WorldWideScience

Sample records for bulkheads ships

  1. Harness: Development of a multifunctional protective ship bulkhead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, R. van der; Meuers, R.J.C.

    2016-01-01

    HARNESS is a joint project between governments, industry and TNO with the objective to develop a multifunctional protective bulkhead for application on naval vessels. The multifunctional bulkhead aims at increasing the resilience of naval vessels, reduce damage and repair time and provide a safer

  2. An experimental investigation of the performance of metallic and sandwich ship bulkheads under combined thermo-mechanical loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karatzas, Vasileios; Lauridsen, Dan; Berggreen, Christian

    not allow the use of combustible materials onboard ships [1]. Nevertheless this rule has proven hard to implement as the evaluation and acceptance of designs encompassing composite materials has proven cumber-some. Moreover, the existing set of regulations were introduced at a time when metallic materials...

  3. 46 CFR 72.05-10 - Type, location, and construction of fire control bulkheads and decks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Type, location, and construction of fire control... (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Structural Fire Protection § 72.05-10 Type, location, and construction of fire control bulkheads and decks. (a) The hull, structural bulkheads, decks...

  4. Transfer of structureborne sound to ship's cabins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regt, M.J.A.M. de

    1979-01-01

    In the laboratory the transfer of structureborne sound from a ship-like steel structure to cabin bulkheads has heen investigated for three types of bulkhead material: chipboard, plastic faced calcium silicate and steel plates sandwiching a rock wool core. The most relevant results of the

  5. 46 CFR 171.111 - Penetrations and openings in watertight bulkheads in vessels of 100 gross tons or more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... vessels of 100 gross tons or more. 171.111 Section 171.111 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... in vessels of 100 gross tons or more. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (f) of this section, each... non-watertight penetrations below the bulkhead deck unless— (1) The margin line is more than 9 inches...

  6. Bulkhead insert for an internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maki, Clifford E.; Chottiner, Jeffrey Eliot; Williams, Rick L.; Thibault, Mark W.; Ervin, James Douglas; Boileau, James Maurice; McKeough, Bryan

    2017-08-01

    An engine includes a cylinder block defining at least one main bearing bulkhead adjacent to a cylinder, and a crankshaft rotatably housed within the block by a main bearing. A bulkhead insert has a cap portion, and an insert portion provided within the bulkhead. The insert portion has having first and second end regions connected by first and second straps. Each strap having a flanged beam cross section. The first and second ends of the insert portion are configured to connect a main bearing cap column to a cylinder head column. Each of the first and second end regions define at least one protrusion having a surface substantially normal to engine combustion and reactive loads. The cap portion is configured to mate with the first end region at the main bearing cap column and support the main bearing.

  7. Ship construction and welding

    CERN Document Server

    Mandal, Nisith R

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses various aspects of ship construction, from ship types and construction materials, to welding technologies and accuracy control. The contents of the book are logically organized and divided into twenty-one chapters. The book covers structural arrangement with longitudinal and transverse framing systems based on the service load, and explains basic structural elements like hatch side girders, hatch end beams, stringers, etc. along with structural subassemblies like floors, bulkheads, inner bottom, decks and shells. It presents in detail double bottom construction, wing tanks & duct keels, fore & aft end structures, etc., together with necessary illustrations. The midship sections of various ship types are introduced, together with structural continuity and alignment in ship structures. With regard to construction materials, the book discusses steel, aluminum alloys and fiber reinforced composites. Various methods of steel material preparation are discussed, and plate cutting and form...

  8. Ship Grounding on Rock - I. Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a set of analytical expressions which can be used to calculate the reaction force on a ship bottom deformed by a conical rock with a rounded tip. Closed form solutions are given for the resistance of inner and outer bottom plating, longitudinal stiffeners, girders and bulkheads...

  9. NDE for the ARES I Upper Stage Common Bulkhead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, James

    2008-01-01

    The current design of the ARES 1 Upper Stage uses a common bulkhead to separate the liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen tanks. The bulkhead consists of aluminum face sheets bonded to a Phenolic honeycomb core. The face sheets, or domes, are friction stir welded to Y-rings that connect the bulkhead to the barrel sections of the liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen tanks. Load between the Y-rings is carried by an externally attached bolting ring. The development of nondestructive evaluation methods for the ARES I Upper Stage Common Bulkhead are outlined in this presentation. Methods for inspecting the various components of the bulkhead are covered focusing in on the dome skins, core-to-dome bond lines and friction stir welds as well as structural details like the fastener holes. Thermography, shearography and ultrasonic methods are discussed for the bond lines. Eddy current methods are discussed for the fastener holes and dome skins. A combination of phased array ultrasound, liquid penetrant and radiography are to being investigated for use on the friction stir welds. Keywords: Composite materials, NDE, Cryogenic structures

  10. Nondestructive Evaluation Methods for the Ares I Common Bulkhead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, James

    2010-01-01

    A large scale bonding demonstration test article was fabricated to prove out manufacturing techniques for the current design of the NASA Ares I Upper Stage common bulkhead. The common bulkhead serves as the single interface between the liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen portions of the Upper Stage propellant tank. The bulkhead consists of spin-formed aluminum domes friction stir welded to Y-rings and bonded to a perforated phenolic honeycomb core. Nondestructive evaluation methods are being developed for assessing core integrity and the core-to-dome bond line of the common bulkhead. Detection of manufacturing defects such as delaminations between the core and face sheets as well as service life defects such as crushed or sheared core resulting from impact loading are all of interest. The focus of this work will be on the application of thermographic, shearographic, and phased array ultrasonic methods to the bonding demonstration article as well as various smaller test panels featuring design specific defect types and geometric features.

  11. Dynamic Escape Routes for Naval Ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    on the contingency. For instance, if an enemy weapon is expected to hit a particular section of the ship, routes can be configured to avoid that...used to access fan rooms, storerooms, and spaces where interior bulkheads are required to be airtight. These doors prevent the spread of fire, toxic ...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. DYNAMIC ESCAPE ROUTES

  12. Capacities and failure modes of suction bucket foundation with internal bulkheads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhong; Ge, Borui; Wang, Yan

    2017-08-01

    Suction bucket foundations can be divided into four compartments by cruciform internal bulkheads, thereby yielding better capacity in certain conditions than those without internal bulkheads. As yet, no systematic study has been conducted regarding the effects of cruciform internal bulkheads on the capacities of suction bucket foundations. In this study, we established a large number of finite element models of suction bucket foundations with and without cruciform internal bulkheads and of solid embedded circular foundations. We found the uniaxial capacities and failure modes of suction bucket foundations with various depth ratios to remain basically unaffected by internal bulkheads in uniform clays. However, in inhomogeneous clay with high strength heterogeneity, we observed the uniaxial moment and horizontal capacities and corresponding failure modes of suction bucket foundations with a low depth ratio to be obviously affected by internal bulkheads. In this case, the uniaxial moment capacities, in particular, as well as the horizontal capacities of suction bucket foundations with cruciform internal bulkheads become obviously greater than those without internal bulkheads. Under combined loading, we found the failure envelopes of suction bucket foundations with and without cruciform internal bulkheads and of solid circular foundation to also be basically consistent in uniform clays. However, in inhomogeneous clay with high strength heterogeneity, cruciform internal bulkheads can obviously change the shapes of the failure envelopes of bucket foundations with a small depth ratio. We conclude that when the acting vertical load or foundation depth is relatively small, suction bucket foundations with cruciform internal bulkheads can be subjected to larger moment and horizontal loads in soft clays with high strength heterogeneity.

  13. Buckling Design Studies of Inverted, Oblate Bulkheads for a Propellant Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeltzer, Stanley S., III; Bowman, Lynn M.

    2002-01-01

    An investigation of the deformation and buckling characteristics of a composite, oblate bulkhead that has an inverted geometry and is subjected to pressure-only loading is presented for three bulkhead geometries and thicknesses. The effects of a stiffening support ring at the bulkhead to cylinder interface are also evaluated. Buckling analyses conducted using the axisymmetric shell code BOSOR4 are discussed for several bulkhead configurations. These results are analytically verified using results from the Structural Analysis of General Shells (STAGS) code for a selected bulkhead configuration. The buckling characterization of an inverted, oblate bulkhead requires careful attention as small changes in bulkhead parameters can have a significant effect on the critical buckling load. Comparison of BOSOR4 and STAGS results provided a very good correlation between the two analysis methods. In addition, the analysis code BOSOR4 was found to be an efficient sizing tool that is useful during the preliminary design stage of a practical shell structure. Together, these two aspects should give the design engineer confidence in sizing these stability critical structures. Additional characterization is warranted, especially for a composite tank structure, since only one bulkhead configuration was examined closely.

  14. Acoustic design method of ship's cabin based on geometrical acoustics

    OpenAIRE

    FENG Aijing; WEI Qiang; ZHANG Dahai

    2017-01-01

    In light of the question of how to select the best noise control position and measures in the large noise transmission path of the cabins of a ship, based on the acoustic ray-tracing method in the theory of geometrical acoustics, and by considering the effect of the sound transmission of the bulkhead, this paper proposes the sound line search method. It is used to calculate the sound pressure of a ship's cabin, allowing the sound field distribution of multiple compartments to be simulated. Th...

  15. Shipping Fairways

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Various shipping zones delineate activities and regulations for marine vessel traffic. Traffic lanes define specific traffic flow, while traffic separation zones...

  16. Spin Forming Aluminum Crew Module (CM) Metallic Aft Pressure Vessel Bulkhead (APVBH) - Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Eric K.; Domack, Marcia S.; Torres, Pablo D.; McGill, Preston B.; Tayon, Wesley A.; Bennett, Jay E.; Murphy, Joseph T.

    2015-01-01

    The principal focus of this project was to assist the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program in developing a spin forming fabrication process for manufacture of the Orion crew module (CM) aft pressure vessel bulkhead. The spin forming process will enable a single piece aluminum (Al) alloy 2219 aft bulkhead resulting in the elimination of the current multiple piece welded construction, simplify CM fabrication, and lead to an enhanced design. Phase I (NASA TM-2014-218163 (1)) of this assessment explored spin forming the single-piece CM forward pressure vessel bulkhead. The Orion MPCV Program and Lockheed Martin (LM) recently made two critical decisions relative to the NESC Phase I work scope: (1) LM selected the spin forming process to manufacture a single-piece aft bulkhead for the Orion CM, and (2) the aft bulkhead will be manufactured from Al 2219. Based on the Program's new emphasis related to the spin forming process, the NESC was asked to conduct a Phase II assessment to assist in the LM manufacture of the aft bulkhead and to conduct a feasibility study into spin forming the Orion CM cone. This activity was approved on June 19, 2013. Dr. Robert Piascik, NASA Technical Fellow for Materials at the Langley Research Center (LaRC), was selected to lead this assessment. The project plan was approved by the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Review Board (NRB) on July 18, 2013. The primary stakeholders for this assessment were the NASA and LM MPCV Program offices. Additional benefactors are commercial launch providers developing CM concepts.

  17. Fast ship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keuning, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    The invention concerns a ship whereby the hull and the mechanical propulsion device are designed such that the Froude number is larger than 0.5. In the aft ship the hull has a bottom with V-shaped bottom surfaces with a deadrise angle that is less than 40 degrees and the hull has substantially

  18. Test Ship

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U. S. Navy dedicated the decommissioned Spruance Class destroyer ex-PAUL F. FOSTER (EDD 964), Test Ship, primarily for at sea demonstration of short range weapon...

  19. Development of an innovative sandwich common bulkhead for cryogenic upper stage propellant tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szelinski, B.; Lange, H.; Röttger, C.; Sacher, H.; Weiland, S.; Zell, D.

    2012-12-01

    In the frame of the Future Launcher Preparatory Program (FLPP) investigating advancing technologies for the Next Generation of Launchers (NGL) a number of novel key technologies are presently under development for significantly improving vehicle performance in terms of payload capacity and mission versatility. As a respective ESA guided technology development program, Cryogenic Upper Stage Technologies (CUST) has been launched within FLPP that hosts among others the development of a common bulkhead to separate liquid hydrogen from the liquid oxygen compartment. In this context, MT Aerospace proposed an advanced sandwich design concept which is currently in the development phase reaching for TRL4 under MT Aerospace responsibility. Key components of this sandwich common bulkhead are a specific core material, situated in-between two thin aluminum face sheets, and an innovative thermal decoupling element at the equatorial region. The combination of these elements provides excellent thermal insulation capabilities and mechanical performance at a minimum weight, since mechanical and thermal functions are merged in the same component. This improvement is expressed by substantial performance figures of the proposed concept that include high resistance against reverse pressure, an optimized heat leak and minimized mass, involving the sandwich dome structure and the adjacent interface rings. The development of single sub-technologies, all contributing to maturate the sandwich common bulkhead towards the desired technology readiness level (TRL), is described in the context of the given design constraints as well as technical, functional and programmatic requirements, issued from the stage level. This includes the thermal and mechanical characterization of core materials, manufacturing issues as well as non-destructive testing and the thermal and structural analyses and dimensioning of the complete common bulkhead system. Dedicated TRL assessments in the Ariane 5 Mid

  20. Shipping Industry Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Wijnolst, N.; Waals, F.

    1999-01-01

    Understanding Shipping Management requires a thorough understanding of the Shipping Industry Structure. This book provides this knowledge base and should be seen in conjunction with two other books: Shipping and Design Innovation in Shipping. Shipping Industry Structure was intended as the first part of a book on shipping management; the second part should discuss the different management domains in shipping, such as strategy, finance, investment and risk, marketing, operations, organisation ...

  1. Shipping Industry Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnolst, N.; Waals, F.

    1999-01-01

    Understanding Shipping Management requires a thorough understanding of the Shipping Industry Structure. This book provides this knowledge base and should be seen in conjunction with two other books: Shipping and Design Innovation in Shipping. Shipping Industry Structure was intended as the first

  2. Study of the vibration of bulkhead-stiffened cylindrical shells by laser-based methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ninghui

    The first part of this dissertation work deals with an experimental study of the vibration behavior of bulkhead stiffened cylindrical shells by using laser-based vibration measurement methods. Holographic interferometry and laser speckle photography are first demonstrated on revealing the dynamic behavior of a 22 ft long cylindrical shell. These methods are thereafter further explored to study the vibration characteristic of cylindrical shells with different stiffeners such as a full bulkhead or a partial bulkhead. Many experimentally obtained holograms and specklegrams reveal interesting features of the vibration of bulkhead stiffened cylindrical shells. The experimentally obtained results are compared with those obtained from a finite element model developed by General Dynamic Electric Boat Division, and the finite element model is generally validated. Mode localization theory is used to explain some interesting findings in experiments and the reason of some discrepancies between the finite element analysis and experiment results. The presence of irregularities in a weakly coupled structure such as a bulkhead-stiffened cylindrical shell is shown to be able to localize the modes of vibration and inhibit the propagation of vibration within the shell. A numerical simulation based on the finite element modal analysis indicates the validation of this explanation of the experimental findings. Thereafter, the eigensolutions of disordered, plate-stiffened cylindrical shell stiffened are derived by the use of receptance method. Numerical calculations are thereafter performed based upon this model and indeed reveal the exist of localized vibration in this kind of structure. This analytical study provides physical insights into the mode localization phenomenon in stiffened cylindrical shell type of structures from a more systematic manner. The conditions and the effect of mode localization on natural frequencies and mode shapes of cylindrical shell structure are also

  3. Green shipping management

    CERN Document Server

    Lun, Y H Venus; Wong, Christina W Y; Cheng, T C E

    2016-01-01

    This book presents theory-driven discussion on the link between implementing green shipping practices (GSP) and shipping firm performance. It examines the shipping industry’s challenge of supporting economic growth while enhancing environmental performance. Consisting of nine chapters, the book covers topics such as the conceptualization of green shipping practices (GSPs), measurement scales for evaluating GSP implementation, greening capability, greening and performance relativity (GPR), green management practice, green shipping network, greening capacity, and greening propensity. In view of the increasing quest for environment protection in the shipping sector, this book provides a good reference for firms to understand and evaluate their capability in carrying out green operations on their shipping activities.

  4. Study on mechanical behavior of the deep embeded steel sheet pile cellular bulkhead. Neire no fukai hagane yaita cell shiki gogan no rikigaku teki kyodo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higashigawa, T.; Achiwa, F. (The Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., Nagoya (Japan)); Matsuo, M. (Nagoya Univ., Nagoya (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Sunami, S. (Nikken Sekkei, Osaka (Japan))

    1991-09-20

    At the Hekinan coal-burning thermal power station of Chubu Electric Power Company, there is a plan to construct its ash dump by closing the neighboring sea area with bulkheads. This bulkhead is deeply embeded steel sheet piles to be struck into a soft clay layer. Since it is necessary to improve the ground in a wide area for stabilization of soft clay, the specifications as well as the scope of improvement of the basic design plan were noticed, a qualitative study of the bulkhead was done by a numerical analysis aiming at realization of a rational and economical bulkhead and an execution plan which modified the above was prepared. In this execution plan, the reduction as much as about 9% became possible for the construction cost of about 1km long bulkheads. In order to demonstrate the adequacy of this execution plan, loading tests were conducted on full-size cellular bulkheads corresponding to the basic plan as well as the execution plan. As a result, the tested values agreed very well with the analytical results and upon comparison between them, the displacement at the tip of the cellular bulkhead and other measured values showed no meaningful difference, thereby it was confirmed that the execution plan had the same level of stability as the basic plan. 5 refs., 26 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. The shipping man adventures in ship finance

    CERN Document Server

    McCleery, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    When restless New York City hedge fund manager Robert Fairchild watches the Baltic Dry Cargo Index plunge 97%, registering an all-time high and a 25-year low within the span of just six months, he decides to buy a ship. Immediately fantasizing about naming a vessel after his wife, carrying a string of worry beads and being able to introduce himself as a "shipowner" at his upcoming college reunion, Fairchild immediately embarks on an odyssey into the most exclusive, glamorous and high stakes business in the world. From pirates off the coast of Somalia and on Wall Street to Greek and Norwegian shipping magnates, the education of Robert Fairchild is an expensive one. In the end, he loses his hedge fund, but he gains a life - as a Shipping Man. Part fast paced financial thriller, part ship finance text book, The Shipping Man is 310 pages of required reading for anyone with an interest in capital formation for shipping.

  6. Spin Forming of an Aluminum 2219-T6 Aft Bulkhead for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle: Phase II Supplemental Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Squire, Michael D.; Domack, Marcia S.; Hoffman, Eric K.

    2015-01-01

    The principal focus of this project was to assist the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program in developing a spin forming fabrication process for manufacture of the aft bulkhead of the pressure vessel. The spin forming process will enable a single piece aluminum (Al) 2219 aft bulkhead which will eliminate the current multiple piece welded construction, simplify fabrication, and lead to an enhanced design that will reduce vehicle weight by eliminating welds. Phase I of this assessment explored spin forming the single-piece forward pressure vessel bulkhead from aluminum-lithium 2195.

  7. Guide to ship sanitation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2011-01-01

    "The third edition of the Guide to Ship Sanitation presents the public health significance of ships in terms of disease and highlights the importance of applying appropriate control measures"--Back cover...

  8. An Arsenal Ship Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-12-01

    and dental services underway. 5. Disbursing Office In addition to being paperless, the Arsenal Ship is also a cashless ship. The ship does not have...1, Society of Naval Architects & Marine Engineers, 1988. 57. Gillmer, T.C., and Johnson, B., Introduction to Naval Architecture, Naval Institute...Vending Machines Cashless ship (i.e. Use MARC card) O 10.4.3 Provide Crew Entertainment O 10.4.3.1 Closed Circuit TV Shipboard Multi-Media Resource Center

  9. Designing liner shipping networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Mulder (Judith); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper the combined fleet-design, ship-scheduling and cargo-routing problem with limited availability of ships in liner shipping is considered. A genetic algorithm based solution method is proposed in which the ports are first aggregated into port cluster to reduce the problem

  10. Ship Vibration Design Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    Frachtschiffen," Werft Reederie Hafen, 1925. 4-21 Noonan, E. F. "Vibration Considerations for 120,000 CM LNG Ships," NKF: Preliminary Report No. 7107, 25...Ship Response to Ice - A Second Season by C. Daley, J. W. St. John, R. Brown, J. Meyer , and I. Glen 1990 SSC-340 Ice Forces and Ship Response to Ice

  11. Flight demonstration of aircraft fuselage and bulkhead monitoring using optical fiber distributed sensing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Daichi; Igawa, Hirotaka; Tamayama, Masato; Kasai, Tokio; Arizono, Hitoshi; Murayama, Hideaki; Shiotsubo, Katsuya

    2018-02-01

    We have developed an optical fiber distributed sensing system based on optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR) that uses long-length fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs). This technique obtains strain data not as a point data from an FBG but as a distributed profile within the FBG. This system can measure the strain distribution profile with an adjustable high spatial resolution of the mm or sub-mm order in real-time. In this study, we applied this OFDR-FBG technique to a flying test bed that is a mid-sized jet passenger aircraft. We conducted flight tests and monitored the structural responses of a fuselage stringer and the bulkhead of the flying test bed during flights. The strain distribution variations were successfully monitored for various events including taxiing, takeoff, landing and several other maneuvers. The monitoring was effective not only for measuring the strain amplitude applied to the individual structural parts but also for understanding the characteristics of the structural responses in accordance with the flight maneuvers. We studied the correlations between various maneuvers and strains to explore the relationship between the operation and condition of aircraft.

  12. SPACs in Shipping

    OpenAIRE

    Shachmurove, Yochanan; Vulanovic, Milos

    2013-01-01

    In this study we examine how Specified Purpose Acquisition Companies (SPACs) were used as a financing tool for companies in the shipping industry in period 2004-2011. We confirm that SPACs focused on acquisitions in the shipping industry have similar characteristics as the population of SPACs that entered U.S financial markets in the same period. When their characteristics differ, SPACs focused on shipping are larger in size than the rest of SPACs, have larger number of underwriters in syndic...

  13. Radiation survey ship banned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, S. (Nuclear Free Zones Scotland, Glasgow (United Kingdom))

    Nuclear Free local authorities in Scotland have set up an environmental pollution survey to determine the radioactivity levels in parts of coastal Britain. The monitoring was to be carried out by a Russian research ship, the 'Akademik Boris Petrov'. However, because the ship is Russian and memories of the cold war die hard, the ship was banned from entering British waters. The ship is capable of detecting the presence of military warheads and nuclear reactions and so could be considered as a spying threat. (UK).

  14. Buckling of Ship Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Shama, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Buckling of Ship Structures presents a comprehensive analysis of the buckling problem of ship structural members. A full analysis of the various types of loadings and stresses imposed on ship plating and primary and secondary structural members is given. The main causes and consequences of the buckling mode of failure of ship structure and the methods commonly used to control buckling failure are clarified. This book contains the main equations required to determine the critical buckling stresses for both ship plating and the primary and secondary stiffening structural members. The critical buckling stresses are given for ship plating subjected to the induced various types of loadings and having the most common boundary conditions encountered in ship structures.  The text bridges the gap existing in most books covering the subject of buckling of ship structures in the classical analytical format, by putting the emphasis on the practical methods required to ensure safety against buckling of ship structur...

  15. Shipping Information Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a design science approach to solving persistent problems in the international shipping eco system by creating the missing common information infrastructures. Specifically, this paper reports on an ongoing dialogue between stakeholders in the shipping industry and information s...

  16. Shipping Information Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    , while contemporary research proposes Information Infrastructures (II) as a new IT artifact to be researched. Correspondingly, this thesis applies the concept of and design theory for II to improve containerized shipping. Activity Theory has guided the analysis of containerized shipping, following......This thesis applies theoretical perspectives from the Information Systems (IS) research field to propose how Information Technology (IT) can improve containerized shipping. This question is addressed by developing a set of design principles for an information infrastructure for sharing shipping...... information named the Shipping Information Pipeline (SIP). Review of the literature revealed that IS research prescribed a set of meta-design principles, including digitalization and digital collaboration by implementation of Inter-Organizational Systems based on Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) messages...

  17. Crushing Strength of Ship Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerup-Simonsen, Bo; Abramowicz, W.; Høstgaard-Brene, C.N.S.

    1999-01-01

    The crushing response of ship structures is of primary importance to the designers and practicing engineers concerned with accidental loading and accident reconstruction of marine vehicles. Ship to-ship collisions, ship-harbor infrastructure interaction or ship-offshore structure interaction...... are just few examples of accident scenarios where the detailed knowledge of the crushing response of ship structure is crucial for a reliable engineering analysis....

  18. Performance Monitoring of Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren Vinther

    to the environment. The monitoring of the ship’s performance can be used as decision support in determining when actions to improve performance should be taken. The performance evaluation is based on a model of the ship and the added resistance from wind and waves during operation. Logged data on board the ship...... is used as input to the system and by comparing model and ship behaviour, an index describing the ship’s performance is generated. The work in this thesis is based on data logged through the automation system on board a PostPanmax container ship where data have been logged through a year. A routine...... handling drift in time series, spikes and outliers have been suggested for the purpose of introducing an automatic logging system. The performance system is modelled in software based on the Bond Graph method. The system is described by bond graph elements which describe the characteristics of each...

  19. Optimization in liner shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Karsten, Christian Vad; Pisinger, David

    2017-01-01

    Seaborne trade is the lynchpin in almost every international supply chain, and about 90% of non-bulk cargo worldwide is transported by container. In this survey we give an overview of data-driven optimization problems in liner shipping. Research in liner shipping is motivated by a need for handling...... shipping network design, we consider the problem of container routing and speed optimization. Next, we consider empty container repositioning and stowage planning as well as disruption management. In addition, the problem of bunker purchasing is considered in depth. In each section we give a clear problem...... still more complex decision problems, based on big data sets and going across several organizational entities. Moreover, liner shipping optimization problems are pushing the limits of optimization methods, creating a new breeding ground for advanced modelling and solution methods. Starting from liner...

  20. Plastic Pollution from Ships

    OpenAIRE

    Čulin, Jelena; Bielić, Toni

    2016-01-01

    The environmental impact of shipping on marine environment includes discharge of garbage. Plastic litter is of particular concern due to abundance, resistance to degradation and detrimental effect on marine biota. According to recently published studies, a further research is required to assess human health risk. Monitoring data indicate that despite banning plastic disposal at sea, shipping is still a source of plastic pollution. Some of the measures to combat the problem are discussed.

  1. Outer Dynamics of Ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of these notes is to present analysis procedures for the motion of ships during ship-ship collisions and for ship collisons with offshore structures. The aim is to estimate that part of the lost kinetic energy which will have to be absorbed by rupture and plastic damage of the colliding...

  2. Outer Dynamics of Ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    The purpose is to present analysis procedures for the motion of ships during ship-ship collisions and for ship collisions with offshore structures. The aim is to estimate that part of the lost kinetic energy which will have to be absorbed by rupture and plastic damage of the colliding structures....

  3. Accidents in nuclear ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oelgaard, P.L. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)]|[Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10{sup -3} per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au).

  4. On the global ship hull bending energy in ship collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Li, Yujie

    2009-01-01

    During ship collisions part of the kinetic energy of the involved vessels immediately prior to contact is absorbed as energy dissipated by crushing of the hull structures, by friction and by elastic energy. The purpose of this report is to present an estimate of the elastic energy that can...... be stored in elastic hull vibrations during a ship collision. When a ship side is strengthened in order to improve the crashworthiness it has been argued in the scientific literature that a non-trivial part of the energy released for structural deformation during the collision can be absorbed as elastic...... energy in global ship hull vibrations, such that with strong ship sides less energy has to be spent in crushing of the striking ship bow and/or the struck ship side. In normal ship–ship collision analyses both the striking and struck ship are usually considered as rigid bodies where structural crushing...

  5. Effective and Safe Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Amdahl, Jørgen; Rutgersson, Olle

    1996-01-01

    is given in the appendices. The project is planned to take three years from the start. There are 28 tasks and the total volume is 18 personyears, or 6.3 MFIM. A scientific approach will be used in performing the tasks and some of them may be subjects for post graduate studies. A close co-operation between......A Joint Nordic Research project "Effecive and Safe Ships" is presented. The project is aiming to develop methods and tools for quantitative evaluation fo ship safety. This report is the report of the preliminary phase where the plan for the main project is developed. The objectives of the project...... are described. The areas of safety that are presented are collisions, groundings, cargo shifting and ship fire. The areas of lack of knowledge are identified and the tasks within each subproject suggested. The proposal for the main project is presented in the summary. Background material of the state-of-the art...

  6. Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2011-01-01

    to complex handling and timing restrictions. The objective of the problem is cost minimization, which translates nearly directly into the minimization of CO2 emissions and pollution. Additionally, it is important that all cost elements, including the ones that are only loosely coupled with activity choices......, can be accurately modeled. Numerous liner shipping fleet repositioning problems are solved each year by the world’s shipping firms without the assistance of any decision support, even though humans can require between two to three days to find a reasonable solution. Finding optimal repositionings...

  7. Shipping emissions in ports

    OpenAIRE

    Merk, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    Shipping emissions in ports are substantial, accounting for 18 million tonnes of CO2 emissions, 0.4 million tonnes of NOx, 0.2 million of SOx and 0.03 million tonnes of PM10 in 2011. Around 85% of emissions come from containerships and tankers. Containerships have short port stays, but high emissions during these stays. Most of CO2 emissions in ports from shipping are in Asia and Europe (58%), but this share is low compared to their share of port calls (70%). European ports have much less emi...

  8. Rough Sea Transfer Ship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Azimuthing propulsion pods were chosen to provide the maneuverability needed for skin-to-skin interface. Annex H contains more information on the engine...single pod can be seen on the keel towards the stern of the ship. 4.0 Summary The RSTS ship concept provides a dedicated LCAC carrier that has the...knots) 20 Density (kg/m3) 1025 1.188E- 06 Kinematic Viscosity (m2/s) Results Rt (kN) 545.83 Pe (MW) 5.61 Pea (MW) 6.17 Ps (MW) 9.50 Sea

  9. SHIPPING OF RADIOACTIVE ITEMS

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS/RP Group

    2001-01-01

    The TIS-RP group informs users that shipping of small radioactive items is normally guaranteed within 24 hours from the time the material is handed in at the TIS-RP service. This time is imposed by the necessary procedures (identification of the radionuclides, determination of dose rate and massive objects require a longer procedure and will therefore take longer.

  10. Mechanics of Ship Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    In these notes first a simplified mathematical model is presented for analysis of ship hull loading due to grounding on relatively hard and plane sand, clay or rock sea bottoms. In a second section a more rational calculation model is described for the sea bed soil reaction forces on the sea bott...

  11. Springing of ships waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gunsteren, F.F.

    1978-01-01

    This thesis is the result of an investigation of the assumptions underlying the general applied method for the calculation of springing of ships in waves, which has been proposed by the author some decade ago. It has been found that, contrary to the general practice in seakeeping research, the

  12. Moving Sustainable Shipping Forward

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van J.; Koppen, van C.S.A.

    2016-01-01

    The International Maritime Organization (IMO) is considering adopting marketbased mechanisms (MBMs) to reduce fuel consumption by commercial shipping. This paper explores the potential effectiveness of these MBMs. How companies respond to economic stimuli generated by MBMs depends on the kind of

  13. Hydroelastic Vibrations of Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Folsø, Rasmus

    2002-01-01

    A formula for the necessary hull girder bending stiffness required to avoid serious springing vibrations is derived. The expression takes into account the zero crossing period of the waves, the ship speed and main dimensions. For whipping vibrations the probability of exceedance for the combined...

  14. Captive model testing for ship to ship operations

    OpenAIRE

    Lataire, Evert; Vantorre, Marc; Delefortrie, Guillaume

    2009-01-01

    Applications of ship-to-ship operations for liquid cargo transfer, in particular for crude oil and LNG, will to be increasing in the future. Moreover, such operations are expected to take place in more severe environmental conditions. In order to have a better understanding of the hydrodynamic phenomena that are of importance for this kind of manoeuvres, a research project entitled “Investigating hydrodynamic aspects and control strategies for ship-to-ship operations” has been initiated, co-o...

  15. Ship to ship interaction forces during lightering operations

    OpenAIRE

    Lataire, Evert; Vantorre, Marc; Vandenbroucke, Joost; Eloot, Katrien

    2011-01-01

    For a better understanding of the hydrodynamic phenomena involved in ship to ship interaction during cargo transfer the research project entitled “Investigating hydrodynamic aspects and control strategies for ship-to-ship operations” has been initiated. In the frame of this project more than two thousand captive model tests were carried out in 2008 [1] in the Towing tank for manoeuvres in shallow water (co-operation Flanders Hydraulics Research – Ghent University) in Antwerp, Belgium. During ...

  16. Classification of Ship Routing and Scheduling Problems in Liner Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Karina Hjortshøj

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a classification scheme for ship routing and scheduling problems in liner shipping in line with the current and future operational conditions of the liner shipping industry. Based on the classification, the literature is divided into groups whose main characteristics are des...

  17. Wallops Ship Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donna C.

    2011-01-01

    Approved as a Wallops control center backup system, the Wallops Ship Surveillance Software is a day-of-launch risk analysis tool for spaceport activities. The system calculates impact probabilities and displays ship locations relative to boundary lines. It enables rapid analysis of possible flight paths to preclude the need to cancel launches and allow execution of launches in a timely manner. Its design is based on low-cost, large-customer- base elements including personal computers, the Windows operating system, C/C++ object-oriented software, and network interfaces. In conformance with the NASA software safety standard, the system is designed to ensure that it does not falsely report a safe-for-launch condition. To improve the current ship surveillance method, the system is designed to prevent delay of launch under a safe-for-launch condition. A single workstation is designated the controller of the official ship information and the official risk analysis. Copies of this information are shared with other networked workstations. The program design is divided into five subsystems areas: 1. Communication Link -- threads that control the networking of workstations; 2. Contact List -- a thread that controls a list of protected item (ocean vessel) information; 3. Hazard List -- threads that control a list of hazardous item (debris) information and associated risk calculation information; 4. Display -- threads that control operator inputs and screen display outputs; and 5. Archive -- a thread that controls archive file read and write access. Currently, most of the hazard list thread and parts of other threads are being reused as part of a new ship surveillance system, under the SureTrak project.

  18. Ship Observations - VOS and Navy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Combination of Voluntary Observing Ship (VOS) and US Navy Ship weather observations. Obs generally taken 2-4 times daily at 00, 06, 12, and 18z.

  19. On the Global Ship Hull Bending Energy in Ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Li, Y.

    2004-01-01

    to the impact location and where local and global bending vibration modes are neglected. That is, the structural deformation problem is considered quasi-static. In this paper a simple uniform free-free beam model is presented for estimating the energy transported into the global bending vibrations of the struck...... ship hull during ship-ship collisions. The striking ship is still considered as a rigid body. The local interaction between the two ships is modeled by a linear load-deflection relation. The analysis results for a simplified model of a struck coaster and of a large tanker show that the elastic energy...

  20. Ship Infrared Detection/Vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, A.N. de

    1993-01-01

    The IR contrast of ships at sea is of importance for those who want to detect or identify the ship and for those who worry about this. This IR contrast is determined by a large number of parameters. Of course temperatures of the ship's structure and those of the ambient sea and air are important,

  1. Towards Real Time Simulation of Ship-Ship Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Ole; Bingham, Harry B.; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter

    2012-01-01

    We present recent and preliminary work directed towards the development of a simplified, physics-based model for improved simulation of ship-ship interaction that can be used for both analysis and real-time computing (i.e. with real-time constraints due to visualization). The goal is to implement...... accurate (realistic) and much faster ship-wave and ship-ship simulations than are currently possible. The coupling of simulation with visualization should improve the visual experience such that it can be perceived as more realistic in training. Today the state-of-art in real-time ship-ship interaction...... is for efficiency reasons and time-constraints in visualization based on model experiments in towing tanks and precomputed force tables. We anticipate that the fast, and highly parallel, algorithm described by Engsig-Karup et al. [2011] for execution on affordable modern high-throughput Graphics Processing Units...

