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Sample records for bulk vitrification technology

  1. BULK VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR THE TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION OF LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ARD KE

    2011-04-11

    This report is one of four reports written to provide background information regarding immobilization technologies under consideration for supplemental immobilization of Hanford's low-activity waste. This paper is intended to provide the reader with general understanding of Bulk Vitrification and how it might be applied to immobilization of Hanford's low-activity waste.

  2. A COMPREHENSIVE TECHNICAL REVIEW OF THE DEMONSTRATION BULK VITRIFICATION SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SCHAUS, P.S.

    2006-09-29

    In May 2006, CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc. chartered an Expert Review Panel (ERP) to review the current status of the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS). It is the consensus of the ERP that bulk vitrification is a technology that requires further development and evaluation to determine its potential for meeting the Hanford waste stabilization mission. No fatal flaws (issues that would jeopardize the overall DBVS mission that cannot be mitigated) were found, given the current state of the project. However, a number of technical issues were found that could significantly affect the project's ability to meet its overall mission as stated in the project ''Justification of Mission Need'' document, if not satisfactorily resolved. The ERP recognizes that the project has changed from an accelerated schedule demonstration project to a formally chartered project that must be in full compliance with DOE 413.3 requirements. The perspective of the ERP presented herein, is measured against the formally chartered project as stated in the approved Justification of Mission Need document. A justification of Mission Need document was approved in July 2006 which defined the objectives for the DBVS Project. In this document, DOE concluded that bulk vitrification is a viable technology that requires additional development to determine its potential applicability to treatment of a portion of the Hanford low activity waste. The DBVS mission need statement now includes the following primary objectives: (1) process approximately 190,000 gallons of Tank S-109 waste into fifty 100 metric ton boxes of vitrified product; (2) store and dispose of these boxes at Hanford's Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF); (3) evaluate the waste form characteristics; (4) gather pilot plant operability data, and (5) develop the overall life cycle system performance of bulk vitrification and produce a comparison of the bulk vitrification process to building a second LAW

  3. A COMPREHENSIVE TECHNICAL REVIEW OF THE DEMONSTRATION BULK VITRIFICATION SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In May 2006, CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc. chartered an Expert Review Panel (ERP) to review the current status of the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS). It is the consensus of the ERP that bulk vitrification is a technology that requires further development and evaluation to determine its potential for meeting the Hanford waste stabilization mission. No fatal flaws (issues that would jeopardize the overall DBVS mission that cannot be mitigated) were found, given the current state of the project. However, a number of technical issues were found that could significantly affect the project's ability to meet its overall mission as stated in the project ''Justification of Mission Need'' document, if not satisfactorily resolved. The ERP recognizes that the project has changed from an accelerated schedule demonstration project to a formally chartered project that must be in full compliance with DOE 413.3 requirements. The perspective of the ERP presented herein, is measured against the formally chartered project as stated in the approved Justification of Mission Need document. A justification of Mission Need document was approved in July 2006 which defined the objectives for the DBVS Project. In this document, DOE concluded that bulk vitrification is a viable technology that requires additional development to determine its potential applicability to treatment of a portion of the Hanford low activity waste. The DBVS mission need statement now includes the following primary objectives: (1) process approximately 190,000 gallons of Tank S-109 waste into fifty 100 metric ton boxes of vitrified product; (2) store and dispose of these boxes at Hanford's Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF); (3) evaluate the waste form characteristics; (4) gather pilot plant operability data, and (5) develop the overall life cycle system performance of bulk vitrification and produce a comparison of the bulk vitrification process to building a second LAW Immobilization facility or other

  4. A study of advanced vitrification technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JNFL have developed the vitrification technology of a high level liquid waste with a modification in discharge performance of the noble metal by changing the bottom structure and adding heating means. Cold test was conducted by using a full scale mock-up melter which introduced the new vitrification technology. In the cold test, we confirmed the discharge performance of the noble metal. (author)

  5. CALCULATION OF DEMONSTRATION BULK VITRIFICATION SYSTEM MELTER INLEAKAGE AND OFF-GAS GENERATION RATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MAY TH

    2008-04-16

    The River Protection Project (RPP) mission is to safely store, retrieve, treat, immobilize, and dispose of the Hanford Site tank waste. The Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) is a research and development project whose objective is to demonstrate the suitability of Bulk Vitrification treatment technology waste form for disposing of low-activity waste from the Tank Farms. The objective of this calculation is to determine the DBVS melter inleakage and off-gas generation rate based on full scale testing data from 38D. This calculation estimates the DBVS melter in leakage and gas generation rate based on test data. Inleakage is estimated before the melt was initiated, at one point during the melt, and at the end of the melt. Maximum gas generation rate is also estimated.

  6. Corrosion of Metal Inclusions In Bulk Vitrification Waste Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacon, Diana H.; Pierce, Eric M.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Strachan, Denis M.; Josephson, Gary B.

    2006-07-31

    The primary purpose of the work reported here is to analyze the potential effect of the release of technetium (Tc) from metal inclusions in bulk vitrification waste packages once they are placed in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). As part of the strategy for immobilizing waste from the underground tanks at Hanford, selected wastes will be immobilized using bulk vitrification. During analyses of the glass produced in engineering-scale tests, metal inclusions were found in the glass product. This report contains the results from experiments designed to quantify the corrosion rates of metal inclusions found in the glass product from AMEC Test ES-32B and simulations designed to compare the rate of Tc release from the metal inclusions to the release of Tc from glass produced with the bulk vitrification process. In the simulations, the Tc in the metal inclusions was assumed to be released congruently during metal corrosion as soluble TcO4-. The experimental results and modeling calculations show that the metal corrosion rate will, under all conceivable conditions at the IDF, be dominated by the presence of the passivating layer and corrosion products on the metal particles. As a result, the release of Tc from the metal particles at the surfaces of fractures in the glass releases at a rate similar to the Tc present as a soluble salt. The release of the remaining Tc in the metal is controlled by the dissolution of the glass matrix. To summarize, the release of 99Tc from the BV glass within precipitated Fe is directly proportional to the diameter of the Fe particles and to the amount of precipitated Fe. However, the main contribution to the Tc release from the iron particles is over the same time period as the release of the soluble Tc salt. For the base case used in this study (0.48 mass% of 0.5 mm diameter metal particles homogeneously distributed in the BV glass), the release of 99Tc from the metal is approximately the same as the release from 0.3 mass% soluble Tc

  7. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant applied technology plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Applied Technology Plan describes the process development, verification testing, equipment adaptation, and waste form qualification technical issues and plans for resolution to support the design, permitting, and operation of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant. The scope of this Plan includes work to be performed by the research and development contractor, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, other organizations within Westinghouse Hanford Company, universities and companies with glass technology expertise, and other US Department of Energy sites. All work described in this Plan is funded by the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Project and the relationship of this Plan to other waste management documents and issues is provided for background information. Work to performed under this Plan is divided into major areas that establish a reference process, develop an acceptable glass composition envelope, and demonstrate feed processing and glass production for the range of Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant feeds. Included in this work is the evaluation and verification testing of equipment and technology obtained from the Defense Waste Processing Facility, the West Valley Demonstration Project, foreign countries, and the Hanford Site. Development and verification of product and process models and other data needed for waste form qualification documentation are also included in this Plan. 21 refs., 4 figs., 33 tabs

  8. Innovative technology summary report: Transportable vitrification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the end of the cold war, many of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) major nuclear weapons facilities refocused their efforts on finding technically sound, economic, regulatory compliant, and stakeholder acceptable treatment solutions for the legacy of mixed wastes they had produced. In particular, an advanced stabilization process that could effectively treat the large volumes of settling pond and treatment sludges was needed. Based on this need, DOE and its contractors initiated in 1993 the EM-50 sponsored development effort required to produce a deployable mixed waste vitrification system. As a consequence, the Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) effort was undertaken with the primary requirement to develop and demonstrate the technology and associated facility to effectively vitrify, for compliant disposal, the applicable mixed waste sludges and solids across the various DOE complex sites. After 4 years of development testing with both crucible and pilot-scale melters, the TVS facility was constructed by Envitco, evaluated and demonstrated with surrogates, and then successfully transported to the ORNL ETTP site and demonstrated with actual mixed wastes in the fall of 1997. This paper describes the technology, its performance, the technology applicability and alternatives, cost, regulatory and policy issues, and lessons learned

  9. LFCM vitrification technology. Quarterly progress report, October-December 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkholder, H.C.; Jarrett, J.H.; Minor, J.E. (comps.)

    1986-09-01

    This report is compiled by the Nuclear Waste Treatment Program and the Hanford Waste Vitrification Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to document progress on liquid-fed ceramic melter (LFCM) vitrification technology. Progress in the following technical subject areas during the first quarter of FY 1986 is discussed: melting process chemistry and glass development, feed preparation and transfer systems, melter systems, canister filling and handling systems, off-gas systems, process/product modeling and control, and supporting studies.

  10. TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT OF BULK VITRIFICATION PROCESS & PRODUCT FOR TANK WASTE TREATMENT AT THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SCHAUS, P.S.

    2006-07-21

    At the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) is being constructed to immobilize both high-level waste (IUW) for disposal in a national repository and low-activity waste (LAW) for onsite, near-surface disposal. The schedule-controlling step for the WTP Project is vitrification of the large volume of LAW, current capacity of the WTP (as planned) would require 50 years to treat the Hanford tank waste, if the entire LAW volume were to be processed through the WTP. To reduce the time and cost for treatment of Hanford Tank Waste, and as required by the Tank Waste Remediation System Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision and the Hanford Federal Facility Consent Agreement (Tn-Party Agreement), DOE plans to supplement the LAW treatment capacity of the WTP. Since 2002, DOE, in cooperation with the Environmental Protection Agency and State of Washington Department of Ecology has been evaluating technologies that could provide safe and effective supplemental treatment of LAW. Current efforts at Hanford are intended to provide additional information to aid a joint agency decision on which technology will be used to supplement the WTP. A Research, Development and Demonstration permit has been issued by the State of Washington to build and (for a limited time) operate a Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) facility to provide information for the decision on a supplemental treatment technology for up to 50% of the LAW. In the Bulk Vitrification (BV) process, LAW, soil, and glass-forming chemicals are mixed, dried, and placed in a refractory-lined box, Electric current, supplied through two graphite electrodes in the box, melts the waste feed, producing a durable glass waste-form. Although recent modifications to the process have resulted in significant improvements, there are continuing technical concerns.

  11. TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT OF BULK VITRIFICATION PROCESS/ PRODUCT FOR TANK WASTE TREATMENT AT THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HANFORD SITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) is being constructed to immobilize both high-level waste (IUW) for disposal in a national repository and low-activity waste (LAW) for onsite, near-surface disposal. The schedule-controlling step for the WTP Project is vitrification of the large volume of LAW, current capacity of the WTP (as planned) would require 50 years to treat the Hanford tank waste, if the entire LAW volume were to be processed through the WTP. To reduce the time and cost for treatment of Hanford Tank Waste, and as required by the Tank Waste Remediation System Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision and the Hanford Federal Facility Consent Agreement (Tn-Party Agreement), DOE plans to supplement the LAW treatment capacity of the WTP. Since 2002, DOE, in cooperation with the Environmental Protection Agency and State of Washington Department of Ecology has been evaluating technologies that could provide safe and effective supplemental treatment of LAW. Current efforts at Hanford are intended to provide additional information to aid a joint agency decision on which technology will be used to supplement the WTP. A Research, Development and Demonstration permit has been issued by the State of Washington to build and (for a limited time) operate a Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) facility to provide information for the decision on a supplemental treatment technology for up to 50% of the LAW. In the Bulk Vitrification (BV) process, LAW, soil, and glass-forming chemicals are mixed, dried, and placed in a refractory-lined box, Electric current, supplied through two graphite electrodes in the box, melts the waste feed, producing a durable glass waste-form. Although recent modifications to the process have resulted in significant improvements, there are continuing technical concerns

  12. Bulk Vitrification Performance Enhancement: Refractory Lining Protection Against Molten Salt Penetration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Evans, Michael B.; Smith, Benjamin T.; Arrigoni, Benjamin M.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Yokuda, Satoru T.; Matyas, Josef; Buchmiller, William C.; Gallegos, Autumn B.; Fluegel, Alexander

    2007-08-06

    Bulk vitrification (BV) is a process that heats a feed material that consists of glass-forming solids and dried low-activity waste (LAW) in a disposable refractory-lined metal box using electrical power supplied through carbon electrodes. The feed is heated to the point that the LAW decomposes and combines with the solids to generate a vitreous waste form. This study supports the BV design and operations by exploring various methods aimed at reducing the quantities of soluble Tc in the castable refractory block portion of the refractory lining, which limits the effectiveness of the final waste form.

  13. Development of vitrification line technology and the manufacture of equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development is described of technology and the production of equipment for the vitrification of liquid radioactive wastes. For vitrification, frit Frita F270 is used containing up to 20% titanium and featuring a corrosion effect lower by one order than that of lead glass. The liquid waste is discharged in a measuring tank where it is mixed with formic acid. It is then pumped into an evaporator. Breed vapor is carried via a condenser to a condensate tank. The evaporator concentrate is transported to a homogenizer where it is gradually mixed with Frita. The viscous mush thus produced is carried into a furnace where the remaining water is evaporated. The furnace decontamination factor is 102 to 103. At a temperature of up to 1,050 degC the frit melts and is discharged into a case. Currently, technology has been developed of mush preparation and the design has been completed of a vitrification furnace featuring remote lid opening and closing, and of equipment for processing furnace emissions. (J.B.). 3 figs., 1 tab., 1 ref

  14. INNOVATIVE FOSSIL FUEL FIRED VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SOIL REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Hnat; L.M. Bartone; M. Pineda

    2001-10-31

    This Final Report summarizes the progress of Phases 3,3A and 4 of a waste technology Demonstration Project sponsored under a DOE Environmental Management Research and Development Program and administered by the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory-Morgantown (DOE-NETL) for an ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation''. The Summary Reports for Phases 1 and 2 of the Program were previously submitted to DOE. The total scope of Phase 3 was to have included the design, construction and demonstration of Vortec's integrated waste pretreatment and vitrification process for the treatment of low level waste (LLW), TSCA/LLW and mixed low-level waste (MLLW). Due to funding limitations and delays in the project resulting from a law suit filed by an environmental activist and the extended time for DOE to complete an Environmental Assessment for the project, the scope of the project was reduced to completing the design, construction and testing of the front end of the process which consists of the Material Handling and Waste Conditioning (MH/C) Subsystem of the vitrification plant. Activities completed under Phases 3A and 4 addressed completion of the engineering, design and documentation of the MH/C System such that final procurement of the remaining process assemblies can be completed and construction of a Limited Demonstration Project be initiated in the event DOE elects to proceed with the construction and demonstration testing of the MH/C Subsystem. Because of USEPA policies and regulations that do not require treatment of low level or low-level/PCB contaminated wastes, DOE terminated the project because there is no purported need for this technology.

  15. INNOVATIVE FOSSIL FUEL FIRED VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SOIL REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Hnat; L.M. Bartone; M. Pineda

    2001-07-13

    This Summary Report summarizes the progress of Phases 3, 3A and 4 of a waste technology Demonstration Project sponsored under a DOE Environmental Management Research and Development Program and administered by the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory-Morgantown (DOE-NETL) for an ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation''. The Summary Reports for Phases 1 and 2 of the Program were previously submitted to DOE. The total scope of Phase 3 was to have included the design, construction and demonstration of Vortec's integrated waste pretreatment and vitrification process for the treatment of low level waste (LLW), TSCA/LLW and mixed low-level waste (MLLW). Due to funding limitations and delays in the project resulting from a law suit filed by an environmental activist and the extended time for DOE to complete an Environmental Assessment for the project, the scope of the project was reduced to completing the design, construction and testing of the front end of the process which consists of the Material Handling and Waste Conditioning (MH/C) Subsystem of the vitrification plant. Activities completed under Phases 3A and 4 addressed completion of the engineering, design and documentation of the Material Handling and Conditioning System such that final procurement of the remaining process assemblies can be completed and construction of a Limited Demonstration Project be initiated in the event DOE elects to proceed with the construction and demonstration testing of the MH/C Subsystem.

  16. Innovative fossil fuel fired vitrification technology for soil remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vortex has successfully completed Phase 1 of the ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation'' program with the Department of Energy (DOE) Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The Combustion and Melting System (CMS) has processed 7000 pounds of material representative of contaminated soil that is found at DOE sites. The soil was spiked with Resource Conversation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals surrogates, an organic contaminant, and a surrogate radionuclide. The samples taken during the tests confirmed that virtually all of the radionuclide was retained in the glass and that it did not leach to the environment. The organic contaminant, anthracene, was destroyed during the test with a Destruction and Removal Efficiency (DRE) of at least 99.99%. RCRA metal surrogates, that were in the vitrified product, were retained and will not leach to the environment--as confirmed by the TCLP testing. Semi-volatile RCRA metal surrogates were captured by the Air Pollution Control (APC) system, and data on the amount of metal oxide particulate and the chemical composition of the particulate were established for use in the Phase 2 APC system design. This topical report will present a summary of the activities conducted during Phase 1 of the ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation'' program. The report includes the detail technical data generated during the experimental program and the design and cost data for the preliminary Phase 2 plant

  17. High-level waste vitrification off-gas cleanup technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This brief overview is intended to be a basis for discussion of needs and problems existing in the off-gas clean-up technology. A variety of types of waste form and processes are being developed in the United States and abroad. A description of many of the processes can be found in the Technical Alternative Documents (TAD). Concurrently, off-gas processing systems are being developed with most of the processes. An extensive review of methodology as well as decontamination factors can be found in the literature. Since it is generally agreed that the most advanced solidification process is vitrification, discussion here centers about the off-gas problems related to vitrification. With a number of waste soldification facilities around the world in operation, it can be shown that present technology can satisfy the present requirement for off-gas control. However, a number of areas within the technology base show potential for improvement. Fundamental as well as verification studies are needed to obtain the improvements

  18. DESIGN OF THE DEMOSNTRATION BULK VITRIFICATION SYSTEM FOR THE SUPPLEMENTAL TREATMENT OF LOW ACTIVITY TANK WASTE AT HANFORD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In June 2004, the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) was initiated with the intent to design, construct, and operate a full-scale bulk vitrification pilot-plant to treat low-activity tank waste from Hanford Tank 241-S-109. The DBVS facility uses In-Container Vitrification(trademark) (ICV(trademark)) at the core of the treatment process. The basic process steps combine liquid low-activity waste (LAW) and glassformers; dry the mixture; and then vitrify the mixture in a batch feed-while-melt process in a refractory lined steel container. Off-gases are processed through a state-of-the-art air pollution control system including sintered-metal filtration, thermal oxidation, acid gas scrubbing, and high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) and high-efficiency gas adsorber (HEGA) filtration. Testing has focused on development and validation of the waste dryer, ICV, and sintered-metal filters (SMFs) equipment, operations enhancements, and glass formulation. With a parallel testing and design process, testing has allowed improvements to the DBVS equipment configuration and operating methodology, since its original inception. Design improvements include optimization of refractory panels in the ICV, simplifying glassformer addition equipment, increasing the number of waste feed chutes to the ICV, and adding capability for remote clean-out of piping, In addition, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has provided an independent review of the entire DBVS process. While the review did not find any fatal flaws, some technical issues were identified that required a re-evaluation of the DBVS design and subsequent changes to the design. A 100 percent design package for the pilot plant will be completed and submitted to DOE for review in early 2008 that incorporates process improvements substantiated through testing and reviews. This paper provides a description of the bulk vitrification process and a discussion of major equipment design changes that have occurred based on full

  19. LFCM [liquid-fed ceramic melter] vitrification technology: Quarterly progress report, January--March 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is compiled by the Nuclear Waste Treatment Program and the Hanford Waste Vitrification Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to describe the progress in developing, testing, applying and documenting liquid-fed ceramic melter vitrification technology. Progress in the following technical subject areas during the second quarter of FY 1987 is discussed: melting process chemistry and glass development, feed preparation and transfer systems, melter systems, canister filling and handling systems, and process/product modeling. 23 refs., 14 figs., 10 tabs

  20. Innovative fossil fuel fired vitrification technology for soil remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vortec has successfully completed Phase 1 of the ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation'' program. The Combustion and Melting System (CMS) has processed 7000 pounds of material representative of contaminated soil that is found at DOE sites. The soil was spiked with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals surrogates, an organic contaminant, and a surrogate radionuclide. The samples taken during the tests confirmed that virtually all of the radionuclide was retained in the glass and that it did not leach to the environment-as confirmed by both ANS 16.1 and Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing. The organic contaminant, anthracene, was destroyed during the test with a Destruction and Removal Efficiency (DRE) of at least 99.99%. RCRA metal surrogates, that were in the vitrified product, were retained and did not leach to the environment as confirmed by the TCLP testing. Semi-volatile RCRA metal surrogates were captured by the Air Pollution Control (APC) system, and data on the amount of metal oxide particulate and the chemical composition of the particulate were established for use in the Phase 2 APC subsystem design

  1. INNOVATIVE FOSSIL FUEL FIRED VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SOIL REMEDIATION. SUMMARY REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Summary Report summarizes the progress of Phases 3, 3A and 4 of a waste technology Demonstration Project sponsored under a DOE Environmental Management Research and Development Program and administered by the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory-Morgantown (DOE-NETL) for an ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation''. The Summary Reports for Phases 1 and 2 of the Program were previously submitted to DOE. The total scope of Phase 3 was to have included the design, construction and demonstration of Vortec's integrated waste pretreatment and vitrification process for the treatment of low level waste (LLW), TSCA/LLW and mixed low-level waste (MLLW). Due to funding limitations and delays in the project resulting from a law suit filed by an environmental activist and the extended time for DOE to complete an Environmental Assessment for the project, the scope of the project was reduced to completing the design, construction and testing of the front end of the process which consists of the Material Handling and Waste Conditioning (MH/C) Subsystem of the vitrification plant. Activities completed under Phases 3A and 4 addressed completion of the engineering, design and documentation of the Material Handling and Conditioning System such that final procurement of the remaining process assemblies can be completed and construction of a Limited Demonstration Project be initiated in the event DOE elects to proceed with the construction and demonstration testing of the MH/C Subsystem

  2. Development of the vitrification compositional envelope to support complex-wide application of MAWS technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazer, J.J. [ed.] [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Muller, I.S.; Gan, H.; Buechele, A.C.; Lai, S.T.; Pegg, I.L. [Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab.]|[GTS Duratek, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

    1996-09-01

    This report presents the results from a study of the application of the Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization (MAWS) approach using vitrification as a treatment technology to a variety of waste streams across the DOE complex. This work has involved both experimental vitrification work using actual mixed wastes and surrogate waste streams from several DOE sites (Hanford, Idaho, and Oak Ridge) as well as the development of a computer-based, integrated glass property-composition database. The long-term objective is that this data base will assist glass formulation studies with single waste streams or combinations of waste streams subject to a variety of user-imposed constraints including waste stream usage priorities, process related constraints (e.g., melt viscosity, electrical conductivity, etc.), and waste form performance related constraints (e.g., TCLP and PCT leaching results). 79 refs., 143 figs., 65 tabs.

  3. Development of the vitrification compositional envelope to support complex-wide application of MAWS technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results from a study of the application of the Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization (MAWS) approach using vitrification as a treatment technology to a variety of waste streams across the DOE complex. This work has involved both experimental vitrification work using actual mixed wastes and surrogate waste streams from several DOE sites (Hanford, Idaho, and Oak Ridge) as well as the development of a computer-based, integrated glass property-composition database. The long-term objective is that this data base will assist glass formulation studies with single waste streams or combinations of waste streams subject to a variety of user-imposed constraints including waste stream usage priorities, process related constraints (e.g., melt viscosity, electrical conductivity, etc.), and waste form performance related constraints (e.g., TCLP and PCT leaching results). 79 refs., 143 figs., 65 tabs

  4. INNOVATIVE FOSSIL FUEL FIRED VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SOIL REMEDIATION. FINAL REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Final Report summarizes the progress of Phases 3,3A and 4 of a waste technology Demonstration Project sponsored under a DOE Environmental Management Research and Development Program and administered by the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory-Morgantown (DOE-NETL) for an ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation''. The Summary Reports for Phases 1 and 2 of the Program were previously submitted to DOE. The total scope of Phase 3 was to have included the design, construction and demonstration of Vortec's integrated waste pretreatment and vitrification process for the treatment of low level waste (LLW), TSCA/LLW and mixed low-level waste (MLLW). Due to funding limitations and delays in the project resulting from a law suit filed by an environmental activist and the extended time for DOE to complete an Environmental Assessment for the project, the scope of the project was reduced to completing the design, construction and testing of the front end of the process which consists of the Material Handling and Waste Conditioning (MH/C) Subsystem of the vitrification plant. Activities completed under Phases 3A and 4 addressed completion of the engineering, design and documentation of the MH/C System such that final procurement of the remaining process assemblies can be completed and construction of a Limited Demonstration Project be initiated in the event DOE elects to proceed with the construction and demonstration testing of the MH/C Subsystem. Because of USEPA policies and regulations that do not require treatment of low level or low-level/PCB contaminated wastes, DOE terminated the project because there is no purported need for this technology

  5. Radiation-hardened bulk CMOS technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolutionary development of a radiation-hardened bulk CMOS technology is reviewed. The metal gate hardened CMOS status is summarized, including both radiation and reliability data. The development of a radiation-hardened bulk silicon gate process which was successfully implemented to a commercial microprocessor family and applied to a new, radiation-hardened, LSI standard cell family is also discussed. The cell family is reviewed and preliminary characterization data is presented. Finally, a brief comparison of the various radiation-hardened technologies with regard to performance, reliability, and availability is made

  6. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant technical background document for best available radionuclide control technology demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, A.B.; Skone, S.S.; Rodenhizer, D.G.; Marusich, M.V. (Ebasco Services, Inc., Bellevue, WA (USA))

    1990-10-01

    This report provides the background documentation to support applications for approval to construct and operate new radionuclide emission sources at the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) near Richland, Washington. The HWVP is required to obtain permits under federal and state statutes for atmospheric discharges of radionuclides. Since these permits must be issued prior to construction of the facility, draft permit applications are being prepared, as well as documentation to support these permits. This report addresses the applicable requirements and demonstrates that the preferred design meets energy, environmental, and economic criteria for Best Available Radionuclide Control Technology (BARCT) at HWVP. 22 refs., 11 figs., 25 tabs.

  7. Commercial LFCM vitrification technology. Quarterly progress report, October-December 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the first in a series of quarterly reports compiled by the Nuclear Waste Treatment Program Office at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to document progress on commercial liquid-fed ceramic melter (LFCM) vitrification technology. Progress in the following technical subject areas during the first quarter of FY 1985 is discussed: pretreatment systems, melting process chemistry, glass development and characterization, feed preparation and transfer systems, melter systems, canister filling and handling systems, off-gas systems, process/product modeling and control, and supporting studies. 33 figs., 12 tabs

  8. Proceedings of the theme meeting on status of vitrification technology for treatment of high level liquid waste: abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the theme meeting was to summarize all recent developments on high level waste management with respect to technology, matrix and process development on a single platform. Following topics were covered in the theme meeting: Development and deployment of various vitrification technologies, Processing of HLW using various vitrification techniques, Recovery of valuables, Development of actinide partitioning and ceramic matrices, Challenges in treatment of HLW arising from reprocessing AHWR and FBR spent fuels, Remote control aspects in HLW management and its transportation, HAW management aspects at Integrated Recycle projects. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately. (author)

  9. Vitrification melter study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of a study performed to identify the most promising vitrification melter technologies that the Department of Energy (EM-50) might pursue with available funding. The primary focus was on plasma arc systems and graphite arc melters. The study was also intended to assist EM-50 in evaluating competing technologies, formulating effective technology strategy, developing focused technology development projects, and directing the work of contractors involved in vitrification melter development

  10. Establishment of vitrification technology in Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant. The result of the active test of Rokkasho vitrification facility, the current status of new glass melter development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reprocessing plant is one of the important issues from the viewpoints of the establishment of Japan's nuclear fuel cycle technology and the use of long-term stable nuclear energy. The Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant started a test for the vitrification of high-level radioactive liquid waste in 2007. Vitrification process, which is a domestic technology in Japan, was completed in 2013 after overcoming a number of encountered problems. The glass melter of the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant adopted a ceramic melter system (LFCM system: Liquid Fed Ceramic Melter) that uses Joule heating through direct electrification. In order to achieve a more stable processing operation, the development of a new type of glass melter has been started. In this development, a full-scale test glass melter was fabricated, and a mock-up test using a simulated waste liquid is being held. The present stage is the second half of the test phase II, and operational performance under design conditions and the maximum processing capacity are being tested. For the design of a new glass melter, the results of this test will be reflected. In the field of software, a specific program for heat balance evaluation, and a manual preparation for operation purpose are under development. (A.O.)

  11. Evaluation of melter technologies for vitrification of Hanford site low-level tank waste - phase 1 testing summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, C.N., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-27

    Following negotiation of the fourth amendment to the Tri- Party Agreement for Hanford Site cleanup, commercially available melter technologies were tested during 1994 and 1995 for vitrification of the low-level waste (LLW) stream to be derived from retrieval and pretreatment of the radioactive defense wastes stored in 177 underground tanks. Seven vendors were selected for Phase 1 testing to demonstrate vitrification of a high-sodium content liquid LLW simulant. The tested melter technologies included four Joule-heated melters, a carbon electrode melter, a combustion melter, and a plasma melter. Various dry and slurry melter feed preparation processes also were tested. The technologies and Phase 1 testing results were evaluated and a preliminary technology down-selection completed. This report describes the Phase 1 LLW melter vendor testing and the tested technologies, and summarizes the testing results and the preliminary technology recommendations.

  12. Sustainable development of nuclear fuel cycle technology. Development of HLLW vitrification technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes primarily the development of the liquid fed joule-heated ceramic melter (LFCM) process for the vitrification of high-level radioactive liquid waste (HLLW) since 1997 in Japan. In 2013 the active test at the vitrification facility (K-facility) in Rokkasho commercial reprocessing plant was successfully completed for the final acceptance test. During this period many development activities have been carried out in engineering scale or the full-scale inactive cold tests including the radioactive laboratory and demonstration scale hot tests. In particular, the design of melter bottom structure and the operating method should be optimized in order to avoid the operational problems caused by accumulation of noble metals (Ru, Rh, Pd), viscous and electro-conductive deposits on the melter bottom. (author)

  13. Task 19 - Sampling, Analysis, and Vitrification Study for Thermochem's Steam Reformer Treatment Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lillemoen, C.M.; McCollor, D.P.; Qi Sun

    1998-11-01

    The overall objective of the project is to provide support to Thermochem, Inc., in the demonstration of the steam reformer treatment technology to treat LLMW. Within this program, specific objectives include the following: (1) Analyze cerium, chlorine, and fluorine concentrations in samples from the pilot-scale steam reformer tests to determine partitioning of these elements, mass balances, and changes in concentration with time. (2) Perform experimental characterization of temperature--viscosity profiles to aid in determining vitrification viability for long-term stabilization. Additionally, calculations of viscosity will be performed for several blend combinations to complement the experimentally determined values. (3) Conduct leachability tests on the vitrified slags to aid in determining if product leachability falls within EPA guidelines and to assess the suitability of the vitrified material for long-term disposal.

  14. Large-scale commercial applications of the in situ vitrification remediation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first large-scale commercial application of the innovative In Situ Vitrification (ISV) remediation technology was completed at the Parsons Chemical/ETM Enterprises Superfund site in Michigan State midyear 1994. This project involved treating 4,800 tons of pesticide and mercury-contaminated soil. The project also involved performance of the USEPA SITE Program demonstration test for the ISV technology. The Parsons project involved consolidation and staging of contaminated soil from widespread locations on and nearby the site. This paper presents a brief description of the ISV technology along with case-study type information on these two sites and the performance of the ISV technology on them. The paper also reviews other remediation projects where ISV has been identified as the/a preferred remedy, and where ISV is currently planned for use. These sites include soils contaminated with pesticides, dioxin, PCP, paint wastes, and a variety of heavy metals. This review of additional sites also includes a description of a planned radioactive mixed waste remediation project in Australia that contains large amounts of plutonium, uranium, lead, beryllium, and metallic and other debris buried in limestone and dolomitic soil burial pits. Initial test work has been completed on this application, and preparations are now underway for pilot testing in Australia. This project will demonstrate the applicability of the ISV technology to the challenging application of buried mixed wastes

  15. Hanford High-Level Waste Vitrification Program at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: technology development - annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, D.E.

    1996-09-01

    This report provides a collection of annotated bibliographies for documents prepared under the Hanford High-Level Waste Vitrification (Plant) Program. The bibliographies are for documents from Fiscal Year 1983 through Fiscal Year 1995, and include work conducted at or under the direction of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The bibliographies included focus on the technology developed over the specified time period for vitrifying Hanford pretreated high-level waste. The following subject areas are included: General Documentation; Program Documentation; High-Level Waste Characterization; Glass Formulation and Characterization; Feed Preparation; Radioactive Feed Preparation and Glass Properties Testing; Full-Scale Feed Preparation Testing; Equipment Materials Testing; Melter Performance Assessment and Evaluations; Liquid-Fed Ceramic Melter; Cold Crucible Melter; Stirred Melter; High-Temperature Melter; Melter Off-Gas Treatment; Vitrification Waste Treatment; Process, Product Control and Modeling; Analytical; and Canister Closure, Decontamination, and Handling

  16. Hanford High-Level Waste Vitrification Program at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: technology development - annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a collection of annotated bibliographies for documents prepared under the Hanford High-Level Waste Vitrification (Plant) Program. The bibliographies are for documents from Fiscal Year 1983 through Fiscal Year 1995, and include work conducted at or under the direction of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The bibliographies included focus on the technology developed over the specified time period for vitrifying Hanford pretreated high-level waste. The following subject areas are included: General Documentation; Program Documentation; High-Level Waste Characterization; Glass Formulation and Characterization; Feed Preparation; Radioactive Feed Preparation and Glass Properties Testing; Full-Scale Feed Preparation Testing; Equipment Materials Testing; Melter Performance Assessment and Evaluations; Liquid-Fed Ceramic Melter; Cold Crucible Melter; Stirred Melter; High-Temperature Melter; Melter Off-Gas Treatment; Vitrification Waste Treatment; Process, Product Control and Modeling; Analytical; and Canister Closure, Decontamination, and Handling

  17. Innovative fossil fuel fired vitrification technology for soil remediation. Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    Vortec has successfully completed Phase 1 of the ``Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation`` program. The Combustion and Melting System (CMS) has processed 7000 pounds of material representative of contaminated soil that is found at DOE sites. The soil was spiked with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals surrogates, an organic contaminant, and a surrogate radionuclide. The samples taken during the tests confirmed that virtually all of the radionuclide was retained in the glass and that it did not leach to the environment-as confirmed by both ANS 16.1 and Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing. The organic contaminant, anthracene, was destroyed during the test with a Destruction and Removal Efficiency (DRE) of at least 99.99%. RCRA metal surrogates, that were in the vitrified product, were retained and did not leach to the environment as confirmed by the TCLP testing. Semi-volatile RCRA metal surrogates were captured by the Air Pollution Control (APC) system, and data on the amount of metal oxide particulate and the chemical composition of the particulate were established for use in the Phase 2 APC subsystem design.

  18. A Method for Determining Bulk Density, Material Density, and Porosity of Melter Feed During Nuclear Waste Vitrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilliard, Zachary J.; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2016-01-31

    Abstract Glass making efficiency largely depends on heat transfer to reacting glass batch (melter feed), which in turn is influenced by the bulk density (ρb) and porosity (Φ) as functions of temperature (T). Neither b(T) nor Φ(T) functions are readily accessible to direct measurement, but they can be determined based on monitoring the profile area of heated glass batch pellets and material density of batches quenched at various stages of conversion via pycnometry. For the determination of Φb, the bulk volume must be calculated as a function of temperature. This is done via a program constructed in MATLAB which takes an image of a pellet profile at a given temperature and calculates the volume of said pellet. The quenched density measured by pycnometry must be converted to the density at heat treatment temperature. This is done by taking into account the volume change due to thermal expansion/contraction.

  19. The role of Tetronics plasma vitrification technology in the management and conditioning of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma Arc Technology is finding wider application in the treatment of hazardous waste materials an area which has a lot of synergy with radioactive waste management. It is being stimulated by the increasing demands of regulatory and economic drivers; currently, within the Integrated Waste Management (IWM) sector, there is a climate of rising costs, limited numbers of technological solutions, restricted access to traditional disposal based solutions and a significant levels of market consolidation. Traditionally, the IWM sector has operated with basic mixing technology solutions: e.g. physiochemical consolidation, physiochemical separation, neutralisation and basic material bulking, with ultimate reliance on landfill, cement based encapsulation and high temperature incineration (HTI). The impact of national statutes, the value of national liabilities and infra-structural deficiencies is demanding constant technological advancement for continued regulatory compliance. This paper presents information on Tetronics' plasma based solution, for the treatment of Asbestos Containing Materials (ACM) and Plutonium Containing Material (PCM). (authors)

  20. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant technical background document for toxics best available control technology demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides information on toxic air pollutant emissions to support the Notice of Construction for the proposed Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) to be built at the the Department of Energy Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Because approval must be received prior to initiating construction of the facility, state and federal Clean Air Act Notices of construction are being prepared along with necessary support documentation

  1. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant technical background document for toxics best available control technology demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-10-01

    This document provides information on toxic air pollutant emissions to support the Notice of Construction for the proposed Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) to be built at the the Department of Energy Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Because approval must be received prior to initiating construction of the facility, state and federal Clean Air Act Notices of construction are being prepared along with necessary support documentation.

  2. Safeguardability of the vitrification option for disposal of plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillay, K.K.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Safeguardability of the vitrification option for plutonium disposition is rather complex and there is no experience base in either domestic or international safeguards for this approach. In the present treaty regime between the US and the states of the former Soviet Union, bilaterial verifications are considered more likely with potential for a third-party verification of safeguards. There are serious technological limitations to applying conventional bulk handling facility safeguards techniques to achieve independent verification of plutonium in borosilicate glass. If vitrification is the final disposition option chosen, maintaining continuity of knowledge of plutonium in glass matrices, especially those containing boron and those spike with high-level wastes or {sup 137}Cs, is beyond the capability of present-day safeguards technologies and nondestructive assay techniques. The alternative to quantitative measurement of fissile content is to maintain continuity of knowledge through a combination of containment and surveillance, which is not the international norm for bulk handling facilities.

  3. Vitrification of hazardous and radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickford, D.F.; Schumacher, R.

    1995-12-31

    Vitrification offers many attractive waste stabilization options. Versatility of waste compositions, as well as the inherent durability of a glass waste form, have made vitrification the treatment of choice for high-level radioactive wastes. Adapting the technology to other hazardous and radioactive waste streams will provide an environmentally acceptable solution to many of the waste challenges that face the public today. This document reviews various types and technologies involved in vitrification.

  4. Alternative technology of nanoparticles consolidation in the bulk material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VOLKOV Georgiy Michailovich

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical bases and technological principles of single-stages nanoparticles conso-lidation into bulk material were offered. The theory was implemented on the model system of carbon-carbon in the process of high-temperature pyrolysis of hydrocar-bons. The bulk carbon nanomaterial with unique technical properties was produced. That made it possible to create engineering products which technical characteristics are higher than the existing level in the world. The proposed theory can be adapted to other gas-phase, liquid phase and secondary crystallization processes to create bulk nanomaterials of another chemical composition with no less unique properties.

  5. Innovative vitrification for soil remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this DOE demonstration program is to validate the performance and operation of the Vortec Cyclone Melting System (CMS trademark) for the processing of LLW contaminated soils found at DOE sites. This DOE vitrification demonstration project has successfully progressed through the first two phases. Phase 1 consisted of pilot scale testing with surrogate wastes and the conceptual design of a process plant operating at a generic DOE site. The objective of Phase 2, which is scheduled to be completed the end of FY 95, is to develop a definitive process plant design for the treatment of wastes at a specific DOE facility. During Phase 2, a site specific design was developed for the processing of LLW soils and muds containing TSCA organics and RCRA metal contaminants. Phase 3 will consist of a full scale demonstration at the DOE gaseous diffusion plant located in Paducah, KY. Several DOE sites were evaluated for potential application of the technology. Paducah was selected for the demonstration program because of their urgent waste remediation needs as well as their strong management and cost sharing financial support for the project. During Phase 2, the basic nitrification process design was modified to meet the specific needs of the new waste streams available at Paducah. The system design developed for Paducah has significantly enhanced the processing capabilities of the Vortec vitrification process. The overall system design now includes the capability to shred entire drums and drum packs containing mud, concrete, plastics and PCB's as well as bulk waste materials. This enhanced processing capability will substantially expand the total DOE waste remediation applications of the technology

  6. Secondary Waste Considerations for Vitrification of Sodium-Bearing Waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center FY-2001 Status Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) is considering vitrification to process liquid sodium-bearing waste. Preliminary studies were completed to evaluate the potential secondary wastes from the melter off-gas clean up systems. Projected secondary wastes comprise acidic and caustic scrubber solutions, HEPA filters, activated carbon, and ion exchange media. Possible treatment methods, waste forms, and disposal sites are evaluated from radiological and mercury contamination estimates

  7. Nanoscale Bulk MOSFET Design and Process Technology for Reduced Variability

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Xin

    2010-01-01

    Historically, the steady miniaturization of the conventional (planar bulk) MOSFET by simply scaling the device dimensions with minimal changes to the conventional transistor design and CMOS process flow has been effective to provide for continual improvements in integrated circuit performance and cost per function with every technology node. However, transistor scaling has become increasingly difficult in the sub-100 nm regime. Increased leakage current and variability in transistor perform...

  8. Hydroxypropyl cellulose as an option for supplementation of cryoprotectant solutions for embryo vitrification in human assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Chiemi; Yabuuchi, Akiko; Ezoe, Kenji; Murata, Nana; Takayama, Yuko; Okimura, Tadashi; Uchiyama, Kazuo; Takakura, Kei; Abe, Hiroyuki; Wada, Keiko; Okuno, Takashi; Kobayashi, Tamotsu; Kato, Keiichi

    2015-06-01

    Hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) was investigated as a replacement for serum substitute supplement (SSS) for use in cryoprotectant solutions for embryo vitrification. Mouse blastocysts from inbred (n = 1056), hybrid (n = 128) strains, and 121 vitrified blastocysts donated by infertile patients (n = 102) were used. Mouse and human blastocysts, with or without zona pellucida, were vitrified and warmed in either 1% or 5% HPC or in 5% or 20% SSS-supplemented media using the Cryotop (Kitazato BioPharma Co. Ltd, Fuji, Japan) method, and the survival and oxygen consumption rates were assessed. Viscosity of each vitrification solution was compared. Survival rates of mouse hybrid blastocysts and human zona pellucida-intact blastocysts were comparable among the groups. Mouse and human zona pellucida-free blastocysts, which normally exhibit poor cryoresistance, showed significantly higher survival rates in 5% HPC than 5% SSS (P < 0.05). The 5% HPC-supplemented vitrification solution showed a significantly higher viscosity (P < 0.05). The blastocysts were easily detached from the Cryotop strip during warming when HPC-supplemented vitrification solution was used. The oxygen consumption rates were similar between non-vitrified and 5% HPC groups. The results suggest possible use of HPC for supplementation of cryoprotectant solutions and provide useful information to improve vitrification protocols. PMID:25892497

  9. Commercialization project of Ulchin vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ulchin Vitrification Facility (UVF), to be used for the vitirification of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW) generated by nuclear power plants (NPPs), is the world's first commercial facility using Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM) technology. The construction of the facility was begun in 2005 and was completed in 2007. From December 2007 to September 2009, all key performance tests, such as the system functional test, the cold test, the hot test, and the real waste test, were successfully carried out. The UVF commenced commercial operation in October 2009 for the vitrification of radioactive waste. (author)

  10. Environmental Management vitrification activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumrine, P.H. [Waste Policy Institute, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Both the Mixed Waste and Landfill Stabilization Focus Areas as part of the Office of Technology Development efforts within the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Division have been developing various vitrification technologies as a treatment approach for the large quantities of transuranic (TRU), TRU mixed and Mixed Low Level Wastes that are stored in either landfills or above ground storage facilities. The technologies being developed include joule heated, plasma torch, plasma arc, induction, microwave, combustion, molten metal, and in situ methods. There are related efforts going into development glass, ceramic, and slag waste form windows of opportunity for the diverse quantities of heterogeneous wastes needing treatment. These studies look at both processing parameters, and long term performance parameters as a function of composition to assure that developed technologies have the right chemistry for success.

  11. Innovative fossil fuel fired vitrification technology for soil remediation. Volume 1, Phase 1: Annual report, September 28, 1992--August 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    Vortex has successfully completed Phase 1 of the ``Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation`` program with the Department of Energy (DOE) Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The Combustion and Melting System (CMS) has processed 7000 pounds of material representative of contaminated soil that is found at DOE sites. The soil was spiked with Resource Conversation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals surrogates, an organic contaminant, and a surrogate radionuclide. The samples taken during the tests confirmed that virtually all of the radionuclide was retained in the glass and that it did not leach to the environment. The organic contaminant, anthracene, was destroyed during the test with a Destruction and Removal Efficiency (DRE) of at least 99.99%. RCRA metal surrogates, that were in the vitrified product, were retained and will not leach to the environment--as confirmed by the TCLP testing. Semi-volatile RCRA metal surrogates were captured by the Air Pollution Control (APC) system, and data on the amount of metal oxide particulate and the chemical composition of the particulate were established for use in the Phase 2 APC system design. This topical report will present a summary of the activities conducted during Phase 1 of the ``Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation`` program. The report includes the detail technical data generated during the experimental program and the design and cost data for the preliminary Phase 2 plant.

  12. Eco Issues in Bulk Materials Handling Technologies in Ports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Zrnić

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with eco issues in bulk materials handling in ports. Solid, free-flowing materials are said to be in bulk. Bulk materials handling is very difficult, because it incorporates all the features of liquids, gasses and mass solids. Energy efficiency, dust emissions in nearby environment, dust explosions, jamming, noise, handling of hazardous materials and protection of materials from contamination are issues that will be considered in this paper. Here are also presented possible solutions for some of these issues

  13. A study on safety assessment methodology for a vitrification plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Y. C.; Lee, G. S.; Choi, Y. C.; Kim, G. H. [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    In this study, the technical and regulatory status of radioactive waste vitrification technologies in foreign and domestic plants is investigated and analyzed, and then significant factors are suggested which must be contained in the final technical guideline or standard for the safety assessment of vitrification plants. Also, the methods to estimate the stability of vitrified waste forms are suggested with property analysis of them. The contents and scope of the study are summarized as follows : survey of the status on radioactive waste vitrification technologies in foreign and domestic plants, survey of the characterization methodology for radioactive waste form, analysis of stability for vitrified waste forms, survey and analysis of technical standards and regulations concerned with them in foreign and domestic plants, suggestion of significant factors for the safety assessment of vitrification plants, submission of regulated technical standard on radioactive waste vitrification plats.

  14. World first in high level waste vitrification - A review of French vitrification industrial achievements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueziere, J.; Chauvin, E. [AREVA, 1 place Jean Millier, 92084 Paris La Defense (France); Piroux, J.C. [Joint Vitrification Laboratory - LCV, Marcoule, BP171, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France)

    2013-07-01

    AREVA has more than 30 years experience in operating industrial HLW (High Level radioactive Waste) vitrification facilities (AVM - Marcoule Vitrification Facility, R7 and T7 facilities). This vitrification technology was based on borosilicate glasses and induction-heating. AVM was the world's first industrial HLW vitrification facility to operate in-line with a reprocessing plant. The glass formulation was adapted to commercial Light Water Reactor fission products solutions, including alkaline liquid waste concentrates as well as platinoid-rich clarification fines. The R7 and T7 facilities were designed on the basis of the industrial experience acquired in the AVM facility. The AVM vitrification process was implemented at a larger scale in order to operate the R7 and T7 facilities in-line with the UP2 and UP3 reprocessing plants. After more than 30 years of operation, outstanding record of operation has been established by the R7 and T7 facilities. The industrial startup of the CCIM (Cold Crucible Induction Melter) technology with enhanced glass formulation was possible thanks to the close cooperation between CEA and AREVA. CCIM is a water-cooled induction melter in which the glass frit and the waste are melted by direct high frequency induction. This technology allows the handling of highly corrosive solutions and high operating temperatures which permits new glass compositions and a higher glass production capacity. The CCIM technology has been implemented successfully at La Hague plant.

  15. Treatment of NPP wastes using vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass-based materials to immobilize various liquid and solid radioactive wastes generated at nuclear power plants (NPP) were designed. Glassy waste forms can be produced using electric melting including a cold crucible melting. Leach rate of cesium was found to be 10-5-10-6 g/(cm2 day) (IAEA technique). Volume reduction factor after vitrification reached 4-5. Various technologies for NPP waste vitrification were developed. Direct vitrification means feeding of source waste into the melter with formation of glassy waste form to be disposed. Joule heated ceramic melter, and cold crucible were tested. Process variables at treatment of Kursk, Chernobyl (RBMK), Kalinin, Novovoronezh (VVER) NPP wastes were determined. The most promising melter was found to be the cold crucible. Pilot plant based on the cold crucibles has been designed and constructed. Solid burnable NPP wastes are incinerated and slags are incorporated in glass. (author)

  16. Test plan for glass melter system technologies for vitrification of high-sodium content low-level radioactive liquid waste, Project No. RDD-43288

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higley, B.A.

    1995-03-15

    This document provides a test plan for the conduct of combustion fired cyclone vitrification testing by a vendor in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System, Low-Level Waste Vitrification Program. The vendor providing this test plan and conducting the work detailed within it is the Babcock & Wilcox Company Alliance Research Center in Alliance, Ohio. This vendor is one of seven selected for glass melter testing.

  17. Test plan for glass melter system technologies for vitrification of hign-sodium content low-level radioactive liquid waste, Project No. RDD-43288

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides a test plan for the conduct of combustion fired cyclone vitrification testing by a vendor in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System, Low-Level Waste Vitrification Program. The vendor providing this test plan and conducting the work detailed within it is the Babcock ampersand Wilcox Company Alliance Research Center in Alliance, Ohio. This vendor is one of seven selected for glass melter testing

  18. Prospects for vitrification of mixed wastes at ANL-E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes a study evaluating the prospects for vitrification of some of the mixed wastes at ANL-E. This project can be justified on the following basis: Some of ANL-E's mixed waste streams will be stabilized such that they can be treated as a low-level radioactive waste. The expected volume reduction that results during vitrification will significantly reduce the overall waste volume requiring disposal. Mixed-waste disposal options currently used by ANL-E may not be permissible in the near future without treatment technologies such as vitrification

  19. Modified vitrification method for cryopreservation of human ovarian tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yu-bin; ZHOU Can-quan; YANG Guo-fen; WANG Qiong; DONG Yu

    2007-01-01

    Background Vitrification is a prospective technology in ovarian tissue cryopreservation, but it is still in an initial stage. This study was conducted to investigate a modified vitrification protocol for human ovarian tissue, which can be used as an alternative to preserve fertility for young women with cancer who have to undergo cytotoxic therapy and sterilization. Methods Ovarian tissue samples were collected from 15 patients and randomly allocated to groups of fresh, vitrification, and conventional slow freezing. A modified carrierless vitrification method was applied. The proportion of morphologically intact follicles in fresh ovarian tissues was compared with that in warmed/thawed tissues. The initial growth of the follicles and the concentrations of estradiol and progesterone were detected to determine the viability and endocrine function of the cryopreserved tissues.Results The proportion of morphologically intact primordial follicles in the fresh group (97.6%) was significantly higher than that in the other two groups (vitrification group 80.3% and slow-freezing group 72.6%, P<0.001). In both the vitrification and slow-freezing groups, estradiol and progesterone were secreted continuously during 2-week culture in vitro, the proportion of primary follicles were both significantly increased compared to the fresh group. No statistically significant differences existed between the two groups after cryopreservation in the proportion of both primordial and primary follicles, and the concentrations of estradiol and progesterone (P>0.05).Conclusion The modified vitrification method for cryopreservation of human ovarian tissues is effective, simple, and inexpensive.

  20. Los Alamos National Laboratory simulated sludge vitrification demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicero, C.A.; Bickford, D.F. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Bennert, D.M.; Overcamp, T.J. [Clemson Univ., Anderson, SC (United States). Dept. of Environmental Systems Engineering

    1994-09-30

    Technologies are being developed to convert hazardous and mixed wastes to a form suitable for permanent disposal. Vitrification, which has been declared the Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT) for high-level radioactive waste disposal by the EPA, is capable of producing a highly durable wasteform that minimizes disposal volumes through organic destruction, moisture evaporation, and porosity reduction. However, this technology must be demonstrated over a range of waste characteristics, including compositions, chemistries, moistures, and physical characteristics to ensure that it is suitable for hazardous and mixed waste treatment. This project plans to demonstrate vitrification of simulated wastes that are considered representatives of wastes found throughout the DOE complex. For the most part, the primary constituent of the wastes is flocculation aids, such as Fe(OH){sub 3}, and natural filter aids, such as diatomaceous earth and perlite. The filter aids consist mostly of silica, which serves as an excellent glass former; hence, the reason why vitrification is such a viable option. LANL is currently operating a liquid waste processing plant which produces an inorganic sludge similar to other waste water treatment streams. Since this waste has characteristics that make it suitable for vitrification and the likelihood of success is high, it shall be tested at CU. The objective of this task is to characterize the process behavior and glass product formed upon vitrification of simulated LANL sludge. The off-gases generated from the production runs will also be characterized to help further develop vitrification processes for mixed and low level wastes.

  1. Review of FY2001 Development Work for Vitrification of Sodium Bearing Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, C.M.; Taylor, D.D.

    2002-09-09

    Treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated by the Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. This report discusses significant findings from vitrification technology development during 2001 and their impacts on the design basis for SBW vitrification.

  2. Review of FY 2001 Development Work for Vitrification of Sodium Bearing Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Dean Dalton; Barnes, Charles Marshall

    2002-09-01

    Treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated by the Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. This report discusses significant findings from vitrification technology development during 2001 and their impacts on the design basis for SBW vitrification.

  3. Review of FY2001 Development Work for Vitrification of Sodium Bearing Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated by the Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. This report discusses significant findings from vitrification technology development during 2001 and their impacts on the design basis for SBW vitrification

  4. High gain CMOS image sensor design and fabrication on SOI and bulk technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiquan

    2000-12-01

    The CMOS imager is now competing with the CCD imager, which still dominates the electronic imaging market. By taking advantage of the mature CMOS technology, the CMOS imager can integrate AID converters, digital signal processing (DSP) and timing control circuits on the same chip. This low cost and high-density integration solution to the image capture is the strong driving force in industry. Silicon on insulator (SOI) is considered as the coming mainstream technology. It challenges the current bulk CMOS technology because of its reduced power consumption, high speed, radiation hardness etc. Moving the CMOS imager from the bulk to the SOI substrate will benefit from these intrinsic advantages. In addition, the blooming and the cross-talk between the pixels of the sensor array can be ideally eliminated, unlike those on the bulk technology. Though there are many advantages to integrate CMOS imager on SOI, the problem is that the top silicon film is very thin, such as 2000Å. Many photons can just pass through this layer without being absorbed. A good photo-detector on SOI is critical to integrate SOI CMOS imagers. In this thesis, several methods to make photo-detectors on SOI substrate are investigated. A floating gate MOSFET on SOI substrate, operating in its lateral bipolar mode, is photon sensitive. One step further, the SOI MOSFET gate and body can be tied together. The positive feedback between the body and gate enables this device have a high responsivity. A similar device can be found on the bulk CMOS technology: the gate-well tied PMOSFET. A 32 x 32 CMOS imager is designed and characterized using such a device as the light-sensing element. I also proposed the idea of building hybrid active pixels on SOI substrate. Such devices are fabricated and characterized. The work here represents my contribution on the CMOS imager, especially moving the CMOS imager onto the SOI substrate.

  5. Waste Vitrification Projects Throughout the US Initiated by SRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C.M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Whitehouse, J.C.; Smith, M.E.; Pickett, J.B.; Peeler, D.K.

    1998-05-01

    Technologies are being developed by the U. S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Nuclear Facility sites to convert high-level, low-level, and mixed wastes to a solid stabilized waste form for permanent disposal. Vitrification is one of the most important and environmentally safest technologies being developed. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has declared vitrification the best demonstrated available technology for high-level radioactive waste and produced a Handbook of Vitrification Technologies for Treatment of Hazardous and Radioactive Waste. The Defense Waste Processing Facility being tested at will soon start vitrifying the high-level waste at. The DOE Office of Technology Development has taken the position that mixed waste needs to be stabilized to the highest level reasonably possible to ensure that the resulting waste forms will meet both current and future regulatory specifications. Vitrification produces durable waste forms at volume reductions up to 97%. Large reductions in volume minimize long-term storage costs making vitrification cost effective on a life cycle basis.

  6. Waste Vitrification Projects Throughout the US Initiated by SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technologies are being developed by the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Nuclear Facility sites to convert high-level, low-level, and mixed wastes to a solid stabilized waste form for permanent disposal. Vitrification is one of the most important and environmentally safest technologies being developed. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has declared vitrification the best demonstrated available technology for high-level radioactive waste and produced a Handbook of Vitrification Technologies for Treatment of Hazardous and Radioactive Waste. The Defense Waste Processing Facility being tested at will soon start vitrifying the high-level waste at. The DOE Office of Technology Development has taken the position that mixed waste needs to be stabilized to the highest level reasonably possible to ensure that the resulting waste forms will meet both current and future regulatory specifications. Vitrification produces durable waste forms at volume reductions up to 97%. Large reductions in volume minimize long-term storage costs making vitrification cost effective on a life cycle basis

  7. Vitrification of copper flotation waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamanov, Alexander; Aloisi, Mirko; Pelino, Mario

    2007-02-01

    The vitrification of an hazardous iron-rich waste (W), arising from slag flotation of copper production, was studied. Two glasses, containing 30wt% W were melted for 30min at 1400 degrees C. The first batch, labeled WSZ, was obtained by mixing W, blast furnace slag (S) and zeolite tuff (Z), whereas the second, labeled WG, was prepared by mixing W, glass cullet (G), sand and limestone. The glass frits showed high chemical durability, measured by the TCLP test. The crystallization of the glasses was evaluated by DTA. The crystal phases formed were identified by XRD resulting to be pyroxene and wollastonite solid solutions, magnetite and hematite. The morphology of the glass-ceramics was observed by optical and scanning electron microscopy. WSZ composition showed a high rate of bulk crystallization and resulted to be suitable for producing glass-ceramics by a short crystallization heat-treatment. WG composition showed a low crystallization rate and good sinterability; glass-ceramics were obtained by sinter-crystallization of the glass frit. PMID:17064848

  8. Vitrification publication bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmieman, E.; Johns, W.E.

    1996-02-01

    This document was compiled by a group of about 12 graduate students in the Department of Mechanical Engineering and Material Science at Washington State University and was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. The literature search resulting in the compilation of this bibliography was designed to be an exhaustive search for research and development work involving the vitrification of mixed wastes, published by domestic and foreign researchers, primarily during 1989-1994. The search techniques were dominated by electronic methods and this bibliography is also available in electronic format, Windows Reference Manager.

  9. Vitrification publication bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document was compiled by a group of about 12 graduate students in the Department of Mechanical Engineering and Material Science at Washington State University and was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. The literature search resulting in the compilation of this bibliography was designed to be an exhaustive search for research and development work involving the vitrification of mixed wastes, published by domestic and foreign researchers, primarily during 1989-1994. The search techniques were dominated by electronic methods and this bibliography is also available in electronic format, Windows Reference Manager

  10. Vitrification of plutonium at Rocky Flats the argument for a pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, L. [Rocky Mountain Peace Center, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Current plans for stabilizing and storing the plutonium at Rocky Flats Plant fail to put the material in a form suitable for disposition and resistant to proliferation. Vitrification should be considered as an alternate technology. The vitrification should begin with a small-scale pilot plant.

  11. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant capacity increase options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies are being conducted by the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Project on ways to increase the waste processing capacity within the current Vitrification Building structural design. The Phase 1 study on remote systems concepts identification and extent of capacity increase was completed. The study concluded that the HWVP capacity could be increased to four times the current capacity with minor design adjustments to the fixed facility design, and the required design changes would not impact the current footprint of the vitrification building. A further increase in production capacity may be achievable but would require some technology development, verification testing, and a more systematic and extensive engineering evaluation. The primary changes included a single advance melter with a higher capacity, new evaporative feed tank, offgas quench collection tank, ejector venturi scrubbers, and additional inner canister closure station,a smear test station, a new close- coupled analytical facility, waste hold capacity of 400,000 gallon, the ability to concentrate out-of-plant HWVP feed to 90 g/L waste oxide concentration, and limited changes to the current base slab construction package

  12. Innovative vitrification for soil remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jetta, N.W.; Patten, J.S.; Hnat, J.G. [Vortec Corp., Collegeville, PA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The objective of this DOE demonstration program is to validate the performance and operation of the Vortec Cyclone Melting System (CMS{trademark}) for the processing of LLW contaminated soils found at DOE sites. This DOE vitrification demonstration project has successfully progressed through the first two phases. Phase I consisted of pilot scale testing with surrogate wastes and the conceptual design of a process plant operating at a generic DOE site. The objective of Phase 2, which is scheduled to be completed the end of FY 95, is to develop a definitive process plant design for the treatment of wastes at a specific DOE facility. During Phase 2, a site specific design was developed for the processing of LLW soils and muds containing TSCA organics and RCRA metal contaminants. Phase 3 will consist of a full scale demonstration at the DOE gaseous diffusion plant located in Paducah, KY. Several DOE sites were evaluated for potential application of the technology. Paducah was selected for the demonstration program because of their urgent waste remediation needs as well as their strong management and cost sharing financial support for the project.

