heinz-Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Drinking water is often produced from surface water by riverbank filtration (RBF) or artificial groundwater recharge (AGR). In this study, an AGR system was exemplarily investigated and results were compared with those of RBF systems, in which the effects of redox milieu, temperature and surface water discharge on the cleaning efficiency were evaluated. Besides bulk parameters such as DOC (dissolved organic carbon), organic trace pollutants including iodinated X-ray contrast media, personal care products, complexing agents, and pharmaceuticals were investigated. At all studied sites, levels of TOC (total organic carbon), DOC, AOX (adsorbable organic halides), SAC (spectral absorption coefficient at 254 nm), and turbidity were reduced significantly. DOC removal was stimulated at higher groundwater temperatures during AGR. Several substances were generally easily removable during both AGR and RBF, regardless of the site, season, discharge or redox regime. For some more refractory substances, however, removal efficiency turned out to be significantly influenced by redox conditions. PMID:22678210

  4. Mining the bulk positron lifetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aourag, H.; Guittom, A. [Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger (CRNA), Alger Gare - Algiers (Algeria)

    2009-02-15

    We introduce a new approach to investigate the bulk positron lifetimes of new systems based on data-mining techniques. Through data mining of bulk positron lifetimes, we demonstrate the ability to predict the positron lifetimes of new semiconductors on the basis of available semiconductor data already studied. Informatics techniques have been applied to bulk positron lifetimes for different tetrahedrally bounded semiconductors in order to discover computational design rules. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Mining the bulk positron lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We introduce a new approach to investigate the bulk positron lifetimes of new systems based on data-mining techniques. Through data mining of bulk positron lifetimes, we demonstrate the ability to predict the positron lifetimes of new semiconductors on the basis of available semiconductor data already studied. Informatics techniques have been applied to bulk positron lifetimes for different tetrahedrally bounded semiconductors in order to discover computational design rules. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Advances in bulk port development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soros, P. (Soros Associates Consulting Engineers, New York, NY (USA))

    1991-03-01

    The article features several recently developed bulk ports which illustrate aspects of new technology or concepts in maritime transport. Low handling capacity bulk terminals at Ponta da Madeira, Brazil and Kooragang Island, Australia and the low-cost bulk port at Port of Corpus Christi, Texas are described. Operations at the ports of Pecket and Tocopilla in Chile, which had special technical problems, are mentioned. Coal terminals at Port Kembla, Australia and St. Johns River in Florid Jacksonville, Florida are featured as examples of terminals which had to be designed to meet high environmental standards. 13 refs., 2 figs., 14 photos.

  7. Pathways to Adolescent Substance Use among Sexually Abused Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Jennifer A.; McCloskey, Laura Ann

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the link between childhood sexual abuse and adolescent substance use among girls, and evaluated depressive self-concept and behavioral under-control (BUC) as pathways to substance use for sexually abused girls. Participants (n = 150) were drawn from a longitudinal study of the impact of domestic violence on the lives of women…

  8. Bulk Nuclear Properties from Reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Danielewicz, P.

    2002-01-01

    Extraction of bulk nuclear properties by comparing reaction observables to results from semiclassical transport-model simulations is discussed. Specific properties include the nuclear viscosity, incompressibility and constraints on the nuclear pressure at supranormal densities.

  9. Bulk charges in eleven dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Hawking, Stephen William

    1998-01-01

    Eleven dimensional supergravity has electric type currents arising from the Chern-Simon and anomaly terms in the action. However the bulk charge integrates to zero for asymptotically flat solutions with topological trivial spatial sections. We show that by relaxing the boundary conditions to generalisations of the ALE and ALF boundary conditions in four dimensions one can obtain static solutions with a bulk charge preserving between 1/16 and 1/4 of the supersymmetries. One can introduce membranes with the same sign of charge into these backgrounds. This raises the possibility that these generalized membranes might decay quantum mechanically to leave just a bulk distribution of charge. Alternatively and more probably, a bulk distribution of charge can decay into a collection of singlely charged membranes. Dimensional reductions of these solutions lead to novel representations of extreme black holes in four dimensions with up to four charges. We discuss how the eleven-dimensional Kaluza-Klein monopole wrapped a...

  10. Substance abuse in later life.

    OpenAIRE

    D'Archangelo, E.

    1993-01-01

    Substance abuse affects an appreciable portion of the elderly population. Elderly people have characteristics that could hinder identification, diagnosis, intervention, and treatment of substance abuse. If physicians use strategies specific to the elderly, management is often successful.

  11. Substance Abuse in the Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... DrugFacts » Substance Abuse in the Military DrugFacts: Substance Abuse in the Military Email Facebook Twitter Revised March ... alcohol and tobacco use, and especially prescription drug abuse, are much more prevalent and are on the ...

  12. Substance abuse and first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. The Danish OPUS trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lone; Jeppesen, Pia; Thorup, Anne;

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate whether integrated treatment (given by OPUS), in comparison with standard treatment, significantly reduced the number of patients with substance abuse and improved clinical and social outcome in the group of substance abusers after 2 years.......To evaluate whether integrated treatment (given by OPUS), in comparison with standard treatment, significantly reduced the number of patients with substance abuse and improved clinical and social outcome in the group of substance abusers after 2 years....

  13. Initial findings from a mixed-methods evaluation of computer-assisted therapy for substance misuse in prisoners: Development, implementation and clinical outcomes from the ‘Breaking Free Health & Justice’ treatment and recovery programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Elison

    2015-08-01

    examine the processes of implementation of this novel digital health programme and the various barriers and facilitators of this, including the practicalities of providing an online treatment programme in an environment in which there are multiple, complex security requirements and considerations. Additionally, the acceptability of the BFHJ programme to prisoners who may have limited experience of using online technologies was also explored. Clinical outcomes in terms of the programmes impact on substance dependence and use were also examined. Methods: In line with the Medical Research Council (MRC guidelines around development and evaluation of complex interventions (Craig et al., 2008, a mixed-methods approach was used including a qualitative study to explore the implementation of this online treatment programme within the secure prison environment, and offender perceptions of this novel, technology-enhanced approach to substance misuse treatment. In addition, quantitative data derived from a battery of standardised psychometric assessments was used to examine clinical effectiveness of BFHJ. Results: In order to meet MoJ security requirements prior to implementation, the BFHJ programme had to be reviewed and ‘white listed’ by NOMS and their security partner XMA to ensure the programme met all security, quality and information assurance processes and standards. This was a lengthy and costly process that entailed freshly developing the programme in partnership with VC experts at NOMS to ensure the programme is ‘sterile’ i.e., there are no holes in the system or links to external websites – this comprised some aspects of the programme content and resulted in some clinical techniques requiring reworking e.g., removing Google maps from one section of the programme. Themes emerging from qualitative data around offenders experiences of BFHJ illustrate its potential for use in prison settings and also to provide, for the first time, genuine continuity of care during

  14. Toxic Substances Control Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Toxic Substances Control Act and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  15. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substances citric acid (E330 and sodium hydrogen carbonate (E500ii, used as carbon dioxide generators, together with liquid absorbers cellulose and polyacrylic acid sodium salt crosslinked, in active food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of EFSA Panel on food contact materials, enzymes, flavourings and processing aids deals with the safety evaluation of the mixture of the active substances citric acid (E330, CAS No 77-92-9, FCM Substance No 139 and sodium hydrogen carbonate (E500ii, CAS No 144-55-8, FCM Substance No 21, which is intended to be used as a carbon dioxide generator in liquid absorbent pads in the packaging of fresh or frozen meat, poultry, fish, fruits and vegetables. Depending on absorption capacity needed, pure cellulose or a mixture of cellulose and polyacrylic acid sodium salt crosslinked may be used as absorber. The Panel noted that if the active substances are used not in direct contact with food, but are placed in a pad under conditions where its absorption capacity is not exceeded, then no migration is to be expected and therefore no exposure from the consumption of the packed food is expected. Therefore the CEF Panel concluded that the use of the mixture of the active substances citric acid (E330 and sodium hydrogen carbonate (E500ii, as carbon dioxide generator in liquid absorbent pads in the packaging of food such as fresh or frozen meat, poultry, fish, fruits and vegetables, does not raise a safety concern. The absorbent pads should be used only under conditions in which the liquid absorption capacity is not exceeded and direct contact between the substance and the food is excluded.

  16. Sensory processing disorders among substance dependents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batya Engel-Yeger

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: (1 To compare sensory processing patterns as expressed in daily life between substance dependents and typical controls; (2 profile the prevalence of sensory processing disorders (SPD among substance dependents; and (3 examine gender effect on SPD within and between groups. Methods: Two hundred ninety people aged 19-64 participated in this study. The study group included 145 individuals who lived in the community or took part in an outpatient program because of addiction to drugs/alcohol and had been clean for over three months. The control group included 145 individuals who were not exposed to drugs or alcohol on a regular basis and did not suffer from addictive behavior. All participants filled a demographic questionnaire. Those who met the inclusion criteria completed the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile (AASP so that their sensory processing patterns could be assessed. Results: When comparing both groups, the study group showed greater sensory sensitivity and significantly higher prevalence of SPD. Significant group/gender interaction was found in regard to sensation seeking. Discussion: SPD among substance dependents may be expressed in daily life by either hypersensitivity or hyposensitivity. The behavioral outcomes reflected by the AASP support neurophysiological manifestations about SPD of substance dependents. The evaluation process of substance dependents should refer to their sensory processing abilities. In case SPD is diagnosed, Occupational Therapy and specific sensory–based interventions should be considered in order to fit the specific needs of individuals and enhance their performance, meaningful participation, and quality of life.

  17. Bulk density of an alfisol under cultivation systems in a long-term experiment evaluated with gamma ray computed tomography;Densidade de um planossolo sob sistemas de cultivo por meio da tomografia computadorizada de raios gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bamberg, Adilson Luis; Silva, Thiago Rech da, E-mail: adillbamberg@hotmail.co [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Agronomia Eliseu Maciel], E-mail: thiago_cccp@hotmail.com; Pauletto, Eloy Antonio; Pinto, Luiz Fernando Spinelli; Lima, Ana Claudia Rodrigues de, E-mail: pauletto@ufpel.edu.b [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Agronomia Eliseu Maciel. Dept. de Solos], E-mail: lfspin@ufpel.edu.b, E-mail: anacrlima@hotmail.co, E-mail: Gome, E-mail: Algenor da Silv, E-mail: algenor@cpact.embrapa.b [EMBRAPA, Pelotas, RS (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuaria Clima Temperado. Estacao Experimental Terras Baixas; Timm, Luis Carlos, E-mail: lctimm@ufpel.edu.b [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Agronomia Eliseu Maciel. Dept. de Engenharia Rural

    2009-09-15

    The sustainability of irrigated rice (Oryza sativa L.) in lowland soils is based on the use of crop rotation and succession, which are essential for the control of red and black rice. The effects on the soil properties deserve studies, particularly on soil compaction. The objective of this study was to identify compacted layers in an albaqualf under different cultivation and tillage systems, by evaluating the soil bulk density (Ds) with Gamma Ray Computed Tomography (TC). The analysis was carried out in a long-term experiment, from 1985 to 2004, at an experimental station of EMBRAPA Clima Temperado, Capao do Leao, RS, Brazil, in a random block design with seven treatments, with four replications (T1 - one year rice with conventional tillage followed by two years fallow; T2 - continuous rice under conventional tillage; T4 - rice and soybean (Glycine Max L.) rotation under conventional tillage; T5 - rice, soybean and corn (Zea maize L.) rotation under conventional tillage; T6 - rice under no-tillage in the summer in succession to rye-grass (Lolium multiflorum L.) in the winter; T7 - rice under no-tillage and soybean under conventional tillage rotation; T8 - control: uncultivated soil). The Gamma Ray Computed Tomography method did not identify compacted soil layers under no tillage rice in succession to rye-grass; two fallow years in the irrigated rice production system did not prevent the formation of a compacted layer at the soil surface; and in the rice, soybean and corn rotation under conventional tillage two compacted layers were identified (0.0 to 1.5 cm and 11 to 14 cm), indicating that they may restrict the agricultural production in this cultivation system on Albaqualf soils. (author)

  18. [Evaluation of the Family-based Familien stärken-Program for Preventing Substance Abuse and Behavior Problems in Youth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stappenbeck, J; Wendell, A; Thomasius, R

    2015-09-01

    The Strengthening Families Program was developed in the USA and is regarded as an effective family-based prevention programme for youth. The evaluation of an adapted German version was carried out as a randomised-controlled multicentre trial. 292 families were recruited, 150 followed the intervention, and 142 received a minimal intervention. Acceptance from families and programme facilitators was high. Results about the effectiveness will be reported as soon as follow-up assessments are completed. PMID:23771813

  19. Looking for a bulk point

    CERN Document Server

    Maldacena, Juan; Zhiboedov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We consider Lorentzian correlators of local operators. In perturbation theory, singularities occur when we can draw a position-space Landau diagram with null lines. In theories with gravity duals, we can also draw Landau diagrams in the bulk. We argue that certain singularities can arise only from bulk diagrams, not from boundary diagrams. As has been previously observed, these singularities are a clear diagnostic of bulk locality. We analyze some properties of these perturbative singularities and discuss their relation to the OPE and the dimensions of double-trace operators. In the exact nonperturbative theory, we expect no singularity at these locations. We prove this statement in 1+1 dimensions by CFT methods.

  20. Gamma probe dry bulk densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gamma density probe is a useful instrument for measuring water content in small volumes of soil. Essentially, the gamma probe measures the density of the soil and water between a source and a detector. To transpose the gamma densities into water content, the dry bulk density of the soil is needed. A nondestructive method for estimating dry bulk densities for use with the gamma probe is proposed. The procedure is based on the assumption that water content values in a field dry condition were more stable than the dry bulk density values and could be transferred from one point to another. The procedure was successfully used on three areas in Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed in southwest Idaho. (U.S.)

  1. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 96 (FGE.96): Consideration of 88 flavouring substances considered by EFSA for which EU production volumes / anticipated production volumes have been submitted on

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister;

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to consider evaluations of flavouring substances assessed since 2000 by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (the JECFA), and to decide whether further...

  2. Bulk Viscosity of Interacting Hadrons

    OpenAIRE

    Wiranata, A.; M. Prakash

    2009-01-01

    We show that first approximations to the bulk viscosity $\\eta_v$ are expressible in terms of factors that depend on the sound speed $v_s$, the enthalpy, and the interaction (elastic and inelastic) cross section. The explicit dependence of $\\eta_v$ on the factor $(\\frac 13 - v_s^2)$ is demonstrated in the Chapman-Enskog approximation as well as the variational and relaxation time approaches. The interesting feature of bulk viscosity is that the dominant contributions at a given temperature ari...

  3. Bulk Viscosity of Interacting Hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Wiranata, A

    2009-01-01

    We show that first approximations to the bulk viscosity $\\eta_v$ are expressible in terms of factors that depend on the sound speed $v_s$, the enthalpy, and the interaction (elastic and inelastic) cross section. The explicit dependence of $\\eta_v$ on the factor $(\\frac 13 - v_s^2)$ is demonstrated in the Chapman-Enskog approximation as well as the variational and relaxation time approaches. The interesting feature of bulk viscosity is that the dominant contributions at a given temperature arise from particles which are neither extremely nonrelativistic nor extremely relativistic. Numerical results for a model binary mixture are reported.

  4. Illicit substance use among adolescents: a matrix of prospective predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraitis, J; Flay, B R; Miller, T Q; Torpy, E J; Greiner, B

    1998-11-01

    This paper reviews findings from 58 prospective studies of illicit substance use (ISU) among adolescents. It arranges 384 findings according to three types of influence (viz., social, attitudinal, and intrapersonal) and four levels of influence (viz., ultimate, distal, proximal, and immediate). The bulk of evidence reconfirms the importance of several predictors of ISU (e.g., intentions and prior substance-related behavior, friendship patterns and peer behaviors, absence of supportive parents, psychological temperament), reveals that a few variables thought to be well-established predictors may not be (e.g., parental behaviors, parental permissiveness, depression, low self-esteem), and uncovers several variables where findings were either sparse or inconsistent (e.g., the role of public policies concerning ISU, mass media depictions of ISU, certain parenting styles, affective states, perceptions of parental disapproval for ISU, and substance-specific refusal skills). Directions for future research are discussed. PMID:9818990

  5. Power accumulating substances and their use. Energoakkumulirlyushchlye veshchestva i ikh ispolzovaniye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varshavskiy, I.L.

    1980-01-01

    Questions of the use of certain substances as secondary energy carriers are examined. Classification of power accumulating substances, analysis of their power capacity and means of production are cited. The possibility of using power accumulating substances to produce H/sub 2/ from water is evaluated.

  6. Bulk charges in eleven dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawking, S. W.; Taylor-Robinson, M. M.

    1998-07-01

    Eleven dimensional supergravity has electric type currents arising from the Chern-Simon and anomaly terms in the action. However the bulk charge integrates to zero for asymptotically flat solutions with topological trivial spatial sections. We show that by relaxing the boundary conditions to generalisations of the ALE and ALF boundary conditions in four dimensions one can obtain static solutions with a bulk charge. Solutions involving anomaly terms preserve between 1/16 and 1/4 of the supersymmetries but Chern-Simons fluxes generally break all of the remaining supersymmetry. One can introduce membranes with the same sign of charge into these backgrounds. This raises the possibility that these generalized membranes might decay quantum mechanically to leave just a bulk distribution of charge. Alternatively and more probably, a bulk distribution of charge can decay into a collection of singly charged membranes. Dimensional reductions of these solutions lead to novel representations of extreme black holes in four dimensions with up to four charges. We discuss how the eleven-dimensional Kaluza-Klein monopole wrapped around a space with non-zero first Pontryagin class picks up an electric charge proportional to the Pontryagin number.

  7. Bulk viscosity and deflationary universes

    CERN Document Server

    Lima, J A S; Waga, I

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the conditions that make possible the description of entropy generation in the new inflationary model by means of a nearequilibrium process. We show that there are situations in which the bulk viscosity cannot describe particle production during the coherent field oscillations phase.

  8. Longitudinal bulk acoustic mass sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hales, Jan Harry; Teva, Jordi; Boisen, Anja;

    2009-01-01

    A polycrystalline silicon longitudinal bulk acoustic cantilever is fabricated and operated in air at 51 MHz. A mass sensitivity of 100 Hz/fg (1 fg=10(-15) g) is obtained from the preliminary experiments where a minute mass is deposited on the device by means of focused ion beam. The total noise i...

  9. Enhanced Case Management versus Substance Abuse Treatment Alone among Substance Abusers with Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striley, Catherine W.; Nattala, Prasanthi; Ben Abdallah, Arbi; Dennis, Michael L.; Cottler, Linda B.

    2013-01-01

    This pilot study evaluated the effectiveness of enhanced case management for substance abusers with comorbid major depression, which was an integrated approach to care. One hundred and 20 participants admitted to drug treatment who also met Computerized Diagnostic Interview Schedule criteria for major depression at baseline were randomized to…

  10. Substance Use and Facial Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Debra A.

    2010-01-01

    Substance use is a major contributing factor to the interpersonal violence that accounts for a significant proportion of facial injuries among adults and adolescents; thus, violence is the main “pathway” through which substance use and injuries are linked. Beyond causality, substance use continues to influence recovery from the injury through its impact on the healing process (e.g., patient non-compliance, suppression of T-cell counts, susceptibility to bacterial colonization, and protein pro...

  11. Women and Substance Abuse Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Poole Nancy; Dell, Colleen Anne; Cormier Renée A

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Health Issues Differences exist in the prevalence and physical health impacts of problem substance use among men and women. These differences are also found in the mental health and trauma events related to substance use, barriers to treatment and harm-reduction services and the impact of substance use on pregnancy and parenting. Data from the 2000–2001 Canadian Community Health Survey and Canada's Alcohol and Other Drugs Survey (1994) were used to explore this issue further. Key Fin...

  12. Risk Assessment of New Chemical Substances: System Realisation and Validation II

    OpenAIRE

    Toet C; de Nijs ACM; Vermeire TG; Poel P van der; Tuinstra J

    1991-01-01

    In the project "Evaluation System new substances", methods are developed to systematically predict and assess the hazards for man and environment related to the production and use of new chemical substances. Part of the project is the realisation of a Risk Assessment System for New Chemical Substances, which is described in this report. This system is a computer program, available for advisory tasks concerning the assessment of hazard and risk of new chemical substances (level 0). A...

  13. Personality Disorders, Narcotics, and Stimulants; Relationship in Iranian Male Substance Dependents Population

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background: Individuals with certain personality disorders, especially the antisocial and borderline personality disorders, are more prone to substance use disorders. Objectives: Regarding the importance of substance use disorders, this study aimed to explore the association between personality disorders and types of used drugs (narcotics and stimulants) in Iranian male substance users. Patients and Methods: The current study was a correlation study. We evaluated 285 male substance users and ...

  14. Polymerisationseigenschaften von Bulk-Fill Kompositen

    OpenAIRE

    Maier, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Hintergrund und Ziele: Untersuchung der Polymerisationseigenschaften von Bulk-Fill Kompositen bzgl. Konversionsrate (degree of conversion = DC), Vickers-Härte (HV), Polymerisationsschrumpfungsstress (PSS) und Polymerisationsvolumenschrumpfung (PVS) im Vergleich zu konventionellen Kompositen. Material und Methode: Untersucht wurden die Bulk-Fill Komposite Filtek Bulk Fill Flowable (FBF, 3M ESPE, Seefeld), Surefil Smart Dentin Replacement (SDR, Dentsply, Konstanz), Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill...

  15. Diagnosis of mediastinal bulk disease in Hodgkin patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiographic determination of mediastinal bulk in Hodgkin disease is confusing, with numerous methods having been proposed. The authors have evaluated with chest radiography and thoracic CT 76 patients with mediastinal Hodgkin disease. Seventy-four (97%) had bulk disease as determined by at least one method. Patients were categorized according to clinical stage and symptoms, the pattern of nodal involvement, the presence of extension (E disease), and response to treatment; a subset of 37 patients was isolated. These individuals had radiographically and clinically more severe disease that responded less favorably to treatment.The average mediastinal mass diameter in these patients was 11.0 cm, the thoracic ratio 36.6%, and the tumor area 138 cm2. However, no method currently used to define bulk disease would consistently define all of these 37 patients with a poorer prognosis and outcome. The radiographic diagnosis of mediastinal bulk disease in patients with newly diagnosed Hodgkin disease should be done with caution

  16. Coulombic Fluids Bulk and Interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Freyland, Werner

    2011-01-01

    Ionic liquids have attracted considerable interest in recent years. In this book the bulk and interfacial physico-chemical characteristics of various fluid systems dominated by Coulomb interactions are treated which includes molten salts, ionic liquids as well as metal-molten salt mixtures and expanded fluid metals. Of particular interest is the comparison of the different systems. Topics in the bulk phase concern the microscopic structure, the phase behaviour and critical phenomena, and the metal-nonmetal transition. Interfacial phenomena include wetting transitions, electrowetting, surface freezing, and the electrified ionic liquid/ electrode interface. With regard to the latter 2D and 3D electrochemical phase formation of metals and semi-conductors on the nanometer scale is described for a number of selected examples. The basic concepts and various experimental methods are introduced making the book suitable for both graduate students and researchers interested in Coulombic fluids.

  17. Adolescent Substance Abuse and Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Anju; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Natasha, M. Phil.

    2007-01-01

    Adolescent substance abuse is a major public health concern. It is associated with an increased incidence of various psychiatric disorders like depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and conduct disorders and the relationship between mental and behavioral disorders and the substance use problems seems…

  18. Risk assessment of flavouring substances used in foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norby, Karin; Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Greve, Krestine;

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present project, the FLAVIS project, is to perform risk assessment of chemically defined flavouring substances. The evaluations are then presented to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) for final adoption in its Scientific Panel on food additives, flavourings, processing aids...... EU. In application of this Regulation, a Register of about 2800 flavouring substances used in or on foodstuffs in the EU Member States was adopted and are currently being evaluated according to the evaluation programme laid down by Commission Regulation. The EU Safety Evaluation Procedure is derived...... not to present a safety concern, have been specified. In the project a very comprehensive database (the FLAVIS database) has been developed for the evaluation. It compiles information on the about 2800 flavouring substances used in Europe: specifications, structural class, food categories used in...

  19. Treating Adolescents for Substance Abuse and Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Riggs, Paula D.

    2003-01-01

    Recent research has identified a cluster of standardized approaches that effectively treat adolescents with substance abuse disorders. Many of these approaches share elements that may be adopted to improve outcomes in substance treatment programs. In adolescents, treatment goals should be informed by a comprehensive assessment that includes the adolescent patient’s developmental history and evaluation of psychiatric comorbidity. Treatment for behavioral, psychosocial, and psychiatric problems...

