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Sample records for bulk-heterojunction solar cells

  1. Efficiency of bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharber, M.C.; Sariciftci, N.S.

    2013-01-01

    During the last years the performance of bulk heterojunction solar cells has been improved significantly. For a large-scale application of this technology further improvements are required. This article reviews the basic working principles and the state of the art device design of bulk heterojunction solar cells. The importance of high power conversion efficiencies for the commercial exploitation is outlined and different efficiency models for bulk heterojunction solar cells are discussed. Assuming state of the art materials and device architectures several models predict power conversion efficiencies in the range of 10–15%. A more general approach assuming device operation close to the Shockley–Queisser-limit leads to even higher efficiencies. Bulk heterojunction devices exhibiting only radiative recombination of charge carriers could be as efficient as ideal inorganic photovoltaic devices. PMID:24302787

  2. Ultimate efficiency of polymer/fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, LJA; Mihailetchi, VD; Blom, PWM

    2006-01-01

    We present model calculations to explore the potential of polymer/fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells. As a starting point, devices based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) and 6,6-phenyl C-61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), reaching 3.5% efficiency, are modeled. Lowering the polymeric band gap will

  3. Device physics of polymer: fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Blom, Paul W. M.; Mihailetchi, Valentin D.; Koster, L. Jan Anton; Markov, Denis E.

    2007-01-01

    Plastic solar cells bear the potential for large-scale power generation based on materials that provide the possibility of flexible, lightweight, inexpensive, efficient solar cells. Since the discovery of the photoinduced electron transfer from a conjugated polymer to fullerene molecules, followed by the introduction of the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) concept, this material combination has been extensively studied in organic solar cells, leading to several breakthroughs in efficiency, with a po...

  4. Polymer-Fullerene Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Deibel, Carsten; Dyakonov, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Organic solar cells have the potential to be low-cost and efficient solar energy converters, with a promising energy balance. They are made from carbon-based semiconductors, which exhibit favourable light absorption and charge generation properties, and can be manufactured by low temperature processes such as printing from solvent-based inks, which are compatible with flexible plastic substrates or even paper. In this review, we will present an overview of the physical function of organic sol...

  5. Morphology Control in co-evaporated bulk heterojunction solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kovacik, Peter; Assender, Hazel E.; Watt, Andrew A. R.

    2013-01-01

    Bulk heterojunction solar cells made by vacuum co-evaporation of polythiophene (PTh) and fullerene (C60) are reported and the blend morphology control through donor-acceptor composition and post-situ annealing demonstrated. Co-deposited heterojunctions are shown to generate about 60% higher photocurrents than their thickness-optimized PTh/C60 planar heterojunction counterparts. Furthermore, by annealing the devices post-situ the power conversion efficiency is improved by as much as 80%. UV-vi...

  6. Phthalocyanine Blends Improve Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varotto, Alessandro; Nam, Chang-Yong; Radivojevic, Ivana; Tomé, Joao; Cavaleiro, José A.S.; Black, Charles T.; Drain, Charles Michael

    2010-01-01

    A core phthalocyanine platform allows engineering the solubility properties the band gap; shifting the maximum absorption toward the red. A simple method to increase the efficiency of heterojunction solar cells uses a self-organized blend of the phthalocyanine chromophores fabricated by solution processing. PMID:20136126

  7. Polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    The efficiency of solar cells made from a conjugated polymer blended with a fullerene derivative has risen from around 1 % to over 9 % in the last ten years, making organic photovoltaic technology a viable contender for commercialization. The efficiency increases have resulted from the development of new materials with lower optical gaps, new polymer:fullerene combinations with higher charge separated state energies, and new approaches to control the blend microstructure, all driven by a qual...

  8. Spin-cast bulk heterojunction solar cells: A dynamical investigation

    KAUST Repository

    Chou, Kang Wei

    2013-02-22

    Spin-coating is extensively used in the lab-based manufacture of organic solar cells, including most of the record-setting solution-processed cells. We report the first direct observation of photoactive layer formation as it occurs during spin-coating. The study provides new insight into mechanisms and kinetics of bulk heterojunction formation, which may be crucial for its successful transfer to scalable printing processes. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Ultimate efficiency of polymer/fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Koster, LJA; Mihailetchi, VD; Blom, PWM

    2006-01-01

    We present model calculations to explore the potential of polymer/fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells. As a starting point, devices based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) and 6,6-phenyl C-61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), reaching 3.5% efficiency, are modeled. Lowering the polymeric band gap will lead to a device efficiency exceeding 6%. Tuning the electronic levels of PCBM in such a way that less energy is lost in the electron transfer process enhances the efficiency to values in excess of...

  10. Different Device Architectures for Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getachew Adam

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We report different solar cell designs which allow a simple electrical connection of subsequent devices deposited on the same substrate. By arranging so-called standard and inverted solar-cell architectures next to each other, a serial connection of the two devices can easily be realized by a single compound electrode. In this work, we tested different interfacial layer materials like polyethylenimine (PEI and PEDOT:PSS, and silver as a non-transparent electrode material. We also built organic light emitting diodes applying the same device designs demonstrating the versatility of applied layer stacks. The proposed design should allow the preparation of organic bulk-heterojunction modules with minimized photovoltaically inactive regions at the interconnection of individual devices.

  11. Morphological Control Agent in Ternary Blend Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsueh-Chung Liao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Bulk heterojunction (BHJ organic photovoltaic (OPV promise low cost solar energy and have caused an explosive increase in investigations during the last decade. Control over the 3D morphology of BHJ blend films in various length scales is one of the pillars accounting for the significant advance of OPV performance recently. In this contribution, we focus on the strategy of incorporating an additive into BHJ blend films as a morphological control agent, i.e., ternary blend system. This strategy has shown to be effective in tailoring the morphology of BHJ through different inter- and intra-molecular interactions. We systematically review the morphological observations and associated mechanisms with respect to various kinds of additives, i.e., polymers, small molecules and inorganic nanoparticles. We organize the effects of morphological control (compatibilization, stabilization, etc. and provide general guidelines for rational molecular design for additives toward high efficiency and high stability organic solar cells.

  12. Device physics of polymer: fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blom, P.W.M.; Mihailetchi, V.D.; Koster, L.J.A.; Markov, D.E. [Molecular Electronics, Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)

    2007-06-18

    Plastic solar cells bear the potential for large-scale power generation based on materials that provide the possibility of flexible, lightweight, inexpensive, efficient solar cells. Since the discovery of the photoinduced electron transfer from a conjugated polymer to fullerene molecules, followed by the introduction of the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) concept, this material combination has been extensively studied in organic solar cells, leading to several breakthroughs in efficiency, with a power conversion efficiency approaching 5 %. This article reviews the processes and limitations that govern device operation of polymer:fullerene BHJ solar cells, with respect to the charge-carrier transport and photogeneration mechanism. The transport of electrons/holes in the blend is a crucial parameter and must be controlled (e.g., by controlling the nanoscale morphology) and enhanced in order to allow fabrication of thicker films to maximize the absorption, without significant recombination losses. Concomitantly, a balanced transport of electrons and holes in the blend is needed to suppress the build-up of the space-charge that will significantly reduce the power conversion efficiency. Dissociation of electron-hole pairs at the donor/acceptor interface is an important process that limits the charge generation efficiency under normal operation condition. Based on these findings, there is a compromise between charge generation (light absorption) and open-circuit voltage (V{sub OC}) when attempting to reduce the bandgap of the polymer (or fullerene). Therefore, an increase in V{sub OC} of polymer: fullerene cells, for example by raising the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital level of the fullerene, will benefit cell performance as both fill factor and short-circuit current increase simultaneously. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. Molecular bulk heterojunctions: an emerging approach to organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncali, Jean

    2009-11-17

    The predicted exhaustion of fossil energy resources and the pressure of environmental constraints are stimulating an intensification of research on renewable energy sources, in particular, on the photovoltaic conversion of solar energy. In this context, organic solar cells are attracting increasing interest that is motivated by the possibility of fabricating large-area, lightweight, and flexible devices using simple techniques with low environmental impact. Organic solar cells are based on a heterojunction resulting from the contact of a donor (D) and an acceptor (A) material. Absorption of solar photons creates excitons, Coulombically bound electron-hole pairs, which diffuse to the D/A interface, where they are dissociated into free holes and electrons by the electric field. D/A heterojunctions can be created with two types of architectures, namely, bilayer heterojunction and bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. BHJ cells combine the advantages of easier fabrication and higher conversion efficiency due to the considerably extended D/A interface. Until now, the development of BHJ solar cells has been essentially based on the use of soluble pi-conjugated polymers as donor material. Intensive interdisciplinary research carried out in the past 10 years has led to an increase in the conversion efficiency of BHJ cells from 0.10 to more than 5.0%. These investigations have progressively established regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as the standard donor material for BHJ solar cells, owing to a useful combination of optical and charge-transport properties. However, besides the limit imposed to the maximum conversion efficiency by its intrinsic electronic properties, P3HT and more generally polymers pose several problems related to the control of their structure, molecular weight, polydispersity, and purification. In this context, recent years have seen the emergence of an alternative approach based on the replacement of polydisperse polymers by soluble

  14. Charge Carrier Generation, Recombination, and Extraction in Polymer–Fullerene Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Laquai, Frederic

    2016-12-20

    In this chapter we review the basic principles of photocurrent generation in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells, discuss the loss channels limiting their efficiency, and present case studies of several polymer–fullerene blends. Using steady-state and transient, optical, and electrooptical techniques, we create a precise picture of the fundamental processes that ultimately govern solar cell efficiency.

  15. Device model for the operation of polymer/fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, LJA; Smits, ECP; Mihailetchi, VD; Blom, PWM

    We have developed a numerical device model that consistently describes the current-voltage characteristics of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells. Bimolecular recombination and a temperature- and field-dependent generation mechanism of free charges are incorporated. It is demonstrated

  16. Thickness dependence of the efficiency of polymer : fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenes, M; Koster, LJA; Mihailetchi, VD; Blom, PWM

    2006-01-01

    We study the thickness dependence of the performance of bulk heterojunction solar cells based on poly[2-methoxy-5-(3('),7(')-dimethyloctyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] as electron donor and [6,6]-phenyl C-61 butyric acid methyl ester as electron acceptor. Typically, these devices have an active layer

  17. Role of balanced charge carrier transport in low band gap polymer: Fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotlarski, J.D.; Moet, D.J.D.; Blom, P.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    Lowering of the optical band gap of conjugated polymers in bulk heterojunction solar cells not only leads to an increased absorption but also to an increase of the optimal active layer thickness due to interference effects at longer wavelengths. The increased carrier densities due to the enhanced

  18. Device Physics and Recombination in Polymer:Fullerene Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hawks, Steven

    2015-01-01

    My thesis focuses on improving and understanding a relatively new type of solar cell materials system: polymer:fullerene bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) blends. These mixtures have drawn significant interest because they are made from low-cost organic molecules that can be cast from solution, which makes them a potential cheap alternative to traditional solar cell materials like silicon. The drawback, though, is that they are not as efficient at converting sunlight into electricity. My thesis focus...

  19. Device physics of polymer : fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Paul W. M.; Mihailetchi, Valentin D.; Koster, L. Jan Anton; Markov, Denis E.

    2007-01-01

    Plastic solar cells bear the potential for large-scale power generation based on materials that provide the possibility of flexible, lightweight, inexpensive, efficient solar cells. Since the discovery of the photoinduced electron transfer from a conjugated polymer to fullerene molecules, followed

  20. Vertical concentration gradients in bulk heterojunction solar cells induced by differential material solubility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susarova, Diana K. [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics of Russian Academy of Sciences, Semenov Prospect 1, Chernogolovka, Moscow region, 142432 (Russian Federation); Troshin, Pavel A., E-mail: troshin@cat.icp.ac.r [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics of Russian Academy of Sciences, Semenov Prospect 1, Chernogolovka, Moscow region, 142432 (Russian Federation); Moskvin, Yuriy L.; Babenko, Sergey D. [Institute for Energy Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (Branch), Semenov Prospect 1/10, Chernogolovka, Moscow region, 142432 (Russian Federation); Razumov, Vladimir F. [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics of Russian Academy of Sciences, Semenov Prospect 1, Chernogolovka, Moscow region, 142432 (Russian Federation)

    2011-04-01

    Highly soluble fullerene derivatives (HSFD) and a low soluble polymer (LSP) were investigated as modifiers of the active layer morphology in conventional P3HT/PCBM bulk heterojunction solar cells. The observed changes in photovoltaic and electrical characteristics of the devices after addition of one or two modifiers suggest that they induced favourable vertical phase separation in the blends simply due to different solubilities of the components. In particular, HSFD is supposed to accumulate at the top of the film serving as a hole-blocking interlayer at the cathode/active layer interface. On the contrary, LSP seems to form electron-blocking buffer layer at the bottom of the device at the active layer/anode interface. Thus, the differential material solubility was suggested as a tool for adjustment of vertical morphology of organic bulk heterojunction solar cells.

  1. Effects of Germanium Tetrabromide Addition to Zinc Tetraphenyl Porphyrin / Fullerene Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Suzuki

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of germanium tetrabromide addition to tetraphenyl porphyrin zinc (Zn-TPP/fullerene (C60 bulk heterojunction solar cells were characterized. The light-induced charge separation and charge transfer were investigated by current density and optical absorption. Addition of germanium tetrabromide inserted into active layer of Zn-TPP/C60 as bulk heterojunction had a positive effect on the photovoltaic and optical properties. The photovoltaic mechanism of the solar cells was discussed by experimental results. The photovoltaic performance was due to light-induced exciton promoted by insert of GeBr4 and charge transfer from HOMO of Zn-TPP to LUMO of C60 in the active layer.

  2. Incomplete Exciton Harvesting from Fullerenes in Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Burkhard, George F.

    2009-12-09

    We investigate the internal quantum efficiencies (IQEs) of high efficiency poly-3-hexylthiophene:[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) solar cells and find them to be lower at wavelengths where the PCBM absorbs. Because the exciton diffusion length in PCBM is too small, excitons generated in PCBM decay before reaching the donor-acceptor interface. This result has implications for most state of the art organic solar cells, since all of the most efficient devices use fullerenes as electron acceptors. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  3. Ultimate performance of polymer : fullerene bulk heterojunction tandem solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotlarski, J. D.; Blom, P. W. M.

    2011-01-01

    We present the model calculations to explore the potential of polymer: fullerene tandem solar cells. As an approach we use a combined optical and electrical device model, where the absorption profiles are used as starting point for the numerical current-voltage calculations. With this model a

  4. Ultimate performance of polymer: Fullerene bulk heterojunction tandem solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotlarski, J.D.; Blom, P.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    We present the model calculations to explore the potential of polymer:fullerene tandem solar cells. As an approach we use a combined optical and electrical device model, where the absorption profiles are used as starting point for the numerical current-voltage calculations. With this model a maximum

  5. Nanocomposite-Based Bulk Heterojunction Hybrid Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bich Phuong Nguyen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic devices based on nanocomposites composed of conjugated polymers and inorganic nanocrystals show promise for the fabrication of low-cost third-generation thin film photovoltaics. In theory, hybrid solar cells can combine the advantages of the two classes of materials to potentially provide high power conversion efficiencies of up to 10%; however, certain limitations on the current within a hybrid solar cell must be overcome. Current limitations arise from incompatibilities among the various intradevice interfaces and the uncontrolled aggregation of nanocrystals during the step in which the nanocrystals are mixed into the polymer matrix. Both effects can lead to charge transfer and transport inefficiencies. This paper highlights potential strategies for resolving these obstacles and presents an outlook on the future directions of this field.

  6. Ultimate performance of polymer: fullerene bulk heterojunction tandem solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kotlarski, J. D.; Blom, P. W. M.

    2011-01-01

    We present the model calculations to explore the potential of polymer: fullerene tandem solar cells. As an approach we use a combined optical and electrical device model, where the absorption profiles are used as starting point for the numerical current-voltage calculations. With this model a maximum power efficiency of 11.7% for single cells has been achieved as a reference. For tandem structures with a ZnO/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrenesulphonic acid) middle electrode an ulti...

  7. Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cell Area-Dependent Parameter Fluctuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Trindade

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic solar cell efficiency is known to be active area dependent and is usually a problem in the upscale factor for market applications. In this work, a detailed study of organic photovoltaic devices with active layer based on poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT and 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl-propyl-1-phenyl-(6,6C61 (PCBM is made, evaluating the effect of the change on the active area from 10−2 to 4 cm4. The device structure was kept simple in order to allow the understanding of the physical effects involved. Device figures of merit were extracted from the equivalent circuit using a genetic-based algorithm, and their relationship with the active area was compared. It is observed that the efficiency drops significantly with the active area increase (as the fill factor while the parallel and series resistance, adjusted to the active area, seems to be relatively constant and increases linearly, respectively. The short circuit current and the generated photocurrent also drop significantly with the active area increase. The open circuit voltage does not show major changes. These results are discussed considering the main influences for the observed efficiency data. Particularly, as the basic circuit model seems to fail to explain the macroscopic results, the behavior can be related with the enlargement of defect interaction.

  8. The influence of molecular orientation on organic bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumbleston, John R.; Collins, Brian A.; Yang, Liqiang; Stuart, Andrew C.; Gann, Eliot; Ma, Wei; You, Wei; Ade, Harald

    2014-05-01

    In bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaics, electron-donating and electron-accepting materials form a distributed network of heterointerfaces in the photoactive layer, where critical photo-physical processes occur. However, little is known about the structural properties of these interfaces due to their complex three-dimensional arrangement and the lack of techniques to measure local order. Here, we report that molecular orientation relative to donor/acceptor heterojunctions is an important parameter in realizing high-performance fullerene-based, bulk heterojunction solar cells. Using resonant soft X-ray scattering, we characterize the degree of molecular orientation, an order parameter that describes face-on (+1) or edge-on (-1) orientations relative to these heterointerfaces. By manipulating the degree of molecular orientation through the choice of molecular chemistry and the characteristics of the processing solvent, we are able to show the importance of this structural parameter on the performance of bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic devices featuring the electron-donating polymers PNDT-DTBT, PBnDT-DTBT or PBnDT-TAZ.

  9. Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cell Devices Prepared with Composites of Conjugated Polymer and Zinc Oxide Nanorods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Tam Nguyen Truong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ZnO nanorods (Nrods with ~20–50 nm lengths were synthesized using an aqueous solution of zinc acetate and glacial acetic acid. Bulk heterojunction solar cells were fabricated with the structure of indium tin oxide (ITO/polyethylenedioxythiophene doped with polystyrene-sulfonic acid (PEDOT:PSS/ZnO-Nrods + polymer/electron transport layer (ETL/Al. Current density-voltage characterization of the resulting cells showed that, by adding an ETL and using polymers with a low band gap energy, the photoactive layer surface morphology and the device performance can be dramatically improved.

  10. Constructing bulk heterojunction with componential gradient for enhancing the efficiency of polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shudi; Liu, Kong; Chi, Dan; Yue, Shizhong; Li, Yanpei; Kou, Yanlei; Lin, Xuechun; Wang, Zhijie; Qu, Shengchun; Wang, Zhanguo

    2015-12-01

    Herein, high-efficient PTB7:PC71BM solar cells with bulk heterojunction being optimized by componential distribution have been realized by solvent treating the active layer with a series of alcohols. Subsequent characterizations including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) reveal that such treatment adjusts the distribution of PC71BM in the bulk heterojunction by making the concentration of PC71BM higher at the solvent treated surface in comparison with that close to the bottom electrode. Such morphological transformation enables the conventional structured devices with great advantages in exciton separation and charge transfer. Therefore, the power conversion efficiency could be remarkably improved from 6.57% to 7.74%. However, for the inverted structured polymer solar cells, the morphology evolution deteriorates the relevant performance, particularly in exciton separation and charge transfer. We attribute these contrary observations to the matching degree of charge transfer direction in the active layer with the charge collection direction in the entire device. Not only providing a designing principle for optimizing the structure of polymer solar cells according to the morphology of active layer, this paper also offers a comprehensive understanding about the influence of solvent treatment on the performance of polymer solar cells.

  11. Solvent additive effects on small molecule crystallization in bulk heterojunction solar cells probed during spin casting

    KAUST Repository

    Pérez, Louis A.

    2013-09-04

    Solvent additive processing can lead to drastic improvements in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) in solution processable small molecule (SPSM) bulk heterojunction solar cells. In situ grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering is used to investigate the kinetics of crystallite formation during and shortly after spin casting. The additive is shown to have a complex effect on structural evolution invoking polymorphism and enhanced crystalline quality of the donor SPSM. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Self-assembled, nanowire network electrodes for depleted bulk heterojunction solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Lan, Xinzheng

    2013-01-06

    Herein, a solution-processed, bottom-up-fabricated, nanowire network electrode is developed. This electrode features a ZnO template which is converted into locally connected, infiltratable, TiO2 nanowires. This new electrode is used to build a depleted bulk heterojunction solar cell employing hybrid-passivated colloidal quantum dots. The new electrode allows the application of a thicker, and thus more light-absorbing, colloidal quantum dot active layer, from which charge extraction of an efficiency comparable to that obtained from a thinner, planar device could be obtained. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Effects of carbon nanotube functionalization for active layer incorporation in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adikaari, A.A.D.T.; Nismy, N.A.; Henley, S.J.; Shkunov, M.; Silva, S.R.P. [Surrey Univ., Guildford (United Kingdom). Nanoelectronics Centre

    2010-07-01

    We report the effects of carbon nanotube (CNT) functionalisation for active layer incorporation in polythiophene/fullerene derivative bulk heterojunction solar cells. Design of organic photovoltaic devices is limited by the low exciton diffusion lengths of organic photoactive materials and carbon nanotubes are investigated here for possible enhancement of charge dissociation/transport within the active layer. For reasonable distribution of carbon nanotubes in the active layer, they need to be well dispersed in aromatic solvents such as 1, 2 dicholorobenzene, which yield best results for polythiophene/fullerene derivative bulk heterojunction solar cells. However, pristine nanotubes are difficult to be dispersed in aromatic solvents, therefore functionalisation is utilised to achieve better dispersions. Acid functionalised multiwall carbon nanotubes in active layers of bulk heterojunction systems perform better compared to pristine nanotubes. However, the devices show decreased shunt resistances and lower the open circuit voltages compared to reference devices, manly due to the active layer thicknesses of a few multiples of the diameter of individual nanotubes. Acid functionalised multiwall carbon nanotubes yield best efficiencies reported so far for such systems at 2.3% compared to pristine multiwall carbon nanotube incorporated devices (1.3%). Further, Octadecylamine functionalised single walled carbon nanotubes result in excellent stable dispersions resulting in 1.8% efficient polythiophene/fullerene derivative devices. With good dispersions, optimisation of the physical properties such as length and diameter paves the way for possible harnessing of excellent charge transport properties of CNTs in organic photovoltaic systems and breaking the current limitations associated with exciton diffusion lengths and low charge mobility of organic materials. (orig.)

  14. Electrodes for GaOHPc:PCBM/P3HT:PCBM bulk heterojunction solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaulachs, I.; Muzikante, I.; Gerca, L.; Shlihta, G.; Shipkovs, P.; Grehovs, V.; Kalnachs, J.; Roze, M.; Rozite, G.; Ivanova, A.

    2012-09-01

    The bulk heterojunction approach appears to be one of the most promising concepts of creating efficient, low cost and easily producible organic solar cells. For this purpose one of the best materials was regioregular poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT), which is widely used as a donor molecule and a hole transporter, with soluble fullerene derivative (PCBM) as an acceptor and electron transporter. The main drawback of this highly efficient blend is its limited spectral range, covering only a 350-650 nm spectral interval. So the main aim of the present work was to extend the spectral range of the cell up to 850 nm by adding a second bulk heterojunction layer of complementary absorption spectrum to the P3HT:PCBM layer. Therefore hydroxygallium phthalocyanine (GaOHPc) and PCBM blend was used as an additional layer because GaOHPc has strong and wide intermolecular charge transfer (CT) absorption band of around 830-850 nm. Thus an organic bi-layer bulk heterojunction system GaOHPc:PCBM/P3HT:PCBM has been built by the spin coating technique having high charge carrier photogeneration efficiency in the 350-850 nm spectral range. The cell annealing temperature influence on the cell performance has been investigated in a 10-6 mbar vacuum within the temperature range from 30 °C to 100 °C. It was found that annealing at 100 °C increases the short-circuit photocurrent external quantum efficiency (EQE) values more than 2 times. Various top electrodes of Al, In and Yb/Al/Se were examined to achieve the best performance of our bi-layer cell. It was found that the best power conversion efficiency (PCE) is provided by an Yb/Al electrode covered with a protective Se layer.

  15. The Physics of Small Molecule Acceptors for Efficient and Stable Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Gasparini, Nicola

    2018-01-29

    Organic bulk heterojunction solar cells based on small molecule acceptors have recently seen a rapid rise in the power conversion efficiency with values exceeding 13%. This impressive achievement has been obtained by simultaneous reduction of voltage and charge recombination losses within this class of materials as compared to fullerene-based solar cells. In this contribution, the authors review the current understanding of the relevant photophysical processes in highly efficient nonfullerene acceptor (NFA) small molecules. Charge generation, recombination, and charge transport is discussed in comparison to fullerene-based composites. Finally, the authors review the superior light and thermal stability of nonfullerene small molecule acceptor based solar cells, and highlight the importance of NFA-based composites that enable devices without early performance loss, thus resembling so-called burn-in free devices.

  16. Development of Efficient and Stable Inverted Bulk Heterojunction (BHJ) Solar Cells Using Different Metal Oxide Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litzov, Ivan; Brabec, Christoph J.

    2013-01-01

    Solution-processed inverted bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells have gained much more attention during the last decade, because of their significantly better environmental stability compared to the normal architecture BHJ solar cells. Transparent metal oxides (MeOx) play an important role as the dominant class for solution-processed interface materials in this development, due to their excellent optical transparency, their relatively high electrical conductivity and their tunable work function. This article reviews the advantages and disadvantages of the most common synthesis methods used for the wet chemical preparation of the most relevant n-type- and p-type-like MeOx interface materials consisting of binary compounds AxBy. Their performance for applications as electron transport/extraction layers (ETL/EEL) and as hole transport/extraction layers (HTL/HEL) in inverted BHJ solar cells will be reviewed and discussed. PMID:28788423

  17. Development of Efficient and Stable Inverted Bulk Heterojunction (BHJ Solar Cells Using Different Metal Oxide Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Litzov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Solution-processed inverted bulk heterojunction (BHJ solar cells have gained much more attention during the last decade, because of their significantly better environmental stability compared to the normal architecture BHJ solar cells. Transparent metal oxides (MeOx play an important role as the dominant class for solution-processed interface materials in this development, due to their excellent optical transparency, their relatively high electrical conductivity and their tunable work function. This article reviews the advantages and disadvantages of the most common synthesis methods used for the wet chemical preparation of the most relevant n-type- and p-type-like MeOx interface materials consisting of binary compounds AxBy. Their performance for applications as electron transport/extraction layers (ETL/EEL and as hole transport/extraction layers (HTL/HEL in inverted BHJ solar cells will be reviewed and discussed.

  18. Hybrid tandem solar cells with depleted-heterojunction quantum dot and polymer bulk heterojunction subcells

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Taesoo

    2015-10-01

    We investigate hybrid tandem solar cells that rely on the combination of solution-processed depleted-heterojunction colloidal quantum dot (CQD) and bulk heterojunction polymer:fullerene subcells. The hybrid tandem solar cell is monolithically integrated and electrically connected in series with a suitable p-n recombination layer that includes metal oxides and a conjugated polyelectrolyte. We discuss the monolithic integration of the subcells, taking into account solvent interactions with underlayers and associated constraints on the tandem architecture, and show that an adequate device configuration consists of a low bandgap CQD bottom cell and a high bandgap polymer:fullerene top cell. Once we optimize the recombination layer and individual subcells, the hybrid tandem device reaches a VOC of 1.3V, approaching the sum of the individual subcell voltages. An impressive fill factor of 70% is achieved, further confirming that the subcells are efficiently connected via an appropriate recombination layer. © 2015.

  19. Two-dimensional simulation of organic bulk heterojunction solar cell: influence of the morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raba, Adam; Cordan, Anne-Sophie; Leroy, Yann

    2013-07-01

    Recent developments in organic solar cells show interesting power conversion efficiencies. However, with the use of organic semiconductors and bulk heterojunction cells, many new concepts have to be introduced to understand their characteristics. Only few models investigate these new concepts, and most of them are one-dimensional only. In this work, we present a two-dimensional model based on solving the drift-diffusion equations. The model describes the generation of excitons in the donor phase of the active layer and their diffusion towards an interface between the two separate acceptor and donor domains. Then, when the exciton reaches the interface, it forms a charge transfer state which can split into free charges due to the internal potential. Finally, these free charges are transported toward the electrodes within their respective domains (electrons in acceptor domain, holes in donor domain) before being extracted. In this model, we can follow the distribution of each species and link it to the physical processes taken into account. Using the finite element method to solve the equations of the model, we simulate the effect of the bulk heterojunction morphology on photocurrent curves. We concentrate on the morphology parameters such as the mean acceptor/donor domain sizes and the roughness of,the interface between the donor and acceptor domains. Results are discussed in relation with experimental observations.

  20. Organic solar cells with submicron-thick polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungsoo; Nam, Sungho; Kim, Hwajeong; Kim, Youngkyoo

    2010-09-01

    We report the viability of organic solar cells with submicron-thick bulk heterojunction films, which were fabricated by mixing poly(3-hexylthiophene) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester at a solid concentration of 90 mg/ml. To elucidate the physics behind the thick film solar cells, optical transmittance and electrical characteristics were compared for film thicknesses between 520 and 1000 nm. Results showed that the device (520 nm thick film; efficiency=3.68%) exhibited similar performance to that of a control device (170 nm thick). A decreasing device performance was measured for much thicker films (efficiency=0.34% for the 1000 nm thick device).

  1. Efficient inverted bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells with self-assembled monolayer modified zinc oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wook Hyun; Lyu, Hong-Kun; Han, Yoon Soo; Woo, Sungho

    2013-10-01

    The performance of poly(3-hexylthiophen) (P3HT) and [6, 6]phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester ([60]PCBM)-based inverted bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells (PSCs) is enhanced by the modification of zinc oxide (ZnO)/BHJ interface with carboxylic-acid-functionalized self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). Under simulated solar illumination of AM 1.5 (100 mW/cm2), the inverted devices fabricated with SAM-modified ZnO achieved an enhanced power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.34% due to the increased fill factor and photocurrent density as compared to unmodified cells with PCE of 2.60%. This result provides an efficient method for interface engineering in inverted BHJ PSCs.

  2. Polymer defect states modulate open-circuit voltage in bulk-heterojunction solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ripolles, Teresa S.; Guerrero, Antonio; Garcia-Belmonte, Germà, E-mail: garciag@uji.es [Photovoltaic and Optoelectronic Devices Group, Departament de Física, Universitat Jaume I, ES-12071 Castelló (Spain)

    2013-12-09

    Defect states influence the operation of organic solar cells altering transport, recombination, and energetic mechanisms. This work investigates how processing conditions induce morphology-related, electrically active defects in the donor polymer of bulk-heterojunction solar cells. Structural order is inferred from absorption and X-ray diffraction data, while defect density is determined from capacitance methods. A correlation is observed between the polymer nanocrystallite size, the defect concentration, and the output voltage. For the case of poly(3-hexylthiophene), processing that promote crystallinity is beneficial for the device performance as it decreases the defect density (energy disorder) that finally enlarges the maximum achievable open-circuit voltage. Defect states within the effective bandgap modulate the downshift of the hole Fermi level upon illumination that in turn establishes the achievable open-circuit voltage.

  3. Tuning of defects in ZnO nanorod arrays used in bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    With particular focus on bulk heterojunction solar cells incorporating ZnO nanorods, we study how different annealing environments (air or Zn environment) and temperatures impact on the photoluminescence response. Our work gives new insight into the complex defect landscape in ZnO, and it also shows how the different defect types can be manipulated. We have determined the emission wavelengths for the two main defects which make up the visible band, the oxygen vacancy emission wavelength at approximately 530 nm and the zinc vacancy emission wavelength at approximately 630 nm. The precise nature of the defect landscape in the bulk of the nanorods is found to be unimportant to photovoltaic cell performance although the surface structure is more critical. Annealing of the nanorods is optimum at 300°C as this is a sufficiently high temperature to decompose Zn(OH)2 formed at the surface of the nanorods during electrodeposition and sufficiently low to prevent ITO degradation. PMID:23186280

  4. Plasmon enhanced power conversion efficiency in inverted bulk heterojunction organic solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Minu; Ramkumar, S.; Namboothiry, Manoj A. G.

    2017-08-01

    P3HT:PCBM is one of the most studied polymer-fullerene system. However the reported power conversion efficiency (PCE) values falls within the range of 4% to 5%. The thin film architecture in OPVs exhibits low PCE compared to inorganic photovoltaic cells. This is mainly due to the low exciton diffusion length that limits the active layer thickness which in turn reduces the absorption of incident light. Several strategies are adapted in order to increase the absorption in the active layer without increasing the film thickness. Inclusion of metal nanoparticles into the polymer layer of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells is one of the promising methods. Incorporation of metal nanostructures increases the absorption of organic materials due to the high electromagnetic field strength in the vicinity of the excited surface plasmons. In this work, we used 60 nm Au plasmonic structures to improve the efficiency of organic solar cell. The prepared metal nano structures were characterized through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and UV-Visible spectroscopy techniques. These prepared metallic nanoparticles can be incorporated either into the electron transport layer (ETL) or into the active P3HT:PC71BM layer. The effect of incorporation of plasmonic gold (Au) nanoparticle in the inverted bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) of P3HT:PC71BM fabricated in ambient air condition is in progress. Initial studies shows an 8.5% enhancement in the PCE with the incorporation of Au nanoparticles under AM1.5G light of intensity 1 Sun.

  5. Charge transport and recombination dynamics in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, Andreas

    2011-08-02

    The charge transport in disordered organic bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells is a crucial process affecting the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the solar cell. With the need of synthesizing new materials for improving the power conversion efficiency of those cells it is important to study not only the photophysical but also the electrical properties of the new material classes. Thereby, the experimental techniques need to be applicable to operating solar cells. In this work, the conventional methods of transient photoconductivity (also known as ''Time-of-Flight'' (TOF)), as well as the transient charge extraction technique of ''Charge Carrier Extraction by Linearly Increasing Voltage'' (CELIV) are performed on different organic blend compositions. Especially with the latter it is feasible to study the dynamics - i.e. charge transport and charge carrier recombination - in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells with active layer thicknesses of 100-200 nm. For a well performing organic BHJ solar cells the morphology is the most crucial parameter finding a trade-off between an efficient photogeneration of charge carriers and the transport of the latter to the electrodes. Besides the morphology, the nature of energetic disorder of the active material blend and its influence on the dynamics are discussed extensively in this work. Thereby, the material system of poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}butyric acid methyl ester (PC{sub 61}BM) serves mainly as a reference material system. New promising donor or acceptor materials and their potential for application in organic photovoltaics are studied in view of charge dynamics and compared with the reference system. With the need for commercialization of organic solar cells the question of the impact of environmental conditions on the PCE of the solar cells raises. In this work, organic BHJ solar cells exposed to synthetic air for finite duration are

  6. Near infrared organic semiconducting materials for bulk heterojunction and dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Surya Prakash; Sharma, G D

    2014-06-01

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells have been the subject of intensive academic interest over the past two decades, and significant commercial effort has been directed towards this area with the vison of developing the next generation of low cost solar cells. Materials development has played a vital role in the dramatic improvement of both DSSC and BHJ solar cell performance in the recent years. Organic conjugated polymers and small molecules that absorb solar light in the visible and near infrared (NIR) regions represent a class of emering materials and show a great potential for the use of different optoelectronic devices such as DSSCs and BHJ solar cells. This account describes the emering class of near infrared (NIR) organic polymers and small molecules having donor and acceptors units, and explores their potential applications in the DSSCs and BHJ solar cells. Copyright © 2014 The Chemical Society of Japan and Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Solution processed bulk heterojunction solar cells with molecularly doped active layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sio, Antonietta de; Tunc, Ali Veysel; Hauff, Elizabeth von; Parisi, Juergen [Energy and Semiconductor Research Laboratory, Institute of Physics, Carl von Ossietzky Universitaet Oldenburg, 26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Deschler, Felix; Como, Enrico da [Photonics and Optoelectronics Group, Department of Physics and CeNS, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, 80799, Munich (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    We report on the improvement of the device performance of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells by molecularly doping the active layer. 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4-TCNQ) was used to p-dope the low bandgap polymer poly[2,6(4,4-bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b:3,4-b0]-dithiophene)-alt-4,7-(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)] (PCPDTBT) that was then blended with the soluble fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). Blends with different doping concentrations were investigated. We show how the short circuit current densities of the photovoltaic devices increase with the doping concentration as a result of an enhancement of the field effect mobilities.

  8. Effects of Magnetic Nanoparticles and External Magnetostatic Field on the Bulk Heterojunction Polymer Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Yi, Chao; Liu, Chang; Hu, Xiaowen; Chuang, Steven; Gong, Xiong

    2015-03-01

    The price of energy to separate tightly bound electron-hole pair (or charge-transfer state) and extract freely movable charges from low-mobility materials represents fundamental losses for many low-cost photovoltaic devices. In bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells (PSCs), approximately 50% of the total efficiency lost among all energy loss pathways is due to the photogenerated charge carrier recombination within PSCs and low charge carrier mobility of disordered organic materials. To address these issues, we introduce magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and orientate these MNPS within BHJ composite by an external magnetostatic field. Over 50% enhanced efficiency was observed from BHJ PSCs incorporated with MNPs and an external magnetostatic field alignment when compared to the control BHJ PSCs. The optimization of BHJ thin film morphology, suppression of charge carrier recombination, and enhancement in charge carrier collection result in a greatly increased short-circuit current density and fill factor, as a result, enhanced power conversion efficiency.

  9. Effect of annealing on bulk heterojunction organic solar cells based on copper phthalocyanine and perylene derivative

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Inho

    2012-02-01

    We investigated the effects of annealing on device performances of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells based on copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) and N,N′-3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic diimide (PTCDI-C6). Blended films of CuPc and PTCDI-C6 with annealing at elevated temperature were characterized by measuring optical absorption, photoluminescence, and X-ray diffraction. Enhanced molecular ordering and increments in domain sizes of donor and acceptor for the blended films were observed, and their influences on device performances were discussed. Annealing led to substantial improvements in photocurrent owing to enhanced molecular ordering and formation of percolation pathways. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Atomically Thin-Layered Molybdenum Disulfide (MoS2) for Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Eric; Kim, Ki Seok; Yeom, Geun Young; Nalwa, Hari Singh

    2017-02-01

    Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are becoming significant because of their interesting semiconducting and photonic properties. In particular, TMDs such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2), tungsten disulfide (WS2), tungsten diselenide (WSe2), titanium disulfide (TiS2), tantalum sulfide (TaS2), and niobium selenide (NbSe2) are increasingly attracting attention for their applications in solar cell devices. In this review, we give a brief introduction to TMDs with a focus on MoS2; and thereafter, emphasize the role of atomically thin MoS2 layers in fabricating solar cell devices, including bulk-heterojunction, organic, and perovskites-based solar cells. Layered MoS2 has been used as the hole-transport layer (HTL), electron-transport layer (ETL), interfacial layer, and protective layer in fabricating heterojunction solar cells. The trilayer graphene/MoS2/n-Si solar cell devices exhibit a power-conversion efficiency of 11.1%. The effects of plasma and chemical doping on the photovoltaic performance of MoS2 solar cells have been analyzed. After doping and electrical gating, a power-conversion efficiency (PCE) of 9.03% has been observed for the MoS2/h-BN/GaAs heterostructure solar cells. The MoS2-containing perovskites-based solar cells show a PCE as high as 13.3%. The PCE of MoS2-based organic solar cells exceeds 8.40%. The stability of MoS2 solar cells measured under ambient conditions and light illumination has been discussed. The MoS2-based materials show a great potential for solar cell devices along with high PCE; however, in this connection, their long-term environmental stability is also of equal importance for commercial applications.

  11. Barium: An Efficient Cathode Layer for Bulk-heterojunction Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vinay; Kyaw, Aung Ko Ko; Wang, Dong Hwan; Chand, Suresh; Bazan, Guillermo C.; Heeger, Alan J.

    2013-01-01

    We report Barium (Ba) cathode layer for bulk-heterojunction solar cells which enhanced the fill factor (FF) of p-DTS(FBTTh2)2/PC71BM BHJ solar cell up to 75.1%, one of the highest value reported for an organic solar cell. The external quantum efficiency exceeds 80%. Analysis of recombination mechanisms using the current-voltage (J–V) characteristics at various light intensities in the BHJ solar cell layer reveals that Ba prevents trap assisted Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) recombination at the interface and with different thicknesses of the Ba, the recombination shifts towards bimolecular from monomolecular. Moreover, Ba increases shunt resistance and decreases the series resistance significantly. This results in an increase in the charge collection probability leading to high FF. This work identifies a new cathode interlayer which outclasses the all the reported interlayers in increasing FF leading to high power conversion efficiency and have significant implications in improving the performance of BHJ solar cells. PMID:23752562

  12. Neat C₇₀-based bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells with excellent acceptor dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, Nicola; Righi, Sara; Tinti, Francesca; Savoini, Alberto; Cominetti, Alessandra; Po, Riccardo; Camaioni, Nadia

    2014-12-10

    The replacement of common fullerene derivatives with neat-C70 could be an effective approach to restrain the costs of organic photovoltaics and increase their sustainability. In this study, bulk-heterojunction solar cells made of neat-C70 and low energy-gap conjugated polymers, PTB7 and PCDTBT, are thoroughly investigated and compared. Upon replacing PC70BM with C70, the mobility of positive carriers in the donor phase is roughly reduced by 1 order of magnitude, while that of electrons is only slightly modified. It is shown that the main loss mechanism of the investigated neat-C70 solar cells is a low mobility-lifetime product. Nevertheless, PCDTBT:C70 devices undergo a limited loss of 7.5%, compared to the reference PCDTBT:PC70BM cells, reaching a record efficiency (4.44%) for polymer solar cells with unfunctionalized fullerenes. The moderate efficiency loss of PCDTBT:C70 devices, due to an unexpected excellent miscibility of PCDTBT:C70 blends, demonstrates that efficient solar cells made of neat-fullerene are possible. The efficient dispersion of C70 in the PCDTBT matrix is attributed to an interaction between fullerene and the carbazole unit of the polymer.

  13. Sodium chloride methanol solution spin-coating process for bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tong-Fang; Hu, Yu-Feng; Deng, Zhen-Bo; Li, Xiong; Zhu, Li-Jie; Wang, Yue; Lv, Long-Feng; Wang, Tie-Ning; Lou, Zhi-Dong; Hou, Yan-Bing; Teng, Feng

    2016-08-01

    The sodium chloride methanol solution process is conducted on the conventional poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells. The device exhibits a power conversion efficiency of up to 3.36%, 18% higher than that of the device without the solution process. The measurements of the active layer by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) indicate a slight phase separation in the vertical direction and a sodium chloride distributed island-like interface between the active layer and the cathode. The capacitance-voltage (C-V) and impedance spectroscopy measurements prove that the sodium chloride methanol process can reduce the electron injection barrier and improve the interfacial contact of polymer solar cells. Therefore, this one-step solution process not only optimizes the phase separation in the active layers but also forms a cathode buffer layer, which can enhance the generation, transport, and collection of photogenerated charge carriers in the device simultaneously. This work indicates that the inexpensive and non-toxic sodium chloride methanol solution process is an efficient one-step method for the low cost manufacturing of polymer solar cells. Project supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. 2014JBZ009) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61274063, 61377028, 61475014, and 61475017).

  14. Solution-processed bulk-heterojunction solar cells based on monodisperse dendritic oligothiophenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Chang-Qi; Schikora, Martin C.; Baeuerle, Peter [Institute of Organic Chemistry II and Advanced Materials, Ulm University (Germany); Fonrodona, Marta; Wienk, Martijn M.; Janssen, Rene A.J. [Molecular Materials and Nanosystems, Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands)

    2008-10-23

    A novel family of soluble conjugated dendritic oligothiophenes (DOTs) as monodisperse 3D macromolecular architectures was characterized with respect to optical and redox properties in solution and in solid films. Band gaps of 2.5-2.2 eV, typical for organic semiconductors, were determined as well as HOMO/LUMO energy levels ideal for efficient electron transfer to acceptors such as [6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) identifying them as suitable materials for solar cell applications. Solution-processed bulk-heterojunction solar cells using DOTs as electron donor and PCBM as acceptor were prepared and investigated. High open-circuit voltages V{sub OC} of 1.0 V and power-conversion efficiencies up to 1.72% were obtained for the DOT-based devices. The higher generations DOTs provide the highest efficiencies. Based on the monodispersity of the DOTs, an analysis of the molar ratio between donor and acceptor in the blended film was possible leading to an optimal value of five to six thiophene units per PCBM. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  15. Polymer:Nonfullerene Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells with Exceptionally Low Recombination Rates

    KAUST Repository

    Gasparini, Nicola

    2017-09-01

    Organic semiconductors are in general known to have an inherently lower charge carrier mobility compared to their inorganic counterparts. Bimolecular recombination of holes and electrons is an important loss mechanism and can often be described by the Langevin recombination model. Here, the device physics of bulk heterojunction solar cells based on a nonfullerene acceptor (IDTBR) in combination with poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) are elucidated, showing an unprecedentedly low bimolecular recombination rate. The high fill factor observed (above 65%) is attributed to non-Langevin behavior with a Langevin prefactor (β/βL) of 1.9 × 10−4. The absence of parasitic recombination and high charge carrier lifetimes in P3HT:IDTBR solar cells inform an almost ideal bimolecular recombination behavior. This exceptional recombination behavior is explored to fabricate devices with layer thicknesses up to 450 nm without significant performance losses. The determination of the photoexcited carrier mobility by time-of-flight measurements reveals a long-lived and nonthermalized carrier transport as the origin for the exceptional transport physics. The crystalline microstructure arrangement of both components is suggested to be decisive for this slow recombination dynamics. Further, the thickness-independent power conversion efficiency is of utmost technological relevance for upscaling production and reiterates the importance of understanding material design in the context of low bimolecular recombination.

  16. Nanostructure and optoelectronic characterization of small molecule bulk heterojunction solar cells by photoconductive atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dang, Xuan-Dung; Tamayo, Arnold B.; Seo, Junghwa; Hoven, Corey V.; Walker, Bright; Nguyen, Thuc-Quyen [Departments of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Department of Materials, Institute for Polymers and Organic Solids, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2010-10-08

    Photoconductive atomic force microscopy is employed to study the nanoscale morphology and optoelectronic properties of bulk heterojunction solar cells based on small molecules containing a benzofuran substituted diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) core (3,6-bis(5-(benzofuran-2-yl)thiophen-2-yl))-2,5-bis(2-ethylhexyl)pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4-dione, DPP(TBFu){sub 2}, and[6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 71}-butyric acid methyl ester (PC{sub 71}BM), which were recently reported to have power conversion efficiencies of 4.4%. Electron and hole collection networks are visualized for blends with different donor:acceptor ratios. Formation of nanostructures in the blends leads to a higher interfacial area for charge dissociation, while maintaining bicontinuous collection networks; conditions that lead to the high efficiency observed in the devices. An excellent agreement between nanoscale and bulk open-circuit voltage measurements is achieved by surface modification of the indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate by using aminopropyltrimethoxysilane. The local open-circuit voltage is linearly dependent on the cathode work function. These results demonstrate that photoconductive atomic force microscopy coupled with surface modification of ITO substrate can be used to study nanoscale optoelectronic phenomena of organic solar cells. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  17. Bulk-Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells: Five Core Technologies for Their Commercialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hongkyu; Kim, Geunjin; Kim, Junghwan; Kwon, Sooncheol; Kim, Heejoo; Lee, Kwanghee

    2016-09-01

    The past two decades of vigorous interdisciplinary approaches has seen tremendous breakthroughs in both scientific and technological developments of bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells (OSCs) based on nanocomposites of π-conjugated organic semiconductors. Because of their unique functionalities, the OSC field is expected to enable innovative photovoltaic applications that can be difficult to achieve using traditional inorganic solar cells: OSCs are printable, portable, wearable, disposable, biocompatible, and attachable to curved surfaces. The ultimate objective of this field is to develop cost-effective, stable, and high-performance photovoltaic modules fabricated on large-area flexible plastic substrates via high-volume/throughput roll-to-roll printing processing and thus achieve the practical implementation of OSCs. Recently, intensive research efforts into the development of organic materials, processing techniques, interface engineering, and device architectures have led to a remarkable improvement in power conversion efficiencies, exceeding 11%, which has finally brought OSCs close to commercialization. Current research interests are expanding from academic to industrial viewpoints to improve device stability and compatibility with large-scale printing processes, which must be addressed to realize viable applications. Here, both academic and industrial issues are reviewed by highlighting historically monumental research results and recent state-of-the-art progress in OSCs. Moreover, perspectives on five core technologies that affect the realization of the practical use of OSCs are presented, including device efficiency, device stability, flexible and transparent electrodes, module designs, and printing techniques. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Structure–property relationships of oligothiophene–isoindigo polymers for efficient bulk-heterojunction solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Zaifei

    2014-01-01

    A series of alternating oligothiophene (nT)-isoindigo (I) copolymers (PnTI) were synthesized to investigate the influence of the oligothiophene block length on the photovoltaic (PV) properties of PnTI:PCBM bulk-heterojunction blends. Our study indicates that the number of thiophene rings (n) in the repeating unit alters both polymer crystallinity and polymer-fullerene interfacial energetics, which results in a decreasing open-circuit voltage (Voc) of the solar cells with increasing n. The short-circuit current density (Jsc) of P1TI:PCBM devices is limited by the absence of a significant driving force for electron transfer. Instead, blends based on P5TI and P6TI feature large polymer domains, which limit charge generation and thus Jsc. The best PV performance with a power conversion efficiency of up to 6.9% was achieved with devices based on P3TI, where a combination of a favorable morphology and an optimal interfacial energy level offset ensures efficient exciton separation and charge generation. The structure-property relationship demonstrated in this work would be a valuable guideline for the design of high performance polymers with small energy losses during the charge generation process, allowing for the fabrication of efficient solar cells that combine a minimal loss in Voc with a high Jsc. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  19. Electron and Hole Transport Layers: Their Use in Inverted Bulk Heterojunction Polymer Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Lattante

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells (BHJ PSCs are very promising organic-based devices for low-cost solar energy conversion, compatible with roll-to-roll or general printing methods for mass production. Nevertheless, to date, many issues should still be addressed, one of these being the poor stability in ambient conditions. One elegant way to overcome such an issue is the so-called “inverted” BHJ PSC, a device geometry in which the charge collection is reverted in comparison with the standard geometry device, i.e., the electrons are collected by the bottom electrode and the holes by the top electrode (in contact with air. This reverted geometry allows one to use a high work function top metal electrode, like silver or gold (thus avoiding its fast oxidation and degradation, and eliminates the need of a polymeric hole transport layer, typically of an acidic nature, on top of the transparent metal oxide bottom electrode. Moreover, this geometry is fully compatible with standard roll-to-roll manufacturing in air and is less demanding for a good post-production encapsulation process. To date, the external power conversion efficiencies of the inverted devices are generally comparable to their standard analogues, once both the electron transport layer and the hole transport layer are fully optimized for the particular device. Here, the most recent results on this particular optimization process will be reviewed, and a general outlook regarding the inverted BHJ PSC will be depicted.

  20. Efficient solution-processed small molecule: Cadmium selenide quantum dot bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Vinay, E-mail: drvinaygupta@netscape.net [Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, Organic and Hybrid Solar Cell Group, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi-110012 (India); Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Upreti, Tanvi; Chand, Suresh [Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, Organic and Hybrid Solar Cell Group, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi-110012 (India)

    2013-12-16

    We report bulk heterojunction solar cells based on blends of solution-processed small molecule [7,7′-(4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-silolo[3,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-2,6-diyl) bis(6-fluoro-4-(5′-hexyl-[2,2′-bithiophen]-5yl)benzo[c] [1,2,5] thiadiazole)] p-DTS(FBTTh{sub 2}){sub 2}: Cadmium Selenide (CdSe) (70:30, 60:40, 50:50, and 40:60) in the device configuration: Indium Tin Oxide /poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)/p-DTS(FBTTh{sub 2}){sub 2}: CdSe/Ca/Al. The optimized ratio of p-DTS(FBTTh{sub 2}){sub 2}:CdSe::60:40 leads to a short circuit current density (J{sub sc}) = 5.45 mA/cm{sup 2}, open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) = 0.727 V, and fill factor (FF) = 51%, and a power conversion efficiency = 2.02% at 100 mW/cm{sup 2} under AM1.5G illumination. The J{sub sc} and FF are sensitive to the ratio of p-DTS(FBTTh{sub 2}){sub 2}:CdSe, which is a crucial factor for the device performance.

  1. Ring substituents mediate the morphology of PBDTTPD-PCBM bulk-heterojunction solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Warnan, Julien

    2014-04-08

    Among π-conjugated polymer donors for efficient bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cell applications, poly(benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene- thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione) (PBDTTPD) polymers yield some of the highest open-circuit voltages (VOC, ca. 0.9 V) and fill-factors (FF, ca. 70%) in conventional (single-cell) BHJ devices with PCBM acceptors. In PBDTTPD, side chains of varying size and branching affect polymer self-assembly, nanostructural order, and impact material performance. However, the role of the polymer side-chain pattern in the intimate mixing between polymer donors and PCBM acceptors, and on the development of the BHJ morphology is in general less understood. In this contribution, we show that ring substituents such as furan (F), thiophene (T) and selenophene (S)-incorporated into the side chains of PBDTTPD polymers-can induce significant and, of importance, very different morphological effects in BHJs with PCBM. A combination of experimental and theoretical (via density functional theory) characterizations sheds light on how varying the heteroatom of the ring substituents impacts (i) the preferred side-chain configurations and (ii) the ionization, electronic, and optical properties of the PBDTTPD polymers. In parallel, we find that the PBDT(X)TPD analogs (with X = F, T, or S) span a broad range of power conversion efficiencies (PCEs, 3-6.5%) in optimized devices with improved thin-film morphologies via the use of 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO), and discuss that persistent morphological impediments at the nanoscale can be at the origin of the spread in PCE across optimized PBDT(X)TPD-based devices. With their high VOC ∼1 V, PBDT(X)TPD polymers are promising candidates for use in the high-band gap cell of tandem solar cells. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  2. The performance studies on swallow-tailed naphthalene diimide derivatives in solution processed inverted bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkmen, Gulsah; Sarica, Hizir; Erten-Ela, Sule

    2014-10-01

    Two different soluble swallow-tailed naphthalene diimide derivatives were synthesized, 1,4:5,8-naphthalene diimides (NDIs), N,N‧-bis-(1-butylpentyl)-naphthalenetetracarboxylic-1,4:5,8-biscarboximide (NDI-1) and N,N‧-bis-(1-pentylhexyl)-naphthalenetetracarboxylic-1,4:5,8-biscarboximide (NDI-2). Thermal stabilities were also measured with thermal gravimetry analyser (TGA). Naphthalene diimides showed high thermal stability. NDI derivatives exhibited good thermal stabilities that thermal decomposition peak appeared at 438 °C and 421 °C, respectively for NDI-1 and NDI-2. Highly soluble naphthalene diimide derivatives were used in inverted bulk heterojunction solar cells. Two different ZnO cathode layers were used to fabricate bulk heterojunction solar cells. One of them was single layer consists of dense ZnO layer and the other was double layer comprising porous ZnO layer onto dense ZnO layer. Inverted bulk heterojunction devices were designed in a FTO/ ZnO (single or double layer)/P3HT:C60:NDI device geometry. Best efficiency was obtained for FTO/ZnO (single or double layer)/P3HT:C60:NDI-2 device as 8.78 mA/cm2 of short circuit photocurrent density, 300 mV of open circuit voltage, 0.28 of filling factor, 0.74 of overall conversion efficiency.

  3. Design, fabrication, and characterization of polymer based bulk heterojunction solar cells with enhanced efficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Haiwei

    Polymer based bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells offer promising technological advantages for actualization of low-cost and large-area fabrication on flexible substrates. To reach the envisaged market entry figure of 10% power conversion efficiency (PCE), it is crucial that more solar energy is utilized in the active layer, requiring both higher energy conversion efficiency and expansion of the absorption spectrum of the active layer to near infrared (NIR) region. The research introduced in this dissertation is an effort to increase PCE of solar cells from the aforementioned two directions. In the first method, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were incorporated into polymer-fullerene BHJ solar cells to increase the hole-collection efficiency. Devices with CNT monolayer networks placed at different positions were fabricated, and the impact of CNTs on device performance was studied. It was demonstrated that CNTs placed on the hole-collection side of the device resulted in optimized performance, with PCE increased from 4% to 4.9%. To realize the controlled deposition of a uniform layer of CNTs on different positions, a mild plasma treatment of the active-layer was employed, and the influence of plasma treatment on device performance was also studied. In the second strategy, I developed an approach to expand the absorption spectrum to NIR region. In this case, hybrid polymer based BHJ solar cells composed of pyridine-capped PbS (PbS-py) quantum dots (QDs) and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) were proposed. With pyridines as capping ligands, devices showed superior performance compared to with conventionally used oleate agents. PbS QDs with bandgaps of ˜1.13-1.38 eV offered the advantage of energetically favorable charge separation between P3HT and PbS QDs for photoexcitons in both visible and NIR regions. It was also found that thermal annealing leads to the removal of excess and interfacial pyridine ligands in polymer/QDs composites, and thus provides intimate electrical

  4. Morphology-Dependent Trap Formation in High Performance Polymer Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Beiley, Zach M.

    2011-06-28

    Bulk heterojunction solar cells (BHJs) based on poly[N-9″-hepta- decanyl-2,7-carbazole- alt -5,5-(4′,7′-di-2-thienyl-2′, 1′,3′-benzothiadiazole)] (PCDTBT) can have internal quantum efficiencies approaching 100% but require active layers that are too thin to absorb more than ∼70% of the above band gap light. When the active layer thickness is increased so that the cell absorbs more light, the fi ll factor and open circuit voltage decrease rapidly, so that the overall power conversion efficiency decreases. We fi nd that hole-traps in the polymer, which we characterize using space-charge limited current measurements, play an important role in the performance of PCDTBT-based BHJs and may limit the active layer thickness. Recombination due to carrier trapping is not often considered in BHJs because it is not believed to be a dominant loss mechanism in the "fruit-fl y" P3HT system. Furthermore, we show that in contrast to P3HT, PCDTBT has only weak short-range molecular order, and that annealing at temperatures above the glass transition decreases the order in the π-π stacking. The decrease in structural order is matched by the movement of hole-traps deeper into the band gap, so that thermal annealing worsens hole transport in the polymer and reduces the efficiency of PCDTBTbased BHJs. These fi ndings suggest that P3HT is not prototypical of the new class of high efficiency polymers, and that further improvement of BHJ efficiencies will necessitate the study of high efficiency polymers with low structural order. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Application of solution processable squaraine dyes as electron donors for organic bulk-heterojunction solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, B Ananda; Yesudas, K; Kumar, G Siva; Bhanuprakash, K; Rao, V Jayathirtha; Sharma, G D; Singh, S P

    2013-09-01

    New low bandgap small molecules based on a squaraine (SQ) chromophore, bis[4-(2,6-di-tert-butyl)vinylpyrylium]squaraine (TBU-SQ), bis[2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-(prop-1-en-2-yl)pyrylium]squaraine (MeTBU-SQ) and bis[4-(but-1-en-2-yl)-2,6-di-tert-butylpyrylium]squaraine (EtTBU-SQ), were synthesized and used as electron donors along with PC70BM for their application in solution processed organic bulk-heterojunction (OBHJ) solar cell (SC). The long wavelength of these SQ dyes are located in between 650-750 nm in thin films and the optical bandgaps are about 1.64, 1.52 and 1.48 eV, respectively. The electrochemical properties of these SQ dyes indicate that they are well suited for the fabrication of OBHJSCs as electron donors along with fullerene derivatives as electron acceptors. The OBHJ photovoltaic (PV) devices fabricated with the blend of TBU-SQ:PC70BM, MeTBU-SQ:PC70BM and EtTBU-SQ:PC70BM cast from chloroform (CF) solvent exhibited a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 1.71%, 2.15%, and 1.89%, respectively. The PCE of the OBHJSCs based on MeTBU-SQ:PC70BM blends cast from DIO-THF (DIO = 1,8-diiodooctane) additive solvent and cast from DIO-THF with subsequent thermal annealing have been further improved up to 2.73% and 3.14%, respectively. This enhancement in the PCE is attributed to the improvement in the crystalline nature of the blend and more balanced charge transport resulting from the higher hole mobility. All these results have been supported by the quantum chemical calculations.

  6. Impact of CH3NH3PbI3-PCBM bulk heterojunction active layer on the photovoltaic performance of perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Dhirendra K.; Kumar, Pankaj; Kumar, Lokendra

    2017-10-01

    We report here the impact of CH3NH3PbI3-PCBM bulk heterojunction (BHJ) active layer on the photovoltaic performance of perovskite solar cells. The solar cells were prepared in normal architecture on FTO coated glass substrates with compact TiO2 (c-TiO2) layer on FTO as electron transport layer (ETL) and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as hole transport layer (HTL). For comparison, a few solar cells were also prepared in planar heterojunction structure using CH3NH3PbI3 only as the active layer. The bulk heterojunction CH3NH3PbI3-PCBM active layer exhibited very large crystalline grains of 2-3 μm compared to ∼150 nm only in CH3NH3PbI3 active layer. Larger grains in bulk-heterojunction solar cells resulted in enhanced power conversion efficiency (PCE) through enhancement in all the photovoltaic parameters compared to planar heterojunction solar cells. The bulk-heterojunction solar cells exhibited ∼9.25% PCE with short circuit current density (Jsc) of ∼18.649 mA/cm2, open circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.894 V and Fill Factor (FF) of 0.554. There was ∼36.9% enhancement in the PCE of bulk-heterojunction solar cells compared to that of planar heterojunction solar cells. The larger grains are formed as a result of incorporation on PCBM in the active layer.

  7. Evaluation of characteristics on the bulk heterojunction solar cells prepared by PCDTBT: PC71BM composite thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Masakazu; Santhakumar, Kannappan; Kumar, Palanisamy; Kojima, Kenzo; Shin, Paik-Kyun; Ochiai, Shizuyasu

    2012-09-01

    Bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells based on blends comprising conjugated polymers and fullerene acceptors are the subject of considerable investigation because of their potential to enable the fabrication of low-cost devices that convert sunlight into electricity. Recently, poly(2,7-carbazole) derivatives have gained momentum as a class of promising alternative materials to poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) in organic solar cell applications. Among them, poly[N-900-hepta-decanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(40,70-di-2-thienyl-20,10,30-benzo thiadiazole)] (PCDTBT) has a relatively deeper highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of 5.45 eV compared to the HOMO of 5.1 eV of the P3HT. In this work we systematically study the effect of donor and acceptor ratio on the device performance of bulk heterojunction solar cells made with blends of PCDTBT and PC71BM. We used PEDOT: PSS as a hole transport layer, and TiOX as a hole-blocking layer in order to improve the power conversion efficiency. The current density-voltage (JV) characteristics of photovoltaic cells were measured under the illumination of simulated solar light with 100 mW/cm2 (AM 1.5G) by an Oriel 1000 W solar simulator. The power conversion efficiency of the solar cell is more than 5%.

  8. Novel Terthiophene-Substituted Fullerene Derivatives as Easily Accessible Acceptor Molecules for Bulk-Heterojunction Polymer Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Nisic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Five fulleropyrrolidines and methanofullerenes, bearing one or two terthiophene moieties, have been prepared in a convenient way and well characterized. These novel fullerene derivatives are characterized by good solubility and by better harvesting of the solar radiation with respect to traditional PCBM. In addition, they have a relatively high LUMO level and a low band gap that can be easily tuned by an adequate design of the link between the fullerene and the terthiophene. Preliminary results show that they are potential acceptors for the creation of efficient bulk-heterojunction solar cells based on donor polymers containing thiophene units.