  13. Mixed Wastes Vitrification by Transferred Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.TAPIA-FABELA; G.ZlSSIS; M.PACHECO-PACHECO; J.PACHECO-SOTELO; C.TORRES-REYES; R.VALDIVIA-BARRIENTOS; J.BENITEZ-READ; R.LOPEZ-CALLEJAS; F.RAMOS-FLORES; S.BOSHLE

    2007-01-01

    Thermal plasma technology provides a stable and long term treatment of mixed wastes through vitrification processes.In this work,a transferred plasma system was realized to vitrify mixed wastes,taking advantage of its high power density,enthalpy and chemical reactivity as well as its rapid quenching and high operation temperatures.To characterize the plasma discharge,a temperature diagnostic is realized by means of optical emission spectroscopy (OES).To typify the morphological structure of the wastes samples,scanning electron microscopy (SEM),and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques were applied before and after the plasma treatment.

  14. Feasibility Study for Vitrification of Sodium-Bearing Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. J. Quigley; B. D. Raivo; S. O. Bates; S. M. Berry; D. N. Nishioka; P. J. Bunnell

    2000-09-01

    Treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated under a Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is the complete calcination (i.e., treatment) of all SBW by December 31, 2012. One of the proposed options for treatment of SBW is vitrification. This study will examine the viability of SBW vitrification. This study describes the process and facilities to treat the SBW, from beginning waste input from INTEC Tank Farm to the final waste forms. Schedules and cost estimates for construction and operation of a Vitrification Facility are included. The study includes a facility layout with drawings, process description and flow diagrams, and preliminary equipment requirements and layouts.

  15. Engineering-scale vitrification of commercial high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To date, technology for immobilizing commercial high-level waste (HLW) has been extensively developed, and two major demonstration projects have been completed, the Waste Solidification Engineering Prototypes (WSEP) Program and the Nuclear Waste Vitrification Project (NWVP). The feasibility of radioactive waste solidification was demonstrated in the WSEP program between 1966 and 1970 (McElroy et al. 1972) using simulated power-reactor waste composed of nonradioactive chemicals and HLW from spent, Hanford reactor fuel. Thirty-three engineering-scale canisters of solidified HLW were produced during the operations. In early 79, the NWVP demonstrated the vitrification of HLW from the processing of actual commercial nuclear fuel. This program consisted of two parts, (1) waste preparation and (2) vitrification by spray calcination and in-can melting. This report presents results from the NWVP

  16. Feasibility Study for Vitrification of Sodium-Bearing Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated under a Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is the complete calcination (i.e., treatment) of all SBW by December 31, 2012. One of the proposed options for treatment of SBW is vitrification. This study will examine the viability of SBW vitrification. This study describes the process and facilities to treat the SBW, from beginning waste input from INTEC Tank Farm to the final waste forms. Schedules and cost estimates for construction and operation of a Vitrification Facility are included. The study includes a facility layout with drawings, process description and flow diagrams, and preliminary equipment requirements and layouts

  17. Vitrification of low level and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes: Lessons learned from high level waste vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borosilicate glasses will be used in the USA and in Europe immobilize radioactive high level liquid wastes (HLLW) for ultimate geologic disposal. Simultaneously, tehnologies are being developed by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Nuclear Facility sites to immobilize low-level and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes (LLMW) in durable glass formulations for permanent disposal or long-term storage. Vitrification of LLMW achieves large volume reductions (86--97 %) which minimize the associated long-term storage costs. Vitrification of LLMW also ensures that mixed wastes are stabilized to the highest level reasonably possible, e.g. equivalent to HLLW, in order to meet both current and future regulatory waste disposal specifications The tehnologies being developed for vitrification of LLMW rely heavily on the technologies developed for HLLW and the lessons learned about process and product control

  18. Vitrification of low level and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes: Lessons learned from high level waste vitrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C.M.

    1994-07-01

    Borosilicate glasses will be used in the USA and in Europe immobilize radioactive high level liquid wastes (HLLW) for ultimate geologic disposal. Simultaneously, tehnologies are being developed by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Nuclear Facility sites to immobilize low-level and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes (LLMW) in durable glass formulations for permanent disposal or long-term storage. Vitrification of LLMW achieves large volume reductions (86--97 %) which minimize the associated long-term storage costs. Vitrification of LLMW also ensures that mixed wastes are stabilized to the highest level reasonably possible, e.g. equivalent to HLLW, in order to meet both current and future regulatory waste disposal specifications The tehnologies being developed for vitrification of LLMW rely heavily on the technologies developed for HLLW and the lessons learned about process and product control.

  19. In situ vitrification: application analysis for stabilization of transuranic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oma, K.H.; Farnsworth, R.K.; Rusin, J.M.

    1982-09-01

    The in situ vitrification process builds upon the electric melter technology previously developed for high-level waste immobilization. In situ vitrification converts buried wastes and contaminated soil to an extremely durable glass and crystalline waste form by melting the materials, in place, using joule heating. Once the waste materials have been solidified, the high integrity waste form should not cause future ground subsidence. Environmental transport of the waste due to water or wind erosion, and plant or animal intrusion, is minimized. Environmental studies are currently being conducted to determine whether additional stabilization is required for certain in-ground transuranic waste sites. An applications analysis has been performed to identify several in situ vitrification process limitations which may exist at transuranic waste sites. Based on the process limit analysis, in situ vitrification is well suited for solidification of most in-ground transuranic wastes. The process is best suited for liquid disposal sites. A site-specific performance analysis, based on safety, health, environmental, and economic assessments, will be required to determine for which sites in situ vitrification is an acceptable disposal technique. Process economics of in situ vitrification compare favorably with other in-situ solidification processes and are an order of magnitude less than the costs for exhumation and disposal in a repository. Leachability of the vitrified product compares closely with that of Pyrex glass and is significantly better than granite, marble, or bottle glass. Total release to the environment from a vitrified waste site is estimated to be less than 10/sup -5/ parts per year. 32 figures, 30 tables.

  20. Chloride removal from vitrification offgas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study identified and investigated techniques of selectively purging chlorides from the low-level waste (LLW) vitrification process with the purge stream acceptable for burial on the Hanford Site. Chlorides will be present in high concentration in several individual feeds to the LLW Vitrification Plant. The chlorides are highly volatile in combustion type melters and are readily absorbed by wet scrubbing of the melter offgas. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process flow sheets show that the resulting chloride rich scrub solution is recycled back to the melter. The chlorides must be purged from the recycle loop to prevent the buildup of excessively high chloride concentrations

  1. Characterization and assessment of novel bulk storage technologies : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huff, Georgianne; Tong, Nellie (KEMA Consulting, Fairfax, VA); Fioravanti, Richard (KEMA Consulting, Fairfax, VA); Gordon, Paul (Sentech/SRA International, Bethesda, MD); Markel, Larry (Sentech/SRA International, Bethesda, MD); Agrawal, Poonum (Sentech/SRA International, Bethesda, MD); Nourai, Ali (KEMA Consulting, Fairfax, VA)

    2011-04-01

    This paper reports the results of a high-level study to assess the technological readiness and technical and economic feasibility of 17 novel bulk energy storage technologies. The novel technologies assessed were variations of either pumped storage hydropower (PSH) or compressed air energy storage (CAES). The report also identifies major technological gaps and barriers to the commercialization of each technology. Recommendations as to where future R&D efforts for the various technologies are also provided based on each technology's technological readiness and the expected time to commercialization (short, medium, or long term). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commissioned this assessment of novel concepts in large-scale energy storage to aid in future program planning of its Energy Storage Program. The intent of the study is to determine if any new but still unproven bulk energy storage concepts merit government support to investigate their technical and economic feasibility or to speed their commercialization. The study focuses on compressed air energy storage (CAES) and pumped storage hydropower (PSH). It identifies relevant applications for bulk storage, defines the associated technical requirements, characterizes and assesses the feasibility of the proposed new concepts to address these requirements, identifies gaps and barriers, and recommends the type of government support and research and development (R&D) needed to accelerate the commercialization of these technologies.

  2. Pretreatment of americium/curium solutions for vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitrification will be used to stabilize an americium/curium (Am/Cm) solution presently stored in F-Canyon for eventual transport to the heavy isotope programs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Prior to vitrification, an in-tank oxalate precipitation and a series of oxalic/nitric acid washes will be used to separate these elements and lanthanide fission products from the bulk of the uranium and metal impurities present in the solution. Pretreatment development experiments were performed to understand the behavior of the lanthanides and the metal impurities during the oxalate precipitation and properties of the precipitate slurry. The results of these experiments will be used to refine the target glass composition allowing optimization of the primary processing parameters and design of the solution transfer equipment

  3. Selecting a plutonium vitrification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouan, A. [Centre d`Etudes de la Vallee du Rhone, Bagnols sur Ceze (France)

    1996-05-01

    Vitrification of plutonium is one means of mitigating its potential danger. This option is technically feasible, even if it is not the solution advocated in France. Two situations are possible, depending on whether or not the glass matrix also contains fission products; concentrations of up to 15% should be achievable for plutonium alone, whereas the upper limit is 3% in the presence of fission products. The French continuous vitrification process appears to be particularly suitable for plutonium vitrification: its capacity is compatible with the required throughout, and the compact dimensions of the process equipment prevent a criticality hazard. Preprocessing of plutonium metal, to convert it to PuO{sub 2} or to a nitric acid solution, may prove advantageous or even necessary depending on whether a dry or wet process is adopted. The process may involve a single step (vitrification of Pu or PuO{sub 2} mixed with glass frit) or may include a prior calcination step - notably if the plutonium is to be incorporated into a fission product glass. It is important to weigh the advantages and drawbacks of all the possible options in terms of feasibility, safety and cost-effectiveness.

  4. Feasibility Study on the Vitrification of Concentrated Boric Acid Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitrification technology has been gradually recognized as one of effective solidification methods for concentrated boric acid wastes generated in PWR. Vitrification for low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes has a large volume reduction and good durability for the final products. A feasibility study for the vitrification of concentrated boric acid wastes has been performed with developing the pre-treatment methods of powdered wastes, glass compositions using glass formulation and demonstration test. The pre-treatment method is pelletizing the powder type for stable feeding within cold crucible melter. The glass compositions should be developed considering molten glass are related with wastes reduction. High contents of sodium and boron within borate wastes give influence to waste loading. A variety of factors obtained from the demonstration test are reviewed, which is wastes feeding rate, off-gas characteristics on stack and glass characteristics of final products such as durability for implementing the wastes disposal requirement. The aim of this paper is to present the feasibility of vitrification and review the solidification method for concentrated boric acid wastes and obtain the physicochemical characteristics of solidified glass.

  5. A New Soil Water and Bulk Electrical Conductivity Sensor Technology for Irrigation and Salinity Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Existing soil water content sensing systems based on electromagnetic (EM) properties of soils often over estimate and sometimes underestimate water content in saline and salt-affected soils due to severe interference from the soil bulk electrical conductivity (BEC), which varies strongly with temperature and which can vary greatly throughout an irrigation season and across a field. Many soil water sensors, especially those based on capacitance measurements, have been shown to be unsuitable in salt-affected or clayey soils (Evett et al., 2012a). The ability to measure both soil water content and BEC can be helpful for the management of irrigation and leaching regimes. Neutron probe is capable of accurately sensing water content in salt-affected soils but has the disadvantages of being: (1) labour-intensive, (2) not able to be left unattended in the field, (3) subject to onerous regulations, and (4) not able to sense salinity. The Waveguide-On-Access-Tube (WOAT) system based on time domain reflectometry (TDR) principles, recently developed by Evett et al. (2012) is a new promising technology. This system can be installed at below 3 m in 20-cm sensor segments to cover as much of the crop root zone as needed for irrigation management. It can also be installed to measure the complete soil profile from the surface to below the root zone, allowing the measurement of crop water use and water use efficiency - knowledge of which is key for irrigation and farm management, and for the development of new drought tolerant and water efficient crop varieties and hybrids, as well as watershed and environmental management

  6. EV-16 vitrification demonstration with surrogate Oak Ridge reservation K-25 B & C pond sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicero, C.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1996-07-05

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) has chartered the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) to design and fabricate a Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) to demonstrate treatment of Low-Level Mixed Waste (LLMW). This system will be used to demonstrate the feasibility of vitrification on several LLMW streams. The first stream to be demonstrated will be the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) K-25 B&C Pond sludge. Before the demonstrations in the TVS can take place, a surrogate sludge vitrification demonstration had to be performed in the EV-16 melter located at the DOE Industrial Center for Vitrification Research (Center) at the Environmental Systems Engineering Department at Clemson University. During the demonstration at the Center, a 50 wt% B&C sludge glass composition was tested to determine any processing problems. A total of 1510 pounds (686 kg) of glass were produced from 9328 pounds (4240 kg) of surrogate feed. The resulting glass product was homogeneous and very durable.

  7. Glasses and nuclear waste vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass is an amorphous solid material which behaves like an isotropic crystal. Atomic structure of glass lacks long-range order but possesses short and most probably medium range order. Compared to crystalline materials of the same composition glasses are metastable materials however crystallisation processes are kinetically impeded within times which typically exceed the age of universe. The physical and chemical durability of glasses combined with their high tolerance to compositional changes makes glasses irreplaceable when hazardous waste needs immobilisation for safe long-term storage, transportation and consequent disposal. Immobilisation of radioactive waste in glassy materials using vitrification has been used successfully for several decades. Nuclear waste vitrification is attractive because of its flexibility, the large number of elements which can be incorporated in the glass, its high corrosion durability and the reduced volume of the resulting wasteform. Vitrification involves melting of waste materials with glass-forming additives so that the final vitreous product incorporates the waste contaminants in its macro- and micro-structure. Hazardous waste constituents are immobilised either by direct incorporation into the glass structure or by encapsulation when the final glassy material can be in form of a glass composite material. Both borosilicate and phosphate glasses are currently used to immobilise nuclear wastes. In addition to relatively homogeneous glasses novel glass composite materials are used to immobilise problematic waste streams. (author)

  8. Vitrification for stability of scrap and residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, C.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-05-01

    A conference breakout discussion was held on the subject of vitrification for stabilization of plutonium scrap and residue. This was one of four such sessions held within the vitrification workshop for participants to discuss specific subjects in further detail. The questions and issues were defined by the participants.

  9. In-situ Vitrification

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    While landfills are the predominant form of solid-waste disposal for municipalities in the U.S., people are objecting to the establishment of new landfills in their communities. Decreasing availability of land, worries about potential health problems and a growing concern for the environment have made the disposal of solid waste a challenge. This technology represents a safety improvement. There is no need for contaminated soil transportation and handling. The need for disposal landfills disa...

  10. Corrosion of Metal Inclusions In Bulk Vitrification Waste Packages Erratum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Gary L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-06

    This report refers to or contains Kg values for glasses LAWA44, LAWB45 and LAWC22 affected by calculations errors as identified by Papathanassiu et al. (2011). The corrected Kg values are reported in an erratum included in the revised version of the original report. The revised report can be referenced as follows: Pierce E. M. et al. (2004) Waste Form Release Data Package for the 2005 Integrated Disposal Facility Performance Assessment. PNNL-14805 Rev. 0 Erratum. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA.

  11. Independent engineering review of the Hanford Waste Vitrification System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) was initiated in June 1987. The HWVP is an essential element of the plan to end present interim storage practices for defense wastes and to provide for permanent disposal. The project start was justified, in part, on efficient technology and design information transfer from the prototype Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Development of other serial Hanford Waste Vitrification System (HWVS) elements, such as the waste retrieval system for the double-shell tanks (DSTs), and the pretreatment system to reduce the waste volume converted into glass, also was required to accomplish permanent waste disposal. In July 1991, at the time of this review, the HWVP was in the Title 2 design phase. The objective of this technical assessment is to determine whether the status of the technology development and engineering practice is sufficient to provide reasonable assurance that the HWVP and the balance of the HWVS system will operate in an efficient and cost-effective manner. The criteria used to facilitate a judgment of potential successful operation are: vitrification of high-level radioactive waste from specified DSTs on a reasonably continuous basis; and glass produced with physical and chemical properties formally acknowledge as being acceptable for disposal in a repository for high-level radioactive waste. The criteria were proposed specifically for the Independent Engineering Review to focus that assessment effort. They are not represented as the criteria by which the Department will judge the prudence of the Project. 78 refs., 10 figs., 12 tabs.

  12. Independent engineering review of the Hanford Waste Vitrification System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) was initiated in June 1987. The HWVP is an essential element of the plan to end present interim storage practices for defense wastes and to provide for permanent disposal. The project start was justified, in part, on efficient technology and design information transfer from the prototype Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Development of other serial Hanford Waste Vitrification System (HWVS) elements, such as the waste retrieval system for the double-shell tanks (DSTs), and the pretreatment system to reduce the waste volume converted into glass, also was required to accomplish permanent waste disposal. In July 1991, at the time of this review, the HWVP was in the Title 2 design phase. The objective of this technical assessment is to determine whether the status of the technology development and engineering practice is sufficient to provide reasonable assurance that the HWVP and the balance of the HWVS system will operate in an efficient and cost-effective manner. The criteria used to facilitate a judgment of potential successful operation are: vitrification of high-level radioactive waste from specified DSTs on a reasonably continuous basis; and glass produced with physical and chemical properties formally acknowledge as being acceptable for disposal in a repository for high-level radioactive waste. The criteria were proposed specifically for the Independent Engineering Review to focus that assessment effort. They are not represented as the criteria by which the Department will judge the prudence of the Project. 78 refs., 10 figs., 12 tabs

  13. Preliminary hazards analysis -- vitrification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) for mixed waste vitrification by joule heating. The purpose of performing a PHA is to establish an initial hazard categorization for a DOE nuclear facility and to identify those processes and structures which may have an impact on or be important to safety. The PHA is typically performed during and provides input to project conceptual design. The PHA is then followed by a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) performed during Title 1 and 2 design. The PSAR then leads to performance of the Final Safety Analysis Report performed during the facility's construction and testing. It should be completed before routine operation of the facility commences. This PHA addresses the first four chapters of the safety analysis process, in accordance with the requirements of DOE Safety Guidelines in SG 830.110. The hazards associated with vitrification processes are evaluated using standard safety analysis methods which include: identification of credible potential hazardous energy sources; identification of preventative features of the facility or system; identification of mitigative features; and analyses of credible hazards. Maximal facility inventories of radioactive and hazardous materials are postulated to evaluate worst case accident consequences. These inventories were based on DOE-STD-1027-92 guidance and the surrogate waste streams defined by Mayberry, et al. Radiological assessments indicate that a facility, depending on the radioactive material inventory, may be an exempt, Category 3, or Category 2 facility. The calculated impacts would result in no significant impact to offsite personnel or the environment. Hazardous materials assessment indicates that a Mixed Waste Vitrification facility will be a Low Hazard facility having minimal impacts to offsite personnel and the environment

  14. Preliminary hazards analysis -- vitrification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coordes, D.; Ruggieri, M.; Russell, J.; TenBrook, W.; Yimbo, P. [Science Applications International Corp., Pleasanton, CA (United States)

    1994-06-01

    This paper presents a Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) for mixed waste vitrification by joule heating. The purpose of performing a PHA is to establish an initial hazard categorization for a DOE nuclear facility and to identify those processes and structures which may have an impact on or be important to safety. The PHA is typically performed during and provides input to project conceptual design. The PHA is then followed by a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) performed during Title 1 and 2 design. The PSAR then leads to performance of the Final Safety Analysis Report performed during the facility`s construction and testing. It should be completed before routine operation of the facility commences. This PHA addresses the first four chapters of the safety analysis process, in accordance with the requirements of DOE Safety Guidelines in SG 830.110. The hazards associated with vitrification processes are evaluated using standard safety analysis methods which include: identification of credible potential hazardous energy sources; identification of preventative features of the facility or system; identification of mitigative features; and analyses of credible hazards. Maximal facility inventories of radioactive and hazardous materials are postulated to evaluate worst case accident consequences. These inventories were based on DOE-STD-1027-92 guidance and the surrogate waste streams defined by Mayberry, et al. Radiological assessments indicate that a facility, depending on the radioactive material inventory, may be an exempt, Category 3, or Category 2 facility. The calculated impacts would result in no significant impact to offsite personnel or the environment. Hazardous materials assessment indicates that a Mixed Waste Vitrification facility will be a Low Hazard facility having minimal impacts to offsite personnel and the environment.

  15. Remotisation aspects of vitrification facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activities such as handling of HLW for its transfer from the reprocessing facility, concentration in thermo-siphon evaporators, feeding the concentrate into the furnaces, decontamination of the gases emanating during evaporation and vitrification, handling of vitrified waste product (VWP) for its filling into the canisters, capping, decontamination and overpacking etc. are carried out remotely inside concrete shielded cells. Further, handling of VWP overpacks for its loading into the shielding casks for its transportation and emplacing the same into interim storage/disposal facilities, are also done remotely. Liquid sampling and handling of filters for cleaning of vessel off gases (VOG) are some of other major activities requiring remote handling. A new dimension in remote operations has been added while dismantling melter components and subsequently managing the secondary wastes generated at Trombay and Tarapur as well. Having equipped with rich experience and broad analysis of the operations involved in vitrification of HLW and handling the VWP, we can embark on design of the new facilities having much higher degree of automation and use of robots

  16. Vitrification of high active waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main stream of high level radioactive materials generated as wastes by the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel is composed of fission products solutions. The storage of these liquids has been operated until now in stainless steel tanks almost everywhere. From a general standpoint, it is now assumed that these solutions, in which long-life actinides are also present, must be solidified owing to the hazards related to a long term disposal. Vitrification has generally been taken more into consideration than other processes owing to a relatively simple implementation and mainly because glass is a medium flexible enough to house the various elements bound to be present in the radioactive liquids without inducing drastic changes in the physicochemical properties. Among these properties a particular attention is paid to the ones connected to the fabrication: corrosiveness, volatilization, viscosity as well as to the interim storage and long term disposal: thermal stability, chemical stability versus #betta# #betta# and α irradiation including the subsequent effects of helium build up. Investigations in those fields have been carried out principally on borosilicate and aluminoborosilicate glasses. The manufacture techniques under development are numerous. Some of them are continuous processes, other are batch ones. Both can involve either a one stage or a two stage fabrication. The most advanced technique is a 2 stages continuous process involving calcination in a rotary tube and vitrification in a metallic melter. (orig./HW)

  17. Vitrification pilot plant experiences at Fernald, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A one metric ton/day Vitrification Pilot Plant (VITPP) at Fernald, Ohio, simulated the vitrification of radium and radon bearing silo residues using representative non-radioactive surrogates containing high concentrations of lead, sulfates, and phosphates. The vitrification process was carried out at temperatures of 1,150 to 1,350 C. The VITPP processed glass for seven months, until a breach of the melter containment vessel suspended operations. More than 70,000 pounds of surrogate glass were produced by the VITPP. Experiences, lessons learned, and path forward will be presented

  18. Development of technology and equipment for trapping emissions from a vitrification line, including the manufacture of selected nodes (flow separator, NOx absorber, aerosol filters)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technology was designed of a processing line for trapping nitrogen oxides emerging during the treatment of liquid wastes from nuclear power plants. In this design, absorption with a chemical reaction is combined with subsequent trapping of the then formed aerosols of the acids on a sprayed fibrous insert flown through by the gas treated. The degree of absorption is 94% and more for NO2, and 43% on average for NO. (J.B). 10 tabs., 3 figs., 11 refs

  19. Hanford waste vitrification systems risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systematic Risk Assessment was performed to identify the technical, regulatory, and programmatic uncertainties and to quantify the risks to the Hanford Site double-shell tank waste vitrification program baseline (as defined in December 1990). Mitigating strategies to reduce the overall program risk were proposed. All major program elements were evaluated, including double-shell tank waste characterization, Tank Farms, retrieval, pretreatment, vitrification, and grouting. Computer-based techniques were used to quantify risks to proceeding with construction of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant on the present baseline schedule. Risks to the potential vitrification of single-shell tank wastes and cesium and strontium capsules were also assessed. 62 refs., 38 figs., 26 tabs

  20. Radioactive waste vitrification: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research and development of an immobilization process for the containment of nuclear high-level liquid waste has been underway for well-over the past four decades. The method that has become the state-of-the-art is the liquid-fed ceramic melter process which converts a mixture of high-level liquid waste and glass forming frit to a borosilicate glass product. This report gives a chronological review of the various vitrification processes starting with the very first reported process in 1960. Information on the early methods of frit selection as well as information on the currently computerized method are presented. The importance of all these parameters is discussed with regard to product durability. 26 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  1. Time domain reflectometry instrumentation used for in-situ plasma vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An application of TDR (Time Domain Reflectometry) was developed and demonstrated for use with the in-situ plasma vitrification (ISPV) environmental restoration project. The technique was simple, using an inexpensive sacrificial TDR probe made out of ordinary coaxial cable. This technique proved its viability for field operation in support of the vitrification process. This presentation will detail the design, construction, operation and field results of the TDR instrumentation that was developed and used in this project. Other practical applications of this technology will be suggested

  2. Vitrification of isolated mice blastomeres using a closed loading device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Rakesh

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Isolated blastomeres obtained by embryo biopsy serve mainly for preimplantation genetic screening. Blastomeres are undifferentiated embryonic cells that include all the embryo genetic information. A lot of developing technologies may benefit by the efficient cryopreservation of blastomeres for future potential use, especially for stem cell culture and differentiation control. We are hereby reporting for the first time the feasibility of preserving individual isolated blastomeres in microvolumes in a closed vitrification system. Using a cryotip and propagation in microvolumes, isolated mice blastomeres were vitrified and warmed with 100% post-warming survival.

  3. Economic assessment on vitrification facility of low-and intermediate-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The usefulness of vitrification technology of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes was demonstrated due to volume reduction and mechanical and chemical stability of final waste forms. Therefore economic assessment that is considering by the economic propriety and predicted cost is needed at the preliminary of facility operation. Economic assessment of vitrification facility that is expected to construct in Ulchin 5 and 6 is established. In this study, characteristics and yearly generation of radioactive wastes are based on Ulchin 5 and 6 PSAR. The present worth analysis is worked through the cost-benefit when the vitrification facility will be installed. In conclusion, it would be good choices if it treats radioactive wastes from more than 4 nuclear power plants

  4. Sensing with Advanced Computing Technology: Fin Field-Effect Transistors with High-k Gate Stack on Bulk Silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigante, Sara; Scarbolo, Paolo; Wipf, Mathias; Stoop, Ralph L; Bedner, Kristine; Buitrago, Elizabeth; Bazigos, Antonios; Bouvet, Didier; Calame, Michel; Schönenberger, Christian; Ionescu, Adrian M

    2015-05-26

    Field-effect transistors (FETs) form an established technology for sensing applications. However, recent advancements and use of high-performance multigate metal-oxide semiconductor FETs (double-gate, FinFET, trigate, gate-all-around) in computing technology, instead of bulk MOSFETs, raise new opportunities and questions about the most suitable device architectures for sensing integrated circuits. In this work, we propose pH and ion sensors exploiting FinFETs fabricated on bulk silicon by a fully CMOS compatible approach, as an alternative to the widely investigated silicon nanowires on silicon-on-insulator substrates. We also provide an analytical insight of the concept of sensitivity for the electronic integration of sensors. N-channel fully depleted FinFETs with critical dimensions on the order of 20 nm and HfO2 as a high-k gate insulator have been developed and characterized, showing excellent electrical properties, subthreshold swing, SS ∼ 70 mV/dec, and on-to-off current ratio, Ion/Ioff ∼ 10(6), at room temperature. The same FinFET architecture is validated as a highly sensitive, stable, and reproducible pH sensor. An intrinsic sensitivity close to the Nernst limit, S = 57 mV/pH, is achieved. The pH response in terms of output current reaches Sout = 60%. Long-term measurements have been performed over 4.5 days with a resulting drift in time δVth/δt = 0.10 mV/h. Finally, we show the capability to reproduce experimental data with an extended three-dimensional commercial finite element analysis simulator, in both dry and wet environments, which is useful for future advanced sensor design and optimization.

  5. In situ vitrification: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The in situ vitrification process (ISV) converts contaminated soils and sludges to a glass and crystalline product. The process appears to be ideally suited for on site treatment of both wet and dry wastes. Basically, the system requires four molybdenum electrodes, an electrical power system for vitrifying the soil, a hood to trap gaseous effluents, an off-gas treatment system, an off-gas cooling system, and a process control station. Mounted in three transportable trailers, the ISV process can be moved from site to site. The process has the potential for treating contaminated soils at most 13 m deep. The ISV project has won a number of outstanding achievement awards. The process has also been patented with exclusive worldwide rights being granted to Battelle Memorial Institute for nonradioactive applications. While federal applications still belong to the Department of Energy, Battelle transferred the rights of ISV for non-federal government, chemical hazardous wastes to a separate corporation in 1989 called Geosafe. This report gives a review of the process including current operational behavior and applications

  6. Vitrification Facility integrated system performance testing report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a summary of component and system performance testing associated with the Vitrification Facility (VF) following construction turnover. The VF at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) was designed to convert stored radioactive waste into a stable glass form for eventual disposal in a federal repository. Following an initial Functional and Checkout Testing of Systems (FACTS) Program and subsequent conversion of test stand equipment into the final VF, a testing program was executed to demonstrate successful performance of the components, subsystems, and systems that make up the vitrification process. Systems were started up and brought on line as construction was completed, until integrated system operation could be demonstrated to produce borosilicate glass using nonradioactive waste simulant. Integrated system testing and operation culminated with a successful Operational Readiness Review (ORR) and Department of Energy (DOE) approval to initiate vitrification of high-level waste (HLW) on June 19, 1996. Performance and integrated operational test runs conducted during the test program provided a means for critical examination, observation, and evaluation of the vitrification system. Test data taken for each Test Instruction Procedure (TIP) was used to evaluate component performance against system design and acceptance criteria, while test observations were used to correct, modify, or improve system operation. This process was critical in establishing operating conditions for the entire vitrification process

  7. Laboratory scale vitrification of low-level radioactive nitrate salts and soils from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    INEL has radiologically contaminated nitrate salt and soil waste stored above and below ground in Pad A and the Acid Pit at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Pad A contain uranium and transuranic contaminated potassium and sodium nitrate salts generated from dewatered waste solutions at the Rocky Flats Plant. The Acid Pit was used to dispose of liquids containing waste mineral acids, uranium, nitrate, chlorinated solvents, and some mercury. Ex situ vitrification is a high temperature destruction of nitrates and organics and immobilizes hazardous and radioactive metals. Laboratory scale melting of actual radionuclides containing INEL Pad A nitrate salts and Acid Pit soils was performed. The salt/soil/additive ratios were varied to determine the range of glass compositions (resulted from melting different wastes); maximize mass and volume reduction, durability, and immobilization of hazardous and radioactive metals; and minimize viscosity and offgas generation for wastes prevalent at INEL and other DOE sites. Some mixtures were spiked with additional hazardous and radioactive metals. Representative glasses were leach tested and showed none. Samples spiked with transuranic showed low nuclide leaching. Wasteforms were two to three times bulk densities of the salt and soil. Thermally co-processing soils and salts is an effective remediation method for destroying nitrate salts while stabilizing the radiological and hazardous metals they contain. The measured durability of these low-level waste glasses approached those of high-level waste glasses. Lab scale vitrification of actual INEL contaminated salts and soils was performed at General Atomics Laboratory as part of the INEL Waste Technology Development and Environmental Restoration within the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program

  8. Idaho Waste Vitrification Facilities Project Vitrified Waste Interim Storage Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnema, Bruce Edward

    2001-09-01

    This feasibility study report presents a draft design of the Vitrified Waste Interim Storage Facility (VWISF), which is one of three subprojects of the Idaho Waste Vitrification Facilities (IWVF) project. The primary goal of the IWVF project is to design and construct a treatment process system that will vitrify the sodium-bearing waste (SBW) to a final waste form. The project will consist of three subprojects that include the Waste Collection Tanks Facility, the Waste Vitrification Facility (WVF), and the VWISF. The Waste Collection Tanks Facility will provide for waste collection, feed mixing, and surge storage for SBW and newly generated liquid waste from ongoing operations at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. The WVF will contain the vitrification process that will mix the waste with glass-forming chemicals or frit and turn the waste into glass. The VWISF will provide a shielded storage facility for the glass until the waste can be disposed at either the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant as mixed transuranic waste or at the future national geological repository as high-level waste glass, pending the outcome of a Waste Incidental to Reprocessing determination, which is currently in progress. A secondary goal is to provide a facility that can be easily modified later to accommodate storage of the vitrified high-level waste calcine. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of the VWISF, which would be constructed in compliance with applicable federal, state, and local laws. This project supports the Department of Energy’s Environmental Management missions of safely storing and treating radioactive wastes as well as meeting Federal Facility Compliance commitments made to the State of Idaho.

  9. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant technical manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, D.E. [ed.; Watrous, R.A.; Kruger, O.L. [and others

    1996-03-01

    A key element of the Hanford waste management strategy is the construction of a new facility, the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP), to vitrify existing and future liquid high-level waste produced by defense activities at the Hanford Site. The HWVP mission is to vitrify pretreated waste in borosilicate glass, cast the glass into stainless steel canisters, and store the canisters at the Hanford Site until they are shipped to a federal geological repository. The HWVP Technical Manual (Manual) documents the technical bases of the current HWVP process and provides a physical description of the related equipment and the plant. The immediate purpose of the document is to provide the technical bases for preparation of project baseline documents that will be used to direct the Title 1 and Title 2 design by the A/E, Fluor. The content of the Manual is organized in the following manner. Chapter 1.0 contains the background and context within which the HWVP was designed. Chapter 2.0 describes the site, plant, equipment and supporting services and provides the context for application of the process information in the Manual. Chapter 3.0 provides plant feed and product requirements, which are primary process bases for plant operation. Chapter 4.0 summarizes the technology for each plant process. Chapter 5.0 describes the engineering principles for designing major types of HWVP equipment. Chapter 6.0 describes the general safety aspects of the plant and process to assist in safe and prudent facility operation. Chapter 7.0 includes a description of the waste form qualification program and data. Chapter 8.0 indicates the current status of quality assurance requirements for the Manual. The Appendices provide data that are too extensive to be placed in the main text, such as extensive tables and sets of figures. The Manual is a revision of the 1987 version.

  10. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant technical manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A key element of the Hanford waste management strategy is the construction of a new facility, the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP), to vitrify existing and future liquid high-level waste produced by defense activities at the Hanford Site. The HWVP mission is to vitrify pretreated waste in borosilicate glass, cast the glass into stainless steel canisters, and store the canisters at the Hanford Site until they are shipped to a federal geological repository. The HWVP Technical Manual (Manual) documents the technical bases of the current HWVP process and provides a physical description of the related equipment and the plant. The immediate purpose of the document is to provide the technical bases for preparation of project baseline documents that will be used to direct the Title 1 and Title 2 design by the A/E, Fluor. The content of the Manual is organized in the following manner. Chapter 1.0 contains the background and context within which the HWVP was designed. Chapter 2.0 describes the site, plant, equipment and supporting services and provides the context for application of the process information in the Manual. Chapter 3.0 provides plant feed and product requirements, which are primary process bases for plant operation. Chapter 4.0 summarizes the technology for each plant process. Chapter 5.0 describes the engineering principles for designing major types of HWVP equipment. Chapter 6.0 describes the general safety aspects of the plant and process to assist in safe and prudent facility operation. Chapter 7.0 includes a description of the waste form qualification program and data. Chapter 8.0 indicates the current status of quality assurance requirements for the Manual. The Appendices provide data that are too extensive to be placed in the main text, such as extensive tables and sets of figures. The Manual is a revision of the 1987 version

  11. High-temperature vitrification of low-level radioactive and hazardous wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, R.F.; Kielpinski, A.L.; Bickford, D.F.; Cicero, C.A.; Applewhite-Ramsey, A.; Spatz, T.L.; Marra, J.C.

    1995-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) weapons complex has numerous radioactive waste streams which cannot be easily treated with joule-heated vitrification systems. However, it appears these streams could be treated With certain robust, high-temperature, melter technologies. These technologies are based on the use of plasma torch, graphite arc, and induction heating sources. The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC), with financial support from the Department of Energy, Office of Technology Development (OTD) and in conjunction with the sites within the DOE weapons complex, has been investigating high-temperature vitrification technologies for several years. This program has been a cooperative effort between a number of nearby Universities, specific sites within the DOE complex, commercial equipment suppliers and the All-Russian Research Institute of Chemical Technology. These robust vitrification systems appear to have advantages for the waste streams containing inorganic materials in combination with significant quantities of metals, organics, salts, or high temperature materials. Several high-temperature technologies were selected and will be evaluated and employed to develop supporting technology. A general overview of the SRTC ``High-Temperature Program`` will be provided.

  12. Evaluation of Vitrification Processing Step for Rocky Flats Incinerator Ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wigent, W.L.; Luey, J.K.; Scheele, R.D.; Li, H.

    1999-04-08

    In 1997, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) staff developed a processing option for incinerator ash at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Sites (RFETS). This work was performed with support from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Safe Sites of Colorado (SSOC). A description of the remediation needs for the RFETS incinerator ash is provided in a report summarizing the recommended processing option for treatment of the ash (Lucy et al. 1998). The recommended process flowsheet involves a calcination pretreatment step to remove carbonaceous material followed by a vitrification processing step for a mixture of glass tit and calcined incinerator ash. Using the calcination pretreatment step to remove carbonaceous material reduced process upsets for the vitrification step, allowed for increased waste loading in the final product, and improved the quality of the final product. Figure 1.1 illustrates the flow sheet for the recommended processing option for treatment of RFETS incinerator ash. In 1998, work at PNNL further developed the recommended flow sheet through a series of studies to better define the vitrification operating parameters and to address secondary processing issues (such as characterizing the offgas species from the calcination process). Because a prototypical rotary calciner was not available for use, studies to evaluate the offgas from the calcination process were performed using a benchtop rotary calciner and laboratory-scale equipment (Lucy et al. 1998). This report focuses on the vitrification process step after ash has been calcined. Testing with full-scale containers was performed using ash surrogates and a muffle furnace similar to that planned for use at RFETS. Small-scale testing was performed using plutonium-bearing incinerator ash to verify performance of the waste form. Ash was not obtained from RFETS because of transportation requirements to calcine the incinerator ash prior to shipment of the material. Because part of

  13. Glass melter and process development for the PNC Tokai vitrification facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors' company has developed liquid fed joule-heated ceramic melter (LFCM) process for the vitrification of high-level liquid waste (HLLW) since 1977. Major developments in process technology during this period are improvements of both the design of glass melter and performance of the melter off-gas clean-up system. Technology developments include design of the melter bottom structure in order to avoid the operational problems caused by accumulation of electroconductive sludge, bottom freeze valve with induction heating, a continuous feed system for liquid and glass fiber additive, improvement of decontamination factor for submicron particles, and associated monitoring instruments. Related technologies such as remote maintenance and melter dismantling have also been developed. All these developmental works have been focussed on the Tokai vitrification facility (TVF), which is under construction aiming at the start of hot operation in early 1992. In this paper, the development experiences in process technology are described

  14. Parametric melting studies for in situ vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes a series of simulation studies which examine heat conduction and electric heating during in situ vitrification (ISV). The simulation studies determine the effects of soil parameter changes on the ISV process. Changes in heat capacity, thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity are considered. The results of these studies provide a basis for experimental measurement accuracy requirements

  15. Assessment model of bulk curing technology based on grey statistic%基于灰色统计的密集烘烤工艺评价模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王梅; 贺帆; 孙永军; 徐成龙; 武圣江; 宫长荣

    2012-01-01

    为了评价不同烟区标准密集烘烤工艺的烘烤效果,以5个烟区(安徽、河南、湖南、四川、贵州)中部叶为研究对象,分析了烤烟的外观质量、内在化学成分、经济效益以及评吸质量,建立了基于灰色统计的密集烘烤工艺评价模型.结果表明,5个烟区标准烘烤工艺的烘烤效果均达到中等水平,其中安徽、湖南、贵州烟区的烘烤工艺处于第1灰类.5个烟区烘烤工艺水平均达到中等以上水平.%In order to assess the curing effect of bulk curing technology, the middle tobacco leaves from five tobacco-growing areas ( Anhui, Henan, Hunan, Sichuan , Guizhou ) were used as materials to analyze the appearance quality of tobacco leaves, internal chemistry composition, economic benefits, and smoking quality. The technological evaluation model of bulk curing technology was formulated. The results indicated that the bulk curing effect of the technology has all reached a middle level in five tobacco-growing areas, especially in Anhui,Hunan,Guizhou areas,among which the bulk curing technology level was in the first grey categories. The bulk curing technology of the five tobacco areas was all above the medium level.

  16. Hanford tank waste simulants specification and their applicability for the retrieval, pretreatment, and vitrification processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GR Golcar; NG Colton; JG Darab; HD Smith

    2000-04-04

    A wide variety of waste simulants were developed over the past few years to test various retrieval, pretreatment and waste immobilization technologies and unit operations. Experiments can be performed cost-effectively using non-radioactive waste simulants in open laboratories. This document reviews the composition of many previously used waste simulants for remediation of tank wastes at the Hanford reservation. In this review, the simulants used in testing for the retrieval, pretreatment, and vitrification processes are compiled, and the representative chemical and physical characteristics of each simulant are specified. The retrieval and transport simulants may be useful for testing in-plant fluidic devices and in some cases for filtration technologies. The pretreatment simulants will be useful for filtration, Sr/TRU removal, and ion exchange testing. The vitrification simulants will be useful for testing melter, melter feed preparation technologies, and for waste form evaluations.

  17. Hanford tank waste simulants specification and their applicability for the retrieval, pretreatment, and vitrification processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wide variety of waste simulants were developed over the past few years to test various retrieval, pretreatment and waste immobilization technologies and unit operations. Experiments can be performed cost-effectively using non-radioactive waste simulants in open laboratories. This document reviews the composition of many previously used waste simulants for remediation of tank wastes at the Hanford reservation. In this review, the simulants used in testing for the retrieval, pretreatment, and vitrification processes are compiled, and the representative chemical and physical characteristics of each simulant are specified. The retrieval and transport simulants may be useful for testing in-plant fluidic devices and in some cases for filtration technologies. The pretreatment simulants will be useful for filtration, Sr/TRU removal, and ion exchange testing. The vitrification simulants will be useful for testing melter, melter feed preparation technologies, and for waste form evaluations

  18. Vitrification of surrogate non-radioactive waste using a bench-scale cold crucible melter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KEPCO(Korea Electric Power Corporation) is responsible for safe operation of nuclear power plants. One of its social responsibility is, thus, the safe storage and ultimately, complete isolation of radioactive waste from the environment. However, selection of disposal site is very difficult in Korea as well as in other countries with vast amount of land. In this regard, NETEC/KEPCO launched a research project for developing a high volume reduction technology, i.e., vitrification process. The objective of this paper is to present test results which were obtained in a small scale cold crucible melter(CCM) in order to acquire basic design parameters for design of the pilot plant of 1/4 scale of the commercial vitrification plant. The tests were performed in Marcoule, France using the induction melter of diameter of 300 mm combined with an off-gas treatment system. Ion exchange resin, combustible dry waste, and boron concentrates were simulated and vitrified. The experiments showed that the direct vitrification process could effectively destroy organic compounds in the waste and the off-gas could be treated in compliance with the environmental regulation. Maximum capacity of the CCM was found to be 12 kg/h. Off-gas characteristics such as flow rate, temperature and dust concentration had been measured, based on which the pilot vitrification plant of the maximum throughout of 50 kg/h was designed. It is under construction to be completed by the first half of the year and pilot tests will be carried out with a view to develop vitrification process for commercial plant

  19. Hanford Waste Vitrification Project overview and status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Project (HWVP) is being constructed at the US DOE's Hanford Site in Richland, WA. Engineering and design are being accomplished by Fluor Daniel Inc. in Irvine, CA. Technical input is furnished by Westinghouse Hanford Co. and construction management services by UE ampersand C-Catalytic Inc. The HWVP will immobilize high level nuclear waste in a glass matrix for eventual disposal in the federal repository. The HWVP consists of several structures, the major ones being the Vitrification Building, the Canister Storage Building, fan house, sand filter, waste hold tank, pump house, and administration and construction facilities. Construction started in April 1992 with the clearing and grubbing activities that prepared the site for fencing and construction preparation. Several design packages have been released for procurement activities. The most significant package release is for the Canister Storage Building, which will be the first major structure to be constructed

  20. [Successful pregnancies after oocyte and embryo vitrification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Francisco Hernández; Loza, Erik Omar Okhuysen; Lucas, Maria Teresa Huerta J; Gutiérrez, Gustavo Romero

    2008-02-01

    Cryopreservation of human oocytes represents a solution for ethic conflict about frozen embryo storage for patients with risk to develop ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome; also is an available technique to preserve fertility in women with cancer under treatment, in poor response patients, in case of premature ovarian failure or aging and for other medical or social conditions that require to delay pregnancies, as well as to make easier oocyte donation programs. This paper reports two cases of successful pregnancies after embryo and oocyte vitrification, as well as their results. The technique of vitrification with the cryotop method is an excellent alternative, efficient, fast and cheap for oocyte and embryo cryopreservation with high ranges of fertilization, cleavage and pregnancies with a normal evolution. PMID:18798404

  1. Demonstration plasma gasification/vitrification system for effective hazardous waste treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustakas, K; Fatta, D; Malamis, S; Haralambous, K; Loizidou, M

    2005-08-31

    Plasma gasification/vitrification is a technologically advanced and environmentally friendly method of disposing of waste, converting it to commercially usable by-products. This process is a drastic non-incineration thermal process, which uses extremely high temperatures in an oxygen-starved environment to completely decompose input waste material into very simple molecules. The intense and versatile heat generation capabilities of plasma technology enable a plasma gasification/vitrification facility to treat a large number of waste streams in a safe and reliable manner. The by-products of the process are a combustible gas and an inert slag. Plasma gasification consistently exhibits much lower environmental levels for both air emissions and slag leachate toxicity than other thermal technologies. In the framework of a LIFE-Environment project, financed by Directorate General Environment and Viotia Prefecture in Greece, a pilot plasma gasification/vitrification system was designed, constructed and installed in Viotia Region in order to examine the efficiency of this innovative technology in treating industrial hazardous waste. The pilot plant, which was designed to treat up to 50kg waste/h, has two main sections: (i) the furnace and its related equipment and (ii) the off-gas treatment system, including the secondary combustion chamber, quench and scrubber.

  2. Vitrification of spent mordenite molecular sieves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitrification of cesium loaded inorganic ion exchangers (mordenite type molecular sieves/zeolite AR-1) was studied empolying borosilicate glass systems. Direct vitrification of aluminosilicates is rather difficult mainly on account of volatility of cesium at processing temperatures of 1100 degC-1300 degC. In the borosilicate glass system, oxides of lead, sodium and zinc along with boric oxide were employed as major glass formers. Homogeneous glass matrix was obtained incorporating simulated composition of mordenite along with oxides of sodium, lead and boron at the processing temperature of 950 degC. The waste oxide loading up to 50% on dry weight basis was incorporated in this glass formulation. Partial replacement of PbO by TeO2, Bi2O3 and CaF2 resulted in lowering of the processing temperature and also increasing homogeneity of matrix. Based on these results, a glass matrix was prepared with actual cesium AR-1 molecular sieves with processing temperature limited to 925 degC. Powdered samples of glass matrix were subjected to leaching as per ASTM-1285 Product Consistency Test in high purity water at 90 degC for 28 days. The normalised cesium leach rate of this glass was found to be 3.92 x 10-6 g/cm2/day, which is comparable to sodium borosilicate glass matrices currently in use for immobilisation of high level waste. The molecular sieves are also amenable to immobilization in cement matrix. As expected, there is substantial volume reduction by factor 3 in vitrification compared to their immobilization in cementious matrices. Also the quantity of cesium leached from vitrified product was nearly 10,000 times lower compared to cement based matrix. Vitrification of mordenite molecular sieves would lead to high capacity utilisation of zeolite AR-1 for the treatment of low and intennediate levelliquid effluents. (author)

  3. Vitrification: a solution for the wastes of wastes; La vitrification: ca chauffe pour les ultimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guihard, B. [Europlasma, 33 - Saint Medard en Jalles (France)

    1997-07-01

    The incineration of wastes generates other wastes (fly ashes) that concentrate a large amount of polluting substances (heavy metals, salts..). French law requires a stabilization of this kind of wastes before their storage. Today vitrification can be considered as an alternative to the stabilization and storage way, the vitrified products could be seen as an interesting material in the building industry or in road works. A few years ago the municipality of Bordeaux decided to launch a demonstration program and a REFIOM (fly ashes) vitrification unit has been operating since 1997. (A.C.)

  4. Slow freezing and vitrification differentially modify the gene expression profile of human metaphase II oocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Monzo, Cécile; Haouzi, Delphine; Roman, K.; Assou, Said; Dechaud, Hervé; Hamamah, Samir

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cryopreservation is now considered as an efficient way to store human oocytes to preserve fertility. However, little is known about the effects of this technology on oocyte gene expression. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the two cryopreservation procedures, slow freezing and vitrification, on the gene expression profile of human metaphase II (MII) oocytes. METHODS: Unfertilized MII oocytes following ICSI failure were cryopreserved either by slow freezing or by ...

  5. Soil density and mass attenuation coefficients for use in shielding calculations at the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compacted, backfilled soil excavated during construction may be used to provide shielding from gamma radiation at the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). To provide a reasonable estimate of the shielding offered by this backfilled soil, the bulk density and the composition of the emplaced soil must be specified. This study provides an estimate of the bulk density and the mass attenuation coefficients of soil used for calculating gamma-ray shielding attenuation at the HWVP. These estimates are based on measurements taken from soil samples and underlying rock samples at the Hanford Site

  6. Bulk materials handling review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-02-15

    The paper provides details of some of the most important coal handling projects and technologies worldwide. It describes development by Aubema Crushing Technology GmbH, Bedeschi, Cimbria Moduflex, DBT, Dynamic Air Conveying Systems, E & F Services, InBulk Technologies, Nord-Sen Metal Industries Ltd., Pebco Inc, Primasonics International Ltd., R.J.S. Silo Clean (International) Ltd., Takraf GmbH, and The ACT Group. 17 photos.

  7. A randomized controlled three year evaluation of "bulk-filled" posterior resin restorations based on stress decreasing resin technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan W V; Pallesen, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this randomized controlled prospective clinical trial was to evaluate the efficacy of a flowable resin composite (SDR) bulk fill technique in posterior restorations and to compare it intraindividually with a conventional 2mm resin composite curing technique in a 3-year....... In all cavities a single step self-etch adhesive (Xeno V) was applied. In one of the cavities of each pair, a flowable resin composite (SDR) was placed, in bulk increments up to 4mm as needed to fill the cavity 2mm short of the occlusal cavosurface. The occlusal part was completed with a nano......-hybrid resin composite (Ceram X mono) layer. In the second cavity, the hybrid resin composite was placed in 2mm increments. The restorations were evaluated using slightly modified USPHS criteria at baseline and then yearly during 3 years. Caries risk and parafunctional habits of the participants were estimated...

  8. Design and operation of high level waste vitrification and storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conversion of high level wastes (HLW) into solids has been studied for the past 30 years, primarily in those countries engaged in the reprocessing of nuclear fuels. Production and demonstration calcination and solidification plants have been operated by using waste solutions from fuels irradiated at various burnup rates, depending on the reactor type. Construction of more advanced solidification processes is now in progress in several countries to permit the handling of high burnup power reactor fuel wastes. The object of this report is to provide detailed information and references for those vitrification systems in advanced stages of implementation. Some less detailed information will be provided for previously developed immobilization systems. The report will examine the HLLW arising from the various locations, the features of each process as well as the stage of development, scale-up potential and flexibility of the processes. Since the publication of IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 176, Techniques for the Solidification of High-Level Wastes great progress on this subject has been made. The AVM in France has been operated successfully for 11 years and France has completed construction at La Hague of two vitrification plants that are based on the AVM rotary calciner/metallic melter process. A similar plant is under construction at Sellafield. The ceramic melter process has been chosen by several countries. Germany has successfully operated the PAMELA vitrification plant. Since 1986, Belgoprocess has continued to operate this facility. The former USSR operated the EP-500 plant from 1986 to 1988. In addition, two ceramic melter vitrification plants are nearing completion in the USA at Savannah River and West Valley and plans are being made to use this technology at Hanford as well as in Japan, Germany and India. This major progress attests to the maturity of these technologies for vitrifying HLLW to make a borosilicate glass for disposal of the waste. 67

  9. Superconducting open-gradient magnetic separation for the pretreatment of radioactive or mixed waste vitrification feeds. 1997 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Vitrification has been selected as a final waste form technology in the US for long-term storage of high-level radioactive wastes (HLW). However, a foreseeable problem during vitrification in some waste feed streams lies in the presence of elements (e.g., transition metals) in the HLW that may cause instabilities in the final glass product. The formation of spinel compounds, such as Fe3O4 and FeCrO4, results in glass phase separation and reduces vitrifier lifetime, and durability of the final waste form. A superconducting open gradient magnetic separation (OGMS) system maybe suitable for the removal of the deleterious transition elements (e.g. Fe, Co, and Ni) and other elements (lanthanides) from vitrification feed streams due to their ferromagnetic or paramagnetic nature. The OGMS systems are designed to deflect and collect paramagnetic minerals as they interact with a magnetic field gradient. This system has the potential to reduce the volume of HLW for vitrification and ensure a stable product. In order to design efficient OGMS and High gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) processes, a fundamental understanding of the physical and chemical properties of the waste feed streams is required. Using HLW simulant and radioactive fly ash and sludge samples from the Savannah River Technology Center, Rocky Flats site, and the Hanford reservation, several techniques were used to characterize and predict the separation capability for a superconducting OGMS system.'

  10. Vitrification of electric arc furnace dusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelino, M; Karamanov, A; Pisciella, P; Crisucci, S; Zonetti, D

    2002-01-01

    Electric arc furnace baghouse dust (EAFD), a waste by-product of the steelmaking process, contains the elements that are volatilized from the charge during the melting (Cr, Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd). The results of leaching tests show that the concentration of these elements exceeds the regulatory limits. Consequently, EAFD cannot be disposed of in ordinary landfill sites without stabilization of the heavy metals. In this work, the vitrification of EAFD, from both carbon and stainless steel productions, were studied. The vitrification process was selected as the inertizing process because it permits the immobilization of the hazardous elements in the glass network and represents an environmentally acceptable method for the stabilization of this waste. Classes of various compositions were obtained by mixing EAFD with glass cullet and sand. The EAFD and the glass products were characterized by DTA, TG, X-ray analysis and by the TCLP test. The results show that the stability of the product is influenced by the glass structure, which mainly depends on the Si/O ratio. Secondary crystallization heat-treatment were carried out on some samples. The results highlighted the formation of spinel phases, which reduced the chemical durability in acid media. The possibility to recover Zn from carbon steel production EAFD was investigated and about 60-70% of metal recovery was obtained. The resulting glass show higher chemical stability than glasses obtained without metal recovery.

  11. STUDY ON BIODEGRADATION TECHNOLOGY APPLICATION IN BULK IN THE REMEDIATION OF SOILS CONTAMINATED WITH POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Ramona PECINGINĂ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Biodecontaminare methods are based on biodegradation in the subsurface presence of microorganisms capable of degrading most of carbonaceous organic pollutants and much of inorganic pollutants. Biodegradation in bulk meet that principle biological decontamination several ways. These methods are intended solely for solids, and is often used for on-site remediation of soils contaminated with organic products. Station bioremediation ensure reducing the harmfulness of residues from oil exploitation activities considered hazardous, using a bioremediation process. Bioremediation process will lead to reduction of oil content and thus reducing the hazard of waste.

  12. 生产高缩率膨体毛条的两种技术%The Two Technologies of Producing the High Shrinkage Bulk Tow-to-Tops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐秀忠

    2013-01-01

    By improving the high shrinkage acrylon bulk tow-to-top’s shrinkage ratio to satisfy the requirements of enterprise research and development of textile industry for new products, experiments concerning about the influence of high shrinkage acrylon bulk tow-to-top’s shrinkage ratio were conducted in aspects of using two acrylon continuous filament materials and the optimization of technological parameters of stretch-breaking machine. The results of the experiments indicated that the new product of the high shrinkage acrylon bulk tow-to-top with higher shrinkage ratio, like higher than 28%can be produced effectively by using high shrinkage acrylon continuous filament material.%  为了提高高缩率腈纶膨体毛条(简称高缩条)的缩率,以满足纺织企业研发新产品的要求,采用两种腈纶长丝原料及分别优化的拉断机工艺,对高缩条缩率的影响进行了试验。试验结果表明:采用高缩率长丝原料可有效提高高缩条的缩率,生产出缩率大于28%的高缩条新产品。

  13. Transportable vitrification system pilot demonstration with surrogate Oak Ridge WETF sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surrogate Oak Ridge Reservation West End Treatment Facility (WETF) sludge was vitrified in a pilot-scale EnVitCo melter at the Clemson University Environmental Systems Engineering Department (ESED) Vitrification Facility. Although much smaller than the Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) melter, this melter is similar in design to the one in the TVS. The TVS was built by EnVitCo for the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) for the treatment of low level and mixed wastes. A total of three tests were done by ESED personnel with guidance from SRTC TVS personnel. The purpose of these tests was to determine what problems might occur during the vitrification of WETF sludge feed in the TVS. The demonstration was successfully completed and the glasses produced passed the TCLP tests for all the hazardous waste components (Ba, Cd, Cr, Pb, and Ni). An overview of these tests and experimental results on glass container testing, glass pouring, glass product characterization, electrode and refractory wear, and offgas composition and particulate measurements will be given

  14. Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) campaign report: Hanford Waste Vitrification Plan (HWVP) process demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutson, N.D.

    1992-08-10

    Vitrification facilities are being developed worldwide to convert high-level nuclear waste to a durable glass form for permanent disposal. Facilities in the United States include the Department of Energy`s Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site, the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) at the Hanford Site and the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) at West Valley, NY. At each of these sites, highly radioactive defense waste will be vitrified to a stable borosilicate glass. The DWPF and WVDP are near physical completion while the HWVP is in the design phase. The Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) is a vitrification test facility at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). It was designed and constructed to provide an engineering-scale representation of the DWPF melter and its associated feed preparation and off-gas treatment systems. Because of the similarities of the DWPF and HWVP processes, the IDMS facility has also been used to characterize the processing behavior of a reference NCAW simulant. The demonstration was undertaken specifically to determine material balances, to characterize the evolution of offgas products (especially hydrogen), to determine the effects of noble metals, and to obtain general HWVP design data. The campaign was conducted from November, 1991 to February, 1992.

  15. Process technique and safety features of the German VEK vitrification plant currently under commissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose of the VEK vitrification plant is the immobilization of approx. 70 m3 of a highly radioactive waste solution, in total containing 7.7·1017 Bq of β/γ-radioactivity. The solidification of the waste is a major step on the way to the further decommissioning and dismantling of the former German pilot reprocessing plant WAK. The VEK plant, which recently entered the phase of commissioning, will use the German vitrification technology based on a liquid-fed ceramic melter. The advanced melter design enables the vitrification of highly noble metals-containing wastes. Other special features of the glass melter include the mature bottom drain system, improved process control equipment and an effective cleaning system for the melter off-gas pipe. The multi-stage off-gas treatment system along with two recycling pathways for secondary liquid waste ensures the minimization of radioactive effluents and emissions. The safety features of the plant cover resistance against external impacts occurring from potential earthquakes and aircraft accidents. The core process is installed in highly shielded cells for remote maintenance. A process control system that includes also a safety-related system serves for operational control and protection against severe accidents. The safety concept of VEK has been confirmed by a detailed accident analysis. (author)

  16. Tank Waste Remediation System tank waste pretreatment and vitrification process development testing requirements assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multi-faceted study was initiated in November 1993 to provide assurance that needed testing capabilities, facilities, and support infrastructure (sampling systems, casks, transportation systems, permits, etc.) would be available when needed for process and equipment development to support pretreatment and vitrification facility design and construction schedules. This first major report provides a snapshot of the known testing needs for pretreatment, low-level waste (LLW) and high-level waste (HLW) vitrification, and documents the results of a series of preliminary studies and workshops to define the issues needing resolution by cold or hot testing. Identified in this report are more than 140 Hanford Site tank waste pretreatment and LLW/HLW vitrification technology issues that can only be resolved by testing. The report also broadly characterizes the level of testing needed to resolve each issue. A second report will provide a strategy(ies) for ensuring timely test capability. Later reports will assess the capabilities of existing facilities to support needed testing and will recommend siting of the tests together with needed facility and infrastructure upgrades or additions

  17. Test Summary Report INEEL Sodium-Bearing Waste Vitrification Demonstration RSM-01-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goles, Ronald W.; Perez, Joseph M.; Macisaac, Brett D.; Siemer, Darryl D.; Mccray, John A.