  20. Glutathione and redox signaling in substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uys, Joachim D; Mulholland, Patrick J; Townsend, Danyelle M

    2014-07-01

    Throughout the last couple decades, the cause and consequences of substance abuse has expanded to identify the underlying neurobiological signaling mechanisms associated with addictive behavior. Chronic use of drugs, such as cocaine, methamphetamine and alcohol leads to the formation of oxidative or nitrosative stress (ROS/RNS) and changes in glutathione and redox homeostasis. Of importance, redox-sensitive post-translational modifications on cysteine residues, such as S-glutathionylation and S-nitrosylation could impact on the structure and function of addiction related signaling proteins. In this commentary, we evaluate the role of glutathione and redox signaling in cocaine-, methamphetamine- and alcohol addiction and conclude by discussing the possibility of targeting redox pathways for the therapeutic intervention of these substance abuse disorders. PMID:25027386

  1. Bulk metallic glass tube casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Tubular specimens of Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5 cast in custom arc-melting furnace. → Tilt casting supplemented by suction casting. → Bulk metallic glass formed only with optimized processing parameters. → Fully amorphous tubes with 1.8 mm wall thickness and 25 mm diameter. - Abstract: Tubular bulk metallic glass specimens were produced, using a custom-built combined arc-melting tilt-casting furnace. Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5 tubes with outer diameter of 25 mm and 0.8-3 mm wall thicknesses were cast, with both tilt and suction casting to ensure mold filling. Tilt casting was found to fill one side of the tube mold first, with the rest of the tube circumference filled subsequently by suction casting. Optimized casting parameters were required to fully fill the mold and ensure glass formation. Too small melt mass and too low arc power filled the mold only partially. However, too large melt mass and higher arc power which lead to the best mold filling also lead to partial crystallization. Variations in processing parameters were explored, until a glassy ring with 1.8 mm thickness was produced. Different sections of the as-cast ring were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and instrumented indentation to ensure amorphous microstructure. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to compare the surface qualities of the first- and last-filled sections. These measurements confirmed the glassy structure of the cast ring, and that, the tilt cast tube section consistently showed better surface quality than the suction cast section. Optimized casting parameters are required to fully realize the potential of directly manufacturing complex shapes out of high-purity bulk metallic glasses by tilt casting.

  2. Bulk Moisture and Salinity Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurge, Mark; Monje, Oscar; Prenger, Jessica; Catechis, John

    2013-01-01

    Measurement and feedback control of nutrient solutions in plant root zones is critical to the development of healthy plants in both terrestrial and reduced-gravity environments. In addition to the water content, the amount of fertilizer in the nutrient solution is important to plant health. This typically requires a separate set of sensors to accomplish. A combination bulk moisture and salinity sensor has been designed, built, and tested with different nutrient solutions in several substrates. The substrates include glass beads, a clay-like substrate, and a nutrient-enriched substrate with the presence of plant roots. By measuring two key parameters, the sensor is able to monitor both the volumetric water content and salinity of the nutrient solution in bulk media. Many commercially available moisture sensors are point sensors, making localized measurements over a small volume at the point of insertion. Consequently, they are more prone to suffer from interferences with air bubbles, contact area of media, and root growth. This makes it difficult to get an accurate representation of true moisture content and distribution in the bulk media. Additionally, a network of point sensors is required, increasing the cabling, data acquisition, and calibration requirements. measure the dielectric properties of a material in the annular space of the vessel. Because the pore water in the media often has high salinity, a method to measure the media moisture content and salinity simultaneously was devised. Characterization of the frequency response for capacitance and conductance across the electrodes was completed for 2-mm glass bead media, 1- to 2-mm Turface (a clay like media), and 1- to 2-mm fertilized Turface with the presence of root mass. These measurements were then used to find empirical relationships among capacitance (C), the dissipation factor (D), the volumetric water content, and the pore water salinity.

  3. Gold based bulk metallic glass

    OpenAIRE

    Schroers, Jan; Lohwongwatana, Boonrat; Johnson, William L.; Peker, Atakan

    2005-01-01

    Gold-based bulk metallic glass alloys based on Au-Cu-Si are introduced. The alloys exhibit a gold content comparable to 18-karat gold. They show very low liquidus temperature, large supercooled liquid region, and good processibility. The maximum casting thickness exceeds 5 mm in the best glassformer. Au49Ag5.5Pd2.3Cu26.9Si16.3 has a liquidus temperature of 644 K, a glass transition temperature of 401 K, and a supercooled liquid region of 58 K. The Vickers hardness of the alloys in this system...

  4. Iron - based bulk amorphous alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Babilas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper presents a structure characterization, thermal and soft magnetic properties analysis of Fe-based bulk amorphous materials in as-cast state and after crystallization process. In addition, the paper gives some brief review about achieving, formation and structure of bulk metallic glasses as a special group of amorphous materials.Design/methodology/approach: The studies were performed on Fe72B20Si4Nb4 metallic glass in form of ribbons and rods. The amorphous structure of tested samples was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM methods. The thermal properties of the glassy samples were measured using differential thermal analysis (DTA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The magnetic properties contained initial and maximum magnetic permeability, coercive force and magnetic after-effects measurements were determined by the Maxwell-Wien bridge and VSM methods.Findings: The X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy investigations revealed that the studied as-cast bulk metallic glasses in form of ribbons and rods were amorphous. Two stage crystallization process was observed for studied bulk amorphous alloy. The differences of crystallization temperature between ribbons and rods with chosen thickness are probably caused by different amorphous structures as a result of the different cooling rates in casting process. The SEM images showed that studied fractures could be classified as mixed fractures with indicated two zones contained “river” and “smooth” areas. The changing of chosen soft magnetic properties (μr, Bs, Hc obtained for samples with different thickness is a result of the non-homogenous amorphous structure of tested metallic glasses. The annealing process in temperature range from 373 to 773 K causes structural relaxation of tested amorphous materials, which leads to changes in their physical properties. The qualitative

  5. Isolation of haloorganic groundwater humic substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog, M.; Grøn, C.

    1995-01-01

    Humic substances were isolated from groundwater according to a revised method designed to avoid organohalogen artefacts. The prepared humic substances exhibited lower halogen contents than humic substances isolated according to the conventionally used method. Excessive oxidation or hydrolysis...

  6. Isolation of haloorganic groundwater humic substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog, M.; Grøn, C.

    Humic substances were isolated from groundwater according to a revised method designed to avoid organohalogen artefacts. The prepared humic substances exhibited lower halogen contents than humic substances isolated according to the conventionally used method. Excessive oxidation or hydrolysis was...

  7. Infant of a substance using mother

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Maternal substance use; Maternal drug use; Narcotic exposure - infant; Substance use disorder - infant ... ARE THE SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS SEEN IN AN INFANT OF A SUBSTANCE-ABUSING MOTHER? Babies born to ...

  8. Substance abuse precedes Internet addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Sik; Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Sun Mi; Renshaw, Perry F

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate possible overlapping substance abuse and internet addiction in a large, uniformly sampled population, ranging in age from 13 to 18 years. Participants (N=73,238) in the current study were drawn from the 6th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-V) for students from 400 middle schools and 400 high schools in 16 cities within South Korea. Of adolescent internet users, 85.2% were general users (GU), 11.9% were users with potential risk for internet addiction (PR), and 3.0% were users with high risk for internet addiction (HR). There was a difference in the number of students with alcohol drinking among the GU, PR, and HR groups (20.8% vs 23.1% vs 27.4%). There was a difference in the number of students who smoked among the GS, PR, and HR groups (11.7% vs 13.5% vs 20.4%). There was a difference in the number of students with drug use among the GU, PR, and HR groups (1.7% vs 2.0% vs 6.5%). After adjusting for sex, age, stress, depressed mood, and suicidal ideation, smoking may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=1.203, p=0.004). In addition, drug use may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=2.591, psubstance abuse should be evaluated and, if found, treated in adolescents with internet addiction. PMID:23384457

  9. Substance abuse intervention for health care workers: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapham, S C; Chang, I; Gregory, C

    2000-05-01

    The Workplace Managed Care Cooperative Agreement project targets 3,300 health care professionals in hospital, specialty clinic, and primary care settings located in metropolitan New Mexico communities. This project will evaluate whether enhancements to existing substance abuse prevention/early intervention programs can prevent the onset of risky drinking, reduce prevalence of risky drinking, better identify employees who abuse alcohol and drugs, and improve employee wellness. This article describes one such enhancement (Project WISE [Workplace Initiative in Substance Education]), implemented at Lovelace Health Systems. Project WISE includes relatively low-cost elements such as substance abuse awareness training, information on how to reduce drinking, and brief motivational counseling. Evaluation will consist of baseline comparisons of the intervention and comparison sites, a process evaluation, a qualitative analysis using focus groups, and an outcome evaluation using health and work records. Methodological challenges, solutions, and implications for researchers undertaking similar projects are presented. PMID:10795124

  10. The Role Of Early Maladaptive Schemas And Coping Strategies In Substance Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Bikem HACIÖMEROĞLU; Mehmet AK; Beyazit GARİP; Alper ÇINAR; Emel CONGOLOĞLU

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the early maladaptive schemas and coping strategies of substance dependents. We hypothesized that substance dependents would have more maladaptive schemas and would use less adaptive coping strategies than healthy controls. Methods: Thirty-two patients diagnosed with substance dependence and 31 control subjects without any psychiatric disorders were evaluated via Young Schema Questionnaire-SF, COPE, and Structured Clinical Interview...

  11. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the substance, 2-phenyl-3,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenylphthalimidine, CAS No. 6607-41-6, for use in food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    This scientific opinion of EFSA deals with the risk assessment of the substance 2-phenyl-3,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenylphthalimidine with the CAS No. 6607-41-6 and the FCM substance No 872, for use as a co-monomer for manufacturing polycarbonate polymers intended to be used for single and repeated contacts with all kinds of foodstuffs without restriction in time and temperature. Based on three in vitro genotoxicity tests and a mouse micronucleus test in vivo on the substance, the Panel considered that there is no concern with respect to genotoxicity of the substance. The CEF Panel concluded that there is no safety concern for the consumer if 2-phenyl-3,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenylphthalimidine is used as a co-monomer in polycarbonate copolymer and its migration does not exceed 0.05 mg/kg food. Potential migration of aniline, an impurity of the substance, should be in compliance with the restriction set in the Commission Regulation (EU No 10/2011, i.e. not detectable.

  12. Bulk dynamics for interfacial growth models

    OpenAIRE

    López, Cristóbal; Santos, Fernando; Garrido, P. L.

    2000-01-01

    We study the influence of the bulk dynamics of a growing cluster of particles on the properties of its interface. First, we define a general bulk growth model by means of a continuum Master equation for the evolution of the bulk density field. This general model just considers an arbitrary addition of particles (though it can be easily generalized to consider subtraction) with no other physical restriction. The corresponding Langevin equation for this bulk density field is derived where the i...

  13. Report on achievements in fiscal 1999 on the project for research and development of an intellectual base creating and utilizing technology. Research and development operation on developing a standard substance for surface chemical analysis; 1999 nendo hyomen kagaku bunseki hyojun busshitsu kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu gyomu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    A silicon standard substance using boron as an impurity whose quantity has been controlled was prepared as a standard substance for secondary ion-mass spectrography (SIMS), and given an evaluation test. Boron used for addition was prepared in three levels in the concentration range from 10{sup 16} atoms/cm{sup 3} to 10{sup 18} atoms/cm{sup 3}. On both of epitaxial silicon and bulk silicon crystals, the concentration variation in the added boron was suppressed to {+-} 5% or less of the targeted value in the area of wafer center {+-} 30 mm, and verified of the uniformity satisfying the specifications as the standard substance. Standard methods were established on the concentration measurement by using the SIMS and the concentration calibration on boron added uniformly into silicon. Concentrations were determined with variance of about {+-} 10% on boron with medium concentration (10{sup 17} atoms/cm{sup 3}) and high concentration (10{sup 18} atoms/cm{sup 3}) through a round-robin test. Thus, it was made possible to provide boron to the standard substance, and the target for sample preparation was achieved. The silicon standard substance requested by ISO14237 can now be provided, opening the way for registration in the future in Japan as the certified standard substance. (NEDO)

  14. 78 FR 23594 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Rhodes Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... bulk manufacture controlled substances in Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) form. The company... to import narcotic raw material are not appropriate. 72 FR 3417 (2007). As noted in a previous notice published in the Federal Register on September 23, 1975, 40 FR 43745, all applicants for registration...

  15. 78 FR 64018 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; GE Healthcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; GE Healthcare... September 12, 2013, GE Healthcare, 3350 North Ridge Avenue, Arlington Heights, Illinois 60004- 1412, made application by renewal to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer...

  16. 78 FR 12103 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; GE Healthcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; GE Healthcare... August 31, 2012, GE Healthcare, 3350 North Ridge Avenue, Arlington Heights, Illinois 60004- 1412, made application by renewal to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer...

  17. Hidden substances identification by detection of fast neutron induced γ rays using associated α particle technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements have been made of characteristic gamma rays spectra from A(n,n'γ)A reactions induced by 14.1 MeV neutrons on bulk samples of different substances: C, H2O, SiO2, C3H6N6 and samples of soil. Background radiation was reduced by the associated alpha particle technique

  18. 78 FR 52800 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Catalent CTS., LLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-26

    ... narcotic raw material are not appropriate. 72 FR 3417(2007). Any bulk manufacturer who is presently, or is... noted in a previous notice published in the Federal Register on September 23, 1975, 40 FR 43745-46, all... substances: ] Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Poppy Straw Concentrate (9670) II The company plans to...

  19. 78 FR 23594 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Catalent CTS., Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... applications to import narcotic raw material are not appropriate. 72 FR 3417(2007). Any bulk manufacturer who... Register on September 23, 1975, 40 FR 43745-46, all applicants for registration to import a basic class of... classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Poppy Straw Concentrate (9670) II...

  20. 77 FR 75670 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration, AMRI Rensselaer, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    .... By Notice dated July 30, 2012, and published in the Federal Register on August 7, 2012, 77 FR 47114... basic classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I... reference to drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk manufacture cannabidiol as a...

  1. 77 FR 52368 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Austin Pharma, LLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    .... By Notice dated May 9, 2012, and published in the Federal Register on May 21, 2012, 77 FR 30027... basic classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I... customers. In reference to drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk manufacture cannabidiol...

  2. Radioactive substances in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper tries to assess the health hazard from radioactive substances in our environment. The explanations are restricted to radioisotope concentrations and radiation doses normally found in our environment. (orig./PW)

  3. Ozone-depleting Substances (ODS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This site includes all of the ozone-depleting substances (ODS) recognized by the Montreal Protocol. The data include ozone depletion potentials (ODP), global...

  4. Substance Abuse and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More Drugs and Alcohol Tobacco Learn More Substance Abuse and Mental Health Drugs and Alcohol Did you ... related topics from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Free Resources for parents and ...

  5. Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities Locator

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) provides on-line resource for locating drug and alcohol abuse treatment programs. The...

  6. Densidade de um planossolo sob sistemas de cultivo avaliada por meio da tomografia computadorizada de raios gama Bulk density of an alfisol under cultivation systems in a long-term experiment evaluated with gamma ray computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Luís Bamberg

    2009-10-01

    lowland soils is based on the use of crop rotation and succession, which are essential for the control of red and black rice. The effects on the soil properties deserve studies, particularly on soil compaction. The objective of this study was to identify compacted layers in an Albaqualf under different cultivation and tillage systems, by evaluating the soil bulk density (Ds with Gamma Ray Computed Tomography (TC. The analysis was carried out in a long-term experiment, from 1985 to 2004, at an experimental station of Embrapa Clima Temperado, Capão do Leão, RS, Brazil, in a random block design with seven treatments, with four replications (T1 - one year rice with conventional tillage followed by two years fallow; T2 - continuous rice under conventional tillage; T4 - rice and soybean (Glycine Max L. rotation under conventional tillage; T5 - rice, soybean and corn (Zea maize L. rotation under conventional tillage; T6 - rice under no-tillage in the summer in succession to rye-grass (Lolium multiflorum L. in the winter; T7 - rice under no-tillage and soybean under conventional tillage rotation; T8 - control: uncultivated soil. The Gamma Ray Computed Tomography method did not identify compacted soil layers under no-tillage rice in succession to rye-grass; two fallow years in the irrigated rice production system did not prevent the formation of a compacted layer at the soil surface; and in the rice, soybean and corn rotation under conventional tillage two compacted layers were identified (0.0 to 1.5 cm and 11 to 14 cm, indicating that they may restrict the agricultural production in this cultivation system on Albaqualf soils.

  7. HUMUS SUBSTANCES AND SOIL FERTILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Cecilia Violeta NEAGU; Georgeta OPREA

    2012-01-01

    The humus substances play an important role in obtaining high yields and stable over time. He is permanently double process: the humus improvement of organic material reaching the soil and the mineralization of components at different stages of humus improving, The results of this process is influenced by soil type, climate, irrigation, fertilization. The beneficial effect of humus substances on plant growth may be related to indirect effects (fertilization efficiency or reduce soil compacti...

  8. Handling of bulk solids theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Shamlou, P A

    1990-01-01

    Handling of Bulk Solids provides a comprehensive discussion of the field of solids flow and handling in the process industries. Presentation of the subject follows classical lines of separate discussions for each topic, so each chapter is self-contained and can be read on its own. Topics discussed include bulk solids flow and handling properties; pressure profiles in bulk solids storage vessels; the design of storage silos for reliable discharge of bulk materials; gravity flow of particulate materials from storage vessels; pneumatic transportation of bulk solids; and the hazards of solid-mater

  9. Peripheral Mechanisms of Dental Pain: The Role of Substance P

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Sacerdote

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Current evidence supports the central role of neuropeptides in the molecular mechanisms underlying dental pain. In particular, substance P, a neuropeptide produced in neuron cell bodies localised in dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia, contributes to the transmission and maintenance of noxious stimuli and inflammatory processes. The major role of substance P in the onset of dental pain and inflammation is increasingly being recognised. Well-grounded experimental and clinical observations have documented an increase in substance P concentration in patients affected by caries, pulpitis, or granulomas and in those undergoing standard orthodontic or orthodontic/dental care procedures. This paper focuses on the role of substance P in the induction and maintenance of inflammation and dental pain, in order to define future lines of research for the evaluation of therapeutic strategies aimed at modulating the complex effects of this mediator in oral tissues.

  10. Peripheral Mechanisms of Dental Pain: The Role of Substance P

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacerdote, Paola; Levrini, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Current evidence supports the central role of neuropeptides in the molecular mechanisms underlying dental pain. In particular, substance P, a neuropeptide produced in neuron cell bodies localised in dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia, contributes to the transmission and maintenance of noxious stimuli and inflammatory processes. The major role of substance P in the onset of dental pain and inflammation is increasingly being recognised. Well-grounded experimental and clinical observations have documented an increase in substance P concentration in patients affected by caries, pulpitis, or granulomas and in those undergoing standard orthodontic or orthodontic/dental care procedures. This paper focuses on the role of substance P in the induction and maintenance of inflammation and dental pain, in order to define future lines of research for the evaluation of therapeutic strategies aimed at modulating the complex effects of this mediator in oral tissues. PMID:22474402

  11. Gold based bulk metallic glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroers, Jan; Lohwongwatana, Boonrat; Johnson, William L.; Peker, Atakan

    2005-08-01

    Gold-based bulk metallic glass alloys based on Au-Cu-Si are introduced. The alloys exhibit a gold content comparable to 18-karat gold. They show very low liquidus temperature, large supercooled liquid region, and good processibility. The maximum casting thickness exceeds 5mm in the best glassformer. Au49Ag5.5Pd2.3Cu26.9Si16.3 has a liquidus temperature of 644K, a glass transition temperature of 401K, and a supercooled liquid region of 58K. The Vickers hardness of the alloys in this system is ˜350Hv, twice that of conventional 18-karat crystalline gold alloys. This combination of properties makes the alloys attractive for many applications including electronic, medical, dental, surface coating, and jewelry.

  12. Gold based bulk metallic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold-based bulk metallic glass alloys based on Au-Cu-Si are introduced. The alloys exhibit a gold content comparable to 18-karat gold. They show very low liquidus temperature, large supercooled liquid region, and good processibility. The maximum casting thickness exceeds 5 mm in the best glassformer. Au49Ag5.5Pd2.3Cu26.9Si16.3 has a liquidus temperature of 644 K, a glass transition temperature of 401 K, and a supercooled liquid region of 58 K. The Vickers hardness of the alloys in this system is ∼350 Hv, twice that of conventional 18-karat crystalline gold alloys. This combination of properties makes the alloys attractive for many applications including electronic, medical, dental, surface coating, and jewelry

  13. Bulk analysis using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulk analysis techniques developed for the mining industry are reviewed. Using penetrating neutron and #betta#-radiations, measurements are obtained directly from a large volume of sample (3-30 kg) #betta#-techniques were used to determine the grade of iron ore and to detect shale on conveyor belts. Thermal neutron irradiation was developed for the simultaneous determination of iron and aluminium in iron ore on a conveyor belt. Thermal-neutron activation analysis includes the determination of alumina in bauxite, and manganese and alumina in manganese ore. Fast neutron activation analysis is used to determine silicon in iron ores, and alumina and silica in bauxite. Fast and thermal neutron activation has been used to determine the soil in shredded sugar cane. (U.K.)

  14. Isotopic signatures by bulk analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed a series of measurement techniques for identification of nuclear signatures by analyzing bulk samples. Two specific applications for isotopic fingerprinting to identify the origin of anthropogenic radioactivity in bulk samples are presented. The first example is the analyses of environmental samples collected in the US Arctic to determine the impact of dumping of radionuclides in this polar region. Analyses of sediment and biota samples indicate that for the areas sampled the anthropogenic radionuclide content of sediments was predominantly the result of the deposition of global fallout. The anthropogenic radionuclide concentrations in fish, birds and mammals were very low. It can be surmised that marine food chains are presently not significantly affected. The second example is isotopic fingerprinting of water and sediment samples from the Rocky Flats Facility (RFP). The largest source of anthropogenic radioactivity presently affecting surface-waters at RFP is the sediments that are currently residing in the holding ponds. One gram of sediment from a holding pond contains approximately 50 times more plutonium than 1 liter of water from the pond. Essentially 100% of the uranium in Ponds A-1 and A-2 originated as depleted uranium. The largest source of radioactivity in the terminal Ponds A-4, B-5 and C-2 was naturally occurring uranium and its decay product radium. The uranium concentrations in the waters collected from the terminal ponds contained 0.05% or less of the interim standard calculated derived concentration guide for uranium in waters available to the public. All of the radioactivity observed in soil, sediment and water samples collected at RFP was naturally occurring, the result of processes at RFP or the result of global fallout. No extraneous anthropogenic alpha, beta or gamma activities were detected. The plutonium concentrations in Pond C-2 appear to vary seasonally

  15. Guidelines for Measuring Bulk Density of Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulk density is defined as the dry weight of soil per unit volume of undisturbed soil. • Bulk density can be used to give an indication of the porosity and structure of the soil influencing O2 and H2O movement in the soil. • Soils with a bulk density higher than 1.6 g/cm3 may restrict root development. • Bulk density is also a measurement of the degree of compaction of the soil. • Bulk density increases with compaction and tends to increase with soil depth. • Sandy soils tend to have higher bulk density (1.4-1.5 g/cm3) than clay soils (1.2-1/3g/cm3). The measurement of soil bulk density is carried out by collecting undisturbed soil samples through inserting metal rings (with a known volume) into the soil, and determining the weight of the collected soil after drying

  16. EXPLORATION ON SCALABILITY OF DATABASE BULK INSERTION WITH MULTITHREADING

    OpenAIRE

    Boon-Wee Low; Boon-Yaik Ooi; and Chee-Siang Wong

    2011-01-01

    The advancement of database engine and multi-core processors technologies have enable database insertion to be implemented concurrently via multithreading programming. The objective of this work is to evaluate the performance of using multithreading technique to perform database insertion of large data set with known size to enhance the performance of data access layer (DAL) particularly on the bulk-insertion operation. The performance evaluation includes techniques such as using single datab...

  17. Some aspects of ionic liquid blends and additives influencing bulk conductivity of commercial base paper

    OpenAIRE

    Javaid, Salman

    2013-01-01

    In this study, bulk conductivity of commercial base paper impregnated with different ionic liquids blends and additives, through bench coating was investigated. Bulk conductivity of base paper, ion conductive paper and surface sized ion conductive papers with and without the influence of calendering were evaluated at different concentrations of ionic liquids using at resistivity cell and four point probe technique. It was shown that bulk conductivity of base paper was increased by increasing ...

