WorldWideScience

Sample records for bulkheads hydraulics

  1. Bulkhead pressure measurements in model fill pours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, R.J.; Roettger, J.J.

    1984-08-01

    The results of a series of model stope pours designed to investigate working pressures on bulkheads during hydraulic pouring of classified tailings backfill are reported. Total bulkhead pressures and fill water pressures were monitored under the condition of a fully saturated backfill. Similitude of the model testing is discussed and equations are developed to estimate bulkhead pressures under prototype conditions. The model results show that good base drainage, combined with a bulkhead setback, can reduce the expected bulkhead pressures to values such that timber or concrete block structures should be capable of supporting a saturated backfill.

  2. Design of north bulkhead of Hitachi-Naka thermal power station and characteristics of the coastal hydraulics; Hitachinaka karyoku hatsudensho kitagogan no sekkei to kaigan suirijo no tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukazawa, A.; Sato, Y.; Fujita, Y. [Electric Power Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-01-05

    For the bulkhead construction of Hitachi-Naka No. 4 Quay where the Hitachi-Naka Thermal Power Station is to be built, Electric Power Development Co., Ltd. is constructing the north bulkhead. The north bulkhead is constructed perpendicularly to the coast line. Since the wave affects the structures as an alongshore wave, the flow condition surrounding the levee body, stability of root protection blocks, and wave pressure affecting caissons are considered to be different from the common case in which the incident wave comes from the front of levee body. This paper describes the design of north bulkhead, in which these phenomena are taken into account. The north bulkhead has been designed as a breakwater combining the rubble-mound inclined breakwater and the caisson type composite breakwater. For the design of north bulkhead, weight of the root protection block was decided considering influence of the slanting wave incidence. Furthermore, results of investigation on the flow condition surrounding the breakwater are described. Are illustrated the periodic change of incident wave, the frequency spectrum and directional spectrum of incident wave, the water level variation surrounding breakwater, wave height distribution surrounding breakwater, and the flow velocity distribution surrounding breakwater. 8 refs., 20 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Through bulkhead initiator studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begeal, D.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Explosive Subsystems and Materials Dept.

    1997-03-01

    This report describes recent work done to demonstrate feasibility of a fail-safe Through Bulkhead Initiator with minimum dimensions and suitable for use in cyclical thermal environments. Much of the ground work for a fail-safe TBI was previously done by A.C. Schwartz. This study is an expansion of Schwartz`s work to evaluate devices with bulkheads of 304 stainless steel and Inconel 718; explosive donors of PETN, BNCP, and a 0.005 inch thick steel flying plate donor traveling at 2.6 mm/{micro}s; and explosive acceptors of PETN and BNCP. Bulkhead thickness were evaluated in the range of 0.040 to 0.180 inch. The explosive acceptors initiated a small HMX pellet to drive a 0.005 inch thick steel flying plate, and VISAR histories of the HMX-driven flying plates were the measure of acceptable performance. A companion set of samples used a PMMA acceptor to measure the particle velocities at the bulkhead/PMMA interface with VISAR. These data were used to compute the input pressure to the acceptor explosives in an attempt to measure initiation threshold. Unfortunately, the range of bulkhead thicknesses tested did not give any failures, thus the threshold was not determined. It was found that either explosive or the flying plate would perform as a TBI in the bulkhead thickness range tested. The optimum TBI is about 0.060 inches thick, and steel bulkheads seem to be more structurally sound than those made of Inconel. That is, cross section views of the Inconel bulkheads showed it to be more prone to stress cracking than was the 304 stainless steel. Both PETN and BNCP showed good performance when tested at {minus}65 F following thermal cycling of {minus}65 F to +165 F. Analysis of the TBI function times showed that BNCP acceptor explosives were undergoing the classical deflagration to detonation process. The PETN acceptors were undergoing prompt detonation.

  4. Method of rehabilitating a waterfront bulkhead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandl, E.D.; Houghton, R.C.

    1988-03-01

    A method of rehabilitating an existing bulkhead located between a body of water and land is described comprising the steps of: (a) reinforcing the existing bulkhead by: (i) installing substantially vertical piles at horizontally spaced locations in front of the existing bulkhead; (ii) connecting the vertical piles to the existing bulkhead; (iii) installing tiebacks through the existing bulkhead and into the land behind the existing bulkhead; and (iv) connecting the tiebacks to the vertical piles; (b) installing a new bulkhead facing a predetermined distance in front of the existing bulkhead and supporting the new bulkhead in part with the reinforced existing bulkhead by: (i) inserting the bottom of the facing into the earthen bottom below the body of water. (ii) securing connecting members between the vertical piles and the new bulkhead facing; and (iii) backfilling the area between the existing bulkhead and the new bulkhead facing.

  5. Combustor bulkhead heat shield assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeisser, M.H.

    1990-06-19

    This paper describes a gas turbine engine having an annular combustion chamber defined by an annular, inner liner, a concentric outer liner, and an upstream annular combustor head, wherein the head includes a radially extending bulkhead having circumferentially distributed openings for each receiving an individual fuel nozzle therethrough. It comprises: a segmented heat shield assembly, disposed between the combustion chamber interior and the bulkhead, including generally planar, sector shaped heat shields, each shield abutting circumferentially with two next adjacent shields and extending radially from proximate the inner liner to proximate the outer liner, the plurality of shields collectively defining an annular protective barrier, and wherein each sector shaped shield further includes an opening, corresponding to one of the bulkhead nozzle openings for likewise receiving the corresponding nozzle therethrough, the shield opening further including an annular lip extending toward the bulkhead and being received within the bulkhead opening, raised ridges on the shield backside, the ridges contacting the facing bulkhead surface and defining a flow path for a flow of cooling air issuing from a sized supply opening disposed in the bulkhead, the flow path running ultimately from adjacent the annular lip to the edges of each shield segment, wherein the raised edges extend fully along the lateral, circumferentially spaced edges of each shield segment and about the adjacent shield segments wherein the raised ridges further extend circumferentially between the annular lip and the abutting edge ridges.

  6. Hydraulics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Robert L.; Kirby, Klane

    This curriculum guide contains a course in hydraulics to train entry-level workers for automotive mechanics and other fields that utilize hydraulics. The module contains 14 instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) introduction to hydraulics; (2) fundamentals of hydraulics; (3) reservoirs; (4) lines, fittings, and couplers; (5)…

  7. Development of composite carrythrough bulkhead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlen, R. J.; Libeskind, M.

    1992-01-01

    A structural development program was recently completed in which the weight and fatigue advantages of an all composite major load carrying bulkhead was successfully demonstrated. Fabrication of a full scale article, including static and fatigue testing of the carry-through beam portion verified the producibility, strength and durability of this design, thereby presenting the opportunity for use on aircraft upgrades and new aircraft. A 15% weight saving is achievable and, more importantly, the fatigue problems that normally plague metal bulkheads are virtually eliminated.

  8. Fully coupled thermohydraulic modelling of the sealing bulkheads and adjacent rock in a full-scale underground test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tunnel Sealing Experiment (TSX) was a two-phase international project funded by Canada, Japan, France, and the United States. The first phase was pressurizing the TSX chamber to 4 MPa to investigate the ability of clay and concrete bulkheads to reduce hydraulic flows. The second phase involved circulating heated water through the chamber to evaluate the influence of elevated temperature on the performance of the bulkheads and adjacent rock. A numerical analysis to simulate thermohydraulic evolution of the bulkheads and surrounding rock of the TSX was conducted to help in understanding the physical test process and the interaction between heat and pore pressure evolutions. The simulated rock temperature matched the measured data quite well; however the simulated bulkhead temperatures were greater than the measured temperatures. The difference may have been caused by entrapped air or formation of microchannels in the chamber sand, which would decrease the amount of heat reaching the bulkheads. The simulated thermally induced pore pressure increase in the clay bulkhead reasonably matched the measured data for the saturated portion. The difference in magnitude between simulated and measured rock pore pressures indicates that thermo hydraulic simulation should be coupled with a mechanical component when the stiffness of the media is large and hydraulic conductivity is low. (author)

  9. Asymmetric Bulkheads for Cylindrical Pressure Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Donald B.

    2007-01-01

    Asymmetric bulkheads are proposed for the ends of vertically oriented cylindrical pressure vessels. These bulkheads, which would feature both convex and concave contours, would offer advantages over purely convex, purely concave, and flat bulkheads (see figure). Intended originally to be applied to large tanks that hold propellant liquids for launching spacecraft, the asymmetric-bulkhead concept may also be attractive for terrestrial pressure vessels for which there are requirements to maximize volumetric and mass efficiencies. A description of the relative advantages and disadvantages of prior symmetric bulkhead configurations is prerequisite to understanding the advantages of the proposed asymmetric configuration: In order to obtain adequate strength, flat bulkheads must be made thicker, relative to concave and convex bulkheads; the difference in thickness is such that, other things being equal, pressure vessels with flat bulkheads must be made heavier than ones with concave or convex bulkheads. Convex bulkhead designs increase overall tank lengths, thereby necessitating additional supporting structure for keeping tanks vertical. Concave bulkhead configurations increase tank lengths and detract from volumetric efficiency, even though they do not necessitate additional supporting structure. The shape of a bulkhead affects the proportion of residual fluid in a tank that is, the portion of fluid that unavoidably remains in the tank during outflow and hence cannot be used. In this regard, a flat bulkhead is disadvantageous in two respects: (1) It lacks a single low point for optimum placement of an outlet and (2) a vortex that forms at the outlet during outflow prevents a relatively large amount of fluid from leaving the tank. A concave bulkhead also lacks a single low point for optimum placement of an outlet. Like purely concave and purely convex bulkhead configurations, the proposed asymmetric bulkhead configurations would be more mass-efficient than is the flat

  10. 46 CFR 179.320 - Watertight bulkheads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Watertight bulkheads. 179.320 Section 179.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) SUBDIVISION, DAMAGE STABILITY, AND WATERTIGHT INTEGRITY Watertight Integrity Requirements § 179.320 Watertight bulkheads. (a) Each...

  11. 46 CFR 174.340 - Collision bulkhead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Collision bulkhead. 174.340 Section 174.340 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Hopper Dredges With Working Freeboard Assignments Design § 174.340 Collision bulkhead. Each hopper dredge must have...

  12. 46 CFR 171.085 - Collision bulkhead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Collision bulkhead. 171.085 Section 171.085 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.085 Collision bulkhead. (a) Paragraphs (b) through (g) of this...

  13. 46 CFR 179.210 - Collision bulkhead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Collision bulkhead. 179.210 Section 179.210 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) SUBDIVISION, DAMAGE STABILITY, AND WATERTIGHT INTEGRITY Subdivision and Damage Stability Requirements § 179.210 Collision bulkhead. (a) A vessel...

  14. 46 CFR 174.190 - Collision bulkhead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Collision bulkhead. 174.190 Section 174.190 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Offshore Supply Vessels § 174.190 Collision bulkhead. (a) Each OSV must have a...

  15. 46 CFR 179.310 - Collision bulkheads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Collision bulkheads. 179.310 Section 179.310 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) SUBDIVISION, DAMAGE STABILITY, AND WATERTIGHT INTEGRITY Watertight Integrity Requirements § 179.310 Collision bulkheads. (a) Each collision...

  16. 46 CFR 174.195 - Bulkheads in machinery spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bulkheads in machinery spaces. 174.195 Section 174.195... in machinery spaces. (a) The bulkhead in each machinery space of each OSV must be watertight to the bulkhead deck. (b) Each penetration of, and each opening in, a bulkhead in a machinery space must— (1)...

  17. Comparison of operating phase instrument readings with decommissioning observations in the clay bulkhead portion of the tunnel sealing experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, D.A.; Chernis, P.J.; Martino, J.B. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, AECL (Canada); Vignal, B. [Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs (ANDRA), 92 - Chatenay Malabry (France); Masumoto, K. [Kajima Technical Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan); Fujita, T. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    A major international experiment, demonstrating technologies for tunnel sealing at full-scale was conducted at Canada Underground Research Laboratory between 1998 and 2004. The participants in this Tunnel Sealing Experiment (TSX) were AECL, ANDRA, JNC and during the pre-thermal phase o f the experiment the USDoE (via the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP)). Two bulkheads were installed; one consisted of high-performance concrete and the other of highly compacted sand-bentonite material. The performance of these two bulkheads was monitored throughout the experiment in order to evaluate the influence of elevated hydraulic head (4 MPa) and chamber temperature (up to 85 C) on these materials. This paper compares the conditions measured by the monitoring instruments installed in and around the clay bulkhead portion of the TSX with the conditions observed during decommissioning. Instrumentation installed within and surrounding these bulkheads monitored the stress, strain, moisture, temperature and water transport through and adjacent to the clay bulkhead. This allowed for detailed interpretations of the evolution of the bulkhead in the course of the experiment operation. At the time of decommissioning of the TSX a sampling plan was implemented for taking many thousands of samples to allow generation of detailed end-of-test density, moisture content and chemical tracer profiles. (authors)

  18. Water uptake by a clay bulkhead installed in the tunnel sealing experiment at Atomic Energy of Canada's underground research laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, D.A.; Martino, J.B.; Chandler, N.A. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., AECL, Pinawa, MB (Canada); Sugita, Y. [Japan Nuclear Cycle, Development Institute, JNC, Tokai (Japan); Vignal, B. [Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs (ANDRA), 92 - Chatenay Malabry (France)

    2003-07-01

    A major international experiment, demonstrating technologies for tunnel sealing at full-scale, is being conducted at Canada's Underground Research Laboratory (URL) with participation by organizations from Canada, Japan, France and the U.S.A. Two bulkheads, one composed of high performance concrete and the other of highly compacted sand-bentonite material, have been constructed in a tunnel in unfractured granitic rock at the URL. The results from the Tunnel Sealing Experiment (TSX) are being used to characterize the performance of the two bulkheads under applied hydraulic pressures. The chamber between the two bulkheads has been pressurized to 4 MPa, a value representative of the natural hydrostatic heads at the 420 m depth below the ground surface. Instrumentation has been installed throughout the clay bulkhead to monitor stress development, bulkhead strain, moisture conditions, temperature, and water transport through this clay-based barrier. Construction was completed in 1998 October, and the sand-filled chamber between the clay and concrete bulkheads was filled and pressurized with water. Full pressure of 4 MPa was achieved in 2001 September and by 2002 June nearly complete saturation of the clay bulkhead was indicated. The rapid rate of saturation of the bulkhead (<5 years) is attributed initial large-flow events that caused a full perimeter water supply and allowed input of a considerable volume of water into the core of the bulkhead. Seepage through the clay bulkhead has been measured to be approximately 1.1 L/day under a 4 MPa pressure gradient across the 3.5 x 4.4 x 2.7 m length bulkhead. The majority of the seepage appears to be via the lower density outer perimeter of the bulkhead. Tracer tests have been completed which allow for assessment of flow times and pathways within the clay bulkhead. On achieving essentially full saturation, Phase 1 of the TSX was completed. A second phase of this experiment has recently (2002 June) begun with the

  19. Capacity of surface warship's protective bulkhead subjected to blast loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xing-Ning; Nie, Wu; Yan, Bo

    2009-03-01

    The protective bulkhead of the large surface warship need to be designed working in the membrane mode. In this paper, a formula is derived for calculating the plastic deformation of the protective bulkhead subjected to blast loading by the energy method, and the ultimate capability of the protective bulkhead can be calculated. The design demand of the protective bulkhead is discussed. The calculation is compared with external experiments, which indicates that the formula is of great application value.

  20. 46 CFR 78.15-1 - Subdivision bulkheads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subdivision bulkheads. 78.15-1 Section 78.15-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Doors Closed at Sea § 78.15-1 Subdivision bulkheads. (a) All watertight doors in subdivision bulkheads shall be kept closed during navigation except...

  1. 46 CFR 42.15-5 - Superstructure end bulkheads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Superstructure end bulkheads. 42.15-5 Section 42.15-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Conditions of Assignment of Freeboard § 42.15-5 Superstructure end bulkheads. (a) Bulkheads at exposed ends of enclosed...

  2. 46 CFR 173.056 - Collision and other watertight bulkheads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Collision and other watertight bulkheads. 173.056 Section 173.056 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.056 Collision and other watertight bulkheads. (a) Collision bulkheads required by...

  3. Through-bulkhead-initiator development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckes, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    A reliable pyrotechnic to pyrotechnic Through-Bulkhead-Initiator (TBI) has been developed. Significant design problems which were solved in the development of the TBI were: (1) reliable ignition of the Pd/Al donor charge across a gap through the use of the intermetallic pyrotechnic Ti/B and an expulsion charge of TiH/sub x//KClO/sub 4/; (2) control of the temperature of the donor charge by limiting the percentage of Al in a Pd/Al or Pd/Al Stainless Steel mixture to a range of 4 to 6.3 wt%; (3) control of slumping of the donor charge by the addition of up to 30 wt% SS particles to the Pd/Al reactive mixture. This provided reliable heat transfer because thermal contact was maintained; and (4) improvement of the temperature-time profile by changing the L/D ratio from 2.0 to 1.0, elimination of insulators and doubling the mass of the donor charge to about 6 g. Experimental and theoretical results are presented to illustrate the initiator development.

  4. Vibration Transmission from Deck to Hull via a Bulkhead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, R. C. N.

    1998-06-01

    Machines on board a ship are mounted on decks, which are supported by bulkheads from the hull. This paper studies the vibration transmission characteristics along the transmission path of deck-bulkhead-hull. The model used in this study consists of two infinite parallel plates, representing a deck and a hull, connected by a single bulkhead. The excitation force is applied on the top plate, in the plane of the bulkhead. Thus, only in-plane waves exist in the bulkhead. The two infinite plates are assumed to have pure bending waves only. The analyses show that at low frequencies the two parallel plates are strongly coupled. At frequencies above the first resonance of the bulkhead due to shear waves, the two plates become uncoupled. The top plate, which the excitation is acted upon, exhibits the behaviour of a single infinite plate. The bottom plate, however, can be treated as a series of independent beam elements running perpendicular to the bulkhead.

  5. Vibroacoustic studies on sounding rocket bulkheads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comrie, Jeffrey L.; Korde, Umesh A.

    2012-04-01

    The natural frequency coupling of 2 components of a sounding rocket system is studied, the forward bulkhead (commonly referred to as the "bulkhead" or "BH") and the payload cavity within the fairing. The bulkhead was modeled as a thin, flat, circular plate with a clamped boundary condition. The payload cavity was modeled as a column of air with closed ends contained by the rocket fairing. Both components were studied individually, and added together to obtain a coupled effect. The components were studied in terms of theoretical calculations and understanding, while testing the theory against experiments conducted in the laboratory. When appreciable differences between theory and experimental results were within reason for the individual components, the coupled system was tested. This methodology enabled a "piecewise" approach to studying and acquiring natural frequency shifting of the sounding rocket model through coupling. Experimental work for frequency tuning of the bulkhead through internal pressure modulation is presented. Guidelines for improvement of the vibroacoustic response through structural redesign and frequency tuning of sounding rockets are detailed.

  6. Bulkhead Interface Chassis for optical fiber patching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, M.

    1985-06-01

    An optical fiber patch panel was designed to meet the changing needs of optical fiber communication link installations. This paper deals with the specification and construction details of the Bulkhead Interface Chassis patch panel. Included is ordering information for the commercial parts needed and shop drawings of the pieces to be machined.

  7. Bulkhead interface chassis for optical fiber patching

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, M.

    1985-06-01

    An optical fiber patch panel was designed to meet the changing needs of optical fiber communication link installations. This paper deals with the specification and construction details of the Bulkhead Interface Chassis patch panel. Included is ordering information for the commercial parts needed and shop drawings of the pieces to be machined.

  8. Thermally insulated bulkhead for in-situ oil shale retort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilburn, J.S.

    1981-10-13

    A means is provided for forming a heat-insulated gas seal in an access drift in gas communication with a hot portion of a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale in an in situ oil shale retort. The gas seal is provided by a bulkhead placed across the access drift. The bulkhead has an inside surface which faces toward the hot portion of the fragmented mass. A layer of heat insulating material on the inside surface of the bulkhead reduces heat transfer to the bulkhead from the hot portion of the fragmented mass. The bulkhead insulation layer sufficiently insulates the bulkhead from heat present in the access drift during retorting operations to inhibit structural failure or weakening of the bulkhead. A layer of heat insulating material overlies an inside wall of the drift adjacent the inside surface of the bulkhead for reducing heat transfer from the hot portion of the fragmented mass to formation adjacent the periphery of the bulkhead. The drift wall insulation layer inhibits thermal degradation of formation adjacent the periphery of the bulkhead. 37 claims.

  9. Bulkhead chamber ignition for internal combustion engines. Schottkammerzuendung fuer Verbrennungsmotore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, G.

    1990-12-06

    Bulkhead chamber ignition makes for reliable ignition of different fuels (e.g. petrol or diesel) in internal combustion engines (multifuel engine) that can be operated with an extremely lean fuel-air mixture. This is realized by an open chamber (referred to as bulkhead chamber in the following) inside the combustion chamber which diverts a fraction of the compressed fuel-air mixture from the combustion chamber. After this the pressure in the bulkhead chamber is increased until the mixture ignites spontaneously. The combustion pressure drives back the piston and opens the bulkhead chamber. Then the compressed fuel-air mixture in the combustion chamber is ignited by the released combustion gas.

  10. Atlas V Aft Bulkhead Carrier Rideshare System

    OpenAIRE

    Willcox, Maj Travis

    2012-01-01

    This paper gives the background and details of the Atlas V Aft Bulkhead Carrier to be flown on the National Recoinnassance Office Launch 36 with the Operationally Unique Technologies Satellite Auxiliary Payload. The CubeSats included are from a number of labs, universities and government entities for the purpose of technology demonstration, science experimentation and operational proof of concepts. This mission will pave the way for rideshare on NRO missions and other Atlas V launches.

  11. 46 CFR 171.095 - Machinery space bulkhead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space bulkhead. 171.095 Section 171.095... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.095 Machinery space... transverse watertight bulkheads to separate the machinery space from the remainder of the vessel....

  12. Explosive-train initiated through solid bulkhead by pressure cartridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkowski, J. C.

    1968-01-01

    Explosive-train initiated pressure cartridge transmits a shock wave igniting a main charge of explosive through a solid bulkhead without destroying or damaging the seal or the bulkhead. The main charge could be an explosive, a pyrotechnic, or a propellant.

  13. 46 CFR 171.090 - Aft peak bulkhead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aft peak bulkhead. 171.090 Section 171.090 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.090 Aft peak bulkhead. (a) Each of the following vessels must have an...

  14. A clay grouting technique for granitic rock adjacent to clay bulkhead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masumoto, K. [Kajima Technical Research Institute (Japan); Sugita, Y.; Fujita, T. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, JNC (Japan); Martino, J.B.; Kozak, E.T.; Dixon, D.A. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    A major international experiment, the Tunnel Sealing Experiment (TSX), demonstrating technologies for tunnel sealing at full-scale, was conducted at Canada's Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in the granitic rock. Two bulkheads were installed; one consisted of high-performance concrete and the other of highly compacted sand-bentonite material. The performance of these two bulkheads was monitored throughout the experiment in order to evaluate the influence of elevated hydraulic head (4 MPa) and chamber temperature (up to 85 C) on these materials. The TSX tunnel was excavated by controlled drilling, and blasting techniques in a highly stressed granite rock mass. The excavation technique and re-distribution of in-situ stress around the TSX tunnel lead to the development of an excavation damage zone (EDZ) of variable extent. Both bulkheads were keyed into the rock wall of the tunnel. The keys were excavated with a mechanical technique using line drilling and perimeter reaming to isolate blocks of rock and rock splitters to break out those blocks. The keys were designed to act as cut-off for the EDZ of the main tunnel. The shape of the keys was selected with the assist of numerical models that indicate the key shapes selected should provide a gap in the EDZ. As an additional measure to interrupt the connectivity of EDZ at the bulkhead, clay grouting was conducted around the clay bulkhead. A clay grouting is effective method to reduce the permeability of fractured rock, but grouting into the EDZ is difficult because many of the fractures in the EDZ are connected with the excavation surface and cannot be filled efficiently by pressurizing the grout slurry. Therefore, the injection boreholes were drilled with shallow inclinations from the wall of the tunnel to allow the boreholes to intersect the EDZ for a longer distance. The grouting technique involved injecting a series of successively thicker bentonite slurries from 0,2%, 0,5%, 1,0%, 2,0%, 4,0%, 6,0% to 8

  15. A clay grouting technique for granitic rock adjacent to clay bulkhead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A major international experiment, the Tunnel Sealing Experiment (TSX), demonstrating technologies for tunnel sealing at full-scale, was conducted at Canada's Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in the granitic rock. Two bulkheads were installed; one consisted of high-performance concrete and the other of highly compacted sand-bentonite material. The performance of these two bulkheads was monitored throughout the experiment in order to evaluate the influence of elevated hydraulic head (4 MPa) and chamber temperature (up to 85 C) on these materials. The TSX tunnel was excavated by controlled drilling, and blasting techniques in a highly stressed granite rock mass. The excavation technique and re-distribution of in-situ stress around the TSX tunnel lead to the development of an excavation damage zone (EDZ) of variable extent. Both bulkheads were keyed into the rock wall of the tunnel. The keys were excavated with a mechanical technique using line drilling and perimeter reaming to isolate blocks of rock and rock splitters to break out those blocks. The keys were designed to act as cut-off for the EDZ of the main tunnel. The shape of the keys was selected with the assist of numerical models that indicate the key shapes selected should provide a gap in the EDZ. As an additional measure to interrupt the connectivity of EDZ at the bulkhead, clay grouting was conducted around the clay bulkhead. A clay grouting is effective method to reduce the permeability of fractured rock, but grouting into the EDZ is difficult because many of the fractures in the EDZ are connected with the excavation surface and cannot be filled efficiently by pressurizing the grout slurry. Therefore, the injection boreholes were drilled with shallow inclinations from the wall of the tunnel to allow the boreholes to intersect the EDZ for a longer distance. The grouting technique involved injecting a series of successively thicker bentonite slurries from 0,2%, 0,5%, 1,0%, 2,0%, 4,0%, 6,0% to 8,0%. The

  16. Bulkhead hoist system for Harry Truman powerplant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katherman, R.L. [Army Corps of Engineers, Kansas City, MO (United States); Hull, D.W. [Rexroth Corp., Bethlehem, PA (United States); Simons, C. [Hydraudyne Cylinders B.V., Boxtel (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    Failure of turbine components precipitated analysis of the powerplant structure to ensure its stability and avoid the possibilities of extensive damage in the event of water entry. Several units have experienced failures in the areas of high blade bushing wear, blade seal sleeves, blade control linkage and stub shaft coupling bolt studs. These failures are directly attributable to poor component fabrication and inadequate design for the situations in which they are being operated. The failure of the blade control linkage components were the deciding factors in beginning an engineering evaluation for potential flooding that would impair the operational ability of the powerplant for a significant period of time. Engineering analysis demonstrated the need for both intake and discharge bulkheads and hoists which could rapidly close and deter very costly damage to the internal powerplant structure and its operation. This paper will describe the areas of concern regarding the location of possible failures which could cause flooding and the decision process used by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers for acquiring and installing the bulkheads and hoists.

  17. View of CCTV camera mounted on aft payload bay bulkhead

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    View of the closed circuit television (CCTV) camera mounted on aft payload bay bulkhead on the starboard side of the space shuttle near the orbital maneuvering systems (OMS) reaction control system (RCS) pods.

  18. Development of a shock-initiated, through-bulkhead actuator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, A.C.; Kopczewski, M.R.

    1980-01-01

    The design status of a shock-initiated, through-bulkhead, valve actuator is presented. The design, which relies on a new concept - shock initiation of a pyrotechnic - consists of a high explosive donor (hexanitroazobenzene or HNAB) and a pyrotechnic acceptor (TiH/sub .65//KClO/sub 4/) separated by a steel bulkhead. Donor detonation results in shock initiation of the acceptor while maintaining integrity of the bulkhead. The output of the donor was characterized by VISAR (Ref. 1) measurement techniques; two methods of controlling the output are discussed. The bulkhead, made of stainless steel, type 304L, condition A, was designed by a combination of experimental and analytical techniques to assure both reliable function and integrity. The choice of TiH/sub .65//KClO/sub 4/ for the acceptor was based on its known shock initiation properties. The actuator was shown to be successful in valve performance tests.

  19. Research on stability design of a bar-reinforced spherical bulkhead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Xiong-liang; LIU Xiang-dong

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the stability of a concave spherical stem bulkhead under the pumping load when still lying at the slipway is analyzed. The stability of the spherical stem bulkhead with different shell thickness and reinforcing forms is discussed. According to the results of stability analysis, the optimization design of the spherical stem bulkhead stability is performed. On the basis of considering the machining technical requirements of the bulkhead, a rational design of the spherical stem bulkhead structure is obtained. This paper has a certain value to the design of submarine's spherical stem bulkhead.

  20. The tunnel sealing experiment: The construction and performance of full scale clay and concrete bulkheads at elevated pressure and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concepts for deep geologic disposal of radioactive waste, as proposed by many international organizations, include bulkheads or plugs in the shaft, or at the entrances to disposal rooms, or both. The seals are primarily to prevent groundwater transport of radioisotopes along underground openings but also provide a measure of security by restricting tunnel access. The safety of the respective disposal systems relies on the combined performance of the natural barriers (host rock) and engineered barriers (the waste form, the waste container, the buffer barrier, the room, tunnel and shaft backfill and sealing materials). To understand the functionality of these systems it is important to study them in whole or in part at full scale. One such study was the Tunnel Sealing Experiment (TSX), a full-scale tunnel seal component study. The TSX showed it is possible to construct tunnel seals that limit axial flow under high hydraulic gradient and elevated temperature. The clay and concrete bulkheads had seepage rates of 1 mL/min and 10 mL/min at ambient temperature. Elevated temperatures caused a further decrease in seepage past the concrete bulkhead to approximately 2-3 mL/min. (author)

  1. Status of assessment tools on the performance guarantee contents of backfill, bulkhead, tunnel and pit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to contribute to the safety standards and guidelines which a regulator will decide, a state-of-the-art assessment method is investigated and summarized in tables about performance guarantee contents of backfill, bulkhead, tunnel (access, main, connecting, disposal) and disposal pit. In addition, examples of assessment tools are described. In this report, summary of (1) basic properties of bentonite, including swelling, mechanical and hydraulic properties, (2) long-term behavior of bentonite, including extrusion/erosion into host rock, and alteration, (3) effect of high pH plume from cementitious material and (4) mechanical stability of the near-field is described. Check points, assessment methods for (based on the data obtained from the experimental results, the estimation value obtained from empirical equations and database, and the modeling calculations) and latest results of these R and D programs were also summarized. (author)

  2. 46 CFR 45.111 - Strength of bulkheads at ends of superstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Strength of bulkheads at ends of superstructures. 45.111 Section 45.111 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.111 Strength of bulkheads at ends of superstructures. Bulkheads at ends of enclosed superstructures...

  3. Suit Port Aft Bulkhead Mockup 2008 Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romig, Barbara A.; Allton, Charles S.; Litaker, Harry L.

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Electric Rover (LER), formerly called the Small Pressurized Rover (SPR), is currently being carried as an integral part of the current Lunar Surface Architectures under consideration in the Constellation program. One element of the LER is the suit port, the means by which the crew performs Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). Two suit port deliverables were produced in fiscal year 2008: an aft bulkhead mockup for functional integrated testing with the 1-G LER mockup and a functional and pressurizable Engineering Unit (EU). This paper focuses on the aft bulkhead mockup test results from Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RATS) October 2008 testing at Black Point Lava Flow (BPLF), Arizona. Refer to 39th International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES) for test results of the EU. The suit port aft bulkhead mockup was integrated with the mockup of the LER cabin and chassis. It is located on the aft bulkhead of the LER cabin structure and includes hatches, a locking mechanism, seals, interior and exterior suit don/doff aids, and exterior platforms to accommodate different crewmember heights. A lightweight mockup of the Mark III suit was tested with the suit port aft bulkhead mockup. There are several limitations to the suit port and mockup suits, and results of the suit port evaluation are presented and interpreted within the context of the limitations.

  4. Suit Port Aft Bulkhead Mockup Test Results and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romig, Barbara A.; Allton, Charles

    2009-01-01

    The Small Pressurized Rover (SPR) is currently being carried as an integral part of the current Lunar Surface Architectures under consideration in the Constellation program. One element of the SPR is the suit port, the means by which the crew performs Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). Two suit port deliverables were produced in fiscal year 2008: an aft bulkhead mockup for functional integrated testing with the 1-G SPR mockup and a functional and pressurizable engineering unit. This paper focuses on the test results and lessons learned on the aft bulkhead mockup. The suit port aft bulkhead mockup was integrated with the mockup of the SPR cabin and chassis. It is located on the aft bulkhead of the SPR cabin structure and includes hatches, a locking mechanism, seals, interior and exterior suit don/doff aids, and exterior platforms to accommodate different crewmember heights. A lightweight mockup of the Mark III suit was tested with the suit port aft bulkhead mockup. There are several limitations to the suit port and mockup suits, and results of the suit port evaluation are presented and interpreted within the context of the limitations.

  5. Feasibility study of a fail-safe through bulkhead initiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design status of a through bulkhead initiator (TBI) is presented. The TBI design consists of a high explosive donor which when detonated transmits a shock wave through a metal bulkhead to initiate an acceptor explosive without destroying the integrity of the bulkhead. There are at least two potential applications for such a device. The combined requirements of the two applications are severe in several aspects, namely: fail-safe, small size, and controlled function time. The PETN donor output was characterized by velocity interferometer techniques. Two methods of controlling the output were demonstrated: (1) controlling the density of the donor and (2) controlling the length of the donor column (in relationship to the bulkhead thickness). The Type 304L stainless steel bulkhead was designed using a combination of experimental and analytical techniques to assure both function and integrity. The Type 304L provides a single shock rather than a multiple wave structure and exhibits high ductility. The PETN selected for the acceptor was chosen on the basis of shock sensitivity testing in which the morphology of the explosive and the wave shape of the stimulus entering the explosive played key roles. When tested with a short pulse (40 ns, rectangular), the small particle size PETN initiated at a lower pressure than did the large particle size PETN; when tested with a long pulse (280 ns, triangular), the large particle size PETN initiated at a lower pressure than did the small particle size PETN

  6. NDE for the ARES I Upper Stage Common Bulkhead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, James

    2008-01-01

    The current design of the ARES 1 Upper Stage uses a common bulkhead to separate the liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen tanks. The bulkhead consists of aluminum face sheets bonded to a Phenolic honeycomb core. The face sheets, or domes, are friction stir welded to Y-rings that connect the bulkhead to the barrel sections of the liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen tanks. Load between the Y-rings is carried by an externally attached bolting ring. The development of nondestructive evaluation methods for the ARES I Upper Stage Common Bulkhead are outlined in this presentation. Methods for inspecting the various components of the bulkhead are covered focusing in on the dome skins, core-to-dome bond lines and friction stir welds as well as structural details like the fastener holes. Thermography, shearography and ultrasonic methods are discussed for the bond lines. Eddy current methods are discussed for the fastener holes and dome skins. A combination of phased array ultrasound, liquid penetrant and radiography are to being investigated for use on the friction stir welds. Keywords: Composite materials, NDE, Cryogenic structures

  7. Bulkhead rupture disc for solid propellant missiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibler, D.R. Sr.; Sigle, S.P. Jr.

    1988-04-19

    A missile bulkhead rupture disc assembly for disposition between a first stage of propellant and a second stage of propellant and for enabling release of the second stage of propellant subsequent to release of the first stage of propellant is described comprising: a generally circular element comprised of a frangible material and having a first burst pattern with a line of weakness completely circumscribing a central portion of the element. The central portion of the element having structure defines an aperture. The element has a second burst pattern comprising lines of weakness each extending in a substantially radial direction outwardly from the line of weakness of the first burst pattern. Each adjacent pair of the lines of weakness of the second burst pattern is spaced from each other and defines generally sector-shaped segments of the elements. The frangible material of the element has a tensile strength of a certain, first value in the vicinity of the line of weakness of the first burst pattern, and the frangible material of the element has a tensile strength in the vicinity of the lines of weakness of the second burst pattern of a second value which is higher than the first certain value.

  8. Development of composite wing carrythrough bulkheads for fighter aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goering, J. C.; Behrens, R. S.; Libeskind, Mark

    1990-01-01

    Potential weight savings due to the use of composite materials for highly loaded primary structures are being demonstrated through the design, fabrication, and test of an all composite wing carrythrough bulkhead for the F/A-18 fighter aircraft. A one piece composite design which results in a 24 percent weight savings, relative to the existing aluminum bulkhead, was developed. Critical details of this design were evaluated through element tests, and a full scale prototype component was fabricated. The structural integrity of this design will be demonstrated in a comprehensive full scale test program.

  9. 46 CFR 179.212 - Watertight bulkheads for subdivision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Watertight bulkheads for subdivision. 179.212 Section 179.212 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) SUBDIVISION, DAMAGE STABILITY, AND WATERTIGHT INTEGRITY Subdivision and Damage Stability Requirements § 179.212...

  10. 46 CFR 174.210 - Watertight doors in watertight bulkheads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Watertight doors in watertight bulkheads. 174.210 Section 174.210 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Offshore Supply Vessels § 174.210 Watertight doors in...

  11. Astronaut Scott Carpenter examines protective material on pressure bulkhead

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-01-01

    Mercury Astronaut M. Scott Carpenter examines the honeycomb protective material on the main pressure bulkhead in the white room facility at Hanger S, Cape Canaveral, Florida. This is the spacecraft which will carry astronaut Carpenter on the nation's second manned orbital flight.

  12. Nondestructive Evaluation Methods for the Ares I Common Bulkhead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, James

    2010-01-01

    A large scale bonding demonstration test article was fabricated to prove out manufacturing techniques for the current design of the NASA Ares I Upper Stage common bulkhead. The common bulkhead serves as the single interface between the liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen portions of the Upper Stage propellant tank. The bulkhead consists of spin-formed aluminum domes friction stir welded to Y-rings and bonded to a perforated phenolic honeycomb core. Nondestructive evaluation methods are being developed for assessing core integrity and the core-to-dome bond line of the common bulkhead. Detection of manufacturing defects such as delaminations between the core and face sheets as well as service life defects such as crushed or sheared core resulting from impact loading are all of interest. The focus of this work will be on the application of thermographic, shearographic, and phased array ultrasonic methods to the bonding demonstration article as well as various smaller test panels featuring design specific defect types and geometric features.

  13. Suppression of Residual Sloshing in a Liquid Transport Container by a Bulkhead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuma, Ryu; Watanabe, Masahiro; Tanaka, Hideaki

    This paper deals with an experimental study on suppression of a residual sloshing in a liquid transport container by a bulkhead, which divides the container vertically into two sections. Inserting the bulkhead to the container, the sloshing mode is separated into two modes; the one is the sloshing mode of liquid column in a U-tube (U-tube-mode), and the other is the sloshing mode in the separated container (Bulkhead-mode). In this paper, the suppression effect by the bulkhead on residual sloshing, which is excited by sudden stop of the liquid transport container, is examined experimentally with changing aperture ratio of the bulkhead, types of the bulkhead plate with or without holes, and the size of holes. Moreover, the fluid flow in the container is visualized and the suppression mechanism by the bulkhead is discussed based on the flow visualization. As a result, detailed suppression effect by the bulkhead on the residual sloshing is clarified, and it is clarified that higher suppression effect by the bulkhead is caused by the energy dissipation due to the vortex generated at the edge of the bulkhead and swirl flow in the liquid. The vortex generated and swirl flow in the liquid play an important role in higher energy dissipation of sloshing.

  14. Nontangent, Developed Contour Bulkheads for a Wing-Body Single Stage Launch Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, K. Chauncey; Lepsch, Roger A., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Dry weights for a SSTO vehicle which incorporates nontangent, developed contour bulkheads are estimated and compared to a baseline vehicle with 1.41 4 aspect ratio ellipsoidal bulkheads, Weights, volumes and heights of optimized bulkhead designs are computed using a preliminary design bulkhead analysis code. The dry weight of a vehicle which incorporates the optimized bulkheads is predicted using a vehicle weights and sizing code. Two optimization approaches are employed. A structural-level method, where the vehicle s three major bulkhead regions are optimized separately and then incorporated into a model for computation of the vehicle dry weight, predicts a reduction of 4365 Ib (2.2 percent) from the 200,679 Ib baseline vehicle dry weight. In the second, vehicle-level, approach, the vehicle dry weight is the objective function for the optimization. During the vehicle- level analysis, modified bulkhead designs are first analyzed, then incorporated into the weights model for computation of a dry weight. The optimizer simultaneously manipulates design variables for all three bulkheads to reduce the dry weight. The vehicle-level analysis predicts a dry weight reduction of 5129 Ib, a 2.6 percent reduction from the baseline value. These results suggest that nontangent, developed contour bulkheads may provide substantial weight savings for SSTO vehicles.

  15. 46 CFR 32.56-30 - Category A machinery spaces: Bulkheads and decks-T/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Category A machinery spaces: Bulkheads and decks-T/ALL... EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Structural Fire Protection for Tank Ships With a Keel Laying Date On or After January 1, 1975 § 32.56-30 Category A machinery spaces: Bulkheads and decks—T/ALL....

  16. 46 CFR 45.113 - Access openings in bulkheads at ends of enclosed superstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Access openings in bulkheads at ends of enclosed superstructures. 45.113 Section 45.113 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.113 Access openings in bulkheads at ends of enclosed superstructures. (a)...

  17. 46 CFR 108.139 - Boundary bulkheads and decks of a space containing emergency power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boundary bulkheads and decks of a space containing emergency power. 108.139 Section 108.139 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.139 Boundary bulkheads and...

  18. 46 CFR 173.059 - Penetrations and openings in watertight bulkheads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Penetrations and openings in watertight bulkheads. 173.059 Section 173.059 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.059 Penetrations and openings in watertight bulkheads. Penetrations and...

  19. 46 CFR 108.137 - Bulkhead and deck separations of accommodation spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bulkhead and deck separations of accommodation spaces. 108.137 Section 108.137 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.137 Bulkhead and deck separations...

  20. Buckling Design Studies of Inverted, Oblate Bulkheads for a Propellant Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeltzer, Stanley S., III; Bowman, Lynn M.

    2002-01-01

    An investigation of the deformation and buckling characteristics of a composite, oblate bulkhead that has an inverted geometry and is subjected to pressure-only loading is presented for three bulkhead geometries and thicknesses. The effects of a stiffening support ring at the bulkhead to cylinder interface are also evaluated. Buckling analyses conducted using the axisymmetric shell code BOSOR4 are discussed for several bulkhead configurations. These results are analytically verified using results from the Structural Analysis of General Shells (STAGS) code for a selected bulkhead configuration. The buckling characterization of an inverted, oblate bulkhead requires careful attention as small changes in bulkhead parameters can have a significant effect on the critical buckling load. Comparison of BOSOR4 and STAGS results provided a very good correlation between the two analysis methods. In addition, the analysis code BOSOR4 was found to be an efficient sizing tool that is useful during the preliminary design stage of a practical shell structure. Together, these two aspects should give the design engineer confidence in sizing these stability critical structures. Additional characterization is warranted, especially for a composite tank structure, since only one bulkhead configuration was examined closely.