    2001-05-21

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is storing large amounts of radioactive and mixed wastes. Most of the sodium-bearing wastes have been calcined, but about a million gallons remain uncalcined, and this waste does not meet current regulatory requirements for long-term storage and/or disposal. As a part of the Settlement Agreement between DOE and the State of Idaho, the tanks currently containing SBW are to be taken out of service by December 31, 2012, which requires removing and treatment the remaining SBW. Vitrification is the option for waste disposal that received the highest weighted score against the criteria used. Beginning in FY 2000, the INEEL high-level waste program embarked on a program for technology demonstration and development that would lead to conceptual design of a vitrification facility in the event that vitrification is the preferred alternative for SBW disposal. The Pacific Northwest National Laborator's Research-Scale Melter was used to conduct these initial melter-flowsheet evaluations. Efforts are underway to reduce the volume of waste vitrified, and during the current test, an overall SBW waste volume-reduction factor of 7.6 was achieved.

  18. Pecularities of carrying out radioactive wastes vitrification process without preliminary calcination of wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitrification technology is considered for liquid radioactive wastes by means of electric furnace where heating of glass-paste is done by electric current passing through the melt. Continious process of gehydration, calcination and vitrification is going on in one apparatus. Testing if the method has been performed by use of a model solution, containing sodium and aluminium nitrates. To obtain phosphoric acid has been added into the solution. Lay-out of the device and its description as well as technical parameters of the electric furnace are given. The results are stated for determination of the optimum operation conditions for the device. To reduce entrainment of solid components, molasses has been added in the solution. Parameters are given for the process of the solution containing 80 g/l molasses processing. It has been shown that edding molasses to the solution permitted to reduse power consumption of the process due to the heat generation during oxidation-reduction reaction on the melt surface. The results are given for investigations of the nitrogen oxides catching in scrubbers. These results have shown that introduction of molasses reduces nitrigen oxides concentration. The results of the experimental works have shown the possibility of the continious process of dehydration, calcination and vitrification in single device with application of remote control and monitoring by means of automatics. (I.T.)

  19. Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) campaign report: Hanford Waste Vitrification Plan (HWVP) process demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitrification facilities are being developed worldwide to convert high-level nuclear waste to a durable glass form for permanent disposal. Facilities in the United States include the Department of Energy's Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site, the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) at the Hanford Site and the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) at West Valley, NY. At each of these sites, highly radioactive defense waste will be vitrified to a stable borosilicate glass. The DWPF and WVDP are near physical completion while the HWVP is in the design phase. The Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) is a vitrification test facility at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). It was designed and constructed to provide an engineering-scale representation of the DWPF melter and its associated feed preparation and off-gas treatment systems. Because of the similarities of the DWPF and HWVP processes, the IDMS facility has also been used to characterize the processing behavior of a reference NCAW simulant. The demonstration was undertaken specifically to determine material balances, to characterize the evolution of offgas products (especially hydrogen), to determine the effects of noble metals, and to obtain general HWVP design data. The campaign was conducted from November, 1991 to February, 1992

  20. Vitrification facility at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a description of the West Valley Demonstration Project's vitrification facilities from the establishment of the West Valley, NY site as a federal and state cooperative project to the completion of all activities necessary to begin solidification of radioactive waste into glass by vitrification. Topics discussed in this report include the Project's background, high-level radioactive waste consolidation, vitrification process and component testing, facilities design and construction, waste/glass recipe development, integrated facility testing, and readiness activities for radioactive waste processing

  1. Selection of melter systems for the DOE/Industrial Center for Waste Vitrification Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickford, D.F.

    1993-12-31

    The EPA has designated vitrification as the best developed available technology for immobilization of High-Level Nuclear Waste. In a recent federal facilities compliance agreement between the EPA, the State of Washington, and the DOE, the DOE agreed to vitrify all of the Low Level Radioactive Waste resulting from processing of High Level Radioactive Waste stored at the Hanford Site. This is expected to result in the requirement of 100 ton per day Low Level Radioactive Waste melters. Thus, there is increased need for the rapid adaptation of commercial melter equipment to DOE`s needs. DOE has needed a facility where commercial pilot scale equipment could be operated on surrogate (non-radioactive) simulations of typical DOE waste streams. The DOE/Industry Center for Vitrification Research (Center) was established in 1992 at the Clemson University Department of Environmental Systems Engineering, Clemson, SC, to address that need. This report discusses some of the characteristics of the melter types selected for installation of the Center. An overall objective of the Center has been to provide the broadest possible treatment capability with the minimum number of melter units. Thus, units have been sought which have broad potential application, and which had construction characteristics which would allow their adaptation to various waste compositions, and various operating conditions, including extreme variations in throughput, and widely differing radiological control requirements. The report discusses waste types suitable for vitrification; technical requirements for the application of vitrification to low level mixed wastes; available melters and systems; and selection of melter systems. An annotated bibliography is included.

  2. Selection of melter systems for the DOE/Industrial Center for Waste Vitrification Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EPA has designated vitrification as the best developed available technology for immobilization of High-Level Nuclear Waste. In a recent federal facilities compliance agreement between the EPA, the State of Washington, and the DOE, the DOE agreed to vitrify all of the Low Level Radioactive Waste resulting from processing of High Level Radioactive Waste stored at the Hanford Site. This is expected to result in the requirement of 100 ton per day Low Level Radioactive Waste melters. Thus, there is increased need for the rapid adaptation of commercial melter equipment to DOE's needs. DOE has needed a facility where commercial pilot scale equipment could be operated on surrogate (non-radioactive) simulations of typical DOE waste streams. The DOE/Industry Center for Vitrification Research (Center) was established in 1992 at the Clemson University Department of Environmental Systems Engineering, Clemson, SC, to address that need. This report discusses some of the characteristics of the melter types selected for installation of the Center. An overall objective of the Center has been to provide the broadest possible treatment capability with the minimum number of melter units. Thus, units have been sought which have broad potential application, and which had construction characteristics which would allow their adaptation to various waste compositions, and various operating conditions, including extreme variations in throughput, and widely differing radiological control requirements. The report discusses waste types suitable for vitrification; technical requirements for the application of vitrification to low level mixed wastes; available melters and systems; and selection of melter systems. An annotated bibliography is included

  3. Bulk chemicals from biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveren, van J.; Scott, E.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Given the current robust forces driving sustainable production, and available biomass conversion technologies, biomass-based routes are expected to make a significant impact on the production of bulk chemicals within 10 years, and a huge impact within 20-30 years. In the Port of Rotterdam there is a

  4. Bulk undercooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattamis, T. Z.

    1984-01-01

    Bulk undercooling methods and procedures will first be reviewed. Measurement of various parameters which are necessary to understand the solidification mechanism during and after recalescence will be discussed. During recalescence of levitated, glass-encased large droplets (5 to 8 mm diam) high speed temperature sensing devices coupled with a rapid response oscilloscope are now being used at MIT to measure local thermal behavior in hypoeutectic and eutectic binary Ni-Sn alloys. Dendrite tip velocities were measured by various investigators using thermal sensors or high speed cinematography. The confirmation of the validity of solidification models of bulk-undercooled melts is made difficult by the fineness of the final microstructure, the ultra-rapid evolution of the solidifying system which makes measurements very awkward, and the continuous modification of the microstructure which formed during recalescence because of precipitation, remelting and rapid coarsening.

  5. Technical summary: Nuclear Waste Vitrification Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheelwright, E.J.; Bjorklund, W.J.; Browne, L.M.; Bryan, G.H.; Holton, L.K.; Irish, E.R.; Siemens, D.H.

    1979-05-01

    Six PWR fuel assemblies, containing 2.3 metric tons uranium from Point Beach, have been processed by a conventional Purex-type process. U and other chemicals were added to the dilute HLLW, and the waste was then vitrified to produce two canisters of glass. The on-stream efficiency of the waste preparation facility exceeded 90% for the first 3 weeks; the overall average was 62%. The only processing difficulty in the vitrification facility was a partial failure in the spray calciner nozzle. The Pu byproduct of waste preparation was purified by ion exchange and calcined to oxide; one can of oxide ruptured due to self-heating. 27 figures, 16 tables. (DLC)

  6. Defense waste vitrification studies during FY 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During FY-1980, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) tested three vitrification processes on simulated high-level radioactive waste typical of that stored or being produced at US defense facilities. Processes tested included a spray calciner/in-can melter, spray calciner/ceramic melter and direct liquid feeding of a ceramic melter. Tests were made on pilot-scale as well as fullscale equipment. Over 16,000 kg of glass product were produced from 68,000 L of simulated waste. Several compositions were tested, and the glass products were evaluated. Emphasis was placed on determining the processing rates and the ability of the waste to be processed. Off-gas data were collected on several runs. Major conclusions drawn from this test program are divided into processing results, glass-product results, and general information

  7. Defense waste vitrification studies during FY 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjorklund, W.J.

    1981-08-01

    During FY-1980, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) tested three vitrification processes on simulated high-level radioactive waste typical of that stored or being produced at US defense facilities. Processes tested included a spray calciner/in-can melter, spray calciner/ceramic melter and direct liquid feeding of a ceramic melter. Tests were made on pilot-scale as well as fullscale equipment. Over 16,000 kg of glass product were produced from 68,000 L of simulated waste. Several compositions were tested, and the glass products were evaluated. Emphasis was placed on determining the processing rates and the ability of the waste to be processed. Off-gas data were collected on several runs. Major conclusions drawn from this test program are divided into processing results, glass-product results, and general information.

  8. Technical summary: Nuclear Waste Vitrification Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six PWR fuel assemblies, containing 2.3 metric tons uranium from Point Beach, have been processed by a conventional Purex-type process. U and other chemicals were added to the dilute HLLW, and the waste was then vitrified to produce two canisters of glass. The on-stream efficiency of the waste preparation facility exceeded 90% for the first 3 weeks; the overall average was 62%. The only processing difficulty in the vitrification facility was a partial failure in the spray calciner nozzle. The Pu byproduct of waste preparation was purified by ion exchange and calcined to oxide; one can of oxide ruptured due to self-heating. 27 figures, 16 tables

  9. An overview of micro-optical components and system technology: bulk, planar, and thin-film for laser initiated devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizotte, Todd

    2010-08-01

    There are a number of attractive micro optical elements or combinations of elements that are currently used or could be employed in optically initiated ordnance systems. When taking a broad-spectrum examination of optically initiated devices, the required key parameters become obviously straightforward for micro optics. Plainly stated, micro optics need to be simple, inexpensive, reliable, robust and compatible within their operational environment. This presentation focuses on the variety of optical elements and components available in the market place today that could be used to realize micro-optical beam shaping and delivery systems for optically initiated devices. A number of micro optical elements will be presented with specific bulk, planar optical and thin film optical devices, such as diffractive optics, micro prisms, axicons, waveguides, micro lenses, beam splitters and gratings. Further descriptions will be presented on the subject of coupling light from a laser beam into a multimode optical fiber. The use of micro optics for collimation of the laser source and conditioning of the laser beam to achieve the highest efficiency and matching the optical fiber NA will be explained. An emphasis on making these optical assemblies compact and rugged will be highlighted.

  10. A Technique to Measure Focal Length of a Lens with no Bulk Motion using Tunable Optics and Optical MEMS Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Reza, Syed Azer

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a motion-free technique for characterizing the focal length of any spherical convex or concave lens. The measurement system uses a Gaussian Beam from a Laser Source (LS), an Electronically Controlled Variable Focus Lens (ECVFL), a Digital Micromirror Device (DMD) and a Photo-Detector (PD). As the proposed method does not involve any motion-stages or other moving components, the focal length is measured without requiring any mechanical motion of bulk components. The method requires measuring the spot size of the Gaussian Beam at the DMD plane for various settings of the ECVFL focal length. These beam spot size measurements, are used to estimate the focal length of a lens sample by employing standard polynomial-fitting techniques. Due to the inherent motion-free nature of the proposed setup, the measurements are fast, repeatable, reliable and ideal for use in industrial lens production, manufacturing of imaging systems and sensitive laboratory experiments. Using a DMD and an ECVFL also allow...

  11. Telemetry system for monitoring melt depth during in situ vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A depth telemetry system has been selected for monitoring the melting progress during in situ vitrification (ISV). The ISV technology is being developed and tested by Pacific Northwest Lab. (PNL) for the US Dept. of Energy Richland Operations office as a potential method for in-place stabilization of existing transuranic contaminated soil sites. The ISV process is carried out by inserting four electrodes into the soil in a square array at the appropriate electrode spacing for the specific waste site. Electrode separations up to 5.5 m (18 ft) are possible with existing ISV equipment. A conductive mixture of flaked graphite and glass frit is placed in an X pattern between the electrodes in shallow trenches on the soil surface to permit initial electrical conductance. A specially designed power system applies voltage to the electrodes, quickly heating the graphite mixture to soil-melting temperatures (1100 to 16000C). As the surrounding soil melts, it becomes electrically conductive and grows downward and outward until the desired soil volume has been completely vitrified. A depth-monitoring system is needed to verify the depth of the molten soil at specific times during ISV and to assure that the desired depth is reached before the ISV operation is stopped. After an extensive evaluation of several concepts, the depth telemetry system was selected for further development and demonstration

  12. Ultra-rapid vitrification of mouse oocytes in low cryoprotectant concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ho-Joon; Elmoazzen, Heidi; Wright, Diane; Biggers, John; Rueda, Bo R; Heo, Yun Seok; Toner, Mehmet; Toth, Thomas L.

    2009-01-01

    The ideal cryopreservation protocol would combine the benefits of slow freezing with the benefits of vitrification. This report describes a method for the ultra-rapid vitrification of oocytes using slush nitrogen in quartz capillaries. The approach minimizes the thermal mass of the vitrification vessel by using open microcapillaries made of highly conductive quartz and achieves cooling rates of 250,000°C/min. The process of vitrification can be optimized by maximizing the rate at which the sa...

  13. Characteristics of MSWI fly ash during vitrification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Shu-lei; WANG Qi; WANG Qun-hui; MA Hong-zhi

    2009-01-01

    The vitrification characteristics of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash were investigated. Effects of temperature on the binding efficiency of heavy metals, the change of chemical compositions and the weight loss of fly ash in the range of 800 - 1350 ℃ were studied. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) of the United States was used to analyze the leaching characteristics of heavy metals in fly ash and molten slag. Results indicate that chemical compositions, the weight loss of fly ash and the binding efficiency of heavy metals in fly ash have a tremendous change in the range of 1150 - 1260 ℃. The percentage of CaO, SiO2and AI203 increases with the increasing temperature, whereas it is contrary for SO3 , K2O, Na20 and CI; especially when the temperature is 1260 ℃, the percentage of these four elements decreases sharply from 43.72%to 0. 71%. The weight loss occurs obviously in the range of 1150 - 1260 ℃. Heavy metals of Pb and Cd are almost vaporized above 1000 ℃. Cr is not volatile and its binding efficiency can reach 100% below 1000 ℃. Resuits of TCLP indicate that the heavy metal content of molten slag is beyond stipulated limit values.

  14. Vitrification of high-level liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-level radioactive liquid wastes produced in the fuel elements reprocessing require, for their disposal, a preliminary treatment by which, through a series of engineering barriers, the dispersion into the biosphere is delayed by 10 000 years. Four groups of compounds are distinguished among a great variety of final products and methods of elaboration. From these, the borosilicate glasses were chosen. Vitrification experiences were made at a laboratory scale with simulated radioactive wastes, employing different compositions of borosilicate glass. The installations are described. A series of tests were carried out on four basic formulae using always the same methodology, consisting of a dry mixture of the vitreous matrix's products and a dry simulated mixture. Several quality tests of the glasses were made 1: Behaviour in leaching following the DIN 12 111 standard; 2: Mechanical resistance; parameters related with the facility of the different glasses for increasing their surface were studied; 3: Degree of devitrification: it is shown that devitrification turns the glasses containing radioactive wastes easily leachable. From all the glasses tested, the composition SiO2, Al2O3, B2O3, Na2O, CaO shows the best retention characteristics. (M.E.L.)

  15. Process for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chia-lin W.

    1994-01-01

    According to its major aspects and broadly stated, the present invention is a process for treating alkaline waste materials, including high level radioactive wastes, for vitrification. The process involves adjusting the pH of the wastes with nitric acid, adding formic acid (or a process stream containing formic acid) to reduce mercury compounds to elemental mercury and MnO{sub 2} to the Mn(II) ion, and mixing with class formers to produce a melter feed. The process minimizes production of hydrogen due to noble metal-catalyzed formic acid decomposition during, treatment, while producing a redox-balanced feed for effective melter operation and a quality glass product. An important feature of the present invention is the use of different acidifying and reducing, agents to treat the wastes. The nitric acid acidifies the wastes to improve yield stress and supplies acid for various reactions; then the formic acid reduces mercury compounds to elemental mercury and MnO{sub 2}) to the Mn(II) ion. When the pH of the waste is lower, reduction of mercury compounds and MnO{sub 2}) is faster and less formic acid is needed, and the production of hydrogen caused by catalytically-active noble metals is decreased.

  16. Comparison of Efficacy of Two Vitrification Solutions for Mouse Morulae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu-fu ZHENG; Zai-xian CHEN; Yu-ping DAI; Chun-hua DENG; Ke-li ZHENG; Kai HU

    2004-01-01

    Objective To study the efficacy of two vitrification solutions for mouse morulae Methods Good morulaes of NIH mice were collected and used to test toxicity of the vitrification solutions EDS40 (40% ethylene glycol 18% dextran and 0. 5 mol sucrose) and EFS40 (40% ethylene glycol, 18% ficoll and 0. 5 mol sucrose). Fine vitrified morulae were packaged in 0.25 mL plastic straws and immersed into liquid nitrogen and cryopreserved for about 2-3 months. Then the straws were heated rapidly, washed in Ham's F12 medium and cultured. The viability was determined by morphology and blastocyst formation after being cultured for 48 h. Some embryos were transplanted to recipients after being cultured for 12-14 h. The number of pregnant recipients and young born was counted and analyzed by Chi-squared test.Results The toxicity of EDS40 solution was significantly lower than that of EFS40 (P<0. 05) and the number of embryos developed to the blastocysts after vitrification in EDS40 was significantly higher than in EFS40 (P<0. 05). The number of zona pellucida and the number of pregnancy and birth integrated after vitrification cryopreservation had no significant difference between EDS40 and EFS40 (P>0. 05). However, the embryo fineness rates after vitrification in EDS40 was significantly better than in EFS40 (P<0. 01).Conclusion EDS40 solution has less toxicity and better cryoprotect effect on embryos than EFS 40.

  17. MAVIS: An integrated system for live microscopy and vitrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koning, Roman I., E-mail: r.i.koning@lumc.nl [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Albinusdreef 2, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Faas, Frank G. [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Albinusdreef 2, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Boonekamp, Michael; Visser, Bram de; Janse, Jan [Department of Instrumental Development, Albinusdreef 2, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Wiegant, Joop C. [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Albinusdreef 2, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Breij, Anna de [Department of Infectious Diseases, Albinusdreef 2, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Willemse, Joost [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Albinusdreef 2, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Nibbering, Peter H. [Department of Infectious Diseases, Albinusdreef 2, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Tanke, Hans J.; Koster, Abraham J. [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Albinusdreef 2, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2014-08-01

    Cryo-electron microscopy of vitrified biological samples can provide three-dimensional reconstructions of macromolecules and organelles within bacteria and cells at nanometer scale resolution, even in native conditions. Localization of specific structures and imaging of cellular dynamics in cellular cryo-electron microscopy is limited by (i) the use of cryo-fixation to preserve cellular structures, (ii) the restricted availability of electron dense markers to label molecules inside cells and (iii) the inherent low contrast of cryo electron microscopy. These limitations can be mitigated to a large extend by correlative light and electron microscopy, where the sample is imaged by both light and electron microscopy. Here we present a Microscopy and Vitrification Integrated System (MAVIS) that combines a light microscope with a plunger to vitrify thin specimens. MAVIS provides the capability for fluorescence light microscopic imaging of living cells and bacteria that are adhered to an electron microscopy grid and subsequent vitrification within a time frame of seconds. The instrument allows targeting of dynamic biological events in time and space by fluorescence microscopy for subsequent cryo light and electron microscopy. Here we describe the design and performance of the MAVIS, illustrated with biological examples. - Highlights: • We developed new plunger: a Microscopy and Vitrification Integrated System (MAVIS). • The MAVIS is a new tool for integrating of live microscopy and vitrification. • The MAVIS allows fluorescence LM of living cells and vitrification within seconds. • Here we describe the MAVIS design and performance, and show biological examples.

  18. Vitrification development plan for US Department of Energy mixed wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Lucerna, J. [EG and G Rocky Flats, Inc., Golden, CO (United States); Plodinec, M.J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1993-10-01

    This document is a general plan for conducting vitrification development for application to mixed wastes owned by the US Department of Energy. The emphasis is a description and discussion of the data needs to proceed through various stages of development. These stages are (1) screening at a waste site to determine which streams should be vitrified, (2) waste characterization and analysis, (3) waste form development and treatability studies, (4) process engineering development, (5) flowsheet and technical specifications for treatment processes, and (6) integrated pilot-scale demonstration. Appendices provide sample test plans for various stages of the vitrification development process. This plan is directed at thermal treatments which produce waste glass. However, the study is still applicable to the broader realm of thermal treatment since it deals with issues such as off-gas characterization and waste characterization that are not necessarily specific to vitrification. The purpose is to provide those exploring or considering vitrification with information concerning the kinds of data that are needed, the way the data are obtained, and the way the data are used. This will provide guidance to those who need to prioritize data needs to fit schedules and budgets. Knowledge of data needs also permits managers and planners to estimate resource requirements for vitrification development.

  19. Design, operation, and evaluation of the transportable vitrification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) is a transportable melter system designed to demonstrate the treatment of low-level and mixed hazardous and radioactive wastes such as wastewater treatment sludges, contaminated soils and incinerator ash. The TVS is a large-scale, fully integrated vitrification system consisting of melter feed preparation, melter, offgas, service, and control modules. The TVS was tested with surrogate waste at the Clemson University Environmental Systems Engineering Department's (ESED) DOE/Industry Center for Vitrification Research prior to being shipped to the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) K-25 site for treatment of mixed waste. This testing, along with additional testing at ORR, proved that the TVS would be able to successfully treat mixed waste. These surrogate tests consistently produced glass that met the EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). Performance of the system resulted in acceptable emissions of regulated metals from the offgas system. The TVS is scheduled to begin mixed waste operations at ORR in June 1997

  20. Cryopreservation of immature seeds of Bletilla striata by vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, T; Godo, T; Mii, M; Ishikawa, K

    2005-01-01

    An efficient protocol was established for the cryopreservation of immature seeds of a terrestrial orchid, Bletilla striata. Immature seeds collected 2-4 months after pollination (MAP) were treated using three different cryogenic procedures: (1) direct plunging into liquid nitrogen, (2) vitrification, and (3) vitrification with preculture. When immature seeds collected 3 MAP and 4 MAP were precultured for 3 days on New Dogashima medium supplemented with 0.3 M sucrose and cryopreserved by vitrification, the survival rate after preservation, as assessed by staining with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride, was 92% and 81%, respectively. Immature seeds thus treated showed no decrease in germination rate relative to untreated immature seeds, and they developed into normal plantlets in vitro.

  1. Vitrification as an alternative to landfilling of tannery sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celary, Piotr; Sobik-Szołtysek, Jolanta

    2014-12-01

    Due to high content of heavy metals such as chromium, tannery sewage sludge is a material which is difficult to be biologically treated as it is in the case of organic waste. Consequently, a common practice in managing tannery sewage sludge is landfilling. This poses a potential threat to both soil and water environments and it additionally generates costs of construction of landfills that meet specific environment protection requirements. Vitrification of this kind of sewage sludge with the addition of mineral wastes can represent an alternative to landfilling. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of obtaining an environmentally safe product by means of vitrification of tannery sewage sludge from a flotation wastewater treatment process and chemical precipitation in order to address the upcoming issue of dealing with sewage sludge from the tannery industry which will be prohibited to be landfilled in Poland after 2016. The focus was set on determining mixtures of tannery sewage sludge with additives which would result in the lowest possible heavy metal leaching levels and highest hardness rating of the products obtained from their vitrification. The plasma vitrification process was carried out for mixtures with various amounts of additives depending on the type of sewage sludge used. Only the materials of waste character were used as additives. One finding of the study was an optimum content of mineral additives in vitrified mixture of 30% v/v waste molding sands with 20% v/v carbonate flotation waste from the zinc and lead industry for the formulations with flotation sewage sludge, and 45% v/v and 5% v/v, respectively, for precipitation sewage sludge. These combinations allowed for obtaining products with negligible heavy metal leaching levels and hardness similar to commercial glass, which suggests they could be potentially used as construction aggregate substitutes. Incineration of sewage sludge before the vitrification process lead to

  2. Vitrification as an alternative to landfilling of tannery sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celary, Piotr, E-mail: pcelary@is.pcz.czest.pl; Sobik-Szołtysek, Jolanta, E-mail: jszoltysek@is.pcz.czest.pl

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • The possibility of vitrification of tannery sewage sludge was investigated. • Glass cullet was substituted with different wastes of mineral character. • Component ratio in the processed mixtures was optimized. • Environmental safety of the acquired vitrificates was verified. • An alternative management approach of usually landfilled waste was presented. - Abstract: Due to high content of heavy metals such as chromium, tannery sewage sludge is a material which is difficult to be biologically treated as it is in the case of organic waste. Consequently, a common practice in managing tannery sewage sludge is landfilling. This poses a potential threat to both soil and water environments and it additionally generates costs of construction of landfills that meet specific environment protection requirements. Vitrification of this kind of sewage sludge with the addition of mineral wastes can represent an alternative to landfilling. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of obtaining an environmentally safe product by means of vitrification of tannery sewage sludge from a flotation wastewater treatment process and chemical precipitation in order to address the upcoming issue of dealing with sewage sludge from the tannery industry which will be prohibited to be landfilled in Poland after 2016. The focus was set on determining mixtures of tannery sewage sludge with additives which would result in the lowest possible heavy metal leaching levels and highest hardness rating of the products obtained from their vitrification. The plasma vitrification process was carried out for mixtures with various amounts of additives depending on the type of sewage sludge used. Only the materials of waste character were used as additives. One finding of the study was an optimum content of mineral additives in vitrified mixture of 30% v/v waste molding sands with 20% v/v carbonate flotation waste from the zinc and lead industry for the formulations with

  3. Optimal developmental stage for vitrification of parthenogenetically activated porcine embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Rong; Li, Juan; Kragh, Peter;

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the optimal developmental stage to vitrify in-vitro cultured porcine parthenogenetically activated (PA) embryos. Embryos were vitrified by Cryotop on Day 4, 5 or 6 after oocyte activation (Day 0), and immediately after warming they were either time-lapse......>0.05), no matter if tehy were morulae or blastocysts. These results demonstrate that porcine PA embryos can survive successfully after vitrification/warming that the optimal time for vitrification was Day 4 for both morulae and blastocysts, and that 8 h after warming was the time needed to make...

  4. Vitrification of low-level and mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and nuclear utilities have large quantities of low-level and mixed wastes that must be treated to meet repository performance requirements, which are likely to become even more stringent. The DOE is developing cost-effective vitrification methods for producing durable waste forms. However, vitrification processes for high-level wastes are not applicable to commercial low-level wastes containing large quantities of metals and small amounts of fluxes. New vitrified waste formulations are needed that are durable when buried in surface repositories

  5. Radioactive waste processing: Vitrification. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the processing of radioactive wastes by vitrification (the formation of a glassy material to immobilize radioactive nuclides). In-situ vitrification; proposed glass compositions; glass properties including degradation, leachability, and physical strength; and vitrification processes are discussed. Full-scale vitrification plants and international waste vitrification programs are described. Solidification of radioactive waste with borosilicate glass and synthetic rock or cement and asphalt is discussed in separate bibliographies. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  6. Effect of geometric curvature on vitrification behavior for polymer nanotubes confined in anodic aluminum oxide templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiao; Li, Linling; Zhou, Dongshan; Wang, Xiaoliang; Xue, Gi

    2015-09-01

    The glass transition behavior of polystyrene (PS) nanotubes confined in cylindrical alumina nanopores was studied as a function of pore diameter (d ) and polymer tube thickness (δ). Both the calorimetric glass transition temperature and the microstructure measured by a nonradiative energy transfer method indicated that the polymer nanotube, or concave polymer thin film, exhibited significant differences in vitrification behavior compared to the planar one. A closer interchain proximity and an increased Tg were observed for polymer nanotubes with respect to the bulk polymer. Tg for polymer nanotubes was primarily dependent on the curvature radius d of the template, while it was less dependent on the thickness δ of the PS tube wall in the range of 11-23 nm. For small nanotubes (d =55 nm ) , the Tg increased as high as 18 °C above the bulk value. This vitrified property reverted back to the bulk value when the substrate was chemically removed, which indicated the crucial importance of the interfacial effect imposed by the hard wall with a concave geometry.

  7. Melter Technologies Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, J.M. Jr. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Schumacher, R.F. [Savannah River Technology Center, Aiken, SC (United States); Forsberg, C.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The problem of controlling and disposing of surplus fissile material, in particular plutonium, is being addressed by the US Department of Energy (DOE). Immobilization of plutonium by vitrification has been identified as a promising solution. The Melter Evaluation Activity of DOE`s Plutonium Immobilization Task is responsible for evaluating and selecting the preferred melter technologies for vitrification for each of three immobilization options: Greenfield Facility, Adjunct Melter Facility, and Can-In-Canister. A significant number of melter technologies are available for evaluation as a result of vitrification research and development throughout the international communities for over 20 years. This paper describes an evaluation process which will establish the specific requirements of performance against which candidate melter technologies can be carefully evaluated. Melter technologies that have been identified are also described.

  8. Vitrification of cesium-contaminated organic ion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sargent, T.N. Jr. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    1994-08-01

    Vitrification has been declared by the Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) as the Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT) for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Savannah River Site currently uses a sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) precipitation process to remove Cs-137 from a wastewater solution created from the processing of nuclear fuel. This process has several disadvantages such as the formation of a benzene waste stream. It has been proposed to replace the precipitation process with an ion exchange process using a new resorcinol-formaldehyde resin developed by Savannah River Technical Center (SRTC). Preliminary tests, however, showed that problems such as crust formation and a reduced final glass wasteform exist when the resin is placed in the melter environment. The newly developed stirred melter could be capable of overcoming these problems. This research explored the operational feasibility of using the stirred tank melter to vitrify an organic ion exchange resin. Preliminary tests included crucible studies to determine the reducing potential of the resin and the extent of oxygen consuming reactions and oxygen transfer tests to approximate the extent of oxygen transfer into the molten glass using an impeller and a combination of the impeller and an external oxygen transfer system. These preliminary studies were used as a basis for the final test which was using the stirred tank melter to vitrify nonradioactive cesium loaded organic ion exchange resin. Results from this test included a cesium mass balance, a characterization of the semi-volatile organic compounds present in the off gas as products of incomplete combustion (PIC), a qualitative analysis of other volatile metals, and observations relating to the effect the resin had on the final redox state of the glass.

  9. SITE - DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN - MINERGY GLASS FURNACE TECHNOLOGY - MINERGY CORPORATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Glass Furnace Technology (GFT) was developed by Minergy Corporation (Minergy), of Waukesha, Wisconsin. Minergy originally developed vitrification technologies to process wastewater sludge into glass aggregate that could be sold as a commercial product. Minergy modified a st...

  10. 氮化铝体单晶生长技术研究进展%Development of bulk AlN single-crystal growth technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑瑞生; 武红磊

    2010-01-01

    评述氮化铝体单晶生长技术中常用的金属铝直接氮化法、溶解生长法、氢化物气相外延法和物理气相传输法.指出氢化物气相外延法和物理气相传输法是前景看好的生长氮化铝体单晶方法.介绍本课题组对物理气相传输法的一些改进.认为生长大尺寸氮化铝单晶体的研究将集中在精确控制生长条件、选择合适的坩埚材料、优化制备工艺和制备优质氮化铝籽晶等方面.%The research on bulk AlN single-crystal growth was reviewed.Attention Was paid to four AlN crystal growth methods,which were direct nitridation of aluminum,solution growth,hydride vapor phase epitaxy(HVPE)growth,and physical vapor transport(PVT)growth.The technological process of each method is summarized and discussed,with a conclusion that the HVPE and PVT methods may be the most promising methods.Some improvements in the PVT growth technology made by our research team were presented.It is believed that.in order to grow large-size AlN single-crystal,further research should focus on precisely controlling the growth conditions,finding suitable inert crucible materials,finding best technical approach and process sequence,and preparing high-quality native AlN seed.

  11. Advances in bulk port development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soros, P. (Soros Associates Consulting Engineers, New York, NY (USA))

    1991-03-01

    The article features several recently developed bulk ports which illustrate aspects of new technology or concepts in maritime transport. Low handling capacity bulk terminals at Ponta da Madeira, Brazil and Kooragang Island, Australia and the low-cost bulk port at Port of Corpus Christi, Texas are described. Operations at the ports of Pecket and Tocopilla in Chile, which had special technical problems, are mentioned. Coal terminals at Port Kembla, Australia and St. Johns River in Florid Jacksonville, Florida are featured as examples of terminals which had to be designed to meet high environmental standards. 13 refs., 2 figs., 14 photos.

  12. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant project overview and status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Waste vitrification Plant (HWVP) is being constructed at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. Engineering and design are being accomplished by Fluor Daniel, Inc. in Irvine, California. Technical input is furnished by Westinghouse Hanford Company and construction management services by UE ampersand C-Catalytic Inc

  13. Evaluation of high-level waste vitrification feed preparation chemistry for an NCAW simulant, FY 1994: Alternate flowsheets (DRAFT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-level radioactive waste stored in tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site will be pretreated to concentrate radioactive constituents and fed to the vitrification plant A flowsheet for feed preparation within the vitrification plant (based on the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) design) called for HCOOH addition during the feed preparation step to adjust rheology and glass redox conditions. However, the potential for generating H2 and NH3 during treatment of high-level waste (HLW) with HCOOH was identified at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Studies at the University of Georgia, under contract with Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) and PNL, have verified the catalytic role of noble metals (Pd, Rh, Ru), present in the waste, in the generation of H2 and NH3. Both laboratory-scale and pilot-scale studies at SRTC have documented the H2 and NH3 generation phenomenal Because H2 and NH3 may create hazardous conditions in the vessel vapor space and offgas system of a vitrification plant, reducing the H2 generation rate and the NH3 generation to the lowest possible levels consistent with desired melter feed characteristics is important. The Fiscal Year 1993 and 1994 studies were conducted with simulated (non-radioactive), pre-treated neutralized current acid waste (NCAW). Neutralized current acid waste is a high-level waste originating from the plutonium/uranium extraction (PUREX) plant that has been partially denitrated with sugar, neutralized with NaOH, and is presently stored in double-shell tanks. The non-radioactive simulant used for the present study includes all of the trace components found in the waste, or substitutes a chemically similar element for radioactive or very toxic species. The composition and simulant preparation steps were chosen to best simulate the chemical processing characteristics of the actual waste

  14. Grout and vitrification formula development for immobilization of hazardous radioactive tank sludges at ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilliam, T.M.; Spence, R.D.

    1997-12-31

    Stabilization/solidification (S/S) has been identified as the preferred treatment option for hazardous radioactive sludges, and currently grouting and vitrification are considered the leading candidate S/S technologies. Consequently, a project was initiated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to define composition envelopes, or operating windows, for acceptable grout and glass formulations containing Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) sludges. The resulting data are intended to be used as guidance for the eventual treatment of the MVST sludges by the government and/or private sector. Wastewater at ORNL is collected, evaporated, and stored in the MVSTs pending treatment for disposal. The waste separates into two phases: sludge and supernate. The sludges in the tank bottoms have been accumulating for several years and contain a high amount of radioactivity, with some classified as transuranic (TRU) sludges. The available total constituent analysis for the MVST sludge indicates that the Resource and Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) metal concentrations are high enough to be potentially RCRA hazardous; therefore, these sludges have the potential to be designated as mixed TRU waste. S/S treatment must be performed to remove free liquids and reduce the leach rate of RCRA metals. This paper focuses on initial results for the development of the operating window for vitrification. However, sufficient data on grouting are presented to allow a comparison of the two options.

  15. Transportable Vitrification System RCRA Closure Practical Waste Disposition Saves Time And Money

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brill, Angie; Boles, Roger; Byars, Woody

    2003-02-26

    The Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) was a large-scale vitrification system for the treatment of mixed wastes. The wastes contained both hazardous and radioactive materials in the form of sludge, soil, and ash. The TVS was developed to be moved to various United States Department of Energy (DOE) facilities to vitrify mixed waste as needed. The TVS consists of four primary modules: (1) Waste and Additive Materials Processing Module; (2) Melter Module; (3) Emissions Control Module; and (4) Control and Services Module. The TVS was demonstrated at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) during September and October of 1997. During this period, approximately 16,000 pounds of actual mixed waste was processed, producing over 17,000 pounds of glass. After the demonstration was complete it was determined that it was more expensive to use the TVS unit to treat and dispose of mixed waste than to direct bury this waste in Utah permitted facility. Thus, DOE had to perform a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) closure of the facility and find a reuse for as much of the equipment as possible. This paper will focus on the following items associated with this successful RCRA closure project: TVS site closure design and implementation; characterization activities focused on waste disposition; pollution prevention through reuse; waste minimization efforts to reduce mixed waste to be disposed; and lessons learned that would be integrated in future projects of this magnitude.

  16. Grout and vitrification formula development for immobilization of hazardous radioactive tank sludges at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stabilization/solidification (S/S) has been identified as the preferred treatment option for hazardous radioactive sludges, and currently grouting and vitrification are considered the leading candidate S/S technologies. Consequently, a project was initiated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to define composition envelopes, or operating windows, for acceptable grout and glass formulations containing Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) sludges. The resulting data are intended to be used as guidance for the eventual treatment of the MVST sludges by the government and/or private sector. Wastewater at ORNL is collected, evaporated, and stored in the MVSTs pending treatment for disposal. The waste separates into two phases: sludge and supernate. The sludges in the tank bottoms have been accumulating for several years and contain a high amount of radioactivity, with some classified as transuranic (TRU) sludges. The available total constituent analysis for the MVST sludge indicates that the Resource and Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) metal concentrations are high enough to be potentially RCRA hazardous; therefore, these sludges have the potential to be designated as mixed TRU waste. S/S treatment must be performed to remove free liquids and reduce the leach rate of RCRA metals. This paper focuses on initial results for the development of the operating window for vitrification. However, sufficient data on grouting are presented to allow a comparison of the two options

  17. Summary Of Cold Crucible Vitrification Tests Results With Savannah River Site High Level Waste Surrogates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanovsky, Sergey; Marra, James; Lebedev, Vladimir

    2014-01-13

    The cold crucible inductive melting (CCIM) technology successfully applied for vitrification of low- and intermediate-level waste (LILW) at SIA Radon, Russia, was tested to be implemented for vitrification of high-level waste (HLW) stored at Savannah River Site, USA. Mixtures of Sludge Batch 2 (SB2) and 4 (SB4) waste surrogates and borosilicate frits as slurries were vitrified in bench- (236 mm inner diameter) and full-scale (418 mm inner diameter) cold crucibles. Various process conditions were tested and major process variables were determined. Melts were poured into 10L canisters and cooled to room temperature in air or in heat-insulated boxes by a regime similar to Canister Centerline Cooling (CCC) used at DWPF. The products with waste loading from ~40 to ~65 wt.% were investigated in details. The products contained 40 to 55 wt.% waste oxides were predominantly amorphous; at higher waste loadings (WL) spinel structure phases and nepheline were present. Normalized release values for Li, B, Na, and Si determined by PCT procedure remain lower than those from EA glass at waste loadings of up to 60 wt.%.

  18. Cryopreservation of human embryonic stem cells by vitrification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周灿权; 麦庆云; 李涛; 庄广伦

    2004-01-01

    Background The efficiency of traditional cryopreservation of human embryonic stem (ES) cells is low, and there have been few attempts to prove new cryopreservation methods effective. This study was designed to evaluate the efficiency of cryopreservation of human ES cells using vitrification method.Methods Human ES cells clumped from an identical cell line were randomly allocated to be cryopreserved by vitrification or by slow freezing. The recovery rates, the growth and differentiation potential of thawed human ES cells were compared between these two groups. The pluripotency of human ES cells after thawing was identified.Results Eighty-one point nine percent (59/72) of human ES cell clumps were recovered after vitrification, while only 22.8% (16/70) were recovered after slow freezing (P<0.01). The colonies after vitrification manifested have not only faster growth but also a lower level of differentiation when compared to colonies subjected to the slow freezing protocol. However, the rates of growth and differentiation in undifferentiated colonies from both groups were identical to the rates in those of non-cryopreserved stem cells after a prolonged culture period. Passage 6 of vitrified human ES cells retained the properties of pluripotent cells, a normal karyotype and expressed the transcription factor OCT-4, stage specific expressed antigen-4 (SSEA-4) and SSEA-3. Teratoma growth of these cells demonstrated the ability to develop into all three germ layers.Conclusions Vitrification is effective in cryopreserving human ES cells. During a prolonged culture, human ES cells retain their pluripotency after cryopreservation.

  19. In situ vitrification application to buried waste: Final report of intermediate field tests at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes two in situ vitrification field tests conducted on simulated buried waste pits during June and July 1990 at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In situ vitrification, an emerging technology for in place conversion of contaminated soils into a durable glass and crystalline waste form, is being investigated as a potential remediation technology for buried waste. The overall objective of the two tests was to access the general suitability of the process to remediate waste structures representative of buried waste found at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In particular, these tests, as part of a treatability study, were designed to provide essential information on the field performance of the process under conditions of significant combustible and metal wastes and to test a newly developed electrode feed technology. The tests were successfully completed, and the electrode feed technology successfully processed the high metal content waste. Test results indicate the process is a feasible technology for application to buried waste. 33 refs., 109 figs., 39 tabs

  20. Process Control for Simultaneous Vitrification of Two Mixed Waste Streams in the Transportable Vitrification System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzi, A.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Jantzen, C.M.; Brown, K.G.; Cicero-Herman, C.

    1998-05-01

    Two highly variable mixed (radioactive and hazardous) waste sludges were simultaneously vitrified in an EnVitCo Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) deployed at the Oak Ridge Reservation. The TVS was the result of a cooperative effort between the Westinghouse Savannah River Company and EnVitCo to design and build a transportable melter capable of vitrifying a variety of mixed low level wastes.The two waste streams for the demonstration were the dried B and C Pond sludges at the K-25 site and waste water sludge produced in the Central Neutralization Facility from treatment of incinerator blowdown. Large variations occurred in the sodium, calcium, silicon, phosphorus, fluorine and iron content of the co- blended waste sludges: these elements have a significant effect on the process ability and performance of the final glass product. The waste sludges were highly reduced due to organics added during processing, coal-pile runoff (coal and sulfides), and other organics, including wood chips. A batch-by-batch process control model was developed to control glass viscosity, liquidus, and reduction/oxidation, assuming that the melter behaved as a Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor.

  1. Cryopreservation of Queen Honeybee(Apis mellifera camica)Born Worker Eggs by Vitrification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhi-yong; XUE Yun-bo; WANG Zhi; LI Xing-an

    2010-01-01

    Many species of insect egg can be targeted individually or(and)collectively for cryopreservation by vitrification.However,there has been no report on cryopreservation of honeybee eggs by vitrification.In an attempt to define a preliminary procedure of cryopreservation of honeybee eggs by vitrification,queen honeybee born worker eggs(worker eggs)were stored through vitrification in liquid nitrogen up to 1 h,and then post-vitrification survival of the vitrified worker eggs in vitro and their hatching rates during maturation in vivo were observed using microscopic and close visual inspections.The procedure of cryopreservation by vitrification included dechorionation with sodium hypochlorite and permeabilization with isopropyl alcohol; equilibration by addition of loading solution(i.e.,25% vitrification storage solution)and dehydration by gradual replacement of loading solution with vitrification storage solution; cooling in liquid nitrogen vapor right before droplet vitrification in liquid nitrogen; and recovery in liquid nitrogen vapor right after storage in liquid nitrogen,thawing at temperature of thawing medium(5% sucrose in TC 100-insect medium)and rehydration by gradual replacement of vitrification storage solution with rehydration solution(5% fetal bovine serum in TC 100-insect medium).It was found that among the worker eggs experiencing cyropreservation by vitrification,1.25% of them were successfully passed through the four life stages,viz.,egg,larva,pupa,and adult.In summary,it can be inferred that although a majority of worker eggs were dead after cyroprescrvation by vitrification,a few of them were developed into larvae,pupae,and finally emerged as adults.

  2. Cryopreservation of Galanthus elwesii Hook. apical meristems by droplet vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslanka, M; Panis, B; Bach, A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an efficient cryopreservation protocol for the geophyte giant snowdrop (Galanthus elwesii Hook.) that guarantees a high rate of survival and plant regeneration after cryopreservation. The excised apical meristems were obtained from cultures of in vitro grown bulb scales. Using a vitrification procedure and optimizing the duration of the exposure to the loading solution (LS), meristem post-rewarm survival rates higher than 90 percent were achieved. Also regrowth percentages were very high, ranging from 87 to 91 percent. After optimizing the time of exposure to the plant vitrification solution (PVS2), the survival rate was between 83 and 97 percent. During post-rewarm regeneration, good growth recovery was as high as 76 percent; however, hyperhydration and callusing were also observed. The results demonstrate that cryopreservation of Galanthus elwesii germplasm seems to be feasible. PMID:23435704

  3. Cryopreservation of Galanthus elwesii Hook. apical meristems by droplet vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslanka, M; Panis, B; Bach, A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an efficient cryopreservation protocol for the geophyte giant snowdrop (Galanthus elwesii Hook.) that guarantees a high rate of survival and plant regeneration after cryopreservation. The excised apical meristems were obtained from cultures of in vitro grown bulb scales. Using a vitrification procedure and optimizing the duration of the exposure to the loading solution (LS), meristem post-rewarm survival rates higher than 90 percent were achieved. Also regrowth percentages were very high, ranging from 87 to 91 percent. After optimizing the time of exposure to the plant vitrification solution (PVS2), the survival rate was between 83 and 97 percent. During post-rewarm regeneration, good growth recovery was as high as 76 percent; however, hyperhydration and callusing were also observed. The results demonstrate that cryopreservation of Galanthus elwesii germplasm seems to be feasible.

  4. The role of troublesome components in plutonium vitrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hong; Vienna, J.D.; Peeler, D.K.; Hrma, P.; Schweiger, M.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    One option for immobilizing surplus plutonium is vitrification in a borosilicate glass. Two advantages of the glass form are (1) high tolerance to feed variability and, (2) high solubility of some impurity components. The types of plutonium-containing materials in the United States inventory include: pits, metals, oxides, residues, scrap, compounds, and fuel. Many of them also contain high concentrations of carbon, chloride, fluoride, phosphate, sulfate, and chromium oxide. To vitrify plutonium-containing scrap and residues, it is critical to understand the impact of each component on glass processing and chemical durability of the final product. This paper addresses glass processing issues associated with these troublesome components. It covers solubility limits of chlorine, fluorine, phosphate, sulfate, and chromium oxide in several borosilicate based glasses, and the effect of each component on vitrification (volatility, phase segregation, crystallization, and melt viscosity). Techniques (formulation, pretreatment, removal, and/or dilution) to mitigate the effect of these troublesome components are suggested.

  5. New developments for medium and low level waste vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Converting ultimate waste material into a stable, inert product is beneficial, notably in the case of potentially very toxic wastes. Vitrification, in which a glass or glass-ceramic material is fabricated from a particular waste form, is now a proven solution. This high-temperature process uses additives-notably silica-if necessary to form a glass network. Vitrification confines the waste by forming a stable, inert, nontoxic material suitable for safe disposal; it usually also results in a significant volume reduction having a major effect on the disposal cost. France is actively engaged in an ongoing research effort in this area, not only to enhance the production capacity and the containment quality, but also to extend the process to low and medium level wastes such as those produced in nuclear power stations

  6. The efficacy and safety of human oocyte vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Zsolt Peter; Chang, Ching-Chien; Shapiro, Daniel B; Bernal, Diana Patricia; Kort, Hilton I; Vajta, Gábor

    2009-11-01

    Vitrification is now a widely applied and highly successful approach for cryopreservation in reproductive biology. Rapidly increasing data prove that it is also a highly efficient technique for low-temperature storage of human oocytes. The latest approaches with appropriately selected cryoprotectants, tools and techniques, and properly adjusted parameters allow close to 100% morphological survival rates, and in vitro embryo development, as well pregnancy and implantation rates, comparable with those achieved with fresh oocytes. With standardization of the technique and elimination of biosafety problems by preserving all the positive features, vitrification may become a common part of the everyday routine in a human embryo laboratory, and it may offer a solution for various medical and social situations as well as for simple logistic problems commonly occurring in assisted reproduction. PMID:19806513

  7. Development of glass melter for the PNC Tokai Vitrification Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of the glass melter which will be used in the HLLW vitrification facility has been performed since 1977. The design and operational experiences has been accumulated through the process tests in the cold engineering facilities. The results obtained in these periods have been considered in the design of the Tokai Vitrification Facility (TVF), the construction of which has already been started in the spring of 1988. The present PNC melter system includes several features as the result of PNC's own improvements and modifications. The results of the melter development will be described in this paper mainly on the special features which are developed in PNC, such as glass fiber additives, induction-heated bottom drain nozzle and remote handling technique. The mock-up test using the new mock up melter which was constructed following the TVF final design has started to verify the process performance. (author)

  8. Cryopreservation of Pelargonium apices by droplet-vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallard, Anthony; Panis, Bart; Dorion, Nöelle; Swennen, Rony; Grapin, Agnès

    2008-01-01

    The droplet-vitrification method was adapted to Pelargonium apices by optimizing the duration of the loading solution (LS) as well as the plant vitrification solution 2 (PVS2). The excised apices were dehydrated in two steps (20 min in LS and 15 min in PVS2) and then immersed directly in liquid nitrogen (LN). After thawing and unloading in the recovery solution at room temperature for 15 min, apices were plated onto semi-solid Murashige and Skoog medium. This simple protocol without any pretreatment was successfully applied to eight cultivars with a survival level ranging between 55.6 - 96.2 percent and a regrowth level between 9.1 and 70.6 percent. These results prove the feasibility of the long-term storage of Pelargonium germplasm through cryopreservation.

  9. In-situ vitrification of transuranic wastes: systems evaluation and applications assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oma, K.H.; Brown, D.R.; Buelt, J.L.; FitzPatrick, V.F.; Hawley, K.A.; Mellinger, G.B.; Napier, B.A.; Silviera, D.J.; Stein, S.L.; Timmerman, C.L.

    1983-09-01

    Major advantages of in-situ vitrification (ISV) as a means of stabilizing radioactive waste are: long term durability of the waste form; cost effectiveness; safety in terms of minimizing worker and public exposure; and applicability to different kinds of soils and buried wastes. This document describes ISV technology that is available as another viable tool for in place stabilization of waste sites. The following sections correspond to the chapters in the body of this document: description of the ISV process; analysis of the performane of the ISV tests conducted thus far; parameters of the ISV process; cost analysis for the ISV process; analysis of occupational and public exposure; and assessment of waste site applications.

  10. Test plan for BWID Phase 2 electric arc melter vitrification tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soelberg, N.R.; Turner, P.C.; Oden, L.L.; Anderson, G.L.

    1994-10-01

    This test plan describes the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID), Phase 2, electric arc melter, waste treatment evaluation tests to be performed at the US Bureau of Mines (USBM) Albany Research Center. The BWID Arc Melter Vitrification Project is being conducted to evaluate and demonstrate existing industrial arc melter technology for thermally treating mixed transuranic-contaminated wastes and soils. Phase 1 baseline tests, performed during fiscal year 1993 at the USBM, were conducted on waste feeds representing incinerated buried mixed wastes and soils. In Phase 2, surrogate feeds will be processed that represent actual as-retrieved buried wastes from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory`s Subsurface Disposal Area at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex.

  11. In-situ vitrification of transuranic wastes: systems evaluation and applications assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major advantages of in-situ vitrification (ISV) as a means of stabilizing radioactive waste are: long term durability of the waste form; cost effectiveness; safety in terms of minimizing worker and public exposure; and applicability to different kinds of soils and buried wastes. This document describes ISV technology that is available as another viable tool for in place stabilization of waste sites. The following sections correspond to the chapters in the body of this document: description of the ISV process; analysis of the performane of the ISV tests conducted thus far; parameters of the ISV process; cost analysis for the ISV process; analysis of occupational and public exposure; and assessment of waste site applications

  12. Simple vitrification for small numbers of human spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Yuji; Fujii, Yoshitaka; Shintani, Kasumi; Seo, Momoyo; Motoyama, Hiroaki; Funahashi, Hiroaki

    2012-03-01

    Conventional freezing procedures and containers are not appropriate for spermatozoa from the testis because of their low number and poor in-situ motility, and various types of container have been utilized to freeze small numbers of spermatozoa. This study tried to develop a vitrification method for small numbers of spermatozoa using the Cell Sleeper, which is a closed type of cell-cryopreservation container. The container with spermatozoa were cooled in liquid nitrogen vapour and then stored in a cryotank. Sperm motility parameters improved significantly (P < 0.05) by vitrification in oil-free droplets rather than in droplets covered with oil. After vitrification of five spermatozoa per container, all spermatozoa were recovered and the viable sperm rate was significantly higher when spermatozoa were vitrified in a 3.5-ll droplet rather than in 0.5 ll (72.0% versus 38.0%; P < 0.01). Recovery, motility and viability rates of vitrified–warmed spermatozoa were similar between the Cell Sleeper and the CryoTop groups. In conclusion, the Cell Sleeper is a highly effective tool for the cryopreservation of small numbers of spermatozoa and limited cells can be vitrified quickly and simply without significant loss.

  13. Savannah River Site chemical, metal, and pesticide (CMP) waste vitrification treatability studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerous Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, as well as Department of Defense (DOD) and commercial facilities, have used earthen pits for disposal of chemicals, organic contaminants, and other waste materials. Although this was an acceptable means of disposal in the past, direct disposal into earthen pits without liners or barriers is no longer a standard practice. At the Savannah River Site (SRS), approximately three million pounds of such material was removed from seven chemical, metal, and pesticide disposal pits. This material is known as the Chemical, Metal, and Pesticide (CMP) Pit waste and carries several different listed waste codes depending on the contaminants in the respective storage container. The waste is not classified as a mixed waste because it is believed to be non-radioactive; however, in order to treat the material in a non-radioactive facility, the waste would first have to be screened for radioactivity. The Defense Waste Processing Technology (DWPT) Section of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) was requested by the DOE-Savannah River (SR) office to determine the viability of vitrification of the CMP Pit wastes. Radioactive vitrification facilities exist which would be able to process this waste, so the material would not have to be analyzed for radioactive content. Bench-scale treatability studies were performed by the DWPT to determine whether a homogeneous and durable glass could be produced from the CMP Pit wastes. Homogeneous and durable glasses were produced from the six pits sampled. The optimum composition was determined to be 68.5 wt% CMP waste, 7.2 wt% Na2O, 9 wt% CaO, 7.2 wt% Li2O and 8.1 wt% Fe2O3. This glass melted at 1,150 C and represented a two fold volume reduction

  14. Behavior of mercury and iodine during vitrification of simulated alkaline Purex waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current plans indicate that the high-level wastes stored at the Savannah River Plant will be solidified by vitrification. The behavior of mercury and iodine during the vitrification process is of concern because: mercury is present in the waste in high concentrations (0.1 to 2.8 wt%); mercury will react with iodine and the other halogens present in the waste during vitrification and; the mercury compounds formed will be volatilized from the vitrification process placing a high particulate load in the vitrification system off-gas. Twelve experiments were completed to study the behavior of mercury during vitrification of simulated SRP Purex waste. The mercury was completely volatized from the vitrification system in all experiments. The mercury reacted with iodine, chlorine and oxygen to form a fine particulate solid. Quantitative recovery of mercury compounds formed in the vitrification system off-gas was not possible due to high (37 to 90%) deposition of solids in the off-gas piping. The behavior of mercury and iodine was most strongly influenced by the vitrification system atmosphere. During experiments performed in which the oxygen content of the vitrification system atmosphere was low (< 1 vol%); iodine retention in the glass product was 27 to 55%, the mercury composition of the solids recovered from the off-gas scrub solutions was 75 to 85 wt%, and a small quantity of metallic mercury was recovered from the off-gas scrub solution. During experiments performed in which the oxygen content of the vitrification system atmosphere was high (20 vol%), iodide retention in the glass product was 3 to 15%, the mercury composition of the solids recovered from the off-gas scrub solutions was 60 to 80 wt%, and very little metallic mercury was recovered from the off-gas scrub solution

  15. Performance enhancement of poly(3-hexylthiophene):methanofullerene bulk-heterojunction solar cells. : Section Title: Electrochemical, Radiational, and Thermal Energy Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, L. Jan Anton; Mihailetchi, Valentin D.; Hummelen, Jan C.; Blom, Paul W. M.

    2006-01-01

    Using a newly developed device model we have studied the effect of controlled thermal annealing on charge transport and photogeneration in bulk-heterojunction solar cells made from blend films of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and methanofullerene (PCBM). With respect to the charge trans

  16. Plasma Hearth Process vitrification of DOE low-level mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) demonstration project is one of the key technology projects in the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development Mixed Waste Focus Area. The PHP is recognized as one of the more promising solutions to DOE's mixed waste treatment needs, with potential application in the treatment of a wide variety of DOE mixed wastes. The PHP is a high temperature vitrification process using a plasma arc torch in a stationary, refractory lined chamber that destroys organics and stabilizes the residuals in a nonleaching, vitrified waste form. This technology will be equally applicable to low-level mixed wastes generated by nuclear utilities. The final waste form will be volume reduced to the maximum extent practical, because all organics will have been destroyed and the inorganics will be in a high-density, low void-space form and little or no volume-increasing glass makers will have been added. Low volume and high integrity waste forms result in low disposal costs. This project is structured to ensure that the plasma technology can be successfully employed in radioactive service. The PHP technology will be developed into a production system through a sequence of tests on several test units, both non-radioactive and radioactive. As the final step, a prototype PHP system will be constructed for full-scale radioactive waste treatment demonstration

  17. Viability of zebrafish (Danio rerio) ovarian follicles after vitrification in a metal container.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Lis S; Bos-Mikich, Adriana; Godoy, Leandro C; Silva, Laura A; Maschio, Daniel; Zhang, Tiantian; Streit, Danilo P

    2015-12-01

    Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue has been studied for female germline preservation of farm animals and endangered mammalian species. However, there are relatively few reports on cryopreservation of fish ovarian tissue and especially using vitrification approach. Previous studies of our group has shown that the use of a metal container for the cryopreservation of bovine ovarian fragments results in good primordial and primary follicle morphological integrity after vitrification. The aim of this study was to assess the viability and in vitro development of zebrafish follicles after vitrification of fragmented or whole ovaries using the same metal container. In Experiment 1, we tested the follicular viability of five developmental stages following vitrification in four vitrification solutions using fluorescein diacetate and propidium iodide fluorescent probes. These results showed that the highest viability rates were obtained with immature follicles (Stage I) and VS1 (1.5 M methanol + 4.5 M propylene glycol). In Experiment 2, we used VS1 to vitrify different types of ovarian tissue (fragments or whole ovaries) in two different carriers (plastic cryotube or metal container). In this experiment, Stage I follicle survival was assessed following vitrification by vital staining after 24 h in vitro culture. Follicular morphology was analyzed by light microscopy after vitrification. Data showed that the immature follicles morphology was well preserved after cryopreservation. Follicular survival rate was higher (P < 0.05) in vitrified fragments, when compared to whole ovaries. There were no significant differences in follicular survival and growth when the two vitrification devices were compared.

  18. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Quality Assurance Program description: Overview and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document (Parts 1 and 2) describes the requirements that must be implemented during the design and construction phases for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Project Quality Assurance Program. This program is being implemented to ensure the acceptability of high-level radioactive canistered waste forms produced by the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant for disposal in a licensed federal repository

  19. Thermal oxidation vitrification flue gas elimination system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With minor modifications to a Best Demonstrated Available Technology hazardous waste incinerator, it is possible to obtain combustion without potentially toxic emissions by using technology currently employed in similar applications throughout industry. Further, these same modifications will reduce waste handling over an extended operating envelope while minimizing energy consumption. Three by-products are produced: industrial grade carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and a final waste form that will exceed Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedures requirements and satisfy nuclear waste product consistency tests. The proposed system utilizes oxygen rather than air as an oxidant to reduce the quantities of total emissions, improve the efficiency of the oxidation reactions, and minimize the generation of toxic NOx emissions. Not only will less potentially hazardous constituents be generated; all toxic substances can be contained and the primary emission, carbon dioxide -- the leading ''greenhouse gas'' contributing to global warming -- will be converted to an industrial by-product needed to enhance the extraction of energy feedstocks from maturing wells. Clearly, the proposed configuration conforms to the provisions for Most Achievable Control Technology as defined and mandated for the private sector by the Clear Air Act Amendments of 1990 to be implemented in 1997 and still lacking definition

  20. APPLICATIONS OF LASERS AND OTHER TOPICS IN LASER PHYSICS AND TECHNOLOGY: Switching of a pulsed ionic diode through the bulk of an ion source with laser plasma initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleshakova, R. P.; Shikanov, A. E.

    1987-10-01

    An analysis was made of the results of an investigation of switching of a pulsed ionic diode through the bulk of an ion source with a laser plasma and a vacuum arc. The dependences of the neutron yield on the electrical energy of the diode were recorded and analyzed. The results indicated a possible way of simple construction of an acceleration tube with switching via a laser-plasma source.