  18. CHARACTERIZATION OF BULK SOIL HUMIN AND ITS ALKALINE-SOLUBLE AND ALKALINE-INSOLUBLE FRACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuilan Li

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Humic substances are the major components of soil organic matter. Among the three humic substance components (humic acid, fulvic acid, and humin, humin is the most insoluble in aqueous solution at any pH value and, in turn, the least understood. Humin has poor solubility mainly because it is tightly bonded to inorganic soil colloids. By breaking the linkage between humin and inorganic soil colloids using inorganic or organic solvents, bulk humin can be partially soluble in alkali, enabling a better understanding of the structure and properties of humin. However, the structural relationship between bulk humin and its alkaline-soluble (AS and alkaline-insoluble (AIS fractions is still unknown. In this study, we isolated bulk humin from two soils of Northeast China by exhaustive extraction (25 to 28 times with 0.1 mol L-1 NaOH + 0.1 mol L-1 Na4P2O7, followed by the traditional treatment with 10 % HF-HCl. The isolated bulk humin was then fractionated into AS-humin and AIS-humin by exhaustive extraction (12 to 15 times with 0.1 mol L-1 NaOH. Elemental analysis and solid-state 13C cross-polarization magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (13C CPMAS NMR spectroscopy were used to characterize and compare the chemical structures of bulk humin and its corresponding fractions. The results showed that, regardless of soil types, bulk humin was the most aliphatic and most hydrophobic, AS-humin was the least aliphatic, and AIS-humin was the least alkylated among the three humic components. The results showed that bulk humin and its corresponding AS-humin and AIS-humin fractions are structurally differed from one another, implying that the functions of these humic components in the soil environment differed.

  19. SIMPLE UV SPECTROMETRIC FOR THE ESTIMATION OF METHOCARBAMOL IN BULK AND ITS FORMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaitanya Prasad Meher

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the work is to obtain a correct analytical method for analysis of active substance in bulk drug and in the finished product. From the literature survey, it was found that Methocarbamol used extensively in Pharmaceutical solid unit dosage form as alone or with combination with other active ingredient and excipient, but till now no experiment is conducted on analysis of methocarbamol by ultra-visible spectroscopy using propylene glycol as solvent.

  20. SIMPLE UV SPECTROMETRIC FOR THE ESTIMATION OF METHOCARBAMOL IN BULK AND ITS FORMULATION

    OpenAIRE

    Chaitanya Prasad Meher; Mamillapalli Vani

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the work is to obtain a correct analytical method for analysis of active substance in bulk drug and in the finished product. From the literature survey, it was found that Methocarbamol used extensively in Pharmaceutical solid unit dosage form as alone or with combination with other active ingredient and excipient, but till now no experiment is conducted on analysis of methocarbamol by ultra-visible spectroscopy using propylene glycol as solvent.

  1. Targets for bulk hydrogen analysis using thermal neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    Csikai, J; Buczko, C M

    2002-01-01

    The reflection property of substances can be characterized by the reflection cross-section of thermal neutrons, sigma subbeta. A combination of the targets with thin polyethylene foils allowed an estimation of the flux depression of thermal neutrons caused by a bulk sample containing highly absorbing elements or compounds. Some new and more accurate sigma subbeta values were determined by using the combined target arrangement. For the ratio, R of the reflection and the elastic scattering cross-sections of thermal neutrons, R=sigma subbeta/sigma sub E sub L a value of 0.60+-0.02 was found on the basis of the data obtained for a number of elements from H to Pb. Using this correlation factor, and the sigma sub E sub L values, the unknown sigma subbeta data can be deduced. The equivalent thicknesses, to polyethylene or hydrogen, of the different target materials were determined from the sigma subbeta values.

  2. Design considerations for laboratory robotics systems handling toxic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses design issues pertinent to development of reliable robotic systems for handling toxic substances, using examples from Midwest Research Institute's experience with the full range of materials selected by the federal government for toxicology testing. This includes laboratory work with substances known to have adverse toxicological effects (e.g., known carcinogens) as well as chemicals selected for evaluation of their toxic potential. Chemicals under evaluation include pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals, solvents, pesticides, and a variety of other chemicals, solvents, pesticides, and a variety of other chemicals to which the populace is exposed in the workplace or in their daily lives

  3. Critical soil bulk density for soybean growth in Oxisols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keisuke Sato, Michel; Veras de Lima, Herdjania; Oliveira, Pedro Daniel de; Rodrigues, Sueli

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the critical soil bulk density from the soil penetration resistance measurements for soybean root growth in Brazilian Amazon Oxisols. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse using disturbed soil samples collected from the northwest of Para characterized by different texture. The treatments consisted of a range of soil bulk densities for each soil textural class. Three pots were used for soybean growth of and two for the soil penetration resistance curve. From the fitted model, the critical soil bulk density was determined considering the penetration resistance values of 2 and 3 MPa. After sixty days, plants were cut and root length, dry mass of root, and dry mass of shoots were determined. At higher bulk densities, the increase in soil water content decreased the penetration resistance, allowing unrestricted growth of soybean roots. Regardless of soil texture, the penetration resistance of 2 and 3 MPa had a slight effect on root growth in soil moisture at field capacity and a reduction of 50% in the soybean root growth was achieved at critical soil bulk density of 1.82, 1.75, 1.51, and 1.45 Mg m-3 for the sandy loam, sandy clay loam, clayey, and very clayey soil.

  4. Women and substance use disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Hesse

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Substance use disorders belong to the class of externalizing behaviours that are generally more common among men than women. Those women who do have substance disorders therefore deviate more from the norms of society compared with men, tend to live in an environment characterized by high risk of violence and other forms of abuse, and tend to be survivors of childhood trauma. In terms of seeking treatment, women often have difficulty acknowledging their problems with substance use disorders, and professionals are reluctant to ask women about drug or alcohol use. Even when they do seek treatment, women in many countries face practical and financial barriers to access treatment. For women who do enter treatment, outcomes are generally comparable to outcomes for men, suggesting that facilitating entry into treatment can yield substantial benefits for women with addictions.

  5. Medical marijuana users in substance abuse treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swartz Ronald

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rise of authorized marijuana use in the U.S. means that many individuals are using cannabis as they concurrently engage in other forms of treatment, such as substance abuse counseling and psychotherapy. Clinical and legal decisions may be influenced by findings that suggest marijuana use during treatment serves as an obstacle to treatment success, compromises treatment integrity, or increases the prevalence or severity of relapse. In this paper, the author reviews the relationship between authorized marijuana use and substance abuse treatment utilizing data from a preliminary pilot study that, for the first time, uses a systematic methodology to collect data examining possible effects on treatment. Methods Data from the California Outcomes Measurement System (CalOMS were compared for medical (authorized marijuana users and non-marijuana users who were admitted to a public substance abuse treatment program in California. Behavioral and social treatment outcomes recorded by clinical staff at discharge and reported to the California Department of Alcohol and Drug Programs were assessed for both groups, which included a sample of 18 reported medical marijuana users. Results While the findings described here are preliminary and very limited due to the small sample size, the study demonstrates that questions about the relationship between medical marijuana use and involvement in drug treatment can be systematically evaluated. In this small sample, cannabis use did not seem to compromise substance abuse treatment amongst the medical marijuana using group, who (based on these preliminary data fared equal to or better than non-medical marijuana users in several important outcome categories (e.g., treatment completion, criminal justice involvement, medical concerns. Conclusions This exploratory study suggests that medical marijuana is consistent with participation in other forms of drug treatment and may not adversely affect

  6. Neuropsychological Complications of HIV Disease and Substances of Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa R. Norman

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, it has become increasingly apparent that neuropsychological deficits and impairments are associated with HIV infection. Given that antiretroviral therapies have extended the life expectancy of HIV-infected persons, it becomes critical to focus on the physical and mental health of these patients. Understanding the neuropsychology of HIV disease can provide insight into improving mental health, functional capacity and overall quality of life for persons living with HIV/AIDS. Furthermore, clinicians may be better able to assist patients to manage their symptoms, thereby increasing the number of patients who are able to successfully maintain difficult treatment schedules. In addition, it is equally important to understand the potentially exacerbating effects of various factors. One such factor is substance abuse, which has been associated with various neuropsychological impairments, irrespective of the substance of abuse. Therefore, a more complete understanding of the effects of substance abuse on the progression of impaired cognitive processes and functioning can allow for an enhanced evaluation and management of those patients who live with HIV disease and who suffer from substance abuse disorders. As such, the present paper provides an overview of the neuropsychology of HIV and substance abuse, as well as of the available research that has examined the potential interaction effects between HIV disease and substance abuse. The implications of the findings as well as directions for future research are discussed.

  7. Pollution extents of organic substances from a coal gangue dump of Jiulong Coal Mine, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Y.Z.; Fan, J.S.; Qin, P.; Niu, H.Y. [Hebei University of Engineering, Handan (China)

    2009-02-15

    This paper addresses the distribution and occurrence of harmful organic substances in coal gangue dump from Jiulong Coal Mine and its influence on the environment. The samples were taken from the coal gangue dump and coal waste water stream and analyzed by organic geochemical methods. The results indicate that the coal gangues contain abundant harmful organic substances like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The TOC and sulfur contents of the samples are much higher than those of the background sample except Sample JL7. The contents of organic bulk parameters are relatively high. Ten carcinogenic PAHs were identified and these harmful organic substances have influenced the surrounding area. Along the waste water stream, organic substances pollute at least 1,800 m far from the coal gangue dump.

  8. Pollution extents of organic substances from a coal gangue dump of Jiulong Coal Mine, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y Z; Fan, J S; Qin, P; Niu, H Y

    2009-02-01

    This paper addresses the distribution and occurrence of harmful organic substances in coal gangue dump from Jiulong Coal Mine and its influence on the environment. The samples were taken from the coal gangue dump and coal waste water stream and analyzed by organic geochemical methods. The results indicate that the coal gangues contain abundant harmful organic substances like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The TOC and sulfur contents of the samples are much higher than those of the background sample except Sample JL7. The contents of organic bulk parameters are relatively high. Ten carcinogenic PAHs were identified and these harmful organic substances have influenced the surrounding area. Along the waste water stream, organic substances pollute at least 1,800 m far from the coal gangue dump. PMID:18288575

  9. Relative entropy equals bulk relative entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Jafferis, Daniel L; Maldacena, Juan; Suh, S Josephine

    2015-01-01

    We consider the gravity dual of the modular Hamiltonian associated to a general subregion of a boundary theory. We use it to argue that the relative entropy of nearby states is given by the relative entropy in the bulk, to leading order in the bulk gravitational coupling. We also argue that the boundary modular flow is dual to the bulk modular flow in the entanglement wedge, with implications for entanglement wedge reconstruction.

  10. Coupling brane fields to bulk supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this note we present a simple, general prescription for coupling brane localized fields to bulk supergravity. We illustrate the procedure by considering 6D N=2 bulk supergravity on a 2D orbifold, with brane fields localized at the fixed points. The resulting action enjoys the full 6D N=2 symmetries in the bulk, and those of 4D N=1 supergravity at the brane positions. (orig.)

  11. Coupling brane fields to bulk supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parameswaran, Susha L. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Theoretical Physics; Schmidt, Jonas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    In this note we present a simple, general prescription for coupling brane localized fields to bulk supergravity. We illustrate the procedure by considering 6D N=2 bulk supergravity on a 2D orbifold, with brane fields localized at the fixed points. The resulting action enjoys the full 6D N=2 symmetries in the bulk, and those of 4D N=1 supergravity at the brane positions. (orig.)

  12. Substance Use Among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, Chloe R; Kaufman, Erin A; Crowell, Sheila E

    2016-10-01

    Emerging adulthood has heightened risk for substance use. College students experience unique challenges, making them prone to use of alcohol, marijuana, and nonmedical use of prescription drugs. This article reviews rates of college students' substance use, risk factors, and populations at elevated risk. Consequences include legal, academic, and mental health problems; engagement in other risky behaviors; increased rates of injury; and death. Researchers, clinicians, and university administrators must identify those at greatest risk and provide prevention and intervention programs. Despite broad evidence supporting such programs, many students fail to access appropriate treatment. Future research should elucidate treatment barriers. PMID:27613349

  13. Bulk scalar field in DGP braneworld cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Ansari, Rizwan ul Haq

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the effects of bulk scalar field in the braneworld cosmological scenario. The Friedmann equations and acceleration condition in presence of the bulk scalar field for a zero tension brane and cosmological constant are studied. In DGP model the effective Einstein equation on the brane is obtained with bulk scalar field. The rescaled bulk scalar field on the brane in the DGP model behaves as an effective four dimensional field, thus standard type cosmology is recovered. In present study of the DGP model, the late-time accelerating phase of the universe can be explained .

  14. Validation of the French version of the alcohol, smoking and substance involvement screening test (ASSIST)

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Riaz Ahmad; Chatton, Anne; Nallet, Audrey; Broers Kayser, Barbara; Thorens, Gabriel; Achab Arigo, Sophia; Poznyak, Vladimir; Fleischmann, Alexandra; Khazaal, Yasser; Zullino, Daniele Fabio

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) was developed to detect substance use disorders. Aims: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the French version of ASSIST in various clinical groups with different levels of substance use. Methods: 150 subjects were recruited from clients attending primary health care, psychiatric and addiction treatment facilities. Measures included ASSIST, Addiction Severity Index (...

  15. Risk assessment of flavouring substances used in foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norby, Karin; Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Greve, Krestine; Reffstrup, Trine Klein; Gry, Jørn

    2006-01-01

    not to present a safety concern, have been specified. In the project a very comprehensive database (the FLAVIS database) has been developed for the evaluation. It compiles information on the about 2800 flavouring substances used in Europe: specifications, structural class, food categories used in......The aim of the present project, the FLAVIS project, is to perform risk assessment of chemically defined flavouring substances. The evaluations are then presented to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) for final adoption in its Scientific Panel on food additives, flavourings, processing aids...... and materials in contact with food. The regulatory background for the work is found in the European Parliament and Council Regulation No. 2232/96 laying down a procedure for the establishment of a list of flavouring substances the use of which will be authorised to the exclusion of all others in the...

  16. Initial findings from a mixed-methods evaluation of computer-assisted therapy for substance misuse in prisoners: Development, implementation and clinical outcomes from the ‘Breaking Free Health & Justice’ treatment and recovery programme

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Elison; Samantha Weston

    2015-01-01

    Background: Within the United Kingdom’s ‘Transforming Rehabilitation’ agenda, reshaping drug and alcohol interventions in prisons is central to the Government’s approach to addressing substance dependence in the prison population and reduce reoffending. To achieve this, a through-care project to support offenders following release, ‘Gateways’, is taking place providing ‘through the gate’ support to released offenders, including help with organising accommodation, education and employment, and...

  17. Avaliação da sensibilidade da cultura de leite do tanque para isolamento de agentes contagiosos da mastite bovina Evaluation of the sensitivity of bulk tank milk cultures for the isolation of contagious bovine mastitis pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida V. P. Brito

    1998-01-01

    ,7% para os quartos mamários. S. aureus foi isolado de todas três amostras do tanque dos rebanhos A, B e D. Somente a terceira amostra do rebanho C foi positiva para S. aureus. S agalactiae foi recuperado de todas as amostras do rebanho D, duas do rebanho C e de uma do rebanho A. Todas as amostras do tanque dos rebanhos A, B, C e D apresentaram contaminação com coliformes e somente uma das amostras coletadas na plataforma de recepção da indústria foi negativa para coliformes. Leveduras foram isoladas de 16 amostras coletadas na indústria e de todas amostras do tanque dos rebanhos A, B, C e D. Não foram isolados coliformes ou leveduras dos quartos mamários dos animais destes rebanhos, sugerindo que ocorreu contaminação do leite durante ou após a ordenha, provavelmente devido a deficiências nos processos de limpeza e higienização. A análise dos resultados das culturas do leite do tanque mostrou que o exame foi específico para detectar os patógenos contagiosos da mastite. A sensibilidade do teste aumentou quando se examinaram mais de duas amostras consecutivas.Samples of bulk tank milk from 33 herds were collected at the dairy processing plant and cultured, as a means of detecting specific (contagious bovine mastitis pathogens. Somatic cell counts (SCC were made on a Fossomatic 90. Two and three weekly consecutive samples were obtained from 13 and 12 herds, respectively. Only one sample was examined from eight herds. Three daily consecutive samples of bulk milk and individual quarter samples from all lactating cows from four herds (A, B, C and D were also examined. Milk from individual quarters were cultured on blood agar, while tank milk samples were cultured on TKT, Mannitol Salt, MacConkey agars and Sabouraud containing chloramphenicol. Staphylococcus aureus was recovered from 26 of the 33 herds sampled in the dairy processing plant. Nine of these samples also contained Streptococcus agalactiae. Nine herds had SCC above 500,000 ml-1. The remaining 23

  18. Influence of Processed on Active Substances in Cornus Officinalis Evaluated by Multi-components Analysis%炮制对山茱萸有效成分的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋嬿; 毛春芹; 朱俊杰; 周渊; 许金国; 池玉梅; 陆兔林

    2014-01-01

    目的:测定和分析山茱萸及其不同炮制品中马钱苷、莫诺苷、5-羟甲基糠醛、没食子酸、多糖、总黄酮、水溶性皂苷和有机酸的含量,评价炮制对山茱萸效应物质的影响。方法采用高效液相色谱法测定山茱萸不同饮片中马钱苷、莫诺苷、5-羟甲基糠醛和没食子酸的含量,采用比色法测定山茱萸不同饮片中多糖、总黄酮和水溶性皂苷的含量,采用酸碱滴定法测定山茱萸不同饮片中有机酸的含量。结果山茱萸经炮制后所测成分的含量都有不同程度的变化,除莫诺苷外,高压蒸制品所测成分的含量均略高于常压蒸制品,但均无显著性差异。结论高压蒸制工艺优于常压蒸制工艺,测定结果可为制定山茱萸最佳炮制工艺提供科学的依据。%ObjectiveTo determine and analyze the contents of loginan, morroniside, 5-hydroxymethyl furfural, gallic acid, polysaccharide, lfavonooids, water-soluble saponins and organic acid in cornus ofifcinalis and its different processed products to evaluate the inlfuence of processed on active substances in cornus ofifcinalis.MethodsThe contents of loginan, morroniside, 5-Hydroxymethyl furfural and gallic acid in different processed products of cornus officinalis were determined by HPLC. The contents of polysaccharide, flavonooids, water-soluble saponins in different processed products of cornus ofifcinalis were determined by colorimetry. The contents of organic acid in different processed products of cornus ofifcinalis were determined by acid-base titration.ResultsThere were different changes of the components in cornus ofifcinalis processed by different methods. The contents of the determined components in high-pressure products of Cornus ofifcinalis were slightly higher than them in atmospheric-pressure products of cornus ofifcinalis except morroniside, but there were not signiifcant difference.ConculusionThe high-pressure process is better than the

  19. Diet and substance abuse recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be helpful during recovery (this may include B-complex, zinc, and vitamins A and C) A person with substance use is more likely to relapse when they have poor eating habits. This is why regular meals are important. Drug and alcohol addiction causes a person to forget what it ...

  20. Substance Use as Impression Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Mark J.; Getz, J. Greg

    1996-01-01

    Examines the function of substance use as an impression management tactic. Introductory psychology students (n=377) responded to a survey instrument measuring self-monitoring, perceived success in impression management, interaction anxiety, and self-esteem. Results suggest that alcohol use may serve an impression management function. (JPS)

  1. Substances and Heart Rhythm Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... wine and eating too much can bring about symptoms in others. These rhythm problems are rarely serious. Substance Abuse: Drugs and Inhalants Abusing legal or illegal drugs can lead to dangerous arrhythmias . Alcohol Small amounts (no more than one drink a ...

  2. The Long Legs of the Laboratory for the Evaluation and Synthesis of Bioactive Substances (LASSBio®; http://www.farmacia.ufrj.br/lassbio : Historic and Perspectives [As Longas Pernas do Laboratório de Avaliação e Síntese de Substâncias Bioativas (LASSBio®; http://www.farmacia.ufrj.br/lassbio : Histórico e Perspectivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliezer J. Barreiro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript is a brief historical account of the trajectory of theLaboratory for the Evaluation and Synthesis of Bioactive Substances - LASSBio®, currently located at the Department of Drugs, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro from its establishment,in April 19, 1994, until now, narrated by its founder and current Scientific Coordinator.

  3. 27 CFR 20.191 - Bulk articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bulk articles. 20.191... Users of Specially Denatured Spirits Operations by Users § 20.191 Bulk articles. Users who convey articles in containers exceeding one gallon may provide the recipient with a photocopy of subpart G of...

  4. Evaluation and prevention of self-ignition and emission of combustion gases during storing bulk goods and landfill materials; Beurteilung und Verhinderung von Selbstentzuendung und Brandgasemission bei der Lagerung von Massenschuettguetern und Deponiestoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schossig, Joerg; Berger, Anka; Malow, Marcus; Krause, Ulrich

    2010-05-27

    The authors of the contribution under consideration report on a new method for the risk assessment for self-ignition with the storage of bulk goods, landfill materials and recycling materials. This method consists of three components: (a) Experimental determination of the relevant physicochemical characteristics of the material; (b) Experimental determination of the reaction behaviour by means of thermal analysis behaviour; (c) Prediction of the self-ignition and the process of combustion. Fundamental realizations to the thermal behaviour and reaction behaviour of recycling storages were obtained. Thus, mixtures from plastics with cellulose containing or fibre-like materials or with inert materials, respectively, have an increased danger to self-ignition in comparison to pure plastics. A dangerous heat release also is observed with very small portions of inflammable materials. Under consideration of heterogeneous distribution of the inflammable components, the ignition can be transferred between inflammable inclusions. By means of a mathematical model, self-inflammation processes can be protected in arbitrary arrangements of the recycling storages. [German] Im Ergebnis des Vorhabens steht fuer die praktische Anwendung eine wissenschaftlich fundierte Methode der Gefahrenbewertung fuer Selbstentzuendungsvorgaenge bei der Lagerung von Massenschuettguetern, Deponiestoffen und Recyclingmaterialien zur Verfuegung. Diese Methode besteht aus drei Bestandteilen: - Experimentelle Bestimmung der relevanten physiko-chemischen Eigenschaften des Materials, - Experimentelle Bestimmung des Reaktionsverhaltens mittels thermischer Analyseverfahren, - Vorhersage der Selbstentzuendung und des Brandverlaufes durch numerische Simulation anhand der realen Geometrie der Lageranordnung. Eine solche Methode wurde bisher nicht systematisch angewendet, weshalb sowohl bei der Erstellung von Brandschutzkonzepten durch die Betreiber von Deponien oder Recyclinglagern als auch bei der Genehmigung

  5. Bulk equations of motion from CFT correlators

    CERN Document Server

    Kabat, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    To O(1/N) we derive, purely from CFT data, the bulk equations of motion for interacting scalar fields and for scalars coupled to gauge fields and gravity. We first uplift CFT operators to mimic local AdS fields by imposing bulk microcausality. This requires adding an infinite tower of smeared higher-dimension double-trace operators to the CFT definition of a bulk field, with coefficients that we explicitly compute. By summing the contribution of the higher-dimension operators we derive the equations of motion satisfied by these uplifted CFT operators and show that we precisely recover the expected bulk equations of motion. We exhibit the freedom in the CFT construction which corresponds to bulk field redefinitions.

  6. A COMPREHENSIVE TECHNICAL REVIEW OF THE DEMONSTRATION BULK VITRIFICATION SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In May 2006, CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc. chartered an Expert Review Panel (ERP) to review the current status of the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS). It is the consensus of the ERP that bulk vitrification is a technology that requires further development and evaluation to determine its potential for meeting the Hanford waste stabilization mission. No fatal flaws (issues that would jeopardize the overall DBVS mission that cannot be mitigated) were found, given the current state of the project. However, a number of technical issues were found that could significantly affect the project's ability to meet its overall mission as stated in the project ''Justification of Mission Need'' document, if not satisfactorily resolved. The ERP recognizes that the project has changed from an accelerated schedule demonstration project to a formally chartered project that must be in full compliance with DOE 413.3 requirements. The perspective of the ERP presented herein, is measured against the formally chartered project as stated in the approved Justification of Mission Need document. A justification of Mission Need document was approved in July 2006 which defined the objectives for the DBVS Project. In this document, DOE concluded that bulk vitrification is a viable technology that requires additional development to determine its potential applicability to treatment of a portion of the Hanford low activity waste. The DBVS mission need statement now includes the following primary objectives: (1) process approximately 190,000 gallons of Tank S-109 waste into fifty 100 metric ton boxes of vitrified product; (2) store and dispose of these boxes at Hanford's Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF); (3) evaluate the waste form characteristics; (4) gather pilot plant operability data, and (5) develop the overall life cycle system performance of bulk vitrification and produce a comparison of the bulk vitrification process to building a second LAW Immobilization facility or other

  7. A COMPREHENSIVE TECHNICAL REVIEW OF THE DEMONSTRATION BULK VITRIFICATION SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SCHAUS, P.S.