  1. Failure of the pressure bulkhead of a passenger aircraft - a Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pressure bulkhead of a passenger aircraft ruptured when the aircraft was cruising at a height of 28,000 ft. Because of the sudden rupture, the rear toilets disintegrated and things like toilet rolls, tissue papers, towels, were sucked into the stabilizer compartment, where the entire tail control system was located. The debris damaged the green hydraulic system, ruptured fuel line and jammed the control cables. The damage resulted in the aircraft going into pitch-up mode (take-off position) and almost approached stalling position. The failed part was located near the toilets. Water from the toilets reached in this region due to leakage and penetrated inside the sheets and corrosion started in the presence of stagnant water. This was supplemented by the stresses present on the structure during flight. Stress corrosion started from inner sheet and led to initiation of fatigue. The combined effect of stress corrosion cracking and fatigue resulted in the failure of this sheet. No third stage (catastrophic) failure was observed in the fracture. The absence of catastrophic failure mode in the fractured sheet showed that it stood up to last stage. (author)

  2. Calculation of the added mass of a liquid tank's bulkheads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junkai; Lin, Zhe; Liu, Qiang; Zhang, Lihua

    2014-03-01

    The added mass coefficient and the water level index formulas for the same-phase and anti-phase vibration of rectangular liquid tanks' bulkheads were derived based on dry mode theory. Three fluid-structure interaction numerical methods including Fluid FEM and Fluid BEM were used in this case. The comparison of numerical and theoretical results by the present method shows that ANSYS/Fluid80 is more credible, the NASTRAN/Virtual Mass Method is more suitable for engineering calculations and results of the same-phase vibration by the present method is more accurate.

  3. Structural Optimization of Corrugated Transverse Bulkheads Made of Stainless Steel

    OpenAIRE

    Andrić, Jerolim; Žanić, Vedran; Grgić, Mate

    2010-01-01

    The article describes structural optimization applied to the minimum weight design of corrugated transverse bulkheads made of the duplex stainless steel. The study presented in this paper was carried out within the EU FP6 project IMPROVE as a sub-task of multi-level structural optimization that was performed with the aim of development of a new innovative design of chemical tanker. This task can result in large benefi ts, because the unit price of duplex stainless steel is very high (5000 ...

  4. Liquid seal for production level bulkhead for in situ oil shale retort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, R.S. III

    1980-01-01

    An in-situ oil shale retort is formed in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. The retort contains a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale. During retorting, oxygen-supplying gas is introduced into an upper level of the fragmented mass for establishing a combustion zone and for advancing the combustion zone through the fragmented mass. Liquid and gaseous products, including shale oil and off gas, are withdrawn from a sealed portion of a production level drift which extends laterally away from the lower level of the fragmented mass. A bulkhead sealed across the drifit inhibits passage of off gas from behind the bulkhead to the portion of the drift on the side of the bulkhead opposite the fragmented mass. Off gas, shale oil and water are separately withdrawn from behind the bulkhead. A liquid level is maintained against the srface of the bulkhead facing the fragmented mass to seal the lower edge of the bulkhead and the drift floor adjacent the bulkhead against the passage of off gas through any rock fissures which can be present in the floor of the drift.

  5. Thermal control for storage of cryogenic propellants in a common-bulkhead tank: A concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, G. R.

    1972-01-01

    Simple, reliable ground-hold refrigeration system for common-bulkhead tank meets design criteria and objectives for ground-hold of oxygen difluoride and diborane. System is failsafe and malfunctions can be rectified without interruption of basic system functions.

  6. Special Data Collection System (SDCS) NTS Event 'Bulkhead', 27 April 1977. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naylor, G.R.; Dawkins, M.S.

    1978-12-18

    This event report contains seismic data from the Special Data Collection System (SDCS), and other sources for the 'Bulkhead' event. The report also contains epicenter information from seismic observations.

  7. Acoustic emission monitoring of a fatigue test of an F/A-18 bulkhead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scala, C. M.; McCardle, J. F.; Bowles, S. J.

    This paper describes the application of acoustic emission (AE) to identify cracking in several fatigue-critical regions on the port and starboard sides of an l/A-18 aircraft bulkhead undergoing fatigue testing. AE data acquisition was carried out using an array of three sensors on each side of the bulkhead. AE features stored by each array included relative arrival times of AE events at the three sensors, event rise time at the first-hit sensor, and the load level and the position on the load cycle of event occurrence. AE data processing involved a comparison between the features of those AE events stored during the fatigue testing and predicted features for cracking in the complex-shaped bulkhead. Feature prediction was based on wave propagation characteristics obtained by Pentel-lead calibration, and the known load cycle dependence of crack-related AE events. The AE processing was completed following failure of the bulkhead, and gave the correct locations of all cracks, greater than about 1 mm in depth, present in the bulkhead during the fatigue testing. The study shows that AE associated with cracking can be distinguished, even when many extraneous sources are present, and demonstrates that AE is a promising technique for nondestructive evaluation of a complex structure such as the F/A-18 bulkhead.

  8. Comparison analysis between CSR-OT and CSR-H for corrugated bulkhead of large product tankers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡诗剑; 邱伟强; 刘奕谦

    2014-01-01

    Large Aframax product tanker (more than 100k DWT), with centerline longitudinal corrugated bulkheads and transverse corrugated bulkheads in cargo area, is the largest type of product tanker at present. The external draft of Harmonized Common Structural Rules (CSR-H) for Bulk Carriers and Oil Tankers is released for external review. More attentions are paid to the impact of CSR-H on the structural design of the corrugated bulkhead of large Aframax product tankers. Based on CSR-OT and CSR-H, it discusses the impact of CSR-H on the corrugated bulkhead by strength assessment of a 115k DWT product tanker.

  9. Hydraulic structures

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Sheng-Hong

    2015-01-01

    This book discusses in detail the planning, design, construction and management of hydraulic structures, covering dams, spillways, tunnels, cut slopes, sluices, water intake and measuring works, ship locks and lifts, as well as fish ways. Particular attention is paid to considerations concerning the environment, hydrology, geology and materials etc. in the planning and design of hydraulic projects. It also considers the type selection, profile configuration, stress/stability calibration and engineering countermeasures, flood releasing arrangements and scouring protection, operation and maintenance etc. for a variety of specific hydraulic structures. The book is primarily intended for engineers, undergraduate and graduate students in the field of civil and hydraulic engineering who are faced with the challenges of extending our understanding of hydraulic structures ranging from traditional to groundbreaking, as well as designing, constructing and managing safe, durable hydraulic structures that are economical ...

  10. HYDRAULIC SERVO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, D.E.

    1962-05-01

    A hydraulic servo is designed in which a small pressure difference produced at two orifices by an electrically operated flapper arm in a constantly flowing hydraulic loop is hydraulically amplified by two constant flow pumps, two additional orifices, and three unconnected ball pistons. Two of the pistons are of one size and operate against the additional orifices, and the third piston is of a different size and operates between and against the first two pistons. (AEC)

  11. Inverted Attic Bulkhead for HVAC Ductwork, Roseville, California (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-10-01

    K. Hovnanian Homes constructed a 2,253-ft single-story slab-on-grade ranch house for an occupied test house (new construction) in Roseville, California. One year of monitoring and analysis focused on the effectiveness of the space conditioning system at maintaining acceptable temperature and relative humidity levels in several rooms of the home, as well as room-to-room differences and the actual measured energy consumption by the space conditioning system. In this home, the air handler unit (AHU) and ducts were relocated to inside the thermal boundary. The AHU was relocated from the attic to a mechanical closet, and the ductwork was located inside an insulated and air-sealed bulkhead in the attic. To describe the performance and comfort in the home, the research team selected representative design days and extreme days from the annual data for analysis. To ensure that temperature differences were within reasonable occupant expectations, the team followed Air Conditioning Contractors of America guidance. At the end of the monitoring period, the occupant of the home had no comfort complaints in the home. Any variance between the modeled heating and cooling energy and the actual amounts used can be attributed to the variance in temperatures at the thermostat versus the modeled inputs.

  12. Sloshing suppression by bulkhead in cylindrical and co-axial cylindrical liquid vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Nobuyuki [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan). Research Inst.; Mieda, Tsutomu; Jitsu, Kouji [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd. Yokohama (Japan); Shibata, Heki [Yokohama National Univ. (Japan)

    1995-11-01

    This paper presents the effectiveness of bulkhead in suppressing the sloshing in cylindrical and co-axial double cylinder vessels containing liquid. The bulkhead is hung vertically from the vessel top so as to divide it into two equal sectors (in the annulus part for the latter type) but leaving enough space under its lower end for free (though somewhat perturbed) flow of the liquid. By deriving Lagrangian equations for the sloshing motion, it is shown that the sloshing mode is dissociated into two non-coupling modes of the U-tube mode and the bulkhead mode, both contributing to suppressing sloshing highly effectively. The practical utility of this simplified analysis has been verified by a series of shaking table experiments conducting with small model tanks and by the finite difference method of analysis by Flow-3D, a computational fluid dynamics code.

  13. Calculation of bulkhead vibrations in a supported shell simulating a plane fuselage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimtsov, B. M.; Lazarev, L. A.

    2014-09-01

    Noise from external sources penetrates a plane cabin through the board construction in several ways. They include direct penetration through loose-fiber layers and indirect penetration through the attachment points of interior panels to transverse ribs (bulkheads). The analytical method of calculating vibrations of an orthogonally supported shell (developed by us earlier) makes it possible to correctly calculate bulkhead vibrations. As a result, noise penetration into the cabin through the attachment points of interior panels can be determined analytically. The first part of the solution to this problem is presented (i.e., the relations and examples of calculating bulkhead vibrations upon point excitation of the shell and excitation by pressure fluctuations of the turbulent boundary layer are given).

  14. Spin Forming Aluminum Crew Module (CM) Metallic Aft Pressure Vessel Bulkhead (APVBH) - Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Eric K.; Domack, Marcia S.; Torres, Pablo D.; McGill, Preston B.; Tayon, Wesley A.; Bennett, Jay E.; Murphy, Joseph T.

    2015-01-01

    The principal focus of this project was to assist the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program in developing a spin forming fabrication process for manufacture of the Orion crew module (CM) aft pressure vessel bulkhead. The spin forming process will enable a single piece aluminum (Al) alloy 2219 aft bulkhead resulting in the elimination of the current multiple piece welded construction, simplify CM fabrication, and lead to an enhanced design. Phase I (NASA TM-2014-218163 (1)) of this assessment explored spin forming the single-piece CM forward pressure vessel bulkhead. The Orion MPCV Program and Lockheed Martin (LM) recently made two critical decisions relative to the NESC Phase I work scope: (1) LM selected the spin forming process to manufacture a single-piece aft bulkhead for the Orion CM, and (2) the aft bulkhead will be manufactured from Al 2219. Based on the Program's new emphasis related to the spin forming process, the NESC was asked to conduct a Phase II assessment to assist in the LM manufacture of the aft bulkhead and to conduct a feasibility study into spin forming the Orion CM cone. This activity was approved on June 19, 2013. Dr. Robert Piascik, NASA Technical Fellow for Materials at the Langley Research Center (LaRC), was selected to lead this assessment. The project plan was approved by the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Review Board (NRB) on July 18, 2013. The primary stakeholders for this assessment were the NASA and LM MPCV Program offices. Additional benefactors are commercial launch providers developing CM concepts.

  15. Basic hydraulics

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, P D

    2013-01-01

    BASIC Hydraulics aims to help students both to become proficient in the BASIC programming language by actually using the language in an important field of engineering and to use computing as a means of mastering the subject of hydraulics. The book begins with a summary of the technique of computing in BASIC together with comments and listing of the main commands and statements. Subsequent chapters introduce the fundamental concepts and appropriate governing equations. Topics covered include principles of fluid mechanics; flow in pipes, pipe networks and open channels; hydraulic machinery;

  16. Hydraulic Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This table is required whenever hydraulic structures are shown in the flood profile. It is also required if levees are shown on the FIRM, channels containing the...

  17. 46 CFR 171.073 - Treatment of stepped and recessed bulkheads in Type II subdivision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Treatment of stepped and recessed bulkheads in Type II subdivision. 171.073 Section 171.073 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Large Vessels § 171.073 Treatment of stepped and...

  18. 46 CFR 72.05-10 - Type, location, and construction of fire control bulkheads and decks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Type, location, and construction of fire control bulkheads and decks. 72.05-10 Section 72.05-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Structural Fire Protection § 72.05-10 Type, location, and construction of fire control...

  19. 46 CFR 179.220 - Location of watertight bulkheads for subdivision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Location of watertight bulkheads for subdivision. 179.220 Section 179.220 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) SUBDIVISION, DAMAGE STABILITY, AND WATERTIGHT INTEGRITY Subdivision and Damage Stability Requirements §...

  20. Composite, Cryogenic, Conformal, Common Bulkhead, Aerogel-Insulated Tank (CBAT) Materials and Processing Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovach, Michael P.; Roberts, J. Keith; Finckenor, Jeffrey L.; McMahon, William M.; Clinton, R. G., Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation outlines the current status and future activities of the composite, cryogenic, conformal, common bulkhead, aerogel-insulated tank (CBAT). Each term (composite, cryogenic, conformal, etc.) is explained. The fabrication method for the CBAT is described, including challenges and their solutions. Near term and long term goals are discussed.

  1. 49 CFR 178.337-5 - Bulkheads, baffles and ring stiffeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bulkheads, baffles and ring stiffeners. 178.337-5 Section 178.337-5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications...

  2. 46 CFR 108.133 - Hull superstructure, structural bulkheads, decks, and deckhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull superstructure, structural bulkheads, decks, and deckhouses. 108.133 Section 108.133 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.133 Hull...

  3. 46 CFR 171.067 - Treatment of stepped and recessed bulkheads in Type I subdivision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Treatment of stepped and recessed bulkheads in Type I subdivision. 171.067 Section 171.067 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Large Vessels § 171.067 Treatment of stepped and recessed...

  4. 46 CFR 32.75-20 - Hold spaces and bulkheads-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hold spaces and bulkheads-TB/ALL. 32.75-20 Section 32.75-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Hull Requirements for Wood Hull Tank Vessels Constructed Prior to November 10, 1936 § 32.75-20 Hold spaces and...

  5. 46 CFR 108.135 - Boundary bulkheads, decks of galleys, and combustible material lockers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boundary bulkheads, decks of galleys, and combustible material lockers. 108.135 Section 108.135 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.135 Boundary...

  6. Mission Specialist (MS) Musgrave works at PLB forward bulkhead during EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Closeup documents extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) suited Mission Specialist (MS) Musgrave, designated EV1, working with payload bay (PLB) forward bulkhead safety tether system during extravehicular activity (EVA). Foot restraint boom attached to handrail appears above his helmet. Peterson, also participating in the EVA, exposed this frame with a 35mm camera while other crewmembers remained in the cabin.

  7. 46 CFR 128.230 - Penetrations of hulls and watertight bulkheads-materials and pressure design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Penetrations of hulls and watertight bulkheads-materials and pressure design. 128.230 Section 128.230 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS MARINE ENGINEERING: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Materials and Pressure Design § 128.230 Penetrations of hulls...

  8. A clay grouting technique for granitic rock adjacent to clay bulkhead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masumoto, K.; Sugita, Y.; Fujita, T.; Martino, J. B.; Kozak, E. T.; Dixon, D. A.

    Excavation and re-distribution of the stress around the tunnel lead to the development of an excavation damage zone (EDZ). While the bulkheads are keyed into the rock wall of the tunnel to act as cut-offs for the EDZ of the tunnel, clay grouting was conducted around the clay bulkhead as an additional measure to interrupt the connectivity of EDZ at the bulkhead. Clay grouting is being tested to determine if it is an effective method to reduce the permeability of fractured rock. The grouting into the EDZ is difficult because many of the fractures in the EDZ are connected with the excavation surface and cannot be filled efficiently by pressurizing the grout slurry. Therefore, the in situ injection tests of the clay grouting technique for the EDZ adjacent to the clay bulkhead were conducted to demonstrate the clay grouting technique and to estimate the ability of clay grouting to reduce permeability in the EDZ. This paper presents the results of these tests. Three in situ tests of clay grouting were performed during the Tunnel Sealing Experiment (TSX), conducted at Canada’s Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in the granitic rock to demonstrate technologies for tunnel sealing at full-scale. First, a clay grouting trial was conducted at a trial key in the tunnel about 25 m above the TSX tunnel. Secondly, the two series of clay grouting were performed in the TSX tunnel, on the upstream face of the key prior to the installation of the seal material of the clay key and later on the downstream side of the bulkhead. The results of these tests indicated a reduction in the permeability of granitic rock around the holes after grouting.

  9. 46 CFR 173.060 - Openings in the side of a vessel below the bulkhead or weather deck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Openings in the side of a vessel below the bulkhead or weather deck. 173.060 Section 173.060 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.060 Openings in the side of a vessel below the bulkhead...

  10. Composite,Cryogenic, Conformal, Common Bulkhead, Aerogel-Insulated Tank (CBAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J. K.; Kovach, M. P.; McMahon, W. M.; Finckenor, J. L.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the Composite, Cryogenic, Conformal, Common Bulkhead, Aerogel-insulated Tank (CBAT) Program is to evaluate the potential for using various new technologies in next generation Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLVs) through design, fabrication, and testing of a subscale system. The new technologies include polymer matrix composites (PMCs), conformal propellant storage, common bulkhead packaging, and aerogel insulation. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Thiokol Propulsion from Cordant Technologies are working together to develop a design and the processing methodologies which will allow integration of these technologies into a single structural component assembly. Such integration will significantly decrease subsystem weight and reduce shape, volume, and placement restrictions, thereby enhancing overall launch system performance. This paper/presentation focuses on the challenges related to materials and processes that were encountered and overcome during this program to date.

  11. Hydrogeochemical effects of a bulkhead in the Dinero mine tunnel, Sugar Loaf mining district, near Leadville, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton-Day, Katie; Mills, Taylor J.

    2015-01-01

    The Dinero mine drainage tunnel is an abandoned, draining mine adit near Leadville, Colorado, that has an adverse effect on downstream water quality and aquatic life. In 2009, a bulkhead was constructed (creating a mine pool and increasing water-table elevations behind the tunnel) to limit drainage from the tunnel and improve downstream water quality. The goal of this study was to document changes to hydrology and water quality resulting from bulkhead emplacement, and to understand post-bulkhead changes in source water and geochemical processes that control mine-tunnel discharge and water quality. Comparison of pre-and post-bulkhead hydrology and water quality indicated that tunnel discharge and zinc and manganese loads decreased by up to 97 percent at the portal of Dinero tunnel and at two downstream sites (LF-537 and LF-580). However, some water-quality problems persisted at LF-537 and LF-580 during high-flow events and years, indicating the effects of the remaining mine waste in the area. In contrast, post-bulkhead water quality degraded at three upstream stream sites and a draining mine tunnel (Nelson tunnel). Water-quality degradation in the streams likely occurred from increased contributions of mine-pool groundwater to the streams. In contrast, water-quality degradation in the Nelson tunnel was likely from flow of mine-pool water along a vein that connects the Nelson tunnel to mine workings behind the Dinero tunnel bulkhead. Principal components analysis, mixing analysis, and inverse geochemical modeling using PHREEQC indicated that mixing and geochemical reactions (carbonate dissolution during acid weathering, precipitation of goethite and birnessite, and sorption of zinc) between three end-member water types generally explain the pre-and post-bulkhead water composition at the Dinero and Nelson tunnels. The three end members were (1) a relatively dilute groundwater having low sulfate and trace element concentrations; (2) mine pool water, and (3) water that

  12. Soil pressures at the cutting wheel and the pressure bulkhead of an EPB-shield

    OpenAIRE

    Bezuijen, Adam; Talmon, AM

    2014-01-01

    Soil pressureswere measured on both sides of the cutterwheel of an EPB-shield during tunnelling in saturated sand, using foam for soil conditioning. The measured pressures are compared with the pressures at the pressure bulkhead. The pressures are not purely hydrostatic but the results are also influenced by the yield strength of the foam mixture and the effective stresses. At the lowest positions, the sensors sometimes measured effective stresses. This led to peaks in the pressures measured....

  13. The Atlas V Aft Bulkhead Carrier - Requirements for the Small Satellite Designer

    OpenAIRE

    Budris, George

    2010-01-01

    United Launch Alliance (ULA) developed the Aft Bulkhead Carrier (ABC) system for mounting small satellites onto the Atlas V launch vehicle. Payloads with a maximum mass of 176 lbs and volume of 20 x 20 x 34 in. are viable candidates to fly. ULA has already built flight hardware and is preparing a User’s Guide to document the technical interface information required by spacecraft designers. When working with the rideshare community, primary payload mission managers expect the small satellite p...

  14. LAr calorimeter for SCC with a common vacuum bulkhead---a concept to improve hermeticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, W.L. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)); Watt, R.D. (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (USA))

    1989-11-01

    A new concept for a Barrel/Endcap LAr Calorimeter (LAC) is described in which the Barrel and Endcaps are in separate vacuum enclosures but share a common vacuum bulkhead (CVB). We explore 2 possible bulkhead construction types; welded plate sandwich panels, and brazed sandwich panels in which the core is an isotropic cellular solid--foamed aluminum. Gas lines and electric cables from he innermost Drift Chamber pass through radial holes in the core of the sandwich bulkhead. The CVB concept offers the potential to obtain a more hermetic calorimeter with significantly reduced dead material and/or space in the interface region common to conventional design LAr detectors for the SSC with Endcap features. To utilize a common additional steps to remove the Drift Chamber, a large increase in Endcap standby heat leak, and perhaps, new cryogenic safety issues. We find that significant amount of dead mass can be removed from critical regions of the vacuum shells when compared to a promising SSC LAC reference design. It is also shown that the increased standby heat leak of this concept can be easily removed by existing cooling capacity in another large LAr calorimeter. It is further shown that shut-downs need not be appreciably longer. Finally, it is argued that cryogen spill hazards can be avoided if the Endcap's LAr is removed during Drift chamber maintenance shutdowns, and that cryogenic safety is not compromised.

  15. Development of an innovative sandwich common bulkhead for cryogenic upper stage propellant tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szelinski, B.; Lange, H.; Röttger, C.; Sacher, H.; Weiland, S.; Zell, D.

    2012-12-01

    In the frame of the Future Launcher Preparatory Program (FLPP) investigating advancing technologies for the Next Generation of Launchers (NGL) a number of novel key technologies are presently under development for significantly improving vehicle performance in terms of payload capacity and mission versatility. As a respective ESA guided technology development program, Cryogenic Upper Stage Technologies (CUST) has been launched within FLPP that hosts among others the development of a common bulkhead to separate liquid hydrogen from the liquid oxygen compartment. In this context, MT Aerospace proposed an advanced sandwich design concept which is currently in the development phase reaching for TRL4 under MT Aerospace responsibility. Key components of this sandwich common bulkhead are a specific core material, situated in-between two thin aluminum face sheets, and an innovative thermal decoupling element at the equatorial region. The combination of these elements provides excellent thermal insulation capabilities and mechanical performance at a minimum weight, since mechanical and thermal functions are merged in the same component. This improvement is expressed by substantial performance figures of the proposed concept that include high resistance against reverse pressure, an optimized heat leak and minimized mass, involving the sandwich dome structure and the adjacent interface rings. The development of single sub-technologies, all contributing to maturate the sandwich common bulkhead towards the desired technology readiness level (TRL), is described in the context of the given design constraints as well as technical, functional and programmatic requirements, issued from the stage level. This includes the thermal and mechanical characterization of core materials, manufacturing issues as well as non-destructive testing and the thermal and structural analyses and dimensioning of the complete common bulkhead system. Dedicated TRL assessments in the Ariane 5 Mid

  16. Hydraulic manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Successful operation of nuclear plant is largely dependent on safe handling of radio-active material. In order to reduce this handling problem and minimise the exposure of radiation, various handling equipment and manipulators have been developed according to the requirements. Manufacture of nuclear fuel, which is the most important part of the nuclear industry, involves handling of uranium ingots weighing approximately 250 kg. This paper describes a specially designed hydraulic manipulator for handling of the ingots in a limited space. It was designed to grab and handle the ingots in any position. This has following drive motions: (1)gripping and releasing, (2)lifting and lowering (z-motion), (3)rotation about the horizontal axis (azimuth drive), (4)rotation about the job axis, and (5)rotation about the vertical axis. For horizontal motion (X and Y axis motion) this equipment is mounted on a motorised trolley, so that it can move inside the workshop. For all drives except the rotation about the job axis, hydraulic cylinders have been used with a battery operated power pack. Trolley drive is also given power from same battery. This paper describes the design aspects of this manipulator. (author). 4 figs

  17. ANALISA KEKUATAN KONSTRUKSI TRANSVERSE BULKHEAD RUANG MUAT NO.I PADA 18500 DWT DRY CARGO VESSEL BERBASIS METODE ELEMEN HINGGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Pujo Mulyatno

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Kapal jenis BulkCarrier menjadi fokus dalam SOLAS Chapter XII. Regulasi SOLAS menyangkut struktur ruang muat No.I yang menerangkan Transverse Bulkhead pada dua ruang muat terdepan dan konstuksi doble bottom pada ruang muat terdepan harus mempunyai kekuatan untuk menahan beban yang diakibatkan jika ruang muat No.1 termasuki air (Flooding.                 Penelitian dilakukan dengan metode elemen hingga dengan alat batntu program komputer berbasis metode elemen hingga. Konstruksi Transverse Bulkhead yang akan diteliti adalah konstruksi Transverse Bulkhead ruang muat no.1 pada 18500 DWT DCV yang saat ini sedang dibangun oleh salah satu galangan di Kota Semarang. Penelitian ini diawali dengan melakukan analisa MEH untuk mendapatkan nilai tegangan maksimum beserta letak terjadinya, lalu dilakukan Perhitungan Faktor Keamanan sehingga dapat ditentukan keamanan kontsruksi tersebut.                 Hasil penelitian telah menunjukkan tegangan maksimum terjadi pada bagian tengah Konstruksi Transverse Bulkhead dengan nilai 295.99 Mpa dan Faktor keamanan 0.695 yang memiliki arti bahwa konstruksi Bulkhead (khususnya pada bagian corrugated tidak mampu menahan tegangan yang terjadi akibat pembebanan Kondisi Flooding pada ruang muat.

  18. Mobility Power Flow (MPF) approach applied to a fluid-loaded shell with a plate bulkhead

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCain, Thomas Scott; Cuschieri, Joseph M.

    Cylindrical shells, immersed in heavy fluids, coupled to plate-like bulkheads are commonly encountered in engineered structures. Often the performance of such systems is dependent upon the vibrational characteristics of the system as a whole or parts thereof. In distributed systems such as these, characterization of vibrational energy transmission between substructures, in addition to the vibrational response, is required for complete understanding of the vibrational characteristics of the system. In this paper, the vibrational characteristics of an infinite, thin cylindrical shell, immersed in an unbounded heavy fluid, coupled internally to a damped, circular plate is considered.

  19. Calculation of the Added Mass of a Liquid Tank’s Bulkheads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junkai Zhu; Zhe Lin; Qiang Liu; Lihua Zhang

    2014-01-01

    The added mass coefficient and the water level index formulas for the same-phase and anti-phase vibration of rectangular liquid tanks’ bulkheads were derived based on dry mode theory. Three fluid-structure interaction numerical methods including Fluid FEM and Fluid BEM were used in this case. The comparison of numerical and theoretical results by the present method shows that ANSYS/Fluid80 is more credible, the NASTRAN/Virtual Mass Method is more suitable for engineering calculations and results of the same-phase vibration by the present method is more accurate.

  20. Study on mechanical behavior of the deep embeded steel sheet pile cellular bulkhead. Neire no fukai hagane yaita cell shiki gogan no rikigaku teki kyodo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higashigawa, T.; Achiwa, F. (The Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., Nagoya (Japan)); Matsuo, M. (Nagoya Univ., Nagoya (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Sunami, S. (Nikken Sekkei, Osaka (Japan))

    1991-09-20

    At the Hekinan coal-burning thermal power station of Chubu Electric Power Company, there is a plan to construct its ash dump by closing the neighboring sea area with bulkheads. This bulkhead is deeply embeded steel sheet piles to be struck into a soft clay layer. Since it is necessary to improve the ground in a wide area for stabilization of soft clay, the specifications as well as the scope of improvement of the basic design plan were noticed, a qualitative study of the bulkhead was done by a numerical analysis aiming at realization of a rational and economical bulkhead and an execution plan which modified the above was prepared. In this execution plan, the reduction as much as about 9% became possible for the construction cost of about 1km long bulkheads. In order to demonstrate the adequacy of this execution plan, loading tests were conducted on full-size cellular bulkheads corresponding to the basic plan as well as the execution plan. As a result, the tested values agreed very well with the analytical results and upon comparison between them, the displacement at the tip of the cellular bulkhead and other measured values showed no meaningful difference, thereby it was confirmed that the execution plan had the same level of stability as the basic plan. 5 refs., 26 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Hybrid Wing-Body Pressurized Fuselage and Bulkhead, Design and Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek

    2013-01-01

    The structural weight reduction of a pressurized Hybrid Wing-Body (HWB) fuselage is a serious challenge. Hence, research and development are presently being continued at NASA under the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) and Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) projects in collaboration with the Boeing Company, Huntington Beach and Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). In this paper, a structural analysis of the HWB fuselage and bulkhead panels is presented, with the objectives of design improvement and structural weight reduction. First, orthotropic plate theories for sizing, and equivalent plate analysis with appropriate simplification are considered. Then parametric finite-element analysis of a fuselage section and bulkhead are conducted using advanced stitched composite structural concepts, which are presently being developed at Boeing for pressurized HWB flight vehicles. With this advanced stiffened-shell design, structural weights are computed and compared to the thick sandwich, vaulted-ribbed-shell, and multi-bubble stiffened-shell structural concepts that had been studied previously. The analytical and numerical results are discussed to assess the overall weight/strength advantages.

  2. Acoustic emission testing on an F/A-18 E/F titanium bulkhead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christopher A.; Van Way, Craig B.; Lockyer, Allen J.; Kudva, Jayanth N.; Ziola, Steve M.

    1995-04-01

    An important opportunity recently transpired at Northrop Grumman Corporation to instrument an F/A - 18 E/F titanium bulkhead with broad band acoustic emission sensors during a scheduled structural fatigue test. The overall intention of this effort was to investigate the potential for detecting crack propagation using acoustic transmission signals for a large structural component. Key areas of experimentation and experience included (1) acoustic noise characterization, (2) separation of crack signals from extraneous noise, (3) source location accuracy, and (4) methods of acoustic transducer attachment. Fatigue cracking was observed and monitored by strategically placed acoustic emission sensors. The outcome of the testing indicated that accurate source location still remains enigmatic for non-specialist engineering personnel especially at this level of structural complexity. However, contrary to preconceived expectations, crack events could be readily separated from extraneous noise. A further dividend from the investigation materialized in the form of close correspondence between frequency domain waveforms of the bulkhead test specimen tested and earlier work with thick plates.

  3. Study of the vibration of bulkhead-stiffened cylindrical shells by laser-based methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ninghui

    The first part of this dissertation work deals with an experimental study of the vibration behavior of bulkhead stiffened cylindrical shells by using laser-based vibration measurement methods. Holographic interferometry and laser speckle photography are first demonstrated on revealing the dynamic behavior of a 22 ft long cylindrical shell. These methods are thereafter further explored to study the vibration characteristic of cylindrical shells with different stiffeners such as a full bulkhead or a partial bulkhead. Many experimentally obtained holograms and specklegrams reveal interesting features of the vibration of bulkhead stiffened cylindrical shells. The experimentally obtained results are compared with those obtained from a finite element model developed by General Dynamic Electric Boat Division, and the finite element model is generally validated. Mode localization theory is used to explain some interesting findings in experiments and the reason of some discrepancies between the finite element analysis and experiment results. The presence of irregularities in a weakly coupled structure such as a bulkhead-stiffened cylindrical shell is shown to be able to localize the modes of vibration and inhibit the propagation of vibration within the shell. A numerical simulation based on the finite element modal analysis indicates the validation of this explanation of the experimental findings. Thereafter, the eigensolutions of disordered, plate-stiffened cylindrical shell stiffened are derived by the use of receptance method. Numerical calculations are thereafter performed based upon this model and indeed reveal the exist of localized vibration in this kind of structure. This analytical study provides physical insights into the mode localization phenomenon in stiffened cylindrical shell type of structures from a more systematic manner. The conditions and the effect of mode localization on natural frequencies and mode shapes of cylindrical shell structure are also

  4. 46 CFR 32.65-40 - Construction and testing of cargo tanks and bulkheads-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Construction and testing of cargo tanks and bulkheads-TB/ALL. 32.65-40 Section 32.65-40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Hull Requirements for Tank Vessels Constructed On or After November 10, 1936, and Prior to July...

  5. 46 CFR 179.350 - Openings in the side of a vessel below the bulkhead or weather deck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Openings in the side of a vessel below the bulkhead or weather deck. 179.350 Section 179.350 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) SUBDIVISION, DAMAGE STABILITY, AND WATERTIGHT INTEGRITY Watertight Integrity Requirements §...

  6. 46 CFR 171.111 - Penetrations and openings in watertight bulkheads in vessels of 100 gross tons or more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Penetrations and openings in watertight bulkheads in vessels of 100 gross tons or more. 171.111 Section 171.111 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Penetrations and Openings in...

  7. 46 CFR 108.141 - Boundary bulkheads and decks between the emergency power source and service generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boundary bulkheads and decks between the emergency power source and service generators. 108.141 Section 108.141 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.141...

  8. 46 CFR 171.114 - Penetrations and openings in watertight bulkheads in a vessel less than a 100 gross tons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Penetrations and openings in watertight bulkheads in a vessel less than a 100 gross tons. 171.114 Section 171.114 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Penetrations and Openings in...

  9. Spin Forming of an Aluminum 2219-T6 Aft Bulkhead for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle: Phase II Supplemental Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Squire, Michael D.; Domack, Marcia S.; Hoffman, Eric K.

    2015-01-01

    The principal focus of this project was to assist the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program in developing a spin forming fabrication process for manufacture of the aft bulkhead of the pressure vessel. The spin forming process will enable a single piece aluminum (Al) 2219 aft bulkhead which will eliminate the current multiple piece welded construction, simplify fabrication, and lead to an enhanced design that will reduce vehicle weight by eliminating welds. Phase I of this assessment explored spin forming the single-piece forward pressure vessel bulkhead from aluminum-lithium 2195.

  10. HYDRAULICS, LOUISA COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulic data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydraulic analysis for estimating flood stages for a flood insurance study. It...

  11. Temperature control apparatus including air return bulkhead for mounting in a transportable body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zajic, A.H.

    1988-02-23

    An air return bulkhead assembly for removable installation adjacent an inside surface of a front wall of a trailer also having two side walls extending from opposite ends of the front wall, through which front wall is disposed an air treatment apparatus for receiving air through an inlet, for temperature treating the air and for providing the temperature-treated air through an outlet is described comprising: a first vertical support member having a first web through which a first hole is defined; first attachment means for attaching the first vertical support member to the front wall of the trailer between one of the side walls of the trailer and the air treatment apparatus.

  12. Development of Non-Optimum Factors for Launch Vehicle Propellant Tank Bulkhead Weight Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, K. Chauncey; Wallace, Matthew L.; Cerro, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    Non-optimum factors are used during aerospace conceptual and preliminary design to account for the increased weights of as-built structures due to future manufacturing and design details. Use of higher-fidelity non-optimum factors in these early stages of vehicle design can result in more accurate predictions of a concept s actual weights and performance. To help achieve this objective, non-optimum factors are calculated for the aluminum-alloy gores that compose the ogive and ellipsoidal bulkheads of the Space Shuttle Super-Lightweight Tank propellant tanks. Minimum values for actual gore skin thicknesses and weld land dimensions are extracted from selected production drawings, and are used to predict reference gore weights. These actual skin thicknesses are also compared to skin thicknesses predicted using classical structural mechanics and tank proof-test pressures. Both coarse and refined weights models are developed for the gores. The coarse model is based on the proof pressure-sized skin thicknesses, and the refined model uses the actual gore skin thicknesses and design detail dimensions. To determine the gore non-optimum factors, these reference weights are then compared to flight hardware weights reported in a mass properties database. When manufacturing tolerance weight estimates are taken into account, the gore non-optimum factors computed using the coarse weights model range from 1.28 to 2.76, with an average non-optimum factor of 1.90. Application of the refined weights model yields non-optimum factors between 1.00 and 1.50, with an average non-optimum factor of 1.14. To demonstrate their use, these calculated non-optimum factors are used to predict heavier, more realistic gore weights for a proposed heavy-lift launch vehicle s propellant tank bulkheads. These results indicate that relatively simple models can be developed to better estimate the actual weights of large structures for future launch vehicles.

  13. ANALISA KEKUATAN KONSTRUKSI TRANSVERSE BULKHEAD RUANG MUAT NO.I PADA 18500 DWT DRY CARGO VESSEL BERBASIS METODE ELEMEN HINGGA

    OpenAIRE

    Imam Pujo Mulyatno; Iqbal Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Kapal jenis BulkCarrier menjadi fokus dalam SOLAS Chapter XII. Regulasi SOLAS menyangkut struktur ruang muat No.I yang menerangkan Transverse Bulkhead pada dua ruang muat terdepan dan konstuksi doble bottom pada ruang muat terdepan harus mempunyai kekuatan untuk menahan beban yang diakibatkan jika ruang muat No.1 termasuki air (Flooding).                 Penelitian dilakukan dengan metode elemen hingga dengan alat batn...

  14. 46 CFR 32.60-40 - Construction and testing of cargo tanks and bulkheads-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Construction and testing of cargo tanks and bulkheads-TB/ALL. 32.60-40 Section 32.60-40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Hull Requirements for Tank Vessels Constructed On or After July 1, 1951 § 32.60-40 Construction...

  15. Hydraulic Yaw System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Mørkholt, M.

    system and rotor shaft when utilizing the soft yaw drive concept compared to the original stiff yaw system. The physical demands of the hydraulic yaw system are furthermore examined for a life time of 20 years. Based on the extrapolated loads, the duty cycles show that it is possible to construct...... a hydraulic soft yaw system, which is able to reduce the loads on the wind turbine significantly. A full scale hydraulic yaw test rig is available for experiments and tests. The test rig is presented as well as the system schematics of the hydraulic yaw system....

  16. Thermally Actuated Hydraulic Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack; Ross, Ronald; Chao, Yi

    2008-01-01

    Thermally actuated hydraulic pumps have been proposed for diverse applications in which direct electrical or mechanical actuation is undesirable and the relative slowness of thermal actuation can be tolerated. The proposed pumps would not contain any sliding (wearing) parts in their compressors and, hence, could have long operational lifetimes. The basic principle of a pump according to the proposal is to utilize the thermal expansion and contraction of a wax or other phase-change material in contact with a hydraulic fluid in a rigid chamber. Heating the chamber and its contents from below to above the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to expand significantly, thus causing a substantial increase in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid out of the chamber. Similarly, cooling the chamber and its contents from above to below the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to contract significantly, thus causing a substantial decrease in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid into the chamber. The displacement of the hydraulic fluid could be used to drive a piston. The figure illustrates a simple example of a hydraulic jack driven by a thermally actuated hydraulic pump. The pump chamber would be a cylinder containing encapsulated wax pellets and containing radial fins to facilitate transfer of heat to and from the wax. The plastic encapsulation would serve as an oil/wax barrier and the remaining interior space could be filled with hydraulic oil. A filter would retain the encapsulated wax particles in the pump chamber while allowing the hydraulic oil to flow into and out of the chamber. In one important class of potential applications, thermally actuated hydraulic pumps, exploiting vertical ocean temperature gradients for heating and cooling as needed, would be used to vary hydraulic pressures to control buoyancy in undersea research

  17. Design and construction of the south bulkhead of Hitachinaka Thermal Power Plant; Hitachinaka Karyoku Hatsudensho minami gogan no sekkei to seko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwabara, S.; Takahashi, Y.; Noguchi, K. [Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (Japan)

    1996-11-05

    Hitachinaka Thermal Power Plant is a coal fired thermal power plant that Tokyo Electric Power Co. and Electric Power Development Corp. have planned to install a machine of an output of 1,000MW each respectively, totalling an output of 2,000MW jointly in the north wharf of Hitachinaka harbor now planned by Ibaraki Prefecture. It is anticipated to be the main power source for the prefecture in the early 21st century. In addition, in the above north wharf area, there are public facilities to be constructed by Ministry of Transport and Ibaraki Prefecture. The construction of the bulkhead of this north wharf has been designed and executed by the above 4 bodies in taking the respective shares and completed in 3 years. In this report, the outline of cost reduction concerning the design and construction of the south bulkhead (total length: 250m) including the intake of the plant is introduced from among the bulkhead construction works which Tokyo Electric Power Co. has taken its share and executed. The structure of the bulkhead is a caisson type composite embankment. At the time of designing it, the east breakwater, the bulkhead and the public quay were already partially built, hence taking into consideration their shielding effects as well as relaxation of the construction conditions, its rational cross section has been determined and also ingenuity has been taxed on its actual construction work. 4 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Vibration of hydraulic machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yulin; Liu, Shuhong; Dou, Hua-Shu; Qian, Zhongdong

    2013-01-01

    Vibration of Hydraulic Machinery deals with the vibration problem which has significant influence on the safety and reliable operation of hydraulic machinery. It provides new achievements and the latest developments in these areas, even in the basic areas of this subject. The present book covers the fundamentals of mechanical vibration and rotordynamics as well as their main numerical models and analysis methods for the vibration prediction. The mechanical and hydraulic excitations to the vibration are analyzed, and the pressure fluctuations induced by the unsteady turbulent flow is predicted in order to obtain the unsteady loads. This book also discusses the loads, constraint conditions and the elastic and damping characters of the mechanical system, the structure dynamic analysis, the rotor dynamic analysis and the system instability of hydraulic machines, including the illustration of monitoring system for the instability and the vibration in hydraulic units. All the problems are necessary for vibration pr...

  19. Determination of the Stresses Produced by the Landing Impact in the Bulkheads of a Seaplane Bottom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darevsky, V. M.

    1944-01-01

    The present report deals with the determination of the impact stresses in the bulkhead floors of a seaplane bottom. The dynamic problem is solved on the assumption of a certain elastic system, the floor being assumed as a weightless elastic beam with concentrated masses at the ends (due to the mass of the float) and with a spring which replaces the elastic action of the keel in the center. The distributed load on the floor is that due to the hydrodynamic force acting over a certain portion of the bottom. The pressure distribution over the width of the float is assumed to follow the Wagner law. The formulas given for the maximum bending moment are derived on the assumption that the keel is relatively elastic, in which case it can be shown that at each instant of time the maximum bending moment is at the point of juncture of the floor with the keel. The bending moment at this point is a function of the half width of the wetted surface c and reaches its maximum value when c is approximately equal to b/2 where b is the half width of the float. In general, however, for computing the bending moment the values of the bending moment at the keel for certain values of c are determined and a curve is drawn. The illustrative sample computation gave for the stresses a result approximately equal to that obtained by the conventional factory computation.

  20. Handbook of hydraulic fluid technology

    CERN Document Server

    Totten, George E

    2011-01-01

    ""The Handbook of Hydraulic Fluid Technology"" serves as the foremost resource for designing hydraulic systems and for selecting hydraulic fluids used in engineering applications. Featuring new illustrations, data tables, as well as practical examples, this second edition is updated with essential information on the latest hydraulic fluids and testing methods. The detailed text facilitates unparalleled understanding of the total hydraulic system, including important hardware, fluid properties, and hydraulic lubricants. Written by worldwide experts, the book also offers a rigorous overview of h

  1. Feature articles, thermal power and atomic power. Evaluation technique of antiseismic stability of caisson foundation bulkhead. Karyoku, genshiryoku. Keson shiki gogan no taishin anteisei hyoka gijutsu ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, M.; Fujitani, M. (Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (Japan))

    1994-05-31

    One of the site construction for nuclear power plant is an offshore artificial island system. In this case, the breakwater bulkhead constructed around the island plays an important role in keeping the safety of the whole site. Accordingly the establishment of evaluation technique of antiseismic stability is also important. This study reproduced the seismic behavior of the breakwater bulkhead by means of model vibration experiment. Various factors affecting the sliding of caisson were considered by taking into account the conventional design method and concept. The experimental results were numerically simulated. For analytically obtaining the settlement of the backward ground due to the sliding of caisson, the applicability of (1) elasto-plastic finite element method using the joint element, and (2) individual element method was investigated. Each of them proved to be effective for quantitatively evaluating the deformation behavior of caisson foundation bulkhead in case of earthquake. 5 refs., 19 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Weld study of plane bulkhead perimeter%平面舱壁周界的焊缝研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余东方; 吴剑国; 朱荣成

    2014-01-01

    利用焊缝计算模型法、有限元法对CSR-OT规范中平面舱壁周界焊接系数进行实船验证,以一艘阿芙拉型双壳油船平面舱壁结构为例,在不同工况荷载作用下,计算出平面舱壁对内底板处焊缝的焊缝强度利用因子。两种算法的计算结果表明:规范中此处焊接系数满足强度要求且有安全余量。该研究对进一步理解CSR-OT规范焊接系数规格表具有一定参考价值。%This paper carries out the full scale veriifcation of weld coeffcient of plane bulkhead perimeter in CSR-OT rules by weld calculation model method and ifnite element method. Making an example of the plane bulkhead structure of a double hull oil tanker in AFRAMAX type, it calculates weld strength utilization factor from the plate bulkhead weld to the inner bottom plate weld under the different working condition. The results from the two methods show that the weld coeffcient in CSR-OT rules can meet the strength requirements with allowance. This research could provide certain references for the further understanding of the weld coeffcient speciifcation in CSR-OT rules.