  2. Hydrodynamics of Ship Propellers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breslin, John P.; Andersen, Poul

    This book deals with flows over propellers operating behind ships, and the hydrodynamic forces and moments which the propeller generates on the shaft and on the ship hull.The first part of the text is devoted to fundamentals of the flow about hydrofoil sections (with and without cavitation......) and about wings. It then treats propellers in uniform flow, first via advanced actuator disc modelling, and then using lifting-line theory. Pragmatic guidance is given for design and evaluation of performance, including the use of computer modelling.The second part covers the development of unsteady forces...... arising from operation in non-uniform hull wakes. First, by a number of simplifications, various aspects of the problem are dealt with separately until the full problem of a non-cavitating, wide-bladed propeller in a wake is treated by a new and completely developed theory. Next, the complicated problem...

  3. SHIPPING OF RADIOACTIVE ITEMS

    CERN Document Server

    TIS/RP Group

    2001-01-01

    The TIS-RP group informs users that shipping of small radioactive items is normally guaranteed within 24 hours from the time the material is handed in at the TIS-RP service. This time is imposed by the necessary procedures (identification of the radionuclides, determination of dose rate, preparation of the package and related paperwork). Large and massive objects require a longer procedure and will therefore take longer.

  4. Littoral Combat Ship (LCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    advance of trials and delivery. Notes USS MILWAUKEE (LCS 5) was delivered to the Navy on October 16, 2015. Upon ship delivery the earned value ( CPR ...requirement is modified. The October 2015 report is the most recent CPR . Current Contract Price ($M), Estimated Price at Completion ($M) and Cost and...trials and delivery. Notes USS JACKSON (LCS 6) was delivered to the Navy on August 11, 2015. Upon delivery the earned value ( CPR ) requirement is

  5. Safety Culture Onboard Ships

    OpenAIRE

    Ek, Åsa; Olsson, Ulf; Akselsson, Roland

    2000-01-01

    A project focusing on identifying and describing maritime risks is being conducted in the heavily trafficked water area of the Sound, situated in northern Europe between Sweden and Denmark. This paper reports of a test of a first version of a questionnaire constructed for measuring safety culture onboard vessels.48 crew members on a Swedish registered passenger/cargo ship completed and returned the questionnaire. The crew members were able to complete the questionnaire with few unanswered que...

  6. Real-Time Simulation of Ship-Structure and Ship-Ship Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Ole; Glimberg, Stefan Lemvig; Bingham, Harry B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives the status of the development of a ship-hydrodynamic model for real-time ship-wave calculation and ship-structure and ship-ship interaction in a full mission marine simulator. The hydrodynamic model is based on potential flow theory, linear or non-linear free surface boundary...... condition and higher-order accurate numerical approximations. The equations presented facilitate both Neumann-Kelvin and double-body linearizations. The body boundary condition on the ship hull is approximated by a static and dynamic moving pressure distribution. The pressure distribution method is used......, because it is simple, easy to implement and computationally efficient. Multiple many-core graphical processing units (GPUs) are used for parallel execution and the model is implemented using a combination of C/C++, CUDA and MPI. Two ship hydrodynamic cases are presented: Kriso Container Carrier at steady...

  7. Ship Roll Motion Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Tristan; Blanke, Mogens

    2010-01-01

    The technical feasibility of roll motion control devices has been amply demonstrated for over 100 years. Performance, however, can still fall short of expectations because of deciencies in control system designs, which have proven to be far from trivial due to fundamental performance limitations....... This tutorial paper presents an account of the development of various ship roll motion control systems and the challenges associated with their design. The paper discusses how to assess performance, the applicability of dierent models, and control methods that have been applied in the past....

  8. Operational options for green ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherbaz, Salma; Duan, Wenyang

    2012-09-01

    Environmental issues and rising fuel prices necessitate better energy-efficiency in all sectors. The shipping industry is one of the major stakeholders, responsible for 3% of global CO2 emissions, 14%-15% of global NO X emissions, and 16% of global SO X emissions. In addition, continuously rising fuel prices are also an incentive to focus on new ways for better energy-effectiveness. The green ship concept requires exploring and implementing technology on ships to increase energy-efficiency and reduce emissions. Ship operation is an important topic with large potential to increase cost-and-energy-effectiveness. This paper provided a comprehensive review of basic concepts, principles, and potential of operational options for green ships. The key challenges pertaining to ship crew i.e. academic qualifications prior to induction, in-service training and motivation were discussed. The author also deliberated on remedies to these challenges.

  9. Ship Creek bioassessment investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E.; Mueller, R.P.; Murphy, M.T.

    1995-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked by Elmendorf Air Force Base (EAFB) personnel to conduct a series of collections of macroinvertebrates and sediments from Ship Creek to (1) establish baseline data on these populations for reference in evaluating possible impacts from Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) activities at two operable units, (2) compare current population indices with those found by previous investigations in Ship Creek, and (3) determine baseline levels of concentrations of any contaminants in the sediments associated with the macroinvertebrates. A specific suite of indices established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was requested for the macroinvertebrate analyses; these follow the Rapid Bioassessment Protocol developed by Plafkin et al. (1989) and will be described. Sediment sample analyses included a Microtox bioassay and chemical analysis for contaminants of concern. These analyses included, volatile organic compounds, total gasoline and diesel hydrocarbons (EPA method 8015, CA modified), total organic carbon, and an inductive-coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) metals scan. Appendix A reports on the sediment analyses. The Work Plan is attached as Appendix B.

  10. ERDC Ship/Tow Simulator

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Performing Advanced Hydrodynamic ModelingEngineers and ship pilots can now overcome the challenges of evaluating navigation channel designs, modifications and safety...

  11. Occupational Accidents Aboard Merchant Ships

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    H. L. Hansen; D. Nielsen; M. Frydenberg

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the frequency, circumstances, and causes of occupational accidents aboard merchant ships in international trade, and to identify risk factors for the occurrence of occupational...

  12. Machinery Options for Green Ship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Sherbaz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Shipping is critical to global economy being means of transportation for 90 % of world trade goods. Shipping continues to remain the most environmental friendly transportation option compared to other available means due to lowest gCO2/ton.km emissions. It can however not be overlooked that shipping is responsible for 3 % of global CO2 emissions, 14-15 % of global NOX emissions and 16 % of global SOX emissions. International Maritime Organization (IMO is committed to reducing shipping emissions through policy and regulatory measures. Marine Pollution (MARPOL regulations have been increasingly demanding to tackle aggravating environmental concerns. IMO has been introducing measures for better energy-effectiveness (i.e. SEEMP in addition to better environmental performance (i.e. EEDI. Green ship concepts require exploring and implementing technologies and practices on ships to reduce emissions and increase energy-efficiency. Ship machinery is an important area with large potential to reduce emissions and increase cost-and-energy-effectiveness. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the machinery options for green ship. The author will discuss basic concepts, principles and potential of machinery options for green ship in detail.

  13. Global hydroelastic analysis of ultra large container ships by improved beam structural model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senjanović Ivo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Some results on the hydroelasticity of ultra large container ships related to the beam structural model and restoring stiffness achieved within EU FP7 Project TULCS are summarized. An advanced thin-walled girder theory based on the modified Timoshenko beam theory for flexural vibrations with analogical extension to the torsional problem, is used for formulation of the beam finite element for analysis of coupled horizontal and torsional ship hull vibrations. Special attention is paid to the contribution of transverse bulkheads to the open hull stiffness, as well as to the reduced stiffness of the relatively short engine room structure. In addition two definitions of the restoring stiffness are considered: consistent one, which includes hydrostatic and gravity properties, and unified one with geometric stiffness as structural contribution via calm water stress field. Both formulations are worked out by employing the finite element concept. Complete hydroelastic response of a ULCS is performed by coupling 1D structural model and 3D hydrodynamic model as well as for 3D structural and 3D hydrodynamic model. Also, fatigue of structural elements exposed to high stress concentration is considered.

  14. Integrated cargo routing and ship scheduling in liner shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Karina Hjortshøj

    The problem consists of creating routes and schedules for a heterogeneous fleet of ships while determining the cargo routing and the speed for all relevant port pair/ship combinations. Transshipment is allowed in ports with transshipment capabilities. The service frequency is fixed at one week...

  15. MERCHANT MARINE SHIP REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumm, J.F.; North, D.C. Jr.; Rock, H.R.; Geston, D.K.

    1961-05-01

    A nuclear reactor is described for use in a merchant marine ship. The reactor is of pressurized light water cooled and moderated design in which three passes of the water through the core in successive regions of low, intermediate, and high heat generation and downflow in a fuel region are made. The foregoing design makes a compact reactor construction with extended core life. The core has an egg-crate lattice containing the fuel elements confined between a lower flow baffle and upper grid plate, with the latter serving also as part of a turn- around manifold from which the entire coolant is distributed into the outer fuel elements for the second pass through the core. The inner fuel elements are cooled in the third pass.

  16. On Impact Mechanics in Ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present analytical, closed-form expressions for the energy released for crushing and the impact impulse during ship collisions. Ship-ship collisions, ship collisions with rigid walls and ship collisions with flexible offshore structures are considered. The derived ...

  17. Model Calibration for Ship Simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.F.G. van Daalen (Ed); J. Fehribach; T. van Leeuwen (Tristan); C. Reinhardt; N. Schenkels; R. Sheombarsing

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractModel calibration is an important aspect in ship simulation. Here, ship motion is described by an ODE which includes tuning parameters that capture complex physical processes such as friction of the hull. In order for the simulations to be realistic for a wide range of

  18. Model Calibration for Ship Simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Daalen, Ed; Fehribach, Joseph; van Leeuwen, Tristan; Reinhardt, Christian; Schenkels, Nick; Sheombarsing, Ray

    2014-01-01

    Model calibration is an important aspect in ship simulation. Here, ship motion is described by an ODE which includes tuning parameters that capture complex physical processes such as friction of the hull. In order for the simulations to be realistic for a wide range of scenarios these tuning

  19. Ship exhaust gas plume cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleijpen, H.M.A.; Neele, P.P.

    2004-01-01

    The exhaust gas plume is an important and sometimes dominating contributor to the infrared signature of ships. Suppression of the infrared ship signatures has been studied by TNO for the Royal Netherlands Navy over considerable time. This study deals with the suppression effects, which can be

  20. NATO Standards for Virtual Ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraker, J.K. de; Duncan, J.; Budde, E.W.; Reading, R.

    2005-01-01

    The NATO Naval Armaments Group Sub-Group 61 on Virtual Ships has been chartered to establish NATO standards for modeling and simulation applied to ship acquisition. Its objective is to enable multi-national simulation re-use and interoperability, as well as simulation composability. Technical

  1. Identification of Dynamically Positioned Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thor I. Fossen

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Todays model-based dynamic positioning (DP systems require that the ship and thruster dynamics are known with some accuracy in order to use linear quadratic optical control theory. However, it is difficult to identify the mathematical model of a dynamically posititmed (DP ship since the ship is not persistently excited under DP. In addition the ship parameter estimation problem is nonlinear and multivariable with only position and thruster state measurements available for parameter estimation. The process and measurement noise must also be modeled in order to avoid parameter drift due to environmental disturbances and sensor failure. This article discusses an off-line parallel extended Kalman filter (EKF algorithm utilizing two measurement series in parallel to estimate the parameters in the DP ship model. Full-scale experiments with a supply vessel are used to demonstrate the convergence and robustness of the proposed parameter estimator.

  2. Thin-Walled Beam Theories and Their Applications in the Torsional Strength Analysis of Ship Hulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    numerous deep web frames and transverse bulkheads. The system has been utilized in a study of a frigate under an assumed torsional/flexural load, the...transverse bulkheads and r deep web frames. Figure 18 indicates that, despite the poor agreement in twist angle, the axial stress results compare quite...under torsional loads. This will be the case for a typical warship hull, because of the large number of deep web frames and transverse bulkheads. The

  3. Neutrino physics with SHIP

    CERN Document Server

    van Herwijnen, Eric

    2016-01-01

    SHIP is a new general purpose fixed target facility, whose Technical Proposal has been recently reviewed by the CERN SPS Committee. It recommended that the experiment proceed further to a Comprehensive Design phase. In its initial phase, the 400 GeV proton beam extracted from the SPS will be dumped on a heavy target with the aim of integrating 2×1020 POT (Protons On Target) in 5 years. A dedicated detector, based on a long vacuum tank followed by a spectrometer and particle identification detectors, will allow probing a variety of models with light long-lived exotic particles and masses below O(10) GeV/c 2 . The main focus will be the physics of the so-called Hidden Portals. The sensitivity to Heavy Neutrinos will allow to probe for the first time the mass range between the kaon and the charm meson mass, and a range of couplings for which Baryogenesis and active neutrino masses could also be explained. Another dedicated detector will allow the study of neutrino cross-sections and angular distributions. ντ ...

  4. Bio-indications of sunken ships and ship wrecks

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parulekar, A.H.

    An evaluation of bottom fauna of ship-wreck sites in estuarine and coastal waters of Goa, India, revealed an exceptionally high biotic enrichment. In terms of number of species, faunal dispersion, faunal diversity, biomass and productivity, in space...

  5. Single liner shipping service design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Pisinger, David; Salazar-González, Juan-José

    2014-01-01

    demand under commercially driven constraints. This paper introduces the Single Liner Shipping Service Design Problem. Arc-flow and path-flow models are presented using state-of-the-art elements from the wide literature on pickup and delivery problems. A Branch-and-Cut-and-Price algorithm is proposed......The design of container shipping networks is an important logistics problem, involving assets and operational costs measured in billions of dollars. To guide the optimal deployment of the ships, a single vessel round trip is considered by minimizing operational costs and flowing the best paying...

  6. Ship Repair Workflow Cost Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McDevitt, Mike

    2003-01-01

    The effects of intermittent work patterns and funding on the costs of ship repair and maintenance were modeled for the San Diego region in 2002 for Supervisor of Shipbuilding and Repair (SUPSHIP) San Diego...

  7. WMO Selected, Supplemenatary, Auxiliary Ships

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World Meteorological Organization International List of Selected, Supplementary and Auxiliary Ships, recognized as Publication 47. 1973-1998 editions, gathered from...

  8. Travelers' Health: Cruise Ship Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kara Tardivel, Susan A. Lippold, Krista Kornylo Duong INTRODUCTION Cruise ship travel presents a unique combination of ... may include countries where vectorborne diseases such as malaria, dengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, and Zika are ...

  9. 46 CFR 42.05-63 - Ship(s) and vessel(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship(s) and vessel(s). 42.05-63 Section 42.05-63... BY SEA Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-63 Ship(s) and vessel(s). The terms ship(s) and vessel(s) are interchangeable or synonymous words, and include every description of watercraft...

  10. On-site verification trials using fly ash for reclamation behind bulkheads; Sekitanbai wo gogan uraumezai ni riyosuru genba jissho chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozawa, K. [Center for Coal Utilization, Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Yoshida, T. [Toyo Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Miyagawa, H.; Kobayashi, M.

    1996-09-01

    As a method to utilize coal ash generated from coal burning power plants more effectively in bulk, its use has been studied as a reclamation material behind bulkhead structures in harbors and airports. Verification trials for the study results were performed at the Hekinan power plant of the Chubu Electric Power Company. The trials included the following: an experiment to verify horizontal soil pressure and active earth pressure when slurry made of fly ash added with cement and seawater was placed in frameworks installed behind bulkheads of a harbor, a slurry hardening test, environmental impact investigation, and constructibility investigation. As a result, a large number of findings were obtained, including the following matters: earth pressure of slurry which has been placed in a soil tank in about ten minutes would be measured as pressure of liquid, but it shifts to behavior as a soil in a relatively short time; the earth pressure after three hours agreed with static earth pressure calculated under provision of K{sub o} = 0.2; and a hardened body made with cement under a certain mixing ratio was obtained, which stands by itself at a height of 7.5 m at compression strength of 1.77 kgf/cm {sup 2}. 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Competitive Liner Shipping Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Christian Vad

    The goal of this thesis is to develop decision support tools, which can be used to optimize container shipping networks while supporting competitive transportation services. The competitiveness of container liner shipping is to a high degree determined by transportation times and number of transs......The goal of this thesis is to develop decision support tools, which can be used to optimize container shipping networks while supporting competitive transportation services. The competitiveness of container liner shipping is to a high degree determined by transportation times and number...... of transshipments on the most important sailing routes. The proposed methods in this thesis, aimed at liner shipping network design, integrate competitiveness such that the fuel consumption per transported container is reduced without increasing the transit times.A well-designed route net is decisive for container...... shipping company earnings.The operation of the route net constitute the majority of the total costs, so it is essential to achieve a good capacity utilization in a route plan with travel times that satisfy customer requirements. Most academic articles dealing with the design of container networks neither...

  12. On impact mechanics in ship collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present analytical, closed-form expressions for the energy released for crushing and the impact impulse during ship collisions. Ship–ship collisions, ship collisions with rigid walls and ship collisions with flexible offshore structures are considered. The derived...... of illustrative examples are presented. The procedure presented in the paper is well suited for inclusion in a probabilistic calculation model for damage of ship structures due to collisions....

  13. Accidents on ships in the Danish International Ship register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ádám, Balázs; Rasmussen, Hanna Barbara

    Safety has been in the focus of seafaring during the past decade that observed a gradual reduction of reported work injuries in Danish ships. The injuries are, however, unevenly distributed in the maritime workforce, depending on various factors, the nationality of seafarer among them. The aim...... of our study is to describe trend of accidents and their contributing factors, with special focus on nationality, occurring in ships under Danish flag in the period 2010-2012. The study used two independent data sources, the Danish Maritime Authority and the Danish Radio Medical. It is mandatory...... to report accidents causing at least one day off work beyond the day of accident but the first source contains several accidents not fulfilling this criterion, too. Radio Medical is an independent service where all Danish ships may seek medical advice. The data sets were merged by identification number...

  14. Effect of Buffer Bow Structure in Ship-Ship Collision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamada, Yasuhira; Endo, Hisayoshi; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2008-01-01

    tankers, the introduction of buffer bulbous bows has been proposed. Relatively soft buffer bows absorb part of the kinetic energy of the striking ship before penetrating the inner hull of the struck vessel. The purpose of the present paper is to verify the effectiveness of a prototype buffer bulbous bow......) and the forward velocity of the struck ship on the collapse mode of the bow of the striking vessel are investigated. Collapse modes, contact forces and energy absorption capabilities of the buffer bows are compared with those of conventional bows....

  15. Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.L.; Nielsen, D.; Frydenberg, Morten

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the frequency, circumstances, and causes of occupational accidents aboard merchant ships in international trade, and to identify risk factors for the occurrence of occupational accidents as well as dangerous working situations where possible preventive measures may...... accidents happened on deck. Conclusions: It was possible to clearly identify work situations and specific risk factors for accidents aboard merchant ships. Most accidents happened while performing daily routine duties. Preventive measures should focus on workplace instructions for all important functions...... be initiated. Methods: The study is a historical follow up on occupational accidents among crew aboard Danish merchant ships in the period 1993–7. Data were extracted from the Danish Maritime Authority and insurance data. Exact data on time at risk were available. Results: A total of 1993 accidents were...

  16. On Grounding of Fast Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1997-01-01

    The paper deals with analysis of grounding of high-speed crafts. It is the purpose to present a comprehensive mathematical model for calculation of the overall dynamic ship response during grounding. This procedure is applied to derive the motions, the time varying sectional forces and the local...... loads during grounding on plane, sloping, sandy bottoms for six different designs of fast monohull ships made from steel, aluminium or GRP sandwich materials. The results show that the effect of the hull flexibility is to reduce the overall dynamic sectional loads on the hull girder. The considered...... numerical examples also indicate that, even with impact speeds of 40 knots against a 1:10 sloping bottom, the global strength of the hull girder is not exceeded by the grounding induced loads.For the local deformation of high-speed ship hulls at the point of contact with the ground, the paper presents...

  17. EX1001 Ship Shakedown (EX1001, EM302) on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer in Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The ship has been alongside for repairs and leave since November, 2009. The ship shakedown cruise is scheduled to provide an opportunity for the ship to get underway...

  18. Wind Forces on Container Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of the wind forces acting on a 9,000+ TEU container ship has been carried out through a series of wind tunnel tests. It was investigated how the wind forces depend on the container configuration on the deck using a 1:450 scale model and a series of appropriate container...... are presented as nondimensional coefficients. It is concluded, that the measured forces and moment depend on the container configuration on deck, and the results may provide a general idea of how the magnitude of the wind forces is affected by a given container stacking configuration on a similar container ship....

  19. Rudder roll stabilization for ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Amerongen, J.; van der Klugt, P.G.M.; van Nauta lemke, H.R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the design of an autopilot for rudder roll stabilization for ships. This autopilot uses the rudder not only for course keeping but also for reduction of the roll. The system has a series of properties which make the controller design far from straightforward: the process has

  20. Helicopter-Ship Qualification Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoencamp, A.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this research project is to develop a novel test methodology which can be used for optimizing cost and time efficiency of helicopter-ship qualification testing without reducing safety. For this purpose, the so-called “SHOL-X” test methodology has been established, which includes the

  1. Legal risk management in shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siig, Kristina

    The book discusses the most typical legal challenges met in the chartering, broker, agent or port management part of the shipping industry. It discusses these issues in both English and Scandinavian law and gives indications on how to best ensure your legal risk management in these parts...

  2. Designing Indonesian Liner Shipping Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armand Omar Moeis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As the largest archipelago nation in the world, Indonesia’s logistics system has not shown excellence according to the parameters of logistics performance index and based on logistics costs percentages from overall GDP. This is due to the imbalances of trading on the western and eastern regions in Indonesia, which impacts the transportation systems costs to and from the eastern regions. Therefore, it is imperative to improve the competitiveness of Indonesian maritime logistics through maritime logistics network design. This research will focus on three levels of decision making in logistics network design, which include type of ships in the strategic level, shipping routes in the tactical level, and container allocation in the operational level with implementing butterfly routes in Indonesia’s logistics networking problems. Furthermore, this research will analyze the impact of Pendulum Nusantara and Sea Toll routes against the company profits and percentages of containers shipped. This research will also foresee how demand uncertainties and multi-period planning should affect decision making in designing the Indonesian Liner Shipping Network.

  3. Carcass or Tissue Packaging and Shipping

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — SOP on proper shipping of wildlife tissues to labs. Provides stepwise instructions and guidance on how to collect and ship wildlife carcasses, carcass parts, or...

  4. A merchant ship size optimization model

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Ki-Chul

    1983-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited. This paper analyzes how a shipowner or charterer may determine the specification of optimal ship size for a given route with respect to certain market requirements . The theory of optimal ship size, a methodology for estimating scale economics, and the various factors affecting ship size are examined using a typical conventional cargo ship and bulk cargo carriers based on shipowners ' cost data. http://archi...

  5. Analysis of ship deformation under sailing

    OpenAIRE

    Xiuwen, Shan; Lixiang, Sun; Yi, Pu; Chuncheng, Xu

    2018-01-01

    With the help of the three-dimensional potential flow theory and the hydrodynamic analysis of the loaded ship, the wave pressure distribution and the design wave parameters of the ship under loading conditions have been analyzed. Using the method of AQWA and ANSYS co-simulation, the stress level, stress distribution and deformation of the whole ship under loading conditions are obtained. The numerical analysis results can provide an effective basis for the assessment of ship navigation safety.

  6. Note from the radioprotection group's shipping service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The service for the import/export of radioactive materials reminds you that shipping requests for potentially radioactive materials must be made via the EDH request form by ticking the box 'radioactive material'. All the necessary information is given on the web site: http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Requests not complying with the above procedure will not be taken into account. Radioactive Shipping Service http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Tel. 73171 Fax: 69200

  7. Ship to Shore Connector Amphibious Craft (SSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    programmed USN amphibious ships, to include LHD-1, LPD- 17, LSD -41, LSD -49 classes, without ship alterations, while transporting an embarked load 168...34 high; the off cushion length of the SSC shall permit embarkation of (4) SSCs in LSD -41 class, (2) SSCs in LSD -49 and LPD-17 classes, and (3...amphibious ships, to include LHD-1, LPD-17, LSD -41, LSD -49 classes, without ship alterations, while transporting an embarked load 168" high

  8. Ship-to-Ship Radiocommunication Trial by Using Wireless LAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki Niwa

    2015-12-01

    In a former field radiocommunication trial, omni-directional antennas were used and a few hundred kbps throughput between two ships was measured, which was not enough for our research target (over 1Mbps. In order to get faster throughput, a field radiocommunication trial was carried out again with a few types of directional antennas and RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indication and the throughput between two ships was measured simultaneously. As a result, multi-path (2-path model affected by the reflection of the sea surface was confirmed and also the characteristics of the directional antennas such as half-power angle were confirmed, but the measured throughput was fast enough to meet our expectation.

  9. Methods for strategic liner shipping network design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Mulder (Judith); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper the combined fleet-design, ship-scheduling and cargo-routing problem with limited availability of ships in liner shipping is considered. A composite solution approach is proposed in which the ports are first aggregated into port clusters to reduce the problem size. When the

  10. Cruise ship seakeeping and passenger comfort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dallinga, R.P.; Bos, J.E.

    2010-01-01

    In the last decade the design and construction of a substantial volume of large cruise ships has stimulated the evolution of cruise ship design. The MARIN and TNO involvement in these developments, and in particular the increase in size, have lead to new insights in how the ship design governs

  11. Improving the competitiveness of green ship recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jain, K.P.

    2017-01-01

    The end of life of a ship is determined by its owner on the basis of various commercial and technical factors. Once decided to scrap a ship, almost all end-of-life (EOL) ships are sold to recycling yards for dismantling; except for a few which are converted into museums, hotels, storage, and

  12. 27 CFR 44.254 - Shipping containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipping containers. 44.254 Section 44.254 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Requirements § 44.254 Shipping containers. Each shipping case, crate, or other container, in which cigars are...

  13. 27 CFR 44.187 - Shipping containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipping containers. 44... Shipping containers. Each shipping case, crate, or other container in which tobacco products, or cigarette... same containers in which they were received from the factory. (72 Stat. 1418, as amended; 26 U.S.C...

  14. Stopping of Ships Equipped with Azipods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Nowicki

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains a description of different possibilities of stopping a large ship equipped with azipods. The model tests were carried out to compare the effectiveness of stopping the ship using the different methods. The ship model used in stopping tests reproduces a large LNG carrier of capacity ~150 000 m3

  15. 19 CFR 4.69 - Shipping articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipping articles. 4.69 Section 4.69 Customs... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.69 Shipping articles. No vessel of the U.S... officer, of the shipping articles agreements, including any seaman's allotment agreement, required by 46 U...

  16. Improving the Competitiveness of Green Ship Recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jain, K.P.

    2017-01-01

    The end of life of a ship is determined by its owner on the basis of various commercial and technical factors. Once decided to scrap a ship, almost all end-of-life (EOL) ships are sold to recycling yards for dismantling; except for a few which are converted into museums, hotels, storage, and

  17. Inter-Connected Roles of the Ship, Seafarers and Ship Management Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Utureanu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The activity of shipping plays a strategic key role for the development of international trade. Aremarkable increase in the seaborne international trade would not have been possible without theimportant role of the ship and of the seafarers, both perceived as basic elements for developing anefficient ship management. Ship management in general and in particular the third-party shipmanagement contributes to restructuring shipping business. This paper emphasizes the interconnectedrole between ship, seafarers and the ship management company for the wealth of theshipping business.

  18. Reliability Based Ship Structural Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dogliani, M.; Østergaard, C.; Parmentier, G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with the development of different methods that allow the reliability-based design of ship structures to be transferred from the area of research to the systematic application in current design. It summarises the achievements of a three-year collaborative research project dealing...... with developments of models of load effects and of structural collapse adopted in reliability formulations which aim at calibrating partial safety factors for ship structural design. New probabilistic models of still-water load effects are developed both for tankers and for containerships. New results are presented...... of non-linear wave induced load effects and the corresponding long-term formulations. Methods to combine linear and non-linear components of wave induced load effects have been developed and checked by alternative methods.These improved models were used for the reliability assessment of the primary hull...

  19. Competitive Liner Shipping Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Christian Vad; Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Pisinger, David

    We present a solution method for the liner shipping network design problem which is a core strategic planning problem faced by container carriers. We propose the first practical algorithm which explicitly handles transshipment time limits for all demands. Individual sailing speeds at each service...... leg are used to balance sailings speed against operational costs, hence ensuring that the found network is competitive on both transit time and cost. We present a matheuristic for the problem where a MIP is used to select which ports should be inserted or removed on a route. Computational results...... are presented showing very promising results for realistic global liner shipping networks. Due to a number of algorithmic enhancements, the obtained solutions can be found within the same time frame as used by previous algorithms not handling time constraints. Furthermore we present a sensitivity analysis...

  20. Modeling of Ship Propulsion Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Benjamin Pjedsted; Larsen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Full scale measurements of the propulsion power, ship speed, wind speed and direction, sea and air temperature, from four different loading conditions has been used to train a neural network for prediction of propulsion power. The network was able to predict the propulsion power with accuracy...... between 0.8-2.8%, which is about the same accuracy as for the measurements. The methods developed are intended to support the performance monitoring system SeaTrend® developed by FORCE Technology (FORCE (2008))....

  1. Guide for Ship Structural Inspections

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-02

    000- 1000, Naval Ship Systems Command, 1968. (7) "IH1 SPAIS - The Shipbuilding Process and Inspection Standard", Ishikawajima - Harima Heavy Industries Co...each subsequent special survey. IHI Japanese shipyard: " Ishikawajima Harima Heavy Industries " "In-Service" Inspection Inspections performed on the...specifying inspections in excess of what is necessary to ensure structural integrity of the completed vessel, an extra heavy cost burden may be imposed

  2. World Ships - Architectures & Feasibility Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, A. M.; Pak, M.; Putz, D.; Buhler, C.; Reiss, P.

    A world ship is a concept for manned interstellar flight. It is a huge, self-contained and self-sustained interstellar vehicle. It travels at a fraction of a per cent of the speed of light and needs several centuries to reach its target star system. The well- known world ship concept by Alan Bond and Anthony Martin was intended to show its principal feasibility. However, several important issues haven't been addressed so far: the relationship between crew size and robustness of knowledge transfer, reliability, and alternative mission architectures. This paper addresses these gaps. Furthermore, it gives an update on target star system choice, and develops possible mission architectures. The derived conclusions are: a large population size leads to robust knowledge transfer and cultural adaptation. These processes can be improved by new technologies. World ship reliability depends on the availability of an automatic repair system, as in the case of the Daedalus probe. Star systems with habitable planets are probably farther away than systems with enough resources to construct space colonies. Therefore, missions to habitable planets have longer trip times and have a higher risk of mission failure. On the other hand, the risk of constructing colonies is higher than to establish an initial settlement on a habitable planet. Mission architectures with precursor probes have the potential to significantly reduce trip and colonization risk without being significantly more costly than architectures without. In summary world ships remain an interesting concept, although they require a space colony-based civilization within our own solar system before becoming feasible.

  3. Approximate Method of Calculating Forces on Rudder During Ship Sailing on a Shipping Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Zelazny

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Service speed of a ship in real weather conditions is a basic design parameter. Forecasting of this speed at preliminary design stage is made difficult by the lack of simple but at the same accurate models of forces acting upon a ship sailing on a preset shipping route. The article presents a model for calculating forces and moment on plane rudder, useful for forecasting of ship service speed at preliminary stages of ship design.

  4. Ultimate Longitudinal Strength of Composite Ship Hulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangming; Huang, Lingkai; Zhu, Libao; Tang, Yuhang; Wang, Anwen

    2017-01-01

    A simple analytical model to estimate the longitudinal strength of ship hulls in composite materials under buckling, material failure and ultimate collapse is presented in this paper. Ship hulls are regarded as assemblies of stiffened panels which idealized as group of plate-stiffener combinations. Ultimate strain of the plate-stiffener combination is predicted under buckling or material failure with composite beam-column theory. The effects of initial imperfection of ship hull and eccentricity of load are included. Corresponding longitudinal strengths of ship hull are derived in a straightforward method. A longitudinally framed ship hull made of symmetrically stacked unidirectional plies under sagging is analyzed. The results indicate that present analytical results have a good agreement with FEM method. The initial deflection of ship hull and eccentricity of load can dramatically reduce the bending capacity of ship hull. The proposed formulations provide a simple but useful tool for the longitudinal strength estimation in practical design.

  5. 47 CFR 80.1121 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... by ship stations and ship earth stations. 80.1121 Section 80.1121 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1121 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations. (a) Ship or ship earth stations that receive a distress alert must, as soon as possible, inform the master...

  6. Ship Collision Avoidance by Distributed Tabu Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Gyun Kim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available More than 90% of world trade is transported by sea. The size and speed of ships is rapidly increasing in order to boost economic efficiency. If ships collide, the damage and cost can be astronomical. It is very difficult for officers to ascertain routes that will avoid collisions, especially when multiple ships travel the same waters. There are several ways to prevent ship collisions, such as lookouts, radar, and VHF radio. More advanced methodologies, such as ship domain, fuzzy theory, and genetic algorithm, have been proposed. These methods work well in one-on-one situations, but are more difficult to apply in multiple-ship situations. Therefore, we proposed the Distributed Local Search Algorithm (DLSA to avoid ship collisions as a precedent study. DLSA is a distributed algorithm in which multiple ships communicate with each other within a certain area. DLSA computes collision risk based on the information received from neighboring ships. However, DLSA suffers from Quasi-Local Minimum (QLM, which prevents a ship from changing course even when a collision risk arises. In our study, we developed the Distributed Tabu Search Algorithm (DTSA. DTSA uses a tabu list to escape from QLM that also exploits a modified cost function and enlarged domain of next-intended courses to increase its efficiency. We conducted experiments to compare the performance of DLSA and DTSA. The results showed that DTSA outperformed DLSA.

  7. Analytical support management shipping company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Tarasenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article to determine areas of improvement of the economic analysis of the shipping companies tested, allowing to identify the problems of organization and methods, which are as follows: lack of regulation of economic analysis, unregulated and methods of economic analysis, using methods such as coefficient method, absolute differences method relative differences groupings balance method, while as factor analysis and correlation are ignored. Proved that today the priority targets of management that should be subject to economic analysis are: analysis of the efficiency of the fleet; analysis of the efficiency of transport services; analysis of the cost of transport services and costs; analysis of the efficiency of resource use.

  8. Automated Planning for Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller; Kroer, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP) poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities, many of which have costs that are a ......The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP) poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities, many of which have costs......-integer program (MIP) and a novel method called Temporal Optimization Planning (TOP). We evaluate the performance of each of these techniques on a dataset of real-world instances from our industrial collaborator, and show that automated planning scales to the size of problems faced by industry....

  9. Ship emissions and air pollution in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Helge Rørdam; Winther, Morten; Ellermann, Thomas

    A project has been carried out to map the contribution from ship traffic to air pollution in Denmark. A main element in the project is the establishment of a new, improved inventory of ship emissions for the waters around Denmark. The inventory makes use of the so-called AIS system, which...... continuously keeps track of ship positions. The inventory provides basis for model calculations of air quality in Denmark for the years 2007, 2011 and 2020. The study has focus on identifying the contribution from ships, and on assessing the effect of international regulations of ship pollution. A minor...... component of the study concerns the contribution to local air pollution from ships at port....

  10. Underwater radiated noise from modern commercial ships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Megan F; Ross, Donald; Wiggins, Sean M; Hildebrand, John A

    2012-01-01

    Underwater radiated noise measurements for seven types of modern commercial ships during normal operating conditions are presented. Calibrated acoustic data (Stern aspect noise levels are 5 to 10 dB higher than bow aspect noise levels. Collectively, these results emphasize the importance of including modern ship-types in quantifying shipping noise for predictive models of global, regional, and local marine environments. © 2012 Acoustical Society of America.