  1. Chemical durability of soda-lime-aluminosilicate glass for radioactive waste vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitrification has been identified as one of the most viable waste treatment alternatives for nuclear waste disposal. Currently, the most popular glass compositions being selected for vitrification are the borosilicate family of glasses. Another popular type that has been around in glass industry is the soda-lime-silicate variety, which has often been characterized as the least durable and a poor candidate for radioactive waste vitrification. By replacing the boron constituent with a cheaper substitute, such as silica, the cost of vitrification processing can be reduced. At the same time, addition of network intermediates such as Al2O3 to the glass composition increases the environmental durability of the glass. The objective of this study is to examine the ability of the soda-lime-aluminosilicate glass as an alternative vitrification tool for the disposal of radioactive waste and to investigate the sensitivity of product chemical durability to variations in composition

  2. Modeling requirements for in situ vitrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKinnon, R.J.; Mecham, D.C.; Hagrman, D.L.; Johnson, R.W.; Murray, P.E.; Slater, C.E.; Marwil, E.S.; Weaver, R.A.; Argyle, M.D.

    1991-11-01

    This document outlines the requirements for the model being developed at the INEL which will provide analytical support for the ISV technology assessment program. The model includes representations of the electric potential field, thermal transport with melting, gas and particulate release, vapor migration, off-gas combustion and process chemistry. The modeling objectives are to (1) help determine the safety of the process by assessing the air and surrounding soil radionuclide and chemical pollution hazards, the nuclear criticality hazard, and the explosion and fire hazards, (2) help determine the suitability of the ISV process for stabilizing the buried wastes involved, and (3) help design laboratory and field tests and interpret results therefrom.

  3. Modeling requirements for in situ vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document outlines the requirements for the model being developed at the INEL which will provide analytical support for the ISV technology assessment program. The model includes representations of the electric potential field, thermal transport with melting, gas and particulate release, vapor migration, off-gas combustion and process chemistry. The modeling objectives are to (1) help determine the safety of the process by assessing the air and surrounding soil radionuclide and chemical pollution hazards, the nuclear criticality hazard, and the explosion and fire hazards, (2) help determine the suitability of the ISV process for stabilizing the buried wastes involved, and (3) help design laboratory and field tests and interpret results therefrom

  4. Biophysical characteristics of successful oilseed embryo cryoprotection and cryopreservation using vacuum infiltration vitrification: an innovation in plant cell preservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanthi Nadarajan

    Full Text Available Heterogeneity in morphology, physiology and cellular chemistry of plant tissues can compromise successful cryoprotection and cryopreservation. Cryoprotection is a function of exposure time × temperature × permeability for the chosen protectant and diffusion pathway length, as determined by specimen geometry, to provide sufficient dehydration whilst avoiding excessive chemical toxicity. We have developed an innovative method of vacuum infiltration vitrification (VIV at 381 mm (15 in Hg (50 kPa that ensures the rapid (5 min, uniform permeation of Plant Vitrification Solution 2 (PVS2 cryoprotectant into plant embryos and their successful cryopreservation, as judged by regrowth in vitro. This method was validated on zygotic embryos/embryonic axes of three species (Carica papaya, Passiflora edulis and Laurus nobilis up to 1.6 mg dry mass and 5.6 mm in length, with varying physiology (desiccation tolerances and 80 °C variation in lipid thermal profiles, i.e., visco-elasticity properties, as determined by differential scanning calorimetry. Comparisons between the melting features of cryoprotected embryos and embryo regrowth indicated an optimal internal PVS2 concentration of about 60% of full strength. The physiological vigour of surviving embryos was directly related to the proportion of survivors. Compared with conventional vitrification, VIV-cryopreservation offered a ∼ 10-fold reduction in PVS2 exposure times, higher embryo viability and regrowth and greater effectiveness at two pre-treatment temperatures (0 °C and 25 °C. VIV-cryopreservation may form the basis of a generic, high throughput technology for the ex situ conservation of plant genetic resources, aiding food security and protection of species from diverse habitats and at risk of extinction.

  5. Biophysical characteristics of successful oilseed embryo cryoprotection and cryopreservation using vacuum infiltration vitrification: an innovation in plant cell preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadarajan, Jayanthi; Pritchard, Hugh W

    2014-01-01

    Heterogeneity in morphology, physiology and cellular chemistry of plant tissues can compromise successful cryoprotection and cryopreservation. Cryoprotection is a function of exposure time × temperature × permeability for the chosen protectant and diffusion pathway length, as determined by specimen geometry, to provide sufficient dehydration whilst avoiding excessive chemical toxicity. We have developed an innovative method of vacuum infiltration vitrification (VIV) at 381 mm (15 in) Hg (50 kPa) that ensures the rapid (5 min), uniform permeation of Plant Vitrification Solution 2 (PVS2) cryoprotectant into plant embryos and their successful cryopreservation, as judged by regrowth in vitro. This method was validated on zygotic embryos/embryonic axes of three species (Carica papaya, Passiflora edulis and Laurus nobilis) up to 1.6 mg dry mass and 5.6 mm in length, with varying physiology (desiccation tolerances) and 80 °C variation in lipid thermal profiles, i.e., visco-elasticity properties, as determined by differential scanning calorimetry. Comparisons between the melting features of cryoprotected embryos and embryo regrowth indicated an optimal internal PVS2 concentration of about 60% of full strength. The physiological vigour of surviving embryos was directly related to the proportion of survivors. Compared with conventional vitrification, VIV-cryopreservation offered a ∼ 10-fold reduction in PVS2 exposure times, higher embryo viability and regrowth and greater effectiveness at two pre-treatment temperatures (0 °C and 25 °C). VIV-cryopreservation may form the basis of a generic, high throughput technology for the ex situ conservation of plant genetic resources, aiding food security and protection of species from diverse habitats and at risk of extinction.

  6. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Project Waste Form Qualification Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy has created a waste acceptance process to help guide the overall program for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste in a federal repository. This Waste Form Qualification Program Plan describes the hierarchy of strategies used by the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Project to satisfy the waste form qualification obligations of that waste acceptance process. A description of the functional relationship of the participants contributing to completing this objective is provided. The major activities, products, providers, and associated scheduling for implementing the strategies also are presented

  7. Evaluation of high-level waste vitrification feed preparation chemistry for an NCAW simulant, FY 1994: Alternate flowsheets (DRAFT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, H.D.; Merz, M.D.; Wiemers, K.D.; Smith, G.L.

    1996-02-01

    High-level radioactive waste stored in tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Hanford Site will be pretreated to concentrate radioactive constituents and fed to the vitrification plant A flowsheet for feed preparation within the vitrification plant (based on the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) design) called for HCOOH addition during the feed preparation step to adjust rheology and glass redox conditions. However, the potential for generating H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} during treatment of high-level waste (HLW) with HCOOH was identified at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Studies at the University of Georgia, under contract with Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) and PNL, have verified the catalytic role of noble metals (Pd, Rh, Ru), present in the waste, in the generation of H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3}. Both laboratory-scale and pilot-scale studies at SRTC have documented the H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} generation phenomenal Because H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} may create hazardous conditions in the vessel vapor space and offgas system of a vitrification plant, reducing the H{sub 2} generation rate and the NH{sub 3} generation to the lowest possible levels consistent with desired melter feed characteristics is important. The Fiscal Year 1993 and 1994 studies were conducted with simulated (non-radioactive), pre-treated neutralized current acid waste (NCAW). Neutralized current acid waste is a high-level waste originating from the plutonium/uranium extraction (PUREX) plant that has been partially denitrated with sugar, neutralized with NaOH, and is presently stored in double-shell tanks. The non-radioactive simulant used for the present study includes all of the trace components found in the waste, or substitutes a chemically similar element for radioactive or very toxic species. The composition and simulant preparation steps were chosen to best simulate the chemical processing characteristics of the actual waste.

  8. Technical issues associated with in situ vitrification of the INEL Subsurface Disposal Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In situ vitrification (ISV) has been identified as an alternative technology for remediation of the acid pit and transuranic pits and trenches (TRU-PTs) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA). However, a number of technical issues must be resolved before ISV can be considered applicable to these waste sites. To assist in the ISV technology evaluation, an ISV Steering Committee was formed to identify, prioritize, and develop closure roadmaps for technical issues lated with ISV application at the SDA. The activities of the ISV Steering Committee are summarized in a three-volume report. Volume I identifies the systematic approach used to identify and prioritize the ISV technical issues and briefly discusses the methodology that will be employed to resolve these issues. Volumes 2 and 3 discuss each technical issue in greater detail and suggest specific closure roadmaps to be used in resolving technical issues associated with ISV at the SDA Acid Pit and TRU-PTS, respectively. The three-volume report is a working document that will be updated as necessary to reflect current evaluation strategy for the ISV technology. This is Volume 3

  9. Quality assurance program description: Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant, Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the Department of Energy's Richland Field Office (DOE-RL) quality assurance (QA) program for the processing of high-level waste as well as the Vitrification Project Quality Assurance Program for the design and construction of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). It also identifies and describes the planned activities that constitute the required quality assurance program for the HWVP. This program applies to the broad scope of quality-affecting activities associated with the overall HWVP Facility. Quality-affecting activities include designing, purchasing, fabricating, handling, shipping, storing, cleaning, erecting, installing, inspecting, testing, maintaining, repairing, and modifying. Also included are the development, qualification, and production of waste forms which may be safely used to dispose of high-level radioactive waste resulting from national defense activities. The HWVP QA program is made up of many constituent programs that are being implemented by the participating organizations. This Quality Assurance program description is intended to outline and define the scope and application of the major programs that make up the HWVP QA program. It provides a means by which the overall program can be managed and directed to achieve its objectives. Subsequent parts of this description will identify the program's objectives, its scope, application, and structure

  10. Cryopreservation of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) somatic embryos by vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adu-Gyamfi, Raphael; Wetten, Andy

    2012-01-01

    Losses of cultivated cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) due to diseases and continued depletion of forests that harbour the wild progenitors of the crop make ex situ conservation of cocoa germplasm of paramount importance. In order to enhance security of in situ germplasm collections, 2-3 mm floral-derived secondary somatic embryos were cryopreserved by vitrification. This work demonstrates the most uncomplicated clonal cocoa cryopreservation. Optimal post-cryostorage survival (74.5 percent) was achieved by 5 d preculture of SSEs on 0.5 M sucrose medium followed by 60 min dehydration in cold PVS2. To minimise free radical related cryo-injury, cation sources were removed from the embryo development solution and/or the recovery medium, the former treatment resulting in a significant benefit. After optimisation with cocoa genotype AMAZ 15, the same protocol was effective across all five additional cocoa genotypes tested. For the multiplication of clones, embryos regenerated following cryopreservation were used as explant sources, and vitrification was found to maintain their embryogenic potential.

  11. Hot operation performance of the German vitrification plant VEK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The German VEK project has been established to vitrify approx. 55 m3 of high-level liquid waste (HLLW) with a total radioactive inventory of 7.7E+17 Bq in the new VEK vitrification plant erected from 1999 to 2004. Immobilization of the waste solution stored at the site of the former German WAK pilot reprocessing facility is the precursor to further decommissioning and dismantling of the WAK facilities which have been underway since the mid-nineties. Within a minimum operation period of only 9 months from September 2009 until June 2010 the highly noble metals containing HLLW was successfully processed and the storage tanks of WAK were finally emptied. Subsequent to hot vitrification of the concentrated HLLW solution an extensive cleaning of the storage tanks and VEK plant components was performed. Rinsing liquids were vitrified after mixing with simulated inactive HLLW solutions. This paper gives an overview of the successful hot operation of the VEK plant. Operational data, results and lessons learned during one year of hot operation are described in detail. (author)

  12. Defense waste vitrification studies during FY-1981. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjorklund, W.J. (comp.)

    1982-09-01

    Both simulated alkaline defense wastes and simulated acidic defense wastes (formed by treating alkaline waste with formic acid) were successfully vitrified in direct liquid-fed melter experiments. The vitrification process was improved while using the formate-treated waste. Leach resistance was essentially the same. Off-gas entrainment was the primary mechanism for material exiting the melter. When formate waste was vitrified, the flow behavior of the off gas from the melter changed dramatically from an erratic surging behavior to a more quiet, even flow. Hydrogen and CO were detectable while processing formate feed; however, levels exceeding the flamability limits in air were never approached. Two types of melter operation were tested during the year, one involving boost power. Several boosting methods located within the melter plenum were tested. When lid heating was being used, water spray cooling in the off gas was required. Countercurrent spray cooling was more effective than cocurrent spray cooling. Materials of construction for the off-gas system were examined. Inconel-690 is preferred in the plenum area. Inspection of the pilot-scale melter found that corrosion of the K-3 refractory and Inconel-690 electrodes was minimal. An overheating incident occurred with the LFCM in which glass temperatures up to 1480/sup 0/C were experienced. Lab-scale vitrification tests to study mercury behavior were also completed this year. 53 figures, 63 tables.

  13. Defense-waste vitrification studies during FY-1981. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both simulated alkaline defense wastes and simulated acidic defense wastes (formed by treating alkaline waste with formic acid) were successfully vitrified in direct liquid-fed melter experiments. The vitrification process was improved while using the formate-treated waste. Leach resistance was essentially the same. Off-gas entrainment was the primary mechanism for material exiting the melter. When formate waste was vitrified, the flow behavior of the off gas from the melter changed dramatically from an erratic surging behavior to a more quiet, even flow. Hydrogen and CO were detectable while processing formate feed; however, levels exceeding the flamability limits in air were never approached. Two types of melter operation were tested during the year, one involving boost power. Several boosting methods located within the melter plenum were tested. When lid heating was being used, water spray cooling in the off gas was required. Countercurrent spray cooling was more effective than cocurrent spray cooling. Materials of construction for the off-gas system were examined. Inconel-690 is preferred in the plenum area. Inspection of the pilot-scale melter found that corrosion of the K-3 refractory and Inconel-690 electrodes was minimal. An overheating incident occurred with the LFCM in which glass temperatures up to 14800C were experienced. Lab-scale vitrification tests to study mercury behavior were also completed this year. 53 figures, 63 tables

  14. Process Testing to Support the Conceptual Design of a Plutonium Vitrification Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the aftermath of the Cold War, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has identified up to 50 metric tonnes of excess plutonium that needs to be dispositioned. The bulk of the material is slated to be blended with uranium and fabricated into a Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel for subsequent burning in commercial nuclear reactors. Excess plutonium-containing materials that are not suitable for fabrication into MOX fuel will need to be dispositioned via other means. A lanthanide borosilicate (LaBS) glass was identified as a preferred form for the disposition of the impure plutonium-containing feeds. The LaBS glass formulation uses a lanthanide borosilicate frit rather than the alkali borosilicate frit used to vitrify high level waste. The LaBS glass has been shown to be able to accommodate high quantities of fissile material (greater than 10 wt % elemental plutonium) and tolerate the impurities expected in the plutonium feed streams. A conceptual design effort is now underway at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to design a vitrification facility to immobilize the excess Pu feeds that are not slated for disposition via MOX fuel. The conceptual design phase is planned to complete in FY07. A test program was initiated at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to provide input data to the conceptual design effort. A major component of this test effort involves vitrification process testing. A cylindrical induction melter (CIM) was developed for the vitrification of actinide feed streams. Due to the high temperatures required to incorporate high plutonium oxide contents into the glass by dissolution and melting, the melter vessel is constructed out of Pt/Rh alloy and can be operated at temperatures up to 1600 deg. C. Additionally, the melter design is compact to facilitate installation in a glovebox (the size of the conceptual facility melter is approximately 6'' in diameter by 18'' tall). The CIM has proven to be a viable means to process the LaBS glass at processing

  15. Results of a 50% Waste Loading Vitrification Test Using the Cold Crucible Melter for Savannah River Site Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM) is a promising alternative compared to the Joule heated ceramic melter (JHCM) reference technology for vitrification of high level radioactive waste (HLW). Successful tests with 45 wt.% waste loading in the glass facilitated the transition to the third task of the work with waste loading increased to 50 wt.%. The third test was performed using the Radon full-scale vitrification plant equipped with a new cylindrical cold crucible with an inner diameter of 418 mm. Average glass pour rate (average amount of glass poured per 1 hour of run) and specific glass pour rate (average pour rate per melter surface area) reached 16.2 kg/h and ∼118.2 kg/(m2h), respectively. Neither formation of sulfate/chloride salts ('yellow phase') nor melt foaming were observed. Occurrence of a spinel-type phase in the glass didn't reduce chemical durability of the glass. Product Consistency Testing (PCT) demonstrated that leaching of lithium, boron, sodium and silicon from glass samples produced in the CCIM were 15 to 30 times lower than the Environmental Assessment (EA) glass used for waste form repository acceptance. (authors)

  16. NEXT GENERATION MELTER(S) FOR VITRIFICATION OF HANFORD WASTE: STATUS AND DIRECTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitrification technology has been selected to treat high-level waste (HLW) at the Hanford Site, the West Valley Demonstration Project and the Savannah River Site (SRS), and low activity waste (LAW) at Hanford. In addition, it may potentially be applied to other defense waste streams such as sodium bearing tank waste or calcine. Joule-heated melters (already in service at SRS) will initially be used at the Hanford Site's Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to vitrify tank waste fractions. The glass waste content and melt/production rates at WTP are limited by the current melter technology. Significant reductions in glass volumes and mission life are only possible with advancements in melter technology coupled with new glass formulations. The Next Generation Melter (NGM) program has been established by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's), Environmental Management Office of Waste Processing (EM-31) to develop melters with greater production capacity (absolute glass throughput rate) and the ability to process melts with higher waste fractions. Advanced systems based on Joule-Heated Ceramic Melter (JHCM) and Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM) technologies will be evaluated for HLW and LAW processing. Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), DOE's tank waste contractor, is developing and evaluating these systems in cooperation with EM-31, national and university laboratories, and corporate partners. A primary NGM program goal is to develop the systems (and associated flowsheets) to Technology Readiness Level 6 by 2016. Design and testing are being performed to optimize waste glass process envelopes with melter and balance of plant requirements. A structured decision analysis program will be utilized to assess the performance of the competing melter technologies. Criteria selected for the decision analysis program will include physical process operations, melter performance, system compatibility and other parameters.

  17. In situ vitrification of transuranic wastes: An updated systems evaluation and applications assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is a process whereby joule heating immobilizes contaminated soil in place into a durable glass and crystalline waste form. Numerous technological advances made during the past three years in the design, fabrication, and testing of the ISV process are discussed. Performance analysis of ISV focuses on process equipment, element retention (in the vitrified soil during processing), melt geometry, depth monitors, and electrodes. The types of soil and waste processed by ISV are evaluated as process parameters. Economic data provide the production costs of the large-scale unit for radioactive and hazardous chemical wastes (wet and dry). The processing of transuranic-contaminated soils are discussed with respect to occupational and public safety. Alternative applications and operating sequences for various waste sites are identified. The technological data base warrants conducting a large-scale radioactive test at a contaminated soil site at Hanford to provide a representative waste form that can be evaluated to determine its suitability for in-place stabilization of transuranic-contaminated soils

  18. Glass optimization for vitrification of Hanford Site low-level tank waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, X.; Hrma, P.R.; Westsik, J.H. Jr. [and others

    1996-03-01

    The radioactive defense wastes stored in 177 underground single-shell tanks (SST) and double-shell tanks (DST) at the Hanford Site will be separated into low-level and high-level fractions. One technology activity underway at PNNL is the development of glass formulations for the immobilization of the low-level tank wastes. A glass formulation strategy has been developed that describes development approaches to optimize glass compositions prior to the projected LLW vitrification facility start-up in 2005. Implementation of this strategy requires testing of glass formulations spanning a number of waste loadings, compositions, and additives over the range of expected waste compositions. The resulting glasses will then be characterized and compared to processing and performance specifications yet to be developed. This report documents the glass formulation work conducted at PNL in fiscal years 1994 and 1995 including glass formulation optimization, minor component impacts evaluation, Phase 1 and Phase 2 melter vendor glass development, liquidus temperature and crystallization kinetics determination. This report also summarizes relevant work at PNNL on high-iron glasses for Hanford tank wastes conducted through the Mixed Waste Integrated Program and work at Savannah River Technology Center to optimize glass formulations using a Plackett-Burnam experimental design.

  19. SUPERCONDUCTING OPEN-GRADIENT MAGNETIC SEPARATION FOR THE PRETREATMENT OF RADIOACTIVE OR MIXED WASTE VITRIFICATION FEEDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientists need to gain a better understanding of the magnetic separation processes that can be used to separate deleterious constituents (crystalline, amorphous, and colloidal) in vitrification feed streams for borosilicate glass production without adding chemicals or generating...

  20. Interlock recovery during the drying, calcination and vitrification phase of Am/Cm processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document summarizes the results of five CIM5 [5-inch Cylindrical Induction Melter] runs designed to demonstrate power interlock recovery methods during the drying, calcination and vitrification phases of the Am/Cm melter cycle

  1. High level radioactive waste vitrification process equipment component testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemens, D. H.; Health, W. C.; Larson, D. E.; Craig, S. N.; Berger, D. N.; Goles, R. W.

    1985-04-01

    Remote operability and maintainability of vitrification equipment were assessment under shielded cell conditions. The equipment tested will be applied to immobilize high level and transuranic liquid waste slurries that resulted from plutonium production for defense weapons. Equipment tested included: a turntable for handling waste canisters under the melter; a removable discharge cone in the melter overflow section; a thermocouple jumper that extends into a shielded cell; remote instrument and electrical connectors; remote, mechanical, and heat transfer aspects of the melter glass overflow section; a reamer to clean out plugged nozzles in the melter top; a closed circuit camera to view the melter interior; and a device to retrieve samples of the glass product. A test was also conduucted to evaluate liquid metals for use in a liquid metal sealing system.

  2. High level radioactive waste vitrification process equipment component testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remote operability and maintainability of vitrification equipment were assessed under shielded-cell conditions. The equipment tested will be applied to immobilize high-level and transuranic liquid waste slurries that resulted from plutonium production for defense weapons. Equipment tested included: a turntable for handling waste canisters under the melter; a removable discharge cone in the melter overflow section; a thermocouple jumper that extends into a shielded cell; remote instrument and electrical connectors; remote, mechanical, and heat transfer aspects of the melter glass overflow section; a reamer to clean out plugged nozzles in the melter top; a closed circuit camera to view the melter interior; and a device to retrieve samples of the glass product. A test was also conducted to evaluate liquid metals for use in a liquid metal sealing system

  3. Vitrification of TRU wastes at Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immobilization of incinerator ash and various noncombustible TRU wastes was investigated. In three different research projects borosilicate glass proved to be the best candidate for TRU waste fixation. This glass has excellent chemical durability, long-term stability in the presence of radiation, and will withstand continuous temperatures up to 4000C without devitrification. In addition, wastes prepared in the form of glass will attain densities of approximately 2500 kg/m3 (2.5 g/cc). The free forming method of producing glass buttons provides a very simple, consistent, low maintenance way of producing a final waste form for transporting and either retrievable or permanent storage for TRU waste. The vitrification process produces a durable glass from the low density ash generated by the fluidized bed incinerator process and provides volume and weight reductions that are superior to other fixation processes. This results in decreased transportation and storage costs

  4. Vitrification of Bovine Oocytes by Open Pulled Straw

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Shi-en; ZENG Shen-ming; WU Tong-yi; MENG Qing-gang; ZHANG Zhong-cheng; CHEN Yong-fu

    2002-01-01

    Bovine oocytes cultured in vitro for 6 hours or 22 hours were cryopreserved in different vitrification solutions (EFS40, EFS50, EDFS30 or EDFS40) by the two-step method with OPS (open pulled straw).The best results were achieved by using EDFS30 to cryopreserve the oocytes either for in vitro fertilization or for chemical activation. The blastocyst rates were 12% and 17% in 6 hour and 22 hour cultures respectively following in vitro fertilization. If frozen-thawed oocytes were continued in culture up to 24 hours, and were activated by chemicals, the blastocyst rates were 22% and 24% in 6-hour and 22-hour groups respectively.There were no statistical differences between frozen and fresh oocytes (P > 0.05).

  5. Off-gas behavior in the Harvest pot vitrification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conversion of highly radioactive waste liquor into glass by the pot vitrification process has been studied at Harwell using a full-scale inactive pilot plant. A summary of the off-gas behavior and its interpretation is presented. Experimental runs were carried out on 3 representative wastes (MAGNOX - thermal reactor, metal fuel, THORP - thermal oxide fuel and PFR - fast reactor oxide fuel) using 2 methods of feeding the glass-formers (slurry and crizzle). Materials were carried over from the vitrification vessel into the off-gas system by entrainment supplemented by volatilization. The overall behavior of the off-gas was consistent with the presence in it of 5 separate aerosols of particulate matter. Sources of entrainment gave rise to 3 aerosols, and a further 2 aerosols were formed as a result of chemical reaction (Ru) and condensation (Cs) processes involving the volatile species. Entrainment was enhanced when the feed contained free alkali nitrate. The Ru volatility correlated directly with the amount of salt nitrates in the feed. The off-gas equipment consisted of a condenser followed by two packed tower scrubbers. The variation in equipment performance between different sets of experiments could be attributed entirely to changes in the proportion of air present in the off-gas. The entrainment aerosols were the easiest to remove from the off-gas, whilst the Cs aerosol proved to the most difficult. The overall process decontamination factors of the pilot was about 2x104 for vapor-Ru, 2.5-5x103 for particulate-Ru, and 5x103-1x104 for Cs. Non-volatile fission products were about 103 better. These results emphasize the need for a high efficiency filter and a Ru vapor absorber in an off-gas system. (Auth.)

  6. In situ vitrification large-scale operational acceptance test analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A thermal treatment process is currently under study to provide possible enhancement of in-place stabilization of transuranic and chemically contaminated soil sites. The process is known as in situ vitrification (ISV). In situ vitrification is a remedial action process that destroys solid and liquid organic contaminants and incorporates radionuclides into a glass-like material that renders contaminants substantially less mobile and less likely to impact the environment. A large-scale operational acceptance test (LSOAT) was recently completed in which more than 180 t of vitrified soil were produced in each of three adjacent settings. The LSOAT demonstrated that the process conforms to the functional design criteria necessary for the large-scale radioactive test (LSRT) to be conducted following verification of the performance capabilities of the process. The energy requirements and vitrified block size, shape, and mass are sufficiently equivalent to those predicted by the ISV mathematical model to confirm its usefulness as a predictive tool. The LSOAT demonstrated an electrode replacement technique, which can be used if an electrode fails, and techniques have been identified to minimize air oxidation, thereby extending electrode life. A statistical analysis was employed during the LSOAT to identify graphite collars and an insulative surface as successful cold cap subsidence techniques. The LSOAT also showed that even under worst-case conditions, the off-gas system exceeds the flow requirements necessary to maintain a negative pressure on the hood covering the area being vitrified. The retention of simulated radionuclides and chemicals in the soil and off-gas system exceeds requirements so that projected emissions are one to two orders of magnitude below the maximum permissible concentrations of contaminants at the stack

  7. Large area bulk superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Dean J.; Field, Michael B.

    2002-01-01

    A bulk superconductor having a thickness of not less than about 100 microns is carried by a polycrystalline textured substrate having misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.; the bulk superconductor may have a thickness of not less than about 100 microns and a surface area of not less than about 50 cm.sup.2. The textured substrate may have a thickness not less than about 10 microns and misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.. Also disclosed is a process of manufacturing the bulk superconductor and the polycrystalline biaxially textured substrate material.

  8. Development of Cryopreservation Techniques for Gorgonian (Junceella juncea Oocytes through Vitrification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujune Tsai

    Full Text Available Gorgonian corals are slowly declining due to human interaction and environmental impacts. Cryopreservation of gorgonian corals is an ex-situ method of conservation, ensuring future reproduction. The present study assessed the vitrification properties of cryoprotectant (CPT mixtures using the cryotop, cryoloop and open pulled straw (OPS cryopereservation methods prior to experimentation on gorgonian (Junceella juncea oocytes. Investigations of the equilibration and vitrification solutions' (ES and VS effect on oocytes throughout different incubation periods were conducted. The cryotop method was found to be the most successful in ensuring vitrification. The most favourable VS was composed of propylene glycol (PG, ethylene glycol (EG and methanol with concentrations of 3.5 M, 1.5 M and 2 M respectively. Experiments were performed using the cryotop method to cryopreserve Junceella juncea oocytes using VS2, the solution had the least impact on oocytes at 5°C rather than at 26°C. The success of the vitrification procedures was determined by adenosine triphosphate (ATP levels in cooled-thaw oocytes and the highest viability obtained from the present study was 76.6 ± 6.2%. This study provides information regarding gorgonian corals' tolerance and viability throughout vitrification to further advance the vitrification protocol on whip corals.

  9. Molecular mechanism of the synergistic effects of vitrification solutions on the stability of phospholipid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Zak E; Mancera, Ricardo L

    2014-06-17

    The vitrification solutions used in the cryopreservation of biological samples aim to minimize the deleterious formation of ice by dehydrating cells and promoting the formation of the glassy state of water. They contain a mixture of different cryoprotective agents (CPAs) in water, typically polyhydroxylated alcohols and/or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), which can damage cell membranes. Molecular dynamics simulations have been used to investigate the behavior of pure DPPC, pure DOPC, and mixed DOPC-β-sitosterol bilayers solvated in a vitrification solution containing glycerol, ethylene glycol, and DMSO at concentrations that approximate the widely used plant vitrification solution 2. As in the case of solutions containing a single CPA, the vitrification solution causes the bilayer to thin and become disordered, and pores form in the case of some bilayers. Importantly, the degree of thinning is, however, substantially reduced compared to solutions of DMSO containing the same total CPA concentration. The reduction in the damage done to the bilayers is a result of the ability of the polyhydroxylated species (especially glycerol) to form hydrogen bonds to the lipid and sterol molecules of the bilayer. A decrease in the amount of DMSO in the vitrification solution with a corresponding increase in the amount of glycerol or ethylene glycol diminishes further its damaging effect due to increased hydrogen bonding of the polyol species to the bilayer headgroups. These findings rationalize, to our knowledge for the first time, the synergistic effects of combining different CPAs, and form the basis for the optimization of vitrification solutions. PMID:24940779

  10. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Quality Assurance Program description for high-level waste form development and qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Project has been established to convert the high-level radioactive waste associated with nuclear defense production at the Hanford Site into a waste form suitable for disposal in a deep geologic repository. The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant will mix processed radioactive waste with borosilicate material, then heat the mixture to its melting point (vitrification) to forin a glass-like substance that traps the radionuclides in the glass matrix upon cooling. The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Quality Assurance Program has been established to support the mission of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant. This Quality Assurance Program Description has been written to document the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Quality Assurance Program

  11. Vitrificated cryopreservation of biological tissue and cells%生物组织细胞的玻璃化冷冻保存

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴志谷; 陈圣清

    2002-01-01

    Vitrificated indicates the high adhesion state of solution at extremely low temperature(-115℃ )[1].No ice crystals are formed when extracellular and intracellular solution is under state of vitrification,and hence eliminating mechanic injury and preserving activity of biological tissues.In 1980's, cryopreservation of mouse embrgos, red cells,rats ocytes,human monocytes was successfully performed[2-4].After that,some researchers successfully preserved cornea and skin by vitrification[5-8].In order to elucidate preservation of cells and tissues by vitrification and widen apply of vitrification,we investigate principle of vitrification, solution,devitrification and its application.

  12. Vitrification of noble metals containing NCAW simulant with an engineering scale melter (ESM): Campaign report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunewald, W.; Roth, G.; Tobie, W.; Weisenburger, S.; Weiss, K.; Elliott, M.; Eyler, L.L.

    1996-03-01

    ESM has been designed as a 10th-scale model of the DWPF-type melter, currently the reference melter for nitrification of Hanford double shell tankwaste. ESM and related equipment have been integrated to the existing mockup vitrification plant VA-WAK at KfK. On June 2-July 10, 1992, a shakedown test using 2.61 m{sup 3} of NCAW (neutralized current acid waste) simulant without noble metals was performed. On July 11-Aug. 30, 1992, 14.23 m{sup 3} of the same simulant with nominal concentrations of Ru, Rh, and Pd were vitrified. Objective was to investigate the behavior of such a melter with respect to discharge of noble metals with routine glass pouring via glass overflow. Results indicate an accumulation of noble metals in the bottom area of the flat-bottomed ESM. About 65 wt% of the noble metals fed to the melter could be drained out, whereas 35 wt% accumulated in the melter, based on analysis of glass samples from glass pouring stream in to the canisters. After the melter was drained at the end of the campaign through a bottom drain valve, glass samples were taken from the residual bottom layer. The samples had significantly increased noble metals content (factor of 20-45 to target loading). They showed also a significant decrease of the specific electric resistance compared to bulk glass (factor of 10). A decrease of 10- 15% of the resistance between he power electrodes could be seen at the run end, but the total amount of noble metals accumulated was not yet sufficient enough to disturb the Joule heating of the glass tank severely.

  13. Computer modeling of fluid flow and combustion in the ISV (In Situ Vitrification) confinement hood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.W.; Paik, S.

    1990-09-01

    Safety and suitability objectives for the application of the In Situ Vitrification (ISV) technology at the INEL require that the physical processes involved in ISVV be modeled to determine their operational behavior. The mathematical models that have been determined to address the modeling needs adequately for the ISV analysis package are detailed elsewhere. The present report is concerned with the models required for simulating the reacting flow that occurs in the ISV confinement hood. An experimental code named COYOTE has been secured that appears adequate to model the combustion in the confinement hood. The COYOTE code is a two-dimensional, transient, compressible, Eulerian, gas dynamics code for modeling reactive flows. It recognizes nonuniform Cartesian and cylindrical geometry and is based on the ICE (Implicit Continuous-fluid Eulerian) family of solution methods. It includes models for chemical reactions based on chemical kinetics as well as equilibrium chemistry. The mathematical models contained in COYOTE, their discrete analogs, the solution procedure, code structure and some test problems are presented in the report. 12 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Computer modeling of fluid flow and combustion in the ISV [In Situ Vitrification] confinement hood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safety and suitability objectives for the application of the In Situ Vitrification (ISV) technology at the INEL require that the physical processes involved in ISVV be modeled to determine their operational behavior. The mathematical models that have been determined to address the modeling needs adequately for the ISV analysis package are detailed elsewhere. The present report is concerned with the models required for simulating the reacting flow that occurs in the ISV confinement hood. An experimental code named COYOTE has been secured that appears adequate to model the combustion in the confinement hood. The COYOTE code is a two-dimensional, transient, compressible, Eulerian, gas dynamics code for modeling reactive flows. It recognizes nonuniform Cartesian and cylindrical geometry and is based on the ICE (Implicit Continuous-fluid Eulerian) family of solution methods. It includes models for chemical reactions based on chemical kinetics as well as equilibrium chemistry. The mathematical models contained in COYOTE, their discrete analogs, the solution procedure, code structure and some test problems are presented in the report. 12 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs

  15. The modulation effect of substrate doping on multi-node charge collection and single-event transient propagation in 90-nm bulk complementary metal-oxidesemiconductor technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Jun-Rui; Chen Shu-Ming; Liu Bi-Wei; Liu Zheng; Liang Bin; Du Yan-Kang

    2011-01-01

    Variation of substrate background doping will affect the charge collection of active and passive MOSFETs in complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technologies,which are significant for charge sharing,thus affecting the propagated single event transient pulsewidths in circuits.The trends of charge collected by the drain of a positive channel metal-oxide semiconductor (PMOS) and an N metal-oxide semiconductor (NMOS) are opposite as the substrate doping increases.The PMOS source will inject carriers after strike and the amount of charge injected will increase as the substrate doping increases,whereas the source of the NMOS will mainly collect carriers and the source of the NMOS can also inject electrons when the substrate doping is light enough.Additionally,it indicates that substrate doping mainly affects the bipolar amplification component of a single-event transient current,and has little effect on the drift and diffusion.The change in substrate doping has a much greater effect on PMOS than on NMOS.

  16. Cost effectiveness studies of environmental technologies: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines cost effectiveness studies of environmental technologies including the following: (1) In Situ Air Stripping, (2) Surface Towed Ordinance Locator System, (3) Ditch Witch Horizontal Boring Technology, (4) Direct Sampling Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer, (5) In Situ Vitrification, (6) Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System, (7) In Situ Bioremediation, and (8) SEAMIST Membrane System Technology

  17. Ion Exchange Resin and Clay Vitrification by Plasma Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz A., Laura V.; Pacheco S., Joel O.; Pacheco P., Marquidia; Monroy G., Fabiola; Emeterio H., Miguel; Ramos F., Fidel

    2006-12-01

    The lack of treatment of a low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILRW) lead us to propose a vitrification process based on a plasma discharge; this technique incorporates LILRW into a matrix glass composed of ceramic clays material. The Mexican Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ), uses an ion exchange resin IRN 150 (styrene-divinilbence copolymer) in the TRIGA MARK III nuclear reactor. The principal objective of this resin is to absorb particles containing heavy metals and low-level radioactive particles. Once the IRN 150 resin filter capacity has been exceeded, it should be replaced and treated as LILRW. In this work, a transferred plasma system was realized to vitrify this resin taking advantage of its high power density, enthalpy and chemical reactivity as well as its rapid quenching and high operation temperatures. In order to characterize the morphological structure of these clay samples, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) techniques were applied before and after the plasma treatment.

  18. Underground tank vitrification: Field-scale experiments and computational analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is a thermal waste remediation process developed by researchers at Pacific Northwest Laboratory for stabilization and treatment of soils contaminated with hazardous, radioactive, or mixed wastes. Many underground tanks containing radioactive and hazardous chemical wastes at U.S. Department of Energy sites will soon require remediation. Recent development activities have been pursued to determine if the ISV process is applicable to underground storage tanks. As envisioned, ISV will convert the tank, tank contents, and associated contaminated soil to a glass and crystalline block. Development activities include testing and demonstration on three scales and computational modeling and evaluation. In this paper, the authors describe engineering solutions implemented on the field scale to mitigate unique problems posed by ISV of a confined underground structure along with the associated computational analysis. The ISV process, as applied to underground storage tanks, is depicted. The process is similar to ISV of contaminated soils except the tank also melts and forms a metal ingot at the bottom of the melt

  19. Temperature Distribution within a Cold Cap during Nuclear Waste Vitrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Derek R.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Riley, Brian J.; Pokorny, Richard; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2015-07-21

    The kinetics of the feed-to-glass conversion affects the waste vitrification rate in an electric melter. The primary area of interest in this conversion process is the cold cap, a layer of reacting feed on top of molten glass. Knowing the temperature profile within a cold cap will help determine its characteristics and relate them to the rate of glass production. The work presented here provides an experimental determination of the temperature distribution within the cold cap. Since a direct measurement of the temperature field within the cold cap is impracticable, an indirect method was developed where the textural features in a laboratory-made cold cap with a high-level waste feed were mapped as a function of position using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. To correlate the temperature distribution to microstructures within the cold cap, microstructures were identified of individual feed samples that were heat treated to set temperatures between 400°C and 1200°C and quenched. The temperature distribution within the cold cap was then established by correlating cold-cap regions with the feed samples of nearly identical structures and was compared with the temperature profile from a mathematical model.

  20. Study on technology of lowering propylene consumption in a batch bulk PP plant%降低间歇本体法PP装置丙烯单耗的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新; 张国瑞

    2011-01-01

    分析了造成间歇本体法聚丙烯(PP)生产过程中丙烯单耗高的原因,提出了用变压吸附工艺回收不凝气,用连续氮气汽提置换闪蒸釜的工艺设想,初步研究和实践证明,采用连续汽提置换工艺可将闪蒸釜氮气置换过程排出的气体全部排入气柜回收处理,变压吸附工艺处理后的净化氮气中丙烯体积分数约1%,该技术预计可使间歇本体法PP装置每吨PP的丙烯单耗低于1.010 k.%The authors analyzed the reason for high propylene monomer consumption in a batch bulk polypropylene(PP) plant, and proposed an innovation for recovering noncondensable gas with pressure swing adsorption(PSA) and purging the gas displaced by continuously stripping nitrogen in the flash kettle into the gas holder. The trial operation proves that the continuously stripping process can put the replaced gas into the gas holder for recycling completely. The average content of propylene in purified nitrogen after PSA is approximately 1%. The propylene monomer consumption per ton of PP is expected to be lower than 1.010 kg with using the technology in the batch bulk PP plant.

  1. [Vitrification: a future technique for ovarian cryopreservation? Physical basis of cryobiology, advantages and limits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courbière, B; Baudot, A; Mazoyer, C; Salle, B; Lornage, J

    2009-10-01

    Ovarian cryopreservation is presently indicated in patients who undergo a gonadotoxic treatment, most commonly for anticancer procedures. These procedures can strongly alter fertility by damaging the follicular ovarian reserve. Although six human live births have been described in the world after ovarian tissue cryopreservation and autografting, the techniques of cryopreservation techniques are not consensual. Vitrification is a physical process that allows cryopreservation without formation of ice crystals, by transformation of a highly concentrated solution in a glassy or amorphous state. Vitrification is at present rapidly expanding in the biology of reproduction. With the classic methods of freezing, formation of ice crystals within the ovarian tissue is systematic and can entail cellular lesions. Which is why more and more teams question the theoretical advantage of the vitrification for ovarian cryopreservation. Our objective was to summarize the fundamental physical basis of cryobiology, necessary for an understanding of vitrification. From our experience, we also wanted to point out the practical difficulties of this technique, and we are proposing a model of evaluation and validation that uses differential scanning calorimetry, applicable to any protocol of vitrification.

  2. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING (FBSR) OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW) ORGANIC AND NITRATE DESTRUCTION PRIOR TO VITRIFICATION: CRUCIBLE SCALE TO ENGINEERING SCALE DEMONSTRATIONS AND NON-RADIOACTIVE TO RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C; Michael Williams, M; Gene Daniel, G; Paul Burket, P; Charles Crawford, C

    2009-02-07

    Over a decade ago, an in-tank precipitation process to remove Cs-137 from radioactive high level waste (HLW) supernates was demonstrated at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The full scale demonstration with actual HLW was performed in SRS Tank 48 (T48). Sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) was added to enable Cs-137 extraction as CsTPB. The CsTPB, an organic, and its decomposition products proved to be problematic for subsequent processing of the Cs-137 precipitate in the SRS HLW vitrification facility for ultimate disposal in a HLW repository. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as a technology for destroying the organics and nitrates in the T48 waste to render it compatible with subsequent HLW vitrification. During FBSR processing the T48 waste is converted into organic-free and nitrate-free carbonate-based minerals which are water soluble. The soluble nature of the carbonate-based minerals allows them to be dissolved and pumped to the vitrification facility or returned to the tank farm for future vitrification. The initial use of the FBSR process for T48 waste was demonstrated with simulated waste in 2003 at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) using a specially designed sealed crucible test that reproduces the FBSR pyrolysis reactions, i.e. carbonate formation, organic and nitrate destruction. This was followed by pilot scale testing of simulants at the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science & Technology Application Research (STAR) Center in Idaho Falls, ID by Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and SRNL in 2003-4 and then engineering scale demonstrations by THOR{reg_sign} Treatment Technologies (TTT) and SRS/SRNL at the Hazen Research, Inc. (HRI) test facility in Golden, CO in 2006 and 2008. Radioactive sealed crucible testing with real T48 waste was performed at SRNL in 2008, and radioactive Benchscale Steam Reformer (BSR) testing was performed in the SRNL Shielded Cell Facility (SCF) in 2008.

  3. Cellular damage suffered by equine embryos after exposure to cryoprotectants or cryopreservation by slow-freezing or vitrification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks - Onstein, Karin; Roelen, B A J; Colenbrander, B; Stout, T A E

    2015-01-01

    REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Equine embryos are cryopreserved by slow-freezing or vitrification. While small embryos (<300 μm) survive cryopreservation reasonably well, larger embryos do not. It is not clear if slow-freezing or vitrification is less damaging to horse embryos. OBJECTIVES: To compare

  4. Superconducting RF cavities film of bulk

    CERN Document Server

    Darriulat, Pierre

    1999-01-01

    The successful operation of LEP2 has demonstrated the feasibility of using on a large scale copper accelerating cavities coated with a thin superconducting niobium film. Yet other existing or planned installations such as CEBAF and TESLA, rely instead on the bulk niobium technology. The reason is a wide spread belief that the film technology would suffer from fundamental limitations preventing high gradients to be reached...

  5. Evaluation of new concepts for in situ vitrification: Power system, melt insulation, and off-gas containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luey, J.; Powell, T.D.; Heath, W.O.; Richardson, R.L.

    1992-07-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is a thermal process that converts contaminated soil into a highly leach-resistant material resembling natural obsidian. The ISV process was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL)(a) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to treat soils contaminated with transuranics. Since 1980, ISV has grown from a concept to an innovative technology through bench-, engineering-, intermediate-, and full-scale tests. Efforts by PNL have developed ISV into a technology considered available for limited deployment to remediate contaminated soil. The technology has been transferred to a licensee for commercial application. In September 1991, PNL conducted an operational acceptance test (OAT) of the modified engineering-scale unit. The OAT provided an opportunity to conduct proof-of-principle testing of new concepts for ISV technology. This additional testing was permitted since it was determined that testing of these new concepts would have no impact on the OAT objective. In discussing the proof-of-principle portion of the engineering-scale test, this report presents conclusions from this work and also describes the conceptual bases of the tested concepts, the engineering-scale test equipment and setup, and test results.

  6. Obesity does not aggravate vitrification injury in mouse embryos: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Wenhong

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is associated with poor reproductive outcomes, but few reports have examined thawed embryo transfer in obese women. Many studies have shown that increased lipid accumulation aggravates vitrification injury in porcine and bovine embryos, but oocytes of these species have high lipid contents (63 ng and 161 ng, respectively. Almost nothing is known about lipids in human oocytes except that these cells are anecdotally known to be relatively lipid poor. In this regard, human oocytes are considered to be similar to those of the mouse, which contain approximately 4 ng total lipids/oocyte. To date, no available data show the impact of obesity on vitrification in mouse embryos. The aim of this study was to establish a murine model of maternal diet-induced obesity and to characterize the effect of obesity on vitrification by investigating the survival rate and embryo developmental competence after thawing. Methods Prospective comparisons were performed between six–eight-cell embryos from obese and normal-weight mice and between fresh and vitrified embryos. Female C57BL/6 mice were fed standard rodent chow (normal-weight group or a high-fat diet (obese group for 6 weeks. The mice were mated, zygotes were collected from oviducts and cultured for 3 days, and six–eight-cell embryos were then selected to assess lipid content in fresh embryos and to evaluate differences in apoptosis, survival, and development rates in response to vitrification. Results In fresh embryos from obese mice, the lipid content (0.044 vs 0.030, Pvs.9.3%, Pvs. 93.1%, P Conclusions This study demonstrated that differences in survival and developmental rates between embryos from obese and normal-weight mice were eliminated after vitrification. Thus, maternal obesity does not aggravate vitrification injury, but obesity alone greatly impairs pre-implantation embryo survival and development.

  7. Treatability study work plan for in situ vitrification of seepage pit 1 in Waste Area Grouping 7 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A treatability study is described that encompasses the application of in situ vitrification (ISV) to at least two segments of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) seepage pit 1 by the end of fiscal year 1995. This treatability study will establish the field-scale technical performance of ISV for (1) attaining the required depth, nominally 15 ft, to incorporate source contamination within and beneath the pits; (2) demonstrating field capability for the overlapping melt settings that are necessary to achieve fused melt segments; (3) demonstrating off-gas handling technology for accommodating and minimizing the volatilization of 137Cs; (4) demonstrating adequate site characterization techniques to predict ISV melting kinetics, processing temperatures, and product durability; and (5) promoting public acceptance of ISV technology by demonstrating its safety, implementability, site impacts, and air emissions and by coordinating the treatability study within the regulatory closure process. The initial step of this treatability study will be to gather the required site characterization data about pit 1 so that the in situ vitrification can be effectively and safely planned. The second phase will be the field ISV operations at pit 1 employing at least two settings to achieve overlapping and fused melts. Such field operations are likely to require 6 to 8 weeks. Following termination of ISV melting operations at pit 1 and demobilization of portable ISV equipment and the off-gas hood, posttest characterization activities will begin

  8. Plasma arc and cold crucible furnace vitrification for medium level waste: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poitou, S.; Fiquet, O.; Bourdeloie, C.; Gramondi, P.; Rebollo, F. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Etudes des Dechets, DED, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Girold, C.; Charvillat, J.P.; Boen, R.; Jouan, A.; Ladirat, C.; Nabot, J.P.; Ochem, D. [CEA Marcoule, Dept. d' Ingenierie et d' Etudes des Confinements DIEC, 30 (France); Baronnet, J.M. [Limoges Univ., Lab. de Chimie des Plasma, 87 (France)

    2001-07-01

    Initially developed for high-level waste reprocessing, several vitrification processes have been under study since the 80's at the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) for other waste categories. According to the French law concerning waste management research passed on December 30, 1991, vitrification may be applied to mixed medium-level waste. A review of processes developed at CEA is presented: cold crucible furnace heated by induced current, refractory furnace heated by nitrogen transferred arc plasma torch, and coupling of cold crucible furnace with oxygen transferred plasma arc twin torch. Furthermore, gas post-combustion has been studied with an oxygen non-transferred plasma torch. (authors)

  9. Plasma arc and cold crucible furnace vitrification for medium level waste: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Initially developed for high-level waste reprocessing, several vitrification processes have been under study since the 80's at the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) for other waste categories. According to the French law concerning waste management research passed on December 30, 1991, vitrification may be applied to mixed medium-level waste. A review of processes developed at CEA is presented: cold crucible furnace heated by induced current, refractory furnace heated by nitrogen transferred arc plasma torch, and coupling of cold crucible furnace with oxygen transferred plasma arc twin torch. Furthermore, gas post-combustion has been studied with an oxygen non-transferred plasma torch. (authors)

  10. Behavior of ruthenium, cesium and antimony during simulated HLLW vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behavior of ruthenium, cesium, and antimony during the vitrification of simulated high-level radioactive liquid wastes (HLLW) in a liquid fed melter was studied on a laboratory scale and on a semi-pilot scale. In the laboratory melter of a 2.5 kg capacity, a series of tests with the simulate traced with 103Ru, 134Cs and 124Sb, has shown that the Ru and Cs losses to the melter effluent are generally higher than 10% whereas the antimony losses remain lower than 0.4%. A wet purification system comprising in series, a dust scrubber, a condenser, an ejector venturi and an NOx washing column retains most of the activity present in the off-gas so that the release fractions for Ru at the absolute filter inlet ranges between 5.10-3 to 5.10-5% of the Ru fed, for Cs the corresponding release fraction ranges between 3.10-3 to 10-4% and for Sb the release fraction ranges between 1.7 10-4 to 1.7 10-5%. The same experiments were performed at a throughput of 1 to 2 1 h-1 of simulated solution in the semi-pilot scale unit RUFUS. The RUFUS unit comprises a glass melter with a 50 kg molten glass capacity and the wet purification train comprises in series a dust scrubber, a condenser, an ejector venturi and an NOx washing column. The tracer tests were restricted to 103Ru and 134Cs since the laboratory tests had shown that the antimony losses were very low. The results of the tests are presented

  11. Mechanism of ruthenium dioxide crystallization during high level waste vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruthenium, arising from the reprocessing of spent uranium oxide fuel, has a low solubility in glass melt. It crystallizes in the form of particles of RuO2 of acicular or polyhedral morphology dispersed in fission product and actinides waste containment glass. Since the morphology of these particles strongly influences the physico-chemical properties, the knowledge and the control of their mechanism of formation are of major importance. The goal of this work is to determine the chemical reactions responsible for the formation of RuO2 particles of acicular or polyhedral shape during glass synthesis. Using a simplification approach, the reactions between RuO2-NaNO3, and more complex calcine RuO2-Al2O3-Na2O and a sodium borosilicate glass are studied. In situ scanning electron microscopy and XANES at increasing temperatures are used to follow changes in composition, speciation and morphology of the ruthenium intermediate species. Those compounds are thoroughly characterised by SEM, XRD, HRTEM, and ruthenium K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. This combined approach allows us to show that the ruthenium speciation modification during vitrification is the key of control of the morphology of RuO2 particles in the glass. In particular, the formation of a specific intermediate compound (Na3RuO4) is one of the main steps that lead to the precipitation of needle-shaped RuO2 particles in the melt. The formation of polyhedral particles, on the contrary, results from the direct incorporation of RuO2 crystals in the melt followed by an Ostwald ripening mechanism. (author)

  12. Flammability Control In A Nuclear Waste Vitrification System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamecnik, John R.; Choi, Alexander S.; Johnson, Fabienne C.; Miller, Donald H.; Lambert, Daniel P.; Stone, Michael E.; Daniel, William E. Jr.

    2013-07-25

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Site processes high-level radioactive waste from the processing of nuclear materials that contains dissolved and precipitated metals and radionuclides. Vitrification of this waste into borosilicate glass for ultimate disposal at a geologic repository involves chemically modifying the waste to make it compatible with the glass melter system. Pretreatment steps include removal of excess aluminum by dissolution and washing, and processing with formic and nitric acids to: 1) adjust the reduction-oxidation (redox) potential in the glass melter to reduce radionuclide volatility and improve melt rate; 2) adjust feed rheology; and 3) reduce by steam stripping the amount of mercury that must be processed in the melter. Elimination of formic acid in pretreatment has been studied to eliminate the production of hydrogen in the pretreatment systems, which requires nuclear grade monitoring equipment. An alternative reductant, glycolic acid, has been studied as a substitute for formic acid. However, in the melter, the potential for greater formation of flammable gases exists with glycolic acid. Melter flammability is difficult to control because flammable mixtures can be formed during surges in offgases that both increase the amount of flammable species and decrease the temperature in the vapor space of the melter. A flammable surge can exceed the 60% of the LFL with no way to mitigate it. Therefore, careful control of the melter feed composition based on scaled melter surge testing is required. The results of engineering scale melter tests with the formic-nitric flowsheet and the use of these data in the melter flammability model are presented.

  13. U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory Solid-State Lighting Core Technologies Light Emitting Diodes on Semipolar Bulk GaN Substrate with IQE > 80% at 150 A/cm2 and 100 0C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Arpan [Soraa, Inc., Fremont, CA (United States); David, Aurelien [Soraa, Inc., Fremont, CA (United States); Grundmann, Michael [Soraa, Inc., Fremont, CA (United States); Tyagi, Anurag [Soraa, Inc., Fremont, CA (United States); Craven, Michael [Soraa, Inc., Fremont, CA (United States); Hurni, Christophe [Soraa, Inc., Fremont, CA (United States); Cich, Michael [Soraa, Inc., Fremont, CA (United States)

    2015-03-31

    GaN is a crucial material for light-emitting diodes (LEDs) emitting in the violet-to-green range. Despite its good performance, it still suffers from significant technical limitations. In particular, the efficiency of GaN-based LEDs decreases at high current (“current droop”) and high temperature (“temperature droop”). This is problematic in some lighting applications, where a high-power operation is required. This program studied the use of particular substrates to improve the efficiency of GaN-based LEDs: bulk semipolar (SP) GaN substrates. These substrates possess a very high material quality, and physical properties which are distinctly different from legacy substrates currently used in the LED industry. The program focused on the development of accurate metrology to quantify the performance of GaN-based LEDs, and on improvement to LED quality and design on SP substrates. Through a thorough optimization process, we demonstrated violet LEDs with very high internal quantum efficiency, exceeding 85% at high temperature and high current. We also investigated longer-wavelength blue emitters, but found that the limited strain budget was a key limitation.

  14. Risk Assessment supporting the decision on the initial selection of supplemental ILAW technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A risk assessment on the long-term environmental impact of various potential waste forms was conducted at the request of the Hanford Site's Mission Acceleration Initiative Team. These potential waste forms (bulk vitrification, cast stone, and steam reformer) may treat some of the low-activity waste currently planned to be treated at the Waste Treatment Plant

  15. Risk Assessment supporting the decision on the initial selection of supplemental ILAW technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MANN, F. M.

    2003-09-29

    A risk assessment on the long-term environmental impact of various potential waste forms was conducted at the request of the Hanford Site's Mission Acceleration Initiative Team. These potential waste forms (bulk vitrification, cast stone, and steam reformer) may treat some of the low-activity waste currently planned to be treated at the Waste Treatment Plant.

  16. Cold crucible vitrification of defense waste surrogate and vitrified product characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the contract 'Advanced Melter Technology Application to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) - Cold Crucible Induction Heated Melter (CCIM)', vitrification tests with Savannah River Site defense waste surrogate were performed at the SIA Radon facility. Cold crucible melters with inner diameter of 216 mm and 418 mm were used in the testing. Commercially available (USA) frits 200 and 320 were used as glass-forming additives. In three different test campaigns, waste additive mixtures were fed as slurries with ∼60 wt.%, ∼30 wt.%, and 45 wt.% water content. Maximum slurry capacity and glass productivity under steady-state conditions were 35.4 kg/h and 16.2 kg/h, respectively. Specific glass productivity reached up to ∼3000 kg/(m2xday). The average melt process temperature was 1250- 1350 deg. C. Waste loadings in glass were 45 wt.% in tests 1 and 2 and 50 wt.% in test 3. The glasses produced were found to be homogeneous but contained a magnetite-type phase with the spinel structure due to high iron and manganese content in waste. Spinel was observed in the glassy matrix as individual regular crystals and their aggregates. All the waste uranium entered the vitreous phase. Infra-red spectra consist of strong absorption bands due to bridging Si-O-Si and non-bridging Si-O- bonds, some weak bands due to B-O bonds, and a number of narrow bands due to occurrence of the crystalline phase. The glassy products demonstrate high leach resistance. Normalized release of major glass elements (Na, Li, B, Si) is by 10 to 50 times lower than the values required for repository disposition by EPA. (author)

  17. HEMISPHERIC CENTER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Ebadian

    1999-03-30

    A vendor was selected for the diamond wire technology demonstration scheduled for this summer at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). A team consisting of personnel from FIU-HCET, PPPL, and AEA Technology reviewed the submitted bids. FIU-HCET will contract this vendor. At the SRS Ninth ICT teleconference, the ICT team discussed the status of the following demonstrations: LRAD; x-ray, K-edge; Strippable Coatings; Thermal Spray Vitrification; Cutting/Shearing/Dismantlement/Size Reduction; and Electrets. The LRAD demo is complete, and the x-ray/K-edge, Strippable Coatings, and Electrets demos are ongoing. The Asbestos and Thermal Spray Vitrification demos require more laboratory testing. The Cutting/Shearing/Dismantlement/Size Reduction demo is undergoing procurement. Five FIU-HCET staff members took the 1S0 14000 environmental auditor training course February 22-26, 1999, given by ASC. The test plan for the Facility Dismantlement Technology Assessment is finished and ready for internal review.

  18. Wormholes in Bulk Viscous Cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    Jamil, Mubasher

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the effects of the accretion of phantom energy with non-zero bulk viscosity onto a Morris-Thorne wormhole. We have found that if the bulk viscosity is large then the mass of wormhole increases rapidly as compared to small or zero bulk viscosity.

  19. Unraveling protein stabilization mechanisms : Vitrification and water replacement in a glass transition temperature controlled system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grasmeijer, N; Stankovic, M; de Waard, H; Frijlink, H W; Hinrichs, W L J

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of the two main mechanisms used to explain the stabilization of proteins by sugar glasses during drying and subsequent storage: the vitrification and the water replacement theory. Although in literature protein stability is often attributed to either v

  20. 76 FR 13605 - Notice of Availability of Draft Waste Incidental to Reprocessing Evaluation for the Vitrification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... waste from reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel and certain treatment material) at the West Valley... a solid glass waste form. DOE used the vitrification melter as part of this process, specifically to melt glass frit (material used in making glass) together with reprocessing waste sludge and...

  1. Cryopreservation of Endothelial Cells in Various Cryoprotective Agents and Media - Vitrification versus Slow Freezing Methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achim von Bomhard

    Full Text Available Vitrification of endothelial cells (MHECT-5 has not previously been compared with controlled slow freezing methods under standardized conditions. To identify the best cryopreservation technique, we evaluated vitrification and standardized controlled-rate -1°C/minute cell freezing in a -80°C freezer and tested four cryoprotective agents (CPA, namely dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, ethylene glycol (EG, propylene glycol (PG, and glycerol (GLY, and two media, namely Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium Ham's F-12 (DMEMand K+-modified TiProtec (K+TiP, which is a high-potassium-containing medium. Numbers of viable cells in proliferation were evaluated by the CellTiter 96® AQueous One Solution Cell Proliferation Assay (Promega Corporation, Mannheim, Germany. To detect the exact frozen cell number per cryo vial, DNA content was measured by using Hoechst 33258 dye prior to analysis. Thus, results could be evaluated unconstrained by absolute cell number. Thawed cells were cultured in 25 cm2 cell culture flasks to confluence and examined daily by phase contrast imaging. With regard to cell recovery immediately after thawing, DMSO was the most suitable CPA combined with K+TiP in vitrification (99 ±0.5% and with DMEM in slow freezing (92 ±1.6%. The most viable cells in proliferation after three days of culture were obtained in cells vitrificated by using GLY with K+TiP (308 ±34% and PG with DMEM in slow freezing (280 ±27%.