  9. Morphological Control of the Photoactive Layer in Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Su, Yisong

    2011-07-23

    For its inherent advantages, such as lightweight, low cost, flexibility, and opportunity to cover large surface areas, organic solar cells have attracted more and more attention in both academia and industry. However, the efficiency of organic solar cell is still much lower than silicon solar cells, but steadily rising as it now stands above 8%. The architecture of bulk heterojunction solar cells can improve the performance of organic solar cell a lot, but these improvements are highly dependent on the morphology of photoactive layer. Therefore, by controlling the morphology of photoactive layer, most commonly composed of a P3HT donor polymer and PCBM small molecule, the performance of organic solar cells could be optimized. The use of solvent additives in the solution formulation is particularly interesting, because it is a low cost method of controlling the phase separation of the photoactive layer and possibly removing the need for subsequent thermal and solvent vapor annealing. However, the role of the solvent additive remains not well understood and much debate remains on the mechanisms by which it impacts phase separation. In the first part of this thesis, we investigate the role of the solvent additive on the individual components (solvent, donor and acceptor) of the solution and the photoactive layer both in the bulk solution, during solution-processing and in the post-processing solid state of the film. In the second part of this thesis, we investigate the role of the additive on the blended solution state and resulting thin film phase separation. Finally, we propose a new method of controlling phase separation based on the insight into the role of the solvent additive. In the first part, we used an additive [octandiethiol (OT)] in the solvent to help the aggregation of P3HT in the solution. From the UV-vis experiments, the crystallinity of P3HT in the solutions increased while it decreased in thin films with steady increase of additive concentration. This

  10. Fluorenone-based molecules for bulk-heterojunction solar cells: synthesis, characterization, and photovoltaic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lincker, Frederic; Delbosc, Nicolas; Billon, Martial; Pron, Adam [Laboratoire d' Electronique Moleculaire Organique et Hybride (LEMOH), UMR5819-SPrAM (CEA-CNRS-University Grenoble I) INAC CEA-Grenoble (France); Bailly, Severine; Bettignies, Remi de [Laboratoire Cellules Solaires, DRT-LITEN-GENEC-LCS, INES Savoie-Technolac Chambery (France); Demadrille, Renaud [Laboratoire d' Electronique Moleculaire Organique et Hybride (LEMOH), UMR5819-SPrAM (CEA-CNRS-University Grenoble I) INAC CEA-Grenoble (France); Laboratoire Cellules Solaires, DRT-LITEN-GENEC-LCS, INES Savoie-Technolac Chambery (France)

    2008-11-10

    A series of four conjugated molecules consisting of a fluorenone central unit symmetrically coupled to different oligothiophene segments are conceptually designed and synthesized to provide new electroactive materials for application in photovoltaic devices. The combination of electron-donating oligothiophene building blocks with an electron-accepting fluorenone unit results in the emergence of a new band assigned to an intramolecular charge transfer transition that gives rise to the extension of the absorption spectral range of the resulting molecules. Detailed spectroscopic and voltammetric investigations show that all studied molecules have highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) level positions, which make them good candidates for the application as electron-donors in bulk-heterojunction photovoltaic cells, with (6,6)-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM)-C{sub 60} as electron acceptor component. Moderate device performances, with power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) comprised between 0.3 and 0.6%, were obtained with rigid molecules, containing either the bridging units between the thiophene rings, i.e., (2,7-bis(4,4'-dioctyl)-cyclopenta[2,1-b:3,4-b']dithiophen-2-yl)-fluoren-9-one (SCPTF) and 2,7-bis(4-(dioctylmethylene)-cyclopenta[2,1-b:3,4-b']dithiophen-5-yl)-fluoren-9-one (MCPTF) or a vinylene unit 2,7-bis(5-[(E)-1,2-bis(3-octylthien-2-yl)ethylene])-fluoren-9-one (TVF), whereas with (2,7-bis-(3,3'''-dioctyl-[2,2';5',2'';5'',2'''])quaterthiophen-5-yl)-fluoren-9-one (QTF) PCE up to 1.2% (under AM 1.5 illumination, 100 mW cm{sup -2}, active area 0.28 cm{sup 2}) was obtained. The strong {pi}-stacking interactions in the solid state for this oligomer leading to improved morphology could explain the good performances of QTF-based devices, which rank among the highest recorded for non-polymeric materials. Consequently, fluorenone

  11. Device Physics and Recombination in Polymer:Fullerene Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawks, Steven Aaron

    My thesis focuses on improving and understanding a relatively new type of solar cell materials system: polymer:fullerene bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) blends. These mixtures have drawn significant interest because they are made from low-cost organic molecules that can be cast from solution, which makes them a potential cheap alternative to traditional solar cell materials like silicon. The drawback, though, is that they are not as efficient at converting sunlight into electricity. My thesis focuses on this issue, and examines the loss processes holding back the efficiency in polymer:fullerene blends as well as investigates new processing methods for overcoming the efficiency limitations. The first chapter introduces the subject of solar cells, and polymer:fullerene solar cells in particular. The second chapter presents a case study on recombination in the high-performance PBDTTT polymer family, wherein we discovered that nongeminate recombination of an anti-Langevin origin was the dominant loss process that ultimately limited the cell efficiency. Electroluminescence measurements revealed that an electron back-transfer process was prevalent in active layers with insufficient PC71BM content. This work ultimately made strong headway in understanding what factors limited the relatively unexplored but highly efficient PBDTTT family of polymers. In the next chapter, I further explore the recombination mechanisms in polymer:fullerene BHJs by examining the dark diode ideality factor as a function of temperature in several polymer:fullerene materials systems. By re-deriving the diode law for a polymer:fullerene device with Shockley-Read-Hall recombination, we were able to confirm that trap-assisted recombination through an exponential band-tail of localized states is the dominant recombination process in many polymer:fullerene active layers. In the third chapter, I present a generalized theoretical framework for understanding current transients in planar semiconductor devices

  12. Recent Approaches to Controlling the Nanoscale Morphology of Polymer-Based Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulra'uf Lukman Bola

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The need for clean, inexpensive and renewable energy has increasingly turned research attention towards polymer photovoltaic cells. However, the performance efficiency of these devices is still low in comparison with silicon-based devices. The recent introduction of new materials and processing techniques has resulted in a remarkable increase in power-conversion efficiency, with a value above 10%. Controlling the interpenetrating network morphology is a key factor in obtaining devices with improved performance. This review focuses on the influence of controlled nanoscale morphology on the overall performance of bulk-heterojunction (BHJ photovoltaic cells. Strategies such as the use of solvents, solvent annealing, polymer nanowires (NWs, and donor–acceptor (D–A blend ratios employed to control the active-layer morphologies are all discussed.

  13. Toward high-temperature stability of PTB7-based bulk heterojunction solar cells : impact of fullerene size and solvent additive

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Dkhil, Sadok; Pfannmöller, Martin; Saba, Maria Ilenia; Gaceur, Meriem; Heidari, Hamed; Videlot-Ackermann, Christine; Margeat, Olivier; Guerrero, Antonio; Bisquert, Juan; Garcia-Belmonte, Germa; Mattoni, Alessandro; Bals, Sara; Ackermann, Jorg

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: The use of fullerene as acceptor limits the thermal stability of organic solar cells at high temperatures as their diffusion inside the donor leads to phase separation via Ostwald ripening. Here it is reported that fullerene diffusion is fully suppressed at temperatures up to 140 degrees C in bulk heterojunctions based on the benzodithiophene-based polymer (the poly[[4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b: 4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl][3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl) carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]...

  14. Inverted bulk-heterojunction organic solar cell using chemical bath deposited titanium oxide as electron collection layer

    OpenAIRE

    Kuwabara, Takayuki; Sugiyama, Hirokazu; Kuzuba, Mitsuhiro; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Takahashi, Kohshin

    2010-01-01

    Chemical bath deposited titanium oxide (TiOx ) as an electron collection layer is introduced between the organic layer and the indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode for improving the performance of inverted bulk-heterojunction organic thin film solar cells with 1 cm2 active area, where regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) were mainly used as the photo-active layer. The uniform and thin TiOx film was easily prepared onto the ITO electrode ...

  15. Effect of Extended Extinction from Gold Nanopillar Arrays on the Absorbance Spectrum of a Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Ju Tsai

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We report on the effects of enhanced absorption/scattering from arrays of Au nanopillars of varied size and spacing on the spectral response of a P3HT:PCBM bulk heterojunction solar cell. Nanopillar array-patterned devices do show increased optical extinction within a narrow range of wavelengths compared to control samples without such arrays. The measured external quantum efficiency and calculated absorbance, however, both show a decrease near the corresponding wavelengths. Numerical simulations indicate that for relatively narrow nanopillars, the increased optical extinction is dominated by absorption within the nanopillars, rather than scattering, and is likely dissipated by Joule heating.

  16. Charge-carrier selective electrodes for organic bulk heterojunction solar cell by contact-printed siloxane oligomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Hyun-Sik; Khang, Dahl-Young, E-mail: dykhang@yonsei.ac.kr

    2015-08-31

    ‘Smart’ (or selective) electrode for charge carriers, both electrons and holes, in organic bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells using insertion layers made of hydrophobically-recovered and contact-printed siloxane oligomers between electrodes and active material has been demonstrated. The siloxane oligomer insertion layer has been formed at a given interface simply by conformally-contacting a cured slab of polydimethylsiloxane stamp for less than 100 s. All the devices, either siloxane oligomer printed at one interface only or printed at both interfaces, showed efficiency enhancement when compared to non-printed ones. The possible mechanism that is responsible for the observed efficiency enhancement has been discussed based on the point of optimum symmetry and photocurrent analysis. Besides its simplicity and large-area applicability, the demonstrated contact-printing technique does not involve any vacuum or wet processing steps and thus can be very useful for the roll-based, continuous production scheme for organic BHJ solar cells. - Highlights: • Carrier-selective insertion layer in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells • Simple contact-printing of siloxane oligomers improves cell efficiency. • Printed siloxane layer reduces carrier recombination at electrode surfaces. • Siloxane insertion layer works equally well at both electrode surfaces. • Patterned PDMS stamp shortens the printing time within 100 s.

  17. Non-fullerene acceptor-based bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells: engineering the nanomorphology via processing additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Guoqiang; Ahmed, Eilaf; Jenekhe, Samson A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    The performance of bulk heterojunction solar cells made from blends of a non-fullerene acceptor, N,N'-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-2,6-bis(5''-hexyl-[2,2';5',2'']terthiophen-5yl)-1,4,5,8-naphthalene diimide (NDI-3TH), and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) donor is enhanced 10-fold by using a processing additive in conjunction with an electron-blocking and a hole-blocking buffer layers. The power conversion efficiency of P3HT:NDI-3TH solar cells improves from 0.14% to 1.5% by using a processing additive (1,8-diiodooctane) at an optimum concentration of 0.2 vol%, which is far below the 2-3 vol% optimum concentrations found in polymer/fullerene systems. TEM and AFM imaging show that the size and connectivity of the NDI-3TH domains in the phase-separated P3HT:NDI-3TH blends vary strongly with the concentration of the processing additive. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that processing additives can be effective in the optimization of the morphology and performance of bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells based on non-fullerene acceptors. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Thermal annealing study on P3HT: PCBM based bulk heterojunction organic solar cells using impedance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollu, Sankara Rao; Sharma, Ramakant; G, Srinivas; Gupta, Dipti

    2014-10-01

    Recently, Thermal annealing is an important process for bulk heterojunction organic solar cells (BHJ OSCs) to improve the device efficiency and performance of the organic solar cells. Here in, we have examined the changes in the efficiency and morphology of P3HT: PCBM film according to the thermal annealing temperature to find the changes during the annealing process by measuring the optical absorption, atomic force microscope and X-ray diffraction. We also investigated the effect of different annealing process conditions (without, pre- and post-annealing) on the device performance of the inverted bulk heterojunction organic solar cells consist the structure of ITO/ ZnO / P3HT: PCBM / MoO3/ Al by measuring AC impedance characteristics. Particularly, the power conversion efficiency (PCE), crystalline nature of the polymer, light absorption and the surface smoothness of P3HT: PCBM films are significantly improved after the annealing process. These results indicated the improvement in terms of PCE, interface smoothness between the P3HT: PCBM and MoO3 layers of the post annealed device originated from the decrease of series resistance between P3HT: PCBM layer and Al electrodes, which could be due to decrease in the effective life time of charge carriers.

  19. Built-in potential and validity of the Mott-Schottky analysis in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingebach, M.; Deibel, C.; Dyakonov, V.

    2011-10-01

    We investigated poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl):[6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells by means of pulsed photocurrent, temperature dependent current-voltage, and capacitance-voltage measurements. We show that a direct transfer of Mott-Schottky (MS) analysis from inorganic devices to organic BHJ solar cells is not generally appropriate to determine the built-in potential, since the resulting potential depends on the active layer thickness. Pulsed photocurrent measurements enabled us to directly study the case of quasi-flat bands (QFB) in the bulk of the solar cell. It is well below the built-in potential and differs by diffusion-induced band-bending at the contacts. In contrast to MS analysis, the corresponding potential is independent on the active layer thickness and therefore a better measure for flat band conditions in the bulk of a BHJ solar cell as compared to MS analysis.

  20. Ordered Nanopillar Structured Electrodes for Depleted Bulk Heterojunction Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Kramer, Illan J.

    2012-03-30

    A bulk heterojunction of ordered titania nanopillars and PbS colloidal quantum dots is developed. By using a pre-patterned template, an ordered titania nanopillar matrix with nearest neighbours 275 nm apart and height of 300 nm is fabricated and subsequently filled in with PbS colloidal quantum dots to form an ordered depleted bulk heterojunction exhibiting power conversion efficiency of 5.6%. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Interfacial Characteristics of Efficient Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells Fabricated on MoOx Anode Interlayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasieniak, Jacek J.; Treat, Neil D.; McNeill, Christopher R.; Tremolet de Villers, Bertrand J.; Gaspera, Enrico Della; Chabinyc, Michael L.

    2016-05-25

    The role of the interface between an MoOx anode interlayer and a polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction is investigated. Processing differences in the MoOx induce large variations in the vertical stratification of the bulk heterojunction films. These variations are found to be inconsistent in predicting device performance, with a much better gauge being the quantity of polymer chemisorbed to the anode interlayer.

  2. Bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells sandwiched by solution processed molybdenum oxide and titania nanosheet layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Eiji; Goto, Yoshinori; Fukuda, Katsutoshi

    2014-02-01

    The contributions of ultrathin titania nanosheet (TN) crystallites were studied in both an inverted bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) cell in an indium-tin oxide (ITO)/titania nanosheet (TN)/poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methylester (PCBM) active layer/MoOx/Ag multilayered photovoltaic device and a conventional BHJ cell in ITO/MoOx/P3HT:PCBM active layer/TN/Al multilayered photovoltaic device. The insertion of only one or two layers of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) and TN multilayered film prepared by the layer-by-layer deposition technique effectively decreased the leakage current and increased the open circuit voltage (VOC), fill factor (FF), and power conversion efficiency (η). The conventional cell sandwiched between a solution-processed, partially crystallized molybdenum oxide hole-extracting buffer layer and a TN electron extracting buffer layer showed comparable cell performance to a device sandwiched between vacuum-deposited molybdenum oxide and TN layers, whereas the inverted cell with solution-processed molybdenum oxide showed a poorer performance probably owing to the increment in the leakage current across the film. The abnormal S-shaped curves observed in the inverted BHJ cell above VOC disappeared with the use of a polyfluorene-based cationic semiconducting polymer as a substitute for an insulating PDDA film, resulting in the improved cell performance.

  3. Localized photovoltaic investigations on organic semiconductors and bulk heterojunction solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollender, Jan Philipp; Gasiorowski, Jacek; Sariciftci, Niyazi Serdar; Mardare, Andrei Ionut; Hassel, Achim Walter

    2014-10-01

    Newly synthesized organic electronics materials are often available in submicrogram amounts only. Photoelectrochemical scanning droplet cell microscopy is a powerful method that allows a comprehensive characterisation of such small amounts including oxidation, reduction potentials, doping, determination of charge carriers, band gap, charge capacity, over-oxidation sensitivity and many more. Localized photoelectrochemical characterization of the poly[4,8-bis-substituted-benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b0]dithiophene-2,6-diyl-alt-4-substituted-thieno [3,4-b] thiophene-2,6-diyl] (PBDTTT-c) and PBDTTT-c:PCBM bulk heterojunction was performed using photoelectrochemical scanning droplet cell microscopy (PE-SDCM). The optical properties and the real and imaginary part of the dielectric function, of the polymer were determined using spectroscopic ellipsometry. The photoelectrochemical characterizations were performed in a three and two electrode configuration of PE-SDCM under laser and white light illumination. The effect of illumination was characterized using dark/illumination sequences. The stability of the photocurrent was studied using longer term (600 s) illumination. Finally the effect of cell configuration and illumination conditions on the photovoltage was studied.

  4. The effect of a cathode interlayer on the performance of polymer-fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sio, Antonietta de; Hauff, Elizabeth von; Parisi, Juergen [Energy and Semiconductor Research Laboratory, Institute of Physics, Carl von Ossietzky Universitaet Oldenburg (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    We report on the impact of different cathode configurations on the performances of polymer-fullerene photovoltaic devices. The operation of the standard bulk heterojunction solar cell structure, in which the active layer consists of a blend of poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) 1:1 in weight ratio and the metal cathode is a 150 nm thick Al layer, was first recorded as the reference. The electrical behavior of the devices upon inserting an interlayer between the organic active layer and the metal cathode was investigated. We also explored the effect of different kinds of interlayers on device performance, i.e. conductive materials like Ca and Mg, as well as insulating materials such as LiF. The effect of the interlayer is reflected in the solar cell parameters, in particular on the open circuit voltage.

  5. Efficient phthalimide copolymer-based bulk heterojunction solar cells: how the processing additive influences nanoscale morphology and photovoltaic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xin, Hao; Ren, Guoqiang; Jenekhe, Samson A. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle (United States); Guo, Xugang; Watson, Mark D. [Department of Chemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington (United States)

    2012-05-15

    The power conversion efficiency of poly(N-(2-ethylhexyl)-3,6-bis(4-dodecyloxythiophen-2-yl)phthalimide) (PhBTEH)/fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells improves from 0.43 to 4.1% by using a processing additive. The underlying mechanism for the almost 10-fold enhancement in solar cell performance is found to be inhibition of fullerene intercalation into the polymer side chains and regulation of the relative crystallization/aggregation rates of the polymer and fullerene. An optimal interconnected two-phase morphology with 15-20 nm domains is obtained when a processing additive is used compared with 100-300 nm domains without the additive. The results demonstrate that a processing additive provides an effective means of controlling both the fullerene intercalation in polymer/fullerene blends and the domain sizes of their phase-separated nanoscale morphology. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Performance optimization studies of solution processed bulk-heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Bakhtyar

    2011-12-01

    Organic Solar Cells (OSCs), which rely on the concept of bulk-heterojunction, stand out due primarily to their simple construction, mechanical flexibility and exceptional ease of processing. These characteristics make them potential candidates to substitute for the expensive photovoltaic counterparts. Among other OSCs, devices containing poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and phenyl C61 butaric acid methyl ester (PCBM) as photo-active layer have shown promising results. However, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) is still lower than the required commercialization mark (˜10%). Devices with structure glass/ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM/LiF/Al, annealed and un-annealed with device area ˜0.4 cm2 (unless otherwise stated), have been studied. An investigation of the device processing variables has led to the conclusion that the optimum loading of PCBM in the blend for optimum performance is in the range of 1:1 to 1:2. Characterization of the active layer with UV-vis absorption, PL spectra and XRD reveal that the addition of PCBM to P3HT matrix is detrimental for the self-organization of P3HT chains (crystallinity) and it also increases the resistivity. Similarly, 1,2 dichlorobenzene (DCB) has been found to be the best solvent among other solvents such as chloroform (CF) and chlorobenzene (CB), for optimum PCE. The rho(T) data from the samples (pristine P3HT and P3HT/PCBM blends) exhibit anisotropy in conduction where it follows the variable range hoping (VRH) in the lateral (parallel to film) and polaronic behavior in vertical (perpendicular to film) transport. The activation energy obtained from the fit to polaronic model is 329 meV for P3HT/ PCBM blend (1:1). Furthermore, the photovoltaic parameters extracted from a lumped circuit analysis of voltage and temperature dependence of photocurrent, JL(V), in P3HT/PCBM OSCs, completely describe the illuminated J-V data from far reverse bias to beyond the open circuit voltage (Voc). A simple model for carrier collection has been

  7. All-polymer solar cells with bulk heterojunction nanolayers of chemically doped electron-donating and electron-accepting polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Sungho; Shin, Minjung; Park, Soohyeong; Lee, Sooyong; Kim, Hwajeong; Kim, Youngkyoo

    2012-11-21

    We report the improved performance of all-polymer solar cells with bulk heterojunction nanolayers of an electron-donating polymer (poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)) and an electron-accepting polymer (poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT)), which were both doped with 4-ethylbenzenesulfonic acid (EBSA). To choose the doping ratio of P3HT for all-polymer solar cells, various EBSA doping ratios (0, 1, 3, 5, 10, 20 wt%) were tested by employing optical absorption spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, photoelectron yield spectroscopy, and space-charge-limited current (SCLC) mobility measurement. The doping reaction of P3HT with EBSA was followed by observing the colour change in solutions. The final doping ratio for P3HT was chosen as 1 wt% from the best hole mobility measured in the thickness direction, while that for F8BT was fixed as 10 wt% (F8BT-EBSA). The polymer:polymer solar cells with bulk heterojunction nanolayers of P3HT-EBSA (EBSA-doped P3HT) and F8BT-EBSA (EBSA-doped F8BT) showed greatly improved short circuit current density (J(SC)) and open circuit voltage (V(OC)), compared to the undoped solar cells. As a result, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) was enhanced by ca. 300% for the 6 : 4 (P3HT-EBSA : F8BT-EBSA) composition and ca. 400% for the 8 : 2 composition. The synchrotron-radiation grazing incidence angle X-ray diffraction (GIXD) measurement revealed that the crystallinity of the doped nanolayers significantly increased by EBSA doping owing to the formation of advanced phase segregation morphology, as supported by the surface morphology change measured by atomic force microscopy. Thus the improved PCE can be attributed to the enhanced charge transport by the formation of permanent charges and better charge percolation paths by EBSA doping.

  8. The effect of morphology upon mobility : Implications for bulk heterojunction solar cells with nonuniform blend morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groves, C.; Koster, L. J. A.; Greenham, N. C.

    2009-01-01

    We use a Monte Carlo model to predict the effect of composition, domain size, and energetic disorder upon the mobility of carriers in an organic donor-acceptor blend. These simulations show that, for the changes in local morphology expected within the thickness of a typical bulk heterojunction

  9. P3HT/PCBM bulk heterojunction solar cells: impact of blend composition and 3D morphology on device performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bavel, Svetlana S. van; Loos, Joachim [Laboratory of Materials and Interface Chemistry and Soft Matter Cryo-TEM Research Unit, Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Dutch Polymer Institute, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Baerenklau, Maik; Hoppe, Harald [Institute of Physics Technical, University Ilmenau (Germany); With, Gijsbertus de [Laboratory of Materials and Interface Chemistry and Soft Matter Cryo-TEM Research Unit, Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands)

    2010-05-10

    The performance of polymer solar cells (PSC) strongly depends on the 3D morphological organization of the donor and acceptor compounds within the bulk heterojunction active layer. The technique of electron tomography is a powerful tool for studying 3D morphology of the layers composed of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and a fullerene derivative ([6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester; PCBM), especially to quantify the amount and distribution of fibrillar P3HT nanocrystals throughout the volume of the active layer. In this study, electron tomography is used to characterize P3HT/PCBM layers with different blend compositions, both before and after thermal annealing. The power conversion efficiency of the corresponding PSCs is strongly dependent on the overall crystallinity of P3HT and the way P3HT crystals are distributed throughout the thickness of the active layer. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  10. Nanostructured Electrodes For Organic Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells: Model Study Using Carbon Nanotube Dispersed Polythiophene-fullerene Blend Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, C.Y.; Wu, Q.; Su, D.; Chiu, C.-y; Tremblay, N.J.; Nuckolls, C,; Black, C.T.

    2011-09-19

    We test the feasibility of using nanostructured electrodes in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells to improve their photovoltaic performance by enhancing their charge collection efficiency and thereby increasing the optimal active blend layer thickness. As a model system, small concentrations of single wall carbon nanotubes are added to blends of poly(3-hexylthiophene): [6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester in order to create networks of efficient hole conduction pathways in the device active layer without affecting the light absorption. The nanotube addition leads to a 22% increase in the optimal blend layer thickness from 90 nm to 110 nm, enhancing the short circuit current density and photovoltaic device efficiency by as much as {approx}10%. The associated incident-photon-to-current conversion efficiency for the given thickness also increases by {approx}10% uniformly across the device optical absorption spectrum, corroborating the enhanced charge carrier collection by nanostructured electrodes.

  11. Selective observation of photo-induced electric fields inside different material components in bulk-heterojunction organic solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangyu; Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    2014-01-01

    By using electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurement at two laser wavelengths of 1000 nm and 860 nm, we investigated carrier behavior inside the pentacene and C60 component of co-deposited pentacene:C60 bulk-heterojunctions (BHJs) organic solar cells (OSCs). The EFISHG experiments verified the presence of two carrier paths for electrons and holes in BHJs OSCs. That is, two kinds of electric fields pointing in opposite directions are identified as a result of the selectively probing of SHG activation from C60 and pentacene. Also, under open-circuit conditions, the transient process of the establishment of open-circuit voltage inside the co-deposited layer has been directly probed, in terms of photovoltaic effect. The EFISHG provides an additional promising method to study carrier path of electrons and holes as well as dissociation of excitons in BHJ OSCs.

  12. Thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione-3,4-difluorothiophene Polymer Acceptors for Efficient All-Polymer Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Shengjian

    2016-09-16

    Branched-alkyl-substituted poly(thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione-alt-3,4-difluorothiophene) (PTPD[2F]T) can be used as a polymer acceptor in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells with a low-band-gap polymer donor (PCE10) commonly used with fullerenes. The

  13. Performance enhancement of poly(3-hexylthiophene):methanofullerene bulk-heterojunction solar cells. : Section Title: Electrochemical, Radiational, and Thermal Energy Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, L. Jan Anton; Mihailetchi, Valentin D.; Hummelen, Jan C.; Blom, Paul W. M.

    2006-01-01

    Using a newly developed device model we have studied the effect of controlled thermal annealing on charge transport and photogeneration in bulk-heterojunction solar cells made from blend films of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and methanofullerene (PCBM). With respect to the charge

  14. Unraveling the High Open Circuit Voltage and High Performance of Integrated Perovskite/Organic Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shiqi; Liu, Yongsheng; Hong, Ziruo; Yao, Enping; Sun, Pengyu; Meng, Lei; Lin, Yuze; Huang, Jinsong; Li, Gang; Yang, Yang

    2017-08-09

    We have demonstrated high-performance integrated perovskite/bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells due to the low carrier recombination velocity, high open circuit voltage (VOC), and increased light absorption ability in near-infrared (NIR) region of integrated devices. In particular, we find that the VOC of the integrated devices is dominated by (or pinned to) the perovskite cells, not the organic photovoltaic cells. A Quasi-Fermi Level Pinning Model was proposed to understand the working mechanism and the origin of the VOC of the integrated perovskite/BHJ solar cell, which following that of the perovskite solar cell and is much higher than that of the low bandgap polymer based organic BHJ solar cell. Evidence for the model was enhanced by examining the charge carrier behavior and photovoltaic behavior of the integrated devices under illumination of monochromatic light-emitting diodes at different characteristic wavelength. This finding shall pave an interesting possibility for integrated photovoltaic devices to harvest low energy photons in NIR region and further improve the current density without sacrificing VOC, thus providing new opportunities and significant implications for future industry applications of this kind of integrated solar cells.

  15. Ambient Layer-by-Layer ZnO Assembly for Highly Efficient Polymer Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Eita, Mohamed Samir

    2015-02-04

    The use of metal oxide interlayers in polymer solar cells has great potential because metal oxides are abundant, thermally stable, and can be used in fl exible devices. Here, a layer-by-layer (LbL) protocol is reported as a facile, room-temperature, solution-processed method to prepare electron transport layers from commercial ZnO nanoparticles and polyacrylic acid (PAA) with a controlled and tunable porous structure, which provides large interfacial contacts with the active layer. Applying the LbL approach to bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells with an optimized ZnO layer thickness of H25 nm yields solar cell power-conversion effi ciencies (PCEs) of ≈6%, exceeding the effi ciency of amorphous ZnO interlayers formed by conventional sputtering methods. Interestingly, annealing the ZnO/PAA interlayers in nitrogen and air environments in the range of 60-300 ° C reduces the device PCEs by almost 20% to 50%, indicating the importance of conformational changes inherent to the PAA polymer in the LbL-deposited fi lms to solar cell performance. This protocol suggests a new fabrication method for solution-processed polymer solar cell devices that does not require postprocessing thermal annealing treatments and that is applicable to fl exible devices printed on plastic substrates.

  16. Tandem solar cells made from amorphous silicon and polymer bulk heterojunction sub-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Heum; Shin, Insoo; Kim, Kwang Ho; Street, Robert; Roy, Anshuman; Heeger, Alan J

    2015-01-14

    A tandem solar cell based on a combination of an amorphous silicon (a-Si) and polymer solar cell (PSC) is demonstrated. As these tandem devices can be readily fabricated by low-cost methods, they require only a minor increase in the total manufacturing cost. Therefore, a combination of a-Si and PSC provides a compelling solution to reduce the cost of electricity produced by photovoltaics. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Role of additional PCBM layer between ZnO and photoactive layers in inverted bulk-heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Shinuk; Kim, Kwang-Dae; Heo, Jinhee; Lee, Joo Yul; Cha, Gihoon; Seo, Bo Yeol; Kim, Young Dok; Kim, Yong Soo; Choi, Si-young; Lim, Dong Chan

    2014-01-01

    In order to induce greater light absorption, nano-patterning is often applied to the metal-oxide buffer layer in inverted bulk-heterojunction(BHJ) solar cells. However, current homogeneity was significantly disturbed at the interface, leading to an efficiency that was not fully optimized. In this work, an additional PC61BM layer was inserted between the ZnO ripple and the photoactive layer to enhance the electron extraction. The insertion of additional PC61BM layer provided substantial advantages in the operation of inverted BHJ solar cells; specifically, it enhanced current homogeneity and lowered accumulation and trapping of photogenerated charges at the ZnO interface. Inclusion of the additional PC61BM layer led to effective quenching of electron–hole recombination by a reduction in the number of accumulated charges at the surface of ZnO ripples. This resulted in a 16% increase in the efficiency of inverted BHJ solar cells to 7.7%, compared to solar cells without the additional PC61BM layer. PMID:24603531

  18. Understanding the Role of Additives in Improving the Performance of Polymer:Fullerene Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei

    2014-03-01

    Solar cells based on the polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction (BHJ) represent one of the most promising technologies for next-generation solar energy conversion due to their low-cost and scalability. In the last fifteen years, research efforts have led to organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices with power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) ~ 12%, but these values are still insufficient for the devices to become widely marketable. To further improve solar cell performance, a thorough understanding of the complex processing-structure-performance relationships in OPV devices is required. Recently, the use of processing additives have been proved to be one of the most effective methods to tune the nanomorphology of polymer:fullerene active layer, as the incorporation of a small percentage of solvent additives results in a nearly doubling of device efficiency. However, the physics behind these improved performances by processing additives still remains unclear. In this work, by taking advantage of resonant soft x-ray scattering (RSoXS) and energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM), we have determined that the solvent additives induce the change in the formation mechanism of polymer:fullerene nanomorphologies in the process of film casting. Progress established in the course of these studies on structural and morphological characterizations will serve as the foundation for further improving the efficiency of polymer solar cells to realize their large-scale commercial use.

  19. Difluorobenzothiadiazole based two-dimensional conjugated polymers with triphenylamine substituted moieties as pendants for bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Lee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Three donor/acceptor (D/A-type two-dimensional polythiophenes (PTs; PBTFA13, PBTFA12, PBTFA11 featuring difluorobenzothiadiazole (DFBT derivatives as the conjugated (acceptor units in the polymer backbone and tertbutyl–substituted triphenylamine (tTPA-containing moieties as (donor pendants have been synthesized and characterized. These PTs exhibited good thermal stabilities, broad absorption spectra, and narrow optical band gaps. The cutoff wavelength of the UV–Vis absorption band was red-shifted upon increasing the content of the DFBT units in the PTs. Bulk heterojunction solar cells having an active layer comprising blends of the PTs and fullerene derivatives [6,6] phenyl-C61/71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM/PC71BM were fabricated; their photovoltaic performance was strongly dependent on the content of the DFBT derivative in the PT. Incorporating a suitable content of the DFBT derivative in the polymer backbone enhanced the solar absorption ability and conjugation length of the PTs. The photovoltaic properties of the PBTFA13-based solar cells were superior to those of the PBTFA11- and PBTFA12-based solar cells.

  20. Extended interface layer concept for higher stability and improvement of life time in bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farman Ali

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Power conversion efficiency (PCE of bulk heterojunction (BHJ organic solar cells has reached above ∼10%. These BHJ cells have potential for flexible thin films at low processing temperatures using roll to roll printing on flexible substrates. Further, the basic materials properties can be tailored through organic synthetic routes. However, the issues related to its durability should be addressed before its commercialization. Hence, a conventional solar cell of the poly (3-hexylthiophene (P3HT :(6, 6-phenyl-C61butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM blend on ITO substrates was fabricated, and investigated, which shows improved life time by using a combinational Ca/Al cathode, wherein the deposition of calcium layer is extended beyond the aluminum layer. The extended deposition of calcium layer beyond aluminum prevents the edge degradation by its oxidation and hence protecting the active pixel area of the device, resulting in the improvement of life time of device from ∼80 hours to ∼ 400 hrs.

  1. Efficient polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells with n-type doped titanium oxide as an electron transport layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Youna [Heeger Center for Advanced Material & Research Institute of Solar and Sustainable Energies, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Geunjin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Heejoo, E-mail: heejook@gist.ac.kr [Heeger Center for Advanced Material & Research Institute of Solar and Sustainable Energies, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sun Hee [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kwanghee, E-mail: klee@gist.ac.kr [Heeger Center for Advanced Material & Research Institute of Solar and Sustainable Energies, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-29

    We have reported a highly n-type doped solution-processed titanium metal oxide (TiO{sub x}) for use as an efficient electron-transport layer (ETL) in polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. When the metal ions (Ti) in TiO{sub x} are partially substituted by niobium (Nb), the charge carrier density increased, by an order of magnitude, because of the large electronegativity of Nb compared to that of Ti. Therefore, the work function (WF) of Nb-doped metal oxide (Nb-TiO{sub x}) decreases from 4.75 eV (TiO{sub x}) to 4.66 eV (Nb-TiO{sub x}), leading to an enhancement in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of BHJ solar cells with a Nb-TiO{sub x} ETL (from 7.99% to 8.40%). - Highlights: • Solution processable Nb-doped TiO{sub x} was developed by simple sol-gel synthesis. • Charge carrier density in TiO{sub x} is significantly increased by introducing Nb element. • The work function value of Nb-doped TiO{sub x} is reduced by introducing Nb element. • A charge recombination inside of PSC with Nb-TiO{sub x} was effectively suppressed.

  2. Development of Efficient Charge-Selective Materials for Bulk Heterojunction Polymer Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-15

    decent conductivity, and electrode WF tuning capability. In addition, these fullerene-based EELs have also been applied into perovskite solar...applied these fullerene-based EELs into the perovskite solar cells (PVSCs) to obtain improved device performance and stability. All these results...Th:PC71BM device. Besides, we have also applied these fullerene-based EELs into the perovskite solar cells (PVSCs) to obtain improved device

  3. The importance of fullerene percolation in the mixed regions of polymer-fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Bartelt, Jonathan A.

    2012-10-26

    Most optimized donor-acceptor (D-A) polymer bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells have active layers too thin to absorb greater than - 80% of incident photons with energies above the polymer\\'s band gap. If the thickness of these devices could be increased without sacrifi cing internal quantum effi ciency, the device power conversion effi ciency (PCE) could be signifi cantly enhanced. We examine the device characteristics of BHJ solar cells based on poly(di(2- ethylhexyloxy)benzo[1,2- b :4,5- b \\' ]dithiophene- co -octylthieno[3,4- c ]pyrrole-4,6- dione) (PBDTTPD) and [6,6]-phenyl-C 61 -butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) with 7.3% PCE and fi nd that bimolecular recombination limits the active layer thickness of these devices. Thermal annealing does not mitigate these bimolecular recombination losses and drastically decreases the PCE of PBDTTPD BHJ solar cells. We characterize the morphology of these BHJs before and after thermal annealing and determine that thermal annealing drastically reduces the concentration of PCBM in the mixed regions, which consist of PCBM dispersed in the amorphous portions of PBDTTPD. Decreasing the concentration of PCBM may reduce the number of percolating electron transport pathways within these mixed regions and create morphological electron traps that enhance charge-carrier recombination and limit device quantum effi ciency. These fi ndings suggest that (i) the concentration of PCBM in the mixed regions of polymer BHJs must be above the PCBM percolation threshold in order to attain high solar cell internal quantum effi ciency, and (ii) novel processing techniques, which improve polymer hole mobility while maintaining PCBM percolation within the mixed regions, should be developed in order to limit bimolecular recombination losses in optically thick devices and maximize the PCE of polymer BHJ solar cells. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.

  4. Enhanced performance of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells upon graphene addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robaeys, Pieter, E-mail: pieter.robaeys@uhasselt.be; Dierckx, Wouter; Dexters, Wim; Spoltore, Donato; Drijkoningen, Jeroen [Institute for Materials Research (IMO), Hasselt University (Belgium); Bonaccorso, Francesco [Cambridge Graphene Centre, University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Graphene Labs, Via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Bourgeois, Emilie; D' Haen, Jan; Haenen, Ken; Manca, Jean V.; Nesladek, Milos [Institute for Materials Research (IMO), Hasselt University (Belgium); IMOMEC, IMEC vzw (Belgium); Liesenborgs, Jori; Van Reeth, Frank [Expertise centre for Digital Media (EDM), Hasselt University (Belgium); Lombardo, Antonio; Ferrari, Andrea C. [Cambridge Graphene Centre, University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-25

    Graphene has potential for applications in solar cells. We show that the short circuit current density of P3HT (Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl):PCBM((6,6)-Phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester) solar cells is enhanced by 10% upon the addition of graphene, with a 15% increase in the photon to electric conversion efficiency. We discuss the performance enhancement by studying the crystallization of P3HT, as well as the electrical transport properties. We show that graphene improves the balance between electron and hole mobilities with respect to a standard P3HT:PCBM solar cell.

  5. Structural Factors That Affect the Performance of Organic Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Vandewal, Koen

    2013-08-27

    The performance of polymer:fullerene solar cells is strongly affected by the active layer morphology and polymer microstructure. In this Perspective, we review ongoing research on how structural factors influence the photogeneration and collection of charge carriers as well as charge carrier recombination and the related open-circuit voltage. We aim to highlight unexplored research opportunities and provide some guidelines for the synthesis of new conjugated polymers for high-efficiency solar cells. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  6. Enhancing the photovoltaic performance of bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells by adding Rhodamine B laser dye as co-sensitizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemifard, Sholeh; Naji, Leila; Afshar Taromi, Faramarz

    2018-04-01

    Ternary blend (TB) strategy has been considered as an effective method to enhance the photovoltaic performance of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells (PSCs). Here, we report on TB-based PSCs containing two donor materials; poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) and Rhodamine B (RhB) laser organic dye, and [6,6]-phenyl C 61 butyric acid methyl ester (PC 61 BM) as an acceptor. The influence of RhB weight percentage and injection volume was extensively studied. To gain insight into the influences of RhB on the photovoltaic performance of PSCs, physicochemical and optical properties of TBs were compared with those of BHJ binary blend as a standard. RhB broadened the light absorption properties of the active layer and played a bridging role between P3HT and PC 61 BM. The PCE and short-circuit current density (Jsc) of the optimized TB-based PSCs comprising of 0.5 wt% RhB reached 5% and 12.12 mA/cm 2 , respectively. Compared to BHJ standard cell, the PCE and the generated current was improved by two orders of magnitude due to higher photon harvest of the active layer, cascade energy level structure of TB components and a considerable decrease in the charge carrier recombination. The results suggest that RhB can be considered as an effective material for application in PSCs to attain high photovoltaic performance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Interplay Between Side Chain Pattern, Polymer Aggregation, and Charge Carrier Dynamics in PBDTTPD:PCBM Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Dyer-Smith, Clare

    2015-05-01

    Poly(benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene–alt–thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione) (PBDTTPD) polymer donors with linear side-chains yield bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cell power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of about 4% with phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) as the acceptor, while a PBDTTPD polymer with a combination of branched and linear substituents yields a doubling of the PCE to 8%. Using transient optical spectroscopy it is shown that while the exciton dissociation and ultrafast charge generation steps are not strongly affected by the side chain modifications, the polymer with branched side chains exhibits a decreased rate of nongeminate recombination and a lower fraction of sub-nanosecond geminate recombination. In turn the yield of long-lived charge carriers increases, resulting in a 33% increase in short circuit current (J sc). In parallel, the two polymers show distinct grazing incidence X-ray scattering spectra indicative of the presence of stacks with different orientation patterns in optimized thin-film BHJ devices. Independent of the packing pattern the spectroscopic data also reveals the existence of polymer aggregates in the pristine polymer films as well as in both blends which trap excitons and hinder their dissociation.

  8. Open circuit voltage as function of mixing ratio in ZnPc:C60 bulk heterojunction organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfuetzner, Steffen; Tress, Wolfgang; Olthof, Selina; Tietze, Max; Meiss, Jan; Leo, Karl; Riede, Moritz [Institut fuer Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    We characterize organic solar cells composed of mixed layers of ZnPc:C{sub 60} as photoactive layer embedded between a p-doped hole transport (HTL) and an undoped electron transport layer. By varying the mixing ratio of the photoactive bulk heterojunction from 6:1 (ZnPc:C{sub 60}) to 1:6 by volume, we observe significant changes of V{sub OC} from 0.54 to 0.63 V. To exclude that this increase with higher C{sub 60} content is caused by the increased contact area of C{sub 60} to the HTL, behaving as an additional exciton separating interface, J(V) measurements under spectral narrow red and blue illumination are performed. Independent of where absorption takes place (for red in ZnPc, for blue in C{sub 60}), V{sub OC} is not affected significantly. Hence, we attribute the changes in V{sub OC} not to an additional separating interface, but to an intrinsic blend layer effect. Further investigations using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy measurements, absorption measurements, and HTL variations with different highest occupied molecular orbitals indicate as reason HOMO and LUMO shifts of C{sub 60} and ZnPc as a function of the mixing ratio.

  9. The influence of microstructure on charge separation dynamics in organic bulk heterojunction materials for solar cell applications

    KAUST Repository

    Scarongella, Mariateresa

    2014-01-01

    Light-induced charge formation is essential for the generation of photocurrent in organic solar cells. In order to gain a better understanding of this complex process, we have investigated the femtosecond dynamics of charge separation upon selective excitation of either the fullerene or the polymer in different bulk heterojunction blends with well-characterized microstructure. Blends of the pBTTT and PBDTTPD polymers with PCBM gave us access to three different scenarios: either a single intermixed phase, an intermixed phase with additional pure PCBM clusters, or a three-phase microstructure of pure polymer aggregates, pure fullerene clusters and intermixed regions. We found that ultrafast charge separation (by electron or hole transfer) occurs predominantly in intermixed regions, while charges are generated more slowly from excitons in pure domains that require diffusion to a charge generation site. The pure domains are helpful to prevent geminate charge recombination, but they must be sufficiently small not to become exciton traps. By varying the polymer packing, backbone planarity and chain length, we have shown that exciton diffusion out of small polymer aggregates in the highly efficient PBDTTPD:PCBM blend occurs within the same chain and is helped by delocalization. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  10. Study of the Contributions of Donor and Acceptor Photoexcitations to Open Circuit Voltage in Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Yeboah

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the key parameters in determining the power conversion efficiency (PCE of bulk heterojunction (BHJ organic solar cells (OSCs is the open circuit voltage . The processes of exciting the donor and acceptor materials individually in a BHJ OSC are investigated and are found to produce two different expressions for . Using the contributions of electron and hole quasi-Fermi levels and charge carrier concentrations, the two different expressions are derived as functions of the energetics of the donor and acceptor materials and the photo-generated charge carrier concentrations, and calculated for a set of donor-acceptor blends. The simultaneous excitation of both the donor and acceptor materials is also considered and the corresponding , which is different from the above two, is derived. The calculated from the photoexcitation of the donor is found to be somewhat comparable with that obtained from the photoexcitation of the acceptor in most combinations of the donor and acceptor materials considered here. It is also found that the calculated from the simultaneous excitations of donor and acceptor in BHJ OSCs is also comparable with the other two . All three thus derived produce similar results and agree reasonably well with the measured values. All three depend linearly on the concentration of the photoexcited charge carriers and hence incident light intensity, which agrees with experimental results. The outcomes of this study are expected to help in finding materials that may produce higher and hence enhanced PCE in BHJ OSCs.

  11. Dependence of Exciton Diffusion Length and Diffusion Coefficient on Photophysical Parameters in Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeboah, Douglas; Singh, Jai

    2017-11-01

    Recently, the dependence of exciton diffusion length (LD ) on some photophysical parameters of organic solids has been experimentally demonstrated, however no systematic theoretical analysis of this phenomenon has been carried out. We have conducted a theoretical study by using the Förster resonance energy transfer and Dexter carrier transfer mechanisms together with the Einstein-Smoluchowski diffusion equation to derive analytical models for the diffusion lengths (LD ) and diffusion coefficients (D) of singlet (S) and triplet (T) excitons in organic solids as functions of spectral overlap integral (J) , photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield (φD ) , dipole moment (μT ) and refractive index (n) of the photoactive material. The exciton diffusion lengths and diffusion coefficients in some selected organic solids were calculated, and we found that the singlet exciton diffusion length (LDS ) increases with φD and J, and decreases with n. Also, the triplet exciton diffusion length (LDT ) increases with φD and decreases with μT . These may be achieved through doping the organic solids into broad optical energy gap host materials as observed in previous experiments. The calculated exciton diffusion lengths are compared with experimental values and a reasonably good agreement is found between them. The results presented are expected to provide insight relevant to the synthesis of new organic solids for fabrication of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells characterized by better power conversion efficiency.

  12. Nanofiber-based bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells using coaxial electrospinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedford, Nicholas M. [Nanoelectronics Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States); Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, 45221 (United States); Dickerson, Matthew B.; Drummy, Lawrence F.; Koerner, Hilmar; Singh, Kristi M.; Vasudev, Milana C.; Durstock, Michael F.; Naik, Rajesh R. [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH, 45433 (United States); Steckl, Andrew J. [Nanoelectronics Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Nanofibers consisting of the bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic (BHJ-OPV) electron donor-electron acceptor pair poly(3-hexylthiophene):phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) are produced through a coaxial electrospinning process. While P3HT:PCBM blends are not directly electrospinnable, P3HT:PCBM-containing fibers are produced in a coaxial fashion by utilizing polycaprolactone (PCL) as an electrospinnable sheath material. Pure P3HT:PCBM fibers are easily obtained after electrospinning by selectively removing the PCL sheath with cyclopentanone (average diameter 120 {+-} 30 nm). These fibers are then incorporated into the active layer of a BHJ-OPV device, which results in improved short-circuit current densities, fill factors, and power-conversion efficiencies (PCE) as compared to thin-film devices of identical chemical composition. The best-performing fiber-based devices exhibit a PCE of 4.0%, while the best thin-film devices have a PCE of 3.2%. This increase in device performance is attributed to the increased in-plane alignment of P3HT polymer chains on the nanoscale, caused by the electrospun fibers, which leads to increased optical absorption and subsequent exciton generation. This methodology for improving device performance of BHJ-OPVs could also be implemented for other electron donor-electron acceptor systems, as nanofiber formation is largely independent of the PV material. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Current-voltage characteristics of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells: connection between light and dark curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boix, Pablo P.; Guerrero, Antonio; Garcia-Belmonte, Germa; Bisquert, Juan [Photovoltaic and Optoelectronic Devices Group, Departament de Fisica, Universitat Jaume I, ES-12071 Castello (Spain); Marchesi, Luis F. [Laboratorio Interdisciplinar de, Eletroquimica e Ceramica (LIEC), Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (Brazil); Photovoltaic and Optoelectronic Devices Group, Departament de Fisica, Universitat Jaume I, ES-12071 Castello (Spain)

    2011-11-15

    A connection is established between recombination and series resistances extracted from impedance spectroscopy and current-voltage curves of polythiophene:fullerene organic solar cells. Recombination is shown to depend exclusively on the (Fermi level) voltage, which allows construction of the current-voltage characteristics in any required conditions based on a restricted set of measurements. The analysis highlights carrier recombination current as the determining mechanism of organic solar cell performance. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Tuning the Properties of Polymer Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells by Adjusting Fullerene Size to Control Intercalation

    KAUST Repository

    Cates, Nichole C.

    2009-12-09

    We demonstrate that intercalation of fullerene derivatives between the side chains of conjugated polymers can be controlled by adjusting the fullerene size and compare the properties of intercalated and nonintercalated poly(2,5-bis(3-hexadecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (pBTTT):fullerene blends. The intercalated blends, which exhibit optimal solar-cell performance at 1:4 polymer:fullerene by weight, have better photoluminescence quenching and lower absorption than the nonintercalated blends, which optimize at 1:1. Understanding how intercalation affects performance will enable more effective design of polymer:fullerene solar cells. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  15. Simple, highly efficient vacuum-processed bulk heterojunction solar cells based on merocyanine dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinmann, Vera; Kronenberg, Nils M.; Lenze, Martin R.; Graf, Steven M.; Hertel, Dirk; Meerholz, Klaus [Department fuer Chemie, Universitaet Koeln, Luxemburger Strasse 116, 50939 Koeln (Germany); Buerckstuemmer, Hannah; Tulyakova, Elena V.; Wuerthner, Frank [Institut fuer Organische Chemie and Roentgen Research Center for Complex Material Systems, Universitaet Wuerzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    In order to be competitive on the energy market, organic solar cells with higher efficiency are needed. To date, polymer solar cells have retained the lead with efficiencies of up to 8%. However, research on small molecule solar cells has been catching up throughout recent years and is showing similar efficiencies, however, only for more sophisticated multilayer device configurations. In this work, a simple, highly efficient, vacuum-processed small molecule solar cell based on merocyanine dyes - traditional colorants that can easily be mass-produced and purified - is presented. In the past, merocyanines have been successfully introduced in solution-processed as well as vacuum-processed devices, demonstrating efficiencies up to 4.9%. Here, further optimization of devices is achieved while keeping the same simple layer stack, ultimately leading to efficiencies beyond the 6% mark. In addition, physical properties such as the charge carrier transport and the cell performance under various light intensities are addressed. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Polymer-Polymer Förster Resonance Energy Transfer Significantly Boosts the Power Conversion Efficiency of Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vinay; Bharti, Vishal; Kumar, Mahesh; Chand, Suresh; Heeger, Alan J

    2015-06-24

    Optically resonant donor polymers can exploit a wider range of the solar spectrum effectively without a complicated tandem design in an organic solar cell. Ultrafast Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) in a polymer-polymer system that significantly improves the power conversion efficiency in bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells from 6.8% to 8.9% is demonstrated, thus paving the way to achieving 15% efficient solar cells. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Effect of cathode buffer layer on the stability of polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Liying; Xu, Hao; Tian, Hui; Yin, Shougen [Key Laboratory of Display Materials and Photoelectric Devices (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Tianjin Key Lab for Photoelectric Materials and Devices, Tianjin 300384 (China); Zhang, Fengling [Key Laboratory of Display Materials and Photoelectric Devices (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Biomolecular and Organic Electronics, Center of Organic Electronics, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2010-10-15

    The effect of cathode buffer layer on the stability of polymer solar cells with cesium carbonate (Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) as the cathode buffer layer was investigated. Compared with traditional devices using lithium fluoride (LiF) as buffer layer, the use of the Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3} layer has enhanced not only open-circuit voltages and power conversion efficiencies of the polymer solar cells due to better contact with the cathode but also the device stability. From results of stability test, we concluded that the inserted Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3} buffer layer is working as a better shielding and scavenging protector which prevents the intruding of oxygen and humidity into the active layer, thereby improving the lifetime of unpackaged devices. (author)

  18. A mechanistic understanding of processing additive-induced efficiency enhancement in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Schmidt, Kristin

    2013-10-31

    The addition of processing additives is a widely used approach to increase power conversion efficiencies for many organic solar cells. We present how additives change the polymer conformation in the casting solution leading to a more intermixed phase-segregated network structure of the active layer which in turn results in a 5-fold enhancement in efficiency. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Numerical simulation of s-shaped organic bulk-heterojunction solar cell current-voltage characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagenpfahl, Alexander; Rauh, Daniel; Deibel, Carsten [Experimental Physics VI, Julius-Maximilians-University of Wuerzburg (Germany); Dyakonov, Vladimir [Experimental Physics VI, Julius-Maximilians-University of Wuerzburg (Germany); Bavarian Center for Applied Energy Research, ZAE Bayern e.V., Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Organic solar cell devices based on semiconducting polymer-fullerene blends occasionally possess current-voltage characteristics showing an s-shaped behavior. A strong effect of this kind easily reduces the solar cells working efficiency to a minimum. The detailed origin of the double diode behavior is still unknown. Using a poly(3-hexylthiophene): phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) blend as active layer, we will present how such an s-shape is experimentally achieved using a plasma etch process on the transparent hole conducting anode (indium tin oxide). By considering a finite surface recombination in a device simulation program, we show that this s-shape can be calculated, only by assuming finite charge extraction velocities from the active layer to the metallic electrodes. The resulting charge carrier accumulation at the surfaces thereby changes the current transport from ohmic to space charge limited. By analyzing the found dependencies we demonstrate under which conditions this effect influences the solar cell performance.

  20. Effect of regioregularity on recombination dynamics in inverted bulk heterojunction organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Naresh; Liu, Amelia C. Y.; Kumar, Anil; McNeill, Christopher R.; Kabra, Dinesh

    2018-01-01

    The effect of polymer regioregularity on the charge transport properties and bimolecular recombination rates of polymer-based solar cells is studied in detail using transient photovoltaic techniques. We compare organic solar cells fabricated with an ITO/ZnO/PEIE/P3HT:PCBM/MoO3/Ag structure using either 100% regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (DF-P3HT) yielding an average power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.8  ±  0.3% or 92% regioregular P3HT (rr-P3HT) that yields an average PCE of 3.28  ±  0.4%. Transient photocurrent measurements reveal the presence of less mobile photoinduced charges in rr-P3HT:PCBM cells when compared to DF-P3HT:PCBM solar cells. Transient photovoltage measurements are used to establish the relationship between regioregularity and bimolecular recombination rate constant (k) finding that under 1 Sun, devices with high regioregularity have a longer τ despite having a higher k. The high value of k for the DF-P3HT:PCBM system as compared to the rr-P3HT:PCBM system is attributed to enhanced mobility and better charge transport of mobile charges in the DF-P3HT:PCBM system, consistent with enhanced fibrillar order in DF-P3HT films observed with transmission electron microscopy. We also note a slight decrease in cell open circuit voltage with increase in polymer regioregularity, which is due to the increase in k. Other recombination mechanisms such as trap-assisted recombination are found to be important in the lower regioregular P3HT device compounded by the reduced mobility and poor inter-chain ordering.

  1. Efficient inverted bulk-heterojunction solar cells from low-temperature processing of amorphous ZnO buffer layers

    KAUST Repository

    Jagadamma, Lethy Krishnan

    2014-01-01

    In this report, we demonstrate that solution-processed amorphous zinc oxide (a-ZnO) interlayers prepared at low temperatures (∼100 °C) can yield inverted bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells that are as efficient as nanoparticle-based ZnO requiring comparably more complex synthesis or polycrystalline ZnO films prepared at substantially higher temperatures (150-400 °C). Low-temperature, facile solution-processing approaches are required in the fabrication of BHJ solar cells on flexible plastic substrates, such as PET. Here, we achieve efficient inverted solar cells with a-ZnO buffer layers by carefully examining the correlations between the thin film morphology and the figures of merit of optimized BHJ devices with various polymer donors and PCBM as the fullerene acceptor. We find that the most effective a-ZnO morphology consists of a compact, thin layer with continuous substrate coverage. In parallel, we emphasize the detrimental effect of forming rippled surface morphologies of a-ZnO, an observation which contrasts with results obtained in polycrystalline ZnO thin films, where rippled morphologies have been reported to improve efficiency. After optimizing the a-ZnO morphology at low processing temperature for inverted P3HT:PCBM devices, achieving a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of ca. 4.1%, we demonstrate inverted solar cells with low bandgap polymer donors on glass/flexible PET substrates: PTB7:PC71BM (PCE: 6.5% (glass)/5.6% (PET)) and PBDTTPD:PC71BM (PCE: 6.7% (glass)/5.9% (PET)). Finally, we show that a-ZnO based inverted P3HT:PCBM BHJ solar cells maintain ca. 90-95% of their initial PCE even after a full year without encapsulation in a nitrogen dry box, thus demonstrating excellent shelf stability. The insight we have gained into the importance of surface morphology in amorphous zinc oxide buffer layers should help in the development of other low-temperature solution-processed metal oxide interlayers for efficient flexible solar cells. This journal is

  2. The Influence of Polymer Sequence on the Formation of Bulk-Heterojunctions in Organic Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Dong

    This thesis summarizes my work on organic solar cells during my graduate studies. Chapter 1 serves as an introduction to organic solar cells. I will briefly discuss the working mechanism, and describe the device fabrication processes and testing set up that I designed at the beginning of my graduate studies. Chapter 2 describes the size-dependent behavior of polymer solar cells measured under partial illumination. We found that ITO resistance is a significant source of power loss because sheet resistance (Rs) increases with area. The non-illuminated part of a partially illuminated device introduces some interesting effects related to the physics of device operation. Specifically, this contributes additional "dark diodes" that connect in parallel with an illuminated cell, giving rise to an apparent decrease in VOC and increase in FF as the illuminated portion of the cell is decreased. Chapter 3 is a study of a P3HS-b-P3HT block copolymer as a donor material in organic solar cells. Fiber-like nanostructures are formed spontaneously in P3HS-b-P3HT:PCBM devices, and their thermal stability exceeds homopolymer:PCBM devices or ternary mixtures. Although P3HS-b-P3HT contains two distinct electron donor materials, the EQE spectra, hole mobility, Jsc, and PCE exceed that of a physical mixture of the two homopolymers and PCBM. Chapter 4 compares the photovoltaic properties of two conjugated copolymers with the same composition, P3HS-b-P3HT and P3HS- s-P3HT. The block polymer spontaneously undergoes intrinsic phase separation and the statistical polymer does not. P3HS-b-P3HT devices perform best when the native self-assembled structure is most perturbed, which is accomplished using PC71BM. P3HS-s-P3HT is a polymer that does not form a native phase separated structure. Here vapor annealing can be used to more predictably optimize the polymer:fullerene morphology. Chapter 5 studies the evolution of the electron mobility of two different acceptors with different crystallinity

  3. Insights into the Morphological Instability of Bulk Heterojunction PTB7-Th/PCBM Solar Cells upon High-Temperature Aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Yen-Ju; Huang, Yu-Ching; Liu, Wei-Shin; Su, Yu-An; Tsao, Cheng-Si; Rwei, Syang-Peng; Wang, Leeyih

    2017-04-18

    The impact of the morphological stability of the donor/acceptor mixture under thermal stress on the photovoltaic properties of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells based on the poly[4,8-bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophen-2-yl)benzo[1,2-b;4,5-b']-di-thiophene-2,6-diyl-alt-(4-(2 ethylhexyl)-3-fluorothieno[3,4-b]-thiophene)-2-carboxylate-2,6-diyl]/phenyl-C61-butyric acid methylester (PTB7-Th/PC61BM) blend is extensively investigated. Both optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy micrographs show that long-term high-temperature aging stimulates the formation of microscale clusters, the size of which, however, is about 1 order of magnitude smaller than those observed in thermally annealed poly(3hexylthiophene)/PC61BM composite film. The multilength-scale evolution of the morphology of PTB7-Th/PC61BM film from the scattering profiles of grazing incidence small-angle and wide-angle X-ray scattering indicates the PC61BM molecules spatially confine the self-organization of polymer chains into large domains during cast drying and upon thermal activation. Moreover, some PC61BM molecules accumulate into ~30-40 nm clusters, the number of which increases with heating time. Therefore, the hole mobility in the active layer decays much more rapidly than the electron mobility, leading to unbalanced charge transport and degraded cell performance. Importantly, the three-component blend that is formed by replacing a small amount of PC61BM in the active layer with the bis-adduct of PC61BM (bis-P61M) exhibits robust morphology against thermal stress. Accordingly, the PTB7-Th/PC61BM:bis-PC61BM (8 wt %) device has an extremely stable power conversion efficiency.

  4. Insights into the Morphological Instability of Bulk Heterojunction PTB7-Th/PCBM Solar Cells upon High-Temperature Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yen-Ju; Huang, Yu-Ching; Liu, Wei-Shin; Su, Yu-An; Tsao, Cheng-Si; Rwei, Syang-Peng; Wang, Leeyih

    2017-05-03

    The impact of the morphological stability of the donor/acceptor mixture under thermal stress on the photovoltaic properties of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells based on the poly[4,8-bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophen-2-yl)benzo[1,2-b;4,5-b']-dithiophene-2,6-diyl-alt-(4-(2-ethylhexyl)-3-fluorothieno[3,4-b]-thiophene)-2-carboxylate-2,6-diyl]/phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PTB7-Th/PC61BM) blend is extensively investigated. Both optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy micrographs show that long-term high-temperature aging stimulates the formation of microscale clusters, the size of which, however, is about 1 order of magnitude smaller than those observed in thermally annealed poly(3-hexylthiophene)/PC61BM composite film. The multilength-scale evolution of the morphology of PTB7-Th/PC61BM film from the scattering profiles of grazing incidence small-angle and wide-angle X-ray scattering indicates the PC61BM molecules spatially confine the self-organization of polymer chains into large domains during cast drying and upon thermal activation. Moreover, some PC61BM molecules accumulate into ∼30-40 nm clusters, the number of which increases with heating time. Therefore, the hole mobility in the active layer decays much more rapidly than the electron mobility, leading to unbalanced charge transport and degraded cell performance. Importantly, the three-component blend that is formed by replacing a small amount of PC61BM in the active layer with the bis-adduct of PC61BM (bis-PC61BM) exhibits robust morphology against thermal stress. Accordingly, the PTB7-Th/PC61BM:bis-PC61BM (8 wt %) device has an extremely stable power conversion efficiency.

  5. Structure–property relationships of oligothiophene–isoindigo polymers for efficient bulk-heterojunction solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zaifei; Sun, Wenjun; Himmelberger, Scott

    2014-01-01

    ) in the repeating unit alters both polymer crystallinity and polymer–fullerene interfacial energetics, which results in a decreasing open-circuit voltage (Voc) of the solar cells with increasing n. The short-circuit current density (Jsc) of P1TI:PCBM devices is limited by the absence of a significant driving force...... for electron transfer. Instead, blends based on P5TI and P6TI feature large polymer domains, which limit charge generation and thus Jsc. The best PV performance with a power conversion efficiency of up to 6.9% was achieved with devices based on P3TI, where a combination of a favorable morphology and an optimal...... interfacial energy level offset ensures efficient exciton separation and charge generation. The structure–property relationship demonstrated in this work would be a valuable guideline for the design of high performance polymers with small energy losses during the charge generation process, allowing...

  6. Time-of-flight studies of electron-collection kinetics in polymer: Fullerene bulk-heterojunction solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morfa, Anthony J. [School of Chemistry and Bio21 Institute, University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010, Victoria (Australia); Nardes, Alexandre M.; Kopidakis, Nikos; Lagemaat, Jao van de [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado, 80401 (United States); Shaheen, Sean E. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado, 80401 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Denver, Denver, Colorado 80210 (United States)

    2011-07-08

    The charge-collection dynamics in poly(3-hexylthiophene:[6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester) (P3HT:PCBM) bulk heterojunctions are studied in thick (>1 {mu}m) devices using time-of-flight measurements and external quantum-efficiency measurements. The devices show Schottky-diode behavior with a large field-free region in the device. Consequently, electron transport occurs by diffusion in the bulk of the active layer. At high applied biases where the depletion region spans the entire active layer, normal time-of-flight transients are observed from which the electron mobility can be determined. Here, the electron mobility follows Poole-Frenkel behavior as a function of field. At lower applied biases, where the depletion region only spans a small portion of the active layer, due to a high density of dark holes, the recombination kinetics follow a first-order rate law with a rate constant about two orders of magnitude lower than that predicted by Langevin recombination. Transient photoconductivity measurements Schottky solar cells of poly(3-hexylthiophene:[6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester) (P3HT:PCBM) at several voltages demonstrate the dependence of charge collection on transit time. The applied bias is controlled, which tunes the depletion layer width, and thus the field-free region. The total charge collected versus the average transit time is then calculated. First-order charge kinetics are demonstrated. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Printing Fabrication of Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells and In Situ Morphology Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Ferdous, Sunzida; Wan, Xianjian; Zhu, Chenhui; Schaible, Eric; Hexemer, Alexander; Wang, Cheng; Russell, Thomas P

    2017-01-29

    Polymer-based materials hold promise as low-cost, flexible efficient photovoltaic devices. Most laboratory efforts to achieve high performance devices have used devices prepared by spin coating, a process that is not amenable to large-scale fabrication. This mismatch in device fabrication makes it difficult to translate quantitative results obtained in the laboratory to the commercial level, making optimization difficult. Using a mini-slot die coater, this mismatch can be resolved by translating the commercial process to the laboratory and characterizing the structure formation in the active layer of the device in real time and in situ as films are coated onto a substrate. The evolution of the morphology was characterized under different conditions, allowing us to propose a mechanism by which the structures form and grow. This mini-slot die coater offers a simple, convenient, material efficient route by which the morphology in the active layer can be optimized under industrially relevant conditions. The goal of this protocol is to show experimental details of how a solar cell device is fabricated using a mini-slot die coater and technical details of running in situ structure characterization using the mini-slot die coater.

  8. Highly improved lifetimes of solar cells comprising post-additive-soaked PTB7-F20:PC71BM bulk heterojunction materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, In-Wook; Kong, Jaemin

    2017-12-01

    Herein, we demonstrate that the lifetimes of polymer-based solar cells comprising PTB7-F20:PC71BM composites can be significantly increased by using post-additive-soaked bulk heterojunction (BHJ) films. Analyses of solar cell performance, film morphology, time-resolved photoluminescence, and photoconductivity revealed that the above increase resulted from the combined effects of the improved carrier generation and transport in post-additive-soaked BHJ films and the efficient deactivation of burn-in loss by using the photochemically stable PTB7-F20 polymer.

  9. Solution-Processed Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells with Silyl End-Capped Sexithiophene

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Choi, Jung Hei; El-Khouly, Mohamed E; Kim, Taehee; Kim, Youn-Su; Yoon, Ung Chan; Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Kim, Kyungkon

    2013-01-01

    ... : PCBM blend cell showed higher hole mobility than DH-6T : PCBM cell. Therefore, DSi-6T cell showed higher device performance than DH-6T cell due to its silyl substitutions, which lead to the increase...

