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Sample records for bulk tank milk

  1. Estimating Bacterial Pathogen Levels in New Zealand Bulk Tank Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, J C; Soboleva, T K; Jamieson, P; French, N P

    2016-05-01

    Zoonotic bacteria such as Campylobacter, Listeria, and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli have been found in bulk tank milk in many countries, and the consumption of raw milk has been implicated in outbreaks of disease in New Zealand. Fecal contamination at milking is probably the most common source of pathogenic bacteria in bulk tank milk. Raw milk was collected from 80 New Zealand dairy farms during 2011 and 2012 and tested periodically for Campylobacter, E. coli O157, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella. Milk quality data such as coliform counts, total bacterial counts, and somatic cell counts also were collected. By treating the total bacterial count as a proxy for fecal contamination of milk and utilizing farm and animal level prevalence and shedding rates of each pathogen, a predictive model for the level of pathogenic bacteria in bulk tank raw milk was developed. The model utilizes a mixture distribution to combine the low level of contamination inherent in the milking process with isolated contamination events associated with significantly higher pathogen levels. By simulating the sampling and testing process, the predictive model was validated against the observed prevalence of each pathogen in the survey. The predicted prevalence was similar to the observed prevalence for E. coli O157 and Salmonella, although the predicted prevalence was higher than that observed in samples tested for Campylobacter. PMID:27296424

  2. The effect of storage temperature and duration on the microbial quality of bulk tank milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, A; Ruegg, P L; Jordan, K; O'Brien, B; Gleeson, D

    2016-05-01

    The dairy industry in Ireland is currently undergoing a period of expansion and, as a result, it is anticipated that milk may be stored in bulk tanks on-farm for periods greater than 48 h. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of storage temperature and duration on microbial quality of bulk tank milk when fresh milk is added to the bulk tank twice daily. Bulk tank milk stored at 3 temperatures was sampled at 24-h intervals during storage periods of 0 to 96 h. Bulk tank milk samples were analyzed for total bacterial count (TBC), psychrotrophic bacterial count (PBC), laboratory pasteurization count (LPC), psychrotrophic-thermoduric bacterial count (PBC-LPC), proteolytic bacterial count, lipolytic bacterial count, presumptive Bacillus cereus, sulfite-reducing Clostridia (SRC), and SCC. The bulk tank milk temperature was set at each of 3 temperatures (2°C, 4°C, and 6°C) in each of 3 tanks on 2 occasions during two 6-wk periods. Period 1 was undertaken in August and September, when all cows were in mid lactation, and period 2 was undertaken in October and November, when all cows were in late lactation. None of the bulk tank bacterial counts except the proteolytic count were affected by lactation period. The proteolytic bacterial count was greater in period 2 than in period 1. The TBC and PBC of milk stored at 6°C increased as storage duration increased. The TBC did not increase with increasing storage duration when milk was stored at 2°C or 4°C but the PBC of milk stored at 4°C increased significantly between 0 and 96 h. The numbers of proteolytic and lipolytic bacteria, LPC, or PBC-LPC in bulk tank milk were not affected by temperature or duration of storage. Presumptive B. cereus were detected in 10% of all bulk tank milk samples taken over the two 6-wk periods, with similar proportions observed in both. In bulk tank milk samples, a greater incidence of SRC was observed in period 2 (20%) compared with period 1 (3%). Milk produced on

  3. Risk factors affecting chemical and bacteriological quality of bulk tank milk in Kerman, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mansouri-Najand, Ladan; Rezaii, Zeinab

    2015-01-01

    Milk is often described as a complete food because it contains protein, sugar, fat, vitamins, and minerals. This study was performed to investigate risk factors affecting chemical and bacteriological quality of bulk tank milk. According to the following conducted experiments, the milk was divided into two standard and non-standard groups. Then, effect of risk factors on making the samples non-standard was studied. Risk factors such as type of milk delivery unit, distance of cattle farm from p...

  4. Helicobacteraceae in Bulk Tank Milk of Dairy Herds from Northern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Valentina Bianchini; Camilla Recordati; Laura Borella; Valentina Gualdi; Eugenio Scanziani; Elisa Selvatico; Mario Luini

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is responsible for gastritis and gastric adenocarcinoma in humans, but the routes of transmission of this bacterium have not been clearly defined. Few studies led to supposing that H. pylori could be transmitted through raw milk, and no one investigated the presence of other Helicobacteraceae in milk. In the current work, the presence of Helicobacteraceae was investigated in the bulk tank milk of dairy cattle herds located in northern Italy both by direct plating onto H. p...

  5. Testing of bulk tank milk for Salmonella Dublin infection in Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedderkopp, A.; Stroger, U.; Bitsch, V.; Lind, Peter

    2001-01-01

    The usefulness of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was investigated as a simple method to screen for Salmonella Dublin infection in dairy herds, examining bulk tank milk samples for lipopolysaccharide (O:1,9,12) antibodies. The cut-off value for the ELISA on bulk tank milk was established...... test-positive in each area was correlated with the incidence of S. Dublin outbreaks in the corresponding county (r = 0.48, n = 19; P <0.025). The mean level of the OD values obtained in the first and third test rounds was not constant (Pr \\t\\ = 0.0001). The study demonstrated that the probability of...