  3. FEMA DFIRM Hydraulic Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This layer and accompanying attribute table is required whenever hydraulic structures are shown in the flood profile. It is also required if levees are shown on the...

  4. Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents research results using IT-Tools for CAD and dynamic modelling, simulation, analysis, and design of water hydraulic actuators for motion control of machines, lifts, cranes and robots. Matlab/Simulink and CATIA are used as IT-Tools. The contributions include results from on......-going research projects on fluid power and mechatronics based on tap water hydraulic servovalves and linear servo actuators and rotary vane actuators for motion control and power transmission. Development and design a novel water hydraulic rotary vane actuator for robot manipulators. Proposed mathematical...... modelling, control and simulation of a water hydraulic rotary vane actuator applied to power and control a two-links manipulator and evaluate performance. The results include engineering design and test of the proposed simulation models compared with IHA Tampere University’s presentation of research...

  5. Electric hydraulic interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Helle, Ola Høydal

    2011-01-01

    The hydraulic models representing hydro turbines and conduit system found instandard model libraries of power system analysis tools are often simplied mod-els. Subsequently, important information about the dynamics of the hydraulicsystem may not be properly represented by such models, putatively resultingin insucient representation of the interaction between the electric system andhydraulic system.In this master thesis three dierent hydraulic models for hydro power plantsequipped with Francis...

  6. Submarine hydraulic control analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bower, Michael J.

    1980-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited A mathematical model was developed to include line effects in the submarine hydraulic system dynamic performance analysis. The project was undertaken in an effort to demonstrate the necessity of coupling the entire hydraulic power network for an accurate analysis of any of the subsystems rather than the current practice of treating a component loop as an isolated system. It was intended that the line model could be co...

  7. Electro Hydraulic Hitch Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M. R.; Andersen, T. O.; Nielsen, B.;

    2003-01-01

    This paper present and discusses R&D results on electro hydraulic hitch control for off-road vehicle, in particular active damping of oscillation occuring on tractors. The research deals with analysis and control of the oscillations occuring on tractors which are design without any susspection...... for a parameter research study with emphasis on the requirements to the hitch control by use of hydraulic pressure compensated proportional control valve....

  8. 某飞机气密座舱球面框设计研究%Study of an air-tight bulkhead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏雁飞; 赵占文; 梁尚清

    2015-01-01

    The primary parameters of an aircraft bulkhead is studied using theoretical formulas and finite element method, and it is obtained that the optimum angle of bulkhead is 60°and the skin thickness and the number of stiffeners have great impact on the buckling performance of bulkhead. For an aircraft with fuselage diameter of 1000mm, the optimum design is that the bulkhead angel is 60°,and the skin thickness is 0.8mm and the number of stiffeners is 8.%以某飞机球面框设计为例,应用理论计算以及有限元方法对影响气密框设计的主要参数进行研究,得到球面框设计的最佳角度为60度,球皮厚度与筋条数目均为影响球面框稳定性的重要因素。对于机身半径为1000mm 的某型飞机,飞机球面框结构的最优设计为球面框角度60度,球皮厚度0.8mm,纵向加筋数目8根。本结论对于球面框初步设计具有指导意义。

  9. Cavitation in Hydraulic Machinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjeldsen, M.

    1996-11-01

    The main purpose of this doctoral thesis on cavitation in hydraulic machinery is to change focus towards the coupling of non-stationary flow phenomena and cavitation. It is argued that, in addition to turbulence, superimposed sound pressure fluctuations can have a major impact on cavitation and lead to particularly severe erosion. For the design of hydraulic devices this finding may indicate how to further limit the cavitation problems. Chapter 1 reviews cavitation in general in the context of hydraulic machinery, emphasizing the initial cavitation event and the role of the water quality. Chapter 2 discusses the existence of pressure fluctuations for situations common in such machinery. Chapter 3 on cavitation dynamics presents an algorithm for calculating the nucleation of a cavity cluster. Chapter 4 describes the equipment used in this work. 53 refs., 55 figs.,10 tabs.

  10. Modelling of Hydraulic Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Zhou, Jianjun; Hansen, Lars Henrik

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a case study of identifying the physical model (or the grey box model) of a hydraulic test robot. The obtained model is intended to provide a basis for model-based control of the robot. The physical model is formulated in continuous time and is derived by application of the l......This paper describes a case study of identifying the physical model (or the grey box model) of a hydraulic test robot. The obtained model is intended to provide a basis for model-based control of the robot. The physical model is formulated in continuous time and is derived by application...

  11. HYDRAULIC SERVO CONTROL MECHANISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, R.B.; Gottsche, M.J. Jr.

    1963-09-17

    A hydraulic servo control mechanism of compact construction and low fluid requirements is described. The mechanism consists of a main hydraulic piston, comprising the drive output, which is connected mechanically for feedback purposes to a servo control piston. A control sleeve having control slots for the system encloses the servo piston, which acts to cover or uncover the slots as a means of controlling the operation of the system. This operation permits only a small amount of fluid to regulate the operation of the mechanism, which, as a result, is compact and relatively light. This mechanism is particuiarly adaptable to the drive and control of control rods in nuclear reactors. (auth)

  12. Fire resistant hydraulic fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deakin, P. (Croda Application Chemicals Ltd. (UK). Mining Sales and Service)

    The use of fire resistant fluids is now widespread and in certain applications, namely underground, mandatory within the coal mining industry. However, safety is a paramount objective in all industries and within the author's company which supplies and services other industries such as metal forming and automotive construction, greater emphasis is being placed on the use of fire resistant hydraulic fluids. Their involvement with development, manufacture and application is continually expanding. This document describes the various fire resistant hydraulic fluids and why they are used in particular applications. 1 tab.

  13. Hydraulic Arm Modeling via Matlab SimHydraulics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Věchet, Stanislav; Krejsa, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 4 (2009), s. 287-296. ISSN 1802-1484 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : simulatin modeling * hydraulics * SimHydraulics Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics

  14. The ultimate bearing capability analysis of the submarine internal plane bulkhead%潜艇内部平面舱壁极限承载能力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡少俊; 马建军; 许兵; 刘勇; 胡大炜

    2012-01-01

    Through the double nonlinear finite element calculation for the submarine internal plane bulkhead,the plastic collapse mechanism for the horizontal girder-forming the ultimate framework of four plastic hinges, on the basis of the plastic hinge theory of girders, is put forward, with the ultimate bearing capability of the bulkhead ascertained finally. While, the ultimate bearing capability of simple girders abstracted from the horizontal girders of bulkhead are analyzed, and the reason why the four plastic hinges of horizontal girders of the bulkhead are formed is explained through comparing the ultimate framework of simple girders with the horizontal girders of the bulkhead.%通过对潜艇内部平面舱壁结构在破舱工况下的双重非线性有限元计算,以梁的塑性铰机构理论为基础,揭示了舱壁水平大梁的塑性破坏机理-水平横梁形成四塑性铰极限机构,最终确定其极限承载能力.同时,对舱壁水平大梁抽象出的简单梁进行了极限承载能力的分析,并与舱壁水平大梁进行比较,提出了舱壁水平大梁形成的极限机构不同于简单梁极限机构-三塑性铰机构的原因.

  15. Hydraulic Arm Modeling via Matlab SimHydraulics

    OpenAIRE

    Věchet, Stanislav; Krejsa, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    System modeling is a vital tool for cost reduction and design process speed up in most engineering fields. The paper is focused on modeling of hydraulic arm as a part of intelligent prosthesis project, in the form of 2DOF open kinematic chain. The arm model combines mechanical, hydraulic and electric subsystems and uses Matlab as modeling tool. SimMechanics Matlab extension is used for mechanical part modeling, SimHydraulics toolbox is used for modeling of hydraulic circuit used for actuating...

  16. Electro Hydraulic Hitch Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M. R.; Andersen, T. O.; Nielsen, B.;

    2003-01-01

    This paper present and discusses R&D results on electro hydraulic hitch control for off-road vehicle, in particular active damping of oscillation occuring on tractors. The research deals with analysis and control of the oscillations occuring on tractors which are design without any susspection...

  17. Water Treatment Technology - Hydraulics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on hydraulics provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: head loss in pipes in series, function loss in…

  18. Dutchess Co, NY, Detailed Hydraulics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulic data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydraulic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  19. HYDRAULICS, COSHOCTON COUNTY, OHIO, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulic data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydraulic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  20. Hydraulic Analyses, Rains County, Texas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulics data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydraulic procedures for computing flood elevations for a flood insurance...

  1. HYDRAULICS, TUSCARAWAS COUNTY, OHIO, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulic data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydraulic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  2. HYDRAULICS, PREBLE COUNTY, OHIO, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulic data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydraulic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  3. HYDRAULICS, WARREN COUNTY, OHIO, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulic data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydraulic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  4. Cradle modification for hydraulic ram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of the cradle hydraulic system considers stress, weld strength, and hydraulic forces required to lift and support the cradle/pump assembly. The stress and weld strength of the cradle modifications is evaluated to ensure that they meet the requirements of the American Institute for Steel Construction (AISC 1989). The hydraulic forces are evaluated to ensure that the hydraulic system is capable of rotating the cradle and pump assembly to the vertical position (between 70 degrees and 90 degrees)

  5. Hydraulic turbines and auxiliary equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Gaorong [Organization of the United Nations, Beijing (China). International Centre of Small Hydroelectric Power Plants

    1995-07-01

    This document presents a general overview on hydraulic turbines and auxiliary equipment, emphasizing the turbine classification, in accordance with the different types of turbines, standard turbine series in China, turbine selection based on the basic data required for the preliminary design, general hill model curves, chart of turbine series and the arrangement of application for hydraulic turbines, hydraulic turbine testing, and speed regulating device.

  6. Hydraulic manipulator research at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, task requirements have dictated that manipulator payload capacity increase to accommodate greater payloads, greater manipulator length, and larger environmental interaction forces. General tasks such as waste storage tank cleanup and facility dismantlement and decommissioning require manipulator life capacities in the range of hundreds of pounds rather than tens of pounds. To meet the increased payload capacities demanded by present-day tasks, manipulator designers have turned once again to hydraulics as a means of actuation. In order to successfully design, build, and deploy a new hydraulic manipulator (or subsystem), sophisticated modeling, analysis, and control experiments are usually needed. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a history of projects that incorporate hydraulics technology, including mobile robots, teleoperated manipulators, and full-scale construction equipment. In addition, to support the development and deployment of new hydraulic manipulators, ORNL has outfitted a significant experimental laboratory and has developed the software capability for research into hydraulic manipulators, hydraulic actuators, hydraulic systems, modeling of hydraulic systems, and hydraulic controls. The purpose of this article is to describe the past hydraulic manipulator developments and current hydraulic manipulator research capabilities at ORNL. Included are example experimental results from ORNL's flexible/prismatic test stand

  7. Hydraulic manipulator research at ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Love, L.J. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States)

    1997-03-01

    Recently, task requirements have dictated that manipulator payload capacity increase to accommodate greater payloads, greater manipulator length, and larger environmental interaction forces. General tasks such as waste storage tank cleanup and facility dismantlement and decommissioning require manipulator life capacities in the range of hundreds of pounds rather than tens of pounds. To meet the increased payload capacities demanded by present-day tasks, manipulator designers have turned once again to hydraulics as a means of actuation. In order to successfully design, build, and deploy a new hydraulic manipulator (or subsystem), sophisticated modeling, analysis, and control experiments are usually needed. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a history of projects that incorporate hydraulics technology, including mobile robots, teleoperated manipulators, and full-scale construction equipment. In addition, to support the development and deployment of new hydraulic manipulators, ORNL has outfitted a significant experimental laboratory and has developed the software capability for research into hydraulic manipulators, hydraulic actuators, hydraulic systems, modeling of hydraulic systems, and hydraulic controls. The purpose of this article is to describe the past hydraulic manipulator developments and current hydraulic manipulator research capabilities at ORNL. Included are example experimental results from ORNL`s flexible/prismatic test stand.

  8. Mechanics of Hydraulic Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detournay, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Hydraulic fractures represent a particular class of tensile fractures that propagate in solid media under pre-existing compressive stresses as a result of internal pressurization by an injected viscous fluid. The main application of engineered hydraulic fractures is the stimulation of oil and gas wells to increase production. Several physical processes affect the propagation of these fractures, including the flow of viscous fluid, creation of solid surfaces, and leak-off of fracturing fluid. The interplay and the competition between these processes lead to multiple length scales and timescales in the system, which reveal the shifting influence of the far-field stress, viscous dissipation, fracture energy, and leak-off as the fracture propagates.

  9. Undular Hydraulic Jump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Castro-Orgaz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The transition from subcritical to supercritical flow when the inflow Froude number Fo is close to unity appears in the form of steady state waves called undular hydraulic jump. The characterization of the undular hydraulic jump is complex due to the existence of a non-hydrostatic pressure distribution that invalidates the gradually-varied flow theory, and supercritical shock waves. The objective of this work is to present a mathematical model for the undular hydraulic jump obtained from an approximate integration of the Reynolds equations for turbulent flow assuming that the Reynolds number R is high. Simple analytical solutions are presented to reveal the physics of the theory, and a numerical model is used to integrate the complete equations. The limit of application of the theory is discussed using a wave breaking condition for the inception of a surface roller. The validity of the mathematical predictions is critically assessed using physical data, thereby revealing aspects on which more research is needed

  10. A FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF HYDRAULIC CYLINDER OF LINEAR HYDRAULIC MOTOR FROM HORIZONTAL HYDRAULIC PRESS – 2 MN

    OpenAIRE

    ŢĂLU D.L.MIHAI; ŢĂLU D.L. ŞTEFAN

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyse through the finite element method (FEM) the hydraulic cylinder of linear hydraulic motor from horizontal Hydraulic Press – 2 MN. The analysis of the hydraulic cylinder of linear hydraulic motor from horizontal Hydraulic Press – 2 MN was made for determination of displacements and deformations. A three-dimensional model of the hydraulic cylinder with a complex geometry was generated based on the designed data. Finite element analysis was performed using COSMOSWorks software....

  11. Numerical Analysis on the Ultimate Strength of Corrugated Bulkheads%槽型舱壁极限强度的数值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄磊; 杨平

    2011-01-01

    The paper carries out FEM analyses on the ultimate strength of corrugated bulkheads under linear hydrostatic pressure by means of ANSYS software, taking into account of geometry non-linearity and material non-linearity. Many influence factors will affect the ultimate strength of corrugated bulkheads, including corrugate angle, plate thickness, boundary condition and steel consumption, a discussion of different variables of the above influence is given. By the computational analyses, it shows that increasing either corrugate angle or plate thickness has effect on ultimate strength of corrugated bulkheads and unit consumption of steel, but the former is proved to be more effective on the increase of ultimate strength, and bulkhead condition affects largely on ultimate bearing capacity, and it also shows that the reasonable boundary condition can significantly improve structure bearing capacity.%通过采用ANSYS软件,在考虑几何和材料非线性的基础上,对系列槽型舱壁在线性静水压下的极限强度进行了有限元数值分析。讨论了不同槽型角度、板厚、边界约束形式及用钢量等对槽型舱壁极限承载力的影响。经过计算分析发现,槽型角度及板厚的增加均对槽体极限强度和单位用钢量有影响,但前者的增加对槽体极限强度的提高更有效;舱壁约束对结构的极限承载力有较大影响;合理的边界条件能较大提高其结构承载能力。

  12. Limits of downstream hydraulic geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2004-10-01

    Adjustments to flow width, depth, and velocity in response to changes in discharge are commonly characterized by using downstream hydraulic geometry relationships. The spatial limits of these relationships within a drainage basin have not been systematically quantified. Where the erosional resistance of the channel substrate is sufficiently large, hydraulic driving forces presumably will be unable to adjust channel form. Data sets from 10 mountain rivers in the United States, Panama, Nepal, and New Zealand are used in this study to explore the limits of downstream hydraulic geometry relationships. Where the ratio of stream power to sediment size (Ω/D84) exceeds 10,000 kg/s3, downstream hydraulic geometry is well developed; where the ratio falls below 10,000 kg/s3, downstream hydraulic geometry relationships are poorly developed. These limitations on downstream hydraulic geometry have important implications for channel engineering and simulations of landscape change.

  13. Hydraulic mining method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Lester H.; Knoke, Gerald S.

    1985-08-20

    A method of hydraulically mining an underground pitched mineral vein comprising drilling a vertical borehole through the earth's lithosphere into the vein and drilling a slant borehole along the footwall of the vein to intersect the vertical borehole. Material is removed from the mineral vein by directing a high pressure water jet thereagainst. The resulting slurry of mineral fragments and water flows along the slant borehole into the lower end of the vertical borehole from where it is pumped upwardly through the vertical borehole to the surface.

  14. Hydraulic Modeling: Pipe Network Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Datwyler, Trevor T.

    2012-01-01

    Water modeling is becoming an increasingly important part of hydraulic engineering. One application of hydraulic modeling is pipe network analysis. Using programmed algorithms to repeatedly solve continuity and energy equations, computer software can greatly reduce the amount of time required to analyze a closed conduit system. Such hydraulic models can become a valuable tool for cities to maintain their water systems and plan for future growth. The Utah Division of Drinking Water regulations...

  15. Applied hydraulic transients

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhry, M Hanif

    2014-01-01

    This book covers hydraulic transients in a comprehensive and systematic manner from introduction to advanced level and presents various methods of analysis for computer solution. The field of application of the book is very broad and diverse and covers areas such as hydroelectric projects, pumped storage schemes, water-supply systems, cooling-water systems, oil pipelines and industrial piping systems. Strong emphasis is given to practical applications, including several case studies, problems of applied nature, and design criteria. This will help design engineers and introduce students to real-life projects. This book also: ·         Presents modern methods of analysis suitable for computer analysis, such as the method of characteristics, explicit and implicit finite-difference methods and matrix methods ·         Includes case studies of actual projects ·         Provides extensive and complete treatment of governed hydraulic turbines ·         Presents design charts, desi...

  16. Hydraulics. FOS: Fundamentals of Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

    This manual on hydraulics is one of a series of power mechanics texts and visual aids for training in the servicing of agricultural and industrial machinery. Focus is on oil hydraulics. Materials provide basic information and illustrations for use by vocational students and teachers as well as shop servicemen and laymen. The twelve chapters focus…

  17. Model for Polygonal Hydraulic Jumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Erik Andreas; Watanabe, Shinya; Bohr, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    We propose a phenomenological model for the polygonal hydraulic jumps discovered by Ellegaard and co-workers [Nature (London) 392, 767 (1998); Nonlinearity 12, 1 (1999); Physica B 228, 1 (1996)], based on the known flow structure for the type-II hydraulic jumps with a “roller” (separation eddy...

  18. Model for polygonal hydraulic jumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Erik Andreas; Watanabe, Shinya; Bohr, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    We propose a phenomenological model for the polygonal hydraulic jumps discovered by Ellegaard and co-workers [Nature (London) 392, 767 (1998); Nonlinearity 12, 1 (1999); Physica B 228, 1 (1996)], based on the known flow structure for the type-II hydraulic jumps with a "roller" (separation eddy...

  19. Tractor Hydraulics. A Teaching Reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association for Vocational Instructional Materials, Athens, GA.

    The manual was developed to help provide a better understanding of how and why hydraulic principles serve the purposes of weight reduction, increase of physical effort, and more precise control to machines of all types. The four components that are necessary to have a workable hydraulic system--a reservoir, a pump, a valve, and a motor (cylinder)…

  20. 某隔板起爆器冲击起爆过程的数值模拟与实验研究%Numerical Simulation and Experimental Investigation for Shock Initiation of Bulkhead Initiator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨正才; 廖昕; 李晓刚; 赵亮; 徐薇

    2011-01-01

    为了提高火工品的可靠性设计水平,将数值模拟技术引入隔板起爆器的设计中.利用LS-DYNA软件对某隔板起爆器隔板传爆过程进行模拟,计算得出可靠传爆不会穿透隔板的隔板厚度介于2.0 mm与5.0 mm之间.验证试验结果表明当隔板厚度为1.5~2.4 mm时,隔板能够完成正常功能,计算结果与实验结果基本吻合.%The numerical simulation was employed to the design of a mone reliable bulkhead initiator. The explosion transimission was simulated using LS-DYNA code. The simulation results show that when the thickness of bulkhead is between 2.0 mm and 5.0 mm, the bulkhead will transmit shock wave well without being penetrated, and the bulkhead initiator can perform its normal function when the thickness of bulkhead is between 1.5 mm and 2.4 mm. The simulation result agrees with the test result.

  1. Hydraulic Stability of Accropode Armour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T.; Burcharth, H. F.; Frigaard, Peter

    The present report describes the hydraulic model tests of Accropode armour layers carried out at the Hydraulics Laboratory at Aalborg University from November 1995 through March 1996. The objective of the model tests was to investigate the hydraulic stability of Accropode armour layers......, and to assess the influence of core permeability on the hydraulic stability of Accropodes. Two structures were examined, one with a relatively permeable core and one with a relatively impermeable core. In November/December 1995, Ph.D.-student Marten Christensen carried out the model tests on the structure...... with permeable core (crushed granite with a gradation of 5-8 mm). The outcome of this study is described in "Hydraulic Stability of Single-Layer Dolos and Accropode Armour Layers" by Christensen & Burcharth (1995). In January/February 1996, Research Assistant Thomas Jensen carried out a similar study...

  2. High temperature hydraulic seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, K. R.

    1993-05-01

    This program investigated and evaluated high temperature hydraulic sealing technology, including seals, fluids, and actuator materials. Test limits for fluid pressure and temperature were 8000 psi and 700 F respectively. The original plan to investigate CTFE fluid at 350 F as well as other fluids at higher temperatures was reduced in scope to include only the higher temperature investigation. Seals were obtained from 11 manufacturers. Design requirements including materials, dimensions, clearances, and tolerances were established and test modules were constructed from the detail designs which were produced. Nine piston seals and one rod seal were tested at temperatures ranging from -65 to +600 F and pressures to 6000 psi. Fluid performance under these conditions was evaluated. Details of this activity and results of the effort are summarized in this report.

  3. Equipment for hydraulic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydraulic testing in boreholes is one major task of the hydrogeological program in the Stripa Project. A new testing equipment for this purpose was constructed. It consists of a downhole part and a surface part. The downhole part consists of two packers enclosing two test-sections when inflated; one between the packers and one between the bottom packer and the bottom of the borehole. A probe for downhole electronics is also included in the downhole equipment together with electrical cable and nylon tubing. In order to perform shut-in and pulse tests with high accuracy a surface controlled downhole valve was constructed. The surface equipment consists of the data acquisition system, transducer amplifier and surface gauges. In the report detailed descriptions of each component in the whole testing equipment are given. (Auth.)

  4. Amazon flood wave hydraulics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigg, Mark A.; Wilson, Matthew D.; Bates, Paul D.; Horritt, Matthew S.; Alsdorf, Douglas E.; Forsberg, Bruce R.; Vega, Maria C.

    2009-07-01

    SummaryA bathymetric survey of 575 km of the central Amazon River and one of its tributaries, the Purus, are combined with gauged data to characterise the Amazon flood wave, and for hydraulic modelling of the main channel for the period June 1995-March 1997 with the LISFLOOD-FP and HEC-RAS hydraulic models. Our investigations show that the Amazon flood wave is subcritical and diffusive in character and, due to shallow bed slopes, backwater conditions control significant reach lengths and are present for low and high water states. Comparison of the different models shows that it is necessary to include at least the diffusion term in any model, and the RMSE error in predicted water elevation at all cross sections introduced by ignoring the acceleration and advection terms is of the order of 0.02-0.03 m. The use of a wide rectangular channel approximation introduces an error of 0.10-0.15 m on the predicted water levels. Reducing the bathymetry to a simple bed slope and with mean cross section only, introduces an error in the order of 0.5 m. These results show that when compared to the mean annual amplitude of the Amazon flood wave of 11-12 m, water levels are relatively insensitive to the bathymetry of the channel model. The implication for remote sensing studies of the central Amazon channel, such as those proposed with the Surface Water and Ocean Topography mission (SWOT), is that even relatively crude assumptions regarding the channel bathymetry will be valid in order to derive discharge from water surface slope of the main channel, as long as the mean channel area is approximately correct.

  5. Pneumatic actuator with hydraulic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Hobart R., Jr.

    1992-11-01

    The present invention provides a pneumatically powered actuator having hydraulic control for both locking and controlling the velocity of an output rod without any sponginess. The invention includes a double-acting pneumatic actuator having a bore, a piston slidably engaged within the bore, and a control rod connected to the piston. The double-acting pneumatic actuator is mounted to a frame. A first double-acting hydraulic actuator having a bore, a piston slidably engaged within the bore, and a follower rod mounted to the piston is mounted to the frame such that the follower rod is fixedly connected to the control rod. The maximum translation of the piston within the bore of the first double-acting hydraulic actuator provides a volumetric displacement V1. The present invention also includes a second double-acting hydraulic actuator having a bore, a piston slidably engaged within the bore, and an output rod mounted to the piston. The maximum translation of the piston within the bore of the second double-acting hydraulic actuator provides a volumetric displacement V2, where V2=V1. A pair of fluid ports in each of the first and second double-acting hydraulic cylinders are operably connected by fluid conduits, one of which includes a valve circuit which may be used to control the velocity of the output rod or to lock the output rod in a static position by regulating the flow of hydraulic fluid between the double-acting cylinders.

  6. HERION hydraulics in turbine control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weise, H.

    1978-01-01

    Recent findings in the hydraulic control of turbine functions by means of HERION valves, using the example of a pumped storage plant. Description and picture of the pumped storage power plant 'Rodund II' of the Vorarlberger Illwerke. Drawing and circuit diagram of the pump turbine. Practice of the NG 10 hydraulic magnetic multiway valves with electrical quitting of switching point for pilot control of relay valves in pump or turbine operation. Picture of the VOTH switch cabinet with integrated hydraulic control valves and location of the HEROIN control inside the switch cabinet.

  7. 油气井用隔板起爆器的起爆能力%Initiating Ability of Through Bulkhead Explosive Initiator for Oil Well Usage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭加斌; 杨学贵; 章松桥; 李哲雨

    2011-01-01

    为了提高油气井用隔板起爆器的起爆能力,在传统隔板起爆器的基础上,改变了其受主装药盲孔的几何结构和受主装药结构,设计出一种油气井用隔板起爆器,并对其进行了起爆能力的实验研究.实验结果显示,油气井用隔板起爆器起爆油气井耐温传爆管的最大空气隙距离为85 mm,而传统隔板起爆器和油气井耐温传爆管分别为20 mm和65 mm,因此,它的空气隙起爆能力很强.%A new kind of through bulkhead explosive initiator for oil well usage was designed in order to achieve stronger initiating ability in the air. Its initiating ability in the air was studied. The maximum air gap,through which the through bulkhead explosive initiator can initiate a secondary high explosive booster for oil well usage,is 85ram while the ones of a booster for oil well usage and a traditional through bulkhead explosive initiator initiating boosters for oil are 65 mm and 20 mm respectively. So the former is much stronger than the latter in the initiating ability in the air.

  8. 驳岸加固双管法水下混凝土浇筑技术%Underwater Concrete Pouring Technology by Bulkhead Reinforced Double-tube Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国华

    2011-01-01

    Underwater concrete pouring quality can be ensured by isolating concrete and water. Based on the project of the Third Grade Chanel Regulation and Improvement Su ' nan Canal in Wuxi Section, underwater concrete pouring is employed in large-area underwater pouring construction, which reinforces the old bulkhead of BTD section. The author introduces the engineering situation, analyze the pouring technique of underwater concrete for bulkhead Reinforced engineering by double-tube method in three aspects, summarizes bulkhead Reinforced construction process and construction point(s), including foundation excavation, pile driving of reinforced concrete square pile, template installation, underwater concrete pouring. Moreover, The author proposes quality control measures and common fault prevention measures of underwater concrete.%保证水下混凝土浇筑质量的关键在于尽量隔断混凝土与水的接触.针对苏南运河无锡段三级航道整治工程施工项目BTD标段老驳岸加固水下大面积混凝土浇筑施工,介绍了该工程的概况,从3个方面分析了驳岸加固工程中水下混凝土采用双管法浇筑技术,总结了驳岸加固施工工艺流程和要点,包括基础开挖、钢筋混凝土方桩的沉桩、模板安装、水下混凝土浇筑,并提出了水下混凝土的质量保证措施和通病的防治方法.

  9. HYDRAULICS, ATHENS COUNTY, OHIO, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulic data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  10. In-line hydraulic dashpot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Paul E.

    1992-10-01

    An in-line hydraulic dashpot is disclosed that effectively decelerates the piston of a power cylinder by controllably choking off the oil which is providing pressure to the piston. The in-line hydraulic dashpot of the invention includes a valve spool member movable between an open and closed position along a fluid flow path that supplies oil to the power cylinder. An actuator rod is cooperative with the valve spool member and the piston shaft of the power cylinder to move tile valve spool member between its open and closed positions. The in-line hydraulic dashpot eliminates the clashing of mechanical parts and therewith eliminates the noise that would otherwise be generated thereby. The in-line hydraulic dashpot of the present invention makes possible the adaptation of a fixed stroke power cylinder to applications that call for a variable stroke length.

  11. HYDRAULICS, MEADE COUNTY, KENTUCKY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulic data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  12. HYDRAULICS, SHELBY COUNTY, KENTUCKY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulic data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  13. HYDRAULICS, ROCKCASTLE COUNTY, KENTUCKY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulic data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  14. HYDRAULICS, HAMPDEN COUNTY, MA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulic data in this submittal include spatial datasets and model outputs necessary for computation of the 1-percent flooding extent. The minimum requirement for...

  15. Hydraulic calculation of pressure pipes

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhalev, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    In the present time there is only one classic method for hydraulic calculation of pressure pipes. In it fluid flow velocity and pipeline diameter are considered as given values.The paper proposes a procedure for physical modeling and hydraulic calculation of pressure pipes, based on the theory of similarity. Methods for obtaining similarity criteria from combinations of similarity numbers were discussed. Similarity numbers and criteria and criteria equations were defined.

  16. Advanced Performance Hydraulic Wind Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.; Bruce, Allan; Lam, Adrienne S.

    2013-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, has developed a novel advanced hydraulic wind energy design, which has up to 23% performance improvement over conventional wind turbine and conventional hydraulic wind energy systems with 5 m/sec winds. It also has significant cost advantages with levelized costs equal to coal (after carbon tax rebate). The design is equally applicable to tidal energy systems and has passed preliminary laboratory proof-of-performance tests, as funded by the Department of Energy.

  17. Is California's future hydraulically sustainable?

    OpenAIRE

    Richard E. Howitt

    2011-01-01

    The term “hydraulic society” describes the ancient cities and social systems that relied on irrigated agriculture, such as Egypt's Nile Valley. For 5,000 years, the annual cycle of floods replenished the Nile region's soil and nutrients, eliminating the need for complex canal systems such as those found in the Sumerian and Mesopotamian regions. California is the first hydraulic society that is rapidly developing into a postindustrial economy; this change will require the partial re-allocation...

  18. 14 CFR 23.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hydraulic systems. 23.1435 Section 23.1435... § 23.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Design. Each hydraulic system must be designed as follows: (1) Each hydraulic system and its elements must withstand, without yielding, the structural loads expected...

  19. 46 CFR 28.405 - Hydraulic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydraulic equipment. 28.405 Section 28.405 Shipping... Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.405 Hydraulic equipment. (a) Each hydraulic system... than four times the system maximum operating pressure. (c) Each hydraulic system must be equipped...

  20. 46 CFR 28.880 - Hydraulic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydraulic equipment. 28.880 Section 28.880 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.880 Hydraulic equipment. (a) Each hydraulic system must be... times the system's maximum operating pressure. (c) Each hydraulic system must be equipped with at...

  1. 14 CFR 29.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hydraulic systems. 29.1435 Section 29.1435... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 29.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Design. Each hydraulic system must be designed as follows: (1) Each element of the hydraulic system...

  2. 球面舱壁的弹性稳定性分析%Elastic buckling analysis of spherical bulkheads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄旎; 夏飞; 胡刚义; 钱群; 肖伟

    2012-01-01

    Based on the theory of calculating the critical load by means of statics method, one-order ordinary differential equations for the elastic buckling of revolutionary shells is derived. By means of the extended homogeneous capacity and high precision integration method, the elastic buckling solution of spherical bulkheads is obtained by using Riccati transfer matrix method. And the influence of the parameter (the radius of the spherical shell, the thickness of the sphere shell, the radius of the toroid shell, the thickness of the toroid shell, and the gradient of the cone shell)is examined. The calculated result show that the radius and the thickness of the sphere shell play a vital role in buckling analysis.%基于静力法求解结构临界荷载的基本原理,导出旋转壳在均匀外压下弹性稳定性问题的一阶控制微分方程组.借助齐次扩容技术和精细积分法,采用Riccati传递矩阵法对均匀外压下球面舱壁的弹性稳定性问题进行数值求解.同时分析了各个参数(球壳半径、球壳厚度、环壳半径、环壳厚度和锥壳半锥角)对球面舱壁临界压力的影响.计算结果表明,各个参数中仅球壳半径和球壳厚度对结构的临界压力和失稳波数起决定性作用.

  3. Hydraulic testing in crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swedish Geolocical Company (SGAB) conducted and carried out single-hole hydraulic testing in borehole Fi 6 in the Finnsjoen area of central Sweden. The purpose was to make a comprehensive evaluation of different methods applicable in crystalline rocks and to recommend methods for use in current and scheduled investigations in a range of low hydraulic conductivity rocks. A total of eight different methods of testing were compared using the same equipment. This equipment was thoroughly tested as regards the elasticity of the packers and change in volume of the test section. The use of a hydraulically operated down-hole valve enabled all the tests to be conducted. Twelve different 3-m long sections were tested. The hydraulic conductivity calculated ranged from about 5x10-14 m/s to 1x10-6 m/s. The methods used were water injection under constant head and then at a constant rate-of-flow, each of which was followed by a pressure fall-off period. Water loss, pressure pulse, slug and drill stem tests were also performed. Interpretation was carried out using standard transient evaluation methods for flow in porous media. The methods used showed themselves to be best suited to specific conductivity ranges. Among the less time-consuming methods, water loss, slug and drill stem tests usually gave somewhat higher hydraulic conductivity values but still comparable to those obtained using the more time-consuming tests. These latter tests, however, provided supplementary information on hydraulic and physical properties and flow conditions, together with hydraulic conductivity values representing a larger volume of rock. (orig./HP)

  4. Hydraulic gradients in rock aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report deals with fractured rock as a host for deposits of hazardous waste. In this context the rock, with its fractures containing moving groundwater, is called the geological barrier. The desired properties of the geological barrier are low permeability to water, low hydraulic gradients and ability to retain matter dissolved in the water. The hydraulic gradient together with the permeability and the porosity determines the migration velocity. Mathematical modelling of the migration involves calculation of the water flow and the hydrodynamic dispersion of the contaminant. The porous medium approach can be used to calculate mean flow velocities and hydrodynamic dispersion of a large number of fractures are connected, which means that a large volume have to be considered. It is assumed that the porous medium approach can be applied, and a number of idealized examples are shown. It is assumed that the groundwater table is replenished by percolation at a constant rate. One-dimensional analytical calculations show that zero hydraulic gradients may exist at relatively large distance from the coast. Two-dimensional numerical calculations show that it may be possible to find areas with low hydraulic gradients and flow velocities within blocks surrounded by areas with high hydraulic conductivity. (au)

  5. Selective perceptions of hydraulic fracturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarge, Melanie A; VanDyke, Matthew S; King, Andy J; White, Shawna R

    2015-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing (HF) is a focal topic in discussions about domestic energy production, yet the American public is largely unfamiliar and undecided about the practice. This study sheds light on how individuals may come to understand hydraulic fracturing as this unconventional production technology becomes more prominent in the United States. For the study, a thorough search of HF photographs was performed, and a systematic evaluation of 40 images using an online experimental design involving N = 250 participants was conducted. Key indicators of hydraulic fracturing support and beliefs were identified. Participants showed diversity in their support for the practice, with 47 percent expressing low support, 22 percent high support, and 31 percent undecided. Support for HF was positively associated with beliefs that hydraulic fracturing is primarily an economic issue and negatively associated with beliefs that it is an environmental issue. Level of support was also investigated as a perceptual filter that facilitates biased issue perceptions and affective evaluations of economic benefit and environmental cost frames presented in visual content of hydraulic fracturing. Results suggested an interactive relationship between visual framing and level of support, pointing to a substantial barrier to common understanding about the issue that strategic communicators should consider. PMID:26399946

  6. Capacity of surface warship's protective bulkhead subjected to blast loading%爆炸荷载作用下的舰船防护舱壁的承载能力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭兴宁; 聂武; 严波

    2009-01-01

    The protective bulkhead of the large surface warship need to be designed working in the membrane mode. In this paper, a formula is derived for calculating the plastic deformation of the protective bulkhead subjected to blast loading by the energy method, and the ultimate capability of the protective bulkhead can be calculated. The design demand of the protective bulkhead is discussed. The calculation is compared with external experiments, which indicates that the formula is of great application value.%大型水面舰船的防护舱壁需要设计成工作在薄膜应力状态下.利用能量法推导了在爆炸荷载作用下防护舱壁塑性大变形的计算公式、探讨了防护舱壁的最大承载能力,对防护舱壁的设计要求进行了讨论.与国外发表的有关试验结果进行了计算比较,结果表明该方法具有一定的应用价值.

  7. Complex Fluids and Hydraulic Fracturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbati, Alexander C; Desroches, Jean; Robisson, Agathe; McKinley, Gareth H

    2016-06-01

    Nearly 70 years old, hydraulic fracturing is a core technique for stimulating hydrocarbon production in a majority of oil and gas reservoirs. Complex fluids are implemented in nearly every step of the fracturing process, most significantly to generate and sustain fractures and transport and distribute proppant particles during and following fluid injection. An extremely wide range of complex fluids are used: naturally occurring polysaccharide and synthetic polymer solutions, aqueous physical and chemical gels, organic gels, micellar surfactant solutions, emulsions, and foams. These fluids are loaded over a wide range of concentrations with particles of varying sizes and aspect ratios and are subjected to extreme mechanical and environmental conditions. We describe the settings of hydraulic fracturing (framed by geology), fracturing mechanics and physics, and the critical role that non-Newtonian fluid dynamics and complex fluids play in the hydraulic fracturing process. PMID:27070765

  8. Hydraulic properties of ladle slags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vlček

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of examining of hydraulic properties of ladle slags formed during production of steel. The studied ladle slags were subjected to different cooling mode from the molten state. Based on the ability of the slag react with the water was assessed their hydraulic activity. The hydraulic properties are caused by the presence of minerals dicalcium silicate, tricalcium aluminate, mayenite, brownmillerite and dicalcium ferite. The emergence of required hydrating phases in the ladle slags is conditioned by a sufficient CaO content and their cooling rate. The contact the slag with water during processing and their ageing has a negative effect. The experiment has shown that the phase transformation of the mineral dicalcium silicate which occurs during cooling of the ladle slags cause their volume instability.

  9. Hydraulic resistance of biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Dreszer, C.

    2013-02-01

    Biofilms may interfere with membrane performance in at least three ways: (i) increase of the transmembrane pressure drop, (ii) increase of feed channel (feed-concentrate) pressure drop, and (iii) increase of transmembrane passage. Given the relevance of biofouling, it is surprising how few data exist about the hydraulic resistance of biofilms that may affect the transmembrane pressure drop and membrane passage. In this study, biofilms were generated in a lab scale cross flow microfiltration system at two fluxes (20 and 100Lm-2h-1) and constant cross flow (0.1ms-1). As a nutrient source, acetate was added (1.0mgL-1 acetate C) besides a control without nutrient supply. A microfiltration (MF) membrane was chosen because the MF membrane resistance is very low compared to the expected biofilm resistance and, thus, biofilm resistance can be determined accurately. Transmembrane pressure drop was monitored. As biofilm parameters, thickness, total cell number, TOC, and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were determined, it was demonstrated that no internal membrane fouling occurred and that the fouling layer actually consisted of a grown biofilm and was not a filter cake of accumulated bacterial cells. At 20Lm-2h-1 flux with a nutrient dosage of 1mgL-1 acetate C, the resistance after 4 days reached a value of 6×1012m-1. At 100Lm-2h-1 flux under the same conditions, the resistance was 5×1013m-1. No correlation of biofilm resistance to biofilm thickness was found; Biofilms with similar thickness could have different resistance depending on the applied flux. The cell number in biofilms was between 4×107 and 5×108 cellscm-2. At this number, bacterial cells make up less than a half percent of the overall biofilm volume and therefore did not hamper the water flow through the biofilm significantly. A flux of 100Lm-2h-1 with nutrient supply caused higher cell numbers, more biomass, and higher biofilm resistance than a flux of 20Lm-2h-1. However, the biofilm thickness

  10. Advantages of Oscillatory Hydraulic Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitanidis, P. K.; Bakhos, T.; Cardiff, M. A.; Barrash, W.

    2012-12-01

    Characterizing the subsurface is significant for most hydrogeologic studies, such as those involving site remediation and groundwater resource explo¬ration. A variety of hydraulic and geophysical methods have been developed to estimate hydraulic conductivity and specific storage. Hydraulic methods based on the analysis of conventional pumping tests allow the estimation of conductivity and storage without need for approximate petrophysical relations, which is an advantage over most geophysical methods that first estimate other properties and then infer values of hydraulic parameters. However, hydraulic methods have the disadvantage that the head-change signal decays with distance from the pumping well and thus becomes difficult to separate from noise except in close proximity to the source. Oscillatory hydraulic tomography (OHT) is an emerging technology to im¬age the subsurface. This method utilizes the idea of imposing sinusoidally varying pressure or discharge signals at several points, collecting head observations at several other points, and then processing these data in a tomographic fashion to estimate conductivity and storage coefficients. After an overview of the methodology, including a description of the most important potential advantages and challenges associated with this approach, two key promising features of the approach will be discussed. First, the signal at an observation point is orthogonal to and thus can be separated from nuisance inputs like head fluctuation from production wells, evapotranspiration, irrigation, and changes in the level of adjacent streams. Second, although the signal amplitude may be weak, one can extract the phase and amplitude of the os¬cillatory signal by collecting measurements over a longer time, thus compensating for the effect of large distance through longer sampling period.