  10. Effects of modifying active-layer/cathode interface on P3HT/PCBM based bulk-heterojunction solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bom, Sidhant; Wagner, Veit [Jacobs University Bremen (Germany). School of Engineering and Science

    2009-07-01

    The compatibility of organic photovoltaics (OPVs) with large area printing using flexible substrates offers significant cost reduction and gives the field substantial ecological and economic advantages. However, low efficiencies and inferior environmental stability has been their major setbacks. Photo-generated excitons which dissociate at donor-acceptor interface in bulk-heterojunction OPV devices are collected at the electrodes. This work focuses on interface engineering between the active layer and cathode and on environmental stability. A series of bulk-heterojunction OPV cells were made on indium tin oxide coated glass with poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and[6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) composite as the active layer using different work-function metals: Ag, Al, Au and Ca as cathodes. Furthermore, the environment was changed for different production steps between ambient air and dry nitrogen. For the devices completely processed in air, the cells with Al electrodes showed the best performance which was however much lower than completely nitrogen processed samples. The photocurrent features on the air processed sample were strongly bias dependent and indicates degradation of PCBM.

  11. Efficiency Enhancement of PbS Quantum Dot/ZnO Nanowire Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells by Plasmonic Silver Nanocubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawawaki, Tokuhisa; Wang, Haibin; Kubo, Takaya; Saito, Koichiro; Nakazaki, Jotaro; Segawa, Hiroshi; Tatsuma, Tetsu

    2015-04-28

    For improvement of solar cell performance, it is important to make efficient use of near-infrared light, which accounts for ∼40% of sunlight energy. Here we introduce plasmonic Ag nanocubes (NCs) to colloidal PbS quantum dot/ZnO nanowire (PbS QD/ZnO NW) bulk-heterojunction solar cells, which are characterized by high photocurrents, for further improvement in the photocurrent and power conversion efficiency (PCE) in the visible and near-infrared regions. The Ag NCs exhibit strong far field scattering and intense optical near field in the wavelength region where light absorption of PbS QDs is relatively weak. Photocurrents of the solar cells are enhanced by the Ag NCs particularly in the range 700-1200 nm because of plasmonic enhancement of light absorption and possible facilitation of exciton dissociation. As a result of the optimization of the position and amount of Ag NCs, the PCE of PbS QD/ZnO NW bulk-heterojunction solar cells is improved from 4.45% to 6.03% by 1.36 times.

  12. A simple and effective modification of PCBM for use as an electron acceptor in efficient bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikroyannidis, John A.; Kabanakis, Antonis N. [Chemical Technology Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Patras, GR-26500 Patras (Greece); Sharma, S.S. [Department of Physics, Government Engineering College for Women, Ajmer, Rajasthan (India); Thin Film and Membrane Science Laboratory, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, Rajasthan (India); Sharma, Ganesh D. [Physics Department, Molecular Electronic and Optoelectronic Device Laboratory, JNV University, Jodhpur (Raj.) 342005 (India); R and D Centre for Engineering and Scicence, Jaipur Engineering College, Kukas, Jaipur (Raj) (India)

    2011-02-22

    [6,6]-phenyl-C-61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) are the most widely used acceptor and donor materials, respectively, in polymer solar cells (PSCs). However, the low LUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital) energy level of PCBM limits the open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) of the PSCs based on P3HT. Herein a simple, low-cost and effective approach of modifying PCBM and improving its absorption is reported which can be extended to all fullerene derivatives with an ester structure. In particular, PCBM is hydrolyzed to carboxylic acid and then converted to the corresponding carbonyl chloride. The latter is condensed with 4-nitro-4'-hydroxy-{alpha}-cyanostilbene to afford the modified fullerene F. It is more soluble than PCBM in common organic solvents due to the increase of the organic moiety. Both solutions and thin films of F show stronger absorption than PCBM in the range of 250-900 nm. The electrochemical properties and electronic energy levels of F and PCBM are measured by cyclic voltammetry. The LUMO energy level of F is 0.25 eV higher than that of PCBM. The PSCs based on P3HT with F as an acceptor shows a higher V{sub oc} of 0.86 V and a short circuit current (J{sub sc}) of 8.5 mA cm{sup -2}, resulting in a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4.23%, while the PSC based on P3HT:PCBM shows a PCE of about 2.93% under the same conditions. The results indicate that the modified PCBM, i.e., F, is an excellent acceptor for PSC based on bulk heterojunction active layers. A maximum overall PCE of 5.25% is achieved with the PSC based on the P3HT:F blend deposited from a mixture of solvents (chloroform/acetone) and subsequent thermal annealing at 120 C. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Controlling solution-phase polymer aggregation with molecular weight and solvent additives to optimize polymer-fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Bartelt, Jonathan A.

    2014-03-20

    The bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cell performance of many polymers depends on the polymer molecular weight (M n) and the solvent additive(s) used for solution processing. However, the mechanism that causes these dependencies is not well understood. This work determines how M n and solvent additives affect the performance of BHJ solar cells made with the polymer poly(di(2-ethylhexyloxy)benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b\\']dithiophene-co- octylthieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione) (PBDTTPD). Low M n PBDTTPD devices have exceedingly large fullerene-rich domains, which cause extensive charge-carrier recombination. Increasing the M n of PBDTTPD decreases the size of these domains and significantly improves device performance. PBDTTPD aggregation in solution affects the size of the fullerene-rich domains and this effect is linked to the dependency of PBDTTPD solubility on M n. Due to its poor solubility high M n PBDTTPD quickly forms a fibrillar polymer network during spin-casting and this network acts as a template that prevents large-scale phase separation. Furthermore, processing low M n PBDTTPD devices with a solvent additive improves device performance by inducing polymer aggregation in solution and preventing large fullerene-rich domains from forming. These findings highlight that polymer aggregation in solution plays a significant role in determining the morphology and performance of BHJ solar cells. The performance of poly(di(2-ethylhexyloxy) benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b\\']dithiophene-co-octylthieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione) (PBDTTPD) bulk heterojunction solar cells strongly depends on the polymer molecular weight, and processing these bulk heterojunctions with a solvent additive preferentially improves the performance of low molecular weight devices. It is demonstrated that polymer aggregation in solution significantly impacts the thin-film bulk heterojunction morphology and is vital for high device performance. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Fabrication and Characterization of Fullerene-Based Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells with Porphyrin, CuInS2, Diamond and Exciton-Diffusion Blocking Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Oku

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Fullerene-based bulk heterojunction solar cells were fabricated, and the electronic and optical properties were investigated. C60 were used as n-type semiconductors, and porphyrin, CuInS2 and diamond were used as p-type semiconductors. An effect of exciton-diffusion blocking layer of perylene derivative on the solar cells between active layer and metal layer was also investigated. Optimized structures with the exciton-diffusion blocking layer improved conversion efficiencies. Electronic structures of the molecules were investigated by molecular orbital calculation, and energy levels of the solar cells were discussed. Nanostructures of the solar cells were investigated by transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction and X-ray diffraction, which indicated formation of mixed nanocrystals.

  15. Sputtered nickel oxide thin film for efficient hole transport layer in polymer–fullerene bulk-heterojunction organic solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widjonarko, N. Edwin [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Physics; National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ratcliff, Erin L. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Perkins, Craig L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sigdel, Ajaya K. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Univ. of Denver, CO (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Zakutayev, Andriy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ndione, Paul F. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gillaspie, Dane T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ginley, David S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Olson, Dana C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Berry, Joseph J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) organic photovoltaics (OPV) are promising thin-film renewable energy conversion options due to low production cost by high-throughput roll-to-roll manufacturing, an expansive list of compatible materials, and flexible device fabrication.

  16. Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells Based on Blends of Conjugated Polymers with II–VI and IV–VI Inorganic Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Kisslinger

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bulk heterojunction solar cells based on blends of quantum dots and conjugated polymers are a promising configuration for obtaining high-efficiency, cheaply fabricated solution-processed photovoltaic devices. Such devices are of significant interest as they have the potential to leverage the advantages of both types of materials, such as the high mobility, band gap tunability and possibility of multiple exciton generation in quantum dots together with the high mechanical flexibility and large molar extinction coefficient of conjugated polymers. Despite these advantages, the power conversion efficiency (PCE of these hybrid devices has remained relatively low at around 6%, well behind that of all-organic or all-inorganic solar cells. This is attributed to major challenges that still need to be overcome before conjugated polymer–quantum dot blends can be considered viable for commercial application, such as controlling the film morphology and interfacial structure to ensure efficient charge transfer and charge transport. In this work, we present our findings with respect to the recent development of bulk heterojunctions made from conjugated polymer–quantum dot blends, list the ongoing strategies being attempted to improve performance, and highlight the key areas of research that need to be pursued to further develop this technology.

  17. Effect of ligand exchange of Cu2ZnSnS4 nanocrystals on the charge transport and photovoltaic performance of nanostructured depleted bulk heterojunction solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuo-Xi; Zhou, Zheng-Ji; Bai, Bing; Liu, Ming-Hua; Zhou, Wen-Hui; Kou, Dong-Xing; Wu, Si-Xin

    2015-12-01

    Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanocrystals combining the advantage of feasible solution-phase synthesis and processing are perceived as promising materials for application in efficient, low-cost photovoltaic technology. Herein, we have got surfactant-free CZTS nanocrystals by a novel ligand exchange method, and the obtained CZTS nanocrystals were deposited onto ZnO nanorod arrays to construct depleted bulk heterojunction solar cell. The all-inorganic CZTS nanocrystal solar cells demonstrated a remarkable improvement in J sc (from 8.14 to 13.97 mA/cm2) and power conversion efficiency (from 1.83 to 3.34 %) compared with surfactant-capped CZTS nanocrystals. Using surface photovoltage spectrum, the influence of ligand exchange of CZTS nanocrystals on the charge transport and photovoltaic performance of the nanostructured CZTS solar cells was discussed.

  18. Impact of the energy difference in LUMO and HOMO of the bulk heterojunctions components on the efficiency of organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derouiche, H. [ISSTE, Technopole de Borj-Cedria. B.P. 95, 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia); Djara, V. [LPSE-FSTN, 2 Rue de la Houssiniere, BP 92208, Nantes Cedex 3, 44322 (France)

    2007-08-15

    The characteristics of two bulk heterojunctions photovoltaic devices composed of zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) as electron donor and as electron acceptor, for which we used perylene tetracarboxylic dianhydrid (PTCDA) or 1,4-diaminoanthraquinone (1,4-DAAQ) having been studied. Organic semiconductor-blended films were formed by highvacuum co-evaporation. To study the properties of the different samples, the films were characterized by optical absorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements, and solar cell I-V measurements, AM1.5 (1000 W/m{sup 2}) irradiance. Theoretical and experimental results have shown that a better efficiency is obtained in blending ZnPc with PTCDA more than with 1,4-DAAQ. The offset of the band edges of highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) levels of the blended components will prove responsible for the improvement of all photovoltaic properties of the organic solar cells. (author)

  19. Effects of acetone-soaking treatment on the performance of polymer solar cells based on P3HT/PCBM bulk heterojunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Xuan; Lü, Long-Feng; Ning, Yu; Lu, Yun-Zhang; Lu, Qi-Peng; Zhang, Chun-Mei; Fang, Yi; Tang, Ai-Wei; Hu, Yu-Feng; Lou, Zhi-Dong; Teng, Feng; Hou, Yan-Bing

    2014-11-01

    The improvement of the acetone-soaking treatment to the performance of polymer solar cells based on the P3HT/PCBM bulk heterojunction is reported. Undergoing acetone-soaking, the PCBM does not distribute uniformly in the vertical direction, a PCBM enrichment layer forms on the top of the active layer, which is beneficial to the collection of the carriers and blocking the inverting diffusion carriers. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis reveals that the PCBM weight ratio on the top of the active layer increases by 20% after the acetone-soaking treatment. Due to the nonuniform distribution of PCBM, the short-circuit current density, the open-circuit voltage, and the fill factor are enhanced significantly. Finally, the power conversion efficiency of the acetone-soaking device increases by 31% compared with the control device.

  20. Effects of alkyl chain length and substituent pattern of fullerene bis-adducts on film structures and photovoltaic properties of bulk heterojunction solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ran; Umeyama, Tomokazu; Kurotobi, Kei; Imahori, Hiroshi

    2014-10-08

    A series of alkoxycarbonyl-substituted dihydronaphthyl-based [60]fullerene bis-adduct derivatives (denoted as C2BA, C4BA, and C6BA with the alkyl chain of ethyl, n-butyl, and n-hexyl, respectively) have been synthesized to investigate the effects of alkyl chain length and substituent pattern of fullerene bis-adducts on the film structures and photovoltaic properties of bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells. The shorter alkyl chain length caused lower solubility of the fullerene bis-adducts (C6BA > C4BA > C2BA), thereby resulting in the increased separation difficulty of respective bis-adduct isomers. The device performance based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and the fullerene bis-adduct regioisomer mixtures was enhanced by shortening the alkyl chain length. When using the regioisomerically separated fullerene bis-adducts, the devices based on trans-2 and a mixture of trans-4 and e of C4BA exhibited the highest power conversion efficiencies of ca. 2.4%, which are considerably higher than those of the C6BA counterparts (ca. 1.4%) and the C4BA regioisomer mixture (1.10%). The film morphologies as well as electron mobilities of the P3HT:bis-adduct blend films were found to affect the photovoltaic properties considerably. These results reveal that the alkyl chain length and substituent pattern of fullerene bis-adducts significantly influence the photovoltaic properties as well as the film structures of bulk heterojunction solar cells.

  1. From Recombination Dynamics to Device Performance: Quantifying the Efficiency of Exciton Dissociation, Charge Separation, and Extraction in Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells with Fluorine-Substituted Polymer Donors

    KAUST Repository

    Gorenflot, Julien

    2017-09-28

    An original set of experimental and modeling tools is used to quantify the yield of each of the physical processes leading to photocurrent generation in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells, enabling evaluation of materials and processing condition beyond the trivial comparison of device performances. Transient absorption spectroscopy, “the” technique to monitor all intermediate states over the entire relevant timescale, is combined with time-delayed collection field experiments, transfer matrix simulations, spectral deconvolution, and parametrization of the charge carrier recombination by a two-pool model, allowing quantification of densities of excitons and charges and extrapolation of their kinetics to device-relevant conditions. Photon absorption, charge transfer, charge separation, and charge extraction are all quantified for two recently developed wide-bandgap donor polymers: poly(4,8-bis((2-ethylhexyl)oxy)benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-3,4-difluorothiophene) (PBDT[2F]T) and its nonfluorinated counterpart poly(4,8-bis((2-ethylhexyl)oxy)benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-3,4-thiophene) (PBDT[2H]T) combined with PC71BM in bulk heterojunctions. The product of these yields is shown to agree well with the devices\\' external quantum efficiency. This methodology elucidates in the specific case studied here the origin of improved photocurrents obtained when using PBDT[2F]T instead of PBDT[2H]T as well as upon using solvent additives. Furthermore, a higher charge transfer (CT)-state energy is shown to lead to significantly lower energy losses (resulting in higher VOC) during charge generation compared to P3HT:PCBM.

  2. Synergistic Impact of Solvent and Polymer Additives on the Film Formation of Small Molecule Blend Films for Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    McDowell, Caitlin

    2015-07-14

    The addition of polystyrene (PS), a typical insulator, is empirically shown to increase the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of a solution-deposited bulk heterojunction (BHJ) molecular blend film used in solar cell fabrication: p-DTS(FBTTh2)2/PC71BM. The performance is further improved by small quantities of diiodooctane (DIO), an established solvent additive. In this study, how the addition of PS and DIO affects the film formation of this bulk heterojunction blend film are probed via in situ monitoring of absorbance, thickness, and crystallinity. PS and DIO additives are shown to promote donor crystallite formation on different time scales and through different mechanisms. PS-containing films retain chlorobenzene solvent, extending evaporation time and promoting phase separation earlier in the casting process. This extended time is insufficient to attain the morphology for optimal PCE results before the film sets. Here is where the presence of DIO comes into play: its low vapor pressure further extends the time scale of film evolution and allows for crystalline rearrangement of the donor phase long after casting, ultimately leading to the best BHJ organization. In situ measurement shows that polystyrene (PS) and diiodooctane (DIO) additives promote donor crystallite formation synergistically, on different time scales, and through different mechanisms. PS-rich films retain solvent, promoting phase separation early in the casting process. Meanwhile, the low vapor pressure of DIO extends the time scale of film evolution and allows for crystalline rearrangement of the donor phase after casting. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Optical and morphological studies of transition metal doped ZnO nanorods and their applications in hybrid bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Mujtaba Shah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the challenges in improving the efficiency of hybrid solar cells is to remove crystal defects from the semiconducting nanoparticles. Here we report the synthesis, characterization and applications of transition metal doped ZnO nanorods in hybrid bulk heterojunction solar cells. MnxZn1−xO and NixZn1−xO with dopant concentrations ranging from x = 0.01–0.10 were successfully synthesized by a novel facile solution-processed wet chemical method, which gave better yield at low cost and temperature. The morphological and optical properties of the material were investigated by Transmission electron microscopy (TEM, UV–Visible and Fluorescence spectroscopies. TEM measurements confirmed the reduction in size of nanorods upon doping. UV–Visible spectra of doped nanorods showed blue shift with respect to the reference undoped ZnO. The defect emissions were completely disappeared from the fluorescence spectra upon doping at high concentrations. These doped nanorods in combination with P3HT were employed in the hybrid solar cells which gave better current densities than their corresponding undoped counterparts.

  4. Additive-Morphology Interplay and Loss Channels in “All-Small-Molecule” Bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) Solar Cells with the Nonfullerene Acceptor IDTTBM

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Ru-Ze

    2017-12-16

    Achieving efficient bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells from blends of solution-processable small-molecule (SM) donors and acceptors is proved particularly challenging due to the complexity in obtaining a favorable donor–acceptor morphology. In this report, the BHJ device performance pattern of a set of analogous, well-defined SM donors—DR3TBDTT (DR3), SMPV1, and BTR—used in conjunction with the SM acceptor IDTTBM is examined. Examinations show that the nonfullerene “All-SM” BHJ solar cells made with DR3 and IDTTBM can achieve power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of up to ≈4.5% (avg. 4.0%) when the solution-processing additive 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO, 0.8% v/v) is used in the blend solutions. The figures of merit of optimized DR3:IDTTBM solar cells contrast with those of “as-cast” BHJ devices from which only modest PCEs <1% can be achieved. Combining electron energy loss spectrum analyses in scanning transmission electron microscopy mode, carrier transport measurements via “metal-insulator-semiconductor carrier extraction” methods, and systematic recombination examinations by light-dependence and transient photocurrent analyses, it is shown that DIO plays a determining role—establishing a favorable lengthscale for the phase-separated SM donor–acceptor network and, in turn, improving the balance in hole/electron mobilities and the carrier collection efficiencies overall.

  5. Exploitation of inimitable properties of CuInS2 quantum dots for energy conversion in bulk heterojunction hybrid solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal, Shikha; Giripunje, Sushama M.

    2017-11-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) are the suitable material for solar cell devices owing to its distinctive optical, electrical and electronic properties. Currently, the most efficient devices have employed the toxic QDs which cause destructive impact on environment. In the present article, we have used environment benign CuInS2 QDs as an acceptor material in bulk heterojunction device of P3HT and QDs. The energy level positions corroborated from UPS spectra substantiates the acceptor property of CuInS2. We scrutinized the hybrid solar cell by tailoring the acceptor content in active layer. The increased acceptor content intensifies the performance of device. The enhancement in photovoltaic parameters is mainly due to the fast dissociation and extraction of photogenerated excitons which occurs with the larger wt% of acceptor QDs. Current density–voltage characteristics describes the greater V oc and I sc in the 60 wt% CuInS2 QDs based solar cell as compared to the low wt% of QDs in the active layer.

  6. Luminescent GdVO4:Sm3+ quantum dots enhance power conversion efficiency of bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells by Förster resonance energy transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishnoi, Swati; Gupta, Vinay; Sharma, Chhavi; Haranath, D.; Naqvi, Sheerin; Kumar, Mahesh; Sharma, Gauri D.; Chand, Suresh

    2016-07-01

    In this work, we report enhanced power conversion efficiency (PCE) of bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) from samarium-doped luminescent gadolinium orthovanadate (GdVO4:Sm3+) quantum dots (QDs) to polythieno[3,4-b]-thiophene-co-benzodithiophene (PTB7) polymer. The photoluminescence emission spectrum of GdVO4:Sm3+ QDs overlaps with the absorption spectrum of PTB7, leading to FRET from GdVO4:Sm3+ to PTB7, and significant enhancements in the charge-carrier density of excited and polaronic states of PTB7 are observed. This was confirmed by means of femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. The FRET from GdVO4:Sm3+ QDs to PTB7 led to a remarkable increase in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of PTB7:GdVO4:Sm3+:PC71BM ([6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester) polymer solar cells. The PCE in optimized ternary blend PTB7:GdVO4:Sm3+:PC71BM (1:0.1:1.5) is increased to 8.8% from 7.2% in PTB7:PC71BM. This work demonstrates the potential of rare-earth based luminescent QDs in enhancing the PCE of polymer solar cells.

  7. A new strategy to engineer polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells with thick active layers via self-assembly of the tertiary columnar phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongfei; Yang, Zhenhua; Pan, Cheng; Jiang, Naisheng; Satija, Sushil K; Xu, Di; Gersappe, Dilip; Nam, Chang-Yong; Rafailovich, Miriam H

    2017-08-17

    We report that the addition of a non-photoactive tertiary polymer phase in the binary bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cell leads to a self-assembled columnar nanostructure, enhancing the charge mobilities and photovoltaic efficiency with surprisingly increased optimal active blend thicknesses over 300 nm, 3-4 times larger than that of the binary counterpart. Using the prototypical poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):fullerene blend as a model BHJ system, we discover that the inert poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) added in the binary BHJ blend self-assembles into vertical columns, which not only template the phase segregation of electron acceptor fullerenes but also induce the out-of-plane rotation of the edge-on-orientated crystalline P3HT phase. Using complementary interrogation methods including neutron reflectivity, X-ray scattering, atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and molecular dynamics simulations, we show that the enhanced charge transport originates from the more randomized molecular stacking of the P3HT phase and the spontaneous segregation of fullerenes at the P3HT/PMMA interface, driven by the high surface tension between the two polymeric components. The results demonstrate a potential method for increasing the thicknesses of high-performance polymer BHJ solar cells with improved photovoltaic efficiency, alleviating the burden of stringently controlling the ultrathin blend thickness during the roll-to-roll-type large-area manufacturing environment.

  8. p-Type semiconducting nickel oxide as an efficiency-enhancing anodal interfacial layer in bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Michael D; Buchholz, Donald B; Marks, Tobin J; Chang, Robert P. H.

    2014-11-25

    The present invention, in one aspect, relates to a solar cell. In one embodiment, the solar cell includes an anode, a p-type semiconductor layer formed on the anode, and an active organic layer formed on the p-type semiconductor layer, where the active organic layer has an electron-donating organic material and an electron-accepting organic material.

  9. Towards increasing the photon harvesting in bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells. : Electrochemical, Radiational, and Thermal Energy Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winder, Christoph; Loi, Maria A.; Sariciftci, Niyazi Serdar; Denk, Patrick; Padinger, Franz; Hummelen, Jan C.; Janssen, Rene A. J.; Gouloumis, Andreas; Vazquez, Purificacion; Torres, Tomas

    2003-01-01

    Org. solar cells based on interpenetrating networks of conjugated polymer donors and fullerene-based acceptors with MA 1.5 efficiencies up to 3% were presented recently. For further improvement of the efficiency, the absorption of the solar light should be increased. This can be done by matching the

  10. Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cell with Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotubes in the Active Layer: Effect of Nanocomposite Synthesis Technique on Photovoltaic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Keru

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposites of poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT and nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs have been synthesized by two methods; specifically, direct solution mixing and in situ polymerization. The nanocomposites were characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray dispersive spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectrophotometry, photoluminescence spectrophotometry (PL, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and dispersive surface energy analysis. The nanocomposites were used in the active layer of a bulk heterojunction organic solar cell with the composition ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:N-CNTS:PCBM/LiF/Al. TEM and SEM analysis showed that the polymer successfully wrapped the N-CNTs. FTIR results indicated good π-π interaction within the nanocomposite synthesized by in situ polymerization as opposed to samples made by direct solution mixing. Dispersive surface energies of the N-CNTs and nanocomposites supported the fact that polymer covered the N-CNTs well. J-V analysis show that good devices were formed from the two nanocomposites, however, the in situ polymerization nanocomposite showed better photovoltaic characteristics.

  11. Electrical and optical modeling of poly(3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester P3HT-PCBM bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brioua, Fathi; Remram, Mohamed; Nechache, Riad; Bourouina, Hicham

    2017-11-01

    In this work, we investigate a two-dimensional theoretical model for the photon conversion through an integration of the optical and electrical part of multilayer system in a bulk heterojunction solar cell based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/6,6-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blend. The optical properties of the studied structure ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM/Ca/Al, such as the exciton generation rate and the electrical field distribution, are predicted at vicinity of the active layer and have been used to solve Poisson and continuity, drift-diffusion equations of the electrical model which characterize the electrical behavior of semiconductor device using finite element method (FEM). The electrical parameters such as power conversion efficiency (PCE), open voltage circuit ( V oc), short-circuit current density ( J sc) and fill factor (FF) are extracted from the current-voltage (J-V) characteristics under illumination and in dark conditions. Highest external quantum efficiency (IPCE), up to 60%, is obtained around 520 nm, while a power conversion efficiency (PCE) value of 3.62% is found to be in good agreement with the literature results. Integration of such theoretical approach into technological applications dealing with optoelectrical material performance will rapidly provide to the user accurate data outputs required for efficient validation of proof-of-concepts.

  12. Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cell with Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotubes in the Active Layer: Effect of Nanocomposite Synthesis Technique on Photovoltaic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keru, Godfrey; Ndungu, Patrick G.; Mola, Genene T.; Nyamori, Vincent O.

    2015-01-01

    Nanocomposites of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs) have been synthesized by two methods; specifically, direct solution mixing and in situ polymerization. The nanocomposites were characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray dispersive spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectrophotometry, photoluminescence spectrophotometry (PL), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and dispersive surface energy analysis. The nanocomposites were used in the active layer of a bulk heterojunction organic solar cell with the composition ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:N-CNTS:PCBM/LiF/Al. TEM and SEM analysis showed that the polymer successfully wrapped the N-CNTs. FTIR results indicated good π-π interaction within the nanocomposite synthesized by in situ polymerization as opposed to samples made by direct solution mixing. Dispersive surface energies of the N-CNTs and nanocomposites supported the fact that polymer covered the N-CNTs well. J-V analysis show that good devices were formed from the two nanocomposites, however, the in situ polymerization nanocomposite showed better photovoltaic characteristics.

  13. Significantly improved photovoltaic performance in polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells with graphene oxide /PEDOT:PSS double decked hole transport layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafique, Saqib; Abdullah, Shahino Mah; Shahid, Muhammad Mehmood; Ansari, Mohammad Omaish; Sulaiman, Khaulah

    2017-01-01

    This work demonstrates the high performance graphene oxide (GO)/PEDOT:PSS doubled decked hole transport layer (HTL) in the PCDTBT:PC71BM based bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic device. The devices were tested on merits of their power conversion efficiency (PCE), reproducibility, stability and further compared with the devices with individual GO or PEDOT:PSS HTLs. Solar cells employing GO/PEDOT:PSS HTL yielded a PCE of 4.28% as compared to either of individual GO or PEDOT:PSS HTLs where they demonstrated PCEs of 2.77 and 3.57%, respectively. In case of single GO HTL, an inhomogeneous coating of ITO caused the poor performance whereas PEDOT:PSS is known to be hygroscopic and acidic which upon direct contact with ITO reduced the device performance. The improvement in the photovoltaic performance is mainly ascribed to the increased charge carriers mobility, short circuit current, open circuit voltage, fill factor, and decreased series resistance. The well matched work function of GO and PEDOT:PSS is likely to facilitate the charge transportation and an overall reduction in the series resistance. Moreover, GO could effectively block the electrons due to its large band-gap of ~3.6 eV, leading to an increased shunt resistance. In addition, we also observed the improvement in the reproducibility and stability.

  14. Significantly improved photovoltaic performance in polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells with graphene oxide /PEDOT:PSS double decked hole transport layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafique, Saqib; Abdullah, Shahino Mah; Shahid, Muhammad Mehmood; Ansari, Mohammad Omaish; Sulaiman, Khaulah

    2017-01-13

    This work demonstrates the high performance graphene oxide (GO)/PEDOT:PSS doubled decked hole transport layer (HTL) in the PCDTBT:PC71BM based bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic device. The devices were tested on merits of their power conversion efficiency (PCE), reproducibility, stability and further compared with the devices with individual GO or PEDOT:PSS HTLs. Solar cells employing GO/PEDOT:PSS HTL yielded a PCE of 4.28% as compared to either of individual GO or PEDOT:PSS HTLs where they demonstrated PCEs of 2.77 and 3.57%, respectively. In case of single GO HTL, an inhomogeneous coating of ITO caused the poor performance whereas PEDOT:PSS is known to be hygroscopic and acidic which upon direct contact with ITO reduced the device performance. The improvement in the photovoltaic performance is mainly ascribed to the increased charge carriers mobility, short circuit current, open circuit voltage, fill factor, and decreased series resistance. The well matched work function of GO and PEDOT:PSS is likely to facilitate the charge transportation and an overall reduction in the series resistance. Moreover, GO could effectively block the electrons due to its large band-gap of ~3.6 eV, leading to an increased shunt resistance. In addition, we also observed the improvement in the reproducibility and stability.

  15. Sputtered Nickel Oxide Thin Film for Efficient Hole Transport Layer in Polymer-Fullerene Bulk-Heterojunction Organic Solar Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widjonarko, N. E.; Ratcliff, E. L.; Perkins, C. L.; Sigdel, A. K.; Zakutayev, A.; Ndione, P. F.; Gillaspie, D. T.; Ginley, D. S.; Olson, D. C.; Berry, J. J.

    2012-03-01

    Bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) organic photovoltaics (OPV) are very promising thin film renewable energy conversion technologies due to low production cost by high-throughput roll-to-roll manufacturing, an expansive list of compatible materials, and flexible device fabrication. An important aspect of OPV device efficiency is good contact engineering. The use of oxide thin films for this application offers increased design flexibility and improved chemical stability. Here we present our investigation of radio frequency magnetron sputtered nickel oxide (NiO{sub x}) deposited from oxide targets as an efficient, easily scalable hole transport layer (HTL) with variable work-function, ranging from 4.8 to 5.8 eV. Differences in HTL work-function were not found to result in statistically significant changes in open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) for poly(3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) BHJ device. Ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) characterization of the NiO{sub x} film and its interface with the polymer shows Fermi level alignment of the polymer with the NiO{sub x} film. UPS of the blend also demonstrates Fermi level alignment of the organic active layer with the HTL, consistent with the lack of correlation between V{sub oc} and HTL work-function. Instead, trends in j{sub sc}, V{sub oc}, and thus overall device performance are related to the surface treatment of the HTL prior to active layer deposition through changes in active layer thickness.

  16. Effect of temperature and illumination on the electrical characteristics of polymer-fullerene bulk-heterojunction solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riedel, [No Value; Parisi, J; Dyakonov, [No Value; Lutsen, L; Vanderzande, D; Hummelen, JC; Riedel, Ingo; Dyakonov, Vladimir

    The current-voltage characteristics of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/OC1C10-PPV:PCBM/Al solar cells were measured in the temperature range 125-320 K under variable illumination, between 0.03 and 100 mW cm(-2) (white light), with the aim of determining the efficiency-limiting mechanism(s) in these devices, and the

  17. Effect of simultaneous electrical and thermal treatment on the performance of bulk heterojunction organic solar cell blended with organic salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabri, Nasehah Syamin; Yap, Chi Chin; Yahaya, Muhammad [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Salleh, Muhamad Mat [Institute of Microengineering and Nanoelectronics (IMEN), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    This work presents the influence of simultaneous electrical and thermal treatment on the performance of organic solar cell blended with organic salt. The organic solar cells were composed of indium tin oxide as anode, poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene]: (6,6)-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester: tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate blend as organic active layer and aluminium as cathode. The devices underwent a simultaneous fixed-voltage electrical and thermal treatment at different temperatures of 25, 50 and 75 °C. It was found that photovoltaic performance improved with the thermal treatment temperature. Accumulation of more organic salt ions in the active layer leads to broadening of p-n doped regions and hence higher built-in electric field across thin intrinsic layer. The simultaneous electrical and thermal treatment has been shown to be able to reduce the electrical treatment voltage.

  18. Continuous Flow Polymer Synthesis toward Reproducible Large-Scale Production for Efficient Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirotte, Geert; Kesters, Jurgen; Verstappen, Pieter; Govaerts, Sanne; Manca, Jean; Lutsen, Laurence; Vanderzande, Dirk; Maes, Wouter

    2015-10-12

    Organic photovoltaics (OPV) have attracted great interest as a solar cell technology with appealing mechanical, aesthetical, and economies-of-scale features. To drive OPV toward economic viability, low-cost, large-scale module production has to be realized in combination with increased top-quality material availability and minimal batch-to-batch variation. To this extent, continuous flow chemistry can serve as a powerful tool. In this contribution, a flow protocol is optimized for the high performance benzodithiophene-thienopyrroledione copolymer PBDTTPD and the material quality is probed through systematic solar-cell evaluation. A stepwise approach is adopted to turn the batch process into a reproducible and scalable continuous flow procedure. Solar cell devices fabricated using the obtained polymer batches deliver an average power conversion efficiency of 7.2 %. Upon incorporation of an ionic polythiophene-based cathodic interlayer, the photovoltaic performance could be enhanced to a maximum efficiency of 9.1 %. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Impact of the Nature of the Side-Chains on the Polymer-Fullerene Packing in the Mixed Regions of Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Tonghui

    2016-06-20

    Polymer-fullerene packing in mixed regions of a bulk heterojunction solar cell is expected to play a major role in exciton-dissociation, charge-separation, and charge-recombination processes. Here, molecular dynamics simulations are combined with density functional theory calculations to examine the impact of nature and location of polymer side-chains on the polymer-fullerene packing in mixed regions. The focus is on poly-benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione (PBDTTPD) as electron-donating material and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) as electron-accepting material. Three polymer side-chain patterns are considered: i) linear side-chains on both benzodithiophene (BDT) and thienopyrroledione (TPD) moieties; ii) two linear side-chains on BDT and a branched side-chain on TPD; and iii) two branched side-chains on BDT and a linear side-chain on TPD. Increasing the number of branched side-chains is found to decrease the polymer packing density and thereby to enhance PBDTTPD–PC61 BM mixing. The nature and location of side-chains are found to play a determining role in the probability of finding PC61BM molecules close to either BDT or TPD. The electronic couplings relevant for the exciton-dissociation and charge-recombination processes are also evaluated. Overall, the findings are consistent with the experimental evolution of the PBDTTPD–PC61BM solar-cell performance as a function of side-chain patterns. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

  20. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of inverted hybrid bulk-heterojunction solar cells using TiO2/reduced graphene oxide films as electron transport layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Andreia; Alves, João Paulo C.; Lima, Francisco Anderson S.; Lira-Cantu, Monica; Nogueira, Ana Flavia

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated inverted hybrid bulk-heterojunction solar cells with the following configuration: fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) |TiO2/RGO|P3HT:PC61BM|V2O5 or PEDOT:PSS|Ag. The TiO2/GO dispersions were prepared by sol-gel method, employing titanium isopropoxide and graphene oxide (GO) as starting materials. The GO concentration was varied from 0.1 to 4.0 wt%. The corresponding dispersions were spin-coated onto FTO substrates and a thermal treatment was performed to remove organic materials and to reduce GO to reduced graphene oxide (RGO). The TiO2/RGO films were characterized by x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and microscopy techniques. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images showed that the addition of RGO significantly changes the morphology of the TiO2 films, with loss of uniformity and increase in surface roughness. Independent of the use of V2O5 or PEDOT: PSS films as the hole transport layer, the incorporation of 2.0 wt% of RGO into TiO2 films was the optimal concentration for the best organic photovoltaic performance. The solar cells based on TiO2/RGO (2.0 wt%) electrode exhibited a ˜22.3% and ˜28.9% short circuit current density (Jsc) and a power conversion efficiency enhancement, respectively, if compared with the devices based on pure TiO2 films. Kelvin probe force microscopy images suggest that the incorporation of RGO into TiO2 films can promote the appearance of regions with different charge dissipation capacities.

  1. How the charge-neutrality level of interface states controls energy level alignment in cathode contacts of organic bulk-heterojunction solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Antonio; Marchesi, Luís F; Boix, Pablo P; Ruiz-Raga, Sonia; Ripolles-Sanchis, Teresa; Garcia-Belmonte, Germà; Bisquert, Juan

    2012-04-24

    Electronic equilibration at the metal-organic interface, leading to equalization of the Fermi levels, is a key process in organic optoelectronic devices. How the energy levels are set across the interface determines carrier extraction at the contact and also limits the achievable open-circuit voltage under illumination. Here, we report an extensive investigation of the cathode energy equilibration of organic bulk-heterojunction solar cells. We show that the potential to balance the mismatch between the cathode metal and the organic layer Fermi levels is divided into two contributions: spatially extended band bending in the organic bulk and voltage drop at the interface dipole layer caused by a net charge transfer. We scan the operation of the cathode under a varied set of conditions, using metals of different work functions in the range of ∼2 eV, different fullerene acceptors, and several cathode interlayers. The measurements allow us to locate the charge-neutrality level within the interface density of sates and calculate the corresponding dipole layer strength. The dipole layer withstands a large part of the total Fermi level mismatch when the polymer:fullerene blend ratio approaches ∼1:1, producing the practical alignment between the metal Fermi level and the charge-neutrality level. Origin of the interface states is linked with fullerene reduced molecules covering the metal contact. The dipole contribution, and consequently the band bending, is highly sensitive to the nature and amount of fullerene molecules forming the interface density of states. Our analysis provides a detailed picture of the evolution of the potentials in the bulk and the interface of the solar cell when forward voltage is applied or when photogeneration takes place.

  2. Correlation between LUMO offset of donor/acceptor molecules to an open circuit voltage in bulk heterojunction solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mola, Genene Tessema, E-mail: mola@ukzn.ac.za [School of. Chemistry and Physics, University of Kwazulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg Campus, Private Bag X01, Scottsville 3209 (South Africa); Abera, Newayemedhin [Addis Ababa University, Department of Physics, P.O. BOX 1176, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)

    2014-07-15

    The correlation between the open circuit voltage and the LUMO offset of the donor and acceptor polymers in the bulkheterojunction solar cell was studied for three different thiophene derivatives. The HOMO levels of all the polymers in this investigation were chosen to be similar which results in close values of ΔE{sub DA}=E{sub HOMO}{sup D}−E{sub LUMO}{sup A}. However, the measured V{sub oc} was found to be increasing with decreasing value of the LUMO offset that exists between the donor polymer and fullerene.

  3. Effect of the solvent used to prepare the photoactive layer on the performance of inverted bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, Takayuki; Kuzuba, Mitsuhiro; Emoto, Natsumi; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Taima, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Kohshin

    2014-02-01

    The initial performance and subsequent degradation of inverted polymer solar cells [indium-tin oxide/titanium oxide (TiOx)/[6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM): regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxylenethiophene):poly(4-styrene sulfonic acid)/Au, TiOx cell] are studied by photocurrent-voltage measurements as well as ac impedance spectroscopy (IS) and carrier mobility measurements. The TiOx cells containing a P3HT:PCBM layer prepared from a solution of chlorobenzene (CB) showed a maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 2.23%. In contrast, the TiOx cells containing a P3HT:PCBM layer prepared from a solution of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (tetralin) containing 2 vol % 1,8-octanedithiol (ODT) exhibited a maximum PCE of 2.92%. However, after exposure to light irradiation for 100 h, the maximum PCE of the tetralin:ODT cell decreased to 68% of its initial value. On the other hand, over 96% of the maximum PCE was maintained in the CB cell after 100 h of irradiation. The IS measurement results suggest that the degradation of the Tetralin:ODT cell was caused by a morphological change of the P3HT:PCBM layer that made efficient photoinduced charge separation difficult.

  4. Understanding the Thickness-Dependent Performance of Organic Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells: The Influence of Mobility, Lifetime, and Space Charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchartz, Thomas; Agostinelli, Tiziano; Campoy-Quiles, Mariano; Gong, Wei; Nelson, Jenny

    2012-12-06

    We investigate the reasons for the dependence of photovoltaic performance on the absorber thickness of organic solar cells using experiments and drift-diffusion simulations. The main trend in photocurrent and fill factor versus thickness is determined by mobility and lifetime of the charge carriers. In addition, space charge becomes more and more important the thicker the device is because it creates field free regions with low collection efficiency. The two main sources of space-charge effects are doping and asymmetric mobilities. We show that for our experimental results on Si-PCPDTBT:PC71BM (poly[(4,40-bis(2-ethylhexyl)dithieno[3,2-b:20,30-d]silole)-2,6-diyl-alt-(4,7-bis(2-thienyl)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)-5,50-diyl]:[6,6]-phenyl C71-butyric acid methyl ester) solar cells, the influence of doping is most likely the dominant influence on the space charge and has an important effect on the thickness dependence of performance.

  5. A novel fabrication of MEH-PPV/Al:ZnO nanorod arrays based ordered bulk heterojunction hybrid solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malek, M.F., E-mail: firz_solarzelle@yahoo.com [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Sahdan, M.Z.; Mamat, M.H.; Musa, M.Z. [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Khusaimi, Z.; Husairi, S.S. [NANO-SciTech Centre (NST), Institute of Science (IOS), Universiti Teknologi MARA -UiTM, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Md Sin, N.D. [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Rusop, M. [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); NANO-SciTech Centre (NST), Institute of Science (IOS), Universiti Teknologi MARA - UiTM, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-06-15

    Vertically aligned Al:ZnO nanorod arrays has been used as window layer in the fabrication of ordered bulk heterojuction hybrid solar cells. The utilization of the nanorod arrays will enhance the electron transport in vertical direction and also for light harvesting applications for high performance devices. The performance of this hybrid polymer/metal oxide photovoltaic devices based on MEH-PPV [poly(2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene)] and oriented Al:ZnO nanorod arrays is studied. The Al:ZnO nanorod arrays with a diameter of about 70–80 nm and thickness of approximately 500 nm were successfully grown on Al:ZnO-coated ITO substrate by sonicated sol–gel immersion technique. The photovoltaic performance of a short-circuit current density of 5.320 mA/cm{sup 2}, an open-circuit voltage of 195 mV and a fill factor of 27.71%, with a power conversion efficiency of about 0.287% under AM 1.5 illumination (100 mW/cm{sup 2}). To the best of our knowledge, preparation of aligned Al:ZnO nanorod arrays for this type of solar cell fabrication has not been reported by any research group.

  6. Sensitivity of the Drift-Diffusion Approach in Estimating the Power Conversion Efficiency of Bulk Heterojunction Polymer Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Fallahpour

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous theoretical approaches to estimating the power conversion efficiency (PCE of organic solar cells (OSCs, ranging from the empirical approach to calculations based on general considerations of thermodynamics. Depending on the level of abstraction and model assumptions, the accuracy of PCE estimation and complexity of the calculation can change dramatically. In particular, PCE estimation with a drift-diffusion approach (widely investigated in the literature, strongly depends on the assumptions made for the physical models and optoelectrical properties of semiconducting materials. This has led to a huge deviation as well as complications in the analysis of simulated results aiming to understand the factors limiting the performance of OSCs. In this work, we intend to highlight the complex relation between mobility, exciton dynamics, nanoscale dimension, and loss mechanisms in one framework. Our systematic analysis represents key information on the sensitivity of the drift-diffusion approach, to estimate how physical parameters and physical processes bind the PCE of the device under the influence of structure, contact, and material layer properties. The obtained results ultimately led to recommendations for putting effort into certain properties to get the most out of avoidable losses, presented the impact and importance of modification of material properties, and in particular, recommended to what degree the design of new material could improve OSC performance.

  7. Nature of the Binding Interactions between Conjugated Polymer Chains and Fullerenes in Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ravva, Mahesh Kumar

    2016-10-24

    Blends of π-conjugated polymers and fullerene derivatives are ubiquitous as the active layers of organic solar cells. However, a detailed understanding of the weak noncovalent interactions at the molecular level between the polymer chains and fullerenes is still lacking and could help in the design of more efficient photoactive layers. Here, using a combination of long-range corrected density functional theory calculations and molecular dynamic simulations, we report a thorough characterization of the nature of binding between fullerenes (C60 and PC61BM) and poly(benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene–thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione) (PBDTTPD) chains. We illustrate the variations in binding strength when the fullerenes dock on the electron-rich vs electron-poor units of the polymer as well as the importance of the role played by the polymer and fullerene side chains and the orientations of the PC61BM molecules with respect to the polymer backbones.

  8. The dependence of the cathode architecture on the photoactive layer morphology in bulk-heterojunction polymeric solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Dashan; Wang, Wenbo; Wang, Mingxia; Jin, Song; Zhang, Jidong

    2014-12-01

    Poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) have been chosen to prepare binary and ternary blend thin films. In the case of the binary blend thin films of P3HT:PCBM used as the photoactive layers, the LiF/Al cathode offered nearly the same power conversion efficiency (PCE) as bathocuproine (BCP) 2 nm Al-1 and BCP 10 nm Al-1 cathodes. While ternary blend thin films of P3HT:PCBM:PMMA were applied as the photoactive layers, the BCP 2 nm Al-1 cathode showed an increase of roughly 42% in the PCE relative to ternary blend thin film with LiF/Al and BCP 10 nm Al-1 cathodes. The vertical phase separation of P3HT and PCBM was found to be more suppressed in the ternary blend films than in the binary ones, due to the confinement of PMMA. The P3HT:PCBM:PMMA with the BCP 2 nm Al-1 cathode showed an increase of 20% in the PCE as compared to the binary thin film of P3HT:PCBM with the LiF/Al cathode. We provide some insights into the correlation between the morphology control of active layer and cathode structure, useful for the development of polymeric solar cells towards the commercialization.

  9. Enhanced Power-Conversion Efficiency in Inverted Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells using Liquid-Crystal-Conjugated Polyelectrolyte Interlayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Tan, Yun; Li, Chunquan; Wu, Feiyan; Chen, Lie; Chen, Yiwang

    2015-09-02

    Two novel liquid-crystal-conjugated polyelectrolytes (LCCPEs) poly[9,9-bis[6-(4-cyanobiphenyloxy)-hexyl]-fluorene-alt-9,9-bis(6-(N,N-diethylamino)-hexyl)-fluorene] (PF6Ncbp) and poly[9,9-bis[6-(4-cyanobiphenyloxy)-hexyl]-fluorene-alt-9,9-bis(6-(N-methylimidazole)-hexyl]-fluorene] (PF6lmicbp) are obtained by covalent linkage of the cyanobiphenyl mesogen polar groups onto conjugated polyelectrolytes. After deposition a layer of LCCPEs on ZnO interlayer, the spontaneous orientation of liquid-crystal groups can induce a rearrangement of dipole moments at the interface, subsequently leading to the better energy-level alignment. Moreover, LCCPEs favors intimate interfacial contact between ZnO and the photon harvesting layer and induce active layer to form the nanofibers morphology for the enhancement of charge extraction, transportation and collection. The water/alcohol solubility of the LCCPEs also enables them to be environment-accepted solvent processability. On the basis of these advantages, the poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):[6,6]-phenyl-C60-butyric acid methyl ester (PC60BM)-based inverted polymer solar cells (PSCs) combined with ZnO/PF6Ncbp and ZnO/PF6lmicbp bilayers boost the power conversion efficiency (PCE) to 3.9% and 4.2%, respectively. Incorporation of the ZnO/PF6lmicbp into the devices based on a blend of a narrow band gap polymer thieno[3,4-b]thiophene/benzodithiophene (PTB7) with [6,6]-phenyl C70-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) affords a notable efficiency of 7.6%.

  10. The Impact of Grain Alignment of the Electron Transporting Layer on the Performance of Inverted Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Banavoth, Murali

    2015-08-13

    This report presents a new strategy for improving solar cell power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) through grain alignment and morphology control of the ZnO electron transport layer (ETL) prepared by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The systematic control over the ETL\\'s grain alignment and thickness is shown, by varying the deposition pressure and operating substrate temperature during the deposition. Notably, a high PCE of 6.9%, short circuit current density (Jsc) of 12.8 mA cm-2, open circuit voltage (Voc) of 910 mV, and fill factor of 59% are demonstrated using the poly(benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b\\']dithiophene-thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione):[6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester polymer blend with ETLs prepared at room temperature exhibiting oriented and aligned rod-like ZnO grains. Increasing the deposition temperature during the ZnO sputtering induces morphological cleavage of the rod-like ZnO grains and therefore reduced conductivity from 7.2 × 10-13 to ≈1.7 × 10-14 S m-1 and PCE from 6.9% to 4.28%. An investigation of the charge carrier dynamics by femtosecond (fs) transient absorption spectroscopy with broadband capability reveals clear evidence of faster carrier recombination for a ZnO layer deposited at higher temperature, which is consistent with the conductivity and device performance. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Solution-processable low-molecular weight extended arylacetylenes: versatile p-type semiconductors for field-effect transistors and bulk heterojunction solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Fabio; Marrocchi, Assunta; Seri, Mirko; Kim, Choongik; Marks, Tobin J; Facchetti, Antonio; Taticchi, Aldo

    2010-05-05

    We report the synthesis and characterization of a series of five extended arylacetylenes, 9,10-bis-{[m,p-bis(hexyloxy)phenyl]ethynyl}-anthracene (A-P6t, 1), 9,10-bis-[(p-{[m,p-bis(hexyloxy) phenyl]ethynyl}phenyl)ethynyl]-anthracene (PA-P6t, 2), 4,7-bis-{[m,p-bis(hexyloxy)phenyl]ethynyl}-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (BTZ-P6t, 5), 4,7-bis(5-{[m,p-bis(hexyloxy)phenyl]ethynyl}thien-2-yl)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (TBTZ-P6t, 6), and 7,7'-({[m,p-bis(hexyloxy)phenyl]ethynyl}-2,1,3-benzothiadiazol-4,4'-ethynyl)-2,5-thiophene (BTZT-P6t, 7), and two arylvinylenes, 9,10-bis-{(E)-[m,p-bis(hexyloxy)phenyl]vinyl}-anthracene (A-P6d, 3), 9,10-bis-[(E)-(p-{(E)-[m,p-bis(hexyloxy)phenyl]vinyl}phenyl)vinyl]-anthracene (PA-P6d, 4). Trends in optical absorption spectra and electrochemical redox processes are first described. Next, the thin-film microstructures and morphologies of films deposited from solution under various conditions are investigated, and organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) and bulk heterojunction photovoltaic (OPV) cells fabricated. We find that substituting acetylenic for olefinic linkers on the molecular cores significantly enhances device performance. OFET measurements reveal that all seven of the semiconductors are FET-active and, depending on the backbone architecture, the arylacetylenes exhibit good p-type mobilities (mu up to approximately 0.1 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)) when optimum film microstructural order is achieved. OPV cells using [6,6]-phenyl C(61)-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) as the electron acceptor exhibit power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) up to 1.3% under a simulated AM 1.5 solar irradiation of 100 mW/cm(2). These results demonstrate that arylacetylenes are promising hole-transport materials for p-channel OFETs and promising donors for organic solar cells applications. A direct correlation between OFET arylacetylene hole mobility and OPV performance is identified and analyzed.

  12. Effect of ligand exchange of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} nanocrystals on the charge transport and photovoltaic performance of nanostructured depleted bulk heterojunction solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhuo-Xi; Zhou, Zheng-Ji, E-mail: zzj@henu.edu.cn; Bai, Bing; Liu, Ming-Hua; Zhou, Wen-Hui; Kou, Dong-Xing; Wu, Si-Xin, E-mail: wusixin@henu.edu.cn [Henan University, Key Laboratory for Special Functional Materials of Ministry of Education (China)

    2015-12-15

    Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) nanocrystals combining the advantage of feasible solution-phase synthesis and processing are perceived as promising materials for application in efficient, low-cost photovoltaic technology. Herein, we have got surfactant-free CZTS nanocrystals by a novel ligand exchange method, and the obtained CZTS nanocrystals were deposited onto ZnO nanorod arrays to construct depleted bulk heterojunction solar cell. The all-inorganic CZTS nanocrystal solar cells demonstrated a remarkable improvement in J{sub sc} (from 8.14 to 13.97 mA/cm{sup 2}) and power conversion efficiency (from 1.83 to 3.34 %) compared with surfactant-capped CZTS nanocrystals. Using surface photovoltage spectrum, the influence of ligand exchange of CZTS nanocrystals on the charge transport and photovoltaic performance of the nanostructured CZTS solar cells was discussed.

  13. Interfacial Energy Alignment at the ITO/Ultra-Thin Electron Selective Dielectric Layer Interface and Its Effect on the Efficiency of Bulk-Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Eiji; Goto, Yoshinori; Saka, Yusuke; Fukuda, Katsutoshi

    2016-04-01

    We have investigated the photovoltaic properties of an inverted bulk heterojunction (BHJ) cell in a device with an indium-tin-oxide (ITO)/electron selective layer (ESL)/P3HT:PCBM active layer/MoOx/Ag multilayered structure. The insertion of only single layer of poly(diallyl-dimethyl-ammonium chloride) (PDDA) cationic polymer film (or poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) polymeric interfacial dipole layer) and titanium oxide nanosheet (TN) films as an ESL effectively improved cell performance. Abnormal S-shaped curves were observed in the inverted BHJ cells owing to the contact resistance across the ITO/active layer interface and the ITO/PDDA/TN/active layer interface. The series resistance across the ITO/ESL interface in the inverted BHJ cell was successfully reduced using an interfacial layer with a positively charged surface potential with respect to ITO base electrode. The positive dipole in PEI and the electronic charge phenomena at the electrophoretic deposited TN (ED-TN) films on ITO contributed to the reduction of the contact resistance at the electrode interface. The surface potential measurement revealed that the energy alignment by the transfer of electronic charges from the ED-TN to the base electrodes. The insertion of the ESL with a large positive surface potential reduced the potential barrier for the electron injection at ITO/TN interface and it improved the photovoltaic properties of the inverted cell with an ITO/TN/active layer/MoOx/Ag structure.

  14. Unsymmetrical donor–acceptor–donor–acceptor type indoline based organic semiconductors with benzothiadiazole cores for solution-processed bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqin Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Bulk heterojunction (BHJ solar cells based on small molecules have attracted potential attention due to their promise of conveniently defined structures, high absorption coefficients, solution process-ability and easy fabrication. Three D–A–D–A type organic semiconductors (WS-31, WS-32 and WS-52 are synthesized, based on the indoline donor and benzotriazole auxiliary acceptor core, along with either bare thiophene or rigid cyclopentadithiophene as π bridge, rhodanine or carbonocyanidate as end-group. Their HOMO orbitals are delocalized throughout the whole molecules. Whereas the LUMOs are mainly localized on the acceptor part of structure, which reach up to benzothiadiazole, but no distribution on indoline donor. The first excitations for WS-31 and WS-32 are mainly originated by electron transition from HOMO to LUMO level, while for WS-52, partly related to transition between HOMO and LUMO+1 level. The small organic molecules are applied as donor components in bulk heterojunction (BHJ organic solar cells, using PC61BM as acceptor material to check their photovoltaic performances. The BHJ solar cells based on blended layer of WS-31:PC61BM and WS-32:PC61BM processed with chloroform show overall photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE of 0.56% and 1.02%, respectively. WS-32 based BHJ solar cells show a higher current density originated by its relatively larger driving force of photo-induced carrier in photo-active layer to LUMO of PC61BM. Keywords: Indoline donor, Unsymmetrical organic semiconductors, BHJ solar cells, Photovoltaic performances

  15. Efficient bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells using small-molecular-weight organic thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peumans, Peter; Uchida, Soichi; Forrest, Stephen R

    2003-09-11

    The power conversion efficiency of small-molecular-weight and polymer organic photovoltaic cells has increased steadily over the past decade. This progress is chiefly attributable to the introduction of the donor-acceptor heterojunction that functions as a dissociation site for the strongly bound photogenerated excitons. Further progress was realized in polymer devices through use of blends of the donor and acceptor materials: phase separation during spin-coating leads to a bulk heterojunction that removes the exciton diffusion bottleneck by creating an interpenetrating network of the donor and acceptor materials. The realization of bulk heterojunctions using mixtures of vacuum-deposited small-molecular-weight materials has, on the other hand, posed elusive: phase separation induced by elevating the substrate temperature inevitably leads to a significant roughening of the film surface and to short-circuited devices. Here, we demonstrate that the use of a metal cap to confine the organic materials during annealing prevents the formation of a rough surface morphology while allowing for the formation of an interpenetrating donor-acceptor network. This method results in a power conversion efficiency 50 per cent higher than the best values reported for comparable bilayer devices, suggesting that this strained annealing process could allow for the formation of low-cost and high-efficiency thin film organic solar cells based on vacuum-deposited small-molecular-weight organic materials.

  16. Efficient bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells using small-molecular-weight organic thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peumans, Peter; Uchida, Soichi; Forrest, Stephen R. [Princeton Univ., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Princeton, NJ (United States); Princeton Univ., Princeton Materials Inst., Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2003-09-11

    The power conversion efficiency of small-molecular-weight and polymer organic photovoltaic cells has increased steadily over the past decade. This progress is chiefly attributable to the introduction of the donor-acceptor heterojunction that functions as a dissociation site for the strongly bound photogenerated excitons. Further progress was realized in polymer devices through use of blends of the donor and acceptor materials: phase separation during spin-coating leads to a bulk heterojunction that removes the exciton diffusion bottleneck by creating an interpenetrating network of the donor and acceptor materials. The realization of bulk heterojunctions using mixtures of vacuum-deposited small-molecular-weight materials has, on the other hand, posed elusive: phase separation induced by elevating the substrate temperature inevitably leads to a significant roughening of the film surface and to short-circuited devices. Here, we demonstrate that the use of a metal cap to confine the organic materials during annealing prevents the formation of a rough surface morphology while allowing for the formation of an interpenetrating donor-acceptor network. This method results in a power conversion efficiency 50 per cent higher than the best values reported for comparable bilayer devices, suggesting that this strained annealing process could allow for the formation of low-cost and high-efficiency thin film organic solar cells based on vacuum-deposited small-molecular-weight organic materials. (Author)

  17. Use of a commercially available nucleating agent to control the morphological development of solution-processed small molecule bulk heterojunction organic solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Sharenko, Alexander

    2014-08-12

    © the Partner Organisations 2014. The nucleating agent DMDBS is used to modulate the crystallization of solution-processed small molecule donor molecules in bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic (BHJ OPV) devices. This control over donor molecule crystallization leads to a reduction in optimized thermal annealing times as well as smaller donor molecule crystallites, and therefore more efficient devices, when using an excessive amount of solvent additive. We therefore demonstrate the use of nucleating agents as a powerful and versatile processing strategy for solution-processed, small molecule BHJ OPVs. This journal is

  18. Luminescent GdVO{sub 4}:Sm{sup 3+} quantum dots enhance power conversion efficiency of bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells by Förster resonance energy transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishnoi, Swati [CSIR-Network of Institutes for Solar Energy, New Delhi 110001 (India); Luminescent Materials and Devices Group, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Gupta, Vinay, E-mail: drvinaygupta@netscape.net; Sharma, Gauri D.; Chand, Suresh [CSIR-Network of Institutes for Solar Energy, New Delhi 110001 (India); Organic and Hybrid Solar Cells Group, Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012 (India); Sharma, Chhavi; Kumar, Mahesh [Ultrafast Optoelectronics and Terahertz Photonics Lab, Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012 (India); Haranath, D. [CSIR-Network of Institutes for Solar Energy, New Delhi 110001 (India); Luminescent Materials and Devices Group, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012 (India); Naqvi, Sheerin [Luminescent Materials and Devices Group, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012 (India)

    2016-07-11

    In this work, we report enhanced power conversion efficiency (PCE) of bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) from samarium-doped luminescent gadolinium orthovanadate (GdVO{sub 4}:Sm{sup 3+}) quantum dots (QDs) to polythieno[3,4-b]-thiophene-co-benzodithiophene (PTB7) polymer. The photoluminescence emission spectrum of GdVO{sub 4}:Sm{sup 3+} QDs overlaps with the absorption spectrum of PTB7, leading to FRET from GdVO{sub 4}:Sm{sup 3+} to PTB7, and significant enhancements in the charge-carrier density of excited and polaronic states of PTB7 are observed. This was confirmed by means of femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. The FRET from GdVO{sub 4}:Sm{sup 3+} QDs to PTB7 led to a remarkable increase in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of PTB7:GdVO{sub 4}:Sm{sup 3+}:PC{sub 71}BM ([6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 71}-butyric acid methyl ester) polymer solar cells. The PCE in optimized ternary blend PTB7:GdVO{sub 4}:Sm{sup 3+}:PC{sub 71}BM (1:0.1:1.5) is increased to 8.8% from 7.2% in PTB7:PC{sub 71}BM. This work demonstrates the potential of rare-earth based luminescent QDs in enhancing the PCE of polymer solar cells.

  19. Synthesis of a modified PC{sub 70}BM and its application as an electron acceptor with poly(3-hexylthiophene) as an electron donor for efficient bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Surya Prakash; Kumar, C. Pavan [Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Tarnaka, Hyderabad (India); Sharma, G.D. [R and D Centre for Engineering and Science, Jaipur Engineering College, Kukas, Jaipur, Rajasthan (India); Kurchania, Rajnish [Department of Physics, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology (MANIT), Bhopal (India); Roy, M.S. [Defence Laboratory, Jodhpur (Rajasthan) (India)

    2012-10-10

    A simple and effective modification of phenyl-C{sub 70}-butyric acid methyl ester (PC{sub 70}BM) is carried out in a single step after which the material is used as electron acceptor for bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells (PSCs). The modified PC{sub 70}BM, namely CN-PC{sub 70}BM, showed broader and stronger absorption in the visible region (350-550 nm) of the solar spectrum than PC{sub 70}BM because of the presence of a cyanovinylene 4-nitrophenyl segment. The lowest unoccupied molecular energy level (LUMO) of CN-PC{sub 70}BM is higher than that of PC{sub 70}BM by 0.15 eV. The PSC based on the blend (cast from tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution) consists of P3HT as the electron donor and CN-PC{sub 70}BM as the electron acceptor and shows a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4.88%, which is higher than that of devices based on PC{sub 70}BM as the electron acceptor (3.23%). The higher PCE of the solar cell based on P3HT:CN-PC{sub 70}BM is related to the increase in both the short circuit current (J{sub sc}) and the open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}). The increase in J{sub sc} is related to the stronger light absorption of CN-PC{sub 70}BM in the visible region of the solar spectrum as compared to that of PC{sub 70}BM. In other words, more excitons are generated in the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) active layer. On the other hand, the higher difference between the LUMO of CN-PC{sub 70}BM and the HOMO of P3HT causes an enhancement in the V{sub oc}. The addition of 2% (v/v) 1-chloronapthalene (CN) to the THF solvent during film deposition results in an overall improvement of the PCE up to 5.83%. This improvement in PCE can be attributed to the enhanced crystallinity of the blend (particularly of P3HT) and more balanced charge transport in the device. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Cohesion and device reliability in organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells

    KAUST Repository

    Brand, Vitali

    2012-04-01

    The fracture resistance of P3HT:PC 60BM-based photovoltaic devices are characterized using quantitative adhesion and cohesion metrologies that allow identification of the weakest layer or interface in the device structure. We demonstrate that the phase separated bulk heterojunction layer is the weakest layer and report quantitative cohesion values which ranged from ∼1 to 20 J m -2. The effects of layer thickness, composition, and annealing treatments on layer cohesion are investigated. Using depth profiling and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy on the resulting fracture surfaces, we examine the gradient of molecular components through the thickness of the bulk heterojunction layer. Finally, using atomic force microscopy we show how the topography of the failure path is related to buckling of the metal electrode and how it develops with annealing. The research provides new insights on how the molecular design, structure and composition affect the cohesive properties of organic photovoltaics. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Reduction of Charge-Carrier Recombination at ZnO-Polymer Blend Interfaces in PTB7-Based Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells Using Regular Device Structure: Impact of ZnO Nanoparticle Size and Surfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Dkhil, Sadok; Gaceur, Meriem; Diallo, Abdou Karim; Didane, Yahia; Liu, Xianjie; Fahlman, Mats; Margeat, Olivier; Ackermann, Jörg; Videlot-Ackermann, Christine

    2017-05-24

    Cathode interfacial layers, also called electron extraction layers (EELs), based on zinc oxide (ZnO) have been studied in polymer-blend solar cells toward optimization of the opto-electric properties. Bulk heterojunction solar cells based on poly({4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl}{3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl}) (PTB7) and [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC70BM) were realized in regular structure with all-solution-processed interlayers. A pair of commercially available surfactants, ethanolamine (EA) and ethylene glycol (EG), were used to modify the surface of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) in alcohol-based dispersion. The influence of ZnO particle size was also studied by preparing dispersions of two NP diameters (6 versus 11 nm). Here, we show that performance improvement can be obtained in polymer solar cells via the use of solution-processed ZnO EELs based on surface-modified nanoparticles. By the optimizing of the ZnO dispersion, surfactant ratio, and the resulting morphology of EELs, PTB7/PC70BM solar cells with a power-conversion efficiency of 8.2% could be obtained using small sized EG-modified ZnO NPs that allow the clear enhancement of the performance of solution-processed photovoltaic devices compared to state-of-the-art ZnO-based cathode layers.