  6. Stochastic simulation modeling to determine time to detect Bovine Viral Diarrhea antibodies in bulk tank milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foddai, Alessandro; Enøe, Claes; Krogh, Kaspar;

    2014-01-01

    A stochastic simulation model was developed to estimate the time from introduction ofBovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) in a herd to detection of antibodies in bulk tank milk(BTM) samples using three ELISAs. We assumed that antibodies could be detected, after afixed threshold prevalence of...

  7. DETECTION OF AFLATOXIN M1 IN BULK-TANK MILK AND SHEEP CHEESE

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    F. Cossu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 content in 118 bulk-tank sheep milk samples was evaluated using an ELISA commercial kit. During a lactation, three bulk-tank milk samples were collected from each of 40 semi-extensive farms, selected on the basis of high level of concentrate supplementation as risk factor for exposure to Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1. The AFM1 content was also determined in 38 sheep cheese samples collected from a dairy plant where the farms enrolled in the survey shipped the milk. In the three sampling the concentrate supplementation recorded in the farms ranged between (mean±sd 492.2±257.7 and 397.7±214.3. AFM1 was detected in 1 bulk-tank sheep milk sample (0.8% at concentrations as little as 5.2 ng/L while in 117 it was not detectable (<5 ng/L. AFM1 was also detected in 5 (13.2% out of 38 samples of ripened sheep cheese at levels (mean±sd of 58.1±7.8 ng/Kg. A very low AFM1 content in bulk mik and cheese was observed, as the result of the implementation of good agricultural and good farming practices.

  8. Short communication: Evaluation of bulk tank milk microbiological quality of nine dairy farms in Tennessee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, B E; Lewis, M J; Boonyayatra, S; Maxwell, M L; Saxton, A; Oliver, S P; Almeida, R A

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bulk tank milk (BTM) quality of 9 East Tennessee dairy farms and to determine its relationship with selected quality milk parameters. Bulk tank milk samples (n=1,141) were collected over a 42-mo period (June 2006 through November 2009) from farms, based on their preliminary incubation count (PIC) history. Parameters of BTM quality evaluated in this study included somatic cell count (SCC), standard plate count (SPC), PIC, laboratory pasteurization count (LPC), Staphylococcus spp. count, Streptococcus spp. count, and coliform count. Strong correlations between SPC and Streptococcus spp. counts (0.72) and between SPC and PIC (0.70) were found. However, moderate correlations were seen among other milk quality parameters. In addition, seasonal variations for some milk quality parameters were noted. For example, milk quality parameters such as SCC, SPC, LPC, and coliform count were significantly higher in summer, whereas Streptococcus spp. counts were significantly higher in winter. No seasonal variation in PIC or Staphylococcus spp. counts was observed. Summarizing, results from this investigation showed the importance of using several bacterial counts (SCC, SPC, PIC, LPC, Streptococcus spp. count, Staphylococcus spp. count, and coliform counts) as simultaneous indicators of milk quality. PMID:22818441

  9. Phytoestrogens and their metabolites in bulk-tank milk: effects of farm management and season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Steffen A; Purup, Stig; Hansen-Møller, Jens; Thuen, Erling; Steinshamn, Håvard

    2015-01-01

    Phytoestrogens have structures similar to endogenous steroids and may induce or inhibit the response of hormone receptors. The objectives of the present study were to compare the effects of long-term vs. short-term grassland management in organic and conventional dairy production systems, compare organic and conventional production systems and assess seasonal variation on phytoestrogen concentrations in bulk-tank milk. The concentrations of phytoestrogens were analyzed in bulk-tank milk sampled three times in two subsequent years from 28 dairy farms: Fourteen organic (ORG) dairy farms with either short-term or long-term grassland management were paired with 14 conventional (CON) farms with respect to grassland management. Grassland management varied in terms of time since establishment. Short-term grassland management (SG) was defined as establishment or reseeding every fourth year or more often, and long-term grassland management (LG) was defined as less frequent establishment or reseeding. The proportion of red clover (Trifolium pretense L.) in the herbage was positively correlated with milk concentrations of the mammalian isoflavone equol. Therefore, organically produced bulk-tank milk contained more equol than conventionally produced milk, and milk from ORG-SG farms had more equol than milk from ORG-LG farms. Milk produced during the indoor-feeding periods had more equol than milk produced during the outdoor feeding period, because pastures contained less red clover than fields intended for silage production. Organically produced milk had also higher concentrations of the mammalian lignan enterolactone, but in contrast to equol, concentrations increased in the outdoor-feeding periods compared to the indoor-feeding periods. There were no indications of fertility problems on ORG-SG farms who had the highest red clover proportions in the herbage. This study shows that production system, grassland management, and season affect milk concentrations of phytoestrogens

  10. Phytoestrogens and Their Metabolites in Bulk-Tank Milk: Effects of Farm Management and Season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler, Steffen A; Purup, Stig; Hansen-Møller, Jens;

    2015-01-01

    organic and conventional production systems and assess seasonal variation on phytoestrogen concentrations in bulk-tank milk. The concentrations of phytoestrogens were analyzed in bulk-tank milk sampled three times in two subsequent years from 28 dairy farms: Fourteen organic (ORG) dairy farms with either......Phytoestrogens have structures similar to endogenous steroids and may induce or inhibit the response of hormone receptors. The objectives of the present study were to compare the effects of long-term vs. short-term grassland management in organic and conventional dairy production systems, compare...... short-term or long-term grassland management were paired with 14 conventional (CON) farms with respect to grassland management. Grassland management varied in terms of time since establishment. Short-term grassland management (SG) was defined as establishment or reseeding every fourth year or more often...