  11. Applications of Probabilistic Interpolation to Ship Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    this problem in issues from oil-spill investigation to maritime security and fisheries management. It outlines a general Bayesian approach to the...Introduction This paper is concerned with reconstructing past events involving ships, events around which the ships were employing self-reporting...systems. The motivation behind such reconstruction is typically forensic. In the classic scenario, one of the ships may have done something suspicious

  12. Design of Crashworthy Ship Strucures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toernqvist, Rikard

    2003-01-01

    The main purpose of the project has been to develop a rational procedure for designing new crashworthy side structures for those ship types where it could be expected that a substantial improvement of the crashworthiness and the related safety could be achieved by careful consideration of the str......The main purpose of the project has been to develop a rational procedure for designing new crashworthy side structures for those ship types where it could be expected that a substantial improvement of the crashworthiness and the related safety could be achieved by careful consideration...... and thus determine which compartments will be flooded as well as the amount of oil outflow. The most commonly used failure criterion in large-scale FE-simulations has been the equivalent plastic strain. However, it is well known that equivalent plastic strain is not suitable as a fracture criterion when...... a structure is subjected to biaxial loading. The main aspect of this thesis has therefore been to study the fracture criteria available in the literature and to validate them against various experiments with varying stress and strain states....

  13. Ship emissions and their externalities for Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzannatos, Ernestos

    2010-06-01

    The existing and emerging international and European policy framework for the reduction of ship exhaust emissions dictates the need to produce reliable national, regional and global inventories in order to monitor emission trends and consequently provide the necessary support for future policy making. Furthermore, the inventories of ship exhaust emissions constitute the basis upon which their external costs are estimated in an attempt to highlight the economic burden they impose upon the society and facilitate the cost-benefit analysis of the proposed emission abatement technologies, operational measures and market-based instruments prior to their implementation. The case of Greece is of particular interest mainly because the dense ship traffic within the Greek seas directly imposes the impact of its exhaust emission pollutants (NO x, SO 2 and PM) upon the highly populated, physically sensitive and culturally precious Greek coastline, as well as upon the land and seas of Greece in general, whereas the contribution of Greece in the global CO 2 inventory at a time of climatic change awareness cannot be ignored. In this context, this paper presents the contribution of Greece in ship exhaust emissions of CO 2, NO x, SO 2 and PM from domestic and international shipping over the last 25 years (1984-2008), utilizing the fuel-based (fuel sales) emission methodology. Furthermore, the ship exhaust emissions generated within the Greek seas and their externalities are estimated for the year 2008, through utilizing the fuel-based (fuel sales) approach for domestic shipping and the activity-based (ship traffic) approach for international shipping. On this basis, it was found that during the 1984 to 2008 period the fuel-based (fuel sales) ship emission inventory for Greece increased at an average annual rate of 2.85%. In 2008, the CO 2, NO x, SO 2 and PM emissions reached 12.9 million tons (of which 12.4 million tons of CO 2) and their externalities were found to be around 3

  14. Potential of biofuels for shipping. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florentinus, A.; Hamelinck, C.; Van den Bos, A.; Winkel, R.; Cuijpers, M. [Ecofys Netherlands, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-01-15

    Biofuels could be one of the options to realize a lower carbon intensity in the propulsion of ships and also possibly reduce the effect of ship emissions on local air quality. Therefore, EMSA, the European Maritime Safety Agency, is evaluating if and how biofuels could be used in the shipping sector as an alternative fuel. To determine the potential of biofuels for ships, a clearer picture is needed on technical and organizational limitations of biofuels in ships, both on board of the ship as in the fuel supply chain to the ship. Economic and sustainability analysis of biofuels should be included in this picture, as well as an overview on current and potential policy measures to stimulate the use of biofuels in shipping. Ecofys has determined the potential of biofuels, based on analysis of collected data through literature review, own expertise and experiences, direct communication with EMSA, research publications, market developments based on press and other media, and consultations with relevant stakeholders in the shipping market.

  15. Convolution neural networks for ship type recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey, Katie; Reeder, John D.; Corelli, Alexander G.

    2016-05-01

    Algorithms to automatically recognize ship type from satellite imagery are desired for numerous maritime applications. This task is difficult, and example imagery accurately labeled with ship type is hard to obtain. Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have shown promise in image recognition settings, but many of these applications rely on the availability of thousands of example images for training. This work attempts to under- stand for which types of ship recognition tasks CNNs might be well suited. We report the results of baseline experiments applying a CNN to several ship type classification tasks, and discuss many of the considerations that must be made in approaching this problem.

  16. Note from the radioprotection group's shipping service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Le service SHIPPING du groupe de radioprotection souhaite vous rappeler qu'avant toute expédition de matériel susceptible d'être radioactif, une demande de transport doit être établie par EDH en cochant la case appropriée (danger radioactif). Merci de bien vouloir prendre note des informations figurant dans le site Web: http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Toute demande non conforme ne sera pas prise en compte. Radioactive Shipping Service http://cern.ch/service-rp-shippingTél: 73171Fax: 69200

  17. Shipping/Receiving and Quality Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Shipping receiving, quality control, large and precise inspection and CMM machines. Coordinate Measuring Machines, including "scanning" probes, optical comparators,...

  18. Ship Sensor Observations from missions of the NOAA ship Okeanos Explorer from 2008 to present.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Dataset shows measurements made by selected ship sensors on the NOAA ship Okeanos Explorer during expeditions from 2008 to the present time. These cruises were...

  19. The role of ship and mortgage registration in shipping finance: : the prospects for the Russian Federation

    OpenAIRE

    Nikiforova, Valentina

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to provide an analysis of the current issues and conditions affecting shipping finance in Russia based on the development of the systems of ship and mortgage registration. Particular economic reasons describing the situation on the shipping markets lie outside the scope of this thesis. However, a general overview of the situation of the shipping markets and results achieved by the leading banks will be provided in the first chapter. The reason is to demonst...

  20. Ship-Track Clouds, Aerosol, and Ship Dynamic Effects; A Climate Perspective from Ship-Based Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porch, W.M.

    1998-10-13

    Ship-track clouds are marine boundary layer clouds that form behind ocean ships and are observed from satellites in the visible and near infrared. Ship-track clouds provide a rare opportunity to connect aerosol cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) emissions and observable changes in marine stratiform clouds. A very small change in the reflectivity of these eastern Pacific and Atlantic clouds (about 4%) provides a climate feedback of similar magnitude to doubling CO{sub 2} (increasing cloud reflectivity corresponds to global cooling). The Department of Energy sponsored research from 1991 to 1995 to study ship-track clouds including two ocean-based experiments in the summers of 1991 and 1994. These experiments showed that ship-track cloud properties were often more complex those related to a reduction of droplet size with an increase in number associated with increasing CCN from the ship's plume. The clouds showed evidence of morphological changes more likely to be associated with cloud dynamic effects either initiated by the increased CCN or directly by the ship's heat output or turbulent air wake. The fact that marine stratiform clouds, that are susceptible to ship track formation, are starved for both CCN and convective turbulence complicates the separation of the two effects.

  1. Behavioral and Physiological Response of Baleen Whales to Ships and Ship Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Behavioral and physiological response of baleen whales to...and physiological response of baleen whales to ships and ship noise off California using a combination of opportunistic and controlled research. Ship...a growing concern especially for several species including blue and right whales that appear to be particularly susceptible. Initial research

  2. Shipping, Ships and Waterways: A Marine Education Infusion Unit. Northern New England Marine Education Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maine Univ., Orono. Coll. of Education.

    This multidisciplinary unit is designed to increase familiarity with various types of ships and purposes for different varieties of marine vessels. It seeks to increase familiarity with routes of ocean shipping and the effect of ocean conditions such as currents upon shipping route patterns. A discussion treats the uses of various navigation…

  3. LCA-ship. Design tool for energy efficient ships. A Life Cycle Analysis Program for Ships. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiven, Karl; Sjoebris, Anders [MariTerm AB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Nilsson, Maria [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Stiftelsen TEM; Ellis, Joanne; Traegaardh, Peter; Nordstroem, Malin [SSPA Sweden AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    In order to make it easier to include aspects during ship design that will improve environmental performance, general methods for life cycle calculations and a prototype tool for LCA calculations of ships and marine transportation have been developed. The base of the life cycle analyses is a comprehensive set of life cycle data that was collected for the materials and consumables used in ship construction and vessel operations. The computer tool developed makes it possible to quickly and simply specify (and calculate) the use of consumables over the vessel's life time cycle. Special effort has been made to allow the tool to be used for different types of vessels and sea transport. The main result from the project is the computer tool LCA ship, which incorporates collected and developed life cycle data for some of the most important materials and consumables used in ships and their operation. The computer application also contains a module for propulsion power calculations and a module for defining and optimising the energy system onboard the vessel. The tool itself is described in more detail in the Computer application manual. The input to the application should, as much as possible, be the kind of information that is normally found in a shipping company concerning vessel data and vessel movements. It all starts with defining the ship to be analysed and continues with defining how the ship is used over the lifetime. The tool contains compiled and processed background information about specific materials and processes (LCA data) connected to shipping operations. The LCA data is included in the tool in a processed form. LCA data for steel will for example include the environmental load from the steel production, the process to build the steel structure of the ship, the scrapping and the recycling phase. To be able to calculate the environmental load from the use of steel the total amount of steel used over the life cycle of the ship is also needed. The

  4. Achieving Energy Efficient Ship Operations Under Third Party Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taudal Poulsen, René; Sornn-Friese, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    of time to produce and provide reliable energy efficiency information cause energy efficiency gaps. The paper brings together the energy efficiency and ship management literatures, demonstrating how ship management models influence energy efficiency in ship operations. Achieving energy efficiency in ship...... operations is particularly challenging under third party ship management. Finally, the paper discusses management implications for shipping companies, which outsource ship management to third parties.......Profitable energy saving measures are often not fully implemented in shipping, causing energy efficiency gaps. The paper identifies energy efficiency gaps in ship operations, and explores their causes. Lack of information on energy efficiency, lack of energy training at sea and onshore and lack...

  5. SNF shipping cask shielding analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.O.; Pace, J.V. III

    1996-01-01

    The Waste Management and Remedial Action Division has planned a modification sequence for storage facility 7827 in the Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA). The modification cycle is: (1) modify an empty caisson, (2) transfer the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) of an occupied caisson to a hot cell in building 3525 for inspection and possible repackaging, and (3) return the package to the modified caisson in the SWSA. Although the SNF to be moved is in the solid form, it has different levels of activity. Thus, the following 5 shipping casks will be available for the task: the Loop Transport Carrier, the In- Pile Loop LITR HB-2 Carrier, the 6.5-inch HRLEL Carrier, the HFIR Hot Scrap Carrier, and the 10-inch ORR Experiment Removal Shield Cask. This report describes the shielding tasks for the 5 casks: determination of shielding characteristics, any streaming avenues, estimation of thermal limits, and shielding calculational uncertainty for use in the transportation plan.

  6. 46 CFR 173.051 - Public nautical school ships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public nautical school ships. 173.051 Section 173.051 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.051 Public nautical school ships. Each public nautical school...

  7. 46 CFR 2.75-60 - Hazardous ships' stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hazardous ships' stores. 2.75-60 Section 2.75-60 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC VESSEL... Personnel § 2.75-60 Hazardous ships' stores. Hazardous ships' stores, as defined in § 147.3 of this chapter...

  8. 48 CFR 1371.118 - Changes-ship repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SUPPLEMENTAL REGULATIONS ACQUISITIONS INVOLVING SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND SHIP REPAIR Provisions and Clauses 1371.118 Changes—ship repair. Insert clause 1352.271-87, Changes—Ship Repair, in all solicitations and... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Changes-ship repair. 1371...

  9. 46 CFR 111.10-7 - Dead ship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dead ship. 111.10-7 Section 111.10-7 Shipping COAST... REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-7 Dead ship. (a) The generating plant of each self-propelled vessel must provide the electrical services necessary to start the main propulsion plant from a dead ship condition...

  10. Ships in Russian Literature: Folklore Aesthetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudareva, Marianna A.; Pogukaeva, Anna V.; Polyantseva, Evgeniya A.; Karpova, Yulia V.

    2017-01-01

    The paper studies a genesis of the ship image in the Russian literature and folklore, an idea of "other kingdom" in the Russian literature poetics of the 19-20 centuries. An emphasis is put on the issues related to the metaphor of a ship, a boat in the artistic world of Lermontov, Turgenev, Dostoevsky and in the poetry of the early 20th…

  11. 75 FR 35873 - Meeting; Shipping Coordinating Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ... Measurement Convention on ship design and safety. --Standards on time-dependent survivability of passenger... Protocol. --Amendments to SOLAS chapter II-1 subdivision standards for cargo ships. --Amendments to the 1966 Load Line Convention and the 1988 Load Line Protocol related to seasonal zones. --Revision of...

  12. Nonlinear ship waves and computational fluid dynamics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    MIYATA, Hideaki; ORIHARA, Hideo; SATO, Yohei

    2014-01-01

    .... Finding of the occurrence of nonlinear waves (named Free-Surface Shock Waves) in the vicinity of a ship advancing at constant speed provided the start-line for the progress of innovative technologies in the ship hull-form design...

  13. 29 CFR 1915.162 - Ship's boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Ship's boilers. (a) Before work is performed in the fire, steam, or water spaces of a boiler where employees may be subject to injury from the direct escape of a high temperature medium such as steam, or... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship's boilers. 1915.162 Section 1915.162 Labor Regulations...

  14. 31 CFR 361.3 - Shipping procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shipping procedure. 361.3 Section 361.3 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... § 361.3 Shipping procedure. Shipments of valuables shall be made so as to provide the greatest possible...

  15. Wave energy extraction using decommisioned ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansour, A.E.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Paik, J.K.

    2013-01-01

    About 200–400 large merchant ships are decommissioned and scrapped every year. In addition, the US Navy decommissions tens of naval vessels every year. In 2002/2003, the average cost of custody for a ship to be decommissioned was $25,000 per year, and $2.5 million to scrap it. The US Navy budget...

  16. The mechanics of ship impacts against bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

    1998-01-01

    a glancing blow between the ship and the bridge structure. This model is based on rigid body mechanics and well suited for inclusion in a probabilistic analysis procedure. Finally, some empirical expressions are presented which relate the energy absorbed by crushing of ship structures to the maximum impact...

  17. 49 CFR 177.817 - Shipping papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... motor vehicle containing hazardous material, and each carrier using such a vehicle, shall ensure that...: (i) When the driver is at the vehicle's controls, the shipping paper shall be: (A) Within his... side of the vehicle. (ii) When the driver is not at the vehicle's controls, the shipping paper shall be...

  18. India's ship recycling trade-off

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worrell, E.; Athanasopoulou, V.

    2014-01-01

    The special nature of India's steel industry lends particular importance to ship recycling as a source of scrap. Ship recycling in upgraded 'green' facilities can substitute other 'dirty' ironmaking processes, resulting in energy savings and air pollutant emission reductions for the Indian steel

  19. China - opportunities and challenges for world shipping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The report provides critical insight into the events and developments that will be shaping China`s trade and shipping role in the next decade, focusing on the issues which lie at the heart of the concerns (whether seen as opportunities or threats) of ship owners, operators, port interests and those who support the shipping industry either financially or through the provision of services. Chapter headings are: economic and industrial profile; principal dry bulk trades (including coal, coking coal, coal ports and infrastructure developments iron ore etc.); liquid trades (including crude oil, natural gas and LPG); container trades; refrigerated cargo (reefer trends); China`s maritime fleet; shipbuilding, ship repair and demolition; and outlook and opportunities for world shipping.

  20. Control mechanisms for Nordic ship emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinsen, K. [DNV, Oslo (Norway); Torvanger, A. [Cicero, Oslo (Norway)

    2013-04-15

    Shipping today operates under a complex set of international and domestic regulations. However, the environmental regulations have lagged behind those of other industries. This situation is now changing quite dramatically. The increased focus on environmental issues, combined with the growing realisation of the actual pollution burden imposed by shipping, has led to an upsurge in both international and national regulations. Some are ready and will enter into force in the near future, while others are still being developed. On behalf of the Nordic Council of Ministers DNV has carried out a study on possible control mechanisms for Nordic ship emission. The aim is to assess the baseline shipping emissions and reduction potential and the possible controlling mechanisms (both incentives and regulations) available for reducing the emissions to air from shipping within the Nordic region. (Author)

  1. The Problems of Reducing Exhaust Gas Emissions from Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Panasiuk

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the environmental impact of shipping and air pollution caused by ships. The paper presents the development of regulations on air pollution caused by ships and describes the efficiency of methods for reducing emissions.

  2. Liner Shipping Fleet Deployment with Sustainable Collaborative Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gang Du; Chuanwang Sun; Jinxian Weng

    2016-01-01

      Facing sharp competition in the market for shipping companies, it is necessary to make reasonable and efficient decisions to optimize the container shipping line network so as to improve the shipping...

  3. 77 FR 28923 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... to prepare for the fifty-eighth Session of the International Maritime Organization's (IMO) Sub... --Routeing of ships, ship reporting and related matters --Amendments to the General Provisions on Ships...

  4. Ship2Shore Marine Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, N. R.; Sen, G.; Doehler, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Ocean Networks Canada (ONC) Observatory, comprised of VENUS and NEPTUNE Canada (NC) cabled networks, supports transformative coastal to deep ocean research and enables real-time interactive experiments. Engaging students, educators and the public is critical to increasing the global awareness of our integral relationship with the ocean. One way to accomplish this is to encourage educators to incorporate marine science concepts into their lesson plans. ONC's new initiative, Ship2Shore Marine Educators (S2SME), enables educators to learn first hand about marine science and technology by going to sea on a maintenance/research cruise. While at sea Marine Educators (ME) participate in technology deployments, assist with water and core sampling, write daily blogs, produce short video updates, develop learning resources and conduct presentations to students on shore via video conferencing. MEs participating in the last NC cruise -"Wiring the Abyss 2012" - were fascinated with being a part of science in the real world. They had an experience of a lifetime and anticipate incorporating what they have learned into their lessons during the upcoming semester. Outreach between the MEs and ONC communication staff aboard the ship resulted in nearly 7,000 unique visitors to the "Wiring the Abyss 2012'' cruise website. Live ROPOS video feeds (~ 9,000 views), highlight videos (436 views/day), daily blogs (~1200 views) and stunning images (~391 views/day) were among the top rated pages. Visitors from 10 countries tuned in to "Wiring the Abyss 2012" and experienced the Pacific's deep sea! One of the best experiences for the MEs was connecting with students and teachers on shore via video conferencing. Roughly 300 students in BC and USA received a live connection from approximately 200km off the west coast. Students were most fascinated by a demo involving compressed Styrofoam cups, showing the intensity of pressure at the bottom of the sea. Successes: A positive working

  5. Mathematical modelling of forces acting on ships during lightering operations

    OpenAIRE

    Lataire, E.; Vantorre, M.; Delefortrie, G.; Candries, M.

    2012-01-01

    The transfer of liquid cargo (crude oil and LNG) from a larger ship (the ship to be lightered, STBL) to a smaller vessel (service ship) when both ships are moored to each other and sail at a (slow) constant forward speed is known as lightering. These ship to ship operations are expected to increase in the near future and are expected to take place in harsher environmental conditions (polar regions). In order to better understand the hydrodynamic phenomena involved in this specific manoeuvre, ...

  6. Arctic shipping emissions inventories and future scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Corbett

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents 5 km×5 km Arctic emissions inventories of important greenhouse gases, black carbon and other pollutants under existing and future (2050 scenarios that account for growth of shipping in the region, potential diversion traffic through emerging routes, and possible emissions control measures. These high-resolution, geospatial emissions inventories for shipping can be used to evaluate Arctic climate sensitivity to black carbon (a short-lived climate forcing pollutant especially effective in accelerating the melting of ice and snow, aerosols, and gaseous emissions including carbon dioxide. We quantify ship emissions scenarios which are expected to increase as declining sea ice coverage due to climate change allows for increased shipping activity in the Arctic. A first-order calculation of global warming potential due to 2030 emissions in the high-growth scenario suggests that short-lived forcing of ~4.5 gigagrams of black carbon from Arctic shipping may increase global warming potential due to Arctic ships' CO2 emissions (~42 000 gigagrams by some 17% to 78%. The paper also presents maximum feasible reduction scenarios for black carbon in particular. These emissions reduction scenarios will enable scientists and policymakers to evaluate the efficacy and benefits of technological controls for black carbon, and other pollutants from ships.

  7. MASTER OF THE SHIP, MANAGER AND INSTRUCTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin IORDANOAIA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The master of the ship is the person on the board who has the qualification and the necessary certificate of competency for running a maritime transport ship. He is the one who takes the ship into administration from the ship-owner, he is the only leader, the legal and direct chief of the entire crew, being invested with authority upon all the members of the crew. The master fulfils the attributes and displays his activity according to the legal laws of his flag, of the marine regulations and of the international conventions. In all the relationships which he establishes with physical or juridical people, the master represents the ship-owner, in a double condition, as an officer and as a commercial manager. In this paper, it is analysed the situation of the ship masters, the relationships which these masters have with the crew and the problems which appear during their voyage. At the end of the paper there are proposed measures to increase the quality of the training of the ship masters, to solve the situations connected with the members of the crew.

  8. Ship with container to transport liquefied gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, P.R.; Teymourian, J.; Rothrock, E.W.; Kircik, W.J.; Lange, K.W.

    1975-08-14

    The invention deals with ships suitable for transporting cold-producing liquefied gases and with the transport container for this. According to the invention, a transport container is designed in the ship's hold which has a metallic jacket and consists of the following parts: A flat metallic floor, a spherical upper section and a ring-shaped connecting section. Between the ship's hold and the container floor, there is a loadable insulation upon which the container floor rests. Details and features of the invention are illustrated by several diagrams.

  9. Latest major developments in shipping finance

    OpenAIRE

    Akca, E. Cihan

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The ship finance is no more a fixed science than is any other sort of finance. Financial terms, conditions, banks and shipowners become ever more sophisticated. Because shipping is a highly capital intensive industry, with its 32,000 world- wide companies is one of the three most finance intensive industries in the world, about 80 billion dollars per year for financing new buildings alone. The financing of large ocean-going ships are undertaken by banks all over the world, by no mean...

  10. Ship dynamics for maritime ISAR imaging.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2008-02-01

    Demand is increasing for imaging ships at sea. Conventional SAR fails because the ships are usually in motion, both with a forward velocity, and other linear and angular motions that accompany sea travel. Because the target itself is moving, this becomes an Inverse- SAR, or ISAR problem. Developing useful ISAR techniques and algorithms is considerably aided by first understanding the nature and characteristics of ship motion. Consequently, a brief study of some principles of naval architecture sheds useful light on this problem. We attempt to do so here. Ship motions are analyzed for their impact on range-Doppler imaging using Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR). A framework for analysis is developed, and limitations of simple ISAR systems are discussed.

  11. Marine bioinvasion: Concern for ecology and shipping

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anil, A.C.; Venkat, K.; Sawant, S.S.; DileepKumar, M.; Dhargalkar, V.K.; Ramaiah, N.; Harkantra, S.N.; Ansari, Z.A.

    Marine bioinvasion - introduction of marine organisms alien to local ecosystem through ship hulls and ballast water - has serious consequences to native biota, fishery and general coastal ecosystem. Over 80% of the world cargo is mobilized...

  12. Communication from the Radioactive Shipping Service

    CERN Multimedia

    DDGS Unit

    2011-01-01

    The radioactive materials Import/Export service reminds you that all movements of potentially radioactive material must be declared in advance. For exports, shipping requests must be made via the EDH request form, ticking the box “radioactive material”. For imports, an electronic form must be completed before the arrival of the material. Requests which do not comply with the above procedure and any unauthorized imports of radioactive material will be refused.The same applies to imports/exports of radioactive sources. All necessary information is given in the web site: http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Yann Donjoux / Radioactive Shipping Service Phone: +41 22 767.31.71 Fax: +41 22 766.92.00 Email: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch

  13. Container repositioning management in liner shipping industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Saeidi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Managing empty containers in shipping industry plays an important role to increase the profitability on marine shipping industry. This paper presents an empirical investigation to detect influential factors in container transportation and estimates the value of empty containers transportation. The study also evaluates and compares different strategies employed to reduce the charge of empty container transportation. By selecting three major passages including Trans-pacific, trans-Atlantic and Europe-Asia and considering the balance in transportation network, regardless of the origin of shipping companies, an optimistic estimation of empty container transportation would be possible; therefore, empty container transportation could be explained, quantitatively. Furthermore, since shipping companies organize the movement of containers in various routes, four different strategies are also proposed.

  14. AIS Ship Traffic: Hawaii: 2011-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ship position data from a satellite-based Automatic Identification System (AIS) were obtained jointly by PacIOOS (J. Potemra), SOEST/ORE of the University of Hawaii...

  15. Projections and predictability of Arctic shipping accessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melia, Nathanael; Haines, Keith; Hawkins, Ed

    2016-04-01

    The observed reduction in Arctic sea ice opens up the potential for shorter shipping routes across the Arctic Ocean, leading to potentially significant global economic savings. We demonstrate, using bias-corrected global climate models, that the projected sea ice melt through the 21st century increases opportunities for ships to sail through the Arctic between North Atlantic and East Asian ports. Transit potential for Open Water vessels doubles from early to mid-century and coincides with the opening of the trans-polar sea route. Although seasonal, routes become more reliable with an overall increased shipping season length, but with considerable variability from year-to-year. We also demonstrate that there is potential predictability for whether a particular season will be relatively open or closed to shipping access from a few months ahead.

  16. Ships as future floating farm systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2016-09-29

    Environmental and agriculture challenges such as severe drought, desertification, sprawling cities and shrinking arable lands in large regions in the world compel us to think about alternative and sustainable farming systems. Ongoing projects to build floating cities in the sea suggest that building specific ships for farming purposes (as farming ships or farming boats) would also be attainable to introduce new farming surfaces and boost food production worldwide to cope with food insecurity issues.

  17. Sulphur Abatement Globally in Maritime Shipping

    OpenAIRE

    Lindstad, Elizabeth; Rehn, Carl Fredrik; Gunnar S. Eskeland

    2017-01-01

    In 2016, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) decided on global regulations to reduce sulphur emissions to air from maritime shipping starting 2020. The regulation implies that ships can continue to use residual fuels with a high sulphur content, such as heavy fuel oil (HFO), if they employ scrubbers to desulphurise the exhaust gases. Alternatively, they can use fuels with less than 0.5% sulphur, such as desulphurised HFO, distillates (diesel) or liquefied natural gas (LNG). The opti...

  18. Evaluation of the Service Performance of Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul; Borrod, Anne-Sophie; Blanchot, Hervé

    2005-01-01

    of voyages for the same ship. The procedure has been applied to two ships that are identical, with the exception that one has a conventional propeller, whereas the other one is fitted with a high-efficiency propeller of the KAPPEL type. The results are obtained from a period of 2 years steaming for both...... vessels. They clearly confirm the increase of propulsive efficiency obtained with the KAPPEL propeller in the order of magnitude of 4%....

  19. Structural health monitoring for ship structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Gyuhae [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Angel, Marian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bement, Matthew [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Salvino, Liming [NSWC, CADEROCK

    2009-01-01

    Currently the Office of Naval Research is supporting the development of structural health monitoring (SHM) technology for U.S. Navy ship structures. This application is particularly challenging because of the physical size of these structures, the widely varying and often extreme operational and environmental conditions associated with these ships missions, lack of data from known damage conditions, limited sensing that was not designed specifically for SHM, and the management of the vast amounts of data that can be collected during a mission. This paper will first define a statistical pattern recognition paradigm for SHM by describing the four steps of (1) Operational Evaluation, (2) Data Acquisition, (3) Feature Extraction, and (4) Statistical Classification of Features as they apply to ship structures. Note that inherent in the last three steps of this process are additional tasks of data cleansing, compression, normalization and fusion. The presentation will discuss ship structure SHM challenges in the context of applying various SHM approaches to sea trials data measured on an aluminum multi-hull high-speed ship, the HSV-2 Swift. To conclude, the paper will discuss several outstanding issues that need to be addressed before SHM can make the transition from a research topic to actual field applications on ship structures and suggest approaches for addressing these issues.

  20. Ship design methodologies of preliminary design

    CERN Document Server

    Papanikolaou, Apostolos

    2014-01-01

    This book deals with ship design and in particular with methodologies of the preliminary design of ships. The book is complemented by a basic bibliography and five appendices with useful updated charts for the selection of the main dimensions and other basic characteristics of different types of ships (Appendix A), the determination of hull form  from the data of systematic hull form series (Appendix B), the detailed description of the relational method for the preliminary estimation of ship weights (Appendix C), a brief review of the historical evolution of shipbuilding science and technology from the prehistoric era to date (Appendix D) and finally a historical review of regulatory developments of ship's damage stability to date (Appendix E).  The book can be used as textbook for ship design courses or as additional reading for university or college students of naval architecture courses and related disciplines; it may also serve as a reference book for naval architects, practicing engineers of rel...

  1. Ultimate Strength of Ship Hulls under Torsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paik, Jeom Kee; Thayamballi, Anil K.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2001-01-01

    For a ship hull with large deck openings such as container vessels and some large bulk carriers, the analysis of warping stresses and hatch opening deformations is an essential part of ship structural analyses. It is thus of importance to better understand the ultimate torsional strength characte......For a ship hull with large deck openings such as container vessels and some large bulk carriers, the analysis of warping stresses and hatch opening deformations is an essential part of ship structural analyses. It is thus of importance to better understand the ultimate torsional strength...... characteristics of ships with large hatch openings. The primary aim of the present study is to investigate the ultimate strength characteristics of ship hulls with large hatch openings under torsion. Axial (warping) as well as shear stresses are normally developed for thin-walled beams with open cross sections...... subjected to torsion. A procedure for calculating these stresses is briefly described. As an illustrative example, the distribution and magnitude of warping and shear stresses for a typical container vessel hull cross section under unit torsion is calculated by the procedure. By theoretical and numerical...

  2. Inspiration of the functional localization of a US naval hospital ship on a Chinese hospital ship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Da-Wei; Zhang, Zhi-Cheng; Zhu, Wen-Ya; Sun, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Through the experience of being stationed on the USS Mercy hospital ship (T-AH19) and a preliminary comprehension of the personnel and material arrangements, processing and functional formats, and the multi-platform contributions of US Navy hospital ships, we briefly introduce the characteristics of US hospital ships regarding medical support, emergency rescue exercises, communications and training, international humanitarian aid, etc. We discuss the function and responsibility of Chinese hospital ships, focusing on the investigation of the construction mode and positioning in the navy.

  3. Optimal Evasive Maneuver for a Ship in an Environment of Fixed Installations and Other Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Skjong

    1982-10-01

    Full Text Available Collision avoidance for encounters between several ships and installations in the open sea, is treated as a problem of optimal control, using the theory of differential games. Each ship is, in this idealized model, assumed to have two controls corresponding to rudder angle and engine setting. The objective function, which the shipmasters try to minimize in an optimal evasive manoeuvre, is defined as the collision risk. Numerical solutions for the M-ships and I-installations optimal evasive manoeuvre problem, can be found by the ping-pong algorithm. Numerical examples are given for up to five ships and two installations.

  4. Automatic production planning for the construction of complex ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rose, C.D.

    2017-01-01

    European shipyards specialize in building complex ship types including offshore vessels, yachts, dredgers, and cruise ships. One key difference between these ships and the simple cargo ships typically built in the Far East is the amount and variety of mission-related equipment required to operate

  5. 46 CFR 188.10-73 - Ships' stores and supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ships' stores and supplies. 188.10-73 Section 188.10-73 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-73 Ships' stores and supplies. This term...

  6. 48 CFR 1336.270 - Special requirements for ship construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ship construction 1336.270 Section 1336.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... Contracting for Construction 1336.270 Special requirements for ship construction See 48 CFR 1371 for special requirements for acquisition involving ship construction and ship repair. ...

  7. 46 CFR 169.817 - Master to instruct ship's company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Master to instruct ship's company. 169.817 Section 169.817 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Operations § 169.817 Master to instruct ship's company. The master shall conduct drills and give...

  8. Development of software for handling ship's pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittari, Giulio; Peretti, Alessandro; Sibilio, Fabio; Ioannidis, Nicholas; Amenta, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Ships are required to carry a given amount of medicinal products and medications depending on the flag and the type of vessel. These medicines are stored in the so called ship's "medicine chest" or more properly - a ship pharmacy. Owing to the progress of medical sciences and to the increase in the mean age of seafarers employed on board ships, the number of pharmaceutical products and medical devices required by regulations to be carried on board ships is increasing. This may make handling of the ship's medicine chest a problem primarily on large ships sailing on intercontinental routes due to the difficulty in identifying the correspondence between medicines obtained abroad with those available at the national market. To minimise these problems a tool named Pharmacy Ship (acronym: PARSI) has been developed. The application PARSI is based on a database containing the information about medicines and medical devices required by different countries regulations. In the first application the system was standardised to comply with the Italian regulations issued on the 1st October, 2015 which entered into force on the 18 January 2016. Thanks to PARSI it was possible to standardize the inventory procedures, facilitate the work of maritime health authorities and make it easier for the crew, not professional in the field, to handle the 'medicine chest' correctly by automating the procedures for medicines management. As far as we know there are no other similar tools available at the moment. The application of the software, as well as the automation of different activities, currently carried out manually, will help manage (qualitatively and quantitatively) the ship's pharmacy. The system developed in this study has proved to be an effective tool which serves to guarantee the compliance of the ship pharmacy with regulations of the flag state in terms of medicinal products and medications. Sharing the system with the Telemedical Maritime Assistance Service may result in

  9. Feasibility Study on Nuclear Propulsion Ship according to Economic Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, Youngmi; Yoo, Seongjin; Oh, June; Byun, Yoonchul; Woo, Ilguk [Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering Co., Ltd, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jiho; Choi, Suhn [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The use of nuclear ships has been extending to the icebreaker, the deep-water exploration ship, and the floating nuclear power plant. Prior to developing the new ship, the relevant regulations need to be considered. In this study, we reviewed the nuclear ship-related regulations. In addition, economic value is one of the most important factors which should be considered in the pre-design phase. To evaluate the economics of the nuclear ship, we calculated Capital Expenditure (abbreviated as CAPEX) and Operation Expenditure (abbreviated as OPEX) for various types of ships. We reviewed the nuclear ship-related regulations and evaluated the economics of the nuclear ship compared to the diesel ship. The calculation result shows that economic feasibility of the nuclear ship depends on the oil price as well as the cost of the nuclear reactor.

  10. Prediction of Ship Unsteady Maneuvering in Calm Water by a Fully Nonlinear Ship Motion Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray-Qing Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the continuation of our research on development of a fully nonlinear, dynamically consistent, numerical ship motion model (DiSSEL. In this study we will report our results in predicting ship motions in unsteady maneuvering in calm water. During the unsteady maneuvering, both the rudder angle, and ship forward speed vary with time. Therefore, not only surge, sway, and yaw motions occur, but roll, pitch and heave motions will also occur even in calm water as heel, trim, and sinkage, respectively. When the rudder angles and ship forward speed vary rapidly with time, the six degrees-of-freedom ship motions and their interactions become strong. To accurately predict the six degrees-of-freedom ship motions in unsteady maneuvering, a universal method for arbitrary ship hull requires physics-based fully-nonlinear models for ship motion and for rudder forces and moments. The numerical simulations will be benchmarked by experimental data of the Pre-Contract DDG51 design and an Experimental Hull Form. The benchmarking shows a good agreement between numerical simulations by the enhancement DiSSEL and experimental data. No empirical parameterization is used, except for the influence of the propeller slipstream on the rudder, which is included using a flow acceleration factor.

  11. Performance characterisation for risk assessment of striking ship impacts based on struck ship damaged volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obisesan, Abayomi; Sriramula, Srinivas

    2017-06-01

    Ship collision accidents are rare events but pose huge threat to human lives, assets, and the environment. Many researchers have sought for effective models that compute ship stochastic response during collisions by considering the variability of ship collision scenario parameters. However, the existing models were limited by the capability of the collision computational models and did not completely capture collision scenario, and material and geometric uncertainties. In this paper, a novel framework to performance characterisation of ships in collision involving a variety of striking ships is developed, by characterising the structural consequences with efficient response models. A double-hull oil carrier is chosen as the struck ship to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed framework. Response surface techniques are employed to generate the most probable input design sets which are used to sample an automated finite element tool to compute the chosen structural consequences. The resulting predictor-response relationships are fitted with suitable surrogate models to probabilistically characterise the struck ship damage under collisions. As demonstrated in this paper, such models are extremely useful to reduce the computational complexity in obtaining probabilistic design measures for ship structures. The proposed probabilistic approach is also combined with available collision frequency models from literature to demonstrate the risk tolerance computations.