  2. The use of nanofibers of P3HT in bulk heterojunction solar cells: the effect of order and morphology on the performance of P3HT:PCBM blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderzande, Dirk J. M.; Oosterbaan, Wibren D.; Vrindts, Veerle; Bertho, Sabine; Bolsée, Jean Christophe; Gadisa, Abay; Vandewal, Koen; Manca, Jean; Lutsen, Laurence; Cleij, Thomas J.; D'Haen, Jan; Zhao, Jun; Van Assche, Guy; Van Mele, Bruno

    2009-08-01

    Poly-3-AlkylThiophenes (P3ATs) with an n-alkyl chain length varying from C3 till C9 were synthesized by using the Rieke method. Subsequently, these materials were used to make P3AT/PCBM blends which were investigated in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. The phase diagram of a P3H(exyl)T:PCBM blend was measured by means of standard and modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and MTDSC). A single glass transition is observed for all compositions. The glass transition temperature (Tg) increases with increasing PCBM concentration: from 12 °C for pure P3HT to 131 °C for pure PCBM. The observed range of Tg's defines the operating window for thermal annealing and explains the long-term instability of both morphology and photovoltaic performance of P3HT:PCBM solar cells. All regioregular P3ATs allow for efficient fiber formation in several solvents. The fibers formed are typically 15 to 25 nm wide and 0.5 to >4 μm long and mainly crystalline. By means of temperature control the fiber content in the casting solution for P3AT:PCBM BHJ solar cells is controlled while keeping the overall molecular weight of the polymer in the blend constant. In this way, fiber isolation and the use of solvent mixtures are avoided and with P3HT nanofibers, a power conversion efficiency of 3.2 % was achieved. P3AT:PCBM BHJ solar cells were also prepared from P3B(utyl)T, P3P(entyl)T and P3HT using the good solvent o-dichlorobenzene and a combination of slow drying and thermal annealing. In this way, power conversion efficiencies of 3.2, 4.3, and 4.6 % were obtained, respectively. P3PT is proved to be a potentially competitive material compared to P3HT.

  3. Remarkably High Conversion Efficiency of Inverted Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells: From Ultrafast Laser Spectroscopy and Electron Microscopy to Device Fabrication and Optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Alsulami, Qana

    2016-04-10

    In organic donor-acceptor systems, ultrafast interfacial charge transfer (CT), charge separation (CS), and charge recombination (CR) are key determinants of the overall performance of photovoltaic devices. However, a profound understanding of these photophysical processes at device interfaces remains superficial, creating a major bottleneck that circumvents advancements and the optimization of these solar cells. Here, results from time-resolved laser spectroscopy and high-resolution electron microscopy are examined to provide the fundamental information necessary to fabricate and optimize organic solar cell devices. In real time, CT and CS are monitored at the interface between three fullerene acceptors (FAs) (PC71BM, PC61BM, and IC60BA) and the PTB7-Th donor polymer. Femtosecond transient absorption (fs-TA) data demonstrates that photoinduced electron transfer from the PTB7-Th polymer to each FA occurs on the sub-picosecond time scale, leading to the formation of long-lived radical ions. It is also found that the power conversion efficiency improves from 2% in IC60BA-based solar cells to >9% in PC71BM-based devices, in support of our time-resolved results. The insights reported in this manuscript provide a clear understanding of the key variables involved at the device interface, paving the way for the exploitation of efficient CS and subsequently improving the photoconversion efficiency. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b’]dithiophene-Pyrido[3,4-b]pyrazine Small-Molecule Donors for Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Wolf, Jannic Sebastian

    2016-01-22

    We report on the synthesis, material properties and BHJ solar cell characteristics of a set of π-conjugated small-molecule (SM) donors composed of benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene (BDT) and pyrido[3,4-b]pyrazine (PP) units – examining the perspectives of alkyl-substituted PP acceptor motifs in SM designs. In these systems (SM1-4), both the type of side chains derived from the PP motifs and the presence of ring-substituents on BDT critically impact (i) molecular packing, and (ii) thin-film morphologies and charge transport in BHJ solar cells. With the appropriate side-chain pattern, the ring-substituted analogue SM4 stands out: achieving efficiencies of ca. 6.5% with PC71BM, and fine-scale morphologies comparable to those obtained with some of the best-performing polymer donors in BHJ solar cells. 1H-1H DQ-SQ NMR analyses are used to examine the distinct self-assembly pattern of SM4, expected to factor into the development of the BHJ morphology.

  5. Efficiency Enhancement in Bulk Heterojunction Polymer Photovoltaic Cells Using ZrTiO4/Bi2O3 Metal-Oxide Nanocomposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Jabbar, Mohammed Hussain; Neppolian, B.; Shim, Hee-Sang

    2010-01-01

    We report the effect of metal-oxide nanocomposites on the performance of bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells. A photoactive layer composed of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) was blended with a newly developed ZrTiO4/Bi2O3 (BITZ) metal-oxide ...

  6. Novel indolin-2-one-substituted methanofullerenes bearing long n-alkyl chains: synthesis and application in bulk-heterojunction solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina P. Romanova

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available An easy, high-yield and atom-economic procedure of a C60 fullerene modification using a reaction of fullerene C60 with N-alkylisatins in the presence of tris(diethylaminophosphine to form novel long-chain alkylindolinone-substituted methanofullerenes (AIMs is described. Optical absorption, electrochemical properties and solubility of AIMs were studied. Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl (P3HT/AIMs solar cells were fabricated and the effect of the AIM alkyl chain length and the P3HT:AIM ratio on the solar cell performance was studied. The power conversion efficiencies of about 2% were measured in the P3HT/AIM devices with 1:0.4 P3HT:AIM weight ratio for the AIMs with hexadecyl and dodecyl substituents. From the optical and AFM data, we suggested that the AIMs, in contrast to [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM, do not disturb the P3HT crystalline domains. Moreover, the more soluble AIMs do not show a better miscibility with the P3HT crystalline phase.

  7. Improving open circuit potential in hybrid P3HT:CdSe bulk heterojunction solar cells via colloidal tert-butylthiol ligand exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaney, Matthew J; Das, Saptaparna; Webber, David H; Bradforth, Stephen E; Brutchey, Richard L

    2012-05-22

    Organic ligands have the potential to contribute to the reduction potential, or lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy, of semiconductor nanocrystals. Rationally introducing small, strongly binding, electron-donating ligands should enable improvement in the open circuit potential of hybrid organic/inorganic solar cells by raising the LUMO energy level of the nanocrystal acceptor phase and thereby increasing the energy offset from the polymer highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO). Hybrid organic/inorganic solar cells fabricated from blends of tert-butylthiol-treated CdSe nanocrystals and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) achieved power conversion efficiencies of 1.9%. Compared to devices made from pyridine-treated and nonligand exchanged CdSe, the thiol-treated CdSe nanocrystals are found to consistently exhibit the highest open circuit potentials with V(OC) = 0.80 V. Electrochemical determination of LUMO levels using cyclic voltammetry and spectroelectrochemistry suggest that the thiol-treated CdSe nanocrystals possess the highest lying LUMO of the three, which translates to the highest open circuit potential. Steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence quenching experiments on P3HT:CdSe films provide insight into how the thiol-treated CdSe nanocrystals also achieve greater current densities in devices relative to pyridine-treated nanocrystals, which are thought to contain a higher density of surface traps.

  8. Recombination dynamics as a key determinant of open circuit voltage in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells: a comparison of four different donor polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurano, Andrea; Hamilton, Rick; Shuttle, Chris G.; O' Regan, Brian; Zhang, Weimin; McCulloch, Iain; Durrant, James R. [Departments of Chemistry, Imperial College London, South Kensington SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Ballantyne, Amy M.; Nelson, Jenny [Departments of Physics, Imperial College London, South Kensington SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Azimi, Hamed [Konarka Austria, Altenbergerstrasse 69, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Surface Optics, Johannes Kepler University, Linz (Austria); Morana, Mauro; Brabec, Christoph J. [Konarka Austria, Altenbergerstrasse 69, A-4040 Linz (Austria)

    2010-11-24

    Transient photovoltage and charge extraction analyses are employed to analyzes charge carrier densities and bimolecular recombination dynamics in organic polymer: fullerene solar cells under open circuit operating conditions, employing four different donor polymers. An equation is derived which allows us to calculate the device V{sub OC} from these kinetic measurements. This equation allows us to calculate voltage output of devices within {+-} 25 meV of directly measured values. This analysis thus allows us to relate device open circuit voltage directly to the kinetics of bimolecular recombination, and thereby the influence of nanomorphology upon device voltage output. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Analytical and numerical analysis of charge carriers extracted by linearly increasing voltage in a metal-insulator-semiconductor structure relevant to bulk heterojunction organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumnam, Nivedita; Hirwa, Hippolyte; Wagner, Veit

    2017-12-01

    Analysis of charge extraction by linearly increasing voltage is conducted on metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitors in a structure relevant to organic solar cells. For this analysis, an analytical model is developed and is used to determine the conductivity of the active layer. Numerical simulations of the transient current were performed as a way to confirm the applicability of our analytical model and other analytical models existing in the literature. Our analysis is applied to poly(3-hexylthiophene)(P3HT) : phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) which allows to determine the electron and hole mobility independently. A combination of experimental data analysis and numerical simulations reveals the effect of trap states on the transient current and where this contribution is crucial for data analysis.

  10. Efficient Bulk Heterojunction CH3NH3PbI3-TiO2 Solar Cells with TiO2 Nanoparticles at Grain Boundaries of Perovskite by Multi-Cycle-Coating Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jun; Yang, Songwang; Liu, Yan

    2017-05-17

    A novel bulk heterojunction (BHJ) perovskite solar cell (PSC), where the perovskite grains act as donor and the TiO2 nanoparticles act as acceptor, is reported. This efficient BHJ PSC was simply solution processed from a mixed precursor of CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3) and TiO2 nanoparticles. With dissolution and recrystallization by multi-cycle-coating, a unique composite structure ranging from a MAPbI3-TiO2-dominated layer on the substrate side to a pure perovskite layer on the top side is formed, which is beneficial for the blocking of possible contact between TiO2 and the hole transport material at the interface. Scanning electron microscopy clearly shows that TiO2 nanoparticles accumulate along the grain boundaries (GBs) of perovskite. The TiO2 nanoparticles at the GBs quickly extract and reserve photogenerated electrons before they transport into the perovskite phase, as described in the multitrapping model, retarding the electron-hole recombination and reducing the energy loss, resulting in increased VOC and fill factor. Moreover, the pinning effect of the TiO2 nanoparticles at the GBs from the strong bindings between TiO2 and MAPbI3 suppresses massive ion migration along the GBs, leading to improved operational stability and diminished hysteresis. Photoluminescence (PL) quenching and PL decay confirm the efficient exciton dissociation on the heterointerface. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and open-circuit photovoltage decay measurements show the reduced recombination loss and improved carrier lifetime of the BHJ PSCs. This novel strategy of device design effectively combines the benefits of both planar and mesostructured architectures whilst avoiding their shortcomings, eventually leading to a high PCE of 17.42% under 1 Sun illumination. The newly proposed approach also provides a new way to fabricate a TiO2-containing perovskite active layer at a low temperature.

  11. Optimalization activity of ZnO NR/TiO2 NR-P3HT as an active layer based on hybrid bulk heterojunction on dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saputri, Liya Nikmatul Maula Zulfa; Ramelan, Ari Handono; Hanif, Qonita Awliya; Hasanah, Yesi Ihdina Fityatal; Prajanira, Lau Bekti; Wahyuningsih, Sayekti, E-mail: sayektiw@mipa.uns.ac.id [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Sebelas Maret University, Ir.Sutami 36A Kentingan Surakarta 57/26, Central Java (Indonesia)

    2016-04-19

    Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) with metal inorganic and conjugated organic polymer mixture, ZnO NR/TiO{sub 2} NR-P3HT as an active layer based on hybrid bulk heterojunction has been studied. The hybrid material was used to optimize DSSC performs for better efficiency than only TiO{sub 2} as an electrode. Synthesis of TiO{sub 2} nanorods (NR) was conducted by ball milling 1000 rpm for 4 hours and strong base reaction by hydrothermal process at 120 °C overnight. And the ZnO NR was synthesized from Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}.4H{sub 2}O precusor by hydrotermal process at 90 °C for 5 hours and calcined on various temperature s of 400, 600, and 800 °C. ZnO NR was coated into an Tndium Tin Oxide (TTO) glass to collecting electron s effectively, where TiO{sup 2} NR were incorporated with poly(3 -hexylthiophene) (P3HT) on various concentration s of 5, 10, 15 mg/mL to obtain a larger surface area. Material characterization were performed by X -Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Uv-Vis spectrophotometer. For an application of DSSC were measured by T-V Keithley Multimeter and the efficiency of DSSC at various P3HT’s concentrations of 5, 10, 15 mg/mL were 7.44 × 10{sup −3}, 0.0114, 0.0104, respectively. The maximum efficiency of DSSC was showed when TiO{sup 2} NR-P3HT’s concentration was 10 mg/mL.

  12. Influence of the dopant concentration on structural, optical and photovoltaic properties of Cu-doped ZnS nanocrystals based bulk heterojunction hybrid solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, Uzma; Adhikari, Tham; Shah, Syed Mujtaba; Pathak, Dinesh; Wagner, Tomas; Nunzi, Jean-Michel

    2017-06-01

    Zinc sulphide (ZnS) and Cu-doped ZnS nanoparticles were synthesized by the wet chemical method. The nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible, fluorescence, fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectrometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Scanning electron microscopy supplemented with EDAX was employed to observe the morphology and chemical composition of the un-doped and doped samples. A significant blue shift of the absorption band with respect to the un-doped zinc sulphide was sighted by increasing the Cu concentration in the doped sample with decreasing the size of nanoparticles. Consequently, the band gap was tuned from 3.13 to 3.49 eV due to quantum confinement. The green emission arises from the recombination between the shallow donor level (sulfur vacancy) and the t2 level of Cu2+. However, the fluorescence emission spectrum of the undoped ZnS nanoparticles was deconvoluted into two bands, which are centered at 419 and 468 nm. XRD analysis showed that the nanomaterials were in cubic crystalline state. XRD peaks show that there were no massive crystalline distortions in the crystal lattice when the Cu concentration (0.05-0.1 M) was increased in the ZnS lattice. However, in the case of Cu-doped samples (0.15-0.2 M), the XRD pattern showed an additional peak at 37° due to incomplete substitution occurring during the experimental reaction step. A comparative study of surfaces of undoped and Cu-doped ZnS nanoparticles were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The synthesized nanomaterial in combination with poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) was used in the fabrication of solar cells. The devices with ZnS nanoparticles showed an efficiency of 0.31%. The overall power conversion efficiency of the solar cells at 0.1 M Cu content in doped ZnS nanoparticles was found to be 1.6 times higher than the

  13. Highly efficient and thickness-tolerable bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells based on P3HT donor and a low-bandgap non-fullerene acceptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaodong; Li, Yongxi; Huang, Peng; Zhou, Yi; Jiang, Zuo-Quan; Song, Bo; Li, Yongfang; Liao, Liang-Sheng; Zheng, Yonghao

    2017-10-01

    In order to fabricate highly efficient polymer solar cells (PSCs) in industrial scale, one of the key issues is to use thick active layer (>200 nm) in the device module without sacrificing the power conversion efficiency (PCE). In this article, we have studied the blend of the medium-bandgap polymeric donor P3HT and the low-bandgap acceptor IDTIDT-IC as the active layer in non-fullerene PSCs, and successfully maintained the device performance with the thickness of the active layer close to 250 nm. The P3HT:IDTIDT-IC based PSCs with simple thermal annealing exhibits a PCE of 3.49% at a thin active layer, 74 nm. More importantly, the PCE remains almost constant with increasing the thickness of the active layer, and reaches a peak value of 3.64% at 236 nm. This thickness-insensitive photovoltaic performance of the P3HT:IDTIDT-IC system makes them compatible with large-scale roll-to-roll processing. Furthermore, the P3HT:IDTIDT-IC devices show a very high tolerance to temperature, and the PCE keeps nearly unchanged after annealing the active layer at 150 °C for 75 min. All in all, our results show that thickness-tolerable and thermal-stable P3HT:IDTIDT-IC system is more suitable for large-scale industrial manufacturing than the classic P3HT:PCBM formula.

  14. Enhanced Power Conversion Efficiency of P3HT : PC71BM Bulk Heterojunction Polymer Solar Cells by Doping a High-Mobility Small Organic Molecule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanyu Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of molecular doping with TIPS-pentacene on the photovoltaic performance of polymer solar cells (PSCs with a structure of ITO/ZnO/poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl (P3HT : [6,6]-phenyl C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM : TIPS-pentacene/MoOx/Ag was systematically investigated by adjusting TIPS-pentacene doping ratios ranged from 0.3 to 1.2 wt%. The device with 0.6 wt% TIPS-pentacene exhibited the enhanced short-circuit current and fill factor by 1.23 mA/cm2 and 7.8%, respectively, resulting in a maximum power conversion efficiency of 4.13%, which is one-third higher than that of the undoped one. The photovoltaic performance improvement was mainly due to the balanced charge carrier mobility, enhanced crystallinity, and matched cascade energy level alignment in TIPS-pentacene doped active layer, resulting in the efficient charge separation, transport, and collection.

  15. Synthesis, characterization and photovoltaic performance of Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots- P3HT hybrid bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, Uzma; Adhikari, Tham; Shah, Syed Mujtaba; Pathak, Dinesh; Nunzi, Jean-Michel

    2017-11-01

    Zinc sulphide (ZnS) and transition metal-doped ZnS nanocrystals were synthesized by co-precipitation method. Further the synthesized nanocrystals were characterized by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM), High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HRTEM), Fluorescence, UV-Visible, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transformed Infra-red (FTIR) Spectrometer (FTIR). Scanning electron microscope supplemented with EDAX was employed to attain grain size and chemical composition of the nanomaterials. A considerable blue shift of absorption band was noted by the manganese concentration (0.5 M) in the doped sample in comparison with ZnS quantum dots because of the decrease in the size of nanoparticles which may be due to quantum confinement. The photoluminescence emission observed at 596 nm is due to the emission of divalent manganese and can be ascribed to a 4T1→6A1 transition within the 3d shell. Though, the broad blue emission band was observed at 424 nm which may originates from the radiative recombination comprising defect states in the un-doped zinc sulphide quantum dots. XRD analysis exhibited that the synthesized nanomaterial endured in cubic structure. The synthesized nanomaterial combined with organic polymer P3HT, poly (3-hexyl thiophene) and worked in the construction of inverted solar cells. The photovoltaic devices with un-doped zinc sulphide quantum dots showed power conversion efficiency of 0.48% without annealing and 0.52% with annealing. By doping with manganese, the efficiency was enhanced by a factor of 0.52 without annealing and 0.59 with annealing. The morphology and packing behavior of blend of nanocrystals with organic polymer were explored using Atomic Force Microscopy.

  16. A C70-carbon nanotube complex for bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, Xinbo C.; Wang, Zhiqian; Mitra, Somenath, E-mail: Somenath.Mitra@njit.edu [Department of Chemistry and Environmental Science, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, New Jersey 07102 (United States)

    2013-12-09

    A C70 fullerene-multi-walled carbon nanotube (C70-CNT) complex has been used as a component of the photoactive layer in a bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cell. As compared to a control device with only C70, the addition of CNTs led to improvements in short circuit current density (J{sub sc}), open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}), and power conversion efficiency by 31.8, 17.5, and 69.5%, respectively. This device takes advantage of both the electron accepting feature of C70 and the high electron transport capability of CNTs. These results indicate that C70 decorated CNT is a promising additive for performance enhancement of polymer photovoltaic cells.

  17. Depleted Bulk Heterojunction Colloidal Quantum Dot Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Barkhouse, D. Aaron R.

    2011-05-26

    The first solution-processed depleted bulk heterojunction colloidal quantum dot solar cells are presented. The architecture allows for high absorption with full depletion, thereby breaking the photon absorption/carrier extraction compromise inherent in planar devices. A record power conversion of 5.5% under simulated AM 1.5 illumination conditions is reported. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Absence of Structural Impact of Noble Nanoparticles on P3HT:PCBM Blends for Plasmon-Enhanced Bulk-Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells Probed by Synchrotron GI-XRD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilliu, Samuele; Alsari, Mejd; Bikondoa, Oier; Emyr Macdonald, J; Dahlem, Marcus S

    2015-06-01

    The incorporation of noble metal nanoparticles, displaying localized surface plasmon resonance, in the active area of donor-acceptor bulk-heterojunction organic photovoltaic devices is an industrially compatible light trapping strategy, able to guarantee better absorption of the incident photons and give an efficiency improvement between 12% and 38%. In the present work, we investigate the effect of Au and Ag nanoparticles blended with P3HT: PCBM on the P3HT crystallization dynamics by synchrotron grazing incidence X-ray diffraction. We conclude that the presence of (1) 80 nm Au, (2) mix of 5 nm, 50 nm, 80 nm Au, (3) 40 nm Ag, and (4) 10 nm, 40 nm, 60 nm Ag colloidal nanoparticles, at different concentrations below 0.3 wt% for Au and below 0.1% for Ag in P3HT: PCBM blends, does not affect the behaviour of the blends themselves.

  19. Simulation and optimization of the performance of organic photovoltaic cells based on capped copolymers for bulk heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhamdi, A.; Boukhili, W.; Raissi, M.; Mahdouani, M.; Vignau, L.; Bourguiga, R.

    2016-08-01

    Recently many investigations have been done to improve the performance of solar cells photovoltaic. One of this devices developed is the Bulk Heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells based on poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/[6, 6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blend which have been fabricated by spin-coating. It is known that the nanostructure of the active layer of this device has an important impact on the photovoltaic performances. In this work, we analyze the results obtained on solar cells using a copolymer P3HT-b-PS based on poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as a donor block and polystyrene (PS) as a soft block, their compatibility with the blend of P3HT/PCBM at various weight percentages (0%-5%). The addition of this weight percentage is in order to improve the performance of polymer solar cells. It has been demonstrated that the addition of a small amount of P3HT-b-PS (from 0.5%-1.5%) led to an increase in photovoltaic efficiency compared to devices made from P3HT/PCBM only. To study the impact of the added amount of the P3HT-b-PS on the performances of the fabricated organic cells, we used an equivalent circuit model based on single diode model with five photovoltaic parameters. Then, we extracted these physical parameters of the organic photovoltaic cells such as the saturation current density, the series and shunt resistances, the ideality factor and the photogenerated current density from the experimental characteristics (J-V) in the dark and under illumination. We proposed and developed the used procedure based on this model and we resolved the analytic equations of the density-current using the Lambert W-function. A good agreement between the theoretical model and the experimental data of electrical characteristics is obtained illustrating the enhancement of the addition of a small amount of P3HT-b-PS (≤1.5%) in the P3HT/PCBM blend on the characteristics of BHJ organic photovoltaic cells.

  20. Discrepancy of optimum ratio in bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices: initial cell efficiency vs long-term stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunmin; Lee, Keel Yong; Kim, Wanjung; Shin, Hee-Won; Wang, Dong Hwan; Ahn, Tae Kyu; Park, Jong Hyeok

    2013-03-13

    Organic photovoltaic devices are difficult to commercialize because of their vulnerability to chemical degradation related with oxygen and water and to physical degradation with aging at high temperatures. We investigated the photophysical degradation behaviors of a series of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC60BM) bulk heterojunctions (BHJs) as a model system according to the donor-acceptor ratio. We found that the optimum P3HT:PC60BM ratio in terms of long-term stability differs from that in terms of initial cell efficiency. On the basis of cell performance decays and time-resolved photoluminescence measurements, we investigated the effects of oxygen and material self-aggregation on the stability of an organic photovoltaic device. We also observed the changes in morphological geometry and analyzed the surface elements to verify the mechanisms of degradation.

  1. Improving the performance of solution-processed organic solar cells by incorporating small molecule acceptors into a ternary bulk heterojunction based on DH6T:Mq3:PCBM (M = Ga, Al)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhammad, Fahmi F. [Center for Composites, Institute for Vehicle Systems & Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Soft Materials & Devices Lab, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science & Health, Koya University, Koya, Kurdistan Region (Iraq); Development Center for Research and Training, University of Human Development, Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region (Iraq); Yahya, Mohd Yazid, E-mail: yazidyahya@utm.my [Center for Composites, Institute for Vehicle Systems & Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Sulaiman, Khaulah [Low Dimensional Materials Research Centre, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2017-02-15

    Improvement in the overall performance of solution-processed organic solar cells based on a ternary heterostructure was realized by means of incorporating small molecules of tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) gallium (Gaq3) or Alq3 electron acceptors. The donor host polymer was α,ω-dihexyl-sexithiophene (DH6T), while the ultimate acceptor was fullerene (PC{sub 61}BM). The results showed that short circuit current (I{sub Sc}), open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}), and fill factor (FF) of the devices were pronouncedly enhanced by the inclusion of Gaq3 or Alq3. The maximum output power and conversion efficiency of the ternary devices were increased by an order of 5.8 times compared to that of the control devices. These improvements were ascribed to the broadened light absorption, energy levels alignment between the donor-acceptor components, a balanced charge transfer, and increased crystallinity of the devices active layer. The results were ascertained and analyzed by means of UV–Vis, PL, XRD, IV and TEM investigations. - Highlights: • Ternary solution-processed OSCs including Gaq3 and Alq3 acceptors were realized. • The power and efficiency of the devices were increased by an order of 5.8. • Broadened absorption and improved crystallinity were achieved for the active layers.

  2. Device physics of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartesaghi, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Aan de toenemende energiebehoefte kan worden voldaan door energie op te wekken uit zonlicht; organische zonnecellen bieden de mogelijkheid om dit op een goedkope en duurzame voor elkaar te krijgen. De efficiëntie van organische zonnecellen die bestaan uit een mengsel van een geconjugeerd polymeer

  3. Fabrication of ordered bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic cells using nanopatterning and electrohydrodynamic spray deposition methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Eun; Kim, Sehwan; Kim, Kangmin; Joe, Hang-Eun; Jung, Buyoung; Kim, Eunkyoung; Kim, Woochul; Min, Byung-Kwon; Hwang, Jungho

    2012-12-21

    Organic photovoltaic cells with an ordered heterojunction (OHJ) active layer are expected to show increased performance. In the study described here, OHJ cells were fabricated using a combination of nanoimprinting and electrohydrodynamic (EHD) spray deposition methods. After an electron donor material was nanoimprinted with a PDMS stamp (valley width: 230 nm, period: 590 nm) duplicated from a Si nanomold, an electron acceptor material was deposited onto the nanoimprinted donor layer using an EHD spray deposition method. The donor-acceptor interface layer was observed by obtaining cross-sectional images with a focused ion beam (FIB) microscope. The photocurrent generation performance of the OHJ cells was evaluated with the current density-voltage curve under air mass (AM) 1.5 conditions. It was found that the surface morphology of the electron acceptor layer affected the current and voltage outputs of the photovoltaic cells. When an electron acceptor layer with a smooth thin (250 nm above the valley of the electron donor layer) surface morphology was obtained, power conversion efficiency was as high as 0.55%. The electrohydrodynamic spray deposition method used to produce OHJ photovoltaic cells provides a means for the adoption of large area, high throughput processes.

  4. Influence of blend microstructure on bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabec, Christoph J; Heeney, Martin; McCulloch, Iain; Nelson, Jenny

    2011-03-01

    The performance of organic photovoltaic devices based upon bulk heterojunction blends of donor and acceptor materials has been shown to be highly dependent on the thin film microstructure. In this tutorial review, we discuss the factors responsible for influencing blend microstructure and how these affect device performance. In particular we discuss how various molecular design approaches can affect the thin film morphology of both the donor and acceptor components, as well as their blend microstructure. We further examine the influence of polymer molecular weight and blend composition upon device performance, and discuss how a variety of processing techniques can be used to control the blend microstructure, leading to improvements in solar cell efficiencies.

  5. Nanostructured Organic Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radziwon, Michal Jędrzej; Rubahn, Horst-Günter; Madsen, Morten

    Recent forecasts for alternative energy generation predict emerging importance of supporting state of art photovoltaic solar cells with their organic equivalents. Despite their significantly lower efficiency, number of application niches are suitable for organic solar cells. This work reveals...... the principles of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells fabrication as well as summarises major differences in physics of their operation....

  6. Picosecond excited state spectroscopy of organic bulk heterojunctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gieseking, Bjoern; Jaeck, Berthold; Deibel, Carsten [Experimental Physics VI, Faculty of Physics and Astronomy, Julius- Maximilians-University Wuerzburg, D-97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Dyakonov, Vladimir [Experimental Physics VI, Faculty of Physics and Astronomy, Julius- Maximilians-University Wuerzburg, D-97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Bavarian Centre for Applied Energy Research (ZAE Bayern), D-97074 Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Bulk heterojunction solar cells comprised of conjugated polymers and fullerene derivatives approach efficiencies of 8 % making this composite system a promising candidate for the application in organic photovoltaics. Different approaches for improving the device performance aim at the physical properties of the material system itself, but a further optimization requires a deeper insight into the elementary processes following the photoexcitation of these blends. Here we present recent time-resolved spectroscopic studies on the conjugated Polymer P3HT blended with different fullerene derivatives employing femtosecond transient absorption (TA) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. For both methods we use an Ti:sapphire-based femtosecond laser system together with two optical parametric amplifiers and a streak camera providing a time resolution in the sub picosecond (TA) and picosecond (PL) regime, respectively. Applying these techniques we studied the recombination dynamics of singlet excitons and polarons after photoexcitation. We discuss our results in terms of performance optimisation of organic solar cells.

  7. Structural determinants in the bulk heterojunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acocella, Angela; Höfinger, Siegfried; Haunschmid, Ernst; Pop, Sergiu C; Narumi, Tetsu; Yasuoka, Kenji; Yasui, Masato; Zerbetto, Francesco

    2018-02-21

    Photovoltaics is one of the key areas in renewable energy research with remarkable progress made every year. Here we consider the case of a photoactive material and study its structural composition and the resulting consequences for the fundamental processes driving solar energy conversion. A multiscale approach is used to characterize essential molecular properties of the light-absorbing layer. A selection of bulk-representative pairs of donor/acceptor molecules is extracted from the molecular dynamics simulation of the bulk heterojunction and analyzed at increasing levels of detail. Significantly increased ground state energies together with an array of additional structural characteristics are identified that all point towards an auxiliary role of the material's structural organization in mediating charge-transfer and -separation. Mechanistic studies of the type presented here can provide important insights into fundamental principles governing solar energy conversion in next-generation photovoltaic devices.

  8. Enhanced bulk heterojunction devices prepared by thermal and solvent vapor annealing processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrest, Stephen R.; Thompson, Mark E.; Wei, Guodan; Wang, Siyi

    2017-09-19

    A method of preparing a bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic cell through combinations of thermal and solvent vapor annealing are described. Bulk heterojunction films may prepared by known methods such as spin coating, and then exposed to one or more vaporized solvents and thermally annealed in an effort to enhance the crystalline nature of the photoactive materials.

  9. Organoboron polymers for photovoltaic bulk heterojunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Sebastiano; Fabiano, Simone; Ferrante, Francesco; Previti, Francesco; Patanè, Salvatore; Pignataro, Bruno

    2010-07-15

    We report on the application of three-coordinate organoboron polymers, inherently strong electron acceptors, in flexible photovoltaic (PV) cells. Poly[(1,4-divinylenephenylene)(2,4,6-triisopropylphenylborane)] (PDB) has been blended with poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) to form a thin film bulk heterojunction (BHJ) on PET/ITO substrates. Morphology may be modulated to give a high percentage of domains (10-20 nm in size) allowing exciton separation. The photoelectric properties of the BHJs in devices with aluminium back electrodes were imaged by light beam induced current (LBIC) and light beam induced voltage (LBIV) techniques. Open circuit voltages, short circuit currents and overall external quantum efficiencies obtained are among the highest reported for all-polymer PV cells. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. The Importance of End Groups for Solution-Processed Small-Molecule Bulk-Heterojunction Photovoltaic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Ruomeng; Cui, Yong; Zhao, Yanfei; Li, Chen; Chen, Long; Hou, Jianhui; Wagner, Manfred; Baumgarten, Martin; He, Chang; Müllen, Klaus

    2016-05-10

    End groups in small-molecule photovoltaic materials are important owing to their strong influence on molecular stability, solubility, energy levels, and aggregation behaviors. In this work, a series of donor-acceptor pentads (D2 -A-D1 -A-D2 ) were designed and synthesized, aiming to investigate the effect of the end groups on the materials properties and photovoltaic device performance. These molecules share identical central A-D1 -A triads (with benzodithiophene as D1 and 6-carbonyl-thieno[3,4-b]thiophene as A), but with various D2 end groups composed of alkyl-substituted thiophene (T), thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (TT), and 2,2'-bithiophene (BT). The results indicate a relationship between conjugated segment/alkyl chain length of the end groups and the photovoltaic performance, which contributes to the evolving molecular design principles for high efficiency organic solar cells. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Liquid crystalline perylene diimide outperforming nonliquid crystalline counterpart: higher power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) cells and higher electron mobility in space charge limited current (SCLC) devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Youdi; Wang, Helin; Xiao, Yi; Wang, Ligang; Shi, Dequan; Cheng, Chuanhui

    2013-11-13

    In this work, we propose the application of liquid crystalline acceptors as a potential means to improve the performances of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells. LC-1, a structurally-simple perylene diimide (PDI), has been adopted as a model for thorough investigation. It exhibits a broad temperature range of liquid crystalline (LC) phase from 41 °C to 158 °C, and its LC properties have been characterized by differental scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarization optical microscopy (POM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The BHJ devices, using P3HT:LC-1 (1:2) as an organic photovoltaic active layer undergoing thermal annealing at 120 °C, shows an optimized efficiency of 0.94 %. By contrast, the devices based on PDI-1, a nonliquid crystalline PDI counterpart, only obtain a much lower efficiency of 0.22%. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images confirm that the active layers composed of P3HT:LC-1 have smooth and ordered morphology. In space charge limited current (SCLC) devices fabricated via a spin-coating technique, LC-1 shows the intrinsic electron mobility of 2.85 × 10(-4) cm(2)/(V s) (at 0.3 MV/cm) which is almost 5 times that of PDI-1 (5.83 × 10(-5) cm(2)/(V s)) under the same conditions for thermal annealing at 120 °C.

  12. Fullerene-grafted block copolymers used as compatibilizer in P3HT/PCBM bulk heterojunctions: morphology and photovoltaic performances

    OpenAIRE

    Gernigon, V.; LÉvÊque, P.; Brochon, C.; Audinot, J.-N.; Leclerc, N; Bechara, R.; Richard, F.; Heiser, T.; Hadziioannou, G.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The nanostructure of the active layer in polymer/fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells is known to have a strong impact on the device performances. Controlling the polymer/fullerene blend morphology is therefore particularly important. In this work, a rod-coil block copolymer, based on a regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) electron-donor rod block and a C60-grafted coil block, is used as compatibilizer and its influences on the thin film morphology as well as the photo...

  13. Optimization of solution-processed oligothiophene:fullerene based organic solar cells by using solvent additives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schulz, Gisela L; Urdanpilleta, Marta; Fitzner, Roland; Brier, Eduard; Mena-Osteritz, Elena; Reinold, Egon; Bäuerle, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The optimization of solution-processed organic bulk-heterojunction solar cells with the acceptor-substituted quinquethiophene DCV5T-Bu 4 as donor in conjunction with PC61BM as acceptor is described...

  14. Synthesis and Photophysical Properties of Novel Fullerene Derivatives as Model Compounds for Bulk-Heterojunction PV Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hal, P.A. van; Langeveld-Voss, B.M.W.; Peeters, E.; Janssen, R.A.J.; Knol, J.; Hummelen, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    Covalent and well-defined oligomer-fullerene donor-acceptor molecular structures can serve as important model systems for plastic PV cells, based on interpenetrating networks of conjugated polymers and fullerene derivatives. Two series of [60]fullerene-oligomer dyads and triads were prepared and

  15. Characterization of the polymer energy landscape in polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunctions with pure and mixed phases

    KAUST Repository

    Sweetnam, Sean

    2014-10-08

    Theoretical and experimental studies suggest that energetic offsets between the charge transport energy levels in different morphological phases of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunctions may improve charge separation and reduce recombination in polymer solar cells (PSCs). In this work, we use cyclic voltammetry, UV-vis absorption, and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy to characterize hole energy levels in the polymer phases of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunctions. We observe an energetic offset of up to 150 meV between amorphous and crystalline polymer due to bandgap widening associated primarily with changes in polymer conjugation length. We also observe an energetic offset of up to 350 meV associated with polymer:fullerene intermolecular interactions. The first effect has been widely observed, but the second effect is not always considered despite being larger in magnitude for some systems. These energy level shifts may play a major role in PSC performance and must be thoroughly characterized for a complete understanding of PSC function.

  16. Abnormal strong burn-in degradation of highly efficient polymer solar cells caused by spinodal donor-acceptor demixing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ning Li; José Darío Perea; Thaer Kassar; Moses Richter; Thomas Heumueller; Gebhard J Matt; Yi Hou; Nusret S Güldal; Haiwei Chen; Shi Chen; Stefan Langner; Marvin Berlinghof; Tobias Unruh; Christoph J Brabec

    2017-01-01

      The performance of organic solar cells is determined by the delicate, meticulously optimized bulk-heterojunction microstructure, which consists of finely mixed and relatively separated donor/acceptor regions...

  17. Measuring the complete cross-cell carrier mobility distributions in bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifter, Jason; Sun, Yanming; Choi, Hyosung; Lee, Byoung Hoon; Heeger, Alan

    2015-03-01

    Carbon nanotube-enabled, vertical, organic field effect transistors (CN-VFETs) based on the small molecule dinaphtho[2,3-b:2',3'-f]thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (DNTT) have demonstrated high current, low-power operation suitable for driving active matix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) displays. This performance is achieved without the need for costly high-resolution patterning, despite the low mobility of the organic semiconductor, by employing sub-micron channel widths, defined in the vertical devices by the thickness of the semiconducting layer. Replacing the thermally evaporated small molecule semiconductor with a solution-processed polymer would possibly further simplify the fabrication process and reduce manufacturing cost. Here we investigate several polymer systems as wide bandgap semiconducting channel layers for potentially air stable and transparent CN-VFETs. The field effect mobility and optical transparency of the polymer layers are determined, and the performance and air stability of CN-VFET devices are measured. A. S. gratefully acknowledges support from the National Science Foundation under DMR-1156737.

  18. Photoelectric Properties of Silicon Nanocrystals/P3HT Bulk-Heterojunction Ordered in Titanium Dioxide Nanotube Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Švrček Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A silicon nanocrystals (Si-ncs conjugated-polymer-based bulk-heterojunction represents a promising approach for low-cost hybrid solar cells. In this contribution, the bulk-heterojunction is based on Si-ncs prepared by electrochemical etching and poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT polymer. Photoelectric properties in parallel and vertical device-like configuration were investigated. Electronic interaction between the polymer and surfactant-free Si-ncs is achieved. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence and transport properties were studied and the ratio between the photo- and dark-conductivity of 1.7 was achieved at ambient conditions. Furthermore the porous titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanotubes’ template was used for vertical order of photosensitive Si-ncs/P3HT-based blend. The anodization of titanium foil in ethylene glycol-based electrolyte containing fluoride ions and subsequent thermal annealing were used to prepare anatase TiO2nanotube arrays. The arrays with nanotube inner diameter of 90 and 50 nm were used for vertical ordering of the Si-ncs/P3HT bulk-heterojunction.

  19. Revealing the recombination dynamics in squaraine-based bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheunemann, Dorothea; Kolloge, Oliver; Wilken, Sebastian; Mack, Majvor; Parisi, Jürgen; Schulz, Matthias; Lützen, Arne; Schiek, Manuela

    2017-10-01

    We combine steady-state with transient optoelectronic characterization methods to understand the operation of photovoltaic devices based on a benchmark model squaraine blended with a fullerene acceptor. These devices suffer from a gradual decrease in the fill factor when increasing the active layer thickness and incident light intensity. Using transient photocurrent, transient photovoltage, and bias-assisted charge extraction measurements, we show that the fill factor deteriorates due to slow charge carrier collection competing with bimolecular recombination. Under normal operating conditions, we find a bimolecular recombination rate constant of ˜10-17 m3 s-1, which corresponds to a reduction of one to two orders of magnitude compared to the Langevin model.

  20. Design of (X-DADAD)(n) Type Copolymers for Efficient Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkuratov, Alexander V.; Susarova, Diana K.; Kozlov, Oleg V.; Chernyak, Alexander V.; Moskvin, Yuriy L.; Frolova, Lubov A.; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; Troshin, Pavel A.

    2015-01-01

    We show that extended TBTBT structure (T = thiophene, B = benzothiadiazole) can be used as an electron-deficient building block for designing conjugated polymers with deeply lying HOMO energy levels and narrow band gaps. The first carbazole-TBTBT copolymer P2 demonstrated power conversion

  1. High-Permittivity Conjugated Polyelectrolyte Interlayers for High-Performance Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesters, Jurgen; Govaerts, Sanne; Pirotte, Geert; Drijkoningen, Jeroen; Chevrier, Michèle; Van den Brande, Niko; Liu, Xianjie; Fahlman, Mats; Van Mele, Bruno; Lutsen, Laurence; Vanderzande, Dirk; Manca, Jean; Clément, Sébastien; Von Hauff, Elizabeth; Maes, Wouter

    2016-03-01

    Conjugated polyelectrolyte (CPE) interfacial layers present a powerful way to boost the I-V characteristics of organic photovoltaics. Nevertheless, clear guidelines with respect to the structure of high-performance interlayers are still lacking. In this work, impedance spectroscopy is applied to probe the dielectric permittivity of a series of polythiophene-based CPEs. The presence of ionic pendant groups grants the formation of a capacitive double layer, boosting the charge extraction and device efficiency. A counteracting effect is the diminishing affinity with the underlying photoactive layer. To balance these two effects, we found copolymer structures containing nonionic side chains to be beneficial.

  2. New C-84 derivative and its application in a bulk heterojunction solar cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooistra, FB; Mihailetchi, VD; Popescu, LM; Kronholm, D; Blom, PWM; Hummelen, JC; Mihailetchi, Valentin D.

    2006-01-01

    We report here the synthesis and characteristics of a new C-84 adduct ([84]PCBM), realized via a diazoalkane addition reaction. [84] PCBM was obtained as a mixture containing three major isomers. [84]PCBM was tested in a fullerene/poly(2-methoxy-5-(3',7'-dimethyloctyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene)

  3. Nanofiber-Based Bulk-Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells Using Coaxial Electrospinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    nanometers to sev- eral micrometers. [ 36–38 ] This continuous process allows the production of an entangled, 3D, nonwoven fi ber network exhib- iting a high...P3HT:PCBM were obtained. While a novel process, the resulting nonwoven matrix of P3HT:PCBM fi bers yielded a power-conversion effi ciency (PCE) of...Chou , M.-C. Hung , K.-A. Chang , Appl. Phys. Lett. 2006 , 88 , 033106 . [ 57 ] N. M. Bedford , A. J. Steckl , ACS Appl. Mater

  4. Phase Separation in Bulk Heterojunctions of Semiconducting Polymers and Fullerenes for Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treat, Neil D.; Chabinyc, Michael L.

    2014-04-01

    Thin-film solar cells are an important source of renewable energy. The most efficient thin-film solar cells made with organic materials are blends of semiconducting polymers and fullerenes called the bulk heterojunction (BHJ). Efficient BHJs have a nanoscale phase-separated morphology that is formed during solution casting. This article reviews recent work to understand the nature of the phase-separation process resulting in the formation of the domains in polymer-fullerene BHJs. The BHJ is now viewed as a mixture of polymer-rich, fullerene-rich, and mixed polymer-fullerene domains. The formation of this structure can be understood through fundamental knowledge of polymer physics. The implications of this structure for charge transport and charge generation are given.

  5. Molecular doping of low-bandgap-polymer:fullerene solar cells: Effects on transport and solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tunc, Ali Veysel; Sio, Antonietta De; Riedel, Daniel; Deschler, Felix; Da Como, Enrico; Parisi, Juergen; von Hauff, Elizabeth

    We show how molecular doping can be implemented to improve the performance of solution processed bulk heterojunction solar cells based on a low-bandgap polymer mixed with a fullerene derivative. The molecular dopant 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4-TCNQ) is introduced into

  6. Manipulating the Morphology of P3HT–PCBM Bulk Heterojunction Blends with Solvent Vapor Annealing

    KAUST Repository

    Verploegen, Eric

    2012-10-23

    Using grazing incidence X-ray scattering, we observe the effects of solvent vapors upon the morphology of poly(3-hexylthiophene)-phenyl-C 61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT-PCBM) bulk heterojunction thin film blends in real time; allowing us to observe morphological rearrangements that occur during this process as a function of solvent. We detail the swelling of the P3HT crystallites upon the introduction of solvent and the resulting changes in the P3HT crystallite morphology. We also demonstrate the ability for tetrahydrofuran vapor to induce crystallinity in PCBM domains. Additionally, we measure the nanoscale phase segregated domain size as a function of solvent vapor annealing and correlate this to the changes observed in the crystallite morphology of each component. Finally, we discuss the implications of the morphological changes induced by solvent vapor annealing on the device properties of BHJ solar cells. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  7. Bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic based on polythiophene-polyelectrolyte carbon nanotube composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes-Reyes, M. [Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Alvaro Obregon 64, San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Lopez-Sandoval, R. [Advanced Materials Department, IPICYT, Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Col. Lomas 4a. Seccion, San Luis Potosi 78216 (Mexico); Liu, J.; Carroll, D.L. [Center for Nanotechnology and Molecular Materials, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)

    2007-09-22

    It is shown that carbon nanotubes can be used to enhance carrier mobility for efficient removal of the charges in thin film polymer-conjugated/fullerene photovoltaic devices. The fabricated photovoltaic devices consist of poly(3-octylthiophene) (P3OT) polymer blended with undoped multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and carbon nanotubes doped with nitrogen (CNx-MWNTs). Nanophase formation and dispersion problems associated with the use of carbon nanotubes in polymer devices were addressed through the generation of functional groups and electrostatic attaching of the polyelectrolyte poly(dimethyldiallylamine) chloride (PDDA) in both MWNTs and CNx-MWNT systems. The resultant nanophase was highly dispersed allowing for excellent bulk heterojunction formation. Our results indicate that CNx-MWNTs enhance the efficiency of P3OT solar cells in comparison with MWNTs. (author)

  8. Influence of permittivity and energetic disorder on the spatial charge carrier distribution and recombination in organic bulk-heterojunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albes, Tim; Gagliardi, Alessio

    2017-08-09

    In bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells the low permittivity in combination with the spatial and energetic disorder of the organic materials lead to a complex behavior of charge carriers within the active layer. Charges originate from exciton splitting at the heterojunction interface and the successive interplay between mutual Coulomb interactions and transport through the disordered organic can lead to insufficient separation from the interface, increased interface densities with respect to the bulk regions and, hence, affect recombination. To further understand the mechanisms of recombination, insight into the explicit spatial distribution of charge carriers within the blend is crucial. We performed kinetic Monte Carlo simulations on a bulk-heterojunction organic solar cell to assess the effect of Coulomb interactions and energetic disorder on the three-dimensional spatial distribution of charge carriers and highlight the correlation with both geminate and non-geminate recombination. We show that for materials with low permittivity and large energetic disorder the charge distribution is strongly inhomogeneous with accumulation along the heterojunction interface. In such cases recombination is not limited by recombination partners finding each other but rather an interface controlled process where geminate recombination dominates over nongeminate recombination.

  9. Thermally Stable Bulk Heterojunction Prepared by Sequential Deposition of Nanostructured Polymer and Fullerene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heewon Hwang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A morphologically-stable polymer/fullerene heterojunction has been prepared by minimizing the intermixing between polymer and fullerene via sequential deposition (SqD of a polymer and a fullerene solution. A low crystalline conjugated polymer of PCPDTBT (poly[2,6-(4,4-bis-(2-ethylhexyl-4H-cyclopenta [2,1-b;3,4-b′]dithiophene-alt-4,7(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole] has been utilized for the polymer layer and PC71BM (phenyl-C71-butyric-acid-methyl ester for the fullerene layer, respectively. Firstly, a nanostructured PCPDTBT bottom layer was developed by utilizing various additives to increase the surface area of the polymer film. The PC71BM solution was prepared by dissolving it in the 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE, exhibiting a lower vapor pressure and slower diffusion into the polymer layer. The deposition of the PC71BM solution on the nanostructured PCPDTBT layer forms an inter-digitated bulk heterojunction (ID-BHJ with minimized intermixing. The organic photovoltaic (OPV device utilizing the ID-BHJ photoactive layer exhibits a highly reproducible solar cell performance. In spite of restricted intermixing between the PC71BM and the PCPDTBT, the efficiency of ID-BHJ OPVs (3.36% is comparable to that of OPVs (3.87% prepared by the conventional method (deposition of a blended solution of polymer:fullerene. The thermal stability of the ID-BHJ is superior to the bulk heterojunction (BHJ prepared by the conventional method. The ID-BHJ OPV maintains 70% of its initial efficiency after thermal stress application for twelve days at 80 °C, whereas the conventional BHJ OPV maintains only 40% of its initial efficiency.

  10. Tuning of a graphene-electrode work function to enhance the efficiency of organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells with an inverted structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Gunho; Na, Seok-In; Oh, Seung-Hwan; Lee, Sangchul; Kim, Tae-Soo; Wang, Gunuk; Choe, Minhyeok; Park, Woojin; Yoon, Jongwon; Kim, Dong-Yu; Kahng, Yung Ho; Lee, Takhee

    2010-11-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication of inverted-structure organic solar cells (OSCs) with graphene cathodes. The graphene film used in this work was work-function-engineered with an interfacial dipole layer to reduce the work function of graphene, which resulted in an increase in the built-in potential and enhancement of the charge extraction, thereby enhancing the overall device performance. Our demonstration of inverted-structure OSCs with work-function-engineering of graphene electrodes will foster the fabrication of more advanced structure OSCs with higher efficiency.

  11. Electron trapping in higher adduct fullerene-based solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenes, Martijn; Shelton, Steven; Sieval, Alexander; Kronholm, David F.; Hummelen, Jan C. (Kees); Blom, Paul W.M.

    2009-01-01

    Here, the performance of bulk-heterojunction solar cells based on a series of bisadduct analogues of commonly used derivatives of C(60) and C(70), such PCBMs and their thienyl versions, is investigated. Due to their highest lowest unoccupied molecular orbital an increase in open-circuit voltage and

  12. Bipolar polaron pair recombination in polymer/fullerene solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kupijai, Alexander J.; Behringer, Konstantin M.; Schaeble, Florian G.

    2015-01-01

    We present a study of the rate-limiting spin-dependent charge-transfer processes in different polymer/fullerene bulk-heterojunction solar cells at 10 K. Observing central spin-locking signals in pulsed electrically detected magnetic resonance and an inversion of Rabi oscillations in multifrequency...

  13. Patterns of efficiency and degradation of composite polymer solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeranko, T; Tributsch, H; Sariciftci, NS; Hummelen, JC

    2004-01-01

    Bulk-heterojunction plastic solar cells (PSC) produced from a conjugated polymer, poly(2-methoxy-5-(3',7'-dimethyloctyl-oxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene) (MDMO-PPV), and a methanofullerene [6,6]-phenyl C-61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) were investigated using photocurrent imaging techniques to

  14. A Bicontinuous Double Gyroid Hybrid Solar Cell : Letter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crossland, E.J.W.; Kamperman, M.M.G.; Nedelcu, M.; Ducati, C.; Wiesner, U.; Smilgies, D.M.; Toombes, G.E.S.; Hillmyer, M.A.; Ludwigs, S.; Steiner, U.; Snaith, H.J.

    2009-01-01

    We report the first successful application of an ordered bicontinuous gyroid semiconducting network in a hybrid bulk heterojunction solar cell. The freestanding gyroid network is fabricated by electrochemical deposition into the 10 nm wide voided channels of a self-assembled, selectively degradable

  15. Self-Organization Schemes towards Thermodynamic Stable Bulk Heterojunction Morphologies: A Perspective on Future Fabrication Strategies of Polymer Photovoltaic Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Benmouna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Research efforts to improve our understanding of electronic polymers are developing fast because of their promising advantages over silicon in photovoltaic solar cells. A major challenge in the development of polymer photovoltaic devices is the viable fabrication strategies of stable bulk heterojunction architecture that will retain functionality during the expected lifetime of the device. Block copolymer self-assembly strategies have attracted particular attention as a scalable means toward thermodynamically stable microstructures that combine the ideal geometrical characteristics of a bulk heterojunction with the fortuitous combination of properties of the constituent blocks. Two primary routes that have been proposed in the literature involve the coassembly of block copolymers in which one domain is a hole conductor with the electron-conducting filler (such as fullerene derivatives or the self-assembly of block copolymers in which the respective blocks function as hole and electron conductor. Either way has proven difficult because of the combination of synthetic challenges as well as the missing understanding of the complex governing parameters that control structure formation in semiconducting block copolymer blends. This paper summarizes important findings relating to structure formation of block copolymer and block copolymer/nanoparticle blend assembly that should provide a foundation for the future design of block copolymer-based photovoltaic systems.

  16. Panchromatic Sequentially Cast Ternary Polymer Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Masoud; Ye, Long; Zhang, Qianqian; Yan, Liang; Kim, Joo-Hyun; Awartani, Omar; You, Wei; Gadisa, Abay; Ade, Harald

    2017-01-01

    A sequential-casting ternary method is developed to create stratified bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells, in which the two BHJ layers are spin cast sequentially without the need of adopting a middle electrode and orthogonal solvents. This method is found to be particularly useful for polymers that form a mechanically alloyed morphology due to the high degree of miscibility in the blend. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Computational Methodologies for Developing Structure–Morphology–Performance Relationships in Organic Solar Cells: A Protocol Review

    KAUST Repository

    Do, Khanh

    2016-09-08

    We outline a step-by-step protocol that incorporates a number of theoretical and computational methodologies to evaluate the structural and electronic properties of pi-conjugated semiconducting materials in the condensed phase. Our focus is on methodologies appropriate for the characterization, at the molecular level, of the morphology in blend systems consisting of an electron donor and electron acceptor, of importance for understanding the performance properties of bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells. The protocol is formulated as an introductory manual for investigators who aim to study the bulk-heterojunction morphology in molecular details, thereby facilitating the development of structure morphology property relationships when used in tandem with experimental results.

  18. Comparative Visual Analysis of Structure-Performance Relations in Complex Bulk-Heterojunction Morphologies

    KAUST Repository

    Aboulhassan, A.

    2017-07-04

    The structure of Bulk-Heterojunction (BHJ) materials, the main component of organic photovoltaic solar cells, is very complex, and the relationship between structure and performance is still largely an open question. Overall, there is a wide spectrum of fabrication configurations resulting in different BHJ morphologies and correspondingly different performances. Current state-of-the-art methods for assessing the performance of BHJ morphologies are either based on global quantification of morphological features or simply on visual inspection of the morphology based on experimental imaging. This makes finding optimal BHJ structures very challenging. Moreover, finding the optimal fabrication parameters to get an optimal structure is still an open question. In this paper, we propose a visual analysis framework to help answer these questions through comparative visualization and parameter space exploration for local morphology features. With our approach, we enable scientists to explore multivariate correlations between local features and performance indicators of BHJ morphologies. Our framework is built on shape-based clustering of local cubical regions of the morphology that we call patches. This enables correlating the features of clusters with intuition-based performance indicators computed from geometrical and topological features of charge paths.

  19. Fullerene bisadducts for enhanced open-circuit voltages and efficiencies in polymer solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenes, Martijn; Wetzelaer, Gert-Jan A.H.; Kooistra, Floris B.; Veenstra, Sjoerd; Hummelen, Jan C.; Blom, Paul W.M.

    2008-01-01

    A fullerene bisadduct can enhance the efficiency of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells. The bisadduct has a LUMO that is 100 meV higher compared to that of [6,6]-phenyl C-61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). This increases the open-circuit voltage of polymer: fullerene bulk

  20. Relating polymer chemical structure to the stability of polymer: : fullerene solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doumon, Nutifafa Y.; Wang, Gongbao; Chiechi, Ryan; Koster, Lambert

    2017-01-01

    The design of novel polymers has brought more attention to bulk heterojunction polymer:fullerene solar cells in the past decade. A typical example is the synthesis, through chemical structure engineering, of the benzodithiophene-co-thieno[3,4-b]thiophene (BDT-TT) polymers leading to power conversion

  1. Light intensity dependence of open-circuit voltage of polymer : fullerene solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, LJA; Mihailetchi, VD; Blom, PWM

    2005-01-01

    The open-circuit voltage V-oc of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells is investigated as a function of light intensity for different temperatures. Devices consisted of a blend of a poly(p-phenylene vinylene) derivative as the hole conductor and 6,6-phenyl C-61-butyric acid methyl ester

  2. Impact of molecular weight on charge carrier dissociation in solar cells from a polyfluorene derivative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moet, D. J. D.; Lenes, M.; Kotlarski, J. D.; Veenstra, S. C.; Sweelssen, J.; Koetse, M. M.; de Boer, B.; Blom, P. W. M.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of the molecular weight of poly[9,9-didecanefluorene-alt-(bis-thienylene) benzothiadiazole] (PF10TBT) on the photovoltaic performance of fullerene-based bulk heterojunction solar cells is investigated. An increase in molecular weight of two orders of magnitude results in a 30% increase of

  3. Hybrid polymer solar cells from highly reactive diethylzinc : MDMO-PPV versus P3HT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moet, Date J.D.; Koster, L. Jan Anton; Boer, Bert de; Blom, Paul W.M.

    2007-01-01

    The degradation of poly[2-methoxy-5-(3',7'-dimethyloetyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene] (MDMO-PPV) during the processing of hybrid organic/inorganic bulk-heterojunction solar cells with zinc oxide (ZnO) from a molecular precursor as acceptor is reported. Upon addition of diethylzinc, the absorption

  4. Electronic properties of Cu-phthalocyanine-fullerene planar and bulk heterojunctions on PEDOT:PSS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilke, Andreas; Mizokuro, Toshiko; Blum, Ralf Peter; Rabe, Juergen P.; Koch, Norbert [Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    In organic photovoltaic cells (OPVCs) typically two organic materials with electron-acceptor and electron-donor properties are placed between anode and cathode, forming either a layered planar or mixed bulk heterojunction where charge separation should occur. To improve the efficiency of this central process it is important to know and understand the energy levels at such heterojunctions, and how they may depend on heterojunction morphology. We report ultraviolet and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies on layered planar and mixed bulk heterojunctions of Cu-phthalocyanine (CuPc) and C{sub 60}, a prototypical material pair for OPVCs. The respective heterojunctions were formed on poly(ethylene-dioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) substrates, in order to achieve morphologies comparable to those in actual OPVCs. The energy offset between the highest occupied levels of CuPc and C{sub 60} was determined to 1.3 eV for both the layered and mixed bulk heterojunction. Our results demonstrate that the energy levels that determined the efficiency of charge separation in OPVCs made of CuPC and C{sub 60} are independent of particular interface morphology, and that differences in device efficiency are due to other effects.

  5. Development and Characterization of New Donor-Acceptor Conjugated Polymers and Fullerene Nanoparticles for High Performance Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    with a Nanoscope III controller under tapping mode. Top contact organic FETs were fabricated on heavily n- doped silicon substrates with a 300 nm...hexafluorophosphate (0.1 M) in acetonitrile (electrochemical grade , Fisher Scientific) as electrolyte and indium tin oxide (ITO) and Ag/Ag+ as the working and...Mo boat. FETs characterization was carried out in air using the Agilent 4155B semiconductor parameter analyzer. The field-effect mobility was

  6. Efficient small molecule bulk heterojunction solar cells with high fill factors via pyrene-directed molecular self-assembly

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Olivia P.

    2011-10-21

    Efficient organic photovoltaic (OPV) materials are constructed by attaching completely planar, symmetric end-groups to donor-acceptor electroactive small molecules. Appending C2-pyrene as the small molecule end-group to a diketopyrrolopyrrole core leads to materials with a tight, aligned crystal packing and favorable morphology dictated by π-π interactions, resulting in high power conversion efficiencies and high fill factors. The use of end-groups to direct molecular self-assembly is an effective strategy for designing high-performance small molecule OPV devices. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Bulk heterojunction thin film formation by single and dual feed ultrasonic spray method for application in organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marathe, D. M.; Tarkas, H. S.; Mahajan, M. S.; Lonkar, G. S.; Tak, S. R.; Sali, J. V.

    2016-09-01

    We here present a way of preparing the polymer: fullerene BHJ using dual feed method which can lead to formation of pure phases. In this report, we present results of our initial experiments in this direction. The effect of process parameters on the thickness and surface roughness of the active layer has been discussed. The structural and optical properties have been studied using the optical microscope, UV—visible spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Significant PL quenching indicates efficient charge separation in the BHJ formed using this technique. We have also compared the BHJ thin films prepared with this dual feed ultrasonic technique with the single feed spray method. The BHJ formed using this technique has been used as an active layer in OSC. supported by the University Grants Commission, New Delhi, under Faculty Improvement Programme (No. 33-02/12(WRO) Dt.19.03.2013) and the Special Assistance Programme (530/2/DRS/2010(SAP-I)) Phase-II.

  8. Peculiarity of Two Thermodynamically-Stable Morphologies and Their Impact on the Efficiency of Small Molecule Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herath, Nuradhika; Das, Sanjib; Keum, Jong K; Zhu, Jiahua; Kumar, Rajeev; Ivanov, Ilia N; Sumpter, Bobby G; Browning, James F; Xiao, Kai; Gu, Gong; Joshi, Pooran; Smith, Sean; Lauter, Valeria

    2015-08-28

    Structural characteristics of the active layers in organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices play a critical role in charge generation, separation and transport. Here we report on morphology and structural control of p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:PC71BM films by means of thermal annealing and 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO) solvent additive processing, and correlate it to the device performance. By combining surface imaging with nanoscale depth-sensitive neutron reflectometry (NR) and X-ray diffraction, three-dimensional morphologies of the films are reconstituted with information extending length scales from nanometers to microns. DIO promotes the formation of a well-mixed donor-acceptor vertical phase morphology with a large population of small p-DTS(FBTTh2)2 nanocrystals arranged in an elongated domain network of the film, thereby enhancing the device performance. In contrast, films without DIO exhibit three-sublayer vertical phase morphology with phase separation in agglomerated domains. Our findings are supported by thermodynamic description based on the Flory-Huggins theory with quantitative evaluation of pairwise interaction parameters that explain the morphological changes resulting from thermal and solvent treatments. Our study reveals that vertical phase morphology of small-molecule based OPVs is significantly different from polymer-based systems. The significant enhancement of morphology and information obtained from theoretical modeling may aid in developing an optimized morphology to enhance device performance for OPVs.

  9. Organic solar cells fundamentals, devices, and upscaling

    CERN Document Server

    Rand, Barry P

    2014-01-01

    Solution-Processed DonorsB. Burkhart, B. C. ThompsonSmall-Molecule and Vapor-Deposited Organic Photovoltaics R. R. Lunt, R. J. HolmesAcceptor Materials for Solution-Processed Solar Cells Y. HeInterfacial Layers R. Po, C. Carbonera, A. BernardiElectrodes in Organic Photovoltaic Cells S. Yoo, J.-Y. Lee, H. Kim, J. LeeTandem and Multi-Junction Organic Solar Cells J. Gilot, R. A. J. JanssenBulk Heterojunction Morphology Control and Characterization T. Wang, D. G. LidzeyOptical Modeling and Light Management

  10. Light-harvesting fullerenes for organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baffreau, J.; Leroy-Lhez, S.; Derbal, H.; Inigo, A. R.; Nunzi, J.-M.; Groeneveld, M. M.; Williams, R. M.; Hudhomme, P.

    2006-12-01

    Novel dyads containing [60]fullerene perylenediimide units were developed as light-harvesting acceptors for the preparation of efficient solar cells. The antenna was grafted onto C{60} with the aim to improve the absorption spectrum of materials used in bulk-heterojunction devices. Electrochemical and photophysical studies of these dyads in solution have revealed that there was no significant ground-state electronic interaction between the covalently bonded PDI and fullerene moieties. Steady-state fluorescence experiments evidenced an effective photoinduced energy transfer from the PDI moiety to C{60}. The potential use of these light-harvesting fullerenes in organic solar cells was estimated with their incorporation in bulk-heterojunctions using poly(3-hexylthiophene) as the conjugated π -donor polymer. This paper has been presented at “ECHOS06”, Paris, 28 30 juin 2006.

  11. Correlation between dynamic parameters and device performance of organic solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kniepert, Juliane

    2015-01-01

    Organic bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells based on polymer:fullerene blends are a promising alternative for a low-cost solar energy conversion. Despite significant improvements of the power conversion efficiency in recent years, the fundamental working principles of these devices are yet not fully understood. In general, the current output of organic solar cells is determined by the generation of free charge carriers upon light absorption and their transport to the electrodes in competiti...

  12. MoO3–Au composite interfacial layer for high efficiency and air-stable organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pan, Hongbin; Zuo, Lijian; Fu, Weifei

    2013-01-01

    Efficient and stable polymer bulk-heterojunction solar cells based on regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PC61BM) blend active layer have been fabricated with a MoO3–Au co-evaporation composite film as the anode interfacial layer (AIL). The optical...