  11. Helicobacteraceae in Bulk Tank Milk of Dairy Herds from Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, Valentina; Recordati, Camilla; Borella, Laura; Gualdi, Valentina; Scanziani, Eugenio; Selvatico, Elisa; Luini, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is responsible for gastritis and gastric adenocarcinoma in humans, but the routes of transmission of this bacterium have not been clearly defined. Few studies led to supposing that H. pylori could be transmitted through raw milk, and no one investigated the presence of other Helicobacteraceae in milk. In the current work, the presence of Helicobacteraceae was investigated in the bulk tank milk of dairy cattle herds located in northern Italy both by direct plating onto H. pylori selective medium and by screening PCR for Helicobacteraceae, followed by specific PCRs for H. pylori, Wolinella spp., and "Candidatus Helicobacter bovis." Three out of 163 bulk milk samples tested positive for Helicobacteraceae, but not for the subsequent PCRs. H. pylori was not isolated in any case. However, given similar growth conditions, Arcobacter butzleri, A. cryaerophilus, and A. skirrowii were recovered. In conclusion, the prevalence of Helicobacteraceae in raw milk was negligible (1.8%), and H. pylori was not identified in any of the positive samples, suggesting that, at least in the farming conditions of the investigated area, bovine milk does not represent a potential source of infection. PMID:26090429

  12. Helicobacteraceae in Bulk Tank Milk of Dairy Herds from Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Bianchini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is responsible for gastritis and gastric adenocarcinoma in humans, but the routes of transmission of this bacterium have not been clearly defined. Few studies led to supposing that H. pylori could be transmitted through raw milk, and no one investigated the presence of other Helicobacteraceae in milk. In the current work, the presence of Helicobacteraceae was investigated in the bulk tank milk of dairy cattle herds located in northern Italy both by direct plating onto H. pylori selective medium and by screening PCR for Helicobacteraceae, followed by specific PCRs for H. pylori, Wolinella spp., and “Candidatus Helicobacter bovis.” Three out of 163 bulk milk samples tested positive for Helicobacteraceae, but not for the subsequent PCRs. H. pylori was not isolated in any case. However, given similar growth conditions, Arcobacter butzleri, A. cryaerophilus, and A. skirrowii were recovered. In conclusion, the prevalence of Helicobacteraceae in raw milk was negligible (1.8%, and H. pylori was not identified in any of the positive samples, suggesting that, at least in the farming conditions of the investigated area, bovine milk does not represent a potential source of infection.

  13. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis detection in individual and bulk tank milk samples from bovine herds and caprine flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favila-Humara, Lucía C; Chávez-Gris, Gilberto G; Carrillo-Casas, Erika M; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto

    2010-04-01

    Paratuberculosis, or Johne's disease, is caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), and it generates great economic losses for the dairy industry worldwide. In humans, Map has been associated with Crohn's disease. Mexico has unknown paratuberculosis prevalence, and yet, control programs have not been applied. This study aimed to determine the presence of Map in milk samples from seropositive goats and cows and bulk tank milk samples from herds previously designated Map-infected using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Map DNA was detected in 100% of the bulk tank milk samples of 14 bovine herds and 3 caprine flocks using a modified insertion sequence 900 polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Additionally, Map DNA was detected in 100% of the individual milk samples from 10 cows and 8 goats. Further, based on the findings of the experimental insertion sequence 900 PCR assessment, evaluation of bulk tank and individual milk samples through a type-specific PCR was performed, which confirmed our previous findings and revealed that 56.25% cow and 63.63% goat milk had concurrent infections of the C, I, and S types. Out of 14 bulk tank milk samples, 10 had viable mycobacteria. Paratuberculosis was detected at a high frequency in cow and goat milk, which suggests that raw milk ingestion represents a potential risk of Map infection. PMID:19911881

  14. Population structure of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bulk tank goat's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanu, Vincenzo; Scarano, Christian; Virdis, Salvatore; Melito, Sara; Spanu, Carlo; De Santis, Enrico Pietro Luigi

    2013-04-01

    The presence of Staphylococcus aureus in raw milk can represent a potential threat to human health, due to the introduction of pathogenic strains into dairy food supply chain. The present study was performed to investigate the genetic variation among S. aureus strains isolated from bulk tank goat's milk. The virulence profiles were also assessed to link the isolates with the potential source of milk contamination. A population study was performed on 60 strains using distance-based methods such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and the output was analyzed using Structure statistical software (University of Chicago; http://pritch.bsd.uchicago.edu/structure.html ). This Bayesian clustering model tool allows one to assign individuals into a population with no predefined structure. In order to assess partition of genetic variability among isolates, groups obtained by Structure were also investigated using analysis of molecular variance. S. aureus was recovered in 60 out of 78 samples (76.9%) collected from 26 farms. According to PFGE analysis, the strains were divided into 25 different pulsotypes and grouped into two main clusters. Restriction profiles, analyzed by Structure, allowed us to identify two distinct S. aureus genetic groups. Within each group, the strains showed a high coefficient of membership. A great part of genetic variability was attributable to within-groups variation. On the basis of the virulence profile, 45% of the isolates were linked to "animal" biovar, while 6.7% could be assigned to "human" biovar. Out of 60 strains, 27 were characterized by in vitro production of either enterotoxins A (5.0%), C (38.3%), or D (1.7%). The present study showed a high prevalence of bulk tank goat's milk contamination with S. aureus of animal origin. The presence in goat's milk of S. aureus strains able to produce enterotoxins and their potential introduction into dairy chain may represent a serious threat to human health. PMID:23458027