  12. SEAFRAME: Ships & Ship Systems Quarterly Publication, Volume 1, Issue 2, Fall 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    capabilities to bear for the customer . Within the Ships and Ship Systems (S3) Product Area (PA), we are collaborating in multiple areas. Examples of teaming...Littoral Mine Warfare, and PEO Integrated Warfare Systems). The CONOPS provides a framework to integrate and coordinate the customer advocates across

  13. Risk Analysis on Ship Wreck and Container Cargo to Ship Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Badrus Zaman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wreck of a ship is an incident that must be avoided. Ship accidents are generally caused by a several cases, such as human error, natural disaster, technical errors, missed communication, poor condition of the ship, and many more. Ship wreckage have huge impact for ship navigation, environment, economics, and others. Those impact have many disadvantages for the shipowners, and also for environment. For examples the fuel spills that pollute the environment, make disturbance to sailing ship because the track for those navigation is blocked by the ship wreck and their cargo especially on shallow location (<50 m. These research will discuss the effect the container when it is floats on the sea and its interference other ships. The main objective of this study is to present a risk assessment on the environmental impact of the wreck and container cargo. Wrecks on the seabed is likely to pose a risk to passing ships. container and its contents as well as the possibility of refloat, and also their environmental risks emanating from the wreck and container cargo, such as fuels, lubricants, and chemical cargo. Variations scenario is a collision between ships that pass by floating containers. The frequency of refloating container, and the consequences of the passing ship depends on several factors, which will be the subject of research. However, because of the frequency of refloating containers is unlikely, then the risk is low and does not pose a danger to navigation. These risk assessment using risk matrix 5x5 which is the combined value of the frequency and consequences of the incident. The results of this study indicate the level of risk, whether the risk is accepted, not accepted or received by considering the costs and benefits (ALARP. To consequence, there are two parameters which energy is absorbed and the penetration occurs. The absorbed energy is divided into two, namely the energy absorbed by ship and the energy absorbed by containers. In this

  14. Quantitative analysis method for ship construction quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FU Senzong

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The excellent performance of a ship is assured by the accurate evaluation of its construction quality. For a long time, research into the construction quality of ships has mainly focused on qualitative analysis due to a shortage of process data, which results from limited samples, varied process types and non-standardized processes. Aiming at predicting and controlling the influence of the construction process on the construction quality of ships, this article proposes a reliability quantitative analysis flow path for the ship construction process and fuzzy calculation method. Based on the process-quality factor model proposed by the Function-Oriented Quality Control (FOQC method, we combine fuzzy mathematics with the expert grading method to deduce formulations calculating the fuzzy process reliability of the ordinal connection model, series connection model and mixed connection model. The quantitative analysis method is applied in analyzing the process reliability of a ship's shaft gear box installation, which proves the applicability and effectiveness of the method. The analysis results can be a useful reference for setting key quality inspection points and optimizing key processes.

  15. A Simplified Method for Calculating Propeller Thrust Decrease for a Ship Sailing on a Given Shipping Lane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelazny Katarzyna

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available During ship sailing on rough water, relative ship motions can be observed which make the propeller emerge from the water, and decrease its thrust as a consequence. The article presents a simplified method for calculating the thrust decrease and the time of propeller emergence from water for the ship on a regular an irregular wave. The method can be used for predicting the operating speed of the ship on a given shipping lane.

  16. Orchestrating Transnational Environmental Governance in Maritime Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lister, Jane; Taudal Poulsen, René; Ponte, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    emerging private ‘green shipping’ initiatives to achieve better ecological outcomes? Contributing to transnational governance theory, we find that conditions stalling regulatory progress include low environmental issue visibility, poor interest alignment, a broadening scope of environmental issues......Maritime shipping is the transmission belt of the global economy. It is also a major contributor to global environmental change through its under-regulated air, water and land impacts. It is puzzling that shipping is a lagging sector as it has a well-established global regulatory body......—the International Maritime Organization. Drawing on original empirical evidence and archival data, we introduce a four-factor framework to investigate two main questions: why is shipping lagging in its environmental governance; and what is the potential for the International Maritime Organization to orchestrate...

  17. Ship information system: overview and research trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Sheng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ship Information Systems (SISs have been one of the main research focuses in ship design and become a multidisciplinary area. With these growing research trends, it is important to consolidate the latest knowledge and information to keep up with the research needs. In this paper, the SIS and its different forms are introduced and discussed. The beginning of this paper discusses the history and evolution of SIS. The next part of this paper focuses on different fields and research areas such as networking technology, information fusion, information decision, message display, ship control in real-time SISs. A Semi-Physical Simulation Platform (SPSIM designed for SIS research and its running effect through a new Fuzzy-PID fusion algorithm are introduced in this paper then. A brief literature survey and possible future direction concerning each topic is included

  18. Ship information system: overview and research trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Liu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ship Information Systems (SISs have been one of the main research focuses in ship design and become a multidisciplinary area. With these growing research trends, it is important to consolidate the latest knowledge and information to keep up with the research needs. In this paper, the SIS and its different forms are introduced and discussed. The beginning of this paper discusses the history and evolution of SIS. The next part of this paper focuses on different fields and research areas such as networking technology, information fusion, information decision, message display, ship control in real-time SISs. A Semi-Physical Simulation Platform (SPSIM designed for SIS research and its running effect through a new Fuzzy-PID fusion algorithm are introduced in this paper then. A brief literature survey and possible future direction concerning each topic is included.

  19. Ships – inspiring objects in architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczak, Elzbieta

    2017-10-01

    Sea-going vessels have for centuries fascinated people, not only those who happen to work at sea, but first and foremost, those who have never set foot aboard a ship. The environment in which ships operate is reminiscent of freedom and countless adventures, but also of hard and interesting maritime working life. The famous words of Pompey: “Navigare necesseest, vivere non estnecesse” (sailing is necessary, living – is not necessary), which he pronounced on a stormy sea voyage, arouse curiosity and excitement, inviting one to test the truth of this saying personally. It is often the case, however, that sea-faring remains within the realm of dreams, while the fascination with ships demonstrates itself through a transposition of naval features onto land constructions. In such cases, ship-inspired motifs bring alive dreams and yearnings as well as reflect tastes. Tourism is one of the indicators of people’s standard of living and a measure of a society’s civilisation. Maritime tourism has been developing rapidly in recent decades. A sea cruise offers an insight into life at sea. Still, most people derive their knowledge of passenger vessels and their furnishings from the mass media. Passenger vessels, also known as “floating cities,” are described as majestic and grand, while their on-board facilities as luxurious, comfortable, exclusive and inaccessible to common people on land. Freight vessels, on the other hand, are described as enormous objects which dwarf the human being into insignificance. This article presents the results of research intended to answer the following questions: what makes ships a source of inspiration for land architecture? To what extent and by what means do architects draw on ships in their design work? In what places can we find structures inspired by ships? What ships inspire architects? This article presents examples of buildings, whose design was inspired by the architecture and structural details of sea vessels. An analysis

  20. Time constrained liner shipping network design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Christian Vad; Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Desaulniers, Guy

    2017-01-01

    We present a mathematical model and a solution method for the liner shipping network design problem. The model takes into account coordination between vessels and transit time restrictions on the cargo flow. The solution method is an improvement heuristic, where an integer program is solved...... iteratively to perform moves in a large neighborhood search. Our improvement heuristic is applicable as a real-time decision support tool for a liner shipping company. It can be used to find improvements to the network when evaluating changes in operating conditions or testing different scenarios...

  1. Load and Global Response of Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    The present monograph covers wave load and global structural response for ships. It is primary written as a textbook for students with an introductionary background in naval architecture and a basic knowledge of statistics and strength of materials. The subjects are treated in details starting from...... first principles. The aim has been to derive and present the necessary theoretical framework for predicting the extreme loads and the corresponding hull girder stresses the ship may be subjected to during its operational lifetime.Although some account is given to reliabiity analysis, the present...

  2. Strength of Ship Plates under Combined Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, W.; Wang, Y.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2002-01-01

    Strength of ship plates plays a significant role in the ultimate strength analysis of ship structures. In recent years several authors have proposed simplified analytical methods to calculate the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates. The majority of these investigations deal with plates....... The obtained results indicate that the simplified analytical method is able to determine the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates with imperfections in the form of welding-induced residual stresses and geometric deflections subjected to combined loads. Comparisons with experimental results show...

  3. Strength of ship plates under combined loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, Weiching; Wang, Yongjun; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2000-01-01

    Strength of ship plates plays a significant role for the ultimate strength analysis of ship structures. In recent years several authors have proposed simplified methods to calculate the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates. The majority of these investigations deal with plates subjected...... that the simplified method is able to determine the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates with imperfections in the form of welding induced residual stresses and geometric deflections subjected to combined loads. Comparisons with experimental results show that the procedure has sufficient accuracy for practical...

  4. Transport impacts on atmosphere and climate: Shipping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyring, Veronika; Isaksen, Ivar S. A.; Berntsen, Terje; Collins, William J.; Corbett, James J.; Endresen, Oyvind; Grainger, Roy G.; Moldanova, Jana; Schlager, Hans; Stevenson, David S.

    2010-12-01

    Emissions of exhaust gases and particles from oceangoing ships are a significant and growing contributor to the total emissions from the transportation sector. We present an assessment of the contribution of gaseous and particulate emissions from oceangoing shipping to anthropogenic emissions and air quality. We also assess the degradation in human health and climate change created by these emissions. Regulating ship emissions requires comprehensive knowledge of current fuel consumption and emissions, understanding of their impact on atmospheric composition and climate, and projections of potential future evolutions and mitigation options. Nearly 70% of ship emissions occur within 400 km of coastlines, causing air quality problems through the formation of ground-level ozone, sulphur emissions and particulate matter in coastal areas and harbours with heavy traffic. Furthermore, ozone and aerosol precursor emissions as well as their derivative species from ships may be transported in the atmosphere over several hundreds of kilometres, and thus contribute to air quality problems further inland, even though they are emitted at sea. In addition, ship emissions impact climate. Recent studies indicate that the cooling due to altered clouds far outweighs the warming effects from greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO 2) or ozone from shipping, overall causing a negative present-day radiative forcing (RF). Current efforts to reduce sulphur and other pollutants from shipping may modify this. However, given the short residence time of sulphate compared to CO 2, the climate response from sulphate is of the order decades while that of CO 2 is centuries. The climatic trade-off between positive and negative radiative forcing is still a topic of scientific research, but from what is currently known, a simple cancellation of global mean forcing components is potentially inappropriate and a more comprehensive assessment metric is required. The CO 2 equivalent emissions using

  5. A numerical study on ship-ship interaction in shallow and restricted waterway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungwook Lee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a numerical prediction method on the hydrodynamic interaction force and moment between two ships in shallow and restricted waterway is presented. Especially, the present study proposes a methodology to overcome the limitation of the two dimensional perturbation method which is related to the moored-passing ship interaction. The validation study was performed and compared with the experiment, firstly. Afterward, in order to propose a methodology in terms with the moored-passing ship interaction, further studies were performed for the moored-passing ship case with a Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS calculation which is using OpenFOAM with Arbitrary Coupled Mesh Interface (ACMI technique and compared with the experiment result. Finally, the present study proposes a guide to apply the two dimensional perturbation method to the moored-passing ship interaction. In addition, it presents a possibility that the RANS calculation with ACMI can applied to the ship-ship interaction without using a overset moving grid technique.

  6. Challenges to Ship Hydrodynamics in the XXI Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Kobylinski

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of twenty-first century is characterized with important changes in world shipping and exploitation of ocean resources. Three important trends are clearly visible: environment protection, safety and economy. They materialize in important changes in the structure of world fleet where some existing ship types are going to disappear and new ship types emerge. Increasing the size of some ship types is another visible tendency. Stress on environment protection has serious impact on the hydrodynamic characteristics of ships whether with regard to safety zero accident rate is the goal. Important challenges to ship hydrodynamics caused by those tendencies are discussed in the paper.

  7. A PDDL Domain for the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Coles, Amanda; Coles, Andrew

    The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP) poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities, many of which have costs that are a ......The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP) poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities, many of which have costs...

  8. Key Performance Indicators (KPIs), Shipping Marketing and Safety Orientation: The Case of Greek Tanker Shipping Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Plomaritou, Evi; Konsta, Katerina

    2013-01-01

    If you are not sure where you are, how will you find out where to go? The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between the KPIs and the shipping marketing as well as the usefulness of KPIs in shipping companies performance evaluation. The paper brings the importance of KPIs closer to the reader and examines their definition, purpose and role in the shipping company. The first part is devoted to literature review on KPIs. The second part examines the relationship among the KPIs,...

  9. NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer Video Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During each NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer field season, full-resolution video in a ProRes 422 format at a bitrate of 145 Mbps is produced during each deployment of the...

  10. Exergy Analysis of Complex Ship Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Marty

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With multiple primary and secondary energy converters (diesel engines, steam turbines, waste heat recovery (WHR and oil-fired boilers, etc. and extensive energy networks (steam, cooling water, exhaust gases, etc., ships may be considered as complex energy systems. Understanding and optimizing such systems requires advanced holistic energy modeling. This modeling can be done in two ways: The simpler approach focuses on energy flows, and has already been tested, approved and presented; a new, more complicated approach, focusing on energy quality, i.e., exergy, is presented in this paper. Exergy analysis has rarely been applied to ships, and, as a general rule, the shipping industry is not familiar with this tool. This paper tries to fill this gap. We start by giving a short reminder of what exergy is and describe the principles of exergy modeling to explain what kind of results should be expected from such an analysis. We then apply these principles to the analysis of a large two-stroke diesel engine with its cooling and exhaust systems. Simulation results are then presented along with the exergy analysis. Finally, we propose solutions for energy and exergy saving which could be applied to marine engines and ships in general.

  11. Speed Optimization in Liner Shipping Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Karsten, Christian Vad; Pisinger, David

    for the bunker consumption in the network as well as the transit time of cargo. Speed optimization has been considered for tramp shipping showing significant reductions in fuel consumption. However, variable speeds has not been considered for post optimization of the LSNDP, where speed optimization could result...

  12. The Shipping Industry Perspective: Implementing the Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-29

    produced a report that points out that both the industry and the maritime services are motivated to work together and form partnerships that will enhance...move off-dock within hours, not days or weeks. Undertake a combined effort by major stakeholders (ports, cargo interests, shipping • lines, truckers

  13. Business Rules Explicitation in Inland Shipping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerjen van Leeuwen; Johan Versendaal

    2013-01-01

    Planning of transport through inland shipping is complex, highly dynamic and very specific. Existing software support is focusing on road transport planning and/or is merely a visual representation of shipments to be manually assigned to particular vessels. As a result inland shipment planning is

  14. Reconfigurable Control of a Ship Propulsion Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, M.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    1998-01-01

    -tolerant control is a fairly new area. Thise paper presents a ship propulsion system as a benchmark that should be useful as a platform for the development of new ideas and a comparison of methods. The benchmark has two main elements. One is the development of efficient FDI algorithms, and the other...

  15. Dutch Ships and Sailors Linked Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Victor; Leinenga, Jurjen; Hoekstra, F.G.; van Rossum, Matthias; Mika, Peter; Tudorache, Tadia; Bernstein, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    We present the Dutch Ships and Sailors Linked Data Cloud. This heterogeneous dataset brings together four curated datasets on Dutch Maritime history as five-star linked data. The individual datasets use separate datamodels, designed in close collaboration with maritime historical researchers. The

  16. 7 CFR 953.7 - Ship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ship. 953.7 Section 953.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... transport, sell, or in any manner place potatoes in the current of interstate commerce or so as directly to...

  17. Navy Ship Names: Background for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    evolutionary change, and the name sources of the Navy’s ships have not been immune to this change.”9 The July 2012 Navy report to Congress states that...Legion of Honor, and the Croix de Guerre with Gilt Star and 2 palms; Whereas during World War II, Clifton B. Cates led Marines at Guadalcanal, and

  18. Measuring ship acoustic signatures against mine threat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, C.A.F. de; Quesson, B.A.J.; Ainslie, M.A.; Vermeulen, R.C.N.

    2012-01-01

    The NATO standard ‘AMP-15’ [1] provides procedures for the measurement and reporting of the acoustic signature of ships and for the establishment of acoustic signature goals to counter the naval mine threat. Measurements are carried out at dedicated shallow water acoustic ranges. Measurements

  19. The Two Regimes of Postwar Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Martin Jes; Tenold, Stig

    2014-01-01

    the bargaining that accompanied the shift from the national regime to the competitive regime. Specifically, we show that the new regime primarily accommodated the interests of private actors such as shipping companies, rather than the interests of the authorities and the trade unions....

  20. Probabilistic Damage Stability Calculations for Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    1996-01-01

    The aim of these notes is to provide background material for the present probabilistic damage stability rules fro dry cargo ships.The formulas for the damage statistics are derived and shortcomings as well as possible improvements are discussed. The advantage of the definiton of fictitious...

  1. 46 CFR 310.4 - Training Ship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to the Administration when use of the Training Ship is terminated. The only exceptions are: spare and replacement parts consumed; and losses due to ordinary wear and tear, unavoidable accident and perils of the... the State to the Administration. (e) Maintenance and repairs—(1) Administration payment. A Training...

  2. Statistical modelling for ship propulsion efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jóan Petur; Jacobsen, Daniel J.; Winther, Ole

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a state-of-the-art systems approach to statistical modelling of fuel efficiency in ship propulsion, and also a novel and publicly available data set of high quality sensory data. Two statistical model approaches are investigated and compared: artificial neural networks...

  3. IS INLAND SHIPPING NEEDED IN POLAND?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Rolbiecki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In Poland, inland shipping plays only a mariginal role in transport needs fulfillment. Inland shipping has a share of mere 0,3% in goods transport modal split. The reason for this is poor and variable technical parameters of inland waterways together with adverse legal regulations. Different situation takes place in Western European countries, in which the development of this mode of transport is viewed as a way of road transport develop-ment restraint. In Poland, the need to move some of the volume from road transport to in-land shipping is specifically observed within marine ports surroundings. Because of their complex nature, the investments in inland shipping infrastructure would also be helpful in solving the current problems of water management. Inland waterways in Poland guaran-tee neither an adequate level of flood protection, nor the water needs fulfillment of do-mestic economy. When it comes to water reserves, Poland is one of the most deficient countries in Europe. Thus there is a need to invest in inland waterways in Poland.

  4. Network Design Models for Container Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Line Blander; Kallehauge, Brian; Nielsen, Anders Nørrelund

    is included in the calculation of the capacity and that a inhomogeneous fleet is modeled. The model also includes the cost of transshipment which is one of the major cost for the shipping companies. The concept of pseudo simple routes is introduced to expand the set of feasible routes. The linearization...

  5. PARTICIPATION BASED MODEL OF SHIP CREW MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Bielić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 This paper analyse the participation - based model on board the ship as possibly optimal leadership model existing in the shipping industry with accent on decision - making process. In the paper authors have tried to define master’s behaviour model and management style identifying drawbacks and disadvantages of vertical, pyramidal organization with master on the top. Paper describes efficiency of decision making within team organization and optimization of a ship’s organisation by introducing teamwork on board the ship. Three examples of the ship’s accidents are studied and evaluated through “Leader - participation” model. The model of participation based management as a model of the teamwork has been applied in studying the cause - and - effect of accidents with the critical review of the communication and managing the human resources on a ship. The results have showed that the cause of all three accidents is the autocratic behaviour of the leaders and lack of communication within teams. Normal 0 21 false false false HR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  6. Propagation of light through ship exhaust plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Iersel, M.; Mack, A.; van Eijk, A. M. J.; Schleijpen, H. M. A.

    2014-10-01

    Looking through the atmosphere, it is sometimes difficult to see the details of an object. Effects like scintillation and blur are the cause of these difficulties. Exhaust plumes of e.g. a ship can cause extreme scintillation and blur, making it even harder to see the details of what lies behind the plume. Exhaust plumes come in different shapes, sizes, and opaqueness and depending on atmospheric parameters like wind speed and direction, as well as engine settings (power, gas or diesel, etc.). A CFD model is used to determine the plume's flow field outside the stack on the basis of exhaust flow properties, the interaction with the superstructure of the ship, the meteorological conditions and the interaction of ship's motion and atmospheric wind fields. A modified version of the NIRATAM code performs the gas radiation calculations and provides the radiant intensity of the (hot) exhaust gases and the transmission of the atmosphere around the plume is modeled with MODTRAN. This allows assessing the irradiance of a sensor positioned at some distance from the ship and its plume, as function of the conditions that influence the spatial distribution and thermal properties of the plume. Furthermore, an assessment can be made of the probability of detecting objects behind the plume. This plume module will be incorporated in the TNO EOSTAR-model, which provides estimates of detection range and image quality of EO-sensors under varying meteorological conditions.

  7. Microbiologically influenced corrosion in ship ballast tanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heyer, A.

    2013-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is known to be a dangerous process in ship tanks due to its rapid and yet unpredictable occurrence, leading to extremely fast local corrosion, possibly jeopardizing the structural integrity, in a relatively short time. This project focuses on a

  8. Global concerns of ship`s ballast water mediated translocation of bacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khandeparker, L.; Anil, A.C.

    Shipping facilitates transportation of over 90% of the world’s commodities and eventually transfers ~10 billion tons of ballast water which is routinely taken aboard vessels to maintain their stability. The ballast water contains different...

  9. EX1101: Ship Shakedown and Patch Tests on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer (EM302)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project will involve the shakedown of all Okeanos Explorer ship capabilities and a patch test of the Kongsberg EM302 multibeam system. Operations for this...

  10. The investigation of ship maneuvering with hydrodynamic effects between ships in curved narrow channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ki Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrodynamic interaction between two large vessels can't be neglected when two large vessels are closed to each other in restricted waterways such as in a harbor or narrow channel. This paper is mainly concerned with the ship maneuvering motion based on the hydrodynamic interaction effects between two large vessels moving each other in curved narrow channel. In this research, the characteristic features of the hydrodynamic interaction forces between two large vessels are described and illustrated, and the effects of velocity ratio and the spacing between two vessels are summarized and discussed. Also, the Inchon outer harbor area through the PALMI island channel in Korea was selected, and the ship maneuvering simulation was carried out to propose an appropriate safe speed and distance between two ships, which is required to avoid sea accident in confined waters. From the inspection of this investigation, it indicates the following result. Under the condition of SP12≤0.5L, it may encounter a dangerous tendency of grounding or collision due to the combined effect of the interaction between ships and external forces. Also considering the interaction and wind effect as a parameter, an overtaken and overtaking vessel in narrow channel can navigate while keeping its own original course under the following conditions; the lateral separation between two ships is about kept at 0.6 times of ship length and 15 degrees of range in maximum rudder angle. On the other hand, two ships while overtaking in curved narrow channel such as Inchon outer harbor in Korea should be navigated under the following conditions; SP12 is about kept at 1.0 times of ship length and the wind velocity should not be stronger than 10 m/s.

  11. Staging Systems for Ships During New Construction and Repair

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Santoyo, J. F

    1992-01-01

    The traditional method used to gain access to working areas of the ship's hull is by building a framework around the ship using clamps, pipe, quick-locking tubes, flames, and other scaffolding components...

  12. INFLUENCE OF OPERABILITY CRITERIA LIMITING VALUES ON SHIP SPEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Prpić-Oršić

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available When the ship is caught in heavy seas, there are two manoeuvres that the shipmaster can undertake to avoid excessive ship motion and hull damage: changing course or voluntary speed reduction. This paper presents a study of the effect of the various voluntary speed reduction criteria to attainable speed of ship on seaway. The speed loss is calculated by taking into account wind and wave effect on ship speed, the engine and propeller performance in actual seas as well as the mass inertia of the ship. The attainable ship speed for ship in head, following and beam waves by accounting for voluntary speed reduction is estimated for various significant wave height. The criteria of slamming, deck wetness, propeller emergence, excessive accelerations and roll are taken into account. The impact of variations of the limiting values of certain criteria due to which the captain intentionally reduces the ship speed is analysed and discussed.

  13. Shipping emissions and their impacts on air quality in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Yang, Xin; Brown, Richard; Yang, Liping; Morawska, Lidia; Ristovski, Zoran; Fu, Qingyan; Huang, Cheng

    2017-03-01

    China has >400 ports, is home to 7 of 10 biggest ports in the world and its waterway infrastructure construction has been accelerating over the past years. But the increasing number of ports and ships means increasing emissions, and in turn, increasing impact on local and regional air pollution. This paper presents an overview of the broad field of ship emissions in China and their atmospheric impacts, including topics of ship engine emissions and control, ship emission factors and their measurements, developing of ship emission inventories, shipping and port emissions of the main shipping areas in China, and quantitative contribution of shipping emissions to the local and regional air pollution. There have been an increasing number of studies published on all the above aspects, yet, this review identified some critical research gaps, filling of which is necessary for better control of ship emissions, and for lowering their impacts. In particular, there are very few studies on inland ports and river ships, and there are few national scale ship emission inventories available for China. While advanced method to estimate ship emission based on ship AIS activities makes it now possible to develop high spatial- and temporal-resolution emission inventories, the ship emission factors used in Chinese studies have been based mainly on foreign measurements. Further, the contribution of ship emissions to air pollution in coastal cities, the dispersion of pollution plumes emitted by ships, or the chemical evolution process along the transmission path, have so far not been systematically studied in China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A Geographic Optimization Approach to Coast Guard Ship Basing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    forward in this area. 14. SUBJECT TERMS coast guard, ship basing, ship allocation, geographic optimization 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 69 16. PRICE CODE 17...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS A GEOGRAPHIC OPTIMIZATION APPROACH TO COAST GUARD SHIP BASING by Mehmet Ali Gençay June 2015...AND SUBTITLE A GEOGRAPHIC OPTIMIZATION APPROACH TO COAST GUARD SHIP BASING 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Mehmet Ali Gençay 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION

  15. Interactive evolutionary concept exploration in preliminary ship design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duchateau, E.A.E.

    2016-01-01

    Preliminary ship design (or early stage design in US terminology) is the very first step in designing a new ship. In this stage ship designers attempt to find an affordable balance of the future owner's (customer or operator) ambitions and operational needs. This balance is then translated into more

  16. 29 CFR 1926.30 - Shipbuilding and ship repairing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., and maintenance performed on ships under Government contract, except naval ship construction, is work... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shipbuilding and ship repairing. 1926.30 Section 1926.30..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION General Safety and Health...

  17. A Mathematical Model for Analysis on Ships Collision Avoidance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study develops a mathematical model for analysis on collision avoidance of ships. The obtained model provides information on the quantitative effect of the ship's engine's response and the applied reversing force on separation distance and stopping abilities of the ships. Appropriate evasive maneuvers require the ...

  18. 7 CFR 948.8 - Handle or ship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handle or ship. 948.8 Section 948.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.8 Handle or ship. Handle or ship means to transport, sell...

  19. A cellular automaton model for ship traffic flow in waterways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Le; Zheng, Zhongyi; Gang, Longhui

    2017-04-01

    With the development of marine traffic, waterways become congested and more complicated traffic phenomena in ship traffic flow are observed. It is important and necessary to build a ship traffic flow model based on cellular automata (CAs) to study the phenomena and improve marine transportation efficiency and safety. Spatial discretization rules for waterways and update rules for ship movement are two important issues that are very different from vehicle traffic. To solve these issues, a CA model for ship traffic flow, called a spatial-logical mapping (SLM) model, is presented. In this model, the spatial discretization rules are improved by adding a mapping rule. And the dynamic ship domain model is considered in the update rules to describe ships' interaction more exactly. Take the ship traffic flow in the Singapore Strait for example, some simulations were carried out and compared. The simulations show that the SLM model could avoid ship pseudo lane-change efficiently, which is caused by traditional spatial discretization rules. The ship velocity change in the SLM model is consistent with the measured data. At finally, from the fundamental diagram, the relationship between traffic ability and the lengths of ships is explored. The number of ships in the waterway declines when the proportion of large ships increases.

  20. Concept Design and Risk Assessment of Nuclear Propulsion Ship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, Youngmi; Yoo, Seongjin; Kim, Yeontae; Oh, June; Byun, Yoonchul; Woo, Ilguk [Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering Co. Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jiho; Choi, Suhn [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The nuclear propulsion ships (hereinafter referred to as 'nuclear ships') have been considered as an eco-friendly ship. There have historically been warship and submarine with the source of nuclear power. The use of nuclear ships has been recently extending to the icebreaker, the deep-water exploration ship, and the floating nuclear power plant. Prior to developing the new ship, we evaluated the economics of various types of ships and concluded that the container ship could be appropriate for the nuclear propulsion. In order to verify its safety, we performed the ship calculation based on the optimal arrangement of the nuclear reactor. Finally, we verified its safety by the HAZID. In the former research, we confirmed the applicability of the nuclear propulsion system for the large container ship. In this study, we verified the safety of the nuclear ships according to the HAZID analysis. We expect that this research will lead to safe design of the nuclear ships.

  1. 47 CFR 80.1099 - Ship sources of energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship sources of energy. 80.1099 Section 80.1099... Stations § 80.1099 Ship sources of energy. (a) There must be available at all times, while the ship is at... batteries used as part of a reserve source of energy for the radio installations. (b) A reserve source of...

  2. Effect of ship motion on spinal loading during manual lifting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, G.S.; Kingma, I.; Delleman, N.; Dieën, J. van

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of ship motion on peak spinal loading during lifting. All measurements were done on a ship at sea. In 1-min trials, which were repeated over a wide range of sailing conditions, subjects lifted an 18 kg box five times. Ship motion, whole body kinematics, ground

  3. Routing and scheduling and fleet management for liner shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Karina Hjortshøj

    2009-01-01

    The problem of routing, scheduling and fleet management in global liner shipping is presented. The developed model incorporates the ships' speed as a decision variable. Furthermore, the model must be able to handle problems of the size and complexity experienced by the global liner shipping...

  4. 48 CFR 47.305-16 - Shipping characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping characteristics... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.305-16 Shipping characteristics... shipments of agreed size. (b) Guaranteed shipping characteristics. (1) The contracting officer shall insert...

  5. Factors influencing the Nigerian shipping market under a depressed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing the Nigerian shipping market under a depressed economic environment. ... All these factors coupled with worldwide economic recession culminated into adverse fall in the Nigeria shipping business as witnessed in the decrease in ship and cargo traffic in recent years and high cost of transporting export ...

  6. 75 FR 39089 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... of other IMO bodies --Routing of ships, ship reporting and related matters --Guidelines for... --Amendments to the Worldwide Radionavigation System --Review of the principles for establishing the safe manning level of ships including mandatory requirements for determining safe manning --Amendments to the...

  7. 78 FR 51728 - Fees for Sanitation Inspections of Cruise Ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Fees for Sanitation Inspections of Cruise Ships AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department of Health and Human Services... cooperative activity with the cruise ship industry. VSP helps the cruise ship industry prevent and control the...

  8. Failure criteria applied to ship structures subjected to explosive blast loadings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tyler Street, M.; Luyten, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Both the dedicated element methodology and the material model with damage have been implemented into the explicit code LSDYNA as separate user defined subroutines. The predicted failure of an bulkhead to deck weld using the dedicated element methodology is shown in Figure 5, only the innermost of

  9. H1616 Shipping Container Radiographic Inspection Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tipton, D.G.

    1998-11-01

    The HI616 shipping container is a certified type B(U) packaging used by the Department of Energy (DOE) to ship tritium in support of defense programs. During the 1997 recertification of the container, DOE became concerned about the possible cracking of the polyurethane foam in the overpacks of the 2300 containers currently in service. In response, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) initiated a radiographic inspection program to determine if cracking of the foam was occurring in the H1616 overpacks. SNL developed the radiographic technique for inspecting the foam and contracted the Savannah River Site's Tritium Engineering division to inspect a representative sample of overpacks in service. This report details the development process and the results of all of the radiography performed both at SNL and Savannah River.

  10. Lightning enhancement over major oceanic shipping lanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Joel A.; Virts, Katrina S.; Holzworth, Robert H.; Mitchell, Todd P.

    2017-09-01

    Using 12 years of high-resolution global lightning stroke data from the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN), we show that lightning density is enhanced by up to a factor of 2 directly over shipping lanes in the northeastern Indian Ocean and the South China Sea as compared to adjacent areas with similar climatological characteristics. The lightning enhancement is most prominent during the convectively active season, November-April for the Indian Ocean and April-December in the South China Sea, and has been detectable from at least 2005 to the present. We hypothesize that emissions of aerosol particles and precursors by maritime vessel traffic lead to a microphysical enhancement of convection and storm electrification in the region of the shipping lanes. These persistent localized anthropogenic perturbations to otherwise clean regions are a unique opportunity to more thoroughly understand the sensitivity of maritime deep convection and lightning to aerosol particles.

  11. Absorbed Energy in Ship Collisions and Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

    1998-01-01

    is that the absorbed energy does not depend on the arrangement of the structure, the material properties, and the damage mode.The purpose of the present paper is to establish a new simple relation between the absorbed energy and the destroyed material volume, which can be used as a design tool for analysis of ship......Minorsky's well-known empirical formula, which relates the absorbed energy to the destroyed material volume, has been widely used in analyses of high energy collision and grounding accidents for nearly 40 years. The advantage of the method is its apparent simplcity. Obviously, its drawback...... collisions and grounding. The developed expressions reflect the structural arrangement, the material properties and different damage patterns.The present method is validated against a large number of existing experimental results and detailed numerical simulation results. Applications to full-sale ship...

  12. Key Design Properties for Shipping Information Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Tan, Yao-Hua

    2015-01-01

    . The contribution of the paper is to expand previous research with complementary key design properties. The paper starts with a review of existing literature on previous proposed solutions for increased collaboration in the supply chain for international trade, Inter-Organization Systems and Information......This paper reports on the use of key design properties for development of a new approach towards a solution for sharing shipping information in the supply chain for international trade. Information exchange in international supply chain is extremely inefficient, rather uncoordinated, based largely...... on paper, e-mail, phone and text message, and far too costly. This paper explores the design properties for a shared information infrastructure to exchange information between all parties in the supply chain, commercial parties as well as authorities, which is called a Shipping Information Pipeline...

  13. Manifold adaptation for constant false alarm rate ship detection in South African oceans

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schwegmann, CP

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The detection of ships at sea is a difficult task made more so by uncooperative ships, especially when using transponder based ship detection systems. Synthetic Aperture Radar imagery provides a means of observation independent of the ships...

  14. Collected Experimental Resistance Component and Flow Data for Three Surface Ship Model Hulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    COMPUTATION, MATHEMATICS AND LOGISTICS DEPARTMENT 18 SHIP ACOUSTICS DEPARTMENT 19 PROPULSION AND AUXILIARY SYSTEMS DEPARTMENT 27 SHIP MATERIALS...in alphabetical order: Bulgarian Ship Hydro. Centre (BSHC) Centre Stud, di Tecnica Navale (CETENA) China Ship Scientific Res. Center (CSSRC) David

  15. A Survey on the Ship Loading Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iris, Cagatay; Pacino, Dario

    2015-01-01

    Recent statistics show that large container terminals can process more than 30 million containers a year, and are constantly in search for the better ways to optimize processing time, deliver high quality and profitable services. Some of the terminal decisions are, however, dependent on externali...... are integrated to improve the efficiency of the ship handling operations. We present a survey of the state-of-the-art methods and of the available benchmarking data....