  2. Waste vitrification: prediction of acceptable compositions in a lime-soda-silica glass-forming system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model is presented based upon calculated bridging oxygens which allows the prediction of the region of acceptable glass compositions for a lime-soda-silica glass-forming system containing mixed waste. The model can be used to guide glass formulation studies (e.g., treatability studies) or assess the applicability of vitrification to candidate waste streams

  3. Effect of Vitrification on Sperm Parameters and Apoptosis in Fertile Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Adib

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Today, cryopreservation of the human sperm is a common technique for treating infertility. It has been indicated that cryopreservation by different methods decrease the sperm motility and viability in fertile men, but still effect of freezing of the sperm by vitrification method have not been evaluated on sperm parameters and apoptosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of vitrification of sperm of fertile men on different sperm parameters (motility, morphology, viability and count and apoptosis after thawing. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study which was conducted at Yazd Infertility Research and Clinical Center in 2009, seventeen semen samples were collected by masturbation from people who came to this centre. Semen analysis was performed according to WHO standards. Smear was provided from these samples and fixed for TUNEL staining. Some samples were directly cryopreserved by cryoloope in liquid nitrogen and stored at least for Seven days. After thawing, samples were evaluated for sperm parameters. The collected data was analyzed by the SPSS software using paired T-test and Willcoxon statistical test. Results: The progressive movement of sperm was significantly decreased by vitrification. Also significant decrease in viability and morphology of the sperm and increase in the rate of apoptosis was observed after vitrification. The amount of apoptosis had negatively correlated with normal parameters of spermatozoa (especially progressive motility and viability. Conclusion: These results indicated that vitrification is harmful for sperm parameters and of apoptosis rate in fertile men. However, the apoptosis rate was lower compared to other freezing methods.

  4. Alternation of apoptotic and implanting genes expression of mouse embryos after re-vitrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi Gharenaz, Nasrin; Movahedin, Mansoureh; Mazaheri, Zohreh; Pour beiranvand, Shahram

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nowadays, oocytes and embryos vitrification has become a routine technique. Based on clinical judgment, re-vitrification maybe required. But little is known about re-vitrification impact on genes expression. Objective: The impact of re-vitrification on apoptotic and implanting genes, Bax, Bcl-2 and ErbB4, at compaction stage embryos were evaluated in this study. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 8 cell embryos (n=240) were collected from female mature mice, 60-62 hr post HCG injection. The embryos were divided randomly to 3 groups included: fresh (n=80), vitrified at 8 cell stage (n=80), vitrified at 8 cell stage thawed and re-vitrified at compaction stage (n=80). Embryos were vitrified by using cryolock, (open system) described by Kuwayama. Q-PCR was used to examine the expression of Bax, Bcl2 ErbB4 genes in derived blastocysts. Results: Our result showed that expanded blastocyst rate was similar between vitrified and re-vitrified groups, while re-vitrified embryos showed significant decrease in expanded blastocyst rate comparing with fresh embryos (p=0.03). In addition, significant difference was observed on apoptotic gene expression when comparing re-vitrified and fresh embryos (p=0.004), however expression of Bax and Bcl-2 (apoptotic) genes didn't demonstrate a significant difference between re-vitrified and vitrified groups. The expression rate of ErbB4, an implantation gene was decreased in re-vitrified embryos comparing with fresh embryos (p=0.003), but it was similar between re-vitrified and vitrified embryos. Conclusion: Re-vitrification can alter the expression of Bax, Bcl-2 and ErbB4 genes and developmental rate of mouse embryos in compaction stage. PMID:27679826

  5. The Incredible Bulk

    CERN Document Server

    Fukushima, Keita; Kumar, Jason; Sandick, Pearl; Yamamoto, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    Recent experimental results from the LHC have placed strong constraints on the masses of colored superpartners. The MSSM parameter space is also constrained by the measurement of the Higgs boson mass, and the requirement that the relic density of lightest neutralinos be consistent with observations. Although large regions of the MSSM parameter space can be excluded by these combined bounds, leptophilic versions of the MSSM can survive these constraints. In this paper we consider a scenario in which the requirements of minimal flavor violation, vanishing $CP$-violation, and mass universality are relaxed, specifically focusing on scenarios with light sleptons. We find a large region of parameter space, analogous to the original bulk region, for which the lightest neutralino is a thermal relic with an abundance consistent with that of dark matter. We find that these leptophilic models are constrained by measurements of the magnetic and electric dipole moments of the electron and muon, and that these models have ...

  6. Creating bulk nanocrystalline metal.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredenburg, D. Anthony (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Saldana, Christopher J. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Gill, David D.; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Roemer, Timothy John (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Vogler, Tracy John; Yang, Pin

    2008-10-01

    Nanocrystalline and nanostructured materials offer unique microstructure-dependent properties that are superior to coarse-grained materials. These materials have been shown to have very high hardness, strength, and wear resistance. However, most current methods of producing nanostructured materials in weapons-relevant materials create powdered metal that must be consolidated into bulk form to be useful. Conventional consolidation methods are not appropriate due to the need to maintain the nanocrystalline structure. This research investigated new ways of creating nanocrystalline material, new methods of consolidating nanocrystalline material, and an analysis of these different methods of creation and consolidation to evaluate their applicability to mesoscale weapons applications where part features are often under 100 {micro}m wide and the material's microstructure must be very small to give homogeneous properties across the feature.

  7. Diffusion or bulk flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    the concentration gradient or bulk flow along a pressure gradient. The driving force seems to depend on the mode of phloem loading. In a majority of plant species phloem loading is a thermodynamically active process, involving the activity of membrane transporters in the sieve-element companion cell complex. Since...... assimilate movement includes an apoplasmic step, this mode is called apoplasmic loading. Well established is also the polymer-trap loading mode, where the phloem-transport sugars are raffinose-family oligomers in herbaceous plants. Also this mode depends on the investment of energy, here for sugar......Assimilates synthesized in the mesophyll of mature leaves move along the pre-phloem transport pathway to the bundle sheath of the minor veins from which they are loaded into the phloem. The present review discusses the most probable driving force(s) for the pre-phloem pathway, diffusion down...

  8. Bulk-Fill Resin Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Havndrup-Pedersen, Cæcilie; Honoré, Daniel;

    2015-01-01

    the restorative procedure. The aim of this study, therefore, was to compare the depth of cure, polymerization contraction, and gap formation in bulk-fill resin composites with those of a conventional resin composite. To achieve this, the depth of cure was assessed in accordance with the International Organization...... for Standardization 4049 standard, and the polymerization contraction was determined using the bonded-disc method. The gap formation was measured at the dentin margin of Class II cavities. Five bulk-fill resin composites were investigated: two high-viscosity (Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, SonicFill) and three low......-viscosity (x-tra base, Venus Bulk Fill, SDR) materials. Compared with the conventional resin composite, the high-viscosity bulk-fill materials exhibited only a small increase (but significant for Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill) in depth of cure and polymerization contraction, whereas the low-viscosity bulk...

  9. In situ vitrification demonstration at Pit 1, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Volume 1: Results of treatability study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spalding, B.P.; Naney, M.T.; Cline, S.R.; Bogle, M.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Tixier, J.S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-12-01

    A treatability study was initiated in October 1993 to apply in situ vitrification (ISV) to at least two segments of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) seepage Pit 1 by the end of fiscal year (FY) 1995. This treatability study was later extended to include all of Pit 1 and was performed to support a possible Interim Record of Decision or removal action for closure of one or more of the seepage pits and trenches beginning as early as FY 1997. This treatability study was carried out to establish the field-scale technical performance of ISV for (1) attaining the required depth, nominally 15 ft, to incorporate source contamination within and beneath the pits; (2) demonstrating field capability for the overlap of melt settings which will be necessary to achieve fused, melted segments of the source contamination; (3) demonstrating off-gas handling technology for accommodating and minimizing the volatilization of {sup 137}Cs; (4) demonstrating adequate site characterization techniques to predict ISV melting kinetics, processing temperatures, and product durability; and (5) promoting public acceptance of ISV technology by demonstrating its safety, implementability, site impacts, and air emissions and by coordinating the treatability study within the regulatory closure process. In April 1996 an expulsion of an estimated 10% of the 196 Mg (216 tons) melt body occurred resulting in significant damage to ISV equipment and, ultimately, led to an indefinite suspension of further ISV operations at Pit 1. This report summarizes the technical accomplishments and status of the project in fulfilling these objectives through September 1997.

  10. In situ vitrification demonstration at Pit 1, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Volume 1: Results of treatability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A treatability study was initiated in October 1993 to apply in situ vitrification (ISV) to at least two segments of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) seepage Pit 1 by the end of fiscal year (FY) 1995. This treatability study was later extended to include all of Pit 1 and was performed to support a possible Interim Record of Decision or removal action for closure of one or more of the seepage pits and trenches beginning as early as FY 1997. This treatability study was carried out to establish the field-scale technical performance of ISV for (1) attaining the required depth, nominally 15 ft, to incorporate source contamination within and beneath the pits; (2) demonstrating field capability for the overlap of melt settings which will be necessary to achieve fused, melted segments of the source contamination; (3) demonstrating off-gas handling technology for accommodating and minimizing the volatilization of 137Cs; (4) demonstrating adequate site characterization techniques to predict ISV melting kinetics, processing temperatures, and product durability; and (5) promoting public acceptance of ISV technology by demonstrating its safety, implementability, site impacts, and air emissions and by coordinating the treatability study within the regulatory closure process. In April 1996 an expulsion of an estimated 10% of the 196 Mg (216 tons) melt body occurred resulting in significant damage to ISV equipment and, ultimately, led to an indefinite suspension of further ISV operations at Pit 1. This report summarizes the technical accomplishments and status of the project in fulfilling these objectives through September 1997

  11. NPP bulk equipment dismantling problems and experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NPP bulk equipment dismantling problems and experience are summarized. 'ECOMET-S' JSC is shown as one of the companies which are able to make NPPs industrial sites free from stored bulk equipment with its further utilization. 'ECOMET-S' JSC is the Russian Federation sole specialized metallic LLW (MLLW) treatment and utilization facility. Company's main objectives are waste predisposal volume reduction and treatment for the unrestricted release as a scrap. Leningrad NPP decommissioned main pumps and moisture separators/steam super heaters dismantling results are presented. Prospective fragmentation technologies (diamond and electro-erosive cutting) testing results are described. The electro-erosive cutting machine designed by 'ECOMET-S' JSC is presented. The fragmentation technologies implementation plans for nuclear industry are presented too. (author)

  12. Development and adoption of low sodium glass frit for vitrification of high level radioactive liquid waste at Tarapur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High level Liquid Waste (HLW) is generated during the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel which is used to recover uranium and plutonium. More than 99% of the fission product activity generated during the burning of nuclear fuel in the reactor is present in HLW. For the efficient management of HLW by vitrification, sodium borosilicate glass has been adopted worldwide. Sodium oxide acts as modifier in glass matrix and variation in its concentration may vary the properties of the glass and hence the melter parameters. The HLW presently used for vitrification has higher concentration of sodium. As the composition of the base glass is fixed the concentration of Na in the HLW is one of the limiting factors for the waste loading for the vitrification process. Present article gives a brief account of the formulation of a base glass frit with lower sodium content and the feedback after implementing in the vitrification plant. (author)

  13. Integration of bulk piezoelectric materials into microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktakka, Ethem Erkan

    Bulk piezoelectric ceramics, compared to deposited piezoelectric thin-films, provide greater electromechanical coupling and charge capacity, which are highly desirable in many MEMS applications. In this thesis, a technology platform is developed for wafer-level integration of bulk piezoelectric substrates on silicon, with a final film thickness of 5-100microm. The characterized processes include reliable low-temperature (200°C) AuIn diffusion bonding and parylene bonding of bulk-PZT on silicon, wafer-level lapping of bulk-PZT with high-uniformity (+/-0.5microm), and low-damage micro-machining of PZT films via dicing-saw patterning, laser ablation, and wet-etching. Preservation of ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties is confirmed with hysteresis and piezo-response measurements. The introduced technology offers higher material quality and unique advantages in fabrication flexibility over existing piezoelectric film deposition methods. In order to confirm the preserved bulk properties in the final film, diaphragm and cantilever beam actuators operating in the transverse-mode are designed, fabricated and tested. The diaphragm structure and electrode shapes/sizes are optimized for maximum deflection through finite-element simulations. During tests of fabricated devices, greater than 12microm PP displacement is obtained by actuation of a 1mm2 diaphragm at 111kHz with management IC, which incorporates a supply-independent bias circuitry, an active diode for low-dropout rectification, a bias-flip system for higher efficiency, and a trickle battery charger. The overall system does not require a pre-charged battery, and has power consumption of sleep-mode (simulated). Under lg vibration at 155Hz, a 70mF ultra-capacitor is charged from OV to 1.85V in 50 minutes.

  14. Cryopreservation of Rat Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Two Conventional and Open-pulled Straw Vitrification Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hadi Bahadori

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are obtained from a variety of sources, mainlythe bone marrow. These cells have a great potential for clinical research, however they cannotstay alive for long periods in culture. The aim of this study is to determine whether vitrificationcan be a useful freezing method for the storage of MSCs.Materials and Methods: Mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from rat bone marrow basedon their capacity to adhere to plastic culture surfaces. MSCs were cryopreserved using boththe vitrification method and open-pulled straw (OPS vitrification and stored in liquid nitrogenwith ethylene glycol ficoll (EFS as a cryoprotectant for two months. The morphology andviability of thawed MSCs were evaluated by trypan blue staining. Furthermore, pre and postcryopreserved MSCs were induced to osteocyte and adipocyte with corresponding osteogenicand adipogenic medium.Results: After thawing, the viability rates were 81.33% ± 6.83 for the vitrification method and80.83% ± 6.4 for OPS vitrification, while the values in the pre-vitrification control group were88.16% ± 6.3 (Mean ± SD, n = 6. Post-cryopreserved cells from both the vitrification methodand OPS vitrification also had a similar cellular morphology and colony-formation that wasindistinguishable from non-vitrified fresh MSCs. In addition, the resuscitated cells cultured ininduction medium showed osteogenesis. Mineral production and deposition was detectableby alizarine red S staining. Moreover, by applying an adipogenic differentiation condition,both pre and post cryopreserved cells differentiated into adipocyte and lipid vacuole accumulationthat was stained by oil red O.Conclusion: Vitrification is a reliable and effective method for the cryopreservation of MSCs.

  15. Effects of vitrification on ram spermatozoa using free-egg yolk extenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Rabadán, Pilar; García-Álvarez, Olga; Vidal, Ana; Maroto-Morales, Alejandro; Iniesta-Cuerda, María; Ramón, Manuel; del Olmo, Enrique; Fernández-Santos, Rocío; Garde, J Julián; Soler, Ana Josefa

    2015-08-01

    The present study aimed to examine the behavior of ram spermatozoa subjected to a vitrification process in free-egg yolk diluents in relation with conventional diluents and cryopreservation protocol used in this species. Previously it was investigated the toxicity of cryoprotectants, sucrose and glycerol, based on different concentrations (sucrose at 0.03 M, 0.05 M, 0.15 M and 0.25 M; and glycerol at 3%, 7%, 14% and 18%) compared to a commercial extender (Biladyl® with 20% egg yolk and 7% glyerol). Cryoprotectants which reported less toxicity were chosen to perform the vitrification and results were compared with the conventional cryopreservation. Semen from three rams was collected by electroejaculation. The sperm evaluation was carried out at 0, 2 and 4h through the incubation time at 37°C for the experiment of toxicity and, at thawing when cryopreservation was performed. The sperm quality throughout the incubation time always resulted lower (P⩽0.05) for the free-egg yolk diluents in relation to Biladyl® (control), obtaining the lowest values of sperm quality with the highest concentrations of sucrose and glycerol. The vitrification was carried out with combinations of sucrose and glycerol (sucrose at 0.03 and 0.05 M with 3% and 7% of glycerol, respectively) and with Biladyl® (at different sperm concentrations). The vitrification decreased drastically (P⩽0.05) the sperm quality when combinations of sucrose and glycerol were used. Nevertheless, the sperm samples vitrified with Biladyl® at the lowest sperm concentration showed acceptable values of viability, acrosome integrity and DFI, although the sperm motility was strongly decreased. In conclusion, the use of vitrification with diluents based on combinations of sucrose and glycerol did not work for semen cryopreservation of ram. Promising results were obtained when diluents with egg yolk were used in the vitrification procedure, although more studies are necessary to improve this technique and the use

  16. Effects of vitrification on ram spermatozoa using free-egg yolk extenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Rabadán, Pilar; García-Álvarez, Olga; Vidal, Ana; Maroto-Morales, Alejandro; Iniesta-Cuerda, María; Ramón, Manuel; del Olmo, Enrique; Fernández-Santos, Rocío; Garde, J Julián; Soler, Ana Josefa

    2015-08-01

    The present study aimed to examine the behavior of ram spermatozoa subjected to a vitrification process in free-egg yolk diluents in relation with conventional diluents and cryopreservation protocol used in this species. Previously it was investigated the toxicity of cryoprotectants, sucrose and glycerol, based on different concentrations (sucrose at 0.03 M, 0.05 M, 0.15 M and 0.25 M; and glycerol at 3%, 7%, 14% and 18%) compared to a commercial extender (Biladyl® with 20% egg yolk and 7% glyerol). Cryoprotectants which reported less toxicity were chosen to perform the vitrification and results were compared with the conventional cryopreservation. Semen from three rams was collected by electroejaculation. The sperm evaluation was carried out at 0, 2 and 4h through the incubation time at 37°C for the experiment of toxicity and, at thawing when cryopreservation was performed. The sperm quality throughout the incubation time always resulted lower (P⩽0.05) for the free-egg yolk diluents in relation to Biladyl® (control), obtaining the lowest values of sperm quality with the highest concentrations of sucrose and glycerol. The vitrification was carried out with combinations of sucrose and glycerol (sucrose at 0.03 and 0.05 M with 3% and 7% of glycerol, respectively) and with Biladyl® (at different sperm concentrations). The vitrification decreased drastically (P⩽0.05) the sperm quality when combinations of sucrose and glycerol were used. Nevertheless, the sperm samples vitrified with Biladyl® at the lowest sperm concentration showed acceptable values of viability, acrosome integrity and DFI, although the sperm motility was strongly decreased. In conclusion, the use of vitrification with diluents based on combinations of sucrose and glycerol did not work for semen cryopreservation of ram. Promising results were obtained when diluents with egg yolk were used in the vitrification procedure, although more studies are necessary to improve this technique and the use

  17. Bulk metallic glasses: A new class of engineering materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Joysurya Basu; S Ranganathan

    2003-06-01

    Bulk glass-forming alloys have emerged over the past fifteen years with attractive properties and technological promise. A number of alloy systems based on lanthanum, magnesium, zirconium, palladium, iron, cobalt and nickel have been discovered. Glass-forming ability depends on various factors like enthalpy of mixing, atomic size and multicomponent alloying. A number of processes is available to synthesise bulk metallic glasses. The crystallisation behaviour and mechanical properties of these alloys pose interesting scientific questions. Upon crystallisation many of these glasses transform to bulk nanocrystals and nanoquasicrystals. A detailed study of the structure and the crystallisation behaviour of glasses has enabled the elucidation of the possible atomic configuration in liquid alloys. Their crystallisation behaviour can be exploited to synthesise novel nanocomposite microstructures and their mechanical properties can be enhanced. A broad overview of the present status of the science and technology of bulk metallic glasses and their potential technological uses is presented.

  18. Effects of cryoprotectant concentration and cooling rate on vitrification of aqueous solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Berejnov, V; Alsaied, O A; Thorne, R E; Berejnov, Viatcheslav; Husseini, Naji S.; Alsaied, Osama A.; Thorne, Robert E.

    2006-01-01

    Vitrification of aqueous cryoprotectant mixtures is essential in cryopreservation of proteins and other biological samples. We report systematic measurements of critical cryoprotective agent (CPA) concentrations required for vitrification during plunge cooling from T=295 K to T=77 K in liquid nitrogen. Measurements on fourteen common CPAs including alcohols (glycerol, methanol, isopropanol), sugars (sucrose, xylitol, dextrose, trehalose), PEGs (ethylene glycol, PEG 200, PEG 2 000, PEG 20 000), glycols (DMSO, MPD), and salt (NaCl) were performed for volumes ranging over four orders of magnitude from ~nL to 20 mkL, and covering the range of interest in protein crystallography. X-ray diffraction measurements on aqueous glycerol mixtures confirm that the polycrystalline-to-vitreous transition occurs within a span of less than 2% w/v in CPA concentration, and that the form of polycrystalline ice (hexagonal or cubic) depends on CPA concentration and cooling rate. For most of the studied cryoprotectants, the critica...

  19. Ultrastructure of bovine oocytes exposed to Taxol prior to OPS vitrification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morató, Roser; Mogas, Teresa; Maddox-Hyttel, Poul

    2008-01-01

    Our objective was to document potential subcellular consequences of treatment with the microtubule stabilizer Taxol with or without subsequent vitrification of cow and calf oocytes by the open pulled straw (OPS) method. Oocytes were divided into four experimental groups for cows and four groups...... for calves: (1) a control group fixed immediately after maturation; (2) an OPS group cryopreserved by conventional OPS; (3) a Taxol/CPA group exposed to 1 microM Taxol and cryoprotective agents (CPAs); and (4) a Taxol/OPS group vitrified by OPS including 1 microM Taxol to the vitrification solution. All...... in both cow and calf oocytes. However, in cow OPS oocytes, the metaphase plate was disorganized into scattered chromosomes or the chromosomes were condensed into a single block of chromatin. In addition, microtubules were not organized as typical spindles. In contrast, cow Taxol/OPS oocytes as well...

  20. Demonstrating compliance with WAPS 1.3 in the Hanford waste vitrification plant process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, M.F.; Piepel, G.F.; Simpson, D.B.

    1996-03-01

    The high-level waste (HLW) vitrification plant at the Hanford Site was being designed to immobilize transuranic and high-level radioactive waste in borosilicate glass. This document describes the statistical procedure to be used in verifying compliance with requirements imposed by Section 1.3 of the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS, USDOE 1993). WAPS 1.3 is a specification for ``product consistency,`` as measured by the Product Consistency Test (PCT, Jantzen 1992b), for each of three elements: lithium, sodium, and boron. Properties of a process batch and the resulting glass are largely determined by the composition of the feed material. Empirical models are being developed to estimate some property values, including PCT results, from data on feed composition. These models will be used in conjunction with measurements of feed composition to control the HLW vitrification process and product.

  1. HWVP pilot-scale vitrification system campaign: LFCM-8 summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, J.M.; Whitney, L.D.; Buchmiller, W.C.; Daume, J.T.; Whyatt, G.A.

    1996-04-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is being designed to treat the high-level radiative waste (HLW) stored in underground storage tanks as an alkaline sludge. Tank waste will first be retrieved and pretreated to minimize solids requiring vitrification as HLW. The glass product resulting from HWVP operations will be stored onsite in stainless steel canisters until the HLW repository is available for final disposal. The first waste stream scheduled to be processed by the HWVP is the neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) stored in double-shell storage tanks. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is supporting Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) by providing research, development, and engineering expertise in defined areas. As a part of this support, pilot-scale testing is being conducted to support closure of HWVP design and development issues. Testing results will verify equipment design performance, establish acceptable and optimum process parameters, and support product qualification activities.

  2. HWVP pilot-scale vitrification system campaign: LFCM-8 summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is being designed to treat the high-level radiative waste (HLW) stored in underground storage tanks as an alkaline sludge. Tank waste will first be retrieved and pretreated to minimize solids requiring vitrification as HLW. The glass product resulting from HWVP operations will be stored onsite in stainless steel canisters until the HLW repository is available for final disposal. The first waste stream scheduled to be processed by the HWVP is the neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) stored in double-shell storage tanks. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is supporting Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) by providing research, development, and engineering expertise in defined areas. As a part of this support, pilot-scale testing is being conducted to support closure of HWVP design and development issues. Testing results will verify equipment design performance, establish acceptable and optimum process parameters, and support product qualification activities

  3. Hanford waste vitrification plant process description, process advancements, and Hanford site interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westinghouse Hanford Company, a prime operating contractor to the U.S. Department of Energy in Richland, Washington, has the lead responsibility for development, design, construction, and operation of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant. The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant will be built for the U.S. Department of Energy to vitrify existing and future liquid high level and transuranic wastes produced by defense activities at the Hanford Site. Start of construction is scheduled for mid1991. Hot startup currently is scheduled for December 1999, and acceleration of the hot startup schedule is under consideration. Requirements related to interfaces with existing Hanford Site facilities and other site specific requirements are discussed in this paper. Design of the feed transfer and lag storage, radioactive liquid waste treatment and recycle, and process off gas treatment systems is significantly affected by site specific requirements. Recent developments in design of these systems are described. 3 figs

  4. Application of evolved gas analysis to cold-cap reactions of melter feeds for nuclear waste vitrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Carmen P. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd., P.O. Box 999, MSIN K6-24, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Chun, Jaehun, E-mail: jaehun.chun@pnnl.gov [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd., P.O. Box 999, MSIN K6-24, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Schweiger, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd., P.O. Box 999, MSIN K6-24, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Kruger, Albert A. [U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Hrma, Pavel [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd., P.O. Box 999, MSIN K6-24, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-20

    Highlights: • We applied the TGA-GC–MS combination to perform EGA of glass batches. • We confirmed the proportionality between mass loss rate and gas evolution intensities. • Proportionality coefficients can be obtained via single-reaction calibration. • Quantitative EGA allows mass loss rates to be matched with evolution rates for gases. • Industrial and waste glass technology can benefit from quantitative EGA. - Abstract: In the vitrification of nuclear wastes, the melter feed (a mixture of nuclear waste and glass-forming and modifying additives) experiences multiple gas-evolving reactions in an electrical glass-melting furnace. We employed the thermogravimetry-gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (TGA-GC–MS) combination to perform evolved gas analysis (EGA). Along with identifying the gases evolved, we performed quantitative analysis relating the weighted sum of intensities of individual gases in linear proportion with the differential thermogravimetry. The proportionality coefficients were obtained by three methods based on the stoichiometry, least squares, and calibration. The linearity was shown to be a good first-order approximation, in spite of the complicated overlapping reactions.

  5. Oocyte vitrification in the 21st century and post-warming fertility outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potdar, Neelam; Gelbaya, Tarek A; Nardo, Luciano G

    2014-08-01

    Oocyte cryopreservation is a rapidly developing technology, which is increasingly being used for various medical, legal and social reasons. There are inconsistencies in information regarding survival rate and fertility outcomes. This systematic review and meta-analysis provides evidence-based information about oocyte survival and fertility outcomes post warming to help women to make informed choices. All randomized and non-randomized, controlled and prospective cohort studies using oocyte vitrification were included. The primary outcome measure was ongoing pregnancy rate/warmed oocyte. Sensitivity analysis for donor and non-donor oocyte studies was performed. Proportional meta-analysis of 17 studies, using a random-effects model, showed pooled ongoing pregnancy and clinical pregnancy rates per warmed oocyte of 7%. Oocyte survival, fertilization, cleavage, clinical pregnancy and ongoing pregnancy rates per warmed oocyte were higher in donor versus non-donor studies. Comparing vitrified with fresh oocytes, no statistically significant difference was observed in fertilization, cleavage and clinical pregnancy rates, but ongoing pregnancy rate was reduced in the vitrified group (odds ratio 0.74), with heterogeneity between studies. Considering the age of women and the reason for cryopreservation, reasonable information can be given to help women to make informed choices. Future studies with outcomes from oocytes cryopreserved for gonadotoxic treatment may provide more insight. PMID:24931362

  6. Ultrastructural and Morphalogical Changes of Mouse Ovarian Tissues Following Direct Cover Vitrification with Different Cryoprotectants

    OpenAIRE

    Ghavami, Maryam; Mohammadnejad, Daryoush; Beheshti, Rahim; Solmani-rad, Jafar; Abedelahi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cryopreservation of mammalian ovaries has been reported with different levels of success. Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue may be a potential alternative for treatment of infertility and many attempts have been done to improve the efficiency of ovarian cryopreservation. The objective of the present study was to compare the direct cover vitrification (DCV) with ethylene glycol (EG), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and EG plus DMSO. Methods: Eighty five mice were sacrificed by cervical ...

  7. Process for the storage of borate containing radioactive wastes by vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For storage of radioactive waste by vitrification the radioactive waste concentrates from borate-containing liquids are mixed with glass-forming aggregates. The borates make up a major part of the glass product. A glass product with good chemical and physical properties for storage is produced by heating to produce a glass-forming melt. Lead oxides and silicates in particular are considered suitable aggregate materials. (orig.)

  8. Thermal spray vitrification process for the removal of lead oxide contained in organic paints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karthikeyan, J.; Chen, J.; Bancke, G.A.; Herman, H.; Berndt, C.C. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Breslin, V.T. [Marine Science Research Center, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA) regulations have necessitated the removal and containment of toxic lead from lead oxide containing paints. The Thermal Spray Vitrification Process (TSVP) is a novel technique in which a glass powder of appropriate composition is flame sprayed onto the painted surface to achieve removal and vitrification of the lead. Two different glass systems, i.e., alkali silicate and ferrous silicate, were chosen for detailed study. Appropriate amounts of raw materials were mixed, fused, quenched, ground and sieved to obtain the spray quality powders. Grit blasted mild steel coupons were used as test substrates for the spray parameter optimization studies; while those coupons with lead oxide containing organic paint were used for the lead removal experiments. The powders and deposits were investigated using Microtrac particle size analysis (for powders), optical microscopy, XRD and SEM. The remnant lead in the panel was measured using a specially prepared X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) system. The lead leach rate was recorded as per US-EPA approved Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). The results of this study have shown that lead oxide can be successfully removed form the paint by flame spraying a maximum of three layers of glass onto the painted surface. It is possible to obtain much higher lead removal rate with ferrous silicate glass as compared to alkali silicate glass is much higher than the ferrous silicate glass. The in situ vitrification has not been completely optimized; however, the lead containing glass coating can be remelted in situ or on site to enhance the vitrification of the lead which had been absorbed in the glass coating.

  9. The Effects of AFGP Addition and Removing Protocol of CPA on Vitrification Cryopreservation of Osteoblasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    1 Introduction Vitrification is an effective method for cryopreservation of cells~([1, 2]). However, cells are usually damaged due to the osmotic injury caused by the higher concentrations of cryoprotective agents (CPA) during CPA removing. The ice recrystallization in thawing solution can also hurt cells seriously. Antifreeze glycoprotein (AFGPs) is extremely efficient at inhibiting ice recrystallization~([3]).The effects of Removing protocols and AFGP on cell viability were investigated. 2 Materials and M...

  10. A state of the art review of vitrification of high level waste in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper gives a review of the state-of-the-art of the development and demonstration of vitrification processes for high level radioactive waste solutions on an industrial scale in four European countries (France, United Kingdom, Federal Republic of Germany and Belgium). Historical development, experiences and operations present status and future plans are presented. Three of the processes which seem to be of major importance are described (AVM-France, HARVEST-United Kingdom, PAMELA Germany/Belgium). (author)

  11. Effective Oocyte Vitrification and Survival Techniques for Bovine Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min Jee; Lee, Seung Eun; Kim, Eun Young; Lee, Jun Beom; Jeong, Chang Jin; Park, Se Pill

    2015-06-01

    Bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) using vitrified-thawed (VT) oocytes has been studied; however, the cloning efficiency of these oocytes is not comparable with that of nonvitrified (non-V) fresh oocytes. This study sought to optimize the survival and cryopreservation of VT oocytes for SCNT. Co-culture with feeder cells that had been preincubated for 15 h significantly improved the survival of VT oocytes and their in vitro developmental potential following SCNT in comparison to co-culture with feeder cells that had been preincubated for 2, 5, or 24 h (pEVT) group, 13.7%; VT group, 15.0%; p<0.05] and was comparable with that of the non-V group (25.9%). The reactive oxygen species level was significantly lower in the EAVT group than in the other vitrification groups (p<0.05). mRNA levels of maternal genes (ZAR1, BMP15, and NLRP5) and a stress gene (HSF1) were lower in the vitrification groups than in the non-V group (p<0.05), whereas the level of phospho-p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase did not differ among the groups. Among the vitrification groups, blastocysts in the EAVT group had the best developmental potential, as judged by their high mRNA expression of developmental potential-related genes (POU5f1, Interferon-tau, and SLC2A5) and their low expression of proapoptotic (CASP3) and stress (Hsp70) genes. This study demonstrates that SCNT using bovine frozen-thawed oocytes can be successfully achieved using optimized vitrification and co-culture techniques. PMID:25984830

  12. Reactive Additive Stabilization Process (RASP) for hazardous and mixed waste vitrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C.M.; Pickett, J.B.; Ramsey, W.G.

    1993-07-01

    Solidification of hazardous/mixed wastes into glass is being examined at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for (1) nickel plating line (F006) sludges and (2) incinerator wastes. Vitrification of these wastes using high surface area additives, the Reactive Additive Stabilization Process (RASP), has been determined to greatly enhance the dissolution and retention of hazardous, mixed, and heavy metal species in glass. RASP lowers melt temperatures (typically 1050-- 1150{degrees}C), thereby minimizing volatility concerns during vitrification. RASP maximizes waste loading (typically 50--75 wt% on a dry oxide basis) by taking advantage of the glass forming potential of the waste. RASP vitrification thereby minimizes waste disposal volume (typically 86--97 vol. %), and maximizes cost savings. Solidification of the F006 plating line sludges containing depleted uranium has been achieved in both soda-lime-silica (SLS) and borosilicate glasses at 1150{degrees}C up to waste loadings of 75 wt%. Solidification of incinerator blowdown and mixtures of incinerator blowdown and bottom kiln ash have been achieved in SLS glass at 1150{degrees}C up to waste loadings of 50% using RASP. These waste loadings correspond to volume reductions of 86 and 94 volume %, respectively, with large associated savings in storage costs.

  13. Reactive Additive Stabilization Process (RASP) for hazardous and mixed waste vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solidification of hazardous/mixed wastes into glass is being examined at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for (1) nickel plating line (F006) sludges and (2) incinerator wastes. Vitrification of these wastes using high surface area additives, the Reactive Additive Stabilization Process (RASP), has been determined to greatly enhance the dissolution and retention of hazardous, mixed, and heavy metal species in glass. RASP lowers melt temperatures (typically 1050-- 1150 degrees C), thereby minimizing volatility concerns during vitrification. RASP maximizes waste loading (typically 50--75 wt% on a dry oxide basis) by taking advantage of the glass forming potential of the waste. RASP vitrification thereby minimizes waste disposal volume (typically 86--97 vol. %), and maximizes cost savings. Solidification of the F006 plating line sludges containing depleted uranium has been achieved in both soda-lime-silica (SLS) and borosilicate glasses at 1150 degrees C up to waste loadings of 75 wt%. Solidification of incinerator blowdown and mixtures of incinerator blowdown and bottom kiln ash have been achieved in SLS glass at 1150 degrees C up to waste loadings of 50% using RASP. These waste loadings correspond to volume reductions of 86 and 94 volume %, respectively, with large associated savings in storage costs

  14. Determination of Intracellular Vitrification Temperatures for Unicellular Micro Organisms under Conditions Relevant for Cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Fernanda; Meneghel, Julie; Cenard, Stéphanie; Passot, Stéphanie; Morris, G John

    2016-01-01

    During cryopreservation ice nucleation and crystal growth may occur within cells or the intracellular compartment may vitrify. Whilst previous literature describes intracellular vitrification in a qualitative manner, here we measure the intracellular vitrification temperature of bacteria and yeasts under conditions relevant to cryopreservation, including the addition of high levels of permeating and nonpermeating additives and the application of rapid rates of cooling. The effects of growth conditions that are known to modify cellular freezing resistance on the intracellular vitrification temperature are also examined. For bacteria a plot of the activity on thawing against intracellular glass transition of the maximally freeze-concentrated matrix (Tg') shows that cells with the lowest value of intracellular Tg' survive the freezing process better than cells with a higher intracellular Tg'. This paper demonstrates the role of the physical state of the intracellular environment in determining the response of microbial cells to preservation and could be a powerful tool to be manipulated to allow the optimization of methods for the preservation of microorganisms. PMID:27055246

  15. Development of a glass matrix for vitrification of sulphate bearing high level radioactive liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High level radioactive liquid waste (HLW) is generated during reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. In the earlier reprocessing flow sheet ferrous sulphamate has been used for valancy adjustment of Pu from IV to III for effective separation. This has resulted in generation of HLW containing significance amount of sulphate. Internationally borosilicate glass matrix has been adopted for vitrification of HLW. The first Indian vitrification facility at Waste Immobilislition Plant (WIP), Tarapur a five component borosilicate matrix (SiO2 :B2O3 :Na2O : MnO : TiO2) has been used for vitrification of waste. However at Trombay HLW contain significant amount of sulphate which is not compatible with standard borosilicate formulation. Extensive R and D efforts were made to develop a glass formulation which can accommodate sulphate and other constituents of HLW e.g., U, Al, Ca, etc. This report deals with development work of a glass formulations for immobilization of sulphate bearing waste. Different glass formulations were studied to evaluate the compatibility with respect to sulphate and other constituents as mentioned above. This includes sodium, lead and barium borosilicate glass matrices. Problems encountered in different glass matrices for containment of sulphate have also been addressed. A glass formulation based on barium borosilicate was found to be effective and compatible for sulphate bearing high level waste. (author)

  16. The outcomes of human blastocyst cryopreservation: vitrification using cryoloop versus slow-freezing method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Zheng-yi; He Fang-fang; Yu Qi; Deng Cheng-yan; Liu Mei-zhi

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To compare the outcomes of vitrification using cryoloop with slow-freezing method for human blastocyst cryopreservation.Methods: In IVF-ET cycles, supernumerary embryos were cultured to Day 5 or Day 6, blastocysts were cryopreserved by vitrification using cryoloops or slow-freezing method, then blastocyst survival rate and pregnant rate were compared.Results: 115 vitrified blastocysts from 39 cycles were warmed, 104(90.4%) blastocysts survived. After the transfer of 74 blastocysts in 38 cycles, 28(73.7%) women got clinically pregnant, 2(7.1%) of them suffered from miscarriage, 2 healthy babies were born in 2 deliveries, and the other 24 pregnancies are ongoing. As to slow-freezing method, 87 blastocysts from 21 cycles were thawed, 37(42.5%)of them survived, 28 blastocysts were transferred in 15 cycles, 6(40%) women got clinically pregnant, 1 of them miscarried, 3 healthy babies were born in 2 deliveries, and the other 3 pregnancies are ongoing.Conclusion: The survival rate and pregnant rate of vitrification using cryoloop are superior to traditional slow-freezing method, and the transfer cancel rate is lower than that of slow-freezing method. The miscarriage rate is similar in two methods.

  17. Mining the bulk positron lifetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aourag, H.; Guittom, A. [Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger (CRNA), Alger Gare - Algiers (Algeria)

    2009-02-15

    We introduce a new approach to investigate the bulk positron lifetimes of new systems based on data-mining techniques. Through data mining of bulk positron lifetimes, we demonstrate the ability to predict the positron lifetimes of new semiconductors on the basis of available semiconductor data already studied. Informatics techniques have been applied to bulk positron lifetimes for different tetrahedrally bounded semiconductors in order to discover computational design rules. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. Mining the bulk positron lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We introduce a new approach to investigate the bulk positron lifetimes of new systems based on data-mining techniques. Through data mining of bulk positron lifetimes, we demonstrate the ability to predict the positron lifetimes of new semiconductors on the basis of available semiconductor data already studied. Informatics techniques have been applied to bulk positron lifetimes for different tetrahedrally bounded semiconductors in order to discover computational design rules. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Optimization and Performance Analysis of Bulk-Driven Differential Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antarpreet kaur

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increasing demand for high-speed digital circuits at low power consumption. This paper presents a design of input stage of Operational Amplifier i.e cascode differential amplifier using a standard 65nm CMOS Technology.A comparison betweem gate-driven, bulk-driven and cascode bulk driven bulk-driven differential amplifier is described. The Results demonstrate that CMMR is 83.98 dB, 3-dB Bandwidth is 1.04 MHz. The circuit dissipate power of 28uWunder single supply of 1.0V.

  20. Bulk Nuclear Properties from Reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Danielewicz, P.

    2002-01-01

    Extraction of bulk nuclear properties by comparing reaction observables to results from semiclassical transport-model simulations is discussed. Specific properties include the nuclear viscosity, incompressibility and constraints on the nuclear pressure at supranormal densities.

  1. DNA methylation pattern in mouse oocytes and their in vitro fertilized early embryos: effect of oocyte vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ying; Fu, Xiang-Wei; Li, Jun-Jie; Yuan, Dian-Shuai; Zhu, Shi-En

    2014-05-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the pattern of DNA methylation in vitrified-thawed mouse oocytes and their in vitro fertilized early embryos. Firstly, mouse oocytes at metaphase II (MII) stage of meiosis were allocated randomly into three groups: (1) untreated (control); (2) exposed to vitrification solution without being plunged into liquid nitrogen (toxicity); or (3) vitrified by open-pulled straw (OPS) method (vitrification). Oocytes from all three groups were fertilized subsequently in vitro. The level of DNA methylation in the MII oocytes and their early embryos was then examined by immunofluorescence using an anti-5-methylcytosine (anti-5-MeC) monoclonal antibody and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG. Developmental rates to 2-cell embryos (62.28%) and blastocysts (43.68%) of the vitrified-thawed oocytes were lower (P < 0.01) than those of fresh oocytes (81.47%, 61.99%) and vitrification solution treated (79.20%, 60.04%) oocytes. DNA methylation (as reflected by 5-MeC fluorescence intensity) in the vitrification group was less (P < 0.01) for MII oocyte and 2- to 8-cell stages compared with that in the control and toxicity groups. Accordingly, a reduction in global genomic methylation due to vitrification of MII oocytes may result in compromised in vitro developmental potential in early mouse embryos. PMID:23174120

  2. Lessons Learned In Technology Development for Supplemental Treatment of Low-Activity Waste at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanford needs supplemental technology treatment of low-activity waste (LAW) in addition to the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The Washington State Department of Ecology requires that supplemental technology provide the same protection to human health and the environment as WTP LAW glass. In 2002, the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) evaluated supplemental treatment technologies for LAW treatment and looked more closely at three: bulk vitrification (BV), steam reforming, and tailored cementitious stabilization. US DOE with Ecology's support chose to design and test BV because it believed BV would offer rapid deployment, low cost, and waste stream versatility. This paper will describe the path taken in choosing and developing technologies for additional LAW treatment capacity and, more importantly, the lessons learned along the way. In conclusion: Contractors' off-the-shelf vitrification technology that worked elsewhere may not apply easily to Hanford's waste challenges. The BV development process could have been improved by first identifying and then focusing on primary areas of concern. Continuing integrated tests at the Horn Rapids facility offers a convenient option to test both the dryer and the SMF. But the plan for development of the SMF must be short term with well defined success criteria. US DOE has the responsibility to carefully evaluate each proposal and make critical decisions that will make optimum use of limited funds. The ERP provided valuable technical guidance on improving BV's design. This must be complemented by a similar study of cost effectiveness of a process. We must have a better understanding of life cycle costs before a path for supplemental treatment is chosen. US DOE has now gained five years of experience in developing BV. It is time for US DOE to make defensible economic evaluations before further funding towards developing supplemental treatment. It must reevaluate if the projected advantages of rapid deployment, low cost, and waste

  3. Process system evaluation-consolidated letters. Volume 1. Alternatives for the off-gas treatment system for the low-level waste vitrification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peurrung, L.M.; Deforest, T.J; Richards, J.R.

    1996-03-01

    This report provides an evaluation of alternatives for treating off-gas from the low-level waste (LLW) melter. The study used expertise obtained from the commercial nonradioactive off-gas treatment industry. It was assumed that contact maintenance is possible, although the subsequent risk to maintenance personnel was qualitatively considered in selecting equipment. Some adaptations to the alternatives described may be required, depending on the extent of contact maintenance that can be achieved. This evaluation identified key issues for the off-gas system design. To provide background information, technology reviews were assembled for various classifications of off-gas treatment equipment, including off-gas cooling, particulate control, acid gas control, mist elimination, NO{sub x} reduction, and SO{sub 2} removal. An order-of-magnitude cost estimate for one of the off-gas systems considered is provided using both the off-gas characteristics associated with the Joule-heated and combustion-fired melters. The key issues identified and a description of the preferred off-gas system options are provided below. Five candidate treatment systems were evaluated. All of the systems are appropriate for the different melting/feed preparations currently being considered. The lowest technical risk is achieved using option 1, which is similar to designs for high-level waste (HLW) vitrification in the Hanford Waste Vitrification Project (HWVP) and the West Valley. Demonstration Project. Option 1 uses a film cooler, submerged bed scrubber (SBS), and high-efficiency mist eliminator (HEME) prior to NO{sub x} reduction and high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration. However, several advantages were identified for option 2, which uses high-temperature filtration. Based on the evaluation, option 2 was identified as the preferred alternative. The characteristics of this option are described below.

  4. Vitrification of in vitro matured oocytes collected from surplus ovarian medulla tissue resulting from fertility preservation of ovarian cortex tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Huiqun; Jiang, Hong; Kristensen, Stine Gry;

    2016-01-01

    and warming. METHODS: 36 patients aged from 8 to 41 years who had one ovary excised for fertility preservation were included. Oocytes were collected from the medulla tissue and matured in vitro 44-48 h followed by vitrification. Number of oocytes collected, the rates of maturation and post-warming survival...... following in vitro maturation (IVM) of immature oocytes collected from medulla tissue, of which two survived vitrification and warming. This approach represents an add-on method to potentially augment the fertility opportunity for cancer patients, especially in young women with cancer where transplantation......PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to investigate the maturation rate of immature oocytes collected from ovarian medulla tissue normally discarded during preparation of ovarian cortical tissue for fertility preservation. Further we evaluated survival of derived MII oocytes following vitrification...

  5. Modeling requirements for in situ vitrification. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKinnon, R.J.; Mecham, D.C.; Hagrman, D.L.; Johnson, R.W.; Murray, P.E.; Slater, C.E.; Marwil, E.S.; Weaver, R.A.; Argyle, M.D.

    1991-11-01

    This document outlines the requirements for the model being developed at the INEL which will provide analytical support for the ISV technology assessment program. The model includes representations of the electric potential field, thermal transport with melting, gas and particulate release, vapor migration, off-gas combustion and process chemistry. The modeling objectives are to (1) help determine the safety of the process by assessing the air and surrounding soil radionuclide and chemical pollution hazards, the nuclear criticality hazard, and the explosion and fire hazards, (2) help determine the suitability of the ISV process for stabilizing the buried wastes involved, and (3) help design laboratory and field tests and interpret results therefrom.

  6. Fast Cryopreservation of the Mammalian Embryos in Different Developmental Stages by 0.25 mL Straws Vitrification with One Equilibration Step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Cean

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to test the cryoprotective proprieties of 7 vitrification media, designed in our laboratory, using the 0.25 mL straws vitrification method, with one equilibration step. As biological material we used mouse females, age 2 months superovulated with 5UI PMSG (Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotropine and 5 UI hCG (human Corionic Gonadotropine. For freezing we used embryos in three developmental stages: 2 cells, morula and blastocyst. After recovery, the embryos were placed in equilibration media, after 5 minutes, the embryos were introduced in straws, in vitrification media and plugged directly into liquid nitrogen. After vitrification the straws were thawed in water bath at 37°C, the embryos were rehydrated for 5 minutes and then in vitro cultured. The percent of embryos that rehydrated, resumed development and hatched were registered. The best results were obtained with embryos in morula stage that had a hatching rate of 20.83% when MV1 was used for vitrification. None of the embryos in 2 cells and blastocyst stage hatched after thawing and in vitro culture, regardless of the vitrification media used. From the vitrification media tested, the worst results were obtained with MV4 and MV6, none of the embryos reached hatching stage, regardless of the development stage. The vitrification method in 0.25 mL straws, with one equilibration step can be used for cryopreservation of the morula stage embryos, but is ineffective for vitrification of the 2 cells and blastocyst stage embryo. Media VM4 and VM6 are not suited for vitrification in 0.25 mL straws, with one equilibration step, of mouse embryos.

  7. Evaluation of alternative chemical additives for high-level waste vitrification feed preparation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seymour, R.G.

    1995-06-07

    During the development of the feed processing flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), research had shown that use of formic acid (HCOOH) could accomplish several processing objectives with one chemical addition. These objectives included the decomposition of tetraphenylborate, chemical reduction of mercury, production of acceptable rheological properties in the feed slurry, and controlling the oxidation state of the glass melt pool. However, the DEPF research had not shown that some vitrification slurry feeds had a tendency to evolve hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) as the result of catalytic decomposition of CHOOH with noble metals (rhodium, ruthenium, palladium) in the feed. Testing conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory and later at the Savannah River Technical Center showed that the H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} could evolve at appreciable rates and quantities. The explosive nature of H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} (as ammonium nitrate) warranted significant mitigation control and redesign of both facilities. At the time the explosive gas evolution was discovered, the DWPF was already under construction and an immediate hardware fix in tandem with flowsheet changes was necessary. However, the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) was in the design phase and could afford to take time to investigate flowsheet manipulations that could solve the problem, rather than a hardware fix. Thus, the HWVP began to investigate alternatives to using HCOOH in the vitrification process. This document describes the selection, evaluation criteria, and strategy used to evaluate the performance of the alternative chemical additives to CHOOH. The status of the evaluation is also discussed.

  8. Effect of vitrification on the microRNA transcriptome in mouse blastocysts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueming Zhao

    Full Text Available Vitrification is commonly used in the cryopreservation of mammalian blastocysts to overcome the temporal and spatial limitations of embryo transfer. Previous studies have shown that the implantation ability of vitrified blastocysts is impaired and that microRNAs (miRNAs regulate the critical genes for embryo implantation. However, little information is available about the effect of vitrification on the miRNA transcriptome in blastocysts. In the present study, the miRNA transcriptomes in fresh and vitrified mouse blastocysts were analyzed by miRNA Taqman assay based method, and the results were validated using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. Then, the differentially expressed miRNAs were assessed using the Gene Ontology (GO and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG databases. Overall, 760 known mouse miRNAs were detected in the vitrified and fresh mouse blastocysts. Of these, the expression levels of five miRNAs differed significantly: in the vitrified blastocysts, four miRNAs (mmu-miR-199a-5p, mmu-miR-329-3p, mmu-miR-136-5p and mmu-miR-16-1-3p were upregulated, and one (mmu-miR-212-3p was downregulated. The expression levels of all miRNAs measured by the miRNA Taqman assay based method and qRT-PCR were consistent. The four upregulated miRNAs were predicted to regulate 877 candidate target genes, and the downregulated miRNA was predicted to regulate 231 genes. The biological analysis further showed that the differentially expressed miRNAs mainly regulated the implantation of embryos. In conclusion, the results of our study showed that vitrification significantly altered the miRNA transcriptome in mouse blastocysts, which may decrease the implantation potential of vitrified blastocysts.

  9. Development of analytical cell support for vitrification at the West Valley Demonstration Project. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, F.H.; Borek, T.T.; Christopher, J.Z. [and others

    1997-12-01

    Analytical and Process Chemistry (A&PC) support is essential to the high-level waste vitrification campaign at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). A&PC characterizes the waste, providing information necessary to formulate the recipe for the target radioactive glass product. High-level waste (HLW) samples are prepared and analyzed in the analytical cells (ACs) and Sample Storage Cell (SSC) on the third floor of the main plant. The high levels of radioactivity in the samples require handling them in the shielded cells with remote manipulators. The analytical hot cells and third floor laboratories were refurbished to ensure optimal uninterrupted operation during the vitrification campaign. New and modified instrumentation, tools, sample preparation and analysis techniques, and equipment and training were required for A&PC to support vitrification. Analytical Cell Mockup Units (ACMUs) were designed to facilitate method development, scientist and technician training, and planning for analytical process flow. The ACMUs were fabricated and installed to simulate the analytical cell environment and dimensions. New techniques, equipment, and tools could be evaluated m in the ACMUs without the consequences of generating or handling radioactive waste. Tools were fabricated, handling and disposal of wastes was addressed, and spatial arrangements for equipment were refined. As a result of the work at the ACMUs the remote preparation and analysis methods and the equipment and tools were ready for installation into the ACs and SSC m in July 1995. Before use m in the hot cells, all remote methods had been validated and four to eight technicians were trained on each. Fine tuning of the procedures has been ongoing at the ACs based on input from A&PC technicians. Working at the ACs presents greater challenges than had development at the ACMUs. The ACMU work and further refinements m in the ACs have resulted m in a reduction m in analysis turnaround time (TAT).

  10. Analysis of the phospholipid profile of metaphase II mouse oocytes undergoing vitrification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaehun Jung

    Full Text Available Oocyte freezing confers thermal and chemical stress upon the oolemma and various other intracellular structures due to the formation of ice crystals. The lipid profiles of oocytes and embryos are closely associated with both, the degrees of their membrane fluidity, as well as the degree of chilling and freezing injuries that may occur during cryopreservation. In spite of the importance of lipids in the process of cryopreservation, the phospholipid status in oocytes and embryos before and after freezing has not been investigated. In this study, we employed mass spectrometric analysis to examine if vitrification has an effect on the phospholipid profiles of mouse oocytes. Freshly prepared metaphase II mouse oocytes were vitrified using copper grids and stored in liquid nitrogen for 2 weeks. Fresh and vitrified-warmed oocytes were subjected to phospholipid extraction procedure. Mass spectrometric analyses revealed that multiple species of phospholipids are reduced in vitrified-warmed oocytes. LIFT analyses identified 31 underexpressed and 5 overexpressed phospholipids in vitrified mouse oocytes. The intensities of phosphatidylinositol (PI {18∶2/16∶0} [M-H]- and phosphatidylglycerol (PG {14∶0/18∶2} [M-H]- were decreased the most with fold changes of 30.5 and 19.1 in negative ion mode, respectively. Several sphingomyelins (SM including SM {d38∶3} [M+H]+ and SM {d34∶0} [M+K]+ were decreased significantly in positive ion mode. Overall, the declining trend of multiple phospholipids demonstrates that vitrification has a marked effect on phospholipid profiles of oocytes. These results show that the identified phospholipids can be used as potential biomarkers of oocyte undergoing vitrification and will allow for the development of strategies to preserve phospholipids during oocyte cryopreservation.

  11. Treatment of Asbestos Wastes Using the GeoMelt Vitrification Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The disposal of waste asbestos from decommissioning activities is becoming problematic in countries which have limited disposal space. A particular challenge is the disposal of asbestos wastes from the decommissioning of nuclear sites because some of it is radioactively contaminated or activated and disposal space for such wastes is limited. GeoMeltR vitrification is being developed as a treatment method for volume and toxicity minimization and radionuclide immobilization for UK radioactive asbestos mixed waste. The common practice to date for asbestos wastes is disposal in licensed landfills. In some cases, compaction techniques are used to minimize the disposal space requirements. However, such practices are becoming less practical. Social pressures have resulted in changes to disposal regulations which, in turn, have resulted in the closure of some landfills and increased disposal costs. In the UK, tens of thousands of tonnes of asbestos waste will result from the decommissioning of nuclear sites over the next 20 years. In Japan, it is estimated that over 40 million tonnes of asbestos materials used in construction will require disposal. Methods for the safe and cost effective volume reduction of asbestos wastes are being evaluated for many sites. The GeoMeltR vitrification process is being demonstrated at full-scale in Japan for the Japan Ministry of Environment and plans are being developed for the GeoMelt treatment of UK nuclear site decommissioning-related asbestos wastes. The full-scale treatment operations in Japan have also included contaminated soils and debris. The GeoMeltR vitrification process result in the maximum possible volume reduction, destroys the asbestos fibers, treats problematic debris associated with asbestos wastes, and immobilizes radiological contaminants within the resulting glass matrix. Results from recent full-scale treatment operations in Japan are discussed and plans for GeoMelt treatment of UK nuclear site decommissioning

  12. Evaluation of alternative chemical additives for high-level waste vitrification feed preparation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the development of the feed processing flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), research had shown that use of formic acid (HCOOH) could accomplish several processing objectives with one chemical addition. These objectives included the decomposition of tetraphenylborate, chemical reduction of mercury, production of acceptable rheological properties in the feed slurry, and controlling the oxidation state of the glass melt pool. However, the DEPF research had not shown that some vitrification slurry feeds had a tendency to evolve hydrogen (H2) and ammonia (NH3) as the result of catalytic decomposition of CHOOH with noble metals (rhodium, ruthenium, palladium) in the feed. Testing conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory and later at the Savannah River Technical Center showed that the H2 and NH3 could evolve at appreciable rates and quantities. The explosive nature of H2 and NH3 (as ammonium nitrate) warranted significant mitigation control and redesign of both facilities. At the time the explosive gas evolution was discovered, the DWPF was already under construction and an immediate hardware fix in tandem with flowsheet changes was necessary. However, the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) was in the design phase and could afford to take time to investigate flowsheet manipulations that could solve the problem, rather than a hardware fix. Thus, the HWVP began to investigate alternatives to using HCOOH in the vitrification process. This document describes the selection, evaluation criteria, and strategy used to evaluate the performance of the alternative chemical additives to CHOOH. The status of the evaluation is also discussed

  13. In vivo survival of domestic cat oocytes after vitrification, intracytoplasmic sperm injection and embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, C E; Gómez, M C; Kagawa, N; Kuwayama, M; Leibo, S P; Dresser, B L

    2012-02-01

    We evaluated: (1) cleavage rate after IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) of in vivo- and in vitro-matured oocytes after vitrification (experiment 1); and (2) fetal development after transfer of resultant ICSI-derived embryos into recipients (experiment 2). In vivo-matured cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were recovered from gonadotropin-treated donors at 24 h after LH treatment. In vitro-matured oocytes were obtained by mincing ovaries (from local veterinary clinics) and placing COCs into maturation medium for 24 h. Mature oocytes were denuded and cryopreserved in a vitrification solution of 15% DMSO, 15% ethylene glycol, and 18% sucrose. In experiment 1, for both in vivo- and in vitro-matured oocytes, cleavage frequencies after IVF of control and vitrified oocytes and after ICSI of vitrified oocytes were not different (P > 0.05). After vitrification, blastocyst development occurred only in IVF-derived, in vitro-matured oocytes. In experiment 2, 18 presumptive zygotes and four two-cell embryos derived by ICSI of vitrified in vitro-matured oocytes and 19 presumptive zygotes produced from seven in vivo- and 12 in vitro-matured oocytes were transferred by laparoscopy into the oviducts of two recipients, respectively. On Day 21, there were three fetuses in one recipient and one fetus in the other. On Days 63 and 66 of gestation, four live kittens were born. In vivo viability of zygotes and/or embryos produced via ICSI of vitrified oocytes was established by birth of live kittens after transfer to recipients. PMID:22015162

  14. Development of analytical cell support for vitrification at the West Valley Demonstration Project. Topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytical and Process Chemistry (A ampersand PC) support is essential to the high-level waste vitrification campaign at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). A ampersand PC characterizes the waste, providing information necessary to formulate the recipe for the target radioactive glass product. High-level waste (HLW) samples are prepared and analyzed in the analytical cells (ACs) and Sample Storage Cell (SSC) on the third floor of the main plant. The high levels of radioactivity in the samples require handling them in the shielded cells with remote manipulators. The analytical hot cells and third floor laboratories were refurbished to ensure optimal uninterrupted operation during the vitrification campaign. New and modified instrumentation, tools, sample preparation and analysis techniques, and equipment and training were required for A ampersand PC to support vitrification. Analytical Cell Mockup Units (ACMUs) were designed to facilitate method development, scientist and technician training, and planning for analytical process flow. The ACMUs were fabricated and installed to simulate the analytical cell environment and dimensions. New techniques, equipment, and tools could be evaluated m in the ACMUs without the consequences of generating or handling radioactive waste. Tools were fabricated, handling and disposal of wastes was addressed, and spatial arrangements for equipment were refined. As a result of the work at the ACMUs the remote preparation and analysis methods and the equipment and tools were ready for installation into the ACs and SSC m in July 1995. Before use m in the hot cells, all remote methods had been validated and four to eight technicians were trained on each. Fine tuning of the procedures has been ongoing at the ACs based on input from A ampersand PC technicians. Working at the ACs presents greater challenges than had development at the ACMUs. The ACMU work and further refinements m in the ACs have resulted m in a reduction m in

  15. Two new research melters at the Savannah River Technology Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) is a US Department of Energy (DOE) complex leader in the development of vitrification technology. To maintain and expand this SRTC core technology, two new melter systems are currently under construction in SRTC. This paper discusses the development of these two new systems, which will be used to support current as well as future vitrification programs in the DOE complex. The first of these is the new minimelter, which is a joule-heated glass melter intended for experimental melting studies with nonradioactive glass waste forms. Testing will include surrogates of Defense Waste processing Facility (DWPF) high-level wastes. To support the DWPF testing, the new minimelter was scaled to the DWPF melter based on melt surface area. This new minimelter will replace an existing system and provide a platform for the research and development necessary to support the SRTC vitrification core technology mission. The second new melter is the British Nuclear Fuels, Inc., research melter system (BNFL melter), which is a scaled version of the BNFL low-activity-waste (LAW) melter proposed for vitrification of LAW at Hanford. It is designed to process a relatively large amount of actual radiative Hanford tank waste and to gather data on the composition of off-gases that will be generated by the LAW melter. Both the minimelter and BNFL melter systems consist of five primary subsystems: melter vessel, off-gas treatment, feed, power supply, and instrumentation and controls. The configuration and design of these subsystems are tailored to match the current system requirements and provide the flexibility to support future DOE vitrification programs. This paper presents a detailed discussion of the unique design challenges represented by these two new melter systems

  16. Development of vitrification technology in India for immobilization of high-level radioactive liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work on development of vitreous matrices started in early sixties in the country after proper understanding of demands on product and process. The development studies in collaboration with Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute (CGCRI), Kolkata were initiated in 1965 and continued till 1975. Leaching of developed glass system in distilled water was studied along with the influence of heat treatment on chemical durability of waste products. The results obtained during this historical work were very useful in selection of a glass composition as per the need of melting temperature and % waste incorporation. Work in BARC laboratories at Trombay and Tarapur were continued for characterization of VWP samples after leaching, heat treatment, sputtering and as such specimen using SEM, XRD etc.