    2006-09-29

    In May 2006, CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc. chartered an Expert Review Panel (ERP) to review the current status of the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS). It is the consensus of the ERP that bulk vitrification is a technology that requires further development and evaluation to determine its potential for meeting the Hanford waste stabilization mission. No fatal flaws (issues that would jeopardize the overall DBVS mission that cannot be mitigated) were found, given the current state of the project. However, a number of technical issues were found that could significantly affect the project's ability to meet its overall mission as stated in the project ''Justification of Mission Need'' document, if not satisfactorily resolved. The ERP recognizes that the project has changed from an accelerated schedule demonstration project to a formally chartered project that must be in full compliance with DOE 413.3 requirements. The perspective of the ERP presented herein, is measured against the formally chartered project as stated in the approved Justification of Mission Need document. A justification of Mission Need document was approved in July 2006 which defined the objectives for the DBVS Project. In this document, DOE concluded that bulk vitrification is a viable technology that requires additional development to determine its potential applicability to treatment of a portion of the Hanford low activity waste. The DBVS mission need statement now includes the following primary objectives: (1) process approximately 190,000 gallons of Tank S-109 waste into fifty 100 metric ton boxes of vitrified product; (2) store and dispose of these boxes at Hanford's Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF); (3) evaluate the waste form characteristics; (4) gather pilot plant operability data, and (5) develop the overall life cycle system performance of bulk vitrification and produce a comparison of the bulk vitrification process to building a second LAW

  8. Substance Use in HIV-infected Women during Pregnancy: Self-report versus Meconium Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tassiopoulos, Katherine; Read, Jennifer S.; Brogly, Susan; Rich, Kenneth; Lester, Barry; Spector, Stephen A.; Yogev, Ram; Seage, George

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated prenatal substance use in a cohort of 480 HIV-infected women and their uninfected children. Substance use was reported by 29%; the most common substances reported were tobacco (18%), alcohol (10%), and marijuana (7.2%). Fewer than 4% of women reported cocaine or opiate use. Substance use was more common in the first trimester (25%) than the second (17%) and third (15%) (trend p-value < 0.01), and was associated with race/ethnicity, education, birthplace, age and marital status. F...

  9. Applying Computer Technology to Substance Abuse Prevention Science Results of a Preliminary Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsch, Lisa A.; Bickel, Warren K.; Badger, Gary J.

    2007-01-01

    This manuscript reports on the development and evaluation of a computer-based substance abuse prevention program for middle school-aged adolescents, called "HeadOn: Substance Abuse Prevention for Grades 6-8TM". This self-guided program was designed to deliver effective drug abuse prevention science to youth via computer-based educational…

  10. Severity of Victimization and Co-Occurring Mental Health Disorders among Substance Using Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, Bushra

    2012-01-01

    Background: Co-occurring mental health disorders are widespread among substance using adolescents. Severity of victimization may be an important factor in explaining co-occurrence of mental health problems among adolescents with substance misuse problems. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether severe victimization experiences…

  11. Risk Assessment of New Chemical Substances: System Realisation and Validation II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet C; de Nijs ACM; Vermeire TG; van der Poel P; Tuinstra J

    1991-01-01

    In the project "Evaluation System new substances", methods are developed to systematically predict and assess the hazards for man and environment related to the production and use of new chemical substances. Part of the project is the realisation of a Risk Assessment System for New Chemic

  12. Sibling Outcomes from a Randomized Trial of Evidence-Based Treatments with Substance Abusing Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Melisa D.; Chapman, Jason E.; Henggeler, Scott W.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the substance use and delinquency outcomes for the nearest age siblings of substance abusing and delinquent adolescents that participated in a randomized clinical trial evaluating the effectiveness of integrating evidence-based practices into juvenile drug court. The sample of 70 siblings averaged 14.4 years of age, 50% were…

  13. 75 FR 44265 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Online Skills Training for PCPs on Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... Collection: Title: Online Skills Training for PCPs on Substance Abuse. Type of Information Collection Request: New. Need and Use of Information Collection: This research will evaluate the effectiveness of the... Training for PCPs on Substance Abuse SUMMARY: Under the provisions of Section 3506(c)(2)A of the...

  14. 75 FR 74738 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Online Skills Training for PCPs on Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... research will evaluate the effectiveness of the Online Skills Training for PCPs on Substance Abuse, via the... Training for PCPs on Substance Abuse SUMMARY: Under the provisions of Section 3507(a)(1)(D) of the... currently valid OMB control number. Proposed Collection: Title: Online Skills Training for PCPs on...

  15. Advanced correlation functionals: Application to bulk materials and localized systems

    OpenAIRE

    García-González, P.; Fernández, J.J.; Marini, Andrea; Rubio Secades, Ángel

    2007-01-01

    Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is an efficient method to evaluate excited-state properties of electron systems. However, it is not so well-known that it also provides a very accurate prescription to obtain correlation energies by using the so-called adiabatic connection fluctuation dissipation theorem (ACFDT). In this paper we present a detailed study of the ACFDT performance in bulk solids and jellium clusters. These results confirm the reliability of the ACFDT scheme and p...

  16. [Substance use risk personality trait for adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omiya, Souichiro; Kobori, Osamu; Tomoto, Aika; Igarashi, Yoshito; Iyo, Masaomi

    2012-12-01

    The prevention and treatment of substance use for youth are important issues in Japan. Substance use have significant risks of adverse psychological, social and physical health consequences. Personality factors in order to understand individual differences for substance use and misuse particularly were the much promise, and several personality factors have been demonstrated to be associated with risk for substance use. Conrod and Woicik (2002) developed Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS) that measures four substance use risk personalities: anxiety sensitivity, hopelessness, sensation-seeking, impulsivity being closely relevant to substance use/misuse and abuse. There are only a few studies focusing the relationship between personality factors and substance use among Japanese adolescents. Thus, this paper aimed to review the previous studies on these issues, and introduce studies regarding SURPS including our studies. PMID:23461217

  17. Early adolescent temperament, parental monitoring, and substance use in Mexican-origin adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D Angus; Donnellan, M Brent; Robins, Richard W; Conger, Rand D

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies suggest that temperamental dispositions are associated with substance use. However, most research supporting this association has relied on European American samples (Stautz & Cooper, 2013). We addressed this gap by evaluating the prospective relations between 5th grade temperament and 9th grade substance use in a longitudinal sample of Mexican-origin youth (N = 674). Effortful control and trait aggressiveness predicted 9th grade substance use, intentions, and expectations, even after controlling for 5th grade substance use. Additionally, we found an interaction between temperament and parental monitoring such that monitoring is a protective factor for early substance use primarily for youth with temperamental tendencies associated with risk for substance use (e.g., low effortful control and aggression). Results add to the growing literature demonstrating that early manifestations of self-control are related to consequential life outcomes. PMID:25841175

  18. Bulk and track etching of PET studied by spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UV-VIS spectra of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) solutions formed by etching PET in NaOH solution were analyzed with respect to the etching time. A linear relationship between absorptions centered at 4.45 and 5.11 eV with weight loss of PET in NaOH solution was established. The relation was applied to study the influence of UV light illumination on bulk etching of PET and to evaluate pore size of etched-through tracks. It is found that bulk etching of PET can be greatly enhanced by UV illumination in air in the wavelength range around 313 nm. A surface area of about 350 nm in thickness shows a 23 times increase in bulk-etching rate after illuminated for 6 h. The phenomenon is attributed to the oxygen-assisted photo-degradation through generating of new photo-unstable species. The enhancement in bulk etching was immediately reduced as the etching proceeds below the surface with an exponential decay constant of about 1.5 μm-1. Etching of Xe ion irradiated PET films gives extra etching products with similar chemical structure as revealed by spectrophotometer measurements. Quantitative analysis of etching products from latent tracks implies that pores of about 14.6 nm in radius are formed after etching in 0.74 N NaOH at 40 deg. C for 35 min, which is in agreement with the conductometric measurement

  19. Silicon bulk micromachined hybrid dimensional artifact.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claudet, Andre A.; Tran, Hy D.; Bauer, Todd Marks; Shilling, Katherine Meghan; Oliver, Andrew David

    2010-03-01

    A mesoscale dimensional artifact based on silicon bulk micromachining fabrication has been developed and manufactured with the intention of evaluating the artifact both on a high precision coordinate measuring machine (CMM) and video-probe based measuring systems. This hybrid artifact has features that can be located by both a touch probe and a video probe system with a k=2 uncertainty of 0.4 {micro}m, more than twice as good as a glass reference artifact. We also present evidence that this uncertainty could be lowered to as little as 50 nm (k=2). While video-probe based systems are commonly used to inspect mesoscale mechanical components, a video-probe system's certified accuracy is generally much worse than its repeatability. To solve this problem, an artifact has been developed which can be calibrated using a commercially available high-accuracy tactile system and then be used to calibrate typical production vision-based measurement systems. This allows for error mapping to a higher degree of accuracy than is possible with a glass reference artifact. Details of the designed features and manufacturing process of the hybrid dimensional artifact are given and a comparison of the designed features to the measured features of the manufactured artifact is presented and discussed. Measurement results from vision and touch probe systems are compared and evaluated to determine the capability of the manufactured artifact to serve as a calibration tool for video-probe systems. An uncertainty analysis for calibration of the artifact using a CMM is presented.

  20. The Many Victims of Substance Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro, Tara

    2007-01-01

    Substance abuse is a complicated disorder and has far reaching consequences. The victims of substance abuse extend beyond the unfortunate ones suffering from this disorder and often include family and friends. Treatment options for substance abuse are many; however, positive outcomes are not always guaranteed. Many factors play into the potential for successful treatment. Some of these include the adherence and motivation of the substance abusing patients as well as patients' surrounding envi...

  1. The administration of radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief history is given of the evolution of a system to approve the licensing of doctors and dentists to use radioactive medicinal products in man. Currently, the Administration of Radioactive Substances Advisory Committee (ARSAC) is appointed by UK Health Ministers to advise them on the granting, renewal, suspension, revocation and variation of certificates. The type of information requested on the application form for a certificate is outlined. (UK)

  2. Update on Banned Substances 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Kenneth P.; Rainbow, Catherine R.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Doping has been pervasive throughout the history of athletic competitions and has only recently been regulated by organizations such as the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), US Anti-Doping Agency (USADA), and the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). These regulatory bodies were created to preserve fair play and maintain the safety of the participants. Their updated 2013 lists of banned substances and practices include a variety of drugs and practices that could cause harm ...

  3. 21 CFR 70.11 - Related substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Related substances. 70.11 Section 70.11 Food and... General Provisions § 70.11 Related substances. (a) Different color additives may cause similar or related... activity (such as cholinesterase inhibition) produced by such substance....

  4. Binding models concerning natural organic substances in performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural organic substances (i.e., humic and fulvic acids) are important in radioactive waste disposal programmes for predicting the fate of radionuclides migration in the environment. A recent workshop organised by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, in co-operation with the Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland), brought together experts from various Nea Member countries to discuss and review the current evaluation of natural organic substances, their characterisation and isolation, documentation on existing mathematical models, competition with inorganic ligands in forming radionuclide complexes, and their influence in performance assessment for a variety of geologic media. These proceedings present the papers submitted at the workshop and a summary of the discussions on the role of organic substances in performance assessment. (authors). 432 refs., 119 figs., 53 tabs

  5. Bulk Viscosity in Holographic Lifshitz Hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Hoyos, Carlos; Oz, Yaron

    2013-01-01

    We compute the bulk viscosity in holographic models dual to theories with Lifshitz scaling and/or hyperscaling violation, using a generalization of the bulk viscosity formula derived in arXiv:1103.1657 from the null focusing equation. We find that only a class of models with massive vector fields are truly Lifshitz scale invariant, and have a vanishing bulk viscosity. For other holographic models with scalars and/or massless vector fields we find a universal formula in terms of the dynamical exponent and the hyperscaling violation exponent.

  6. Bulk viscosity in holographic Lifshitz hydrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Hoyos; Bom Soo Kim; Yaron Oz

    2014-01-01

    We compute the bulk viscosity in holographic models dual to theories with Lifshitz scaling and/or hyperscaling violation, using a generalization of the bulk viscosity formula derived in arXiv:1103.1657 from the null focusing equation. We find that only a class of models with massive vector fields are truly Lifshitz scale invariant, and have a vanishing bulk viscosity. For other holographic models with scalars and/or massless vector fields we find a universal formula in terms of the dynamical ...

  7. Bulk viscosity in holographic Lifshitz hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We compute the bulk viscosity in holographic models dual to theories with Lifshitz scaling and/or hyperscaling violation, using a generalization of the bulk viscosity formula derived in arXiv:1103.1657 from the null focusing equation. We find that only a class of models with massive vector fields are truly Lifshitz scale invariant, and have a vanishing bulk viscosity. For other holographic models with scalars and/or massless vector fields we find a universal formula in terms of the dynamical exponent and the hyperscaling violation exponent

  8. Bulk viscosity of hot and dense hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bulk viscosity of hot and dense hadrons has been estimated within the framework of hadronic resonance gas model. We observe that the bulk viscosity to entropy ratio increases faster with temperature for higher μB. The magnitude of ζ is more at high μB. This results will have crucial importance for fire-ball produced at low energy nuclear collisions (FAIR, NICA). We note that the bulk to shear viscosity ratio remains above the bound set by AdS/CFT

  9. Substance misuse and substance use disorders in sex offenders: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.L. Kraanen; P.M.G. Emmelkamp

    2011-01-01

    Substance abuse has often been associated with committing sex offenses. In this article, the following will be reviewed: 1) studies that assessed substance abuse in sex offenders; 2) differences in substance abuse among different types of sex offenders; 3) differences in substance abuse between sex

  10. Technical specifications for the bulk shielding reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides information concerning the technical specifications for the Bulk Shielding Reactor. Areas covered include: safety limits and limiting safety settings; limiting conditions for operation; surveillance requirements; design features; administrative controls; and monitoring of airborne effluents. 10 refs

  11. The bulk radio expansion of Cassiopeia A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparison, in the visibility plane, or radio observations of Cassiopeia A made at 151 MHz over a 2.3 yr interval indicates that the bulk of the radio emitting material has not been decelerated strongly

  12. Faecal bulking efficacy of Australasian breakfast cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monro, John A

    2002-01-01

    Faecal bulk may play an important role in preventing a range of disorders of the large bowel, but as yet there is little information available on the relative faecal bulking capacities of various foods. Breakfast cereals are often promoted as a good source of potential bulk for 'inner health' because they provide dietary fibre, but their relative abilities to provide faecal bulk per se have not been described. The faecal bulking efficacy of 28 representative Australasian breakfast cereals was therefore measured. A rat model developed for the purpose, and shown to give similar responses as humans to cereal fibres, was used to measure faecal bulking efficacy as increases in fully hydrated faecal weight/100 g diet, based on precise measurements of food intake, faecal dry matter output and faecal water-holding capacity (g water held without stress/g faecal dry matter). Compared to a baseline diet containing 50% sucrose, increments in hydrated faecal weight due to 50% breakfast cereal ranged from slightly negative (Cornflakes, -2 g/100 g diet) to about 80 g/100 g diet (San Bran). Most breakfast cereals increased hydrated faecal weight by between 10 and 20 g/100 g diet from a baseline of 21 +/- 1.5 g/100 g diet, but four products containing high levels of wheat bran had an exceptionally large impact on hydrated faecal weight (increment > 20 g/100 g diet), and the changes resulted more from relative changes in dry matter output than in faecal water retention/gram. However, as faecal water retention was about 2.5 g water/g faecal dry matter on average, increases in dry matter represented large increases in faecal water load. Faecal bulking indices (FBI) for most of the breakfast cereals were less than 20 (wheat bran = 100). The content of wheat bran equivalents for faecal bulk (WBE(fb)) in the breakfast cereals was calculated from FBI. Most breakfast cereals contributed, per serve, less than 10% of a theoretical daily reference value for faecal bulk (DRV(fb) = 63 WBE

  13. Bulk viscous matter and recent acceleration of the universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasidharan, Athira; Mathew, Titus K. [Cochin University of Science and Technology, Department of Physics, Kochi (India)

    2015-07-15

    We consider a cosmological model dominated by bulk viscous matter with a total bulk viscosity coefficient proportional to the velocity and acceleration of the expansion of the universe in such a way that ζ = ζ{sub 0} + ζ{sub 1}(a)/(a) + ζ{sub 2}(a)/(a). We show that there exist two limiting conditions in the bulk viscous coefficients (ζ{sub 0}, ζ{sub 1}, ζ{sub 2}) which correspond to a universe having a Big Bang at the origin, followed by an early decelerated epoch and then making a smooth transition into an accelerating epoch. We have constrained the model using the type Ia Supernovae data, evaluated the best estimated values of all the bulk viscous parameters and the Hubble parameter corresponding to the two limiting conditions. We found that even though the evolution of the cosmological parameters are in general different for the two limiting cases, they show identical behavior for the best estimated values of the parameters from both limiting conditions. A recent acceleration would occur if ζ{sub 0} + ζ{sub 1} > 1 for the first limiting conditions and if ζ{sub 0} + ζ{sub 1} < 1 for the second limiting conditions. The age of the universe predicted by this model is found to be less than that predicted from the oldest galactic globular clusters. The total bulk viscosity seems to be negative in the past and becomes positive when z ≤ 0.8. So the model violates the local second law of thermodynamics. However, the model satisfies the generalized second law of thermodynamics at the apparent horizon throughout the evolution of the universe. We also made a statefinder analysis of the model and found that it is distinguishably different from the standard ΛCDM model at present, but it shows a de Sitter type behavior in the far future of the evolution. (orig.)

  14. PHONON ECHOES IN BULK AND POWDERED MATERIALS

    OpenAIRE

    Kajimura, K.

    1981-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies of phonon echoes in bulk and powdered materials are reviewed. Phonon echoes have been observed in many materials such as bulk piezoelectric crystals, paramagnets, glasses, doped semiconductors, and piezoelectric, magnetic, and metallic powders, etc. The echoes arise from a time reversal of the phase, like spin echoes, of a primary pulsed acoustic excitation due to a second acoustic or rf pulse. The phase reversal occurs through the nonlinear interactions o...

  15. Orbital magnetization in insulators: Bulk versus surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Raffaello; Resta, Raffaele

    2016-05-01

    The orbital magnetic moment of a finite piece of matter is expressed in terms of the one-body density matrix as a simple trace. We address a macroscopic system, insulating in the bulk, and we show that its orbital moment is the sum of a bulk term and a surface term, both extensive. The latter only occurs when the transverse conductivity is nonzero and it is due to conducting surface states. Simulations on a model Hamiltonian validate our theory.

  16. An intrinsic mobility ceiling of Si bulk

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Castello, Nuria; Prades, Joan Daniel; Cirera, Albert

    2011-01-01

    We compute by Density Functional Theory-Non Equilibrium Green Functions Formalism (DFT-NEGFF) the conductance of bulk Si along different crystallographic directions. We find a ceiling value for the intrinsic mobility of bulk silicon of $8.4\\cdot10^6 cm^2/V\\cdot s$. We suggest that this result is related to the lowest effective mass of the $$ direction.

  17. Autoradiographic localization of substance P receptors using 125I substance P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a method for localization of substance P receptors in the rat central nervous system using 125I labeled substance P in an autoradiographic procedure. Particularly high densities of substance P receptors were observed in the olfactory bulb, dentate gyrus, amygdala, superior colliculus, and locus coeruleus. Surprisingly low densities of substance P receptors were found in the substantia nigra pars reticulata, a region which contains high concentrations of substance P

  18. Update on Substance Use in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Simone C; Fogger, Susanne A; McGuinness, Teena M

    2016-08-01

    With alarming frequency, an individual's first substance use occurs in childhood or adolescence. However, the use of many types of substances among individuals younger than 18 has been gradually declining over the past 6 years, and our understanding of risk factors for youth substance use has improved. Risk factors identified as possibly contributing to a young individual's first encounter with cigarettes or alcohol include parents' own substance use or mental health problems. Mental disorders of children have been implicated in substance use as well. Screening and interventions are available to reduce the frequency and intensity of adolescent substance use and are suggested in the current article. Nurses are in a position to identify adolescents who are at risk for substance use disorders and link the family system to effective intervention. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54(8), 24-27.]. PMID:27479476

  19. Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAnany, Emile G.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Two lead articles set the theme for this issue devoted to evaluation as Emile G. McAnany examines the usefulness of evaluation and Robert C. Hornik addresses four widely accepted myths about evaluation. Additional articles include a report of a field evaluation done by the Accion Cultural Popular (ACPO); a study of the impact of that evaluation by…

  20. Dynamic Membrane Formation in Anaerobic Dynamic Membrane Bioreactors: Role of Extracellular Polymeric Substances

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Hongguang; Wang, Zhiwei; Wu, Zhichao; Zhu, Chaowei

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic membrane (DM) formation in dynamic membrane bioreactors plays an important role in achieving efficient solid-liquid separation. In order to study the contribution of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) to DM formation in anaerobic dynamic membrane bioreactor (AnDMBR) processes, EPS extraction from and re-addition to bulk sludge were carried out in short-term filtration tests. DM formation behaviors could be well simulated by cake filtration model, and sludge with EPS re-addition ...

  1. Ion-water clusters, bulk medium effects, and ion hydration

    CERN Document Server

    Merchant, Safir; Dean, Kelsey R; Asthagiri, D

    2011-01-01

    Thermochemistry of gas-phase ion-water clusters together with estimates of the hydration free energy of the clusters and the water ligands are used to calculate the hydration free energy of the ion. Often the hydration calculations use a continuum model of the solvent. The primitive quasichemical approximation to the quasichemical theory provides a transparent framework to anchor such efforts. Here we evaluate the approximations inherent in the primitive quasichemical approach and elucidate the different roles of the bulk medium. We find that the bulk medium can stabilize configurations of the cluster that are usually not observed in the gas phase, while also simultaneously lowering the excess chemical potential of the ion. This effect is more pronounced for soft ions. Since the coordination number that minimizes the excess chemical potential of the ion is identified as the optimal or most probable coordination number, for such soft ions, the optimum cluster size and the hydration thermodynamics obtained with...

  2. Energy saving achieved by limited filamentous bulking sludge under low dissolved oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jian-Hua; Peng, Yong-Zhen; Peng, Cheng-Yao; Wang, Shu-Ying; Chen, Ying; Huang, Hui-Jun; Sun, Zhi-Rong

    2010-02-01

    Limited filamentous bulking caused by low dissolved oxygen (DO) was proposed to establish a low energy consumption wastewater treatment system. This method for energy saving was derived from two full-scale field observations, which showed pollutants removal would be enhanced and energy consumption could be reduced by at least 10% using limited filamentous bulking. Furthermore, preliminary investigation including the abundance evaluation and the identification of filamentous bacteria demonstrated that the limited filamentous bulking could be repeated steadily in a lab-scale anoxic-oxic reactor fed with domestic wastewater. The sludge loss did not occur in the secondary clarifier, while COD and total nitrogen removal efficiencies were improved by controlling DO for optimal filamentous bacterial population. Suspended solids in effluent were negligible and turbidity was lower than 2 NTU, which were distinctly lower than those under no bulking. Theoretical and experimental results indicated the aeration consumption could be saved by the application of limited filamentous bulking. PMID:19837583

  3. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography method for measuring the composition of aquatic humic substances

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Renqi

    2015-01-01

    A hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) method was developed to measure the composition of humic substances from river, reservoir, and treated wastewater based on their physicochemical properties. The current method fractionates the humic substances into four well-defined groups based on parallel analyses with a neutral and a cationic HILIC column, using mobile phases of varied compositions and pH. The results indicate that: (i) the proportion of carboxylic acids in the humic substances from terrestrial origins is less than half of that from treated wastewater (Jeddah, KSA), (ii) a higher content of basic compounds was observed in the humic substances from treated wastewater and Ribou Reservoir (Cholet, France) than in the sample from Loire River (France), (iii) a higher percentage of hydrophobic macromolecules were found in the humic substances from Loire River than in the other samples, and (iv) humic substances of treated wastewater contained less ionic neutral compounds (i.e., pKa 5-9) than the waters from terrestrial origins. The physicochemical property disparity amongst the compounds in each humic substances sample was also evaluated. The humic substances from the lightly humic Loire river displayed the highest disparity, whereas the highly humic Suwannee river (Georgia, USA) showed the most homogeneous humic substances.