  11. Controls of Hydraulic Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a hydraulic wind turbine generator system was proposed based on analysis the current wind turbines technologies. The construction and principles were introduced. The mathematical model was verified using MATLAB and AMsim. A displacement closed loop of swash plate of motor and a speed closed loop of generator were setup, a PID control is introduced to maintain a constant speed and fixed frequency at wind turbine generator. Simulation and experiment demonstrated that the system can connect grid to generate electric and enhance reliability. The control system demonstrates a high performance speed regulation and effectiveness. The results are great significant to design a new type hydraulic wind turbine system.

  12. Numerical simulation of hydraulic transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A numerical method suitable for the analysis of hydraulic transients in one-dimensional pipelines as well as some applications of the method are presented in this thesis. In the present method one-dimensional flow equations are solved in a characteristic form using a finite difference technique. A non-equilibrium two-phase flow model is used, which makes it possible to analyze the effect of vaporization. The motion of the pipe-wall, which is important in some types of hydraulic transients, can be taken into account approximately. The main application of the method has been the piping of nuclear reactors

  13. Tree Hydraulics: How Sap Rises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Trees transport water from roots to crown--a height that can exceed 100 m. The physics of tree hydraulics can be conveyed with simple fluid dynamics based upon the Hagen-Poiseuille equation and Murray's law. Here the conduit structure is modelled as conical pipes and as branching pipes. The force required to lift sap is generated mostly by…

  14. Hydraulic Fracture Containment in Sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The mechanism of hydraulic fracturing in soft, high permeability material is considered fundamentally different from that in hard, low permeability rock, where a tensile fracture is created and conventional linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) applies. The fracturing and associated modeling work

  15. Hydraulic jumps in a channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonn, D.; Andersen, Anders Peter; Bohr, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    We present a study of hydraulic jumps with flow predominantly in one direction, created either by confining the flow to a narrow channel with parallel walls or by providing an inflow in the form of a narrow sheet. In the channel flow, we find a linear height profile upstream of the jump as expected...

  16. Hydraulic Properties of Unsaturated Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many agrophysical applications require knowledge of the hydraulic properties of unsaturated soils. These properties reflect the ability of a soil to retain or transmit water and its dissolved constituents. The objective of this work was to develop an entry for the Encyclopedia of Agrophysics that w...

  17. CRITICALITY CURVES FOR PLUTONIUM HYDRAULIC FLUID MIXTURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WITTEKIND WD

    2007-10-03

    This Calculation Note performs and documents MCNP criticality calculations for plutonium (100% {sup 239}Pu) hydraulic fluid mixtures. Spherical geometry was used for these generalized criticality safety calculations and three geometries of neutron reflection are: {sm_bullet}bare, {sm_bullet}1 inch of hydraulic fluid, or {sm_bullet}12 inches of hydraulic fluid. This document shows the critical volume and critical mass for various concentrations of plutonium in hydraulic fluid. Between 1 and 2 gallons of hydraulic fluid were discovered in the bottom of HA-23S. This HA-23S hydraulic fluid was reported by engineering to be Fyrquel 220. The hydraulic fluid in GLovebox HA-23S is Fyrquel 220 which contains phosphorus. Critical spherical geometry in air is calculated with 0 in., 1 in., or 12 inches hydraulic fluid reflection.

  18. HYDRAULIC CHARACTERISTICS OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE SECONDARY CLARIFIERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study documented the hydraulic characteristics of typical activated sludge clarifiers. Modifications to the clarifier structures were made in an attempt to improve clarifier hydraulic characteristics and performance. Innovative fluorometric dye tracer studies were used to ob...

  19. Hydraulic characterization of " Furcraea andina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Velasquez, M. F.; Fallico, C.; Molinari, A.; Santillan, P.; Salazar, M.

    2012-04-01

    The present level of pollution, increasingly involving groundwaters, constitutes a serious risk for environment and human health. Therefore the remediation of saturated and unsaturated soils, removing pollutant materials through innovative and economic bio-remediation techniques is more frequently required. Recent studies on natural fiber development have shown the effectiveness of these fibers for removal of some heavy metals, due to the lignin content in the natural fibers which plays an important role in the adsorption of metal cations (Lee et al., 2004; Troisi et al., 2008; C. Fallico, 2010). In the context of remediation techniques for unsaturated and/or saturated zone, an experimental approach for the hydraulic characterization of the "Furcraea andina" (i.e., Cabuya Blanca) fiber was carried out. This fiber is native to Andean regions and grows easily in wild or cultivated form in the valleys and hillsides of Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. Fibers of "Furcraea andina" were characterized by experimental tests to determine their hydraulic conductivity or permeability and porosity in order to use this medium for bioremediation of contaminated aquifer exploiting the physical, chemical and microbial capacity of natural fiber in heavy metal adsorption. To evaluate empirically the hydraulic conductivity, laboratory tests were carried out at constant head specifically on the fibers manually extracted. For these tests we used a flow cell (used as permeameter), containing the "Furcraea andina" fibers to be characterized, suitably connected by a tygon pipe to a Marriott's bottle, which had a plastic tube that allow the adjustment of the hydraulic head for different tests to a constant value. By this experiment it was also possible to identify relationships that enable the estimation of permeability as a function of density, i.e. of the compaction degree of the fibers. Our study was carried out for three values of hydraulic head (H), namely 10, 18, and 25 cm and for each

  20. Energy Efficient, Electric-Hydraulic Power Pack

    OpenAIRE

    Nyman, Johan; Rankka, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Along with increased oil prices and rising environmental issues, a demand for alternatives to combustion engine driven hydraulic applications has risen. In the field of mobile hydraulics, the hydraulic applications have traditionally been driven by the combustion engine of the vehicle on which they are mounted. By instead using a battery driven power pack the hydraulic application is able to operate without the engine running, saving fuel costs and reducing sound levels. In this thesis, the c...

  1. Hydraulic fracturing with distinct element method

    OpenAIRE

    Pruiksma, J.P.; Bezuijen, A.

    2002-01-01

    In this report, hydraulic fracturing is investigated using the distinct element code PFC2D from Itasca. Special routines were written to be able to model hydraulic fracturing. These include adding fluid flow to PFC2D and updating the fluid flow domains when fractures appear. A brief description of this implementation and the modelling of the hydraulic fracturing is given. After the set-up of the hydraulic fracturing simulations has been discussed, with all the main input parameters, several m...

  2. Hydraulic conductivity of rock fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada contains numerous geological units that are highly fractured. A clear understanding of the hydraulic conductivity of fractures has been identified as an important scientific problem that must be addressed during the site characterization process. The problem of the flow of a single-phase fluid through a rough-walled rock fracture is discussed within the context of rigorous fluid mechanics. The derivation of the cubic law is given as the solution to the Navier-Stokes equations for flow between smooth, parallel plates, the only fracture geometry that is amenable to exact treatment. The various geometric and kinetic conditions that are necessary in order for the Navier-Stokes equations to be replaced by the more tractable lubrication or Hele-Shaw equations are studied and quantified. Various analytical and numerical results are reviewed pertaining to the problem of relating the effective hydraulic aperture to the statistics of the aperture distribution. These studies all lead to the conclusion that the effective hydraulic aperture is always less than the mean aperture, by a factor that depends on the ratio of the mean value of the aperture to its standard deviation. The tortuosity effect caused by regions where the rock walls are in contact with each other is studied using the Hele-Shaw equations, leading to a simple correction factor that depends on the area fraction occupied by the contact regions. Finally, the predicted hydraulic apertures are compared to measured values for eight data sets from the literature for which aperture and conductivity data were available on the same fracture. It is found that reasonably accurate predictions of hydraulic conductivity can be made based solely on the first two moments of the aperture distribution function, and the proportion of contact area. 68 refs

  3. 锦州9-3油田海底管道BULKHEAD 20MnMo锻造钢与管道钢的焊接技术%The Welding Technique for BULKHEAD 20 MnMo and Pipeline Steel in JZ 9 - 3 Subsea Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓昀

    2002-01-01

    BULKHEAD(锚固件)是锦州9-3油田海底管道上的重要构件,其焊接质量的优劣直接关系到原油的生产及输送.通过对国产20MnMo锻造钢与API 5L X56管道钢的焊接性能及焊接工艺的论述,为今后类似工作提供参考.

  4. 14 CFR 25.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hydraulic systems. 25.1435 Section 25.1435... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Element design. Each element of the hydraulic system must be designed to: (1) Withstand the proof...

  5. 14 CFR 27.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hydraulic systems. 27.1435 Section 27.1435... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Design. Each hydraulic system and its elements must withstand, without yielding, any structural loads...

  6. Characterization of Aquifer Hydraulic Parameters: from Theis to Hydraulic Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    D'Oria, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater is in many parts of the world an important source of fresh water for several purpose such as domestic and industrial use and irrigation. Pollution and bad management of groundwater are only two of the problems that affect the aquifers around the world. Detailed information about the spatial distribution of hydraulic properties in subsurface are of crucial importance for a proper management of groundwater and for the prediction of the solutes transport in aquifer and therefore for ...

  7. Sensitivity analysis of hydraulic modeling for flood area hydraulic resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Moderc, Marjan

    2013-01-01

    In order to ensure flood safety of waterside areas, European Union has ratified the European flood directive in 2007. In it, production of flood risk maps is forseen as an important part of a flood risk reducing system, since this represents a very valuable document in the process of sustainable spatial planning. In the process of flood risk map production, irreplaceable role is played by one- and twodimensional hydraulic models. Collection and procession of reliable input data fo...

  8. An analytical solution for stresses of the end spherical bulkhead%端部球面舱壁应力近似解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱邦俊; 王丹; 万正权

    2011-01-01

    端部球面舱壁是一种组合回转壳结构,文章采用与回转壳相对应的弹性基础梁理论进行近似求解,考虑了厚薄板中曲面不一致引起的附加力矩和邻近肋骨的影响.该方法可应用于潜艇实际结构的设计计算.%Based on the theory of elastic foundation beam, an analytical method for stresses of the end spherical bulkhead is developed. The effects of additional bending moment are accounted for in the present method due to the adjacent ring-stiffener of pressure hull and the mismatch of mid-section between the thick and thin plates. The numerical results show that this method can be used in the design and calculation of submersible pressure hull.

  9. Hydraulic design development of Xiluodu Francis turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. L.; Li, G. Y.; Shi, Q. H.; Wang, Z. N.

    2012-11-01

    Hydraulic optimization design with CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) method, hydraulic optimization measures and model test results in the hydraulic development of Xiluodu hydropower station by DFEM (Dongfang Electric Machinery) of DEC (Dongfang Electric Corporation) of China were analyzed in this paper. The hydraulic development conditions of turbine, selection of design parameter, comparison of geometric parameters and optimization measure of turbine flow components were expatiated. And the measures of improving turbine hydraulic performance and the results of model turbine acceptance experiment were discussed in details.

  10. Calculation Methods for the Cellular-bulkhead Structure%格型钢板桩结构计算方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王元战; 郭富林

    2013-01-01

    A detailed description about the calculation methods for the cellular-bulkhead structure was given considering seismic loads according to the development of port and coastal engineering construction. The analysis of shear deformation shall be taken at the bottom of the cell or the seabed. In the analysis of overturning stability four equilibriu models were established in consideration of the structure’s geometry,force characteristics and rotation point position. The effect of the eccentric and inclined actions was taken in the analysis of ground bearing capacity and the impact of corrosion was taken in the calculation of cell thickness. Then a calculation program has been compiled to solve the expressions according to theoretical formula. The methods and the program proved to be correct compared with the results of three project examples in the reference and the result based on a cofferdam of the artificial island in a sea crossing project. The Japanese standards method had clear concepts and fast calculation speed. It is not only suitable in engineering application,but also suitable when embedded length ratio is larger.%针对我国港口与海岸工程建设的需要,详细分析、介绍了不考虑地震荷载作用和考虑地震荷载作用两种情况下日本规范中格型钢板桩结构的计算方法。在抗剪计算中分别对泥面和格体底部进行验算;在稳定性计算中考虑结构几何特性和受力特点,根据转动点位置的不同提出4种不同的受力模型;在地基承载力计算中考虑地基受偏心倾斜荷载的影响;在板厚的计算中考虑了腐蚀的影响。之后针对理论公式按计算流程编写了计算程序,对某跨海工程人工岛围堰工程和其他三个工程的计算验正了计算方法和程序的正确性。与其他方法相比,日本规范法概念明确,计算速度快,适合工程计算,也适用于入土深度比较大的情况。

  11. Hydraulic fracture during epithelial stretching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casares, Laura; Vincent, Romaric; Zalvidea, Dobryna; Campillo, Noelia; Navajas, Daniel; Arroyo, Marino; Trepat, Xavier

    2015-03-01

    The origin of fracture in epithelial cell sheets subject to stretch is commonly attributed to excess tension in the cells’ cytoskeleton, in the plasma membrane, or in cell-cell contacts. Here, we demonstrate that for a variety of synthetic and physiological hydrogel substrates the formation of epithelial cracks is caused by tissue stretching independently of epithelial tension. We show that the origin of the cracks is hydraulic; they result from a transient pressure build-up in the substrate during stretch and compression manoeuvres. After pressure equilibration, cracks heal readily through actomyosin-dependent mechanisms. The observed phenomenology is captured by the theory of poroelasticity, which predicts the size and healing dynamics of epithelial cracks as a function of the stiffness, geometry and composition of the hydrogel substrate. Our findings demonstrate that epithelial integrity is determined in a tension-independent manner by the coupling between tissue stretching and matrix hydraulics.

  12. Thermal/hydraulic computer program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This technical paper describes a user-friendly computer program designed to analyze fluid-piping systems. Both the thermal and the hydraulic aspects of the problem are addressed simultaneously in order to provide coupled solutions. The program was developed specifically for aerospace applications such as the waste-heat acquisition and transport loops on the Space Station; however, the code is general and could be applied readily to any fluid loop. The thermal portion of the program is an existing analyzer, Mini-MITAS. This PC version of the generalized thermal analyzer MITAS can handle up to 1000 nodes and uses the traditional RC network approach for solving the thermal portion of the problem. Since this type of thermal analyzer is well known in the thermal community (BETA, SINDA, CINDA, and MITAS), the emphasis in this paper is on the hydraulic portion of the program

  13. Hydraulic fracture during epithelial stretching

    OpenAIRE

    Casares, Laura; Vincent, Romaric; Zalvidea, Dobryna; Campillo, Noelia; Navajas, Daniel; Arroyo Balaguer, Marino; Trepat Guixer, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    The origin of fracture in epithelial cell sheets subject to stretch is commonly attributed to excess tension in the cells' cytoskeleton, in the plasma membrane, or in cell-cell contacts. Here, we demonstrate that for a variety of synthetic and physiological hydrogel substrates the formation of epithelial cracks is caused by tissue stretching independently of epithelial tension. We show that the origin of the cracks is hydraulic; they result from a transient pressure build-up in the substrate ...

  14. Hydraulic fracture during epithelial stretching

    OpenAIRE

    Casares, Laura; Vincent, Romaric; Zalvidea, Dobryna; Campillo, Noelia; Navajas, Daniel; Arroyo, Marino; Trepat, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    The origin of fracture in epithelial cell sheets subject to stretch is commonly attributed to excess tension in the cells’ cytoskeleton, in the plasma membrane, or in cell-cell contacts. Here we demonstrate that for a variety of synthetic and physiological hydrogel substrates the formation of epithelial cracks is caused by tissue stretching independently of epithelial tension. We show that the origin of the cracks is hydraulic; they result from a transient pressure build-up in the substrate d...

  15. Hydraulic rams, a consumer guide

    OpenAIRE

    P. de Jong

    1988-01-01

    This report is the result of a project, called "comparative tests on commercial and newly designed waterrams", carried out by the Delft University of Technology and the Foundation of Dutch Volunteers in Rwanda. The aim of this project was twofold: - to test new, and cheap (i.e. locally constructable and maintainable) types of hydraulic rams, - to compare several commercial types, in order to make a "consumers guide" for developing countries. At the Laboratory of Fluid Mechanics of the Delft U...

  16. GCFR thermal-hydraulic experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal-hydraulic experimental studies performed and planned for the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR) core assemblies are described. The experiments consist of basic studies performed to obtain correlations, and bundle experiments which provide input for code validation and design verification. These studies have been performed and are planned at European laboratories, US national laboratories, Universities in the US, and at General Atomic Company

  17. Computing in Hydraulic Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, J. G.

    2011-12-01

    Civil engineers, pioneers of our civilization, are rarely perceived as leaders and innovators in modern society because of retardations in technology innovation. This crisis has resulted in the decline of the prestige of civil engineering profession, reduction of federal funding on deteriorating infrastructures, and problems with attracting the most talented high-school students. Infusion of cutting-edge computer technology and stimulating creativity and innovation therefore are the critical challenge to civil engineering education. To better prepare our graduates to innovate, this paper discussed the adaption of problem-based collaborative learning technique and integration of civil engineering computing into a traditional civil engineering curriculum. Three interconnected courses: Open Channel Flow, Computational Hydraulics, and Sedimentation Engineering, were developed with emphasis on computational simulations. In Open Channel flow, the focuses are principles of free surface flow and the application of computational models. This prepares students to the 2nd course, Computational Hydraulics, that introduce the fundamental principles of computational hydraulics, including finite difference and finite element methods. This course complements the Open Channel Flow class to provide students with in-depth understandings of computational methods. The 3rd course, Sedimentation Engineering, covers the fundamentals of sediment transport and river engineering, so students can apply the knowledge and programming skills gained from previous courses to develop computational models for simulating sediment transport. These courses effectively equipped students with important skills and knowledge to complete thesis and dissertation research.

  18. Hydraulic Redistribution: A Modeling Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, E.; Verma, P.; Loheide, S. P., III

    2014-12-01

    Roots play a key role in the soil water balance. They extract and transport water for transpiration, which usually represents the most important soil water loss in vegetated areas, and can redistribute soil water, thereby increasing transpiration rates and enhancing root nutrient uptake. We present here a two-dimensional model capable of describing two key aspects of root water uptake: root water compensation and hydraulic redistribution. Root water compensation is the ability of root systems to respond to the reduction of water uptake from areas of the soil with low soil water potential by increasing the water uptake from the roots in soil parts with higher water potential. Hydraulic redistribution is a passive transfer of water through the root system from areas of the soil with greater water potential to areas with lower water potential. Both mechanisms are driven by gradients of water potential in the soil and the roots. The inclusion of root water compensation and hydraulic redistribution in models can be achieved by describing root water uptake as a function of the difference in water potential between soil and root xylem. We use a model comprising the Richards equation for the water flow in variably saturated soils and the Darcy's equation for the water flow in the xylem. The two equations are coupled via a sink term, which is assumed to be proportional to the difference between soil and xylem water potentials. The model is applied in two case studies to describe vertical and horizontal hydraulic redistribution and the interaction between vegetation with different root depths. In the case of horizontal redistribution, the model is used to reproduce the fluxes of water across the root system of a tree subjected to uneven irrigation. This example can be extended to situations when only part of the root system has access to water, such as vegetation near creeks, trees at the edge of forests, and street trees in urban areas. The second case is inspired by recent

  19. “U”型管换热器隔板力学分析及总结%MECHANICAL ANALYSIS AND SUMMARY ON BULKHEAD OF "U-TUBE" HEAT-EXCHANGER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝子健; 蔡教民

    2011-01-01

    By establishing a mathematical model for the gas flowing into "U-tube" heat-exchanger,the force acted on the exchanger bulkhead is calculated and the various factors causing the damages to the exchanger are summarized to avoid an overloaded force from acting on the bulkhead and to ensure a safe and stable running.%通过对进入"U"型管换热器的气体建立数学模型,计算换热器隔板受力情况,总结损坏换热器的各种因素,避免换热器挡板受力超负荷,保证装置的安全稳定运行。

  20. WATER ENERGY IN HYDROAMELIORATIVE SYSTEMS USING THE HYDRAULIC TRANSFORMER TYPE A. BARGLAZAN AND THE HYDRAULIC HAMMER (HYDRAULIC PUMP)

    OpenAIRE

    Teodor Eugen Man; Laura Constantinescu; Dima Attila Blenesi

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents two examples of exploitation of water energy that can be used in the irrigation field. First of theseexamples is the hydraulic transformer type A. Barglazan used for irrigation, pumped water is taken directly from theriver’s well, using a hydraulic pump which simultaneously carried out a double transformation in this way: hydraulicenergy into mechanic energy and mechanical energy into hydraulic energy. Technology preparation and devices designwas done in record time, seein...

  1. Feature articles, thermal power and atomic power. Study on antiseismic property of breakwater bulkhead (model experiment of caisson dike and its numerical simulator). Karyoku, genshiryoku. Bohagogan no teishinsei ni kansuru kenkyu (keson tei no mokei jikken to sono suchi simulation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tochigi, H. (Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-05-31

    Recently the social demand is increasing for utilizing the offshore marine space for building an artificial island for air port or power plant. The improvement in reliability of safety of breakwater bulkhead is thus required. In order to rationalize and sensitize the evaluation method of antiseismic stability, the investigation in which the seismic behaviors such as sliding and settling are taken into consideration is required in addition to the conventional investigation based on the seismic intensity method. In this case, if the breakwater bulkhead constructed as the outer shell of the island can keep the stability of the reclaimed ground against the waves even after being deformed to some extent by sliding and settling, the stability of the backward facilities can be kept. In this study, a large scale experiment was conducted for understanding the seismic behavior of the breakwater bulkhead. A numerical simulation was also made for performing various dynamic test on the strength, deformation characteristic, and settlement property of the large size aggregate and for investigating the evaluation of seismic behavior. 7 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Tree hydraulics: how sap rises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Trees transport water from roots to crown—a height that can exceed 100 m. The physics of tree hydraulics can be conveyed with simple fluid dynamics based upon the Hagen-Poiseuille equation and Murray's law. Here the conduit structure is modelled as conical pipes and as branching pipes. The force required to lift sap is generated mostly by transpiration or capillary action; we investigate the effectiveness of both these forces for the two conduit architectures considered. The level of analysis is appropriate for undergraduates. The subject is of broad interest because it provides a naturally-occurring example of an unusual metastable state of matter: liquid under tension.

  3. Optimization of hydraulic turbine diffuser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, Prokop; Hliník, Juraj; Rudolf, Pavel

    2016-03-01

    Hydraulic turbine diffuser recovers pressure energy from residual kinetic energy on turbine runner outlet. Efficiency of this process is especially important for high specific speed turbines, where almost 50% of available head is utilized within diffuser. Magnitude of the coefficient of pressure recovery can be significantly influenced by designing its proper shape. Present paper focuses on mathematical shape optimization method coupled with CFD. First method is based on direct search Nelder-Mead algorithm, while the second method employs adjoint solver and morphing. Results obtained with both methods are discussed and their advantages/disadvantages summarized.

  4. Analysis of INDOT Current Hydraulic Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Merwade, Venkatesh; Kumar, Sanjiv

    2011-01-01

    Hydraulic design often tends to be on a conservative side for safety reasons. Hydraulic structures are typically oversized with the goal being reduced future maintenance costs, and to reduce the risk of property owner complaints. This approach leads to a conservative design with higher construction costs. Therefore, there is a need to quantify the cost-benefit aspect of this conservative approach. Accordingly, the overall objective of this project is to compare hydraulic design policies of In...

  5. Hydraulic Resistance due to Emergent Wetland Vegetation

    OpenAIRE

    Piercy, Candice Dawn

    2010-01-01

    Models to estimate hydraulic resistance due to vegetation in emergent wetlands are crucial to wetland design and management. Hydraulic models that consider vegetation rely on an accurate determination of a resistance parameter such as a friction factor or a bulk drag coefficient. At low Reynolds numbers typical of flows in wetlands, hydraulic resistance is orders of magnitude higher than fully turbulent flows and resistance parameters are functions of the flow regime as well as the vegetation...

  6. Implementing a Greener Hydraulic Fracturing in Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Cano, Michele; Matthew, Anietie; Quinn, Brian

    2015-01-01

    International audience Abstract - The drive to implement unconventional gas drilling by means of hydraulic fracturing in United Kingdom (UK) has been a major issue of concern due to the potential environmental and health impacts. This paper is aimed at examining the following: what triggers the need for the unconventional gas; the process of unconventional gas through hydraulic fracturing method; the potential risks of hydraulic fracturing to the environment and to human health; key succes...

  7. Concept Evaluation for Hydraulic Yaw System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole

    2013-01-01

    a suspension system on a car, leading the loads away from the turbine structure. However, to realize a soft hydraulic yaw system a new design concept must be found. As a part of the development of the new concept a preliminary concept evaluation has been conducted, evaluating seven different hydraulic yaw...... concepts, ranging from a one-to-one copy of the electrical drive (electrical drives replaced by hydraulic dittos), to floating suspension systems mounted on hydraulic cylinders. Rough calculations of size and consequences of the different systems are presented ending up with the final concept for further...

  8. Helical coil thermal hydraulic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model has been developed in Matlab environment for the thermal hydraulic analysis of helical coil and shell steam generators. The model considers the internal flow inside one helix and its associated control volume of water on the external side, both characterized by their inlet thermodynamic conditions and the characteristic geometry data. The model evaluates the behaviour of the thermal-hydraulic parameters of the two fluids, such as temperature, pressure, heat transfer coefficients, flow quality, void fraction and heat flux. The evaluation of the heat transfer coefficients as well as the pressure drops has been performed by means of the most validated literature correlations. The model has been applied to one of the steam generators of the IRIS modular reactor and a comparison has been performed with the RELAP5/Mod.3.3 code applied to an inclined straight pipe that has the same length and the same elevation change between inlet and outlet of the real helix. The predictions of the developed model and RELAP5/Mod.3.3 code are in fairly good agreement before the dryout region, while the dryout front inside the helical pipes is predicted at a lower distance from inlet by the model

  9. WATER ENERGY IN HYDROAMELIORATIVE SYSTEMS USING THE HYDRAULIC TRANSFORMER TYPE A. BARGLAZAN AND THE HYDRAULIC HAMMER (HYDRAULIC PUMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Eugen Man

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two examples of exploitation of water energy that can be used in the irrigation field. First of theseexamples is the hydraulic transformer type A. Barglazan used for irrigation, pumped water is taken directly from theriver’s well, using a hydraulic pump which simultaneously carried out a double transformation in this way: hydraulicenergy into mechanic energy and mechanical energy into hydraulic energy. Technology preparation and devices designwas done in record time, seeing that this constructive solution is more robust, reliable and with improved energyperformance versus the laboratory prototype. The experimental research which was made at 1:1 scale proved theirgood function over time. Another example is the hydraulic hammer (hydraulic pump that uses low-head energy topump water, with a global efficiency of about 10 - 50%. Currently, the new situation of private ownership of landprovides conditions for new pumping microstations to be made where irrigation is necessary and optimal hydrauliclocations exist.

  10. Design of Pipe Element Passing through Bulkhead with Elastic Installation%弹性通舱管件设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡德芳; 金翔; 刘土光; 周赤奇

    2011-01-01

    The pipe element passing through bulkhead with elastic installation is designed for the conveying fluid and sea-water pipe.In design, technique parameters related to pipe element have been worked out, and two schemes of pipe elements are determined.The static stress and strain, seal behavior, vibration isolating characteristic are analyzed with FEM.Besides, fatigue experiment is made.Results indicate that pipe element with rubber inserted between inner and outside sleeve can effectively decrease transmission of vibration and noise to bulkhead and ship, as well as satisfies requirements of technique performance and acoustic stealth,thus can be installed in ships.%为减少振动能量沿管路的传播,设计了海水管路和一般管路的弹性通舱管件.对这两型弹性通舱管件制订了技术参数,进行了多种方案对比分析后,各确定了两种方案.然后根据实船使用状况对这两型方案采用有限元法进行了静力分析、密性分析和隔振性能分析,还进行了疲劳试验.结果表明:对于通舱管件,在过流件和安装件之间嵌入减振橡胶这样一种设计形式,有效地降低了管路系统振动噪声由通舱管件向舱壁和船体的传递;并能在保障该产品功能和安全性的同时,满足所确定的各项性能参数和声隐身性能等技术要求.该弹性通舱管件可靠性高、减振性能好,并且满足上船安装和使用的相关要求.

  11. Gravity-Driven Hydraulic Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germanovich, L. N.; Garagash, D.; Murdoch, L. C.; Robinowitz, M.

    2014-12-01

    This study is motived by a new method for disposing of nuclear waste by injecting it as a dense slurry into a hydraulic fracture that grows downward to great enough depth to permanently isolate the waste. Disposing of nuclear waste using gravity-driven hydraulic fractures is mechanically similar to the upward growth of dikes filled with low density magma. A fundamental question in both applications is how the injected fluid controls the propagation dynamics and fracture geometry (depth and breadth) in three dimensions. Analog experiments in gelatin [e.g., Heimpel and Olson, 1994; Taisne and Tait, 2009] show that fracture breadth (the short horizontal dimension) remains nearly stationary when the process in the fracture "head" (where breadth is controlled) is dominated by solid toughness, whereas viscous fluid dissipation is dominant in the fracture tail. We model propagation of the resulting gravity-driven (buoyant or sinking), finger-like fracture of stationary breadth with slowly varying opening along the crack length. The elastic response to fluid loading in a horizontal cross-section is local and can be treated similar to the classical Perkins-Kern-Nordgren (PKN) model of hydraulic fracturing. The propagation condition for a finger-like crack is based on balancing the global energy release rate due to a unit crack extension with the rock fracture toughness. It allows us to relate the net fluid pressure at the tip to the fracture breadth and rock toughness. Unlike the PKN fracture, where breadth is known a priori, the final breadth of a finger-like fracture is a result of processes in the fracture head. Because the head is much more open than the tail, viscous pressure drop in the head can be neglected leading to a 3D analog of Weertman's hydrostatic pulse. This requires relaxing the local elasticity assumption of the PKN model in the fracture head. As a result, we resolve the breadth, and then match the viscosity-dominated tail with the 3-D, toughness

  12. Hydraulically powered dissimilar teleoperated system controller design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper will address two issues associated with the implementation of a hydraulically powered dissimilar master-slave teleoperated system. These issues are the overall system control architecture and the design of robust hydraulic servo controllers for the position control problem. Finally, a discussion of overall system performance on an actual teleoperated system will be presented

  13. Uncertainty in hydraulic tests in fractured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interpretation of hydraulic tests in fractured rock has uncertainty because of the different hydraulic properties of a fractured rock to a porous medium. In this study, we reviewed several interesting phenomena which show uncertainty in a hydraulic test at a fractured rock and discussed their origins and the how they should be considered during site characterisation. Our results show that the estimated hydraulic parameters of a fractured rock from a hydraulic test are associated with uncertainty due to the changed aperture and non-linear groundwater flow during the test. Although the magnitude of these two uncertainties is site-dependent, the results suggest that it is recommended to conduct a hydraulic test with a little disturbance from the natural groundwater flow to consider their uncertainty. Other effects reported from laboratory and numerical experiments such as the trapping zone effect (Boutt, 2006) and the slip condition effect (Lee, 2014) can also introduce uncertainty to a hydraulic test, which should be evaluated in a field test. It is necessary to consider the way how to evaluate the uncertainty in the hydraulic property during the site characterisation and how to apply it to the safety assessment of a subsurface repository. (authors)

  14. Hydraulic fracturing with distinct element method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruiksma, J.P.; Bezuijen, A.

    2002-01-01

    In this report, hydraulic fracturing is investigated using the distinct element code PFC2D from Itasca. Special routines were written to be able to model hydraulic fracturing. These include adding fluid flow to PFC2D and updating the fluid flow domains when fractures appear. A brief description of t

  15. Plug & Play Control of Hydraulic Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tom Nørgaard

    2012-01-01

    Process Control research program, which the work presented here is a part of. An industrial case study involving a large-scale hydraulic network with non-linear dynamics is studied. The hydraulic network underlies a district heating system, which provides heating water to a number of end-users in a city...

  16. Design of Pumps for Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Peder; Olsen, Stefan; Bech, Thomas Nørgaard

    1999-01-01

    This paper considers the development of two pumps for water hydraulic applications. The pumps are based on two different working principles: The Vane-type pump and the Gear-type pump. Emphasis is put on the considerations that should be made to account for water as the hydraulic fluid...

  17. Initiation of Hydraulic Fractures in Natural Sandstones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lhomme, T.P.Y.

    2005-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is a stimulation technique commonly used for the enhancement of hydrocarbon reservoir recovery. Controlling the initiation of a hydraulic fracture from the open-hole section of a well without zone isolation requires an in-depth understanding of the factors which have a decisive

  18. Trends in Design of Water Hydraulics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    2005-01-01

    and mobile machines and equipment that operate in environmentally sensitive surroundings. Today’s progress in water hydraulics includes electro-water hydraulic proportional valves and servovalves for design of motion control solutions for machines and robots. The remarkable property is that the components...

  19. Design of Pumps for Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Peder; Olsen, Stefan; Bech, Thomas Nørgaard

    1999-01-01

    This paper considers the development of two pumps for water hydraulic applications. The pumps are based on two different working principles: The Vane-type pump and the Gear-type pump. Emphasis is put on the considerations that should be made to account for water as the hydraulic fluid.......KEYWORDS: water, pump, design, vane, gear....

  20. Study on buffering characteristics of hydraulic absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Control rod hydraulic drive mechanism (CRHDM) is a new type of in-vessel control rod drive technology. Hydraulic absorber is one of the key parts of control rod hydraulic drive line. It is used to buffer control rod when the rod scrams to prevent the cross-blades of control rod from deformation and damage. Based on the working process of the hydraulic absorber, a theoretical model of the buffering process was established. Calculation results of the theoretical model agree well with the experiment results. The trend of pressure change in absorber cylinder, the displacement and velocity of the piston and buffering force during the buffering process were obtained from the calculation results of the theoretical model. Then influence parameters about cushioning characteristics were analyzed, which laid foundation for optimal design of the hydraulic absorber. (authors)

  1. Evaluation of hydraulic properties in fractured rockmass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borehole packer test and fracture survey using borehole acoustic scanning method was performed in order to evaluate hydraulic characteristics of Tuff distributed in northern Yeosu area. Total of 303 fractures were detected and then orientation, aperture size of each fracture are analyzed. Only 12 % of detected fractures were identified as open fractures and others were filled with minerals such as calcite. This indicates that the hydraulic property of rockmass is influenced by fillings as well as aperture size. Mean of hydraulic conductivity of rockmass based on stochastic continuum theory was 5x 10-9m/s and it was coincident with harmonic mean. Anisotropy of hydraulic conductivity was analyzed by fracture network modeling interpretation. The result showed that horizontal and vertical components conductivity values were nearly same, therefore it might be concluded that the rockmass was hydraulically isotropic

  2. Modeling and Simulation of Hydraulic Engine Mounts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Shanzhong; Marshall McNea

    2012-01-01

    Hydraulic engine mounts are widely used in automotive powertrains for vibration isolation.A lumped mechanical parameter model is a traditional approach to model and simulate such mounts.This paper presents a dynamical model of a passive hydraulic engine mount with a double-chamber,an inertia track,a decoupler,and a plunger.The model is developed based on analogy between electrical systems and mechanical-hydraulic systems.The model is established to capture both low and high frequency dynatmic behaviors of the hydraulic mount.The model will be further used to find the approximate pulse responses of the mounts in terms of the force transmission and top chamber pressure.The close form solution from the simplifiod linear model may provide some insight into the highly nonlinear behavior of the mounts.Based on the model,computer simulation has been carried out to study dynamic performance of the hydraulic mount.

  3. Effect of Subsoil Compaction on Hydraulic Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Berisso, Feto Esimo; Schjønning, Per;

    effects of subsoil compaction on soil ecological services and functions) put forward the hypothesis that due to a decrease in the hydraulic conductivity in the soil matrix, compaction increases the frequency of preferential flow events in macropores and therefore increases the leaching of otherwise....... In the field the near-saturated hydraulic conductivity was measured with a tension infiltrometer in the same treatments at a depth of 30 cm. In the laboratory saturated and near-saturated hydraulic conductivity and the bulk density were measured as well. Also, macropores in the large soil cores were made...... that for the upper soil depth, a significant increase in bulk density was measured for the compacted treatment. For the lower depth differences were less pronounced. For the saturated hydraulic conductivity, the results indicated a decrease of the hydraulic conductivity for the compacted treatment for the upper...

  4. TRANSLATING AVAILABLE BASIC SOIL DATA INTO MISSING SOIL HYDRAULIC CHARACTERISTICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil hydraulic pedotransfer functions transfer simple-to-measure soil survey information into soil hydraulic characteristics, that are otherwise costly to measure. Examples are presented of different equations describing hydraulic characteristics and of pedotransfer functions used to predict paramet...

  5. Issues of a Computer-Aided Design of Hydraulic Jacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averchenkov, V. I.; Averchenkov, A. V.; Kolyakinand, V. V.; Orekhov, O. D.

    2016-04-01

    The article deals with the issues of a computer-aided design of hydraulic equipment, namely hydraulic jacks. Design principles of the hydraulic jack CAD system are described. In addition, the possibilities for the system improvement and expansion are considered.

  6. DLC coatings for hydraulic applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luca NOBILI; Luca MAGAGNIN

    2009-01-01

    Replacement of lubricating oils with water or low-viscosity fluids is highly desirable in many industrial fields, on account of the environmental and economical advantages. Low lubricity of water might be insufficient for proper operation of hydraulic components, and diamond-like carbon(DLC) coatings are very attractive as solid lubricant films. A remote-plasma PACVD process was utilized to deposit hydrogenated DLC coatings (a-C:H) on different substrates. Microindentation measurements show that the coating hardness is around 35 GPa. Tribological behavior was evaluated by block-on-ring tests performed in water and water with alumina. The wear rate was calculated after measuring the wear volume by a laser profilemeter. Morphological and compositional analysis of the wear tracks reveal that coating failure may occur by abrasive wear or delamination, depending on the substrate properties. Hard and smooth substrates give the best results and dispersed alumina particles increase the wear rate.

  7. Hydraulic Motor Driving Variable-Pitch System for Wind Turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Ye; JiBao QI

    2013-01-01

    The present hydraulic variable-pitch mechanism of wind turbine uses three hydraulic cylinders to drive three crank and connecting rod mechanisms respectively; the blades are moved with the cranks. The hydraulic variable-pitch mechanism has complex structure, occupies a lot of space and its maintenance is trouble. In order to make up for the shortcomings of hydraulic cylinder variable-pitch system, the present hydraulic variable-pitch mechanism should be changed as follows: hydraulic motors ar...

  8. An approach to optimize the design of hydraulic reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    Wohlers, Alexander; Backes, Alexander; Schönfeld, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Increasing demands regarding performance, safety and environmental compatibility of hydraulic mobile machines in combination with rising cost pressures create a growing need for specialized optimization of hydraulic systems; particularly with regard to hydraulic reservoirs. In addition to the secondary function of cooling the oil, two main functions of the hydraulic reservoir are oil storage and de-aeration of the hydraulic oil. While designing hydraulic reservoirs regarding oil storage is qu...

  9. TA15 Bulkhead Isothermal Die Forging%TA15钛合金框等温锻造工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林海; 唐志今; 林莺莺

    2011-01-01

    TA15钛合金具有优良的机械性能,同时适于锻造、热处理和焊接.本文系统研究了TA15钛合金的热变形行为.对TA15钛合金飞机隔框等温精密模锻过程进行了三维有限元数值模拟,结果显示恰当的工艺参数能保证复杂的隔框整体锻件顺利成形.%TA15 alloy has preferable mechanical properties and processing properties urh as foxing, heat treatment and welding. Hot deformation hehaviors during hot proceuing operations of TA15 alloy were investigated systrmatically. The process of Large complex shape TA15 Bulkhead Isothermal Precition Die Forging have been simulated. The results show that fit forging parameter can be find by Numerical simulation.

  10. Thermal-hydraulic unreliability of passive systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced light water reactor designs like AP600 and the simplified boiling water reactor (SBWR) use passive safety systems for accident prevention and mitigation. Because these systems rely on natural forces for their operation, their unavailability due to hardware failures and human error is significantly smaller than that of active systems. However, the coolant flows predicted to be delivered by these systems can be subject to significant uncertainties, which in turn can lead to a significant uncertainty in the predicted thermal-hydraulic performance of the plant under accident conditions. Because of these uncertainties, there is a probability that an accident sequence for which a best estimate thermal-hydraulic analysis predicts no core damage (success sequence) may actually lead to core damage. For brevity, this probability will be called thermal-hydraulic unreliability. The assessment of this unreliability for all the success sequences requires very expensive computations. Moreover, the computational cost increases drastically as the required thermal-hydraulic reliability increases. The required computational effort can be greatly reduced if a bounding approach can be used that either eliminates the need to compute thermal-hydraulic unreliabilities, or it leads to the analysis of a few bounding sequences for which the required thermal-hydraulic reliability is relatively small. The objective of this paper is to present such an approach and determine the order of magnitude of the thermal-hydraulic unreliabilities that may have to be computed

  11. Bubble visualization in a simulated hydraulic jump

    CERN Document Server

    Witt, Adam; Shen, Lian

    2013-01-01

    This is a fluid dynamics video of two- and three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulations carried out at St. Anthony Falls Laboratory. A transient hydraulic jump is simulated using OpenFOAM, an open source numerical solver. A Volume of Fluid numerical method is employed with a realizable k-epsilon turbulence model. The goal of this research is to model the void fraction and bubble size in a transient hydraulic jump. This fluid dynamics video depicts the air entrainment characteristics and bubble behavior within a hydraulic jump of Froude number 4.82.

  12. Mechanisms of hydraulic fracturing in cohesive soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-jie WANG

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic fracturing in the soil core of earth-rockfill dams is a common problem affecting the safety of the dams. Based on fracture tests, a new criterion for hydraulic fracturing in cohesive soil was suggested. Using this criterion, the mechanisms of hydraulic fracturing in cubic soil specimens were investigated. The results indicate that the propagation of the crack in a cubic specimen under water pressure occurs in a mixed mode I-II if the crack face is not perpendicular to any of the principal stresses, and the crack most likely to propagate is the one that is perpendicular to the minor principal stress and propagates in mode I.

  13. Mechanisms of hydraulic fracturing in cohesive soil

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jun-Jie; Zhang, Hui-ping; Ming-jie ZHAO; Lin, Xin

    2009-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing in the soil core of earth-rockfill dams is a common problem affecting the safety of the dams. Based on fracture tests, a new criterion for hydraulic fracturing in cohesive soil was suggested. Using this criterion, the mechanisms of hydraulic fracturing in cubic soil specimens were investigated. The results indicate that the propagation of the crack in a cubic specimen under water pressure occurs in a mixed mode I-II if the crack face is not perpendicular to any of the pri...

  14. Hydraulic Fracturing and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayatollahy Tafti, T.; Aminzadeh, F.; Jafarpour, B.; de Barros, F.