  16. Connecting Land-Based Networks to Ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    VSAT ) system. The stations, equipped with VSAT antennas, share the satellite’s transmission capacity to transmit to the station having the central hub...and base stations, which are connected to the ship’s VSAT system by which the voice and data connections from the phones are routed from the ship to...Maritime VSAT Communications Solutions, June 2010. [17] MCP Maritime Communications Partner, “Technology overview,” August 2012, http

  17. Trends in Integrated Ship Control Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, N.; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard

    1997-01-01

    Integrated Ship Control systems can be designed as robust, distributed, autonomous control systems. The EU funded ATOMOS and ATOMOS II projects involves both technical and non technical aspects of this process. A reference modelling concept giving an outline of a generic ISC system covering...... the network and the equipment connected to it, a framework for verification of network functionality and performance by simulation and a general distribution platform for ISC systems, The ATOMOS Network, are results of this work....

  18. Airborne Wind Turbines for Ship Propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Gilje, Kristian Malde

    2013-01-01

    As the focus on the environment and how to produce ?clean? and renewable energy takes a lot of focus these days, the research on this field is constantly increasing. Especially in the shipping industry there are frequently new rules and limitations being set into force. To keep up with these restrictions one needs to think outside the box and develop new ways to make it possible to keep the fuel consumption down, thus becoming more environmentally friendly. AWTs (Airborne Wind Turbines) could...

  19. Leadership Profiling of Ocean Going Ship Masters1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Theotokas

    2014-12-01

    This paper focuses on the ocean going ship Masters and aims at identifying their leadership profiles and understanding their attitudes and reactions in given circumstances. It analyses and discusses the results of a field study of ship officers of different nationalities employed as Masters on board ships of a leading international maritime group. Results of the research reveal that the characteristics and the competencies of ship Masters as identified using the specially developed questionnaire, are compatible with those proposed by situational leadership theories. Ship Masters seem to give priority to the people on board and their needs and try to be supportive in their decisions.

  20. Energy and emission factors for ships in operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flodstroem, E. [MariTerm AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1997-11-01

    This research project is aimed at providing statistical data on the operation of ships aimed at the calculation of energy consumption and emissions. The information was collected through a questionnaire sent out to ship operators and owners. Additional information was collected from ships registers. The resulting database was analysed and compared with previously used models for the calculation of energy consumption and emission for each ship. The results generally confirm that previously used models give a fair figure of the environmental characteristics of ships. However, the response of the questionnaire was unexpectedly low why the volume of the database in relation to the number of types of vessels must be considered as poor

  1. Light absorbing carbon emissions from commercial shipping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lack, Daniel; Lerner, Brian; Granier, Claire; Baynard, Tahllee; Lovejoy, Edward; Massoli, Paola; Ravishankara, A. R.; Williams, Eric

    2008-07-01

    Extensive measurements of the emission of light absorbing carbon aerosol (LAC) from commercial shipping are presented. Vessel emissions were sampled using a photoacoustic spectrometer in the Gulf of Mexico region. The highest emitters (per unit fuel burnt) are tug boats, thus making significant contributions to local air quality in ports. Emission of LAC from cargo and non cargo vessels in this study appears to be independent of engine load. Shipping fuel consumption data (2001) was used to calculate a global LAC contribution of 133(+/-27) Ggyr-1, or ~1.7% of global LAC. This small fraction could have disproportionate effects on both air quality near port areas and climate in the Arctic if direct emissions of LAC occur in that region due to opening Arctic sea routes. The global contribution of this LAC burden was investigated using the MOZART model. Increases of 20-50 ng m-3 LAC (relative increases up to 40%) due to shipping occur in the tropical Atlantic, Indonesia, central America and the southern regions of South America and Africa.

  2. Towards seasonal Arctic shipping route predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melia, N.; Haines, K.; Hawkins, E.; Day, J. J.

    2017-08-01

    The continuing decline in Arctic sea-ice will likely lead to increased human activity and opportunities for shipping in the region, suggesting that seasonal predictions of route openings will become ever more important. Here we present results from a set of ‘perfect model’ experiments to assess the predictability characteristics of the opening of Arctic sea routes. We find skilful predictions of the upcoming summer shipping season can be made from as early as January, although typically forecasts show lower skill before a May ‘predictability barrier’. We demonstrate that in forecasts started from January, predictions of route opening date are twice as uncertain as predicting the closing date and that the Arctic shipping season is becoming longer due to climate change, with later closing dates mostly responsible. We find that predictive skill is state dependent with predictions for high or low ice years exhibiting greater skill than medium ice years. Forecasting the fastest open water route through the Arctic is accurate to within 200 km when predicted from July, a six-fold increase in accuracy compared to forecasts initialised from the previous November, which are typically no better than climatology. Finally we find that initialisation of accurate summer sea-ice thickness information is crucial to obtain skilful forecasts, further motivating investment into sea-ice thickness observations, climate models, and assimilation systems.

  3. Enhanced situational technologies applied to ship channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgeson, Michael A.; Wacker, Roger A.

    1997-06-01

    The Houston Ship Channel ranks as America's number one port in foreign tonnage by welcoming more than 50,000 cargo ships and barges annually. Locally 196,000 jobs, 5.5 billion dollars in business revenue and 213 million dollars in taxes are generated. Unfortunately, 32 days of each year vessel traffic stops for hours due to fog causing an estimated 40- 100 million dollars loss as ships idly wait in the channel for weather to clear. In addition, poor visibility has contributed to past vessel collisions which have resulted in channel closure, and associated damage to property and the environment. Today's imaging technology for synthetic vision systems and enhanced situational awareness systems offers a new solution to this problem. Whereas, typically these systems have been targeted at aircraft landing systems the channel navigation application provides a peripheral ground based market. This paper describes two imaging solutions to the problem. One using an active 35 GHz scanning radar and the other using a 94 GHz passive millimeter wave camera.

  4. Ships in Russian Literature: Folklore Aesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Dudareva

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies a genesis of the ship image in the Russian literature and folklore, an idea of “other kingdom” in the Russian literature poetics of the 19-20 centuries. An emphasis is put on the issues related to the metaphor of a ship, a boat in the artistic world of Lermontov, Turgenev, Dostoevsky and in the poetry of the early 20th century. A paradigm “the Moon – boat” is studied in detail. The image of a boat, which regularly appears in Russian literature, various word-painters’ art works, is associated with semantics of funeral ceremonial boat typical for different folk genres. Addressing to riddles about death, to Russian epic tradition, to plots dedicated to Razin demonstrates complexity and significance of the symbol of a boat/ferry/ship for the national culture. This symbol encapsulates the supreme idea of death as cosmic regeneration, character’s initiation, which appeared highly sought by Russian literature, both realistic prose and avantgarde and modernism poetry.

  5. Analysis of Ship Groundings on Soft Sea Beds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1997-01-01

    The consequences associated with ships running aground depend very much on the soil characteristics of the sea bed and the geometrical shape of the ship bow. The penetration into the sea bed depends on these factors and the penetration is an important factor for the ship motion because...... it influences the ship heave and pitch motions as well as the friction between the ship and the soil.In this paper a rational calculation model is presented for the sea bed soil reaction forces on the ship bottom. The model is based on the assumption that the penetration of the ship bow generates a flow of pore...... by the theory of frictional soils in rupture. Frictional stresses on the bow surface are assumed to be related to the normal pressure by a simple Coulumb relation. The total soil reaction as a function of velocity and penetration is found by integration of normal pressure and frictional stresses over...

  6. The influence of ship's stability on safety of navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzu-Pazara, R.; Duse; Varsami, C.; Andrei, C.; Dumitrache, R.

    2016-08-01

    Ship's stability is one of the most important and complex concept about safety of ship and safety of navigation and it is governed by maritime law as well as maritime codes. The paper presents the importance of ship's intact stability as part of the general concept of ship's seaworthiness. There is always a correlation between ship’ stability and safety of ship and safety of navigation. Loss of ship's stability is presented as a threat to safety of navigation. We are going to present the causes that lead to ship stability failure and their impact on safety of navigation. A study of various ship stability casualties in heavy weather conditions are going to be presented, the causes are going to be analyzed and the possible ways of stability failures are assessed. Vessel's intact stability is a fundamental component of seaworthiness so it is in the interest of all owners/operators to learn about this topic and ensure that their vessel possesses a satisfactory level of stability in order to ensure its safety as well as that of the people on board the ship. Understanding ship's stability, trim, stress, and the basics of ship's construction is a key to keeping a ship seaworthy. The findings of this study can be beneficial to the maritime safety administrations to adopt decision-making on maritime safety management, but it is also important to carry out statistics and analysis of marine casualties to help to adopt proper safety management measures. Moreover, the study can be a useful guidance for masters and officers on board vessel in order to understand the factors that contribute to ship stability failure during the voyage not only in port during loading operations and to take preventive measures to avoid to put the ship in such a dangerous situations.

  7. SYNCHRONIZATION OF NATIONAL GRID NETWORK WITH THE ELECTRICITY SHIPS NETWORK IN THE "SHORE TO SHIP" SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz TARNAPOWICZ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ‘Shore to ship’ system – ships’ power supply from the local electrical substations – is one of the effective ways to limit the negative impact of the ships lying in ports on the environment. Energy infrastructure of the port installation necessary to provide ships with power supply has to be designed so that different types of ships can use it. The important issue concerning ‘shore to ship’ system is the quality of power supply. This can be achieved via sustaining continuity of power supply while switching from the ships’ electrical network over to the national grid. In this article the author presents the way of synchronizing the national grid with the ships’ electrical network during ship’s lying in port. Such synchronization would allow for uninterruptible work of the ship’s electrical devices.

  8. Are Ships Different? Policies and Procedures for the Acquisition of Ship Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Steel and Shipbuilding NAVSEA Naval Sea Systems Command NGNN Northrop Grumman Newport News NGSS Northrop Grumman Ship Systems OIPT Overarching...development (8/17/98) Joint Chiefs of Staff approved ORD (11/97) DD(X) Phase III design agent contract awarded to NGSS (4/29/02) Achieved MS B (11/23/05) PDR...was completed for ship system (4/04) Detail design contracts awarded to NGSS and BIW (8/06) Phase IV system design and integration—Raytheon contract (5

  9. An Adaptive Ship Detection Scheme for Spaceborne SAR Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangguang Leng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR and the increasing need of ship detection, research on adaptive ship detection in spaceborne SAR imagery is of great importance. Focusing on practical problems of ship detection, this paper presents a highly adaptive ship detection scheme for spaceborne SAR imagery. It is able to process a wide range of sensors, imaging modes and resolutions. Two main stages are identified in this paper, namely: ship candidate detection and ship discrimination. Firstly, this paper proposes an adaptive land masking method using ship size and pixel size. Secondly, taking into account the imaging mode, incidence angle, and polarization channel of SAR imagery, it implements adaptive ship candidate detection in spaceborne SAR imagery by applying different strategies to different resolution SAR images. Finally, aiming at different types of typical false alarms, this paper proposes a comprehensive ship discrimination method in spaceborne SAR imagery based on confidence level and complexity analysis. Experimental results based on RADARSAT-1, RADARSAT-2, TerraSAR-X, RS-1, and RS-3 images demonstrate that the adaptive scheme proposed in this paper is able to detect ship targets in a fast, efficient and robust way.

  10. Evidence for ship noise impacts on humpback whale foraging behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Hannah B; Merchant, Nathan D; Friedlaender, Ari S; Wiley, David N; Parks, Susan E

    2016-08-01

    Noise from shipping activity in North Atlantic coastal waters has been steadily increasing and is an area of growing conservation concern, as it has the potential to disrupt the behaviour of marine organisms. This study examines the impacts of ship noise on bottom foraging humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in the western North Atlantic. Data were collected from 10 foraging whales using non-invasive archival tags that simultaneously recorded underwater movements and the acoustic environment at the whale. Using mixed models, we assess the effects of ship noise on seven parameters of their feeding behaviours. Independent variables included the presence or absence of ship noise and the received level of ship noise at the whale. We found significant effects on foraging, including slower descent rates and fewer side-roll feeding events per dive with increasing ship noise. During 5 of 18 ship passages, dives without side-rolls were observed. These findings indicate that humpback whales on Stellwagen Bank, an area with chronically elevated levels of shipping traffic, significantly change foraging activity when exposed to high levels of ship noise. This measureable reduction in within-dive foraging effort of individual whales could potentially lead to population-level impacts of shipping noise on baleen whale foraging success. © 2016 The Author(s).

  11. Implementing Composite Superstructures in Large Passenger Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karatzas, Vasileios; Berggreen, Christian; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the structural response of the part of the superstructure of a RoPax ferry that has been redesigned using composite materials. The composite superstructure is presented and subsequently compared to the existing steel design considering different loading conditions by the use...... of FE modelling.Results indicate that it is not the structural response of the superstructure that inhibits the implementation of composites in the superstructures of large passenger ships but the complicated design procedure and the acceptance of such solutions by the regulatory bodies....

  12. Examination of SR101 shipping packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-03-01

    Four SR101 shipping packages were removed from service and provided for disassembly and examination of the internal fiberboard assemblies. These packages were 20 years old, and had experienced varying levels of degradation. Two of the packages were successfully disassembled and fiberboard samples were removed from these packages and tested. Mechanical and thermal property values are generally comparable to or higher than baseline values measured on fiberboard from 9975 packages, which differs primarily in the specified density range. While baseline data for the SR101 material is not available, this comparison with 9975 material suggests that the material properties of the SR101 fiberboard have not significantly degraded.

  13. Decay study of 246Fm at SHIP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venhart, M.; Heßberger, F. P.; Ackermann, D.; Antalic, S.; Gray-Jones, C.; Greenlees, P. T.; Heinz, S.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Hofmann, S.; Ketelhut, S.; Kindler, B.; Kojouharov, I.; Leino, M.; Lommel, B.; Mann, R.; Papadakis, P.; Rostron, D.; Rudolph, D.; Šáro, Š.; Sulignano, B.

    2011-02-01

    The decay chain of 246Fm has been investigated employing the SHIP separator at GSI Darmstadt. The 246Fm nuclei were produced via the 40Ar(208Pb, 2n)246Fm fusion-evaporation reaction. Improved values of the half-life, T 1/2 = 1.54(4) s, and of the spontaneous fission branching ratio, b SF = 0.068(6) , of 246Fm were obtained. The β+_{} /electron capture branching ratio, b EC = 0.39(3) , of 242Cf was deduced. Possible structures of high- K states in 246Fm are discussed within the framework of a model calculation based on the Woods-Saxon potential.

  14. Fast Evaluation of Ship Responses in Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to provide a rational and efficient procedure able to predict the design wave-induced motions, accelerations and loads with sufficient engineering accuracy in the conceptual design phase and in risk assessment. The procedure relies only on the following main parame...... parameters of the ship: Length, breadth, draught, block coefficient and water plane area together with the operational profile. The formulas are semi-analytical and the calculations can be easily done using a standard spreadsheet program....

  15. The berthing ship problem : Forces on berthing structures from moving ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontijn, H.L.

    1978-01-01

    In this report a mathematical model is formulated which is sufficiently accurate to describe quantitatively and qualitatively the behaviour of a ship berthing to a structure equipped with fenders as well as to determine the response of the fenders themselves. In order to achieve this a set of

  16. Ship berthing to a vertical quay-wall : Fender forces and ship motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontijn, H.L.

    1983-01-01

    In this report a mathematical model is formulated which is sufficiently accurate to describe the typical behaviour of a ship berthing to a vertical quay-wall fitted with fenders as well as to determine the response of the fenders themselves. In order to achieve this a three-dimensional set of

  17. Optimization of ship inner shell to improve the safety of seagoing transport ship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Yun YU

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A practical Ship Inner Shell Optimization Method (SISOM, the purpose of which is to improve the safety of the seagoing transport ship by decreasing the maximum Still Water Bending Moment (SWBM of the hull girder under all typical loading conditions, is presented in this paper. The objective of SISOM is to make the maximum SWBM minimum, and the section areas of the inner shell are taken as optimization variables. The main requirements of the ship performances, such as cargo hold capacity, propeller and rudder immersion, bridge visibility, damage stability and prevention of pollution etc., are taken as constraints. The penalty function method is used in SISOM to change the above nonlinear constraint problem into an unconstrained one, which is then solved by applying the steepest descent method. After optimization, the optimal section area distribution of the inner shell is obtained, and the shape of inner shell is adjusted according to the optimal section area. SISOM is applied to a product oil tanker and a bulk carrier, and the maximum SWBM of the two ships is significantly decreased by changing the shape of inner shell plate slightly. The two examples prove that SISOM is highly efficient and valuable to engineering practice.

  18. Advanced Demonstration of Motion Correction for Ship-to-Ship Passive Inspections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziock, Klaus-Peter [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boehnen, Chris Bensing [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ernst, Joseph [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-09-30

    Passive radiation detection is a key tool for detecting illicit nuclear materials. In maritime applications it is most effective against small vessels where attenuation is of less concern. Passive imaging provides: discrimination between localized (threat) and distributed (non-threat) sources, removal of background fluctuations due to nearby shorelines and structures, source localization to an individual craft in crowded waters, and background subtracted spectra. Unfortunately, imaging methods cannot be easily applied in ship-to-ship inspections because relative motion of the vessels blurs the results over many pixels, significantly reducing sensitivity. This is particularly true for the smaller water craft where passive inspections are most valuable. In this project we performed tests and improved the performance of an instrument (developed earlier under, “Motion Correction for Ship-to-Ship Passive Inspections”) that uses automated tracking of a target vessel in visible-light images to generate a 3D radiation map of the target vessel from data obtained using a gamma-ray imager.

  19. Study of Volatility of New Ship Building Prices in LNG Shipping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bangar Raju

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The natural gas market has been expanding in size and has attracted particular attention across the global energy market. Although most natural gas transportation is carried out through pipelines, almost one third of it is done with the help of merchant vessels, capable of carrying liquefied natural gas. These LNG carriers have a special design and thus can be treated as a separate class of global fleet. New vessels are huge capital investments by vessel owning companies and just like other vessel classes; the new shipbuilding prices for the LNG segment continue to be a key aspect in the decision making of business players. Additionally these prices can be volatile as new ship building prices fluctuate with time. This paper attempts to analyse the volatility of new ship building prices of LNG carriers. For the study, the average ship building prices for all the LNG carriers having volume carrying capacity is between 160,000 – 173,000 cbm to be delivered between 2016 – 2019 were taken into account. For the analysis, GARCH and EGARCH methods were applied on the data set. The analysis concluded that there is a great deal of volatility in the new ship building prices of LNG vessels. It was also identified that negative shocks were more persistent the positive shocks.

  20. The Ship of Classics: The Ark, the Titanic, or the Good Ship Lollipop?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, Robert E.

    Various problems confronting teachers of the classics are explored through frequent reference to the metaphor of the classics viewed as a sailing ship in a sea of troubled waters. Several of the difficulties confronting classics teachers are seen to be related to an anti-intellectual mood prevailing in academe, scheduling problems, shifting school…

  1. EX1201: Ship Shakedown and Patch Tests on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer between 20100214 and 20120223

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — EX1201 is the 2012 shakedown mission of NOAA ship Okeanos Explorer (EX) and will perform system patch tests of the vessel’s Kongsberg EM302 multibeam sonar....

  2. Stability criterion and its calculation for sail-assisted ship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihuai Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stability criterion and its calculation are the crucial issue in the application of sail-assisted ship. How- ever, there is at present no specific criterion and computational methods for the stability of sail-assisted ship. Based on the stability requirements for seagoing ships, the stability criterion of the sail-assisted ships is suggested in this paper. Furthermore, how to calculate the parameters and determine some specific coefficients for the ship stability calculation, as well as how to redraw stability curve are also discussed in this paper. Finally, to give an illustration, the proposed method is applied on a sail assisted-ship model with comments and recommendations for improvement.

  3. Stability criterion and its calculation for sail-assisted ship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Yihuai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stability criterion and its calculation are the crucial issue in the application of sail-assisted ship. How- ever, there is at present no specific criterion and computational methods for the stability of sail-assisted ship. Based on the stability; requirements for seagoing ships, the stability criterion of the sail-assisted ships is suggested in this paper. Furthermore, how to calculate the parameters and determine some specific coefficients for the ship stability; calculation, as well as how to redraw stability! curve are also discussed in this paper. Finally, to give an illustration, the proposed method is applied on a sail assisted-ship model with comments and recommendations for improvement.

  4. A quantitative assessment of Arctic shipping in 2010–2014

    KAUST Repository

    Eguíluz, Victor M.

    2016-08-01

    Rapid loss of sea ice is opening up the Arctic Ocean to shipping, a practice that is forecasted to increase rapidly by 2050 when many models predict that the Arctic Ocean will largely be free of ice toward the end of summer. These forecasts carry considerable uncertainty because Arctic shipping was previously considered too sparse to allow for adequate validation. Here, we provide quantitative evidence that the extent of Arctic shipping in the period 2011–2014 is already significant and that it is concentrated (i) in the Norwegian and Barents Seas, and (ii) predominantly accessed via the Northeast and Northwest Passages. Thick ice along the forecasted direct trans-Arctic route was still present in 2014, preventing transit. Although Arctic shipping remains constrained by the extent of ice coverage, during every September, this coverage is at a minimum, allowing the highest levels of shipping activity. Access to Arctic resources, particularly fisheries, is the most important driver of Arctic shipping thus far.

  5. Game Strategies of Ship in the Collision Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Lisowski

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduced the basic model of process of safe ship control in a collision situation using a game model with j objects, which includes non-linear state equations and non-linear, time varying constraints of the state variables as well as the quality game control index in the forms of the game integral payment and the final payment. Approximated model of the process control as the model of multi-step matrix game in the form of dual linear programming problem has been adopted here. The Game Ship Control GSC computer program has been designed in the Matlab/Simulink software in order to determine the own ship's safe trajectory. These considerations have been illustrated with examples of a computer simulation using an GSC program for determining the safe ship's trajectory in real navigational situation. Simulation research were passed for five sets of strategies of the own ship and met ships.

  6. Real-Time Simulation of Ship Impact for Crew Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    2003-01-01

    , the paper co.... methods for fast prediction of collision and grounding motion and a method that transforms any motion into a set of forces. The latter method allows that the grounding and collision impact modules interact with the simulation software only through specification of external forces......, the real-time simulation of ship grounding and collision events poses a number of challenges. This paper presents a set of theoretical models and methods by which it is relatively easy to implement collision and grounding modeling capabilities in existing, real-time marine simulators. Most notably...... on the hull. The efficiency of the developed procedures is demonstrated by three examples: ship berthing (impact with quay), ship grounding on a pinnacle rock, and ship-to-ship collision. Although the paper specifically addresses ship impact problems, it is believed that a part of the presented methods would...

  7. A Way Forward for Ship Classification and Technical Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam-Bee Goh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Classification societies are one of key organizations that promote the highest standards in ship safety and quality shipping. The paper reviews the ship classification industry and identifies what the classification societies can do to add value to the maritime industry more effectively. To meet this objective, an analysis of the five competitive forces is carried out, together with an opinion survey performed on some of the leading shipping companies, to assess and to establish some of the key factors which should be considered when formulating an overall business strategy for the growth of the classification services business. The findings from the study are discussed with the strategic options and choices. A classification services industrial value chain analysis together with ship management and operation is undertaken to explore the opportunities for classification societies. These findings also provide guidance to policy-makers who design and seek to implement more effective international shipping policies.

  8. Structural analysis of a ship on global aspect using ANSYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M. Muzibur; Kamol, Rajia Sultana; Islam, Reyana

    2017-12-01

    Ship is a complex geometry which undergoes a combination of loadings such as hydrostatic, hydrodynamic, wind, wave etc. at sea and thus adequate strength in a ship has always been one of the most challenging tasks for the ship designers. International Maritime Organization (IMO) and classification societies are providing the standards to ensure the adequacy of strength for the ship against all demands throughout its service life. Thus, structural analysis is needed to assess the overall strength of hull, and the means in this regard are based on finite element method which may be applied either local or global aspect of the ship. This paper is an attempt to carry out the structural analysis of a ship in global aspect using ANSYS software to locate the most stress concentration and deformed area, which will have ultimate effect on fatigue fracture.

  9. Radiation protection studies for the SHiP facility

    CERN Document Server

    Strabel, Claudia Christina; Vincke, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    The enlarged scope of the recently proposed experiment to search for Heavy Neutral Leptons, SPSC-EOI-010, is a general purpose fixed target facility which in the initial phase is aimed at a general Search for Hidden Particles (SHiP) as well as tau neutrino physics. This report summarizes radiation protection considerations for the SHiP facility and the primary beam extraction for SHiP.

  10. Track Pattern Recognition for the SHiP Spectrometer Tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hushchyn, M.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Alenkin, O.; van Herwijnen, E.

    2017-10-01

    SHiP is a new proposed fixed-target experiment at the CERN SPS accelerator. The goal of the experiment is to search for hidden particles predicted by models of Hidden Sectors. The purpose of the SHiP Spectrometer Tracker is to reconstruct tracks of charged particles from the decay of neutral New Physics objects with high efficiency. The goal is to develop a method of pattern recognition based on the SHiP Spectrometer Tracker design.

  11. Adaptive ship autopilot with wave filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinar Sælid

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with analysis and design of an adaptive autopilot for ships. The design is based on a low and high frequency model of the vessel motion adequate to ship steering. The low frequency model describes the vessel response to rudder control and slowly varying environmental forces. The high frequency model represents the wave induced oscillatory part of the yaw motion. The models are used in a Kalman filter and the rudder control is computed from linear quadratic theory based on the low frequency part of the vector. This yields a very effective filtering of the wave component of the yaw motion. Proper operation of this filter/controller structure requires knowledge of the vessel model parameters and the dominating wave frequency. The vessel parameters are estimated on line by a recursive prediction error method. In order to reduce the computing requirements, the state estimator is operated using scheduled gains. This results in an easy and robust design. The convergence properties are investigated by using the method of Ljung. The performance is confirmed by simulation experiments.

  12. Surgery aboard ship: is it safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, M; Lucha, P; Snyder, M; Liston, W

    1999-09-01

    A retrospective review was performed on 684 surgical procedures done aboard U.S. Atlantic Fleet ships during a 3-year period from 1994 to 1996. These procedures were compared with similar procedures performed at the Naval Medical Center in Portsmouth, Virginia. Morbidity and mortality rates were calculated and compared. A very low morbidity rate (0.43%) was reported for surgical procedures performed while deployed compared with 1.69% for procedures at the Naval Medical Center. One mortality was reported. These extremely low rates are felt to be attributable to multiple causes, including a highly selected, healthy patient population, performance of only low-risk procedures, early presentation of surgical problems, and early medical evacuation of patients with complex medical and surgical problems. We feel that elective surgical procedures such as vasectomy, circumcision, inguinal hernia repair, and hemorrhoidectomy can be performed safely aboard ship. This would increase the training opportunity for all members of the medical department and at the same time decrease the costs and risks associated with medical evacuation.

  13. LNG systems for natural gas propelled ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorowski, M.; Duda, P.; Polinski, J.; Skrzypacz, J.

    2015-12-01

    In order to reduce the atmospheric pollution generated by ships, the International Marine Organization has established Emission Controlled Areas. In these areas, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides and particulates emission is strongly controlled. From the beginning of 2015, the ECA covers waters 200 nautical miles from the coast of the US and Canada, the US Caribbean Sea area, the Baltic Sea, the North Sea and the English Channel. From the beginning of 2020, strong emission restrictions will also be in force outside the ECA. This requires newly constructed ships to be either equipped with exhaust gas cleaning devices or propelled with emission free fuels. In comparison to low sulphur Marine Diesel and Marine Gas Oil, LNG is a competitive fuel, both from a technical and economical point of view. LNG can be stored in vacuum insulated tanks fulfilling the difficult requirements of marine regulations. LNG must be vaporized and pressurized to the pressure which is compatible with the engine requirements (usually a few bar). The boil-off must be controlled to avoid the occasional gas release to the atmosphere. This paper presents an LNG system designed and commissioned for a Baltic Sea ferry. The specific technical features and exploitation parameters of the system will be presented. The impact of strict marine regulations on the system's thermo-mechanical construction and its performance will be discussed. The review of possible flow-schemes of LNG marine systems will be presented with respect to the system's cost, maintenance, and reliability.

  14. Drills and Training on board Ship in Maritime Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Dragomir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In maritime transport, drills are methods of practicing how a team or individuals should behavein case of an emergency on board ship (fire, explosion, pirates’ attacks, ship sinking, shipgrounding, capsizing etc.. Most commonly acknowledged in the shipping domain, drills aresynonyms to training exercises. Drills are extremely important for the safety of ship, crew andpassengers and are mandatory to be performed in any sea voyage. In this paper is made anoverview on regulatory framework and strategic role of efficient maritime drills and training.

  15. Radar imagery from the 1994 Lock Linnhe ship wake experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullenhoff, C.J.; Lehman, S.K.; Jones, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-11-15

    The 1994 Loch Linnhe radar ocean imaging trials were held from September 4 through September 17. Two ships were used: the R.V. Colonel Templer, and the RMAS Collie. Thorn EMI, Inc., fielded a dual band, dual polarization radar on a hillside overlooking the loch. A primary purpose of the experiment was to obtain highly visible images of ship generated internal waves. Presented here is imagery for a few of the good ship runs, as well as a study of the environment of the visibility of ship generated internal waves.

  16. Quantification Methods of Management Skills in Shipping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riana Iren RADU

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Romania can not overcome the financial crisis without business growth, without finding opportunities for economic development and without attracting investment into the country. Successful managers find ways to overcome situations of uncertainty. The purpose of this paper is to determine the managerial skills developed by the Romanian fluvial shipping company NAVROM (hereinafter CNFR NAVROM SA, compared with ten other major competitors in the same domain, using financial information of these companies during the years 2005-2010. For carrying out the work it will be used quantification methods of managerial skills to CNFR NAVROM SA Galati, Romania, as example mentioning the analysis of financial performance management based on profitability ratios, net profit margin, suppliers management, turnover.

  17. High-speed quantum networking by ship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devitt, Simon J; Greentree, Andrew D; Stephens, Ashley M; Van Meter, Rodney

    2016-11-02

    Networked entanglement is an essential component for a plethora of quantum computation and communication protocols. Direct transmission of quantum signals over long distances is prevented by fibre attenuation and the no-cloning theorem, motivating the development of quantum repeaters, designed to purify entanglement, extending its range. Quantum repeaters have been demonstrated over short distances, but error-corrected, global repeater networks with high bandwidth require new technology. Here we show that error corrected quantum memories installed in cargo containers and carried by ship can provide a exible connection between local networks, enabling low-latency, high-fidelity quantum communication across global distances at higher bandwidths than previously proposed. With demonstrations of technology with sufficient fidelity to enable topological error-correction, implementation of the quantum memories is within reach, and bandwidth increases with improvements in fabrication. Our approach to quantum networking avoids technological restrictions of repeater deployment, providing an alternate path to a worldwide Quantum Internet.

  18. Cargo-mix optimization in Liner Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jonas Mark; Pacino, Dario; Fonseca, Joao Filipe Paiva

    ’ utilization.The more containers a vessel carries the smaller is the resulting CO2 emissions per transported tonof cargo. This is what can be seen as a win-win situation. Better vessel utilization will result bothin cleaner transport and in better revenue margins for the shippers. Focus on vessel intake...... maximization is old news for liner shippers. Container vessels are deliveredwith a nominal capacity that ship owners know is only theoretical. Unless the cargo weightdistribution is perfect, the nominal intake cannot be reached. Stowage coordinators fight this battleeveryday. They are the planners of the cargo...... and have to find a load configuration (stowage plan)that both suits the current cargo to be loaded but also guarantees that the vessel can be utilizedto its maximum in future ports. The size of nowadays vessels is, however, making this work harderand harder (Pacino et al. (2011)). Moreover, the cargo...

  19. Examination of shipping package 9975-02403

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-01

    SRNL examined shipping package 9975-02403 following storage of nuclear material in K-Area Complex (KAC). As a result of field surveillance activities in KAC, this package was identified to contain several non-conforming and other conditions. Further examination of this package in SRNL confirmed significant moisture and mold in the bottom layers of the lower fiberboard assembly, and identified additional corrosion along the seam weld and on the bottom of the drum. It was recently recommended that checking for corrosion along the bottom edge of the drum be implemented for packages that are removed from storage, as well as high wattage packages remaining in storage. The appearance of such corrosion on 9975-02403 further indicates that such corrosion may provide an indication of significant moisture concentration and related degradation within the package. This condition is more likely to develop in packages with higher internal heat loads.

  20. Teaching of Naval Architecture and Ship Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    1998-01-01

    At the Technical University of Denmark naval architecture has been taught for students of Master of Science in more than 100 years. This teaching has of course seen many changes as has the science. During the last 20 years the university has used a modular system of courses where students can quite...... freely select their courses. In the paper this system is briefly outlined and the teaching of naval achitecture and offshore engineering within this system described. In contrast to many other universities ship design is taught for students relatively early in their study. This course and the advantages...... and disadvantages of it will be discussed. Finally, a few reflections on teaching naval architecture in the future will be made, including subjects likedecision support and reliability....

  1. 46 CFR 153.976 - Transfer of packaged cargo or ship's stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transfer of packaged cargo or ship's stores. 153.976... Transfer Procedures § 153.976 Transfer of packaged cargo or ship's stores. The person in charge of cargo... cargo or ship's stores are transferred unless transfer of the packaged cargo or ship's stores does not...

  2. Exhaust emissions from ships at berth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, D. A.

    Emission measurements have been carried out on board six ships at berth during normal real-world operation (hotelling, unloading and loading activities). The study included three passenger ferries, one transoceanic container/ro-ro, one transoceanic car/truck carrier, and one chemical tanker. Emissions were measured from 22 auxiliary engines (AEs, medium and high-speed marine diesels) covering seven engine models and ranging in size from 720 to 2675 kW maximum output. The fuels varied from low sulphur gasoils ( 2.91 cst viscosity) through to residual oils ( 411 cst viscosity). Both specific emission factors ( g kWh -1) at a given engine load and total emissions (kg) of nitrogen oxides (NO x), sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide, particulate matter (PM) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons during actual harbour stops were determined. In addition, some preliminary measurements to investigate PM size distributions were undertaken. The specific emissions showed significant variations between the different engine models and also within the same engine model on board the same ship. For example NO x emissions varied between 9.6 and 20.2 g kWh corr-1 between all engines and 14.2- 18.6 g kWh corr-1 between engines of the same model and fuel. Other emissions from boiler use and possible main engine warm-up prior to departure were in general expected to be considerably less than those from the AEs. The results obtained for the three passenger ferries demonstrate that empirically derived, emission formulae using dead weight tonnage can prove to be a cost-effective and accurate tool for harbour emission inventories.

  3. The KiteShip (TM) project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De winter, Francis; Swenson, Ronald B; Culp, David [Santa Cruz, CA (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Foreseeable crude oil shortages provide an incentive to use wind power in the merchant marine again, to save fuel by providing propulsion power. Out prototype KiteShip (TM), a lightweight fiberglass proa 7 m long, has been sailed with 2 different sizes of kites in fresh water. The kites are shaped like parafoil wings, with areas of 4 sq m and 9 sq m. Steering is accomplished with two coupled rudders, one fore and one aft. We have been encouraged by the boat speed and the handling, although we have encountered only light winds up to now, of no more than about 20 km/ht. In the next phase we will employ a custom-built kite of 2 sq m. and will also start sailing in the ocean with heavier winds, of 40 km/hr and above. [Spanish] La escasez previsible de petroleo motiva volver a utilizar la fuerza del viento en la marina mercante, para ahorrar combustible al suministrar la potencia de propulsion. Nuestro prototipo KiteShip (MR), con una proa ligera de fibra de vidrio con 7 m de longitud, ha navegado con dos diferentes tipos de vela ({sup k}ite{sup )} en agua dulce. Los kites tienen forma de alas de parafol, con areas de 4 m{sup 2} y 9 m{sup 2}. La direccion se logra con dos timones acoplados, uno en la proa y otro en la popa. Nos entusiasmo la velocidad del bote y su manejo, aunque hemos encontrado hasta ahora solo vientos ligeros de no mas de alrededor de 20 km/hr. En la siguiente fase emplearemos un kite hecho a la medida, de 28 m{sup 2} y tambien comenzaremos a navegar en el oceano con vientos mas fuertes de 40 km/hr o mas.