  4. Method for determining immunochemical substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drawing a method for detecting and measuring a predetermined specifically-bindable immunochemical substance in a liquid sample in a cuvette, comprising the steps of: (A) providing, in an immunoassay technique for the liquid sample in said cuvette, a component comprising a suspension of particles which may be agglutinated or insolubilized in relationship to the presence and concentration of the immunochemical substance in the sample; and (B) determining the presence and concentration of the immunochemical substance by measuring the electromagnetic radiation transmission properties of the sample using a calibrated radiation-measuring apparatus, said apparatus comprising: (1) a suitable electromagnetic radiation source capable of providing radiation at wavelengths equal to or less than the mean diameter of said particles; (2) means for concentrating and collimating radiation from the electromagnetic radiation source to form a beam; (3) means for filtering the beam to (I) eliminate radiation having wavelengths greater than the means diameter of the particles and (II) transmit radiation, which radiation has a range, whereby the upper wavelength is equal to or below the mean diameter of the particles, and the range is of at least about 100nm; (4) means for (I) positioning a sample-containing cuvette and for (II) allowing the filtered beam incident on the cuvette to be transmitted through the cuvette and sample, and for (III) receiving a portion of the filtered beam transmitted through the sample at two or more predetermined angles with respect to the beam; and (5) means for detecting and measuring the portion of the beam transmitted at a predetermined angle

  5. Public awareness on cancerous substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusufranic, Jasmin; Popovic, Himzo; Stefanov, Sonja; Biocanin, Rade

    2014-04-01

    The public can be defined as a mosaic consisting of various ethnic, religious and other social groups, hence the definition of public includes each individual persona. Public opinion is the voice of such public and is, therefore, considered a worthy element in political and economic discourse. Media can do much in providing education necessary for informing the public about cancerous substances in the environment. The purpose of this study is to inform the public about issues that truly matter instead of following the current trend and focus on the topics and issues of less importance. PMID:24944542

  6. Biofilm biomass disruption by natural substances with potential for endodontic use

    OpenAIRE

    Flávio Rodrigues Ferreira Alves; Marlei Gomes Silva; Isabela Neves Rôças; José Freitas Siqueira Jr

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the in vitro effects of four natural substances on the biomass of bacterial biofilms to assess their potential use as root canal irrigants. The following substances and their combinations were tested: 0.2% farnesol; 5% xylitol; 20% xylitol; 0.2% farnesol and 5% xylitol; 0.2% farnesol, 5% xylitol, and 0.1% lactoferrin; 5% xylitol and 0.1% lactoferrin; and 20 mM salicylic acid. The crystal violet assay was used to evaluate the effects of these substances on the biomass of b...

  7. Crack/cocaine users show more family problems than other substance users

    OpenAIRE

    Moura, Helena Ferreira; Benzano, Daniela; Pechansky, Flavio; Kessler, Felix Henrique Paim

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate family problems among crack/cocaine users compared with alcohol and other substance users. METHODS: A cross-sectional multi-center study selected 741 current adult substance users from outpatient and inpatient Brazilian specialized clinics. Subjects were evaluated with the sixth version of the Addiction Severity Index, and 293 crack users were compared with 126 cocaine snorters and 322 alcohol and other drug users. RESULTS: Cocaine users showed more family problems whe...

  8. Identity Style, Substance Use, and Perceived Family Functioning Among Young Adults: An Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Forthun, Larry F

    1995-01-01

    One hundred eight individuals between the ages of 17 and 25 completed measures assessing identity style, family functioning, and substance use. Fifty-seven respondents were evaluated as they were applying for services at a local substance abuse treatment center. Fifty-one respondents were surveyed from a local university general education class. The identity style construct is a self-report measure that evaluates the problem-solving and decision -making strategies of respondents. These ...

  9. Is there heterogeneity among syndromes of substance use disorder for illicit drugs?

    OpenAIRE

    Beseler, Cheryl; Jacobson, Kristen C.; Kremen, William S.; Lyons, Michael J.; Glatt, Stephen J.; Faraone, Stephen V; Gillespie, Nathan A.; Tsuang, Ming T.

    2006-01-01

    The use of DSM criteria to evaluate liability to substance use disorders (SUDs) and to identify SUD phenotypes may not provide the sensitivity required to identify genes associated with vulnerability to SUDs. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a number of basic aspects of substance use that may be more proximal than full SUDs to risk genes, some of which may thus have greater potential utility as phenotypes in subsequent molecular genetic analyses. In this paper we present results from ...

  10. Storage of hazardous substances in bonded warehouses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of special regulations exist in Costa Rica for registration and transport of hazardous substances; these set the requirements for entry into the country and the security of transport units. However, the regulations mentioned no specific rules for storing hazardous substances. Tax deposits have been the initial place where are stored the substances that enter the country.The creation of basic rules that would be regulating the storage of hazardous substances has taken place through the analysis of regulations and national and international laws governing hazardous substances. The regulatory domain that currently exists will be established with a field research in fiscal deposits in the metropolitan area. The storage and security measures that have been used by the personnel handling the substances will be identified to be putting the reality with that the hazardous substances have been handled in tax deposits. A rule base for the storage of hazardous substances in tax deposits can be made, protecting the safety of the environment in which are manipulated and avoiding a possible accident causing a mess around. The rule will have the characteristics of the storage warehouses hazardous substances, such as safety standards, labeling standards, infrastructure features, common storage and transitional measures that must possess and meet all bonded warehouses to store hazardous substances. (author)

  11. School Substance Use Norms and Racial Composition Moderate Parental and Peer Influences on Adolescent Substance Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jinni; Supple, Andrew J

    2016-06-01

    Parental and peer influences on adolescent substance use have been well demonstrated. However, limited research has examined how parental and peer influences vary across school contexts. This study used a multilevel approach to examine the effects of school substance use norms and school racial composition in predicting adolescent substance use (a composite measure of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use) and in moderating parental and peer influences on adolescent substance use. A total of 14,346 adolescents from 34 schools in a mid-western county completed surveys electronically at school. Analyses were conducted using hierarchical linear modeling. Results indicated that school-level disapproval against substance use and percentage of minority students at school were negatively associated with adolescent substance use. School-level disapproval moderated the association between peer substance use and adolescent substance use, with the association being stronger when school-level disapproval was lower. School racial composition moderated the influence of parental disapproval and peer substance use on adolescent substance use. Specifically, both the association between parental disapproval and adolescent substance use and the association between peer substance use and adolescent substance use were weaker for adolescents who attended schools with higher percentages of minority students. Findings highlighted the importance of considering the role of school contexts, in conjunction with parental and peer influences, in understanding adolescent substance use. PMID:27215854

  12. Dietary supplements containing prohibited substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Bijl, P; Tutelyan, V A

    2013-01-01

    Dietary supplement use among athletes to enhance performance is proliferating as more individuals strive for obtaining that chemical competitive edge. As a result the concomitant use of dietary supplements containing performance-enhancing substances of those falling in the categories outlined in the current review, can also be expected to rise. This despite ever-increasing sophisticated analytical methodology techniques being used to assay dietary supplement and urine samples in doping laboratories. The reasons for this include that a variety of these chemical entities, many of them on the prohibited drug list of the WADA, are being produced on commercial scales in factories around the world (ephedrine and pseudoephedrine, sibutramine, methylhexaneamine, prohormones, 'classic' anabolic steroids, clenbuterol, peptide hormones etc.), aggressive marketing strategies are being employed by companies and these supplements can be easily ordered via e.g. the internet. It can also be anticipated that there will be an increase in the number of supplements containing 'designer' steroids and other 'newer' molecules. Chromatographic techniques combined with mass spectrometry leading to identification of molecular fragments and productions will assist in determining these substances. To prevent accidental doping, information regarding dietary supplements must be provided to athletes, coaches and sports doctors at all levels of competition. The risks of accidental doping via dietary supplement ingestion can be minimized by using 'safe' products listed on databases, e.g. such as those available in The Netherlands and Germany. PMID:24741950

  13. Module 13: Bulk Packaging Shipments by Highway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hazardous Materials Modular Training Program provides participating United States Department of Energy (DOE) sites with a basic, yet comprehensive, hazardous materials transportation training program for use onsite. This program may be used to assist individual program entities to satisfy the general awareness, safety training, and function specific training requirements addressed in Code of Federal Regulation (CFR), Title 49, Part 172, Subpart H -- ''Training.'' Module 13 -- Bulk Packaging Shipments by Highway is a supplement to the Basic Hazardous Materials Workshop. Module 13 -- Bulk Packaging Shipments by Highway focuses on bulk shipments of hazardous materials by highway mode, which have additional or unique requirements beyond those addressed in the ten module core program. Attendance in this course of instruction should be limited to those individuals with work experience in transporting hazardous materials utilizing bulk packagings and who have completed the Basic Hazardous Materials Workshop or an equivalent. Participants will become familiar with the rules and regulations governing the transportation by highway of hazardous materials in bulk packagings and will demonstrate the application of these requirements through work projects and examination

  14. Development of superconductor bulk for superconductor bearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chan Joong; Jun, Byung Hyuk; Park, Soon Dong (and others)

    2008-08-15

    Current carrying capacity is one of the most important issues in the consideration of superconductor bulk materials for engineering applications. There are numerous applications of Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO) bulk superconductors e.g. magnetic levitation train, flywheel energy storage system, levitation transportation, lunar telescope, centrifugal device, magnetic shielding materials, bulk magnets etc. Accordingly, to obtain YBCO materials in the form of large, single crystals without weak-link problem is necessary. A top seeded melt growth (TSMG) process was used to fabricate single crystal YBCO bulk superconductors. The seeded and infiltration growth (IG) technique was also very promising method for the synthesis of large, single-grain YBCO bulk superconductors with good superconducting properties. 5 wt.% Ag doped Y211 green compacts were sintered at 900 .deg. C {approx} 1200 .deg.C and then a single crystal YBCO was fabricated by an infiltration method. A refinement and uniform distribution of the Y211 particles in the Y123 matrix were achieved by sintering the Ag-doped samples. This enhancement of the critical current density was ascribable to a fine dispersion of the Y211 particles, a low porosity and the presence of Ag particles. In addition, we have designed and manufactured large YBCO single domain with levitation force of 10-13 kg/cm{sup 2} using TSMG processing technique.

  15. A novel validated UPLC method for quantitation of lopinavir and ritonavir in bulk drug and pharmaceutical formulation with its impurities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gnana Deepika Killi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A simple gradient Ultra Performance liquid chromatographic method (UPLC was developed for determination of lopinavir and ritonavir from its related impurities and assay for the first time. This method involves the use of a C18 (Acquity UPLC BEH C18, 50 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 µm column thermostated at 30 oC using triethylamine (pH 2.2: 0.1% H3PO4 in acetonitrile and methanol (85:15 as mobile phase in gradient elution mode. A Photo Diode Array (PDA detector set at 215 nm was used for detection with flow rate 0.4 mL/min. This method was validated over the range of limit of quantitation (LOQ to 50 to 150% of impurity specification limit and of working concentration for assay. The developed method was validated for linearity, range, precision, accuracy and specificity. This method was successfully applied for content determination of lopinavir and ritonavir in pharmaceutical formulations. This method can be conveniently used in quality control laboratory for routine analysis for assay and related substances as well as for evaluation of stability samples of bulk drugs and pharmaceutical formulations.

  16. Effectiveness of Role Play on Knowledge of Adolescents Regarding Substance Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nomimol Lucy Thomas,

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Substance abuse and dependency are most common during adolescence. Adolescents are in a transitional phase, confusion can sometimes make them susceptible to taking up unfavourable habits. Attitude shaping by parents and knowledge of harmfulness of substance abuse can indirectly motivate the user to give up the habit. Substance abuse control programmes, focusing on youth, are essential, to reduce the burden of related diseases. Objectives: It was aimed to assess the level of knowledge of adolescents regarding substance abuse, to find the effectiveness of role play on knowledge regarding substance abuse among adolescents, to find out the association of knowledge scores of adolescents regarding substance abuse with selected socio demographic variables. Material and Methods: A quasi experimental, one group pre-test post-test design with evaluative approach was adopted for this study. The study was conducted at Krishna Charitable Trust’s English Medium School and Junior College, Karad, Maharashtra, India. Simple random sampling with lottery method was used for selecting the 60 subjects from VIIIth, IXth and Xth class. On the 1st day a structured knowledge questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge on substance abuse and role play was conducted followed by post test on the 7thday. Data was analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics. Result: The mean and standard deviation of the knowledge scores of the subjects in pre test was 11.51 + 3.55 which increased in post test after role play to 17.5 + 2.89. The paired ‘t’ test value were 15.363 (p < 0.0001 showing a significant increase in knowledge regarding substance abuse. There was an association between type of family and general information on substance abuse, education of father with commonly abused substances and the total score on substance abuse, education of mother with commonly abused substances and prevention and management of substance abuse and number of

  17. A diphoton resonance from bulk RS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csáki, Csaba; Randall, Lisa

    2016-07-01

    Recent LHC data hinted at a 750 GeV mass resonance that decays into two photons. A significant feature of this resonance is that its decays to any other Standard Model particles would be too low to be detected so far. Such a state has a compelling explanation in terms of a scalar or a pseudoscalar that is strongly coupled to vector states charged under the Standard Model gauge groups. Such a scenario is readily accommodated in bulk RS with a scalar localized in the bulk away from but close to the Higgs. Turning this around, we argue that a good way to find the elusive bulk RS model might be the search for a resonance with prominent couplings to gauge bosons.

  18. Micro benchtop optics by bulk silicon micromachining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Abraham P.; Pocha, Michael D.; McConaghy, Charles F.; Deri, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    Micromachining of bulk silicon utilizing the parallel etching characteristics of bulk silicon and integrating the parallel etch planes of silicon with silicon wafer bonding and impurity doping, enables the fabrication of on-chip optics with in situ aligned etched grooves for optical fibers, micro-lenses, photodiodes, and laser diodes. Other optical components that can be microfabricated and integrated include semi-transparent beam splitters, micro-optical scanners, pinholes, optical gratings, micro-optical filters, etc. Micromachining of bulk silicon utilizing the parallel etching characteristics thereof can be utilized to develop miniaturization of bio-instrumentation such as wavelength monitoring by fluorescence spectrometers, and other miniaturized optical systems such as Fabry-Perot interferometry for filtering of wavelengths, tunable cavity lasers, micro-holography modules, and wavelength splitters for optical communication systems.

  19. Bulk amorphous Mg-based alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryds, Nini

    The present paper describes the preparation and properties of bulk amorphous quarternary Mg-based alloys and the influence of additional elements on the ability of the alloy to form bulk amorphous. The main goal is to find a Mg-based alloy system which shows both high strength to weight ratio and a...... low glass transition temperature. The alloys were prepared by using a relatively simple technique, i.e. rapid cooling of the melt in a copper wedge mould. The essential structural changes that are achieved by going from the amorphous to the crystalline state through the supercooled liquid state are...... discussed in this paper. On the basis of these measurements phase diagrams of the different systems were constructed. Finally, it is demonstrated that when pressing the bulk amorphous alloy onto a metallic dies at temperatures within the supercooled liquid region, the alloy faithfully replicates the surface...

  20. Orchestrating Bulk Data Movement in Grid Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazhkudai, SS

    2005-01-25

    Data Grids provide a convenient environment for researchers to manage and access massively distributed bulk data by addressing several system and transfer challenges inherent to these environments. This work addresses issues involved in the efficient selection and access of replicated data in Grid environments in the context of the Globus Toolkit{trademark}, building middleware that (1) selects datasets in highly replicated environments, enabling efficient scheduling of data transfer requests; (2) predicts transfer times of bulk wide-area data transfers using extensive statistical analysis; and (3) co-allocates bulk data transfer requests, enabling parallel downloads from mirrored sites. These efforts have demonstrated a decentralized data scheduling architecture, a set of forecasting tools that predict bandwidth availability within 15% error and co-allocation architecture, and heuristics that expedites data downloads by up to 2 times.

  1. Bulk Comptonization by Turbulence in Accretion Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufman, J

    2016-01-01

    Radiation pressure dominated accretion discs around compact objects may have turbulent velocities that greatly exceed the electron thermal velocities within the disc. Bulk Comptonization by the turbulence may therefore dominate over thermal Comptonization in determining the emergent spectrum. Bulk Comptonization by divergenceless turbulence is due to radiation viscous dissipation only. It can be treated as thermal Comptonization by solving the Kompaneets equation with an equivalent "wave" temperature, which is a weighted sum over the power present at each scale in the turbulent cascade. Bulk Comptonization by turbulence with non-zero divergence is due to both pressure work and radiation viscous dissipation. Pressure work has negligible effect on photon spectra in the limit of optically thin turbulence, and in this limit radiation viscous dissipation alone can be treated as thermal Comptonization with a temperature equivalent to the full turbulent power. In the limit of extremely optically thick turbulence, ra...

  2. The outcomes of two different bulking agents (dextranomer hyaluronic acid copolymer and polyacrylate-polyalcohol copolymer in the treatment of primary vesico-ureteral reflux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Taşkinlar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose Subureteral injection of bulking agents in the endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux is widely accepted therapy with high success rates. Although the grade of vesicoureteric reflux and experience of surgeon is the mainstay of this success, the characteristics of augmenting substances may have an effect particularly in the long term. In this retrospective study, we aimed to evaluate the clinical outcomes of the endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteric reflux (VUR with two different bulking agents: Dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer (Dx/HA and Polyacrylate polyalcohol copolymer (PPC. Materials and Methods A total 80 patients (49 girls and 31 boys aged 1-12 years (mean age 5.3 years underwent endoscopic subureteral injection for correction of VUR last six years. The patients were assigned to two groups: subureteral injections of Dx/HA (45 patients and 57 ureters and PPC (35 patients and 45 ureters. VUR was grade II in 27 ureters, grade III in 35, grade IV in 22 and grade V in 18 ureters. Results VUR was resolved in 38 (66.6% of 57 ureters and this equates to VUR correction in 33 (73.3% of the 45 patients in Dx/HA group. In PPC group, overall success rate was 88.8% (of 40 in 45 ureters. Thus, Thus, this equates to VUR correction in 31 (88.5% of the 35 patients. Conclusions Our short term data show that two different bulking agent injections provide a high level of reflux resolution and this study revealed that success rate of PPC was significantly higher than Dx/HA with less material.

  3. Plasma modes and collision frequency - from bulk to cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Diagnostics of Coulomb systems in bulk as well as in clusters via transport and optical properties is investigated. Deduction of plasma parameters from line shapes and photoabsorption spectroscopy is discussed. Perturbative calculations as well as molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are applied in order to understand experiments, in particular, on shock-wave or laser induced warm dense matter. Systems of reduced dimensionality are considered with respect to the transition from bulk to cluster. While bulk plasmons cannot be excited via light waves, the more complex structure of longitudinal and transverse collective excitation modes in clusters should be observable via optical investigations. Within a generalized linear response theory, optical properties in bulk are described consistently including collision effects relevant in correlated systems. Going beyond RPA for the dielectric function, the concept of the dynamical collision frequency, which is related to auto correlation functions, is applied. Collisions prove to be of relevance in strongly coupled plasmas. Exemplary, results for line shifts and broadening in bulk systems are presented, in the optical as well as in the X-ray regime. Plasma frequency and collision frequency are well defined quantities in bulk systems. We are interested in their generalization for finite systems, and the application to laser excited clusters. For the evaluation of equilibrium auto-correlation functions at arbitrary coupling strength we apply MD simulation techniques for classical systems. A restricted MD simulations scheme for finite systems has been developed and the spatially resolved momentum auto-correlation spectrum is interpreted in terms of collective electron excitation modes in. Resonance frequencies are calculated and interpreted as rigid oscillation of all electrons and plane wave oscillations as well as so-called breathing modes. Damping rates are discussed. The energy of

  4. Impulsivity, Peer Influence, and Adolescent Substance Use

    OpenAIRE

    Stautz, Kaidy

    2013-01-01

    Individuals in Western societies commonly begin to experiment with alcohol and/or cannabis during their adolescent years. Many experience negative consequences from the use of these substances and a minority develop pathological problems such as abuse and dependence. Previous research has identified myriad individual and environmental variables that precede and predict problematic substance use. Two such risk factors are the personality trait impulsivity and the influence of substance-using p...

  5. Natural sweet substances - alternative of sugar

    OpenAIRE

    Kratochvílová, Kateřina

    2014-01-01

    Natural sweet substances – alternative of sugar Summary Sugar (sucrose) is undoubtedly the most commonly used sweetening agent of natural origin, but certainly not the only one. Large amount of sweet substances with different structure has been isolated from the plants. These non-carbohydrate sweetening agents have several advantages over sucrose. They are low-energy substances, which have much higher sweetening effect than sucrose, and therefore become a suitable alternative sugar. U...

  6. Synthesis of Bulk Superconducting Magnesium Diboride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margie Olbinado

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Bulk polycrystalline superconducting magnesium diboride, MgB2, samples were successfully prepared via a one-step sintering program at 750°C, in pre Argon with a pressure of 1atm. Both electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements confirmed the superconductivity of the material at 39K, with a transition width of 5K. The polycrystalline nature, granular morphology, and composition of the sintered bulk material were confirmed using X-ray diffractometry (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX.

  7. Thermal relics in cosmology with bulk viscosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we discuss some consequences of cosmological models in which the primordial cosmic matter is described by a relativistic imperfect fluid. The latter takes into account the dissipative effects (bulk viscosity) arising from different cooling rates of the fluid components in the expanding Universe. We discuss, in particular, the effects of the bulk viscosity on Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and on the thermal relic abundance of particles, looking at recent results of PAMELA experiment. The latter has determined an anomalous excess of positron events, which cannot be explained by conventional cosmology and particle physics. (orig.)

  8. Remedial investigations for quarry bulk wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy proposes, as a separate operable unit of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, to remove contaminated bulk wastes from the Weldon Spring quarry and transport them approximately four miles to the chemical plant portion of the raffinate pits and chemical plant area. The wastes will be held in temporary storage prior to the record of decision for the overall remedial action. The decision on the ultimate disposal of these bulk wastes will be included as part of the decision for management of the waste materials resulting from remedial action activities at the raffinate pits and chemical plant area. 86 refs., 71 figs., 83 tabs

  9. Radiation-hardened bulk CMOS technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolutionary development of a radiation-hardened bulk CMOS technology is reviewed. The metal gate hardened CMOS status is summarized, including both radiation and reliability data. The development of a radiation-hardened bulk silicon gate process which was successfully implemented to a commercial microprocessor family and applied to a new, radiation-hardened, LSI standard cell family is also discussed. The cell family is reviewed and preliminary characterization data is presented. Finally, a brief comparison of the various radiation-hardened technologies with regard to performance, reliability, and availability is made

  10. Thermal relics in cosmology with bulk viscosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iorio, A. [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Prague (Czech Republic); Lambiase, G. [Universita di Salerno, Dipartimento di Fisica E.R. Caianiello, Fisciano (Italy); INFN, Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy)

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we discuss some consequences of cosmological models in which the primordial cosmic matter is described by a relativistic imperfect fluid. The latter takes into account the dissipative effects (bulk viscosity) arising from different cooling rates of the fluid components in the expanding Universe. We discuss, in particular, the effects of the bulk viscosity on Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and on the thermal relic abundance of particles, looking at recent results of PAMELA experiment. The latter has determined an anomalous excess of positron events, which cannot be explained by conventional cosmology and particle physics. (orig.)

  11. Bulk Entropy in Loop Quantum Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Livine, Etera R; Terno, Daniel R.

    2007-01-01

    In the framework of loop quantum gravity (LQG), having quantum black holes in mind, we generalize the previous boundary state counting (gr-qc/0508085) to a full bulk state counting. After a suitable gauge fixing we are able to compute the bulk entropy of a bounded region (the "black hole") with fixed boundary. This allows us to study the relationship between the entropy and the boundary area in details and we identify a holographic regime of LQG where the leading order of the entropy scales w...

  12. Bulk Entropy in Loop Quantum Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Livine, Etera R

    2007-01-01

    In the framework of loop quantum gravity (LQG), having quantum black holes in mind, we generalize the previous boundary state counting (gr-qc/0508085) to a full bulk state counting. After a suitable gauge fixing we are able to compute the bulk entropy of a bounded region (the "black hole") with fixed boundary. This allows us to study the relationship between the entropy and the boundary area in details and we identify a holographic regime of LQG where the leading order of the entropy scales with the area. We show that in this regime we can fine tune the factor between entropy and area without changing the Immirzi parameter.

  13. A stability-indicating HPLC method for medroxyprogesterone acetate in bulk drug and injection formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burana-Osot, Jankana; Ungboriboonpisal, Sooksri; Sriphong, Lawan

    2006-03-18

    A stability-indicating HPLC assay method has been developed and validated for medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) in bulk drug and injectable suspension. An isocratic RP-HPLC was achieved on a Hichrom C(18) column (150 mm x 4.6mm i.d., 5 microm) utilizing a mobile phase of methanol 0.020 M acetate buffer pH 5 (65:35, v/v) and a photodiode array detector at 245 nm. The stress testing of MPA was carried out under acidic and alkaline hydrolysis, and oxidation conditions. MPA was well resolved from its degradation products, a main related substance (megestrol acetate) and two preservatives (methyl paraben and propyl paraben) with the resolution >or=2. The proposed method was validated for selectivity, linearity, accuracy, precision and solution stability. The method was found to be suitable for the quality control of MPA in bulk drug and injections as well as the stability-indicating studies. PMID:16242876

  14. Bulk density and water tensions in the soil on corn root production

    OpenAIRE

    João A. S. Nunes; Edna M. Bonfim-Silva; Tonny J. A. da Silva

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Inadequate management of soil and water can cause changes in soil physical characteristics, resulting in lower root development. Thus the objective of the present study was to evaluate the dry matter production of corn roots under combinations of levels of bulk density and water tension in the soil. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in a randomized block design, based on a modified central composite design of a 52 fractional factorial scheme, of combinations of bulk densit...