  15. Testing of bulk tank milk for Salmonella Dublin infection in Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedderkopp, A.; Stroger, U.; Bitsch, V.; Lind, Peter

    2001-01-01

    The usefulness of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was investigated as a simple method to screen for Salmonella Dublin infection in dairy herds, examining bulk tank milk samples for lipopolysaccharide (O:1,9,12) antibodies. The cut-off value for the ELISA on bulk tank milk was established...... test-positive in each area was correlated with the incidence of S. Dublin outbreaks in the corresponding county (r = 0.48, n = 19; P <0.025). The mean level of the OD values obtained in the first and third test rounds was not constant (Pr \\t\\ = 0.0001). The study demonstrated that the probability of...... being test-negative in the third test round was 0.926 for a herd with 2 previous test-negative results. It was concluded that the investigated ELISA method was in general accordance with the cases of clinical S. Dublin infection recorded. and that the method has a potential for national screening...

  16. Occurrence and antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus in bulk tank milk and milk filters

    OpenAIRE

    Kateřina Bogdanovičová; Alena Skočková; Zora Šťástková; Renáta Karpíšková

    2014-01-01

    This work is focused on the monitoring of Staphylococcus aureus prevalence in raw milk and milk filters, its antibiotic resistance and detection of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Samples of raw cow´s milk and milk filters were collected in the period from 2012 till 2014, from 50 dairy farms in the Czech Republic. The total of 261 samples (164 samples of raw milk and 97 milk filters) were cultivated on Baird-Parker agar. Both the typical and atypical co...

  17. Development of improved method for isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from bulk tank milk: Effect of age of milk, centrifugation, and decontamination

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Anli; Odumeru, Joseph; Raymond, Melinda; Mutharia, Lucy

    2005-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne’s disease in cattle and it has been suggested that this organism may be associated with Crohn’s disease in humans. Cows at the advanced stage of the disease shed this organism into both their milk and feces. The objective of this study was to develop a more efficient procedure for isolating MAP from bulk tank raw milk. Bulk tank raw milk (50 mL) samples 3 to 13 d old after collection without spiking were investi...

  18. Antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella enterica isolates from bulk tank milk and milk filters in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kessel, J S; Sonnier, J; Zhao, S; Karns, J S

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella isolates were recovered from bulk tank milk as part of the National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS) Dairy 2002 and 2007 surveys. In-line milk filters were also tested in the 2007 survey. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among Salmonella enterica isolates from bulk milk and milk filters in the NAHMS Dairy 2002 and 2007 surveys and to further characterize resistant isolates. Susceptibilities to 15 antibiotics were determined for 176 Salmonella isolates of 26 serotypes using an automated antimicrobial susceptibility system. Resistant isolates were screened by PCR for the presence of the extended-spectrum β-lactamase (bla(CMY)) gene and class I integrons and further characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Thirty isolates (17.0%) representing six S. enterica serotypes exhibited resistance to at least one antimicrobial agent (serotypes Newport [14 of 14 isolates exhibited resistance], Dublin [7 of 7], Typhimurium [3 of 5], Kentucky [4 of 22], Anatum [1 of 13], and Infantis [1 of 2]). Twenty isolates (11.4%), including all 14 Newport, 3 Dublin, 2 Typhimurium, and 1 Infantis isolate, displayed the typical multidrug-resistant, bla(CMY)-positive (MDR-AmpC) phenotype which included resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfonamide, and tetracycline, plus resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and extended-spectrum cephalosporins. Five of the MDR-AmpC isolates carried class I integrons (2.8%). Two-enzyme (XbaI and BlnI) pulsed-field gel electrophoresis discerned clades within serotypes and, together with the resistance profiles, identified strains that appeared to have persisted temporally and geographically. These results suggest that there is a low but appreciable risk of infection with MDR Salmonella from consumption of nonpasteurized milk and dairy products. PMID:23317852

  19. Occurrence and antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus in bulk tank milk and milk filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Bogdanovičová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This work is focused on the monitoring of Staphylococcus aureus prevalence in raw milk and milk filters, its antibiotic resistance and detection of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. Samples of raw cow´s milk and milk filters were collected in the period from 2012 till 2014, from 50 dairy farms in the Czech Republic. The total of 261 samples (164 samples of raw milk and 97 milk filters were cultivated on Baird-Parker agar. Both the typical and atypical colonies were examined by plasmacoagulase test and PCR method was used for detection of species specific fragment SA442 and mecA gene. Standard disk diffusion method was used to determinate resistance to antimicrobial agents. The bacterium Staphylococcus aureus was detected on 25 farms (50%. The antimicrobial resistance showed differences between the farms. Total of 58 samples were positive for Staphylococcus aureus, of which were 37 (14.2% isolated from raw milk samples and 21 (8.1% from milk filters. From these samples we isolated 62 Staphylococcus aureus strains, 41 isolates bacteria S. aureus from raw milk (66.1% and 21 isolates S. aureus from milk filters (33.9%. The presence of antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolates was low, most of them were resistant to amoxicilin. According to the results obtained by the PCR method for the methicillin - resistant S. aureus (MRSA, the mecA gene was present in 6 strains (9.7%, 4 isolates obtained from milk samples (6.5% and 2 isolates from milk filters (3.2%.  These isolates can be considered as a possible source of resistance genes, which can be spread through the food chain. Nowadays, a globally unfavourable increasing trend of prevalence of methicillin resistant staphylococci strains especially Staphylococcus aureus is being observed worldwide. The improper hygiene and poor farm management practices contributed to the presence of S. aureus in the milk. This may have contributed to the high level of S. aureus isolated