  4. Surgeon-superintendents on convict ships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearn, J

    1996-04-01

    Surgeon-superintendents on the convict ships transporting convicted men, women and youths to Australia played a key role in the evolution of medical standards in Australia. The British Transportation Acts of 1717 and 1825 added the punishment of exile and banishment to the prevailing penology of the era, that of retribution and deterrence. The surgeon-superintendents formed a bulwark during the sea voyages (between 88 and 258 days), protecting the convicts against the potential abuses of the time. Between 1787 and 1868, some 160 000 convicts were transported to the open air gaols at Sydney, Norfolk Island, Van Diemen's Land (Hobart, Macquarie Harbour, Maria Island and Port Arthur), Moreton Bay, Melville Island and Fremantle. Seventeen convict ships left England for Australia in 1823 alone. The surgeon-superintendent's role on the high seas evolved over this time from one of amateur casualness with a primary responsibility to the system rather than to individual convicts, to that of a highly efficient, courageous professionalism. It became a new specialty discipline in its own right. Mortality on the convict transportation voyages fell from one in three convicts embarked in 1790 to zero mortality in the convicts transported on the Sultana in 1859. The key role of the surgeon-superintendent, in the context of preventive medicine, is developed in the present paper. Historical nodes in the evolution of the new discipline of prison doctor were the 1814 Report of Redfern (himself a former convict), and the evolution from the 1820s of doctors who became the pioneers of the specialty discipline of the Prison Medical Service in Australia. The experiences and influences of surgeon-superintendents on convict transportation vessels formed the catalyst for the Passenger Act (UK) of 1855 which, for the remaining decades of the 19th century, regulated the lives of millions of immigrants to Australia and New Zealand.

  5. Numerical Study on the Effect of Buffer Bow Structure in Ship-to-ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamada, Yasuhira; Endo, Hisayoshi; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2005-01-01

    A disastrous oil spill from a struck oil tanker has become one of the major problems in view of conservation of maritime environment. So far double hulls (D/H) have been introduced to reduce the consequences of collision and grounding events In order to further reduce the oil spill from struck oil...... tankers, the introduction of buffer bulbous bows has been proposed. Relatively soft buffer bows absorb part of the kinetic energy of the striking ship before penetrating the inner hull of the struck vessel. The purpose of the present paper is to verify the effectiveness of a prototype buffer bulbous bow......) and the forward velocity of the struck ship on the collapse mode of the bow of the striking vessel are investigated. Collapse modes, contact forces and energy absorption capabilities of the buffer bows are compared with those of conventional bows....

  6. The Liner Shipping Routing and Scheduling Problem Under Environmental Considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dithmer, Philip; Reinhardt, Line Blander; Kontovas, Christos

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with the Liner Shipping Routing and Scheduling Problem (LSRSP), which consists of designing the time schedule for a vessel to visit a fixed set of ports while minimizing costs. We extend the classical problem to include the external cost of ship air emissions and we present some...

  7. Risk analysis of fireworks transport in cargo container ships

    OpenAIRE

    Branka, Ruddy; Marlair, Guy; Nedelec, Brigitte

    2010-01-01

    International audience; The study deals with the analysis of the most suitable configuration for positioning the fireworks containers in the cargo ship in order to minimize the risks for the ship in case of an accident (transmission of fire or deflagration originating from containers filled with fireworks devices to other containers or arising from other containers to the those containing fireworks).

  8. 46 CFR 176.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 100 GROSS TONS) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974, as Amended (SOLAS) § 176.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel, which carries more than 12 passengers on an international voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate...

  9. 46 CFR 115.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CERTIFICATION International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974, as Amended (SOLAS) § 115.910 Passenger... must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. The Commandant issues the original SOLAS... complies with the applicable SOLAS regulations. Subsequent SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificates are...

  10. 76 FR 70529 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... regulations for ro-ro passenger ships; Development of amendments to SOLAS chapter II-1 subdivision standards for cargo ships; Revision of SOLAS chapter II-1 subdivision and damage stability regulations; Development of provisions to ensure the integrity and uniform implementation of the 1969 TM Convention...

  11. 76 FR 36613 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... damage stability regulations for ro-ro passenger ships. --Development of amendments to SOLAS chapter II-1 subdivision standards for cargo ships. --Revision of SOLAS chapter II-1 subdivision and damage stability... Convention. --Development of amendments to part B of the 2008 IS Code on towing and anchor operations...

  12. 75 FR 65551 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Subcommittee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    .... --Guidelines to improve the effect of the 1969 Tonnage Measurement Convention on ship design and safety... possible entry into force of the 1993 Torremolinos Protocol. --Amendments to SOLAS chapter II-1 subdivision standards for cargo ships. --Amendments to the 1966 Load Line Convention and the 1988 Load Line Protocol...

  13. Automatic ship target classification based on aerial images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Jinhui; Wan, Lili

    2008-12-01

    As the important reconnaissance and offensive weapon in future battlefield, Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) is applied more and more widely in civil and military field. In the sea battlefield, ship classification applied to MAV could effectively realize signals collection, force protection and strike to ship targets. At present, methods of ship classification are mostly based on signals from radar, infrared or ultrasonic. However, because of large volume and complex equipments, these methods can't meet the requirement of MAV. Thus, ship classification based on visible sensor is chosen and it could solve volume and weight limits of MAV. In order to realize ship classification in MAV, ship classification based on aerial images is first proposed and an effective robust algorithm for classification based on modified Zernike moment invariants is proposed in this paper. The task of classification is that the ships are classified into two categories, aircraft carrier and chaser. The experimental results show that the correct classification rate is more than 92% and the algorithm proposed is effective to solve classification problem for ship targets in MAV.

  14. 78 FR 32698 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an... Staff Regulations and Staff Rules --Accounts and audit: Final accounts for the finance period 2012 and...

  15. Unsupervised ship trajectory modeling and prediction using compression and clustering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, G.; van Someren, M.; van Erp, M.; Stehouwer, H.; van Zaanen, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we show how to build a model of ship trajectories in a certain maritime region and use this model to predict future ship movements. The presented method is unsupervised and based on existing compression (line-simplification) and clustering techniques. We evaluate the model with a

  16. 75 FR 54415 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ..., MARPOL and Load Line requirements for major conversions of oil tankers; --Application of amendments to SOLAS chapter III and the LSA Code; --Performance standards for recovery systems for all types of ships; --Guidelines for a visible element to general alarm systems on passenger ships; --Development of new framework...

  17. Modelling waves and their impact on moored ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnsdorp, D.P.

    2016-01-01

    Ships that are moored at a berth in coastal waters are subject to various external forcings, including the hydrodynamic loads that are induced by the local wave field.
    If the ship motions resulting from these wave-induced loads become too large, they may hamper safe operations (e.g., the

  18. Multi-agent adaptive systems in dry bulk shipping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, Steve; Dullaert, Wout; Vernimmen, Bert

    Investment decisions in dry bulk shipping form one of the most difficult managerial tasks due to the high degree of uncertainty and the cyclical nature of the market. Adequate information on ship prices is, therefore, crucial when justifying such decisions. This paper is the first to embed trading

  19. Polymer fuel cell testing for Naval ship applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmal, D.; Kluiters, C.E.; Ligtvoet, A.C.P.; Barendregt, I.P.

    1998-01-01

    In the framework of the development of a new generation of surface ships, the Royal Netherlands Navy, like many other navies, is studying the all-electric-ship (AES) as a serious option. There are various reasons for this interest in the AES concept. The main one is the growing demand for electrical

  20. 27 CFR 26.82 - Permit to ship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Permit to ship. 26.82 Section 26.82 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... shipped to the United States until permit for such shipment has been obtained from the Secretary as...

  1. Toolset for evaluating infrared countermeasures and signature reduction for ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleijpen, H.M.A.

    2010-01-01

    The protection of ships against infrared guided missiles is a concern for modern naval forces. The vulnerability of ships can be reduced by applying countermeasures such as infrared decoys and infrared signature reduction. This paper presents a set of simulation tools which can be used for assessing

  2. Recognition of ships for long-term tracking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, S.P. van den; Bouma, H.; Veerman, H.E.T.; Benoist, K.W.; Hollander, R.J.M. den; Schwering, P.B.W.

    2014-01-01

    Long-term tracking is important for maritime situational awareness to identify currently observed ships as earlier encounters. In cases of, for example, piracy and smuggling, past location and behavior analysis are useful to determine whether a ship is of interest. Furthermore, it is beneficial to

  3. 75 FR 82129 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... of bio-fuels and bio-fuel blends; -- Development of guidelines and other documents for uniform implementation of the 2004 BWM Convention; -- Development of provision for gas-fuelled ships; -- Casualty... minimizing the transfer of invasive aquatic species through bio-fouling of ships; -- Revision of the IGC Code...

  4. 75 FR 3272 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... bio-fuels and bio-fuel blends. --Development of guidelines and other documents for uniform implementation of the 2004 BWM Convention. --Development of provisions for gas-fuelled ships. --Casualty analysis... transfer of invasive aquatic species through bio-fouling of ships. --Revision of the IGC Code. --Safety...

  5. Ship inspection strategies: effects on maritime safety and environmental protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heij, C.; Bijwaard, G.E.; Knapp, S.

    2011-01-01

    Global trade largely depends on maritime transport, and appropriate ships are needed to protect cargo but to minimize environmental damage and to this end, flag and port state authorities expend considerable effort in ship safety inspections. This paper investigates the safety gains of current

  6. On steering a sailing ship in a wearing maneuver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouffroy, Jerome

    Compared to more conventional ships, little attention was given to nonlinear control design for ships sailing by the wind. Following our previous work, this paper addresses the issue of trajectory and reference input generation for a model that imitates the general behavior of sailing vessels...

  7. Risk evaluation methods at individual ship and company level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Heij (Christiaan); S. Knapp (Sabine)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractSafety management and risk profiling to identify substandard ships are of importance to the shipping industry. Whereas current methods rely heavily on detention risk and flag state performance, we extend the risk assessment by considering various risk dimensions and by evaluating a wide

  8. Technical Practices Manual for Surface Ship Stack Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-07-01

    publico releas5, Diitribution unlimted. n /___ 1J TECHNICAL PRACTICES MANUAL FOR SURFACE SIP STACK DESIGN, AVSECj R%~m,r 6136- 7-1 i /-Jul 76~\\ / Prepared...British Transport Commission for making deck, but so slowly that they can be regarded as virtually in available a cross-channel ship (ship A) on which the

  9. The plundering of the ship graves from Oseberg and Gokstad

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bill, Jan; Daly, Aoife

    2012-01-01

    Not the least of the unusual revelations that have come from the wonderfully preserved ninth-century Norwegian ship burials at Oseberg and Gokstad, is the fact that both had been later broken into-by interlopers who defaced the ship, damaged the grave goods and pulled out and dispersed the bones...

  10. 77 FR 12843 - Fees for Sanitation Inspections of Cruise Ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Fees for Sanitation Inspections of Cruise Ships AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department of Health and Human Services... cruise ships. VSP operates under the authority of the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 264, ``Control...

  11. The right whale mandatory ship reporting system: a retrospective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory K. Silber

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1998, the United States sought and received International Maritime Organization-endorsement of two Mandatory Ship Reporting (MSR systems designed to improve mariner awareness about averting ship collisions with the endangered North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis. Vessel collisions are a serious threat to the right whale and the program was among the first formal attempts to reduce this threat. Under the provisions of the MSR, all ships >300 gross tons are required to report their location, speed, and destination to a shore-based station when entering two key right whale habitats: one in waters off New England and one off coastal Georgia and Florida. In return, reporting ships receive an automatically-generated message, delivered directly to the ship’s bridge, that provides information about right whale vulnerability to vessel collisions and actions mariners can take to avoid collisions. The MSR has been in operation continuously from July 1999 to the present. Archived incoming reports provided a 15-plus year history of ship operations in these two locations. We analyzed a total of 26,772 incoming MSR messages logged between July 1999 and December 2013. Most ships that were required to report did so, and compliance rates were generally constant throughout the study period. Self-reported vessel speeds when entering the systems indicated that most ships travelled between 10 and 16 (range = 5–20 + knots. Ship speeds generally decreased in 2009 to 2013 following implementation of vessel speed restrictions. The number of reports into the southern system remained relatively constant following a steady increase through 2007, but numbers in the northern system decreased annually beginning in 2008. If reporting is indicative of long-term patterns in shipping operations, it reflects noteworthy changes in marine transportation. Observed declines in ship traffic are likely attributable to the 2008–2009 economic recession, the

  12. Analysis of Methods of Determining the Safe Ship Trajectory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Lisowski

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes six methods of optimal and game theory and artificial neural network for synthesis of safe control in collision situations at sea. The application of optimal and game control algorithms to determine the own ship safe trajectory during the passing of other encountered ships in good and restricted visibility at sea is presented. The comparison of the safe ship control in collision situation: multi-step matrix non-cooperative and cooperative games, multi-stage positional non-cooperative and cooperative games have been introduced. The considerations have been illustrated with examples of computer simulation of the algorithms to determine safe of own ship trajectories in a navigational situation during passing of eight met ships.

  13. Routing and Scheduling in Tramp Shipping - Integrating Bunker Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Charlotte; Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper

    A tramp ship operator typically has some contracted cargoes that must be carried and seeks to maximize pro_t by carrying optional cargoes. Hence, tramp ships operate much like taxies following available cargoes and not according to a _xed route network and itinerary as liner ships. Marine fuel...... is referred to as bunker fuel or simply bunker and bunker costs constitute a signi_cant part of the daily operating costs. There can be great variations in bunker prices across bunker ports so it is important to carefully plan bunkering for each ship. As ships operate 24 hours a day, they must refuel during...... operations. Therefore, route and schedule decisions a_ect the options for bunkering. Current practice is, however, to separate the two planning problems by first constructing fleet schedules and then plan bunkering for these fixed schedules. In this paper we explore the effects of integrating bunker planning...

  14. Routing and Scheduling in Tramp Shipping - Integrating Bunker Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Charlotte; Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper

    A tramp ship operator typically has some contracted cargoes that must be carried and seeks to maximize proFIt by carrying optional cargoes. Hence, tramp ships operate much like taxies following available cargoes and not according to a fixed route network and itinerary as liner ships. Marine fuel...... is referred to as bunker and bunker costs constitute a significant part of the daily operating costs. There can be great variations in bunker prices across bunker ports so it is important to carefully plan bunkering for each ship. As ships operate 24 hours a day, they must refuel during operations. Therefore......, route and schedule decisions affect the options for bunkering. Current practice is, however, to separate the two planning problems by first constructing fleet schedules and then plan bunkering for these fixed schedules. In this paper we explore the effects of integrating bunker planning in the routing...

  15. Tramp ship routing and scheduling with integrated bunker optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Charlotte; Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    A tramp ship operator typically has some contracted cargoes that must be carried and seeks to maximize prot by carrying optional cargoes. Hence, tramp ships operate much like taxies following available cargoes and not according to a fixed route network and itinerary as liner ships. Marine fuel...... is referred to as bunker and bunker costs constitute a significant part of the daily operating costs. There can be great variations in bunker prices across bunker ports so it is important to carefully plan bunkering for each ship. As ships operate 24 hours a day, they must refuel during operations. Therefore......, route and schedule decisions affect the options for bunkering. Current practice is, however, to separate the two planning problems by first constructing fleet schedules and then plan bunkering for these fixed schedules. In this paper we explore the effects of integrating bunker planning in the routing...

  16. Ontologies for ship's flag search on the Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkinos, Nikolaos-Panagiotis; Triakosaris, Evangelos; Galiotou, Eleni

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we discuss issues on the representation and search of maritime data on the semantic web. In particular, we are concerned with data related to the requirements put forward by ship registries and should be met in view of a ship's flag acquisition. The choice of a ship's flag is a matter of crucial importance since it is the basis of tax payment and rule and regulation enforcement for the flying of flags. In our approach, flags and corresponding requirements are represented in the form of a ontology. Data "opening" and linking with the use of the ontology in question, will facilitate a ship's flag search based on its particular characteristics and will provide useful information on ship registration requirements.

  17. Towards a different view on ship design : The development of ships observed through a social?technological perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bruinessen, T.M.; Smulders, F.E.H.M.; Hopman, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    The research this paper reports on aims to develop a design and engineering strategy for complex ships in between incremental and radical innovation. The majority of European ship-design industry concentrates on the development of complex, one-off ‘specials’ for the offshore industry, like dredgers,

  18. Development of Power Management System for Electric Power Generation in Tanker Ship Based on Simulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Indra Ranu Kusuma; Raynaldi Pratama

    2017-01-01

    Power management system (PMS) for electric power generation in ship, in the case of tanker ship, is the system that has function to control and to monitor all generators in ship as the main electricity supplier for all electric...

  19. Strategic guidance based on the concept of cleaner production to improve the ship recycling industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jain, K.P.; Pruijn, J.F.J.; Hopman, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    The implementation of international ship recycling regulations and international standards of health, safety and environment on a ship recycling yard improves environmental protection, occupational health and safety of the workers. However, it results in increased costs of the ship recycling

  20. Vertical ship motions and sea loads considering nonlinear effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shacham, I.; Weller, T.

    1986-12-01

    A mathematical model dealing with vertical motions and longitudinal strength of a ship, whose shape deviates from the linear theory assumptions, was developed. The model includes nonlinear effects stemming from ship flexibility, widening of side walls in the waterline region and ship bottom emersion. The model also considers coupling between ship response and exciting forces (hydroelastic). Based on the mathematical model equations, a computer program was written to calculate the motions and stresses, developed in a prescribed ship hull sailing at a given speed and course in a given sinusoidal type sea. Calculations obtained for a fast patrol boat and an aircraft carrier featured by a large bow flare, demonstrated very good agreement, both qualitatively and quantitatively, with results measured in sea trials. The method of solution proposed resulted in a time saving computer program, which can be applied effectively for a parametric study of the many factors which affect the whipping phenomenon. The program can also be used as an auxiliary tool at the design stage of new ships and for the determination of sailing envelopes of existing ships.

  1. Liner Shipping Fleet Deployment with Sustainable Collaborative Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Du

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Facing sharp competition in the market for shipping companies, it is necessary to make reasonable and efficient decisions to optimize the container shipping line network so as to improve the shipping efficiency and reduce the transportation cost, as well as to realize the transportation sustainability. Therefore, the liner ship fleet deployment problem with collaborative transportation is proposed in this paper. This problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear programming model that takes collaborative transportation into consideration. The model includes fixed cost, variable cost, berth cost, transport cost, penalty, compensation cost, and so on. To achieve the sustainable development of collaborative transportation, the shipping companies could make a selection between the internal routes and the external routes to serve each task by comparing the distance between the above routes. A real Asia-Europe-Oceania numerical experiment shows that the proposed sustainable collaborative transportation model can be efficiently solved by C++ calling ILOG CPLEX. Results demonstrate that the optimized shipping line network with sustainable collaborative transportation can improve the service efficiency, as well as the service level of shipping companies.

  2. Azimuth method for ship position in celestial navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van-Suong Nguyen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The methods of celestial navigation to fix the ship position in line with the stars are only applied in the twilight time interval when both the celestial bodies and the horizon apppear simultaneously. This means that these methods cannot be used during the night even if the stars are visible. This paper proposes a novel approach which uses the azimuth of the celestial body in order to establish the great circle equation relating the observed body to the ship position when the celestial bodies appear. In addition, the proposed method does not demand the horizon and sextant equipment as with the previous methods. The key advantage which differentiates this method from previous ones is its ability to determine the ship position during the night when the horizon is invisible. Firstly, the vector calculus is applied to find the mathematical equation for the ship position through analyzing the relationship between the ship position and the great-circle azimuth of the observed body. Secondly, the equation system for the ship position is expanded into a standard system in which the input for the proposed mathematical system are the great-circle azimuth and the coordinates of the observed body. Finally, the numerical technique is also proposed to solve the nonlinear system for the ship position. To verify the validation of this proposed method, a numerical experiment is carried out and the results show that it can be applied well in practice.

  3. Automatic detection of ship tracks in ATSR-2 satellite imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Campmany

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Ships modify cloud microphysics by adding cloud condensation nuclei (CCN to a developing or existing cloud. These create lines of larger reflectance in cloud fields that are observed in satellite imagery. An algorithm has been developed to automate the detection of ship tracks in Along Track Scanning Radiometer 2 (ATSR-2 imagery. The scheme has been integrated into the Global Retrieval of ATSR Cloud Parameters and Evaluation (GRAPE processing chain. The algorithm firstly identifies intensity ridgelets in clouds which have the potential to be part of a ship track. This identification is done by comparing each pixel with its surrounding ones. If the intensity of three adjacent pixels is greater than the intensity of their neighbours, then it is classified as a ridgelet. These ridgelets are then connected together, according to a set of connectivity rules, to form tracks which are classed as ship tracks if they are long enough. The algorithm has been applied to two years of ATSR-2 data. Ship tracks are most frequently seen off the west coast of California, and the Atlantic coast of both West Africa and South-Western Europe. The global distribution of ship tracks shows strong seasonality, little inter-annual variability and a similar spatial pattern to the distribution of ship emissions.

  4. The SHiP experiment at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonivento, Walter M.

    2017-07-01

    The discovery of the Higgs boson has fully confirmed the Standard Model of particles and fields. Nevertheless, there are still fundamental phenomena, like the existence of dark matter and the baryon asymmetry of the Universe, deserving an explanation that could come from the discovery of new particles. Searches for new physics with accelerators are performed at the LHC, looking for high massive particles coupled to matter with ordinary strength. A new experiment at CERN meant to search for very weakly coupled particles in the few GeV mass domain has been recently proposed. The existence of such particles, foreseen in different theoretical models beyond the Standard Model, is largely unexplored. A beam dump facility using high intensity 400 GeV protons is a copious source of such unknown particles in the GeV mass range. The beam dump is also a copious source of neutrinos and in particular it is an ideal source of tau neutrinos, the less known particle in the Standard Model. The neutrino detector can also search for dark matter through its scattering off the electrons. We report the physics potential of the SHiP experiment.

  5. Spectroscopy of transfermium isotopes at SHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antalic, Stanislav; Saro, Stefan; Venhart, Martin [Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Hessberger, Fritz Peter; Ackermann, Dieter; Heinz, Sophia; Kindler, Birgit; Kojouharov, Ivan; Lommel, Bettina; Mann, Rido; Streicher, Branislav [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Hofmann, Sigurd [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Goethe-Universitaet, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Sulignano, Barbara [CEA-Saclay, DAPNIA/SPhN, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2009-07-01

    Recent developments of experimental techniques suited for {alpha}-, {gamma}- and CE spectroscopy now allow to study nuclear structure in the region of trans-fermium nuclei. This opened the door to investigate nuclear structure under extreme conditions of heaviest nuclei (Z>100,A>250). Most interesting examples are studies of K-isomers. Experiments aimed to investigate such phenomena provide important information on the nuclear structure of the heaviest elements and are stringent tests for the quality of nuclear models. In this contribution the results from studies of multi-quasi-particle isomeric states in {sup 253}No and {sup 255}Lr performed at SHIP are presented in detail. Both nuclei are first odd-mass isotopes in the trans-fermium region for which high K-isomers were observed. By decay of the high K-isomer in {sup 253}No a rotational band was populated, which was not seen in previous in-beam studies. Additionally, also the recent results on the single particle level systematics for the N=149, 151 and 153 isotones are presented.

  6. Strength of Ship Stiffened Panels under Combined Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weicheng, Cui; Wang, Young-jun; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2000-01-01

    of stiffened panels. However, the majority of these investigations deal with stiffened panels subjected to longitudinal compression only. For real ship structural stiffened panels, the most general loading case is the combination of longitudinal stresses, transverse stresses, shear stresses and lateral......A ship's hull is a box girder structure composed of stiffened panels and therefore, strength of stiffened panels plays a significant role for the ultimate strength analysis of ship structures. In recent years several authors have proposed simplified methods to calculate the ultimate strength...... of stiffened panels....

  7. Satellite measurements of formaldehyde linked to shipping emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wagner

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available International shipping is recognized as a pollution source of growing importance, in particular in the remote marine boundary layer. Nitrogen dioxide originating from ship emissions has previously been detected in satellite measurements. This study presents the first satellite measurements of formaldehyde (HCHO linked to shipping emissions as derived from observations made by the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME instrument.

    We analyzed enhanced HCHO tropospheric columns from shipping emissions over the Indian Ocean between Sri Lanka and Sumatra. This region offers good conditions in term of plume detection with the GOME instrument as all ship tracks follow a single narrow track in the same east-west direction as used for the GOME pixel scanning. The HCHO signal alone is weak but could be clearly seen in the high-pass filtered data. The line of enhanced HCHO in the Indian Ocean as seen in the 7-year composite of cloud free GOME observations clearly coincides with the distinct ship track corridor from Sri Lanka to Indonesia. The observed mean HCHO column enhancement over this shipping route is about 2.0×1015 molec/cm2.

    Compared to the simultaneously observed NO2 values over the shipping route, those of HCHO are substantially higher; also the HCHO peaks are found at larger distance from the ship routes. These findings indicate that direct emissions of HCHO or degradation of emitted NMHC cannot explain the observed enhanced HCHO values. One possible reason might be increased CH4 degradation due to enhanced OH concentrations related to the ship emissions, but this source is probably too weak to fully explain the observed values.

    The observed HCHO pattern also agrees qualitatively well with results from the coupled earth system model ECHAM5/MESSy applied to atmospheric chemistry (EMAC. However, the modelled HCHO values over the ship corridor are two times lower than in the

  8. Wave-induced Hydroelastic response of fast monohull ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    1996-01-01

    of a quadratic strip theory formulated in the frequency domain. The springing response is thereby excited partly be resonance and partly by non-linear excitation. Special emphasis is given to the influence of springing on fatigue damage as the extreme responses even for very flexible ships are quite insensitive......High-speed ships are weight sensitive structures and high strength steel, aluminium or composites are preferred building materials. it is characteristic for these materials that they result in larger hull flexibility than more conventional materials. Therefore, for large fast ships the lowest...

  9. Six cyclopic ships with the death of one of them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M Michael

    2010-09-01

    Given the knowledge of cyclopic humans and animals and their lethal nature, and given the negative way in which the cyclops is portrayed in mythology and in art, it is unusual that six naval ships--four English and two American--were named "Cyclops." However, there are also important positive attributes of the Cyclopes in Greek mythology, which explain the reasons the ships were given this name. One ship, the USS "Cyclops," with 306 men aboard, was lost at sea in the "Bermuda Triangle" in 1918 without a trace and no wreckage has ever been found.

  10. An Analysis of the Competitiveness of Major Liner Shipping Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong Seok Ha, Professor

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated if differences of the profits of the Korean and other global shipping companies were affected by the shipping route specialization. A panel data model was applied to nine shipping companies during the 2009-2015 period, to determine to what extent freight rate, bunker fuel prices, scale economies and chartered vessel ratios affected the profits. The results showed freight rate exerted a significant positive impact and bunker fuel price a significant negative effect on the profits. However, scale economies’ effects and chartered vessel ratios were insignificant or at best obscure, thus requiring a more in-depth study in this direction.

  11. A matheuristic for the liner shipping network design problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Desaulniers, Guy

    2012-01-01

    We present a matheuristic, an integer programming based heuristic, for the Liner Shipping Network Design Problem. The heuristic applies a greedy construction heuristic based on an interpretation of the liner shipping network design problem as a multiple quadratic knapsack problem. The construction...... heuristic is combined with an improvement heuristic with a neighborhood defined by the solution space of a mixed integer program. The mixed integer program optimizes the removal and insertion of several port calls on a liner shipping service. The objective function is based on evaluation functions...

  12. Measuring level of risk exposure in tanker Shipping freight markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WESSAM M. T. ABOUARGHOUB

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This is an attempt to study the volatility structure of the tanker freight market and its exposure to market shocks. Therefore, we introduce a two state regime to investigate the possibility of two different volatility structures in shipping tanker freight markets. Empirical evidence is found that in general terms, shipping tanker freight returns, shift between two regimes, a high volatility regime and a low volatility regime and that market shocks in general increase the volatility of freight returns and has a lasting effect. In regards to measuring freight risk, it seams that semi-parametric approaches are appropriate methods for measuring level of risk exposure for shipping freight markets.

  13. Dark matter at the SHiP experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timiryasov Inar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study prospects of dark matter searches in the SHiP experiment. SHiP (Search for Hidden Particles is the recently proposed fixed target experiment which will exploit the high-intensity beam of 400 GeV protons from the CERN SPS. In addition to the hidden sector detector, SHiP will be equipped with the ντ detector, which presumably would be sensitive to dark matter particles. We describe appropriate production and detection channels and estimate SHiP’s sensitivity for a scalar dark matter coupled to the Standard model through the vector mediator.

  14. Tramp Ship Routing and Scheduling - Models, Methods and Opportunities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Charlotte; Larsen, Jesper; Lusby, Richard Martin

    In tramp shipping, ships operate much like taxies, following the available demand. This contrasts liner shipping where vessels operate more like busses on a fixed route network according to a published timetable. Tramp operators can enter into long term contracts and thereby determine some...... and scheduling problem, focus should now be on extending this basic problem to include additional real-world complexities and develop suitable solution methods for those extensions. Such extensions will enable more tramp operators to benefit from the solution methods while simultaneously creating new...

  15. Legionella risk assessment in cruise ships and ferries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasqualina Laganà

    2017-06-01

    Legionella pneumophila sg 1 was isolated from the samples of shower and tap water in 7 (70% of the 10 ferries examined, and in 3 (33% of the 6 cruise ships examined, and L. pneumophila sg 2–14 in 8 (80% and 1 (16.7% of these ships, respectively. No Legionella contamination was found in whirlpool baths, air and ice samples. In conclusion, the data obtained confirm higher levels of Legionella contamination in local ferries and cruise ships, underlining the need to adopt corrective actions more specific for these smaller vessels.

  16. Design of Control and Monitoring System to Avoid Inter-Ship Collisions in West Shipping Lane Tanjung Perak Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devina P. Sari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of several ship accidents in narrow waters of Madura strait which is the west shipping lane of Tanjung Perak Surabaya has inspired the research on the design of a control system on the ship to avoid any collision between ships. The existence of automatic control with the autopilot is required to minimize the occurrence of collisions between ships In this final study investigated the application of fuzzy logic to control the yaw angle on the vessel MV Karana Sembilan. Fuzzy logic used is Sugeno Takagi type with the input of the error yaw, yaw rate and distance of the ship with a disturbance. Tests conducted with a control system without disturbance, with disturbance, and the presence of obstacles in front of the ship. Performance of control system is obtained by using the disturbance, the fuzzy appearance is 2:41 hm distance position, the speed of 7.5 knots and 0.5 error, then the resulting yaw angle is 6580. Results control with fuzzy syncronized with monitoring at M&C system in visual basic. The view of the monitoring, 3 types of scenarios obtained. For the first scenario, which is created with the control on it, produces the best results of the avoidance, if compared to the second scenario, with trajectory and control anti-collision cross, and if compared with the third scenario that has no built control system with decision-making on it.

  17. 32 CFR 700.872 - Ships and craft in drydock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... amount and location of weights on board which have been made by the ship's force while in dock, and shall.... The level of water in the dock shall not be permitted to rise above the keel blocks prior to receipt...

  18. ADAPTING A CERTIFIED SHIPPING PACKAGE FOR STORAGE APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loftin, B.; Abramczyk, G.

    2012-06-05

    For years shipping packages have been used to store radioactive materials at many DOE sites. Recently, the K-Area Material Storage facility at the Savannah River Site became interested in and approved the Model 9977 Shipping Package for use as a storage package. In order to allow the 9977 to be stored in the facility, there were a number of evaluations and modifications that were required. There were additional suggested modifications to improve the performance of the package as a storage container that were discussed but not incorporated in the design that is currently in use. This paper will discuss the design being utilized for shipping and storage, suggested modifications that have improved the storage configuration but were not used, as well as modifications that have merit for future adaptations for both the 9977 and for other shipping packages to be used as storage packages.

  19. A ship-borne meteorological station for ground truth measurements

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, R.G.P.; Desa, B.A.E.

    Oceanographic upwelling studies required ground truth measurements of meteorological parameters and sea surface temperature to be made from a research vessel which did not have the necessary facilities. A ship-borne station was therefore designed...

  20. Outline of The probabilistic Concept of Ship Subdivision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Maciej

    1996-01-01

    concept. This may facilitate our present efforts in developing a sound assessment, consistent with the results of damage stability model tests. A new method is provided regarding the capsizal probability, based on the theory underlying numerical simulations of damaged ship behaviour in natural sea......An outline of the whole probabilistic concept of ship subdivision is given, comprising the latest advances in determination of pi and s1 factors - the two probabilistic factors that form the basis of the new regulations.The method for calculating the pi factor for dry cargo ships is thoroughly...... presented and compared with the original method, developed by IMO inthe late 60's for passenger ships. After that, a review is presented of the past efforts to develop an estimate for the factor si - the most difficultand controversial part of the new subdivision regulations based on the probabilistic...

  1. MODEL 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE FABRICATION PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, C; Allen Smith, A

    2008-05-07

    The Model 9975 Shipping Package is the latest in a series (9965, 9968, etc.) of radioactive material shipping packages that have been the mainstay for shipping radioactive materials for several years. The double containment vessels are relatively simple designs using pipe and pipe cap in conjunction with the Chalfont closure to provide a leak-tight vessel. The fabrication appears simple in nature, but the history of fabrication tells us there are pitfalls in the different fabrication methods and sequences. This paper will review the problems that have arisen during fabrication and precautions that should be taken to meet specifications and tolerances. The problems and precautions can also be applied to the Models 9977 and 9978 Shipping Packages.

  2. Sensitivity of the Game Control of Ship in Collision Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisowski Józef

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces the application of the theory of deterministic sensitivity control systems for sensitivity analysis taking place in game control systems of moving objects, such as ships. The sensitivity of parametric model of game ship control process and game control in collision situations - sensitivity to changes in its parameters have been presented. First-order and k-th order sensitivity functions of parametric model of the process and game control are described. The structure of the game ship control system in collision situations and the mathematical model of game control process in the form of state equations are given. Characteristics of sensitivity functions of the model and game ship control process on the base of computer simulation in Matlab/Simulink software have been presented. At the end are given proposals regarding the use of sensitivity analysis to practical synthesis of computer-aided system navigator in potential collision situations.

  3. Numerical Ship Hydrodynamics: An Assessment of the Gothenburg 2010 Workshop

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Larsson, Lars; Stern, Frederick (Professor of engineering); Visonneau, Michel

    2014-01-01

    "This book assesses the state-of-the-art in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) applied to ship hydrodynamics and provides guidelines for the future developments in the field based on the Gothenburg 2010 Workshop...

  4. 77 FR 22057 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... regulations for ro-ro passenger ships --Revision of SOLAS chapter II-1 subdivision and damage stability... Convention --Development of amendments to part B of the 2008 IS Code on towing and anchor handling operations...

  5. 76 FR 30229 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... assessment. --Noise from commercial shipping and its adverse impacts on marine life. --Work programme of the... vehicles. --Fire resistance of ventilation ducts. --Measures to prevent explosions on oil and chemical...

  6. The psychosocial work environment and fatigue in Danish ferry shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøggild Dohrmann, Solveig

    2017-01-01

    and endangerment of occupational safety, and in ferry shipping employees’ fatigue can lead not only to poor individual health and wellbeing but also to accidents, which can potentially jeopardize passengers’ safety. Objective Due to the risk of fatigue in the ferry shipping industry – and a lack of prior research...... on this topic - the main aim of this Phd study was to investigate the link between fatigue and working environmental factors among ferry shipping employees. The investigation specifically focuses on the role of psychosocial factors, as there is a distinct lack of research on such determinants in a seafaring...... of two Danish ferry shipping companies. Methods A systematic review and quality assessment of the empirical evidence was conducted as an initial step to summarize and analyze what was known about fatigue-determining factors in seafaring, the results of which were published in article 1. Two further...