    2013-12-01

    In this presentation, we highlight two key environmental concerns of hydraulic fracturing (HF), namely induced seismicity and groundwater contamination (GC). We examine the induced seismicity (IS) associated with different subsurface fluid injection and production (SFIP) operations and the key operational parameters of SFIP impacting it. In addition we review the key potential sources for possible water contamination. Both in the case of IS and GC we propose modeling and data analysis methods to quantify the risk factors to be used for monitoring and risk reduction. SFIP include presents a risk in hydraulic fracturing, waste water injection, enhanced oil recovery as well as geothermal energy operations. Although a recent report (NRC 2012) documents that HF is not responsible for most of the induced seismicities, we primarily focus on HF here. We look into vaious operational parameters such as volume and rate of water injection, the direction of the well versus the natural fracture network, the depth of the target and the local stress field and fault system, as well as other geological features. The latter would determine the potential for triggering tectonic related events by small induced seismicity events. We provide the building blocks for IS risk assessment and monitoring. The system we propose will involve adequate layers of complexity based on mapped seismic attributes as well as results from ANN and probabilistic predictive modeling workflows. This leads to a set of guidelines which further defines 'safe operating conditions' and 'safe operating zones' which will be a valuable reference for future SFIP operations. We also illustrate how HF can lead to groundwater aquifer contamination. The source of aquifer contamination can be the hydrocarbon gas or the chemicals used in the injected liquid in the formation. We explore possible pathways of contamination within and discuss the likelihood of contamination from each source. Many of the chemical compounds used

  15. Kuala Kemaman hydraulic model study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There The problems facing the area of Kuala Kemaman are siltation and erosion at shoreline. The objectives of study are to assess the best alignment of the groyne alignment, to ascertain the most stable shoreline regime and to investigate structural measures to overcome the erosion. The scope of study are data collection, wave analysis, hydrodynamic simulation and sediment transport simulation. Numerical models MIKE 21 are used - MIKE 21 NSW, for wind-wave model, which describes the growth, decay and transformation of wind-generated waves and swell in nearshore areas. The study takes into account effects of refraction and shoaling due to varying depth, energy dissipation due to bottom friction and wave breaking, MIKE 21 HD - modelling system for 2D free-surface flow which to stimulate the hydraulics phenomena in estuaries, coastal areas and seas. Predicted tidal elevation and waves (radiation stresses) are considered into study while wind is not considered. MIKE 21 ST - the system that calculates the rates of non-cohesive (sand) sediment transport for both pure content and combined waves and current situation

  16. Thermal hydraulics development for CASL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowrie, Robert B [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-07

    This talk will describe the technical direction of the Thermal-Hydraulics (T-H) Project within the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) Department of Energy Innovation Hub. CASL is focused on developing a 'virtual reactor', that will simulate the physical processes that occur within a light-water reactor. These simulations will address several challenge problems, defined by laboratory, university, and industrial partners that make up CASL. CASL's T-H efforts are encompassed in two sub-projects: (1) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), (2) Interface Treatment Methods (ITM). The CFD subproject will develop non-proprietary, scalable, verified and validated macroscale CFD simulation tools. These tools typically require closures for their turbulence and boiling models, which will be provided by the ITM sub-project, via experiments and microscale (such as DNS) simulation results. The near-term milestones and longer term plans of these two sub-projects will be discussed.

  17. Parker Hybrid Hydraulic Drivetrain Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collett, Raymond [Parker-Hannifin Corporation, Cleveland, OH (United States); Howland, James [Parker-Hannifin Corporation, Cleveland, OH (United States); Venkiteswaran, Prasad [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2014-03-31

    This report examines the benefits of Parker Hannifin hydraulic hybrid brake energy recovery systems used in commercial applications for vocational purposes. A detailed background on the problem statement being addressed as well as the solution set specific for parcel delivery will be provided. Objectives of the demonstration performed in high start & stop applications included opportunities in fuel usage reduction, emissions reduction, vehicle productivity, and vehicle maintenance. Completed findings during the demonstration period and parallel investigations with NREL, CALSTART, along with a literature review will be provided herein on this research area. Lastly, results identified in the study by third parties validated the savings potential in fuel reduction of on average of 19% to 52% over the baseline in terms of mpg (Lammert, 2014, p11), Parker data for parcel delivery vehicles in the field parallels this at a range of 35% - 50%, emissions reduction of 17.4% lower CO2 per mile and 30.4% lower NOx per mile (Gallo, 2014, p15), with maintenance improvement in the areas of brake and starter replacement, while leaving room for further study in the area of productivity in terms of specific metrics that can be applied and studied.

  18. Cavitation instabilities in hydraulic machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavitation instabilities in hydraulic machines, hydro turbines and turbopump inducers, are reviewed focusing on the cause of instabilities. One-dimensional model of hydro turbine system shows that the overload surge is caused by the diffuser effect of the draft tube. Experiments show that this effect also causes the surge mode oscillations at part load. One dimensional model of a cavitating turbopump inducer shows that the mass flow gain factor, representing the cavity volume increase caused by the incidence angle increase is the cause of cavitation surge and rotating cavitation. Two dimensional model of a cavitating turbopump inducer shows that various modes of cavitation instabilities start to occur when the cavity length becomes about 65% of the blade spacing. This is caused by the interaction of the local flow near the cavity trailing edge with the leading edge of the next blade. It was shown by a 3D CFD that this is true also for real cases with tip cavitation. In all cases, it was shown that cavitation instabilities are caused by the fundamental characteristics of cavities that the cavity volume increases with the decrease of ambient pressure or the increase of the incidence angle

  19. Study on Characteristics of Hydraulic Servo System for Force Control of Hydraulic Robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyo-gon; Han, Changsoo [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong-won [Korea University of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sangdeok [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Because a hydraulic actuator has high power and force densities, this allows the weight of the robot's limbs to be reduced. This allows for good dynamic characteristics and high energy efficiency. Thus, hydraulic actuators are used in some exoskeleton robots and quadrupedal robots that require high torque. Force control is useful for robot compliance with a user or environment. However, force control of a hydraulic robot is difficult because a hydraulic servo system is highly nonlinear from a control perspective. In this study, a nonlinear model was used to develop a simulation program for a hydraulic servo system consisting of a servo valve, transmission lines, and a cylinder. The problems and considerations with regard to the force control performance for a hydraulic servo system were investigated. A force control method using the nonlinear model was proposed, and its effect was evaluated with the simulation program.

  20. Study on Characteristics of Hydraulic Servo System for Force Control of Hydraulic Robots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because a hydraulic actuator has high power and force densities, this allows the weight of the robot's limbs to be reduced. This allows for good dynamic characteristics and high energy efficiency. Thus, hydraulic actuators are used in some exoskeleton robots and quadrupedal robots that require high torque. Force control is useful for robot compliance with a user or environment. However, force control of a hydraulic robot is difficult because a hydraulic servo system is highly nonlinear from a control perspective. In this study, a nonlinear model was used to develop a simulation program for a hydraulic servo system consisting of a servo valve, transmission lines, and a cylinder. The problems and considerations with regard to the force control performance for a hydraulic servo system were investigated. A force control method using the nonlinear model was proposed, and its effect was evaluated with the simulation program

  1. Simulation of dynamics of system with hydraulic lines and linear hydraulic motor with mass load

    OpenAIRE

    Vašina M.; Hružík L.; Bureček A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the numerical simulation of dynamic properties of the system consisting of hydraulic lines and linear hydraulic motor with a mass load. The mathematical model is created using Matlab SimHydraulics software. Oil bulk modulus, elasticity and volumes of pipes and hoses play a significant role in this case. Mathematical models are verified on experimental equipment. Pressure and position responses during sudden stop of a moving cylinder are measured on this equipment. © Owne...

  2. Reactor core calculations incorporating subassembly thermal hydraulics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynas, S.W. [Applied Modelling and Computation Group Imperial Coll. Centre for Environmental Technology Royal School of Mines Prince Consort Road London (United Kingdom); Jones, J.R.

    1997-12-31

    Three dimensional reactor physics calculations performed in parallel with subassembly thermal hydraulic analysis can be used to examine local reactivity effects and increase modelling accuracy. Coupling together codes for coarse mesh neutronics and subassembly thermal hydraulics aids fault studies (fuel clad integrity, safety margin indication etc) and the examination of the interaction between physics and thermal hydraulics during transient events such as LOCA, boron dilution and control rod ejection. Local heating of the coolant decreases reactivity and the fission power peaking factor. Doppler feedback is stronger in the hot region of the fuel, also reducing peak power and reactivity. These thermal hydraulic feedback effects can play an important role in decelerating power excursions and their representation is described in this paper. (author)

  3. Reactor core calculations incorporating subassembly thermal hydraulics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three dimensional reactor physics calculations performed in parallel with subassembly thermal hydraulic analysis can be used to examine local reactivity effects and increase modelling accuracy. Coupling together codes for coarse mesh neutronics and subassembly thermal hydraulics aids fault studies (fuel clad integrity, safety margin indication etc) and the examination of the interaction between physics and thermal hydraulics during transient events such as LOCA, boron dilution and control rod ejection. Local heating of the coolant decreases reactivity and the fission power peaking factor. Doppler feedback is stronger in the hot region of the fuel, also reducing peak power and reactivity. These thermal hydraulic feedback effects can play an important role in decelerating power excursions and their representation is described in this paper. (author)

  4. Fully nonlinear model of a hydraulic circuit

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Straškraba, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 3 (2014), s. 215-220. ISSN 0001-7043 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : compressible fluid * Navier-Stokes equations * hydraulic systems Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  5. National Laboratory of Hydraulics. 1996 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This progress report of the National Laboratory of Hydraulics (LNH) of Electricite de France (EdF) summarizes, first, the research and development studies carried out in 1996 for the development of research tools for industrial fluid mechanics and environmental hydraulics and for the development of computer tools (computer codes and softwares for fluid mechanics modeling, modeling of reactive, compressible, two-phase and turbulent flows and of complex chemical kinetics using finite elements and finite volume methods). A second parts describes the research studies performed for other services of EdF, concerning: the functioning of nuclear reactors (thermohydraulic studies of the reactor vessel and of the primary coolant circuit, gas flows following severe accidents, fluid-structure thermal coupling etc...), fossil fuel power plants, the equipment and operation of thermal power plants and hydraulic power plants, the use of electric power. A third part summarizes the river and marine hydraulic studies carried out for other companies. (J.S.)

  6. HYDRAULICS, Des Moines COUNTY, IOWA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulic data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  7. ON THE THEORIES OF HYDRAULIC GEOMETRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vijay P. SINGH

    2003-01-01

    Hydraulic geometry is of fundamental importance in planning, design, and management of river engineering and training works. Although some concepts of hydraulic geometry were proposed toward the end of the nineteenth century, the real impetus toward formulating a theory of hydraulic geometry was provided by the work of Leopold and Maddock (1953). A number of theories have since been proposed.Some of the theories are interrelated but others are based on quite different principles. All theories,however, assume that the river flow is steady and uniform and the river tends to attain a state of equilibrium or quasi-equilibrium. The differences are due to the differences in hydraulic mechanisms that the theories employ to explain the attainment of equilibrium by the river.

  8. Advanced Hydraulic Studies on Enhancing Particle Removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Cheng

    The removal of suspended solids and attached pollutants is one of the main treatment processes in wastewater treatment. This thesis presents studies on the hydraulic conditions of various particle removal facilities for possible ways to increase their treatment capacity and performance by utilizing...... and improving hydraulic conditions. Unlike most traditional theses which usually focus only on one particular subject of study, this thesis contains four relatively independent studies which cover the following topics: a newly proposed particle settling enhancement plate, the redesign of the inlet zone...... of a high-flow rate clarifier, identify the hydraulic problems of an old partially functioned CSO facility and investigate possible ways to entirely eliminate untreated CSO by improving its hydraulic capacity and performance. In order to be easily understood, each part includes its own abstract...

  9. Multimodel Robust Control for Hydraulic Turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Jakub Osuský; Stanislav Števo

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with the multimodel and robust control system design and their combination based on M-Δ structure. Controller design will be done in the frequency domain with nominal performance specified by phase margin. Hydraulic turbine model is analyzed as system with unstructured uncertainty, and robust stability condition is included in controller design. Multimodel and robust control approaches are presented in detail on hydraulic turbine model. Control design approaches are compared a...

  10. Legal aspects of the hydraulic fracturing method

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Duraj

    2011-01-01

    In recent months the possibility of extracting shale gas by way of the hydraulic fracturing method in Poland as well as across EU territory has been widely discussed. The European Parliament is to decide whether to ban this method. There are various legal, ecological and economical aspects influencing European legislators. It is hard not to notice how strongly the anti- and pro- hydraulic fracturing lobbies are connected with business. At the moment there are no specific regulations that rela...

  11. Interaction between Injection Points during Hydraulic Fracturing

    OpenAIRE

    Hals, Kjetil M. D.; Berre, Inga

    2012-01-01

    We present a model of the hydraulic fracturing of heterogeneous poroelastic media. The formalism is an effective continuum model that captures the coupled dynamics of the fluid pressure and the fractured rock matrix and models both the tensile and shear failure of the rock. As an application of the formalism, we study the geomechanical stress interaction between two injection points during hydraulic fracturing (hydrofracking) and how this interaction influences the fracturing process. For inj...

  12. Data Analytics of Hydraulic Fracturing Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jovan Yang [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Viswanathan, Hari [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hyman, Jeffery [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Middleton, Richard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-11

    These are a set of slides on the data analytics of hydraulic fracturing data. The conclusions from this research are the following: they proposed a permeability evolution as a new mechanism to explain hydraulic fracturing trends; they created a model to include this mechanism and it showed promising results; the paper from this research is ready for submission; they devised a way to identify and sort refractures in order to study their effects, and this paper is currently being written.

  13. HYDRAULIC CONCRETE COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES CONTROL SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    O. M. Pshinko; A. V. Krasnyuk; O. V. Hromova

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Scientific work aims at the development and testing of information system to meet the challenges of concrete composition design and control (for railway structures and buildings) based on the physico-analytical method algorithm for hydraulic concrete composition calculation. Methodology. The proposed algorithm of hydraulic concrete composition calculation is based on the physicochemical mechanics and in particular on the rheology of elastic–viscous–plastic bodies. The system of canon...

  14. Bubble visualization in a simulated hydraulic jump

    OpenAIRE

    Witt, Adam; Gulliver, John; Shen, Lian

    2013-01-01

    This is a fluid dynamics video of two- and three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulations carried out at St. Anthony Falls Laboratory. A transient hydraulic jump is simulated using OpenFOAM, an open source numerical solver. A Volume of Fluid numerical method is employed with a realizable k-epsilon turbulence model. The goal of this research is to model the void fraction and bubble size in a transient hydraulic jump. This fluid dynamics video depicts the air entrainment characteris...

  15. PLC Based Hydraulic Auto Ladle System

    OpenAIRE

    Amogh Tayade; Anuja Chitre

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we have implemented a PLC based Hydraulic Auto Ladle System for Casting Department of Victory Precisions Pvt. Ltd. Chakan, Pune. This project work presents the study and design of PLC based Hydraulic Auto Ladle System. Aluminium pouring is the key process in Casting and Forging industry. Different products are manufactured by the company for automobile sector using aluminium. Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) is used for the automation of pouring process. Au...

  16. MAAP thermal-hydraulic qualification studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MAAP Thermal-Hydraulic Qualification and Application Project has as its objective to identify those thermal-hydraulic phenomena modeled in MAAP which are important in predicting severe accident sequences and to qualify those models. This report discusses sensitivity studies performed with MAAP to determine the sensitivity of the code to important input and modeling parameters and comparison of MAAP predictions to test data and independent predictions by other computer programs

  17. Thermal hydraulics and mechanics core design programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report documents the work performed within the Research and Development Task Thermal hydraulics and mechanics core design programs, funded by the German government. It contains the development of new codes, the extension of existing codes, the qualification and verification of codes and the development of a code library. The overall goal of this work was to adapt the system of thermal hydraulics and mechanics codes to the permanently growing requirements of the status of science and technology

  18. Transputer Control of Hydraulic Actuators and Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    1996-01-01

    Results from a Danish mechatronics research program entitled IMCIA - Intelligent Control and Intelligent Actuators. The objective is development of intelligent actuators for intelligent motion control. A mechatronics test facility with a transputer controlled hydraulic robot suiteable for real......-time experiments and evaluation of control laws and algorithms is presented. Concepts of intelligent motion control and intelligent hydraulic actuators are proposed. Promising experimental path-tracking results obtained from model-based adaptive control algorithms are presented and discussed....

  19. FEEDBACK LINEARISATION APPLIED ON A HYDRAULIC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Ole; Hansen, Michael Rygaard; Pedersen, Henrik C.;

    2005-01-01

    Generally most hydraulic systems are intrensically non-linear, why applying linear control techniques typically results in conservatively dimensioned controllers to obtain stable performance. Non-linear control techniques have the potential of overcoming these problems, and in this paper the focus...... is on developing and applying several different feedback linearisation (FL) controllers to the individual servo actuators in a hydraulically driven servo robot to evaluate and compare their possiblities and limitations. This is done based on both simulation and experimental results....

  20. FEEDBACK LINEARISATION APPLIED ON A HYDRAULIC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Ole; Hansen, Michael Rygaard; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Conrad, Finn

    Generally most hydraulic systems are intrensically non-linear, why applying linear control techniques typically results in conservatively dimensioned controllers to obtain stable performance. Non-linear control techniques have the potential of overcoming these problems, and in this paper the focus...... is on developing and applying several different feedback linearisation (FL) controllers to the individual servo actuators in a hydraulically driven servo robot to evaluate and compare their possiblities and limitations. This is done based on both simulation and experimental results....

  1. HYDRAULIC CONCRETE COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES CONTROL SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    O. M. Pshinko; KRASNYUK A.V.; O. V. Hromova

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Scientific work aims at the development and testing of information system to meet the challenges of concrete composition design and control (for railway structures and buildings) based on the physico-analytical method algorithm for hydraulic concrete composition calculation. Methodology. The proposed algorithm of hydraulic concrete composition calculation is based on the physicochemical mechanics and in particular on the rheology of elastic-viscous-plastic bodies. The system of canon...

  2. RESEARCH OF THE DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS ON A NEW HYDRAULIC SYSTEM OF ELECTRO-HYDRAULIC HAMMER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new typed hydraulic system of electro-hydraulic hammer is researched and developed.By means of power bond graphs the modeling and simulation to the dynamic characteristics of the new hydraulic system are performed. The experimental research which is emphasized on the blowing stroke is also performed. It is proved from the result of simulation and experiment that this new hydraulic system possesses such advantages as simplification of structure,flexibleness of operation and reliability of working. Especially it possesses better dynamic characteristics.

  3. A low order adaptive control scheme for hydraulic servo systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Ole; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen; Bech, Michael Møller;

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with high-performance position control of hydraulics servo systems in general. The hydraulic servo system used is a two link robotic manipulator actuated by two hydraulic servo cylinders. A non-linear model of the hydraulic system and a Newton-Euler based model of the mechanical...

  4. 21 CFR 880.5110 - Hydraulic adjustable hospital bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydraulic adjustable hospital bed. 880.5110... Therapeutic Devices § 880.5110 Hydraulic adjustable hospital bed. (a) Identification. A hydraulic adjustable hospital bed is a device intended for medical purposes that consists of a bed with a hydraulic...

  5. 21 CFR 870.2780 - Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric plethysmographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric... § 870.2780 Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric plethysmographs. (a) Identification. A hydraulic... using hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric measurement techniques. (b) Classification. Class...

  6. 49 CFR 570.55 - Hydraulic brake system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydraulic brake system. 570.55 Section 570.55... 10,000 Pounds § 570.55 Hydraulic brake system. The following requirements apply to vehicles with hydraulic brake systems. (a) Brake system failure indicator. The hydraulic brake system failure...

  7. 46 CFR 112.50-3 - Hydraulic starting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydraulic starting. 112.50-3 Section 112.50-3 Shipping... POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Diesel and Gas Turbine Engine Driven Generator Sets § 112.50-3 Hydraulic starting. A hydraulic starting system must meet the following: (a) The hydraulic starting system must be...

  8. Hydraulic Motor Driving Variable-Pitch System for Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye HUANG

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The present hydraulic variable-pitch mechanism of wind turbine uses three hydraulic cylinders to drive three crank and connecting rod mechanisms respectively; the blades are moved with the cranks. The hydraulic variable-pitch mechanism has complex structure, occupies a lot of space and its maintenance is trouble. In order to make up for the shortcomings of hydraulic cylinder variable-pitch system, the present hydraulic variable-pitch mechanism should be changed as follows: hydraulic motors are used to drive gears; gears drive blades; the electro-hydraulic proportional valves are used to control hydraulic motors. The hydraulic control part and electrical control part of variable-pitch system is redesigned. The new variable-pitch system is called hydraulic motor driving variable-pitch system. The new variable-pitch system meets the control requirements of blade pitch, makes the structure simple and its application effect is perfect.    

  9. 机身加强框结构刚度优化设计研究%Optimal design of fuselage bulkhead structure stiffness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文章; 何景武

    2014-01-01

    Based on the wing-body bulkhead structure of some aircraft, the optimization design was conducted by the finite element method. Through the analysis of a prototype wing-body combination frame, the reliability safety load was determined and the new stiffness model was established. Through finite element method of Nastran, the structure stiffness was calculated and the stress and deformation analysis was carried out. Considering the frame environmental conditions and the structural design requirements, based on the stress and deformation results and topology optimization analysis results, some important structural design parameters were chosen. Based on the new design parameters, a new optimal model was created. Through comparison between the old model and the new one, it is demonstrated our aim of stiffness optimization is accomplished.%以某型飞机翼身结合加强框为例,利用有限元法进行其刚度性能的优化设计。首先,分析确定翼身结合框的可靠性安全载荷,建立全新的结构刚度模型,利用有限元法分析求解刚度指标。然后根据结构设计要求和限制条件,基于应力应变特性和拓扑优化分析结果,优选设计参数,提出改进模型。通过对比分析结果,表明模型改进达到了结构刚度优化设计的目的。

  10. Hydraulic Conductivity Anisotropy of Heterogeneous Unsaturated Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dongmin; Zhu, Jianting

    2010-05-01

    The effects of saturation degree (or capillary pressure) on hydraulic conductivity anisotropy in unsaturated soils have not been fully understood. This study developed an approach based on a conceptualization of combining the neural network based pedo-transfer function (PTF) results with the thin layer concept to explore the capillary pressure-dependent anisotropy in relation to soil texture and soil bulk density. The main objective is to examine how anisotropy characteristics are related to the relationships between hydraulic parameters and the basic soil attributes such as texture and bulk density. The hydraulic parameters are correlated with the texture and bulk density based on the pedo-transfer function (PTF) results. It is demonstrated that non-monotonic behavior of the unsaturated soil anisotropy in relation to the capillary pressure is only observed when the saturated hydraulic conductivity and the shape parameter are both related to the mean particle diameter. When only one hydraulic parameter is related to the grain diameter or when both are not related to the same attribute simultaneously, the unsaturated soil anisotropy increases monotonically with the increasing capillary pressure head. Therefore, it is suggested that this behavior is mainly due to the coupled dependence of the layer saturated hydraulic conductivities and the shape factors on the texture and bulk density. The correlation between the soil grain diameter and bulk density decreases the anisotropy effects of the unsaturated layered soils. The study illustrates that the inter-relationships of soil texture, bulk density, and hydraulic properties may cause vastly different characteristics of anisotropic unsaturated soils.

  11. Hydraulic Yaw System for Wind Turbines with New Compact Hydraulic Motor Principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rasmus Mørk; Hansen, Michael Rygaard; Mouritsen, Ole Ø.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new hydraulic yaw system for wind turbines. The basic component is a new type of hydraulic motor characterized by an extraordinary high specific displacement yielding high output torque in a compact form. The focus in the paper is the volumetric efficiency of the motor, which...

  12. Thermal-hydraulic modeling and analysis of hydraulic system by pseudo-bond graph

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡均平; 李科军

    2015-01-01

    To increase the efficiency and reliability of the thermodynamics analysis of the hydraulic system, the method based on pseudo-bond graph is introduced. According to the working mechanism of hydraulic components, they can be separated into two categories: capacitive components and resistive components. Then, the thermal-hydraulic pseudo-bond graphs of capacitive C element and resistance R element were developed, based on the conservation of mass and energy. Subsequently, the connection rule for the pseudo-bond graph elements and the method to construct the complete thermal-hydraulic system model were proposed. On the basis of heat transfer analysis of a typical hydraulic circuit containing a piston pump, the lumped parameter mathematical model of the system was given. The good agreement between the simulation results and experimental data demonstrates the validity of the modeling method.

  13. Efficient hydraulic properties of root systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechmann, Marcel; Schneider, Christoph; Carminati, Andrea; Hildebrandt, Anke

    2013-04-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of ecosystem root water uptake (RWU) is paramount for parameterizing hydrological models. With the increase in computational power it is possible to calculate RWU explicitly up to the single plant scale using physical models. However, application of these models for increasing our understanding of ecosystem root water uptake is hindered by the deficit in knowledge about the detailed hydraulic parameter distribution within root systems. However, those physical models may help us to identify efficient parameterizations and to describe the influence of these hydraulic parameters on RWU profiles. In this research, we investigated the combined influence of root hydraulic parameters and different root topologies on shaping efficient root water uptake. First, we use a conceptual model of simple branching structures to understand the influence of branching location and transitions in root hydraulic properties on the RWU patterns in typical sub root structures. Second, we apply a physical model called "aRoot" to test our conclusions on complex root system architectures of single plants. aRoot calculates the distribution of xylem potential within arbitrary root geometries to satisfy a given water demand depending on the available water in the soil. Redistribution of water within the bulk soil is calculated using the Richards equation. We analyzed results using a measure of uptake efficiency, which describes the effort necessary for transpiration. Simulations with the conceptual model showed that total transpiration in sub root structures is independent of root hydraulic properties over a wide range of hydraulic parameters. On the other hand efficiency of root water uptake depends crucially on distribution hydraulic parameters in line with root topology. At the same time, these parameters shape strongly the distribution of RWU along the roots, and its evolution in time, thus leading to variable individual root water uptake profiles. Calculating

  14. Vibration Isolation for Parallel Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The M. Nguyen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, several types of hybrid vehicles have been developed in order to improve the fuel economy and to reduce the pollution. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV have shown a significant improvement in fuel efficiency for small and medium-sized passenger vehicles and SUVs. HEV has several limitations when applied to heavy vehicles; one is that larger vehicles demand more power, which requires significantly larger battery capacities. As an alternative solution, hydraulic hybrid technology has been found effective for heavy duty vehicle because of its high power density. The mechanical batteries used in hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHV can be charged and discharged remarkably faster than chemical batteries. This feature is essential for heavy vehicle hybridization. One of the main problems that should be solved for the successful commercialization of HHV is the excessive noise and vibration involving with the hydraulic systems. This study focuses on using magnetorheological (MR technology to reduce the noise and vibration transmissibility from the hydraulic system to the vehicle body. In order to study the noise and vibration of HHV, a hydraulic hybrid subsystem in parallel design is analyzed. This research shows that the MR elements play an important role in reducing the transmitted noise and vibration to the vehicle body. Additionally, locations and orientations of the isolation system also affect the efficiency of the noise and vibration mitigation. In simulations, a skyhook control algorithm is used to achieve the highest possible effectiveness of the MR isolation system.

  15. The hydraulic capacity of deteriorating sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollert, J; Ugarelli, R; Saegrov, S; Schilling, W; Di Federico, V

    2005-01-01

    Sewer and wastewater systems suffer from insufficient capacity, construction flaws and pipe deterioration. Consequences are structural failures, local floods, surface erosion and pollution of receiving waters bodies. European cities spend in the order of five billion Euro per year for wastewater network rehabilitation. This amount is estimated to increase due to network ageing. The project CARE-S (Computer Aided RE-habilitation of Sewer Networks) deals with sewer and storm water networks. The final project goal is to develop integrated software, which provides the most cost-efficient system of maintenance, repair and rehabilitation of sewer networks. Decisions on investments in rehabilitation often have to be made with uncertain information about the structural condition and the hydraulic performance of a sewer system. Because of this, decision-making involves considerable risks. This paper presents the results of research focused on the study of hydraulic effects caused by failures due to temporal decline of sewer systems. Hydraulic simulations are usually carried out by running commercial models that apply, as input, default values of parameters that strongly influence results. Using CCTV inspections information as dataset to catalogue principal types of failures affecting pipes, a 3D model was used to evaluate their hydraulic consequences. The translation of failures effects in parameters values producing the same hydraulic conditions caused by failures was carried out through the comparison of laboratory experiences and 3D simulations results. Those parameters could be the input of 1D commercial models instead of the default values commonly inserted. PMID:16477988

  16. Hydraulic drilling hammers and percussive equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgiev, G.; Kralev, I.

    1986-09-01

    This paper discusses the advantages of hydraulic drilling hammers in comparison to pneumatic drilling hammers (1.5-2 times higher output, 50-80% lower energy consumption). After analysis of imported hydraulic drilling hammers (Tamrock, Roxon, Montabert, Krupp), specialists of the VMGI Mining Institute developed their own hydraulic hammer - the LPT-110. A cross section of this hammer shows 4 phases of its operation; its technical features are presented in a table. The hammer weighs 130 kg. Its impact energy ranges from 14.6-17.7 kW at 2800-5500 strokes/min and 210-330 rpm. Bit diameters used with this hammer are 36 and 102 mm.

  17. High hydraulic performance in horizontal waterwheels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pujol, T.; Montoro, L. [Area de Mecnica de Fluids, Escola Politcnica Superior, Universitat de Girona, 17071 Girona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2010-11-15

    Slow rotating waterwheels have been recently proposed as affordable sources of renewable energy in rural areas. In terms of hydraulic efficiency, classical horizontal waterwheels reach values on the order of 50%, being well below those obtained from overshot (71%), waterfall (66%) and, even, undershot (65%) vertical ones. Based on the study of an horizontal waterwheel built prior to 1940s that includes features from both elementary turbines and antique waterwheels, we conclude that horizontal waterwheels may actually reach hydraulic efficiencies as high as 81%. These quantitative results are obtained by analytical approximations and, more important, by numerical integrations through accurate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. In addition, we show that such a high hydraulic efficiency does not substantially vary when changing the net available head. We suggest that this relevant progress made on improving the efficiency of classical horizontal waterwheels may have implications in future designs of nano/micro hydropower devices. (author)

  18. Hydraulic characterization of hydrothermally altered Nopal tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding the mechanics of variably saturated flow in fractured-porous media is of fundamental importance to evaluating the isolation performance of the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository for the Yucca Mountain site. Developing that understanding must be founded on the analysis and interpretation of laboratory and field data. This report presents an analysis of the unsaturated hydraulic properties of tuff cores from the Pena Blanca natural analog site in Mexico. The basic intent of the analysis was to examine possible trends and relationships between the hydraulic properties and the degree of hydrothermal alteration exhibited by the tuff samples. These data were used in flow simulations to evaluate the significance of a particular conceptual (composite) model and of distinct hydraulic properties on the rate and nature of water flow

  19. Universal asymptotic umbrella for hydraulic fracture modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Linkov, Aleksandr M

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents universal asymptotic solution needed for efficient modeling of hydraulic fractures. We show that when neglecting the lag, there is universal asymptotic equation for the near-front opening. It appears that apart from the mechanical properties of fluid and rock, the asymptotic opening depends merely on the local speed of fracture propagation. This implies that, on one hand, the global problem is ill-posed, when trying to solve it as a boundary value problem under a fixed position of the front. On the other hand, when properly used, the universal asymptotics drastically facilitates solving hydraulic fracture problems (both analytically and numerically). We derive simple universal asymptotics and comment on their employment for efficient numerical simulation of hydraulic fractures, in particular, by well-established Level Set and Fast Marching Methods.

  20. Self-potential observations during hydraulic fracturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Jeffrey R.; Glaser, Steven D.

    2007-09-13

    The self-potential (SP) response during hydraulic fracturing of intact Sierra granite was investigated in the laboratory. Excellent correlation of pressure drop and SP suggests that the SP response is created primarily by electrokinetic coupling. For low pressures, the variation of SP with pressure drop is linear, indicating a constant coupling coefficient (Cc) of -200 mV/MPa. However for pressure drops >2 MPa, the magnitude of the Cc increases by 80% in an exponential trend. This increasing Cc is related to increasing permeability at high pore pressures caused by dilatancy of micro-cracks, and is explained by a decrease in the hydraulic tortuosity. Resistivity measurements reveal a decrease of 2% prior to hydraulic fracturing and a decrease of {approx}35% after fracturing. An asymmetric spatial SP response created by injectate diffusion into dilatant zones is observed prior to hydraulic fracturing, and in most cases this SP variation revealed the impending crack geometry seconds before failure. At rupture, injectate rushes into the new fracture area where the zeta potential is different than in the rock porosity, and an anomalous SP spike is observed. After fracturing, the spatial SP distribution reveals the direction of fracture propagation. Finally, during tensile cracking in a point load device with no water flow, a SP spike is observed that is caused by contact electrification. However, the time constant of this event is much less than that for transients observed during hydraulic fracturing, suggesting that SP created solely from material fracture does not contribute to the SP response during hydraulic fracturing.

  1. Rapid field application of hydraulic tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauchler, R.; Hu, R.; Hu, L.; Parras, S. J.; Bayer, P.; Dietrich, P.; Ptak, T.

    2013-12-01

    The motivation of this field study is the need for investigation methods that are both rapid and well suited for resolving the spatial distribution of hydraulic properties in aquifers. Therefore, we propose a field strategy for hydraulic tomography that can be analyzed and performed with a similar speed as direct-push profiling. The field implementation is designed in a way that a suite of tomographic measurements can be recorded in one day. We utilize direct-push technology for the well installation and limit the pumping time to 300 s, which permits us to record 30 transient pressure response curves between two wells in one working day. For the inversion, we applied a computationally efficient inversion scheme which is based on the transformation of the ground water flow equation into a form of the eikonal equation. By exploiting the early part of a transient hydraulic pressure response recorded during cross-well tests only short-term pumping tests are required. The main advantages of the inversion scheme are the low computational requirements of eikonal solvers and that no information about the hydraulic boundaries is needed. The short pumping time in combination with the straightforward inversion technique allows for the reconstruction of hydraulic conductivity and specific storage distributions already in the field, which is particularly useful for an adaptive site investigation approach. Additionally, direct-push injection logging is performed at the field site, and the obtained field data is utilized for successful validation of the hydraulic tomograms. We also compare both methods with respect to the necessary requirements, time demand in the field and complexity of interpretation.

  2. KATHY: Framatome ANP's thermal hydraulic test loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation of the thermal-hydraulic behavior of fuel assemblies (FA) under simulated reactor conditions will continue to be a key component of fuel assembly design and development work in the future. Today's fuel assemblies are highly complex. Optimum in-pile performance is only assured, if each and every component part is carefully matched to the others in the reactor core. Since, even today, it is a challenge to mathematically simulate with the necessary degree of accuracy the thermal-hydraulic processes occurring while reactor coolant is flowing through the fuel assemblies, experimental validation of empirical analyses is especially important. Additionally, data gained from the performance of thermal hydraulic tests under realistic reactor conditions are indispensable for the qualification and validation of codes and methods, which are used to estimate the extended operation limits of advanced boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor (PWR) FA. That's why the operation of a validated, state-of-the-art thermal-hydraulic test facility is an absolute must for Framatome ANP. Framatome ANP's Multi-Function Thermal-Hydraulic Test Loop KATHY in Germany (KArlstein Thermal HYdraulics) has been in operation since 1986. KATHY is continually being improved and expanded at great expense. KATHY is not only used for measuring the critical heat flux (CHF) of BWR and PWR FA, but also for 1 and 2-phase flow measurements, for void-, plant transient- and stability measurements. So far, more than 15,000 tests have successfully been conducted on numerous BWR and PWR bundle designs. (author)

  3. Promoting water hydraulics in Malaysia: A green educational approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, Ahmad Anas; Zaili, Zarin Syukri; Hassan, Siti Nor Habibah; Tuan, Tee Boon; Saadun, Mohd Noor Asril; Ibrahim, Mohd Qadafie

    2014-10-01

    In promoting water hydraulics in Malaysia, this paper presents research development of water hydraulics educational training system for secondary and tertiary levels in Malaysia. Water hydraulics trainer with robotic attachment has been studied in order to promote the usefulness of such educational tools in promoting sustainability and green technology in the country. The trainer is being developed in order to allow constructive curriculum development and continuous marketing research for the effectiveness and usefulness of using water in hydraulic power trainer. The research on water-based hydraulic trainer is now possible with the current development in water hydraulics technology.

  4. Multimodel Robust Control for Hydraulic Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Osuský

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the multimodel and robust control system design and their combination based on M-Δ structure. Controller design will be done in the frequency domain with nominal performance specified by phase margin. Hydraulic turbine model is analyzed as system with unstructured uncertainty, and robust stability condition is included in controller design. Multimodel and robust control approaches are presented in detail on hydraulic turbine model. Control design approaches are compared and used for derivation of new approaches which combine advantages of both.

  5. The hydraulics of the pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SFEN organized, the 10 june 1999 at Paris, a meeting in the domain of the PWR hydraulics and in particular the hydraulic phenomena concerning the vessel and the vapor generators. The papers presented showed the importance of the industrial stakes with their associated phenomena: cores performance and safety with the more homogenous cooling system, the rods and the control rods wear, the temperature control, the fluid-structure interactions. A great part was also devoted to the progresses in the domain of the numerical simulation and the models and algorithms qualification. (A.L.B.)

  6. Modeling, Optimization & Control of Hydraulic Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahavori, Maryamsadat

    2014-01-01

    . The nonlinear network model is derived based on the circuit theory. A suitable projection is used to reduce the state vector and to express the model in standard state-space form. Then, the controllability of nonlinear nonaffine hydraulic networks is studied. The Lie algebra-based controllability matrix is used...... to solve nonlinear optimal control problems. In the water supply system model, the hydraulic resistance of the valve is estimated by real data and it is considered to be a disturbance. The disturbance in our system is updated every 24 hours based on the amount of water usage by consumers every day. Model...

  7. Thermal Hydraulic Stability in a Coaxial Thermosyphon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jianhui; LU Wenqiang; LI Qing; LI Qiang; ZHOU Yuan

    2005-01-01

    The heat transfer and thermal hydraulic stability in a two-phase thermosyphon with coaxial riser and down-comer has been experimentally investigated and theoretically analyzed to facilitate its application in cold neutron source. The flow in a coaxial thermosyphon was studied experimentally for a variety of heating rates, transfer tube lengths, charge capacities, and area ratios. A numerical analysis of the hydraulic balance between the driving pressure head and the resistance loss has also been performed. The results show that the presented coaxial thermosyphon has dynamic performance advantages relative to natural circulation in a boiling water reactor.

  8. Large-eddy simulation in hydraulics

    CERN Document Server

    Rodi, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Complex turbulence phenomena are of great practical importance in hydraulics, including environmental flows, and require advanced methods for their successful computation. The Large Eddy Simulation (LES), in which the larger-scale turbulent motion is directly resolved and only the small-scale motion is modelled, is particularly suited for complex situations with dominant large-scale structures and unsteadiness. Due to the increasing computer power, LES is generally used more and more in Computational Fluid Dynamics. Also in hydraulics, it offers great potential, especially for near-field probl

  9. Nonelastomeric Rod Seals for Advanced Hydraulic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hady, W. F.; Waterman, A. W.

    1976-01-01

    Advanced high temperature hydraulic system rod sealing requirements can be met by using seals made of nonelastomeric (plastic) materials in applications where elastomers do not have adequate life. Exploratory seal designs were optimized for advanced applications using machinable polyimide materials. These seals demonstrated equivalent flight hour lives of 12,500 at 350 F and 9,875 at 400 F in advanced hydraulic system simulation. Successful operation was also attained under simulated space shuttle applications; 96 reentry thermal cycles and 1,438 hours of vacuum storage. Tests of less expensive molded plastic seals indicated a need for improved materials to provide equivalent performance to the machined seals.

  10. Fort St. Vrain hydraulic power system study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report prepared for the United States Department of Energy under Contract Number DEAC03-80SF11440, contains the results of the Fort St. Vrain Hydraulic Power System (System 91) engineering study. The major objectives of this study were to evaluate, analyze, and recommend corrective actions to resolve HTGR (High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor) operational problems and equipment performance problems in the hydraulic power system at the Fort St. Vrain Nuclear Generating Station. The recommended corrective actions for each subject are subdivided where appropriate, into two categories: modifications suggested for implementation at Fort St. Vrain and modifications suggested for consideration in the design of future HTGRs

  11. Acoustic flowmeters: Their applications in hydraulics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzsche, Ulf

    Flowmeter installations for viscous and high hydrostatic pressure media are developed. Their usability is considered for characteristic measuring tasks in the field of oil hydraulics. The properties of flow sensors are evaluated by system analysis. Acoustic measuring systems are preferred. Two ultrasonic flowmeters are realized. Simulation models, installation with piezoceramic material parameters, and sound visualization support these developments. A computer aided hydraulic test stand is developed in order to detect the measuring characteristics of this system. Flowmeter applications are shown using the identification of the static and dynamic parameters of an electrohydraulic pilot valve.

  12. Hydraulically actuated micro-contact printing engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micro-contact printing (μCP) is a rapid, simple and well-established method of microscale biochemical patterning. However, there is a lack of inexpensive and accessible tools for accurately controlling contact during the printing process. In this paper, controlled μCP using hydraulic actuation is demonstrated. Complete printing systems, including a substrate placed at a calibrated height above an elastic stamp attached to a hydraulic chuck, are constructed and characterized. The chucks are made from Perspex using precision machining while the stamp is made by casting against microfabricated silicon masters. The total patterned area is ∼25 mm2 and 10 µm wide features have been printed

  13. Hydraulic modelling of the CARA Fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CARA fuel element is been developing by the National Atomic Energy Commission for both Argentinean PHWRs. In order to keep the hydraulic restriction in their fuel channels, one of CARA's goals is to keep its similarity with both present fuel elements. In this paper is presented pressure drop test performed at a low-pressure facility (Reynolds numbers between 5x104 and 1,5x105) and rational base models for their spacer grid and rod assembly. Using these models, we could estimate the CARA hydraulic performance in reactor conditions that have shown to be satisfactory. (author)

  14. Hydraulic works study of Golfech cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The GOLFECH Nuclear Power Plant cooling towers (PWR 2 x 1300 MWe), built by SCAM for EDF (French National Electricity Authority), have certain characteristics, including: tower height - 178.50 metres; shell support - made up of a profiled lintel resting on piles; cooled water recovery system installed immediately below the fill; and cold water basin built outside the cooling tower. This paper deals only with the hydraulic circuit design (warm water inlet, cooled water recovery, cooled water return) with particular emphasis on the limitations of conventional methods of hydraulic sizing and, the necessity to carry out tests using models in order to dimension such works

  15. Pilot testing of a hydraulic bridge exciter

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson Andreas; Ülker-Kaustell Mahir; Borg Richard; Dymén Olivier; Carolin Anders; Karoumi Raid

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a hydraulic bridge exciter and its first pilot testing on a full scale railway bridge in service. The exciter is based on a hydraulic load cylinder with a capacity of 50 kN and is intended for controlled dynamic loading up to at least 50 Hz. The load is applied from underneath the bridge, enabling testing while the railway line is in service. The system is shown to produce constant load amplitude even at resonance. The exciter is used to experimentally ...

  16. Power management in hydraulically actuated mobile equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen; Andersen, Torben Ole; Hansen, Michael Rygaard

    2008-01-01

    The focus of the current paper is on the control of hydraulic systems when utilizing the advances that electronic control may bring with regard to power management, prioritized flow sharing and anti-stall, arising from being able to control both pump, valves and engine electronically. A simple...

  17. Advanced Thermal Hydraulics Design of Commercial SFRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is a 500 MWe pool type sodium cooled fast reactor, which is in an advanced stage of construction in India. As a follow-up to PFBR, six commercial sodium cooled fast reactors (Commercial SFR) of similar capacity are to be constructed, wherein the focus is improved economy and enhanced safety. These reactors are envisaged to have twin-unit concept. Design and construction experiences from PFBR provided the motivation to achieve an optimum design for the Commercial SFR with significant design changes. Some of the changes include, (i) provision of four primary pipes per primary sodium pump, (ii) inner vessel with single torus, (iii) dome shaped roof slab supported on reactor vault, (iv) machined thick plate rotating plugs, (v) reduced main vessel diameter with narrow-gap cooling baffles and (vi) safety vessel integrated with reactor vault. Advanced computational fluid dynamic studies have been performed towards thermal hydraulic design of these components. This paper covers thermal hydraulic design validation of the chosen options, including hot pool thermal hydraulics, influence of control plug shape on pool hydraulics, flow requirement for main vessel cooling, safety analysis of primary pipe rupture event and thermal management top shield and reactor vault. (author)

  18. SITMILARITY LAW FOR HYDRAULIC DISTORTED MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Newton's general similarity criterion was applied to the distorted model. The results for the similarities of gravity force, drag force and pressure force are identical with those derived from relevant differential equations of fluid flow. And the selected limits of the distorted ratio were studied and the simulation of roughness coefficient of distorted model was conducted by means of hydraulic test.