  20. Prevalence of Bovine Mastitis Pathogens in Bulk Tank Milk in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Yanliang; Wang, Ya Jing; Qin, Yun; Guix Vallverdú, Roger; Maldonado García, Jaime; Sun, Wei; Li, Shengli; Cao, Zhijun

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the herd prevalence of major mastitis pathogens in bulk tank milk (BTM) in China dairy herds, to determine the relationship between the presence of mastitis pathogens and bulk tank milk somatic cell counts (BTSCC), and to investigate the impact of different dairy cattle farming modes and region on bacterial species. BTM samples collected from 894 dairy herds in China were examined for the presence of mastitis pathogens. The Flinders Technology Associates (FTA) cards were used for BTM sample collection, storage, and transportation and bacterial DNA amplification by real-time PCR. Among contagious pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Streptococcus dysgalactiae were detected in 50.1, 92.2, and 72.3% of the 894 BTM samples, respectively. Among environmental pathogens, E. coli, Streptococcus uberis, Enterococcus spp., Klebsiella spp., Serratia marcescens, Corynebacterium bovis, and Arcanobacterium pyogenes were detected in 28.6, 8.9, 35.7, 20.0, 1.3, 17.0, and 67.2% of the BTM samples, respectively. Staphylococcal β-lactamase gene was detected in 61.7% of the BTM samples. The presence of Staphylococcus aureus and Arcanobacterium pyogenes were significantly associated with high BTSCC, respectively. Significant differences were found in presence of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Streptococcus dysgalactiae in BTM sampled from the small household farms, dairy-farming communities, and large-scaled dairy farms. There were significant differences in the presence of Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Arcanobacterium pyogenes, staphylococcal β-lactamase gene, Staphylococcus spp., Klebsiella spp., Enterococcus spp., and Streptococcus uberis in BTM among Inner Mongolia, Heilongjiang, and Hebei province. In conclusion, contagious mammary pathogens are predominated among pathogens in BTM samples in China. PMID:27187065

  1. Prevalence of Bovine Mastitis Pathogens in Bulk Tank Milk in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanliang Bi

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to estimate the herd prevalence of major mastitis pathogens in bulk tank milk (BTM in China dairy herds, to determine the relationship between the presence of mastitis pathogens and bulk tank milk somatic cell counts (BTSCC, and to investigate the impact of different dairy cattle farming modes and region on bacterial species. BTM samples collected from 894 dairy herds in China were examined for the presence of mastitis pathogens. The Flinders Technology Associates (FTA cards were used for BTM sample collection, storage, and transportation and bacterial DNA amplification by real-time PCR. Among contagious pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Streptococcus dysgalactiae were detected in 50.1, 92.2, and 72.3% of the 894 BTM samples, respectively. Among environmental pathogens, E. coli, Streptococcus uberis, Enterococcus spp., Klebsiella spp., Serratia marcescens, Corynebacterium bovis, and Arcanobacterium pyogenes were detected in 28.6, 8.9, 35.7, 20.0, 1.3, 17.0, and 67.2% of the BTM samples, respectively. Staphylococcal β-lactamase gene was detected in 61.7% of the BTM samples. The presence of Staphylococcus aureus and Arcanobacterium pyogenes were significantly associated with high BTSCC, respectively. Significant differences were found in presence of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Streptococcus dysgalactiae in BTM sampled from the small household farms, dairy-farming communities, and large-scaled dairy farms. There were significant differences in the presence of Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Arcanobacterium pyogenes, staphylococcal β-lactamase gene, Staphylococcus spp., Klebsiella spp., Enterococcus spp., and Streptococcus uberis in BTM among Inner Mongolia, Heilongjiang, and Hebei province. In conclusion, contagious mammary pathogens are predominated among pathogens in BTM samples in China.