  7. Modeling and Solving the Liner Shipping Service Selection Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Christian Vad; Balakrishnan, Anant

    served less shipping costs. We propose a new hop-constrained multi-commodity arc flow model for the LSSSP that is based on an augmented network containing, for each candidate route, an arc (representing a sub-path) between every pair of ports that the route visits. This sub-path construct permits us......We address a tactical planning problem, the Liner Shipping Service Selection Problem (LSSSP), facing container shipping companies. Given estimated demand between various ports, the LSSSP entails selecting the best subset of non-simple cyclic sailing routes from a given pool of candidate routes......, and transporting as much demand as possible over the chosen routes. Since most containers are sent directly or transshipped at most twice in current liner shipping networks, we impose limits on the number of transshipments for each container. The objective is to maximize the net revenue, i.e., revenue from demand...

  8. Franklin's lost ship: the historic discovery of HMS Erebus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Geiger, John; Mitchell, Alanna; Aglukkaq, Leona

    2015-01-01

    In this fully illustrated account, readers will learn about the challenging search efforts and the ship's discovery, while also revisiting the story of the original Franklin expedition and the many early rescue efforts...

  9. Research Ship Kilo Moana Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Kilo Moana Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  10. Research Ship Tangaroa Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Tangaroa Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  11. NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  12. NOAA Ship Fairweather Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Fairweather Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  13. Research Ship Aurora Australis Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Aurora Australis Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  14. NOAA Ship Nancy Foster Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Nancy Foster Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  15. Using Face Recognition System in Ship Protection Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Bača

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The process of security improvement is a huge problem especiallyin large ships. Terrorist attacks and everyday threatsagainst life and property destroy transport and tourist companies,especially large tourist ships. Every person on a ship can berecognized and identified using something that the personknows or by means of something the person possesses. The bestresults will be obtained by using a combination of the person'sknowledge with one biometric characteristic. Analyzing theproblem of biometrics in ITS security we can conclude that facerecognition process supported by one or two traditional biometriccharacteristics can give very good results regarding ship security.In this paper we will describe a biometric system basedon face recognition. Special focus will be given to crew member'sbiometric security in crisis situation like kidnapping, robbelyor illness.

  16. Anti-Ship Missile Defense and the Free Electron Laser

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Herbert, Paul

    1998-01-01

    In order to improve ship self-defense against sea-skimming missiles, several concepts, such as the free electron laser, high-power microwaves, and the Phalanx gun system are reviewed and evaluated in this thesis...

  17. Ship Design and Construction. An Integrated University Course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated course in design and construction of merchant ships taught at the Department of Naval Architecture andOffshore Engineering, the Technical University of Denmark. During the course, the students make a preliminary design of a ship of selected type and also design...... its engine room. The teaching combines lectures with laboratory work at the drawing tables and computer terminals. During the summer holiday, sea time on board ships of the relevant types are offered. Experienced naval architects from shipyards and ship consultancies give lectures and instructions...... on special subjects in addition to the teaching provided by the university professors. The course is offered to and especially designed for students relatively early in their Master's programme....

  18. Shipping Fairways, Lanes, and Zones for US waters

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various shipping zones delineate activities and regulations for marine vessel traffic. Traffic lanes define specific traffic flow, while traffic separation zones...

  19. 76 FR 19176 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... --Dangerous goods, solid cargoes and containers --Ship design and equipment --Stability and load lines and... accessible by taxi and privately owned conveyance (public transportation is not generally available). However...

  20. Variant Designing in the Preliminary Small Ship Design Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karczewski Artur

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ship designing is a complex process, as the ship itself is a complex, technical multi-level object which operates in the air/water boundary environment and is exposed to the action of many different external and internal factors resulting from the adopted technical solutions, type of operation, and environmental conditions. A traditional ship design process consists of a series of subsequent multistage iterations, which gradually increase the design identification level. The paper presents problems related to the design of a small untypical vessel with the aid of variant methodology making use of optimisation algorithms. The computer-aided design methodology has been developed which does not need permanent reference to already built real ships and empirical-statistical relations. Possibilities were indicated for integrating together early design stages, and parallel designing of hull shape and parameters.

  1. Tramp Ship Routing and Scheduling - Incorporating Additional Complexities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Charlotte

    In tramp shipping, ships operate much like taxies, following the available demand. This contrasts liner shipping where vessels operate more like busses on a fixed route network according to a published timetable. Tramp operators can enter into long term contracts and thereby determine some...... for tramp ship routing and scheduling problems. This is done in the context of Operations Research, a research field that has achieved great success within optimisation-based planning for vehicle routing problems and in many other areas. The first part of this thesis contains a comprehensive introduction...... problem, focus should now be on extending this basic problem to include additional complexities and develop suitable solution methods for those extensions. Such extensions will enable more tramp operators to benefit from the solution methods while simultaneously creating new opportunities for operators...

  2. Damage scenarios and an onboard support system for damaged ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Jin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Although a safety assessment of damaged ships, which considers environmental conditions such as waves and wind, is important in both the design and operation phases of ships, in Korea, rules or guidelines to conduct such assessments are not yet developed. However, NATO and European maritime societies have developed guidelines for a safety assessment. Therefore, it is required to develop rules or guidelines for safety assessments such as the Naval Ship Code (NSC of NATO. Before the safety assessment of a damaged ship can be performed, the available damage scenarios must be developed and the safety assessment criteria must be established. In this paper, the parameters related to damage by accidents are identified and categorized when developing damage scenarios. The need for damage safety assessment criteria is discussed, and an example is presented. In addition, a concept and specifications for the DB-based supporting system, which is used in the operation phases, are proposed.

  3. A Way Forward for Ship Classification and Technical Services

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lam-Bee Goh; Tsz Leung Yip

    2014-01-01

    .... To meet this objective, an analysis of the five competitive forces is carried out, together with an opinion survey performed on some of the leading shipping companies, to assess and to establish...

  4. Dives from missions of the NOAA ship Okeanos Explorer.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Dataset shows dives made by a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) or an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) from the NOAA ship Okeanos Explorer during expeditions from...

  5. Dive Tracks from missions of the NOAA ship Okeanos Explorer.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Dataset shows dive tracks made by a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) or an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) from the NOAA ship Okeanos Explorer during expeditions...

  6. Environmental impact of exhaust emissions by Arctic shipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Christian; Reimer, Nils; Jochmann, Peter

    2017-12-01

    Since 2005, a dramatic decline of the Arctic sea-ice extent is observed which results in an increase of shipping activities. Even though this provides commercial and social development opportunities, the resulting environmental impacts need to be investigated and monitored. In order to understand the impact of shipping in arctic areas, the method described in this paper determines the travel time, fuel consumption and resulting exhaust emissions of ships navigating in arctic waters. The investigated case studies are considering ship particulars as well as environmental conditions with special focus on ice scenarios. Travel time, fuel consumption and exhaust gas emission were investigated for three different vessels, using different passages of the Northern Sea Route (NSR) in different seasons of years 1960, 2000 and 2040. The presented results show the sensitivity of vessel performance and amount of exhaust emissions to optimize arctic traffic with respect to efficiency, safety and environmental impact.

  7. Ships as salient objects in synthetic aperture radar imaginary

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schwegmann, Colin P

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The widespread access to Synthetic Aperture Radar data has created a need for more precise ship extraction, specifically in low-to-medium resolution imagery. While Synthetic Aperture Radar pixel resolution is improving for a large swaths...

  8. Shipping Fairways in the Gulf of Mexico, from BOEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Polygon data for all major shipping lanes associated with all ports in the Gulf of Mexico are presented. These layers were modified from GIS data acquired from the...

  9. NOAA Ship Oscar Dyson Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Oscar Dyson Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  10. Research Ship Nathaniel B. Palmer Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Nathaniel B. Palmer Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and...

  11. Research Ship Knorr Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Knorr Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  12. Research Ship T. G. Thompson Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship T. G. Thompson Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  13. NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  14. NOAA Ship Ronald Brown Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Ronald Brown Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  15. NOAA Ship Ronald Brown Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Ronald Brown Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  16. NOAA Ship Pisces Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Pisces Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  17. NOAA Ship Oscar Elton Sette Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Oscar Elton Sette Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  18. Research Ship Melville Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Melville Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  19. Research Ship Robert Gordon Sproul Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Robert Gordon Sproul Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and...

  20. NOAA Ship Fairweather Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Fairweather Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  1. NOAA Ship Rainier Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Rainier Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  2. Research Ship Oceanus Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Oceanus Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  3. NOAA Ship Oregon II Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Oregon II Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  4. Research Ship Healy Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Healy Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  5. NOAA Ship Oregon II Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Oregon II Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  6. NOAA Ship David Starr Jordan Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship David Starr Jordan Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  7. Research Ship Atlantis Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Atlantis Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  8. NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  9. NOAA Ship Delaware II Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Delaware II Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  10. Research Ship Laurence M. Gould Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Laurence M. Gould Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  11. NOAA Ship Nancy Foster Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Nancy Foster Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  12. Research Ship Atlantic Explorer Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Atlantic Explorer Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  13. Research Ship Southern Surveyor Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Southern Surveyor Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  14. NOAA Ship Hi'ialakai Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Hi'ialakai Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  15. NOAA Ship Miller Freeman Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Miller Freeman Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  16. NOAA Ship Ka'imimoana Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Ka'imimoana Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  17. Research Ship New Horizon Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship New Horizon Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  18. NOAA Ship Rainier Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Rainier Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  19. NOAA Ship Pisces Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Pisces Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  20. NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  1. Research Ship Roger Revelle Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Roger Revelle Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  2. NOAA Ship Henry B. Bigelow Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Henry B. Bigelow Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  3. NOAA Ship Bell M. Shimada Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Bell M. Shimada Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  4. NOAA Ship Oscar Dyson Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Oscar Dyson Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  5. Observations and computations of narrow Kelvin ship wakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Noblesse

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Computations of far-field ship waves, based on linear potential flow theory and the Hogner approximation, are reported for monohull ships and catamarans. Specifically, far-field ship waves are computed for six monohull ships at four Froude numbers F≡V/gL=0.58, 0.68, 0.86, 1.58 and for six catamarans with nondimensional hull spacing s≡S/L=0.25 at two Froude numbers Fs≡V/gS=1 and 2.5. Here, g is the gravitational acceleration, V and L denote the ship speed and length, and S is the separation distance between the twin hulls of a catamaran. The computations show that, although the amplitudes of the waves created by a ship are strongly influenced by the shape of the ship hull, as well known, the ray angles where the largest waves are found are only weakly influenced by the hull shape and indeed are mostly a kinematic feature of the flow around a ship hull. An important practical consequence of this flow feature is that the apparent wake angle of general monohull ships or catamarans (with arbitrarily-shaped hulls can be estimated, without computations, by means of simple analytical relations; these relations, obtained elsewhere via parametric computations, are given here. Moreover, the influence of the two parameters Fs and s that largely determine the ray angles of the dominant waves created by a catamaran is illustrated via computations for three catamarans with hull spacings s=0.2, 0.35, 0.5 at four Froude numbers Fs=1, 1.5, 2, 2.5. These computations confirm that the largest waves created by wide and/or fast catamarans are found at ray angles that only depend on Fs (i.e. that do not depend on the hull spacing s in agreement with an elementary analysis of lateral interference between the dominant waves created by the bows (or sterns of the twin hulls of a catamaran. The dominant-waves ray angles predicted by the theory of wave-interference effects for monohull ships and catamarans are also compared with the observations of narrow Kelvin ship

  6. Ship Design Manager (SDM) and Systems Integration Manager (SIM) Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    detailed discussion of the application. Efforts have also begun to model the ship design processes using PLEXUS and other software tools. This will...Systems Design Report - Vital Space List - Collective Protection System General Arrangements - Air Lock and Decon Station Drawings - Degaussing...be lower triangular. HH.5 DESIGN PROCESS MODELING. Efforts have also begun to model the ship design processes using PLEXUS and other software tools

  7. Classification of routing and scheduling problems in liner shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortshøj Kjeldsen, Karina

    A classification scheme for routing and scheduling problems in liner shipping is developed and subsequently used to classify existing literature on the subject. Based on the classification the articles are grouped, and the main characteristics of each group and article are described. The grouping...... may serve as a catalyst towards developing a model or a group of models that covers the main problems within routing and scheduling in liner shipping....

  8. Quality management in shipping. Case study: Maersk Line Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca MADAR

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Quality assurance has become very important to the majority of production or service companies with international activity. Maritime transport companies were also required to take measures to implement a quality management system. Because of navigation accidents that had a significant impact on shipping, there was designed a ship safety management code. To put into practice the quality management system, each company adopts specific quality strategies according to their activity.

  9. CALCULATION ON THE UPRIGHTING PROCESS OF A CAPSIZED SHIP

    OpenAIRE

    De-wei Pan; Cheng-xin Lin; Zhi-jie Liu; De-ping Sun

    2016-01-01

    The processes of marine salvage require firstly the uprighting of the capsized ship, essentially bringing the deck to point up. Analysis and computation are the keys for the success in the application of the design schemes. Up to date, there are few researches on calculation methods for uprighting process of capsized ships at China and abroad. Researches about the effect of flooding quantity and the variation of the longitudinal strength during the uprighting process of capsized and damaged s...

  10. Analysis and design of offshore tubular members against ship impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Zhaolong; Amdahl, Jørgen

    2018-01-01

    Ship collisions may be critical to the operational safety of ships and offshore structures, and should be carefully designed against. This paper investigates the response of offshore tubular members subjected to vessel bow and stern impacts with the nonlinear finite element code LS-DYNA. Two 7500 tons displacement supply vessels of modern design are modeled. Force-displacement curves for bow and stern indentation by rigid tubes are compared with design curves in the DNV-GL RP C204. Next, both...

  11. Estimating Production Cost While Linking Combat Systems and Ship Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Meverden, USCG; CAPT Brad Fabling , USCG; Mr. Geoffrey Pawlowski, NAVSEA/SPAWAR for providing OPV cost data necessary for the analysis in this thesis...Mathematical Theory of Discrete Systems provides an early basis for the conceptualization of SE driven by a model-based framework (Estefan, 2008). MBSE...developed a unit- theory learning curve from the four data points, and we used this learning curve to estimate costs for ships beyond a four-ship class

  12. Legionella risk assessment in cruise ships and ferries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laganà, Pasqualina; Gambuzza, Maria Elsa; Delia, Santi

    2017-06-12

    Introduction. The increasing development of marine traffic has led to a rise in the incidence of legionellosis among travellers. It occurs in similar environments, especially closed and crowded, and aboard ships Legionella survives and multiplies easily in water pipes, spreading into the environment through air conditioning systems and water distribution points. Although in recent years in the construction of cruise ships preventive measures aimed at curbing the proliferation of Legionella (design, materials, focus on the operation and maintenance of the water system), have been taken account, little or no attention has been paid to small ships which, in many cases, are old and not well maintained. Objective. The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency and severity of Legionella contamination in ferries and cruise ships in order to adopt more specific control measures. Materials and method. A prevalence study was carried out on 10 ferries and 6 cruise ships docking or in transit across the port of Messina (Sicily, Italy). Water and air samples collected from many critical points were tested for qualitative and quantitative identification of Legionella. Results and conclusions. Legionella pneumophila sg 1 was isolated from the samples of shower and tap water in 7 (70%) of the 10 ferries examined, and in 3 (33%) of the 6 cruise ships examined, and L. pneumophila sg 2-14 in 8 (80%) and 1 (16.7%) of these ships, respectively. No Legionella contamination was found in whirlpool baths, air and ice samples. In conclusion, the data obtained confirm higher levels of Legionella contamination in local ferries and cruise ships, underlining the need to adopt corrective actions more specific for these smaller vessels.

  13. An investigation into the design of an unmanned ship

    OpenAIRE

    Freire, Paulo Eduardo Meirelles

    2004-01-01

    The shipping industry is again facing a shortage of manpower, a situation similar to the one experienced in the 1960's, which caused the first wave of widespread introduction of automation on board merchant ships, thereby enabling substantial crew reductions throughout the world fleet. The automation process has continued at an increasing pace with the introduction of 'periodically unattended machinery spaces' and 'integrated bridge control systems', which have made "one man on watch" operati...

  14. Multivariable Identification of Ship Steering and Roll Motions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiano, A.; Blanke, M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper addresses identification of a multivariable model describing the rudder induced surge-sway-yaw-roll dynamics of a fast container ship. The identification problem is formulated and is solved numerically by using a random search minimization method. Such method, which has to carry out...... for determination of ship hydrodynamic derivatives on the basis of full scale sea trials or from towing tank tests conducted on scale models....

  15. Identification and quantification of shipping emissions in Bohai Rim, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Fan [Key Laboratory of Coastal Zone Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai, Shandong 264003 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, Yingjun, E-mail: yjchen@yic.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Coastal Zone Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai, Shandong 264003 (China); Tian, Chongguo, E-mail: cgtian@yic.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Coastal Zone Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai, Shandong 264003 (China); Wang, Xiaoping [University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640 (China); Huang, Guopei; Fang, Yin; Zong, Zheng [Key Laboratory of Coastal Zone Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai, Shandong 264003 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2014-11-01

    Rapid development of port and shipbuilding industry in China has badly affected the ambient air quality of coastal zone due to shipping emissions. A total of 60 ambient air samples were collected from background site of Tuoji Island in Bohai Sea strait. The air samples were analyzed for PM{sub 2.5}, organic carbon (OC), element carbon (EC), inorganic elements, and water-soluble ions. The maximum concentration of PM{sub 2.5} was observed during spring (73.6 μg·m{sup −3}) compared to winter (39.0 μg·m{sup −3}) with mean of 54.6 μg·m{sup −3}. Back trajectory air mass analysis together with temporal distribution of vanadium (V) showed that V could be the typical tracer of shipping emissions at Tuoji Island. Furthermore, the ratios of vanadium to nickel (V/Ni), vanadium to lead (V/Pb) and vanadium to zinc (V/Zn) also suggest shipping emissions at Tuoji Island. The annual average primary PM{sub 2.5} estimate of shipping emissions was 0.65 μg·m{sup −3} at Tuoji Island, accounting for 2.94% of the total primary PM{sub 2.5}, with a maximum of 3.16% in summer and a minimum of 2.39% in autumn. - Highlights: • Tracers of shipping emissions in coastal zone of northern China were identified. • Contributions of shipping emissions on primary PM{sub 2.5} were estimated. • Shipping emissions accounted for 2.94% of primary PM{sub 2.5} apart from fishing boats. • Impact of shipping emissions on coastal zone increased rapidly in recent years.

  16. Evaluation of Composite-Hull Ships Operating in Arctic Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    from the code architecture to the phases of code execution. Section B provides the user’s methodology of conducting the parametric study, such as ship...floating ice. The program, DYSMAS, conducted a computational parametric analysis to determine how increasing ship velocity, expanding ice block size... design and build a wave generating system. The system was designed and partially built, but an unexpected closure prevented the completion of

  17. Investigation into the feasibility of alternative plutonium shipping forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishima, J.; Lindsey, C.G.

    1983-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), operated for the Department of Energy by the Battelle Memorial Institute, is conducting a study for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission on the feasibility of altering current plutonium shipping forms to reduce or eliminate the airborne dispersibility of PuO/sub 2/ which might occur during a shipping accident. Plutonium used for fuel fabrication is currently shipped as a PuO/sub 2/ powder with a significant fraction in the respirable size range. If the high-strength container is breached due to stresses imposed during a transportation accident, the PuO/sub 2/ powder could be subject to airborne dispersion. The available information indicated that a potential accident involving fire accompanied by crush/impact forces would lead to failure of current surface shipping containers (no assumptions were made on the possibility of such a severe accident). Criteria were defined for an alternate shipping form to mitigate the effects of such an accident. Candidate techniques and materials were evaluated as alternate shipping forms by a task team consisting of personnel from PNL and Rockwell Hanford Operations (RHO). At this time, the most promising candidate for an alternate plutonium shipping form appears to be pressing PuO/sub 2/ into unsintered (green) pellets. These green pellets satisfy the criteria for a less dispersible form without requiring significant process changes. Discussions of all candidates considered are contained in a series of appendices. Recommendations for further investigations of the applicability of green pellets as an alternate shipping form are given, including the need for a cost-benefit study.

  18. A Numerical Model for Torsion Analysis of Composite Ship Hulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Chirica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new methodology based on a macroelement model proposed for torsional behaviour of the ship hull made of composite material is proposed in this paper. A computer program has been developed for the elastic analysis of linear torsion. The results are compared with the FEM-based licensed soft COSMOS/M results and measurements on the scale simplified model of a container ship, made of composite materials.

  19. Naval new ship construction cost analysis and trends

    OpenAIRE

    Holmgren, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis presents an analysis of the Ship Construction and Conversion, Navy, Appropriation cost estimates for the ship construction during the period 1960-1992. Emphasis is placed on four specific shipbuilding programs: Guided Missile Destroyer (DDG-51), Fleet Ballistic Submarine (Trident), Attack Submarine (SSN-688), and Guided Missile Cruiser (CG-47). These programs are analyzed to determine how competition/dual sourcing, contrac...

  20. Technical Problem Identification for the Failures of the Liberty Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. Liberty Ship Building Program in World War II set a record—a total of 2700 Liberty Ships were built in 6 years, in order to support the battle against Nazi-Germany. However, numerous vessels suffered sudden fracture, some of them being split in half. This paper demonstrates and investigation of the Liberty Ships failure and problems, which reveals that the failures are caused by a combination of three factors. The welds produced by largely unskilled work force contain crack type flaws. Beyond these cracks, another important reason for failure associated with welding is the hydrogen embitterment; most of the fractures initiate at deck square hatch corners where there is a stress concentration; and the ship steel has fairly poor Charpy-Impact tested fracture toughness. It has been admitted that, although the numerous catastrophic failures were a painful experience, the failures of the Liberty Ships caused significant progress in the study of fracture mechanics. Considering their effect, the Liberty Ships are still a success.

  1. CALCULATION ON THE UPRIGHTING PROCESS OF A CAPSIZED SHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-wei Pan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The processes of marine salvage require firstly the uprighting of the capsized ship, essentially bringing the deck to point up. Analysis and computation are the keys for the success in the application of the design schemes. Up to date, there are few researches on calculation methods for uprighting process of capsized ships at China and abroad. Researches about the effect of flooding quantity and the variation of the longitudinal strength during the uprighting process of capsized and damaged ships are even rarer. In this paper, hydromechanical equations to describe the effect of flooding are established and a calculation method for the longitudinal strength is introduced with reference to the hydrostatic theory for ships. Three typical uprighting processes are summarized according to the methods of treatment of damaged compartment. The stability of the inverted ship is calculated and analyzed using the General Hydrostatics software(GHS. Reserve buoyancy, shear forces, bending moments and torques are calculated in nine positions along the ship.

  2. Experimental and theoretical study of magnetohydrodynamic ship models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cébron

    Full Text Available Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD ships represent a clear demonstration of the Lorentz force in fluids, which explains the number of students practicals or exercises described on the web. However, the related literature is rather specific and no complete comparison between theory and typical small scale experiments is currently available. This work provides, in a self-consistent framework, a detailed presentation of the relevant theoretical equations for small MHD ships and experimental measurements for future benchmarks. Theoretical results of the literature are adapted to these simple battery/magnets powered ships moving on salt water. Comparison between theory and experiments are performed to validate each theoretical step such as the Tafel and the Kohlrausch laws, or the predicted ship speed. A successful agreement is obtained without any adjustable parameter. Finally, based on these results, an optimal design is then deduced from the theory. Therefore this work provides a solid theoretical and experimental ground for small scale MHD ships, by presenting in detail several approximations and how they affect the boat efficiency. Moreover, the theory is general enough to be adapted to other contexts, such as large scale ships or industrial flow measurement techniques.

  3. Experimental and theoretical study of magnetohydrodynamic ship models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cébron, David; Viroulet, Sylvain; Vidal, Jérémie; Masson, Jean-Paul; Viroulet, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) ships represent a clear demonstration of the Lorentz force in fluids, which explains the number of students practicals or exercises described on the web. However, the related literature is rather specific and no complete comparison between theory and typical small scale experiments is currently available. This work provides, in a self-consistent framework, a detailed presentation of the relevant theoretical equations for small MHD ships and experimental measurements for future benchmarks. Theoretical results of the literature are adapted to these simple battery/magnets powered ships moving on salt water. Comparison between theory and experiments are performed to validate each theoretical step such as the Tafel and the Kohlrausch laws, or the predicted ship speed. A successful agreement is obtained without any adjustable parameter. Finally, based on these results, an optimal design is then deduced from the theory. Therefore this work provides a solid theoretical and experimental ground for small scale MHD ships, by presenting in detail several approximations and how they affect the boat efficiency. Moreover, the theory is general enough to be adapted to other contexts, such as large scale ships or industrial flow measurement techniques.

  4. Digital Documentation of Ships in Cultural Heritage: a European Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colson, A.

    2017-08-01

    Ships of different shapes and times are lying in harbours, on land or in museums, all over the world. Our aim with this paper was to review work done on digital documentation of ships in Cultural Heritage based on different initiatives in Europe using Coordinate Measuring Machine (Newport Ship and Doel 1); Total Station Theodolite (Vasa and Mary-Rose) and Laser scanning (LaScanMar and Traditional boats of Ireland). Our results showed that some discrepancy exist between the projects, in terms of techniques and expertise at hand. Furthermore, few guidelines have been in practice but only for Archaeology and Ethnology. However, no standards are existing. Three focuses have emerged: documentation of single ship elements, monitoring of the long-term deformation processes and the documentation of collections of ships. We discussed the diversity of expert's background and the complexity of comparability between projects. In conclusion, guidelines are necessary to enable a common ground for all professions to work together, e.g. in Architecture. This path must be taken now for digital documentation of ships, if not information and knowledge will be lost on the way.

  5. Fireproof impact limiter aggregate packaging inside shipping containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byington, Gerald A.; Oakes, Jr., Raymon Edgar; Feldman, Matthew Rookes

    2001-01-01

    The invention is a product and a process for making a fireproof, impact limiter, homogeneous aggregate material for casting inside a hazardous material shipping container, or a double-contained Type-B nuclear shipping container. The homogeneous aggregate material is prepared by mixing inorganic compounds with water, pouring the mixture into the void spaces between an inner storage containment vessel and an outer shipping container, vibrating the mixture inside the shipping container, with subsequent curing, baking, and cooling of the mixture to form a solidified material which encapsulates an inner storage containment vessel inside an outer shipping container. The solidified material forms a protective enclosure around an inner storage containment vessel which may store hazardous, toxic, or radioactive material. The solidified material forms a homogeneous fire-resistant material that does not readily transfer heat, and provides general shock and specific point-impact protection, providing protection to the interior storage containment vessel. The material is low cost, may contain neutron absorbing compounds, and is easily formed into a variety of shapes to fill the interior void spaces of shipping containers.

  6. Chemical tracers of particulate emissions from commercial shipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Mar; Amato, Fulvio; Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier; Moreno, Teresa; Dos Santos, Saúl García; Herce, María Dolores; Fernández-Patier, Rosalía

    2009-10-01

    Despite the increase of commercial shipping around the world, data are yet relatively scarce on the contribution of these emissions to ambient air particulates. One of the reasons is the complexity in the detection and estimation of shipping contributions to ambient particulates in harbor and urban environments, given the similarity with tracers of other combustion sources. This study aimed to identify specific tracers of shipping emissions in a Mediterranean city with an important harbor (Melilla, Spain). Results showed that for 24 h PM10 and PM2.5 samples, valid tracers of commercial shipping emissions were ratios of V/Ni = 4-5 and V/EC 8 excluded the influence of shipping emissions. Other ratios (V/ S, La/Ce, Zn/Ni, Pb/Zn, OC/EC) and tracers (Pb, Zn) were also tested but did not correlate with this source. Due to the changing composition of diesel fuels, tracers in the Mediterranean Sea may not be representative in other regions of the world and vice versa. The contribution of shipping emissions to ambient particulate matter (PM) urban background levels was quantified by positive matrix factorization (PMF), resulting in 2% and 4% of mean annual PM10 levels (0.8 microg/m3 primary particles and 1.7 microg/m3 secondary particles, with 20% uncertainty) and 14% of mean annual PM2.5 levels (2.6 microg/m3).

  7. Occurrence of lower cloud albedo in ship tracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-C. Chen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of geoengineering by marine cloud brightening is based on seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with sub-micrometer sea-salt particles to enhance the cloud droplet number concentration and cloud albedo, thereby producing a climate cooling effect. The efficacy of this as a strategy for global cooling rests on the extent to which aerosol-perturbed marine clouds will respond with increased albedo. Ship tracks, quasi-linear cloud features prevalent in oceanic regions impacted by ship exhaust, are a well-known manifestation of the effect of aerosol injection on marine clouds. We present here an analysis of the albedo responses in ship tracks, based on in situ aircraft measurements and three years of satellite observations of 589 individual ship tracks. It is found that the sign (increase or decrease and magnitude of the albedo response in ship tracks depends on the mesoscale cloud structure, the free tropospheric humidity, and cloud top height. In a closed cell structure (cloud cells ringed by a perimeter of clear air, nearly 30% of ship tracks exhibited a decreased albedo. Detailed cloud responses must be accounted for in global studies of the potential efficacy of sea-spray geoengineering as a means to counteract global warming.

  8. EX1101: Ship Shakedown and Patch Tests on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer between March 16 and April 1, 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project will involve the shakedown of all Okeanos Explorer ship capabilities and a patch test of the Kongsberg EM302 multibeam system. Operations for this...

  9. Using kill-chain analysis to develop surface ship CONOPS to defend against anti-ship cruise missiles

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Roy M.

    2010-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The premise of this thesis is that a kill chain analysis can be used to ascertain survivability probabilities that can be used to analyze ship vulnerabilities to the anti-ship cruise missile (ASCM) problem. Using the kill chain framework, two approaches are examined. The kill chain, as perceived by the eyes and sensors of the ASCM, are used for the analysis. From this perspective, the ASCM encounters the formidable layered defense of a...

  10. 46 CFR 147.15 - Hazardous ships' stores permitted on board vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hazardous ships' stores permitted on board vessels. 147... HAZARDOUS SHIPS' STORES General Provisions § 147.15 Hazardous ships' stores permitted on board vessels...' stores if the material— (a) Is labeled according to § 147.30; and (b) Meets the requirements, if any, in...

  11. 46 CFR 189.60-5 - Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate. 189.60-5..., 1974 § 189.60-5 Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate. (a) All vessels on an international voyage are required to have a Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate. This certificate shall be issued by...

  12. 46 CFR 31.40-5 - Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate-T/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate-T/ALL. 31.40... a Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate. This certificate shall be issued by the U.S. Coast... CERTIFICATION Certificates Under International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 § 31.40-5 Cargo Ship...

  13. 46 CFR 91.60-5 - Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate. 91.60-5..., 1974 § 91.60-5 Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate. (a) All vessels on an international voyage are required to have a Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate. This certificate shall be issued by...

  14. 46 CFR 166.15 - Training for maintenance of discipline; ship sanitation; fire and lifeboat drills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Training for maintenance of discipline; ship sanitation... (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS DESIGNATION AND APPROVAL OF NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS § 166.15 Training for maintenance of discipline; ship sanitation; fire and lifeboat drills. All students shall be trained to obey...

  15. Ship Bow Force-Deformation Curves for Ship-Impact Demand of Bridges considering Effect of Pile-Cap Depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Fan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since static analysis procedures in the vessel impact-resistant design codes neglect dynamic amplification effects related to bridge mass, ship-impact responses of bridges may be potentially underestimated. For this reason, several dynamic vessel-impact analysis techniques had been recently proposed, where a force-deformation curve was employed to model the vessel bow stiffness. Most of the recent works mainly focused on the force-deformation curves of the barge bows rather than the ship bows. In this paper, a high-resolution finite element model is developed to obtain the ship bow force-deformation curves. The global and local characteristics of the ship bow force-deformation curves are discussed based on the finite element crush analyses between the ship bows and the rigid walls. Effect of pile-cap depth on the force-deformation curves (rather than only impact forces is studied in detail, and the corresponding empirical equations are developed using an energy ratio method. Finally, a practical example of ship-bridge collision is investigated to validate the force-deformation curves considering the effect of pile-cap depth. It is found from the case study that the effect of pile-cap depth plays an important role in quantifying structural demand under impact loads. The case study also indicates that the developed equations are reasonable in practical applications.

  16. Effect of Water Flows on Ship Traffic in Narrow Water Channels Based on Cellular Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Hongtao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In narrow water channels, ship traffic may be affected by water flows and ship interactions. Studying their effects can help maritime authorities to establish appropriate management strategies. In this study, a two-lane cellular automation model is proposed. Further, the behavior of ship traffic is analyzed by setting different water flow velocities and considering ship interactions. Numerical experiment results show that the ship traffic density-flux relation is significantly different from the results obtained by classical models. Furthermore, due to ship interactions, the ship lane-change rate is influenced by the water flow to a certain degree.

  17. S-CNN-BASED SHIP DETECTION FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION REMOTE SENSING IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Reliable ship detection plays an important role in both military and civil fields. However, it makes the task difficult with high-resolution remote sensing images with complex background and various types of ships with different poses, shapes and scales. Related works mostly used gray and shape features to detect ships, which obtain results with poor robustness and efficiency. To detect ships more automatically and robustly, we propose a novel ship detection method based on the convolutional neural networks (CNNs, called SCNN, fed with specifically designed proposals extracted from the ship model combined with an improved saliency detection method. Firstly we creatively propose two ship models, the “V” ship head model and the “||” ship body one, to localize the ship proposals from the line segments extracted from a test image. Next, for offshore ships with relatively small sizes, which cannot be efficiently picked out by the ship models due to the lack of reliable line segments, we propose an improved saliency detection method to find these proposals. Therefore, these two kinds of ship proposals are fed to the trained CNN for robust and efficient detection. Experimental results on a large amount of representative remote sensing images with different kinds of ships with varied poses, shapes and scales demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of our proposed S-CNN-Based ship detector.

  18. Developing Shipping Emissions Assessments, Inventories and Scenarios (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, J. J.

    2010-12-01

    Inventories of shipping have been important contributions to scientific understanding of regional pollution and transboundary transport. These inventories have also been used to evaluate global scale environmental and climate effects and trends. However, these inventories also inform policy making decisions and this role is increasingly occurring within the timescale of scientific assessment. Shipping exhibits a growth trend for uncontrolled pollutants that is highly coupled to economic activity, and historically increasing faster than many other anthropogenic sources on a global and regional scale. Shipping emissions are being regulated asymmetrically in various dimensions. Some pollutants are being controlled more than others, some regions are subject to stricter controls, and correlated changes in operations are affecting unregulated pollutant emissions. Shipping inventories require more than current assessments, including historic and future scenarios. Generally conceived as sets of business-as-usual (BAU) and high-growth scenarios, ship inventories now also need regulatory control pathways and maximum feasible reduction (MFR) scenarios. In this context, shipping inventories also present other challenges to both scientists and policymakers. Systemic bias can occur in non-shipping assessments when emissions along well-traveled shipping lanes are ignored by far offshore scientific studies, even some campaigns that control very carefully the potential influence of the shipping platforms for their measurements. Examples where shipping may contribute understood and potential biases include: a. Health impacts from transboundary pollution b. Ozone trends over the Pacific c. Sulfur emissions from biogenic sources in Northern hemisphere d. Acidification of coastal waters (potential) e. Arctic impacts on snow and ice Other challenges exist. The fuels and technology used by ships are unique from other transportation, from other stationary sources - and these are changing

  19. Dynamic Approach of Capital Structure of European Shipping Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros H. Arvanitis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of capital structure of companies is one of the most debated problems of financialmanagement. According to economic theory, capital structure determines the stock market valueof firms and therefore their viability, while one of the most negative result of the crash of 2008 andthe persisting crisis (excess supply in markets of labor and money is their ongoing steep declineof lending by credit institutions and other sources. In this paper, considering the importanceof the issue and motivated by the conflicting results of previous empirical studies, we attemptthe analysis of capital structure of the European Maritime Enterprises (oceanic shipping.We focus on shipping companies, because of the large volume of funding that demands theirmain operation, due to the intensity of the assets held. The objectives of this research are firstlythe identification of factors that affect the capital structure of European oceanic shipping andsecondly to search for the existence of an ideal - target capital structure ratio. The determinantsof capital structure are examined through static (fixed effect method and FGLS and dynamic(GMM Methods econometric models, using data from the financial statements of 32 listedEuropean shipping companies for the period 2005-2010. The results suggest the prevalence ofpecking order theory in our case, while a positive relationship arises between tangible assets andtax benefits (arising from sources other than borrowing against leverage. Moreover, we observea negative relationship between size or profitability and debt. Our findings contribute to a deeperunderstanding of the decisions taken by European shipping on their capital structure.