  13. Direct comparison of highly efficient solution- and vacuum-processed organic solar cells based on merocyanine dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronenberg, Nils M.; Steinmann, Vera; Hertel, Dirk; Meerholz, Klaus [Department fuer Chemie, Universitaet Koeln, Luxemburger Strasse 116, 50939 Koeln (Germany); Buerckstuemmer, Hannah; Wuerthner, Frank [Institut fuer Organische Chemie and Roentgen Research Center for Complex Material Systems, Universitaet Wuerzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Hwang, Jaehyung [BASF SE, Carl-Bosch-Strasse 38, 67056 Ludwigshafen (Germany)

    2010-10-01

    Identically configured bulk heterojunction organic solar cells based on merocyanine dye donor and fullerene acceptor compounds are manufactured either from solution or by vacuum deposition, to enable a direct comparison. Whereas the former approach is more suitable for screening purposes, the latter approach affords higher short-circuit current density and power conversion efficiency. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  14. Enhanced Charge Separation in Ternary P3HT/PCBM/CuInS2 Nanocrystals Hybrid Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lefrançois, Aurélie; Luszczynska, Beata; Pepin-Donat, Brigitte; Lombard, Christian; Bouthinon, Benjamin; Verilhac, Jean-Marie; Gromova, Marina; Faure-Vincent, Jérôme; Pouget, Stéphanie; Chandezon, Frédéric; Sadki, Saïd; Reiss, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Geminate recombination of bound polaron pairs at the donor/acceptor interface is one of the major loss mechanisms in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells. One way to overcome Coulomb attraction between opposite charge carriers and to achieve their full dissociation is the introduction of high

  15. Roll-coating fabrication of flexible large area small molecule solar cells with power conversion efficiency exceeding 1%

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wenqing; Liu, Shiyong; Zawacka, Natalia Klaudia

    2014-01-01

    All solution-processed flexible large area small molecule bulk heterojunction solar cells were fabricated via roll-coating technology. Our devices were produced from slot-die coating on a lab-scale mini roll-coater under ambient conditions without the use of spin-coating or vacuum evaporation...

  16. Understanding Charge Transfer in Carbon Nanotube–Fullerene Bulk Heterojunctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Maogang; Shastry, Tejas A.; Cui, Qiannan; Kohlmeyer, Ryan R. [National Research Council, Washington, D.C. 20001, United States; Soft; Luck, Kyle A.; Rowberg, Andrew; Marks, Tobin J.; Durstock, Michael F. [Soft; Zhao, Hui; Hersam, Mark C.; Ren, Shenqiang

    2015-03-27

    Semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotube/fullerene bulk heterojunctions exhibit unique optoelectronic properties highly suitable for flexible, efficient, and robust photovoltaics and photodetectors. We investigate charge-transfer dynamics in inverted devices featuring a polyethylenimine-coated ZnO nanowire array infiltrated with these blends and find that trap-assisted recombination dominates transport within the blend and at the active layer/nanowire interface. We find that electrode modifiers suppress this recombination, leading to high performance.

  17. Development of novel conjugated donor polymers for high-efficiency bulk-heterojunction photovoltaic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junwu; Cao, Yong

    2009-11-17

    Solar cells are one attractive method for harnessing inexhaustible clean energy from the sun. Organic photovoltaic technology is emerging as a potential competitor to silicon-based photovoltaic cells (PVCs), and their power conversion efficiencies (PCE) can now exceed 6%. Polymeric bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) PVCs, whose photoactive layer is composed of a blend of bicontinuous and interpenetrating donors and acceptors, can maximize interfacial area between the donor and the acceptor. Classic polymer donors, such as dialkoxy-substituted poly(para-phenylene vinylene)s (PPVs) and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), have been widely investigated. However, advances in synthetic methodology provide new avenues for the development of novel conjugated polymer donors with improved power conversion efficiencies. Recently, researchers have achieved great advances in this area. This Account primarily focuses on novel donor polymers that have shown power conversion efficiencies greater than 1%. 2,1,3-Benzothiadiazole, thiophene, thieno[3,4-b]pyrazine, quinoxaline, and silole have emerged as useful heterocycles for constructing a variety of conjugated polymers for photovoltaic applications. We summarize useful information, such as molecular weights, absorption, bandgap, energy levels, and their photovoltaic performances with detailed device parameters (see comparison tables), about these novel donor polymers. We use statistical summaries to evaluate several important parameter relationships among these polymer donors including open-circuit voltage versus HOMO, power conversion efficiency versus bandgap, and power conversion efficiency versus hole mobility. Further statistical analysis of the data listed in these tables may guide further structural design and evaluation of polymer donor materials.

  18. Efficient Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cell Integrating Polymer Nanowires and Inorganic Nanotetrapods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weizhe; Tan, Furui; Liu, Xiansheng; Zhang, Weifeng; Qu, Shengchun; Wang, Zhijie; Wang, Zhanguo

    2017-01-01

    Constructing a highly efficient bulk-heterojunction is of critical importance to the hybrid organic/inorganic solar cells. Here in this work, we introduce a novel hybrid architecture containing P3HT nanowire and CdSe nanotetrapod as bicontinuous charge channels for holes and electrons, respectively. Compared to the traditionally applied P3HT molecules, the well crystallized P3HT nanowires qualify an enhanced light absorption at the long wavelength as well as strengthened charge carrier transport in the hybrid active layer. Accordingly, based on efficient dissociation of photogenerated excitons, the interpercolation of these two nano-building blocks allows a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 1.7% in the hybrid solar cell, up to 42% enhancement compared to the reference solar cell with traditional P3HT molecules as electron donor. Our work provides a promising hybrid structure for efficient organic/inorganic bulk-heterojunction solar cells.

  19. Efficient Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cell Integrating Polymer Nanowires and Inorganic Nanotetrapods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weizhe; Tan, Furui; Liu, Xiansheng; Zhang, Weifeng; Qu, Shengchun; Wang, Zhijie; Wang, Zhanguo

    2017-12-01

    Constructing a highly efficient bulk-heterojunction is of critical importance to the hybrid organic/inorganic solar cells. Here in this work, we introduce a novel hybrid architecture containing P3HT nanowire and CdSe nanotetrapod as bicontinuous charge channels for holes and electrons, respectively. Compared to the traditionally applied P3HT molecules, the well crystallized P3HT nanowires qualify an enhanced light absorption at the long wavelength as well as strengthened charge carrier transport in the hybrid active layer. Accordingly, based on efficient dissociation of photogenerated excitons, the interpercolation of these two nano-building blocks allows a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 1.7% in the hybrid solar cell, up to 42% enhancement compared to the reference solar cell with traditional P3HT molecules as electron donor. Our work provides a promising hybrid structure for efficient organic/inorganic bulk-heterojunction solar cells.

  20. MoO3 Thickness, Thermal Annealing and Solvent Annealing Effects on Inverted and Direct Polymer Photovoltaic Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Guillaume Wantz; Lionel Hirsch; Bertrand Pavageau; Michel Lahaye; Lionel Derue; Sylvain Chambon

    2012-01-01

    16 pages; International audience; Several parameters of the fabrication process of inverted polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells based on titanium oxide as an electron selective layer and molybdenum oxide as a hole selective layer were tested in order to achieve efficient organic photovoltaic solar cells. Thermal annealing treatment is a common process to achieve optimum morphology, but it proved to be damageable for the performance of this kind of inverted solar cells. We demonstrate usin...

  1. High performance organic solar cell architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kanzan

    This research is dedicated to the study of physical processes in solar cells based on organic polymers and small molecules, which may replace fossil-fuel based energy sources in future. The bulk of this research involves (1) improving charge generation and collection in well known bulk heterojunction polymer/fullerene-based devices via creating a percolating interpenetrating networks for further efficiency improvement, (2) developing new device architectures for multi-junction organic photovoltaics, and (3) developing new methods for encapsulation of organic solar cells by multilayer coatings. For bulk heterojunction Regio Regular P3HT/PCBM-based devices, the importance of pre-production and optimum post-production heat treatment conditions have been studied for different P3HT molecular weights and a record-breaking power conversion efficiency near 4% was achieved. This effect is partially achieved because annealing induces better crystalinity and hence increases the charge mobility in Regio Regular P3HT and initiates a diffusion controlled formation of PCBM network. This is reflected in the improvement of Fill Factor. The importance of pre-production to create a fine homogenization was discovered in this project. The novel electron and hole blocking layers deployed bulk heterojunction devices have been developed and the further improvement in the charge collection efficiency and fill factor were observed. Combining the P3HT/PCBM-based back cell with small organic molecular front cell, a new spectrally asymmetric multi-junction tandem device prototype has been created. With this device, wide range of solar spectra can be observed and open-circuit voltage greater than 1V can be routinely achieved, compared to 0.5--0.6V in conventional one layer devices. Purely polymeric tandem cell has also been tested. Such devices have a great prospect of low cost mass production.

  2. High Efficiency Polymer Solar Cells with Long Operating Lifetimes

    KAUST Repository

    Peters, Craig H.

    2011-04-20

    Organic bulk-heterojunction solar cells comprising poly[N-9\\'-hepta-decanyl- 2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4\\',7\\'-di-2-thienyl-2\\', 1\\',3\\'-benzothiadiazole) (PCDTBT) are systematically aged and demonstrate lifetimes approaching seven years, which is the longest reported lifetime for polymer solar cells. An experimental set-up is described that is capable of testing large numbers of solar cells, holding each device at its maximum power point while controlling and monitoring the temperature and light intensity. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Controlled Morphology of ZnO Nanorods for Electron Transport in Squaraine Bulk-Hetero Junction Solar Cells With Thick Active Layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peukert, Andreas; Vaillant Roca, Lidice; Scherer, Michael; Lovrincic, Robert; Ramanan, Charusheela; Chanaewa, Alina; von Hauff, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    The influence of ZnO seed layer thickness in Squaraine (SQ) is investigated: PC71BM bulk heterojunction solar cells that incorporate ZnO nanorods. The thickness of the ZnO seed layer varies between 16–249 nm by changing the concentration of the precursor solution. With atomic force microscopy (AFM),

  4. Nanoparticle-based, spray-coated silver top contacts for efficient polymer solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Girotto, Claudio; Rand, Barry P; Steudel, Soeren; Genoe, Jan; Heremans, Paul

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate a solution-processed top electrode for large area organic electronic devices. A Ag nanoparticle solution is spray-coated directly on top of an inverted bulk-heterojunction organic solar cell through a shadow mask. After sintering the Ag nanoparticle film at 150 degrees C, a temperature which is compatible with processes on flexible substrates, cells show performances comparable to those of reference devices with evaporated top-contacts. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Investigation of Annealing and Blend Concentration Effects of Organic Solar Cells Composed of Small Organic Dye and Fullerene Derivative

    OpenAIRE

    Yasser A. M. Ismail; Tetsuo Soga; Takashi Jimbo

    2011-01-01

    We have fabricated bulk heterojunction organic solar cells using coumarin 6 (C6) as a small organic dye, for light harvesting and electron donation, with fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), acting as an electron acceptor, by spin-coating technique. We have investigated thermal annealing and blend concentration effects on light harvesting, photocurrent, and performance parameters of the solar cells. In this work, we introduced an experimental method by which...

  6. DFT and TD-DFT calculation of new thienopyrazine-based small molecules for organic solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Bourass, Mohamed; Benjelloun, Adil Touimi; Benzakour, Mohammed; Mcharfi, Mohammed; Hamidi, Mohammed; Bouzzine, Si. Mohamed; Bouachrine, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Background Novel six organic donor-?-acceptor molecules (D-?-A) used for Bulk Heterojunction organic solar cells (BHJ), based on thienopyrazine were studied by density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) approaches, to shed light on how the ?-conjugation order influence the performance of the solar cells. The electron acceptor group was 2-cyanoacrylic for all compounds, whereas the electron donor unit was varied and the influence was investigated. Methods The TD-DFT method...

  7. Fabrication and characterization of P3HT:PCBM-based thin film organic solar cells with zinc phthalocyanine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruhashi, Haruto, E-mail: oku@mat.usp.ac.jp; Oku, Takeo, E-mail: oku@mat.usp.ac.jp; Suzuki, Atsushi, E-mail: oku@mat.usp.ac.jp; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi, E-mail: oku@mat.usp.ac.jp [The University of Shiga Prefecture, Hikone, Shiga 522-8533 (Japan); Yamasaki, Yasuhiro [Orient Chemical Industries Co., Ltd., Neyagawa, Osaka 572-8581 (Japan)

    2015-02-27

    [6,6]–phenyl C{sub 61}–butyric acid methyl ester and poly(3–hexylthiophene) bulk heterojunction solar cells added with zinc–tetra–tertiary–butyl–phthalocyanine (ZnPc) were fabricated and characterized. The photovoltaic properties of the solar cells with an inverted structure were improved by the ZnPc addition, which were investigated on the bases of current density–voltage characteristics, incident photon to current conversion efficiency.

  8. Analysis of bulk heterojunction material parameters using lateral device structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Eric; Ooi, Zi-En; Liang, Kelly; Morris, Joshua; Lombardo, Christopher; Dodabalapur, Ananth

    2014-01-01

    We review the key optoelectronic properties of lateral organic bulk heterojunction (BHJ) device structures with asymmetric contacts. These structures are used to develop a detailed model of charge transport and recombination properties within materials used for organic photovoltaics. They permit a variety of direct measurement techniques, such as nonlinear optical microscopy and in situ potentiometry, as well as photoconductive gain and carrier drift length studies from photocurrent measurements. We present a theoretical framework that describes the charge transport physics within these devices. The experimental results presented are in agreement with this framework and can be used to measure carrier concentrations, recombination coefficients, and carrier mobilities within BHJ materials. Lateral device structures offer a useful complement to measurements on vertical photovoltaic structures and provide a more complete and detailed picture of organic BHJ materials.

  9. Scaling behavior and transport in bulk heterojunction materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Eric; Lombardo, Christopher; Dodabalapur, Ananth

    2011-03-01

    A lateral device geometry has been used to study charge transport in P3HT:C71 -PCBM bulk heterojunction devices. Analysis of current-voltage curves have previously been used to study charge transport in these materials. We perform ambipolar field effect transistor measurements on these structures to extract carrier mobilities. We are also able to describe the charge transport and recombination properties of these materials. Assymetric electrodes (Al, Au) separated by 100 nm- 20 μ m enable us to gain considerable insight into transport physics. Photocurrent measruements as a function of channel length, electric field, and illumination intensity (0.1-100 suns) are used to measure the ambipolar mobility-lifetime product and study how this correlates with measured field-effect mobilities at various electric fields. Lateral structures are shown to be a powerful tool to understand transport and the role of carrier mobility on photovoltaic performance.

  10. Organic solar cell efficiencies under the aspect of reduced surface recombination velocities

    OpenAIRE

    Wagenpfahl, A.; Deibel, C.; V. Dyakonov

    2010-01-01

    The charge carrier mobility is a key parameter for the organic bulk heterojunction solar cell efficiency. It was recently shown that the interplay charge carrier transport and recombination, both depending on electron and hole mobilities, leads to a point of maximum power conversion efficiency at a finite mobility. Changes of bulk and surface recombination rate, however, can strongly influence this behavior. These processes were previously not considered adequately, as surface recombination v...

  11. Efficient Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cell Integrating Polymer Nanowires and Inorganic Nanotetrapods

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Weizhe; Tan, Furui; Liu, Xiansheng; Zhang, Weifeng; Qu, Shengchun; Wang, Zhijie; Wang, Zhanguo

    2017-01-01

    Constructing a highly efficient bulk-heterojunction is of critical importance to the hybrid organic/inorganic solar cells. Here in this work, we introduce a novel hybrid architecture containing P3HT nanowire and CdSe nanotetrapod as bicontinuous charge channels for holes and electrons, respectively. Compared to the traditionally applied P3HT molecules, the well crystallized P3HT nanowires qualify an enhanced light absorption at the long wavelength as well as strengthened charge carrier transp...

  12. Tailor-Made Additives for Morphology Control in Molecular Bulk-Heterojunction Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Graham, Kenneth R.

    2013-01-09

    Tailor-made additives, which are molecules that share the same molecular structure as a parent molecule with only slight structural variations, have previously been demonstrated as a useful means to control crystallization dynamics in solution. For example, tailor-made additives can be added to solutions of a crystallizing parent molecule to alter the crystal growth rate, size, and shape. We apply this strategy as a means to predictably control morphology in molecular bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) photovoltaic cells. Through the use of an asymmetric oligomer substituted with a bulky triisobutylsilyl end group, the morphology of BHJ blends can be controlled resulting in a near doubling (from 1.3 to 2.2%) in power conversion efficiency. The use of tailor-made additives provides promising opportunities for controlling crystallization dynamics, and thereby film morphologies, for many organic electronic devices such as photovoltaics and field-effect transistors. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  13. Doctor Blade-Coated Polymer Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Cho, Nam Chul

    2016-10-25

    In this work, we report polymer solar cells based on blade-coated P3HT:PC71BM and PBDTTT-EFT:PC71BM bulk heterojunction photoactive layers. Enhanced power conversion efficiency of 2.75 (conventional structure) and 3.03% (inverted structure) with improved reproducibility was obtained from blade-coated P3HT:PC71BM solar cells, compared to spin-coated ones. Furthermore, by demonstrating 3.10% efficiency flexible solar cells using blade-coated PBDTTT-EFT:PC71BM films on the plastic substrates, we suggest the potential applicability of blade coating technique to the high throughput roll-to-roll fabrication systems.

  14. 10.2% power conversion efficiency polymer tandem solar cells consisting of two identical sub-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jingbi; Chen, Chun-Chao; Hong, Ziruo; Yoshimura, Ken; Ohya, Kenichiro; Xu, Run; Ye, Shenglin; Gao, Jing; Li, Gang; Yang, Yang

    2013-08-07

    Polymer tandem solar cells with 10.2% power conversion efficiency are demonstrated via stacking two PDTP-DFBT:PC₇₁ BM bulk heterojunctions, connected by MoO₃/PEDOT:PSS/ZnO as an interconnecting layer. The tandem solar cells increase the power conversion efficiency of the PDTP-DFBT:PC₇₁ BM system from 8.1% to 10.2%, successfully demonstrating polymer tandem solar cells with identical sub-cells of double-digit efficiency. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Efficient inverted polymer solar cells employing favourable molecular orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Vohra, Varun; Kawashima, Kazuaki; Kakara, Takeshi; Koganezawa, Tomoyuki; Osaka, Itaru; Takimiya, Kazuo; Murata, Hideyuki

    2015-01-01

    The improvement in the power conversion efficiency is a critical issue for polymer-based bulk-heterojunction solar cells (PSCs). Here, we show that high efficiencies of ~10% can be obtained by using a crystalline polymer, PNTz4T, in single-junction inverted cells with the thick active layer measuring ca. 300 nm. The improved performance is likely due to the large population of the polymer crystallites with the face-on orientation and the “favourable” distribution of edge-on and face-on crysta...

  16. Organic photovoltaic devices produced from conjugated polymer/methanofullerene bulk heterojunctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brabec, C.J.; Shaheen, S.E.; Fromherz, T.; Padinger, F.; Hummelen, J.C.; Dhanabalan, A.; Janssen, R.A.J.; Sariciftci, N.S.

    2001-01-01

    Organic photovoltaic devices have been fabricated utilizing the photoinduced electron transfer with long-living charge separation in conjugated polymer/methanofullerene thin films. The performance of such "bulk heterojunction" photovoltaic devices is critically dependent on the charge transport

  17. Molecular Intercalation and Cohesion of Organic Bulk Heterojunction Photovoltaic Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Bruner, Christopher

    2013-01-17

    The phase separated bulk heterojunction (BHJ) layer in BHJ polymer:fullerene organic photovoltaic devices (OPV) are mechanically weak with low values of cohesion. Improved cohesion is important for OPV device thermomechanical reliability. BHJ devices are investigated and how fullerene intercalation within the active layer affects cohesive properties in the BHJ is shown. The intercalation of fullerenes between the side chains of the polymers poly(3,3″′-didocecyl quaterthiophene) (PQT-12) and poly(2,5-bis(3-hexadecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (pBTTT) is shown to enhance BHJ layer cohesion. Cohesion values range from ≈1 to 5 J m -2, depending on the polymer:fullerene blend, processing conditions, and composition. Devices with non-intercalated BHJ layers are found to have significantly reduced values of cohesion. The resulting device power conversion efficiencies (PCE) are also investigated and correlated with the device cohesion. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Thermocleavable Materials for Polymer Solar Cells with High Open Circuit Voltage-A Comparative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tromholt, Thomas; Gevorgyan, Suren; Jørgensen, Mikkel

    2009-01-01

    The search for polymer solar cells giving a high open circuit voltage was conducted through a comparative study of four types of bulk-heterojunction solar cells employing different photoactive layers. As electron donors the thermo-cleavable polymer poly-(3-(2-methylhexyloxycarbonyl)dithiophene) (P3...... in terms of substrate design and device processing, a substantial spread in the photovoltaic properties was generally observed. This spread could not be correlated with the optical properties of the solar cells, the thickness of the photo active layer or the electrode deposition conditions of the aluminum...... top electrode....

  19. Mixed-quantum-dot solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Fan, James Z; Proppe, Andrew H; Arquer, F Pelayo García de; Rossouw, David; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Lan, Xinzheng; Liu, Min; Walters, Grant; Quintero-Bermudez, Rafael; Sun, Bin; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Botton, Gianluigi A; Kelley, Shana O; Sargent, Edward H

    2017-11-06

    Colloidal quantum dots are emerging solution-processed materials for large-scale and low-cost photovoltaics. The recent advent of quantum dot inks has overcome the prior need for solid-state exchanges that previously added cost, complexity, and morphological disruption to the quantum dot solid. Unfortunately, these inks remain limited by the photocarrier diffusion length. Here we devise a strategy based on n- and p-type ligands that judiciously shifts the quantum dot band alignment. It leads to ink-based materials that retain the independent surface functionalization of quantum dots, and it creates distinguishable donor and acceptor domains for bulk heterojunctions. Interdot carrier transfer and exciton dissociation studies confirm efficient charge separation at the nanoscale interfaces between the two classes of quantum dots. We fabricate the first mixed-quantum-dot solar cells and achieve a power conversion of 10.4%, which surpasses the performance of previously reported bulk heterojunction quantum dot devices fully two-fold, indicating the potential of the mixed-quantum-dot approach.

  20. A Bicontinuous Double Gyroid Hybrid Solar Cell

    KAUST Repository

    Crossland, Edward J. W.

    2009-08-12

    We report the first successful application of an ordered bicontinuous gyroid semiconducting network in a hybrid bulk heterojunction solar cell. The freestanding gyroid network is fabricated by electrochemical deposition into the 10 nm wide voided channels of a self-assembled, selectively degradable block copolymer film. The highly ordered pore structure is ideal for uniform infiltration of an organic hole transporting material, and solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells only 400 nm thick exhibit up to 1.7% power conversion efficiency. This patterning technique can be readily extended to other promising heterojunction systems and is a major step toward realizing the full potential of self-assembly in the next generation of device technologies. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  1. The Effect of Structural Properties of Cu2Se/Polyvinylcarbazole Nanocomposites on the Performance of Hybrid Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Govindraju, S.; Ntholeng, N.; K Ranganathan; M.J. Moloto; L. M. Sikhwivhilu; Moloto, N.

    2016-01-01

    It has been said that substitution of fullerenes with semiconductor nanocrystals in bulk heterojunction solar cells can potentially increase the power conversion efficiencies (PCE) of these devices far beyond the 10% mark. However new semiconductor nanocrystals other than the potentially toxic CdSe and PbS are necessary. Herein we report on the synthesis of Cu2Se nanocrystals and their incorporation into polyvinylcarbazole (PVK) to form polymer nanocomposites for use as active layers in hybri...

  2. Organic solar cells using a high-molecular-weight benzodithiophene-benzothiadiazole copolymer with an efficiency of 9.4%.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbiah, Jegadesan; Purushothaman, Balaji; Chen, Ming; Qin, Tianshi; Gao, Mei; Vak, Doojin; Scholes, Fiona H; Chen, Xiwen; Watkins, Scott E; Wilson, Gerard J; Holmes, Andrew B; Wong, Wallace W H; Jones, David J

    2015-01-27

    A high molecular weight donor-acceptor conjugated polymer is synthesized using the Suzuki polycondensation method. Using this polymer, a single-junction bulk-heterojunction solar cell is fabricated giving a power conversion efficiency of 9.4% using a fullerene-modified ZnO interlayer at the cathode contact. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Hybrid solar cells from water-soluble polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James T. McLeskey

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the use of a water-soluble, light-absorbing polythiophene polymer to fabricate novel photovoltaic devices. The polymer is a water-soluble thiophene known as sodium poly[2-(3-thienyl-ethoxy-4-butylsulfonate] or PTEBS. The intention is to take advantage of the properties of conjugated polymers (flexible, tunable, and easy to process and incorporate the additional benefits of water solubility (easily controlled evaporation rates and environmentally friendly. The PTEBS polythiophene has shown significant photovoltaic response and has been found to be effective for making solar cells. To date, solar cells in three different configurations have been produced: titanium dioxide (TiO2 bilayer cells, TiO2 bulk heterojunction solar cells, and carbon nanotubes (CNTs in bulk heterojunctions. The best performance thus far has been achieved with TiO2 bilayer devices. These devices have an open circuit voltage (Voc of 0.84V, a short circuit current (Jsc of 0.15 mA/cm2, a fill factor (ff of 0.91, and an efficiency (η of 0.15 %.

  4. Flexible organic solar cells including efficiency enhancing grating structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira Hansen, Roana Melina de; Liu, Yinghui; Madsen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    In this work, a new method for the fabrication of organic solar cells containing functional light-trapping nanostructures on flexible substrates is presented. Polyimide is spin-coated on silicon support substrates, enabling standard micro- and nanotechnology fabrication techniques......, such as photolithography and electron-beam lithography, besides the steps required for the bulk-heterojunction organic solar cell fabrication. After the production steps, the solar cells on polyimide are peeled off the silicon support substrates, resulting in flexible devices containing nanostructures for light absorption...... enhancement. Since the solar cells avoid using brittle electrodes, the performance of the flexible devices is not affected by the peeling process. We have investigated three different nanostructured grating designs and conclude that gratings with a 500 nm pitch distance have the highest light...

  5. Time-Resolved Microwave Photoconductivity study of the Photophysics of Bulk Heterojunction Organic Photovoltaic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopidakis, Nikos; Ferguson, Andrew; Shaheen, Sean; Rumbles, Garry

    2007-03-01

    Bulk heterojunctions composed of a blend of the polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and the acceptor fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) are the prototypical organic photovoltaic devices. The photophysical processes that take place in these structures involve exciton generation and quenching, and free carrier transport, trapping and recombination. To probe these processes we have performed contactless Time-Resolved Microwave Photoconductivity measurements in pure polymer films and in bulk heterojunctions with varying PCBM concentration. We compare our results with various models for free carrier generation in the pure polymer and in the bulk heterojunction and develop a kinetic scheme to describe free carrier generation and recombination that is consistent with our experimental data. We show that exciton quenching in the presence of the acceptor (PCBM) involves first and second order processes that become prevalent at low and high light intensities, respectively.

  6. Rational Engineering of BODIPY-Bridged Trisindole Derivatives for Solar Cell Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Ibrahim; Huaulmé, Quentin; Mirloup, Antoine; Chávez, Patricia; Fall, Sadiara; Hébraud, Anne; Méry, Stéphane; Heinrich, Benoît; Heiser, Thomas; Lévêque, Patrick; Leclerc, Nicolas

    2017-05-09

    Boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) and its derivatives are known to be efficient photon-harvesting chromophores. However, their study as active materials in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells is still scarce. In this study, the development of new synthetic ways to design original BODIPY-based dumbbell-shape molecules, including a first 2,3,5,6-tetravinyl aromatic BODIPY molecule, is reported. High fill factors can be obtained in BHJ solar cells when blended with a fullerene derivative, leading to a new record BODIPY-based power conversion efficiency of 5.8 %. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Ellipsometry as a Nondestructive Depth Profiling Tool for Roll-to-Roll Manufactured Flexible Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterager Madsen, Morten; Sylvester-Hvid, Kristian O.; Dastmalchi, Babak

    2011-01-01

    We show that it is possible to perform ellipsometry on large area roll-to-roll (R2R) coated solar cells on flexible substrates and further demonstrate that the slot-die coating technique employed yields the same bulk heterojunction (BHJ) film morphology and vertical phase separation as laboratory...... samples prepared by the spin coating technique. The solar cell device geometry was Kapton/Al/Cr/P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS/Ag. Variable angle ellipsometry was used to determine the optical dispersions of the pure phases of P3HT and PCBM allowing an effective medium approximation model to be employed...

  8. Incorporation of Furan into Low Band-Gap Polymers for Efficient Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Woo, Claire H.

    2010-11-10

    The design, synthesis, and characterization of the first examples of furan-containing low band-gap polymers, PDPP2FT and PDPP3F, with substantial power conversion efficiencies in organic solar cells are reported. Inserting furan moieties in the backbone of the conjugated polymers enables the use of relatively small solubilizing side chains because of the significant contribution of the furan rings to overall polymer solubility in common organic solvents. Bulk heterojunction solar cells fabricated from furan-containing polymers and PC71BM as the acceptor showed power conversion efficiencies reaching 5.0%. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  9. p-Type Semiconducting Nickel Oxide as an Efficiency-Enhancing Anode Interfacial Layer in Polymer Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michael D. Irwin; D. Bruce Buchholz; Alexander W. Hains; Robert P. H. Chang; Tobin J. Marks

    2008-01-01

    To minimize interfacial power losses, thin (5-80 nm) layers of NiO, a p-type oxide semiconductor, are inserted between the active organic layer, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) + [6,6]-phenyl-C₆₁...

  10. The role of dynamic measurements in correlating structure with optoelectronic properties in polymer : fullerene bulk-heterojunction solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Andrew J; Wang, Tao; Lidzey, David G

    2013-02-01

    The characterization of morphology in blend thin-films of conjugated polymers and functionalized fullerenes is a critical aspect in organic photovoltaic (OPV) device research. Understanding the links between thin-film processing conditions, film nanostructure and photocurrent generation efficiency is necessary in order to develop this technology for commercial viability. Here, we review recent developments of experimental studies that probe sample nanostructure formation and modification during the processing steps commonly used in OPV device fabrication, potentially offering a deeper insight and more rational understating of these conditions.

  11. The role of dynamic measurements in correlating structure with optoelectronic properties in polymer : fullerene bulk-heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Andrew J.; Wang, Tao; Lidzey, David G.

    2013-02-01

    The characterization of morphology in blend thin-films of conjugated polymers and functionalized fullerenes is a critical aspect in organic photovoltaic (OPV) device research. Understanding the links between thin-film processing conditions, film nanostructure and photocurrent generation efficiency is necessary in order to develop this technology for commercial viability. Here, we review recent developments of experimental studies that probe sample nanostructure formation and modification during the processing steps commonly used in OPV device fabrication, potentially offering a deeper insight and more rational understating of these conditions.

  12. Poly(3-hexylthiophene) - CdSe quantum dot bulk heterojunction solar cells: Influence of the functional end-group of the polymer

    KAUST Repository

    Palaniappan, Kumaranand

    2009-06-23

    The synthesis of H/thiol terminated P3HT from Br/allyl-terminated P3HT precursor was analyzed. The photovoltaic response of blends were prepared of H/thiol terminated P3HT with spherical CdSe quantum dots(QD) and compares the results with regioregular H/Br and Br/aryl-terminated P3HT. Phase segregation was carried by mixing relatively polar pyridine treated CdSe QD with nonpolar P3HT. The experiment revealed that a high loading of CdSe is necessary for an efficient charge transport and different loading ratios of CdSe has been investigated to correlate the photovoltaic response as a function of ration between donor H/thiol-P3ht polymer and acceptor Cdse QD. The results show that H/Br-P3HT, H/thiol- and Br/allyl-terminated P3HT exhibits better performance and Cdse quantum dots were used to obtain results.

  13. Intercalated vs Non-Intercalated Morphologies in Donor-Acceptor Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells: PBTTT:Fullerene Charge Generation and Recombination Revisited

    KAUST Repository

    Collado Fregoso, Elisa

    2017-08-04

    In this contribution, we study the role of the donor:acceptor interface nanostructure upon charge separation and recombination in organic photovoltaic devices and blend films, using mixtures of PBTTT and two different fullerene derivatives (PC70BM and ICTA) as models for intercalated and non-intercalated morphologies, respectively. Thermodynamic simulations show that while the completely intercalated system exhibits a large free-energy barrier for charge separation, this barrier is significantly lower in the non-intercalated system, and almost vanishes when energetic disorder is included in the model. Despite these differences, both fs-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy (TAS) and TDCF exhibit extensive first-order losses in that system, suggesting that geminate pairs are the primary product of photoexcitation. In contrast, the system that comprises a combination of fully intercalated polymer:fullerene areas and fullerene aggregated domains (1:4 PBTTT:PC70BM), is the only one that shows slow, second-order recombination of free charges, resulting in devices with an overall higher short circuit current and fill factor. This study therefore provides a novel consideration of the role of the interfacial nanostructure and the nature of bound charges, and their impact upon charge generation and recombination.

  14. Photovoltaic performance of P3HT-porphyrin functionalized 1D CdS nanostructured organic inorganic bulk heterojunction hybrid solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, Uzma; Adhikari, Tham; Shah, Syed Mujtaba; Pathak, Dinesh; Wagner, Tomas; Nunzi, Jean-Michel

    2017-05-01

    Here we report first time the direct observation of the nucleation and growth process of cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanowires by stirring of CdS nanoparticles. The growth process of CdS nanowires consist of three steps, the growth of CdS particles, nucleation of CdS nanorods and finally the growth of CdS nanowires. This method brings forward a new idea to synthesize nanowires. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) and photoluminescence (PL) spectra have been provided for the characterization of the as-obtained nanowires. Furthermore, carboxylic functionalize porphyrin was examined as sensitizer for CdS nanowires. The interaction of porphyrin with CdS nanowires was investigated by absorption, infrared, steady state fluorescence spectroscopy and SEM techniques. The hybrid devices were fabricated with organic polymer with different concentration of dyes and the device with optimum concentration 6 × 10-6 M shows the highest efficiency of 0.5% with short-circuit current density 3.10 mA cm-2, open-circuit voltage 0.44 V and fill factor 0.37. Contribution to the topical issue "Materials for Energy harvesting, conversion and storage II (ICOME 2016)", edited by Jean-Michel Nunzi, Rachid Bennacer and Mohammed El Ganaoui

  15. Functional solid additive modified PEDOT:PSS as an anode buffer layer for enhanced photovoltaic performance and stability in polymer solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Binrui; Gopalan, Sai-Anand; Gopalan, Anantha-Iyengar; Muthuchamy, Nallal; Lee, Kwang-Pill; Lee, Jae-Sung; Jiang, Yu; Lee, Sang-Won; Kim, Sae-Wan; Kim, Ju-Seong; Jeong, Hyun-Min; Kwon, Jin-Beon; Bae, Jin-Hyuk; Kang, Shin-Won

    2017-01-01

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) is most commonly used as an anode buffer layer in bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells (PSCs). However, its hygroscopic and acidic nature contributes to the insufficient electrical conductivity, air stability and restricted photovoltaic (PV) performance for the fabricated PSCs. In this study, a new multifunctional additive, 2,3-dihydroxypyridine (DOH), has been used in the PEDOT: PSS buffer layer to obtain modified ...

  16. Confinement-induced reduction in phase segregation and interchain disorder in bulk heterojunction films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Ahsan; Dissanayake, D M Nanditha M; Germack, David S; Weiland, Conan; Eisaman, Matthew D

    2014-01-28

    The effects of thin-film confinement on the material properties of ultrathin polymer (electron donor):fullerene (electron acceptor) bulk heterojunction films can be important for both fundamental understanding and device applications such as thin-film photovoltaics. We use variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy to measure the optical constants, donor-acceptor volume fraction profile, and the degree of interchain order as a function of the thickness of a poly(3-hexythiophene-2,5-diyl) and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester bulk heterojunction film. We find that as the thickness of the bulk heterojunction film is decreased from 200 nm to the thickness confinement regime (less than 20 nm), the vertical phase segregation gradient of the donor and acceptor phases becomes less pronounced. In addition, observing the change in exciton bandwidth and the shift of absorption resonances (0-0 and 0-1) relative to neat donor and acceptor films, we find that the conjugation length and disorder in ultrathin films (20 nm) are less affected than thicker (200 nm) films by the addition of fullerene into the polymer. We believe that these findings could be important for discovering methods of precisely controlling the properties of bulk heterojunction films with crucial implications for designing more efficient organic-based photovoltaics.

  17. EDITORIAL: Nanostructured solar cells Nanostructured solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenham, Neil C.; Grätzel, Michael

    2008-10-01

    Conversion into electrical power of even a small fraction of the solar radiation incident on the Earth's surface has the potential to satisfy the world's energy demands without generating CO2 emissions. Current photovoltaic technology is not yet fulfilling this promise, largely due to the high cost of the electricity produced. Although the challenges of storage and distribution should not be underestimated, a major bottleneck lies in the photovoltaic devices themselves. Improving efficiency is part of the solution, but diminishing returns in that area mean that reducing the manufacturing cost is absolutely vital, whilst still retaining good efficiencies and device lifetimes. Solution-processible materials, e.g. organic molecules, conjugated polymers and semiconductor nanoparticles, offer new routes to the low-cost production of solar cells. The challenge here is that absorbing light in an organic material produces a coulombically bound exciton that requires dissociation at a donor-acceptor heterojunction. A thickness of at least 100 nm is required to absorb the incident light, but excitons only diffuse a few nanometres before decaying. The problem is therefore intrinsically at the nano-scale: we need composite devices with a large area of internal donor-acceptor interface, but where each carrier has a pathway to the respective electrode. Dye-sensitized and bulk heterojunction cells have nanostructures which approach this challenge in different ways, and leading research in this area is described in many of the articles in this special issue. This issue is not restricted to organic or dye-sensitized photovoltaics, since nanotechnology can also play an important role in devices based on more conventional inorganic materials. In these materials, the electronic properties can be controlled, tuned and in some cases completely changed by nanoscale confinement. Also, the techniques of nanoscience are the natural ones for investigating the localized states, particularly at

  18. The role of the hole-extraction layer in determining the operational stability of a polycarbazole:fullerene bulk-heterojunction photovoltaic device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovill, E.; Scarratt, N.; Griffin, J.; Buckley, A. R.; Lidzey, D. G., E-mail: d.g.lidzey@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Yi, H.; Iraqi, A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7HF (United Kingdom); Kingsley, J. W. [Ossila Ltd., Kroto Innovation Centre, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-16

    We have made a comparative study of the relative operational stability of bulk-heterojunction organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices utilising different hole transport layers (HTLs). OPV devices were fabricated based on a blend of the polymer PCDTBT with the fullerene PC{sub 70}BM, and incorporated the different HTL materials PEDOT:PSS, MoO{sub x} and V{sub 2}O{sub 5}. Following 620 h of irradiation by light from a solar simulator, we find that devices using the PEDOT:PSS HTL retained the highest efficiency, having a projected T{sub 80} lifetime of 14 500 h.

  19. Efficient inverted polymer solar cells employing favourable molecular orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohra, Varun; Kawashima, Kazuaki; Kakara, Takeshi; Koganezawa, Tomoyuki; Osaka, Itaru; Takimiya, Kazuo; Murata, Hideyuki

    2015-06-01

    Improving the power conversion efficiency of polymer-based bulk-heterojunction solar cells is a critical issue. Here, we show that high efficiencies of ∼10% can be obtained using the crystalline polymer PNTz4T in single-junction inverted cells with a thick active layer having a thickness of ∼300 nm. The improved performance is probably due to the large population of polymer crystallites with a face-on orientation and the ‘favourable’ distribution of edge-on and face-on crystallites along the film thickness (revealed by in-depth studies of the blend films using grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray diffraction), which results in a reduction in charge recombination and efficient charge transport. These results underscore the great promise of polymer solar cells and raise the hope of achieving even higher efficiencies by means of materials development and control of molecular ordering.

  20. Exciton-Dissociation and Charge-Recombination Processes in Pentacene/C 60 Solar Cells: Theoretical Insight into the Impact of Interface Geometry

    KAUST Repository

    Yi, Yuanping

    2009-11-04

    The exciton-dissociation and charge-recombination processes in organic solar cells based on pentacene/C60 heterojunctions are investigated by means of quantum-mechanical calculations. The electronic couplings and the rates of exciton dissociation and charge recombination have been evaluated for several geometrical configurations of the pentacene/C60 complex, which are relevant to bilayer and bulk heterojunctions. The results suggest that, irrespective of the actual pentacene-fullerene orientation, both pentacene-based and C60-based excitons are able to dissociate efficiently. Also, in the case of parallel configurations of the molecules at the pentacene/C60 interface, the decay of the lowest charge-transfer state to the ground state is calculated to be very fast; as a result, it can compete with the dissociation process into mobile charge carriers. Since parallel configurations are expected to be found more frequently in bulk heterojunctions than in bilayer heterojunctions, the performance of pentacene/C60 bulk-heterojunction solar cells is likely to be more affected by charge recombination than that of bilayer devices. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  1. Degradation effects related to the hole transport layer in organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecker, Bernhard; Parisi, Juergen; Hauff, Elizabeth von [Energy and Semiconductor Research Laboratory, Institute of Physics, Carl von Ossietzky University, 26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Nolasco, Jairo; Pallares, Josep; Marsal, Lluis [Departament d' Enginyeria Electronica Electrica i Automatica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Avda. Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Posdorfer, Joerg [Enthone Nano Science Centre, Ormecon GmbH, Ferdinand-Harten-Str. 7, 22949, Ammersbek (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    We discuss the influence of the hole transport layer on the device stability in organic bulk-heterojunction solar cells. Two water based hole transport layers, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and polyaniline: poly(styrene sulfonate) (PANI:PSS), and one isopropyl alcohol based PANI:PSS transport layer were investigated. Solar cells were prepared with the three different hole transport layers and degraded under illumination. Current-voltage, capacitance-voltage, and capacitance-frequency data were collected at varying light intensities over a period of 7 hours. Solar cell performance and stability were compared between non encapsulated and encapsulated samples to obtain understanding about degradation effects related to oxygen and water as well as degradation mechanisms related to the intrinsic instability of the solar cell materials and interfaces. We show that the properties of the hole transport layer can have a significant impact on the stability of organic solar cells.

  2. Charge carrier recombination dynamics in perovskite and polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulke, Andreas; Kniepert, Juliane; Kurpiers, Jona; Wolff, Christian M.; Schön, Natalie; Brenner, Thomas J. K.; Neher, Dieter [Institute of Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24–25, 14476, Potsdam (Germany); Stranks, Samuel D. [Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Cavendish Laboratory, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Snaith, Henry J. [Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-14

    Time-delayed collection field experiments are applied to planar organometal halide perovskite (CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3}) based solar cells to investigate charge carrier recombination in a fully working solar cell at the nanosecond to microsecond time scale. Recombination of mobile (extractable) charges is shown to follow second-order recombination dynamics for all fluences and time scales tested. Most importantly, the bimolecular recombination coefficient is found to be time-dependent, with an initial value of ca. 10{sup −9} cm{sup 3}/s and a progressive reduction within the first tens of nanoseconds. Comparison to the prototypical organic bulk heterojunction device PTB7:PC{sub 71}BM yields important differences with regard to the mechanism and time scale of free carrier recombination.

  3. Oligo and Poly-thiophene/Zno Hybrid Nanowire Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briseno, Alejandro L.; Holcombe, Thomas W.; Boukai, Akram I.; Garnett, Erik C.; Shelton, Steve W.; Frechet, Jean J. M.; Yang, Peidong

    2009-11-03

    We demonstrate the basic operation of an organic/inorganic hybrid single nanowire solar cell. End-functionalized oligo- and polythiophenes were grafted onto ZnO nanowires to produce p-n heterojunction nanowires. The hybrid nanostructures were characterized via absorption and electron microscopy to determine the optoelectronic properties and to probe the morphology at the organic/inorganic interface. Individual nanowire solar cell devices exhibited well-resolved characteristics with efficiencies as high as 0.036percent, Jsc = 0.32 mA/cm2, Voc = 0.4 V, and a FF = 0.28 under AM 1.5 illumination with 100 mW/cm2 light intensity. These individual test structures will enable detailed analysis to be carried out in areas that have been difficult to study in bulk heterojunction devices.

  4. Light intensity dependence of open-circuit voltage of polymer: fullerene solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Koster, LJA; Mihailetchi, VD; Blom, PWM

    2005-01-01

    The open-circuit voltage V-oc of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells is investigated as a function of light intensity for different temperatures. Devices consisted of a blend of a poly(p-phenylene vinylene) derivative as the hole conductor and 6,6-phenyl C-61-butyric acid methyl ester as the electron conductor. The observed photogenerated current and V-oc are at variance with classical p-n junction-based models. The influence of light intensity and recombination strength on V-oc...

  5. Synthesis of ZnO Nanocrystals and Application in Inverted Polymer Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jing-Jing; Wu, Jian; Hao, Hui-Ying; Xing, Jie; Liu, Hao; Gao, Hua

    2017-09-01

    Controllable synthesis of various ZnO nanocrystals was achieved via a simple and cost-effective hydrothermal process. The morphology evolution of the ZnO nanostructures was well monitored by tuning hydrothermal growth parameters, such as solution concentration, reaction temperature, and surfactant. As-obtained ZnO nanocrystals with different morphologies, e.g., ZnO nanorods, nanotetrapods, nanoflowers, and nanocubes, were further introduced into the organic bulk heterojunction solar cells as the electron transport channel. It was found that the device performance was closely related to the morphology of the ZnO nanocrystals.

  6. Medium Bandgap Conjugated Polymer for High Performance Polymer Solar Cells Exceeding 9% Power Conversion Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae Woong; Liu, Feng; Russell, Thomas P; Jo, Won Ho

    2015-12-02

    Two medium-bandgap polymers composed of benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiohpene and 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole with 6-octyl-thieno[3,2-b]thiophene as a π-bridge unit are synthesized and their photovoltaic properties are analyzed. The two polymers have deep highest occupied molecular orbital energy levels, high crystallinity, optimal bulk-heterojunction morphology, and efficient charge transport, resulting in a power conversion efficiency of as high as 9.44% for a single-junction polymer solar-cell device. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Ambipolar Organic Phototransistors with p-Type/n-Type Conjugated Polymer Bulk Heterojunction Light-Sensing Layers

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Sungho

    2016-11-18

    Ambipolar organic phototransistors with sensing channel layers, featuring p-type and n-type conjugated polymer bulk heterojunctions, exhibit outstanding light-sensing characteristics in both p-channel and n-channel sensing operation modes.

  8. UV Crosslinkable Polythiophene for Nano-imprinting and Photolithography toward Ordered Bulk Heterojunction in Organic Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Q.; Hlaing, H.; Ocko, B.; Black, C.; Grubbs, R.B.

    2010-07-25

    Exciton travel distance in organic material is on the order of 10-20 nm, thus the morphology of the organic active layer is critical to achieve high performance in OPVs. An ordered bulk heterojunction (BHJ) morphology with phase separation on the order of 10-20 nm will collect all excitons at the interface and give uninterrupted paths to all separated charges to reach the corresponding electrodes.

  9. Fullerene-Grafted Graphene for Efficient Bulk Heterojunction Polymer Photovoltaic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    synergetic effects. Examples include graphene SnO2 hybrids as anode materials for batteries with improved capacity and cyclic stability,14 and Pd...S.-M.; Yoo, E.; Honma, I. Enhanced Cyclic Performance and Lithium Storage Capacity of SnO2 / Graphene Nanoporous Electro- des with Three-Dimensionally...pubs.acs.org/JPCL Fullerene-Grafted Graphene for Efficient Bulk Heterojunction Polymer Photovoltaic Devices Dingshan Yu,† Kyusoon Park,‡ Michael Durstock

  10. Study of the potential energy conversion efficiency of organic solar cells based on donor/acceptor heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geens, Wim

    2002-01-01

    Organic solar cells can offer an appealing alternative for bulk silicon solar cells due to their attractive properties such as flexibility and possibility to apply low-cost manufacturing techniques. The different types of existing organic solar cells reported in the literature have been critically assessed in terms of performance and processability, based on which it was concluded that the concept of the donor/acceptor bulk heterojunction sandwiched between a transparent and a metal electrode has the most potential. In order to gain more insight into the charge transport properties of spin-cast photovoltaic conjugated polymer/fullerene blends, these films were incorporated into field-effect transistors to derive values for the electron and hole mobilities. Model calculations showed that increasing these mobility values in combination with the use of thicker active layers could significantly enhance the short-circuit current density of the bulk heterojunction solar cells. Optimisation of the charge transport is required and was realised in this study by choosing PPV-oligomers and C60 as well-defined building blocks to construct the donor/acceptor networks. First, these materials were spin-cast in single-layer diodes to allow full electrical characterisation, which was then compared with simulation of the devices in dark as well as under illumination. The photovoltaic performance of blended PPV-oligomer/C60 devices remained rather low due to C60-induced shunting paths and high molecular disorder. In a second part, more morphological order was obtained by using vacuum evaporation to deposit the organic materials. Besides structural characterisation of the evaporated films, the electrical behaviour of single-layer devices was investigated and the influence of interfacial layers was addressed. Photovoltaic devices based on evaporated planar heterojunctions reaching a conversion efficiency of 1.9% and exhibiting an open-circuit voltage of over 1 V were realised

  11. Geometric light trapping with a V-trap for efficient organic solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Soo Jin

    2013-03-14

    The efficiency of today’s most efficient organic solar cells is primarily limited by the ability of the active layer to absorb all the sunlight. While internal quantum efficiencies exceeding 90% are common, the external quantum efficiency rarely exceeds 70%. Light trapping techniques that increase the ability of a given active layer to absorb light are common in inorganic solar cells but have only been applied to organic solar cells with limited success. Here, we analyze the light trapping mechanism for a cell with a V-shape substrate configuration and demonstrate significantly improved photon absorption in an 5.3%-efficient PCDTBT:PC70BM bulk heterojunction polymer solar cell. The measured short circuit current density improves by 29%, in agreement with model predictions, and the power conversion efficiency increases to 7.2%, a 35% improvement over the performance in the absence of a light trap.

  12. Synthesis of ZnO-based nanostructures for heterostructure photovoltaic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lashkova, N. A.; Maximov, A. I.; Ryabko, A. A.; Bobkov, A. A.; Moshnikov, V. A.; Terukov, E. I., E-mail: eug.terukov@mail.ioffe.ru [St. Petersburg State Electrotechnical University “LETI” (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    A model describing heterostructure solar cells based on zinc and copper oxides is developed. Seed layers of ZnO and CuO are synthesized by spray pyrolysis. To form a bulk heterojunction, ZnO nanorods are grown by hydrothermal synthesis. The morphological, electrical and optical properties of the fabricated structures are investigated.

  13. Highly-Efficient Charge Separation and Polaron Delocalization in Polymer-Fullerene Bulk-Heterojunctions: A Comparative Multi-Frequency EPR & DFT Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklas, Jens; Mardis, Kristy L.; Banks, Brian P.; Grooms, Gregory M.; Sperlich, Andreas; Dyakonov, Vladimir; Beaupré, Serge; Leclerc, Mario; Xu, Tao; Yu, Luping; Poluektov, Oleg G.

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing depletion of fossil fuels has led to an intensive search for additional renewable energy sources. Solar-based technologies could provide sufficient energy to satisfy the global economic demands in the near future. Photovoltaic (PV) cells are the most promising man-made devices for direct solar energy utilization. Understanding the charge separation and charge transport in PV materials at a molecular level is crucial for improving the efficiency of the solar cells. Here, we use light-induced EPR spectroscopy combined with DFT calculations to study the electronic structure of charge separated states in blends of polymers (P3HT, PCDTBT, and PTB7) and fullerene derivatives (C60-PCBM and C70-PCBM). Solar cells made with the same composites as active layers show power conversion efficiencies of 3.3% (P3HT), 6.1% (PCDTBT), and 7.3% (PTB7), respectively. Under illumination of these composites, two paramagnetic species are formed due to photo-induced electron transfer between the conjugated polymer and the fullerene. They are the positive, P+, and negative, P-, polarons on the polymer backbone and fullerene cage, respectively, and correspond to radical cations and radical anions. Using the high spectral resolution of high-frequency EPR (130 GHz), the EPR spectra of these species were resolved and principal components of the g-tensors were assigned. Light-induced pulsed ENDOR spectroscopy allowed the determination of 1H hyperfine coupling constants of photogenerated positive and negative polarons. The experimental results obtained for the different polymer-fullerene composites have been compared with DFT calculations, revealing that in all three systems the positive polaron is distributed over distances of 40 - 60 Å on the polymer chain. This corresponds to about 15 thiophene units for P3HT, approximately three units PCDTBT, and about three to four units for PTB7. No spin density delocalization between neighboring fullerene molecules was detected by EPR. Strong

  14. Molecular and Nanoscale Engineering of High Efficiency Excitonic Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenekhe, Samson A. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Ginger, David S. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Cao, Guozhong [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2016-01-15

    We combined the synthesis of new polymers and organic-inorganic hybrid materials with new experimental characterization tools to investigate bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells and hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells during the 2007-2010 period (phase I) of this project. We showed that the bulk morphology of polymer/fullerene blend solar cells could be controlled by using either self-assembled polymer semiconductor nanowires or diblock poly(3-alkylthiophenes) as the light-absorbing and hole transport component. We developed new characterization tools in-house, including photoinduced absorption (PIA) spectroscopy, time-resolved electrostatic force microscopy (TR-EFM) and conductive and photoconductive atomic force microscopy (c-AFM and pc-AFM), and used them to investigate charge transfer and recombination dynamics in polymer/fullerene BHJ solar cells, hybrid polymer-nanocrystal (PbSe) devices, and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs); we thus showed in detail how the bulk photovoltaic properties are connected to the nanoscale structure of the BHJ polymer solar cells. We created various oxide semiconductor (ZnO, TiO2) nanostructures by solution processing routes, including hierarchical aggregates and nanorods/nanotubes, and showed that the nanostructured photoanodes resulted in substantially enhanced light-harvesting and charge transport, leading to enhanced power conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells.

  15. Improving organic solar cell efficiency by increasing light absorption and charge carrier mobility in the device active layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, S. Sundar Kumar

    2013-02-01

    Organic solar cells can be a potential low cost alternative to inorganic solar cells in many applications provided their efficiencies and lifetimes can be improved. In this talk, a couple of ideas for improving organic solar cells' power conversion efficiencies are explored. The first idea deals with increasing light absorption in organic solar cell active layers by appropriately incorporating metallic nano-particles within the devices. Effects of the size, shape and location of the nanoparticles on the light absorption will be discussed. The second idea deals with charge carrier mobility improvement in the active layer by application of electric field during the formation of that layer. The potential for improvement in device efficiency for P3HT:PCBM (poly 3-hexylthiophene: [6,6] phenyl C60 butyric acid methyl ester) based bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells by electric field application during the appropriate device fabrication process, will be discussed.

  16. Grooved nanowires from self-assembling hairpin molecules for solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tevis, Ian D; Tsai, Wei-Wen; Palmer, Liam C; Aytun, Taner; Stupp, Samuel I

    2012-03-27

    One of the challenges facing bulk heterojunction organic solar cells is obtaining organized films during the phase separation of intimately mixed donor and acceptor components. We report here on the use of hairpin-shaped sexithiophene molecules to generate by self-assembly grooved nanowires as the donor component in bulk heterojunction solar cells. Photovoltaic devices were fabricated via spin-casting to produce by solvent evaporation a percolating network of self-assembled nanowires and fullerene acceptors. Thermal annealing was found to increase power conversion efficiencies by promoting domain growth while still maintaining this percolating network of nanostructures. The benefits of self-assembly and grooved nanowires were examined by building devices from a soluble sexithiophene derivative that does not form one-dimensional structures. In these systems, excessive phase separation caused by thermal annealing leads to the formation of defects and lower device efficiencies. We propose that the unique hairpin shape of the self-assembling molecules allows the nanowires as they form to interact well with the fullerenes in receptor-ligand type configurations at the heterojunction of the two domains, thus enhancing device efficiencies by 23%. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  17. Persistent photovoltage in methylammonium lead iodide perovskite solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baumann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We herein perform open circuit voltage decay (OCVD measurements on methylammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells to increase the understanding of the charge carrier recombination dynamics in this emerging technology. Optically pulsed OCVD measurements are conducted on CH3NH3PbI3 solar cells and compared to results from another type of thin-film photovoltaics, namely, the two reference polymer–fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cell devices based on P3HT:PC60BM and PTB7:PC70BM blends. We observe two very different time domains of the voltage transient in the perovskite solar cell with a first drop on a short time scale that is similar to the decay in the studied organic solar cells. However, 65%–70% of the maximum photovoltage persists on much longer timescales in the perovskite solar cell than in the organic devices. In addition, we find that the recombination dynamics in all time regimes are dependent on the starting illumination intensity, which is also not observed in the organic devices. We then discuss the potential origins of these unique behaviors.

  18. Persistent photovoltage in methylammonium lead iodide perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, A.; Tvingstedt, K.; Heiber, M. C.; Väth, S.; Momblona, C.; Bolink, H. J.; Dyakonov, V.

    2014-08-01

    We herein perform open circuit voltage decay (OCVD) measurements on methylammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) perovskite solar cells to increase the understanding of the charge carrier recombination dynamics in this emerging technology. Optically pulsed OCVD measurements are conducted on CH3NH3PbI3 solar cells and compared to results from another type of thin-film photovoltaics, namely, the two reference polymer-fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cell devices based on P3HT:PC60BM and PTB7:PC70BM blends. We observe two very different time domains of the voltage transient in the perovskite solar cell with a first drop on a short time scale that is similar to the decay in the studied organic solar cells. However, 65%-70% of the maximum photovoltage persists on much longer timescales in the perovskite solar cell than in the organic devices. In addition, we find that the recombination dynamics in all time regimes are dependent on the starting illumination intensity, which is also not observed in the organic devices. We then discuss the potential origins of these unique behaviors.

  19. In situ current voltage measurements for optimization of a novel fullerene acceptor in bulk heterojunction photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuttle, Christopher G. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Dept.of Materials; Treat, Neil D. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Dept.of Materials and Materials Research Lab.; Fan, Jian [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Depts. of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Varotto, Alessandro [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Depts. of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Hawker, Craig J. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Depts. of Materials, Chemistry, Biochemistry and the Materials Research Lab.; Wudl, Fred [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Materials Research Lab. and Depts. of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Chabinyc, Michael L. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Dept.of Materials and Materials Research Lab.

    2011-10-31

    The evaluation of the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of new materials for organic bulk heterojunction (BHJ) photovoltaics is difficult due to the large number of processing parameters possible. An efficient procedure to determine the optimum conditions for thermal treatment of polymer-based bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices using in situ current-voltage measurements is presented. The performance of a new fullerene derivative, 1,9-dihydro-64,65-dihexyloxy-1,9-(methano[1,2] benzomethano)fullerene[60], in BHJ photovolatics with poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) was evaluated using this methodology. The device characteristics of BHJs obtained from the in situ method were found to be in good agreement with those from BHJs annealed using a conventional process. This fullerene has similar performance to 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)propyl-1-phenyl-[6,6]-methano fullerene in BHJs with P3HT after thermal annealing. For devices with thickness of 70 nm, the short circuit current was 6.24 mA/cm² with a fill factor of 0.53 and open circuit voltage of 0.65 V. The changes in the current-voltage measurements during thermal annealing suggest that the ordering process in P3HT dominates the improvement in power conversion efficiency.

  20. MoO3 Thickness, Thermal Annealing and Solvent Annealing Effects on Inverted and Direct Polymer Photovoltaic Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Wantz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Several parameters of the fabrication process of inverted polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells based on titanium oxide as an electron selective layer and molybdenum oxide as a hole selective layer were tested in order to achieve efficient organic photovoltaic solar cells. Thermal annealing treatment is a common process to achieve optimum morphology, but it proved to be damageable for the performance of this kind of inverted solar cells. We demonstrate using Auger analysis combined with argon etching that diffusion of species occurs from the MoO3/Ag top layers into the active layer upon thermal annealing. In order to achieve efficient devices, the morphology of the bulk heterojunction was then manipulated using the solvent annealing technique as an alternative to thermal annealing. The influence of the MoO3 thickness was studied on inverted, as well as direct, structure. It appeared that only 1 nm-thick MoO3 is enough to exhibit highly efficient devices (PCE = 3.8% and that increasing the thickness up to 15 nm does not change the device performance. 

  1. Correlation between CdSe QD Synthesis, Post-Synthetic Treatment, and BHJ Hybrid Solar Cell Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Eck

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this publication we show that the procedure to synthesize nanocrystals and the post-synthetic nanocrystal ligand sphere treatment have a great influence not only on the immediate performance of hybrid bulk heterojunction solar cells, but also on their thermal, long-term, and air stability. We herein demonstrate this for the particular case of spherical CdSe nanocrystals, post-synthetically treated with a hexanoic acid based treatment. We observe an influence from the duration of this post-synthetic treatment on the nanocrystal ligand sphere size, and also on the solar cell performance. By tuning the post-synthetic treatment to a certain degree, optimal device performance can be achieved. Moreover, we show how to effectively adapt the post-synthetic nanocrystal treatment protocol to different nanocrystal synthesis batches, hence increasing the reproducibility of hybrid nanocrystal:polymer bulk-heterojunction solar cells, which usually suffers due to the fluctuations in nanocrystal quality of different synthesis batches and synthesis procedures.

  2. Materials and Devices Research of PPV-ZnO Nanowires for Heterojunction Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiao-Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices, which use the conjugated polymer poly(2-methoxyl-5-(2′-ethylhexyloxy-1,4-phenylenevinylene (MEH-PPV as the electron donor and crystalline ZnO nanowires as the electron acceptor, have been studied in this work. The ZnO nanowires were prepared through a chemical vapor deposition mechanism. The dissolved MEH-PPV polymer was spin-coated onto the nanowires. The scanning electron microscope images showed that the ZnO nanowires were covered with a single layer of the polymer, and these materials were used to design a heterojunction solar cell. This solar cell displayed improved performance compared with the devices that were made from only the MEH-PPV polymer. This observed improvement is correlated with the improved electron transport that is perpendicular to the plane of the film. A solar power conversion efficiency of 1.37% was achieved under an AM1.5 illumination.

  3. Strategies for increasing the efficiency of heterojunction organic solar cells: material selection and device architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heremans, Paul; Cheyns, David; Rand, Barry P

    2009-11-17

    Thin-film blends or bilayers of donor- and acceptor-type organic semiconductors form the core of heterojunction organic photovoltaic cells. Researchers measure the quality of photovoltaic cells based on their power conversion efficiency, the ratio of the electrical power that can be generated versus the power of incident solar radiation. The efficiency of organic solar cells has increased steadily in the last decade, currently reaching up to 6%. Understanding and combating the various loss mechanisms that occur in processes from optical excitation to charge collection should lead to efficiencies on the order of 10% in the near future. In organic heterojunction solar cells, the generation of photocurrent is a cascade of four steps: generation of excitons (electrically neutral bound electron-hole pairs) by photon absorption, diffusion of excitons to the heterojunction, dissociation of the excitons into free charge carriers, and transport of these carriers to the contacts. In this Account, we review our recent contributions to the understanding of the mechanisms that govern these steps. Starting from archetype donor-acceptor systems of planar small-molecule heterojunctions and solution-processed bulk heterojunctions, we outline our search for alternative materials and device architectures. We show that non-planar phthalocynanines have appealing absorption characteristics but also have reduced charge carrier transport. As a result, the donor layer needs to be ultrathin, and all layers of the device have to be tuned to account for optical interference effects. Using these optimization techniques, we illustrate cells with 3.1% efficiency for the non-planar chloroboron subphthalocyanine donor. Molecules offering a better compromise between absorption and carrier mobility should allow for further improvements. We also propose a method for increasing the exciton diffusion length by converting singlet excitons into long-lived triplets. By doping a polymer with a

  4. Solution-processable MoOx nanocrystals enable highly efficient reflective and semitransparent polymer solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Jagadamma, Lethy Krishnan

    2016-09-09

    Solution-manufacturing of organic solar cells with best-in-class power conversion efficiency (PCE) will require all layers to be solution-coated without compromising solar cell performance. To date, the hole transporting layer (HTL) deposited on top of the organic bulk heterojunction layer in the inverted architecture is most commonly an ultrathin (<10 nm) metal oxide layer prepared by vacuum-deposition. Here, we show that an alcohol-based nanocrystalline MoOx suspension with carefully controlled nanocrystal (NC) size can yield state of the art reflective and semitransparent solar cells. Using NCs smaller than the target HTL thickness (∼10 nm) can yield compact, pinhole-free films which result in highly efficient polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells with PCE=9.5%. The solution processed HTL is shown to achieve performance parity with vacuum-evaporated HTLs for several polymer:fullerene combinations and is even shown to work as hole injection layer in polymer light emitting diodes (PLED). We also demonstrate that larger MoOx NCs (30–50 nm) successfully composite MoOx with Ag nanowires (NW) to form a highly conducting, transparent top anode with exceptional contact properties. This yields state-of-the-art semitransparent polymer: fullerene solar cells with PCE of 6.5% and overall transmission >30%. The remarkable performance of reflective and semitransparent OPVs is due to the uncommonly high fill factors achieved using a carefully designed strategy for implementation of MoOx nanocrystals as HTL materials. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  5. Donor-acceptor alternating copolymer nanowires for highly efficient organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaewon; Jo, Sae Byeok; Kim, Min; Kim, Heung Gyu; Shin, Jisoo; Kim, Haena; Cho, Kilwon

    2014-10-22

    A donor-acceptor conjugated copolymer enables the formation of nanowire systems that can be successfully introduced into bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells. A simple binary solvent mixture that makes polarity control possible allows kinetic control over the self-assembly of the crystalline polymer into a nanowire structure during the film-forming process. The enhanced photoconductivity of the nanowire-embedded photoactive layer efficiently facilitates photon harvesting in the solar cells. The resultant maximum power conversion efficiency is 8.2% in a conventional single-cell structure, revealing a 60% higher performance than in devices without nanowires. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Solid-state, polymer-based fiber solar cells with carbon nanotube electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dianyi; Zhao, Mingyan; Li, Yan; Bian, Zuqiang; Zhang, Luhui; Shang, Yuanyuan; Xia, Xinyuan; Zhang, Sen; Yun, Daqin; Liu, Zhiwei; Cao, Anyuan; Huang, Chunhui

    2012-12-21

    Most previous fiber-shaped solar cells were based on photoelectrochemical systems involving liquid electrolytes, which had issues such as device encapsulation and stability. Here, we deposited classical semiconducting polymer-based bulk heterojunction layers onto stainless steel wires to form primary electrodes and adopted carbon nanotube thin films or densified yarns to replace conventional metal counter electrodes. The polymer-based fiber cells with nanotube film or yarn electrodes showed power conversion efficiencies in the range 1.4% to 2.3%, with stable performance upon rotation and large-angle bending and during long-time storage without further encapsulation. Our fiber solar cells consisting of a polymeric active layer sandwiched between steel and carbon electrodes have potential in the manufacturing of low-cost, liquid-free, and flexible fiber-based photovoltaics.