  15. Molecular aggregation of humic substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wershaw, R. L.

    1999-01-01

    Humic substances (HS) form molecular aggregates in solution and on mineral surfaces. Elucidation of the mechanism of formation of these aggregates is important for an understanding of the interactions of HS in soils arid natural waters. The HS are formed mainly by enzymatic depolymerization and oxidation of plant biopolymers. These reactions transform the aromatic and lipid plant components into amphiphilic molecules, that is, molecules that consist of separate hydrophobic (nonpolar) and hydrophilic (polar) parts. The nonpolar parts of the molecules are composed of relatively unaltered segments of plant polymers and the polar parts of carboxylic acid groups. These amphiphiles form membrane-like aggregates on mineral surfaces and micelle-like aggregates in solution. The exterior surfaces of these aggregates are hydrophilic, and the interiors constitute separate hydrophobic liquid-like phases.

  16. Unification of force and substance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczek, Frank

    2016-08-28

    Maxwell's mature presentation of his equations emphasized the unity of electromagnetism and mechanics, subsuming both as 'dynamical systems'. That intuition of unity has proved both fruitful, as a source of pregnant concepts, and broadly inspiring. A deep aspect of Maxwell's work is its use of redundant potentials, and the associated requirement of gauge symmetry. Those concepts have become central to our present understanding of fundamental physics, but they can appear to be rather formal and esoteric. Here I discuss two things: the physical significance of gauge invariance, in broad terms; and some tantalizing prospects for further unification, building on that concept, that are visible on the horizon today. If those prospects are realized, Maxwell's vision of the unity of field and substance will be brought to a new level.This article is part of the themed issue 'Unifying physics and technology in light of Maxwell's equations'. PMID:27458259

  17. Unification of Force and Substance

    CERN Document Server

    Wilczek, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Maxwell's mature presentation of his equations emphasized the unity of electromagnetism and mechanics, subsuming both as "dynamical systems". That intuition of unity has proved both fruitful, as a source of pregnant concepts, and broadly inspiring. A deep aspect of Maxwell's work is its use of redundant potentials, and the associated requirement of gauge symmetry. Those concepts have become central to our present understanding of fundamental physics, but they can appear to be rather formal and esoteric. Here I discuss two things: The physical significance of gauge invariance, in broad terms; and some tantalizing prospects for further unification, building on that concept, that are visible on the horizon today. If those prospects are realized, Maxwell's vision of the unity of field and substance will be brought to a new level.

  18. Decisions to regulate genotoxic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decisions to regulate genotoxic substances involve trade-offs between various incomparable factors such as risks to human health and other environmental risks, public perceptions, costs and uncertainties. Two different approaches towards these trade-offs are discussed. In one approach, all relevant factors are defined and trade-offs are considered using a general and very elaborate analysis. Cost-benefit analysis is an exponent of this approach. An illustration is given for the regulation of transboundary releases of radioactive materials. The other approach considers what is politically feasible for the time being and seeks a decision with much room for later corrections. Incrementalism is a philosophy in this vein. It is illustrated by reference to the regulation of transboundary air pollution. Weaknesses and strengths of the two approaches are discussed. (author)

  19. White matter integrity, substance use, and risk taking in adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobus, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    White matter (WM) development is important for efficient communication between brain regions and higher order neurocognitive functioning. Adolescents have a higher propensity for engaging in risky behaviors such as substance misuse and delinquent acts, yet few studies have explored associations between WM integrity, neurocognitive functioning, and risk taking during adolescent development. This study evaluated baseline indices from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to examine the influence of WM...

  20. The Critical Assessment of the Physicochemical Properties of Substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the application of physicochemical values to practical and theoretical problems, it becomes increasingly important that the published experimental data should continuously be sifted and critically assessed by experts. This type of work is actually a relatively new field in chemistry, and some of the principles and methods involved in assessing the thermodynamic and transport properties of metallic substances will be discussed. The centres dealing with this evaluation work, their distribution and their accepted responsibilities will be outlined. (author)

  1. Associations between Polygenic Risk for Psychiatric Disorders and Substance Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Caitlin E; Agrawal, Arpana; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Hartz, Sarah M; Lynskey, Michael T; Nelson, Elliot C; Bierut, Laura J; Bogdan, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Despite evidence of substantial comorbidity between psychiatric disorders and substance involvement, the extent to which common genetic factors contribute to their co-occurrence remains understudied. In the current study, we tested for associations between polygenic risk for psychiatric disorders and substance involvement (i.e., ranging from ever-use to severe dependence) among 2573 non-Hispanic European-American participants from the Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment. Polygenic risk scores (PRS) for cross-disorder psychopathology (CROSS) were generated based on the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium's Cross-Disorder meta-analysis and then tested for associations with a factor representing general liability to alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, nicotine, and opioid involvement (GENSUB). Follow-up analyses evaluated specific associations between each of the five psychiatric disorders which comprised CROSS-attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (AUT), bipolar disorder (BIP), major depressive disorder (MDD), and schizophrenia (SCZ)-and involvement with each component substance included in GENSUB. CROSS PRS explained 1.10% of variance in GENSUB in our sample (p cannabis use, (B) MDD PRS and severe cocaine dependence, (C) SCZ PRS and non-problem cannabis use and severe cannabis dependence, and (D) SCZ PRS and severe cocaine dependence. These results suggest that shared covariance from common genetic variation contributes to psychiatric and substance involvement comorbidity. PMID:27574527

  2. Effect of Different Psychoactive Substances on Serum Biochemical Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanli, Dilek Beker; Bilici, Rabia; Suner, Ozgur; Citak, Serhat; Kartkaya, Kazim; Mutlu, Fezan Sahin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Psychoactive substances affect mainly central nervous system and brain function causing changes in behavior. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of different psychoactive substances on serum biochemical parameters. Patients and Methods: The study included 324 drug dependents, and 69 controls. The patient group was determined according to DSM-IV (The diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition) criteria. All patients and control subjects were tested for routine biochemical parameters and urine toxicology parameters for psychoactive substance use. Cases and controls with accompanying diseases like diabetes, cancer, metabolic disorders etc. are excluded from the study. Moreover, an association between urine toxicology results and changes in biochemical parameters was evaluated for statistical significance. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in the Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase (GGT), uric acid, creatinine, urea, albumin, Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) medians between the dependent and control groups (P < 0.05). We found a statistically significant difference in sodium and albumin levels between the opium-dependent and control groups (P < 0.05). In the benzodiazepin dependent group, we found a significant difference in GGT, urea, glucose, sodium, T protein, and AST levels (P < 0.05). Moreover, a statistically significant difference was observed in triglyceride and GGT levels between the ethyl glucuronide and control groups (P < 0.05). Conclusions: In psychoactive substance dependents, serum routine biochemistry parameters can be used to predict the need for intensive monitoring and treatment programs. PMID:26405680

  3. Childhood ADHD and Adolescent Substance Use: An Examination of Deviant Peer Group Affiliation as a Risk Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Marshal, Michael P.; Molina, Brooke S.G.; Pelham, William E.

    2003-01-01

    Deviant peer group affiliation was evaluated as a risk factor for substance use in adolescents with childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Results showed that deviant peer affiliation mediated the relationship between ADHD and substance use, suggesting that children with ADHD are more likely than children without ADHD to become involved with deviant peers and, as a result, more likely to use substances. Moreover, the relationship between deviant peer affiliation and substa...

  4. 胞外高分子物质对基质在复合生物膜内传质速率影响的测定%Evaluation of the Influence of Extracellular Polymeric Substances on the Mass Transport of Substrate within Multispecies Biofilms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹宏斌; 李鑫钢; 姜斌; 孙津生; 张懿

    2004-01-01

    A model, for evaluating the effect of porosity and volume fraction of extracellular polymeric substances(EPS) within multispecies biofilms on the effective diffusivity, is developed and experimentally validated, based on the extraction of EPS from intact biofilms. The amount of EPS in biofilms significantly affects the effective diffusivity. For biofilms with porosity of 77%-95% in the top layers and 54%-58% in the bottom layers, the value of De/Dw decreases from 0.52-0.83 in the top layers to 0.23-0.31 in the bottom layers. Generally, the effective diffusivity in the heterotrophic/autotrophic biofilms is slightly lower than that in the heterotrophic biofilms, due to the lower porosity in the heterotrophic/autotrophic biofilms.

  5. Psychopathology in Substance Use Disorder Patients with and without Substance-Induced Psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Zhornitsky; Andràs Tikàsz; Élie Rizkallah; Jean-Pierre Chiasson; Stéphane Potvin

    2015-01-01

    Background. Substance-induced psychotic disorder (SIPD) is a diagnosis constructed to distinguish substance-induced psychotic states from primary psychotic disorders. A number of studies have compared SIPD persons with primary psychotic patients, but there is little data on what differentiates substance use disorder (SUD) individuals with and without SIPD. Here, we compared psychopathology, sociodemographic variables, and substance use characteristics between SUD patients with and without SIP...

  6. Peer Substance Use and Homelessness Predicting Substance Abuse from Adolescence Through Early Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Tompsett, Carolyn J.; Domoff, Sarah E.; Toro, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents who experience homelessness are at higher risk for abusing substances, and for being exposed to substance-using peers. The current study used a longitudinal design to track substance abuse, affiliation with substance-using peers, and episodes of homelessness among a sample of 223 adolescents who were homeless at thebaseline data collection and 148 adolescents who were housed at baseline. Participants were interviewed at six waves over 6.5 years, covering an age rang...

  7. THE OPTIMIZATION OF PLUSH YARNS BULKING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VINEREANU Adam

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the experiments that were conducted on the installation of continuous bulking and thermofixing “SUPERBA” type TVP-2S for optimization of the plush yarns bulking process. There were considered plush yarns Nm 6.5/2, made of the fibrous blend of 50% indigenous wool sort 41 and 50% PES. In the first stage, it performs a thermal treatment with a turboprevaporizer at a temperature lower than thermofixing temperature, at atmospheric pressure, such that the plush yarns - deposed in a freely state on a belt conveyor - are uniformly bulking and contracting. It was followed the mathematical modeling procedure, working with a factorial program, rotatable central composite type, and two independent variables. After analyzing the parameters that have a direct influence on the bulking degree, there were selected the pre-vaporization temperature (coded x1,oC and the velocity of belt inside pre-vaporizer (coded x 2, m/min. As for the dependent variable, it was chosen the plush yarn diameter (coded y, mm. There were found the coordinates of the optimal point, and then this pair of values was verified in practice. These coordinates are: x1optim= 90oC and x 2optim= 6.5 m/min. The conclusion is that the goal was accomplished: it was obtained a good cover degree f or double-plush carpets by reducing the number of tufts per unit surface.

  8. Determining the bulk strength of strata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bulk rock strength of strata is determined by logging a bore-hole with an instrument to obtain a neutron-neutron log of the hole and determining in conjunction with the lithology of the strata the strength by applying an inverse relation formula. (author)

  9. Realistic anomaly mediation with bulk gauge fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a simple general framework for realistic models of supersymmetry breaking driven by anomaly mediation. We consider a 5-dimensional 'brane universe' where the visible and hidden sectors are localized on different branes, and the standard model gauge bosons propagate in the bulk. In this framework there can be charged scalar messengers that have contact interactions with the hidden sector, either localized in the hidden sector or in the bulk. These scalars obtain soft masses that feed into visible sector scalar masses at two loop order via bulk gauge interactions. This contribution is automatically flavor-blind, and can be naturally positive. If the messengers are in the bulk this contribution is automatically the same order of magnitude as the anomaly mediated contribution, independent of the brane spacing. If the messengers are localized to a brane the two effects are of the same order for relatively small brane spacings. The gaugino masses and A terms are determined completely by anomaly mediation. In order for anomaly mediation to dominate over radion mediation the radion must be is stabilized in a manner that preserves supersymmetry, with supergravity effects included. We show that this occurs in simple models. We also show that the mu problem can be solved by the vacuum expectation value of a singlet in this framework. (author)

  10. A Stereoscopic Look into the Bulk

    CERN Document Server

    Czech, Bartlomiej; McCandlish, Samuel; Mosk, Benjamin; Sully, James

    2016-01-01

    We present the foundation for a holographic dictionary with depth perception. The dictionary consists of natural CFT operators whose duals are simple, diffeomorphism-invariant bulk operators. The CFT operators of interest are the "OPE blocks," contributions to the OPE from a single conformal family. In holographic theories, we show that the OPE blocks are dual at leading order in 1/N to integrals of effective bulk fields along geodesics or homogeneous minimal surfaces in anti-de Sitter space. One widely studied example of an OPE block is the modular Hamiltonian, which is dual to the fluctuation in the area of a minimal surface. Thus, our operators pave the way for generalizing the Ryu-Takayanagi relation to other bulk fields. Although the OPE blocks are non-local operators in the CFT, they admit a simple geometric description as fields in kinematic space--the space of pairs of CFT points. We develop the tools for constructing local bulk operators in terms of these non-local objects. The OPE blocks also allow ...

  11. Teaching Advanced SQL Skills: Text Bulk Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, David; Hauser, Karina

    2007-01-01

    Studies show that advanced database skills are important for students to be prepared for today's highly competitive job market. A common task for database administrators is to insert a large amount of data into a database. This paper illustrates how an up-to-date, advanced database topic, namely bulk insert, can be incorporated into a database…

  12. Longitudinal bulk a coustic mass sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hales, Jan Harry; Teva, Jordi; Boisen, Anja;

    2009-01-01

    Design, fabrication and characterization, in terms of mass sensitivity, is presented for a polycrystalline silicon longitudinal bulk acoustic cantilever. The device is operated in air at 51 MHz, resulting in a mass sensitivity of 100 HZ/fg (1 fg = 10{su−15 g). The initial characterization is cond...

  13. Historical Images and Reviews of Substance Use and Substance Abuse in the Teaching of Addiction Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolberg, Victor B.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss how images and historical reviews of substance use and abuse from different time periods can be used to provide a better understanding of the historical background of the discipline. Historical reviews of various substances, as well as approaches to addressing substance abuse at different time periods, and…

  14. Parental Substance Use, Family Support and Outcome Following Treatment for Adolescent Psychoactive Substance Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Stephen D.; Kelly, John F.; Myers, Mark G.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2002-01-01

    Examines family variables that may influence adolescent substance use during the 6 months following inpatient treatment: parental substance use, family aftercare attendance, and adolescent ratings of family helpfulness. Results revealed no relationship between either parental substance use and family aftercare attendance or reports of family…

  15. Bulk sulfur (S) deposition in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Zhang, Xiuying; Wang, Shanqian; Zhang, Wuting; Lu, Xuehe

    2016-06-01

    A systematic dataset of an observation network on a national scale has been organized to investigate the spatial distribution of bulk sulfur (S) deposition (Sdep) throughout China during 2000-2013, representing by far the most detailed data set to track the bulk sulfur deposition throughout China since 2000. Such a dataset is needed for ecosystem studies and for developing emission control policies. Bulk Sdep values showed great variations, ranging from 2.17 to 70.55 kg ha-1 y-1, with an average of 22.99 kg ha-1 y-1. The average rate of bulk Sdep located in East Coastal region (35.97 kg ha-1 y-1), Middle Yangtze region (57.90 kg ha-1 y-1), Middle Yellow River region (23.42 kg ha-1 y-1), North Coastal region (42.19 kg ha-1 y-1), Northeast region (34.28 kg ha-1 y-1), South Coastal region (36.97 kg S ha-1 y-1), Southwest region (33.85 kg ha-1 y-1) was 4.50, 7.24, 2.93, 5.28, 4.29, 4.63 and 4.24 times than that in Northwest region (7.99 kg ha-1 y-1). Bulk Sdep over China was mainly from fossil fuel combustion (76.96%), biomass burning (7.64%), crust (6.22%), aged sea salt (5.48%) and agriculture (3.68%). A systematic observation network on a national scale should be established to conduct a long-term monitoring atmospheric Sdep (including wet and dry deposition), based on exiting ecological stations administrated by different departments in China.

  16. 27 CFR 1.90 - Distilled spirits in bulk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distilled spirits in bulk..., NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Bulk Sales and Bottling of Distilled Spirits Warehouse Receipts § 1.90 Distilled spirits in bulk. By the terms of the...

  17. Substance Abuse and Violence: Cause and Consequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Elaine M.; Belfer, Myron L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes two ways in which substance abuse is related to violence: trade in drugs and being under the influence of drugs. The paper argues that reducing the demand for drugs by eliminating the market for them will bring about a reciprocal reduction in substance abuse-related violence. (GR)

  18. Moving On: Young People and Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Kathryn; Chamberlain, Chris

    2009-01-01

    To help explain why some young people move from recreational drug use to substance abuse, twelve in-depth interviews were conducted with young people who had experienced problematic substance use. The data were supplemented by statistical data on 111 young people. The researchers found a variety of "structural" factors that help explain young…

  19. Preventing and Treating Substance Abuse among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Substance misuse is one of the most prevalent causes of adolescent injury and death. Additionally, 5-8% of adolescents in the U.S. qualify for a diagnosis of substance abuse disorder. This article discusses formal prevention and treatment program models, focusing on a continuum of care which extends from prevention to treatment alternatives.…

  20. Harm Reduction in MSW Substance Abuse Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eversman, Michael H.

    2012-01-01

    Professional social work largely has endorsed the empirically supported paradigm of harm reduction in relation to substance abuse issues. Despite literature detailing similarities between social work and harm reduction, little is known about its presence in MSW substance abuse coursework. A purposive sample of 133 social work faculty from…

  1. Accessing Substance Abuse Prevention Programs for Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Jennifer L.; Johnson, Gail E.

    2009-01-01

    Current estimates indicate that over 6 million children live with at least one parent who is a substance abuser or is substance dependent. Children who are exposed to drug and alcohol abuse are at a greater risk of experiencing academic and behavior difficulties. Additionally, several studies have shown that students with emotional and behavioral…

  2. Substance Use in Popular Movies and Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Donald F.; Henriksen, Lisa; Christenson, Peter G.

    This study examines the frequency and nature of substance use in the most popular movie rentals and songs of 1996 and 1997. The intent was to determine the accuracy of public perceptions about extensive substance use in media popular among youth. Because teenagers are major consumers of movies and music, there is concern about the potential for…

  3. Substance Abuse in Families: Educational Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Rivka

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the teacher's role as an advocate for a child's educational needs when parents are involved in substance abuse treatment. Discusses substance abuse treatment issues, including addiction, the treatment process, and agencies involved with the family, and provides a list of recommendations for educators and administrators to assist…

  4. National Toxic Substance Incidents Program (NTSIP)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-02-03

    This podcast gives an overview of the three components of the National Toxic Substance Incidents Program: state surveillance, national database, and response teams.  Created: 2/3/2011 by Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.   Date Released: 2/3/2011.

  5. Contextual Factors in Adolescent Substance Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochhauser, Mark; And Others

    Research on adolescent substance use has focused on prevalence and incidence; however, contextual factors have been largely ignored. A survey of 155 adolescents from a Minneapolis suburb was conducted to assess contextual factors affecting adolescent substance use. Subjects reported their use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marihuana with respect to…

  6. Bulk-bronzied graphites for plasma-facing components in ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirooka, Y.; Conn, R.W.; Doerner, R.; Khandagle, M. (California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (USA). Inst. of Plasma and Fusion Research); Causey, R.; Wilson, K. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (USA)); Croessmann, D.; Whitley, J. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Holland, D.; Smolik, G. (Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (USA)); Matsuda, T.; Sogabe, T. (Toyo Tanso Co. Ltd., O

    1990-06-01

    Newly developed bulk-boronized graphites and boronized C-C composites with a total boron concentration ranging from 1 wt % to 30 wt % have been evaluated as plasma-facing component materials for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Bulk-boronized graphites have been bombarded with high-flux deuterium plasmas at temperatures between 200 and 1600{degree}C. Plasma interaction induced erosion of bulk-boronized graphites is observed to be a factor of 2--3 smaller than that of pyrolytic graphite, in regimes of physical sputtering, chemical sputtering and radiation enhanced sublimation. Postbombardment thermal desorption spectroscopy indicates that bulk-boronized graphites enhance recombinative desorption of deuterium, which leads to a suppression of the formation of deuterocarbon due to chemical sputtering. The tritium inventory in graphite has been found to decrease by an order of magnitude due to 10 wt % bulk-boronization at temperatures above 1000{degree}C. The critical heat flux to induce cracking for bulk-boronized graphites has been found to be essentially the same as that for non-boronized graphites. Also, 10 wt % bulk-boronization of graphite hinders air oxidation nearly completely at 800{degree}C and reduces the steam oxidation rate by a factor of 2--3 at around 1100 and 1350{degree}C. 38 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Bulk-bronzied graphites for plasma-facing components in ITER [International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newly developed bulk-boronized graphites and boronized C-C composites with a total boron concentration ranging from 1 wt % to 30 wt % have been evaluated as plasma-facing component materials for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Bulk-boronized graphites have been bombarded with high-flux deuterium plasmas at temperatures between 200 and 1600 degree C. Plasma interaction induced erosion of bulk-boronized graphites is observed to be a factor of 2--3 smaller than that of pyrolytic graphite, in regimes of physical sputtering, chemical sputtering and radiation enhanced sublimation. Postbombardment thermal desorption spectroscopy indicates that bulk-boronized graphites enhance recombinative desorption of deuterium, which leads to a suppression of the formation of deuterocarbon due to chemical sputtering. The tritium inventory in graphite has been found to decrease by an order of magnitude due to 10 wt % bulk-boronization at temperatures above 1000 degree C. The critical heat flux to induce cracking for bulk-boronized graphites has been found to be essentially the same as that for non-boronized graphites. Also, 10 wt % bulk-boronization of graphite hinders air oxidation nearly completely at 800 degree C and reduces the steam oxidation rate by a factor of 2--3 at around 1100 and 1350 degree C. 38 refs., 5 figs

  8. Increase in complexation ability of humic acids with the addition of ligneous bulking agents during sewage sludge composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiong; Yan-Xia, Li; Ming, Yang; Feng-Song, Zhang; Wei, Li

    2010-12-01

    Wood sawdust and maize straw were selected to co-compost sewage sludge to investigate the effects of organic bulking agents on the formation and molecular transformation of humic substances. The results showed that composting process increased humic acids (HA) while decreased fulvic acids (FA), and the wood sawdust and maize straw promoted the formation of HA by 25.6% and 16.1%, respectively. Results from fluorescence titration demonstrated that organic bulking agents also increased the binding ability of HA with the heavy metal ions, Cu(II) and Cd(II), but had little influence on that of FA. These findings indicate that organic materials especially wood sawdust may be used as bulking agents to reduce the mobility and bioavailability of toxic metals in solid waste composts. PMID:20724147

  9. Bulk solitary waves in elastic solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsonov, A. M.; Dreiden, G. V.; Semenova, I. V.; Shvartz, A. G.