  19. Hydraulic model of the systemic resistance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Leitermann, D.; Pražák, Josef; Musil, Jan; Poušek, L.; Konvičková, S.

    San Diego: American Society of Biomechanics, 2001, s. 265-266. [Conference of the American Society of Biomechanics. San Diego (US), 08.08.2001-11.08.2001] Grant ostatní: ÚT AV ČR(XC) PP50252 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2076919 Keywords : systemic resistance * hydraulic model * cardiovascular system Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  20. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: HYDRAULIC FRACTURING OF CONTAMINATED SOIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydraulic fracturing is a physical process that creates fractures in silty clay soil to enhance its permeability. The technology, developed by the Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL) and the University of Cincinnati, creates sand-filled horizontal fractures up to 1 in. i...

  1. Separation and pattern formation in hydraulic jumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Tomas; Ellegaard, C.; Hansen, A. Espe;

    1998-01-01

    We present theory and experiments on the circular hydraulic jump in the stationary regime. The theory can handle the situation in which the fluid flows over an edge far away from the jump. In the experiments the external height is controlled, and a series of transitions in the flow structure...

  2. Adaptive Sliding Mode Control for Hydraulic Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lasse; Andersen, Torben Ole; Pedersen, Henrik C.;

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new adaptive sliding mode controller generally applicable for position tracking control of electro-hydraulic valve-cylinder drives (VCD’s). The proposed control scheme requires limited knowledge on system parameters, and employs only piston- and valve spool position feedback...

  3. Towards Autonomous Control of Hydraulic Actuator Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul Erik; Conrad, Finn

    1998-01-01

    Presentation of new developed control algorithms to increase autonomy and intelligence of hydraulic control systems. A refinement of relaytuning method is used to determine the control parameters of a lag/lead controller and a poleplacement controller. Further, a fail-safe function is developed...

  4. Analyses of hydraulic performance of velocity caps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Degn Eskesen, Mark Chr.; Buhrkall, Jeppe;

    2014-01-01

    The hydraulic performance of a velocity cap has been investigated. Velocity caps are often used in connection with offshore intakes. CFD (computational fluid dynamics) examined the flow through the cap openings and further down into the intake pipes. This was combined with dimension analyses...

  5. Hydraulic Aspects of Vegetation Maintanence in Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Vestergaard, Kristian

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the importance of the underwater vegetation on Danish streams and some of the consequences of vegetation maintenance. the influence of the weed on the hydraulic conditions is studied through experiments in a smaller stream and the effect of cutting channels through the weed...

  6. ROTATING BIOLOGICAL CONTRACTORS - HYDRAULIC VERSUS ORGANIC LOADING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conventional and alternative flow configurations of rotating biological contractors were compared for soluble organic carbon and ammonia-nitrogen removal. Each treatment train contained eight shafts with a cumulative surface area of 800,000 ft sq. The hydraulic bay used the conve...

  7. Spiral groove seal. [for hydraulic rotating shaft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, L. P. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Mating flat surfaces inhibit leakage of a fluid around a stationary shaft. A spiral groove pattern produces a pumping action toward the fluid when the shaft rotates which prevents leakage while a generated hydraulic lifting force separates the mating surfaces to minimize wear.

  8. Evaluation of hydraulic lift in cotton germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydraulic lift (HL) in plants is defined as the redistribution of water from wetter to drier soil through the plant roots in response to soil water potential gradients. Water is released from the roots into the dry soil when transpiration is low (night) and reabsorbed by the plant when higher transp...

  9. Towards Autonomous Control of Hydraulic Actuator Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul Erik; Conrad, Finn

    Presentation of new developed control algorithms to increase autonomy and intelligence of hydraulic control systems. A refinement of relaytuning method is used to determine the control parameters of a lag/lead controller and a poleplacement controller. Further, a fail-safe function is developed to...

  10. Separation and pattern formation in hydraulic jumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Tomas; Ellegaard, C.; Hansen, A. Espe; Hansen, K.; Haaning, A.; Putkaradze, V.; Watanabe, S.

    We present theory and experiments on the circular hydraulic jump in the stationary regime. The theory can handle the situation in which the fluid flows over an edge far away from the jump. In the experiments the external height is controlled, and a series of transitions in the flow structure...

  11. Optimization of hydraulic parts using adjoint optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Petrovič

    2016-03-01

    Many producers talk about the optimized solutions, but only small part from them use all possibilities for finding the best one. It is motivation why in this paper the shape optimization of the hydraulic valve component with respect to minimization of pressure losses is presented.

  12. Compact Hydraulic Excavator and Support Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, E. V.

    1985-01-01

    Continuous-coal-mining machine maneuverable. Hydraulic coal excavator combined with chock, or roof-support structure, in self-contained unit that moves itself forward as it removes coal from seam. Unlike previous such units, new machine compact enough to be easily maneuverable; even makes small-radius right-angle turns.

  13. Ocean thermal gradient hydraulic power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, E J

    1975-07-25

    Solar energy stored in the oceans may be used to generate power by exploiting ploiting thermal gradients. A proposed open-cycle system uses low-pressure steam to elevate vate water, which is then run through a hydraulic turbine to generate power. The device is analogous to an air lift pump. PMID:17813707

  14. Combustion waves in hydraulically resisted systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brailovsky, I; Kagan, L; Sivashinsky, G

    2012-02-13

    The effects of hydraulic resistance on the burning of confined/obstacle-laden gaseous and gas-permeable solid explosives are discussed on the basis of recent research. Hydraulic resistance is found to induce a new powerful mechanism for the reaction spread (diffusion of pressure) allowing for both fast subsonic as well as supersonic propagation. Hydraulic resistance appears to be of relevance also for the multiplicity of detonation regimes as well as for the transitions from slow conductive to fast convective, choked or detonative burning. A quasi-one-dimensional Fanno-type model for premixed gas combustion in an obstructed channel open at the ignition end is discussed. It is shown that, similar to the closed-end case studied earlier, the hydraulic resistance causes a gradual precompression and preheating of the unburned gas adjacent to the advancing deflagration, which leads (after an extended induction period) to a localized autoignition that triggers an abrupt transition from deflagrative to detonative combustion. In line with the experimental observations, the ignition at the open end greatly encumbers the transition (compared with the closed-end case), and the deflagration practically does not accelerate up to the very transition point. Shchelkin's effect, that ignition at a small distance from the closed end of a tube facilitates the transition, is described. PMID:22213662

  15. Chapter 12. Pure Tap Water Hydraulic Systems and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Adelstorp, Anders

    1997-01-01

    Presentation of developed a modern pure tap water hydraulic components (Nessie), systems and industrial applications.......Presentation of developed a modern pure tap water hydraulic components (Nessie), systems and industrial applications....

  16. Iterative method of finding hydraulic conductivity characteristics of soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rysbaiuly, Bolatbek; Adamov, Abilmazhin

    2016-08-01

    The work considers an initial boundary value problem for a nonlinear equation of hydraulic conductivity. A method of finding a nonlinear diffusion coefficient is developed and hydraulic conductivity of soil moisture is found. Numerical calculations are conducted.

  17. ENHANCING HYDROLOGICAL SIMULATION PROGRAM - FORTRAN MODEL CHANNEL HYDRAULIC REPRESENTATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Hydrological Simulation Program– FORTRAN (HSPF) is a comprehensive watershed model that employs depth-area - volume - flow relationships known as the hydraulic function table (FTABLE) to represent the hydraulic characteristics of stream channel cross-sections and reservoirs. ...

  18. HYDRAULIC STUDIES AND CLEANING EVALUATIONS OF ULTRAVIOLET DISINFECTION UNITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various types of operating ultraviolet disinfection reactor designs were evaluated for hydraulic characteristics and cleaning requirements. The fluorocarbon polymer tube designs promote plug-flow behavior because of their relatively high length-to-diameter ratio. Hydraulic evalua...

  19. DCS Hydraulics Submittal, Valencia County, New Mexico, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulics data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydraulic procedures for computing flood elevations for a flood insurance...

  20. Power Management in Mobile Hydraulic Applications - An Approach for Designing Hydraulic Power Supply Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen

    2004-01-01

    Throughout the last three decades energy consumption has become one of the primary design aspects in hydraulic systems, especially for mobile hydraulic systems, as power and cooling capacity here is at limited disposal. Considering the energy usage, this is dependent on component efficiency...... in a project to develop rules and methods for designing and controlling mobile hydraulic systems in the most energy efficient way, when also considering the operational aspects of the system. The paper first describes the thoughts and ideas behind the project and then focus on an automated approach to design...... the hydraulic power supply in the most energy efficient way, when considering a number of load situations. Finally an example of the approach is shown to prove its validity.}...

  1. OPTIMAL HYDRAULIC DESIGN AND CAD APPLICATIONS OF AXIAL FLOW HYDRAULIC TURBINE'S RUNNER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A method of the optimal hydraulic design and CAD application of runner blades of axial-flow hydraulic turbines are discussed on the basis of optimization principle and CAD technique in this paper. Based on the theory of fluid dynamics, the blade′s main geometrical parameter, working parameters and performances index of the blades and the relationship between them are analysed, and the mathematical model of optimal hydraulic design of axial-flow runners has been established. Through nonlinear programming, the problems can be solved. By making use of the calculation geometry and computer graphics, the distribution method of the singular points, and an CAD applied software, an optimal hydraulic design are presented.

  2. Hydraulic Bureaucracy in a Modern Hydraulic Society – Strategic Group Formation in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Dieter Evers

    2009-10-01

    Among these strategic groups, the hydraulic bureaucracy and hydraulic construction business are the most crucial in terms of the specific role they play in the hydraulic landscape of the Mekong delta. Both groups exert considerable influence on water resources management and strive for the same resources, namely public funds (including Overseas Development Aid that is directed to hydraulic infrastructure development. This paper illustrates how both groups have emerged due to the growing need for water resources management in the delta and how they have set up alliances for mutually sharing resources in the long run. Furthermore, it is shown how both groups have adapted their resource-oriented strategies and actions to respond to the changes in the economic and political environment in Vietnam’s recent history.

  3. Simulation of dynamics of hydraulic system with proportional control valve

    OpenAIRE

    Bureček Adam; Hružík Lumír; Vašina Martin

    2016-01-01

    Dynamics of a hydraulic system is influenced by several parameters, in this case mainly by proportional control valve, oil bulk modulus, oil viscosity, mass load etc. This paper will be focused on experimental measurement and mathematical simulation of dynamics of a hydraulic system with proportional control valve, linear hydraulic cylinder and mass load. The measurement is performed on experimental equipment that enables realization of dynamic processes of the hydraulic system. Linear hydrau...

  4. INFORMATION-MEASURING TEST SYSTEM OF DIESEL LOCOMOTIVE HYDRAULIC TRANSMISSIONS

    OpenAIRE

    ZHUKOVYTSKYY I.V.; KLIUSHNYK I.A.; OCHKASOV O.B.; KORENIYK R.O.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The article describes the process of developing the information-measuring test system of diesel locomotives hydraulic transmission, which gives the possibility to obtain baseline data to conduct further studies for the determination of the technical condition of diesel locomotives hydraulic transmission. The improvement of factory technology of post-repair tests of hydraulic transmissions by automating the existing hydraulic transmission test stands according to the specifications of...

  5. Soil hydraulic properties of a Nitisol in Kabete, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Karuku, GN; Gachene, CKK; Karanja, N.; Cornelis, Wim; Verplancke, Hubert; Kironchi, G

    2012-01-01

    Water relations are among the most important physical phenomena that affect the use of soils for agricultural, ecological, environmental, and engineering purposes. To formulate soil-water relationships, soil hydraulic properties are required as essential inputs. The most important hydraulic properties are the soil-water retention curve and the hydraulic conductivity. The objective of this study was to determine the soil hydraulic properties of a Nitisol, at Kabete Campus Field Station. Use of...

  6. Hydraulic preferences of shrimps and fishes in tropical insular rivers

    OpenAIRE

    Girard, V.; Monti, D.; Valade, P.; Lamouroux, N.; Mallet, J.P.; Grondin, H.

    2014-01-01

    Hydraulic habitat models based on the preferences of species for the hydraulic characteristics of their microhabitats are frequently used to evaluate the impact on the habitat of a change in river flow regime. Their application in a tropical insular environment is still limited as little is known about the hydraulic preferences of species. Hydraulic preference models have been developed for 15 taxa (diadromous shrimps and fishes) sampled in 52 rivers in the Caribbean (the French West Indies) ...

  7. An experimental study of hydraulic fracture and erosion

    OpenAIRE

    Mhach, H.K.

    1991-01-01

    This thesis concerns an experimental investigation of hydraulic fracturing when the water pressure is increased rapidly in a borehole and development of a possible simple method for identifying erodible clayey soils. Case histories of hydraulic fracturing in embankment dams and boreholes are reviewed. It is found that hydraulic fracturing in dams is often associated with rapid reservoir filling and zones of low stresses. Previously proposed criteria for hydraulic fracturing are outlined. It i...

  8. DISCONTINUOUS FLOW OF TURBID DENSITY CURRENTS Ⅱ. INTERNAL HYDRAULIC JUMP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiahua FAN

    2005-01-01

    Traveling and stationary internal hydraulic jumps in density currents with positive or negative entrainment coefficients were analyzed based on simple assumptions. An expression of internal hydraulic jumps with entrainment coefficients was derived. Experimental data, published in literature, of stationary internal hydraulic jumps in turbid, thermal and saline density currents including measured values of water entrainment were used to compare with theory. Comparison was also made of traveling internal hydraulic jumps between measured data and theory.

  9. Critical review of hydraulic modeling on atmospheric heat dissipation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives of this study were: to define the useful roles of hydraulic modeling in understanding the predicting atmospheric effects of heat dissipation systems; to assess the state-of-the-art of hydraulic modeling of atmospheric phenomena; to inventory potentially useful existing hydraulic modeling facilities both in the United States and abroad; and to scope hydraulic model studies to assist the assessment of atmospheric effects of nuclear energy centers

  10. Decentralized energy-saving hydraulic concepts for mobile working machines

    OpenAIRE

    Lodewyks, Johann; Zurbrügg, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    The high price of batteries in working machines with electric drives offer a potential for investment in energy-saving hydraulic systems. The decentralized power network opens up new approaches for hydraulic- and hybrid circuits. In addition, the regeneration of energy can be used at any point of the machine. For the example of an excavator arm drive with a double cylinder two compact hydraulic circuits are presented, which relieve a central hydraulic system.

  11. Temporal variability in soil hydraulic properties under drip irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    Mubarak, I.; Mailhol, J.C.; R. Angulo-Jaramillo; Ruelle, P.; Boivin, P.; Khaledian, M. R.

    2009-01-01

    Predicting soil hydraulic properties and understanding their temporal variability during the irrigated cropping season are required to mitigate agro-environmental risks. This paper reports field measurements of soil hydraulic properties under two drip irrigation treatments, full (FT) and limited (LT). The objective was to identify the temporal variability of the hydraulic properties of field soil under high-frequency water application during a maize cropping season. Soil hydraulics were chara...

  12. The advantages of hydraulic packing extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today's competitive environment, coupled with industry's desire to improve the efficiency of plant maintenance and operations, has management continually seeking ways to save time, money, and, at nuclear plants, radiation exposure. One area where a tremendous improvement in efficiency can be realized is valve packing removal. For example, industry experience indicates that up to 70% of the time it takes to repack a valve can be spent just removing the old packing. In some case, the bonnets of small valves are removed to facilitate packing removal and prevent stem and stuffing box damage that can occur when using packing removal picks. In other cases, small valves are simply removed and discarded because it costs less to replace the valves than to remove the packing using conventional methods. Hydraulic packing extraction greatly reduces packing removal time and will not damage the stem nor stuffing box, thus eliminating the need for bonnet removal or valve replacement. This paper will review some of the more common problems associated with manual packing extraction techniques. It will explain how hydraulic packing extraction eliminates or greatly reduces the impact of each of the problem areas. A discussion will be provided of some actual industry operating experiences related to success stories using hydraulic packing extraction. The paper will also briefly describe the operating parameters associated with hydraulic packing extraction tools. Throughout the paper, actual operating experiences from the nuclear power, fossil power, petrochemical, and refinery industries will be used to support the conclusion that hydraulic packing extraction is an alternative that can save time, money, and exposure

  13. Hydrodynamic evaluation of a hydraulic clarifier through hydraulic behaviour indicators and simplified flow models

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Patiño; Camilo Cruz; Patricia Torres; Santiago Laín

    2012-01-01

    Hydrodynamic phenomena take place within water treatment plants associated with physical, operational and environmental factors which can affect the water quality. This study evaluated a hydraulic clarifier’s hydrodynamic pattern using sludge recirculation through continuous tracer test leading to determining hydraulic behaviour indicators and simplified flow models. The clarifier had dual flow with a predominantly complete mixture during the hours in which higher temperatures were reported f...

  14. Hydraulic stand for testing the models of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paper describes the basic design and hydraulic characteristics of the MR experimental bench including equipment and coolant circulation circuit, two-loop reactor hydraulic model and measuring system. The bench enables to investigate into thermal and hydraulic characteristics of models of two- and four-loop vessel reactors. Paper dwells upon research and training use of the bench

  15. 23 CFR 650.111 - Location hydraulic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 650.111 (c) and (d) shall be summarized in environmental review documents prepared pursuant to 23 CFR... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Location hydraulic studies. 650.111 Section 650.111... BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Location and Hydraulic Design of Encroachments on Flood Plains §...

  16. 7 CFR 2902.10 - Mobile equipment hydraulic fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Comprehensive Procurement Guideline, 40 CFR 247.11. ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mobile equipment hydraulic fluids. 2902.10 Section... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 2902.10 Mobile equipment hydraulic fluids. (a) Definition. Hydraulic...

  17. 14 CFR 33.72 - Hydraulic actuating systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hydraulic actuating systems. 33.72 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.72 Hydraulic actuating systems. Each hydraulic actuating system must function properly under all conditions in which...

  18. Hydraulic power take-off for wave energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Georg Kronborg

    2001-01-01

    Investigation and laboratory experiments with a hydraulic power conversion system for converting forces from a 2.5m diamter float to extract energy from seawaves. The test rig consists of a hydraulic wave simulator and a hydraulic point absorber. The absorber converts the incomming forces...

  19. Hydraulics and pneumatics a technician's and engineer's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Parr, Andrew

    1991-01-01

    Hydraulics and Pneumatics: A Technician's and Engineer's Guide provides an introduction to the components and operation of a hydraulic or pneumatic system. This book discusses the main advantages and disadvantages of pneumatic or hydraulic systems.Organized into eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of industrial prime movers. This text then examines the three different types of positive displacement pump used in hydraulic systems, namely, gear pumps, vane pumps, and piston pumps. Other chapters consider the pressure in a hydraulic system, which can be quickly and easily controlled

  20. Computer analysis of thermal hydraulics for nuclear reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper gives an overview of ANSTO's capability and recent research and development activities in thermal hydraulic modelling for nuclear reactor safety analysis, particularly for our research reactor, HIFAR (High Flux Australian Reactor) and its intended replacement, the Replacement Research Reactor (RRR). Several tools contribute to ANSTO's capability in thermal hydraulic modelling, including RELAP (developed in US) - a code for reactor system thermal-hydraulic analysis; CFS (developed in UK) - a general computational fluid dynamics code , which was used for thermal hydraulic analysis in reactor fuel elements; and HIZAPP (developed at ANSTO) - for coupling neutronics with thermal-hydraulics for reactor transient analysis

  1. Analysis of buffering process of control rod hydraulic absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Control Rod Hydraulic Drive Mechanism(CRHDM) is a newly invented build-in control rod drive mechanism. Hydraulic absorber is the key part of this mechanism, and is used to cushion the control rod when the rod scrams. Thus, it prevents the control rod from being deformed and damaged. In this paper dynamics program ANSYS CFX is used to calculate all kinds of flow conditions in hydraulic absorber to obtain its hydraulic characteristics. Based on the flow resistance coefficients obtained from the simulation results, fluid mass and momentum equations were developed to get the trend of pressure change in the hydraulic cylinder and the displacement of the piston rod during the buffering process of the control rod. The results obtained in this paper indicate that the hydraulic absorber meets the design requirement. The work in this paper will be helpful for the design and optimization of the control rod hydraulic absorber. (author)

  2. New lubricating material for hydraulic turbine generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current state-of-the-art of lubricating practices for major hydraulic equipment which is in contact with water, such as wicket gates, were surveyed by the Canadian Electrical Association by means of a questionnaire. Participants in the survey included owners and operators, designers and bearing and lubricant suppliers. Current practices, major technical issues and potential constraints of using alternative, environmentally friendly lubricant practices were identified. It was found that self lubricating bearing materials were commonly used to address environmental concerns. Results of the survey also revealed that regulations for underwater hydraulic equipment have not been established in Canada nor the U.S. Several recommendations for adopting environmentally friendly lubricants into current practices were made

  3. NEW HYDRAULIC ACTUATOR'S POSITION SERVOCONTROL STRATEGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KE Zunrong; ZHU Yuquan; LING Xuan

    2007-01-01

    A new hydraulic actuator-hydraulic muscle (HM) is described, and the actuator's features and applications are analyzed, then a position servocontrol system in which HM is main actuator is set up. The mathematical model of the system is built up and several control strategies are discussed. Based on the mathematical model, simulation research and experimental investigation with subsection PID control, neural network self-adaptive PID control and single neuron self-adaptive PID control adopted respectively are carried out, and the results indicate that compared with PID control, neural network self-adaptive PID control and single neuron self-adaptive PID control don't need controlled system's accurate model and have fast response, high control accuracy and strong robustness, they are very suitable for HM position servo control system.

  4. PRESSURE FLUCTUATIONS BENEATH SPATIAL HYDRAULIC JUMPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Zhong-min; ZHOU Chun-tian; LU Shi-qiang

    2006-01-01

    This article deals with statistical analysis of pressure fluctuations at the bottom of spatial hydraulic jumps with abrupt lateral expansions. The effects of the channel expansion ratio and inflow condition on the power spectral and dominant frequency were examined. Pressure data were recorded for different Froude numbers ranging from 3.52 to 6.86 and channel expansion ratios ranging from 1.5 to 3.0. A sampling frequency of 100 Hz was selected. The measurements were conducted in the bed of a glass-walled laboratory flume by means of pressure transducers and data acquisition systems. Power spectra as well as dominant frequency and some other statistical characteristics of fluctuating pressure beneath hydraulic jumps were obtained. Test results were compared with those of classical jump, which indicates that the peak frequencies and intensity coefficients of pressure fluctuations are higher than those of the corresponding classical jumps.

  5. Hydraulic performance of an ancient Spanish watermill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pujol, Toni; Sola, Jordi; Montoro, Lino; Pelegri, Marc [Area de Mecanica de Fluids, Departament d' Enginyeria Mecanica i de la Construccio Industrial, Universitat de Girona, Campus Montilivi, 17071 Girona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2010-02-15

    Here we analyze the hydraulic performance of an ancient Spanish horizontal watermill. Previous studies of similar devices have focused on qualitative descriptions of their technical functioning, providing efficiency curves based on two-dimensional analytical approximations. In contrast, here we perform three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations that allow us to obtain quantitative values for both the hydraulic torque and the power. The results here found reveal how previous studies clearly overestimated the efficiency of these devices. Finally, we make use of the capabilities of CFDs by investigating the performance of a modified blade profile. The new design here proposed successfully increases the energy efficiency (up to 44%) in comparison with the classical one. (author)

  6. TG 220 MW hydraulic control system diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TG power output control system comprises a hydraulic and an electronic part. TG speed, power output or the main steam header pressure (HPK) depend on the steam flow at the turbine inlet. The steam admission into the turbine is controlled by four control valves and one by-pass valve in case of the HP part and by four capture flap valves in case of the LP part. The task of the SKODA K-220 MW turbine protection and control systems is to provide both the turbine speed and power output control to the setpoint value. Diagnostic measurements were aimed at getting an overview of both technical and functional states of all power output control elements. Principally, it can be stated that some deficiencies of a design nature originating from the manufacturer's factory were revealed and some other deficiencies related to hydraulic control elements functionality were identified more closely by the new method. 5 figs

  7. New guiding elements for hydraulic cylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustafaev, S.I.

    1984-08-01

    The design is analyzed of plastic or rubber rings used in hydraulic equipment for underground coal mining. The analyses concentrate on rings used in powered supports to guarantee piston positioning parallel to the walls of the cylinder. The following materials used for producing plastic rings are characterized: kaprolon V, polyamide 6, polyamide 12, polyamide 6.10, ATM-2, SFDA, STDA, ATDV and STDG. Ring shape is given in 2 schemes. Effects of ring mechanical and physical properties on operation of the hydraulic system in a powered support section are evaluated: friction, friction increased by pollution of working fluid by dusts, effects of piston wear on its movement and ring position. Effects of guide rings on operation of the MK-97 OKP-70 and M-88 powered supports were investigated under laboratory conditions: leaks of working fluid, piston wear etc. Recommendations are made for use of plastic rings (for guiding and sealing) in powered supports produced in the USSR.

  8. Hydraulic conductivity and diffusion characterization of GCLs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukunoki, T.; Rowe, R.K.; Li, H.M.; Sangam, H.P.; Hurst, P.; Bathurst, R.J. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada)]|[Royal Military Coll. of Canada, Kingston, ON (Canada); Badv, K. [Urmia Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    This paper reports on the characterization of the hydraulic conductivity and diffusion of a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) installed at a site off the southeast coast of Baffin Island, in the Canadian Arctic, following different levels of freeze-thaw exposure and under low temperature conditions. The authors presented a summary of the results obtained for hydraulic conductivity tests on GCLs subjected to freeze-thaw cycles, and specimens permeated with jet fuel (Arctic diesel). They also reported on diffusion tests conducted at 22 Celsius and 5 Celsius, followed by a discussion of the effect of temperature. The results indicate that there is no significant impact on GCL performance due to freeze-thaw cycles, permeation by jet fuel or diffusion at the lower temperatures expected in the north for the short term (up to approximately four years). Additional studies are needed to confirm long term behaviour. 24 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  9. Thermal-hydraulic analysis of nuclear reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Zohuri, Bahman

    2015-01-01

    This text covers the fundamentals of thermodynamics required to understand electrical power generation systems and the application of these principles to nuclear reactor power plant systems. It is not a traditional general thermodynamics text, per se, but a practical thermodynamics volume intended to explain the fundamentals and apply them to the challenges facing actual nuclear power plants systems, where thermal hydraulics comes to play.  Written in a lucid, straight-forward style while retaining scientific rigor, the content is accessible to upper division undergraduate students and aimed at practicing engineers in nuclear power facilities and engineering scientists and technicians in industry, academic research groups, and national laboratories. The book is also a valuable resource for students and faculty in various engineering programs concerned with nuclear reactors. This book also: Provides extensive coverage of thermal hydraulics with thermodynamics in nuclear reactors, beginning with fundamental ...

  10. A boost to the French hydraulic plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A plan for boosting the hydroelectric power generation in France is presented, the first step of an energy policy based on the conclusions of the Grenelle Environnement Forum which targets a 23 percent objective for the renewable energies in France by 2020. Hydroelectricity represents nowadays 12 percent of total electric power generation. The plan is composed of three parts: attribution of concessions will be opened to competition (concessions of the 400 largest dams will be renewed); investments in dams will be strongly encouraged and assisted by the government in order to increase France's hydraulic power generation capacities and enhance its security of power supply - small and micro hydraulic power generation is to be developed; the quality of river waters will be improved

  11. Pilot testing of a hydraulic bridge exciter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersson Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of a hydraulic bridge exciter and its first pilot testing on a full scale railway bridge in service. The exciter is based on a hydraulic load cylinder with a capacity of 50 kN and is intended for controlled dynamic loading up to at least 50 Hz. The load is applied from underneath the bridge, enabling testing while the railway line is in service. The system is shown to produce constant load amplitude even at resonance. The exciter is used to experimentally determine frequency response functions at all sensor locations, which serve as valuable input for model updating and verification. An FE-model of the case study bridge has been developed that is in good agreement with the experimental results.

  12. Modeling of a Hydraulic Braking System

    OpenAIRE

    Lundin, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to derive an analytical model representing a reduced form of a mine hoist hydraulic braking system. Based primarily on fluid mechanical and mechanical physical modeling, along with a number of simplifying assumptions, the analytical model will be derived and expressed in the form of a system of differential equations including a set of static functions. The obtained model will be suitable for basic simulation and analysis of system dynamics, with the aim to cap...

  13. Crone control of a nonlinear hydraulic actuator

    OpenAIRE

    Pommier-Budinger, Valérie; Sabatier, Jocelyn; Lanusse, Patrick; Oustaloup, Alain

    2002-01-01

    The CRONE control (fractional robust control) of a hydraulic actuator whose dynamic model is nonlinear is presented. An input-output linearization under diffeomorphism and feedback is first achieved for the nominal plant. The relevance of this linearization when the parameters of the plant vary is then analyzed using the Volterra input-output representation in the frequency domain. CRONE control based on complex fractional differentiation is finally applied to control the velocity of the inpu...

  14. Self-potential observations during hydraulic fracturing

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, J R; Glaser, Steven D

    2007-01-01

    [1] The self-potential (SP) response during hydraulic fracturing of intact Sierra granite was investigated in the laboratory. Excellent correlation of pressure drop and SP suggests that the SP response is created primarily by electrokinetic coupling. For low pressures, the variation of SP with pressure drop is linear, indicating a constant coupling coefficient (Cc) of - 200 mV/MPa. However, for pressure drops > 2 MPa, the magnitude of the Cc increases by 80% in an expo...

  15. Thermal-hydraulics of actinide burner reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of conceptual study of actinide burner reactors, core thermal-hydraulic analyses were conducted for two types of reactor concepts, namely (1) sodium-cooled actinide alloy fuel reactor, and (2) helium-cooled particle-bed reactor, to examine the feasibility of high power-density cores for efficient transmutation of actinides within the maximum allowable temperature limits of fuel and cladding. In addition, calculations were made on cooling of actinide fuel assembly. (author)

  16. Two phase flow arising in hydraulics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Straškraba, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 1 (2015), s. 21-33. ISSN 0862-7940 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/08/0012 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : compressible fluid * Navier-Stokes equations * hydraulic systems Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.400, year: 2014 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10492-015-0083-9

  17. Advanced Control Strategies for Mobile Hydraulic Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Cristofori, Davide

    2013-01-01

    Mobile hydraulic machines are affected by numerous undesired dynamics, mainly discontinuous motion and vibrations. Over the years, many methods have been developed to limit the extent of those undesired dynamics and improve controllability and safety of operation of the machine. However, in most of the cases, today's methods do not significantly differ from those developed in a time when electronic controllers were slower and less reliable than they are today. This dissertation addresses t...

  18. Detection of cavitation in hydraulic turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Escaler, X.; Egusquiza, E.; Farhat, M.; Avellan, F.

    2006-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been carried out in order to evaluate the detection of cavitation in actual hydraulic turbines. The methodology is based on the analysis of structural vibrations, acoustic emissions and hydrodynamic pressures measured in the machine. The proposed techniques have been checked in real prototypes suffering from different types of cavitation. In particular, one Kaplan, two Francis and one Pump-Turbine have been investigated in the field. Additionally, one Francis...

  19. Extreme Velocity Fluctuations below Free Hydraulic Jumps

    OpenAIRE

    Raúl Antonio Lopardo

    2013-01-01

    The internal flow of hydraulic jump is essentially an unsteady flow subjected to macroturbulent random fluctuations, and it was not known enough. Then, for the fluctuating motion interpretation, the experimental research on the associated turbulence must be necessary. The author developed in the past extensive laboratory research for the instantaneous pressure field determination by means of pressure transducers and new introductory experiments on velocity fluctuations by means of the ADV tec...

  20. Monitoring hydraulic fracturing with seismic emission volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, F.; Tang, Y.; Chen, H.; TAO, K.; Levander, A.

    2014-12-01

    Recent developments in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing have made it possible to access the reservoirs that are not available for massive production in the past. Hydraulic fracturing is designed to enhance rock permeability and reservoir drainage through the creation of fracture networks. Microseismic monitoring has been proven to be an effective and valuable technology to image hydraulic fracture geometry. Based on data acquisition, seismic monitoring techniques have been divided into two categories: downhole and surface monitoring. Surface monitoring is challenging because of the extremely low signal-to-noise ratio of the raw data. We applied the techniques used in earthquake seismology and developed an integrated monitoring system for mapping hydraulic fractures. The system consists of 20 to 30 state-of-the-art broadband seismographs, which are generally about hundreds times more sensible than regular geophones. We have conducted two experiments in two basins with very different geology and formation mechanism in China. In each case, we observed clear microseismic events, which may correspond to the induced seismicity directly associated with fracturing and the triggered ones at pre-existing faults. However, the magnitude of these events is generally larger than magnitude -1, approximately one to two magnitudes larger than those detected by downhole instruments. Spectrum-frequency analysis of the continuous surface recordings indicated high seismic energy associated with injection stages. The seismic energy can be back-projected to a volume that surrounds each injection stage. Imaging seismic emission volume (SEV) appears to be an effective way to map the stimulated reservior volume, as well as natural fractures.

  1. Mathematical Models of Hydraulic Systems, Examples, Analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Straškraba, Ivan

    Praha : ÚT AV ČR, 2006 - (Příhoda, J.; Kozel, K.), s. 159-162 ISBN 80-85918-98-6. [Conference Topical Problems of Fluid Mechanics 2006. Praha (CZ), 22.02.2006-24.02.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA201/05/0005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : hydraulic systems * fluid flow * mathematical models Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  2. Hydraulic Calibrator for Strain-Gauge Balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelly, Kenneth; Ballard, John

    1987-01-01

    Instrument for calibrating strain-gauge balances uses hydraulic actuators and load cells. Eliminates effects of nonparallelism, nonperpendicularity, and changes of cable directions upon vector sums of applied forces. Errors due to cable stretching, pulley friction, and weight inaccuracy also eliminated. New instrument rugged and transportable. Set up quickly. Developed to apply known loads to wind-tunnel models with encapsulated strain-gauge balances, also adapted for use in calibrating dynamometers, load sensors on machinery and laboratory instruments.

  3. Self-potential observations during hydraulic fracturing

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Jeffrey R.; Glaser, Steven D.

    2008-01-01

    [1] The self-potential (SP) response during hydraulic fracturing of intact Sierra granite was investigated in the laboratory. Excellent correlation of pressure drop and SP suggests that the SP response is created primarily by electrokinetic coupling. For low pressures, the variation of SP with pressure drop is linear, indicating a constant coupling coefficient (Cc) of - 200 mV/MPa. However, for pressure drops > 2 MPa, the magnitude of the Cc increases by 80% in an expo...

  4. Control Reconfigurability of Bilinear Hydraulic Drive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Hamid Reza; Tahavori, Maryamsadat

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the methods within the framework of the plug and play process control and particularly fault tolerant control is to establish control techniques which guarantee a certain performance through control reconfiguration at the occurrence of the faults or changes. These methods cannot ......-based analogous counterpart, which has been previously proposed for the linear processes. The control reconfigurability is calculated for the bilinear models of an electro-hydraulic drive to show its relevance to redundant actuating capabilities in the models....

  5. The Hydraulic Ram (Or Impulse) Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Allan

    2014-01-01

    The hydraulic impulse pump utilizes a fraction of the momentum of a flowing stream to lift a small portion of that water to a higher level. There it may be accumulated in an elevated cistern to provide sufficient water for several families, for the pump works 24 h a day with no additional source of energy. The operation of the pump is described,…

  6. Vibration Isolation for Parallel Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    The M. Nguyen; Elahinia, Mohammad H.

    2008-01-01

    In recent decades, several types of hybrid vehicles have been developed in order to improve the fuel economy and to reduce the pollution. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) have shown a significant improvement in fuel efficiency for small and medium-sized passenger vehicles and SUVs. HEV has several limitations when applied to heavy vehicles; one is that larger vehicles demand more power, which requires significantly larger battery capacities. As an alternative solution, hydraulic hybrid technolo...

  7. Effects of Cyclic Hydraulic Pressure on Osteocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Chao; Zhao, Yan; Cheung, Wing-Yee; Gandhi, Ronak; Wang, Liyun; You, Lidan

    2010-01-01

    Bone is able to adapt its composition and structure in order to suit its mechanical environment. Osteocytes, bone cells embedded in the calcified matrix, are believed to be the mechanosensors and responsible for orchestrating the bone remodeling process. Recent in vitro studies have shown that osteocytes are able to sense and respond to substrate strain and fluid shear. However the capacity of osteocytes to sense cyclic hydraulic pressure (CHP) associated with physiological mechanical loading...

  8. The micro hydraulic power, a sure value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The micro hydroelectricity is a proven technology which has now reached maturity. Ideal for electrification of remote sites, it also serves a complement to national electric production. A recent study carried out by the ESHA estimates the potential which still available in terms of micro hydraulic power plants at 5939 MW. The small hydro power capacity (>10 MW) installed in European union and the available potential of small hydro power are presented. (A.L.B.)

  9. New lubricating material for hydraulic turbine equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The release of lubricant into the water stream after passage through hydraulic turbines is an environmental issue of concern. To address concerns about the self-lubricating bearing materials being used to replace the standard grease lubricated bronze bearings for wicket gates, a survey was carried out to determine the availability and use of self-lubricating bearing materials. Included in the survey were users, bearing suppliers and turbine manufacturers. Information derived from the survey included extent of use, historical data, bearing design parameters, lubrication practices, maintenance activity, and environmental issues. Results of the survey are tabulated. It was found that the use of self-lubricating bearing materials is the predominant technology available to satisfy environmental concerns for hydraulic equipment. A number of materials are available based on both metallic and polymer materials. A numer of materials are available that have demonstrated satisfactory service life for at least 10 years. As an alternative, hydraulic equipment can be lubricated with an environmentally friendly lubricant, although there are none commercially available that are biodegradable and non-toxic. In new equipment the cost of using self-lubricating bearings could be less than grease lubricated bronze bearings with automatic lubrication system. 3 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  10. A solid hydraulically amplified piezoelectric microvalve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a piezoelectrically driven and hydraulically amplified axial polymer microvalve. The microvalve is normally open and is assembled primarily with stereolithographically fabricated polymer components. An incompressible elastomer is used as a solid hydraulic medium to convert the small axial displacement of a piezoelectric actuator into a large valve head stroke while maintaining a large blocking force. Also, the axial design of the microvalve enables densely packed valve arrays. One application of this microvalve is in pneumatic tactile displays, which operates against gas pressure up to approximately 90 kPa and switching speed between 1 and 200 Hz. The current valve design has a maximum static hydraulic amplification ratio of 5 at 30 V driving voltage and a maximum valve head stroke of 37 µm at 150 V. Under a 94.4 kPa differential pressure, the flow rate of the valve and the closing voltage measure are 785 mL min−1 and 150 V, respectively. The function of the microvalve as an on–off switch for a pneumatic microbubble tactile actuator is demonstrated

  11. Visualization of nuclear thermal-hydraulics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The VISUALIZATION is the strong tool to understand the complicated two-phase flows, including boiling. Many problems on the Nuclear Thermal-hydraulics are multi-disciplinary problems, e.g., Interaction between Material and Fluid, Interaction between Radiation and Heat Transfer, and so on. For these complex interdisciplinary problems, visualization studies help to investigate the mechanisms. In this decade, the technology of the high-speed camera has been progressed drastically. One Mega-pixel image can be captured with a sampling rate of 7000 Hz upto several seconds continuously. The complicated two-phase phenomenon can be clearly visualized using these tools. The boiling phenomenon under the irradiation condition has different characteristics to that under the non-irradiation conditions. The phenomenon was called as the RISA, Radiation Induced Surface Activation. With the gamma-ray irradiation to oxidized material surface, many interesting phenomena have been reported including, boiling enhancement, corrosion protection, and so on. The visualization study with high-speed camera can reveal the mechanism of the nucleate boiling degradations. The RISA is the interdisciplinary problems, i.e., Interface area of Radiation, Material and Thermal-hydraulics. Other applications of the high-speed camera on the interdisciplinary thermal-hydraulic problems will be discussed. Also, the future researches using the visualization technology will be reviewed. (author)

  12. Field measurements in unwadeable natural hydraulic jumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, B.; Pasternack, G.

    2003-04-01

    Recent research in fluvial geomorphology has emphasized the development and application of digital terrain models to better understand process-form relations. However, field measurements in mountain channels have largely been restricted to low velocity or ephemeral flow conditions. To address this problem, a new high-resolution mechanical surveying system was developed at UC Davis and used to measure the 3D bed and water surface topographies of an unwadeable plunging hydraulic jump in the Cache Creek basin, CA. Labeled as the River Truss, the system is capable of making high-resolution form and process measurements over a 30 to 115 m2 area. Bed and water surface DTMs were derived from the field data using AutoCAD. River Truss precision was assessed by DTM differencing the hydraulic jump bed surface topography with a DTM developed from tacheometric survey at low base flows. Bed surface DTMs indicate significant spatial complexity of the underlying bed step in the supercritical flow region and significant downstream bed scour. Water surface DTMs indicate 3D complexity of the plunging flow surface and divergence from 1D free-fall theory. Further study will emphasize the development and deployment of process-based instrumentation such that the complex turbulent air-water flow dynamics associated with natural hydraulic jumps may be better understood. Also, a second generation River Truss that has a larger coverage area and automated data collection has been designed and is now being built.

  13. Leafminers help us understand leaf hydraulic design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardini, Andrea; Raimondo, Fabio; Lo Gullo, Maria A; Salleo, Sebastiano

    2010-07-01

    Leaf hydraulics of Aesculus hippocastanum L. were measured over the growing season and during extensive leaf mining by the larvae of an invasive moth (Cameraria ohridella Deschka et Dimic) that specifically destroy the palisade tissue. Leaves showed seasonal changes in hydraulic resistance (R(lamina)) which were related to ontogeny. After leaf expansion was complete, the hydraulic resistance of leaves and the partitioning of resistances between vascular and extra-vascular compartments remained unchanged despite extensive disruption of the palisade by leafminers (up to 50%). This finding suggests that water flow from the petiole to the evaporation sites might not directly involve the palisade cells. The analysis of the temperature dependence of R(lamina) in terms of Q(10) revealed that at least one transmembrane step was involved in water transport outside the leaf vasculature. Anatomical analysis suggested that this symplastic step may be located at the bundle sheath where the apoplast is interrupted by hydrophobic thickening of cell walls. Our findings offer some support to the view of a compartmentalization of leaves into well-organized water pools so that the transpiration stream would involve veins, bundle sheath and spongy parenchyma, while the palisade tissue would be largely by-passed with the possible advantage of protecting cells from short-term fluctuations in water status. PMID:20199625

  14. Legal aspects of the hydraulic fracturing method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Duraj

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent months the possibility of extracting shale gas by way of the hydraulic fracturing method in Poland as well as across EU territory has been widely discussed. The European Parliament is to decide whether to ban this method. There are various legal, ecological and economical aspects influencing European legislators. It is hard not to notice how strongly the anti- and pro- hydraulic fracturing lobbies are connected with business. At the moment there are no specific regulations that relate directly to this extraction method, neither in the EU as a whole nor in Poland. However, in Poland a new Geological and Mining Act is supposed to come into force on 1st January 2012, which will regulate natural gas extraction with a view to ensure proper extraction of shale gas in the near future. This article is aimed at showing Polish regulations, both planned and currently in force, as well as the relevant EU law in respect of shale gas extraction. The author would like to emphasize the need to create one coherent legislative regime which would enable entrepreneurs to commence extraction by way of hydraulic fracturing without creating a danger for the environment.