  2. Prevalence of Bovine Mastitis Pathogens in Bulk Tank Milk in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya Jing; Qin, Yun; Guix Vallverdú, Roger; Maldonado García, Jaime; Sun, Wei; Li, Shengli; Cao, Zhijun

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the herd prevalence of major mastitis pathogens in bulk tank milk (BTM) in China dairy herds, to determine the relationship between the presence of mastitis pathogens and bulk tank milk somatic cell counts (BTSCC), and to investigate the impact of different dairy cattle farming modes and region on bacterial species. BTM samples collected from 894 dairy herds in China were examined for the presence of mastitis pathogens. The Flinders Technology Associates (FTA) cards were used for BTM sample collection, storage, and transportation and bacterial DNA amplification by real-time PCR. Among contagious pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Streptococcus dysgalactiae were detected in 50.1, 92.2, and 72.3% of the 894 BTM samples, respectively. Among environmental pathogens, E. coli, Streptococcus uberis, Enterococcus spp., Klebsiella spp., Serratia marcescens, Corynebacterium bovis, and Arcanobacterium pyogenes were detected in 28.6, 8.9, 35.7, 20.0, 1.3, 17.0, and 67.2% of the BTM samples, respectively. Staphylococcal β-lactamase gene was detected in 61.7% of the BTM samples. The presence of Staphylococcus aureus and Arcanobacterium pyogenes were significantly associated with high BTSCC, respectively. Significant differences were found in presence of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Streptococcus dysgalactiae in BTM sampled from the small household farms, dairy-farming communities, and large-scaled dairy farms. There were significant differences in the presence of Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Arcanobacterium pyogenes, staphylococcal β-lactamase gene, Staphylococcus spp., Klebsiella spp., Enterococcus spp., and Streptococcus uberis in BTM among Inner Mongolia, Heilongjiang, and Hebei province. In conclusion, contagious mammary pathogens are predominated among pathogens in BTM samples in China. PMID:27187065

  3. Eurpoean Union bulk tank SCC standards and proposed US standards: Compliance based on data from four Federal Milk Marketing Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the percentage of US producers and milk not currently meeting the proposed bulk tank somatic cell counts (BTSCC) limits. Five different limits of BTSCC were evaluated for compliance: 750K, 600K, 500K, and 400K using the current US methods and 400K using th...

  4. Prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, and molecular characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from bulk tank milk of dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreausukon, K; Fetsch, A; Kraushaar, B; Alt, K; Müller, K; Krömker, V; Zessin, K-H; Käsbohrer, A; Tenhagen, B-A

    2012-08-01

    It was the objective of the study to estimate the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in bulk tank milk from German dairy herds and to characterize isolates from bulk tank milk with respect to their Staph. aureus protein A (spa) and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type, their phenotypic antimicrobial resistance and resistance- resp. virulence-associated genes using broth microdilution and a microarray for Staph. aureus. Bulk tank milk samples (25 mL) were tested for MRSA using a 2-step selective enrichment protocol. Presumptive MRSA were confirmed by PCR. Thirty-six isolates collected from bulk tank milk of dairy herds in 2009 and 2010 were included in the characterization. All isolates displayed spa-types assigned to the clonal complex CC398. Based on the epidemiological cut-off values for the interpretation of minimum inhibitory concentrations isolates were resistant to tetracycline (100%), clindamycin (58%), erythromycin (52%), quinupristin/dalfopristin (36%), and kanamycin (27%). Isolates did not carry genes associated with typical virulence factors for Staph. aureus such as the Panton-Valentine leukocidin. However, they did carry hemolysin genes. Livestock-associated MRSA of CC398 does occur in German dairy herds and the strains have similar properties as described for strains from pigs. PMID:22818451

  5. Current level of compliance with EU bulk tank SCC standards and proposed US standards based on data from four Federal Milk Marketing Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milk quality in the United States is evaluated annually using bulk-tank somatic cell count (BTSCC) data provided by 4 of the Nation's 10 Federal Milk Marketing Orders. The data represents more than 30,000 producers and 50% of milk produced in the US. The reported BTSCC is used for regulatory purpose...

  6. Risk factors for Coxiella burnetii antibodies in bulk tank milk from Danish dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agger, Jens Frederik; Paul, Suman; Christoffersen, Anna-Bodil; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to identify risk factors associated with Coxiella burnetii antibody positivity in bulk tank milk (BTM) samples from 100 randomly selected Danish dairy cattle herds. Antibody levels were measured by an enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay. Before testing the herds, the farm managers were interviewed about hired labour, biosecurity, housing and herd health during the 12 months prior to the study. Variables considered important for C. burnetii antibody positivity in multivariable logistic regression analysis included the sharing of machines between farms (OR = 3.6), human contacts (OR = 4.2), artificial insemination by other people than artificial insemination technicians (OR = 7.7), routine herd health contract with the veterinarian (OR = 4.3) and hygiene precautions taken by veterinarians (OR = 5). In addition, herd size, hired labour, trading of cattle between farms, quarantine and use of calving and disease pens also showed significant association in univariable analysis. This study demonstrates that strict biosecurity is important for the prevention of infections with C. burnetii. PMID:24228845

  7. Fatty acid content, vitamins and selenium in bulk tank milk from organic and conventional Swedish dairy herds during the indoor season

    OpenAIRE

    Fall, Nils; Emanuelson, Ulf

    2011-01-01

    Fatty acids, vitamins and minerals in milk are important for the human consumer, the calf and the cow. Studies indicate that milk from organic and conventional dairy herds may differ in these aspects. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate whether there are differences in the fatty acid composition and concentration of vitamins and selenium in milk between organic and conventional herds in Sweden. Bulk tank milk was sampled in 18 organic and 19 conventional dairy herds on three oc...