    2015-10-01

    A short and object oriented conspectus of bulk solitary wave theory, numerical simulations and real experiments in condensed matter is given. Upon a brief description of the soliton history and development we focus on bulk solitary waves of strain, also known as waves of density and, sometimes, as elastic and/or acoustic solitons. We consider the problem of nonlinear bulk wave generation and detection in basic structural elements, rods, plates and shells, that are exhaustively studied and widely used in physics and engineering. However, it is mostly valid for linear elasticity, whereas dynamic nonlinear theory of these elements is still far from being completed. In order to show how the nonlinear waves can be used in various applications, we studied the solitary elastic wave propagation along lengthy wave guides, and remarkably small attenuation of elastic solitons was proven in physical experiments. Both theory and generation for strain soliton in a shell, however, remained unsolved problems until recently, and we consider in more details the nonlinear bulk wave propagation in a shell. We studied an axially symmetric deformation of an infinite nonlinearly elastic cylindrical shell without torsion. The problem for bulk longitudinal waves is shown to be reducible to the one equation, if a relation between transversal displacement and the longitudinal strain is found. It is found that both the 1+1D and even the 1+2D problems for long travelling waves in nonlinear solids can be reduced to the Weierstrass equation for elliptic functions, which provide the solitary wave solutions as appropriate limits. We show that the accuracy in the boundary conditions on free lateral surfaces is of crucial importance for solution, derive the only equation for longitudinal nonlinear strain wave and show, that the equation has, amongst others, a bidirectional solitary wave solution, which lead us to successful physical experiments. We observed first the compression solitary wave in the

  10. Integration of bulk piezoelectric materials into microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktakka, Ethem Erkan

    Bulk piezoelectric ceramics, compared to deposited piezoelectric thin-films, provide greater electromechanical coupling and charge capacity, which are highly desirable in many MEMS applications. In this thesis, a technology platform is developed for wafer-level integration of bulk piezoelectric substrates on silicon, with a final film thickness of 5-100microm. The characterized processes include reliable low-temperature (200°C) AuIn diffusion bonding and parylene bonding of bulk-PZT on silicon, wafer-level lapping of bulk-PZT with high-uniformity (+/-0.5microm), and low-damage micro-machining of PZT films via dicing-saw patterning, laser ablation, and wet-etching. Preservation of ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties is confirmed with hysteresis and piezo-response measurements. The introduced technology offers higher material quality and unique advantages in fabrication flexibility over existing piezoelectric film deposition methods. In order to confirm the preserved bulk properties in the final film, diaphragm and cantilever beam actuators operating in the transverse-mode are designed, fabricated and tested. The diaphragm structure and electrode shapes/sizes are optimized for maximum deflection through finite-element simulations. During tests of fabricated devices, greater than 12microm PP displacement is obtained by actuation of a 1mm2 diaphragm at 111kHz with properties of bulk-PZT5A are mostly preserved without any necessity of repolarization. Three generations of resonant vibration energy harvesters are designed, simulated and fabricated to demonstrate the competitive performance of the new fabrication process over traditional piezoelectric deposition systems. An unpackaged PZT/Si unimorph harvester with 27mm3 active device volume produces up to 205microW at 1.5g/154Hz. The prototypes have achieved the highest figure-of-merits (normalized-power-density x bandwidth) amongst previously reported inertial energy harvesters. The fabricated energy harvester is

  11. 76 FR 1622 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Online Skills Training for PCPs on Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... research will evaluate the effectiveness of the Online Skills Training for PCPs on Substance Abuse, via the... Training for PCPs on Substance Abuse SUMMARY: Under the provisions of Section 3507(a)(1)(D) of the... currently valid OMB control number. Proposed Collection: Title: Online Skills Training for PCPs on...

  12. Effects of Trauma Intervention on HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors among Women with Co-Occurring Disorders in Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, Hortensia; Larson, Mary Jo; Zhang, Annie; Acevedo, Andrea; Dai, Jianyu; Matsumoto, Atsushi

    2007-01-01

    Women in substance abuse treatment often have co-occurring mental health disorders and a history of trauma; they are also at high risk for HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases via unprotected sex. A quasi-experimental study evaluated the effectiveness of trauma-enhanced substance abuse treatment combined with HIV/AIDS prevention…

  13. Disorders related to use of psychoactive substances in DSM-5: Changes and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Roshan Bhad; Rakesh Lal; Yatan Pal Singh Balhara

    2015-01-01

    In the most recent edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) that is DSM-5 many modifications have been made in substance use disorder section. These include changes in terminology; sections and categories; diagnostic criteria; threshold for diagnosis; severity; and specifier. Additionally, there have been certain additions and omissions from the earlier version. Critical evaluation of the changes made to the section on disorders related to use of psychoactive substances in India con...

  14. Substance P and intensity of pruritus in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients

    OpenAIRE

    Œnit, Mirosław; Gawlik, Radosław; Łącka-GaŸdzik, Beata; KuŸniewicz, Roman; Dwornicki, Marek; Owczarek, Aleksander; Walaszczyk, Małgorzata; Grabiec, Piotr; Grzeszczak, Władysław

    2013-01-01

    Background Uremic pruritus is a common complication in patients undergoing dialysis. The pathophysiological mechanisms of pruritus in patients with end-stage renal disease remain unknown. Neuropeptides, including substance P, are postulated to play an important role in the pathogenesis of pruritus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of substance P in uremic pruritus in patients on hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. Material/Methods We included 197 patients with end-stage renal ...

  15. Quantitative Exposure Assessment of Various Chemical Substances in a Wafer Fabrication Industry Facility

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hyunhee; Jang, Jae-Kil; Shin, Jung-Ah

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This study was designed to evaluate exposure levels of various chemicals used in wafer fabrication product lines in the semiconductor industry where work-related leukemia has occurred. Methods The research focused on 9 representative wafer fabrication bays among a total of 25 bays in a semiconductor product line. We monitored the chemical substances categorized as human carcinogens with respect to leukemia as well as harmful chemicals used in the bays and substances with hematologi...

  16. Bridging the Gap: A Hybrid Model to Link Efficacy and Effectiveness Research in Substance Abuse Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Carroll, Kathleen M.; Rounsaville, Bruce J

    2003-01-01

    Many behavioral and pharmacologic treatments for which there is strong empirical support are rarely used in clinical practice in the treatment of substance dependence. In an effort to facilitate greater emphasis on issues such as utility, practicality, and cost earlier in the evaluation of promising therapies, the authors propose a hybrid model to link efficacy and effectiveness research. A hybrid model may foster broader use of empirically validated treatments in substance abuse treatment pr...

  17. Root growth of tomato seedlings intensified by humic substances from peat bogs

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Christofaro Silva; Luciano Pasqualoto Canellas; Fábio Lopes Olivares; Leonardo Barros Dobbss; Natalia Oliveira Aguiar; Daniele Ângela Rossinol Frade; Carlos Eduardo Rezende; Lázaro Eustáquio Pereira Peres

    2011-01-01

    Peats are an important reserve of humified carbon in terrestrial ecosystems. The interest in the use of humic substances as plant growth promoters is continuously increasing. The objective of this study was to evaluate the bioactivity of alkaline soluble humic substances (HS), humic (HA) and fulvic acids (FA) isolated from peats with different decomposition stages of organic matter (sapric, fibric and hemic) in the Serra do Espinhaço Meridional, state of Minas Gerais. Dose-response curves wer...

  18. The Relationship between Motivational Structure, Mental Health and Attitude to Opiate Substances in University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Ali akbar Soliemanian; Abbas Firouzabadi

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This study was carried out with the aim of evaluating the relationship between motivational structure, mental health and attitude to opiate substances in a sample of North-Khorasan's university students. Method: In a descriptive cross-sectional study, 400 participants (200 males and 200 females) were selected by stratified random sampling of three universities of north khorasan. All participants completed the SCL-90-R, Personal Concerns Inventory and Attitude to Opiate Substance...

  19. Variables Associated with Therapy Attendance in Runaway Substance Abusing Youth: Preliminary Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Slesnick, Natasha

    2001-01-01

    Service providers and researchers note that youth with substance abuse problems are difficult to engage in treatment and, when engaged, often drop out early. Estimates of the alcohol and drug abuse rate of runaway youth range from 70% to 95%. This study evaluated predictors of therapy attendance in a sample of substance abusing youth recruited through two southwestern runaway shelters. Runaway youth and their families (N = 36) were engaged into a 15-session ecologically-based family therapy (...

  20. Brazilian study on substance misuse in adolescents: associated factors and adherence to treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Silva Vilma A da; Aguiar Aline S de; Felix Felippe; Rebello Gabrielle P; Andrade Renata C; Mattos Helcio F

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate developmental and environmental factors associated to substance misuse in adolescents seen at a university day-hospital in Brazil and to verify the correlations between those factors and adherence to treatment. To compare factors associated to substance misuse in adolescents with the available scientific literature and to suggest specific preventive interventions for a national policy in Brazil. METHODS: Eighty-six adolescent's guardians were evaluated at admission ...

  1. The Concrete Jungle: City Stress and Substance Abuse among Young Adult African American Men

    OpenAIRE

    Seth, Puja; Murray, Colleen C.; Braxton, Nikia D.; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2012-01-01

    Substance use is prevalent among African American men living in urban communities. The impact of substance use on the social, psychological, and physical health of African American men has important public health implications for families, communities, and society. Given the adverse consequences of alcohol and drug abuse within communities of color, this study evaluated the relationship between city stress, alcohol consumption, and drug use among African American men. Eighty heterosexual, Afr...

  2. Need-service matching in substance abuse treatment: Racial/ethnic differences

    OpenAIRE

    Marsh, Jeanne C.; Cao, Dingcai; Guerrero, Erick; Shin, Hee-Choon

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the impact of ancillary health and social services matched to client needs in substance abuse treatment for African Americans, Latinos and Whites. The study uses data collected from 1992 to 1997 for the National Treatment Improvement Evaluation Study, a prospective cohort study of substance abuse treatment programs and their clients. The analytic sample consists of 3142 clients (1812 African Americans, 486 Latinos, 844 Whites) from 59 treatment facilities. Results show tha...

  3. A realist review of family-based interventions for children of substance abusing parents

    OpenAIRE

    Usher, Amelia M; McShane, Kelly E.; Dwyer, Candice

    2015-01-01

    Background Millions of children across North America and Europe live in families with alcohol or drug abusing parents. These children are at risk for a number of negative social, emotional and developmental outcomes, including an increased likelihood of developing a substance use disorder later in life. Family-based intervention programs for children with substance abusing parents can yield positive outcomes. This study is a realist review of evaluations of family-based interventions aimed at...

  4. Family Intervention to Prevent Depression and Substance Use Among Adolescents of Depressed Parents

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, W. Alex; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Fleming, Andrew P.; Casey-Goldstein, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Parental depression places offspring at elevated risk for multiple, co-occurring problems. The purpose of this study was to develop and preliminarily evaluate Project Hope, a family intervention for the prevention of both depression and substance use among adolescent-aged children (M = 13.9 years) of depressed parents. The program was created by blending two empirically supported interventions: one for depression and another for substance use. Thirty families were randomly assigned to either ...

  5. Premelting at Defects Within Bulk Colloidal Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsayed, A. M.; Islam, M. F.; Zhang, J.; Collings, P. J.; Yodh, A. G.

    2005-08-01

    Premelting is the localized loss of crystalline order at surfaces and defects at temperatures below the bulk melting transition. It can be thought of as the nucleation of the melting process. Premelting has been observed at the surfaces of crystals but not within. We report observations of premelting at grain boundaries and dislocations within bulk colloidal crystals using real-time video microscopy. The crystals are equilibrium close-packed, three-dimensional colloidal structures made from thermally responsive microgel spheres. Particle tracking reveals increased disorder in crystalline regions bordering defects, the amount of which depends on the type of defect, distance from the defect, and particle volume fraction. Our observations suggest that interfacial free energy is the crucial parameter for premelting in colloidal and atomic-scale crystals.

  6. Fully antisymmetrised dynamics for bulk fermion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutron star's crust and mantel are typical examples of non-uniform bulk systems with spacial localisations. When modelling such systems at low temperatures, as is the case in the crust, one has to work with antisymmetrised many-body states to get the correct fermion behaviour. Fermionic molecular dynamics, which works with an antisymmetrised product of localised wave packets, should be an appropriate choice. Implementing periodic boundary conditions into the fermionic molecular dynamics formalism would allow the study of the neutron star's crust as a bulk quantum system. Unfortunately, the antisymmetrisation is a non-local entanglement which reaches far out of the periodically repeated unit cell. In this proceeding, we give a brief overview how periodic boundary conditions and fermionic molecular dynamics can be combined without truncating the long-range many-body correlation induced by the antisymmetry of the many-body state.

  7. NPP bulk equipment dismantling problems and experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NPP bulk equipment dismantling problems and experience are summarized. 'ECOMET-S' JSC is shown as one of the companies which are able to make NPPs industrial sites free from stored bulk equipment with its further utilization. 'ECOMET-S' JSC is the Russian Federation sole specialized metallic LLW (MLLW) treatment and utilization facility. Company's main objectives are waste predisposal volume reduction and treatment for the unrestricted release as a scrap. Leningrad NPP decommissioned main pumps and moisture separators/steam super heaters dismantling results are presented. Prospective fragmentation technologies (diamond and electro-erosive cutting) testing results are described. The electro-erosive cutting machine designed by 'ECOMET-S' JSC is presented. The fragmentation technologies implementation plans for nuclear industry are presented too. (author)

  8. Bulk viscous cosmology with causal transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider cosmological scenarios originating from a single imperfect fluid with bulk viscosity and apply Eckart's and both the full and the truncated Müller-Israel-Stewart's theories as descriptions of the non-equilibrium processes. Our principal objective is to investigate if the dynamical properties of Dark Matter and Dark Energy can be described by a single viscous fluid and how such description changes when a causal theory (Müller-Israel-Stewart's, both in its full and truncated forms) is taken into account instead of Eckart's non-causal one. To this purpose, we find numerical solutions for the gravitational potential and compare its behaviour with the corresponding ΛCDM case. Eckart's and the full causal theory seem to be disfavoured, whereas the truncated theory leads to results similar to those of the ΛCDM model for a bulk viscous speed in the interval 10−11 || cb2 ∼−8

  9. Bulk band gaps in divalent hexaborides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denlinger, Jonathan; Clack, Jules A.; Allen, James W.; Gweon, Gey-Hong; Poirier, Derek M.; Olson, Cliff G.; Sarrao, John L.; Bianchi, Andrea D.; Fisk, Zachary

    2002-08-01

    Complementary angle-resolved photoemission and bulk-sensitive k-resolved resonant inelastic x-ray scattering of divalent hexaborides reveal a >1 eV X-point gap between the valence and conduction bands, in contradiction to the band overlap assumed in several models of their novel ferromagnetism. This semiconducting gap implies that carriers detected in transport measurements arise from defects, and the measured location of the bulk Fermi level at the bottom of the conduction band implicates boron vacancies as the origin of the excess electrons. The measured band structure and X-point gap in CaB6 additionally provide a stringent test case for proper inclusion of many-body effects in quasi-particle band calculations.

  10. Induction detection of concealed bulk banknotes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulk cash smuggling is a serious issue that has grown in volume in recent years. By building on the magnetic characteristics of paper currency, induction sensing is found to be capable of quickly detecting large masses of banknotes. The results show that this method is effective in detecting bulk cash through concealing materials such as plastics, cardboards, fabrics and aluminum foil. The significant difference in the observed phase between the received signals caused by conducting materials and ferrite compounds, found in banknotes, provides a good indication that this process can overcome the interference by metal objects in a real sensing application. This identification strategy has the potential to not only detect the presence of banknotes, but also the number, while still eliminating false positives caused by metal objects

  11. Surface-Bulk Vibrational Correlation Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sandra; Covert, Paul A; Jarisz, Tasha A; Chan, Chantelle; Hore, Dennis K

    2016-05-01

    Homo- and heterospectral correlation analysis are powerful methods for investigating the effects of external influences on the spectra acquired using distinct and complementary techniques. Nonlinear vibrational spectroscopy is a selective and sensitive probe of surface structure changes, as bulk molecules are excluded on the basis of symmetry. However, as a result of this exquisite specificity, it is blind to changes that may be occurring in the solution. We demonstrate that correlation analysis between surface-specific techniques and bulk probes such as infrared absorption or Raman scattering may be used to reveal additional details of the adsorption process. Using the adsorption of water and ethanol binary mixtures as an example, we illustrate that this provides support for a competitive binding model and adds new insight into a dimer-to-bilayer transition proposed from previous experiments and simulations. PMID:27058265

  12. Bulk metamaterials: Design, fabrication and characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Malureanu, Radu; Alabastri, Alessandro;

    2009-01-01

    Bulk metamaterials claim a lot of attention worldwide. We report about our activity and advances in design, fabrication and characterization of metal-dielectric composites with three-dimensional lattices. The nomenclature of designs exhibiting negative index behaviour in the near infrared include......-layers-thick polymer woodpile photonic crystal. Characterization of such samples before and after metal deposition in the 700 nm 1700 nm range exposes some unpredictable features like an enhanced broadband transmission, which still waits to be explained.......Bulk metamaterials claim a lot of attention worldwide. We report about our activity and advances in design, fabrication and characterization of metal-dielectric composites with three-dimensional lattices. The nomenclature of designs exhibiting negative index behaviour in the near infrared includes...

  13. Multilayer Integrated Film Bulk Acoustic Resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yafei

    2013-01-01

    Multilayer Integrated Film Bulk Acoustic Resonators mainly introduces the theory, design, fabrication technology and application of a recently developed new type of device, multilayer integrated film bulk acoustic resonators, at the micro and nano scale involving microelectronic devices, integrated circuits, optical devices, sensors and actuators, acoustic resonators, micro-nano manufacturing, multilayer integration, device theory and design principles, etc. These devices can work at very high frequencies by using the newly developed theory, design, and fabrication technology of nano and micro devices. Readers in fields of IC, electronic devices, sensors, materials, and films etc. will benefit from this book by learning the detailed fundamentals and potential applications of these advanced devices. Prof. Yafei Zhang is the director of the Ministry of Education’s Key Laboratory for Thin Films and Microfabrication Technology, PRC; Dr. Da Chen was a PhD student in Prof. Yafei Zhang’s research group.

  14. Nuclear Matter Bulk Parameter Scales and Correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the arising of correlations among some isovector bulk parameters in nonrelativistic and relativistic hadronic mean-field models. For the former, we investigate correlations in the nonrelativistic (NR) limit of relativistic point-coupling models. We provide analytical correlations, for the NR limit model, between the symmetry energy and its derivatives, namely, the symmetry energy slope, curvature, skewness and fourth order derivative, discussing the conditions in which they are linear ones. We also show that some correlations presented in the NR limit model are reproduced for relativistic models presenting cubic and quartic self-interactions in its scalar field. As a direct application of such linear correlations, we remark its association with possible crossing points in the density dependence of the linearly correlated bulk parameter. (author)

  15. Brane plus Bulk Supersymmetry in Ten Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Bergshoeff, E A; Ortín, Tomas; Roest, D; Van Proeyen, A

    2001-01-01

    We discuss a generalized form of IIA/IIB supergravity depending on all R-R potentials C^(p) (p=0,1,...,9) as the effective field theory of Type IIA/IIB superstring theory. For the IIA case we explicitly break this R-R democracy to either p=5 which allows us to write a new bulk action that can be coupled to N=1 supersymmetric brane actions. The case of 8-branes is studied in detail using the new bulk & brane action. The supersymmetric negative tension branes without matter excitations can be viewed as orientifolds in the effective action. These D8-branes and O8-planes are fundamental in Type I' string theory. A BPS 8-brane solution is given which satisfies the jump conditions on the wall. As an application of our results we derive a quantization of the mass parameter and the cosmological constant in string units.

  16. 76 FR 50236 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse...: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention,......

  17. Melt Grown ZnO Bulk Crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Schulz, Detlev; Ganschow, Steffen; Klimm, Detlef

    2009-01-01

    Bulk crystals of zinc oxide can be grown from the melt by a Bridgman technique under pressure. This new technology using an iridium crucible shows the potential to yield large single crystals of good crystalline perfection. Crystals with diameters up to 33 mm and a length of up to 50 mm have been demonstrated. The impurity content can be strongly reduced by using the crucibles repeatedly.

  18. Oscillatory Dynamical Switching System of Bulk Ferroelectrics

    OpenAIRE

    M. N.A. Halif; S. Daud; Junaidah Osman

    2005-01-01

    This study gives a detailed account of calculation of the bulk ferroelectric (FE) oscillatory dynamical system switching to first and second-order phase transition, respectively. All the formalism is delineated in the framework of Landau free-energy expansion and Landau-Khalatnikov (LK) equation of motion where the effect of external energy may affray FE atoms similar to the spring damped oscillatory system. Here we scrutinized the switching properties from free-energy expansion and hysteresi...

  19. Effective Pure States for Bulk Quantum Computation

    OpenAIRE

    Knill, Emanuel; Chuang, Isaac; Laflamme, Raymond

    1997-01-01

    In bulk quantum computation one can manipulate a large number of indistinguishable quantum computers by parallel unitary operations and measure expectation values of certain observables with limited sensitivity. The initial state of each computer in the ensemble is known but not pure. Methods for obtaining effective pure input states by a series of manipulations have been described by Gershenfeld and Chuang (logical labeling) and Cory et al. (spatial averaging) for the case of quantum computa...

  20. Superconducting RF cavities film of bulk

    CERN Document Server

    Darriulat, Pierre

    1999-01-01

    The successful operation of LEP2 has demonstrated the feasibility of using on a large scale copper accelerating cavities coated with a thin superconducting niobium film. Yet other existing or planned installations such as CEBAF and TESLA, rely instead on the bulk niobium technology. The reason is a wide spread belief that the film technology would suffer from fundamental limitations preventing high gradients to be reached...

  1. Depleted Bulk Heterojunction Colloidal Quantum Dot Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Barkhouse, D. Aaron R.

    2011-05-26

    The first solution-processed depleted bulk heterojunction colloidal quantum dot solar cells are presented. The architecture allows for high absorption with full depletion, thereby breaking the photon absorption/carrier extraction compromise inherent in planar devices. A record power conversion of 5.5% under simulated AM 1.5 illumination conditions is reported. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Material profile influences in bulk-heterojunctions

    OpenAIRE

    Roehling, J.D.; Rochester, C.W.; Ro, H.W.; Wang, P.; Majewski, J; Batenburg, Joost; Arslan, I; Delongchamp, D.M.; Moulé, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    The morphology in mixed bulk-heterojunction films are compared using three different quantitative measurement techniques. We compare the vertical composition changes using high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy with electron tomography and neutron and x-ray reflectometry. The three measurement techniques yield qualitatively comparable vertical concentration measurements. The presence of a metal cathode during thermal annealing is observed to alter the fulleren...

  3. Psychoactive substances in seriously injured drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Steentoft, Anni; Bernhoft, IM;

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses the presence of a number of psychoactive substances, including alcohol, based on blood samples from 840 seriously injured drivers admitted to five selected hospitals located in five different regions of Denmark. The study was a part of the EU 6th framework program DRUID (Driving...... Under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol and Medicines). Blood samples were screened for 30 illegal and legal psychoactive substances and metabolites as well as ethanol. Danish legal limits were used to evaluate the frequency of drivers violating the Danish legislation while limit of quantification (LOQ......, which is 0.53 g/l in Denmark. The percentage of seriously injured drivers testing positive for medicinal drugs at levels above the Danish legal limit was 6.8%. Benzodiazepines and Z-drugs (6.4%) comprised the majority of this group. One or more illegal drugs (primarily amphetamines and cannabis) were...

  4. Criminality and Sexual Behaviours in Substance Dependents Seeking Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Alessandra; Pillon, Sandra Cristina; Dos Santos, Manoel Antônio; Rassool, G Hussein; Laranjeira, Ronaldo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the link between violence, crime, and sexual behavior among patients with substance-related disorder admitted to a specialized inpatient care unit. This was a cross-sectional study using a questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics, drug of choice (DOC), questions about sexual behavior, and instruments to evaluate the severity of dependence (SADD, DAST, FTND), level of impulsivity (BIS-11), and a screening sex addiction scale. The sample consisted of 587 adult subjects, of which 82.3% were men, 66.4% had used cocaine (sniffed and smoked) as their DOC, 24.4% had a history with the criminal justice system, 26.8% had committed crimes, 19.3% had engaged in violent behavior, and 12.2% had been involved in drug trafficking. In this sample, crime was strongly associated with various sexual behaviors and the severity of substance dependence. PMID:27163711

  5. Reviewing Two Types of Addiction - Pathological Gambling and Substance Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Amir Jazaeri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gambling, including pathological gambling and problem gambling, has received increased attention from clinicians and researchers over the past three decades since gambling opportunities have expanded around the world. Gambling disorders affect 0.2-5.3% of adults worldwide, although measurement and prevalence varies according to the screening instruments and methods used, and availability and accessibility of gambling opportunities. Several distinct treatment approaches have been favorably evaluated, such as cognitive behavioral and brief treatment models and pharmacological interventions. Although promising, family therapy and support from Gamblers Anonymous are less well empirically supported. Gambling disorders are highly comorbid with other mental health and substance use disorders, and a further understanding is needed of both the causes and treatment implications of this disorder. This article reviews definition, causes and associated features with substance abuse, screening and diagnosis, and treatment approaches.

  6. Measures reducing incorporation of radioactive substances in emergency events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In emergency events involving emission of radioactive nuclides, a major contribution to the radiation exposure of the population stems from incorporation of the substances. Based to a major part on literature studies, but also on own investigations, the authors show ways and means to influence the metabolic processes in connection with the radioactive substances taken in by the population through inhalation, through the skin, and ingestion of food and drinking water. The authors present a survey showing results achieved by measures reducing resorption and accelerating excretion. For evaluation of the the efficiency of the measures studied, a cost-benefit analysis has been made. Every interference in order to modify the resorptive or excretionary processes in man involve the risk of inducing a metabolic derangement. This is why the possibly resulting radiation injury is to be compared to the risks involved with treatment. (orig./MG)

  7. Statistical Determination of Bulk Flow Motions

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Yong-Seon; Nichol, Robert C; Miller, Christopher J

    2010-01-01

    We present here a new parameterization for the bulk motions of galaxies and clusters (in the linear regime) that can be measured statistically from the shape and amplitude of the two-dimensional two-point correlation function. We further propose the one-dimensional velocity dispersion (v_p) of the bulk flow as a complementary measure of redshift-space distortions, which is model-independent and not dependent on the normalisation method. As a demonstration, we have applied our new methodology to the C4 cluster catalogue constructed from Data Release Three (DR3) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We find v_p=270^{+433}km/s (also consistent with v_p=0) for this cluster sample (at z=0.1), which is in agreement with that predicted for a WMAP5-normalised LCDM model (i.e., v_p(LCDM=203km/s). This measurement does not lend support to recent claims of excessive bulk motions (\\simeq1000 km/s) which appear in conflict with LCDM, although our large statistical error cannot rule them out. From the measured coherent evolutio...