  20. Storage vessel for ship transport of liquefied gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, P.R.; Rothrock, E.W.; Lange, K.W.; Kircik, W.J.; Davis, R.N.

    1975-05-13

    Chicago Bridge and Iron Co. developed and improved self-supporting tank design for LNG tankers which features added safety, minimizes the concentration of stresses in the ship's hull, and allows the ready installation of insulation. The tank generally consists of an enclosed circular metal shell with an upwardly projecting lower walled portion joined at its bottom edge to the ship-hold bottom, transferring the vertical force of the liquid product to the hold bottom. Within the lower walled portion of the tank shell, a metal secondary bottom is positioned above the hold bottom, with a primary bottom positioned above it. A load-bearing insulation system is positioned between the secondary bottom and the ship-hold bottom. Each of the tank bottoms is usually constructed of thin metal and functions as a leaktight liner. The tank shell and primary and secondary bottoms should be constructed of cryogenically safe metals, but the new design allows the use of conventional carbon steel for the ship's hull. In the event of a primary-bottom failure, the cryogenic liquid will flow into the space below the primary bottom where it will be restrained from further flow by the secondary bottom and kept from damaging the ship-hold bottom by the insulation system.

  1. Economic Possibilities of Shipping though Northern Sea Route1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Woo Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Global warming and climate change haves brought a new issue in the Arctic sea. Therefore, we can now explore new shipping routes through the Arctic Ocean instead of the existing commercial route. In particular, the Northern Sea Route (NSR is one of the feasible shipping routes and, has provided tremendous shipping benefits. If the NSR becomes commercialized, we will be able to save about 5,000 nautical miles in distance and sailing time. In this study, we will emphasize some of the important results on the possibility of commercializing the shipping route in the Arctic. The NSR may bring positive economic effects in terms of shipping distance and time. For example, when utilizing the NSR, the maximum cargo traffic between Asia and Europe is expected to be around 46 million TEU. However, we also need to consider an expensive passage fee that is currently imposed by Russia. In conclusion, we maintain our efforts to protect the environment in the Arctic, in terms of logistics, and we need to explore every possible avenue to bring possible economic benefits to the North Pacific countries.

  2. Evidence that ship noise increases stress in right whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, Rosalind M; Parks, Susan E; Hunt, Kathleen E; Castellote, Manuel; Corkeron, Peter J; Nowacek, Douglas P; Wasser, Samuel K; Kraus, Scott D

    2012-06-22

    Baleen whales (Mysticeti) communicate using low-frequency acoustic signals. These long-wavelength sounds can be detected over hundreds of kilometres, potentially allowing contact over large distances. Low-frequency noise from large ships (20-200 Hz) overlaps acoustic signals used by baleen whales, and increased levels of underwater noise have been documented in areas with high shipping traffic. Reported responses of whales to increased noise include: habitat displacement, behavioural changes and alterations in the intensity, frequency and intervals of calls. However, it has been unclear whether exposure to noise results in physiological responses that may lead to significant consequences for individuals or populations. Here, we show that reduced ship traffic in the Bay of Fundy, Canada, following the events of 11 September 2001, resulted in a 6 dB decrease in underwater noise with a significant reduction below 150 Hz. This noise reduction was associated with decreased baseline levels of stress-related faecal hormone metabolites (glucocorticoids) in North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis). This is the first evidence that exposure to low-frequency ship noise may be associated with chronic stress in whales, and has implications for all baleen whales in heavy ship traffic areas, and for recovery of this endangered right whale population.

  3. Effects of ship-induced waves on aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Friederike; Lorenz, Stefan; Stoll, Stefan

    2017-12-01

    Most larger water bodies worldwide are used for navigation, and the intensity of commercial and recreational navigation is expected to further increase. Navigation profoundly affects aquatic ecosystems. To facilitate navigation, rivers are trained and developed, and the direct effects of navigation include chemical and biological impacts (e.g., inputs of toxic substances and dispersal of non-native species, respectively). Furthermore, propagating ships create hydrodynamic alterations, often simply summarized as waves. Although ship-induced waves are recognized as influential stressors, knowledge on their effects is poorly synthesized. We present here a review on the effects of ship-induced waves on the structure, function and services of aquatic ecosystems based on more than 200 peer reviewed publications and technical reports. Ship-induced waves act at multiple organizational levels and different spatial and temporal scales. All the abiotic and biotic components of aquatic ecosystems are affected, from the sediment and nutrient budget to the planktonic, benthic and fish communities. We highlight how the effects of ship-induced waves cascade through ecosystems and how different effects interact and feed back into the ecosystem finally leading to altered ecosystem services and human health effects. Based on this synthesis of wave effects, we discuss strategies for mitigation. This may help to develop scientifically based and target-oriented management plans for navigational waters that optimize abiotic and biotic integrity and their ecosystem services and uses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. THE EFFECT OF VESSEL SUPPLY ON SHIP-DEMOLITION PRICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Kagkarakis

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The ship-demolition is one of the four main markets that form the shipping industry and plays an important role on the seaborne trade, as it mitigates imbalances between supply and demand for transportation services by adjusting the merchant fleet supply. The aim of this study is to examine whether the factors that determine the supply of vessels for demolition are capable of affecting materially the ship-demolition price formation. The availability of ships for demolition is primarily a function of the fleet’s age and the conditions on the freight and secondhand markets. The analysis is conducted on the crude tanker and the bulk carrier segments and the vector autoregressive model methodology is employed, whereby the effect of both the supply and the demand factors on the ship-demolition prices is examined. The results indicate that the supply side has limited effect on the price formation in the industry, which is driven by the demand for the steel-scrap commodity.

  5. Modeling and simulation of a hybrid ship power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doktorcik, Christopher J.

    2011-12-01

    Optimizing the performance of naval ship power systems requires integrated design and coordination of the respective subsystems (sources, converters, and loads). A significant challenge in the system-level integration is solving the Power Management Control Problem (PMCP). The PMCP entails deciding on subsystem power usages for achieving a trade-off between the error in tracking a desired position/velocity profile, minimizing fuel consumption, and ensuring stable system operation, while at the same time meeting performance limitations of each subsystem. As such, the PMCP naturally arises at a supervisory level of a ship's operation. In this research, several critical steps toward the solution of the PMCP for surface ships have been undertaken. First, new behavioral models have been developed for gas turbine engines, wound rotor synchronous machines, DC super-capacitors, induction machines, and ship propulsion systems. Conventional models describe system inputs and outputs in terms of physical variables such as voltage, current, torque, and force. In contrast, the behavioral models developed herein express system inputs and outputs in terms of power whenever possible. Additionally, the models have been configured to form a hybrid system-level power model (HSPM) of a proposed ship electrical architecture. Lastly, several simulation studies have been completed to expose the capabilities and limitations of the HSPM.

  6. Solution to Reduce Air Environmental Pollution from Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phẁm Tân HỚu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Exhaust gas emissions from ships are increasingly polluting the air environment seriously. Therefore, the MARPOL 73/78 Annex VI is applied for all ships from 2017, Annex VI provided that the concentrations of NOx,SOx CO contained in ship’s exhaust gases must be less than 6.4 g/kWh, 0.6 g/kWh, and 5.5g/kWh respectively. Today, there are many solutions to reduce pollution emissions from exhaust gas of ships, such as improving combustion, using oil emulsion, using biofuel,…However, these solutions also have a handful of disadventages such as being unable to thoroughly resoulve problems, high cost, and very difficult to improve the quality of ship exhaust gas emissions for old ships. Exhaust gas treatment method uses a centralized treatment system where exhaust gas from the thermal engines is taken in a centralized treatment system before discharging into the air. After centralized treatment system, in comparision with raw exhaust gas, soot can be reduced by 98%, NOx can be reduced by 75%, SOx can be reduced by 80%. This method of treatment is not only low cost, good quality but also make marine heat-engines still use traditional fuels as well as need not improve its structure.

  7. World Ships: The Solar-Photon Sail Option

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matloff, G. L.

    The World Ship, a spacecraft large enough to simulate a small-scale terrestrial internal environment, may be the best feasible option to transfer members of a technological civilization between neighboring stars. Because of the projected size of these spacecraft, journey durations of ~1,000 years seem likely. One of the propulsion options for World Ships is the hyper-thin, likely space-manufactured solar-photon sail, unfurled as close to the migrating civilization's home star as possible. Because the sail and associated structure can be wound around the habitat while not in use, it represents the only known ultimately feasible interstellar propulsion system that can be applied for en route galactic-cosmic ray shielding as well as acceleration/ deceleration. This paper reviews the three suggested sail configurations that can be applied to world ship propulsion: parachute, hollow-body and hoop sails. Possible existing and advanced sail and structure materials and the predicted effects on the sail of the near-Sun space environment are reviewed. Consideration of solar-photon-sail World Ships also affects SETI (the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence). Can we detect such craft in flight? When in a star's lifetime is migration using such craft likely? What classes of stars are good candidates for solar-sail World-Ship searches?

  8. E-navigation Services for Non-SOLAS Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang An

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It is clearly understood that the main benefits of e-navigation are improved safety and better protection of the environment through the promotion of standards of navigational system and a reduction in human error. In order to meet the expectations on the benefit of e-navigation, e-navigation services should be more focused on non-SOLAS ships. The purpose of this paper is to present necessary e-navigation services for non-SOLAS ships in order to prevent marine accidents in Korean coastal waters. To meet the objectives of the study, an examination on the present navigation and communication system for non-SOLAS ships was performed. Based on the IMO's e-navigation Strategy Implementation Plan (SIP and Korea's national SIP for e-navigation, future trends for the development and implementation of e-navigation were discussed. Consequently, Electronic Navigational Chart (ENC download and ENC up-date service, ENC streaming service, route support service and communication support service based on Maritime Cloud were presented as essential e-navigation services for non-SOLAS ships. This study will help for the planning and designing of the Korean e-navigation system. It is expected that the further researches on the navigation support systems based on e-navigation will be carried out in order to implement the essential e-navigation services for non-SOLAS ships.

  9. Fluid Distribution Analysis of Kite Sail for Application on Ship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Amiadji

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of operating ships resulted in high air pollution from the combustion of the ship's engine. Efforts to utilize alternative energy to reduce ship engine work have been done, one of them is using unlimited alternative energy that is wind where one of its application of is the application of new ships sail, kite sail as auxiliary system of ship propulsion . In this final project purposed to find out the value of aerodynamic force of kite sail and power it can generated , with a CFD method that uses 3 kite sail design forms, rectangular, triangular, and elliptical, with an area of 160 m2 this models are simulated at wind speed variations from 13.4 m / s up 15.82 m / s and angel of attack variation of 15.20, and 25. From the variation obtained the total aerodynamic force generated can reach 28.73 kN in rectangular shape, 30.79 kN of Elipsical shape, and 27.55 kN of triangular shape, on variant Angel Of attack 25. From the value of the aerodynamic force, each kite sail capable of generating power, on a rectangular kite sail of up to 263.02 kW, an elipsical 276.75 kW, and a triangular 252.63 kW.

  10. Prevention of Polluting Rivers and Lakes from Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalija Jolić

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Traffic on rivers and lakes in Europe has been ve1y well developed.The reason for this is the transport cost, relative speedand good connectivity of major European cities by rivers andcanals. In Croatia, this transport mode is lagging behind therest of Europe. Croatia is located at an interesting section of theriver transversal, but due to several reasons, river navigation inCroatia has not been developed to any major extent. As operatingriver ships the most frequent types are: towboats, pushboatsand self-propelled ships. The installed diesel engines, propulsionand auxiliary engines run at high power. Proportional tothe increase in the power of installed engines is also the increasein the volume of waste produced by the engines. Also, the olderthe engine, the greater volume of waste it produces. Ships mayalso cause pollution by wastewaters and garbage. This pollutionthreat grows with the greater number of people on boardand the age of the ship. In order to minimize these possibilitiesof pollution, it is necesswy to control all the time the properfunctioning of the ships, train the staff and construct receptionfacilities on land.

  11. Ship Detection Using Transfer Learned Single Shot Multi Box Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nie Gu-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ship detection in satellite images is a challenging task. In this paper, we introduce a transfer learned Single Shot MultiBox Detector (SSD for ship detection. To this end, a state-of-the-art object detection model pre-trained from a large number of natural images was transfer learned for ship detection with limited labeled satellite images. To the best of our knowledge, this could be one of the first studies which introduce SSD into ship detection on satellite images. Experiments demonstrated that our method could achieve 87.9% AP at 47 FPS using NVIDIA TITAN X. In comparison with Faster R-CNN, 6.7% AP improvement could be achieved. Effects of the observation resolution has also been studied with the changing input sizes among 300 × 300, 600 × 600 and 900 × 900. It has been noted that the detection accuracy declined sharply with the decreasing resolution that is mainly caused by the missing small ships.

  12. Assessment of shipping emissions on four ports of Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, R A O; Alvim-Ferraz, M C M; Martins, F G; Sousa, S I V

    2017-12-01

    In the last few years, ship emissions have attracted growing attention in the scientific community. The main reason is the constant increase of marine emissions over the last twenty years due to the intensification of port traffic. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate ship emissions (PM10, PM2.5, NOx, SO2, CO, CO2, N2O CH4, NMVOC, and HC) through the activity-based methodology in four of the main ports of Portugal (Leixões, Setúbal, Sines and Viana do Castelo) during 2013 and 2014. The analysis was performed according to ship types (bulk carrier, container, general cargo, passenger, Ro-Ro cargo, tanker and others) and operational modes (manoeuvring, hotelling and during cruising). Results indicated that tankers were the largest emitters in two of the four analysed ports. Regarding cruising emissions, container ships were the largest emitters. . CO2, NOx and SO2 estimated emissions represented more than 95% of the cruising and in-port emissions. Results were also compared with the total national emissions reported by the Portuguese Environment Agency, and if the in-port emissions estimated in the present study would have been taken into account to these totals, emissions of NOx and SO2 would increase 15% and 24% in 2013 and 16% and 28% in 2014. Summing up ships seem to be an important source of air pollution, mainly regarding NOx and SO2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ship-induced solitons as a manifestation of critical phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Zakharov, Stanyslav

    2008-01-01

    A ship, moving with small acceleration in a reservoir of uniform depth, can be subjected to a sudden hydrodynamical impact similar to collision with an underwater rock, and on water surface unusual solitary wave will start running. The factors responsible for formation of solitons induced by a moving ship are analyzed. Emphasis is given to a phenomenon observed by John Scott Russell more 170 years ago when a sudden stop of a boat preceded the occurrence of exotic water dome. In dramatic changes of polemic about the stability and mathematical description of a solitary wave, the question why "Russell's wave" occurred has not been raised, though attempts its recreation invariably suffered failure. In our report the conditions disclosing the principle of the famous event as a critical phenomenon are described. In a reservoir of uniform depth a ship can confront by a dynamic barrier within narrow limits of ship's speed and acceleration. In a wider interval of parameters a ship generates a satellite wave, which can...

  14. Ergonomic assessment of selected workstations on a merchant ship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krystosik-Gromadzińska, Agata

    2018-03-01

    This study describes some key ergonomic factors within the engine room, navigation bridge and other locations of a merchant ship. Ergonomic assessments were carried out on a crew of a merchant ship. The study examines the importance of factors such as noise, vibration, heat radiation (in machinery areas), psychological stress and ergonomics of the physical arrangement of the navigation bridge. It also addresses the effect of working in confined areas for a long duration and the need to process large amounts of data, decision-making and the influence of specific operating conditions in different areas of a ship. This study includes analysis of workstations, working methods and the burden of environmental factors as well as a discussion of specific marine environmental conditions such as confined working and leisure spaces, long-term family and sociocultural separation, frequent changes in climate and time zones, and temporary physical overload and long-term psychological burdens.

  15. The value of transport services and positioning of shipping companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Primacheva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The main goal is to preserve the sustainability of marine transport enterprises in the transport market according to the criteria of entrepreneurial and non-systemic efficiency. The essential conditions of activation of functioning and development of the national marine transport complex are reviewed. In conditions of a rigid competition in the global market of maritime transport of goods the parameters of the status of sea country become the principle in the management’s system of development’s efficiency. In conditions of relatively high density of merchant shipping it is necessary to develop methodology that reflects conditions and objectives of the strategic positioning of shipping companies, for the effective development of the national merchant marine fleet. The principles of the effective development of the global merchant shipping are taken into account during selection of targets of the program of development of Ukraine as a maritime state.

  16. Wave-induced Ship Hull Vibrations in Stochastic Seaways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Dogliani, M.

    1996-01-01

    A theoretical Study is undertaken on the determination of wave-induced loads in flexible ship hulls. The calculations are performed within the framework of a non-linear, quadratic strip theory formulated in the frequency domain. Included are non-linear effects due to changes in added mass......, hydrodynamic damping and water line breadth with sectional immersion in waves. The study is limited to continuous excitations from the waves and thus transient so-called whipping vibrations due to slamming loads are not considered.Because of the non-linearities the ship hull responses become non...... to the large separation between dominating wave frequencies and the lowest two-node frequency of the hull beam. Both extreme value predictions and fatigue damage are considered.For a fast container ship the rigid body and two-node (springing) vertical wave-induced bending moments amidship are calculated...

  17. Time-domain Hydroelasticity Theory of Ships Responding to Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Jinzhu; Wang, Zhaohui

    1997-01-01

    free surface flow. The general interface boundary condition is used in the mathematical formulation of the fluid motion around the flexible structure. The general time-domain theory is simplified to a slender-body theory for the analysis of wave-induced global responses of monohull ships. The structure...... is represented by a non-uniform beam, while the generalized hydrodynamic coefficients can be obtained from two-dimensional potential flow theory. The linear slender body theory is generalized to treat the non-linear loading effects of rigid motion and structural response of ships travelling in rough seas....... The non-linear hydrostatic restoring force and hydrodynamic momentum action are considered. A numerical solution is presented for the slender body theory. Numerical examples are given for two ship cases with different geometry features, a warship hull and the S175 containership with two different bow...

  18. CONSIDERING ANTI-PIRACY SHIP SECURITY: CITADEL DESIGN AND USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Carral

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As piracy continues to pose a threat to the shipping industry, a number of measures for protecting ships, cargo and crew will need to be implemented. Along with other steps, such as deploying military rescue teams, securing the crew within a ship’s citadel has proved to be a highly effective form of self-protection against hostage-taking by pirates. From a design standpoint, aspects that should be considered include the location and dimensions of the citadel, the maximum time crew can stay within it and the specific requirements for various elements of the ship or citadel equipment. Exploiting data on pirate attacks recently occurring in High Risk Areas, this article analyses the design and use of the citadel as a self-protection measure against piracy. As a conclusion, various requirements for these structures are recommended.

  19. In Brief: Reducing ship emissions along U.S. coastline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-04-01

    The United States has called for reducing harmful ship emissions by asking the International Maritime Organization (IMO), a United Nations agency, to create a 370-kilometer-wide emissions control area (ECA) around the U.S. coastline, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced on 30 March. IMO will begin reviewing the proposal in July, and approval could occur as early as next year. According to EPA, by 2020 the ECA would save up to 8300 American and Canadian lives every year by imposing stricter standards on oil tankers and other large ships. Under this program, large ships that operate in ECAs would face stricter emissions standards that would cut sulfur in fuel by 98%, particulate matter emissions by 85%, and nitrogen oxide emissions by 80% from the current global requirements.

  20. CAPITAL AND OPERATIONAL CONCENTRATION IN THE CONTAINER SHIPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Kujawa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with an analysis of the processes of concentration in the liner, con-tainer shipping. In the first part it focuses on the capital concentration as a result of organic growth and/or consolidation among container shipping operators (whether mergers or acquisitions - M&A. The second part of this article focuses on the operational concentra-tion of container fleets in a form of chartering vessels from non-operator owners and formation of the global container alliances between “big players”. The last part of this article focuses on threats connected with growing concentration of container fleet and market power in this sector of shipping.

  1. Power feature required for PEFC powered electric propulsion ship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Isao [NKK Corp., Yokohama (Japan); Oka, Masaru [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Nagasaki (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    This report covers part of a joint study on a PEFC system for ship propulsion, summarized in a presentation to this Seminar, entitled {open_quote}Study on a Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell (PEFC) Propulsion System for Surface Ships{close_quotes}, and which envisages application to a 1,500 DWT cargo vessel. The aspect treated here concerns an analysis of the load-following performance required and estimated of a PEFC system to power the envisaged ship. The analysis proved that difficulty should be expected of the fuel supply circuit in following with adequate rapidity the sharp changes of load on fuel cell under certain conditions. Further integrated experiments and simulation exercises are currently in progress to further analyze the response characteristics of the fuel supply circuit-particularly of the methanol reformer and gas reservoir-to determine the best measure to be adopted for overcoming the expected difficulty.

  2. Wave Loads on Ships Sailing in Restricted Water Depth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidic-Perunovic, Jelena; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2003-01-01

    moment a ship may be subjected to during its operational lifetime. Whereas the influence of forward speed and ship heading with respect to the waves usually is accounted for, the effect of water depth is seldom considered, except in non-linear time domain formulations where a confined water domain must...... be specified anyhow. Usually, two-dimensional strip theories, either linear or non-linear, are applied for actual design cases and these theories are normally based on incident deep-water waves and furthermore apply added mass and damping calculations based on infinite water depth. Only a few papers have...... in the past addressed the influence of water depth on the ship response. In an early work Kim (1968) presented results for the variation of the added mass and hydrodynamic damping and for the heave and pitch motion for a Series 60 model using a relative motion strip theory formulation. A significant reduction...

  3. Surface Ship Shock Modeling and Simulation: Two-Dimensional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young S. Shin

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The modeling and simulation of the response of a surface ship system to underwater explosion requires an understanding of many different subject areas. These include the process of underwater explosion events, shock wave propagation, explosion gas bubble behavior and bubble-pulse loading, bulk and local cavitation, free surface effect, fluid-structure interaction, and structural dynamics. This paper investigates the effects of fluid-structure interaction and cavitation on the response of a surface ship using USA-NASTRAN-CFA code. First, the one-dimensional Bleich-Sandler model is used to validate the approach, and second, the underwater shock response of a two-dimensional mid-section model of a surface ship is predicted with a surrounding fluid model using a constitutive equation of a bilinear fluid which does not allow transmission of negative pressures.

  4. Environmental pollution and shipping feasibility of the Nicaragua Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jihong; Zeng, Xin; Deng, Yibing

    2016-12-15

    In recent years, the Nicaraguan government's renewed interest in constructing this interoceanic canal has once again aroused widespread concern, particularly in the global shipping industry. The project's immense ecological risks, coupled with the recent expansions of both the Panama Canal and the Suez Canal, have raised questions among scientists and experts about its viability. Whether the Nicaragua Canal is really feasible for international shipping, given its high marine pollution risks, requires the further study. This paper discusses and analyses the feasibility of the Nicaragua Canal in the context of its environmental impact and value as a shipping service. This paper aims to provide an important information reference to inform strategic decision-making among policymakers and stakeholders. Our research results indicate that the environmental complexity, economic costs and safety risks of building a new transoceanic canal are simply too high to justify the project. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Calculating Outcrossing Rates used in Decision Support Systems for Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Dam

    2008-01-01

    Onboard decision support systems (DSS) are used to increase the operational safety of ships. Ideally, DSS can estimate - in the statistical sense - future ship responses on a time scale of the order of 1-3 hours taking into account speed and course changes. The calculations depend on both...... operational and environmental parameters that are known only in the statistical sense. The present paper suggests a procedure to incorporate random variables and associated uncertainties in calculations of outcrossing rates, which are the basis for risk-based DSS. The procedure is based on parallel system...... analysis, and the paper derives and describes the main ideas. The concept is illustrated by an example, where the limit state of a non-linear ship response is considered. The results from the parallel system analysis are in agreement with corresponding Monte Carlo simulations. However, the computational...

  6. The Dutch Clean Ship Project: A 300 Passenger Sightseeing Boat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallant, Ronald K.A.M. [ECN, PO Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Schmal, Dick [TNO-MEP, PO Box 342, 7300 AH Apeldoorn (Netherlands); Hengst, Sjoerd [Delft University of Technology, PO Box 5035, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands)

    2000-07-01

    Since 1995 a study is carried out as a joint activity of Dutch industries and R and D institutes on design and development of environmental friendly ships. The study focuses on an inland waterway passenger vessel, which is to be realised as an All-Electric Ship. The electric energy is to be provided by fuel cells, with hydrogen as fuel. The final aims of the project for which this study was carried out, are a) to develop clean and efficient propulsion techniques for ships, thereby contributing to a sustainable development, and b) to realise a research vessel combining functions of R and D, demonstration of new technology and normal service operations. The envisaged programme will last approximately five years. (author)

  7. A Ship Collision Analysis Program Based on Upper Bound Solutions and Coupled with a Large Rotational Ship Movement Analysis Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Le Sourne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a user-friendly rapid prediction tool of damage to struck and striking vessels in a ship collision event. To do this, the so-called upper bound theorem is applied to calculate internal forces and energies of any substructure involved in the ships crushing process. At each increment of indentation, the total crushing force is transmitted to the external dynamics MCOL program, which calculates the global ship motion correction by solving the hydrodynamic force equilibrium equations. As a first step, the paper gives a brief description of the upper bound method originally developed for perpendicular collisions and recently enhanced for oblique ones. Then, the theory developed in MCOL program for large rotational ship movements is detailed. By comparing results obtained with and without MCOL, the importance of hydrodynamic effects is highlighted. Some simulation results are compared with results provided by classical nonlinear finite element calculations. Finally, by using the developed analytical tool, which mixes internal and external dynamics, different crushing scenarios including oblique collisions are investigated and the influence of some collision parameters like longitudinal and vertical impact location, impact angle, and struck ship velocity is studied.

  8. Future emissions from shipping and petroleum activities in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, G. P.; Nilssen, T. B.; Lindholt, L.; Eide, M. S.; Glomsrød, S.; Eide, L. I.; Fuglestvedt, J. S.

    2011-06-01

    The Arctic sea-ice is retreating faster than predicted by climate models and could become ice free during summer this century. The reduced sea-ice extent may effectively "unlock" the Arctic Ocean to increased human activities such as transit shipping and expanded oil and gas production. Travel time between Europe and the north Pacific Region can be reduced by up to 50 % with low sea-ice levels and the use of this route could increase substantially as the sea-ice retreats. Oil and gas activities already occur in the Arctic region and given the large undiscovered petroleum resources increased activity could be expected with reduced sea-ice. We use a bottom-up shipping model and a detailed global energy market model to construct emission inventories of Arctic shipping and petroleum activities in 2030 and 2050 given estimated sea-ice extents. The emission inventories are on a 1×1 degree grid and cover both short-lived components (SO2, NOx, CO, NMVOC, BC, OC) and the long-lived greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O). We find rapid growth in transit shipping due to increased profitability with the shorter transit times compensating for increased costs in traversing areas of sea-ice. Oil and gas production remains relatively stable leading to reduced emissions from emission factor improvements. The location of oil and gas production moves into locations requiring more ship transport relative to pipeline transport, leading to rapid emissions growth from oil and gas transport via ship. Our emission inventories for the Arctic region will be used as input into chemical transport, radiative transfer, and climate models to quantify the role of Arctic activities in climate change compared to similar emissions occurring outside of the Arctic region.

  9. Future emissions from shipping and petroleum activities in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Peters

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic sea-ice is retreating faster than predicted by climate models and could become ice free during summer this century. The reduced sea-ice extent may effectively "unlock" the Arctic Ocean to increased human activities such as transit shipping and expanded oil and gas production. Travel time between Europe and the north Pacific Region can be reduced by up to 50 % with low sea-ice levels and the use of this route could increase substantially as the sea-ice retreats. Oil and gas activities already occur in the Arctic region and given the large undiscovered petroleum resources increased activity could be expected with reduced sea-ice. We use a bottom-up shipping model and a detailed global energy market model to construct emission inventories of Arctic shipping and petroleum activities in 2030 and 2050 given estimated sea-ice extents. The emission inventories are on a 1×1 degree grid and cover both short-lived components (SO2, NOx, CO, NMVOC, BC, OC and the long-lived greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O. We find rapid growth in transit shipping due to increased profitability with the shorter transit times compensating for increased costs in traversing areas of sea-ice. Oil and gas production remains relatively stable leading to reduced emissions from emission factor improvements. The location of oil and gas production moves into locations requiring more ship transport relative to pipeline transport, leading to rapid emissions growth from oil and gas transport via ship. Our emission inventories for the Arctic region will be used as input into chemical transport, radiative transfer, and climate models to quantify the role of Arctic activities in climate change compared to similar emissions occurring outside of the Arctic region.

  10. 46 CFR 179.210 - Collision bulkhead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) SUBDIVISION, DAMAGE STABILITY, AND WATERTIGHT INTEGRITY Subdivision and Damage Stability Requirements § 179... wood on or after March 11, 2001, and operates in cold water. (c) A double-ended ferry required to have...

  11. Wave-induced hydroelastic response of fast monohull displacement ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Wang, Zhaohui

    1998-01-01

    High-speed ships are weight sensitive structures and high strength steel, aluminium or composites are preferred building materials. It is characteristic for these materials that they result in larger hull flexibility than more conventional materials. Therefore, for large fast ships the lowest...... a quadratic strip theory formulated in the frequency domain and a fully non-linear time-domain strip theory. The hydroelastic response is thereby excited partly by resonance and partly by non-linear excitation. The calculations are carried out for a recent proposal for a fast monohull containership....

  12. Extreme and First-Passage Time of Ship Collision Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    1983-01-01

    The paper outlines a general theory from which the distribution function of the extreme peak collision load encountered during a certain intended lifetime can be cal culated assuming the arrival of ship collisions to be specified by a Poisson counting proces s.......The paper outlines a general theory from which the distribution function of the extreme peak collision load encountered during a certain intended lifetime can be cal culated assuming the arrival of ship collisions to be specified by a Poisson counting proces s....

  13. Slow Drift-Oscillations of a Ship in Irregular Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odd M. Faltinsen

    1980-10-01

    Full Text Available A procedure to calculate horizontal slow drift excitation forces on an infinitely long horizontal cylinder in irregular beam sea waves is presented. The hydrodynamic boundary-value problem is solved correctly to second order in wave amplitude. Results in the form of second order transfer functions are presented for different, two-dimensional shapes. It is concluded that Newman's approximative method is a practical way to calculate slow drift excitation forces on a ship in beam sea and it is suggested that it may be used in a more general case. Applications of the results for moored ships are discussed.

  14. Adaptive Path Control of Surface Ships in Restricted Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    open loop dynamics matrix f.. and the disturbance distribution matrix Yij are algebraic combinations of the stability deriva- tives and mass and...l .89. This disturbance wa; a!;ssumed to be constant for 15 ship lengths and then to reduce linea -ly to one hal f this value at 20 ship lenqths. ’lhi...had sFuppre;e-;,d mot , : I: met , .in I t 114 shil was! moving almost in a straight linea . in i,, m,,t f is,-f rmation whi c could be extracted from t

  15. Impact mechanics of ship collisions and validations with experimental results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shengming; Villavicencio, R.; Zhu, L.

    2017-01-01

    Closed-form analytical solutions for the energy released for deforming and crushing ofstructures and the impact impulse during ship collisions were developed and published inMarine Structures in 1998 [1]. The proposed mathematical models have been used bymany engineers and researchers although...... a reasonable agreement with theexperimental results. The paper also introduces a simple concept to account for theeffective mass of liquids with free surface carried on board of a ship and it is shown howthe analytical analysis procedure can be expanded to take into account the effect of shiproll on the energy...

  16. Bathymetry predicted from vertical gravity gradient anomalies and ship soundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Minzhang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the admittance function between seafloor undulations and vertical gravity gradient anomalies was derived. Based on this admittance function, the bathymetry model of 1 minute resolution was predicted from vertical gravity gradient anomalies and ship soundings in the experimental area from the northwest Pacific. The accuracy of the model is evaluated using ship soundings and existing models, including ETOPOl, GEBCO, DTU10 and V15. 1 from SIO. The model's STD is 69.481m, comparable with V15. 1 which is generally believed to have the highest accuracy.

  17. Energy and exergy analysis of a cruise ship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldi, Francesco; Ahlgren, Fredrik; Nguyen, Tuong-Van

    2015-01-01

    destruction is generated in the Diesel engines and in the oil - fired boilers) and in the sea water cooler (5.4%) ; the main exergy losses happen instead in the exhaust gas, mostly from the main engines (6 7% of total losses) and particularly from those not equipped with heat recovery devices . The improved...... to its final use on board. To illustrate this, we perform ed an analysis of the energy and exergy flow rates of a cruise ship sailing in the Baltic Sea based on a combination of available measurements from ship operations and of mechanistic knowledge of the system . The energy analys is allows...

  18. Hygiene inspections on passenger ships in Europe - an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartlett Christopher LR

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hygiene inspections on passenger ships are important for the prevention of communicable diseases. The European Union (EU countries conduct hygiene inspections on passenger ships in order to ensure that appropriate measures have been taken to eliminate potential sources of contamination which could lead to the spread of communicable diseases. This study was implemented within the framework of the EU SHIPSAN project and it investigates the legislation applied and practices of hygiene inspections of passenger ships in the EU Member States (MS and European Free Trade Association countries. Methods Two questionnaires were composed and disseminated to 28 countries. A total of 92 questionnaires were completed by competent authorities responsible for hygiene inspections (n = 48 and the creation of legislation (n = 44; response rates were 96%, and 75.9%, respectively. Results Out of the 48 responding authorities responsible for hygiene inspections, a routine programme was used by 19 (39.6% of these to conduct inspections of ships on national voyages and by 26 (54.2% for ships on international voyages. Standardised inspection forms are used by 59.1% of the authorities. A scoring inspection system is applied by five (11.6% of the 43 responding authorities. Environmental sampling is conducted by 84.1% of the authorities (37 out of 44. The inspection results are collected and analysed by 54.5% (24 out of 44 of the authorities, while 9 authorities (20.5% declared that they publish the results. Inspections are conducted during outbreak investigations by 75% and 70.8% of the authorities, on ships on national and international voyages, respectively. A total of 31 (64.6% and 39 (81.3% authorities conducted inspections during complaint investigations on ships on international and on national voyages, respectively. Port-to-port communication between the national port authorities was reported by 35.4% (17 out of 48 of the responding authorities

  19. Wave Height Distribution Observed by Ships in the North Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anders Smærup; Schrøter, Carsten; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2005-01-01

    The analysis of almost 25000 observation of the wave height from ships in the North Atlantic shows that the encountered wave height distribution is significantly lower than the distribution provided by the classification societies for structural assessment. The joint probability distribution...... for the significant wave height, the relative speed and the ship heading relative to the wave direction is given. This distribution shows that for higher waves the crews avoid sailing in following sea and as expected the speed is decreased in higher waves. There is, however, still a relatively high probability...

  20. Collisions damage assessment of ships and jack-up rigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shengming; Pedersen, P. Terndrup; Ocakli, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Ship collision with offshore installations is one of the key concerns in design and assess of platforms performance and safety. This paper presents an analysis on collision energy and structural damage in ship and offshore platform collisions for various collision scenarios. The platform or rig...... is treated as either rigid or flexible and its sensitivity on collision energy and structural damage is studied. An application example where an ice-strengthened supply vessel collides against a jack-up rig is analysed and the crushing resistance of the involved thin-walled structures is evaluated....