  15. Hydraulic design of pervious concrete highway shoulders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahl, Nathan Andrew

    Stormwater drainage has been a factor in roadway design for years. Now stormwater quantity and quality are also becoming regulated for roadways. As regulations of stormwater management continue to increase so does the need for more viable and effect management practices. The research presented and discussed in this thesis presents the option of using pervious concrete in highway shoulders as a best management practice for stormwater management. Research focused on the hydraulic response of pervious concrete pavements exposed to sheet flowing water. Pervious concrete samples were placed in a hydraulic flume to determine capture discharges, infiltration rates, and by-pass flowrates for a broad range of void contents, across a broad range of pavement cross slopes. The results demonstrate that the capture discharge and infiltration rates are inversely related to the cross slope of the pavement. Results also showed the infiltration rate of the permeable pavement exposed to sheet flowing water, in the model, is significantly lower than the measured infiltration rate. Pervious concrete samples were also tested to determine hydraulic response when exposed to clogging associated with sand used in roadway de-icing. The results of the clogging of the permeable pavements followed similar trends as the unclogged samples, with the only difference being a more significant reduction in infiltration rates at higher applications of sand. Preliminary discussion of a design methodology is included with a design example.

  16. Stress, hydraulic and coupled stress-hydraulic analysis at experimental region in the tunnel sealing experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute has joined the international project, the Tunnel Sealing Experiment, to demonstrate the sealing performance of the full scale plugs in-situ, and to develop analytical method of the sealing performance of the plugs at the Underground Research Laboratory of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited in Canada. We performed the analysis of the sealing performance of the full scale plugs considering the monitored data on sealing performance of the plugs. In these analyses, stress analysis, hydraulic analysis and coupled stress-hydraulic analysis were performed to explain distribution of the pore pressure in host rock and seepage through plugs. Stress analysis showed the stress condition in host around the test tunnel. Hydraulic and coupled stress-hydraulic analyses showed the change with time of pore pressure and seepages considering schedules of opening of the test tunnel, installation of the plugs and pressurizing of the chamber. Since opening the test tunnel caused changes of the pore pressure in host rock around the test tunnel, the coupled stress-hydraulic analysis explained distribution of the pore pressure in the host rock around the test tunnel and seepage through plugs. (author)

  17. Hydraulic Apparatus for Mechanical Testing of Nuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkel, Todd J.; Dean, Richard J.; Hacker, Scott C.; Harrington, Douglas W.; Salazar, Frank

    2004-01-01

    The figure depicts an apparatus for mechanical testing of nuts. In the original application for which the apparatus was developed, the nuts are of a frangible type designed for use with pyrotechnic devices in spacecraft applications in which there are requirements for rapid, one-time separations of structures that are bolted together. The apparatus can also be used to test nonfrangible nuts engaged without pyrotechnic devices. This apparatus was developed to replace prior testing systems that were extremely heavy and immobile and characterized by long setup times (of the order of an hour for each nut to be tested). This apparatus is mobile, and the setup for each test can now be completed in about five minutes. The apparatus can load a nut under test with a static axial force of as much as 6.8 x 10(exp 5) lb (3.0 MN) and a static moment of as much as 8.5 x 10(exp 4) lb in. (9.6 x 10(exp 3) N(raised dot)m) for a predetermined amount of time. In the case of a test of a frangible nut, the pyrotechnic devices can be exploded to break the nut while the load is applied, in which case the breakage of the nut relieves the load. The apparatus can be operated remotely for safety during an explosive test. The load-generating portion of the apparatus is driven by low-pressure compressed air; the remainder of the apparatus is driven by 110-Vac electricity. From its source, the compressed air is fed to the apparatus through a regulator and a manually operated valve. The regulated compressed air is fed to a pneumatically driven hydraulic pump, which pressurizes oil in a hydraulic cylinder, thereby causing a load to be applied via a hydraulic nut (not to be confused with the nut under test). During operation, the hydraulic pressure is correlated with the applied axial load, which is verified by use of a load cell. Prior to operation, one end of a test stud (which could be an ordinary threaded rod or bolt) is installed in the hydraulic nut. The other end of the test stud passes

  18. Multivariate distributions of soil hydraulic parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Wei; Pachepsky, Yakov; Huisman, Johan Alexander; Martinez, Gonzalo; Bogena, Heye; Vereecken, Harry

    2014-05-01

    Statistical distributions of soil hydraulic parameters have to be known when synthetic fields of soil hydraulic properties need to be generated in ensemble modeling of soil water dynamics and soil water content data assimilation. Pedotransfer functions that provide statistical distributions of water retention and hydraulic conductivity parameters for textural classes are most often used in the parameter field generation. Presence of strong correlations can substantially influence the parameter generation results. The objective of this work was to review and evaluate available data on correlations between van Genuchten-Mualem (VGM) model parameters. So far, two different approaches were developed to estimate these correlations. The first approach uses pedotransfer functions to generate VGM parameters for a large number of soil compositions within a textural class, and then computes parameter correlations for each of the textural classes. The second approach computes the VGM parameter correlations directly from parameter values obtained by fitting VGM model to measured water retention and hydraulic conductivity data for soil samples belonging to a textural class. Carsel and Parish (1988) used the Rawls et al. (1982) pedotransfer functions, and Meyer et al. (1997) used the Rosetta pedotransfer algorithms (Schaap, 2002) to develop correlations according to the first approach. We used the UNSODA database (Nemes et al. 2001), the US Southern Plains database (Timlin et al., 1999), and the Belgian database (Vereecken et al., 1989, 1990) to apply the second approach. A substantial number of considerable (>0.7) correlation coefficients were found. Large differences were encountered between parameter correlations obtained with different approaches and different databases for the same textural classes. The first of the two approaches resulted in generally higher values of correlation coefficients between VGM parameters. However, results of the first approach application depend

  19. Hydraulic Fracturing in Saturated Cohesionless Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germanovich, L. N.; Hurt, R. S.; Huang, H.

    2007-12-01

    Based on the developed experimental techniques, hydraulic fracturing in particulate materials has been directly observed in the laboratory. As a result, we suggested several mechanisms of hydraulic fracturing in particulate materials and determined relevant scaling relationships (e.g., the interplay between elastic and plastic processes). While the ongoing work is likely to change at least some conclusions, it is important that the results reported in this work appear to form the framework for modeling and, perhaps, even for (qualitative) interpretation of field data. The observed fracture geometry and the measured pressure injection curves suggest that hydraulic fracturing occurs in soft sediments in the following sequence: (i) cavity expansion, (ii) fracture front initiation, and (iii) propagation of the developed fracture. Our experiments show that liquid can indeed propagate as a crack-like feature when injected into cohesionless saturated materials. Laboratory observations suggest that at the initial stage, the cavity expansion process ends with fracture initiation. Sometimes, the growing fracture resembles penetration of one movable material into another less movable material, which may be a manifestation of the Taylor-like instability. An important conclusion of our work is that all parts of the cohesionless particulate material (including the tip zone of hydraulic fracture) are likely to be in compression. The compressive stress state is an important characteristic of hydraulic fracturing in particulate materials with low, or no, cohesion (such as were used in our experiments). At present, two kinematic mechanisms of fracture propagation, consistent with the compressive stress regime, can be offered. The first mechanism is based on shear bands propagating ahead of the tip of an open fracture. The second is based on the tensile strain ahead of the fracture tip and reduction of the effective stresses to zero within the leak-off zone. Additionally, an

  20. Hydrodynamic evaluation of a hydraulic clarifier through hydraulic behaviour indicators and simplified flow models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Patiño

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Hydrodynamic phenomena take place within water treatment plants associated with physical, operational and environmental factors which can affect the water quality. This study evaluated a hydraulic clarifier’s hydrodynamic pattern using sludge recirculation through continuous tracer test leading to determining hydraulic behaviour indicators and simplified flow models. The clarifier had dual flow with a predominantly complete mixture during the hours in which higher temperatures were reported for affluent water compared to those reported inside the reactor, causing the formation of density currents promoting mixing in the reactor and increased turbidity in the effluent. The hydraulic indicators and the Wolf-Resnick model had higher sensitivity to the influence of temperature on reactor hydrodynamics.

  1. Variation in reach-scale hydraulic conductivity of streambeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewardson, M. J.; Datry, T.; Lamouroux, N.; Pella, H.; Thommeret, N.; Valette, L.; Grant, S. B.

    2016-04-01

    Streambed hydraulic conductivity is an important control on flow within the hyporheic zone, affecting hydrological, ecological, and biogeochemical processes essential to river ecosystem function. Despite many published field measurements, few empirical studies examine the drivers of spatial and temporal variations in streambed hydraulic conductivity. Reach-averaged hydraulic conductivity estimated for 119 surveys in 83 stream reaches across continental France, even of coarse bed streams, are shown to be characteristic of sand and finer sediments. This supports a model where processes leading to the accumulation of finer sediments within streambeds largely control hydraulic conductivity rather than the size of the coarse bed sediment fraction. After describing a conceptual model of relevant processes, we fit an empirical model relating hydraulic conductivity to candidate geomorphic and hydraulic drivers. The fitted model explains 72% of the deviance in hydraulic conductivity (and 30% using an external cross-validation). Reach hydraulic conductivity increases with the amplitude of bedforms within the reach, the bankfull channel width-depth ratio, stream power and upstream catchment erodibility but reduces with time since the last streambed disturbance. The correlation between hydraulic conductivity and time since a streambed mobilisation event is likely a consequence of clogging processes. Streams with a predominantly suspended load and less frequent streambed disturbances are expected to have a lower streambed hydraulic conductivity and reduced hyporheic fluxes. This study suggests a close link between streambed sediment transport dynamics and connectivity between surface water and the hyporheic zone.

  2. Derivation of site-specific relationships between hydraulic parameters and p-wave velocities based on hydraulic and seismic tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauchler, R.; Doetsch, J.; Dietrich, P.; Sauter, M.

    2012-01-10

    In this study, hydraulic and seismic tomographic measurements were used to derive a site-specific relationship between the geophysical parameter p-wave velocity and the hydraulic parameters, diffusivity and specific storage. Our field study includes diffusivity tomograms derived from hydraulic travel time tomography, specific storage tomograms, derived from hydraulic attenuation tomography, and p-wave velocity tomograms, derived from seismic tomography. The tomographic inversion was performed in all three cases with the SIRT (Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique) algorithm, using a ray tracing technique with curved trajectories. The experimental set-up was designed such that the p-wave velocity tomogram overlaps the hydraulic tomograms by half. The experiments were performed at a wellcharacterized sand and gravel aquifer, located in the Leine River valley near Göttingen, Germany. Access to the shallow subsurface was provided by direct-push technology. The high spatial resolution of hydraulic and seismic tomography was exploited to derive representative site-specific relationships between the hydraulic and geophysical parameters, based on the area where geophysical and hydraulic tests were performed. The transformation of the p-wave velocities into hydraulic properties was undertaken using a k-means cluster analysis. Results demonstrate that the combination of hydraulic and geophysical tomographic data is a promising approach to improve hydrogeophysical site characterization.

  3. Specific storage and hydraulic conductivity tomography through the joint inversion of hydraulic heads and self-potential data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, A. Soueid; Jardani, A.; Revil, A.; Dupont, J. P.

    2016-03-01

    Transient hydraulic tomography is used to image the heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity and specific storage fields of shallow aquifers using time series of hydraulic head data. Such ill-posed and non-unique inverse problem can be regularized using some spatial geostatistical characteristic of the two fields. In addition to hydraulic heads changes, the flow of water, during pumping tests, generates an electrical field of electrokinetic nature. These electrical field fluctuations can be passively recorded at the ground surface using a network of non-polarizing electrodes connected to a high impedance (> 10 MOhm) and sensitive (0.1 mV) voltmeter, a method known in geophysics as the self-potential method. We perform a joint inversion of the self-potential and hydraulic head data to image the hydraulic conductivity and specific storage fields. We work on a 3D synthetic confined aquifer and we use the adjoint state method to compute the sensitivities of the hydraulic parameters to the hydraulic head and self-potential data in both steady-state and transient conditions. The inverse problem is solved using the geostatistical quasi-linear algorithm framework of Kitanidis. When the number of piezometers is small, the record of the transient self-potential signals provides useful information to characterize the hydraulic conductivity and specific storage fields. These results show that the self-potential method reveals the heterogeneities of some areas of the aquifer, which could not been captured by the tomography based on the hydraulic heads alone. In our analysis, the improvement on the hydraulic conductivity and specific storage estimations were based on perfect knowledge of electrical resistivity field. This implies that electrical resistivity will need to be jointly inverted with the hydraulic parameters in future studies and the impact of its uncertainty assessed with respect to the final tomograms of the hydraulic parameters.

  4. Soil hydraulic properties near saturation, an improved conductivity model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børgesen, Christen Duus; Jacobsen, Ole Hørbye; Hansen, Søren;

    2006-01-01

    The hydraulic properties near saturation can change dramatically due to the presence of macropores that are usually difficult to handle in traditional pore size models. The purpose of this study is to establish a data set on hydraulic conductivity near saturation, test the predictive capability...... of commonly used hydraulic conductivity models and give suggestions for improved models. Water retention and near saturated and saturated hydraulic conductivity were measured for a variety of 81 top and subsoils. The hydraulic conductivity models by van Genuchten [van Genuchten, 1980. A closed-form equation...... for predicting the hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 44, 892–898.] (vGM) and Brooks and Corey, modified by Jarvis [Jarvis, 1991. MACRO—A Model of Water Movement and Solute Transport in Macroporous Soils. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. Department of Soil Sciences...

  5. Downstream Hydraulic Geometry of Mountain Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, E.

    2003-12-01

    The concept of downstream hydraulic geometry (DHG) was developed for fully alluvial rivers that are presumed to be capable of continually adjusting their dimensions to changes in bankfull discharge. Mountain rivers, although mostly formed in alluvium, may behave differently because discharges along the channel lack the competence to move coarse clasts introduced from colluvial processes or glaciation, or because discontinuous bedrock exposures limit channel adjustment. Consequently, the DHG of mountain rivers could reflect bankfull flows; larger magnitude, less frequent flows; or non-fluvial processes such as debris flows. The research summarized here was designed to test whether traditional DHG concepts apply to mountain rivers, and to determine when correlations between velocity, flow depth, or width, and bankfull discharge, are strongly developed. Rivers with strongly developed DHG are defined here as those with r2 values > 0.5 for at least two of the correlations. I hypothesize that a quantifiable threshold separates mountain rivers with well-developed DHG from those with poorly-developed DHG. This threshold can be expressed using a ratio of hydraulic driving forces to substrate resisting forces. As the ratio increases, the ability of bankfull flows to adjust channel dimensions should also increase. The hypothesis was tested using 8 datasets from mountain rivers in Alaska, Montana, Colorado, Panama, Nepal, and New Zealand. A ratio of either total stream power/D84, or unit stream power/D84, separates rivers with and without well-developed DHG. This approach is a simplification which ignores the presence of bedrock; the duration and frequency of flows as these affect stream power; and non-fluvial processes. However, the results suggest that mountain rivers with greater hydraulic driving forces are more likely to behave like fully alluvial rivers in terms of having well-developed DHG relations.

  6. Review of computational thermal-hydraulic modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrosion of heat transfer tubing in nuclear steam generators has been a persistent problem in the power generation industry, assuming many different forms over the years depending on chemistry and operating conditions. Whatever the corrosion mechanism, a fundamental understanding of the process is essential to establish effective management strategies. To gain this fundamental understanding requires an integrated investigative approach that merges technology from many diverse scientific disciplines. An important aspect of an integrated approach is characterization of the corrosive environment at high temperature. This begins with a thorough understanding of local thermal-hydraulic conditions, since they affect deposit formation, chemical concentration, and ultimately corrosion. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) can and should play an important role in characterizing the thermal-hydraulic environment and in predicting the consequences of that environment,. The evolution of CFD technology now allows accurate calculation of steam generator thermal-hydraulic conditions and the resulting sludge deposit profiles. Similar calculations are also possible for model boilers, so that tests can be designed to be prototypic of the heat exchanger environment they are supposed to simulate. This paper illustrates the utility of CFD technology by way of examples in each of these two areas. This technology can be further extended to produce more detailed local calculations of the chemical environment in support plate crevices, beneath thick deposits on tubes, and deep in tubesheet sludge piles. Knowledge of this local chemical environment will provide the foundation for development of mechanistic corrosion models, which can be used to optimize inspection and cleaning schedules and focus the search for a viable fix

  7. Electromechanical oscillation damping in one hydraulic central

    OpenAIRE

    Agüero, Jorge Luis; Beroqui, Mario César

    1999-01-01

    Studies, simulations, and tests carried out to damp electromechanical oscillations are described. The solution was to install Power System Stabilizer (PSS) in 4 generator of 118 MW each one, located in one hydraulic plant. This plant is connected to “Sistema Eléctrico Patagónico Interconectado (SEPI)” trough a double 330 kV transmission line, with its far end connected to one aluminum plant with two 160 MW series of 200 electrolytic cells each one. Studies began with whole system data base va...

  8. An introduction to ground-water hydraulics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book deals with ground-water hydraulics, which introduces summary on hydrologic design bases, advantage on use of ground-water, ground water with the origin of water, outflow of ground-water, property of water of aquifer like storage of aquifer importance of structure materials of aquifer, flow of ground-water such as Darcy's law and Jacob's law, environmental condition of aquifer, ground-water stage change, output per well, well design, quality of ground water and bedrock ground water in domestic.

  9. The use of asphalt in hydraulic engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Van de Velde, P.A.; Ebbens, E.H.; Van Herpen, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Asphalt products have been used in the Netherlands in hydraulic engineering for a long time on a large scale, especially after the great disaster in 1953 when a large part of western Holland was flooded by the sea. After the disaster a great number of dikes had to be repaired very quickly and this was possible with the use of asphalt as a revetment material. Asphalt could be placed much faster then the materials most commonly used in those days. Further more asphalt is, when desired, more wat...

  10. Hydraulic fracturing for polluted soils recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Belgium company ''Ecoterres'', specialist in soils treatment, has developed a new method for the decontamination of polluted sites. This method has allowed the recovery of some 780000 liters of fuel from the Nynas storage site in Wandre, near liege (Belgium). This short paper describes the drilling, hydraulic fracturing and pumping operations involved in this method which have allowed the complete recovery of the fuel spill. The pumping operation is still in progress to avoid a water pollution in the neighbouring Meuse river. (J.S.)

  11. Hydraulic characteristics of HANARO fuel bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, S.; Chung, H. J.; Chun, S. Y.; Yang, S. K.; Chung, M. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the hydraulic characteristics measured by using LDV (Laser Doppler Velocimetry) in subchannels of HANARO, KAERI research reactor, fuel bundle. The fuel bundle consists of 18 axially finned rods with 3 spacer grids, which are arranged in cylindrical configuration. The effects of the spacer grids on the turbulent flow were investigated by the experimental results. Pressure drops for each component of the fuel bundle were measured, and the friction factors of fuel bundle and loss coefficients for the spacer grids were estimated from the measured pressure drops. Implications regarding the turbulent thermal mixing were discussed. Vibration test results measured by using laser vibrometer were presented. 9 refs., 12 figs. (Author)

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF VADOSE ZONE HYDRAULIC PARAMETER VALUES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several approaches have been developed to establish a relation between the soil-moisture retention curve and readily available soil properties. Those relationships are referred to as pedotransfer functions. Described in this paper are the rationale, approach, and corroboration for use of a nonparametric pedotransfer function for the estimation of soil hydraulic-parameter values at the yucca Mountain area in Nevada for simulations of net infiltration. This approach, shown to be applicable for use at Yucca Mountain, is also applicable for use at the Hanford Site where the underlying data were collected

  13. Hydraulic Power Plant Machine Dynamic Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Günther Poll

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A method how to perform an entire structural and hydraulic diagnosis of prototype Francis power machines is presented and discussed in this report. Machine diagnosis of Francis units consists on a proper evaluation of acquired mechanical, thermal and hydraulic data obtained in different operating conditions of several rotary and non rotary machine components. Many different physical quantities of a Francis machine such as pressure, strains, vibration related data, water flow, air flow, position of regulating devices and displacements are measured in a synchronized way so that a relation of cause an effect can be developed for each operating condition and help one to understand all phenomena that are involved with such kind of machine. This amount of data needs to be adequately post processed in order to allow correct interpretation of the machine dynamics and finally these data must be compared with the expected calculated data not only to fine tuning the calculation methods but also to accomplish fully understanding of the influence of the water passages on such machines. The way how the power plant owner has to operate its Francis machines, many times also determined by a central dispatcher, has a high influence on the fatigue life time of the machine components. The diagnostic method presented in this report helps one to understand the importance of adequate operation to allow a low maintenance cost for the entire power plant. The method how to acquire these quantities is discussed in details together with the importance of correct sensor balancing, calibration and adequate correlation with the physical quantities. Typical results of the dynamic machine behavior, with adequate interpretation, obtained in recent measurement campaigns of some important hydraulic turbines were presented. The paper highlights the investigation focus of the hydraulic machine behavior and how to tailor the measurement strategy to accomplish all goals. Finally some

  14. HYDRAULIC CONCRETE COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Pshinko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Scientific work aims at the development and testing of information system to meet the challenges of concrete composition design and control (for railway structures and buildings based on the physico-analytical method algorithm for hydraulic concrete composition calculation. Methodology. The proposed algorithm of hydraulic concrete composition calculation is based on the physicochemical mechanics and in particular on the rheology of elastic–viscous–plastic bodies. The system of canonical equations consists of the equations for concrete strength, absolute volume, concrete mix consistency as well as the equation for optimal concrete saturation with aggregates while minimizing cement content. The joint solution of these four equations related to composition allows determining for the materials the concrete composition of required strength, concrete workability with minimum cement content. The procedure for calculation of hydraulic concrete composition according to the physico-analytical method consists of two parts: 1 physical, which is laboratory testing of concrete mix components in different concrete compositions; 2 analytical, which represents the calculation algorithm for concrete compositions equivalent in concrete strength and workability that comply with the specific conditions of concrete placing. Findings. To solve the problem of designing the concrete composition with the desired properties for railway structures and buildings it was proposed to use the information technology in the form of a developed computer program whose algorithm includes the physico-analytical method for hydraulic concrete composition determination. Originality. The developed concrete composition design method takes into account the basic properties of raw materials, concrete mix and concrete, which are pre-determined. The distinctive feature of physico-analytical method is obtaining of a set of equivalent compositions with a certain concrete mix

  15. Control issues for a hydraulically powered dissimilar teleoperated system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper will address two issues associated with the implementation of a hydraulically powered dissimilar master-slave teleoperated system. These issues are the overall system control architecture and the design of robust hydraulic servo controllers for the position control problem. Finally, a discussion of overall system performance on an actual teleoperated system will be presented. (Schilling's Titan II hydraulic manipulators are the slave manipulators and the master manipulators are from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory-developed Advanced Servo Manipulator.)

  16. Hydraulics national laboratory; Laboratoire national d`hydraulique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabard, J.P.

    1995-12-31

    The hydraulics national laboratory is a department of the service of applications of electric power and environment from the direction of studies and researches of Electricite de France. It has to solve the EDF problems concerning the fluids mechanics and hydraulics. Problems in PWR type reactors, fossil fuel power plants, circulating fluidized bed power plants, hydroelectric power plants relative to fluid mechanics and hydraulics studied and solved in 1995 are explained in this report. (N.C.)

  17. Soil-Bentonite Cutoff Walls: Hydraulic Conductivity and Contaminant Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Britton, Jeremy Paul

    2001-01-01

    ABSTRACT Soil-bentonite cutoff walls are commonly used to contain contaminants in the subsurface. A key property in determining the effectiveness of a cutoff wall is its hydraulic conductivity. There are important difficulties and uncertainties regarding the accuracy of commonly used methods of measuring the hydraulic conductivity of cutoff walls. When predicting contaminant transport through cutoff walls, common practice is to use the average hydraulic conductivity of the wall. ...

  18. Research on hydraulic-powered roof supports test problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Hong-bo; JIANG Jin-qiu; MA Qiang

    2011-01-01

    The load-bearing characters of hydraulic-powered roof support with dual telescopic legs were analyzed. With a specific type hydraulic-powered roof support with dual telescopic legs for research object, the inside load test problems in factories was analyzed, and the correct test methods were given, which can enhance the test efficiency and make the factories away from the error design of hydraulic-powered roof supports and legs.

  19. Hydraulic Design Criteria for Spacer Grids of Nuclear Fuel Element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper a hydraulic model for calculating the pressure drop on the CARA spacer grids is extended.This model is validated and feedback from experimental hydraulic test performed in a low pressure loop.The importance of the spacer grid geometric parameter (that is, its thickness and length, the number and kind of their fix spacer), developing hydraulic design criteria for spacer grid on fuel element

  20. Hydro Turbine and Governor Modelling: Electric - Hydraulic Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Lucero Tenorio, Luz Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    This Master’s Thesis work deals with the development of improved hydro turbine models for the evaluation of a hydraulic power generating system performance in response to small disturbances in power system analysis tool. These improved models must be able to reflect the possible interaction between the hydraulic system and power system in the computer simulations of a power plant equipped with Francis turbines.The accuracy of a Hydraulic Power Generating System is studied by means of analysis...

  1. Hydraulic transient events in hydropower plants with installed Francis turbines.

    OpenAIRE

    Mazij, Jernej

    2009-01-01

    Hydraulic transient events are the result of time related changes of hydrodinamical quantities in a hydraulic passage system. Treatise of transient events is essential to ensure safe operation of the hydropower plant, and for suitable design of turbine components and related hydromechanical equipment. Causes of transient events and their characteristics in different hydraulic passage systems are presented in this work. Basic system of water hammer equation was derived, consisting of the momen...

  2. Differences of peatlands with an emphasis on hydraulic properties

    OpenAIRE

    Mäe, Karolin; Hasemann, Jacob H.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This project is an investigation of peatlands concerning differences in two various stages; fen and raised bog. Main emphasis lays on hydraulic properties but also includes pH, carbon and ecology. Hydraulic conductivity and water retention tests were carried out for two different locations in Åmosen, Storelyng and Ulkestrup lyng. The tests were done in laboratory with pressure chambers and newly built experiment for hydraulic conductivity. Last analysis were carried out by compute...

  3. South Davis Sewer District Pump Station Hydraulic Capacity Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon, James W

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, South Davis Sewer District (SDSD) determined that possible hydraulic problems existed in their various pump stations operating within their treatment plants. A hydraulic analysis was conducted for the pump stations to diagnose the problems and provide possible alternative solutions. This analysis was conducted by using hydraulic minor loss equations to determine the amount of flow that the pumps were capable of producing and then comparing those results to the required demands in the...

  4. A Robust Adaptive Hydraulic Power Generation System for Jet Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Ronco, Pierantonio; Sorli, Massimo; Mornacchi, Andrea; Jacazio, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents an innovative hydraulic power generation system able to enhance performance, reliability and survivability of hydraulic systems used in military jet engines, as well as to allow a valuable power saving. This is obtained by a hydraulic power generation system architecture that uses variable pressure, smart control, emergency power source and suitable health management procedures. A key issue is to obtain all these functions while reducing to a minimum the number of additiona...

  5. Regulation and hydraulic design of highway stormwater drainage system

    OpenAIRE

    Žibret, Marko

    2006-01-01

    The present work handles treatment of storm water from highways and its cleaning facilities hydraulic design according to Slovenian and German guidelines and directives. First part contains basic data that we have to take into consideration in order to achieve good hydraulic design for cleaning facilities. Road and highway categorization and their typical features in Slovenia and Germany are also written as basics for runoff hydraulic design. Following, most of the storm water cleaning facili...

  6. Control issues for a hydraulically powered dissimilar teleoperated system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, J.F.; Kress, R.L.

    1995-12-31

    This paper will address two issues associated with the implementation of a hydraulically powered dissimilar master-slave teleoperated system. These issues are the overall system control architecture and the design of robust hydraulic servo controllers for the position control problem. Finally, a discussion of overall system performance on an actual teleoperated system will be presented. (Schilling`s Titan II hydraulic manipulators are the slave manipulators and the master manipulators are from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory-developed Advanced Servo Manipulator.)

  7. Development of A Hydraulic Drive for a novel Diesel-Hydraulic system for Large commercial Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stecki, J. S.; Conrad, Finn; Matheson, P.;

    2002-01-01

    The objectives and results of the research project Hybrid Diesel-Hydraulic System for Large commercial vehicles, e.g. urban freight delivery, buses or garbage trucks. The paper presents and discusses the research and development of the system, modelling approach and results from preliminary...

  8. Hydraulic Fracturing and Drinking Water Resources: Update on EPA Hydraulic Fracturing Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural gas plays a key role in our nation's energy future and the process known as hydraulic fracturing (HF) is one way of accessing that resource. Over the past few years, several key technical, economic, and energy developments have spurred increased use of HF for gas extracti...

  9. Simulation of dynamics of hydraulic system with proportional control valve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bureček Adam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics of a hydraulic system is influenced by several parameters, in this case mainly by proportional control valve, oil bulk modulus, oil viscosity, mass load etc. This paper will be focused on experimental measurement and mathematical simulation of dynamics of a hydraulic system with proportional control valve, linear hydraulic cylinder and mass load. The measurement is performed on experimental equipment that enables realization of dynamic processes of the hydraulic system. Linear hydraulic cylinder with mass load is equipped with position sensor of piston. The movement control of piston rod is ensured by the proportional control valve. The equipment enables to test an influence of parameter settings of regulator of the proportional control valve on position and pressure system responses. The piston position is recorded by magnetostrictive sensor that is located in drilled piston rod side of the linear hydraulic cylinder. Pressures are measured by piezoresistive sensors on the piston side and the piston rod side of the hydraulic cylinder. The measurement is performed during movement of the piston rod with mass load to the required position. There is realized and verified a mathematical model using Matlab SimHydraulics software for this hydraulic system.

  10. Simulation of dynamics of hydraulic system with proportional control valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureček, Adam; Hružík, Lumír; Vašina, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Dynamics of a hydraulic system is influenced by several parameters, in this case mainly by proportional control valve, oil bulk modulus, oil viscosity, mass load etc. This paper will be focused on experimental measurement and mathematical simulation of dynamics of a hydraulic system with proportional control valve, linear hydraulic cylinder and mass load. The measurement is performed on experimental equipment that enables realization of dynamic processes of the hydraulic system. Linear hydraulic cylinder with mass load is equipped with position sensor of piston. The movement control of piston rod is ensured by the proportional control valve. The equipment enables to test an influence of parameter settings of regulator of the proportional control valve on position and pressure system responses. The piston position is recorded by magnetostrictive sensor that is located in drilled piston rod side of the linear hydraulic cylinder. Pressures are measured by piezoresistive sensors on the piston side and the piston rod side of the hydraulic cylinder. The measurement is performed during movement of the piston rod with mass load to the required position. There is realized and verified a mathematical model using Matlab SimHydraulics software for this hydraulic system.

  11. Progress of thermal-hydraulic research on SCWR in NPIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For advantages of higher efficiency of thermal cycle, simpler primary coolant circuit etc, Supercritical Water Reactor (SCWR) is much competitive in the Generation-IV nuclear system. Based on the supercritical water reactor engineering, NPIC has started related numerical analysis, test technology research, test facility design and some experimental researches of thermal hydraulics of supercritical water since 2005. The progress of thermal hydraulic research on SCW in NPIC in the past five years, will be introduced briefly, included numerical research of SCW thermal hydraulic performance, test technology research, design and construction of thermal hydraulic test facilities, and related experimental research of SCW flow resistance and heat transfer behavior. (author)

  12. Predictive Maintenance of Hydraulic Lifts through Lubricating Oil Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamatios S. Kalligeros

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the possibility of measuring lift maintenance through analysis of used hydraulic oil. Hydraulic oils have proved to be a reliable indicator for the maintenance performed on elevators. It has also been proved that the end users or the maintenance personnel do not always conform to the instructions of the elevators’ hydraulic machine manufacturer. Furthermore, by examining the proportion of the metals, an estimation of the corrosion and the wear resistance of the joined moving parts can be observed. Additionally, the presence of chlorine and calcium in hydraulic oils demonstrates their function in a highly corrosive environment.

  13. Quantifying the Efficiency Advantages of High Viscosity Index Hydraulic Fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christian D. Neveu; Michael D. Zink; Alex Tsay

    2006-01-01

    By providing higher in- use viscosity at elevated operating temperatures, hydraulic fluids with high viscosity index improve the efficiency of the hydraulic system. For mobile hydraulic equipment this efficiency can be quantified as an increase in fuel economy. This paper reviews the research that demonstrates these efficiency advantages in gear, vane and piston pumps and presents a method for predicting the overall fuel economy for a fleet of hydraulic equipment in opquipment operator to easily improve the performance of the system and reduce fuel consumption.

  14. Spatial variability in streambed hydraulic conductivity of contrasting stream morphologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebök, Éva; Calvache, Carlos Duque; Engesgaard, Peter Knudegaard;

    2015-01-01

    Streambed hydraulic conductivity is one of the main factors controlling variability in surface water-groundwater interactions, but only few studies aim at quantifying its spatial and temporal variability in different stream morphologies. Streambed horizontal hydraulic conductivities (Kh) were...... therefore determined from in-stream slug tests, vertical hydraulic conductivities (Kv) were calculated with in-stream permeameter tests and hydraulic heads were measured to obtain vertical head gradients at eight transects, each comprising five test locations, in a groundwater-dominated stream. Seasonal...

  15. VIRTUAL DESIGN OF A NEW TYPE OF HYDRAULIC SUPPORT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Using virtual reality to design a new type of hydraulic support is discussed. That is how to make use of the virtual design to develop coal mining machine in practice. The advantages of virtual design are studied and the simple virtual reality system is built. The 3D parts and elements of hydraulic support are modeled with parametric design in CAD software, then exported to VR environment, in which the virtual hydraulic support is assembled, operated and tested. With the method, the errors and faults of design can be fined easily, many improvements are made and the new hydraulic support is developed successfully.

  16. Hydraulic braking system for loads subjected to impacts and vibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention concerns a hydraulic braking system for loads subjected to impacts and vibrations. These double acting telescopic type hydraulic braking systems possess significant drawbacks linked to possibly important hydraulic leaks due to (a) the use of many dynamic seals in such appliances and (b) the effects of the environment of the system on these seals, particularly when employed in nuclear power stations where the seals reach significant temperatures and are subjected to radiation. Under this invention a remedy is suggested to such drawbacks by integrating means to offset automatically the leaks and the accumulation of hydraulic fluid expansions, as well as facilities to show if such leaks have occurred

  17. Hydraulic nuts (HydraNuts) for critical bolted joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HydraNuts replace the original nut and torquing equipment, combining the two functions into one system. Designed for simple installation and operation. HydraNuts are fitted to the stud bolts. Once all HydraNuts are fitted to the application, flexible hydraulic hoses are connected, forming a closed loop hydraulic harness, allowing simultaneous pressurization of all HydraNuts. Hydraulic pressure is obtained by the use of a pumping unit and the resultant load generated is transferred to the studs and flange closure is obtained. Locking rings are rotated into place, supporting the tensioned load mechanically after hydraulic pressure is released. The hose harness is removed. (author)

  18. Validation of simulated flow direction and hydraulic gradients with hydraulic head observations using open source GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandersteen, Katrijn; Rogiers, Bart; Gedeon, Matej

    2015-04-01

    It is recommended to check hydraulic gradients and flow directions predicted by a groundwater flow model that is calibrated solely with hydraulic head observations. It has been demonstrated in literature that substantial errors can be made when the model is not calibrated on these state variables. Therefore, in this work, we perform a validation of a steady-state groundwater flow model, representing part of the Neogene aquifer (60 km2) in Belgium. This model was developed and calibrated solely on groundwater head measurements, in the framework of the environmental impact assessment of the near surface repository for low- and intermediate-level short-lived waste, realized by ONDRAF/NIRAS at Dessel, Belgium. Horizontal flow directions, horizontal and vertical gradients for the entire area of the groundwater model were estimated from measurements at shallow monitoring wells within the groundwater flow model domain, and compared to the flow directions and vertical gradients predicted by the model. For obtaining horizontal flow directions and gradients, triangulation of groundwater levels was performed for combinations of three neighboring hydraulic head observations in the same hydrogeological layer within the model. The simulated equivalents at the same monitoring wells were used to repeat the same methodology, and calculate flow direction components. This analysis was performed in SAGA GIS and was visualized through QGIS. Comparison of the flow directions and flow gradients obtained from measurements and simulations gives an indication on the model performance. The calculations were performed for three sandy hydrogeological units used in the model. A similar procedure was performed for the vertical hydraulic head gradients, where any combination of two hydraulic head observations at the same location but at different levels within the aquifer were used to validate the vertical gradients predicted by the model. Besides model validation on average hydraulic heads, the

  19. Thermal Hydraulic Tests for Reactor Core Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, S. K.; Baek, W. P.; Chun, S. Y. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    The main objectives of the present project are to resolve the current issues of reactor core thermal hydraulics, to develop an advanced measurement and analytical techniques, and to perform reactor core safety verification tests. 6x6 reflood experiments, various heat transfer experiments using Freon, and experiments on the spacer grids effects on the post-dryout are carried out using spacer grids developed in Korea in order to resolve the current issues of the reactor core thermal hydraulics. In order to develop a reflood heat transfer model, the detailed reflood phenomena are visualized and measured using round tube and 2x2 rod bundle. A detailed turbulent mixing phenomenon for subchannels is measured using advanced measurement techniques such as LDV and PIV. MARS and MATRA codes developed in Korea are assessed, verified and improved using the obtained experimental data. Finally, a systematic quality assurance program and experimental data generation system has been constructed in order to increase the reliability of the experimental data.

  20. Stirling/hydraulic artificial heart power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The REL power source combines the high efficiency of Stirling engines with the reliability, efficiency, and flexibility of hydraulic power transfer and control to ensure long system life and physiological effectiveness. Extended life testing has been achieved with an engine (2.6 years) and hydraulic actuator/controller (1.6 years). Peak power source efficiency is 15.5 percent on 5 to 10 watts delivered to the blood pump push plate with 33 watts steady thermal input. Planned incorporation of power source output control is expected to reduce daily average thermal input to 18 watts. Animal in-vivo tests with an assist heart have consistently demonstrated required performance by biological synchronization and effective ventricle relief. Volume and weight are 0.93 liter and 2.4 kg (excluding blood pump) with an additional 0.4 liter of low temperature foam insulation required to preclude tissue thermal damage. Carefully planned development of System 7 is expected to produce major reductions in size

  1. Extreme Velocity Fluctuations below Free Hydraulic Jumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Antonio Lopardo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The internal flow of hydraulic jump is essentially an unsteady flow subjected to macroturbulent random fluctuations, and it was not known enough. Then, for the fluctuating motion interpretation, the experimental research on the associated turbulence must be necessary. The author developed in the past extensive laboratory research for the instantaneous pressure field determination by means of pressure transducers and new introductory experiments on velocity fluctuations by means of the ADV technique. The experimental study of the instantaneous pressure field was based on the knowledge of several statistical parameters of amplitudes and frequencies as functions of the Froude number, but for this paper the maximum instantaneous negative of pressure amplitudes on the floor is considered, in order to estimate the extreme maximum positive velocities near the bottom. A useful relationship between turbulence intensity and the pressure fluctuation coefficient was proposed from ADV velocity fluctuation for low incident Froude numbers. By means of this relationship, the value (instantaneous positive semiamplitude with 0.1% of probability to be surpassed can be considered for the determination of the turbulent extreme velocity near the bottom, under a free hydraulic jump stilling basin with incident Froude number .

  2. Drainage hydraulics of permeable friction courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbeneau, Randall J.; Barrett, Michael E.

    2008-04-01

    This paper describes solutions to the hydraulic equations that govern flow in permeable friction courses (PFC). PFC is a layer of porous asphalt approximately 50 mm thick that is placed as an overlay on top of an existing conventional concrete or asphalt road surface to help control splash and hydroplaning, reduce noise, and enhance quality of storm water runoff. The primary objective of this manuscript is to present an analytical system of equations that can be used in design and analysis of PFC systems. The primary assumptions used in this analysis are that the flow can be modeled as one-dimensional, steady state Darcy-type flow and that slopes are sufficiently small so that the Dupuit-Forchheimer assumptions apply. Solutions are derived for cases where storm water drainage is confined to the PFC bed and for conditions where the PFC drainage capacity is exceeded and ponded sheet flow occurs across the pavement surface. The mathematical solutions provide the drainage characteristics (depth and residence time) as a function of rainfall intensity, PFC hydraulic conductivity, pavement slope, and maximum drainage path length.

  3. [Hydraulic fracturing - a hazard for drinking water?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewers, U; Gordalla, B; Frimmel, F

    2013-11-01

    Hydraulic fracturing (fracking) is a technique used to release and promote the extraction of natural gas (including shale gas, tight gas, and coal bed methane) from deep natural gas deposits. Among the German public there is great concern with regard to the potential environmental impacts of fracking including the contamination of ground water, the most important source of drinking water in Germany. In the present article the risks of ground water contamination through fracking are discussed. Due to the present safety requirements and the obligatory geological and hydrogeological scrutiny of the underground, which has to be performed prior to fracking, the risk of ground water contamination by fracking can be regarded as very low. The toxicity of chemical additives of fracking fluids is discussed. It is recommended that in the future environmental impact assessment and approval of fracs should be performed by the mining authorities in close cooperation with the water authorities. Furthermore, it is recommended that hydraulic fracturing in the future should be accompanied by obligatory ground water monitoring. PMID:24285158

  4. Particle laden fluids in hydraulic fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecampion, Brice

    2015-11-01

    The aim of hydraulic fracturing is to create a highly conductive pathway in the reservoir formation of interest. This is typically achieved by ``propping'' the created fracture with solid particles (i.e. proppant) in order to prevent complete closure of the created fracture due to in-situ stresses when pumping stops. The placement of proppant is therefore the main goal of any fracturing treatment. It involves a number of interesting fluid dynamics problem (suspensions flow with settling, complex rheologies of the base fluid, effect of the fracture roughness etc.). In this talk, we will review the different class of fluids used to achieve proppant placement in fracture particularly focusing on their widely varied rheological properties. We will also discuss the different flow regimes that are typically encountered during a hydraulic fracturing job. In particular, we will notably present in details how recent advances in our understanding of dense suspensions flow can improve predictions of proppant placement in the Stokesian regime. Second author: Dmtiry Garagash, Dalhousie University.

  5. Where Does Water Go During Hydraulic Fracturing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, D; Karra, S; Currier, R P; Makedonska, N; Hyman, J D; Viswanathan, H S

    2016-07-01

    During hydraulic fracturing millions of gallons of water are typically injected at high pressure into deep shale formations. This water can be housed in fractures, within the shale matrix, and can potentially migrate beyond the shale formation via fractures and/or faults raising environmental concerns. We describe a generic framework for producing estimates of the volume available in fractures and undamaged shale matrix where water injected into a representative shale site could reside during hydraulic fracturing, and apply it to a representative site that incorporates available field data. The amount of water that can be stored in the fractures is estimated by calculating the volume of all the fractures associated with a discrete fracture network (DFN) based on real data and using probability theory to estimate the volume of smaller fractures that are below the lower cutoff for the fracture radius in the DFN. The amount of water stored in the matrix is estimated utilizing two distinct methods-one using a two-phase model at the pore-scale and the other using a single-phase model at the continuum scale. Based on these calculations, it appears that most of the water resides in the matrix with a lesser amount in the fractures. PMID:26469857

  6. Hydraulic fracture model comparison study: Complete results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warpinski, N.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Abou-Sayed, I.S. [Mobil Exploration and Production Services (United States); Moschovidis, Z. [Amoco Production Co. (US); Parker, C. [CONOCO (US)

    1993-02-01

    Large quantities of natural gas exist in low permeability reservoirs throughout the US. Characteristics of these reservoirs, however, make production difficult and often economic and stimulation is required. Because of the diversity of application, hydraulic fracture design models must be able to account for widely varying rock properties, reservoir properties, in situ stresses, fracturing fluids, and proppant loads. As a result, fracture simulation has emerged as a highly complex endeavor that must be able to describe many different physical processes. The objective of this study was to develop a comparative study of hydraulic-fracture simulators in order to provide stimulation engineers with the necessary information to make rational decisions on the type of models most suited for their needs. This report compares the fracture modeling results of twelve different simulators, some of them run in different modes for eight separate design cases. Comparisons of length, width, height, net pressure, maximum width at the wellbore, average width at the wellbore, and average width in the fracture have been made, both for the final geometry and as a function of time. For the models in this study, differences in fracture length, height and width are often greater than a factor of two. In addition, several comparisons of the same model with different options show a large variability in model output depending upon the options chosen. Two comparisons were made of the same model run by different companies; in both cases the agreement was good. 41 refs., 54 figs., 83 tabs.