  8. Superconducting State Parameters of Bulk Amorphous Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya M. Vora

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Well recognized empty core (EMC pseudopotential of Ashcroft is used to investigate the superconducting state parameters viz; electron-phonon coupling strength λ, Coulomb pseudopotential μ*, transition temperature TC, isotope effect exponent α and effective interaction strength NOV of some (Ni33Zr671 – xVx (x = 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 bulk amorphous alloys. We have incorporated five different types of local field correction functions, proposed by Hartree (H, Taylor (T, Ichimaru-Utsumi (IU, Farid et al. (F and Sarkar et al. (S to show the effect of exchange and correlation on the aforesaid properties. Very strong influence of the various exchange and correlation functions is concluded from the present study. The TC obtained from Sarkar et al. (S local field correction function are found an excellent agreement with available theoretical data. Quadratic TC equation has been proposed, which provide successfully the TC values of bulk amorphous alloys under consideration. Also, the present results are found in qualitative agreement with other such earlier reported data, which confirms the superconducting phase in the s bulk amorphous alloys.

  9. Bulk viscous cosmology in early Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C P Singh

    2008-07-01

    The effect of bulk viscosity on the early evolution of Universe for a spatially homogeneous and isotropic Robertson-Walker model is considered. Einstein's field equations are solved by using `gamma-law' equation of state = ( - 1)ρ, where the adiabatic parameter gamma () depends on the scale factor of the model. The `gamma' function is defined in such a way that it describes a unified solution of early evolution of the Universe for inflationary and radiation-dominated phases. The fluid has only bulk viscous term and the coefficient of bulk viscosity is taken to be proportional to some power function of the energy density. The complete general solutions have been given through three cases. For flat space, power-law as well as exponential solutions are found. The problem of how the introduction of viscosity affects the appearance of singularity, is briefly discussed in particular solutions. The deceleration parameter has a freedom to vary with the scale factor of the model, which describes the accelerating expansion of the Universe.

  10. DEMONSTRATION BULK VITRIFICATION SYSTEM (DBVS) EXTERNAL REVIEW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford mission to retrieve and immobilize 53 million gallons of radioactive waste from 177 underground storage tanks will be accomplished using a combination of processing by the waste treatment plant currently under construction, and a supplemental treatment that would process low-activity waste. Under consideration for this treatment is bulk vitrification, a versatile joule-heated melter technology which could be deployed in the tank farms. The Department proposes to demonstrate this technology under a Research, Development and Demonstration (RD and D) permit issued by the Washington State Department of Ecology using both non-radioactive simulant and blends of actual tank waste. From the demonstration program, data would be obtained on cost and technical performance to enable a decision on the potential use of bulk vitrification as the supplemental treatment technology for Hanford. An independent review by sixteen subject matter experts was conducted to assure that the technical basis of the demonstration facility design would be adequate to meet the objectives of the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) program. This review explored all aspects of the program, including flowsheet chemistry, project risk, vitrification, equipment design and nuclear safety, and was carried out at a time when issues can be identified and corrected. This paper describes the mission need, review approach, technical recommendations and follow-on activities for the DBVS program

  11. Multiphase composites with extremal bulk modulus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibiansky, L. V.; Sigmund, Ole

    2000-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the analytical and numerical study of isotropic elastic composites made of three or more isotropic phases. The ranges of their effective bulk and shear moduli are restricted by the Hashin-Shtrikman-Walpole (HSW) bounds. For two-phase composites, these bounds are attainabl...... isotropic three-dimensional three-phase composites with cylindrical inclusions of arbitrary cross-sections (plane strain problem) or transversely isotropic thin plates (plane stress or bending of plates problems). (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.......This paper is devoted to the analytical and numerical study of isotropic elastic composites made of three or more isotropic phases. The ranges of their effective bulk and shear moduli are restricted by the Hashin-Shtrikman-Walpole (HSW) bounds. For two-phase composites, these bounds are attainable......, that is, there exist composites with extreme bulk and shear moduli. For multiphase composites, they may or may not be attainable depending on phase moduli and volume fractions. Sufficient conditions of attainability of the bounds and various previously known and new types of optimal composites are...

  12. Reluctance motors with bulk HTS material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years we have successfully designed, built and tested several reluctance motors with YBCO bulk material incorporated into the rotor, working at 77 K. Our last motor type SRE150 was tested up to 200 kW. The aim of our investigations is the construction of motors with extremely high power density and dynamics. In comparison to conventional motor types the advantage of HTS reluctance motors with respect to size and dynamics could be demonstrated. Some fields of possible future applications will be described. These motors show a significant improvement in performance using high quality HTS bulk elements in the rotor. Until now the motor parameters have been limited by the current density which could be obtained in the bulk material at 77 K and by the geometric dimensions of the segments available. Therefore we expect further improvements in the case of these materials. Since the total motor including stator and rotor is working at low temperature we have to optimize the windings and the magnetic circuit to these operation conditions. A new design of a 200 kW motor in order to achieve increased power density and the theoretical results of our calculations will be shown

  13. Bulk Comptonization by turbulence in accretion discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, J.; Blaes, O. M.

    2016-06-01

    Radiation pressure dominated accretion discs around compact objects may have turbulent velocities that greatly exceed the electron thermal velocities within the disc. Bulk Comptonization by the turbulence may therefore dominate over thermal Comptonization in determining the emergent spectrum. Bulk Comptonization by divergenceless turbulence is due to radiation viscous dissipation only. It can be treated as thermal Comptonization by solving the Kompaneets equation with an equivalent `wave' temperature, which is a weighted sum over the power present at each scale in the turbulent cascade. Bulk Comptonization by turbulence with non-zero divergence is due to both pressure work and radiation viscous dissipation. Pressure work has negligible effect on photon spectra in the limit of optically thin turbulence, and in this limit radiation viscous dissipation alone can be treated as thermal Comptonization with a temperature equivalent to the full turbulent power. In the limit of extremely optically thick turbulence, radiation viscous dissipation is suppressed, and the evolution of local photon spectra can be understood in terms of compression and expansion of the strongly coupled photon and gas fluids. We discuss the consequences of these effects for self-consistently resolving and interpreting turbulent Comptonization in spectral calculations in radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations of high luminosity accretion flows.

  14. From bulk to particle analysis - A new challenge for radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    for the implementation of the requirements of environmental radioactivity surveillance (Art. 35-36 of the Euratom Treaty) and in the framework of the OSPAR (Oslo-Paris Convention) strategy with regards to radioactive substances for the protection of marine environment of the North-East Atlantic. MaRE lab provides also support to IAEA and Euratom for the detection of clandestine nuclear activities in the framework of nuclear safeguards and non-proliferation of nuclear materials. In this lecture the role of the analytical techniques based, above all, on mass spectrometry and radiometry, is highlighted as applied to samples of different origin, for the determination of radionuclides (U, Np, Pu, Am, fission products) in bulk as well as in radioactive microparticles. The necessity to have complementary techniques in order to have independent results (in terms of Quality assurance/quality control) as well as to attain a complete inventory of the radioisotopes is shown. (auth

  15. Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback in Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Thurstone, Chris; Lajoie, Travis

    2013-01-01

    Strategies are needed to improve adolescent substance abuse treatment outcomes. For example, during outpatient substance abuse treatment, up to 80% of adolescents continue to use. 1 , 2 Following residential substance abuse treatment, 88% of adolescents relapse within 6 months. 3

  16. Neurobiology of Adolescent Substance Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Aditi; Morrow, Jonathan D

    2016-07-01

    There are many facets of the neurobiology of substance use that are distinct in adolescence as compared with adulthood. The adolescent brain is subject to intense subcortical reward processes, but is left with an immature prefrontal control system that is often unable to resist the pull of potentially exciting activities like substance use, even when fully aware of the dangers involved. Peer influences serve only to magnify these effects and foster more sensation-seeking, risky behavior. The unique aspects of neurobiology should be taken into consideration when designing prevention programs and clinical interventions for adolescent substance use disorders. PMID:27338961

  17. Former substance users working as counselors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hecksher, Dorte

    2007-01-01

    All helping professionals risk participation in "dual relationships". But in the case of former substance users working as counselors, specific dilemmas and problems are accentuated. A qualitative analysis highlights some of the ethical and personal dilemmas faced by these counselors. The data is...... derived from an interview study initiated in 2000 in Denmark on former substance users with 4 -8 years of abstinence. Through an analysis of interview data from a larger group of former substance users, it became evident that those working as counselors experienced specific dilemmas and problems. The...

  18. Advances on functional neuroimaging in substance misuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past decade, functional neuroimaging has contributed greatly to our knowledge about the neuropharmacology of substance misuse in man. In this review, discussed the application and the progress of the positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging in the substance misuse. After reading some papers, found that the dopamine transporter was significantly decreased in the brain of subjects with heroin abuse. Also observed a significant decrease of regional cerebral blood flow in bilateral cerebral frontal lobes, temporal lobes, the insula and the ipsilateral basal nuclei in substance misuse subjects. Taken together, functional images will lead the direction in future research formedication development of addiction treatment. (authors)

  19. NEW ANALYTICAL METHODS AND THEIR VALIDATION FOR THE ESTIMATION OF CARVEDILOL IN BULK AND MARKETED FORMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viral Bechara

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Carvedilol is cardiovascular agent. Mainly used for the treatment of hypertension, heart failure, and cardiovascular diseases. Purpose: Analytical methods are required to characterize drug substances and drug products composition during all phases of pharmaceutical development. Development of methods to achieve the final goal of ensuring the quality of drug substances and drug products must be implemented in conjunction with an understanding of the chemical behavior and physicochemical properties of the drug substance. This determination requires highly sophisticated instruments and methods like HPLC, HPTLC and Spectrophotometer. Hence there was a need for the development of newer, simple, sensitive, rapid, accurate and reproducible analytical methods for the routine estimation of metoprolol succinate in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form. Methods: The present work describes two new spectrophotometric methods for the determination of carvedilol in bulk and marketed formulations. Method A is based on oxidation of Carvedilol with ferric ammonium sulphate followed by complex formation of resulting ferrous ion (Fe2+ with potassium ferricyanide to form bluish green coloured chromogen which showed λmax at 582 nm. In Method B is based on the oxidation of 2, 4- Dinitrophenylhydrazine and coupling of the oxidized product with drugs to give brown coloured chromogen which showed λmax at 500.8 nm. Results: The linearity was found in concentration range of 5-30 μg/ml for both Method A and Method B. The correlation coefficient was found 0.997 and 0.9997 for both Method A and Method B respectively. The methods were validated as per ICH guidelines. The LOD and LOQ for estimation of Carvedilol were found as 0.0840, 0.2545 for method A and 0.0667, 0.2021 for method B respectively. Conclusion: Proposed methods were successfully applied for the quantitative estimation of Carvedilol in marketed formulations.

  20. Substance abuse and rehabilitation: responding to the global burden of diseases attributable to substance abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Tzy Wu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Li-Tzy Wu*Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University School of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA *Li-Tzy Wu is the Editor-in-Chief of Substance Abuse and RehabilitationAbstract: Alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drug use are pervasive throughout the world. Substance use problems are among the major contributors to the global disease burden, which includes disability and mortality. The benefits of treatment far outweigh the economic costs. Despite the availability of treatment services, however, the vast majority of people with substance use disorders do not seek or use treatment. Barriers to and unmet need for evidence-based treatment are widespread even in the United States. Women, adolescents, and young adults are especially vulnerable to adverse effects from substance abuse, but they face additional barriers to getting evidence-based treatment or other social/medical services. Substance use behaviors and the diseases attributable to substance use problems are preventable and modifiable. Yet the ever-changing patterns of substance use and associated problems require combined research and policy-making efforts from all parts of the world to establish a viable knowledge base to inform for prevention, risk-reduction intervention, effective use of evidence-based treatment, and rehabilitation for long-term recovery. The new international, open-access, peer-reviewed Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation (SAR journal strives to provide an effective platform for sharing ideas for solutions and disseminating research findings globally. Substance use behaviors and problems have no boundaries. The journal welcomes papers from all regions of the world that address any aspect of substance use, abuse/dependence, intervention, treatment, and policy. The “open-access” journal makes cutting edge knowledge freely available to practitioners and researchers worldwide, and this is particularly important for addressing

  1. Effectiveness of three bulking agents for food waste composting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rather than landfilling, composting the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes recycles the waste as a safe and nutrient enriched soil amendment, reduces emissions of greenhouse gases and generates less leachate. The objective of this project was to investigate the composting effectiveness of three bulking agents, namely chopped wheat (Triticum) straw, chopped mature hay consisting of 80% timothy (milium) and 20% clover (triphullum) and pine (pinus) wood shavings. These bulking agents were each mixed in duplicates at three different ratios with food waste (FW) and composted for 10 days using prototype in-vessel composters to observe their temperature and pH trends. Then, each mixture was matured in vertical barrels for 56 days to measure their mass loss and final nutrient content and to visually evaluate their level of decomposition. Chopped wheat straw (CWS) and chopped hay (CH) were the only two formulas that reached thermophilic temperatures during the 10 days of active composting when mixed with FW at a wet mass ratio of 8.9 and 8.6:1 (FW:CWS and FW:CH), respectively. After 56 days of maturation, these two formulas were well decomposed with no or very few recognizable substrate particles, and offered a final TN exceeding the original. Wood shavings (WS) produced the least decomposed compost at maturation, with wood particles still visible in the final product, and with a TN lower than the initial. Nevertheless, all bulking agents produced compost with an organic matter, TN, TP and TK content suitable for use as soil amendment

  2. Microcomputer for controlled substance record keeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, R L; Motta, L J; Yee, A D

    1984-01-01

    The use of a microcomputer to maintain controlled substance inventory and record keeping is described. The system maintains perpetual inventories of the central narcotic vault and proof-of-use controlled drug records outstanding at nursing stations. The computerized system has eliminated (1) the delay previously encountered in the posting of transactions from the numeric log to perpetual inventory logs and (2) the potential addition and subtraction errors inherent in a manual system. Computerizing the controlled drug record-keeping system has saved approximately 166 minutes of labor per day, a cost savings of approximately $26. The new system also helps prevent diversion of controlled substances. The computer may also be used for other tasks while not running the controlled substance program. A microcomputer is well suited to the task of controlled-substance record-keeping functions, and the cost of the system (less than $4000) can be quickly recouped in labor savings. PMID:6695929

  3. Toxicities of selected substances to freshwater biota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohreiter, D.W.

    1980-05-01

    The amount of data available concerning the toxicity of various substances to freshwater biota is so large that it is difficult to use in a practical situation, such as environmental impact assessment. In this document, summary tables are presented showing acute and/or chronic toxicity of selected substances for various groups of aquatic biota. Each entry is referenced to its original source so that details concerning experimental conditions may be consulted. In addition, general information concerning factors modifying toxicity, synergisms, evidence of bioaccumulation, and water quality standards and criteria for the selected substances is given. The final table is a general toxicity table designed to provide an easily accessible and general indication of toxicity of selected substances in aquatic systems.

  4. Decriminalizing Possession of All Controlled Substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzman, Marc G.

    1978-01-01

    Excerpts from the Minnesota Bar Association's Blue Ribbon Committee report of findings and recommendations, with regard to dealing with possession of heroin and other controlled substances, are presented here. (Author/DS)

  5. Dual Diagnosis: Substance Abuse and Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disorder becoming more severe when that person abuses heroin during periods of mania. Either substance abuse or mental illness can develop first. A person experiencing a mental health condition may turn to drugs and alcohol as ...

  6. Brief Intervention Helps Adolescents Curb Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... triggers for drug use (e.g., peer pressure, boredom). Teens whose parents attended a session in the ... can influence relationships, neurological development, educational attainment, and interpersonal functioning. Typically, adolescents who abuse substances but do ...

  7. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Response, and Recovery Health Care and Health Systems Integration Health Disparities Health Financing Health Information Technology HIV, AIDS, and Viral Hepatitis Homelessness and Housing Laws, Regulations, and Guidelines Mental and Substance Use Disorders Prescription Drug Misuse and ...

  8. Substance use during pregnancy and postnatal outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irner, Tina Birk; Teasdale, Thomas William; Tine, Nielsen;

    2012-01-01

    pregnancy, as well as their background, and to examine the effect substance use has on gestational age, birth weight, and the development of neonatal abstinence syndrome at birth. A sample of 161 pregnant women and their 163 newborn children were included. The results indicate that the children whose...... mothers continued to use substances throughout their pregnancies were born at a lower gestational age (Chi-Square = 15.1(2), P < .01); children exposed to poly-substances in utero were more affected than those exposed to only alcohol and those with no substance exposure. The same children were more...... vulnerable to the development of neonatal abstinence syndrome at birth (Chi-Square = 51.7(2), P < .001). Newborns who were exposed primarily to alcohol in utero were at a significant risk of being born with low birth weight (Chi-Square = 8.8(2), P < .05) compared with those exposed to other types of...

  9. Sleep and substance use disorders: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Deirdre A; Arnedt, J Todd

    2014-10-01

    Substance use disorders (SUD) are common and individuals who suffer from them are prone to relapse. One of the most common consequences of the use of and withdrawal from substances of abuse is sleep disturbance. Substances of abuse affect sleep physiology, including the neurotransmitter systems that regulate the sleep-wake system. Emerging research now highlights an interactive effect between sleep disorders and substance use. New findings in alcohol and sleep research have utilized sophisticated research designs and expanded the scope of EEG and circadian rhythm analyses. Research on marijuana and sleep has progressed with findings on the effects of marijuana withdrawal on objective and subjective measures of sleep. Treatment studies have focused primarily on sleep in alcohol use disorders. Therapies for insomnia in cannabis disorders are needed. Future research is poised to further address mechanisms of sleep disturbance in alcoholics and the effect of medical marijuana on sleep and daytime functioning. PMID:25135784

  10. Adolescent substance use disorders and comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkin, Deborah R

    2002-04-01

    remove barriers. This technique allows youth to be less defensive and more proactive. Monti et al. [59] have demonstrated that this technique has been useful in getting youth into treatment. Primary care physicians can use instruments that will assess the possibility of both externalizing (e.g., ADHD) and internalizing (e.g., depression and anxiety) disorders. Examples of this type of instrument are the Auchenbach child behavior checklist, teacher report form, and youth self-report form, which survey symptoms for these disorders [1]. Social anxiety disorder can be detected by asking whether the prelatency child went into new situations willingly and tended to hang back or whether the child had difficulty separating from his or her parents. Other questions to ask are whether the child tended to isolate or was fearful of speaking in front of the class. Of course, any bruising or behavior that suggests exposure to adult-related sexual acts may cause concern for physical or sexual abuse and possible PTSD. However, interest in sex earlier than expected for the age of the child may also indicate the possibility of bipolar disorder. These children have many symptoms of ADHD with a high degree of irritability and may seem boastful or grandiose. They may be "daredevils" with no fear of dangerous consequences. Referral to a specialist is necessary to evaluate these children further. Because substance use at age 14 or 15 years can be predicted by academic and social behavior at ages 7 to 9 years, early detection of poor social skills and learning difficulties is essential [43]. Learning disorders can be uncovered by asking the school to do an evaluation. However, schools having economic problems may not be able to accommodate all requests. A parent may have to pay a private provider to complete this workup because insurance companies seldom pay for educational testing. Learning disorders may go undetected because many school systems opt to use a higher deviation from the full

  11. The Economic Cost of Substance Abuse Treatment in the State of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, Pierre K.; Beulaygue, Isabelle C.; French, Michael T.; McCollister, Kathryn E.; Popovici, Ioana; Sayed, Bisma A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Public and private stakeholders of substance abuse treatment services require economic cost data to guide program evaluations and funding decisions. Background: Rigorous cost assessments have been conducted for several treatment programs across the United States, but a systematic and comprehensive evaluation of programs in a particular…

  12. Safety assessment of allylalkoxybenzene derivatives used as flavouring substances - methyl eugenol and estragole

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, R.L.; Adams, T.B.; Doull, J.; Feron, V.J.; Goodman, J.I.; Marnett, L.J.; Portoghese, P.S.; Waddell, W.J.; Wagner, B.M.; Rogers, A.E.; Caldwell, J.; Sipes, I.G.

    2002-01-01

    This publication is the seventh in a series of safety evaluations performed by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers' Association (FEMA). In 1993, the Panel initiated a comprehensive program to re-evaluate the safety of more than 1700 GRAS flavouring substances under conditions of

  13. Examination of transport casks for radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apart from the transport of radioactive substances within the fuel cycle, radioactive substances are used and transported in the medical field, in scientific laboratories, and for materials testing. Such transport is subject to the stringent conditions laid down in the IAEA Safety Series no. 6 and 37. The design examinations and tests of type A and B transport containers carried out by the BAM are described in this contribution. (DG)

  14. Neonatal withdrawal from maternal volatile substance abuse.

    OpenAIRE

    Tenenbein, M; Casiro, O. G.; Seshia, M. M.; Debooy, V. D.

    1996-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether neonates born to mothers who are volatile substance abusers are at risk for an abstinence syndrome. METHODS: A consecutive sample of infants born to volatile substance abusing mothers was studied over four years, in a university affiliated medical centre with a variable mix of primary, secondary, and tertiary care patients. Infants were clinically scored with the Finnegan Neonatal Abstinence Scoring System. Those who fulfilled a priori scoring criteria were treated w...

  15. Substance misuse teaching in undergraduate medical education.

    OpenAIRE

    Carroll, J; Goodair, C.; Chaytor, A.; Notley, C.; Ghodse, H; Kopelman, P

    2014-01-01

    Background: Over 12,000 hospital admissions in the UK result from substance misuse, therefore issues surrounding this need to be addressed early on in a doctor’s training to facilitate their interaction with this client group. Currently, undergraduate medical education includes teaching substance misuse issues, yet how this is formally integrated into the curriculum remains unclear. Methods: Semi-structured interviews with 17 key members of staff responsible for the whole or part of...

  16. Substance misuse teaching in undergraduate medical education

    OpenAIRE

    Carroll, Janine; Goodair, Christine; Chaytor, Andrew; Notley, Caitlin; Ghodse, Hamid; Kopelman, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background Over 12,000 hospital admissions in the UK result from substance misuse, therefore issues surrounding this need to be addressed early on in a doctor’s training to facilitate their interaction with this client group. Currently, undergraduate medical education includes teaching substance misuse issues, yet how this is formally integrated into the curriculum remains unclear. Methods Semi-structured interviews with 17 key members of staff responsible for the whole or part of the undergr...

  17. Sensory processing disorders among substance dependents

    OpenAIRE

    Batya Engel-Yeger

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: (1) To compare sensory processing patterns as expressed in daily life between substance dependents and typical controls; (2) profile the prevalence of sensory processing disorders (SPD) among substance dependents; and (3) examine gender effect on SPD within and between groups. Methods: Two hundred ninety people aged 19-64 participated in this study. The study group included 145 individuals who lived in the community or took part in an outpatient program because of addiction to dru...

  18. Emotional Cutoff In Women Who Abuse Substances

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Frances Lynn

    2000-01-01

    Emotional Cutoff in Women who Abuse Substances Frances L. Bell ABSTRACT This exploratory study was based upon Bowen Family Systems theory and investigated emotional cutoff in women (n = 168) who entered a substance abuse treatment program. Three questions were explored: First, the degree of emotional cutoff in this sample was compared to a non-clinical sample of women. Secondly, the relationship was explored between the variable of emotional cutoff and the following variables: su...

  19. Therapeutic Substance Abuse Treatment for Incarcerated Women

    OpenAIRE

    Finfgeld-Connett, Deborah; Johnson, E. Diane

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative systematic review was to explicate attributes of optimal therapeutic strategies for treating incarcerated women who have a history of substance abuse. An expansive search of electronic databases for qualitative research reports relating to substance abuse treatment for incarcerated women was conducted. Nine qualitative research reports comprised the sample for this review. Findings from these reports were extracted, placed into a data analysis matrix, coded, an...

  20. Performance contracting for substance abuse treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Commons, M; McGuire, T G; Riordan, M.H.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe an innovation in performance contracting for substance abuse services in the State of Maine and examine data on measured performance by providers before and after the innovation. DATA SOURCES AND COLLECTION: From the Maine Addiction Treatment System (MATS), an admission and discharge data set collected by the Maine Office of Substance Abuse (OSA). The MATS data for this study include information on clients of programs receiving public funding from October 1, 1989 throug...