  17. Looking for a bulk point

    CERN Document Server

    Maldacena, Juan; Zhiboedov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We consider Lorentzian correlators of local operators. In perturbation theory, singularities occur when we can draw a position-space Landau diagram with null lines. In theories with gravity duals, we can also draw Landau diagrams in the bulk. We argue that certain singularities can arise only from bulk diagrams, not from boundary diagrams. As has been previously observed, these singularities are a clear diagnostic of bulk locality. We analyze some properties of these perturbative singularities and discuss their relation to the OPE and the dimensions of double-trace operators. In the exact nonperturbative theory, we expect no singularity at these locations. We prove this statement in 1+1 dimensions by CFT methods.

  18. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant full-scale feed preparation testing with water and process simulant slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaskill, J.R.; Larson, D.E.; Abrigo, G.P. [and others

    1996-03-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant was intended to convert selected, pretreated defense high-level waste and transuranic waste from the Hanford Site into a borosilicate glass. A full-scale testing program was conducted with nonradioactive waste simulants to develop information for process and equipment design of the feed-preparation system. The equipment systems tested included the Slurry Receipt and Adjustment Tank, Slurry Mix Evaporator, and Melter-Feed Tank. The areas of data generation included heat transfer (boiling, heating, and cooling), slurry mixing, slurry pumping and transport, slurry sampling, and process chemistry. 13 refs., 129 figs., 68 tabs.

  19. Literature review of arc/plasma, combustion, and joule-heated melter vitrification systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides reviews of papers and reports for three basic categories of melters: arc/plasma-heated melters, combustion-heated melters, and joule-heated melters. The literature reviewed here represents those publications which may lend insight to phase I testing of low-level waste vitrification being performed at the Hanford Site in FY 1995. For each melter category, information from those papers and reports containing enough information to determine steady-state mass balance data is tabulated at the end of each section. The tables show the composition of the feed processed, the off-gas measured via decontamination factors, gross energy consumptions, and processing rates, among other data

  20. Critique of Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant off-gas sampling requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Off-gas sampling and monitoring activities needed to support operations safety, process control, waste form qualification, and environmental protection requirements of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) have been evaluated. The locations of necessary sampling sites have been identified on the basis of plant requirements, and the applicability of Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) reference sampling equipment to these HWVP requirements has been assessed for all sampling sites. Equipment deficiencies, if present, have been described and the bases for modifications and/or alternative approaches have been developed

  1. Data on antioxidant activity in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) following cryopreservation by vitrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazo-Javalera, María Fernanda; Tiznado-Hernández, Martín Ernesto; Vargas-Arispuro, Irasema; Valenzuela-Soto, Elisa; Rocha-Granados, María del Carmen; Martínez-Montero, Marcos Edel; Rivera-Domínguez, Marisela

    2015-01-01

    Cryopreservation is used for the long-term conservation of plant genetic resources. This technique very often induces lethal injury or tissue damage. In this study, we measured indicators of viability and cell damage following cryopreservation and vitrification-cryopreservation in Vitis vinifera L. axillary buds cv. “Flame seedless” stored in liquid nitrogen (LN) for: three seconds, one hour, one day, one week and one month; after LN thawed at 38 °C for three minutes. The enzymatic activity of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as the amount of malondialdehyde (MDA), total protein and viability were assayed. PMID:26958607

  2. Data on antioxidant activity in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. following cryopreservation by vitrification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernanda Lazo-Javalera

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cryopreservation is used for the long-term conservation of plant genetic resources. This technique very often induces lethal injury or tissue damage. In this study, we measured indicators of viability and cell damage following cryopreservation and vitrification-cryopreservation in Vitis vinifera L. axillary buds cv. “Flame seedless” stored in liquid nitrogen (LN for: three seconds, one hour, one day, one week and one month; after LN thawed at 38 °C for three minutes. The enzymatic activity of catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD, as well as the amount of malondialdehyde (MDA, total protein and viability were assayed.

  3. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant full-scale feed preparation testing with water and process simulant slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant was intended to convert selected, pretreated defense high-level waste and transuranic waste from the Hanford Site into a borosilicate glass. A full-scale testing program was conducted with nonradioactive waste simulants to develop information for process and equipment design of the feed-preparation system. The equipment systems tested included the Slurry Receipt and Adjustment Tank, Slurry Mix Evaporator, and Melter-Feed Tank. The areas of data generation included heat transfer (boiling, heating, and cooling), slurry mixing, slurry pumping and transport, slurry sampling, and process chemistry. 13 refs., 129 figs., 68 tabs

  4. Literature review of arc/plasma, combustion, and joule-heated melter vitrification systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, C.J.; Abrigo, G.P.; Shafer, P.J.; Merrill, R.A.

    1995-07-01

    This report provides reviews of papers and reports for three basic categories of melters: arc/plasma-heated melters, combustion-heated melters, and joule-heated melters. The literature reviewed here represents those publications which may lend insight to phase I testing of low-level waste vitrification being performed at the Hanford Site in FY 1995. For each melter category, information from those papers and reports containing enough information to determine steady-state mass balance data is tabulated at the end of each section. The tables show the composition of the feed processed, the off-gas measured via decontamination factors, gross energy consumptions, and processing rates, among other data.

  5. Bulk Viscosity of Interacting Hadrons

    OpenAIRE

    Wiranata, A.; M. Prakash

    2009-01-01

    We show that first approximations to the bulk viscosity $\\eta_v$ are expressible in terms of factors that depend on the sound speed $v_s$, the enthalpy, and the interaction (elastic and inelastic) cross section. The explicit dependence of $\\eta_v$ on the factor $(\\frac 13 - v_s^2)$ is demonstrated in the Chapman-Enskog approximation as well as the variational and relaxation time approaches. The interesting feature of bulk viscosity is that the dominant contributions at a given temperature ari...

  6. Bulk Viscosity of Interacting Hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Wiranata, A

    2009-01-01

    We show that first approximations to the bulk viscosity $\\eta_v$ are expressible in terms of factors that depend on the sound speed $v_s$, the enthalpy, and the interaction (elastic and inelastic) cross section. The explicit dependence of $\\eta_v$ on the factor $(\\frac 13 - v_s^2)$ is demonstrated in the Chapman-Enskog approximation as well as the variational and relaxation time approaches. The interesting feature of bulk viscosity is that the dominant contributions at a given temperature arise from particles which are neither extremely nonrelativistic nor extremely relativistic. Numerical results for a model binary mixture are reported.

  7. Historical hydronuclear testing: Characterization and remediation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report examines the most current literature and information available on characterization and remediation technologies that could be used on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) historical hydronuclear test areas. Historical hydronuclear tests use high explosives and a small amount of plutonium. The explosion scatters plutonium within a contained subsurface environment. There is currently a need to characterize these test areas to determine the spatial extent of plutonium in the subsurface and whether geohydrologic processes are transporting the plutonium away from the event site. Three technologies were identified to assist in the characterization of the sites. These technologies are the Pipe Explorer trademark, cone penetrometer, and drilling. If the characterization results indicate that remediation is needed, three remediation technologies were identified that should be appropriate, namely: capping or sealing the surface, in situ grouting, and in situ vitrification. Capping the surface would prevent vertical infiltration of water into the soil column, but would not restrict lateral movement of vadose zone water. Both the in situ grouting and vitrification techniques would attempt to immobilize the radioactive contaminants to restrict or prevent leaching of the radioactive contaminants into the groundwater. In situ grouting uses penetrometers or boreholes to inject the soil below the contaminant zone with low permeability grout. In situ vitrification melts the soil containing contaminants into a solid block. This technique would provide a significantly longer contaminant immobilization, but some research and development would be required to re-engineer existing systems for use at deep soil depths. Currently, equipment can only handle shallow depth vitrification. After existing documentation on the historical hydronuclear tests have been reviewed and the sites have been visited, more specific recommendations will be made

  8. Historical hydronuclear testing: Characterization and remediation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaulis, L.; Wilson, G.; Jacobson, R.

    1997-09-01

    This report examines the most current literature and information available on characterization and remediation technologies that could be used on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) historical hydronuclear test areas. Historical hydronuclear tests use high explosives and a small amount of plutonium. The explosion scatters plutonium within a contained subsurface environment. There is currently a need to characterize these test areas to determine the spatial extent of plutonium in the subsurface and whether geohydrologic processes are transporting the plutonium away from the event site. Three technologies were identified to assist in the characterization of the sites. These technologies are the Pipe Explorer{trademark}, cone penetrometer, and drilling. If the characterization results indicate that remediation is needed, three remediation technologies were identified that should be appropriate, namely: capping or sealing the surface, in situ grouting, and in situ vitrification. Capping the surface would prevent vertical infiltration of water into the soil column, but would not restrict lateral movement of vadose zone water. Both the in situ grouting and vitrification techniques would attempt to immobilize the radioactive contaminants to restrict or prevent leaching of the radioactive contaminants into the groundwater. In situ grouting uses penetrometers or boreholes to inject the soil below the contaminant zone with low permeability grout. In situ vitrification melts the soil containing contaminants into a solid block. This technique would provide a significantly longer contaminant immobilization, but some research and development would be required to re-engineer existing systems for use at deep soil depths. Currently, equipment can only handle shallow depth vitrification. After existing documentation on the historical hydronuclear tests have been reviewed and the sites have been visited, more specific recommendations will be made.

  9. Bulk viscosity and deflationary universes

    CERN Document Server

    Lima, J A S; Waga, I

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the conditions that make possible the description of entropy generation in the new inflationary model by means of a nearequilibrium process. We show that there are situations in which the bulk viscosity cannot describe particle production during the coherent field oscillations phase.

  10. Longitudinal bulk acoustic mass sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hales, Jan Harry; Teva, Jordi; Boisen, Anja;

    2009-01-01

    A polycrystalline silicon longitudinal bulk acoustic cantilever is fabricated and operated in air at 51 MHz. A mass sensitivity of 100 Hz/fg (1 fg=10(-15) g) is obtained from the preliminary experiments where a minute mass is deposited on the device by means of focused ion beam. The total noise i...

  11. Survival and ultrastructure of gene-microinjected rabbit embryos after vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popelková, M; Chrenek, P; Pivko, J; Makarevich, A V; Kubovicová, E; Kacmárik, J

    2005-11-01

    Morphological signs of injury and subsequent regeneration following vitrification of either rabbit gene microinjected (Gene-Mi) or intact in vitro cultured embryos derived from in vivo fertilized eggs were evaluated by post-warming recovery in culture and analysed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The percentages of vitrified/warmed Gene-Mi embryos that reached the blastocyst stage (69%) and hatched (57%) did not differ significantly from those of intact embryos (78% and 56%, respectively). In contrast, in vitro development of embryos to the blastocyst stage among non-vitrified intact (96%) and Gene-Mi (90%) embryos compared with both the intact vitrified (78%) and Gene-Mi vitrified (69%) groups, as well as hatching rate (94%, 90% vs 56%, 57%, respectively) varied significantly (p debris in the perivitelline space. These observations indicate that the procedure of gene Mi does not significantly compromise embryo tolerance to cryopreservation and post-warming developmental ability. Severe changes in embryo morphology, observed at the ultrastructural level, can be attributed to a direct influence of the vitrification process rather than to the Mi procedure itself. PMID:16388696

  12. Hanford waste vitrification plant hydrogen generation study: Preliminary evaluation of alternatives to formic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, R.B.; Bhattacharyya, N.K.; Kumar, V.

    1996-02-01

    Oxalic, glyoxylic, glycolic, malonic, pyruvic, lactic, levulinic, and citric acids as well as glycine have been evaluated as possible substitutes for formic acid in the preparation of feed for the Hanford waste vitrification plant using a non-radioactive feed stimulant UGA-12M1 containing substantial amounts of aluminum and iron oxides as well as nitrate and nitrite at 90C in the presence of hydrated rhodium trichloride. Unlike formic acid none of these carboxylic acids liberate hydrogen under these conditions and only malonic and citric acids form ammonia. Glyoxylic, glycolic, malonic, pyruvic, lactic, levulinic, and citric acids all appear to have significant reducing properties under the reaction conditions of interest as indicated by the observation of appreciable amounts of N{sub 2}O as a reduction product of,nitrite or, less likely, nitrate at 90C. Glyoxylic, pyruvic, and malonic acids all appear to be unstable towards decarboxylation at 90C in the presence of Al(OH){sub 3}. Among the carboxylic acids investigated in this study the {alpha}-hydroxycarboxylic acids glycolic and lactic acids appear to be the most interesting potential substitutes for formic acid in the feed preparation for the vitrification plant because of their failure to produce hydrogen or ammonia or to undergo decarboxylation under the reaction conditions although they exhibit some reducing properties in feed stimulant experiments.

  13. Sodalite as a vehicle to increase Re retention in waste glass simulant during vitrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luksic, Steven A.; Riley, Brian J.; Parker, Kent E.; Hrma, Pavel

    2016-10-01

    Technetium (Tc) retention during Hanford waste vitrification can be increased if the volatility can be controlled. Incorporating Tc into a thermally stable mineral phase, such as sodalite, is one way to achieve increased retention. Here, rhenium (Re)-bearing sodalite was tested as a vehicle to transport perrhenate (ReO4-), a nonradioactive surrogate for pertechnetate (TcO4-), into high-level (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) glass simulants. After melting HLW and LAW simulant feeds, the retention of Re in the glass was measured and compared with the Re retention in glass prepared from a feed containing Re2O7. Phase analysis of sodalite in both these glasses across a profile of temperatures describes the durability of Re-sodalite during the feed-to-glass transition. The use of Re sodalite improved the Re retention by 21% for HLW glass and 85% for LAW glass, demonstrating the potential improvement in Tc-retention if TcO4- were to be encapsulated in a Tc-sodalite prior to vitrification.

  14. Technical assessment of NOx generation from vitrification process of spent ion-exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the radioactive spent ion-exchange resin is being treated in vitrification system, due to the nitrogen in the anion exchange resin media and the nitrogen in air inleaked to the system, the nitrogen oxide (NOx) is generated from both glass melter and the second combustion chamber among the unit-processes in the vitrification plant. The NOx is very hazardous to environment and to human health the emission limit of NOx is regulated very severely. In this study, the NOx generation characteristics are technically analyzed based on the demonstration-test resultes conducted recently by burning simulated spent resin. When burning 30kg/h of simulated resin in CCM under 50% of excess the theoretically needed, the NOx was measured as between 3000 ∼ 3500ppm after 1h of transient test period. And when only the propane is burning in PCC without resin burning in CCM, the concentration of NOx exceeded the detectable limit(4000 ppm) of PGA. The former and the latter were considered as the fuel NOx and the thermal NOx respectively

  15. Strategy for addressing composition uncertainties in a Hanford high-level waste vitrification plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, M.F.; Piepel, G.F.

    1996-03-01

    Various requirements will be imposed on the feed material and glass produced by the high-level waste (HLW) vitrification plant at the Hanford Site. A statistical process/product control system will be used to control the melter feed composition and to check and document product quality. Two general types of uncertainty are important in HLW vitrification process/product control: model uncertainty and composition uncertainty. Model uncertainty is discussed by Hrma, Piepel, et al. (1994). Composition uncertainty includes the uncertainties inherent in estimates of feed composition and other process measurements. Because feed composition is a multivariate quantity, multivariate estimates of composition uncertainty (i.e., covariance matrices) are required. Three components of composition uncertainty will play a role in estimating and checking batch and glass attributes: batch-to-batch variability, within-batch uncertainty, and analytical uncertainty. This document reviews the techniques to be used in estimating and updating composition uncertainties and in combining these composition uncertainties with model uncertainty to yield estimates of (univariate) uncertainties associated with estimates of batch and glass properties.

  16. Effect of antifreeze glycoprotein 8 supplementation during vitrification on the developmental competence of bovine oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shuang; Yuan, Bao; Kwon, Jeong-Woo; Ahn, Mija; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Bang, Jeong Kyu; Kim, Nam-Hyung

    2016-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of antifreeze glycoprotein 8 (AFGP8) supplementation during vitrification on the survival, fertilization, and embryonic development of bovine oocytes and the underlying molecular mechanism(s). Survival, fertilization, early embryonic development, apoptosis, DNA double-strand breaks, reactive oxygen species levels, meiotic cytoskeleton assembly, chromosome alignment, and energy status of mitochondria were measured in the present experiments. Compared with that in the nonsupplemented group; survival, monospermy, blastocyst formation rates, and blastomere counts were significantly higher in the AFGP8-supplemented animals. Oocytes of the latter group also presented fewer double-strand breaks and lower cathepsin B and caspase activities. Rates of normal spindle organization and chromosome alignment, actin filament impairment, and mitochondrial distribution were significantly higher in the AFGP8-supplemented group. In addition, intracellular reactive oxygen species levels significantly decreased in the AFGP8-supplemented groups, maintaining a higher ΔΨm than that in the nonsupplemented group. Taken together, these results indicated that supplementation with AFGP8 during vitrification has a protective effect on bovine oocytes against chilling injury. PMID:26948296

  17. Mid-infrared spectroscopic investigation of the perfect vitrification of poly(ethylene glycol) aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmei-Ide, Makoto; Miyashita, Takashi; Kagaya, Shigehiro; Kitano, Hiromi

    2015-10-01

    Crystallization/recrystallization behaviors of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) aqueous solutions with water contents (WC's) of ∼36-51 wt % were investigated by temperature-variable mid-infrared spectroscopy. At a WC of 43.2 wt %, crystallization and recrystallization of water and PEG were not observed. At this specific WC value (WCPV), perfect vitrification occurred. Below and above the WCPV value, crystallization/recrystallization behaviors changed drastically. The crystallization temperature below WCPV (237 K) was ∼10 K greater than that above WCPV (226 K). Recrystallization above and below WCPV occurred in one (213 K) and two (198 and 210 K) steps, respectively. These findings resulted from the difference in the (re)crystallization behaviors of water molecules associated with PEG chains with helical and random-coil conformations. These two types of water molecules might have limiting concentrations for their (re)crystallization, indicating that perfect vitrification might have occurred when the concentrations of the two types of water molecules were less than the limiting concentrations of their (re)crystallization.

  18. Measurement of cooling and warming rates in vitrification-based plant cryopreservation protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Aline S; González-Benito, M Elena; Molina-García, Antonio D

    2014-01-01

    Cryopreservation protocols include the use of additives and pretreatments aimed to reduce the probability of ice nucleation at all temperatures, mainly through micro-viscosity increase. Still, there is a risk of ice formation in the temperature region comprised between the equilibrium freezing (Tf ) and the glass transition (TG ) temperatures. Consequently, fast cooling and warming, especially in this region, is a must to avoid ice-derived damage. Vitrification and droplet-vitrification techniques, frequently used cryopreservation protocols based in fast cooling, were studied, alongside with the corresponding warming procedures. A very fast data acquisition system, able to read very low temperatures, down to that of liquid nitrogen, was employed. Cooling rates, measured between -20°C and -120°C, ranged from ca. 5°C s(-1) to 400°C s(-1) , while warming rates spanned from ca. 2°C s(-1) to 280°C s(-1) , for the different protocols and conditions studied. A wider measuring window (0°C to -150°C) produced lower rates for all cases. The cooling and warming rates were also related to the survival observed after the different procedures. Those protocols with the faster rates yielded the highest survival percentages. PMID:24933257

  19. Description and capabilities of the large-scale in situ vitrification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buelt, J.L.; Carter, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    An emerging thermal treatment process known as in situ vitrification is being developed to immobilize selected portions of radioactively contaminated soils. The process is a permanent remedial action that destroys solid and liquid organic contaminants and incorporates radionuclides and heavy metals into a glass and crystalline form. The process's flexibility in design and broad capabilities make it potentially adaptable to mixed and chemical wastes, as well. The process consists of an electrical power system for vitrifying contaminated soil, a hood to contain gaseous effluents, an off-gas treatment system, an off-gas cooling system, and a process control station. The process is mounted in three transportable trailers that can be easily moved from site to site. The process is capable of treating contaminated soils at least 13 m deep. The system components are designed to accommodate waste inclusions in the soil such as metals, combustibles, and large voids. Selectively applied to the more troublesome radioactively contaminated soils, in situ vitrification provides a potentially useful and permanent tool for remedial action.

  20. Factors affecting survival rates of in vitro produced bovine embryos after vitrification and direct in-straw rehydration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vajta, Gábor; Holm, Peter; Greve, Torben;

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the possibilities of simplification, and to outline the limits of application, of a vitrification method for cow embryos. Morulae and blastocysts were produced by in vitro fertilization of slaughterhouse-derived, in vitro matured oocytes with frozen-thawed ...

  1. Proposed plan for vitrification demonstration of low-level radioactive wastes at the Fernald Environmental Management Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glassware was made by the Romans several hundreds of years before Christ. Some of this glassware was discovered in ship wreckage at sea. The glassware has eroded less than 1/2 mm over 2500 years. The erosion rate of the crude Roman glass in corrosive salt water implies that low-level radioactive wastes dissolved in molten glass should remain entombed in the glass for extremely long periods of time (10,000 years plus). The extremely low leach rate for such a glass should keep concentrations in the environment below all regulatory limits and by that provide protection of the environment indefinitely. Vitrification is considered, by many, as a most effective (if not the most effective) treatment method for disposal of radioactive and numerous inorganic hazardous wastes. However, vitrification of low-level radioactive wastes at large production/commercial rates has not been accomplished and needs to be demonstrated to justify selecting vitrification as a competitive alternative to other treatment methods. This paper describes a proposed plan to demonstrate vitrification of low-level radioactive wastes at the Fernald Site (FS) located near Cincinnati, Ohio. Demonstrations will progress from laboratory to on-site bench-scale, to a pilot size, then to full-sized vitrifiers (glass melters). The bench sized unit will mainly prove the process and develop glass mixes using various waste forms and glass formers. The pilot scale unit will evaluate and develop operational requirements and processes. 3 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Cryopreservation of human failed-matured oocytes followed by in vitro maturation: vitrification is superior to the slow freezing method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang ZhiGuo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oocyte cryopreservation is an important method used in a number of human fertility circumstances. Here, we compared the survival, in vitro maturation, fertilization, and early embryonic development rates of frozen-thawed human immature oocytes using two different cryopreservation methods. Methods A total of 454 failed-matured oocytes [germinal vesicle (GV and metaphase I (MI stages] were collected from 135 patients (mean age 33.84 +/- 5.0 y who underwent intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI cycles between February 2009 and December 2009 and randomly divided into a slow freezing group [1.5 mol/L-1, 2-propanediol (PROH + 0.2 mol/l sucrose] and vitrification group [20% PROH + 20% ethylene glycol (EG + 0.5 mol/l sucrose]. Results The vitrification protocol yielded a better survival rate than the slow freezing protocol at each maturation stage assessed. Regardless of the maturation stage (GV + MI, the slow freezing protocol had a significantly lower survival rate than the vitrification protocol (p in vitro maturation (21.2 vs. 54.0%, respectively; p 0.05. For the GV-matured oocytes, no fertilized eggs were obtained in the slow-freezing group, while a 19.0% (4/21 fertilization rate was observed in the vitrification group. For the MI-matured oocytes, fertilization rates for the slow freezing and vitrified groups were 36% and 61.1%, respectively, but no significant difference was found between the two groups (PIn the Methods section in the MS, all procedures were compliant with ethical guidelines, i.e. approved by the Ethical Committee of our university and Informed Consent signed by each patient. > 0.05. In the GV vitrification group, no embryo formed; however, in the MI slow freezing group, 12 oocytes were fertilized, but only two achieved cleavage and were subsequently blocked at the 2-cell stage. In the MI vitrification group, a total of 22 embryos were obtained, five of which developed to the blastocyst stage. Conclusions

  3. Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional answer card reading method using OMR (Optical Mark Reader, most commonly, OMR special card special use, less versatile, high cost, aiming at the existing problems proposed a method based on pattern recognition of the answer card identification method. Using the method based on Line Segment Detector to detect the tilt of the image, the existence of tilt image rotation correction, and eventually achieve positioning and detection of answers to the answer sheet .Pattern recognition technology for automatic reading, high accuracy, detect faster

  4. Coulombic Fluids Bulk and Interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Freyland, Werner

    2011-01-01

    Ionic liquids have attracted considerable interest in recent years. In this book the bulk and interfacial physico-chemical characteristics of various fluid systems dominated by Coulomb interactions are treated which includes molten salts, ionic liquids as well as metal-molten salt mixtures and expanded fluid metals. Of particular interest is the comparison of the different systems. Topics in the bulk phase concern the microscopic structure, the phase behaviour and critical phenomena, and the metal-nonmetal transition. Interfacial phenomena include wetting transitions, electrowetting, surface freezing, and the electrified ionic liquid/ electrode interface. With regard to the latter 2D and 3D electrochemical phase formation of metals and semi-conductors on the nanometer scale is described for a number of selected examples. The basic concepts and various experimental methods are introduced making the book suitable for both graduate students and researchers interested in Coulombic fluids.

  5. Waveform control pulse magnetization for HTS bulk magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, Tetsuya; Shigeuchi, Koji; Okuda, Sayo; Watasaki, Masahiro; Izumi, Mitsuru

    2016-03-01

    For the past 10 years, we have studied high-temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk magnets for use in electromagnetic rotating machines. If the magnetic field effectively magnetizes the HTS bulk, then the size of the motor and generator can be reduced without a reduction in output. We showed that the melt-textured Gd-Ba-Cu-O HTS bulk effectively traps a high magnetic field using waveform control pulse magnetization (WCPM). WCPM makes it possible to generate any pulsed magnetic field waveform by appropriately changing the duty ratio of the pulse width modulation. By chopping so that the pulsed magnetic field has a period of about 1ms, the WCPM technology enables active control of the rise time and suppresses magnetic flux motion that decreases magnetization efficiency. This method is also useful for any HTS bulk magnet, and the high magnetic flux density is trapped in the HTS bulk by a single pulse magnetic field. We developed a magnetizer that has a feedback system from the penetrated magnetic flux density to realize WCPM. In this research, using only a single pulse magnetic field of WCPM method at 77K, an HTS bulk with a 45mm diameter and 19mm thickness trapped a maximum magnetic field of 1.63T, which is more than 90% of the trapped magnetic flux density by FC magnetization. This result suggests that the pulse magnetizing method can replace the conventional field-cooled method and promote the practical use of HTS magnets for electromagnetic power applications.

  6. Bulk Superconductors in Mobile Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werfel, F. N.; Delor, U. Floegel-; Rothfeld, R.; Riedel, T.; Wippich, D.; Goebel, B.; Schirrmeister, P.

    We investigate and review concepts of multi - seeded REBCO bulk superconductors in mobile application. ATZ's compact HTS bulk magnets can trap routinely 1 T@77 K. Except of magnetization, flux creep and hysteresis, industrial - like properties as compactness, power density, and robustness are of major device interest if mobility and light-weight construction is in focus. For mobile application in levitated trains or demonstrator magnets we examine the performance of on-board cryogenics either by LN2 or cryo-cooler application. The mechanical, electric and thermodynamical requirements of compact vacuum cryostats for Maglev train operation were studied systematically. More than 30 units are manufactured and tested. The attractive load to weight ratio is more than 10 and favours group module device constructions up to 5 t load on permanent magnet (PM) track. A transportable and compact YBCO bulk magnet cooled with in-situ 4 Watt Stirling cryo-cooler for 50 - 80 K operation is investigated. Low cooling power and effective HTS cold mass drives the system construction to a minimum - thermal loss and light-weight design.

  7. Tuneable film bulk acoustic wave resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Gevorgian, Spartak Sh; Vorobiev, Andrei K

    2013-01-01

    To handle many standards and ever increasing bandwidth requirements, large number of filters and switches are used in transceivers of modern wireless communications systems. It makes the cost, performance, form factor, and power consumption of these systems, including cellular phones, critical issues. At present, the fixed frequency filter banks based on Film Bulk Acoustic Resonators (FBAR) are regarded as one of the most promising technologies to address performance -form factor-cost issues. Even though the FBARs improve the overall performances the complexity of these systems remains high.  Attempts are being made to exclude some of the filters by bringing the digital signal processing (including channel selection) as close to the antennas as possible. However handling the increased interference levels is unrealistic for low-cost battery operated radios. Replacing fixed frequency filter banks by one tuneable filter is the most desired and widely considered scenario. As an example, development of the softwa...

  8. In situ vitrification demonstration at Pit 1, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Volume 2: Site characterization report of the Pit 1 area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spalding, B.P.; Bogle, M.A.; Cline, S.R.; Naney, M.T.; Gu, B.

    1997-12-01

    A treatability study was initiated in October 1993, initially encompassing the application of in situ vitrification (ISV) to at least two segments of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) seepage Pit 1 by the end of fiscal year (FY) 1995. This treatability study was to have supported a possible Interim Record of Decision (IROD) or removal action for closure of one or more of the seepage pits and trenches as early as FY 1997. The Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 7, which contains these seven seepage pits and trenches, will probably not begin until after the year 2000. This treatability study will establish the field-scale technical performance of ISV for (1) attaining the required depth, nominally 15 ft, to incorporate source contamination within and beneath the pits; (2) demonstrating field capability to overlap melt settings that are necessary to achieve fused, melted segments of the source contamination; (3) demonstrating off-gas handling technology for accommodating and minimizing the volatilization of {sup 137}Cs; (4) demonstrating adequate site characterization techniques to predict ISV melting kinetics, processing temperatures, and product durability; and (5) promoting public acceptance of ISV technology by demonstrating its safety, implementability, site impacts, and air emissions and by coordinating the treatability study within the regulatory closure process. This report summarizes the site characterization information gathered through the end of September 1996 which supports the planning and assessment of ISV for Pit 1 (objective 4 above).

  9. Feasibility study on vitrification of spent ion exchange resins from TRIGA Reactor Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feasibility studies on the vitrification of spent ion exchange resins combined with glass cullet powder have been conducted using a High Temperature Test Furnace. Bottle glass cullet powder was used as matrix material to convert the ash of the spent resins into a glass. Vitrification of spent ion exchange resins presents a reasonable disposal alternative, because of its inherent organic destruction capabilities, the volume reduction levels obtainable, and the durable product that it yields. In this study, the spent ion exchange resin from the PUSPATI TRIGA reactor of Nuclear Malaysia was combusted in a lab scale combustor and the resulting ash was vitrified together with glass cullet powder in a high temperature furnace to produce a stable spent resin ash embedded in glass. The factors affecting this immobilized waste, such as thermal stability, radiological stability and leachability have all been investigated. However, the outcome of these tests, which include the radionuclide activity concentration in the slag, the optimum conditioning temperature - in relation with volume reduction during vitrification - and the volume mixing ratio of matrix material were reported. It was found that the radionuclides present in spent resins were 54Mn, 60Co and 152Eu. The elementary chemical composition (carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulphur) of spent resins was 27.6 % C, 5.68 % H, 2.04 % N and 4.20 % S, respectively. The maximum calorific value of spent resins was 1735 kJ/ kg. The average activity concentrations of 54Mn and 60Co in ash at 200 degree Celsius were 9,411 ± 243 Bq/ Kg and 12,637 ± 201 Bq/ Kg. flue gases containing CO2, CO, SO2 and NO started to be emitted above 200 degree Celsius. The optimum conditioning temperature was also the highest tested, for example 900 degree Celsius in 45 minutes, and the best mixing ratio ash to matrix material was also the highest, for example 1:9. Finally, the leaching analysis of slag at 900 degree Celsius in 45 minutes showed that

  10. Development of high-level waste solidification technology 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joon Hyung; Kim, Hwan Young; Kim, In Tae [and others

    1999-02-01

    Spent nuclear fuel contains useful nuclides as valuable resource materials for energy, heat and catalyst. High-level wastes (HLW) are expected to be generated from the R and D activities and reuse processes. It is necessary to develop vitrification or advanced solidification technologies for the safe long-term management of high level wastes. As a first step to establish HLW vitrification technology, characterization of HLWs that would arise at KAERI site, glass melting experiments with a lab-scale high frequency induction melter, and fabrication and property evaluation of base-glass made of used HEPA filter media and additives were performed. Basic study on the fabrication and characterization of candidate ceramic waste form (Synroc) was also carried out. These HLW solidification technologies would be directly useful for carrying out the R and Ds on the nuclear fuel cycle and waste management. (author). 70 refs., 29 tabs., 35 figs.

  11. Development of high-level waste solidification technology 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spent nuclear fuel contains useful nuclides as valuable resource materials for energy, heat and catalyst. High-level wastes (HLW) are expected to be generated from the R and D activities and reuse processes. It is necessary to develop vitrification or advanced solidification technologies for the safe long-term management of high level wastes. As a first step to establish HLW vitrification technology, characterization of HLWs that would arise at KAERI site, glass melting experiments with a lab-scale high frequency induction melter, and fabrication and property evaluation of base-glass made of used HEPA filter media and additives were performed. Basic study on the fabrication and characterization of candidate ceramic waste form (Synroc) was also carried out. These HLW solidification technologies would be directly useful for carrying out the R and Ds on the nuclear fuel cycle and waste management. (author). 70 refs., 29 tabs., 35 figs

  12. Techniques for the Improvement in the Transconductance of a Bulk Driven Amplifier

    OpenAIRE

    Kshitij Shant ,; Rita Mahajan

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposed methods for the improvement of transconductance in the bulk driven operation amplifier. Here we are using four technologies for the enhancement of transconductance. First modifies the transconductance with the help of active load; second uses a differential pair for the modification transconductance, while third is the proposed bulk-driven input stages with modified low voltage cascode biasing scheme whereas last is the bulk driven input stage with enhanced eff...

  13. VITRIFICATION OF LIGNITE FLY ASH AND METAL SLAGS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF GLASS AND GLASS CERAMICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.Karamberi; A.Moutsatsou

    2006-01-01

    This work focuses on the production of glass and glass-ceramics by using industrial wastes or by-products,e.g., two fly ashes from the combustion of lignite, a slag from the production of Fe-Ni and a slag from the making of steel.Vitrification took place at 1 350°-1 450℃ and crystallization was achieved by heat treatment at 900, 950 and 1 000℃.The capability of the waste to be vitrified and subsequently devitrified was determined by XRD techniques. The crystalline phase depends greatly on the structure of the by-product and the heat treatment. The final products showed low leachability and good hardness.

  14. Human Factors engineering criteria and design for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant preliminary safety analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, J.A.; Schur, A.; Stitzel, J.C.L.

    1993-09-01

    This report provides a rationale and systematic methodology for bringing Human Factors into the safety design and operations of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). Human Factors focuses on how people perform work with tools and machine systems in designed settings. When the design of machine systems and settings take into account the capabilities and limitations of the individuals who use them, human performance can be enhanced while protecting against susceptibility to human error. The inclusion of Human Factors in the safety design of the HWVP is an essential ingredient to safe operation of the facility. The HWVP is a new construction, nonreactor nuclear facility designed to process radioactive wastes held in underground storage tanks into glass logs for permanent disposal. Its design and mission offer new opposites for implementing Human Factors while requiring some means for ensuring that the Human Factors assessments are sound, comprehensive, and appropriately directed.

  15. Low-Level Waste Vitrification Plant Project contracting strategy decision analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten basic contracting strategies were developed after a review of past strategies that had been used at the Hanford Site, other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites, other US government agencies, and in the private sector. As applicable to the Low-Level Waste Vitrification Plant (LLWVP) Project, each strategy was described and depicted in a schedule format to assess compatibility with the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, al so known as the Tri-Party Agreement (Ecology et al. 1994) milestones, key decision points, and other project requirements. The-pro and con aspects of each strategy also were tabulated. Using this information as a basis, the LLWVP Project team members, along with representatives of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Engineering, TWRS Programs, and Procurement Materials Management, formed a Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) evaluation team to select the best strategy. Kepner-Tregoe decision analysis techniques were used in facilitated meetings to arrive at the best balanced choice

  16. Operating experience during high-level waste vitrification at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a summary of operational experiences, component and system performance, and lessons learned associated with the operation of the Vitrification Facility (VF) at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). The VF was designed to convert stored high-level radioactive waste (HLW) into a stable waste form (borosilicate glass) suitable for disposal in a federal repository. Following successful completion on nonradioactive test, HLW processing began in July 1995. Completion of Phase 1 of HLW processing was reached on 10 June 1998 and represented the processing of 9.32 million curies of cesium-137 (Cs-137) and strontium-90 (Sr-90) to fill 211 canisters with over 436,000 kilograms of glass. With approximately 85% of the total estimated curie content removed from underground waste storage tanks during Phase 1, subsequent operations will focus on removal of tank heel wastes

  17. Cryopreservation of immature seeds of Ponerorchis graminifolia var. suzukiana by vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, T; Ishikawa, K; Mii, M

    2005-01-01

    Ponerorchis graminifolia var. suzukiana is a terrestrial orchid that is an endangered species native to Japan, and it germinates more readily in immature seeds than in mature seeds. To preserve this orchid, an efficient protocol was established for the cryopreservation of immature seeds of P. graminifolia var. suzukiana. When immature seeds of 6 weeks after pollination, which showed higher germination and protocorm formation than mature seeds, were precultured on New Dogashima (ND) medium with 0.3M sucrose for 3 days and cryopreserved by vitrification method (treated with PVS2 for 60 min), the viability after preservation as assessed with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining test was about 86%. Immature seeds thus treated showed equal rates of germination and protocorm formation to the untreated control immature seeds, and they developed into normal plantlets on ND medium.

  18. Process Options Description for Vitrification Flowsheet Model of INEEL Sodium Bearing Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, Todd Travis; Taylor, Dean Dalton; Lauerhass, Lance; Barnes, Charles Marshall

    2001-02-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical information to Savannah River Site (SRS) personnel that is required for the development of a basic steady-state process simulation of the vitrification treatment train of sodium bearing waste (SBW) at Idaho National Engineering and nvironmental Laboratory (INEEL). INEEL considers simulation to have an important role in the integration/optimization of treatment process trains for the High Level Waste (HLW) Program. This project involves a joint Technical Task Plan (TTP ID77WT31, Subtask C) between SRS and INEEL. The work scope of simulation is different at the two sites. This document addresses only the treatment of SBW at INEEL. The simulation model(s) is to be built by SRS for INEEL in FY-2001.

  19. Iron - based bulk amorphous alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Babilas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper presents a structure characterization, thermal and soft magnetic properties analysis of Fe-based bulk amorphous materials in as-cast state and after crystallization process. In addition, the paper gives some brief review about achieving, formation and structure of bulk metallic glasses as a special group of amorphous materials.Design/methodology/approach: The studies were performed on Fe72B20Si4Nb4 metallic glass in form of ribbons and rods. The amorphous structure of tested samples was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM methods. The thermal properties of the glassy samples were measured using differential thermal analysis (DTA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The magnetic properties contained initial and maximum magnetic permeability, coercive force and magnetic after-effects measurements were determined by the Maxwell-Wien bridge and VSM methods.Findings: The X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy investigations revealed that the studied as-cast bulk metallic glasses in form of ribbons and rods were amorphous. Two stage crystallization process was observed for studied bulk amorphous alloy. The differences of crystallization temperature between ribbons and rods with chosen thickness are probably caused by different amorphous structures as a result of the different cooling rates in casting process. The SEM images showed that studied fractures could be classified as mixed fractures with indicated two zones contained “river” and “smooth” areas. The changing of chosen soft magnetic properties (μr, Bs, Hc obtained for samples with different thickness is a result of the non-homogenous amorphous structure of tested metallic glasses. The annealing process in temperature range from 373 to 773 K causes structural relaxation of tested amorphous materials, which leads to changes in their physical properties. The qualitative

  20. Holographic Vitrification

    CERN Document Server

    Anninos, Dionysios; Denef, Frederik; Peeters, Lucas

    2013-01-01

    We establish the existence of stable and metastable stationary black hole bound states at finite temperature and chemical potentials in global and planar four-dimensional asymptotically anti-de Sitter space. We determine a number of features of their holographic duals and argue they represent structural glasses. We map out their thermodynamic landscape in the probe approximation, and show their relaxation dynamics exhibits logarithmic aging, with aging rates determined by the distribution of barriers.

  1. A preliminary study of the controls on melting during in situ vitrification. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, A.D.; Nyquist, J.E.; Alexiades, V.; Jacobs, G.K.; Lenhart, S.M.

    1991-12-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV), developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory and patented for the US Department of Energy, is one method used to stabilize contaminated soils in place. ISV involves inserting four electrodes in a square array into contaminated soil and applying an electrical potential to the electrodes. The soil is heated to above its melting point, and the molten zone expands with time to encompass the contaminated zone. After cooling, the resulting solid material is usually a mixture of glass and crystalline material that has a significantly higher resistance to leaching than did the original soils. Nonvolatile elements (most radionuclides and metals) are dissolved into the melt or encapsulated in glass if their solubility in the melt is low. Organic compounds tends to be pyrolyzed, with the decomposition products diffusing to the surface and combusting on exiting the molten zone. A hood is placed over the vitrification zone to collect off-gas particulates and volatiles into a processing trailer that scrubs contaminants from the off-gas. The current study identified key parameters and processes in the ISV melt cycle and developed an improved understanding of ISV. Analytical approximations for several properties of molten soil were determined from available data. Using a simplified geometrical approximation for melt geometry, an analytical approximation for the rate of melting (depth) vs time was derived that is consistent with data from field experiments. At small times, the depth of melting increases linearly with time. After approximately 10 h in large-scale tests, however, the depth increases as the square root of time. Existing data is also consistent with a relationship that shows the volumetric growth rate of the melt to be directly proportional to time. These conclusions suggest that heat transfer processes controlling the ISV process may be at the transition between weak convection and conduction.

  2. A preliminary study of the controls on melting during in situ vitrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, A.D.; Nyquist, J.E.; Alexiades, V.; Jacobs, G.K.; Lenhart, S.M.

    1991-12-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV), developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory and patented for the US Department of Energy, is one method used to stabilize contaminated soils in place. ISV involves inserting four electrodes in a square array into contaminated soil and applying an electrical potential to the electrodes. The soil is heated to above its melting point, and the molten zone expands with time to encompass the contaminated zone. After cooling, the resulting solid material is usually a mixture of glass and crystalline material that has a significantly higher resistance to leaching than did the original soils. Nonvolatile elements (most radionuclides and metals) are dissolved into the melt or encapsulated in glass if their solubility in the melt is low. Organic compounds tends to be pyrolyzed, with the decomposition products diffusing to the surface and combusting on exiting the molten zone. A hood is placed over the vitrification zone to collect off-gas particulates and volatiles into a processing trailer that scrubs contaminants from the off-gas. The current study identified key parameters and processes in the ISV melt cycle and developed an improved understanding of ISV. Analytical approximations for several properties of molten soil were determined from available data. Using a simplified geometrical approximation for melt geometry, an analytical approximation for the rate of melting (depth) vs time was derived that is consistent with data from field experiments. At small times, the depth of melting increases linearly with time. After approximately 10 h in large-scale tests, however, the depth increases as the square root of time. Existing data is also consistent with a relationship that shows the volumetric growth rate of the melt to be directly proportional to time. These conclusions suggest that heat transfer processes controlling the ISV process may be at the transition between weak convection and conduction.

  3. West Valley Demonstration Project vitrification process equipment Functional and Checkout Testing of Systems (FACTS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Vitrification Facility (VF) at the West Valley Demonstration Project was designed to convert stored radioactive waste into a stable glass for disposal in a federal repository. The Functional and Checkout Testing of Systems (FACTS) program was conducted from 1984 to 1989. During this time new equipment and processes were developed, installed, and implemented. Thirty-seven FACTS tests were conducted, and approximately 150,000 kg of glass were made by using nonradioactive materials to simulate the radioactive waste. By contrast, the planned radioactive operation is expected to produce approximately 500,000 kg of glass. The FACTS program demonstrated the effectiveness of equipment and procedures in the vitrification system, and the ability of the VF to produce quality glass on schedule. FACTS testing also provided data to validate the WVNS waste glass qualification method and verify that the product glass would meet federal repository acceptance requirements. The system was built and performed to standards which would have enabled it to be used in radioactive service. As a result, much of the VF tested, such as the civil construction, feed mixing and holding vessels, and the off-gas scrubber, will be converted for radioactive operation. The melter was still in good condition after being at temperature for fifty-eight of the sixty months of FACTS. However, the melter exceeded its recommended design life and will be replaced with a similar melter. Components that were not designed for remote operation and maintenance will be replaced with remote-use items. The FACTS testing was accomplished with no significant worker injury or environmental releases. During the last FACTS run, the VF processes approximated the remote-handling system that will be used in radioactive operations. Following this run the VF was disassembled for conversion to a radioactive process. Functional and checkout testing of new components will be performed prior to radioactive operation

  4. Investigation of corrosion experienced in a spray calciner/ceramic melter vitrification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After periodic testing of a large-scale spray calciner/ceramic melter vitrification system over a 2-yr period, sufficient corrosion was noted on various parts of the vitrification system to warrant its disassembly and inspection. A majority of the 316 SS sintered metal filters on the spray calciner were damaged by chemical corrosion and/or high temperature oxidation. Inconel-601 portions of the melter lid were attacked by chlorides and sulfates which volatilized from the molten glass. The refractory blocks, making up the walls of the melter, were attacked by the waste glass. This attack was occurring when operating temperatures were >12000C. The melter floor was protected by a sludge layer and showed no corrosion. Corrosion to the Inconel-690 electrodes was minimal, and no corrosion was noted in the offgas treatment system downstream of the sintered metal filters. It is believed that most of the melter corrosion occurred during one specific operating period when the melter was operated at high temperatures in an attempt to overcome glass foaming behavior. These high temperatures resulted in a significant release of volatile elements from the molten glass, and also created a situation where the glass was very fluid and convective, which increased the corrosion rate of the refractories. Specific corrosion to the calciner components cannot be proven to have occurred during a specific time period, but the mechanisms of attack were all accelerated under the high-temperature conditions that were experienced with the melter. A review of the materials of construction has been made, and it is concluded that with controlled operating conditions and better protection of some materials of construction corrosion of these systems will not cause problems. Other melter systems operating under similar strenuous conditions have shown a service life of 3 yr

  5. Strong isotope effects on melting dynamics and ice crystallisation processes in cryo vitrification solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirichek, Oleg; Soper, Alan; Dzyuba, Boris; Callear, Sam; Fuller, Barry

    2015-01-01

    The nucleation and growth of crystalline ice during cooling, and further crystallization processes during re-warming are considered to be key processes determining the success of low temperature storage of biological objects, as used in medical, agricultural and nature conservation applications. To avoid these problems a method, termed vitrification, is being developed to inhibit ice formation by use of high concentration of cryoprotectants and ultra-rapid cooling, but this is only successful across a limited number of biological objects and in small volume applications. This study explores physical processes of ice crystal formation in a model cryoprotective solution used previously in trials on vitrification of complex biological systems, to improve our understanding of the process and identify limiting biophysical factors. Here we present results of neutron scattering experiments which show that even if ice crystal formation has been suppressed during quench cooling, the water molecules, mobilised during warming, can crystallise as detectable ice. The crystallisation happens right after melting of the glass phase formed during quench cooling, whilst the sample is still transiting deep cryogenic temperatures. We also observe strong water isotope effects on ice crystallisation processes in the cryoprotectant mixture. In the neutron scattering experiment with a fully protiated water component, we observe ready crystallisation occurring just after the glass melting transition. On the contrary with a fully deuteriated water component, the process of crystallisation is either completely or substantially supressed. This behaviour might be explained by nuclear quantum effects in water. The strong isotope effect, observed here, may play an important role in development of new cryopreservation strategies. PMID:25815751

  6. Identification and characterization of volatile species produced by plasma arc vitrification of mixed waste surrogates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma arc vitrification testing was performed at Mississippi State University during Spring 1995 on mixed hazardous waste surrogates for the purpose of testing refractory materials. Because of the interest in partitioning of toxic and/or radioactive species between the melt and the gas phase, emission spectroscopy studies were performed to identify and characterize the volatile species present inside the primary thermal treatment chamber during plasma arc vitrification. The tests were conducted using a Plasma Energy Corporation PT-150 torch, operating in the transferred mode on air. The surrogate material was melted in a batch mode operation inside graphite crucibles. The torch was operated at an average power of 100 kW with an average air flow rate of 0.5 L/sec. The crucible was installed with four optical ports. One was used for a television camera to provide real-time images of the melt and two were used for emission spectroscopy as reported here and for two-color pyrometry. The last port was installed with a feed tube with a dual valve interlock system for dropping surrogate material into the crucible during testing. Results show that the plasma torch melted surrogate waste exhibits an emission spectra rich in gas phase atomic and diatomic species superimposed on a blackbody continuum. Rapid changes in intensities and spectral features alternated with relatively long periods of relatively stable spectra. Emission lines were positively identifies for Al, C, Ca, Ca+, Cu, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, Li, N, Na, O, Rb, and Si. Tentatively identified were Ni, Mn, and Ti. Intermittent spectral features have been tentatively identifies as N2, Cd, and Pb. From this study it appears that emission spectroscopy would be of use in monitoring the gas phase emissions above a plasma torch melt process

  7. Effects of different bulk curing technologies on polyphenol content and PPO activity in tobacco leaves%密集烘烤工艺对烟叶多酚类物质含量及PPO活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王松峰; 王爱华; 王先伟; 管恩森; 徐秀红; 王传义; 任杰; 孙福山

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic changes of polyphenol substance contents and PPO activity during 3 different curing processes were studied using electric-heated flue-curing barn. Results showed that content of total phenols, chlorogenic acid, new chlorogenic acid, implicit chlorogenic acid, and Rutin increased during all curing processes. After curing, K2 treatment resulted in the highest content of total phenols, chlorogenic acid, new chlorogenic acid, and implicit chlorogenic acid, while K3 treatment resulted in the highest content of rutin and scopoletin. K2 treatment showed the lowest PPO activity during the sensitive period (45℃-47℃) of the brown reaction while K3 treatment showed the highest. Those indicated that K2 treatment can effectively inhibit enzymatic browning reaction and regulate polyphenol content during bulk curing, and produced higher level of polyphenol substances after curing.%为密集烘烤有针对性地调控多酚含量和优化完善烘烤工艺,采用电热式温湿自控密集烤烟箱,研究了3个密集烘烤工艺烘烤过程中烟叶多酚类物质含量及PPO活性的变化。各密集烘烤工艺处理烟叶的总酚、绿原酸、新绿原酸、隐绿原酸、芸香苷含量随着烘烤进程总体呈升高趋势。烤后烟叶的总酚、绿原酸、新绿原酸和隐绿原酸含量以K2工艺处理较高,芸香苷和莨菪亭含量以K3工艺处理较高。棕色化反应的敏感时期(45℃-47℃)的PPO活性以K2工艺处理最低,K3工艺处理最高。研究表明K2工艺处理能很好地抑制酶促棕色化反应的发生,调控密集烘烤过程中多酚类物质的变化,烤后烟叶多酚类物质含量高。

  8. Producing Bio-Based Bulk Chemicals Using Industrial Biotechnology Saves Energy and Combats Climate Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermann, B.G.; Blok, K.; Patel, M.K.

    2007-01-01

    The production of bulk chemicals from biomass can make a significant contribution to solving two of the most urgent environmental problems: climate change and depletion of fossil energy. We analyzed current and future technology routes leading to 15 bulk chemicals using industrial biotechnology and

  9. Comparison of the Developmental Potential and Clinical Results of In Vivo Matured Oocytes Cryopreserved with Different Vitrification Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei Li; Miao-Miao Wang; Hui Liu; Ke-Liang Wu; Shui-Ying Ma; Cheng Li; Hai-Bin Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oocyte vitrification is widely used throughout the world, but its clinical efficacy is inconsistent and depends on the vitrification media.This study compared the developmental potential and clinical results of in vivo matured oocytes cryopreserved with different vitrification media.Methods: This retrospective study involved vitrified-warmed oocytes at one in vitro fertilization laboratory.Vitrification media kits comprised the MC kit (ethylene glycol [EG] plus 1,2-propanediol [PROH]), the KT kit (EG plus dimethyl sulphoxide [DMSO]), and the Modified kit (EG plus DMSO and PROH kit).Rates of oocyte survival and subsequent developmental potential were recorded and analyzed.The t-test and the Chi-square test were used to evaluate each method's efficacy.Results: Oocyte survival rate was significantly higher for the Modified kit (92.0%) than for the MC kit (88.2%) (P < 0.05) and the KT kit (77.3%) (P < 0.001).The rate of high-quality embryo development in the Modified kit group (35.8%) was significantly higher than in the MC kit group (29.0%) and the KT kit group (28.3%) (P < 0.001).No significant differences were observed in the clinical pregnancy and implantation rates among the MC, KT, and Modified kit groups (37.2% vs.30.2% vs.39.6%;21.9% vs.18.8% vs.27.4%,respectively) (P > 0.05).The high-quality embryo rate per warmed oocyte was significantly higher (23.4%) in the Modified kit group than in the other groups (P < 0.001).The embryo utilization and live birth rates per warmed oocyte were the highest in the Modified kit group, but not significantly (P > 0.05).Conclusions: Modified vitrification media are efficient for oocyte vitrification and, with further verification, may be able to replace commercially available media in future clinical applications.

  10. Thermal and clinical performance of a closed device designed for human oocyte vitrification based on the optimization of the warming rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Miguel; Hebles, María; Migueles, Beatriz; Dorado, Mónica; Aguilera, Laura; González, Mercedes; Piqueras, Paloma; Montero, Lorena; Sánchez-Martín, Pascual; Sánchez-Martín, Fernando; Risco, Ramón

    2016-08-01

    Although it was qualitatively pointed out by Fahy et al. (1984), the key role of the warming rates in non-equillibrium vitrification has only recently been quantitatively established for murine oocytes by Mazur and Seki (2011). In this work we study the performance of a closed vitrification device designed under the new paradigm, for the vitrification of human oocytes. The vitrification carrier consists of a main straw in which a specifically designed capillary is mounted and where the oocytes are loaded by aspiration. It can be hermetically sealed before immersion in liquid nitrogen for vitrification, and it is warmed in a sterile water bath at 37 °C. Measured warming rates achieved with this design were of 600.000 ºC/min for a standard DMEM solution and 200.000 ºC/min with the vitrification solution for human oocytes. A cohort of 143 donor MII sibling human oocytes was split into two groups: control (fresh) and vitrified with SafeSpeed device. Similar results were found in both groups: survival (97.1%), fertilization after ICSI (74.7% in control vs. 77.3% in vitrified) and good quality embryos at day three (54.3% in control vs. 58.1% in vitrified) were settled as performance indicators. The pregnancy rate was 3/6 (50%) for the control, 2/3 (66%) for vitrified and 4/5 (80%) for mixed transfers. PMID:27312427

  11. Cryopreservation of Scophthalmus maximus embryos by vitrification%大菱鲆胚胎的玻璃化冷冻保存

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田永胜; 陈松林; 于过才; 季相山

    2005-01-01

    Vitrification solutions were examined for their suitability of cryopreservation of turbot (Seophthulnms maximus) embryos. PMPI gave higher survival rate (75.68%) than other vitrification solutions and was considered to be suitable liar the cryopreservation of turbot embryos. The freezing point of the vitrification solutions consisted of PG and MeOH in the proportion of 3:2 was measured when the vitrification solutions were cryopreserved. It showed that the vitrification solutions with a cryoprotectant concentration of over 41% have no freezing point and the freezing points of vitrification solutions containing 33.33%-40% cryprotectants were between -32.4℃ and -65.4℃, The freezing point decreased with the increase of cryoprotectant concentration. The resistance of turbot embryos at different stages to the cryoprotectants was studied, It was found that the turbot embryos from 4-5 pairs somite to tail bud were more resistant to cryoprotectants and suitable to vitrify. A live embryo was obtained after cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen for 14h and was hatched out。

  12. Radioactive waste combustion-vitrification under arc plasma: thermal and dynamic modelling; Combustion - vitrification de dechets radioactifs par plasma d'arc: modelisation de la thermique et de la dynamique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthelemy, B

    2003-06-01

    This thesis concerns the thermal and dynamic modelling for a combustion/vitrification process of surrogate radioactive waste under transferred arc plasma. The writer presents the confinement processes for radioactive waste using arc plasma and the different software used to model theses processes. This is followed by a description of our experimental equipment including a plasma arc reactor and an inductive system allowing the homogenization of glass temperature. A combustion/vitrification test is described. Thermal and material balances were discussed. The temperature fields of plasma arc and the glass frit conductivity are measured. Finally, the writer describes and clarifies the equations solved for the simulations of the electrically plasma arc and the glass melting including the thin layer of glass frit coating the crucible cold walls. The modelling results are presented in the form of spatial distribution of temperature, velocity and voluminal power... (author)

  13. Radioactive waste combustion / vitrification under arc plasma: thermal and dynamic modelling; Combustion - vitrification de dechets radioactifs par plasma d'arc: modelisation de la thermique et de la dynamique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthelemy, B

    2003-07-01

    This thesis concerns the thermal and dynamic modelling for a combustion/vitrification process of surrogate radioactive waste under transferred arc plasma. The writer presents the confinement processes for radioactive waste using arc plasma and the different software used to model theses processes. This is followed by a description of our experimental equipment including a plasma arc reactor and an inductive system allowing the homogenization of glass temperature. A combustion/vitrification test is described. Thermal and material balances were discussed. The temperature fields of plasma arc and the glass frit conductivity are measured. Finally, the writer describes and clarifies the equations solved for the simulations of the electrically plasma arc and the glass melting including the thin layer of glass frit coating the crucible cold walls. The modelling results are presented in the form of spatial distribution of temperature, velocity and volume power... (author)

  14. Handling of bulk solids theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Shamlou, P A

    1990-01-01

    Handling of Bulk Solids provides a comprehensive discussion of the field of solids flow and handling in the process industries. Presentation of the subject follows classical lines of separate discussions for each topic, so each chapter is self-contained and can be read on its own. Topics discussed include bulk solids flow and handling properties; pressure profiles in bulk solids storage vessels; the design of storage silos for reliable discharge of bulk materials; gravity flow of particulate materials from storage vessels; pneumatic transportation of bulk solids; and the hazards of solid-mater

  15. Effects of Droplet-Vitrification Cryopreservation Based on Physiological and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities of Brassidium Shooting Star Orchid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safrina Rahmah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Protocorm-like bodies (PLBs of Brassidium Shooting Star orchid were successfully cryopreserved using droplet-vitrification method. Vitrification based cryopreservation protocol is comprised of preculture, osmoprotection, cryoprotection, cooling, rewarming, and growth recovery and each and every step contributes to the achievement of successful cryopreservation. In order to reveal the lethal and nonlethal damage produced by cryopreservation, histological observation, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and biochemical analysis were carried out in both cryopreserved and noncryopreserved PLBs of Brassidium Shooting Star orchid comparing with the control PLBs stock culture. Histological and scanning electron microscopy analyses displayed structural changes in cryopreserved PLBs due to the impact of cryoinjury during exposure to liquid nitrogen. Total soluble protein significantly increased throughout the dehydration process and the highest value was achieved when PLBs were stored in liquid nitrogen. Ascorbate peroxidase (APX and catalase (CAT showed the highest enzyme activities in both dehydration and cryostorage treatments indicating that stress level of PLBs was high during these stages.

  16. New fermions in the bulk

    CERN Document Server

    de Brito, K P S

    2016-01-01

    Spinor fields on 5-dimensional Lorentzian manifolds are classified, according to the geometric Fierz identities that involve their bilinear covariants. Based upon this classification that generalises the celebrated 4-dimensional Lounesto classification of spinor fields, new non-trivial classes of 5-dimensional spinor fields are, hence, found, with important potential applications regarding bulk fermions and their subsequent localisation on brane-worlds. In addition, quaternionic bilinear covariants are used to derive the quaternionic spin density, through the truncated exterior bundle. In order to accomplish a realisation of these new spinors, a Killing vector field is constructed on the horizon of 5-dimensional Kerr black holes. This Killing vector field is shown to reach the time-like Killing vector field at the spatial infinity, through a current 1-form density, constructed with the derived new spinor fields. The current density is, moreover, expressed as the f\\"unfbein components, assuming a condensed for...

  17. Ordered bulk degradation via autophagy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dengjel, Jörn; Kristensen, Anders Riis; Andersen, Jens S

    2008-01-01

    During amino acid starvation, cells undergo macroautophagy which is regarded as an unspecific bulk degradation process. Lately, more and more organelle-specific autophagy subtypes such as reticulophagy, mitophagy and ribophagy have been described and it could be shown, depending on the experimental...... setup, that autophagy specifically can remove certain subcellular components. We used an unbiased quantitative proteomics approach relying on stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) to study global protein dynamics during amino acid starvation-induced autophagy. Looking...... at proteasomal and lysosomal degradation ample cross-talk between the two degradation pathways became evident. Degradation via autophagy appeared to be ordered and regulated at the protein complex/organelle level. This raises several important questions such as: can macroautophagy itself be specific and what...