  7. A Hydraulic Transfer System for Producing Radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research reactors are constructed mainly for producing radioisotopes, neutron beams and neutron irradiation research and so on. The research reactors generally have two separate area; one is the reactor area and the other is the radioisotopes (RI) production area. After various irradiation objects are irradiated in the reactor located in the reactor area, they are transferred to the RI production building for post-processing. The Hydraulic Transfer System (HTS) is one of RI production and utilization facilities of a research reactor. The HTS is for irradiating targets in the reactor core, and targets are transferred through pipes by hydraulic force. A similar system can be seen in other research reactor such as FRM II, JMTR, HFIR, etc. There are two parallel open-loops used to irradiate targets, and the HTS will circulate pool water to load/unload targets into/from the irradiation tubes and cool targets during irradiation. This paper contains the introduction and operation of the HTS. The HTS permits instantaneous irradiation activity during the reactor operation. It contributes to the RI production and utilization for public welfare, industrial applications and research areas

  8. Water hydraulic polymer components under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymers will be used as different sealing and glide components in the hydraulic remote handling systems for lifting and moving activities in ITER. The degradation of the polymer materials does not depend only on the radiation dose but also on the irradiation environment, and for remote handling hydraulic applications the components have to work in high humidity or water. In this paper, three different polymers have been tested as possible seals and O-rings: PEEK, polyethylene (UHMW-PE) and polyurethane. Specimens of each material have been irradiated with 60Co γ-rays up to 10 MGy in water and in dry nitrogen. Following irradiation mechanical testing (tensile and microhardness) and microstructural observations of the fracture mode were carried out. The results show that PEEK is outstanding, showing excellent mechanical behaviour for the doses and irradiation conditions studied. Up to 10 MGy, neither hardness nor tensile strength were modified. In the case of polyethylene and polyurethane, the tensile failure mechanism was modified with irradiation and gave rise to a lower ability for bending. However, up to 10 MGy the measured tensile strength and hardness data are still acceptable. The experimental results obtained from the irradiations in water and in dry nitrogen are very similar, indicating in this case that the water environment has little effect

  9. A Hydraulic Transfer System for Producing Radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Joonho; Lee, Sangjin; Lee, Chungyoung; Lee, Jongmin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Research reactors are constructed mainly for producing radioisotopes, neutron beams and neutron irradiation research and so on. The research reactors generally have two separate area; one is the reactor area and the other is the radioisotopes (RI) production area. After various irradiation objects are irradiated in the reactor located in the reactor area, they are transferred to the RI production building for post-processing. The Hydraulic Transfer System (HTS) is one of RI production and utilization facilities of a research reactor. The HTS is for irradiating targets in the reactor core, and targets are transferred through pipes by hydraulic force. A similar system can be seen in other research reactor such as FRM II, JMTR, HFIR, etc. There are two parallel open-loops used to irradiate targets, and the HTS will circulate pool water to load/unload targets into/from the irradiation tubes and cool targets during irradiation. This paper contains the introduction and operation of the HTS. The HTS permits instantaneous irradiation activity during the reactor operation. It contributes to the RI production and utilization for public welfare, industrial applications and research areas.

  10. Smart magnetic markers use in hydraulic fracturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzki, Jarosław; Bogacki, Jan

    2016-11-01

    One of the main challenges and unknowns during shale gas exploration is to assess the range and efficiency of hydraulic fracturing. It is also essential to assess the distribution of proppant, which keeps the fracture pathways open. Solving these problems may considerably increase the efficiency of the shale gas extraction. Because of that, the idea of smart magnetic marker, which can be detected when added to fracturing fluid, has been considered for a long time. This study provides overview of the possibilities of magnetic marker application for shale gas extraction. The imaging methods using electromagnetic markers, are considered or developed in two directions. The first possibility is the markers' electromagnetic activity throughout the whole volume of the fracturing fluid. Thus, it can be assumed that the whole fracturing fluid is the marker. Among these type of hydraulic fracturing solutions, ferrofluid could be considered. The second possibility is marker, which is just one of many components of the fracturing fluid. In this case feedstock magnetic materials, ferrites and nanomaterials could be considered. Magnetic properties of magnetite could be too low and ferrofluids' or nanomaterials' price is unacceptably high. Because of that, ferrites, especially ZnMn ferrites seems to be the best material for magnetic marker. Because of the numerous applications in electronics, it is cheap and easily available, although the price is higher, then that of magnetite. The disadvantage of using ferrite, could be too small mechanical strength. It creates an essential need for combining magnetic marker with proppant into magnetic-ceramic composite. PMID:27475294

  11. Geomorphic Segmentation, Hydraulic Geometry, and Hydraulic Microhabitats of the Niobrara River, Nebraska - Methods and Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jason S.; Zelt, Ronald B.; Schaepe, Nathaniel J.

    2009-01-01

    The Niobrara River of Nebraska is a geologically, ecologically, and economically significant resource. The State of Nebraska has recognized the need to better manage the surface- and ground-water resources of the Niobrara River so they are sustainable in the long term. In cooperation with the Nebraska Game and Parks Commission, the U.S. Geological Survey is investigating the hydrogeomorphic settings and hydraulic geometry of the Niobrara River to assist in characterizing the types of broad-scale physical habitat attributes that may be of importance to the ecological resources of the river system. This report includes an inventory of surface-water and ground-water hydrology data, surface water-quality data, a longitudinal geomorphic segmentation and characterization of the main channel and its valley, and hydraulic geometry relations for the 330-mile section of the Niobrara River from Dunlap Diversion Dam in western Nebraska to the Missouri River confluence. Hydraulic microhabitats also were analyzed using available data from discharge measurements to demonstrate the potential application of these data and analysis methods. The main channel of the Niobrara was partitioned into three distinct fluvial geomorphic provinces: an upper province characterized by open valleys and a sinuous, equiwidth channel; a central province characterized by mixed valley and channel settings, including several entrenched canyon reaches; and a lower province where the valley is wide, yet restricted, but the river also is wide and persistently braided. Within the three fluvial geomorphic provinces, 36 geomorphic segments were identified using a customized, process-orientated classification scheme, which described the basic physical characteristics of the Niobrara River and its valley. Analysis of the longitudinal slope characteristics indicated that the Niobrara River longitudinal profile may be largely bedrock-controlled, with slope inflections co-located at changes in bedrock type at

  12. TRIGA mixed HEU - LEU thermal hydraulic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is generally known that now TRIGA SSR has a mixed HEU-LEU core. In order to increase the reactor fuel utilization by slightly rising the excess reactivity, one idea was to extract the central fuel pin from the fuel cluster. The paper is dedicated to the core safety thermal hydraulic analysis of the modified cluster configuration. Thermal hydraulic analysis was done by neutronic computation with 3DDT (three-dimensional diffusion) computer code. The results of these computations, regarding pin-power factors, were input for the thermal hydraulic analysis. We use for our analysis COBRA IV computer code. The configuration analyzed was of a TRIGA fuel cluster of 25 fuel elements in 5 x 5 square configuration. It was considered multi-channel geometry specific for the COBRA computations. For the reason of analysis two cooling modes were chosen: - two pumps with 660 l/sec flow rate; - one cooling pump with 330 l/s. The computations were done for 14 MW rating power. In both cooling modes the heat transfer is produced by fluid forced convection. The gap heat transfer coefficient used is 1.36 +4 W/m2K, which corresponds for a gap width of 1.27-3 cm according to the Safety Report. It is to emphasize that both HEU and LEU fuel types share the same thermal characteristics. The important safety characteristics for both fuels is maximum central temperature, which is limited to 750 deg. C. The reason for this limitation is the fuel composition. Above this temperature the U-ZrH alloy changes the phase and hydrogen is generated what increases the stresses into the fuel. Working with COBRA computer code and with power peaking factors resulting from neutronic analysis, the effect of central pin removal is given by comparing the temperatures of the fuel elements in normal and modified cluster. A small increase of about 1% is observed in latter case as compared with the normal one. At the same time the temperatures at 4 pins in the vicinity of the central water-filed space is decreased

  13. Uncertainty Analysis of Simulated Hydraulic Fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M.; Sun, Y.; Fu, P.; Carrigan, C. R.; Lu, Z.

    2012-12-01

    Artificial hydraulic fracturing is being used widely to stimulate production of oil, natural gas, and geothermal reservoirs with low natural permeability. Optimization of field design and operation is limited by the incomplete characterization of the reservoir, as well as the complexity of hydrological and geomechanical processes that control the fracturing. Thus, there are a variety of uncertainties associated with the pre-existing fracture distribution, rock mechanics, and hydraulic-fracture engineering that require evaluation of their impact on the optimized design. In this study, a multiple-stage scheme was employed to evaluate the uncertainty. We first define the ranges and distributions of 11 input parameters that characterize the natural fracture topology, in situ stress, geomechanical behavior of the rock matrix and joint interfaces, and pumping operation, to cover a wide spectrum of potential conditions expected for a natural reservoir. These parameters were then sampled 1,000 times in an 11-dimensional parameter space constrained by the specified ranges using the Latin-hypercube method. These 1,000 parameter sets were fed into the fracture simulators, and the outputs were used to construct three designed objective functions, i.e. fracture density, opened fracture length and area density. Using PSUADE, three response surfaces (11-dimensional) of the objective functions were developed and global sensitivity was analyzed to identify the most sensitive parameters for the objective functions representing fracture connectivity, which are critical for sweep efficiency of the recovery process. The second-stage high resolution response surfaces were constructed with dimension reduced to the number of the most sensitive parameters. An additional response surface with respect to the objective function of the fractal dimension for fracture distributions was constructed in this stage. Based on these response surfaces, comprehensive uncertainty analyses were conducted

  14. Thermal-Hydraulics Research in the Valencia Polytechnic University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research on thermal-hydraulics at the Polytechnic University of Valencia is performed by the TIN group (thermal-hydraulic and Nuclear Engineering). The group activities are currently carried out at the Energy Engineering Institute. The main research topics are: transient analysis of reactors, nuclear reactor stability, passive and advanced safety reactors, two-phase flow in nuclear reactors. (Author)

  15. Controlling a negative loaded hydraulic cylinder using pressure feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M.R.; Andersen, T.O.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the inherent oscillatory nature of pressure compensated velocity control of a hydraulic cylinder subjected to a negative load and suspended by means of an over-center valve. Initially, a linearized stability analysis of such a hydraulic circuit is carried out clearly...

  16. Hydraulics and pneumatics: don`t blow your money

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, B.

    1997-09-25

    The significant savings obtained when operating air compressors and hydraulic systems using variable speed drives and new designs are noted. Details are given of recent advances in air compressor technology such as the SSR 2-stage rotary air compressor and the Cyclon 475SR(speed regulation) rotary screw compressor. The UK hydraulics and pneumatics markets are discussed. (UK)

  17. FEASIBILITY OF HYDRAULIC FRACTURING OF SOILS TO IMPROVE REMEDIAL ACTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydraulic fracturing, a technique commonly used to increase the yields of oil wells, could improve the effectiveness of several methods of in situ remediation. This project consisted of laboratory and field tests in which hydraulic fractures were created in soil. Laboratory te...

  18. 7 CFR 2902.28 - Stationary equipment hydraulic fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... designation can be found in the Comprehensive Procurement Guideline, 40 CFR 247.11. EPA provides recovered... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stationary equipment hydraulic fluids. 2902.28... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 2902.28 Stationary equipment hydraulic fluids. (a) Definition....

  19. 14 CFR 35.43 - Propeller hydraulic components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propeller hydraulic components. 35.43... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.43 Propeller hydraulic components. Applicants must show by test, validated analysis, or both, that propeller components that contain...

  20. Maintaining Optimum Pump Performance with Specially- Formulated Hydraulic Fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a battery of tests, and related results, that were performed under normal and severe conditions designed to demonstrate that hydraulic fluids formulated with Lubrizol' s high quality anti - wear hydraulic fluid technology can stand up to today's increasing demands for longer life and provide excellent performance under higher operating temperatures and pressures.

  1. Hydraulic Systems with Tap Water versus Bio-oils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    1997-01-01

    Deals with the advantages of using pure tap water hydraulics versus bio-oils for suiteable applications. Focus is in particular on food processing industry.......Deals with the advantages of using pure tap water hydraulics versus bio-oils for suiteable applications. Focus is in particular on food processing industry....

  2. 46 CFR 58.30-10 - Hydraulic fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... manufacturers and ANSI B93.5 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 58.03-1) shall be considered in the... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydraulic fluid. 58.30-10 Section 58.30-10 Shipping... AND RELATED SYSTEMS Fluid Power and Control Systems § 58.30-10 Hydraulic fluid. (a) The...

  3. Evaluation of Hydraulic Response of the Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    The present study investigates the hydraulic response of the wave energy converter Wave Dragon. This is done by peforming model tests in a wave tank in the Hydraulics & Coastal Engineering Laboratory at Aalborg University. In the model tests a floating scale model (length scale 1:50) of the Wave...

  4. Modeling and parameter estimation for hydraulic system of excavator's arm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Qing-hua; HAO Peng; ZHANG Da-qing

    2008-01-01

    A retrofitted electro-bydraulic proportional system for hydraulic excavator was introduced firstly. According to the principle and characteristic of load independent flow distribution(LUDV)system, taking boom hydraulic system as an example and ignoring the leakage of hydraulic cylinder and the mass of oil in it,a force equilibrium equation and a continuous equation of hydraulic cylinder were set up.Based On the flow equation of electro-hydraulic proportional valve, the pressure passing through the valve and the difference of pressure were tested and analyzed.The results show that the difference of pressure does not change with load, and it approximates to 2.0 MPa. And then, assume the flow across the valve is directly proportional to spool displacement andis not influenced by load, a simplified model of electro-hydraulic system was put forward. At the same time, by analyzing the structure and load-bearing of boom instrument, and combining moment equivalent equation of manipulator with rotating law, the estimation methods and equations for such parameters as equivalent mass and bearing force of hydraulic cylinder were set up. Finally, the step response of flow of boom cylinder was tested when the electro-hydraulic proportional valve was controlled by the stepcurrent. Based on the experiment curve, the flow gain coefficient of valve is identified as 2.825×10-4m3/(s·A)and the model is verified.

  5. Tap Water Hydraulic Systems for Medium Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Adelstorp, Anders

    1998-01-01

    Presentation of new range of developed tap water hydraulic componets and applications for medium power up to 4 kW and 50 bar.......Presentation of new range of developed tap water hydraulic componets and applications for medium power up to 4 kW and 50 bar....

  6. Does hydraulic lift or nighttime transpiration facilitate nitrogen acquistion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has been proposed that plant species that hydraulically lift water to dry shallow soil layers should have improved nutrient relations. Yet, this idea has not been adequately tested. We choose ten Sarcobatus vermiculatus plants with different magnitudes of hydraulic lift to examine the hypothesis...

  7. Experimental evaluation of control strategies for hydraulic servo robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Michael Møller; Andersen, Torben Ole; Pedersen, Henrik C.;

    2013-01-01

    In this paper different linear and non-linear controllers applied to a hydraulically driven servo robot are evaluated and validated. The task is to make the actuators of the manipulator track a position reference with minimum error. Hydraulic systems are intrinsically non-linear and using linear...... in industrial servo drives. The different controllers are compared and evaluated from simulation and experimental results....

  8. Experimental investigation of hydraulic characteristics of tank reactor model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments for studying the hydraulic characteristics of a vessel reactor model at the MR stand described. The hydraulic model of a two-loop reactor of the vessel type is described. The experimental data are obtained in the wide range of the stand operating parameters, including the emergency modes of the reactor model operation with the total shut-down of one feed pump

  9. Effects of Land Use and Management on Soil Hydraulic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horel, Ágota; Tóth, Eszter; Gelybó, Györgyi; Kása, Ilona; Bakacsi, Zsófia; Farkas, Csilla

    2015-11-01

    Soil hydraulic properties are among the most important parameters that determine soil quality and its capability to serve the ecosystem. Land use can significantly influence soil properties, including its hydraulic conditions; however, additional factors, such as changes in climate (temperature and precipitation), can further influence the land use effects on soil hydraulic properties. In order to develop possible adaptation measures and mitigate any negative effects of land use and climatic changes, it is important to study the impact of land use and changes in land use on soil hydraulic properties. In this paper, we summarize recent studies examining the effect of land use/land cover and the associated changes in soil hydraulic properties, mainly focusing on agricultural scenarios of cultivated croplands and different tillage systems.

  10. Investigation of Valve Plate in Water Hydraulic Axial Piston Motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂松林; 李壮云; 等

    2002-01-01

    This paper has introduced the developments of water hydraulic axial piston equipments.According to the effects of physicochemical properties of water on water hydraulic components,a novel valve plate for water hydraulic axial motor has been put forward,whose moment exerted by the fluid field between valve plate and bearing plate is balanced entirely.The material screening experiment of valve plate is done on the test rig.Through numerical simulation the effects of some geometry parameters on the performance of water hydraulic motor have been studied.The silencing grooves on the valve plate in water hydraulic motor can reduce the pressure shock and the occurrence of cavitation effectively.It is evident that the appropriate structure should change the wear status between matching paris and reduces the wear and specific pressure of the matching pairs.The specimen with the new type valve plate is used in a tool system.

  11. CFD Aided Design and Production of Hydraulic Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Alper; Cetinturk, Huseyin; Demirel, Gizem; Ayli, Ece; Celebioglu, Kutay; Aradag, Selin; ETU Hydro Research Center Team

    2014-11-01

    Hydraulic turbines are turbo machines which produce electricity from hydraulic energy. Francis type turbines are the most common one in use today. The design of these turbines requires high engineering effort since each turbine is tailor made due to different head and discharge. Therefore each component of the turbine is designed specifically. During the last decades, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has become very useful tool to predict hydraulic machinery performance and save time and money for designers. This paper describes a design methodology to optimize a Francis turbine by integrating theoretical and experimental fundamentals of hydraulic machines and commercial CFD codes. Specific turbines are designed and manufactured with the help of a collaborative CFD/CAD/CAM methodology based on computational fluid dynamics and five-axis machining for hydraulic electric power plants. The details are presented in this study. This study is financially supported by Turkish Ministry of Development.

  12. COHESIVE ZONE FINITE ELEMENT-BASED MODELING OF HYDRAULIC FRACTURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuorong Chen; A.P. Bunger; Xi Zhang; Robert G. Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is a powerful technology used to stimulate fluid production from reservoirs. The fully 3-D numerical simulation of the hydraulic fracturing process is of great importance to the efficient application of this technology, but is also a great challenge because of the strong nonlinear coupling between the viscous flow of fluid and fracture propagation. By taking advantage of a cohesive zone method to simulate the fracture process, a finite element model based on the existing pore pressure cohesive finite elements has been established to investigate the propagation of a penny-shaped hydraulic fracture in an infinite elastic medium. The effect of cohesive material parameters and fluid viscosity on the hydraulic fracture behaviour has been investigated. Excellent agreement between the finite element results and analytical solutions for the limiting case where the fracture process is dominated by rock fracture toughness demonstrates the ability of the cohesive zone finite element model in simulating the hydraulic fracture growth for this case.

  13. Lubrication and tribology in seawater hydraulic piston pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dong; LI Zhuang-yun; ZHU Yu-quan

    2003-01-01

    Water hydraulic systems have provoked major interest because of the human friendly and environmental safety aspects. Piston pump is one of the most frequently used hydraulic units in recent engineering technique. In water hydraulic piston pump, poor lubrication is more likely to happen than in oil hydraulic one because of difference in properties between water and oil. So there are some key problems such as corrosive wear and erosion, which are investigated briefly. Many new materials have been developed, which give longer life expectancies with water without corrosion and erosion. A new type of seawater hydraulic piston pumps with better suction characteristics had been developed at HUST. Much of this research has concentrated on new materials, structure and experiments, which are also specially introduced.

  14. ANALYSIS AND ESTIMATION OF HYDRAULIC STABILITY OF FRANCIS HYDRO TURBINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI Xi-de

    2004-01-01

    With the development of large-capacity hydro turbines, the hydraulic instability of bydro turbines has become one of the most important problems that affect the stable operation of the hydro-electric units. The hydraulic vibration and unstable operation of Francis hydro turbines are primarily caused by the unsteady pressure pulsations inside draft tubes.The forced rotating vortex core at the runner exit and the channel vortices inside Francis turbine runners are origins of the unsteady pressure pulsations when operating at partial load. This paper briefly analyzes the hydraulic instability of operation caused by the vortex core and channel vortices at partial load, then, presents a way to estimate the hydraulic stability by calculation of the flow behavior at the runner exit.The validity of estimation is examined by comparison with experimental data. This will be helpful to evaluate the alternative design and predict the hydraulic stability for both the prototype and model hydro turbines.

  15. COMPUTATIONAL FLOW RATE FEEDBACK AND CONTROL METHOD IN HYDRAULIC ELEVATORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Bing; Ma Jien; Lin Jianjie

    2005-01-01

    The computational flow rate feedback and control method, which can be used in proportional valve controlled hydraulic elevators, is discussed and analyzed. In a hydraulic elevator with this method, microprocessor receives pressure information from the pressure transducers and computes the flow rate through the proportional valve based on pressure-flow conversion real time algorithm. This hydraulic elevator is of lower cost and energy consumption than the conventional closed loop control hydraulic elevator whose flow rate is measured by a flow meter. Experiments are carried out on a test rig which could simulate the load of hydraulic elevator. According to the experiment results, the means to modify the pressure-flow conversion algorithm are pointed out.

  16. Pedotransfer functions estimating soil hydraulic properties using different soil parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børgesen, Christen Duus; Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Jacobsen, Ole Hørbye;

    2008-01-01

    Estimates of soil hydraulic properties using pedotransfer functions (PTF) are useful in many studies such as hydrochemical modelling and soil mapping. The objective of this study was to calibrate and test parametric PTFs that predict soil water retention and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity...... parameters. The PTFs are based on neural networks and the Bootstrap method using different sets of predictors and predict the van Genuchten/Mualem parameters. A Danish soil data set (152 horizons) dominated by sandy and sandy loamy soils was used in the development of PTFs to predict the Mualem hydraulic...... of the hydraulic properties of the studied soils. We found that introducing measured water content as a predictor generally gave lower errors for water retention predictions and higher errors for conductivity predictions. The best of the developed PTFs for predicting hydraulic conductivity was tested against PTFs...

  17. Parameter Designing for Heave Compensation Hydraulic System Installed in Deepwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Teng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The function diagram of active heave compensation hydraulic system has been given, besides, the mathematics model for the principal hydraulic components of the compensation system has been built, and the input-output relation between components has been made clear. Aimed at compensating work capacity for the system, design and research on parameters as the bearing pressure, the initial state and the maximum flow of hydraulic cylinder, accumulator and other principal components have been made separately, and standardized design has been accomplished in accordance with relevant standards. Furthermore, calculus and verification for the capacity of the hydraulic system in different working stages have been made in order to calculate the pressure lose of the system and provide objective data for the hardware system design of the hydraulic components of the heave compensation system.

  18. Flow resistance of hydraulic cylinder piston ring seal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the control rod hydraulic drive mechanism (CRHDM) and the characteristics of its hydraulic cylinder seal structure, the leaking ways of the hydraulic cylinder piston ring seal were analysed, its theoretical calculation model was built and its flow resistance formula based on the calculation model of differential pressure at the hydraulic cylinder piston ring seal was deduced. By analyzing the results of the CRHDM single cylinder experiment, constants in the formula of the flow resistance were obtained. Under the experimental condition, results from the formula and the experiment tally with each other. The formula and analysis would be helpful for the theoretical analysis and engineering design of the hydraulic cylinder piston ring seal structure. (author)

  19. Disclosure of hydraulic fracturing fluid chemical additives: analysis of regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maule, Alexis L; Makey, Colleen M; Benson, Eugene B; Burrows, Isaac J; Scammell, Madeleine K

    2013-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is used to extract natural gas from shale formations. The process involves injecting into the ground fracturing fluids that contain thousands of gallons of chemical additives. Companies are not mandated by federal regulations to disclose the identities or quantities of chemicals used during hydraulic fracturing operations on private or public lands. States have begun to regulate hydraulic fracturing fluids by mandating chemical disclosure. These laws have shortcomings including nondisclosure of proprietary or "trade secret" mixtures, insufficient penalties for reporting inaccurate or incomplete information, and timelines that allow for after-the-fact reporting. These limitations leave lawmakers, regulators, public safety officers, and the public uninformed and ill-prepared to anticipate and respond to possible environmental and human health hazards associated with hydraulic fracturing fluids. We explore hydraulic fracturing exemptions from federal regulations, as well as current and future efforts to mandate chemical disclosure at the federal and state level. PMID:23552653

  20. 78 FR 55253 - Notification of Public Teleconference of the Hydraulic Fracturing Research Advisory Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... AGENCY Notification of Public Teleconference of the Hydraulic Fracturing Research Advisory Panel AGENCY...) Science Advisory Board (SAB) Staff Office announces a public teleconference of the Hydraulic Fracturing... information related to hydraulic fracturing and drinking water resources. DATES: The public...

  1. LMR thermal hydraulics calculations in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wide range of thermal hydraulics computer codes have been developed by various organizations in the US. These codes cover an extensive range of purposes from within-assembly-wise pin temperature calculations to plant wide transient analysis. The codes are used for static analysis, for analysis of protected anticipated transients, and for analysis of a wide range of unprotected transients for the more recent inherently safe LMR designs. Some of these codes are plant-specific codes with properties of a specific plant built into them. Other codes are more general and can be applied to a number of plants or designs. These codes, and the purposes for which they have been used, are described

  2. The Hydraulic Jump in Liquid Helium

    CERN Document Server

    Rolley, E; Pettersen, M S; Chevallier, C; Rolley, Etienne; Guthmann, Claude; Pettersen, Michael S.; Chevallier, Christophe

    2006-01-01

    We present the results of some experiments on the circular hydraulic jump in normal and superfluid liquid helium. The radius of the jump and the depth of the liquid outside the jump are measured through optical means. Although the scale of the apparatus is rather small, the location of the jump is found to be consistent with the assumption that the jump can be treated as a shock, if the surface tension is taken into account. The radius of the jump does not change when going down in temperature through the lambda point; we think that the flow is supercritical. A remarkable feature of the experiment is the observation of stationary ripples within the jump when the liquid is superfluid.

  3. Development of a hydraulic turbine design method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassanos, Ioannis; Anagnostopoulos, John; Papantonis, Dimitris

    2013-10-01

    In this paper a hydraulic turbine parametric design method is presented which is based on the combination of traditional methods and parametric surface modeling techniques. The blade of the turbine runner is described using Bezier surfaces for the definition of the meridional plane as well as the blade angle distribution, and a thickness distribution applied normal to the mean blade surface. In this way, it is possible to define parametrically the whole runner using a relatively small number of design parameters, compared to conventional methods. The above definition is then combined with a commercial CFD software and a stochastic optimization algorithm towards the development of an automated design optimization procedure. The process is demonstrated with the design of a Francis turbine runner.

  4. Disposal of waste by hydraulic fracturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquid radioactive waste solutions at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have been disposed of for nearly 20 years by preparing a slurry, injecting it into bedding plane fractures formed in low-permeability shale, and allowing the slurry to set into a solid. Three major considerations are required for this method: a rock formation that forms horizontal or bedding plane fractures and is highly impermeable, a plant facility that can develop sufficient hydraulic pressure to fracture the rock and to inject the slurry, and a slurry that can be pumped into the fracture and that will set, preferably, into a low-leaching solid. The requirements and desirable conditions of the formation, the process and facility as used for radioactive waste disposal, and the mix formulation and slurry properties that were required for injection and solidification are described. The intent of this paper is to stimulate interest in this technique for possible application to nonnuclear wastes

  5. The hydraulic bulge tester in fracture studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the behavior of different metals under biaxial hydraulic bulging was studied in terms of fracture mechanics. Three different materials, namely: SIC aluminium, mild steel and copper were examined and their fracture behavior was assessed by introducing starter cracks in the test pieces in different ways before bulging. The pressure-volume relationships were obtained and the crack growth rates were measured during bulging at different elliptical die ratios (1,1.5,2 and 3). It was found that increasing the die ratio, with everything else remaining as before, resulted in a remarkable reduction to the volume and increase in the pressure and subsequently an increase in the crack growth rates of all materials. Double Edge Notched (DEN) specimen experiments were also conducted on the three materials to measure their fracture toughness and the results compared with those obtained from bulging experiments. (author)

  6. Hydraulic tortuosity in arbitrary porous media flow

    CERN Document Server

    Duda, Artur; Matyka, Maciej

    2011-01-01

    Tortuosity ($T$) is a parameter describing an average elongation of fluid streamlines in a porous medium as compared to free flow. In this paper several methods of calculating this quantity from lengths of individual streamlines are compared and their weak and strong features are discussed. An alternative method is proposed, which enables one to calculate $T$ directly from the fluid velocity field, without the need of determining streamlines, which greatly simplifies determination of tortuosity in complex geometries, including those found in experiments or 3D computer models. Numerical results obtained with this method suggest that (a) the hydraulic tortuosity of an isotropic fibrous medium takes on the form $T = 1 + p\\sqrt{1-\\phi}$, where $\\phi$ is the porosity and $p$ is a constant and (b) the exponent controlling the divergence of $T$ with the system size at percolation threshold is related to an exponent describing the scaling of the most probable traveling length at bond percolation.

  7. Multiphase flow dynamics 5 nuclear thermal hydraulics

    CERN Document Server

    Kolev, Nikolay Ivanov

    2015-01-01

    This Volume 5 of the successful book package "Multiphase Flow Dynamics" is devoted to nuclear thermal hydraulics which is a substantial part of nuclear reactor safety. It provides knowledge and mathematical tools for adequate description of the process of transferring the fission heat released in materials due to nuclear reactions into its environment. It step by step introduces into the heat release inside the fuel, temperature fields in the fuels, the "simple" boiling flow in a pipe described using ideas of different complexity like equilibrium, non equilibrium, homogeneity, non homogeneity. Then the "simple" three-fluid boiling flow in a pipe is described by gradually involving the mechanisms like entrainment and deposition, dynamic fragmentation, collisions, coalescence, turbulence. All heat transfer mechanisms are introduced gradually discussing their uncertainty. Different techniques are introduced like boundary layer treatments or integral methods. Comparisons with experimental data at each step demons...

  8. Thermal hydraulic reactor safety analyses and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report introduces the results of the thermal hydraulic reactor safety research performed in the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory of the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) during the years 1972-1987. Also practical applications i.e. analyses for the safety authorities and power companies are presented. The emphasis is on description of the state-of-the-art know how. The report describes VTT's most important computer codes, both those of foreign origin and those developed at VTT, and their assessment work, VTT's own experimental research, as well as international experimental projects and other forms of cooperation VTT has participated in. Appendix 8 contains a comprehensive list of the most important publications and technical reports produced. They present the content and results of the research in detail.(orig.)

  9. Valorization of phosphogypsum as hydraulic binder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuryatnyk, T; Angulski da Luz, C; Ambroise, J; Pera, J

    2008-12-30

    Phosphogypsum (calcium sulfate) is a naturally occurring part of the process of creating phosphoric acid (H(3)PO(4)), an essential component of many modern fertilizers. For every tonne of phosphoric acid made, from the reaction of phosphate rock with acid, commonly sulfuric acid, about 3t of phosphogypsum are created. There are three options for managing phosphogypsum: (i) disposal or dumping, (ii) stacking, (iii) use-in, for example, agriculture, construction, or landfill. This paper presents the valorization of two Tunisian phosphogypsums (referred as G and S) in calcium sulfoaluminate cement in the following proportions: 70% phosphogypsum-30% calcium sulfoaluminate clinker. The use of sample G leads to the production of a hydraulic binder which means that it is not destroyed when immersed in water. The binder including sample S performs very well when cured in air but is not resistant in water. Formation of massive ettringite in a rigid body leads to cracking and strength loss. PMID:18433998

  10. Concrete decontamination by electro-hydraulic scabbling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldfarb, V.; Gannon, R. [Textron Defense System, Everett, MA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Textron Defense Systems (TDS) is developing an electro-hydraulic device that has the potential for faster, safer, and less expensive scabbling of contaminated concrete surfaces. In the device, shock waves and cavitating bubbles are produced in water by the electric pulses, and the direct and reflected shock waves impinging on the concrete surface result in the crushing and cracking of the concrete. Pulse energy, frequency, and traverse speed control the depth of the scabbling action. Performance thus far has demonstrated the capability of a prototype unit to process a swath 24 inches wide, up to 3/4 inch deep at a linear velocity of up to 6 feet per hour, i.e., at a scabbling rate of 12 sq. ft. per hour.

  11. Instability in hydraulic machines demonstration rig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muszynska, A.; Braun, M. J.

    1985-01-01

    In fluid flow machines, the working fluid involved in rotative motion due to shaft rotation significantly modifies the rotor synchronous response. This can result in the rotor maintaining the high vibration amplitude that occurs at resonance over an extended rotative speed range. The phase changes in this range are typically very small. The fluid may also create rotor instability, i.e., subsynchronous self-excited vibrations, when the rotative speed is sufficiently high. This rotor instability is often related and increases with higher rotor unbalance (Opposite to other types of instability such as oil whirl/whip, internal friction, etc.). The rotor rig demonstrates typical dynamic behavior of hydraulic machines. At lower speeds the effect of amplitude/phase mentioned above is noticeable; at higher speeds the subsynchronous instability occurs.

  12. Irradiation tests on water hydraulic polymer components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remote handling operations in ITER will require the use of hydraulic systems for lifting and moving activities, such as those envisaged for the cassette multifunctional mover (CMM) and the cassette toroidal mover (CTM). In these situations polymer materials employed as seals, glide rings, O-rings, and wipers on the pistons and cylinders will be subjected to gamma radiation in the presence of water or high humidity. To examine their reliability several standard polymer materials have been gamma irradiated to 1.0, 3.3, and 10.0 MGy at 30 C, in dry nitrogen and deionised water. The polyethylene, polyurethane, and rubber type materials proposed for seals, O-rings, and wiper rings showed no notable degradation up to 10 MGy. However, by this dose the hard fabric composite material for the glide ring was severely degraded, with the fibre dissolving out of the matrix, and production of residues, in particular fluorides in the water

  13. Vulnerability of hydraulic networks to channel clogging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rognon, P.; Russo, D.; Griffani, D.; Einav, I.

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the loss of permeability and connectivity of hydraulic networks induced by channel clogging. Five network attack scenarios are considered that consist of clogging an increasing number of channels, selected according to their pressure drop and flow rate. By simulating the flow in the network before and after each attack, we show that some strategies only marginally affect the permeability and lead to a loss of connectivity only after a large proportion of channels are clogged. By contrast, other strategies strongly decrease the permeability and lead to a loss of connectivity after a small proportion of channels are clogged. These findings, interpreted in terms of change in porosity and network tortuosity, should help the prediction of the effect of network attacks in biological systems, hydrogeology and microfluidics.

  14. THE THREE DIMENSIONAL THERMAL HYDRAULIC CODE BAGIRA.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KALINICHENKO,S.D.; KOHUT,P.; KROSHILIN,A.E.; KROSHILIN,V.E.; SMIRNOV,A.V.

    2003-05-04

    BAGIRA - a thermal-hydraulic program complex was primarily developed for using it in nuclear power plant simulator models, but is also used as a best-estimate analytical tool for modeling two-phase mixture flows. The code models allow consideration of phase transients and the treatment of the hydrodynamic behavior of boiling and pressurized water reactor circuits. It provides the capability to explicitly model three-dimensional flow regimes in various regions of the primary and secondary circuits such as, the mixing regions, circular downcomer, pressurizer, reactor core, main primary loops, the steam generators, the separator-reheaters. In addition, it is coupled to a severe-accident module allowing the analysis of core degradation and fuel damage behavior. Section II will present the theoretical basis for development and selected results are presented in Section III. The primary use for the code complex is to realistically model reactor core behavior in power plant simulators providing enhanced training tools for plant operators.

  15. Thermal hydraulic design of intermediate heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) is a very important component of Fast Breeder Reactor because it forms the boundary between radioactive primary sodium and non-radioactive secondary sodium. IHX of the 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor is a shell and tube heat exchanger with primary sodium flowing on the shell side. Cross flow heat transfer at the primary sodium entrance demands unequal secondary flow distribution in various tubes to ensure good safety margin in structural design. This paper brings out details of thermal hydraulic studies to arrive at a suitable secondary flow distribution and choice of a suitable flow distribution device to achieve the same. Application of two-dimensional analysis with computer code THYC-2D has been brought out. (author). 5 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Neutron Imaging Reveals Internal Plant Hydraulic Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Jeffrey [ORNL; Bilheux, Hassina Z [ORNL; Kang, Misun [ORNL; Voisin, Sophie [ORNL; Cheng, Chu-Lin [ORNL; Horita, Jusuke [ORNL; Perfect, Edmund [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Many terrestrial ecosystem processes are constrained by water availability and transport within the soil. Knowledge of plant water fluxes is thus critical for assessing mechanistic processes linked to biogeochemical cycles, yet resolution of root structure and xylem water transport dynamics has been a particularly daunting task for the ecologist. Through neutron imaging, we demonstrate the ability to non-invasively monitor individual root functionality and water fluxes within Zea mays L. (maize) and Panicum virgatum L. (switchgrass) seedlings growing in a sandy medium. Root structure and growth were readily imaged by neutron radiography and neutron computed tomography. Seedlings were irrigated with water or deuterium oxide and imaged through time as a growth lamp was cycled on to alter leaf demand for water. Sub-millimeter scale resolution reveals timing and magnitudes of root water uptake, redistribution within the roots, and root-shoot hydraulic linkages, relationships not well characterized by other techniques.

  17. Multiphase Flow Dynamics 5 Nuclear Thermal Hydraulics

    CERN Document Server

    Kolev, Nikolay Ivanov

    2012-01-01

    The present Volume 5 of the successful book package "Multiphase Flow Dynamics" is devoted to nuclear thermal hydraulics which is a substantial part of nuclear reactor safety. It provides knowledge and mathematical tools for adequate description of the process of transferring the fission heat released in materials due to nuclear reactions into its environment. It step by step introduces into the heat release inside the fuel, temperature fields in the fuels, the "simple" boiling flow in a pipe described using ideas of different complexity like equilibrium, non equilibrium, homogeneity, non homogeneity. Then the "simple" three-fluid boiling flow in a pipe is described by gradually involving the mechanisms like entrainment and deposition, dynamic fragmentation, collisions, coalescence, turbulence. All heat transfer mechanisms are introduced gradually discussing their uncertainty. Different techniques are introduced like boundary layer treatments or integral methods. Comparisons with experimental data at each step...

  18. Detection of cavitation in hydraulic turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escaler, Xavier; Egusquiza, Eduard; Farhat, Mohamed; Avellan, François; Coussirat, Miguel

    2006-05-01

    An experimental investigation has been carried out in order to evaluate the detection of cavitation in actual hydraulic turbines. The methodology is based on the analysis of structural vibrations, acoustic emissions and hydrodynamic pressures measured in the machine. The proposed techniques have been checked in real prototypes suffering from different types of cavitation. In particular, one Kaplan, two Francis and one Pump-Turbine have been investigated in the field. Additionally, one Francis located in a laboratory has also been tested. First, a brief description of the general features of cavitation phenomenon is given as well as of the main types of cavitation occurring in hydraulic turbines. The work presented here is focused on the most important ones which are the leading edge cavitation due to its erosive power, the bubble cavitation because it affects the machine performance and the draft tube swirl that limits the operation stability. Cavitation detection is based on the previous understanding of the cavity dynamics and its location inside the machine. This knowledge has been gained from flow visualisations and measurements in laboratory devices such as a high-speed cavitation tunnel and a reduced scale turbine test rig. The main techniques are the study of the high frequency spectral content of the signals and of their amplitude demodulation for a given frequency band. Moreover, low frequency spectral content can also be used in certain cases. The results obtained for the various types of cavitation found in the selected machines are presented and discussed in detail in the paper. Conclusions are drawn about the best sensor, measuring location, signal processing and analysis for each type of cavitation, which serve to validate and to improve the detection techniques.

  19. Gas Test Loop Booster Fuel Hydraulic Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gas Test Loop Hydraulic Testing Staff

    2006-09-01

    The Gas Test Loop (GTL) project is for the design of an adaptation to the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to create a fast-flux test space where fuels and materials for advanced reactor concepts can undergo irradiation testing. Incident to that design, it was found necessary to make use of special booster fuel to enhance the neutron flux in the reactor lobe in which the Gas Test Loop will be installed. Because the booster fuel is of a different composition and configuration from standard ATR fuel, it is necessary to qualify the booster fuel for use in the ATR. Part of that qualification is the determination that required thermal hydraulic criteria will be met under routine operation and under selected accident scenarios. The Hydraulic Testing task in the GTL project facilitates that determination by measuring flow coefficients (pressure drops) over various regions of the booster fuel over a range of primary coolant flow rates. A high-fidelity model of the NW lobe of the ATR with associated flow baffle, in-pile-tube, and below-core flow channels was designed, constructed and located in the Idaho State University Thermal Fluids Laboratory. A circulation loop was designed and constructed by the university to provide reactor-relevant water flow rates to the test system. Models of the four booster fuel elements required for GTL operation were fabricated from aluminum (no uranium or means of heating) and placed in the flow channel. One of these was instrumented with Pitot tubes to measure flow velocities in the channels between the three booster fuel plates and between the innermost and outermost plates and the side walls of the flow annulus. Flow coefficients in the range of 4 to 6.5 were determined from the measurements made for the upper and middle parts of the booster fuel elements. The flow coefficient for the lower end of the booster fuel and the sub-core flow channel was lower at 2.3.

  20. Energy Efficiency Comparison between Hydraulic Hybrid and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Shiun Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional vehicles tend to consume considerable amounts of fuel, which generates exhaust gases and environmental pollution during intermittent driving cycles. Therefore, prospective vehicle designs favor improved exhaust emissions and energy consumption without compromising vehicle performance. Although pure electric vehicles feature high performance and low pollution characteristics, their limitations are their short driving range and high battery costs. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs are comparatively environmentally friendly and energy efficient, but cost substantially more compared with conventional vehicles. Hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs are mainly operated using engines, or using alternate combinations of engine and hydraulic power sources while vehicles accelerate. When the hydraulic system accumulator is depleted, the conventional engine reengages; concurrently, brake-regenerated power is recycled and reused by employing hydraulic motor–pump modules in circulation patterns to conserve fuel and recycle brake energy. This study adopted MATLAB Simulink to construct complete HHV and HEV models for backward simulations. New European Driving Cycles were used to determine the changes in fuel economy. The output of power components and the state-of-charge of energy could be retrieved. Varying power component models, energy storage component models, and series or parallel configurations were combined into seven different vehicle configurations: the conventional manual transmission vehicle, series hybrid electric vehicle, series hydraulic hybrid vehicle, parallel hybrid electric vehicle, parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicle, purely electric vehicle, and hydraulic-electric hybrid vehicle. The simulation results show that fuel consumption was 21.80% lower in the series hydraulic hybrid vehicle compared to the series hybrid electric vehicle; additionally, fuel consumption was 3.80% lower in the parallel hybrid electric vehicle compared to the