  8. Modeling the effect of direct and indirect contamination of on-farm bulk tank milk with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okura, Hisako; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Toft, Nils

    2013-01-01

    in farm bulk tank milk and simulating the effect of direct and indirect contamination with MAP. The effect of discarding milk from test-positive cows at different prevalences was assessed. The concentration of MAP in milk was estimated using a simulation model, while taking direct and indirect...... milk from test positive cows would result in discarding 11% of milk and reduce the MAP level by 80%. Due to poor sensitivity of the diagnostic test, removing test-positive cows would not further reduce the already low concentration of MAP and it would not guarantee the milk as MAP-free. The model was...

  9. Prevalence, characterization, and antimicrobial resistance of Yersinia species and Yersinia enterocolitica isolated from raw milk in farm bulk tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, Hossein; Paydar, Mohammadjavad; Radmehr, Behrad; Ismail, Salmah

    2015-02-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence and to characterize and determine the antibiotic resistance of Yersinia spp. isolates from raw milk. From September 2008 to August 2010, 446 raw milk samples were obtained from farm bulk milk tanks in Varamin, Iran. Yersinia spp. were detected in 29 (6.5%) samples, out of which 23 (79.3%), 5 (17.2%), and 1 (3.4%) were isolated from cow, sheep, and goat raw milk, respectively. The most common species isolated was Yersinia enterocolitica (65.5%), followed by Yersinia frederiksenii (31%), and Yersinia kristensenii (3.4%). Of the 19 Y. enterocolitica isolates, 14 (73.7%) were grouped into bioserotype 1A/O:9, 4 (21.1%) belonged to bioserotype 1B:O8, 1 (5.3%) belonged to bioserotype 4/O:3, and 1 isolate (biotype 1A) was not typable. All the isolates of biotypes 1B and 4harbored both the ystA and ail genes. However, all the isolates of biotype 1A were only positive for the ystB gene. The tested Yersinia spp. showed the highest percentages of resistance to tetracycline (48.3%), followed by ciprofloxacin and cephalothin (each 17.2%), ampicillin (13.8%), streptomycin (6.9%), and amoxicillin and nalidixic acid (each 3.4%). All of the tested isolates demonstrated significant sensitivity to gentamicin and chloramphenicol. Recovery of potentially pathogenic Y. enterocolitica from raw milk indicates high risks of yersiniosis associated with consumption of raw milk. PMID:25497824

  10. Factors associated with variation in bulk tank milk Mycoplasma bovis antibody-ELISA results in dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Mette B; Krogh, Kaspar; Nielsen, Liza R

    2016-05-01

    The relevance and limitations for using measurements of antibodies against Mycoplasma bovis in bulk tank milk (BTM) as a potentially cost-effective diagnostic tool for herd classification has not been evaluated before. Assuming that an increasing or high seroprevalence is a result of on-going or recent spread of M. bovis in a dairy herd, we tested the hypothesis that increasing prevalence of antibody-positive cows and young stock are associated with increasing BTM antibody ELISA values against M. bovis in Danish dairy herds with different courses of M. bovis infection. Furthermore, we tested whether herd size was associated with variations in the BTM responses. Thirty-nine Danish dairy herds selected to represent 4 different herd-level infection groups [8 control herds, 14 acute outbreak herds, 7 herds with previous outbreaks, and 10 herds with elevated BTM ELISA-values directed against M. bovis (>64% optical density measurement)] were visited 4 to 5 times, approximately 3mo apart. At each visit, 65 young stock were blood sampled. At the milk recording date closest to the herd visit date, 50 milk recording samples from individual lactating cows were randomly selected. In addition, a BTM sample was collected as a representative sample directly from the bulk tank by the dairies' milk truck drivers as part of the mandatory milk quality-control scheme. Blood and milk samples were tested for antibodies against M. bovis with a commercially available ELISA test (Bio-X BIO K 302, Bio-X Diagnostics, Rochefort, Belgium). A linear mixed effects model was used to analyze the effects of the prevalence of antibody-positive lactating cows and young stock and herd size on the BTM M. bovis ELISA results. Herd was included as a random effect to account for clustering of BTM samples originating from the same herd. Increasing prevalence of antibody-positive lactating cows was the only variable associated with increasing M. bovis BTM ELISA optical density measurement. In contrast, the

  11. Antibiotic Resistance Patterns of Gram-Negative Psychrotrophic Bacteria from Bulk Tank Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decimo, Marilù; Silvetti, Tiziana; Brasca, Milena

    2016-04-01

    Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is a major global health problem and resistance of Pseudomonadaceae and Enterobacteriaceae is a serious concern. We investigated the prevalence of drug-resistance in a total of 80 psychrotrophic strains from bulk milk belonging to Pseudomonas genus (n. 63) and Enterobacteriaceae group (n. 17). All the strains were tested against 16 antibiotics. Pseudomonas were further investigated for their sensitivity against 12 additional antibiotics. Pseudomonas showed a high susceptibility toward fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, and piperacillin and, to a lesser extent, to imipenem, ceftazidime, cefepime. Thirty-five out of 63 Pseudomonas strains were susceptible to meropenem, while among antibiotics for which recommended breakpoints are not yet available, 55% of Pseudomonas strains had no inhibition halo in presence of nitrofurantoin, highlighting a resistance toward this drug. The results obtained in this study indicate a high efficiency of fluoroquinolones, chloramphenicol (94%), and kanamycin (76%) for Enterobacteriaceae while a high prevalence of resistant strains was found to ampicillin (13/17). Serratia marcescens is highly susceptible to fluoroquinolones, chloramphenicol, and kanamycin. Moreover, mupirocin seems to be the new antibiotic with the less efficacy for Enterobacteriaceae, with 41% of strains without halo, pointing out an important resistance. Further knowledge on resistance to known and new antibiotics among Pseudomonas species and Enterobacteriaceae of milk origin was acquired. PMID:26910385