  18. Microwave disinfestation of bulk timber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Pedro Jose; Zona, Angela Tatiana; Sanchís, Raul; Balbastre, Juan Vicente; Martínez, Antonio; Muñoz, Eva Maria; Gordillo, Javier; de los Reyes, Elías

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a complete microwave system for bulk timber disinfestation is developed and tested. A commercial FEM simulator has been used to design the applicator, looking for structures providing uniform field distributions, which is a factor of capital relevance for a successful treatment. Special attention has also been given to the reduction of electromagnetic energy leakage. A dual polarized cylindrical applicator with a corrugated flange has been designed. The applicator has also been numerically tested emulating some real-life operating conditions. A prototype has been built using two low-cost magnetrons of 900 W and high power coaxial cables and it has been tested inside a shielded semianechoic chamber. The tests have been carried out in three stages: validation of the applicator design, determination of the lethal dosage as a function of the insect position and the maximum wood temperature allowed and statement of safe operation procedures. PMID:18351001

  19. Isotopic signatures by bulk analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed a series of measurement techniques for identification of nuclear signatures by analyzing bulk samples. Two specific applications for isotopic fingerprinting to identify the origin of anthropogenic radioactivity in bulk samples are presented. The first example is the analyses of environmental samples collected in the US Arctic to determine the impact of dumping of radionuclides in this polar region. Analyses of sediment and biota samples indicate that for the areas sampled the anthropogenic radionuclide content of sediments was predominantly the result of the deposition of global fallout. The anthropogenic radionuclide concentrations in fish, birds and mammals were very low. It can be surmised that marine food chains are presently not significantly affected. The second example is isotopic fingerprinting of water and sediment samples from the Rocky Flats Facility (RFP). The largest source of anthropogenic radioactivity presently affecting surface-waters at RFP is the sediments that are currently residing in the holding ponds. One gram of sediment from a holding pond contains approximately 50 times more plutonium than 1 liter of water from the pond. Essentially 100% of the uranium in Ponds A-1 and A-2 originated as depleted uranium. The largest source of radioactivity in the terminal Ponds A-4, B-5 and C-2 was naturally occurring uranium and its decay product radium. The uranium concentrations in the waters collected from the terminal ponds contained 0.05% or less of the interim standard calculated derived concentration guide for uranium in waters available to the public. All of the radioactivity observed in soil, sediment and water samples collected at RFP was naturally occurring, the result of processes at RFP or the result of global fallout. No extraneous anthropogenic alpha, beta or gamma activities were detected. The plutonium concentrations in Pond C-2 appear to vary seasonally

  20. Feasibility Study for Preparation and Use of Glass Grains as an Alternative to Glass Nodules for Vitrification of Nuclear Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High level nuclear liquid waste (HLW) is immobilized using borosilicate glass matrix. Presently joule heated ceramic melter is being employed for vitrification of HLW in India. Preformed nodules of base glass are fed to melter along with liquid waste in predetermined ratio. In order to reduce the cost incurred for production of glass nodules of base glass, an alternative option of using glass grains was evaluated for its preparation and its suitability for the melter operation. (author)

  1. Cryopreservation of in vitro-grown shoot-tips of tropical taro (Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta) by vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant, Rajnesh; Taylor, Mary; Tyagi, Anand

    2006-01-01

    In vitro shoot-tips of three cultivars of tropical taro (Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta (L.) Schott) were successfully cryopreserved by vitrification. Different conditioning treatments were required for each of the cultivars, while the vitrification protocol was constant for all. For the cultivars E399 and CPUK, shoot-tips from three-month-old in vitro plants grown on solidified MS were preconditioned on MS with 0.3 M sucrose in the dark for 16 h at 25 degree C. For the cultivar TNS, donor plants were preconditioned on solid MS with 90 g per liter sucrose for seven weeks before cryopreservation. For vitrification, the shoot-tips were loaded with a solution of 2 M glycerol plus 0.4 M sucrose for 20 min at 25 degree C, dehydrated with PVS2 for 12 min at 25 degree C and plunged in liquid nitrogen. Vials were warmed by rapid shaking in a water bath at 40 degree C for 1 min 30. Shoot-tips were rehydrated in liquid MS with 1.2 M sucrose for 15 min at 25 degree C then plated on recovery medium. Shoot-tips resumed growth within a week and developed into plantlets six to eight weeks later without any callus formation. The best mean recoveries for the three cultivars were 21, 29 and 30 percent for E399, CPUK and TNS, respectively. This protocol was evaluated with five other taro cultivars with no success. However, this study has shown that vitrification has potential for cryopreserving tropical taro.

  2. Combination of high performance refractometry and infrared spectroscopy as a probe for chemically induced gelation and vitrification of epoxies

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Ulrich; Philipp, Martine; Gervais, P. C.; Possart, Prof Dr Wulff; Wehlack, C.; Kieffer, J.; Sanctuary, Roland; Krüger, Jan-Kristian

    2010-01-01

    A combination of infrared spectroscopy and high performance refractometry was used to investigate the chemically induced sol-gel and glass transition during the polymerization of epoxies. Representations of the refractive index versus chemical conversion reveal an interesting insight in the optical properties accompanying gelation and vitrification. Whereas the electronic polarizability of the liquid state of small average molecular mass and the glassy state is dominated by the mass density, ...

  3. Improved cryopreservation of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) polyembryoids using droplet vitrification approach and assessment of genetic fidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantait, Saikat; Sinniah, Uma Rani; Suranthran, Periasamy; Palanyandy, Sharrmila Rengeswari; Subramaniam, Sreeramanan

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, polyembryoids of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) were cryopreserved with successful revival of 68 % for the first time using the droplet vitrification technique. Excised polyembryoids (3-5-mm diameter) from 3-month-old in vitro cultures were pre-cultured for 12 h in liquid Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 0.5 M sucrose. The polyembryoids were osmoprotected in loading solution [10% (w/v) dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) plus 0.7 M sucrose] for 30 min at room temperature and then placed on aluminium strips where they were individually drenched in chilled droplets of vitrification solution (PVS2) [30% (w/v) glycerol plus 15% (w/v) ethylene glycol (EG) plus 15% (w/v) DMSO plus 0.4 M sucrose] for 10 min. The aluminium strips were enclosed in cryovials which were then plunged quickly into liquid nitrogen and kept there for 1 h. The polyembryoids were then thawed and unloaded (using 1.2 M sucrose solution) with subsequent transfer to regeneration medium and stored in zero irradiance. Following for 10 days of storage, polyembryoids were cultured under 16 h photoperiod of 50 μmol m(-2) s(-1) photosynthetic photon flux density, at 23 ± 1 °C. Post-thaw growth recovery of 68% was recorded within 2 weeks of culture, and new shoot development was observed at 4 weeks of growth. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that successful regeneration of cryopreserved polyembryoids was related to maintenance of cellular integrity, presumably through PVS2 exposure for 10 min. The present study demonstrated that cryopreservation by droplet vitrification enhanced the regeneration percentages of oil palm in comparison with the conventional vitrification method previously reported.

  4. Improved cryopreservation of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) polyembryoids using droplet vitrification approach and assessment of genetic fidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantait, Saikat; Sinniah, Uma Rani; Suranthran, Periasamy; Palanyandy, Sharrmila Rengeswari; Subramaniam, Sreeramanan

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, polyembryoids of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) were cryopreserved with successful revival of 68 % for the first time using the droplet vitrification technique. Excised polyembryoids (3-5-mm diameter) from 3-month-old in vitro cultures were pre-cultured for 12 h in liquid Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 0.5 M sucrose. The polyembryoids were osmoprotected in loading solution [10% (w/v) dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) plus 0.7 M sucrose] for 30 min at room temperature and then placed on aluminium strips where they were individually drenched in chilled droplets of vitrification solution (PVS2) [30% (w/v) glycerol plus 15% (w/v) ethylene glycol (EG) plus 15% (w/v) DMSO plus 0.4 M sucrose] for 10 min. The aluminium strips were enclosed in cryovials which were then plunged quickly into liquid nitrogen and kept there for 1 h. The polyembryoids were then thawed and unloaded (using 1.2 M sucrose solution) with subsequent transfer to regeneration medium and stored in zero irradiance. Following for 10 days of storage, polyembryoids were cultured under 16 h photoperiod of 50 μmol m(-2) s(-1) photosynthetic photon flux density, at 23 ± 1 °C. Post-thaw growth recovery of 68% was recorded within 2 weeks of culture, and new shoot development was observed at 4 weeks of growth. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that successful regeneration of cryopreserved polyembryoids was related to maintenance of cellular integrity, presumably through PVS2 exposure for 10 min. The present study demonstrated that cryopreservation by droplet vitrification enhanced the regeneration percentages of oil palm in comparison with the conventional vitrification method previously reported. PMID:24893588

  5. Effects of Vitrification on Outcomes of In VivoMature, In Vitro-Mature and Immature Human Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-yan Song

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: To observe the effects of vitrification on spindle, zona pellucida, embryonic aneuploidy and DNA injury in in vivo-maruted, in vitro-mature and immature human oocytes. Methods: Between January 2009 and February 2015, 223 immature oocytes from 450 infertile patients, and 31 in vivo-mature oocytes from 3 infertile couples were collected. Of the 223 immature oocytes, 113 were used for in vitro culture before vitrification. Some oocytes were randomly divided into in vivo-mature group (group A, n = 15, in vitro-mature group (group B, n = 88 and immature group (group C, n = 85, and then the oocytes with spindle in these three groups after freezing-thawing were selected to use for Polscope imaging, embryonic aneuploidy screening and embryo development evaluation. Other oocytes were randomly divided into group A (n = 16, group B (n = 25 and group C (n = 25 for detecting DNA injury. Results: After thawing, spindle occurrence rate, spindle Retardance value, and cleavage rate were significantly higher in groups A and B than in group C (all P P > 0.05. Zona pellucida density (ZPD was significantly lower in group A than in groups B and C both before and after vitrification (all P P P > 0.05. Rate of comet cells was significantly lower in group A than in groups B and C (all P P Conclusion: In vivo- and in vitro-mature human oocytes are more suitable to vitrification than immature human oocytes. Spindle Retardance value has more predictive value for embryonic development potential than ZPD and ZPT.

  6. High osmolality vitrification: a new method for the simple and temperature-permissive cryopreservation of mouse embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiji Mochida

    Full Text Available Procedures for cryopreserving embryos vary considerably, each having its specific advantages and disadvantages in terms of technical feasibility, embryo survival yield, temperature permissibility and species- or strain-dependent applicability. Here we report a high osmolality vitrification (HOV method that is advantageous in these respects. Cryopreservation by vitrification is generally very simple, but, unlike slow freezing, embryos should be kept at a supercooling temperature (below -130°C to avoid cryodamage. We overcame this problem by using an HOV solution containing 42.5% (v/v ethylene glycol, 17.3% (w/v Ficoll and 1.0 M sucrose. This solution is more viscous than other cryopreservation solutions, but easy handling of embryos was assured by employing a less viscous equilibration solution before vitrification. Most (>80% embryos cryopreserved in this solution survived at -80°C for at least 30 days. Normal mice were recovered even after intercontinental transportation in a conventional dry-ice package for 2-3 days, indicating that special containers such as dry shippers with liquid nitrogen vapor are unnecessary. The HOV solution could also be employed for long-term storage in liquid nitrogen, as with other conventional cryoprotectants. Finally, we confirmed that this new vitrification method could be applied successfully to embryos of all six strains of mice we have tested so far. Thus, our HOV method provides an efficient and reliable strategy for the routine cryopreservation of mouse embryos in animal facilities and biomedical laboratories, and for easy and cheap transportation.

  7. Vitrification of in vitro matured oocytes collected from antral follicles at the time of ovarian tissue cryopreservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fasano Giovanna

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past few years, cryopreservation of ovarian tissue has become an established procedure proposed in many centers around the world and transplantation has successfully resulted in full-term pregnancies and deliveries in human. This prospective study aims to evaluate the feasibility of vitrifying in vitro matured oocytes (IVM isolated at the time of ovarian tissue cryopreservation to improve the efficiency of fertility preservation programs. Methods Oocyte-cumulus complexes were retrieved from freshly collected ovarian cortex by aspirating antral follicular fluid, and were matured in vitro for 24-48 h prior to vitrification. Oocytes were matured in an IVM commercial medium (Copper Surgical, USA supplemented with 75 mIU/ml FSH and 75 mIU/ml LH and vitrified using a commercial vitrification kit (Irvine Scientific, California in high security vitrification straws (CryoBioSystem, France. Oocyte collection and IVM rates were evaluated according to the age, the cycle period and the amount of tissue collected. Results Immature oocyte retrieval from ovarian tissue was carried out in 57 patients between 8 and 35 years of age, undergoing ovarian tissue cryopreservation. A total of 266 oocytes were isolated, 28 of them were degenerated, 200 were at germinal vesicle stage (GV, 35 were in metaphase I (MI and 3 displayed a visible polar body (MII. The number of oocytes collected was positively correlated with the amount of tissue cryopreserved (p p = 0.005. Oocytes were obtained regardless of menstrual cycle period or contraception. A total maturation rate of 31% was achieved, leading to the vitrification of at least one mature oocyte for half of the cohort. Conclusions The study showed that a significant number of immature oocytes can be collected from excised ovarian tissue whatever the menstrual cycle phases and the age of the patients, even for prepubertal girls.

  8. Feasibility study for the processing of Hanford Site cesium and strontium isotopic sources in the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The final environmental impact statement for the disposal of defense-related wastes at the Hanford Site (Final Environmental Impact Statement: Disposal of Hanford Defense High-Level, Transuranic and Tank Wastes [HDW-EIS] [DOE 1987]) states that the preferred alternative for disposal of cesium and strontium wastes at the Hanford Site will be to package and ship these wastes to the commercial high-level waste repository. The Record of Decision for this EIS states that before shipment to a geologic repository, these wastes will be packaged in accordance with repository waste acceptance criteria. However, the high cost per canister for repository disposal and uncertainty about the acceptability of overpacked capsules by the repository suggest that additional alternative means of disposal be considered. Vitrification of the cesium and strontium salts in the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) has been identified as a possible alternative to overpacking. Subsequently, Westinghouse Hanford Company's (Westinghouse Hanford) Projects Technical Support Office undertook a feasibility study to determine if any significant technical issues preclude the vitrification of the cesium and strontium salts. Based on the information presented in this report, it is considered technically feasible to blend the cesium chloride and strontium fluoride salts with neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) and/or complexant concentrate (CC) waste feedstreams, or to blend the salts with fresh frit and process the waste through the HWVP

  9. Plant Decontamination as a Precondition of the Remote Dismantling Concept of the Karlsruhe Vitrification Plant VEK - 12206

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitrification of the high-active liquid waste concentrates (HAWC) was a major milestone in the WAK decommissioning project (StiWAK). From September 2009 to June 2010, about 56 m3 of HAWC were vitrified at the Karlsruhe vitrification facility (VEK) and filled into 123 canisters. HAWC vitrification was followed by an extensive rinsing and shutdown program, in the course of which both the VEK process installations and the facilities for the storage and evaporation of high-active fission product solutions (LAVA) are prepared specifically for dismantling. Finally the rinsing programme leads to an overall reduction of the remaining contamination in the installations by a factor of approx. 5 - 10. The amount of liquids arisen from this program has been vitrified and another 17 canisters have been filled. In total, 140 canisters were packed into 5 CASTOR casks that were already transported to the Zwischenlager Nord (interim store North) of EWN GmbH (ZLN) in the mid of February 2011. The melter of the VEK was already shut down in the late November 2010. (authors)

  10. Low Power Low Voltage Bulk Driven Balanced OTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The last few decades, a great deal of attention has been paid to low-voltage (LV low-power (LP integrated circuits design since the power consumption has become a critical issue. Among many techniques used for the design of LV LP analog circuits, the Bulk-driven principle offers a promising route towards this design for many aspects mainly the simplicity and using the conventional MOS technology to implement these designs. This paper is devoted to the Bulk-driven (BD principle and utilizing this principle to design LV LP building block of Operational Transconductance Amplifier (OTA in standard CMOS processes and supply voltage 0.9V. The simulation results have been carried out by the Spice simulatorusing the 130nm CMOS technology from TSMC.

  11. Low Power Low Voltage Bulk Driven Balanced OTA

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Neha; Suthar, Meenakshi; Soni, Priyanka

    2012-01-01

    The last few decades, a great deal of attention has been paid to low-voltage (LV) low-power (LP) integrated circuits design since the power consumption has become a critical issue. Among many techniques used for the design of LV LP analog circuits, the Bulk-driven principle offers a promising route towards this design for many aspects mainly the simplicity and using the conventional MOS technology to implement these designs. This paper is devoted to the Bulk-driven (BD) principle and utilizing this principle to design LV LP building block of Operational Transconductance Amplifier (OTA) in standard CMOS processes and supply voltage 0.9V. The simulation results have been carried out by the Spice simulator using the 130nm CMOS technology from TSMC.

  12. EXPLORATION ON SCALABILITY OF DATABASE BULK INSERTION WITH MULTITHREADING

    OpenAIRE

    Boon-Wee Low; Boon-Yaik Ooi; and Chee-Siang Wong

    2011-01-01

    The advancement of database engine and multi-core processors technologies have enable database insertion to be implemented concurrently via multithreading programming. The objective of this work is to evaluate the performance of using multithreading technique to perform database insertion of large data set with known size to enhance the performance of data access layer (DAL) particularly on the bulk-insertion operation. The performance evaluation includes techniques such as using single datab...

  13. Bulk Metallic Glasses for Implantable Medical Devices and Surgical Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Philip; O'Cearbhaill, Eoin D; Byrne, James H; Browne, David J

    2016-07-01

    With increasing knowledge of the materials science of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) and improvements in their properties and processing, they have started to become candidate materials for biomedical devices. A dichotomy in the types of medical applications has also emerged, in which some families of BMGs are being developed for permanent devices whilst another family - of Mg-based alloys - is showing promise in bioabsorbable implants. The current status of these metallurgical and technological developments is summarized.

  14. Effects of Different Bulk Baking Technologies on the Content of Each Neutral Aroma Component of Flue-cured Tobacco NC55%不同烘烤工艺对烤烟品种NC55中性香气物质各组分含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖和明; 孙福山; 徐秀红; 王爱华; 王全明; 孙帅帅; 张国超; 张军刚

    2013-01-01

    In order to explore the change of each neutral aroma component during curing, and reasonable and accurate bulk baking aroma technology, combined with bulk baking technologies of the current production areas, the effects of three different baking technologies on the content of each neutral aroma component of flue-cured tobacco (cv. NC55) in the flue-curing process were studied by GC/MS. The results showed that, on the whole, each neutral aroma component and total neutral aroma constituents ascended during cuing, which mainly produced and accumulated during the yellowing stage and color fixing stage. In addition to neopytadiene, under middle temperature and middle humility treatment, the content of each neutral aroma component and total neutral aroma constituents of flue-cured tobacco leaves were relatively higher than multistage middle temperature and middle humility treatment and middle temperature and middle humility treatment, meanwhile multistage middle temperature and middle humility treatment was slightly higher than middle temperature and high humility treatment. Considering each neutral aroma component and total neutral aroma constituents of flue-cured tobacco NC55, the aroma quality under middle temperature and middle humility treatment can be improved more than the other treatments.%为探求烘烤过程中中性香气物质各组分含量变化及合理精准的密集烘烤烤香工艺,结合现行产区密集烘烤工艺,采用GC/MS联用分析技术,研究了3种烘烤工艺对烤烟品种NC55中性香气物质各组分含量的影响。结果表明,在整个烘烤过程中,中性香气物质总量及各组分含量总体上均呈上升趋势,且其主要在变黄、定色期合成积累;除新植二烯外,中温中湿处理的烤后烟叶中性香气物质总量及各组分含量均高于中温高湿和多阶段中温中湿处理,而多阶段中温中湿处理稍高于中温高湿处理。综合来看,中

  15. Properties of Bulk Sintered Silver As a Function of Porosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL; Vuono, Daniel J [ORNL; Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Ferber, Mattison K [ORNL; Liang, Zhenxian [ORNL

    2012-06-01

    This report summarizes a study where various properties of bulk-sintered silver were investigated over a range of porosity. This work was conducted within the National Transportation Research Center's Power Device Packaging project that is part of the DOE Vehicle Technologies Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors Program. Sintered silver, as an interconnect material in power electronics, inherently has porosity in its produced structure because of the way it is made. Therefore, interest existed in this study to examine if that porosity affected electrical properties, thermal properties, and mechanical properties because any dependencies could affect the intended function (e.g., thermal transfer, mechanical stress relief, etc.) or reliability of that interconnect layer and alter how its performance is modeled. Disks of bulk-sintered silver were fabricated using different starting silver pastes and different sintering conditions to promote different amounts of porosity. Test coupons were harvested out of the disks to measure electrical resistivity and electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, coefficient of thermal expansion, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio, and yield stress. The authors fully recognize that the microstructure of processed bulk silver coupons may indeed not be identical to the microstructure produced in thin (20-50 microns) layers of sintered silver. However, measuring these same properties with such a thin actual structure is very difficult, requires very specialized specimen preparation and unique testing instrumentation, is expensive, and has experimental shortfalls of its own, so the authors concluded that the herein measured responses using processed bulk sintered silver coupons would be sufficient to determine acceptable values of those properties. Almost all the investigated properties of bulk sintered silver changed with porosity content within a range of 3-38% porosity. Electrical resistivity, electrical conductivity

  16. Heat Transfer in Waste Glass Melts - Measurement and Implications for Nuclear Waste Vitrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuan

    Thermal properties of waste glass melts, such as high temperature density and thermal conductivity, are relevant to heat transfer processes in nuclear waste vitrification. Experimental measurement techniques were developed and applied to four nuclear waste glasses representative of those currently projected for treatment of Hanford HLW and LAW streams to study heat flow mechanisms in nuclear waste vitrification. Density measurement results by Archimedes' method indicated that densities of the melts investigated varied considerably with composition and temperature. Thermal diffusivities of waste melts were determined at nominal melter operating temperatures using a temperature-wave technique. Thermal conductivities were obtained by combining diffusivity data with the experimentally-acquired densities of the melts and their known heat capacities. The experimental results display quite large positive dependences of conductivities on temperature for some samples and much weaker positive temperature dependences for others. More importantly, there is observed a big change in the slopes of the conductivities versus temperature as temperature is increased for two of the melts, but not for the other two. This behavior was interpreted in terms of the changing contributions of radiation and conduction with temperature and composition dependence of the absorption coefficient. Based on the obtained thermal conductivities, a simple model for a waste glass melter was set up, which was used to analyze the relative contributions of conduction and radiation individually and collectively to the overall heat flow and to investigate factors and conditions that influence the radiation contribution to heat flow. The modeling results showed that unlike the case at lower temperatures, the radiant energy flow through waste melts could be predominant compared with conduction at temperature of about 900 °C or higher. However, heat flow due to radiation was roughly equal to that from

  17. Relative entropy equals bulk relative entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Jafferis, Daniel L; Maldacena, Juan; Suh, S Josephine

    2015-01-01

    We consider the gravity dual of the modular Hamiltonian associated to a general subregion of a boundary theory. We use it to argue that the relative entropy of nearby states is given by the relative entropy in the bulk, to leading order in the bulk gravitational coupling. We also argue that the boundary modular flow is dual to the bulk modular flow in the entanglement wedge, with implications for entanglement wedge reconstruction.

  18. Coupling brane fields to bulk supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parameswaran, Susha L. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Theoretical Physics; Schmidt, Jonas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    In this note we present a simple, general prescription for coupling brane localized fields to bulk supergravity. We illustrate the procedure by considering 6D N=2 bulk supergravity on a 2D orbifold, with brane fields localized at the fixed points. The resulting action enjoys the full 6D N=2 symmetries in the bulk, and those of 4D N=1 supergravity at the brane positions. (orig.)

  19. Coupling brane fields to bulk supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this note we present a simple, general prescription for coupling brane localized fields to bulk supergravity. We illustrate the procedure by considering 6D N=2 bulk supergravity on a 2D orbifold, with brane fields localized at the fixed points. The resulting action enjoys the full 6D N=2 symmetries in the bulk, and those of 4D N=1 supergravity at the brane positions. (orig.)

  20. Diagnosis of Dry Bulk Shipping Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wendy Wu

    2009-01-01

    @@ A sudden severe winter for dry bulk shipping market Since the second half of last year,dry bulk shipping market experienced a sudden and dramatical change which caught everyone off guard in just a few months'time.As the wind vane of dry bulk shipping market,BDI index(Baltic index)has been climbing higher and higher from the middle of 2005.It began to nearly shoot up into the 2007.

  1. Bulk scalar field in DGP braneworld cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Ansari, Rizwan ul Haq

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the effects of bulk scalar field in the braneworld cosmological scenario. The Friedmann equations and acceleration condition in presence of the bulk scalar field for a zero tension brane and cosmological constant are studied. In DGP model the effective Einstein equation on the brane is obtained with bulk scalar field. The rescaled bulk scalar field on the brane in the DGP model behaves as an effective four dimensional field, thus standard type cosmology is recovered. In present study of the DGP model, the late-time accelerating phase of the universe can be explained .

  2. Advances in Processing of Bulk Ferroelectric Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galassi, Carmen

    The development of ferroelectric bulk materials is still under extensive investigation, as new and challenging issues are growing in relation to their widespread applications. Progress in understanding the fundamental aspects requires adequate technological tools. This would enable controlling and tuning the material properties as well as fully exploiting them into the scale production. Apart from the growing number of new compositions, interest in the first ferroelectrics like BaTiO3 or PZT materials is far from dropping. The need to find new lead-free materials, with as high performance as PZT ceramics, is pushing towards a full exploitation of bariumbased compositions. However, lead-based materials remain the best performing at reasonably low production costs. Therefore, the main trends are towards nano-size effects and miniaturisation, multifunctional materials, integration, and enhancement of the processing ability in powder synthesis. Also, in control of dispersion and packing, to let densification occur in milder conditions. In this chapter, after a general review of the composition and main properties of the principal ferroelectric materials, methods of synthesis are analysed with emphasis on recent results from chemical routes and cold consolidation methods based on the colloidal processing.

  3. Vitrification devices affect structural and molecular status of in vitro matured ovine oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Succu, S; Leoni, G G; Bebbere, D; Berlinguer, F; Mossa, F; Bogliolo, L; Madeddu, M; Ledda, S; Naitana, S

    2007-10-01

    We evaluated the effect of three different cryodevices on membrane integrity, tubulin polymerization, maturation promoting factor (MPF) activity and developmental competence of in vitro matured (IVM) ovine oocytes. IVM oocytes were exposed during 3 min to 7.5% DMSO and 7.5% ethylene glycol (EG) in TCM199 and 25 sec to 0.5 M sucrose, 16.5% DMSO and 16.5% EG, loaded in open pulled straws (OPS), cryoloops (CL) or cryotops (CT) and immersed into liquid nitrogen. Untreated (CTR) or exposed to vitrification solutions but not cryopreserved (EXP) oocytes were used as controls. After warming, double fluorescent staining evidenced a lower membrane integrity in vitrified groups compared to the controls (P CT and controls (P CT groups. MPF activity was lower in treated compared to CTR and CT showed the lowest value (P CT. Parthenogenetic activation was higher in treated compared to CTR and CT evidenced the highest value. Our results indicate that cryodevice influences not only the ability to survive cryopreservation but is also associated with molecular alterations which affect developmental competence.

  4. In-situ vitrification: Large-scale results and planned applications for site remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geosafe Corporation began commercial application of in-situ vitrification (ISV) during 1993. The first application is at the Parsons Chemical/ETM Enterprises Superfund Site (Parsons Site) in Grand Ledge, Michigan, which contained 4,800 tons of pesticide- and mercury-contaminated soil. The effectiveness of the cleanup and overall performance of the ISV system will be presented. Projects in the US that will follow the Parsons project include: (1) soils associated with a former transformer service facility, which are contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls; (2) a chemical packaging plant contaminated with dioxin, pesticides, and other chemicals; (3) a contaminated landfill. The status and expected results of these projects is discussed. In Australia, ISV has been selected for in-place treatment of burial pits at the Maralinga Nuclear Weapons Test Site, which contains test debris and plutonium and uranium contamination. In Japan, a 3-yr engineering-scale testing program has been completed, in which the application of ISV for vitrifying a low-level-waste burial vault has been evaluated. This paper provides technical information showing that ISV can successfully remediate various contaminated sites if adequate site characterization and preparation are provided and small-scale ISV testing is utilized to understand the technical obstacles that must be dealt with in the field. The paper identifies the benefits of ISV for hazardous, radioactive and mixed-waste site remediation and criteria pertinent to such applications

  5. Vitrification of kidney precursors as a new source for organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco-Jiménez, Francisco; Garcia-Dominguez, Ximo; Jimenez-Trigos, Estrella; Vera-Donoso, Cesar D; Vicente, Jose S

    2015-06-01

    Kidney transplantation from deceased or living human donors has been limited by donor availability as opposed to the increasing demand, and by the risk of allograft loss rejection and immunosuppressive therapy toxicity. In recent years, xenotransplantation of developed kidney precursor cells has offered a novel solution for the unlimited supply of human donor organs. Specifically, transplantation of kidney precursors in adult hosts showed that intact embryonic kidneys underwent maturation, exhibiting functional properties, and averted humoural rejection post-transplantation from non-immunosuppressed hosts. Even if supply and demand could be balanced using xenotransplants or lab-grown organs from regenerative medicine, the future of these treatments would still be compromised by the ability to physically distribute the organs to patients in need and to produce these products in a way that allows adequate inventory control and quality assurance. Kidney precursors originating from fifteen-day old rabbit embryos were vitrified using Cryotop® as a device and VM3 as vitrification solution. After 3 months of storage in liquid nitrogen, 18 kidney precursors were transplanted into non-immunosuppressed adult hosts by laparoscopy surgery. Twenty-one days after allotransplantation, 9 new kidneys were recovered. All the new kidneys recovered exhibited significant growth and mature glomeruli. Having achieved these encouraging results, we report, for the first time, that it is possible to create a long-term biobank of kidney precursors as an unlimited source of organs for transplantation, facilitating the inventory control and distribution of organs.

  6. Materials selection for process equipment in the Hanford waste vitrification plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmore, M R; Jensen, G A

    1991-07-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is being designed to vitrify defense liquid high-level wastes and transuranic wastes stored at Hanford. The HWVP Functional Design Criteria (FDC) requires that materials used for fabrication of remote process equipment and piping in the facility be compatible with the expected waste stream compositions and process conditions. To satisfy FDC requirements, corrosion-resistant materials have been evaluated under simulated HWVP-specific conditions and recommendations have been made for HWVP applications. The materials recommendations provide to the project architect/engineer the best available corrosion rate information for the materials under the expected HWVP process conditions. Existing data and sound engineering judgement must be used and a solid technical basis must be developed to define an approach to selecting suitable construction materials for the HWVP. This report contains the strategy, approach, criteria, and technical basis developed for selecting materials of construction. Based on materials testing specific to HWVP and on related outside testing, this report recommends for constructing specific process equipment and identifies future testing needs to complete verification of the performance of the selected materials. 30 refs., 7 figs., 11 tabs.

  7. Evaluation of defense-waste glass produced by full-scale vitrification equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three full-scale vitrification processes at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory produced over 67,000 kg of simulated nuclear-waste glass from March 1979 to August 1980. Samples were analyzed to monitor process operation and evaluate the resulting glass product. These processes are: Spray Calciner/In-Can Melter (SC/ICM); Spray Calciner/Calcine-Fed Ceramic Melter (SC/CFCM); and Liquid-Fed Ceramic Melter (LFCM). Waste components in the process feed varied less than +- 10%. The SC/ICM and SC/CFCM which use separate waste and frit feed systems showed larger glass compositional variation than the LFCM, which processed only premixed feed during this period. The SC/ICM and SC/CFCM product contained significant amounts of acmite crystals, while the LFCM product was largely amorphous. In addition, the lower portion of all SC/ICM-filled canisters contained a zone rich in waste components. A product chemical durability as determined by pH4 and soxhlet leach tests varied considerably. Aside from increased durability under pH4 conditions with decreasing waste content, glass composition, microstructure and melting process did not correlate with glass durability. For all samples analyzed, the weight loss under pH4 conditions ranged from 17.7 to 85.2 wt %. Soxhlet conditions produced weight losses from 1.78 to 3.56 wt %

  8. Evaluation of defense-waste glass produced by full-scale vitrification equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukacs, J.M.; Petkus, L.L.; Mellinger, G.B.

    1981-09-01

    Three full-scale vitrification processes at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory produced over 67,000 kg of simulated nuclear-waste glass from March 1979 to August 1980. Samples were analyzed to monitor process operation and evaluate the resulting glass product. These processes are: Spray Calciner/In-Can Melter (SC/ICM); Spray Calciner/Calcine-Fed Ceramic Melter (SC/CFCM); and Liquid-Fed Ceramic Melter (LFCM). Waste components in the process feed varied less than +- 10%. The SC/ICM and SC/CFCM which use separate waste and frit feed systems showed larger glass compositional variation than the LFCM, which processed only premixed feed during this period. The SC/ICM and SC/CFCM product contained significant amounts of acmite crystals, while the LFCM product was largely amorphous. In addition, the lower portion of all SC/ICM-filled canisters contained a zone rich in waste components. A product chemical durability as determined by pH4 and soxhlet leach tests varied considerably. Aside from increased durability under pH4 conditions with decreasing waste content, glass composition, microstructure and melting process did not correlate with glass durability. For all samples analyzed, the weight loss under pH4 conditions ranged from 17.7 to 85.2 wt %. Soxhlet conditions produced weight losses from 1.78 to 3.56 wt %.

  9. [Effect of vitrification on the functioning of the structural elements of the cytoskeleton in porcine oocytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    On the basis of inhibition analysis using inhibitors of protein kinase A and polymerization of microfilament under the influence oftheophylline, GDP and GTP have studied the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores (ryanodin- and inositol-1 ,4,5-trisphosphate) of native and devitrified porcine oocytes. It is found that theophylline, as well as GDP stimulate the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores in the native and devitrified oocytes, but a further release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores under the joint action of theophylline and GDP was observed only in native oocytes. Inhibitors of protein kinase A and polymerization of microfilaments in native oocytes have a negative impact on the further release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores under the joint action of theophylline and GDP. In possible transition of Ca2+ between intracellular depots, that stimulated by GDF, but GTF doesn't take part. The received results indicate that disruption of the functioning of the system of microfilaments in oocytes determined by vitrification that assumes a priori difference in the signal transduction pathways in native and devitrified oocytes at diplotene stage. PMID:25507635

  10. Process Options Description for Vitrification Flowsheet Model of INEEL Sodium Bearing Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical information required for the development of a basic steady-state process simulation of the vitrification treatment train of sodium bearing waste (SBW) at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is presented. The objective of the modeling effort is to provide the predictive capability required to optimize an entire treatment train and assess system-wide impacts of local changes at individual unit operations, with the aim of reducing the schedule and cost of future process/facility design efforts. All the information required a priori for engineers to construct and link unit operation modules in a commercial software simulator to represent the alternative treatment trains is presented. The information is of a mid- to high-level nature and consists of the following: (1) a description of twenty-four specific unit operations--their operating conditions and constraints, primary species and key outputs, and the initial modeling approaches that will be used in the first year of the simulation's development; (2) three potential configurations of the unit operations (trains) and their interdependencies via stream connections; and (3) representative stream compositional makeups

  11. Report on the vitrification and devitrification of Hanford, Washington soil. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study as focused principally on the effects of melting or vitrification and recrystallization or devitrification on soil from the Hanford Reservation in Washington State. The fusion properties of soil are important because the containment of nuclear material in in-situ vitrified soil is a possible requirement. An understanding of the physical and chemical properties of the soil is important in determinaing how the soil can contain the nuclear material. The soil itself is composed of a plagioclastic feldspar, quartz, and hematite. The feldspar is made up of albite and anorthite. When the soil is heated, the first mineral to melt is the albite between 11000C and 12000C. The mineral anorthite melts above 13100C and hematite below 17000C. The quartz does not melt until the temperature exceeds 17150C. The albite in the glass is sodium aluminosilicate. When the albite melts, microscopic spheres of non-crystalline, low-melting sodium silicate form. This indicates that the aluminosilicate matrix decomposes when heated. When crystals, which were previously fused, are heated: crystals begin to reform above 9000C. The minerals which crystallize are feldspar and magnetite, an iron oxide. Recrystallization should begin at a temperature 2500C below the liquidus point. The leaching of sodium, copper, calcium, and aluminum decreased with increasing fusion temperature, while the leaching of iron and barium increased with increasing fusion temperature

  12. Protective effect of butylated hydroxytoluene on sperm function in human spermatozoa cryopreserved by vitrification technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, O; Aguagüiña, W E; Esponda, P; Risopatrón, J; Isachenko, E; Isachenko, V; Sánchez, R

    2015-03-01

    Butylhydroxytoluene (BHT), a synthetic analogue of vitamin E, shows antioxidant and antiviral properties and has been successfully used for mammalian sperm cryopreservation. In this study, BHT was included in a vitrification solution to determine its cryoprotective effect on human spermatozoa. Spermatozoa were selected by swim-up and vitrified in close sealed straw using either a combination of human tubal fluid (HTF), sucrose and BHT 1 mm (VMBHT), or only HTF and sucrose (VM). The optimal concentration of BHT was determined by the observation of preserved progressive sperm motility (PSM) after warming and detection of plasma membrane (PMI), membrane mitochondrial potential (ΔΨm) and DNA integrity. The presence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was also detected. The PSM was significantly higher in the VMBHT group (80.86 ± 5.41%) compared with the VM group (68.9 ± 3.67%) (P < 0.05). Butylhydroxytoluene significantly preserved DNA integrity (4.0 ± 0.1% versus 6.1 ± 1.6%; P < 0.05) and reduced ROS production (5.5 ± 2.2 versus 8.6 ± 1.8%; P < 0.05). Plasma membrane and ΔΨm showed no statistical differences. One millimolar BHT effectively maintained cell function and due to its antioxidant and antiviral properties could be used in semen cryopreservation of patients with viral infections transmitted by seminal plasma. PMID:24612426

  13. Vitrification of surrogate mixed wastes in a graphite electrode arc melter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soelberg, N.R.; Chambers, A.G.; Ball, L. [and others

    1995-11-01

    Demonstration tests for vitrifying mixed wastes and contaminated soils have been conducted using a small (800 kVA), industrial-scale, three-phase AC, graphite electrode furnace located at the Albany Research Center of the United States Bureau of Mines (USBM). The feed mixtures were non-radioactive surrogates of various types of mixed (radioactive and hazardous), transuranic-contaminated wastes stored and buried at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The feed mixtures were processed with added soil from the INEL. Objectives being evaluated include (1) equipment capability to achieve desired process conditions and vitrification products for different feed compositions, (2) slag and metals tapping capability, (3) partitioning of transuranic elements and toxic metals among the furnace products, (4) slag, fume, and metal products characteristics, and (5) performance of the feed, furnace and air pollution control systems. The tests were successfully completed in mid-April 1995. A very comprehensive process monitoring, sampling and analysis program was included in the test program. Sample analysis, data reduction, and results evaluation are currently underway. Initial results indicate that the furnace readily processed around 20,000 lb of widely ranging feed mixtures at feedrates of up to 1,100 lb/hr. Continuous feeding and slag tapping was achieved. Molten metal was also tapped twice during the test program. Offgas emissions were efficiently controlled as expected by a modified air pollution control system.

  14. Vitrification of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash using biomass ash as additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhadj-Mallah, Moussa-Mallaye; Huang, Qunxing; Cai, Xu; Chi, Yong; Yan, JianHua

    2015-01-01

    Thermal melting is an energy-costing solution for stabilizing toxic fly ash discharged from the air pollution control system in the municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plant. In this paper, two different types of biomass ashes are used as additives to co-melt with the MSWI fly ash for reducing the melting temperature and energy cost. The effects of biomass ashes on the MSWI fly ash melting characteristics are investigated. A new mathematical model has been proposed to estimate the melting heat reduction based on the mass ratios of major ash components and measured melting temperature. Experimental and calculation results show that the melting temperatures for samples mixed with biomass ash are lower than those of the original MSWI fly ash and when the mass ratio of wood ash reaches 50%, the deformation temperature (DT), the softening, hemisphere temperature (HT) and fluid temperature (FT) are, respectively, reduced by 189°C, 207°C, 229°C, and 247°C. The melting heat of mixed ash samples ranges between 1650 and 2650 kJ/kg. When 50% wood ash is mixed, the melting heat is reduced by more than 700 kJ/kg for the samples studied in this paper. Therefore, for the vitrification treatment of the fly ash from MSW or other waste incineration plants, wood ash is a potential fluxing assistant.

  15. Final cleansing of the PIVER prototype vitrification facility -Decontamination of the hot-cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dismantling of the PIVER pilot vitrification facility began in 1984. Under a first contract FI 1D - 0057 with the European Community, all the process equipment was removed from the cell and decontamination was undertaken. The residual in-cell irradiation level was less than 10 mGy.h-1 by the beginning of 1990, allowing brief access of operators to the cell for specific tasks. The cell cleanup work was completed in 1990; the telemanipulators were dismantled, and biological shielding was set up around a few remaining localized hot spots. By the end of the year, the in-cell dose rate had dropped to below 0.2 mGy.h-1. Research and development work on final decontamination processes was conducted from January to July 1991. Four already developed processes (electrolytic, shotpeening, cryogenic and gel) were tested under hostile radioactive conditions on a representative facility to assess their advantages and drawbacks, their effectiveness, and any points requiring special attention for large-scale application. The final decontamination operations were carried out on only a portion of the cell wall ; they did not significantly reduce the overall ambient irradiation level in the cell. (author). 1 ref., 6 figs., 2 tabs., 5 appendices

  16. Vitrification of simulated radioactive Rocky Flats plutonium containing waste ash with a stir-melter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A demonstration trial has been completed in which a simulated Rocky Flats ash consisting of an industrial fly-ash material doped with cerium oxide was vitrified in an alloy tank Stir-Melter trademark System. The cerium oxide served as a substitute for plutonium oxide present in the actual Rocky Flats waste stream. The glass developed falls within the SiO2 +Al2O3 / ΣAlkali / B2O3 System. The glass batch contained approximately 40 wt % of ash, the ash was modified to contain ∼5 wt % CeO2 to simulate plutonium chemistry in the glass. The ash simulant was mixed with water and fed to the Stir-Melter as a slurry with a 60 wt % water to 40 wt % solids ratio. Glass melting temperature was maintained at approximately 1050 degrees C during the melting trials. Melting rates as functions of impeller speed and slurry feed rate were determined. An optimal melting rate was established through a series of evolutionary variations of the control variables' settings. The optimal melting rate condition was used for a continuous six hour steady state run of the vitrification system. Glass mass flow rates out of the melter were measured and correlated with the slurry feed mass flow. Melter off-gas was sampled for particulate and volatile species over a period of four hours during the steady state run. Glass composition and durability studies were run on samples collected during the steady state run

  17. Vitrification: An alternative to minimize environmental impact caused by leather industry wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of this work was the investigation of the immobilization of chromium ion present in the ash from the incineration of chromium-tanned leather shavings (ACS) by means of vitrified ceramic bodies. To achieve the immobilization samples were initially produced adding soda-lime glass to ACS. After that, new formulations were produced with the addition of pure oxides, TiO2 and MgO, to the soda-lime glass and ACS sample. These samples were conformed by pressing and fired in an eletrical furnace, at temperatures of 750, 800, 950 and 1000 oC. The ceramic bodies were evaluated with respect to their physical properties and mineralogical composition by X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) mapping. The chromium immobilization was characterized by leaching tests according to Brazilian Regulations (NBR 10005). The results confirmed the immobilization of the chromium ion within the allowed limits of Brazilian Regulations, NBR 10004 (5 mg/L), with the use of glass and vitrification/densification agents such as titanium and magnesium oxides.

  18. Process Options Description for Vitrification Flowsheet Model of INEEL Sodium Bearing Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, T.T.; Taylor, D.D.; Lauerhass, L.; Barnes, C.M.

    2002-02-21

    The technical information required for the development of a basic steady-state process simulation of the vitrification treatment train of sodium bearing waste (SBW) at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is presented. The objective of the modeling effort is to provide the predictive capability required to optimize an entire treatment train and assess system-wide impacts of local changes at individual unit operations, with the aim of reducing the schedule and cost of future process/facility design efforts. All the information required a priori for engineers to construct and link unit operation modules in a commercial software simulator to represent the alternative treatment trains is presented. The information is of a mid- to high-level nature and consists of the following: (1) a description of twenty-four specific unit operations--their operating conditions and constraints, primary species and key outputs, and the initial modeling approaches that will be used in the first year of the simulation's development; (2) three potential configurations of the unit operations (trains) and their interdependencies via stream connections; and (3) representative stream compositional makeups.

  19. Vitrification vs. slow cooling protocol using embryos cryopreserved in the 5th or 6th day after oocyte retrieval and IVF outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Matysiak

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Modifying cryopreservation protocols may be seen as a way to simplify cryobanking procedure and increase satisfying outcomes. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of slow cooling protocol and vitrification on IVF outcomes using embryos preserved in the 5th or 6th day after oocyte retrieval. The study compared 2 groups of human embryos underwent slow cooling protocol (n=189 and vitrification (n=58. All embryos were cryopreserved in the 5th or 6th day after oocyte retrieval. Pre- and postfreezing embryo evaluation was performed in 2 or 3 steps scale, respectively. The study evaluates the effectiveness of two freezing methods and influence of the freezing day, pre- and postfreezing embryo grading on clinical pregnancy rate. Study showed higher pregnancy rate after vitrification (50.4% than slow cooling protocol (25.9%. Significantly higher pregnancy rate was observed, when embryo preserved in the 5th day after oocyte retrieval (50.3% than in the 6th day (22.7%. Postfreezing embryos evaluation showed that high quality blastocysts gave nearly four times better pregnancy outcomes than the ones evaluated as poor quality, and three times better than the ones evaluated as moderate. Prospective trials are needed to evaluate pregnancy and neonatal outcomes after vitrification. The number of controlled studies concerning vitrification has not been large enough, yet.

  20. 27 CFR 20.191 - Bulk articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bulk articles. 20.191... Users of Specially Denatured Spirits Operations by Users § 20.191 Bulk articles. Users who convey articles in containers exceeding one gallon may provide the recipient with a photocopy of subpart G of...

  1. Bulk equations of motion from CFT correlators

    CERN Document Server

    Kabat, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    To O(1/N) we derive, purely from CFT data, the bulk equations of motion for interacting scalar fields and for scalars coupled to gauge fields and gravity. We first uplift CFT operators to mimic local AdS fields by imposing bulk microcausality. This requires adding an infinite tower of smeared higher-dimension double-trace operators to the CFT definition of a bulk field, with coefficients that we explicitly compute. By summing the contribution of the higher-dimension operators we derive the equations of motion satisfied by these uplifted CFT operators and show that we precisely recover the expected bulk equations of motion. We exhibit the freedom in the CFT construction which corresponds to bulk field redefinitions.

  2. Comparison of vitrification and slow freezing for cryopreservation of cleavage stage\tembryos (Day 3 and its impact on clinical outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Choudhary

    2015-10-01

    Results: There were 65 frozen thawed cycles in each group. The percentage of excellent and good morphology embryos before cryopreservation were same in both the groups, but after thawing the results were significantly in favour of Vitrification as compared to Slow freezing. In Vitrification group versus Slow freezing group, the different outcomes were survival rate (96.95% vs. 69.06%, p-0.000, post warmed excellent morphology embryos (94.17% vs. 60.8%, p-0.000 clinical pregnancy rate (41.53% vs. 21.53%, p-0.043 and the implantation rate (14.41% vs. 7.01%, p-0.024. Conclusions: Vitrification is a promising alternate to the conventional slow freezing method in terms of not only excellent survival and post warmed excellent morphology embryo rate but also higher clinical pregnancy and implantation rate. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(10.000: 2751-2756

  3. In Situ Vitrification Engineering-Scale Test ES-INEL-4, ES-INEL-5, ES-INEL-6, and ES-INEL-7 Test Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The In Situ Vitrification Engineering-Scale Tests ES-4, ES-5, ES-6, and ES-7 Product Characterization Test Plan describes the methods and procedures to be used or the physical and chemical characterization of the solid product(s) resulting from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory engineering scale in situ vitrification tests ES-4, ES-5, ES-6, and ES-7. The goals of this Test Plan are to insure that the product characterization results are sufficient to meet the data needs of the In Situ Vitrification Program and are technically and legally defensible. Important issues addressed by the test plan include sampling and analysis strategy, sampling procedures, laboratory analysis, sample control and document management, equipment, data reporting and validation, quality assurance, specific routine procedures to assess data representativeness, safety and training program, and data management. 9 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  4. Investigation of bulk acoustic microwaves excited by an interdigital transducer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshotka O. G.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Excitation of bulk and surface acoustic waves with the interdigital transducer (IDT, which is deposited on the surface of piezoelectric crystal, is widely used in the development of devices in acoustoelectronics and in the design of the microwave acousto-optic deflectors. Excitation of bulk acoustic waves by IDT in the devices on surface acoustic waves leads to the appearance of spurious signals. At the same time excitation of bulk acoustic waves with IDT from the surface of lithium niobate crystals allows creating high frequency acousto-optic deflectors, which makes possible to significantly simplify the technology of their production. Therefore, significant attention is paid to the task of excitation and distribution of bulk acoustic waves with IDT including recent times by the method of simulation of their excitation and distribution. The obtained theoretical results require experimental verification. This paper documents the visualization of acoustic beams excited with IDT from the XY-surface of lithium niobate crystals. The Bragg cells with LiNbO3 crystals coated with IDT with a different period of electrodes were manufactured for the experimental research of excitation and distribution of bulk acoustic waves. Visualization results have shown that the acoustic waves excited with IDT distribute in both the Fresnel zone and the Fraunhofer zone. The length of these zones is caused by individual elementary emitters of which consists the IDT (by their size. At the same time the far zone for IDT is located at distances much greater than the actual size of the LiNbO3 crystals. This peculiarity is not always taken into account when calculating diffraction. The achieved results can be used to design high-frequency acousto-optic devices, as well as in the development of devices based on surface acoustic waves.

  5. Sludge technology assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The retrieval, processing, and generation of final waste forms from radioactive tank waste sludges present some of the most challenging technical problems confronting scientists and engineers responsible for the waste management programs at the various Department of Energy laboratories and production facilities. Currently, the Department of Energy is developing a strategy to retrieve, process, and generate a final waste form for the sludge that meets the acceptance criteria for the final disposition. An integral part of this strategy will be use of separation processes that treat the sludge; the goal is to meet feed criteria for the various processes that will generate the final waste form, such as vitrification or grouting. This document is intended to (1) identify separation technologies which are being considered for sludge treatment at various DOE sites, (2) define the current state of sludge treatment technology, (3) identify what research and development is required, (4) identify current research programs within either DOE or academia developing sludge treatment technology, and (5) identify commercial separation technologies which may be applicable. Due to the limited scope of this document, technical evaluations regarding the need for a particular separations technology, the current state of development, or the research required for implementation, are not provided

  6. Properties of the platinoid fission products during vitrification of high-level radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, W.; Lutze, W.; Perez-Cardenas, F.; Matlack, K. S.; Pegg, I. L.

    2006-05-01

    Platinoid fission products present in high-level nuclear wastes present particular challenges to their treatment by vitrification. The platinoid metals Ru, Rh, Pd, and their compounds are sparingly soluble in borosilicate glass melts. During glass melting under oxidizing conditions, the platinoids form small crystals of highly dense solid intermetallic phases and oxides. Under reducing conditions, the platinoids form only intermetallic phases. A fraction of these crystals settles to the bottom of the melting furnace, forming an immobile sludge. The fraction settling reported in the literature is highly variable. In the present work, the fraction settling was found to be >90% under reducing conditions but only 10 to 20% under oxidizing conditions. The thickness of the sludge layer depends on the volume fraction of platinoid crystals in the sludge, which is poorly known (typically ~0.06 under oxidizing conditions). Since the electrical conductivity of the sludge can be >10X that of the melt, in joule-heated melters the presence of such a layer can lead to diversion of the electric current, thereby compromising melter operability. The time to failure by this mechanism is clearly of practical importance. A variety of data are required in order to estimate the time to failure due to this mechanism and such data must be obtained under conditions representative of those in a full-size melting furnace. We have acquired such data using a melting furnace installed in our laboratory. This furnace is a one-third scale prototype of the system to be used for the vitrification of defense HLW at Hanford, WA. In the present work, simulated Hanford HLW material was combined with glass formers to produce a melter feed slurry that was then spiked with the platinoids. Over one thousand chemical and optical analyses were performed on hundreds of samples taken from the feed, various locations inside the furnace, the glass melt during pouring, the solid glass, and various locations along

  7. Combination of high-performance refractometry and infrared spectroscopy as a probe for chemically induced gelation and vitrification of epoxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, U; Philipp, M; Gervais, P-C; Sanctuary, R; Krueger, J K [Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux, Universite du Luxembourg, 162A avenue de la faiencerie, L-1511 Luxembourg (Luxembourg); Possart, W; Wehlack, C [Fachbereich Werkstoffwissenschaften, Universitaet des Saarlandes, D-66123 Saarbruecken (Germany); Kieffer, J, E-mail: ulrich.mueller@uni.l [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2010-08-15

    A combination of infrared spectroscopy and high-performance refractometry was used to investigate the chemically induced sol-gel and glass transition during the polymerization of epoxies. Representations of the refractive index versus chemical conversion reveal an interesting insight into the optical properties accompanying gelation and vitrification. Whereas the electronic polarizability of the liquid state of small average molecular mass and the glassy state is dominated by the mass density, an unexpected excess polarizability observed during the gelation is attributed to cooperative dipole-dipole interactions.

  8. Savannah River Plant defense waste vitrification studies during FY 1982. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five major melter runs were completed during FY 1982 on the Pilot-Scale Ceramic Melter (PSCM). Over 41,000 L of feed were processed by the PSCM, producing approx. 21,000 kg of glass. The design basis reference capacity of approx. 39 kg/h-m2 was met or exceeded in all the melter runs. Off-gas characterization was emphasized during this fiscal year. Entrainment of feed material is the largest contributor to the mass of particulate leaving the melter, averaging 0.2 wt% of the incoming feed on an oxide basis. This is a DF of approx. 500. This mass does show an enrichment of some of the volatile and semivolatile components. Higher losses of cesium, tellurium, and cadmium occurred with formate feed. The Experimental Ceramic Melter (ECM) was used this year to study the application of two techniques to increase melting rates in ceramic melters. The first was the use of an air sparger to forcibly agitate the glass in the melter to improve the heat transfer. The air-sparger agitation increased the throughput capacity of the ECM, but did not seem to affect melting efficiency. The second technique for increasing melter rates tested on the ECM was the use of microwave boosting. While significant improvement was noted in the vitrification rates, two problems were encountered: coating of the isolation window and heating of the refractory lining of the ECM lid. The buildup of fine dust on the window caused arcing between the coating and the waveguide. This arcing damages the window and waveguide and causes instability in the microwave power supply. Four techniques were investigated to solve the problem. These techniques were of limited success and await further testing. 33 figures, 58 tables

  9. Off-gas treatment and characterization for a radioactive in situ vitrification test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effluents released to the off gas during the in situ vitrification (ISV) of a test site have been characterized. The site consisted of a 19 L waste package of soil containing 600 nCi/g transuranic and 30,000 nCi/g mixed fission products surrounded by uncontaminated soil. Radioactive isotopes present in the package were 241Am, /sup 238/239/Pu, 137Cs, 106Ru, 90Sr, and 60Co. The ISV process melted the waste package and surrounding soil and immobilized the radionuclides in place, producing a durable, 8.6 metric ton glass and crystalline monolith. The test successfully demonstrated that the process provides containment of radioactive material. No release to the environment was detected during processing or cooldown. Due to the high temperatures during processing, some gases were released into the off-gas hood that was placed over the test site. The hood was maintained at a light negative pressure to contain any volatile or entrained material during processing. Gases passed from the hood to an off-gas treatment system where they were treated using a venturi-ejector scrubber, a tandem nozzle gas cleaner scrubber followed by a condenser, heater, and two stages of HEPA filters. The off-gas treatment system is located in the semi-trailer to allow transport of the process to other potential test sites. Retention of all radionuclides by the vitrified zone was greater than 99%. Soil-to-off-gas decontamination factors (DFs) for transuranic elements averaged greater than 4000 and for fission products, DFs ranged from 130 for 137Cs to 3100 for 90Sr

  10. Savannah River Plant defense waste vitrification studies during FY 1982. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ethridge, L.J. (comp.)

    1983-10-01

    Five major melter runs were completed during FY 1982 on the Pilot-Scale Ceramic Melter (PSCM). Over 41,000 L of feed were processed by the PSCM, producing approx. 21,000 kg of glass. The design basis reference capacity of approx. 39 kg/h-m/sup 2/ was met or exceeded in all the melter runs. Off-gas characterization was emphasized during this fiscal year. Entrainment of feed material is the largest contributor to the mass of particulate leaving the melter, averaging 0.2 wt% of the incoming feed on an oxide basis. This is a DF of approx. 500. This mass does show an enrichment of some of the volatile and semivolatile components. Higher losses of cesium, tellurium, and cadmium occurred with formate feed. The Experimental Ceramic Melter (ECM) was used this year to study the application of two techniques to increase melting rates in ceramic melters. The first was the use of an air sparger to forcibly agitate the glass in the melter to improve the heat transfer. The air-sparger agitation increased the throughput capacity of the ECM, but did not seem to affect melting efficiency. The second technique for increasing melter rates tested on the ECM was the use of microwave boosting. While significant improvement was noted in the vitrification rates, two problems were encountered: coating of the isolation window and heating of the refractory lining of the ECM lid. The buildup of fine dust on the window caused arcing between the coating and the waveguide. This arcing damages the window and waveguide and causes instability in the microwave power supply. Four techniques were investigated to solve the problem. These techniques were of limited success and await further testing. 33 figures, 58 tables.

  11. Off-gas treatment and characterization for a radioactive in situ vitrification test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effluents released to the off gas during the in situ vitrification (ISV) of a test site have been characterized by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The site consisted of a 19 L waste package of soil containing 600 nCi/g transuranic and 30,000 nCi/g mixed fission products surrounded by uncontaminated soil. Radioactive isotopes present in the package were 241Am, 238/239Pu, 137Cs, 106Ru, 90Sr, and 60Co. The ISV process melted the waste package and surrounding soil and immobilized the radionuclides in place, producing a durable, 8.6 metric ton glass and crystalline monolith. The test successfully demonstrated that the process provides containment of radioactive material. No release to the environment was detected during processing of cooldown. Due to the high temperature during processing, some gases were released into the off-gas hood that was over the test site. The hood was maintained at a slight negative pressure to contain any volatile or entrained material during processing. Gases passed from the hood to an off-gas treatment system where they were treated using a venturi-ejector scrubber, a tandem nozzle gas cleaner scrubber followed by a condenser, heater, and two stages of HEPA filters. The off-gas treatment system is located in the semi-trailer to allow transport of the process to other potential test sites. Retention of all radionuclides by the vitrified zone was greater than 99%. Soil-to-off-gas decontamination factors (DFs) for transuranic elements averaged greater than 4000 and for fission products, DFs ranged from 130 for 137Cs to 3100 for 90Sr. 7 references, 15 figures, 4 tables

  12. Holographic representation of local bulk operators

    CERN Document Server

    Hamilton, A; Lifschytz, G; Lowe, D A; Hamilton, Alex; Kabat, Daniel; Lifschytz, Gilad; Lowe, David A.

    2006-01-01

    The Lorentzian AdS/CFT correspondence implies a map between local operators in supergravity and non-local operators in the CFT. By explicit computation we construct CFT operators which are dual to local bulk fields in the semiclassical limit. The computation is done for general dimension in global, Poincare and Rindler coordinates. We find that the CFT operators can be taken to have compact support in a region of the complexified boundary whose size is set by the bulk radial position. We show that at finite N the number of independent commuting operators localized within a bulk volume saturates the holographic bound.

  13. Bulk viscosity in holographic Lifshitz hydrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Hoyos; Bom Soo Kim; Yaron Oz

    2014-01-01

    We compute the bulk viscosity in holographic models dual to theories with Lifshitz scaling and/or hyperscaling violation, using a generalization of the bulk viscosity formula derived in arXiv:1103.1657 from the null focusing equation. We find that only a class of models with massive vector fields are truly Lifshitz scale invariant, and have a vanishing bulk viscosity. For other holographic models with scalars and/or massless vector fields we find a universal formula in terms of the dynamical ...

  14. Bulk viscosity in holographic Lifshitz hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We compute the bulk viscosity in holographic models dual to theories with Lifshitz scaling and/or hyperscaling violation, using a generalization of the bulk viscosity formula derived in arXiv:1103.1657 from the null focusing equation. We find that only a class of models with massive vector fields are truly Lifshitz scale invariant, and have a vanishing bulk viscosity. For other holographic models with scalars and/or massless vector fields we find a universal formula in terms of the dynamical exponent and the hyperscaling violation exponent

  15. Bulk viscosity of hot and dense hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bulk viscosity of hot and dense hadrons has been estimated within the framework of hadronic resonance gas model. We observe that the bulk viscosity to entropy ratio increases faster with temperature for higher μB. The magnitude of ζ is more at high μB. This results will have crucial importance for fire-ball produced at low energy nuclear collisions (FAIR, NICA). We note that the bulk to shear viscosity ratio remains above the bound set by AdS/CFT

  16. Producing Bio-Based Bulk Chemicals Using Industrial Biotechnology Saves Energy and Combats Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Hermann, B.G.; de Blok, K; Patel, M.K. (Martin)

    2007-01-01

    The production of bulk chemicals from biomass can make a significant contribution to solving two of the most urgent environmental problems: climate change and depletion of fossil energy. We analyzed current and future technology routes leading to 15 bulk chemicals using industrial biotechnology and calculated their CO2 emissions and fossil energy use. Savings of more than 100% in non-renewable energy use and greenhouse gas emissions are already possible with current state of the art biotechno...