  7. Photoconductance of Bulk Heterojunctions with Tunable Nanomorphology Consisting of P3HT and Naphtalene Diimide Siloxane Oligomers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grzegorczyk, W.J.; Ganesan, P.; Savenije, T.J.; Bavel, van S.; Loos, J.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.; Siebbeles, L.D.A.; Zuilhof, H.

    2009-01-01

    The relation between the morphology, optical, and photoconductive properties of thin-film bulk heterojunctions of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) with a series of electron-accepting siloxanes with a different number (x = 2, 4, 5) of pendant naphthalene diimide (NDIS) moieties is reported. All NDIS

  8. Light-induced EPR study of charge transfer in P3HT/bis-PCBM bulk heterojunctions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krinichnyi, Victor I; Yudanova, Eugenia I

    2011-01-01

    ... – 2.73 eV in bulk heterojunctions formed by poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) with bis(1-[3-(methoxycarbonyl)propyl]-1-phenyl)-[6.6]C62 (bis-PCBM) fullerene derivative have been studied by direct light-induced EPR...

  9. Development and characterization of PCDTBT:CdSe QDs hybrid solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixit, Shiv Kumar, E-mail: shivkumardixit.7@gmail.com; Bhatnagar, Chhavi, E-mail: shivkumardixit.7@gmail.com; Kumari, Anita, E-mail: shivkumardixit.7@gmail.com; Madhwal, Devinder, E-mail: shivkumardixit.7@gmail.com; Bhatnagar, P. K., E-mail: shivkumardixit.7@gmail.com; Mathur, P. C., E-mail: shivkumardixit.7@gmail.com [Department of Electronic Science, University of Delhi South Campus, Benito Juarez Road, New Delhi, 110021 (India)

    2014-10-15

    Solar cell consisting of low band gap polymer poly[N-900-hepta-decanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(40,70-di-2-thienyl-20,10, 30-benzothiadiazole)] (PCDTBT) as donor and cadmium selenide/zinc sulphide (CdSe/ZnS) core shell quantum dots (QDs) as an acceptor has been developed. The absorption measurements show that the absorption coefficient increases in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) structure covering broad absorption spectrum (200nm–700nm). Also, the photoluminescence (PL) of the PCDTBT:QDs film is found to decrease by an order of magnitude showing a significant transfer of electrons to the QDs. With this approach and under broadband white light with an irradiance of 8.19 mW/cm{sup 2}, we have been able to achieve a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.1 % with fill factor 0.42 for our typical solar cell.

  10. Volume organization of polymer and hybrid solar cells as revealed by electron tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bavel, Svetlana S. van [Dutch Polymer Institute, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow (United Kingdom); Loos, Joachim [Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Dutch Polymer Institute, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-08

    Polymer and hybrid solar cells have the potential to become the leading technology of the 21{sup st} century in conversion of sun light to electrical energy because their ease processing from solution producing printable devices in a roll-to-roll fashion with high speed and low cost. The performance of such devices critically depends on the nanoscale organization of the photoactive layer, which is composed of at least two functional materials: the electron donor and the electron acceptor forming a so-called bulk heterojunction; however, control of its volume morphology still is a challenge. In this context, advanced analytical tools are required that are able to provide information on the local volume morphology of the photoactive layer with nanometer resolution. In this report electron tomography is introduced as the technique able to explore the 3D morphology of polymer and hybrid solar cells and the first results achieved are critically discussed. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  11. Airbrush Spray Coating of Amorphous Titanium Dioxide for Inverted Polymer Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca La Notte

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main topics of organic photovoltaics manufacturing is the need for simple, low cost, and large area compatible techniques. Solution-based processes are the best candidates to achieve this aim. Among these, airbrush spray coating has successfully applied to deposit both active and PEDOT layers of bulk-heterojunction solar cells. However, this technique is not yet sufficiently studied for interfacial layers (electron and hole transporting layers or optical spacers. In this paper, we show that amorphous titanium dioxide ( films, obtained with an airbrush from a solution of titanium (IV isopropoxide diluted in isopropanol, are successfully deposited on glass and PET substrates. Good surface covering results from the coalescence of droplets after optimizing the spray coating system. Simple inverted polymer solar cells are fabricated using as electron transporting layer obtaining encouraging electrical performances (% on glass/FTO and 0.7% on PET/ITO substrates.

  12. Pad printing as a film forming technique for polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C

    2009-01-01

    Pad printing as a technique for preparing the active layer in polymer solar cells is presented. The technique employs a silicone rubber stamp to pick up the motif from a gravure plate and transfer it to the substrate. The strengths and limitations of pad printing are discussed and polymer solar...... cells prepared by pad printing are presented. Devices were prepared on indium tin oxide substrates but in principle the entire photovoltaic device comprising front and back electrodes, barrier layers and active layer could be printed with no need for vacuum steps. The device geometry comprises a spin...... coated transparent zinc oxide front electrode, a pad printed active layer based on a bulk heterojunction of the thermocleavable polymer poly(3-(2-methylhexyloxycarbonyl)thiophene-co-thiopene) (P3MHOCT) and zinc oxide nanoparticles, spin coated PEDOT:PSS and finally a manually cast thermally cured silver...

  13. Molecular design and ordering effects in π-functional materials for transistor and solar cell applications

    KAUST Repository

    Beaujuge, Pierre

    2011-12-21

    Organic electronics are broadly anticipated to impact the development of flexible thin-film device technologies. Among these, solution-processable π-conjugated polymers and small molecules are proving particularly promising in field-effect transistors and bulk heterojunction solar cells. This Perspective analyzes some of the most exciting strategies recently suggested in the design and structural organization of π-functional materials for transistor and solar cell applications. Emphasis is placed on the interplay between molecular structure, self-assembling properties, nanoscale and mesoscale ordering, and device efficiency parameters. A critical look at the various approaches used to optimize both materials and device performance is provided to assist in the identification of new directions and further advances. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  14. Decohesion Kinetics in Polymer Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Bruner, Christopher

    2014-12-10

    © 2014 American Chemical Society. We investigate the role of molecular weight (MW) of the photoactive polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) on the temperature-dependent decohesion kinetics of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells (OSCs). The MW of P3HT has been directly correlated to its carrier field effect mobilities and the ambient temperature also affects OSC in-service performance and P3HT arrangement within the BHJ layer. Under inert conditions, time-dependent decohesion readily occurs within the BHJ layer at loads well below its fracture resistance. We observe that by increasing the MW of P3HT, greater resistance to decohesion is achieved. However, failure consistently occurs within the BHJ layer representing the weakest layer within the device stack. Additionally, it was found that at temperatures below the glass transition temperature (∼41-45 °C), decohesion was characterized by brittle failure via molecular bond rupture. Above the glass transition temperature, decohesion growth occurred by a viscoelastic process in the BHJ layer, leading to a significant degree of viscoelastic deformation. We develop a viscoelastic model based on molecular relaxation to describe the resulting behavior. The study has implications for OSC long-term reliability and device performance, which are important for OSC production and implementation.

  15. Thermally reactive Thiazolo[5,4-d]thiazole based copolymers for high photochemical stability in polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgesen, Martin; Vesterager Madsen, Morten; Andreasen, Birgitta

    2011-01-01

    New thermally reactive copolymers based on dithienylthiazolo[5,4-d]thiazole (DTZ) and silolodithiophene (SDT) have been synthesized and explored in bulk heterojunction solar cells as mixtures with [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). In thin films the polymers had optical band gaps ...... conditions emphasizing the unfavorable effect of solubilizing groups on the photochemical stability of conjugated polymers. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.......New thermally reactive copolymers based on dithienylthiazolo[5,4-d]thiazole (DTZ) and silolodithiophene (SDT) have been synthesized and explored in bulk heterojunction solar cells as mixtures with [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). In thin films the polymers had optical band gaps...... in the range of 1.64-1.80 eV. For solubility the polymers have incorporated alkyl groups on the SDT unit and thermally removable ester groups on the DTZ unit that can be eliminated around 200 °C for improved photochemical stability in thin films. The bulkiness of the alkyl chains on the SDT unit proved...

  16. Fabrication and Characterization of Copper System Compound Semiconductor Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryosuke Motoyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper system compound semiconductor solar cells were produced by a spin-coating method, and their cell performance and structures were investigated. Copper indium disulfide- (CIS- based solar cells with titanium dioxide (TiO2 were produced on F-doped SnO2 (FTO. A device based on an FTO/CIS/TiO2 structure provided better cell performance compared to that based on FTO/TiO2/CIS structure. Cupric oxide- (CuO- and cuprous oxide- (Cu2O- based solar cells with fullerene (C60 were also fabricated on FTO and indium tin oxide (ITO. The microstructure and cell performance of the CuO/C60 heterojunction and the Cu2O:C60 bulk heterojunction structure were investigated. The photovoltaic devices based on FTO/CuO/C60 and ITO/Cu2O:C60 structures provided short-circuit current density of 0.015 mAcm−2 and 0.11 mAcm−2, and open-circuit voltage of 0.045 V and 0.17 V under an Air Mass 1.5 illumination, respectively. The microstructures of the active layers were examined by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy.

  17. Sol-gel derived ZnO as an electron transport layer (ETL) for inverted organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, D. C.; Dwivedi, Shailendra Kumar; Dipak, Phukhrambam; Chandel, Tarun; Sharma, Rishi

    2017-05-01

    In this work, we present the study of the fabrication process of the sol-gel derived zinc oxide (ZnO) as an electron transport layer (ETL.). The solution processed inverted bulk heterojunction organic solar cells based on a thin film blend of poly (3-hexylthiophene 2, 5-diyl) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester is prepared. ZnO thin films are annealed at different temperature to optimize the solar cell performance and their characterization for their structural and optical properties are carried out. We have observed Voc=70mV, Jsc=1.33 µA/cm2 and FF=26% from the inverted heterojunction solar cell.

  18. Abnormal strong burn-in degradation of highly efficient polymer solar cells caused by spinodal donor-acceptor demixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Perea, José Darío; Kassar, Thaer; Richter, Moses; Heumueller, Thomas; Matt, Gebhard J; Hou, Yi; Güldal, Nusret S; Chen, Haiwei; Chen, Shi; Langner, Stefan; Berlinghof, Marvin; Unruh, Tobias; Brabec, Christoph J

    2017-02-22

    The performance of organic solar cells is determined by the delicate, meticulously optimized bulk-heterojunction microstructure, which consists of finely mixed and relatively separated donor/acceptor regions. Here we demonstrate an abnormal strong burn-in degradation in highly efficient polymer solar cells caused by spinodal demixing of the donor and acceptor phases, which dramatically reduces charge generation and can be attributed to the inherently low miscibility of both materials. Even though the microstructure can be kinetically tuned for achieving high-performance, the inherently low miscibility of donor and acceptor leads to spontaneous phase separation in the solid state, even at room temperature and in the dark. A theoretical calculation of the molecular parameters and construction of the spinodal phase diagrams highlight molecular incompatibilities between the donor and acceptor as a dominant mechanism for burn-in degradation, which is to date the major short-time loss reducing the performance and stability of organic solar cells.

  19. Reflective type Solar-LCDs by using polarizing polymer solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Yoon Ho; Shin, Jung Chul; Kim, Young Chan; Park, Byoungchoo

    2012-03-12

    We present herein the results of a study of the reflective polarizing photovoltaic (PV) effects in an aligned polymer bulk-heterojunction PV layer. The PV layer consisted of a composite of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) and methanofullerene (P3HT:PCBM) and the fairly uniform in-plane alignment of the P3HT:PCBM PV layer was achieved by means of a simple rubbing technique. The macroscopic axial orientation of the P3HT polymer in the aligned PV layer was observed to be significantly increased in the direction of rubbing with an axial orientational order parameter of 0.40. Moreover, it was also found that the reflective polarizing polymer solar cells (PSCs) that contained the aligned P3HT:PCBM layers exhibited a greater degree of anisotropy of 1.60 for the PV efficiencies under polarized illumination along the two principal axes. These reflective polarizing PSCs were applied to new reflective type solar cell-liquid crystal displays (Solar-LCDs), which exhibited a contrast ratio of 1.7. These results form a promising foundation for various energy-harvesting polarization-dependent opto-electrical Solar-LCD device applications.

  20. Solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukamoto, Moriaki; Hayashibara, Mitsuo

    1988-08-18

    Concerning the exsisting solar cell utilizing wavelength transition, the area of the solar cell element necessary for unit electric power output can be made small, but transition efficiency of the solar cell as a whole including a plastic plate with phosphor is not high. This invention concerns a solar cell which is appropriate for transferring the light within a wide spectrum range of the sunlight to electricilty efficiently, utilizes wavelength transition and has high efficiency per unit area. In other words, the solar cell of this invention has the feature of providing in parallel with a photoelectric transfer layer a layer of wavelength transitioning material (phosphor) which absorbs the light within the range of wavelength of low photoelectric transfer efficiency at the photoelectric transfer layer and emits the light within the range of wavelength in which the photoelectric transfer rate is high on the light incident side of the photoelectric transfer layer. (5 figs)

  1. Photoprecursor Approach Enables Preparation of Well-Performing Bulk-Heterojunction Layers Comprising a Highly Aggregating Molecular Semiconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Mitsuharu; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Takahashi, Kohei; Takahira, Katsuya; Koganezawa, Tomoyuki; Masuo, Sadahiro; Nakayama, Ken-ichi; Yamada, Hiroko

    2016-04-06

    Active-layer morphology critically affects the performance of organic photovoltaic cells, and thus its optimization is a key toward the achievement of high-efficiency devices. However, the optimization of active-layer morphology is sometimes challenging because of the intrinsic properties of materials such as strong self-aggregating nature or low miscibility. This study postulates that the "photoprecursor approach" can serve as an effective means to prepare well-performing bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) layers containing highly aggregating molecular semiconductors. In the photoprecursor approach, a photoreactive precursor compound is solution-deposited and then converted in situ to a semiconducting material. This study employs 2,6-di(2-thienyl)anthracene (DTA) and [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester as p- and n-type materials, respectively, in which DTA is generated by the photoprecursor approach from the corresponding α-diketone-type derivative DTADK. When only chloroform is used as a cast solvent, the photovoltaic performance of the resulting BHJ films is severely limited because of unfavorable film morphology. The addition of a high-boiling-point cosolvent, o-dichlorobenzene (o-DCB), to the cast solution leads to significant improvement such that the resulting active layers afford up to approximately 5 times higher power conversion efficiencies. The film structure is investigated by two-dimensional grazing-incident wide-angle X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and fluorescence microspectroscopy to demonstrate that the use of o-DCB leads to improvement in film crystallinity and increase in charge-carrier generation efficiency. The change in film structure is assumed to originate from dynamic molecular motion enabled by the existence of solvent during the in situ photoreaction. The unique features of the photoprecursor approach will be beneficial in extending the material and processing scopes for the development of organic thin-film devices.

  2. Dielectric nanostructures for broadband light trapping in organic solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Raman, Aaswath

    2011-09-15

    Organic bulk heterojunction solar cells are a promising candidate for low-cost next-generation photovoltaic systems. However, carrier extraction limitations necessitate thin active layers that sacrifice absorption for internal quantum efficiency or vice versa. Motivated by recent theoretical developments, we show that dielectric wavelength-scale grating structures can produce significant absorption resonances in a realistic organic cell architecture. We numerically demonstrate that 1D, 2D and multi-level ITO-air gratings lying on top of the organic solar cell stack produce a 8-15% increase in photocurrent for a model organic solar cell where PCDTBT:PC71BM is the organic semiconductor. Specific to this approach, the active layer itself remains untouched yet receives the benefit of light trapping by nanostructuring the top surface below which it lies. The techniques developed here are broadly applicable to organic semiconductors in general, and enable partial decoupling between active layer thickness and photocurrent generation. © 2011 Optical Society of America.

  3. Fully solution-processed organic solar cells on metal foil substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Gaynor, Whitney

    2009-08-19

    We demonstrate fully solution-processed organic photovoltaic cells on metal foil substrates with power conversion efficiencies similar to those obtained in devices on transparent substrates. The cells are based on the regioregular poly- (3-hexylthiophene) and C61 butyric acid methyl ester bulk heterojunction system. The bottom electrode is a silver film whose workfunction is lowered by Cs2CO3 using spin-coating to serve as a cathode. The transparent top anode consists of a conductive polymer in combination with a solution-processed silver nanowire mesh that is laminated onto the devices. Each layer of the device, including the transparent electrode, is fabricated from solution, giving rise to the possibility of completely printed solar cells on low-cost substrates.

  4. ITO with embedded silver grids as transparent conductive electrodes for large area organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patil, Bhushan Ramesh; Mirsafaei, Mina; Cielecki, Pawel Piotr

    2017-01-01

    to improve the conductivity of planar ITO substrates. The fabricated electrodes with embedded line and square patterned Ag grids reduced the sheet resistance of ITO by 25 % and 40 %, respectively, showing optical transmittance drops of less than 6 % within the complete visible light spectrum for both......In this work, development of semi-transparent electrodes for efficient large area organic solar cells (OSCs) has been demonstrated. Electron beam evaporated silver grids were embedded in commercially available ITO coatings on glass, through a standard negative photolithography process, in order...... patterns. Solution processed bulk heterojunction OSCs based on PTB7:[70]PCBM were fabricated on top of these electrodes with cell areas of 4.38 cm2, and the performance of these OSCs was compared to reference cells fabricated on pure ITO electrodes. The Fill Factor of the large-scale OSCs fabricated on ITO...

  5. Fully Solution-Processed Inverted Polymer Solar Cells with Laminated Nanowire Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Gaynor, Whitney

    2010-01-26

    We demonstrate organic photovoltaic cells in which every layer is deposited by solution processing on opaque metal substrates, with efficiencies similar to those obtained in conventional device structures on transparent substrates. The device architecture is enabled by solution-processed, laminated silver nanowire films serving as the top transparent anode. The cells are based on the regioregular poly(3- hexylthiophene) and C 61 butyric acid methyl ester bulk heterojunction and reach an efficiency of 2.5% under 100 mW/cm 2 of AM 1.5G illumination. The metal substrates are adequate barriers to moisture and oxygen, in contrast to transparent plastics that have previously been used, giving rise to the possibility of roll-to-roll solutionprocessed solar cells that are packaged by lamination to glass substrates, combining the cost advantage of roll-toroll processing with the barrier properties of glass and metal foil. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  6. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of bulk heterojunction based on ZnS quantum dots-grafted graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal, Shikha; Giripunje, Sushama M.

    2016-12-01

    ZnS quantum dots (QDs) and ZnS:graphene QDs were synthesized successfully via simple sonochemical method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis revealed the average size of ZnS and ZnS:graphene QDs of the order of 3.7 nm and 8.4 nm, respectively. The band gap of ZnS:graphene QDs was tuned to 4.9 eV. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis confirms the formation of single phase ZnS QDs. The significant increase in conductivity of the order of 104 S/cm was observed in ZnS:graphene QDs. The bulk heterojunction devices ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:ZnSQDs/Al and ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:(ZnS:graphene)QDs/Al were fabricated. Here we demonstrate the increase in current density (from 2.44 μA/cm2 to 98.4 μA/cm2), alongwith the lower turn on voltage (decrease from 0.40 V to 0.12 V) by using the ZnS:graphene QDs as compared to pristine ZnS QDs in the active layer. Furthermore, this enhancement in current density shows that the ZnS:graphene QDs have a great potential for active layer in photovoltaic devices.

  7. Long-term efficient organic photovoltaics based on quaternary bulk heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Minwoo; Cha, Minjeong; Lee, Hyun Hwi; Hur, Kahyun; Lee, Kyu-Tae; Yoo, Jaehong; Han, Il Ki; Kwon, S. Joon; Ko, Doo-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    A major impediment to the commercialization of organic photovoltaics (OPVs) is attaining long-term morphological stability of the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) layer. To secure the stability while pursuing optimized performance, multi-component BHJ-based OPVs have been strategically explored. Here we demonstrate the use of quaternary BHJs (q-BHJs) composed of two conjugated polymer donors and two fullerene acceptors as a novel platform to produce high-efficiency and long-term durable OPVs. A q-BHJ OPV (q-OPV) with an experimentally optimized composition exhibits an enhanced efficiency and extended operational lifetime than does the binary reference OPV. The q-OPV would retain more than 72% of its initial efficiency (for example, 8.42-6.06%) after a 1-year operation at an elevated temperature of 65 °C. This is superior to those of the state-of-the-art BHJ-based OPVs. We attribute the enhanced stability to the significant suppression of domain growth and phase separation between the components via kinetic trapping effect.

  8. Enhanced thermal stability of a polymer solar cell blend induced by electron beam irradiation in the transmission electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bäcke, Olof, E-mail: obacke@chalmers.se [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Göteborg (Sweden); Lindqvist, Camilla; Diaz de Zerio Mendaza, Amaia [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Göteborg (Sweden); Gustafsson, Stefan [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Göteborg (Sweden); Wang, Ergang; Andersson, Mats R.; Müller, Christian [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Göteborg (Sweden); Kristiansen, Per Magnus [Institute of Polymer Nanotechnology (INKA), FHNW University of Applied Science and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, 5210 Windisch (Switzerland); Laboratory for Micro- and Nanotechnology, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Olsson, Eva, E-mail: eva.olsson@chalmers.se [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Göteborg (Sweden)

    2017-05-15

    We show by in situ microscopy that the effects of electron beam irradiation during transmission electron microscopy can be used to lock microstructural features and enhance the structural thermal stability of a nanostructured polymer:fullerene blend. Polymer:fullerene bulk-heterojunction thin films show great promise for use as active layers in organic solar cells but their low thermal stability is a hindrance. Lack of thermal stability complicates manufacturing and influences the lifetime of devices. To investigate how electron irradiation affects the thermal stability of polymer:fullerene films, a model bulk-heterojunction film based on a thiophene-quinoxaline copolymer and a fullerene derivative was heat-treated in-situ in a transmission electron microscope. In areas of the film that exposed to the electron beam the nanostructure of the film remained stable, while the nanostructure in areas not exposed to the electron beam underwent large phase separation and nucleation of fullerene crystals. UV–vis spectroscopy shows that the polymer:fullerene films are stable for electron doses up to 2000 kGy. - Highlights: • Thermal stability of a polymer: fullerne blend is increased using electron irradiation. • Using in-situ transmission electron microscopy the nanostructure is studied. • Electron irradiation stops phase separation between the polymer and fullerene. • Electron irradiation quenches the formation and nucleation of fullerene crystals.

  9. Unified Study of Recombination in Polymer:Fullerene Solar Cells Using Transient Absorption and Charge-Extraction Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, L Mattias; Melianas, Armantas; Infahasaeng, Yingyot; Tang, Zheng; Yartsev, Arkady; Inganäs, Olle; Sundström, Villy

    2013-06-20

    Recombination in the well-performing bulk heterojunction solar cell blend between the conjugated polymer TQ-1 and the substituted fullerene PCBM has been investigated with pump-probe transient absorption and charge extraction of photogenerated carriers (photo-CELIV). Both methods are shown to generate identical and overlapping data under appropriate experimental conditions. The dominant type of recombination is bimolecular with a rate constant of 7 × 10(-12) cm(-3) s(-1). This recombination rate is shown to be fully consistent with solar cell performance. Deviations from an ideal bimolecular recombination process, in this material system only observable at high pump fluences, are explained with a time-dependent charge-carrier mobility, and the implications of such a behavior for device development are discussed.

  10. Below-Gap Excitation of π-Conjugated Polymer-Fullerene Blends: Implications for Bulk Organic Heterojunction Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drori, T.; Sheng, C.-X.; Ndobe, A.; Singh, S.; Holt, J.; Vardeny, Z. V.

    2008-07-01

    We used a variety of optoelectronic techniques such as broadband fs transient and cw photomodulation spectroscopies, electroabsorption, and short-circuit photocurrent in bulk heterojunctions organic solar cells for studying the photophysics in π-conjugated polymer-fullerene blends with below-gap excitation. In contrast to the traditional view, we found that below-gap excitation, which is incapable of generating intrachain excitons, nevertheless efficiently generates polarons on the polymer chains and fullerene molecules. The polaron action spectrum extends deep inside the gap as a result of a charge-transfer complex state formed between the polymer chain and fullerene molecule. With appropriate design engineering the long-lived polarons might be harvested in solar cell devices.

  11. Realization of large area flexible fullerene-conjugated polymer photocells: A route to plastic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabec, C. J.; Padinger, F.; Dyakonov, V.; Hummelen, J. C.; Janssen, R. A. J.; Sariciftci, N. S.

    1998-08-01

    Various interesting photophysical phenomena in composites of fullerenes and non degenerate ground state conjugated polymers with highly extended π-electrons in their main chain can be explained by the ultrafast electron transfer from the conjugated polymer (donor) to the fullerene (acceptor) upon illumination. This photoeffect was utilized for the production of small area (mm2) photovoltaic devices which show energy conversion efficiencies ηe>1% and carrier collection efficiencies ηc>20%. In this work we present efficiency and stability studies on large area (6 cm by 6 cm) flexible solar cells based on a soluble alkoxy PPV (3,7-dimethyloctyloxy methyloxy poly(phenylenevinylene)) and a highly soluble fullerene derivative, 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)propyl-1 phenyl [5,6]C61 (PCBM). The enhanced solubility of PCBM compared to C60 allows a high fullerene-conjugated polymer ratio and strongly supports the formation of donor-acceptor bulk heterojunctions.

  12. Photovoltaic characteristics of polymer solar cells fabricated by pre-metered coating process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byoungchoo; Han, Mi-Young

    2009-08-03

    We present the results of a study of flat and uniform poly(3-hexylthiophene):methanofullerene bulk-heterojunction photovoltaic (PV) layers that were produced by a simple pre-metered horizontal-dipping process for the fabrication of polymer solar cells (PSCs). It is shown that this process can produce high quality and thin films by utilizing the downstream meniscus of the solution, which can be controlled by adjusting experimental parameters of the gap height and the carrying speed. It is also shown that the produced PV film exhibits high power conversion efficiency of ca. 4.2% with a large active area. It was demonstrated that this pre-metered process for solution coating may be promising for achieving highly efficient, reliable, and large-area PSCs.

  13. Probing Temperature-Dependent Recombination Kinetics in Polymer:Fullerene Solar Cells by Electric Noise Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Landi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of solvent additives on the temperature behavior of both charge carrier transport and recombination kinetics in bulk heterojunction solar cells has been investigated by electric noise spectroscopy. The observed differences in charge carrier lifetime and mobility are attributed to a different film ordering and donor-acceptor phase segregation in the blend. The measured temperature dependence indicates that bimolecular recombination is the dominant loss mechanism in the active layer, affecting the device performance. Blend devices prepared with a high-boiling-point solvent additive show a decreased recombination rate at the donor-acceptor interface as compared to the ones prepared with the reference solvent. A clear correlation between the device performance and the morphological properties is discussed in terms of the temperature dependence of the mobility-lifetime product.

  14. Improving organic tandem solar cells based on water-processed nanoparticles by quantitative 3D nanoimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Emil Bøje Lind; Angmo, Dechan; Dam, Henrik Friis

    2015-01-01

    - and bottom interfaces, wide thickness distribution and only partial surface coverage causing electric short circuits through the layer. By top coating a polymer material onto the Landfester nanoparticles we eliminate the structural defects of the layer such as porosity and roughness, and achieve......Organic solar cells have great potential for upscaling due to roll-to-roll processing and a low energy payback time, making them an attractive sustainable energy source for the future. Active layers coated with water-dispersible Landfester particles enable greater control of the layer formation...... and easier access to the printing industry, which has reduced the use of organic solvents since the 1980s. Through ptychographic X-ray computed tomography (PXCT), we image quantitatively a roll-to-roll coated photovoltaic tandem stack consisting of one bulk heterojunction active layer and one Landfester...

  15. Layer-by-layer processed polymer solar cells with self-assembled electron buffer layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Qi, Zhe; Wang, Jizheng

    2013-05-01

    Layer-by-layer (LL) process is attracting more and more interests in fabricating polymer solar cells (PSCs) due to its potential advantage in realizing p-i-n like structure. Meanwhile self-organization of electron buffer layer (EBL) is drawing increasing attention. Here, we combined the two and LL processed P3HT:PCBM (poly(3-hexylthiophene):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester) PSCs with self-assembled PEGN-C60 (poly(ethylene glycol) modified [60]fullerene) EBL. Power conversion efficiency of 4.40% was achieved, considerably higher than that of the traditional P3HT:PCBM bulk-heterojunction device, which is 3.84%. The result demonstrates that the approach we developed here could be very useful in fabricating high-performance PSCs.

  16. Mobility-controlled performance of thick solar cells based on fluorinated copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wentao; Albrecht, Steve; Yang, Liqiang; Roland, Steffen; Tumbleston, John R; McAfee, Terry; Yan, Liang; Kelly, Mary Allison; Ade, Harald; Neher, Dieter; You, Wei

    2014-11-05

    Developing novel materials and device architectures to further enhance the efficiency of polymer solar cells requires a fundamental understanding of the impact of chemical structures on photovoltaic properties. Given that device characteristics depend on many parameters, deriving structure-property relationships has been very challenging. Here we report that a single parameter, hole mobility, determines the fill factor of several hundred nanometer thick bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices based on a series of copolymers with varying amount of fluorine substitution. We attribute the steady increase of hole mobility with fluorine content to changes in polymer molecular ordering. Importantly, all other parameters, including the efficiency of free charge generation and the coefficient of nongeminate recombination, are nearly identical. Our work emphasizes the need to achieve high mobility in combination with strongly suppressed charge recombination for the thick devices required by mass production technologies.

  17. Ordering effects in benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']difuran-thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6- dione polymers with >7% solar cell efficiency

    KAUST Repository

    Warnan, Julien

    2014-05-15

    Benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b\\']difuran-thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione (PBDFTPD) polymers prepared by microwave-assisted synthesis can achieve power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) >7% in bulk-heterojunction solar cells with phenyl-C61/71-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). In "as-cast" PBDFTPD-based devices solution-processed without a small-molecule additive, high PCEs can be obtained in spite of the weak propensity of the polymers to self-assemble and form π-aggregates in thin films. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Real-time observation of drying kinetics and morphology evolution in organic bulk heterojunctions (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güldal, Nusret S.; Ameri, Tayebeh; Osvet, Andres; Brabec, Christoph J.

    2015-08-01

    In organic photovoltaics field, an optimized bulk heterojunction film consists of an electron-donating conjugated polymer and an electron-accepting fullerene derivative, which is organized in a well phase-separated, yet interconnected network. This sensitive morphology, affecting the light absorption, exciton dissociation and subsequent charge generation-extraction, is determined by the film formation during solution casting under certain processing conditions. Therefore, a number of previous studies focused on characterizing the thin film formation during solution casting, mainly with in-situ grazing-incidence X-ray scattering methods, accompanied by various optical methods, such as ellipsometry/reflectometry and UV-VIS absorption. Although these studies provided invaluable information on the matter, the development of nanoscale morphology is yet to be fully understood. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate a portable in-situ characterization chamber, which can characterize any organic/hybrid thin film during solution casting. The chamber is a miniature doctor blade under controlled atmosphere, equipped with white light reflectometry (WLR), photoluminescence (PL) and laser light scattering (LLS). WLR was used to monitor the thickness reduction of the thin film during the drying, enabling to establish a drying curve. LLS informed the time scale of aggregate/crystallite formation. PL monitored molecular arrangement and enabled the estimation of microstructure. The combined data is used to understand the competition between thermodynamics (e.g. solubility, miscibility) and kinetics of morphology formation. In this study, we measured different BHJ systems with binary and ternary solvent mixtures under different processing conditions, from which we built a roadmap for microstructure formation in organic thin films, used in organic photovoltaics.

  19. MoO3/Ag/Al/ZnO intermediate layer for inverted tandem polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Jian; Zhong, Zhen-Feng; Liu, Yong; Li, Bao-Jun; Zhou, Xiang

    2014-03-01

    We report an MoO3/Ag/Al/ZnO intermediate layer connecting two identical bulk heterojunction subcells with a poly(3-hexylthiophene) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT and PCBM) active layer for inverted tandem polymer solar cells. The highly transparent intermediate layer with an optimized thickness realizes an Ohmic contact between the two subcells for effective charge extraction and recombination. A maximum power conversion efficiency of 3.76% is obtained for the tandem cell under 100 mW/cm2 illumination, which is larger than that of a single cell (3.15%). The open-circuit voltage of the tandem cell (1.18 V) approaches double that of the single cell (0.61 V).

  20. Film stresses and electrode buckling in organic solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Brand, Vitali

    2012-08-01

    We investigate the film stresses that develop in the polymer films and metal electrodes of poly(3-hexyl thiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells. A compressive biaxial stress of ∼-36 MPa was measured in PEDOT:PSS while a tensile stress of ∼6 MPa was measured in the BHJ layer. We then analyze the effect of electrode deposition rate on the film stresses in the Al electrode. Compressive stresses of ∼-100 to -145 MPa in the Al electrode lead to a buckling instability resulting in undulating electrode surface topography. The BHJ layer was found to have the lowest cohesion (∼1.5-1.8 J/m 2) among the layers of the solar cell and dependent on the Al electrode deposition rate. The cohesive failure path in the BHJ layer exhibited the same periodicity and orientation of the Al electrode buckling topography. We discuss the implications of the film stresses on damage processes during device fabrication and operation. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A comparative study of fluorine substituents for enhanced stability of flexible and ITO-free high-performance polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlé, Jon Eggert; Helgesen, Martin; Zawacka, Natalia Klaudia

    2014-01-01

    Two low-band gap polymer series based on benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b?]dithiophene (BDT) and dithienylbenzothiadiazole, with different numbers of fluorine substituents on the 2,3,1-benzothiadiazole unit, have been synthesized and explored in a comparative study of the photochemical stability and operational...... lifetime in flexible large area roll-coated bulk heterojunction solar cells. The two polymer series have different side chains on the BDT unit, namely 2-hexyldecyloxy (BDTHDO) (P1-P3) or 2-hexyldecylthiophene (BDT THD) (P4-P6). The photochemical stability clearly shows that the stability enhances along...... with the number of fluorine atoms incorporated on the polymer backbone. Fabrication of the polymer solar cells based on the materials was carried out in ambient atmosphere on a roll coating/printing machine employing flexible and indium-tin-oxide-free plastic substrates. Solar cells based on the P4-P6 series...

  2. Adding 0.2 V to the open circuit voltage of organic solar cells by enhancing the built-in potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessler, Nir

    2015-12-01

    We present a systematic device model that reproduces the important features of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells. While examining the model outputs we find that one of the limiting factors in organic solar cells is the reduced built-in potential due to effective pinning of the electrodes relative to the energy gap at the bulk of the device. Having identified this as a problem we suggest a device structure that can enhance the open circuit voltage. Our detailed modeling shows that such a structure can enhance the open circuit voltage as well as the short circuit current leading to above 40% improvement in power conversion efficiency of state of the art organic solar cells.

  3. All solution processed tandem polymer solar cells based on thermocleavable materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagemann, Ole; Bjerring, Morten; Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    2008-01-01

    efficiently solved. Devices comprised a transparent front cathode based on solution processed zinc oxide nanoparticles, a large band gap active layer based on a bulk heterojunction between zinc oxide and poly(3-carboxydithiophene) (P3CT) followed by a layer of PEDOT:PSS processed from water. The second cell...... in the stack employed a zinc oxide front cathode processed on top of the PEDOT:PSS layer from an organic solvent, a low band gap active layer based on a bulk heterojunction between zinc oxide and the novel poly(carboxyterthiophene-co-diphenylthienopyrazine) (P3CTTP) followed by a layer of PEDOT:PSS again...

  4. Solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Yoshiyuki.

    1989-07-06

    In this invention, in a solar cell which has an electrode consisting of a superconductor, the superconductor electrode is partly or entirely covered with a metal or light reflecting material. In the above, the pattern on the substrate at the junction of the electrode and the semiconductor is the same as that of a comb-type electrode formed at the top of the semiconductor. By this, a solar cell was provided wherein a superconductive electrode which is not subject to degradation of the superconductive characteristics even in the light of high intensity, operating stably at high efficiency, indicating very high practical effect. In addition to the use of amorphous silicon as a semiconductor of the soalr cell, such other material as Si-single crystal, Ge and Ge/As can be used. For the superconductor electrode, such other material as YBaCuO can also be used. 2 figs.

  5. Contrasting performance of donor-acceptor copolymer pairs in ternary blend solar cells and two-acceptor copolymers in binary blend solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlyabich, Petr P; Rudenko, Andrey E; Burkhart, Beate; Thompson, Barry C

    2015-02-04

    Here two contrasting approaches to polymer-fullerene solar cells are compared. In the first approach, two distinct semi-random donor-acceptor copolymers are blended with phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) to form ternary blend solar cells. The two poly(3-hexylthiophene)-based polymers contain either the acceptor thienopyrroledione (TPD) or diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP). In the second approach, semi-random donor-acceptor copolymers containing both TPD and DPP acceptors in the same polymer backbone, termed two-acceptor polymers, are blended with PC61BM to give binary blend solar cells. The two approaches result in bulk heterojunction solar cells that have the same molecular active-layer components but differ in the manner in which these molecular components are mixed, either by physical mixing (ternary blend) or chemical "mixing" in the two-acceptor (binary blend) case. Optical properties and photon-to-electron conversion efficiencies of the binary and ternary blends were found to have similar features and were described as a linear combination of the individual components. At the same time, significant differences were observed in the open-circuit voltage (Voc) behaviors of binary and ternary blend solar cells. While in case of two-acceptor polymers, the Voc was found to be in the range of 0.495-0.552 V, ternary blend solar cells showed behavior inherent to organic alloy formation, displaying an intermediate, composition-dependent and tunable Voc in the range from 0.582 to 0.684 V, significantly exceeding the values achieved in the two-acceptor containing binary blend solar cells. Despite the differences between the physical and chemical mixing approaches, both pathways provided solar cells with similar power conversion efficiencies, highlighting the advantages of both pathways toward highly efficient organic solar cells.

  6. Investigation of optical and electrical properties of new co-polymers based on thiophene, fluorene and phenylene units for application in organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Natasha A.D.; Roman, Lucimara S. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Physics Dept.; Nowacki, Bruno F.; Akcelrud, Leni [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Chemistry Dept.; Lavery, Leahj; Whiting, Gregory; Arias, Ana C. [Palo Alto Research Center, CA (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Full text. We have investigated a series of new electron donor co-polymers in organic thin-film solar cells. Co- polymerization allows us to create new materials by tailoring unit ratios to combine properties and behaviors of different materials. The co-polymers used in this study were composed of thiophene, phenylene and fluorene units, where the thiophene content was kept constant while the fluorene/phenylene ratio was varied. For every co-polymer ratio, we report results in three different structures: monolayer, bilayer and bulk heterojunction. Using vapor-deposited C60 as the electron acceptor in bilayer structures, we show the effect of altering the thickness of both the copolymer and fullerene films. The best bilayer device showed a peak of external quantum efficiency of 75% and a AM1.5 power conversion efficiency of 2.4%. Bilayer devices were further analyzed using a model for charge transport, which indicated a dependence of effective mobility on film thickness. For the bulk heterojunction system [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) was used as the electron acceptor and initial devices using this polymer showed a peak external quantum efficiency of 33% and a AM1.5 power conversion efficiency of 0.7%. For both the bilayer and heterojection cells it was found that a 1:1 ratio of phenylene:fluorene units led to the highest device performance.

  7. Interfacial and Electrode Modifications in P3HT:PC61BM based Organic Solar Cells: Devices, Processing and Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sayantan

    The inexorable upsurge in world’s energy demand has steered the search for newer renewable energy sources and photovoltaics seemed to be one of the best alternatives for energy production. Among the various photovoltaic technologies that emerged, organic/polymer photovoltaics based on solution processed bulk-heterojunctions (BHJ) of semiconducting polymers has gained serious attention owing to the use of inexpensive light-weight materials, exhibiting high mechanical flexibility and compatibility with low temperature roll-to-roll manufacturing techniques on flexible substrates. The most widely studied material to date is the blend of regioregular P3HT and PC61BM used as donor and acceptor materials. The object of this study was to investigate and improve the performance/stability of the organic solar cells by use of inexpensive materials. In an attempt to enhance the efficiency of organic solar cells, we have demonstrated the use of hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) modified indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode in bulk heterojunction solar cell structure The device studies showed a significant enhancement in the short-circuit current as well as in the shunt resistance on use of the hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) layer. In another approach a p-type CuI hole-transport layer was utilized that could possibly replace the acidic PEDOT:PSS layer in the fabrication of high-efficiency solar cells. The device optimization was done by varying the concentration of CuI in the precursor solution which played an important role in the efficiency of the solar cell devices. Recently a substantial amount of research has been focused on identifying suitable interfacial layers in organic solar cells which has efficient charge transport properties. It was illustrated that a thin layer of silver oxide interfacial layer showed a 28% increase in power conversion efficiency in comparison to that of the control cell. The optoelectronic properties and morphological features of indium-free Zn

  8. Silver Nanoparticles in PEDOT:PSS Layer for Polymer Solar Cell Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Iwan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We compare the performance of polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM with silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs incorporated in poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:poly(styrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS. The structure of constructed solar devices was ITO/PEDOT:PSS:Ag NPs/P3HT:PCBM/Al. Typical polyol chemistry was used to synthesize silver in water solution. Ag nanoparticles were investigated by UV-vis, atomic force microscopy (AFM, and dynamic light scattering (DLS methods. We investigated influence of amount of silver in a hole transporting layer on the performance of bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells. The value of power conversion efficiency (PCE, equal to 2.16% under simulated 100 mW/cm2 AM 1.5G irradiation, was found for device created in air with 60 µL of Ag NPs added to 1 mL of PEDOT:PSS. Along with the increase amount of Ag NPs from 60 to 150 µL, the PCE decrease was found. Stability of solar cells with Ag was also investigated. The loss in value of PCE after 8 months was found in the range 13–47% depending on the device architecture. The solar cells were additionally measured with impedance spectroscopy.

  9. The Impact of Graphene on the Fabrication of Thin Film Solar Cells: Current Status and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengqi Shi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Commercial solar cells have a power conversion efficiency (PCE in the range of 10–22% with different light absorbers. Graphene, with demonstrated unique structural, physical, and electrical properties, is expected to bring the positive effects on the development of thin film solar cells. Investigations have been carried out to understand whether graphene can be used as a front and back contacts and active interfacial layer in solar cell fabrication. In this review, the current progress of this research is analyzed, starting from the graphene and graphene-based Schottky diode. Also, the discussion was focused on the progress of graphene-incorporated thin film solar cells that were fabricated with different light absorbers, in particular, the synthesis, fabrication, and characterization of devices. The effect of doping and layer thickness of graphene on PCE was also included. Currently, the PCE of graphene-incorporated bulk-heterojunction devices have enhanced in the range of 0.5–3%. However, device durability and cost-effectiveness are also the challenging factors for commercial production of graphene-incorporated solar cells. In addition to the application of graphene, graphene oxides have been also used in perovskite solar cells. The current needs and likely future investigations for graphene-incorporated solar cells are also discussed.

  10. Relating Structure to Efficiency in Surfactant-Free Polymer/Fullerene Nanoparticle-Based Organic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gärtner, Stefan; Clulow, Andrew J; Howard, Ian A; Gilbert, Elliot P; Burn, Paul L; Gentle, Ian R; Colsmann, Alexander

    2017-12-13

    Nanoparticle dispersions open up an ecofriendly route toward printable organic solar cells. They can be formed from a variety of organic semiconductors by using miniemulsions that employ surfactants to stabilize the nanoparticles in dispersion and to prevent aggregation. However, whenever surfactant-based nanoparticle dispersions have been used to fabricate solar cells, the reported performances remain moderate. In contrast, solar cells from nanoparticle dispersions formed by precipitation (without surfactants) can exhibit power conversion efficiencies close to those of state-of-the-art solar cells processed from blend solutions using chlorinated solvents. In this work, we use small-angle neutron scattering measurements and transient absorption spectroscopy to investigate why surfactant-free nanoparticles give rise to efficient organic solar cells. We show that surfactant-free nanoparticles comprise a uniform distribution of small semiconductor domains, similar to that of bulk-heterojunction films formed using traditional solvent processing. This observation differs from surfactant-based miniemulsion nanoparticles that typically exhibit core-shell structures. Hence, the surfactant-free nanoparticles already possess the optimum morphology for efficient energy conversion before they are assembled into the photoactive layer of a solar cell. This structural property underpins the superior performance of the solar cells containing surfactant-free nanoparticles and is an important design criterion for future nanoparticle inks.

  11. The Impact of Graphene on the Fabrication of Thin Film Solar Cells: Current Status and Future Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhengqi; Jayatissa, Ahalapitiya H

    2017-12-27

    Commercial solar cells have a power conversion efficiency (PCE) in the range of 10-22% with different light absorbers. Graphene, with demonstrated unique structural, physical, and electrical properties, is expected to bring the positive effects on the development of thin film solar cells. Investigations have been carried out to understand whether graphene can be used as a front and back contacts and active interfacial layer in solar cell fabrication. In this review, the current progress of this research is analyzed, starting from the graphene and graphene-based Schottky diode. Also, the discussion was focused on the progress of graphene-incorporated thin film solar cells that were fabricated with different light absorbers, in particular, the synthesis, fabrication, and characterization of devices. The effect of doping and layer thickness of graphene on PCE was also included. Currently, the PCE of graphene-incorporated bulk-heterojunction devices have enhanced in the range of 0.5-3%. However, device durability and cost-effectiveness are also the challenging factors for commercial production of graphene-incorporated solar cells. In addition to the application of graphene, graphene oxides have been also used in perovskite solar cells. The current needs and likely future investigations for graphene-incorporated solar cells are also discussed.

  12. Mobility dependent recombination models for organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenpfahl, Alexander

    2017-09-01

    Modern solar cell technologies are driven by the effort to enhance power conversion efficiencies. A main mechanism limiting power conversion efficiencies is charge carrier recombination which is a direct function of the encounter probability of both recombination partners. In inorganic solar cells with rather high charge carrier mobilities, charge carrier recombination is often dominated by energetic states which subsequently trap both recombination partners for recombination. Free charge carriers move fast enough for Coulomb attraction to be irrelevant for the encounter probability. Thus, charge carrier recombination is independent of charge carrier mobilities. In organic semiconductors charge carrier mobilities are much lower. Therefore, electrons and holes have more time react to mutual Coulomb-forces. This results in the strong charge carrier mobility dependencies of the observed charge carrier recombination rates. In 1903 Paul Langevin published a fundamental model to describe the recombination of ions in gas-phase or aqueous solutions, known today as Langevin recombination. During the last decades this model was used to interpret and model recombination in organic semiconductors. However, certain experiments especially with bulk-heterojunction solar cells reveal much lower recombination rates than predicted by Langevin. In search of an explanation, many material and device properties such as morphology and energetic properties have been examined in order to extend the validity of the Langevin model. A key argument for most of these extended models is, that electron and hole must find each other at a mutual spatial location. This encounter may be limited for instance by trapping of charges in trap states, by selective electrodes separating electrons and holes, or simply by the morphology of the involved semiconductors, making it impossible for electrons and holes to recombine at high rates. In this review, we discuss the development of mobility limited

  13. Photochemical charges separation and photoelectric properties of flexible solar cells with two types of heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiangyang, E-mail: lxy081276@126.com, E-mail: yzgu@henu.edu.cn; Wang, Shun; Zheng, Haiwu; Cheng, Xiuying; Gu, Yuzong, E-mail: lxy081276@126.com, E-mail: yzgu@henu.edu.cn [Institute of Microsystems Physics and School of Physics and Electronics, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China)

    2015-12-14

    Photochemical charges generation, separation, and transport at nanocrystal interfaces are central to energy conversion for solar cells. Here, Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} nanowires/Cu{sub 4}Bi{sub 4}S{sub 9} (ZTO/CBS), ZTO nanowires/CBS-reduced graphene oxide (ZTO/CBS-RGO), and bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells were measured. The signals of steady state and electric field-induced surface photovoltage indicate that RGO with high electron mobility can evidently improve the photovoltaic response. Besides, ZTO/CBS and ZTO/CBS-RGO cells exhibit the excellent performance and the highest efficiencies of 1.2% and 2.8%, respectively. The internal relations of photoelectric properties to some factors, such as film thickness, direct paths, RGO conductive network, energy level matching, etc., were discussed in detail. Qualitative and quantitative analyses further verified the comprehensive effect of RGO and other factors. Importantly, the fine bendable characteristic of BHJ solar cells with excellent efficiency and facile, scalable production gives the as-made flexible solar cells device potential for practical application in future.

  14. Photochemical charges separation and photoelectric properties of flexible solar cells with two types of heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangyang; Wang, Shun; Zheng, Haiwu; Cheng, Xiuying; Gu, Yuzong

    2015-12-01

    Photochemical charges generation, separation, and transport at nanocrystal interfaces are central to energy conversion for solar cells. Here, Zn2SnO4 nanowires/Cu4Bi4S9 (ZTO/CBS), ZTO nanowires/CBS-reduced graphene oxide (ZTO/CBS-RGO), and bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells were measured. The signals of steady state and electric field-induced surface photovoltage indicate that RGO with high electron mobility can evidently improve the photovoltaic response. Besides, ZTO/CBS and ZTO/CBS-RGO cells exhibit the excellent performance and the highest efficiencies of 1.2% and 2.8%, respectively. The internal relations of photoelectric properties to some factors, such as film thickness, direct paths, RGO conductive network, energy level matching, etc., were discussed in detail. Qualitative and quantitative analyses further verified the comprehensive effect of RGO and other factors. Importantly, the fine bendable characteristic of BHJ solar cells with excellent efficiency and facile, scalable production gives the as-made flexible solar cells device potential for practical application in future.

  15. Interfacial Engineering for Highly Efficient-Conjugated Polymer-Based Bulk Heterojunction Photovoltaic Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alex Jen; David Ginger; Christine Luscombe; Hong Ma

    2012-04-02

    The aim of our proposal is to apply interface engineering approach to improve charge extraction, guide active layer morphology, improve materials compatibility, and ultimately allow the fabrication of high efficiency tandem cells. Specifically, we aim at developing: i. Interfacial engineering using small molecule self-assembled monolayers ii. Nanostructure engineering in OPVs using polymer brushes iii. Development of efficient light harvesting and high mobility materials for OPVs iv. Physical characterization of the nanostructured systems using electrostatic force microscopy, and conducting atomic force microscopy v. All-solution processed organic-based tandem cells using interfacial engineering to optimize the recombination layer currents vi. Theoretical modeling of charge transport in the active semiconducting layer The material development effort is guided by advanced computer modeling and surface/ interface engineering tools to allow us to obtain better understanding of the effect of electrode modifications on OPV performance for the investigation of more elaborate device structures. The materials and devices developed within this program represent a major conceptual advancement using an integrated approach combining rational molecular design, material, interface, process, and device engineering to achieve solar cells with high efficiency, stability, and the potential to be used for large-area roll-to-roll printing. This may create significant impact in lowering manufacturing cost of polymer solar cells for promoting clean renewable energy use and preventing the side effects from using fossil fuels to impact environment.

  16. The use of polystyrene-tethered fullerenes as stabilizers in bulk heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Joshua Alexander

    Self-assembly of nanoparticles can potentially provide improvements for many current applications and could influence the design of future technologies. The assembly of nanoparticles, which can be controlled through external forces or through molecular interactions, can affect the properties of a material. Nanoparticles can be chemically modified by attaching molecules such as polymers to their surface. The nature and placement of these tethers affects the arrangement of the nanoparticles leading to materials with novel chemical, electrical, and physical properties. In this research, the assembly of the fullerene (C60) based nanoparticles was modified using polystyrene-tethered fullerenes (PTFs) as additives. Polystyrene (PS) was synthesized via atom transfer radical polymerization and fully characterized by GPC and IR. The PS was attached to C60 using atom transfer radical addition, azide coupling, and by the addition of CN- to the C60 creating a nucleophile that reacted with bromine terminated PS. PTFs were characterized using GPC with a UV-Vis detector and TGA to determine percent C60. This study focuses on the synthesis and characterization of PTFs and the use of PTFs as an additive in organic photovoltaics (OPVs). The size of [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) domains within the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) of OPVs is of great importance to the performance and lifetime of the device. PTFs were used as an additive in the BHJ to reduce the initial PCBM domain size as well as to mitigate the growth of these domains over time that typically results in decreased device efficiency. Films were prepared from a mixture of PCBM:P3HT on silicon wafers to approximate a BHJ system. PTFs were added in concentrations ranging from 0% to 20%. The samples were then annealed at 150°C for varying times ranging from 5 to 60 mins and examined by SEM to determine the average PCBM domain sizes for each sample. As expected, the control sample containing no additive showed

  17. A comparative study on the performance of hybrid solar cells containing ZnSTe QDs in hole transporting layer and photoactive layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najeeb, Mansoor Ani [Qatar University, Center for Advanced Materials (CAM) (Qatar); Abdullah, Shahino Mah; Aziz, Fakhra [University of Malaya, Low Dimensional Materials Research Centre (LDMRC), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science (Malaysia); Ahmad, Zubair, E-mail: zubairtarar@qu.edu.qa; Shakoor, R. A. [Qatar University, Center for Advanced Materials (CAM) (Qatar); Mohamed, A. M. A. [Suez University, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Engineering (Egypt); Khalil, Uzma [University of Peshawar, Department of Electronics, Jinnah College for Women (Pakistan); Swelm, Wageh; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed A. [King Abdulaziz University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science (Saudi Arabia); Sulaiman, Khaulah [University of Malaya, Low Dimensional Materials Research Centre (LDMRC), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science (Malaysia)

    2016-12-15

    In this paper, ZnSTe quantum dots-based hybrid solar cells (HSC) with two different device architectures have been investigated. The improved performance of the poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]phenyl C{sub 71} butyric acid methyl ester (PC{sub 71}BM)-based bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells by the incorporation of ZnSTe quantum dots (QDs) with an average size of 2.96 nm in PEDOT:PSS layer and active layer that have been demonstrated. Although the efficiency of both types of devices is almost the same, a close comparison reveals different reasons behind their improved performance. The device prepared with QDs in the HTL has shown reduced series resistance, increased shunt resistance, and improved mobility. On the other hand, QDs in the photoactive layer demonstrates increased photo-generation leading to improved efficiency.

  18. Fabrication and Optimization of Polymer Solar Cells Based on P3HT:PC70BM System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huangzhong Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient bulk heterojunction (BHJ polymer solar cells (PSCs based on P3HT:PC70BM were fabricated by optimizing the processing parameters. The optimized thickness and annealing temperature have been found to be about 200 nm and 130°C. The effect of cathode interfacial layers on device performance is related to the formation of interfacial dipole. Furthermore, the effect of optimum ZnO interfacial thickness (~30 nm on device performance is attributed to good interfacial conductivity and its optical property. The metal electrode deposited in the slow rate has a better influence on device performance. Based on these optimal conditions, the best power conversion efficiency (PCE of 3.91% was obtained under AM 1.5G and 100 mW/cm2 illumination. This detailed investigation provides an important reference for the fabrication and optimization of polymer photovoltaic devices.

  19. Achieving high efficiency and stability in inverted organic solar cells fabricated by laminated gold leaf as top electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahirah Razali, Nur; Osaka, Itaru; Takimiya, Kazuo; Vohra, Varun; Murata, Hideyuki

    2014-11-01

    We investigated inverted bulk heterojunction solar cells fabricated with gold (Au) leaf as laminated top electrodes. We demonstrate that the Au leaf can be successfully transferred from a supporting poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrate to the surface of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) because PEDOT:PSS has a sufficiently higher work of adhesion than PET. Under optimized lamination conditions, the contact between the Au leaf and the PEDOT:PSS becomes homogeneous, and the power conversion efficiency (PCE) improves. When a naphtho[1,2-c:5,6-c‧]bis[1,2,5]thiadiazole-based polymer is used as the p-type semiconductor, the PCE reaches 5.07%. The laminated devices exhibit excellent stability comparable to that of evaporated devices.

  20. Effects of alkyl chain length on the optoelectronic properties and performance of pyrrolo-perylene solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianqing; Kim, Yu Jin; Ha, Yeon Hee; Zhao, Qinghua; Park, Chan Eon; Kim, Yun-Hi

    2015-04-29

    While the impact of alkyl side-chain length on the photovoltaic properties of conjugated polymers and their performance in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells has been studied extensively, analogous studies on pyrrolo-perylene-based polymers have not received adequate attention. To explore these effects, we synthesized two copolymers based on N-annulated pyrrolo-perylene and consisting of cyano group substituents on thiophene vinylene thiophene units with two different alkyl groups of 2-decyltetradecyl and 7-decylnonadecyl, and we studied them with regard to chemical structure and photovoltaic performance. UV-vis spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry studies showed that variations in alkyl chain length affect crystallization, light absorption, and the highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy levels. These factors have a pronounced impact on the morphology of BHJ thin films and their charge carrier separation and transportation characteristics, which, in turn, influences photovoltaic properties.

  1. Effects of solvent additive on “s-shaped” curves in solution-processed small molecule solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Love

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A novel molecular chromophore, p-SIDT(FBTThCA82, is introduced as an electron-donor material for bulk heterojunction (BHJ solar cells with broad absorption and near ideal energy levels for the use in combination with common acceptor materials. It is found that films cast from chlorobenzene yield devices with strongly s-shaped current–voltage curves, drastically limiting performance. We find that addition of the common solvent additive diiodooctane, in addition to facilitating crystallization, leads to improved vertical phase separation. This yields much better performing devices, with improved curve shape, demonstrating the importance of morphology control in BHJ devices and improving the understanding of the role of solvent additives.

  2. Water-Induced Degradation of Polymer Solar Cells Studied by (H2O)-O-18 Labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norrman, Kion; Gevorgyan, Suren; Krebs, Frederik C

    2009-01-01

    Water-induced degradation of polymer photovoltaics based on the active materials poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) or poly[2-methoxy-5-(2′-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEHPPV) was studied. The solar cell devices comprised a bulk heterojunction formed by the active material and [6,6]-phenyl......-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) in a standard device geometry. The use of H218O in conjunction with time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry enabled mapping of the parts of the device that were induced by water. A comparison was made between the two active materials and between devices...... that were kept in the dark and devices that had been subjected to illumination under simulated sunlight. Devices that were exposed to ambient humidity were compared to devices exposed to saturated humidity. Finally, a comparison was made between results obtained using H218O and earlier work involving 18O2...

  3. Hybrid solar cells based on semiconductor nanocrystals and poly(3-hexylthiophene)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borchert, Holger; Witt, Florian; Kruszynska, Marta; Radychev, Nikolai; Lokteva, Irina; Zutz, Folker; Heinemann, Marc Daniel; Hauff, Elizabeth von; Kolny-Olesiak, Joanna; Riedel, Ingo; Parisi, Juergen [University of Oldenburg (Germany). Department of Physics, Energy and Semiconductor Research Laboratory

    2010-07-01

    Semiconductor nanoparticles are promising electron acceptor materials for polymer-based bulk heterojunction solar cells. Size-dependent optical properties enable adaptation of the absorption to the solar spectrum, and the possibility to use elongated nanoparticles should be favorable for efficient electron transport. Despite these potential advantages, efficiencies reported for such hybrid solar cells are still below those of organic polymer/fullerene cells. In the presented work, CdSe nanoparticles were prepared by colloidal chemistry and their usability for hybrid solar cells in conjunction with poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as electron donor material was studied. Systematic studies of correlations between the device performance and blend morphology are presented. Furthermore, charge separation in the donor/acceptor systems was studied in detail by electron spin resonance (ESR) and photoinduced absorption spectroscopy (PIA). The studies revealed the existence of a large amount of trap states which might be the origin of the limitations for the device efficiency. First results with colloidally prepared CuInS{sub 2} nanoparticles are presented as well.

  4. Solution-Processed Organic Solar Cells from Dye Molecules: An Investigation of Diketopyrrolopyrrole:Vinazene Heterojunctions

    KAUST Repository

    Walker, Bright

    2012-01-25

    Although one of the most attractive aspects of organic solar cells is their low cost and ease of fabrication, the active materials incorporated into the vast majority of reported bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells include a semiconducting polymer and a fullerene derivative, classes of materials which are both typically difficult and expensive to prepare. In this study, we demonstrate that effective BHJs can be fabricated from two easily synthesized dye molecules. Solar cells incorporating a diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP)-based molecule as a donor and a dicyanoimidazole (Vinazene) acceptor function as an active layer in BHJ solar cells, producing relatively high open circuit voltages and power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) up to 1.1%. Atomic force microscope images of the films show that active layers are rough and apparently have large donor and acceptor domains on the surface, whereas photoluminescence of the blends is incompletely quenched, suggesting that higher PCEs might be obtained if the morphology could be improved to yield smaller domain sizes and a larger interfacial area between donor and acceptor phases. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  5. Aryl end-capped quaterthiophenes applied as anode interfacial layers in inverted organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiskanen, Juha P., E-mail: juha.heiskanen@oulu.fi [Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 3000, FI-90014 University of Oulu (Finland); Manninen, Venla M. [Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 541, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Pankov, Dmitri [Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 3000, FI-90014 University of Oulu (Finland); Omar, Walaa A.E. [Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 3000, FI-90014 University of Oulu (Finland); Department of Chemistry and Mathematics, Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, Suez University, Suez 43721 (Egypt); Kastinen, Tuuva; Hukka, Terttu I.; Lemmetyinen, Helge J. [Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 541, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Hormi, Osmo E.O. [Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 3000, FI-90014 University of Oulu (Finland)

    2015-01-01

    Four aryl end-capped quaterthiophene derivatives were synthesized and their material properties were studied by computational, spectroscopic, electrochemical, and thermoanalytical methods. Compounds were applied as interfacial layers between the bulk heterojunction active layer and Ag anode in inverted organic solar cells. Results show that p-cyanophenyl end-capped quaterthiophene with hexyl side chains increases both the short circuit current density and power conversion efficiency notably compared to reference interlayer material, tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum. The improved cell performance was attributed to the optimal positions of the highest occupied molecular orbital and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of this material, relative to those of the photoactive electron donor poly(3-hexylthiophene) and Ag anode, and evenly distributed LUMO. In addition, the use of these materials as an anode interfacial layer increases the absorption of the solar cell, which could contribute to the formation of excitons and additional current production by the cell. - Highlights: • Aryl end-capped oligothiophenes were synthesized in good overall yields. • Materials could be applied as anode interfacial layers in organic solar cells. • Computational, spectroscopic, and electrochemical analyses support conclusions. • Substitution patterns determine HOMO and LUMO levels of interfacial material. • Improved cell performance was attributed mainly to optimal HOMO and LUMO levels.

  6. Eco-friendly spray coating of organic solar cells through water-based nanoparticles ink (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryckers, Jeroen; D'Olieslaeger, Lien; Manca, Jean; Ethirajan, Anitha; Deferme, Wim

    2015-09-01

    Ultrasonic spray coating is currently proven to be a reliable, flexible and cost efficient fabrication method for printed electronics [1-2]. Ultrasonic nozzles are by design especially well-suited to deposit nano-suspension dispersions. Due to the ultrasonic vibration of the nozzle, droplets having a median diameter of 20 μm are created in a homogeneous droplet cloud and directed towards the substrate. When one prepares an ink having the right wetting properties, thin and homogeneous layers, fully covering the surface, can be achieved. Together with conjugated polymer nanoparticles (NPs), emerging as a new class of nanomaterials, [3] it opens possibilities towards eco-friendly roll-to-roll processing of state-of-the-art organic bulk heterojunction solar cells. A ultrasonic spray coater was used to print the conjugated polymer NP layers under different conditions. A first optimization of the spray coater settings (flow rate, spray speed and temperature) and the ink formulation (water and co-solvent mixture and NP content) was performed for polystyrene particles dissolved in a water-ethanol mixture. As a next step, the low bandgap donor polymer poly[9-(1-octylnonyl)-9H-carbazole-2,7-diyl]-2,5-thiophenediyl-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole-4,7-diyl-2,5-thiophene-diyl] (PCDTBT) [4] and the fullerene acceptor phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM[70]) were combined in a water-based blend NP dispersion which was prepared using the mini-emulsion technique. [5,6] Optical Microscopy, profilometry and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) are performed to study the roughness, surface structure, thickness and coverage of the spray coated layers. Finally the printed NP layers are integrated in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells and compared to spin coated reference devices.