  17. Tracer-level radioactive pilot-scale test of in situ vitrification for the stabilization of contaminated soil sites at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field demonstration of in situ vitrification (ISV) was completed in May 1991, and produced approximately 12 Mg of melted earthen materials containing 12.7 mCi of radioactivity within 500 g of sludge in amodel of an old seepage trench waste disposal unit. Past waste disposal operations at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have left several contaminated seepage sites. In planning for remediation of such sites, ISV technology has been identified as a leading candidate because of the high risks associated with any retrieval option and because of the usual high quality of vitreous waste form. Major isotopes placed in the test trench were 137Cs and 90Sr, with lesser amounts of 6OCo, 241Am, and 239,240Pu. A total of 29 MWh of electrical power was delivered to the ground over a 5-day period producing a melt depth of 8.5 ft. During melting, 2.4% of the 137Cs volatilized from the melt into an off-gas containment hood and was captured quantitatively on a high efficiency particulate air filter. No volatilization of 90Sr, 241Am, or 239,240Pu was detected and > 99.993% retention of these isotopes in the melt was estimated. The use of added rare earth tracers (Ce, La, and Nd), as surrogates for transuranic isotopes, led to estimated melt retentions of >99.9995% during the test. The molten material, composed of the native soil and dolomitic limestone used for filling the test trench, reached a processing temperature of 1500 degrees C. Standardized leaching procedures using Product Consistency Testing indicated that the ISV product has excellent characteristics relative to other vitreous nuclear waste forms

  18. Tracer-level radioactive pilot-scale test of in situ vitrification for the stabilization of contaminated soil sites at ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spalding, B.P.; Jacobs, G.K.; Naney, M.T. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Dunbar, N.W. (New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, Socorro, NM (United States)); Tixier, J.S.; Powell, T.D. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

    1992-11-01

    A field demonstration of in situ vitrification (ISV) was completed in May 1991, and produced approximately 12 Mg of melted earthen materials containing 12.7 mCi of radioactivity within 500 g of sludge in amodel of an old seepage trench waste disposal unit. Past waste disposal operations at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have left several contaminated seepage sites. In planning for remediation of such sites, ISV technology has been identified as a leading candidate because of the high risks associated with any retrieval option and because of the usual high quality of vitreous waste form. Major isotopes placed in the test trench were [sup 137]Cs and [sup 90]Sr, with lesser amounts of [sup 6O]Co, [sup 241]Am, and [sup 239,240]Pu. A total of 29 MWh of electrical power was delivered to the ground over a 5-day period producing a melt depth of 8.5 ft. During melting, 2.4% of the [sup 137]Cs volatilized from the melt into an off-gas containment hood and was captured quantitatively on a high efficiency particulate air filter. No volatilization of [sup 90]Sr, [sup 241]Am, or [sup 239,240]Pu was detected and > 99.993% retention of these isotopes in the melt was estimated. The use of added rare earth tracers (Ce, La, and Nd), as surrogates for transuranic isotopes, led to estimated melt retentions of >99.9995% during the test. The molten material, composed of the native soil and dolomitic limestone used for filling the test trench, reached a processing temperature of 1500[degrees]C. Standardized leaching procedures using Product Consistency Testing indicated that the ISV product has excellent characteristics relative to other vitreous nuclear waste forms.

  19. The bulk radio expansion of Cassiopeia A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparison, in the visibility plane, or radio observations of Cassiopeia A made at 151 MHz over a 2.3 yr interval indicates that the bulk of the radio emitting material has not been decelerated strongly

  20. PHONON ECHOES IN BULK AND POWDERED MATERIALS

    OpenAIRE

    Kajimura, K.

    1981-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies of phonon echoes in bulk and powdered materials are reviewed. Phonon echoes have been observed in many materials such as bulk piezoelectric crystals, paramagnets, glasses, doped semiconductors, and piezoelectric, magnetic, and metallic powders, etc. The echoes arise from a time reversal of the phase, like spin echoes, of a primary pulsed acoustic excitation due to a second acoustic or rf pulse. The phase reversal occurs through the nonlinear interactions o...

  1. An intrinsic mobility ceiling of Si bulk

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Castello, Nuria; Prades, Joan Daniel; Cirera, Albert

    2011-01-01

    We compute by Density Functional Theory-Non Equilibrium Green Functions Formalism (DFT-NEGFF) the conductance of bulk Si along different crystallographic directions. We find a ceiling value for the intrinsic mobility of bulk silicon of $8.4\\cdot10^6 cm^2/V\\cdot s$. We suggest that this result is related to the lowest effective mass of the $$ direction.

  2. XAS and XRF investigation of an actual HAWC glass fragment obtained from the Karlsruhe vitrification plant (VEK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardenne, K.; González-Robles, E.; Rothe, J.; Müller, N.; Christill, G.; Lemmer, D.; Praetorius, R.; Kienzler, B.; Metz, V.; Roth, G.; Geckeis, H.

    2015-05-01

    Several sections of HAWC glass rods remaining at the end of glass pouring at the Karlsruhe Vitrification Plant (VEK) were retained during vitrification operation in 2009-2010 and transferred to the KIT-INE shielded box line for later glass product characterization. A mm sized fragment with a contact dose rate of ∼590 μSv/h was selected for pilot XAS/XRF investigations at the INE-Beamline for actinide science at the ANKA synchrotron radiation source. The experiment was aimed at elucidating the potential of direct radionuclide speciation with an emphasis on the fission products Se and Tc in highly active nuclear materials and at assessing the possible influence of the γ-radiation field surrounding highly active samples on the beamline instrumentation. While the influence of γ-radiation turned out to be negligible, initial radionuclide speciation studies by XAFS were most promising. In addition to Se and Tc speciation, the focus of these initial investigations was on the possibility for direct actinide speciation by recording corresponding L3-edge XAFS data. The registration of high quality XANES data was possible for the actinide elements U, Np, Pu and Am, as well as for Zr.

  3. XAS and XRF investigation of an actual HAWC glass fragment obtained from the Karlsruhe vitrification plant (VEK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dardenne, K.; González-Robles, E. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Nuclear Waste Disposal (KIT-INE), P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Rothe, J., E-mail: Joerg.Rothe@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Nuclear Waste Disposal (KIT-INE), P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Müller, N. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Nuclear Waste Disposal (KIT-INE), P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Christill, G. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Sicherheit und Umwelt (KIT-SUM), P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Lemmer, D.; Praetorius, R. [Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Karlsruhe Rückbau- und Entsorgungs-GmbH, P.O. Box 1263, D-76339 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Kienzler, B.; Metz, V.; Roth, G.; Geckeis, H. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Nuclear Waste Disposal (KIT-INE), P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-05-15

    Several sections of HAWC glass rods remaining at the end of glass pouring at the Karlsruhe Vitrification Plant (VEK) were retained during vitrification operation in 2009–2010 and transferred to the KIT-INE shielded box line for later glass product characterization. A mm sized fragment with a contact dose rate of ∼590 μSv/h was selected for pilot XAS/XRF investigations at the INE-Beamline for actinide science at the ANKA synchrotron radiation source. The experiment was aimed at elucidating the potential of direct radionuclide speciation with an emphasis on the fission products Se and Tc in highly active nuclear materials and at assessing the possible influence of the γ-radiation field surrounding highly active samples on the beamline instrumentation. While the influence of γ-radiation turned out to be negligible, initial radionuclide speciation studies by XAFS were most promising. In addition to Se and Tc speciation, the focus of these initial investigations was on the possibility for direct actinide speciation by recording corresponding L3-edge XAFS data. The registration of high quality XANES data was possible for the actinide elements U, Np, Pu and Am, as well as for Zr.

  4. Vitrification of Hanford wastes in a joule-heated ceramic melter and evaluation of resultant canisterized product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experience gained in the week-long vitrification test and characterization of the glass produced in the run support the following conclusions: The Hanford waste simulated in this test can be readily vitrified in a joule-heated ceramic melter. Physical properties of the molten glass were entirely compatible with melter operation. The average feed rate of 106 kg/h is high enough to make the ceramic melter a feasible piece of equipment for vitrifying Hanford wastes. The glass produced in this trial had good chemical durability, 6(10)-5 g/cm2-d. When one of the canisters was purposely dropped onto a steel pad, the damage was limited to deformation of the steel can in the impact area, cracking of a weld, and fracturing of glass in the immediate vicinity of the impact area. No glass was released from the canister as a result of the drop test. The results of this vitrification test support the technical feasibility of vitrifying Hanford wastes by means of a joule-heated ceramic melter. Surface area for large glass castings is equivalent to the mass median particle diameters between 4.27 cm (1.75 in.) and 8.91 cm (3.51 in.) even when allowed to cool rapidly by standing in ambient air. Large canisters (up to 0.91 m in dia) can be cast without large voids while standing in air if the fill rate is over 100 kg/h. 34 figures, 10 tables

  5. Principles of qualification of the PAMELA process for the vitrification of HLLW of the Karlsruhe Reprocessing Plant (WAK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having reprocessed about 211 t of Uranium, the WAK Karlsruhe Pilot Reprocessing Plant was shut down in 1991. While all the other radioactive waste arising from reprocessing were conditioned parallel to the plant operation, some 60 m3 of High Level Liquid Waste (HLLW) having a specific β, γ-activity of about 2 E13 Bq/l is not yet processed. The waste is stored in two tanks, having a different activity level and chemical composition. In order to obtain a uniform product both solutions will be blended in a suitable way. It is intended to ship this waste to the PAMELA Vitrification Plant located on the Belgoprocess (BP) site in Dessel, Belgium. The vitrified product shall be returned to Germany. As from October 1986 until September 1991, the facility was operated by a mixed Belgian-German crew under the responsibility of BP for the vitrification of 800 m3 of HEWC (concentrated high-level waste from the reprocessing of high-enriched uranium fuels). Between October 1, 1985 and September 1, 1991, the total amount of 907 m3 of EUROCHEMIC HLLW has been successfully vitrified and conditioned in about 2,200 canisters. The typical composition of the different types of glass products are compared with the design data of the WAK glass product

  6. Mirror Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Under a NASA contract, MI-CVD developed a process for producing bulk silicon carbide by means of a chemical vapor deposition process. The technology allows growth of a high purity material with superior mechanical/thermal properties and high polishability - ideal for mirror applications. The company employed the technology to develop three research mirrors for NASA Langley and is now marketing it as CVD SILICON CARBIDE. Its advantages include light weight, thermal stability and high reflectivity. The material has nuclear research facility applications and is of interest to industrial users of high power lasers.

  7. Bulk energy storage increases United States electricity system emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hittinger, Eric S; Azevedo, Inês M L

    2015-03-01

    Bulk energy storage is generally considered an important contributor for the transition toward a more flexible and sustainable electricity system. Although economically valuable, storage is not fundamentally a "green" technology, leading to reductions in emissions. We model the economic and emissions effects of bulk energy storage providing an energy arbitrage service. We calculate the profits under two scenarios (perfect and imperfect information about future electricity prices), and estimate the effect of bulk storage on net emissions of CO2, SO2, and NOx for 20 eGRID subregions in the United States. We find that net system CO2 emissions resulting from storage operation are nontrivial when compared to the emissions from electricity generation, ranging from 104 to 407 kg/MWh of delivered energy depending on location, storage operation mode, and assumptions regarding carbon intensity. Net NOx emissions range from -0.16 (i.e., producing net savings) to 0.49 kg/MWh, and are generally small when compared to average generation-related emissions. Net SO2 emissions from storage operation range from -0.01 to 1.7 kg/MWh, depending on location and storage operation mode.

  8. Design of bulk transfer elements at excavator-spreader combinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, H.-J.; Kurze, R.

    1988-01-01

    Describes two improved versions of bridging a bucket wheel excavator to a boom spreader for overburden removal in brown coal surface mines. The present design of bulk transfer is based on free bulk fall from the excavator boom onto the spreader boom, which, however, is difficult to maintain during equipment movement along mine benches. A fixed connection between excavator and spreader is the preferred design. A fixed connection requires slewable telescopic booms in order to secure equipment mobility. The TAKRAF manufacturer (GDR) developed a fixed bulk transfer system with telescopic excavator loading boom in versions with and without an additional transfer bridge. The technological advantage of the version with transfer bridge is the possibility of separating excavator and spreader for a short time at bench ends, while the excavator boom is carried by the transfer bridge. The version without transfer bridge requires provision of an auxiliary crawler support for resting the boom while the excavator is disconnected from the spreader. Schemes and diagrams of the design are provided. 2 refs.

  9. Morphological and morphometric study of early-cleavage mice embryos resulting from in vitro fertilization at different cleavage stages after vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homayoun, H; Zahiri, Sh; Hemayatkhah Jahromi, V; Hassanpour Dehnavi, A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the possible morphological and morphometric changes resulting from vitrification of embryos at the cleavage stage. In this study, 30 mice early-cleavage embryos at different stages of cleavage, resulting from in vitro fertilization (IVF) techniques, were examined before and after vitrification. Digital images were taken from embryos before and after vitrification. Zona pellucida thickness, differences in zona pellucida thickness, and diameter and volume of blastomeres and embryos as morphometric parameters and current rating of appearance of embryos as morphological parameters, have been studied. According to our findings, there were significant mean differences in all morphometric parameters of the two groups except in the zona pellucid thickness (P≤0.05). With regard to the morphological parameter, the decrease in embryo quality was observed but it was not significant. According to the results, although little quantitative change observed is not necessarily synonymous with harmful intracellular damage, it seems that it is better to examine vitrification method more accurately. Because by making subtle changes in concentration and type of consumed solutions or techniques used, the changes may be minimized. PMID:27656231

  10. Dismantling of Highly Contaminated Process Installations of the German Reprocessing Facility (WAK) - Status of New Remote Handling Technology - 13287

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decommissioning and dismantling of the former German Pilot Reprocessing Plant Karlsruhe (WAK) including the Vitrification Facility (VEK) is being executed in different Project steps related to the reprocessing, HLLW storage and vitrification complexes /1/. While inside the reprocessing building the total inventory of process equipment has already been dismantled and disposed of, the HLLW storage and vitrification complex has been placed out of operation since vitrification and tank rinsing procedures where finalized in year 2010. This paper describes the progress made in dismantling of the shielded boxes of the highly contaminated laboratory as a precondition to get access to the hot cells of the HLLW storage. The major challenges of the dismantling of this laboratory were the high dose rates up to 700 mSv/h and the locking technology for the removal of the hot cell installations. In parallel extensive prototype testing of different carrier systems and power manipulators to be applied to dismantle the HLLW-tanks and other hot cell equipment is ongoing. First experiences with the new manipulator carrier system and a new master slave manipulator with force reflection will be reported. (authors)

  11. Dismantling of Highly Contaminated Process Installations of the German Reprocessing Facility (WAK) - Status of New Remote Handling Technology - 13287

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dux, Joachim; Friedrich, Daniel; Lutz, Werner; Ripholz, Martina [WAK Rueckbau- und Entsorgungs- GmbH, P.O. Box 12 63, 76339 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Decommissioning and dismantling of the former German Pilot Reprocessing Plant Karlsruhe (WAK) including the Vitrification Facility (VEK) is being executed in different Project steps related to the reprocessing, HLLW storage and vitrification complexes /1/. While inside the reprocessing building the total inventory of process equipment has already been dismantled and disposed of, the HLLW storage and vitrification complex has been placed out of operation since vitrification and tank rinsing procedures where finalized in year 2010. This paper describes the progress made in dismantling of the shielded boxes of the highly contaminated laboratory as a precondition to get access to the hot cells of the HLLW storage. The major challenges of the dismantling of this laboratory were the high dose rates up to 700 mSv/h and the locking technology for the removal of the hot cell installations. In parallel extensive prototype testing of different carrier systems and power manipulators to be applied to dismantle the HLLW-tanks and other hot cell equipment is ongoing. First experiences with the new manipulator carrier system and a new master slave manipulator with force reflection will be reported. (authors)

  12. PROJECT W-551 INTERIM PRETREATMENT SYSTEM PRECONCEPTUAL CANDIDATE TECHNOLOGY DESCRIPTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MAY TH

    2008-08-12

    The Office of River Protection (ORP) has authorized a study to recommend and select options for interim pretreatment of tank waste and support Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) low activity waste (LAW) operations prior to startup of all the WTP facilities. The Interim Pretreatment System (IPS) is to be a moderately sized system which separates entrained solids and 137Cs from tank waste for an interim time period while WTP high level waste vitrification and pretreatment facilities are completed. This study's objective is to prepare pre-conceptual technology descriptions that expand the technical detail for selected solid and cesium separation technologies. This revision includes information on additional feed tanks.

  13. Development of superconductor bulk for superconductor bearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chan Joong; Jun, Byung Hyuk; Park, Soon Dong (and others)

    2008-08-15

    Current carrying capacity is one of the most important issues in the consideration of superconductor bulk materials for engineering applications. There are numerous applications of Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO) bulk superconductors e.g. magnetic levitation train, flywheel energy storage system, levitation transportation, lunar telescope, centrifugal device, magnetic shielding materials, bulk magnets etc. Accordingly, to obtain YBCO materials in the form of large, single crystals without weak-link problem is necessary. A top seeded melt growth (TSMG) process was used to fabricate single crystal YBCO bulk superconductors. The seeded and infiltration growth (IG) technique was also very promising method for the synthesis of large, single-grain YBCO bulk superconductors with good superconducting properties. 5 wt.% Ag doped Y211 green compacts were sintered at 900 .deg. C {approx} 1200 .deg.C and then a single crystal YBCO was fabricated by an infiltration method. A refinement and uniform distribution of the Y211 particles in the Y123 matrix were achieved by sintering the Ag-doped samples. This enhancement of the critical current density was ascribable to a fine dispersion of the Y211 particles, a low porosity and the presence of Ag particles. In addition, we have designed and manufactured large YBCO single domain with levitation force of 10-13 kg/cm{sup 2} using TSMG processing technique.

  14. Into the Bulk: A Covariant Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Engelhardt, Netta

    2016-01-01

    I propose a general, covariant way of defining when one region is "deeper in the bulk" than another. This definition is formulated outside of an event horizon (or in the absence thereof) in generic geometries; it may be applied to both points and surfaces, and may be used to compare the depth of bulk points or surfaces relative to a particular boundary subregion or relative to the entire boundary. Using the recently proposed "lightcone cut" formalism, the comparative depth between two bulk points can be determined from the singularity structure of Lorentzian correlators in the dual field theory. I prove that, by this definition, causal wedges of progressively larger regions probe monotonically deeper in the bulk. The definition furthermore matches expectations in pure AdS and in static AdS black holes with isotropic spatial slices, where a well-defined holographic coordinate exists. In terms of holographic RG flow, this new definition of bulk depth makes contact with coarse-graining over both large distances ...

  15. Orchestrating Bulk Data Movement in Grid Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazhkudai, SS

    2005-01-25

    Data Grids provide a convenient environment for researchers to manage and access massively distributed bulk data by addressing several system and transfer challenges inherent to these environments. This work addresses issues involved in the efficient selection and access of replicated data in Grid environments in the context of the Globus Toolkit{trademark}, building middleware that (1) selects datasets in highly replicated environments, enabling efficient scheduling of data transfer requests; (2) predicts transfer times of bulk wide-area data transfers using extensive statistical analysis; and (3) co-allocates bulk data transfer requests, enabling parallel downloads from mirrored sites. These efforts have demonstrated a decentralized data scheduling architecture, a set of forecasting tools that predict bandwidth availability within 15% error and co-allocation architecture, and heuristics that expedites data downloads by up to 2 times.

  16. A diphoton resonance from bulk RS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csáki, Csaba; Randall, Lisa

    2016-07-01

    Recent LHC data hinted at a 750 GeV mass resonance that decays into two photons. A significant feature of this resonance is that its decays to any other Standard Model particles would be too low to be detected so far. Such a state has a compelling explanation in terms of a scalar or a pseudoscalar that is strongly coupled to vector states charged under the Standard Model gauge groups. Such a scenario is readily accommodated in bulk RS with a scalar localized in the bulk away from but close to the Higgs. Turning this around, we argue that a good way to find the elusive bulk RS model might be the search for a resonance with prominent couplings to gauge bosons.

  17. Bulk fields from the boundary OPE

    CERN Document Server

    Guica, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Previous work has established an equality between the geodesic integral of a free bulk field in AdS and the contribution of the conformal descendants of its dual CFT primary operator to the OPE of two other operators inserted at the endpoints of the geodesic. Working in the context of AdS$_3$/CFT$_2$, we extend this relation to include all $1/N$ corrections to the bulk field obtained by dressing it with i) a $U(1)$ current and ii) the CFT stress tensor, and argue it equals the contribution of the Ka\\v{c}-Moody/the Virasoro block to the respective boundary OPE. This equality holds for a particular framing of the bulk field to the boundary that involves a split Wilson line.

  18. Multiphase composites with extremal bulk modulus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibiansky, L. V.; Sigmund, Ole

    2000-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the analytical and numerical study of isotropic elastic composites made of three or more isotropic phases. The ranges of their effective bulk and shear moduli are restricted by the Hashin-Shtrikman-Walpole (HSW) bounds. For two-phase composites, these bounds are attainable......, that is, there exist composites with extreme bulk and shear moduli. For multiphase composites, they may or may not be attainable depending on phase moduli and volume fractions. Sufficient conditions of attainability of the bounds and various previously known and new types of optimal composites...... are described. Most of our new results are related to the two-dimensional problem. A numerical topology optimization procedure that solves the inverse homogenization problem is adopted and used to look for two-dimensional three-phase composites with a maximal effective bulk modulus. For the combination...

  19. A Diphoton Resonance from Bulk RS

    CERN Document Server

    Csaki, Csaba

    2016-01-01

    Recent LHC data hints at a 750 GeV mass resonance that decays into two photons. A significant feature of this resonance is that its decays to Higges and to any other Standard Model particles are so far too low to be detected. Such a state has a compelling explanation in terms of a scalar or a pseudoscalar that is strongly coupled to vector states charged under the Standard Model gauge groups. We argue that if the state is a scalar, some form of sequestering is likely to be necessary to naturally explain the suppressed scalar-Higgs interactions. Such a scenario is readily accommodated in bulk RS with a scalar localized in the bulk away from the Higgs. Turning this around, we argue that a good way to find the elusive bulk RS model might be the search for a resonance with prominent couplings to gauge bosons.

  20. Bulk Comptonization by Turbulence in Accretion Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufman, J

    2016-01-01

    Radiation pressure dominated accretion discs around compact objects may have turbulent velocities that greatly exceed the electron thermal velocities within the disc. Bulk Comptonization by the turbulence may therefore dominate over thermal Comptonization in determining the emergent spectrum. Bulk Comptonization by divergenceless turbulence is due to radiation viscous dissipation only. It can be treated as thermal Comptonization by solving the Kompaneets equation with an equivalent "wave" temperature, which is a weighted sum over the power present at each scale in the turbulent cascade. Bulk Comptonization by turbulence with non-zero divergence is due to both pressure work and radiation viscous dissipation. Pressure work has negligible effect on photon spectra in the limit of optically thin turbulence, and in this limit radiation viscous dissipation alone can be treated as thermal Comptonization with a temperature equivalent to the full turbulent power. In the limit of extremely optically thick turbulence, ra...

  1. Remedial investigations for quarry bulk wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy proposes, as a separate operable unit of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, to remove contaminated bulk wastes from the Weldon Spring quarry and transport them approximately four miles to the chemical plant portion of the raffinate pits and chemical plant area. The wastes will be held in temporary storage prior to the record of decision for the overall remedial action. The decision on the ultimate disposal of these bulk wastes will be included as part of the decision for management of the waste materials resulting from remedial action activities at the raffinate pits and chemical plant area. 86 refs., 71 figs., 83 tabs

  2. Bulk Entropy in Loop Quantum Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Livine, Etera R; Terno, Daniel R.

    2007-01-01

    In the framework of loop quantum gravity (LQG), having quantum black holes in mind, we generalize the previous boundary state counting (gr-qc/0508085) to a full bulk state counting. After a suitable gauge fixing we are able to compute the bulk entropy of a bounded region (the "black hole") with fixed boundary. This allows us to study the relationship between the entropy and the boundary area in details and we identify a holographic regime of LQG where the leading order of the entropy scales w...

  3. Bulk Entropy in Loop Quantum Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Livine, Etera R

    2007-01-01

    In the framework of loop quantum gravity (LQG), having quantum black holes in mind, we generalize the previous boundary state counting (gr-qc/0508085) to a full bulk state counting. After a suitable gauge fixing we are able to compute the bulk entropy of a bounded region (the "black hole") with fixed boundary. This allows us to study the relationship between the entropy and the boundary area in details and we identify a holographic regime of LQG where the leading order of the entropy scales with the area. We show that in this regime we can fine tune the factor between entropy and area without changing the Immirzi parameter.

  4. Thermal relics in cosmology with bulk viscosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we discuss some consequences of cosmological models in which the primordial cosmic matter is described by a relativistic imperfect fluid. The latter takes into account the dissipative effects (bulk viscosity) arising from different cooling rates of the fluid components in the expanding Universe. We discuss, in particular, the effects of the bulk viscosity on Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and on the thermal relic abundance of particles, looking at recent results of PAMELA experiment. The latter has determined an anomalous excess of positron events, which cannot be explained by conventional cosmology and particle physics. (orig.)

  5. Synthesis of Bulk Superconducting Magnesium Diboride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margie Olbinado

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Bulk polycrystalline superconducting magnesium diboride, MgB2, samples were successfully prepared via a one-step sintering program at 750°C, in pre Argon with a pressure of 1atm. Both electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements confirmed the superconductivity of the material at 39K, with a transition width of 5K. The polycrystalline nature, granular morphology, and composition of the sintered bulk material were confirmed using X-ray diffractometry (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX.

  6. MIxed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP): Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mission of the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) is to develop and demonstrate innovative and emerging technologies for the treatment and management of DOE's mixed low-level wastes (MLLW) for use by its customers, the Office of Waste Operations (EM-30) and the Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40). The primary goal of MWIP is to develop and demonstrate the treatment and disposal of actual mixed waste (MMLW and MTRU). The vitrification process and the plasma hearth process are scheduled for demonstration on actual radioactive waste in FY95 and FY96, respectively. This will be accomplished by sequential studies of lab-scale non-radioactive testing followed by bench-scale radioactive testing, followed by field-scale radioactive testing. Both processes create a highly durable final waste form that passes leachability requirements while destroying organics. Material handling technology, and off-gas requirements and capabilities for the plasma hearth process and the vitrification process will be established in parallel

  7. THE OPTIMIZATION OF PLUSH YARNS BULKING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VINEREANU Adam

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the experiments that were conducted on the installation of continuous bulking and thermofixing “SUPERBA” type TVP-2S for optimization of the plush yarns bulking process. There were considered plush yarns Nm 6.5/2, made of the fibrous blend of 50% indigenous wool sort 41 and 50% PES. In the first stage, it performs a thermal treatment with a turboprevaporizer at a temperature lower than thermofixing temperature, at atmospheric pressure, such that the plush yarns - deposed in a freely state on a belt conveyor - are uniformly bulking and contracting. It was followed the mathematical modeling procedure, working with a factorial program, rotatable central composite type, and two independent variables. After analyzing the parameters that have a direct influence on the bulking degree, there were selected the pre-vaporization temperature (coded x1,oC and the velocity of belt inside pre-vaporizer (coded x 2, m/min. As for the dependent variable, it was chosen the plush yarn diameter (coded y, mm. There were found the coordinates of the optimal point, and then this pair of values was verified in practice. These coordinates are: x1optim= 90oC and x 2optim= 6.5 m/min. The conclusion is that the goal was accomplished: it was obtained a good cover degree f or double-plush carpets by reducing the number of tufts per unit surface.

  8. A Stereoscopic Look into the Bulk

    CERN Document Server

    Czech, Bartlomiej; McCandlish, Samuel; Mosk, Benjamin; Sully, James

    2016-01-01

    We present the foundation for a holographic dictionary with depth perception. The dictionary consists of natural CFT operators whose duals are simple, diffeomorphism-invariant bulk operators. The CFT operators of interest are the "OPE blocks," contributions to the OPE from a single conformal family. In holographic theories, we show that the OPE blocks are dual at leading order in 1/N to integrals of effective bulk fields along geodesics or homogeneous minimal surfaces in anti-de Sitter space. One widely studied example of an OPE block is the modular Hamiltonian, which is dual to the fluctuation in the area of a minimal surface. Thus, our operators pave the way for generalizing the Ryu-Takayanagi relation to other bulk fields. Although the OPE blocks are non-local operators in the CFT, they admit a simple geometric description as fields in kinematic space--the space of pairs of CFT points. We develop the tools for constructing local bulk operators in terms of these non-local objects. The OPE blocks also allow ...

  9. Bulk metamaterials: Design, fabrication and characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Malureanu, Radu; Alabastri, Alessandro;

    2009-01-01

    Bulk metamaterials claim a lot of attention worldwide. We report about our activity and advances in design, fabrication and characterization of metal-dielectric composites with three-dimensional lattices. The nomenclature of designs exhibiting negative index behaviour in the near infrared includes...

  10. Realistic anomaly mediation with bulk gauge fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a simple general framework for realistic models of supersymmetry breaking driven by anomaly mediation. We consider a 5-dimensional 'brane universe' where the visible and hidden sectors are localized on different branes, and the standard model gauge bosons propagate in the bulk. In this framework there can be charged scalar messengers that have contact interactions with the hidden sector, either localized in the hidden sector or in the bulk. These scalars obtain soft masses that feed into visible sector scalar masses at two loop order via bulk gauge interactions. This contribution is automatically flavor-blind, and can be naturally positive. If the messengers are in the bulk this contribution is automatically the same order of magnitude as the anomaly mediated contribution, independent of the brane spacing. If the messengers are localized to a brane the two effects are of the same order for relatively small brane spacings. The gaugino masses and A terms are determined completely by anomaly mediation. In order for anomaly mediation to dominate over radion mediation the radion must be is stabilized in a manner that preserves supersymmetry, with supergravity effects included. We show that this occurs in simple models. We also show that the mu problem can be solved by the vacuum expectation value of a singlet in this framework. (author)

  11. Longitudinal bulk a coustic mass sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hales, Jan Harry; Teva, Jordi; Boisen, Anja;

    2009-01-01

    Design, fabrication and characterization, in terms of mass sensitivity, is presented for a polycrystalline silicon longitudinal bulk acoustic cantilever. The device is operated in air at 51 MHz, resulting in a mass sensitivity of 100 HZ/fg (1 fg = 10{su−15 g). The initial characterization...

  12. 西藏玉龙铜矿铜钼混合浮选-强化金银回收工艺技术研究%Research on Cu-Mo bulk flotation-strengthening collecting Au & Ag technology about Yulong copper mine, Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐顺昌; 王立刚

    2014-01-01

    With high contain of secondary copper ,much mica and clay ,the ore property is very complex .On the other hand ,there is very low grade of gold and silver ,and the precious metal is hard to be collected in concentrate .The good flotation index was achieved with highly selective collector BK402 .And also the gold and silver were forced to be collected in final flotation production .Based on research ,the pilot test was carried out by Cu‐Mo bulk flotation‐strengthening collecting Au &Ag technology with one roughing‐two scavenging‐two cleaning .The average index of pilot test is:the concentrate with the grade and recovery of copper is 29 .84% and 89 .38% separately ,the grade and recovery of molybdenum is 0 .51% and 78 .86% .and also there is gold with 1 .26g/t and silver with 58 .87g/t ,the recovery of gold and silver is 29.30% and 56 .93% respectively .%西藏玉龙铜矿I号矿体硫化矿含次生铜较高、含有较多的云母及黏土类矿物,矿石性质复杂;同时,原矿含金、银品位较低,难以使贵金属在精矿中富集。通过使用高效选择性捕收剂BK402,强化金、银的捕收,取得了较好的选矿指标。在小型试验的基础上,进行了选矿扩大连续试验,采用铜钼混合浮选‐强化金银回收工艺流程,经一粗两扫两精作业,扩大试验获得平均班指标为:铜钼混合精矿铜品位29.84%,铜回收率89.38%;钼品位0.51%,钼回收率78.86%;铜钼混合精矿中含 Au 1.26g/t ,含 Ag 58.87g/t ,Au的回收率为29.30%,Ag的回收率为56.93%。

  13. Application of evolved gas analysis to cold-cap reactions of melter feeds for nuclear waste vitrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Chun, Jaehun; Hrma, Pavel R.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Schweiger, Michael J.

    2014-04-30

    In the vitrification of nuclear wastes, the melter feed (a mixture of nuclear waste and glass-forming and modifying additives) experiences multiple gas-evolving reactions in an electrical glass-melting furnace. We employed the thermogravimetry-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TGA-GC-MS) combination to perform evolved gas analysis (EGA). Apart from identifying the gases evolved, we performed quantitative analysis relating the weighed sum of intensities of individual gases linearly proportional with the differential themogravimetry. The proportionality coefficients were obtained by three methods based on the stoichiometry, least squares, and calibration. The linearity was shown to be a good first-order approximation, in spite of the complicated overlapping reactions.

  14. Bulk sulfur (S) deposition in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Zhang, Xiuying; Wang, Shanqian; Zhang, Wuting; Lu, Xuehe

    2016-06-01

    A systematic dataset of an observation network on a national scale has been organized to investigate the spatial distribution of bulk sulfur (S) deposition (Sdep) throughout China during 2000-2013, representing by far the most detailed data set to track the bulk sulfur deposition throughout China since 2000. Such a dataset is needed for ecosystem studies and for developing emission control policies. Bulk Sdep values showed great variations, ranging from 2.17 to 70.55 kg ha-1 y-1, with an average of 22.99 kg ha-1 y-1. The average rate of bulk Sdep located in East Coastal region (35.97 kg ha-1 y-1), Middle Yangtze region (57.90 kg ha-1 y-1), Middle Yellow River region (23.42 kg ha-1 y-1), North Coastal region (42.19 kg ha-1 y-1), Northeast region (34.28 kg ha-1 y-1), South Coastal region (36.97 kg S ha-1 y-1), Southwest region (33.85 kg ha-1 y-1) was 4.50, 7.24, 2.93, 5.28, 4.29, 4.63 and 4.24 times than that in Northwest region (7.99 kg ha-1 y-1). Bulk Sdep over China was mainly from fossil fuel combustion (76.96%), biomass burning (7.64%), crust (6.22%), aged sea salt (5.48%) and agriculture (3.68%). A systematic observation network on a national scale should be established to conduct a long-term monitoring atmospheric Sdep (including wet and dry deposition), based on exiting ecological stations administrated by different departments in China.

  15. Sheet-bulk metal forming – forming of functional components from sheet metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merklein Marion

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an overview on the application of sheet-bulk metal forming operations in both scientific and industrial environment. Beginning with the need for an innovative forming technology, the definition of this new process class is introduced. The rising challenges of the application of bulk metal forming operations on sheet metals are presented and the demand on a holistic investigation of this topic is motivated. With the help of examples from established production processes, the latest state of technology and the lack on fundamental knowledge is shown. Furthermore, perspectives regarding new research topics within sheet-bulk metal forming are presented. These focus on processing strategies to improve the quality of functional components by the application of process-adapted semi-finished products as well as the local adaption of the tribological system.

  16. Interim Hanford Waste Management Technology Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Interim Hanford Waste Management Technology Plan (HWMTP) is a companion document to the Interim Hanford Waste Management Plan (HWMP). A reference plan for management and disposal of all existing and certain projected future radioactive Hanford Site Defense Wastes (HSDW) is described and discussed in the HWMP. Implementation of the reference plan requires that various open technical issues be satisfactorily resolved. The principal purpose of the HWMTP is to present detailed descriptions of the technology which must be developed to close each of the technical issues associated with the reference plan identified in the HWMP. If alternative plans are followed, however, technology development efforts including costs and schedules must be changed accordingly. Technical issues addressed in the HWMTP and HWMP are those which relate to disposal of single-shell tank wastes, contaminated soil sites, solid waste burial sites, double-shell tank wastes, encapsulated 137CsCl and 90SrF2, stored and new solid transuranic (TRU) wastes, and miscellaneous wastes such as contaminated sodium metal. Among the high priority issues to be resolved are characterization of various wastes including early determination of the TRU content of future cladding removal wastes; completion of development of vitrification (Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant) and grout technology; control of subsidence in buried waste sites; and development of criteria and standards including performance assessments of systems proposed for disposal of HSDW. Estimates of the technology costs shown in this report are made on the basis that all identified tasks for all issues associated with the reference disposal plan must be performed. Elimination of, consolidation of, or reduction in the scope of individual tasks will, of course, be reflected in corresponding reduction of overall technology costs

  17. Bulk solitary waves in elastic solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsonov, A. M.; Dreiden, G. V.; Semenova, I. V.; Shvartz, A. G.

    2015-10-01

    A short and object oriented conspectus of bulk solitary wave theory, numerical simulations and real experiments in condensed matter is given. Upon a brief description of the soliton history and development we focus on bulk solitary waves of strain, also known as waves of density and, sometimes, as elastic and/or acoustic solitons. We consider the problem of nonlinear bulk wave generation and detection in basic structural elements, rods, plates and shells, that are exhaustively studied and widely used in physics and engineering. However, it is mostly valid for linear elasticity, whereas dynamic nonlinear theory of these elements is still far from being completed. In order to show how the nonlinear waves can be used in various applications, we studied the solitary elastic wave propagation along lengthy wave guides, and remarkably small attenuation of elastic solitons was proven in physical experiments. Both theory and generation for strain soliton in a shell, however, remained unsolved problems until recently, and we consider in more details the nonlinear bulk wave propagation in a shell. We studied an axially symmetric deformation of an infinite nonlinearly elastic cylindrical shell without torsion. The problem for bulk longitudinal waves is shown to be reducible to the one equation, if a relation between transversal displacement and the longitudinal strain is found. It is found that both the 1+1D and even the 1+2D problems for long travelling waves in nonlinear solids can be reduced to the Weierstrass equation for elliptic functions, which provide the solitary wave solutions as appropriate limits. We show that the accuracy in the boundary conditions on free lateral surfaces is of crucial importance for solution, derive the only equation for longitudinal nonlinear strain wave and show, that the equation has, amongst others, a bidirectional solitary wave solution, which lead us to successful physical experiments. We observed first the compression solitary wave in the

  18. Control of surface and bulk crystalline quality in single crystal diamond grown by chemical vapour deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Friel, I.; Clewes, S L; Dhillon, H. K.; Perkins, N.; Twitchen, D. J.; Scarsbrook, G. A.

    2009-01-01

    In order to improve the performance of existing technologies based on single crystal diamond grown by chemical vapour deposition (CVD), and to open up new technologies in fields such as quantum computing or solid state and semiconductor disc lasers, control over surface and bulk crystalline quality is of great importance. Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching using an Ar/Cl gas mixture is demonstrated to remove sub-surface damage of mechanically processed surfaces, whilst maintaining macro...

  19. The Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO), Butte, Montana. Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO) is a multi-purpose engineering test facility located in Butte, Montana, and is managed by MSE, Inc. WETO seeks to contribute to environmental research by emphasizing projects to develop heavy metals removal and recovery processes, thermal vitrification systems, and waste minimization/pollution prevention technologies. WETO's environmental technology research and testing activities focus on the recovery of usable resources from waste. In one of WETO's areas of focus, groundwater contamination, water from the Berkeley Pit, located near the WETO site, is being used in demonstrations directed toward the recovery of potable water and metal from the heavy metal-bearing water. The Berkeley Pit is part of an inactive copper mine near Butte that was once part of the nation's largest open-pit mining operation. The Pit contains approximately 25 billion gallons of Berkeley Pit groundwater and surface water containing many dissolved minerals. As part of DOE/OST's Resource Recovery Project (RRP), technologies are being demonstrated to not only clean the contaminated water but to recover metal values such as copper, zinc, and iron with an estimated gross value of more than $100 million. When recovered, the Berkeley Pit waters could benefit the entire Butte valley with new water resources for fisheries, irrigation, municipal, and industrial use. At WETO, the emphasis is on environmental technology development and commercialization activities, which will focus on mine cleanup, waste treatment, resource recovery, and water resource management

  20. The Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO), Butte, Montana. Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO) is a multi-purpose engineering test facility located in Butte, Montana, and is managed by MSE, Inc. WETO seeks to contribute to environmental research by emphasizing projects to develop heavy metals removal and recovery processes, thermal vitrification systems, and waste minimization/pollution prevention technologies. WETO`s environmental technology research and testing activities focus on the recovery of usable resources from waste. In one of WETO`s areas of focus, groundwater contamination, water from the Berkeley Pit, located near the WETO site, is being used in demonstrations directed toward the recovery of potable water and metal from the heavy metal-bearing water. The Berkeley Pit is part of an inactive copper mine near Butte that was once part of the nation`s largest open-pit mining operation. The Pit contains approximately 25 billion gallons of Berkeley Pit groundwater and surface water containing many dissolved minerals. As part of DOE/OST`s Resource Recovery Project (RRP), technologies are being demonstrated to not only clean the contaminated water but to recover metal values such as copper, zinc, and iron with an estimated gross value of more than $100 million. When recovered, the Berkeley Pit waters could benefit the entire Butte valley with new water resources for fisheries, irrigation, municipal, and industrial use. At WETO, the emphasis is on environmental technology development and commercialization activities, which will focus on mine cleanup, waste treatment, resource recovery, and water resource management.

  1. An innovative energy-saving in-flight melting technology and its application to glass production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaochun Yao et al

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The conventional method used for glass melting is air-fuel firing, which is inefficient, energy-intensive and time-consuming. In this study, an innovative in-flight melting technology was developed and applied to glass production for the purposes of energy conservation and environmental protection. Three types of heating sources, radio-frequency (RF plasma, a 12-phase alternating current (ac arc and an oxygen burner, were used to investigate the in-flight melting behavior of granulated powders. Results show that the melted particles are spherical with a smooth surface and compact structure. The diameter of the melted particles is about 50% of that of the original powders. The decomposition and vitrification degrees of the prepared powders decrease in the order of powders prepared by RF plasma, the 12-phase ac arc and the oxygen burner. The largest heat transfer is from RF plasma to particles, which results in the highest particle temperature (1810 °C and the greatest vitrification degree of the raw material. The high decomposition and vitrification degrees, which are achieved in milliseconds, shorten the melting and fining times of the glass considerably. Our results indicate that the proposed in-flight melting technology is a promising method for use in the glass industry.

  2. Bulk and shear viscosity in Hagedorn fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawfik, A.; Wahba, M. [Egyptian Center for Theoretical Physics (ECTP), MTI University, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo (Egypt)

    2010-11-15

    Assuming that the Hagedorn fluid composed of known particles and resonances with masses m <2 GeV obeys the first-order theory (Eckart) of relativistic fluid, we discuss the transport properties of QCD confined phase. Based on the relativistic kinetic theory formulated under the relaxation time approximation, expressions for bulk and shear viscosity in thermal medium of hadron resonances are derived. The relaxation time in the Hagedorn dynamical fluid exclusively takes into account the decay and eventually van der Waals processes. We comment on the in-medium thermal effects on bulk and shear viscosity and averaged relaxation time with and without the excluded-volume approach. As an application of these results, we suggest the dynamics of heavy-ion collisions, non-equilibrium thermodynamics and the cosmological models, which require thermo- and hydro-dynamics equations of state. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  3. Bulk and Shear Viscosity in Hagedorn Fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, A

    2010-01-01

    Assuming that the Hagedorn fluid composed of known particles and resonances with masses $m<2\\,$GeV obeys the {\\it first-order} theory (Eckart) of relativistic fluid, we discuss the transport properties of QCD confined phase. Based on the relativistic kinetic theory formulated under the relaxation time approximation, expressions for bulk and shear viscosity in thermal medium are derived. The relaxation time in the Hagedorn dynamical fluid exclusively takes into account the decay and eventually van der Waals processes. We comment on the {\\it in-medium} thermal effects on bulk and shear viscosities and averaged relaxation time with and without the excluded-volume approach. As an application of these results, we suggest the dynamics of heavy-ion collisions, non-equlibrium thermodynamics and the cosmological models, which require thermo and hydrodynamics equations of state.

  4. Bulk Locality and Boundary Creating Operators

    CERN Document Server

    Nakayama, Yu

    2015-01-01

    We formulate a minimum requirement for CFT operators to be localized in the dual AdS. In any spacetime dimensions, we show that a general solution to the requirement is a linear superposition of operators creating spherical boundaries in CFT, with the dilatation by the imaginary unit from their centers. This generalizes the recent proposal by Miyaji et al. for bulk local operators in the three dimensional AdS. We show that Ishibashi states for the global conformal symmetry in any dimensions and with the imaginary dilatation obey free field equations in AdS and that incorporating bulk interactions require their superpositions. We also comment on the recent proposals by Kabat et al., and by H. Verlinde.

  5. Bulk band gaps in divalent hexaborides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denlinger, Jonathan; Clack, Jules A.; Allen, James W.; Gweon, Gey-Hong; Poirier, Derek M.; Olson, Cliff G.; Sarrao, John L.; Bianchi, Andrea D.; Fisk, Zachary

    2002-08-01

    Complementary angle-resolved photoemission and bulk-sensitive k-resolved resonant inelastic x-ray scattering of divalent hexaborides reveal a >1 eV X-point gap between the valence and conduction bands, in contradiction to the band overlap assumed in several models of their novel ferromagnetism. This semiconducting gap implies that carriers detected in transport measurements arise from defects, and the measured location of the bulk Fermi level at the bottom of the conduction band implicates boron vacancies as the origin of the excess electrons. The measured band structure and X-point gap in CaB6 additionally provide a stringent test case for proper inclusion of many-body effects in quasi-particle band calculations.

  6. Brane plus Bulk Supersymmetry in Ten Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Bergshoeff, E A; Ortín, Tomas; Roest, D; Van Proeyen, A

    2001-01-01

    We discuss a generalized form of IIA/IIB supergravity depending on all R-R potentials C^(p) (p=0,1,...,9) as the effective field theory of Type IIA/IIB superstring theory. For the IIA case we explicitly break this R-R democracy to either p=5 which allows us to write a new bulk action that can be coupled to N=1 supersymmetric brane actions. The case of 8-branes is studied in detail using the new bulk & brane action. The supersymmetric negative tension branes without matter excitations can be viewed as orientifolds in the effective action. These D8-branes and O8-planes are fundamental in Type I' string theory. A BPS 8-brane solution is given which satisfies the jump conditions on the wall. As an application of our results we derive a quantization of the mass parameter and the cosmological constant in string units.

  7. Surface-Bulk Vibrational Correlation Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sandra; Covert, Paul A; Jarisz, Tasha A; Chan, Chantelle; Hore, Dennis K

    2016-05-01

    Homo- and heterospectral correlation analysis are powerful methods for investigating the effects of external influences on the spectra acquired using distinct and complementary techniques. Nonlinear vibrational spectroscopy is a selective and sensitive probe of surface structure changes, as bulk molecules are excluded on the basis of symmetry. However, as a result of this exquisite specificity, it is blind to changes that may be occurring in the solution. We demonstrate that correlation analysis between surface-specific techniques and bulk probes such as infrared absorption or Raman scattering may be used to reveal additional details of the adsorption process. Using the adsorption of water and ethanol binary mixtures as an example, we illustrate that this provides support for a competitive binding model and adds new insight into a dimer-to-bilayer transition proposed from previous experiments and simulations. PMID:27058265

  8. Bulk entropy in loop quantum gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livine, Etera R. [Laboratoire de Physique ENS Lyon, CNRS UMR 5672, 46 Allee d' Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France)], E-mail: etera.livine@ens-lyon.fr; Terno, Daniel R. [Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, Department of Physics, Macquarie University, Sydney NSW 2109 (Australia)], E-mail: dterno@physics.mq.edu.au

    2008-05-01

    In the framework of loop quantum gravity (LQG), we generalize previous boundary state counting for black hole entropy [E.R. Livine, D.R. Terno, Quantum black holes: Entropy and entanglement on the horizon, Nucl. Phys. B 741 (2006) 131, (gr-qc/0508085)] to a full bulk state counting. After suitable gauge fixing, we show how to compute the bulk entropy of a bounded region of space (the 'black hole') with fixed boundary conditions. This allows to study in detail the relationship between the entropy and the boundary area and to identify a holographic regime for LQG where the leading order of the entropy scales with the area. In this regime we can fine tune the factor between entropy and area without changing the Immirzi parameter.

  9. Comparion of the Outcomes Between Vitrification and Slow-Freezing Methods for Cryopreservation of Embryos in Cleavage Stage%快冻和慢冻法对胚胎复苏结局的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵庆红; 杨菁; 尹太郎; 龙文; 李星; 方健叶; 李磊

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare the outcomes of vitrification and slow-freezing methods for cryopreservation of cleavage stage embryos in assisted reproductive technology. Methods: A retrospective statistical analysis was performed in our center on 577 vitrification cycles and 276 slow-freezing cycles. The embryo survival and intact survical rate after embryo recovery, embryo implantation rate and clinical pregnancy rate and other indicators were compared. Results: In rapid freezing group, the numbers of embryos thawed each cycle were less than in the slow-freezing group, but the numbers of survival embryos were more, and the period recurrence rate was higher. Vitrified embryos was superior to the procedural slowly-frozen embryos in embryo survival rate, intact embryo survival rate, embryo implantation rate, clinical pregnant rate, and transfer cancel rate (all P<0.05). Conclusion: Vitrification is better to preserve the potential development of frozed embryo after recovery, and is an ideal method for cryopreservation of the cleavage embryos.%目的:比较辅助生殖技术中快冻(玻璃化法)和慢冻(程序化法)两种冷冻方法对卵裂期胚胎的冻融效果.方法:将复苏后全部卵裂球存活的胚胎定义完整存活胚胎,同一病人由于有多余冻融胚胎而行2次及以上移植周期的称为重复周期.对577个快冻周期和276个慢冻周期的相关资料进行回顾性统计学分析,比较两组冻融胚胎的存活率、完整存活率、重复周期率、胚胎种植率和临床妊娠率等指标.结果:快冻组的每周期胚胎解冻数低于慢冻组,而每周期存活胚胎数和重复周期率均高于慢冻组;玻璃化冷冻后的胚胎存活率和完整性胚胎存活率均显著高于慢冻组,复苏周期移植取消率显著低于慢冻组,而胚胎种植率和临床妊娠率则明显高于慢冻组,均有统计学差异(P<0.05).结论:玻璃化法能够较好地保存冻融胚胎的发育潜能,得到较好的临床妊

  10. Materials preparation and magnetization of Gd-Ba-Cu-O bulk high-temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, Tetsuya; Li, Zhi; Zhou, Difan; Miki, Motohiro; Zhang, Yufeng; Izumi, Mitsuru

    2016-05-01

    The paper reports on recent achievements in the preparation and magnetization of bulk high-temperature superconductors (HTS). The melt-growth of HTS bulks has technically stabilized due to the use of buffer materials with a seed crystal and modified infiltration to supply a rich liquid phase during growth. This modified growth technology was adapted as our standard processing method. This paper describes some new aspects of both field cooling and pulsed field magnetization processes. Pulsed field magnetization uses waveform control that feeds back the transient flux around the top-center of the bulks and traps a field of 1.63 T, which is more than 90% of the field cooling value. This was achieved by applying a single step pulsed field at a liquid nitrogen temperature. For practical applications, the magnetization under a static magnetic field that is tilted from the crystallographic c-axis was investigated at liquid nitrogen temperature. The trapped flux component perpendicular to the bulk surface remains strong up to θ = 30° inclination, compared to the procedure along the axis. Information about HTS bulks is considered to be important for machine applications using bulk HTS as cryo-permanent magnets.

  11. Dating methods about bulk sediments in marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the development of science and technology progress, the studies about dating methods of sediments become more and more precise. Widely used of so many dating methods have offered reliable scientific evidence for the foundation of accurate chronostratigraphic framework in different region. Considering the difference of sedimentary environment as well as sediment types between inland and submarine, the dating method should be secerned. However, there are few articles which specially introduce the dating methods about bulk sediments in submarine environment. Based on the conclusion and summarized about many dating methods, especially focus on the sediment types and dating range,the conformable isotope dating methods (210Pb, 14C), OSL dating and comparatively dating methods (ie., Oxygen isotope curve, Paleomagnetic) which suitable for the bulk sediments in marine environment are suggested. Dating have an very important function in marine geological studies. In order to enhance the veracity and reliability of the dating data, the proper methods based on sediment types and estimated age range are selected. On the other hand,the progress cross-comparison during different dating methods are given. (authors)

  12. Raman characterization of bulk ferromagnetic nanostructured graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardo, Helena, E-mail: hpardo@fq.edu.uy [Centro NanoMat, Polo Tecnologico de Pando, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Cno. Aparicio Saravia s/n, 91000, Pando, Canelones (Uruguay); Crystallography, Solid State and Materials Laboratory (Cryssmat-Lab), DETEMA, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Gral. Flores 2124, P.O. Box 1157, Montevideo (Uruguay); Divine Khan, Ngwashi [Mantfort University, Leicester (United Kingdom); Faccio, Ricardo [Centro NanoMat, Polo Tecnologico de Pando, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Cno. Aparicio Saravia s/n, 91000, Pando, Canelones (Uruguay); Crystallography, Solid State and Materials Laboratory (Cryssmat-Lab), DETEMA, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Gral. Flores 2124, P.O. Box 1157, Montevideo (Uruguay); Araujo-Moreira, F.M. [Grupo de Materiais e Dispositivos-CMDMC, Departamento de Fisica e Engenharia Fisica, UFSCar, Caixa Postal 676, 13565-905, Sao Carlos SP (Brazil); Fernandez-Werner, Luciana [Centro NanoMat, Polo Tecnologico de Pando, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Cno. Aparicio Saravia s/n, 91000, Pando, Canelones (Uruguay); Crystallography, Solid State and Materials Laboratory (Cryssmat-Lab), DETEMA, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Gral. Flores 2124, P.O. Box 1157, Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2012-08-15

    Raman spectroscopy was used to characterize bulk ferromagnetic graphite samples prepared by controlled oxidation of commercial pristine graphite powder. The G:D band intensity ratio, the shape and position of the 2D band and the presence of a band around 2950 cm{sup -1} showed a high degree of disorder in the modified graphite sample, with a significant presence of exposed edges of graphitic planes as well as a high degree of attached hydrogen atoms.

  13. Material profile influences in bulk-heterojunctions

    OpenAIRE

    Roehling, J.D.; Rochester, C.W.; Ro, H.W.; Wang, P.; Majewski, J; Batenburg, Joost; Arslan, I; Delongchamp, D.M.; Moulé, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    The morphology in mixed bulk-heterojunction films are compared using three different quantitative measurement techniques. We compare the vertical composition changes using high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy with electron tomography and neutron and x-ray reflectometry. The three measurement techniques yield qualitatively comparable vertical concentration measurements. The presence of a metal cathode during thermal annealing is observed to alter the fulleren...

  14. Depleted Bulk Heterojunction Colloidal Quantum Dot Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Barkhouse, D. Aaron R.

    2011-05-26

    The first solution-processed depleted bulk heterojunction colloidal quantum dot solar cells are presented. The architecture allows for high absorption with full depletion, thereby breaking the photon absorption/carrier extraction compromise inherent in planar devices. A record power conversion of 5.5% under simulated AM 1.5 illumination conditions is reported. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Melt-growth bulk superconductors and application to an axial-gap-type rotating machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yufeng; Zhou, Difan; Ida, Tetsuya; Miki, Motohiro; Izumi, Mitsuru

    2016-04-01

    The present manuscript addresses key issues in the course of our study of materials processing of bulk high-temperature superconductors, trapped flux and its application to a prototype axial-gap-type rotating machine. The TUMSAT group has conducted a series of studies since 2003 on the growth of GdBa2Cu3O7-δ bulk material and its application in a compact low-speed high-torque rotating machine. In the stage of material growth, gaining the advantage of a large motive torque density requires large integrated flux in the motor/generators. A large grain surface might be required with sophisticated techniques for the melt-growth texture in the bulk with optimal flux pinning. In the second stage, the in situ magnetization procedure for bulk superconductors in the applied machine is a crucial part of the technology. Pulsed current excitation by using an armature copper winding has magnetized field pole bulks on the rotor. The axial-gap flux synchronous machine studied in the past decade is a condensed technology and indicates that further scientific development is required for a future compact machine to be superior to conventional ones in accordance with the cryogenic periphery and flux stabilization.

  16. Reluctance motors with bulk HTS material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years we have successfully designed, built and tested several reluctance motors with YBCO bulk material incorporated into the rotor, working at 77 K. Our last motor type SRE150 was tested up to 200 kW. The aim of our investigations is the construction of motors with extremely high power density and dynamics. In comparison to conventional motor types the advantage of HTS reluctance motors with respect to size and dynamics could be demonstrated. Some fields of possible future applications will be described. These motors show a significant improvement in performance using high quality HTS bulk elements in the rotor. Until now the motor parameters have been limited by the current density which could be obtained in the bulk material at 77 K and by the geometric dimensions of the segments available. Therefore we expect further improvements in the case of these materials. Since the total motor including stator and rotor is working at low temperature we have to optimize the windings and the magnetic circuit to these operation conditions. A new design of a 200 kW motor in order to achieve increased power density and the theoretical results of our calculations will be shown

  17. Evidence for Bulk Ripplocations in Layered Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Jacob; Lang, Andrew C.; Griggs, Justin; Taheri, Mitra L.; Tucker, Garritt J.; Barsoum, Michel W.

    2016-01-01

    Plastically anisotropic/layered solids are ubiquitous in nature and understanding how they deform is crucial in geology, nuclear engineering, microelectronics, among other fields. Recently, a new defect termed a ripplocation–best described as an atomic scale ripple–was proposed to explain deformation in two-dimensional solids. Herein, we leverage atomistic simulations of graphite to extend the ripplocation idea to bulk layered solids, and confirm that it is essentially a buckling phenomenon. In contrast to dislocations, bulk ripplocations have no Burgers vector and no polarity. In graphite, ripplocations are attracted to other ripplocations, both within the same, and on adjacent layers, the latter resulting in kink boundaries. Furthermore, we present transmission electron microscopy evidence consistent with the existence of bulk ripplocations in Ti3SiC2. Ripplocations are a topological imperative, as they allow atomic layers to glide relative to each other without breaking the in-plane bonds. A more complete understanding of their mechanics and behavior is critically important, and could profoundly influence our current understanding of how graphite, layered silicates, the MAX phases, and many other plastically anisotropic/layered solids, deform and accommodate strain. PMID:27640724

  18. Cosmological Implications of QGP Bulk Viscosity

    CERN Document Server

    Anand, Sampurn; Bhatt, Jitesh R

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies of the hot QCD matter indicate that the bulk viscosity ($\\zeta$) of quark-gluon plasma (QGP) rises sharply near the critical point of the QCD phase transition. In this work, we show that such a sharp rise of the bulk viscosity will lead to an effective negative pressure near the critical temperature, $T_{c}$ which in turn drives the Universe to inflate. This inflation has a natural graceful exist when the viscous effect evanesce. We estimate that, depending upon the peak value of $\\zeta$, universe expands by a factor of $10$ to $80$ times in a very short span ($\\Delta t\\sim 10^{-8}$ seconds). Another important outcome of the bulk viscosity dominated dynamics is the cavitation of QGP around $T \\sim 1.5T_{c}$. This would lead to the phenomenon of formation of cavitation bubbles within the QGP phase. The above scenario is independent of the order of QCD phase transition. We delineate some of the important cosmological consequences of the inflation and the cavitation.

  19. Superconducting State Parameters of Bulk Amorphous Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya M. Vora

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Well recognized empty core (EMC pseudopotential of Ashcroft is used to investigate the superconducting state parameters viz; electron-phonon coupling strength λ, Coulomb pseudopotential μ*, transition temperature TC, isotope effect exponent α and effective interaction strength NOV of some (Ni33Zr671 – xVx (x = 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 bulk amorphous alloys. We have incorporated five different types of local field correction functions, proposed by Hartree (H, Taylor (T, Ichimaru-Utsumi (IU, Farid et al. (F and Sarkar et al. (S to show the effect of exchange and correlation on the aforesaid properties. Very strong influence of the various exchange and correlation functions is concluded from the present study. The TC obtained from Sarkar et al. (S local field correction function are found an excellent agreement with available theoretical data. Quadratic TC equation has been proposed, which provide successfully the TC values of bulk amorphous alloys under consideration. Also, the present results are found in qualitative agreement with other such earlier reported data, which confirms the superconducting phase in the s bulk amorphous alloys.

  20. Bulk viscous cosmology in early Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C P Singh

    2008-07-01

    The effect of bulk viscosity on the early evolution of Universe for a spatially homogeneous and isotropic Robertson-Walker model is considered. Einstein's field equations are solved by using `gamma-law' equation of state = ( - 1)ρ, where the adiabatic parameter gamma () depends on the scale factor of the model. The `gamma' function is defined in such a way that it describes a unified solution of early evolution of the Universe for inflationary and radiation-dominated phases. The fluid has only bulk viscous term and the coefficient of bulk viscosity is taken to be proportional to some power function of the energy density. The complete general solutions have been given through three cases. For flat space, power-law as well as exponential solutions are found. The problem of how the introduction of viscosity affects the appearance of singularity, is briefly discussed in particular solutions. The deceleration parameter has a freedom to vary with the scale factor of the model, which describes the accelerating expansion of the Universe.