  7. Reduced energy offset via substitutional doping for efficient organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiao; Sun, Weifu; Zhang, Qin; Ruan, Kelian; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Xu, Haijiao; Xu, Zhongyuan; Li, Qinghua

    2015-06-01

    Charge carrier transport in bulk heterojunction that is central to the device performance of solar cells is sensitively dependent on the energy level alignment of acceptor and donor. However, the effect of energy level regulation induced by nickel ions on the primary photoexcited electron transfer and the performance of P3HT/TiO2 hybrid solar cells remains being poorly understood and rarely studied. Here we demonstrate that the introduction of the versatile nickel ions into TiO2 nanocrystals can significantly elevate the conduction and valence band energy levels of the acceptor, thus resulting in a remarkable reduction of energy level offset between the conduction band of acceptor and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of donor. By applying transient photoluminescence and femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopies, we demonstrate that the electron transfer becomes more competitive after incorporating nickel ions. In particular, the electron transfer life time is shortened from 30.2 to 16.7 ps, i.e., more than 44% faster than pure TiO2 acceptor, thus leading to a notable increase of power conversion efficiency in organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells. This work underscores the promising virtue of engineering the reduction of 'excess' energy offset to accelerate electron transport and demonstrates the potential of nickel ions in applications of solar energy conversion and photon detectors.

  8. Interlayer adhesion in roll-to-roll processed flexible inverted polymer solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Dupont, Stephanie R.

    2012-02-01

    The interlayer adhesion of roll-to-roll processed flexible inverted P3HT:PCBM bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells is reported. Poor adhesion between adjacent layers may result in loss of device performance from delamination driven by the thermomechanical stresses in the device. We demonstrate how a thin-film adhesion technique can be applied to flexible organic solar cells to obtain quantitative adhesion values. For the P3HT:PCBM-based BHJ polymer solar cells, the interface of the BHJ with the conductive polymer layer PEDOT:PSS was found to be the weakest. The adhesion fracture energy varied from 1.6 J/m2 to 0.1 J/m2 depending on the composition of the P3HT:PCBM layer. Post-deposition annealing time and temperature were shown to increase the adhesion at this interface. Additionally the PEDOT:PSS cells are compared with V2O5 cells whereby adhesive failure marked by high fracture energies was observed. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  9. Interlayer adhesion in roll-to-roll processed flexible inverted polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Stephanie R.; Oliver, Mark; Krebs, Frederik C

    2012-01-01

    The interlayer adhesion of roll-to-roll processed flexible inverted P3HT:PCBM bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells is reported. Poor adhesion between adjacent layers may result in loss of device performance from delamination driven by the thermomechanical stresses in the device. We...... demonstrate how a thin-film adhesion technique can be applied to flexible organic solar cells to obtain quantitative adhesion values. For the P3HT:PCBM-based BHJ polymer solar cells, the interface of the BHJ with the conductive polymer layer PEDOT:PSS was found to be the weakest. The adhesion fracture energy...... varied from 1.6 J/m2 to 0.1 J/m2 depending on the composition of the P3HT:PCBM layer. Post-deposition annealing time and temperature were shown to increase the adhesion at this interface. Additionally the PEDOT:PSS cells are compared with V2O5 cells whereby adhesive failure marked by high fracture...

  10. Electronic properties of Mn-phthalocyanine–C{sub 60} bulk heterojunctions: Combining photoemission and electron energy-loss spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, Friedrich [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science/DESY, Notkestraße 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Herzig, Melanie; Knupfer, Martin [FW Dresden, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Lupulescu, Cosmin [Institute of Optics and Atomic Physics, TU Berlin, Straße des 17. Juni 135, D-10623 Berlin (Germany); Darlatt, Erik; Gottwald, Alexander [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Abbestraße 2-12, D-10587 Berlin (Germany); Eberhardt, Wolfgang [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science/DESY, Notkestraße 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Institute of Optics and Atomic Physics, TU Berlin, Straße des 17. Juni 135, D-10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-11-14

    The electronic properties of co-evaporated mixtures (blends) of manganese phthalocyanine and the fullerene C{sub 60} (MnPc:C{sub 60}) have been studied as a function of the concentration of the two constituents using two supplementary electron spectroscopic methods, photoemission spectroscopy (PES) and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) in transmission. Our PES measurements provide a detailed picture of the electronic structure measured with different excitation energies as well as different mixing ratios between MnPc and C{sub 60}. Besides a relative energy shift, the occupied electronic states of the two materials remain essentially unchanged. The observed energy level alignment is different compared to that of the related CuPc:C{sub 60} bulk heterojunction. Moreover, the results from our EELS investigations show that, despite the rather small interface interaction, the MnPc related electronic excitation spectrum changes significantly by admixing C{sub 60} to MnPc thin films.

  11. Photoelectron spectroscopy and modeling of interface properties related to organic photovoltaic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahlman, Mats, E-mail: mafah@ifm.liu.se [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linkoping University, SE-581 83 Linkoping (Sweden); Sehati, Parisa; Osikowicz, Wojciech; Braun, Slawomir [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linkoping University, SE-581 83 Linkoping (Sweden); Jong, Michel P. de [MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Brocks, Geert [MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Computational Materials Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► Photoelectron spectroscopy measurements of properties in organic solar cells. ► Advantages and limitations are discussed. ► Theoretical modeling of interface properties is presented. -- Abstract: In this short review, we will give examples on how photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) assisted by models on interface energetics can be used to study properties important to bulk heterojunction type organic photovoltaic devices focusing on the well-known bulk heterojunction blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) and its model system P3HT:C{sub 60}. We also will discuss some of the limitations of PES as applied to organic semiconductors (OS) and photovoltaic devices and finish with reviewing recent theoretical advances that now enable calculation of relevant parameters at (hybrid) interfaces measured by PES.

  12. Organic solar cells with graded absorber layers processed from nanoparticle dispersions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gärtner, Stefan; Reich, Stefan; Bruns, Michael; Czolk, Jens; Colsmann, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    The fabrication of organic solar cells with advanced multi-layer architectures from solution is often limited by the choice of solvents since most organic semiconductors dissolve in the same aromatic agents. In this work, we investigate multi-pass deposition of organic semiconductors from eco-friendly ethanol dispersion. Once applied, the nanoparticles are insoluble in the deposition agent, allowing for the application of further nanoparticulate layers and hence for building poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl):indene-C60 bisadduct absorber layers with vertically graded polymer and conversely graded fullerene concentration. Upon thermal annealing, we observe some degrees of polymer/fullerene interdiffusion by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Kelvin probe force microscopy. Replacing the common bulk-heterojunction by such a graded photo-active layer yields an enhanced fill factor of the solar cell due to an improved charge carrier extraction, and consequently an overall power conversion efficiency beyond 4%. Wet processing of such advanced device architectures paves the way for a versatile, eco-friendly and industrially feasible future fabrication of organic solar cells with advanced multi-layer architectures.

  13. Polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) and fullerene: Pyrene acceptor systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cominetti, Alessandra; Pellegrino, Andrea; Longo, Luca [Research Center for Renewable Energies and Environment, Istituto Donegani, Eni S.p.A, Via Fauser 4, IT-28100 Novara (Italy); Po, Riccardo, E-mail: riccardo.po@eni.com [Research Center for Renewable Energies and Environment, Istituto Donegani, Eni S.p.A, Via Fauser 4, IT-28100 Novara (Italy); Tacca, Alessandra; Carbonera, Chiara; Salvalaggio, Mario [Research Center for Renewable Energies and Environment, Istituto Donegani, Eni S.p.A, Via Fauser 4, IT-28100 Novara (Italy); Baldrighi, Michele; Meille, Stefano Valdo [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica “G. Natta”, Politecnico di Milano, via Mancinelli 7, IT-20131 Milano (Italy)

    2015-06-01

    The replacement of widely used fullerene derivatives, e.g. [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), with unfunctionalized C60 and C70 is an effective approach to reduce the costs of organic photovoltaics. However, solubility issues of these compounds have always represented an obstacle to their use. In this study, bulk-heterojunction solar cells made of poly(3-hexylthiophene) donor polymer, C60 or C70 acceptors and a pyrene derivative (1-pyrenebutiric acid butyl ester) are reported. Butyl 1-pyrenebutirate limits the aggregation of fullerenes and improves the active layer morphology, plausibly due to the formation of pyrene-fullerene complexes which, in the case of pyrene-C70, were also obtained in a crystalline form. Maximum power conversion efficiencies of 1.54% and 2.50% have been obtained using, respectively, C60 or C70 as acceptor. Quantum mechanical modeling provides additional insight into the formation of plausible supermolecular structures via π-π interactions and on the redox behaviour of pyrene-fullerene systems. - Highlights: • Pyrene derivatives favour the dispersion of unfunctionalized fullerenes. • Polymer solar cells with pyrene: C60 adduct as acceptor have efficiencies of 1.54%. • When C60 is substituted with C70 the efficiency is increased to 2.50%. • DFT calculations support the plausibility of the formation of pyrene: fullerene adducts. • The use of unfunctionalized fullerenes may decrease the costs of polymer solar cells.

  14. Hierarchical placement and associated optoelectronic impact of carbon nanotubes in polymer-fullerene solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Sumit; Lu, Haiwei; Müller, Astrid M; Bardeen, Christopher J; Ozkan, Mihrimah

    2007-07-01

    Since their discovery, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been considered to be promising candidates for polymer-based solar cells, but their functional incorporation and utilization in such devices have been limited due to processing bottlenecks. Here, we demonstrate the realization of controlled placement of a single-walled CNT (SWNT) monolayer network at four different positions in polymer-fullerene bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. SWNTs were deposited by dip-coating from a hydrophilic suspension, and a very brief, largely nondestructive argon plasma treatment of the active layer was utilized for incorporation of a SWNT layer within or above it. We demonstrate that SWNTs on the hole-collection side of the active layer lead to an increase in power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the photovoltaic devices from 4 to 4.9% (under AM 1.5 G, 1.3 suns illumination). This is the highest reported PCE for polymer-based solar cells incorporating CNTs, upon consideration of expected scaling of device parameters for 1 sun illumination. We also observe that SWNTs deposited on the top of the active layer lead to major electro-optical changes in the device functionality, including an increased fluorescence lifetime of poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT).

  15. Layer-by-layer graphene/TCNQ stacked films as conducting anodes for organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chang-Lung; Lin, Cheng-Te; Huang, Jen-Hsien; Chu, Chih-Wei; Wei, Kung-Hwa; Li, Lain-Jong

    2012-06-26

    Large-area graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a promising candidate for transparent conducting electrode applications in flexible optoelectronic devices such as light-emitting diodes or organic solar cells. However, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the polymer photovoltaic devices using a pristine CVD graphene anode is still not appealing due to its much lower conductivity than that of conventional indium tin oxide. We report a layer-by-layer molecular doping process on graphene for forming sandwiched graphene/tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ)/graphene stacked films for polymer solar cell anodes, where the TCNQ molecules (as p-dopants) were securely embedded between two graphene layers. Poly(3-hexylthiophene)/phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT/PCBM) bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells based on these multilayered graphene/TCNQ anodes are fabricated and characterized. The P3HT/PCBM device with an anode structure composed of two TCNQ layers sandwiched by three CVD graphene layers shows optimum PCE (∼2.58%), which makes the proposed anode film quite attractive for next-generation flexible devices demanding high conductivity and transparency.

  16. Investigation of Annealing and Blend Concentration Effects of Organic Solar Cells Composed of Small Organic Dye and Fullerene Derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser A. M. Ismail

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We have fabricated bulk heterojunction organic solar cells using coumarin 6 (C6 as a small organic dye, for light harvesting and electron donation, with fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM, acting as an electron acceptor, by spin-coating technique. We have investigated thermal annealing and blend concentration effects on light harvesting, photocurrent, and performance parameters of the solar cells. In this work, we introduced an experimental method by which someone can easily detect the variation in the contact between active layer and cathode due to thermal annealing after cathode deposition. We have showed, in this work, unusual behavior of solar cell composed of small organic molecules under the influence of thermal annealing at different conditions. This behavior seemed uncommon for polymer solar cells. We try from this work to understand device physics and to locate a relationship between production parameters and performance parameters of the solar cell based on small organic molecules.

  17. Power generating reflective-type liquid crystal displays using a reflective polariser and a polymer solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho Huh, Yoon; Park, Byoungchoo

    2015-06-23

    We herein report the results of a study of a power generating reflective-type liquid crystal display (LCD), composed of a 90° twisted nematic (TN) LC cell attached to the top of a light-absorbing polymer solar cell (PSC), i.e., a Solar-LCD. The PSC consisted of a polymer bulk-heterojunction photovoltaic (PV) layer of poly[[9-(1-octylnonyl)-9H-carbazole-2,7-diyl]-2,5-thiophenediyl-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole-4,7-diyl-2,5-thiophenediyl] and [6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PCDTBT:PCBM70), and showed a high power conversion efficiency of about 5%. In order to improve the visibility of the Solar-LCD, between the TN-LC and the PV cells we inserted a reflective polariser of a giant birefringent optical (GBO) film. The reflectivity from the Solar-LCD was observed to be considerably increased by more than 13-15% under illumination by visible light. The Solar-LCD also exhibited a significantly improved contrast ratio of more than 17-19. We believe there is a clear case for using such Solar-LCDs in new power-generating reflective-type displays; taken as a whole these results also demonstrate the possibility of their application in a number of energy-harvesting opto-electrical display devices.

  18. Polymer solar cells. Morphology-property-correlation; Polymere Solarzellen. Morphologie-Eigenschafts-Korrelation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erb, Tobias

    2008-09-22

    The aim of the presented dissertation is to clarify open questions concerning the development and control of the morphology in the active layer of polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells. The new findings hereby derived shall modify the existing models of the active layer morphology as found in today's literature. The experimental investigations were performed by X-ray diffraction, spectroscopic ellipsometry, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. In addition to those methods, light microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry were applied to investigate three chosen material systems: P3HT/PCBM-C{sub 60}, P3HT/MDHE-C{sub 60}, and P3HT/(MDHE){sub 2}-C{sub 60}. On the basis of experimental results a morphological model is developed, which is discussed in the context of existing literature. The solar cells were electrically characterised by current-voltage and external quantum efficiency measurements. The structural model is set into relation with photovoltaic parameters of the polymer solar cell, such as short circuit photocurrent, open circuit voltage, fill factor, and power conversion efficiency. This contributes to the explanation and analysis of the electrical properties of the organic solar cell as a device. In summary, this work yields morphology-property-relations that are able to explain the interaction between physical properties, such as light absorption, charge carrier generation, and transport, with the morphology present within the active layer. Finally, the three investigated systems are compared and evaluated with respect to their applicability in polymer solar cells. Further on, the morphology-propertyrelations are used to develop a strategy to estimate the suitability of new twocomponent polymer-fullerene donor-acceptor systems for polymer solar cells. Based on these findings it becomes possible to evaluate the optimization potential for new materials. In conclusion, this helps to develop polymer solar cells with increased power conversion

  19. Efficient hybrid solar cell with P3HT:PCBM and Cu2ZnSnS4 nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Se-Jung; Thuy Ho, Nhu; Lee, Min Hyung; Kim, Yong Soo

    2017-06-01

    Recently, Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) with band gap about 1.50 eV is predicted to become an ideal light absorption material due to the abundant component elements in the crust being nontoxic and environmentally friendly. However, CZTS solar cells made by high temperature and vacuum-processed are at a perceived cost disadvantage in compared with solution-processed systems such as organic and hybrid solar cells. In this study, we propose a hybrid solar configurations with solution-processed CZTS nanocrystals and P3HT:PCBM bulk heterojunction. The forming double heterojunction, as charge can be separated at both the P3HT:PCBM and CZTS:PCBM interface is attributed to enhance the light harvesting efficiency. As a result, organic solar cells with CZTS nanocrystals show the higher efficiency 3.32 % compare to 2.65 % of reference organic solar cells. A 25 % improvement of power conversion efficiency is obtained by the increasing in short-circuit current and fill factor.

  20. Solar cells based on organic molecules and polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, J. F.; Maldonado, J. L.; Ramos-Ortíz, G.; Rodríguez, M.; Meneses-Nava, M. A.; Barbosa-García, O.; Farfán, N.; Santillan, R.

    2009-09-01

    The search of clean, inexpensive and renewable energy sources is one of the most important challenges that the mankind is currently confronting. Recently there has been a notable interest of the scientific community to develop organic photovoltaic (OPV) technology as a mean of renewable energy source since it combines low-cost and easy fabrication. We have fabricated and tested plastic solar devices (OPVs) by using the bulk heterojunction approach. OPVs were prepared by blending 6-Nitro-3-(E)-3-(4-dimethylaminophenyl)allylidene)-2,3 dihydrobenzo[d][1,3,2]-oxazaborole (M1) and (E)-3-(4-Dimethylaminophenyl)allylidene)-2,3-dihydrobenzo[d]-[1,3,2]oxazaborole (M2), which are conjugated and non-linear low molecular weight molecules prepared in our laboratories, and the well known photoconductor polymer MEH-PPV; fullerene PC61BM was the sensitizer. The morphology of thin polymer films prepared by using the spin coating technique was analyzed by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). For the electric contact, commercial and transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) deposited on glass slides was used, and a metal alloy of Pb/Bi/Cd/Sn as cathode, was easily deposited on the polymer film by melting the alloy at 75 °C. Open circuit voltages (Voc) of ~ 700 mV and short circuit currents (Jsc) of ~ 0.75 mA/cm2 under solar (AM1.5) illumination were measured for MEH-PPV and M1 based samples. For OPVs cells based on mixtures of either M1 and MEH-PPV or M2 and MEH-PPV there was a large electrical enhancement showing Voc ~ 700 mV and Jsc ~ 2.0 mA/cm2. OPVs cells were also tested under Xe-lamp illumination. Measurements from the I-V curves gave electrical efficiencies close to 1%.

  1. A new photocrosslinkable oligothiophene for organic solar cells with enhanced stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanzi, Massimiliano, E-mail: massimiliano.lanzi@unibo.it [Department of Industrial Chemistry “Toso Montanari”, University of Bologna, Viale Risorgimento 4, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Salatelli, Elisabetta; Di-Nicola, Francesco Paolo; Zuppiroli, Luca [Department of Industrial Chemistry “Toso Montanari”, University of Bologna, Viale Risorgimento 4, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Pierini, Filippo [Department of Mechanics and Physics of Fluids, Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Pawinskiego 5B, 02-106 Warsaw (Poland)

    2017-01-15

    A novel thiophenic tetramer containing a cinnamate group in the side chain with a functionalization degree of 50% is reported. The tetramer was obtained by means of a simple and straightforward procedure involving the functionalization of a p-methoxyphenoxy substituted thiophenic precursor, which led to a soluble product with a good yield. The oligomer was fully characterized from a structural and chemical point of view and employed for the fabrication of small molecule organic solar cells exploiting the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) architecture. The presence of an UV-light sensitive group in the tetramer allowed the photocrosslinking of tetramer/PCBM blends, giving high values of photocurrent and conversion efficiency for the exposed samples. Moreover, the UV-treated devices showed improved stability, even upon heating for three days at 130 °C, thus confirming that photocrosslinking can strongly reduce phase segregation under severe operational conditions. - Graphical abstract: 3D-visualization of a T4CIN/PCBM layer portion. - Highlights: • A photocrosslinkable thiophenic electron-donor oligomer has been synthesized. • It has been characterized and used to prepare BHJ SMO Solar Cells. • Cells electrical performances and thermal stabilities have been evaluated. • A comparison between UV-cured and pristine cells has been made.

  2. Interplay between efficiency and device architecture for small molecule organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Graeme; Sutty, Sibi; Aziz, Hany

    2014-06-21

    Small molecule organic solar cells (OSCs) have experienced a resurgence of interest over their polymer solar cell counterparts, owing to their improved batch-to-batch (thus, cell-to-cell) reliability. In this systematic study on OSC device architecture, we investigate five different small molecule OSC structures, including the simple planar heterojunction (PHJ) and bulk heterojunction (BHJ), as well as several planar-mixed structures. The different OSC structures are studied over a wide range of donor:acceptor mixing concentrations to gain a comprehensive understanding of their charge transport behavior. Transient photocurrent decay measurements provide crucial information regarding the interplay between charge sweep-out and charge recombination, and ultimately hint toward space charge effects in planar-mixed structures. Results show that the BHJ/acceptor architecture, comprising a BHJ layer with high C60 acceptor content, generates OSCs with the highest performance by balancing charge generation with charge collection. The performance of other device architectures is largely limited by hole transport, with associated hole accumulation and space charge effects.

  3. A way for studying the impact of PEDOT:PSS interface layer on carrier transport in PCDTBT:PC{sub 71}BM bulk hetero junction solar cells by electric field induced optical second harmonic generation measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Zubair, E-mail: zubairtarar@um.edu.my; Abdullah, Shahino Mah; Sulaiman, Khaulah [Low Dimensional Materials Research Centre (LDMRC), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Taguchi, Dai; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa [Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-Okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan)

    2015-04-28

    Electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurement was employed to study the impact of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) interface layer on the carrier transport mechanism of the PCDTBT:PC{sub 71}BM bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells (OSCs). We revealed that the electric fields in the PCDTBT and PC{sub 71}BM were allowed to be measured individually by choosing fundamental laser wavelengths of 1000 nm and 1060 nm, respectively, in dark and under illumination. The results showed that the direction of the internal electric fields in the PCDTBT:PC{sub 71}BM BHJ layer is reversed by introducing the PEDOT:PSS layer, and this results in longer electron transport time in the BHJ layer. We conclude that TR-EFISHG can be used as a novel way for studying the impact of interfacial layer on the transport of electrons and holes in the bulk-heterojunction OSCs.

  4. Design Principles in Polymer-Fullerene BHJ Solar Cells: PBDTTPD as a Case Study

    KAUST Repository

    Beaujuge, Pierre

    2015-06-29

    Among Organic Electronics, solution-processable π-conjugated polymers are proving particularly promising in bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells with fullerene acceptors such as PCBM.[1] In recent years, great headway has been made in the development of efficient polymer donors across the community, with published power conversion efficiencies (PCE) >8% in single cells and >10% in tandems. In most reports, these systems involve elaborate repeat unit and side chain patterns, and deviating from those patterns induces substantial drops in device PCE. While the range of polymer design parameters that impact BHJ solar cell performance remains a matter of some debate, our recent developments indicate that the combination of side-chain substituents appended to the main chain critically impacts polymer performance. For example, in poly(benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b’]dithiophene–thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione) (PBDTTPD), side-chain substituents of various size and branching impart distinct molecular packing distances (i.e., π–π stacking and lamellar spacing), varying degrees of nanostructural order in thin films, and preferential backbone orientation relative to the device substrate.[2-5] While these structural variations seem to correlate with BHJ solar cell performance, with power conversion efficiencies ranging from 4% to 8.5%,[2,3] we believe that other contributing parameters – such as the local conformations between the polymer and the fullerene, and the domain distribution/composition across the BHJ (i.e., pure/mixed phases) – should also be taken into account.[6,7] Other discrete modifications of PBDTTPD’s molecular structure affect polymer performance in BHJ solar cells with PCBM, and our recent developments emphasize how systematic structure-property relationship studies impact the design of efficient polymer donors for BHJ solar cell applications.[8-10] It is important to further our understanding of these effects as we look to continue improving BHJ solar

  5. Effect of hybrid carbon nanotubes-bimetallic composite particles on the performance of polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sun-Young [Department of Material Processing, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon 641-831 (Korea); Division of Applied Chemical Engineering, Department of Polymer Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-739 (Korea); Kim, Whi-Dong; Kim, Soo H. [Department of Nanosystem and Nanoprocess Engineering, Pusan National University, 30 Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea); Kim, Do-Geun; Kim, Jong-Kuk; Jeong, Yong-Soo; Kang, Jae-Wook [Department of Material Processing, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon 641-831 (Korea); Kim, Joo Hyun [Division of Applied Chemical Engineering, Department of Polymer Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-739 (Korea); Lee, Jae Keun [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, 30 Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea)

    2010-05-15

    Hybrid carbon nanotubes-bimetallic composite nanoparticles with sea urchin-like structures (SU-CNTs) were introduced to bulk heterojunction polymer-fullerene solar cells to improve their performance. The SU-CNTs were composed of multi-walled CNTs, which were grown radially over the entire surface of the bimetallic nanoparticles composed of Ni and Al. SU-CNTs with a precisely controlled length of {proportional_to}200{+-}40 nm were dispersed homogenously in a polymer active layer. Compared with a pristine device (i.e., without SU-CNTs), the SU-CNTs-doped organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells showed an improved short-circuit current density and power conversion efficiency from 7.5 to 9.5 mA/cm{sup 2} and 2.1{+-}0.1% to 2.2{+-}0.2% (max. 2.5%), respectively. The specially designed SU-CNTs have strong potential as an effective exciton dissociation medium in the polymer active layer to enhance the performance of organic solar cells. (author)

  6. Star-shaped and linear π-conjugated oligomers consisting of a tetrathienoanthracene core and multiple diketopyrrolopyrrole arms for organic solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideaki Komiyama

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Solution-processable star-shaped and linear π-conjugated oligomers consisting of an electron-donating tetrathienoanthracene (TTA core and electron-accepting diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP arms, namely, TTA-DPP4 and TTA-DPP2, were designed and synthesized. Based on density functional theory calculations, the star-shaped TTA-DPP4 has a larger oscillator strength than the linear TTA-DPP2, and consequently, better photoabsorption property over a wide range of visible wavelengths. The photovoltaic properties of organic solar cells based on TTA-DPP4 and TTA-DPP2 with a fullerene derivative were evaluated by varying the thickness of the bulk heterojunction active layer. As a result of the enhanced visible absorption properties of the star-shaped π-conjugated structure, better photovoltaic performances were obtained with relatively thin active layers (40–60 nm.

  7. Charge Recombination, Transport Dynamics, and Interfacial Effects in Organic Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeger, Alan [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Bazan, Guillermo [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Nguyen, Thuc-Quyen [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Wudl, Fred [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    2015-02-12

    The need for renewable sources of energy is well known. Conversion of sunlight to electricity using solar cells is one of the most important opportunities for creating renewable energy sources. The research carried out under DE-FG02-08ER46535 focused on the science and technology of “Plastic” solar cells comprised of organic (i.e. carbon based) semiconductors. The Bulk Heterojunction concept involves a phase separated blend of two organic semiconductors each with dimensions in the nano-meter length scale --- one a material that functions as a donor for electrons and the other a material that functions as an acceptor for electrons. The nano-scale inter-penetrating network concept for “Plastic” solar cells was created at UC Santa Barbara. A simple measure of the impact of this concept can be obtained from a Google search which gives 244,000 “hits” for the Bulk Heterojunction solar cell. Research funded through this program focused on four major areas: 1. Interfacial effects in organic photovoltaics, 2. Charge transfer and photogeneration of mobile charge carriers in organic photovoltaics, 3. Transport and recombination of the photogenerated charge carriers in organic photovoltaics, 4. Synthesis of novel organic semiconducting polymers and semiconducting small molecules, including conjugated polyelectrolytes. Following the discovery of ultrafast charge transfer at UC Santa Barbara in 1992, the nano-organic (Bulk Heterojunction) concept was formulated. The need for a morphology comprising two interpenetrating bicontinuous networks was clear: one network to carry the photogenerated electrons (negative charge) to the cathode and one network to carry the photo-generated holes (positive charge) to the anode. This remarkable self-assembled network morphology has now been established using Transmission electron Microscopy (TEM) either in the Phase Contrast mode or via TEM-Tomography. The steps involved in delivering power from a solar cell to an external circuit

  8. Highly Efficient Porphyrin-Based OPV/Perovskite Hybrid Solar Cells with Extended Photoresponse and High Fill Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ke; Zhu, Zonglong; Xu, Bo; Jo, Sae Byeok; Kan, Yuanyuan; Peng, Xiaobin; Jen, Alex K-Y

    2017-12-01

    Employing a layer of bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) organic semiconductors on top of perovskite to further extend its photoresponse is considered as a simple and promising way to enhance the efficiency of perovskite-based solar cells, instead of using tandem devices or near infrared (NIR)-absorbing Sn-containing perovskites. However, the progress made from this approach is quite limited because very few such hybrid solar cells can simultaneously show high short-circuit current (J SC ) and fill factor (FF). To find an appropriate NIR-absorbing BHJ is essential for highly efficient, organic, photovoltaics (OPV)/perovskite hybrid solar cells. The materials involved in the BHJ layer not only need to have broad photoresponse to increase J SC , but also possess suitable energy levels and high mobility to afford high V OC and FF. In this work, a new porphyrin is synthesized and blended with [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) to function as an efficient BHJ for OPV/perovskite hybrid solar cells. The extended photoresponse, well-matched energy levels, and high hole mobility from optimized BHJ morphology afford a very high power conversion efficiency (PCE) (19.02%) with high V oc , J SC , and FF achieved simultaneously. This is the highest value reported so far for such hybrid devices, which demonstrates the feasibility of further improving the efficiency of perovskite devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Fluorescent carbon quantum dots synthesized by chemical vapor deposition: An alternative candidate for electron acceptor in polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Bo; Yan, Lingpeng; Gu, Huimin; Yang, Yongzhen; Liu, Xuguang; Ma, Chang-Qi; Chen, Yongkang; Jia, Husheng

    2018-01-01

    Excitation-wavelength-dependent blue-greenish fluorescent carbon quantum dots (CQDs) with graphite structure were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. In comparison with those synthesized by hydrothermal method (named H-CQDs), C-CQDs have less hydrophilic terminal groups, showing good solubility in common organic solvents. Furthermore, these synthesized C-CQDs show a low LUMO energy level (LUMO = -3.84 eV), which is close to that of phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM, LUMO = -4.01 eV), the most widely used electron acceptor in polymer solar cells. Photoluminescence quenching of the poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl):C-CQDs blended film (P3HT:C-CQDs) indicated that a photo-induced charge transfer between P3HT and C-CQDs occurs in such a composite film. Bulk heterojunction solar cells using C-CQDs as electron acceptors or doping materials were fabricated and tested. High fill factors were achieved for these C-CQDs based polymer solar cells, demonstrating that CQDs synthesized by CVD could be alternative to the fullerene derivatives for applying in polymer solar cells.

  10. Ruthenium based metallopolymer grafted reduced graphene oxide as a new hybrid solar light harvester in polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinoth, R.; Babu, S. Ganesh; Bharti, Vishal; Gupta, V.; Navaneethan, M.; Bhat, S. Venkataprasad; Muthamizhchelvan, C.; Ramamurthy, Praveen C.; Sharma, Chhavi; Aswal, Dinesh K.; Hayakawa, Yasuhiro; Neppolian, B.

    2017-02-01

    A new class of pyridyl benzimdazole based Ru complex decorated polyaniline assembly (PANI-Ru) was covalently grafted onto reduced graphene oxide sheets (rGO) via covalent functionalization approach. The covalent attachment of PANI-Ru with rGO was confirmed from XPS analysis and Raman spectroscopy. The chemical bonding between PANI-Ru and rGO induced the electron transfer from Ru complex to rGO via backbone of the conjugated PANI chain. The resultant hybrid metallopolymer assembly was successfully demonstrated as an electron donor in bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells (PSCs). A PSC device fabricated with rGO/PANI-Ru showed an utmost ~6 fold and 2 fold enhancement in open circuit potential (Voc) and short circuit current density (Jsc) with respect to the standard device made with PANI-Ru (i.e., without rGO) under the illumination of AM 1.5 G. The excellent electronic properties of rGO significantly improved the electron injection from PANI-Ru to PCBM and in turn the overall performance of the PSC device was enhanced. The ultrafast excited state charge separation and electron transfer role of rGO sheet in hybrid metallopolymer was confirmed from ultrafast spectroscopy measurements. This covalent modification of rGO with metallopolymer assembly may open a new strategy for the development of new hybrid nanomaterials for light harvesting applications.

  11. Top-down prepared silicon nanocrystals and a conjugated polymer-based bulk heterojunction: Optoelectronic and photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svrcek, Vladimir, E-mail: vladimir.svrcek@aist.go.jp [Novel Silicon Material Team, Research Center for Photovoltaics, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Central 2, Umezono 1-1-1, Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan); Fujiwara, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Michio [Novel Silicon Material Team, Research Center for Photovoltaics, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Central 2, Umezono 1-1-1, Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan)

    2009-12-15

    Blends consisting of doped silicon nanocrystals (Si-ncs) and two conjugated polymers (poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and poly(methoxy ethylexyloxy phenylenevinilene) (MEH PPV)) with improved photostability were fabricated. We show that a top-down approach by electrochemical etching is suitable for preparing doped (boron and phosphorus) freestanding and surfactant-free Si-ncs. The doping of Si-ncs was confirmed by low temperature photoluminescence and electron spin resonance analysis. It is demonstrated that such Si-ncs can be successfully used for the fabrication of room temperature photoluminescent and photosensitive blends. We argue that the luminescence and transport properties of the blends are controlled by the Si-ncs properties and could be assigned to quantum confinement of excitons in nanocrystalites with an energy band gap of {approx}2 eV. Furthermore, the blending of doped Si-ncs in both conjugated polymers led to the establishment of a bulk heterojunction between the Si-ncs and polymer. The difference in electron affinity and ionization potential between nanocrystals and polymer dissociated the excitons. Those blends showed increased carrier transport and photoconductivity under ambient conditions. It was found that introduction of less defective p-type doped Si-ncs significantly improved overall photostability of the blend. The Si-ncs non-toxicity and easy integration into well-established silicon technologies might bring considerable benefit for hybrid optoelectronic and photovoltaic device development.

  12. Light-induced EPR study of charge transfer in P3HT/bis-PCBM bulk heterojunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor I. Krinichnyi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Radical pairs, polarons and fullerene anion radicals photoinduced by photons with energy of 1.98 – 2.73 eV in bulk heterojunctions formed by poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT with bis(1-[3-(methoxycarbonylpropyl]-1-phenyl-[6.6]C62 (bis-PCBM fullerene derivative have been studied by direct light-induced EPR (LEPR method in a wide temperature range. A part of photoinduced polarons are pinned in trap sites which number and depth are governed by an ordering of the polymer/fullerene system and energy of initiating photons. It was shown that dynamics and recombination of mobile polarons and counter fullerene anion radicals are governed by their exchange- and multi-trap assisted diffusion. Relaxation and dynamics parameters of both the charge carriers were determined separately by the steady-state saturation method. These parameters are governed by structure and conformation of the carriers’ microenvironment as well as by the energy of irradiating photons. Longitudinal diffusion of polarons was shown to depend on lattice phonons of crystalline domains embedded into an amorphous polymer matrix. The energy barrier required for polaron interchain hopping is higher than that its intrachain diffusion. Pseudorotation of fullerene derivatives in a polymer matrix was shown to follow the activation Pike model.

  13. Comparison of photoresponse of transistors based on graphene-quantum dot hybrids with layered and bulk heterojunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yating; Song, Xiaoxian; Wang, Ran; Cao, Mingxuan; Wang, Haiyan; Che, Yongli; Ding, Xin; Yao, Jianquan

    2015-08-21

    Phototransistors based on graphene-quantum dot hybrids have a high responsivity and gain. However, the influence of the type of heterojunction on the photoresponse of the transistors is still undetermined. A comparison was performed on field-effect phototransistors (FEpTs) with two types of heterojunctions: layered heterojunctions (LHs) and bulk heterojunctions (BHs). Through a comparative study, it was shown that BH-FEpTs had electron and hole mobilities (μE and μH) of 677 and 527 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) whereas LH-FEpTs had lower mobilities of μE = 314 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and μH = 367 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). The large interfacial area in the BHs reduced the degree of channel order (α) by two orders of magnitude compared with the LHs. Although a higher mobility was achieved, an increase in the degree of channel disorder and the lack of an effective transfer mechanism limits the responsivity in BH-FEpTs. Therefore, LH-FEpTs are more appropriate candidates for near infrared phototransistors.

  14. Ternary Organic Solar Cells with Coumarin7 as the Donor Exhibiting Greater Than 10% Power Conversion Efficiency and a High Fill Factor of 75.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin-Wei; Tao, Si-Lu; Fan, Cong; Chen, Dong-Cheng; Zhou, Ling; Lin, Hui; Zheng, Cai-Jun; Su, Shi-Jian

    2017-09-06

    Ternary bulk heterojunction (BHJ) is a brilliant photovoltaic technology for improving the performance of organic solar cells (OSCs), because the light absorption range can be significantly extended by using multiple donors or acceptor materials. In this paper, coumarin7 (C7), a small organic molecule typical led used in organic light-emitting diodes, was initially exploited as second electron-donor component in ternary bulk heterojunction OSCs along with conventional blend system spolythieno[3,4-b]-thiophene/benzodithiophene(PTB7) and [6,6]-phenyl-C71 -butyric acid methyl(PC 71 BM). A champion PCE value of 10.28% was realized in the ternary OSCs when incorporated with 10 wt % C7 doping ratio in the donors, corresponding to about 35% enhancement compared with the PTB7:PC 71 BM-based OSCs, a high fill factor (FF) of 75.03%, a short-circuit currentdensity (J sc ) of 18.72 mA cm -2 and an open-circuit voltage (V oc ) of 0.73 V. The enhanced performance of the ternary OSCs can be attributed to the simultaneous improvement of the FF and the J sc . In addition to extended light absorption, a perfect nanofiber filament active layer morphology is obtained due to the good compatibility between C7 and PTB7, which facilitates the balance of charge transportation and the suppression of charge recombination. This investigation suggests that coumarin derivatives, which have completely different structure with polymer donors, can also be used to fabricate ternary solar cells and have the potential applications to obtain amazing performance after further device engineering and optimization.

  15. Synthesis, characterization, and transistor and solar cell applications of a naphthobisthiadiazole-based semiconducting polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, Itaru; Shimawaki, Masafumi; Mori, Hiroki; Doi, Iori; Miyazaki, Eigo; Koganezawa, Tomoyuki; Takimiya, Kazuo

    2012-02-22

    We report the synthesis and characterization of a novel donor-acceptor semiconducting polymer bearing naphthobisthiadiazole (NTz), a doubly benzothiadiazole (BTz)-fused ring, and its applications to organic field-effect transistors and bulk heterojunction solar cells. With NTz's highly π-extended structure and strong electron affinity, the NTz-based polymer (PNTz4T) affords a smaller bandgap and a deeper HOMO level than the BTz-based polymer (PBTz4T). PNTz4T exhibits not only high field-effect mobilities of ~0.56 cm(2)/(V s) but also high photovoltaic properties with power conversion efficiencies of ~6.3%, both of which are significantly high compared to those for PBTz4T. This is most likely due to the more suitable electronic properties and, importantly, the more highly ordered structure of PNTz4T in the thin film than that of PBTz4T, which might originate in the different symmetry between the cores. NTz, with centrosymmetry, can lead to a more linear backbone in the present polymer system than BTz with axisymmetry, which might be favorable for better molecular ordering. These results demonstrate great promise for using NTz as a bulding unit for high-performance semiconducting polymers for both transistors and solar cells.

  16. Influences of CdSe NCs on the photovoltaic parameters of BHJ organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongul, Fatih; Yuksel, Sureyya Aydin; Allahverdi, Cagdas; Bozar, Sinem; Kazici, Mehmet; Gunes, Serap

    2018-04-05

    In this study, the high quality CdSe nanocrystals (NCs) capped with stearic acid were synthesized in a solvent and then purified four times by using the precipitation and redissolution process. The average size of the synthesized CdSe NCs was determined ~3.0nm via transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurement and their corresponding optical band edge energy was also calculated as ~2.1eV using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectroscopy. The bulk heterojunction (BHJ) hybrid solar cells based on a ternary system including P3HT, PCBM and CdSe NCs at different weight concentrations (0wt%, 0.1wt%, 0.5wt%, 1wt% and 2wt%) were fabricated by spin-casting process. The effect of the concentration of CdSe NCs on the photovoltaic parameters of these BHJ organic solar cells was investigated. The surface morphology of the photoactive layer modified by the incorporation of CdSe NCs into P3HT:PCBM matrix was observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was shown that when the concentration of CdSe NCs increases above 0.1wt% in this ternary system, the photovoltaic performance of the devices significantly decreases. The power conversion efficiency of the organic photovoltaic (OPV) device was enhanced ~20% by incorporating CdSe NCs with 0.1wt% with respect to those without CdSe NCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Reducing burn-in voltage loss in polymer solar cells by increasing the polymer crystallinity

    KAUST Repository

    Heumueller, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    In order to commercialize polymer solar cells, the fast initial performance losses present in many high efficiency materials will have to be managed. This burn-in degradation is caused by light-induced traps and its characteristics depend on which polymer is used. We show that the light-induced traps are in the bulk of the active layer and we find a direct correlation between their presence and the open-circuit voltage loss in devices made with amorphous polymers. Solar cells made with crystalline polymers do not show characteristic open circuit voltage losses, even though light-induced traps are also present in these devices. This indicates that crystalline materials are more resistant against the influence of traps on device performance. Recent work on crystalline materials has shown there is an energetic driving force for charge carriers to leave amorphous, mixed regions of bulk heterojunctions, and charges are dominantly transported in pure, ordered phases. This energetic landscape allows efficient charge generation as well as extraction and also may benefit the stability against light-induced traps. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  18. High-Efficiency Fullerene Solar Cells Enabled by a Spontaneously Formed Mesostructured CuSCN-Nanowire Heterointerface

    KAUST Repository

    Sit, Wai-Yu

    2018-02-02

    Fullerenes and their derivatives are widely used as electron acceptors in bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells as they combine high electron mobility with good solubility and miscibility with relevant semiconducting polymers. However, studies on the use of fullerenes as the sole photogeneration and charge-carrier material are scarce. Here, a new type of solution-processed small-molecule solar cell based on the two most commonly used methanofullerenes, namely [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC60BM) and [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC70BM), as the light absorbing materials, is reported. First, it is shown that both fullerene derivatives exhibit excellent ambipolar charge transport with balanced hole and electron mobilities. When the two derivatives are spin-coated over the wide bandgap p-type semiconductor copper (I) thiocyanate (CuSCN), cells with power conversion efficiency (PCE) of ≈1%, are obtained. Blending the CuSCN with PC70BM is shown to increase the performance further yielding cells with an open-circuit voltage of ≈0.93 V and a PCE of 5.4%. Microstructural analysis reveals that the key to this success is the spontaneous formation of a unique mesostructured p–n-like heterointerface between CuSCN and PC70BM. The findings pave the way to an exciting new class of single photoactive material based solar cells.

  19. Highly efficient polymer solar cells with printed photoactive layer: rational process transfer from spin-coating

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Kui

    2016-09-05

    Scalable and continuous roll-to-roll manufacturing is at the heart of the promise of low-cost and high throughput manufacturing of solution-processed photovoltaics. Yet, to date the vast majority of champion organic solar cells reported in the literature rely on spin-coating of the photoactive bulk heterojunction (BHJ) layer, with the performance of printed solar cells lagging behind in most instances. Here, we investigate the performance gap between polymer solar cells prepared by spin-coating and blade-coating the BHJ layer for the important class of modern polymers exhibiting no long range crystalline order. We find that thickness parity does not always yield performance parity even when using identical formulations. Significant differences in the drying kinetics between the processes are found to be responsible for BHJ nanomorphology differences. We propose an approach which benchmarks the film drying kinetics and associated BHJ nanomorphology development against those of the champion laboratory devices prepared by spin-coating the BHJ layer by adjusting the process temperature. If the optimization requires the solution concentration to be changed, then it is crucial to maintain the additive-to-solute volume ratio. Emulating the drying kinetics of spin-coating is also shown to help achieve morphological and performance parities. We put this approach to the test and demonstrate printed PTB7:PC71BM polymer solar cells with efficiency of 9% and 6.5% PCEs on glass and flexible PET substrates, respectively. We further demonstrate performance parity for two other popular donor polymer systems exhibiting rigid backbones and absence of a long range crystalline order, achieving a PCE of 9.7%, the highest efficiency reported to date for a blade coated organic solar cell. The rational process transfer illustrated in this study should help the broader and successful adoption of scalable printing methods for these material systems.

  20. Solar Photovoltaic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickey, Charles D.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews information on solar radiation as an energy source. Discusses these topics: the key photovoltaic material; the bank theory of solids; conductors, semiconductors, and insulators; impurity semiconductors; solid-state photovoltaic cell operation; limitations on solar cell efficiency; silicon solar cells; cadmium sulfide/copper (I) sulfide…

  1. PEROVSKITE SOLAR CELLS (REVIEW ARTICLE)

    OpenAIRE

    Benli, Deniz

    2015-01-01

    A solar cell is a device that converts sunlight into electricity. There are different types of solar cells but this report mainly focuses on a type of new generation solar cell that has the name organo-metal halide perovskite, shortly perovskite solar cells. In this respect, the efficiency of power conversion is taken into account to replace the dominancy of traditional and second generation solar cell fields by perovskite solar cells. Perovskite solar cell is a type of solar cell including a...

  2. Organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures for solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbdulAlmohsin, Samir M.

    with large surface area and ideal corrosion-inertness toward polysulfide redox exhibit promising application potential as a counter electrode for NCSSCs. This study demonstrates that the solution grown CdS nanocrystals and polyaniline are potentially useful for fabricating high performance NCSSCs, which is technically attractive for large scale and economic production. A hybrid structure containing graphene-enriched poly (3-hexylthiophene) (G-P3HT) or poly (3-hexylthiophene):(6, 6)-phenyl C60 butyric acid methyl esterand tetra (4-carboxyphenyle) porphyrin-grafted ZnO nanowire arrays was investigated for nanowire/polymer hybrid solar cells. The vertically aligned nanowires embedded in the organic films act as an active n-type semiconductor and a high-efficiency charge collection electrode. The grafting surface of ZnO nanowires by porphyrin was found to significantly improve the cell efficiency as compared with those using pristine ZnO nanowires. The improvement is attributed to the enhanced light harvesting and charge injection with the presence of porphyrin at the junction interface. A comparison study showed that the use of G-P3HT further increase the efficiency of the nanowire solar cells from 0.09 to 0.4%, benefiting from the improved hole collection with graphene in the polymer. This study indicates that hybrid structure comprising surface modified, vertically aligned ZnO nanowire arrays embedded in G-P3HT is promising for solar cell applications. A combination of bulk heterojunction of P3HT: PCBM with ZnO nanorod arrays was also studied for solar cell applications. In the P3HT: PCBM devices, electron donors such as poly (3-hexythiophene) (P3HT) and acceptors as (6, 6)-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) are blended to form one mixed layer (a bulk heterojunction). The charge separation of photo-induced excitons is greatly enhanced by ultra-fast electron transfer and large interface between the two components. However, the charge collection is one of the

  3. Large-Area, Transparent And Conductive Graphene Electrode For Bulk-Heterojunction Photovoltaic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Minhyeok; Lee, Byoung Hoon; Jo, Gunho; Park, June; Park, Woojin; Lee, Sangchul; Hong, Woong-Ki; Seong, Maeng-Je; Kahng, Yung Ho; Lee, Kwanghee; Lee, Takhee

    2011-12-01

    We present application results of synthesized graphene films as transparent and conductive electrodes of organic photovoltaic devices. The graphene films were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique on nickel substrates and showed a low sheet resistance of ˜605 Ω/⃞ and transmittance of 87% in the visible wavelength range. The performance of graphene-applied organic photovoltaic cell was enhanced by intermediating TiOX layer to yield an overall power conversion efficiency of 2.60% which is the higher efficiency among the efficiencies of photovoltaic cells with graphene electrodes. Our demonstration of highly efficient graphene-adopted photovoltaic cells may foster thrusting the fast-progressing graphene technology into the practical realm of organic photovoltaic cells.

  4. The Effect of Structural Properties of Cu2Se/Polyvinylcarbazole Nanocomposites on the Performance of Hybrid Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Govindraju

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been said that substitution of fullerenes with semiconductor nanocrystals in bulk heterojunction solar cells can potentially increase the power conversion efficiencies (PCE of these devices far beyond the 10% mark. However new semiconductor nanocrystals other than the potentially toxic CdSe and PbS are necessary. Herein we report on the synthesis of Cu2Se nanocrystals and their incorporation into polyvinylcarbazole (PVK to form polymer nanocomposites for use as active layers in hybrid solar cells. Nearly monodispersed 4 nm Cu2Se nanocrystals were synthesized using the conventional colloidal synthesis. Varying weight % of these nanocrystals was added to PVK to form polymer nanocomposites. The 10% polymer nanocomposite showed retention of the properties of the pure polymer whilst the 50% resulted in a complete breakdown of the polymeric structure as evident from the FTIR, TGA, and SEM. The lack of transport channels in the 50% polymer nanocomposite solar cell resulted in a device with no photoresponse whilst the 10% polymer nanocomposite resulted in a device with an open circuit voltage of 0.50 V, a short circuit current of 7.34 mA/cm2, and a fill factor of 22.28% resulting in a PCE of 1.02%.

  5. Induced Infiltration of Hole-Transporting Polymer into Photocatalyst for Staunch Polymer-Metal Oxide Hybrid Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong Hwan; Jung, Youngsuk; Yang, Yooseong; Shin, Hyun Suk; Kwon, Soonchul

    2016-10-05

    For efficient solar cells based on organic semiconductors, a good mixture of photoactive materials in the bulk heterojunction on the length scale of several tens of nanometers is an important requirement to prevent exciton recombination. Herein, we demonstrate that nanoporous titanium dioxide inverse opal structures fabricated using a self-assembled monolayer method and with enhanced infiltration of electron-donating polymers is an efficient electron-extracting layer, which enhances the photovoltaic performance. A calcination process generates an inverse opal structure of titanium dioxide (<70 nm of pore diameters) providing three-dimensional (3D) electron transport pathways. Hole-transporting polymers was successfully infiltrated into the pores of the surface-modified titanium dioxide under vacuum conditions at 200 °C. The resulting geometry expands the interfacial area between hole- and electron-transport materials, increasing the thickness of the active layer. The controlled polymer-coating process over titanium dioxide materials enhanced photocurrent of the solar cell device. Density functional theory calculations show improved interfacial adhesion between the self-assembled monolayer-modified surface and polymer molecules, supporting the experimental result of enhanced polymer infiltration into the voids. These results suggest that the 3D inverse opal structure of the surface-modified titanium dioxide can serve as a favorable electron-extracting layer in further enhancing optoelectronic performance based on organic or organic-inorganic hybrid solar cell.

  6. ITO with embedded silver grids as transparent conductive electrodes for large area organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Bhushan R.; Mirsafaei, Mina; Piotr Cielecki, Paweł; Fernandes Cauduro, André Luis; Fiutowski, Jacek; Rubahn, Horst-Günter; Madsen, Morten

    2017-10-01

    In this work, development of semi-transparent electrodes for efficient large area organic solar cells (OSCs) has been demonstrated. Electron beam evaporated silver grids were embedded in commercially available ITO coatings on glass, through a standard negative photolithography process, in order to improve the conductivity of planar ITO substrates. The fabricated electrodes with embedded line and square patterned Ag grids reduced the sheet resistance of ITO by 25% and 40%, respectively, showing optical transmittance drops of less than 6% within the complete visible light spectrum for both patterns. Solution processed bulk heterojunction OSCs based on PTB7:[70]PCBM were fabricated on top of these electrodes with cell areas of 4.38 cm2, and the performance of these OSCs was compared to reference cells fabricated on pure ITO electrodes. The Fill Factor (FF) of the large-scale OSCs fabricated on ITO with embedded Ag grids was enhanced by 18% for the line grids pattern and 30% for the square grids pattern compared to that of the reference OSCs. The increase in the FF was directly correlated to the decrease in the series resistance of the OSCs. The maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the OSCs was measured to be 4.34%, which is 23% higher than the PCE of the reference OSCs. As the presented method does not involve high temperature processing, it could be considered a general approach for development of large area organic electronics on solvent resistant, flexible substrates.

  7. In situ morphology studies of the mechanism for solution additive effects on the formation of bulk heterojunction films

    KAUST Repository

    Richter, Lee J.

    2014-09-29

    The most successful active film morphology in organic photovoltaics is the bulk heterojunction (BHJ). The performance of a BHJ arises from a complex interplay of the spatial organization of the segregated donor and acceptor phases and the local order/quality of the respective phases. These critical morphological features develop dynamically during film formation, and it has become common practice to control them by the introduction of processing additives. Here, in situ grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) and grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) studies of the development of order in BHJ films formed from the donor polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) and acceptor phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester under the influence of two common additives, 1,8-octanedithiol and 1-chloronaphthalene, are reported. By comparing optical aggregation to crystallization and using GISAXS to determine the number and nature of phases present during drying, two common mechanisms by which the additives increase P3HT crystallinity are identified. Additives accelerate the appearance of pre-crystalline nuclei by controlling solvent quality and allow for extended crystal growth by delaying the onset of PCBM-induced vitrification. The glass transition effects vary system-to-system and may be correlated to the number and composition of phases present during drying. Synchrotron X-ray scattering measurements of nanoscale structure evolution during the drying of polymer-fullerene photovoltaic films are described. Changes in the number and nature of phases, as well as the order within them, reveals the mechanisms by which formulation additives promote structural characteristics leading to higher power conversion efficiencies.

  8. Organic thin-film solar cells: next generation low-cost photovoltaic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    5 illumination (100 mW/cm2) and external quantum efficiency over 50% for organic thin-film photovoltaic cells using a phthalocyanine-fullerene (ZnPc/C60) bulk heterojunction as an active layer, embedded into a p-i-n type architecture with doped wide-gap charge transport layers. The p-i-n architecture allows for the design ...

  9. Highly efficient organic solar Cells based on a robust room-temperature solution-processed copper iodide hole transporter

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Kui

    2015-07-30

    Achieving high performance and reliable organic solar cells hinges on the development of stable and energetically suitable hole transporting buffer layers in tune with the electrode and photoactive materials of the solar cell stack. Here we have identified solution-processed copper(I) iodide (CuI) thin films with low-temperature processing conditions as an effective hole–transporting layer (HTL) for a wide range of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction (BHJ) systems. The solar cells using CuI HTL show higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) in standard device structure for polymer blends, up to PCE of 8.8%, as compared with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy-thiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) HTL, for a broad range of polymer:fullerene systems. The CuI layer properties and solar cell device behavior are shown to be remarkably robust and insensitive to a wide range of processing conditions of the HTL, including processing solvent, annealing temperature (room temperature up to 200 °C), and film thickness. CuI is also shown to improve the overall lifetime of solar cells in the standard architecture as compared to PEDOT:PSS. We further demonstrate promising solar cell performance when using CuI as top HTL in an inverted device architecture. The observation of uncommon properties, such as photoconductivity of CuI and templating effects on the BHJ layer formation, are also discussed. This study points to CuI as being a good candidate to replace PEDOT:PSS in solution-processed solar cells thanks to the facile implementation and demonstrated robustness of CuI thin films.

  10. Impact of Molecular Orientation and Spontaneous Interfacial Mixing on the Performance of Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ngongang Ndjawa, Guy Olivier

    2015-07-28

    A critically important question that must be answered to understand how organic solar cells operate and should be improved is how the orientation of the donor and acceptor molecules at the interface influences exciton diffusion, exciton dissociation by electron transfer and recombination. It is exceedingly difficult to probe the orientation in bulk heterojunctions because there are many interfaces and they are arranged with varying angles with respect to the substrate. One of the best ways to study the interface is to make bilayer solar cells with just one donor-acceptor interface. Zinc phthalocyanine is particularly interesting to study because its orientation can be adjusted by using a 2-nm-thick copper iodide seed layer before it is deposited. Previous studies have claimed that solar cells in which fullerene acceptor molecules touch the face of zinc phthalocyanine have more current than ones in which the fullerenes touch the edge of zinc phthalocyanine because of suppressed recombination. We have more thoroughly characterized the system using in situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and found that the interfaces are not as sharp as previous studies claimed when formed at room temperature or above. Fullerenes have a much stronger tendency to mix into the face-on films than into the edge-on films. Moreover we show that almost all of the increase in the current with face-on films can be attributed to improved exciton diffusion and to the formation of a spontaneously mixed interface, not suppressed recombination. This work highlights the importance of spontaneous interfacial molecular mixing in organic solar cells, the extent of which depends on molecular orientation of frontier molecules in donor domains.

  11. Solvent Vapor Annealing-Mediated Crystallization Directs Charge Generation, Recombination and Extraction in BHJ Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Babics, Maxime

    2017-12-19

    Small-molecule (SM) donors that can be solution-processed with fullerene acceptors (e.g., PC61/71BM), or their “nonfullerene” counterparts, are proving particularly promising for the realization of high-efficiency bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. In several recent studies, solvent vapor annealing (SVA) protocols have been found to yield significant BHJ device efficiency improvements via structural changes in the active layer morphologies. However, the mechanisms by which active layer morphologies evolve when subjected to SVA treatments, and the structural factors impacting charge generation, carrier transport, recombination and extraction in BHJ solar cells with SM donors and fullerene acceptors, remain important aspects to be elucidated. In this report, we show that – in BHJ solar cells with SM donors and fullerene acceptors – selective crystallization promoted by SVA mediates the development of optimized morphologies across the active layers, setting domain sizes and boundaries. Examining BHJ solar cells subjected to various SVA exposure times, with BDT[2F]QdC as the SM donor and PC71BM as the acceptor, we connect those morphological changes to specific carrier effects, showing that crystal growth effectively directs charge generation and recombination. We find that the SM donor-pure domains growing at the expense of a mixed donor-acceptor phase play a determining role, establishing optimum networks with 10-20nm-sized domains during the SVA treatment. Longer SVA times result in highly textured active layers with crystalline domains that can exceed the lengthscale of exciton diffusion, while inducing detrimental vertical morphologies and deep carrier traps. Last, we emphasize the field-dependence charge generation occurring upon SVA-mediated crystallization and link this carrier effect to the mixed phase depletion across the BHJ active layer.

  12. Photovoltaic solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Gupta, Vipin P.; Okandan, Murat; Watts, Michael R.

    2015-09-08

    A photovoltaic solar concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction solar cells (also termed point contact solar cells) and a lens located above each solar cell to concentrate sunlight onto the solar cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-control circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the solar cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the solar concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being controlled by the piezoelectric actuators.

  13. Organic solar cells: Degradation processes and approaches to enhance performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungura, Fadzai

    Organic solar cells (OSCs) have attracted a lot of attention due to their potential as flexible, lightweight, and low-cost renewable energy sources. Significant improvements have been made in increasing the devices' power conversion efficiency (PCE) and extensive efforts to understand degradation mechanisms and increase OSCs' lifetimes are ongoing. OSCs with higher than 10% efficiency have been reported. Enhanced stability and efficiency of inverted poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) solar cells with Cesium (Cs) halides were achieved by spin-coating Bphen (4,7-di(phenyl)-1,10-phenanthroline) on the halide layer and adding an 100nm polystyrene beads layer on the blank side of the OSC. To investigate photodegradation in a low-bandgap polymer, PBDTTT-EFT (benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene (BDT) and thieno[3,4-b]-thiophene), PBDTTT-EFT:PCBM bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells were irradiated under 1X sun intensity and their electronic measurements were monitored over time. The electronic measurements revealed an increase in deep defect density in the polymer and at the donor-acceptor (D/A) interface of BHJ SCs and an increase in charge recombination as well as a decrease in external quantum efficiency, charge collection, short circuit current, open circuit voltage and hole mobility. Filtering blue and UV light resulted in drastically reduced photodegradation. Electron paramagnetic resonance measurements were performed on the photodegraded polymer and BHJ films, and revealed for the first time experimental evidence for metastable carbon dangling bonds (g=2.0029+/-0.0004) formed by blue/UV irradiation of the films. Dark EPR showed an increase in densities of other spin-active sites in the polymer, fullerene and polymer:fullerene blends in agreement with electronic measurements. The EPR results revealed that the carbon dangling bonds were at the D/A interface. These studies helped to better understand degradation mechanisms in a low-bandgap polymer, PBDTTT-EFT, ways to enhance

  14. Donor-acceptor conjugated polymers based on multifused ladder-type arenes for organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jhong-Sian; Cheng, Sheng-Wen; Cheng, Yen-Ju; Hsu, Chain-Shu

    2015-03-07

    Harvesting solar energy from sunlight to generate electricity is considered as one of the most important technologies to address the future sustainability of humans. Polymer solar cells (PSCs) have attracted tremendous interest and attention over the past two decades due to their potential advantage to be fabricated onto large area and light-weight flexible substrates by solution processing at a lower cost. PSCs based on the concept of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) configuration where an active layer comprises a composite of a p-type (donor) and an n-type (acceptor) material represents the most useful strategy to maximize the internal donor-acceptor interfacial area allowing for efficient charge separation. Fullerene derivatives such as [6,6]-phenyl-C61 or 71-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) are the ideal n-type materials ubiquitously used for BHJ solar cells. The major effort to develop photoactive materials is numerously focused on the p-type conjugated polymers which are generally synthesized by polymerization of electron-rich donor and electron-deficient acceptor monomers. Compared to the development of electron-deficient comonomers (acceptor segments), the development of electron-rich donor materials is considerably flourishing. Forced planarization by covalently fastening adjacent aromatic and heteroaromatic subunits leads to the formation of ladder-type conjugated structures which are capable of elongating effective conjugation, reducing the optical bandgap, promoting intermolecular π-π interactions and enhancing intrinsic charge mobility. In this review, we will summarize the recent progress on the development of various well-defined new ladder-type conjugated materials. These materials serve as the superb donor monomers to prepare a range of donor-acceptor semi-ladder copolymers with sufficient solution-processability for solar cell applications.

  15. Bis(tri-n-hexylsilyl oxide) silicon phthalocyanine: a unique additive in ternary bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard, Benoît H; Dang, Jeremy D; Grant, Trevor M; Gao, Dong; Seferos, Dwight S; Bender, Timothy P

    2014-09-10

    Previous studies have shown that the use of bis(tri-n-hexylsilyl oxide) silicon phthalocyanine ((3HS)2-SiPc) as an additive in a P3HT:PC61BM cascade ternary bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic (BHJ OPV) device results in an increase in the short circuit current (J(SC)) and efficiency (η(eff)) of up to 25% and 20%, respectively. The previous studies have attributed the increase in performance to the presence of (3HS)2-SiPc at the BHJ interface. In this study, we explored the molecular characteristics of (3HS)2-SiPc which makes it so effective in increasing the OPV device J(SC) and η(eff. Initially, we synthesized phthalocyanine-based additives using different core elements such as germanium and boron instead of silicon, each having similar frontier orbital energies compared to (3HS)2-SiPc and tested their effect on BHJ OPV device performance. We observed that addition of bis(tri-n-hexylsilyl oxide) germanium phthalocyanine ((3HS)2-GePc) or tri-n-hexylsilyl oxide boron subphthalocyanine (3HS-BsubPc) resulted in a nonstatistically significant increase in JSC and η(eff). Secondly, we kept the silicon phthalocyanine core and substituted the tri-n-hexylsilyl solubilizing groups with pentadecyl phenoxy groups and tested the resulting dye in a BHJ OPV. While an increase in JSC and η(eff) was observed at low (PDP)2-SiPc loadings, the increase was not as significant as (3HS)2-SiPc; therefore, (3HS)2-SiPc is a unique additive. During our study, we observed that (3HS)2-SiPc had an extraordinary tendency to crystallize compared to the other compounds in this study and our general experience. On the basis of this observation, we have offered a hypothesis that when (3HS)2-SiPc migrates to the P3HT:PC61BM interface the reason for its unique performance is not solely due to its frontier orbital energies but also might be due to a high driving force for crystallization.

  16. Fullerene-Free Organic Solar Cells with an Efficiency of 10.2% and an Energy Loss of 0.59 eV Based on a Thieno[3,4-c]Pyrrole-4,6-dione-Containing Wide Band Gap Polymer Donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadmojo, Wisnu Tantyo; Wibowo, Febrian Tri Adhi; Ryu, Du Yeol; Jung, In Hwan; Jang, Sung-Yeon

    2017-09-27

    Although the combination of wide band gap polymer donors and narrow band gap small-molecule acceptors achieved state-of-the-art performance as bulk heterojunction (BHJ) active layers for organic solar cells, there have been only several of the wide band gap polymers that actually realized high-efficiency devices over >10%. Herein, we developed high-efficiency, low-energy-loss fullerene-free organic solar cells using a weakly crystalline wide band gap polymer donor, PBDTTPD-HT, and a nonfullerene small-molecule acceptor, ITIC. The excessive intermolecular stacking of ITIC is efficiently suppressed by the miscibility with PBDTTPD-HT, which led to a well-balanced nanomorphology in the PBDTTPD-HT/ITIC BHJ active films. The favorable optical, electronic, and energetic properties of PBDTTPD-HT with respect to ITIC achieved panchromatic photon-to-current conversion with a remarkably low energy loss (0.59 eV).

  17. Molecular Engineering of Conjugated Polymers for Solar Cells: An Updated Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shengqiang; Zhang, Qianqian; You, Wei

    2017-05-01

    The device efficiency of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells has recently surpassed 11%, as a result of synergistic efforts among chemists, physicists, and engineers. Since polymers are unequivocally the "heart" of this emerging technology, their design and synthesis have consistently played the key role in the device efficiency enhancement. In this article, the first focus is a discussion on molecular engineering (e.g., backbone, side chains, and substituents), then the discussion moves on to polymer engineering (e.g., molecular weight). Examples are primarily selected from the authors contributions; yet other significant discoveries/developments are also included to put the discussion in a broader context. Given that the synthesis, morphology, and device physics are inherently related in explaining the measured device output parameters (Jsc , Voc and FF), we will attempt to apply an integrated and comprehensive approach (synthesis, morphology, and device physics) to elucidate the fundamental, underlying principles that govern the device characteristics, in particular, in the context of disclosing structure-property correlations. Such correlations are crucial to the design and synthesis of next generation materials to further improve the device efficiency. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Fullerene-based Schottky-junction organic solar cells: a brief review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutty, Sibi; Williams, Graeme; Aziz, Hany

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in fullerene-based Schottky organic solar cells (OSCs) are presented, with a focus on the current understanding of device physics. Fullerene-based Schottky OSCs attain high open-circuit voltages due to the n-type Schottky junction formed between fullerene and an adjacent high work function anode. Small concentrations of donor material doped into the fullerene matrix serve as efficient exciton dissociation and hole transport agents that can substantially bolster short-circuit currents and fill factors. As a consequence, fullerene-based Schottky OSCs have been demonstrated to provide some of the highest-performance vacuum-deposited small molecule OSCs, with power conversion efficiencies up to 8.1%. Fullerene-based Schottky OSCs constructed using different donor materials and varying cathode buffer layers, as studied by a number of different research groups, are presented. To elucidate the differences between Schottky OSCs and more traditional bulk-heterojunction OSCs, we discuss the photophysics of fullerenes, the role of the donor material, and charge transport in low donor concentration active layers. Fullerene-based Schottky OSCs possess considerable advantages because they can reach high efficiencies with a simple structure using readily available and cost-effective materials. The impact and applicability of the Schottky device architecture on the field of organic photovoltaics at large are discussed.

  19. Field-induced exciton dissociation in PTB7-based organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhard, Marina; Arndt, Andreas P.; Bilal, Mühenad; Lemmer, Uli; Koch, Martin; Howard, Ian A.

    2017-05-01

    The physics of charge separation in organic semiconductors is a topic of ongoing research of relevance to material and device engineering. Herein, we present experimental observations of the field and temperature dependence of charge separation from singlet excitons in PTB7 and PC71BM , and from charge-transfer states created across interfaces in PTB 7 /PC71BM bulk heterojunction solar cells. We obtain this experimental data by time-resolving the near infrared emission of the states from 10 K to room temperature and electric fields from 0 to 2.5 MVcm -1 . Examining how the luminescence is quenched by field and temperature gives direct insight into the underlying physics. We observe that singlet excitons can be split by high fields, and that disorder broadens the high threshold fields needed to split the excitons. Charge-transfer (CT) states, on the other hand, can be separated by both field and temperature. Also, the data imply a strong reduction of the activation barrier for charge splitting from the CT state relative to the exciton state. The observations provided herein of the field-dependent separation of CT states as a function of temperature offer a rich data set against which theoretical models of charge separation can be rigorously tested; it should be useful for developing the more advanced theoretical models of charge separation.

  20. Role of Polymer Segregation on the Mechanical Behavior of All-Polymer Solar Cell Active Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balar, Nrup; Xiong, Yuan; Ye, Long; Li, Sunsun; Nevola, Daniel; Dougherty, Daniel B; Hou, Jianhui; Ade, Harald; O'Connor, Brendan T

    2017-12-20

    An all-polymer bulk heterojunction (BHJ) active layer that removes the use of commonly used small molecule electron acceptors is a promising approach to improve the thermomechanical behavior of organic solar cells. However, there has been limited research on their mechanical properties. Here, we report on the mechanical behavior of high-performance blade-coated all-polymer BHJ films cast using eco-friendly solvents. The mechanical properties considered include the elastic modulus, crack onset strain, and cohesive fracture energy. We show that the mechanical behavior of the blend is largely unaffected by significant changes in the segregation characteristics of the polymers, which was varied systematically through solvent formulation. In comparison to a polymer:fullerene BHJ counterpart, the all-polymer films were found to have lower stiffness and increased ductility. Yet, the fracture energy of the all-polymer films is not significantly improved compared to that of the polymer:fullerene films. This study highlights that improved mechanical behavior of all-polymer systems cannot be assumed, and that details of the molecular structure, molecular weight, and film morphology play an important role in both the optoelectronic and mechanical properties. Furthermore, we show that simple composite modeling provides a predictive tool for the mechanical properties of the polymer blend films, providing a framework to guide future optimization of the mechanical behavior.

  1. Fabrication Processes to Generate Concentration Gradients in Polymer Solar Cell Active Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Shusei; Vohra, Varun

    2017-01-01

    Polymer solar cells (PSCs) are considered as one of the most promising low-cost alternatives for renewable energy production with devices now reaching power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) above the milestone value of 10%. These enhanced performances were achieved by developing new electron-donor (ED) and electron-acceptor (EA) materials as well as finding the adequate morphologies in either bulk heterojunction or sequentially deposited active layers. In particular, producing adequate vertical concentration gradients with higher concentrations of ED and EA close to the anode and cathode, respectively, results in an improved charge collection and consequently higher photovoltaic parameters such as the fill factor. In this review, we relate processes to generate active layers with ED–EA vertical concentration gradients. After summarizing the formation of such concentration gradients in single layer active layers through processes such as annealing or additives, we will verify that sequential deposition of multilayered active layers can be an efficient approach to remarkably increase the fill factor and PCE of PSCs. In fact, applying this challenging approach to fabricate inverted architecture PSCs has the potential to generate low-cost, high efficiency and stable devices, which may revolutionize worldwide energy demand and/or help develop next generation devices such as semi-transparent photovoltaic windows. PMID:28772878

  2. Efficient Polymer Solar Cells by Lithium Sulfonated Polystyrene as a Charge Transport Interfacial Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Zhang, Zhan; Liu, Chang; Fu, Qiang; Xu, Wenzhan; Huang, Chongwen; Weiss, R A; Gong, Xiong

    2017-02-15

    In this paper, we report the highly efficient bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells (PSCs) with an inverted device structure via utilizing an ultrathin layer of lithium sulfonated polystyrene (LiSPS) ionomer to reengineer the surface of the solution-processed zinc oxide (ZnO) electron extraction layer (EEL). The unique lithium-ionic conductive LiSPS contributes to enhanced electrical conductivity of the ZnO/LiSPS EEL, which not only facilitates charge extraction from the BHJ active layer but also minimizes the energy loss within the charge transport processes. In addition, the organic-inorganic LiSPS ionomer well circumvents the coherence issue of the organic BHJ photoactive layer on the ZnO EEL. Consequently, the enhanced charge transport and the lowered internal resistance between the BHJ photoactive layer and the ZnO/LiSPS EEL give rise to a dramatically reduced dark saturation current density and significantly minimized charge carrier recombination. As a result, the inverted BHJ PSCs with the ZnO/LiSPS EEL exhibit an approximatively 25% increase in power conversion efficiency. These results indicate our strategy provides an easy, but effective, approach to reach high performance inverted PSCs.

  3. Cathode buffer composed of fullerene-ethylenediamine adduct for an organic solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimoto, Yoshinori; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Fujita, Katsuhiko

    2017-02-01

    We developed a fullerene-ethylenediamine adduct (C60P-DC) for a cathode buffer material in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells, which enhance the open-circuit voltage (V oc). The evaporative spray deposition using ultra dilute solution (ESDUS) technique was employed to deposit the buffer layer onto the organic active layer to avoid damage during the deposition. By the insertion of a C60P-DC buffer layer, V oc and power conversion efficiency (PCE) were increased from 0.41 to 0.57 V and from 1.65 to 2.10%, respectively. The electron-only device with the C60P-DC buffer showed a much lower current level than that without the buffer, indicating that the V oc increase is caused not by vacuum level shift but by hole blocking. The curve fitting of current density-voltage (J-V) characteristics to the equivalent circuit with a single diode indicated that the decrease in reversed saturation current by hole blocking increased caused the V oc.

  4. Interfacial engineering of electron transport layer using Caesium Iodide for efficient and stable organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upama, Mushfika Baishakhi; Elumalai, Naveen Kumar; Mahmud, Md Arafat; Wright, Matthew; Wang, Dian; Xu, Cheng; Haque, Faiazul; Chan, Kah Howe; Uddin, Ashraf

    2017-09-01

    Polymer solar cells (PSCs) have gained immense research interest in the recent years predominantly due to low-cost, solution process-ability, and facile device fabrication. However, achieving high stability without compromising the power conversion efficiency (PCE) serves to be an important trade-off for commercialization. In line with this, we demonstrate the significance of incorporating a CsI/ZnO bilayer as electron transport layer (ETL) in the bulk heterojunction PSCs employing low band gap polymer (PTB7) and fullerene (PC71BM) as the photo-active layer. The devices with CsI/ZnO interlayer exhibited substantial enhancement of 800% and 12% in PCE when compared to the devices with pristine CsI and pristine ZnO as ETL, respectively. Furthermore, the UV and UV-ozone induced degradation studies revealed that the devices incorporating CsI/ZnO bilayer possess excellent decomposition stability (∼23% higher) over the devices with pristine ZnO counterparts. The incorporation of CsI between ITO and ZnO was found to favorably modify the energy-level alignment at the interface, contributing to the charge collection efficiency as well as protecting the adjacent light absorbing polymer layers from degradation. The mechanism behind the improvement in PCE and stability is analyzed using the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and dark I-V characteristics.

  5. Transient Photocurrent Response of Plasmon-Enhanced Polymer Solar Cells with Gold Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Fang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the transient photocurrent of the plasmon-enhanced polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT and [6,6]-Phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM is investigated. Two kinds of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR enhanced devices were fabricated by doping the gold nanoparticles (Au NPs into the anode buffer layer and inserting Au NPs between the anode buffer layer and the active layer. We probed the dynamics of the turn-on and turn-off responses to 400 μs square-pulse optical excitation from the 380 nm and 520 nm light-emitting diodes (LED driven by an electric pulse generator. The transient photocurrent curves of devices with Au NPs at different positions and under different excitation wavelength are compared and analyzed. The charge trapping/detrapping processes that occurred at the interface of Au NPs and the active layer were observed; these exhibit an overshoot in the initial fast rise of photocurrent response. Our results show that the incorporating position of Au NPs is an important key factor to influence the transient photocurrent behaviors.

  6. Ternary solution-processed organic solar cells incorporating 2D materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stylianakis, Minas M.; Konios, Dimitrios; Petridis, Constantinos; Kakavelakis, George; Stratakis, Emmanuel; Kymakis, Emmanuel

    2017-12-01

    Recently, the study of ternary organic solar cells (OSCs) has attracted the efforts of the scientific community, leading to significantly higher performance due to the enhanced harvesting of incoming irradiation. Here, for the first time, and in order to promote this OSC architecture, we review the progress implemented by the application of two-dimensional (2D) materials in the field of blend bulk heterojunction ternary OSCs. Power conversion efficiency (PCE) improvements of the order of 40% compared to the reference binary devices, and PCEs in excess of 8% have been reported by incorporating graphene-based or other 2D materials as a third element inside the active layer. These OSCs combine the synergetic advantages of ternary devices and the superb properties of the 2D material family. In conclusion, the incorporation of the unique properties of graphene and other 2D materials inside the active layer opens up a very promising pathway in the design and construction of high-performance, simply fabricated and low- cost photovoltaic devices.

  7. Temperature-dependent Schottky barrier in high-performance organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; He, Dan; Zhou, Qing; Mao, Peng; Cao, Jiamin; Ding, Liming; Wang, Jizheng

    2017-01-01

    Organic solar cells (OSCs) have attracted great attention in the past 30 years, and the power conversion efficiency (PCE) now reaches around 10%, largely owning to the rapid material developments. Meanwhile with the progress in the device performance, more and more interests are turning to understanding the fundamental physics inside the OSCs. In the conventional bulk-heterojunction architecture, only recently it is realized that the blend/cathode Schottky junction serves as the fundamental diode for the photovoltaic function. However, few researches have focused on such junctions, and their physical properties are far from being well-understood. In this paper based on PThBDTP:PC71BM blend, we fabricated OSCs with PCE exceeding 10%, and investigated temperature-dependent behaviors of the junction diodes by various characterization including current-voltage, capacitance-voltage and impedance measurements between 70 to 290 K. We found the Schottky barrier height exhibits large inhomogeneity, which can be described by two sets of Gaussian distributions. PMID:28071700

  8. Morphology Evolution of Molecular Weight Dependent P3HT: PCBM Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Chen, Dian; Briseno, Alejandro; Russell, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    Effective strategies to maximize the performance of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) photovoltaic devices have to be developed and understood to realize their full potential. In BHJ solar cells, the morphology of the active layer is a critical issue to improve device efficiency. In this work, we choose poly(3-hexyl-thiophene) (P3HT) and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) system to study the morphology evolution. Different molecular weight P3HTs were synthesized by using Grignard Metathesis (GRIM)~method. In device optimization, polymer with a molecular weight between 20k-30k shows the highest efficiency. It was observed that the as-spun P3HT: PCBM (1:1) blends do not have high order by GISAXS. Within a few seconds of thermal annealing at 150& circ; the crystallinity of P3HT increaased substantially and the polymer chains adopted an edge-on orientation. An-bicontinous morphology was also developed within this short thermal treatment. The in situ GISAXS experiment showed that P3HT of high molecular weight was more easily crystallized from a slowly evaporated chlorobenzene solution and their edge-on orientation is much more obvious than for the lower molecular weight P3HTs. DSC was used to study the thermal properties of P3HTs and P3HT: PCBM blend. The χ of P3HT-PCBM was also calculated by using melting point depression method.

  9. Effects of geminate and bimolecular recombination on the performance of polymeric-small molecular solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, Marcel; Yin, Chunhong; Castellani, Mauro; Neher, Dieter [University of Potsdam, Institute of Physics and Astronomy, 14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany); Sellinger, Alan [IMRE, 3 Research Link, 117602 Singapore (Singapore)

    2009-07-01

    Many physical properties of organic photovoltaics are related to the nature of the geminate pair, an intermediate state that forms after dissociation of photogenerated excitons and prior to free charge carrier generation. Whereas it was found that photocurrent generation is dominated by the strong field dependent process of geminate pair dissociation, the recombination of uncorrelated free charge carriers and the formation of space charge seem to play a minor role in the prominent P3HT/PCBM combination. The situation may change, when using different D/A combinations or other soluble acceptor molecules. We present organic solar cells comprising a novel small molecule based on 2-vinyl-4,5-dicyanoimidazole (Vinazene) as acceptor and M3EH-PPV as donor. While bilayer devices show promising results with a fill factor up to 57 %, the IU-characteristics of bulk heterojunction devices are dominated by bimolecular recombination and space charge effects even at moderate illumination intensities. Photo-CELIV measurements were performed to study the bimolecular recombination in detail. By combining photo-CELIV results with PL and IU measurements we are able to analyze the interrelation of recombination losses, free charge carrier generation and exciplex formation.

  10. Liquid eutectic GaIn as an alternative electrode for PTB7:PCBM organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh Hau Pham, Viet; Kieu Trinh, Thanh; Tam Nguyen Truong, Nguyen; Park, Chinho

    2017-04-01

    Conventional vacuum deposition process of aluminum (Al) is costly, time-consuming and difficult to apply to the large-scale production of organic photovoltaic devices (OPV). This paper reports a vacuum-free fabrication process of poly[[4,8-bis(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b‧]dithiophene-2,6-diyl][3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thienophenediyl]:[6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PTB7:PCBM) bulk heterojunction organic solar cell with liquid eutectic gallium-indium (EGaIn) electrode as an alternative to the common Al electrode. The insertion of a thin poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) layer after depositing organic photoactive layer could help prevent the diffusion of liquid EGaIn into the active layer and allow the deposition of the EGaIn electrode. The PEO interfacial layer was formed by spin-coating from a mixed solvent of alcohol and water. Among different alcohol+water (methanol, ethanol, ethylene glycol, n-propanol, isopropanol, and isobutanol) mixed solvent tested, the n-propanol+water mixed solvent showed the greatest enhancement to the performance of OPVs. The improved device performance was attributed to the reactivity of mixed solvent n-propanol+water toward the surface of PTB7:PCBM active layer, which could help optimize surface morphology.

  11. Layered insulator hexagonal boron nitride for surface passivation in quantum dot solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanmugam, Mariyappan; Jain, Nikhil; Jacobs-Gedrim, Robin; Yu, Bin, E-mail: byu@albany.edu [College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, State University of New York, Albany, New York 12203 (United States); Xu, Yang [Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2013-12-09

    Single crystalline, two dimensional (2D) layered insulator hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), is demonstrated as an emerging material candidate for surface passivation on mesoporous TiO{sub 2}. Cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dot based bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cell employed h-BN passivated TiO{sub 2} as an electron acceptor exhibits photoconversion efficiency ∼46% more than BHJ employed unpassivated TiO{sub 2}. Dominant interfacial recombination pathways such as electron capture by TiO{sub 2} surface states and recombination with hole at valence band of CdSe are efficiently controlled by h-BN enabled surface passivation, leading to improved photovoltaic performance. Highly crystalline, confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, dangling bond-free 2D layered h-BN with self-terminated atomic planes, achieved by chemical exfoliation, enables efficient passivation on TiO{sub 2}, allowing electronic transport at TiO{sub 2}/h-BN/CdSe interface with much lower recombination rate compared to an unpassivated TiO{sub 2}/CdSe interface.

  12. Performance limitations in thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione-based polymer:ITIC solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Fan

    2017-08-15

    We report a systematic study of the efficiency limitations of non-fullerene organic solar cells that exhibit a small energy loss (Eloss) between the polymer donor and the non-fullerene acceptor. To clarify the impact of Eloss on the performance of the solar cells, three thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione-based conjugated polymers (PTPD3T, PTPD2T, and PTPDBDT) are employed as the electron donor, which all have complementary absorption spectra compared with the ITIC acceptor. The corresponding photovoltaic devices show that low Eloss (0.54 eV) in PTPDBDT:ITIC leads to a high open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 1.05 V, but also to a small quantum efficiency, and in turn photocurrent. The high Voc or small energy loss in the PTPDBDT-based solar cells is a consequence of less non-radiative recombination, whereas the low quantum efficiency is attributed to the unfavorable micro-phase separation, as confirmed by the steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence experiments, grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering, and resonant soft X-ray scattering (R-SoXS) measurements. We conclude that to achieve high performance non-fullerene solar cells, it is essential to realize a large Voc with small Eloss while simultaneously maintaining a high quantum efficiency by manipulating the molecular interaction in the bulk-heterojunction.

  13. π-Bridge-Independent 2-(Benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazol-4-ylmethylene)malononitrile-Substituted Nonfullerene Acceptors for Efficient Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Kai

    2016-02-25

    Molecular acceptors are promising alternatives to fullerenes (e.g. PC61/71BM) in the fabrication of high-efficiency bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. While solution-processed polymer-fullerene BHJ devices have recently met the 10% efficiency threshold, molecular acceptors have yet to prove comparably efficient with polymer donors. At this point in time, it is important to forge a better understanding of the design parameters that directly impact small-molecule (SM) acceptor performance in BHJ solar cells. In this report, we show that 2-(benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazol-4-ylmethylene)malononitrile (BM)-terminated SM acceptors can achieve efficiencies as high as 5.3% in BHJ solar cells with the polymer donor PCE10. Through systematic device optimization and characterization studies, we find that the nonfull-erene analogues (FBM, CBM and CDTBM) all perform comparably well, independent of the molecular structure and electronics of the π-bridge that links the two electron-deficient BM end groups. With estimated electron affinities within range of those of common fullerenes (4.0-4.3 eV), and a wider range of ionization potentials (6.2-5.6 eV), the SM acceptors absorb in the visible spectrum and effectively contribute to the BHJ device photocurrent. BM-substituted SM acceptors are promising alterna-tives to fullerenes in solution-processed BHJ solar cells.

  14. Performance limitations in thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione-based polymer:ITIC solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Qian, Deping; Balawi, Ahmed Hesham; Wu, Yang; Ma, Wei; Laquai, Frédéric; Tang, Zheng; Zhang, Fengling; Li, Weiwei

    2017-09-13

    We report a systematic study of the efficiency limitations of non-fullerene organic solar cells that exhibit a small energy loss (Eloss) between the polymer donor and the non-fullerene acceptor. To clarify the impact of Eloss on the performance of the solar cells, three thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione-based conjugated polymers (PTPD3T, PTPD2T, and PTPDBDT) are employed as the electron donor, which all have complementary absorption spectra compared with the ITIC acceptor. The corresponding photovoltaic devices show that low Eloss (0.54 eV) in PTPDBDT:ITIC leads to a high open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 1.05 V, but also to a small quantum efficiency, and in turn photocurrent. The high Voc or small energy loss in the PTPDBDT-based solar cells is a consequence of less non-radiative recombination, whereas the low quantum efficiency is attributed to the unfavorable micro-phase separation, as confirmed by the steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence experiments, grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering, and resonant soft X-ray scattering (R-SoXS) measurements. We conclude that to achieve high performance non-fullerene solar cells, it is essential to realize a large Voc with small Eloss while simultaneously maintaining a high quantum efficiency by manipulating the molecular interaction in the bulk-heterojunction.

  15. Accomplishment of Multifunctional π-Conjugated Polymers by Regulating the Degree of Side-Chain Fluorination for Efficient Dopant-Free Ambient-Stable Perovskite Solar Cells and Organic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranthiraja, Kakaraparthi; Park, Sang Ho; Kim, Hyunji; Gunasekar, Kumarasamy; Han, Gibok; Kim, Bumjoon J; Kim, Chang Su; Kim, Soohyun; Lee, Hyunjung; Nishikubo, Ryosuke; Saeki, Akinori; Jin, Sung-Ho; Song, Myungkwan

    2017-10-18

    We present an efficient approach to develop a series of multifunctional π-conjugated polymers (P1-P3) by controlling the degree of fluorination (0F, 2F, and 4F) on the side chain linked to the benzodithiophene unit of the π-conjugated polymer. The most promising changes were noticed in optical, electrochemical, and morphological properties upon varying the degree of fluorine atoms on the side chain. The properly aligned energy levels with respect to the perovskite and PCBM prompted us to use them in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) as hole-transporting materials (HTMs) and in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells (BHJ OSCs) as photoactive donors. Interestingly, P2 (2F) and P3 (4F) showed an enhanced power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 14.94%, 10.35% compared to P1 (0F) (9.80%) in dopant-free PSCs. Similarly, P2 (2F) and P3 (4F) also showed improved PCE of 7.93% and 7.43%, respectively, compared to P1 (0F) (PCE of 4.35%) in BHJ OSCs. The high photvoltaic performance of the P2 and P3 based photovotaic devices over P1 are well correlated with their energy level alignment, charge transporting, morphological and packing properties, and hole transfer yields. In addition, the P1-P3 based dopant-free PSCs and BHJ OSCs showed an excellent ambient stability up to 30 days without a significant drop in their initial performance.

  16. DFT and TD-DFT calculation of new thienopyrazine-based small molecules for organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourass, Mohamed; Benjelloun, Adil Touimi; Benzakour, Mohammed; Mcharfi, Mohammed; Hamidi, Mohammed; Bouzzine, Si Mohamed; Bouachrine, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Novel six organic donor-π-acceptor molecules (D-π-A) used for Bulk Heterojunction organic solar cells (BHJ), based on thienopyrazine were studied by density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) approaches, to shed light on how the π-conjugation order influence the performance of the solar cells. The electron acceptor group was 2-cyanoacrylic for all compounds, whereas the electron donor unit was varied and the influence was investigated. The TD-DFT method, combined with a hybrid exchange-correlation functional using the Coulomb-attenuating method (CAM-B3LYP) in conjunction with a polarizable continuum model of salvation (PCM) together with a 6-31G(d,p) basis set, was used to predict the excitation energies, the absorption and the emission spectra of all molecules. The trend of the calculated HOMO-LUMO gaps nicely compares with the spectral data. In addition, the estimated values of the open-circuit photovoltage (Voc) for these compounds were presented in two cases/PC60BM and/PC71BM. The study of structural, electronics and optical properties for these compounds could help to design more efficient functional photovoltaic organic materials.

  17. Annealing-free P3HT:PCBM-based organic solar cells via two halohydrocarbons additives with similar boiling points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Xichang; Wang, Ting [Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); Yang, Ailing [Department of Physics, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Yang, Chunpeng; Dou, Xiaowei; Chen, Weichao; Wang, Ning [Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); Yang, Renqiang, E-mail: yangrq@qibebt.ac.cn [Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Two halohydrocarbons were selected as additives for polymer solar cells. • The additives can improve the photocurrent of photovoltaic devices. • Extensive characterization of the blends was done to explore the mechanism. -- Abstract: Efficient annealing-free inverted bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) (1:1, w/w) have been obtained using two easily accessible halohydrocarbons (1,6-dibromohexane (DBH) and 1-bromodecane (BD)) with the same boiling points as solvent additives. The devices treated with 2.5 wt% additives removed the grain boundary of the large PCBM-rich phase, resulting in more-uniform film morphology on the nanoscale. The more-uniform film morphology greatly improved the short circuit current density of the devices. Finally, PCEs of the devices processed with DBH and BD reached 3.81% and 3.68%, respectively. Both additives with almost the same boiling points had a similar impact on device performance, despite of different chemical structures with different polarities and other physical properties.

  18. Cesium carbonate functionalized graphene quantum dots as stable electron-selective layer for improvement of inverted polymer solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong Bin; Dong, Yong Qiang; Wang, Xizu; Khoo, Si Yun; Liu, Bin

    2014-01-22

    Solution processable inverted bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells (PSCs) are promising alternatives to conventional silicon solar cells because of their low cost roll-to-roll production and flexible device applications. In this work, we demonstrated that Cs2CO3 functionalized graphene quantum dots (GQDs-Cs2CO3) could be used as efficient electron-selective layers in inverted PSCs. Compared with Cs2CO3 buffered devices, the GQDs-Cs2CO3 buffered devices show 56% improvement in power conversion efficiency, as well as 200% enhancement in stability, due to the better electron-extraction, suppression of leakage current, and inhibition of Cs(+) ion diffusion at the buffer/polymer interface by GQDs-Cs2CO3. This work provides a thermal-annealing-free, solution-processable method for fabricating electron-selective layer in inverted PSCs, which should be beneficial for the future development of high performance all-solution-processed or roll-to-roll processed PSCs.

  19. A quantum-chemical perspective into low optical-gap polymers for highly-efficient organic solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Risko, Chad

    2011-03-15

    The recent and rapid enhancement in power conversion efficiencies of organic-based, bulk heterojunction solar cells has been a consequence of both improved materials design and better understanding of the underlying physical processes involved in photocurrent generation. In this Perspective, we first present an overview of the application of quantum-chemical techniques to study the intrinsic material properties and molecular- and nano-scale processes involved in device operation. In the second part, these quantum-chemical tools are applied to an oligomer-based study on a collection of donor-acceptor copolymers that have been used in the highest-efficiency solar cell devices reported to date. The quantum-chemical results are found to be in good agreement with the empirical data related to the electronic and optical properties. In particular, they provide insight into the natures of the electronic excitations responsible for the near-infrared/visible absorption profiles, as well as into the energetics of the low-lying singlet and triplet states. These results lead to a better understanding of the inherent differences among the materials, and highlight the usefulness of quantum chemistry as an instrument for material design. Importantly, the results also point to the need to continue the development of integrated, multi scale modeling approaches to provide a thorough understanding of the materials properties. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011.

  20. Transparent conductive ZnO layers on polymer substrates: Thin film deposition and application in organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dosmailov, M. [Institute of Applied Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Leonat, L.N. [Linz Institute for Organic Solar Cells (LIOS)/Institute of Physical Chemistry, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Patek, J. [Institute of Applied Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Roth, D.; Bauer, P. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Scharber, M.C.; Sariciftci, N.S. [Linz Institute for Organic Solar Cells (LIOS)/Institute of Physical Chemistry, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Pedarnig, J.D., E-mail: johannes.pedarnig@jku.at [Institute of Applied Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria)

    2015-09-30

    Aluminum doped ZnO (AZO) and pure ZnO thin films are grown on polymer substrates by pulsed-laser deposition and the optical, electrical, and structural film properties are investigated. Laser fluence, substrate temperature, and oxygen pressure are varied to obtain transparent, conductive, and stoichiometric AZO layers on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) that are free of cracks. At low fluence (1 J/cm{sup 2}) and low pressure (10{sup −3} mbar), AZO/PET samples of high optical transmission in the visible range, low electrical sheet resistance, and high figure of merit (FOM) are produced. AZO films on fluorinated ethylene propylene have low FOM. The AZO films on PET substrates are used as electron transport layer in inverted organic solar cell devices employing P3HT:PCBM as photovoltaic polymer-fullerene bulk heterojunction. - Highlights: • Aluminum doped and pure ZnO thin films are grown on polyethylene terephthalate. • Growth parameters laser fluence, temperature, and gas pressure are optimized. • AZO films on PET have high optical transmission and electrical conductance (FOM). • Organic solar cells on PET using AZO as electron transport layer are made. • Power conversion efficiency of these OSC devices is measured.

  1. Solution-Processed Organic Solar Cells with Power Conversion Efficiencies of 2.5% using Benzothiadiazole/Imide-Based Acceptors

    KAUST Repository

    Bloking, Jason T.

    2011-12-27

    A new series of electron-deficient molecules based on a central benzothiadiazole moiety flanked with vinylimides has been synthesized via Heck chemistry and used in solution-processed organic photovoltaics (OPV). Two new compounds, 4,7-bis(4-(N-hexyl-phthalimide)vinyl)benzo[c]1,2,5-thiadiazole (PI-BT) and 4,7-bis(4-(N-hexyl-naphthalimide)vinyl)benzo[c]1,2,5-thiadiazole (NI-BT), show significantly different behaviors in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells using poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as the electron donor. Two-dimensional grazing incidence X-ray scattering (2D GIXS) experiments demonstrate that PI-BT shows significant crystallization in spin-coated thin films, whereas NI-BT does not. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations predict that while PI-BT maintains a planar structure in the ground state, steric interactions cause a twist in the NI-BT molecule, likely preventing significant crystallization. In BHJ solar cells with P3HT as donor, PI-BT devices achieved a large open-circuit voltage of 0.96 V and a maximum device power-conversion efficiency of 2.54%, whereas NI-BT containing devices only achieved 0.1% power-conversion efficiency. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  2. Enhanced charge separation in ternary P3HT/PCBM/CuInS2 nanocrystals hybrid solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrançois, Aurélie; Luszczynska, Beata; Pepin-Donat, Brigitte; Lombard, Christian; Bouthinon, Benjamin; Verilhac, Jean-Marie; Gromova, Marina; Faure-Vincent, Jérôme; Pouget, Stéphanie; Chandezon, Frédéric; Sadki, Saïd; Reiss, Peter

    2015-01-15

    Geminate recombination of bound polaron pairs at the donor/acceptor interface is one of the major loss mechanisms in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells. One way to overcome Coulomb attraction between opposite charge carriers and to achieve their full dissociation is the introduction of high dielectric permittivity materials such as nanoparticles of narrow band gap semiconductors. We selected CuInS2 nanocrystals of 7.4 nm size, which present intermediate energy levels with respect to poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and Phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). Efficient charge transfer from P3HT to nanocrystals takes place as evidenced by light-induced electron spin resonance. Charge transfer between nanocrystals and PCBM only occurs after replacing bulky dodecanethiol (DDT) surface ligands with shorter 1,2-ethylhexanethiol (EHT) ligands. Solar cells containing in the active layer a ternary blend of P3HT:PCBM:CuInS2-EHT nanocrystals in 1:1:0.5 mass ratio show strongly improved short circuit current density and a higher fill factor with respect to the P3HT:PCBM reference device. Complementary measurements of the absorption properties, external quantum efficiency and charge carrier mobility indicate that enhanced charge separation in the ternary blend is at the origin of the observed behavior. The same trend is observed for blends using the glassy polymer poly(triarylamine) (PTAA).

  3. Charge-separation enhancement in inverted polymer solar cells by molecular-level triple heterojunction: NiO-np:P3HT:PCBM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep, U. W.; Villani, M.; Calestani, D.; Cristofolini, L.; Iannotta, S.; Zappettini, A.; Coppedè, N.

    2017-01-01

    Hole collection and transport are crucial physical processes in bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells, which represent major bottlenecks due to their limitations in power conversion efficiency (PCE). Hence, a more efficient alternative is needed to accept and transport holes to the collection electrode in BHJ solar cells. Here, we bring both electron and hole collection centres close to the point of exciton generation by infiltrating P3HT poly(3-hexylthiophene):PCBM ([6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester) blend into a highly porous interconnected p-type NiO-nanoparticle (NiO-np) network, through solvent-assisted grafting. In this study, a hybrid polymer solar cell is demonstrated with a P3HT:PCBM:NiO-np triple-heterojunction active layer which showed greatly improved rectification behaviour, long electron lifetime and generated higher PCE of 4% under AM 1.5 solar illumination with a 75% increase in PCE with respect to the P3HT:PCBM device. The optimum NiO-np amount and active-layer thickness were found to be 2% and 250 nm, respectively.

  4. Charge-separation enhancement in inverted polymer solar cells by molecular-level triple heterojunction: NiO-np:P3HT:PCBM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep, U W; Villani, M; Calestani, D; Cristofolini, L; Iannotta, S; Zappettini, A; Coppedè, N

    2017-01-20

    Hole collection and transport are crucial physical processes in bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells, which represent major bottlenecks due to their limitations in power conversion efficiency (PCE). Hence, a more efficient alternative is needed to accept and transport holes to the collection electrode in BHJ solar cells. Here, we bring both electron and hole collection centres close to the point of exciton generation by infiltrating P3HT poly(3-hexylthiophene):PCBM ([6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester) blend into a highly porous interconnected p-type NiO-nanoparticle (NiO-np) network, through solvent-assisted grafting. In this study, a hybrid polymer solar cell is demonstrated with a P3HT:PCBM:NiO-np triple-heterojunction active layer which showed greatly improved rectification behaviour, long electron lifetime and generated higher PCE of 4% under AM 1.5 solar illumination with a 75% increase in PCE with respect to the P3HT:PCBM device. The optimum NiO-np amount and active-layer thickness were found to be 2% and 250 nm, respectively.

  5. Polymer Main-Chain Substitution Effects on the Efficiency of Nonfullerene BHJ Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Firdaus, Yuliar

    2017-07-21

    “Nonfullerene” acceptors are proving effective in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells when paired with selected polymer donors. However, the principles that guide the selection of adequate polymer donors for high-efficiency BHJ solar cells with nonfullerene acceptors remain a matter of some debate and, while polymer main-chain substitutions may have a direct influence on the donor–acceptor interplay, those effects should be examined and correlated with BHJ device performance patterns. This report examines a set of wide-bandgap polymer donor analogues composed of benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene (BDT), and thienyl ([2H]T) or 3,4-difluorothiophene ([2F]T) motifs, and their BHJ device performance pattern with the nonfullerene acceptor “ITIC”. Studies show that the fluorine- and ring-substituted derivative PBDT(T)[2F]T largely outperforms its other two polymer donor counterparts, reaching power conversion efficiencies as high as 9.8%. Combining several characterization techniques, the gradual device performance improvements observed on swapping PBDT[2H]T for PBDT[2F]T, and then for PBDT(T)[2F]T, are found to result from (i) notably improved charge generation and collection efficiencies (estimated as ≈60%, 80%, and 90%, respectively), and (ii) reduced geminate recombination (being suppressed from ≈30%, 25% to 10%) and bimolecular recombination (inferred from recombination rate constant comparisons). These examinations will have broader implications for further studies on the optimization of BHJ solar cell efficiencies with polymer donors and a wider range of nonfullerene acceptors.

  6. Solar cell. Taiyo denchi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsui, K.; Shitsutani, T. (Mitsubishi electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-09-10

    This invention provides a highly efficient soalr cell which requires no accurate conformity of collector electrodes, especially a highly efficient tandem solar cell. This invention comprises a collector electrode placed in an effective light receiving zone on the surface of the 2nd electroconductive semiconductor layer formed on the 1st electroconductive semiconductor substrate, the 1st electrode placed in the periphery of light receiving zone and comprising a common electrode connected to the above-mentioned collector electrode, and the 2nd electrode formed on the back side of above-mentioned semiconductor substrate in zones except the zone facing the effective light-receiving zone. In case of using as a tandem solar cell, the above-mentioned solar cell is used as the 1st solar cell, and, as the 2nd solar cell which is incidented by solar light which passed through it, a solar cell having no electrode is used on the surface which faces the 1st solar cell. 4 figs.

  7. Enhancement of charge transport properties of small molecule semiconductors by controlling fluorine substitution and effects on photovoltaic properties of organic solar cells and perovskite solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jae Hoon; Park, Sungmin; Heo, Jin Hyuck; Lee, Hyo-Sang; Yoon, Seongwon; Kang, Jinback; Im, Sang Hyuk; Kim, Hyunjung; Lee, Wonmok; Kim, BongSoo; Ko, Min Jae; Chung, Dae Sung; Son, Hae Jung

    2016-11-01

    We prepared a series of small molecules based on 7,7'-(4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-silolo[3,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl)bis(4-(5'-hexyl-[2,2'-bithiophene]-5-yl)benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole) with different fluorine substitution patterns (0F-4F). Depending on symmetricity and numbers of fluorine atoms incorporated in the benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole unit, they show very different optical and morphological properties in a film. 2F and 4F, which featured symmetric and even-numbered fluorine substitution patterns, display improved molecular packing structures and higher crystalline properties in a film compared with 1F and 3F and thus, 2F achieved the highest OTFT mobility, which is followed by 4F. In the bulk heterojunction solar cell fabricated with PC71BM, 2F achieves the highest photovoltaic performance with an 8.14% efficiency and 0F shows the lowest efficiency of 1.28%. Moreover, the planar-type perovskite solar cell (PSC) prepared with 2F as a dopant-free hole transport material shows a high power conversion efficiency of 14.5% due to its high charge transporting properties, which were significantly improved compared with the corresponding PSC device obtained from 0F (8.5%). From the studies, it is demonstrated that low variation in the local dipole moment and the narrow distribution of 2F conformers make intermolecular interactions favorable, which may effectively drive crystal formations in the solid state and thus, higher charge transport properties compared with 1F and 3F.

  8. Rectenna solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Moddel, Garret

    2013-01-01

    Rectenna Solar Cells discusses antenna-coupled diode solar cells, an emerging technology that has the potential to provide ultra-high efficiency, low-cost solar energy conversion. This book will provide an overview of solar rectennas, and provide thorough descriptions of the two main components: the diode, and the optical antenna. The editors discuss the science, design, modeling, and manufacturing of the antennas coupled with the diodes. The book will provide concepts to understanding the challenges, fabrication technologies, and materials required to develop rectenna structures. Written by e

  9. Roll-to-Roll printed large-area all-polymer solar cells with 5% efficiency based on a low crystallinity conjugated polymer blend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaodan; Zhou, Yan; Gu, Kevin; Kurosawa, Tadanori; Yan, Hongping; Wang, Cheng; Toney, Micheal; Bao, Zhenan

    The challenge of continuous printing in high efficiency large-area organic solar cells is a key limiting factor for their widespread adoption. We present a materials design concept for achieving large-area, solution coated all-polymer bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells with stable phase separation morphology between the donor and acceptor. The key concept lies in inhibiting strong crystallization of donor and acceptor polymers, thus forming intermixed, low crystallinity and mostly amorphous blends. Based on experiments using donors and acceptors with different degree of crystallinity, our results showed that microphase separated donor and acceptor domain sizes are inversely proportional to the crystallinity of the conjugated polymers. This methodology of using low crystallinity donors and acceptors has the added benefit of forming a consistent and robust morphology that is insensitive to different processing conditions, allowing one to easily scale up the printing process from a small scale solution shearing coater to a large-scale continuous roll-to-roll (R2R) printer. We were able to continuously roll-to-roll slot die print large area all-polymer solar cells with power conversion efficiencies of 5%, with combined cell area up to 10 cm2. This is among the highest efficiencies realized with R2R coated active layer organic materials on flexible substrate. DOE BRIDGE sunshot program. Office of Naval Research.

  10. Do the Defects Make It Work? Defect Engineering in Pi-Conjugated Polymers and Their Solar Cells: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, D.; Reese, M.; Kopidakis N.; Gregg, B. A.

    2008-05-01

    The charged defect density in common pi-conjugated polymers such as poly(3-hexylthiophene), P3HT, is around 1018 cm-3. Despite, or perhaps because of, this huge defect density, bulk heterojunction solar cells made from these polymers and a C60 derivative such as PCBM exhibit some of the highest efficiencies (~5%) yet obtained in solid state organic photovoltaic cells. We discuss defects in molecular organic semiconductors and in pi-conjugated polymers. These defects can be grouped in two categories, covalent and noncovalent. Somewhat analogous to treating amorphous silicon with hydrogen, we introduce chemical methods to modify the density and charge of the covalent defects in P3HT by treating it with electrophiles such as dimethyl sulfate and nucleophiles such as sodium methoxide. The effects of these treatments on the electrical and photovoltaic properties and stability of organic PV cells is discussed in terms of the change in the number and chemical properties of the defects. Finally, we address the question of whether the efficiency of OPV cells requires the presence of these defects which function as adventitious p-type dopants. Their presence relieves the resistance limitations usually encountered in cleaner organic semiconductors and can create built-in electric fields at junctions.

  11. Optical and electronic proprieties of thin films based on (Z-5-(4-chlorobenzylidene-3-(2-ethoxyphenyl-2 thioxothiazolidin-4-one, (CBBTZ and possible application as exciton-blocking layer in heterojunction organic solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morsli M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, organic thin film solar cells with structures based on CuPc/C60 bulk heterojunctions, have been fabricated and characterized. The effect of introducing an exciton blocking layer (EBL between the active layer and the metal layer in the solar cell was investigated. For that (Z-5-(4-chlorobenzylidene-3-(2-ethoxyphenyl-2-thioxothiazolidin-4-one, that we called (CBBTZ has been synthesized, characterized and probed as EBL. It was shown that optimized structures containing EBLs resulted in an improvement in solar cell conversion efficiencies. The energy levels corresponding to the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO of the CBBTZ have been determined from the first oxidation and reduction potential respectively, using cyclic voltametric (CV measurements. From CV curves, CBBTZ in dichloromethane showed a one electron reversible reduction and oxidation waves. The values of its HOMO and LUMO have been estimated to be 6.42 eV and 3.42 eV respectively. Such values show that CBBTZ could be probed as EBL in organic solar cells based on the ED/EA couple copper phthalocyanine(CuPc/fullerene (C60. The photovoltaic solar cells have been obtained by sequential deposition under vacuum of the different films where their thicknesses were measured in situ by a quartz monitor. When obtained, the averaged efficiency of the cells using the CBBTZ is higher than that achieved without EBL layer.

  12. Solution-Processing of Organic Solar Cells: From In Situ Investigation to Scalable Manufacturing

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelsamie, Maged

    2016-12-05

    Photovoltaics provide a feasible route to fulfilling the substantial increase in demand for energy worldwide. Solution processable organic photovoltaics (OPVs) have attracted attention in the last decade because of the promise of low-cost manufacturing of sufficiently efficient devices at high throughput on large-area rigid or flexible substrates with potentially low energy and carbon footprints. In OPVs, the photoactive layer is made of a bulk heterojunction (BHJ) layer and is typically composed of a blend of an electron-donating (D) and an electron-accepting (A) materials which phase separate at the nanoscale and form a heterojunction at the D-A interface that plays a crucial role in the generation of charges. Despite the tremendous progress that has been made in increasing the efficiency of organic photovoltaics over the last few years, with power conversion efficiency increasing from 8% to 13% over the duration of this PhD dissertation, there have been numerous debates on the mechanisms of formation of the crucial BHJ layer and few clues about how to successfully transfer these lessons to scalable processes. This stems in large part from a lack of understanding of how BHJ layers form from solution. This lack of understanding makes it challenging to design BHJs and to control their formation in laboratory-based processes, such as spin-coating, let alone their successful transfer to scalable processes required for the manufacturing of organic solar cells. Consequently, the OPV community has in recent years sought out to better understand the key characteristics of state of the art lab-based organic solar cells and made efforts to shed light on how the BHJ forms in laboratory-based processes as well as in scalable processes. We take the view that understanding the formation of the solution-processed bulk heterojunction (BHJ) photoactive layer, where crucial photovoltaic processes take place, is the one of the most crucial steps to developing strategies towards the

  13. Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Wei

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC is the only solar cell that can offer both the flexibility and transparency. Its efficiency is comparable to amorphous silicon solar cells but with a much lower cost. This review not only covers the fundamentals of DSSC but also the related cutting-edge research and its development for industrial applications. Most recent research topics on DSSC, for example, applications of nanostructured TiO2, ZnO electrodes, ionic liquid electrolytes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and solid state DSSC have all been included and discussed.

  14. Quantum dot solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jiang

    2013-01-01

    The third generation of solar cells includes those based on semiconductor quantum dots. This sophisticated technology applies nanotechnology and quantum mechanics theory to enhance the performance of ordinary solar cells. Although a practical application of quantum dot solar cells has yet to be achieved, a large number of theoretical calculations and experimental studies have confirmed the potential for meeting the requirement for ultra-high conversion efficiency. In this book, high-profile scientists have contributed tutorial chapters that outline the methods used in and the results of variou

  15. Nanostructured inorganic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musselman, Kevin P. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Schmidt-Mende, Lukas [Ludwig-Maximilians Univ. Muenchen (DE). Dept. of Physics and Center for NanoScience (CeNS)

    2011-07-01

    Recent progress in the development of nanostructured inorganic solar cells is reviewed. Nanostructuring of inorganic solar cells offers the possibility of reducing the cost of photovoltaics by allowing smaller amounts of lower-grade photovoltaic semiconductors to be used. Various fabrication methods used to nanostructure traditional photovoltaic semiconductors are detailed and the performance of resulting devices is discussed. The synthesis of solar cells by solution-based methods using less traditional, abundant materials is identified as a promising route to widescale photovoltaic electricity generation, and nanostructured solar cell geometries are highlighted as essential in this approach. Templating and self-assembling methods used to produce appropriate low-cost nanostructures from solutions are detailed, and the performance of preliminary ultra-low-cost cells made with these structures is reviewed. (orig.)

  16. Solar cell radiation handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, H. Y.; Carter, J. R., Jr.; Anspaugh, B. E.; Downing, R. G.

    1982-01-01

    The handbook to predict the degradation of solar cell electrical performance in any given space radiation environment is presented. Solar cell theory, cell manufacturing and how they are modeled mathematically are described. The interaction of energetic charged particles radiation with solar cells is discussed and the concept of 1 MeV equivalent electron fluence is introduced. The space radiation environment is described and methods of calculating equivalent fluences for the space environment are developed. A computer program was written to perform the equivalent fluence calculations and a FORTRAN listing of the program is included. Data detailing the degradation of solar cell electrical parameters as a function of 1 MeV electron fluence are presented.

  17. Efficient Electron Collection in Hybrid Polymer Solar Cells: In-Situ-Generated ZnO/Poly(3-hexylthiophene) Scaffolded by a TiO2 Nanorod Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wen-Pin; Wu, Jih-Jen

    2013-06-06

    A nanoarchitectural hybrid polymer solar cell, integrating the ordered and the bulk heterojunction hybrid polymer solar cells, is fabricated by infiltrating the diethylzinc/poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) solution into the interstices of the TiO2 nanorod (NR) array. An inorganic network composed of tiny ZnO nanocrystals is constructed in the in-situ-generated hybrid within the interstice of the single-crystalline TiO2 NRs. The TiO2 NR array, which possesses a longer electron lifetime and an appropriate electron-transport rate, serves not only as an electron transporter/collector extended from fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) electrode to sustain the efficient electron collection but also as a scaffold to hold the sufficient amount of ZnO/P3HT hybrid. The in-situ-generated ZnO/P3HT hybrid layer with superior charge separation efficiency can therefore be thickened in the presence of a TiO2 NR array for increasing the light-harvesting efficiency. A notable efficiency of 2.46% is therefore attained in the TiO2 NR-ZnO/P3HT hybrid solar cell.

  18. Superiority of branched side chains in spontaneous nanowire formation: exemplified by poly(3-2-methylbutylthiophene) for high-performance solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsieh-Chih; Wu, I-Che; Hung, Jui-Hsiang; Chen, Fu-Je; Chen, I-Wen P; Peng, Yung-Kang; Lin, Chao-Sung; Chen, Chun-Hsien; Sheng, Yu-Jane; Tsao, Heng-Kwong; Chou, Pi-Tai

    2011-04-18

    One-dimensional nanostructures containing heterojunctions by conjugated polymers, such as nanowires, are expected to greatly facilitate efficient charge transfer in bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. Thus, a combined theoretical and experimental approach is pursued to explore spontaneous nanowire formation. A dissipative particle dynamics simulation is first performed to study the morphologies formed by rodlike polymers with various side-chain structures. The results surprisingly predict that conjugated polymers with branched side chains are well suited to form thermodynamically stable nanowires. Proof of this concept is provided via the design and synthesis of a branched polymer of regioregular poly(3-2-methylbutylthiophene) (P3MBT), which successfully demonstrates highly dense nanowire formation free from any stringent conditions and stratagies. In BHJ solar cells fabricated using a blend of P3MBT and [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC(71) BM), P3MBT polymers are self-organized into highly crystalline nanowires with a d(100) spacing of 13.30 Å. The hole mobility of the P3MBT:PC(71) BM (1:0.5 by weight) blend film reaches 3.83 × 10(-4) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) , and the maximum incident photon-to-current efficiency reaches 68%. The results unambiguously prove the spontaneous formation of nanowires using solution-processable conjugated polymers with branched alkyl side chains in BHJ solar cells. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]Dithiophene-6,7-Difluoroquinoxaline Small Molecule Donors with >8% BHJ Solar Cell Efficiency

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Ru-Ze

    2017-07-14

    Solution-processable small molecule (SM) donors are promising alternatives to their polymer counterparts in bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. While SM donors with favorable spectral absorption, self-assembly patterns, optimum thin-film morphologies, and high carrier mobilities in optimized donor–acceptor blends are required to further BHJ device efficiencies, material structure governs each one of those attributes. As a result, the rational design of SM donors with gradually improved BHJ solar cell efficiencies must concurrently address: (i) bandgap tuning and optimization of spectral absorption (inherent to the SM main chain) and (ii) pendant-group substitution promoting structural order and mediating morphological effects. In this paper, the rational pendant-group substitution in benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene–6,7-difluoroquinoxaline SMs is shown to be an effective approach to narrowing the optical gap (Eopt) of the SM donors (SM1 and SM2), without altering their propensity to order and form favorable thin-film BHJ morphologies with PC71BM. Systematic device examinations show that power conversion efficiencies >8% and open-circuit voltages (VOC) nearing 1 V can be achieved with the narrow-gap SM donor analog (SM2, Eopt = 1.6 eV) and that charge transport in optimized BHJ solar cells proceeds with minimal, nearly trap-free recombination. Detailed device simulations, light intensity dependence, and transient photocurrent analyses emphasize how carrier recombination impacts BHJ device performance upon optimization of active layer thickness and morphology.

  20. Colloidal gold nanoparticles. Synthesis, characterization and effect in polymer/fullerene solar cells; Kolloidale Goldnanopartikel. Synthese, Charakterisierung und Wirkung in Polymer/Fulleren-Solarzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topp, Katja

    2011-06-08

    It has been reported in the literature that the efficiency of polymer/fullerene solar cells has been improved by the incorporation of Au nanoparticles. The improvement was attributed to an enhanced electrical conductivity of the active layer and to an enhanced light absorption due to the plasmon resonance of the Au nanoparticles. In this work colloidal Au nanoparticles coated with different stabilizing ligands were synthesized and characterized. Then the impact of their incorporation into P3HT/PCBM solar cells was studied. On the one hand the Au nanoparticles were incorporated into the bulk heterojunction active layer, otherwise they were deposited as an interlayer in the device set-up. No improvement of the solar cell efficiency could be observed neither for the incorporation of Au nanoparticles with isolating ligand shell nor for those with direct contact to the photoactive molecules. The efficiency even dropped, the more the higher the concentration of the Au nanoparticles was. Possible reasons are pointed out on the basis of detailed photophysical and structural investigations.

  1. Polymer Solar Cells with Efficiency >10% Enabled via a Facile Solution-Processed Al-Doped ZnO Electron Transporting Layer

    KAUST Repository

    Jagadamma, Lethy Krishnan

    2015-04-22

    A facile and low-temperature (125 °C) solution-processed Al-doped ZnO (AZO) buffer layer functioning very effectively as electron accepting/hole blocking layer for a wide range of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction systems, yielding power conversion efficiency in excess of 10% (8%) on glass (plastic) substrates is described. The ammonia-treatment of the aqueous AZO nanoparticle solution produces compact, crystalline, and smooth thin films, which retain the aluminum doping, and eliminates/reduces the native defects by nitrogen incorporation, making them good electron transporters and energetically matched with the fullerene acceptor. It is demonstrated that highly efficient solar cells can be achieved without the need for additional surface chemical modifications of the buffer layer, which is a common requirement for many metal oxide buffer layers to yield efficient solar cells. Also highly efficient solar cells are achieved with thick AZO films (>50 nm), highlighting the suitability of this material for roll-to-roll coating. Preliminary results on the applicability of AZO as electron injection layer in F8BT-based polymer light emitting diode are also presented. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Interactive Visual Analysis for Organic Photovoltaic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Abouelhassan, Amal A.

    2017-12-05

    Organic Photovoltaic (OPV) solar cells provide a promising alternative for harnessing solar energy. However, the efficient design of OPV materials that achieve better performance requires support by better-tailored visualization tools than are currently available, which is the goal of this thesis. One promising approach in the OPV field is to control the effective material of the OPV device, which is known as the Bulk-Heterojunction (BHJ) morphology. The BHJ morphology has a complex composition. Current BHJ exploration techniques deal with the morphologies as black boxes with no perception of the photoelectric current in the BHJ morphology. Therefore, this method depends on a trial-and-error approach and does not efficiently characterize complex BHJ morphologies. On the other hand, current state-of-the-art methods for assessing the performance of BHJ morphologies are based on the global quantification of morphological features. Accordingly, scientists in OPV research are still lacking a sufficient understanding of the best material design. To remove these limitations, we propose a new approach for knowledge-assisted visual exploration and analysis in the OPV domain. We develop new techniques for enabling efficient OPV charge transport path analysis. We employ, adapt, and develop techniques from scientific visualization, geometric modeling, clustering, and visual interaction to obtain new designs of visualization tools that are specifically tailored for the needs of OPV scientists. At the molecular scale, the user can use semantic rules to define clusters of atoms with certain geometric properties. At the nanoscale, we propose a novel framework for visual characterization and exploration of local structure-performance correlations. We also propose a new approach for correlating structural features to performance bottlenecks. We employ a visual feedback strategy that allows scientists to make intuitive choices about fabrication parameters. We furthermore propose a

  3. Self-passivating hybrid (organic/inorganic) tandem solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Jin; Cartwright, Alexander N. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States); Institute for Lasers, Photonics and Biophotonics, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States); Kim, Won Jin [Institute for Lasers, Photonics and Biophotonics, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States); Prasad, Paras N. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States); Institute for Lasers, Photonics and Biophotonics, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    A tandem photovoltaic device structure, consisting of a PbSe nanocrystal film and a P3HT/PCBM bulk heterojunction film, was fabricated. The PbSe film (top layer) serves as a photocurrent generator as well as a UV protector for the underlying polymer cell. The P3HT/PCBM photovoltaic cell (bottom layer) provides the necessary electric field to the top photoconducting layer to extract the photogenerated charge from that layer. The charge extraction from the PbSe layer is demonstrated by using light-biased spectral response measurements. In addition, device lifetime measurements were performed under AM 1.5 and UV-enhanced illumination on the tandem cell and on a control P3HT/PCBM device. These measurements demonstrated that the hybrid tandem cell is significantly more durable due to the preferential UV absorption in the upper inorganic PbSe nanocrystal film. (author)

  4. Photovoltaic solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Gregory N; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J

    2013-11-26

    A photovoltaic solar cell for generating electricity from sunlight is disclosed. The photovoltaic solar cell comprises a plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions formed in a semiconductor body to receive the sunlight and generate the electicity therefrom, the plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions having a first plurality of regions having a first doping type and a second plurality of regions having a second doping type. In addition, the photovoltaic solar cell comprises a first electrical contact electrically connected to each of the first plurality of regions and a second electrical contact electrically connected to each of the second plurality of regions, as well as a passivation layer covering major surfaces and sidewalls of the photovoltaic solar cell.

  5. Photovoltaic solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, Gregory N; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J

    2014-05-20

    A photovoltaic solar cell for generating electricity from sunlight is disclosed. The photovoltaic solar cell comprises a plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions formed in a semiconductor body to receive the sunlight and generate the electricity therefrom, the plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions having a first plurality of regions having a first doping type and a second plurality of regions having a second doping type. In addition, the photovoltaic solar cell comprises a first electrical contact electrically connected to each of the first plurality of regions and a second electrical contact electrically connected to each of the second plurality of regions, as well as a passivation layer covering major surfaces and sidewalls of the photovoltaic solar cell.

  6. Optimizing the fabrication process and interplay of device components of polymer solar cells using a field-based multiscale solar-cell algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donets, Sergii; Pershin, Anton; Baeurle, Stephan A

    2015-05-14

    Both the device composition and fabrication process are well-known to crucially affect the power conversion efficiency of polymer solar cells. Major advances have recently been achieved through the development of novel device materials and inkjet printing technologies, which permit to improve their durability and performance considerably. In this work, we demonstrate the usefulness of a recently developed field-based multiscale solar-cell algorithm to investigate the influence of the material characteristics, like, e.g., electrode surfaces, polymer architectures, and impurities in the active layer, as well as post-production treatments, like, e.g., electric field alignment, on the photovoltaic performance of block-copolymer solar-cell devices. Our study reveals that a short exposition time of the polymer bulk heterojunction to the action of an external electric field can lead to a low photovoltaic performance due to an incomplete alignment process, leading to undulated or disrupted nanophases. With increasing exposition time, the nanophases align in direction to the electric field lines, resulting in an increase of the number of continuous percolation paths and, ultimately, in a reduction of the number of exciton and charge-carrier losses. Moreover, we conclude by modifying the interaction strengths between the electrode surfaces and active layer components that a too low or too high affinity of an electrode surface to one of the components can lead to defective contacts, causing a deterioration of the device performance. Finally, we infer from the study of block-copolymer nanoparticle systems that particle impurities can significantly affect the nanostructure of the polymer matrix and reduce the photovoltaic performance of the active layer. For a critical volume fraction and size of the nanoparticles, we observe a complete phase transformation of the polymer nanomorphology, leading to a drop of the internal quantum efficiency. For other particle-numbers and -sizes

  7. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gur, Ilan [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation presents the results of a research agenda aimed at improving integration and stability in nanocrystal-based solar cells through advances in active materials and device architectures. The introduction of 3-dimensional nanocrystals illustrates the potential for improving transport and percolation in hybrid solar cells and enables novel fabrication methods for optimizing integration in these systems. Fabricating cells by sequential deposition allows for solution-based assembly of hybrid composites with controlled and well-characterized dispersion and electrode contact. Hyperbranched nanocrystals emerge as a nearly ideal building block for hybrid cells, allowing the controlled morphologies targeted by templated approaches to be achieved in an easily fabricated solution-cast device. In addition to offering practical benefits to device processing, these approaches offer fundamental insight into the operation of hybrid solar cells, shedding light on key phenomena such as the roles of electrode-contact and percolation behavior in these cells. Finally, all-inorganic nanocrystal solar cells are presented as a wholly new cell concept, illustrating that donor-acceptor charge transfer and directed carrier diffusion can be utilized in a system with no organic components, and that nanocrystals may act as building blocks for efficient, stable, and low-cost thin-film solar cells.

  8. Improving the long-term stability of PBDTTPD polymer solar cells through material purification aimed at removing organic impurities

    KAUST Repository

    Mateker, William R.

    2013-01-01

    While bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells fabricated from high M n PBDTTPD achieve power conversion efficiencies (PCE) as high as 7.3%, the short-circuit current density (JSC) of these devices can drop by 20% after seven days of storage in the dark and under inert conditions. This degradation is characterized by the appearance of S-shape features in the reverse bias region of current-voltage (J-V) curves that increase in amplitude over time. Conversely, BHJ solar cells fabricated from low Mn PBDTTPD do not develop S-shaped J-V curves. However, S-shapes identical to those observed in high Mn PBDTTPD solar cells can be induced in low M n devices through intentional contamination with the TPD monomer. Furthermore, when high Mn PBDTTPD is purified via size exclusion chromatography (SEC) to reduce the content of low molecular weight species, the JSC of polymer devices is significantly more stable over time. After 111 days of storage in the dark under inert conditions, the J-V curves do not develop S-shapes and the JSC degrades by only 6%. The S-shape degradation feature, symptomatic of low device lifetimes, appears to be linked to the presence of low molecular weight contaminants, which may be trapped within samples of high Mn polymer that have not been purified by SEC. Although these impurities do not affect initial device PCE, they significantly reduce device lifetime, and solar cell stability is improved by increasing the purity of the polymer materials. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  9. Is there any Exciton (bottleneck) in an Excitonic Solar Cell: Revisiting the Prospects of Single-Semiconductor OPV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Muhammad

    2014-03-01

    The discovery dye sensitized and bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells in early 1990s introduced a new class of PV technology that rely on (i) distributed photogeneration of excitons, (ii) dissociation of excitons into free carriers by the heterojunction between two organic semiconductors (OSC), and (iii) collection of free carriers through electron and hole transport layers. The success of the approach is undisputed: the highest efficiency OPV cells have all relied on variants of BHJ approach. Yet, three concerns related to the use of a pair of OSCs, namely, low Voc, process sensitivity, and reliability, suggest that the technology may never achieve efficiency-variability-reliability metrics comparable to inorganic solar cells. This encourages a reconsideration of the prospects of Single semiconductor OPV (SS-OPV), a system presumably doomed by the exciton bottleneck. In this talk, we use an inverted SS-OPV to demonstrate how the historical SS-OPV experiments may have been misinterpreted. No one disputes the signature of excitons in polymer under narrowband excitation, but our experiments show that exciton dissociation need not be a bottleneck for OPV under broadband solar illumination. We demonstrate that an alternate collection-limited theory consistently interprets the classical and new experiments, resolves puzzles such as efficiency loss with increasing light intensity, and voltage-dependent reverse photo-current, etc. The theory and experiments suggest a new ``perovskite-like'' strategy to efficiency-variability-reliability of organic solar cells. The work was supported by the Columbia DOE-EFRC (DE-SC0001085) and NSF-NCN (EEC-0228390).

  10. Understanding Charge Transport and Recombination Losses in High Performance Polymer Solar Cells with Non-Fullerene Acceptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xuning; Zuo, Xiaobing; Xie, Shenkun; Yuan, Jianyu; Zhou, Huiqiong; Zhang, Yuan

    2017-09-07

    The photovoltaic performance of organic solar cells can be enhanced by achieving a fundamental understanding of the key processes that govern the device behaviour. In this work, we comprehensively investigate temperature (T)-dependent charge transport, non-geminate recombination losses and intermolecular stacking based on three representative organic bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells comprising the polymeric donor of PBDB-T blended with non-fullerene small molecule ITIC and polymeric P(NDI2OD-T2) alongside PC71BM acceptors. Surprisingly, the champion solar cell based on PBDB-T: ITIC, even though exhibiting the most imbalanced transport, produces the highest PCE approaching 10%. We find that such an imbalance is in association with the decrease in the recombination reduction factor with respect to the Langevin rate constant. This beneficially leads to mitigated non-geminate recombination and gains in photoconductivity. In contrast, the all-polymer solar cell using the P(NDI2OD-T2) acceptor displays an excellent balance in mobility while suffering from a more substantial recombination, which causes severe carrier losses and reduced photocurrent. T-dependent mobility measurements indicate that the activation energy for the transport in these BHJ films is low (50-150 meV) which is rationalized by the preferential out-of-plane intermolecular pi-pi stacking mainly adopted by the donor molecules. The combined results point to an indication that the electron mobility in non-fullerene acceptors may not be a severe restraint while charge recombination losses play a critical role in ultimate photovoltaic characteristics based on these emerging materials

  11. High-Performance Nonfullerene Polymer Solar Cells based on Imide-Functionalized Wide-Bandgap Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Baobing; Zhang, Kai; Jiang, Xiao-Fang; Ying, Lei; Huang, Fei; Cao, Yong

    2017-06-01

    High-performance nonfullerene polymer solar cells (PSCs) are developed by integrating the nonfullerene electron-accepting material 3,9-bis(2-methylene-(3-(1,1-dicyanomethylene)-indanone))-5,5,11,11-tetrakis(4-hexylphenyl)-dithieno[2,3-d:2',3'-d']-s-indaceno[1,2-b:5,6-b']dithiophne) (ITIC) with a wide-bandgap electron-donating polymer PTzBI or PTzBI-DT, which consists of an imide functionalized benzotriazole (TzBI) building block. Detailed investigations reveal that the extension of conjugation can affect the optical and electronic properties, molecular aggregation properties, charge separation in the bulk-heterojunction films, and thus the overall photovoltaic performances. Single-junction PSCs based on PTzBI:ITIC and PTzBI-DT:ITIC exhibit remarkable power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of 10.24% and 9.43%, respectively. To our knowledge, these PCEs are the highest efficiency values obtained based on electron-donating conjugated polymers consisting of imide-functionalized electron-withdrawing building blocks. Of particular interest is that the resulting device based on PTzBI exhibits remarkable PCE of 7% with the thickness of active layer of 300 nm, which is among the highest values of nonfullerene PSCs utilizing thick photoactive layer. Additionally, the device based on PTzBI:ITIC exhibits prominent stability, for which the PCE remains as 9.34% after thermal annealing at 130 °C for 120 min. These findings demonstrate the great promise of using this series of wide-bandgap conjugated polymers as electron-donating materials for high-performance nonfullerene solar cells toward high-throughput roll-to-roll processing technology. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Enhanced Efficiency in Plastic Solar Cells via Energy Matched Solution Processed NiOx Interlayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steirer, K. Xerxes [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Ndione, Paul F. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). National Center for Photovoltaics; Widjonarko, N. Edwin [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Physics; Lloyd, Matthew T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). National Center for Photovoltaics; Meyer, Jens [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Electrical Engineering Dept.; Ratcliff, Erin L. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry and Center for Interface Science: Solar Electric Materials (CISSEM); Kahn, Antoine [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Electrical Engineering Dept.; Armstrong, Neal R. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry and Center for Interface Science: Solar Electric Materials (CISSEM); Curtis, Calvin J. [National Renewable