  12. Prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular typing of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in bulk tank milk from southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, A; Caruso, M; Normanno, G; Latorre, L; Sottili, R; Miccolupo, A; Fraccalvieri, R; Santagada, G

    2016-09-01

    This paper assesses the prevalence of MRSA in bulk tank milk (BTM) samples from southern Italy, and the relationship between the Coagulase Positive Staphylococci count (CPS) and MRSA prevalence. Of 486 BTM samples tested, 12 samples (2.5%) resulted positive for the presence of MRSA. Great genetic diversity was found among the isolates: ST1/t127 and t174/IVa, ST5/t688/V, ST8/t unknown/IVa/V, ST45/t015/IVa, ST71/t524/V, ST88/t786/Iva, ST398/t011 and t899/IVa/V and ST2781/t1730/V. All isolates were pvl-negative and icaA positive. The majority of strains (58%) carried the ses (sec, seh, seg, seo, sem and sen) genes. All tested strains resulted susceptible to amikacin, cephalotin, cloramphenicol, gentamycin, trimethoprim - sulfamethoxazole, tobramycin and vancomycin, and variably resistant to ampicillin, oxacillin and tetracycline. No statistical association between the CPS count and MRSA detection was found in the MRSA-positive samples. Although some of the spa-types and STs detected in our survey are known to cause human infections, raw milk from Italian herds in the considered area is not a common source of MRSA. Nonetheless, it is necessary to assess the risk of foodborne infection and the risk related to the handling of milk. PMID:27217357

  13. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis specific IS900 insertion sequences in bulk-tank milk samples obtained from different regions throughout Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Roger

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP was isolated from intestinal tissue of a human patient suffering Crohn's disease, a controversial discussion exists whether MAP have a role in the etiology of Crohn's disease or not. Raw milk may be a potential vehicle for the transmission of MAP to human population. In a previous paper, we have demonstrated that MAP are found in raw milk samples obtained from a defined region in Switzerland. The aim of this work is to collect data about the prevalence of MAP specific IS900 insertion sequence in bulk-tank milk samples in different regions of Switzerland. Furthermore, we examined eventual correlation between the presence of MAP and the somatic cell counts, the total colony counts and the presence of Enterobacteriaceae. Results 273 (19.7% of the 1384 examined bulk-tank milk samples tested IS900 PCR-positive. The prevalence, however, in the different regions of Switzerland shows significant differences and ranged from 1.7% to 49.2%. Furthermore, there were no statistically significant (p >> 0.05 differences between the somatic cell counts and the total colony counts of PCR-positive and PCR-negative milk samples. Enterobacteriaceae occur as often in IS900 PCR-positive as in PCR-negative milk samples. Conclusion This is the first study, which investigates the prevalence of MAP in bulk-tank milk samples all over Switzerland and infers the herd-level prevalence of MAP infection in dairy herds. The prevalence of 19.7% IS900 PCR-positive bulk-milk samples shows a wide distribution of subclinical MAP-infections in dairy stock in Switzerland. MAP can therefore often be transmitted to humans by raw milk consumption.

  14. Predicting within-herd prevalence of infection with bovine leukemia virus using bulk-tank milk antibody levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekouei, Omid; Stryhn, Henrik; VanLeeuwen, John; Kelton, David; Hanna, Paul; Keefe, Greg

    2015-11-01

    Enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) is an economically important infection of dairy cattle caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV). Estimating the prevalence of BLV within dairy herds is a fundamental step towards pursuing efficient control programs. The objectives of this study were: (1) to determine the prevalence of BLV infection at the herd level using a bulk-tank milk (BTM) antibody ELISA in the Maritime region of Canada (3 provinces); and (2) to develop appropriate statistical models for predicting within-herd prevalence of BLV infection using BTM antibody ELISA titers. During 2013, three monthly BTM samples were collected from all dairy farms in the Maritime region of Canada (n=623) and tested for BLV milk antibodies using a commercial indirect ELISA. Based on the mean of the 3 BTM titers, 15 strata of herds (5 per province) were defined. From each stratum, 6 herds were randomly selected for a total of 90 farms. Within every selected herd, an additional BTM sample was taken (round 4), approximately 2 months after the third round. On the same day of BTM sampling, all cows that contributed milk to the fourth BTM sample were individually tested for BLV milk antibodies (n=6111) to estimate the true within-herd prevalence for the 90 herds. The association between true within-herd prevalence of BLV and means of various combinations of the BTM titers was assessed using linear regression models, adjusting for the stratified random sampling design. Herd level prevalence of BLV in the region was 90.8%. In the individual testing, 30.4% of cows were positive. True within-herd prevalences ranged from 0 to 94%. All linear regression models were able to predict the true within-herd prevalence of BLV reasonably well (R(2)>0.69). Predictions from the models were particularly accurate for low-to-medium spectrums of the BTM titers. In general, as a greater number of the four repeated BTM titers were incorporated in the models, narrower confidence intervals around the prediction lines

  15. Evaluation of milk yield losses associated with Salmonella antibodies in bulk tank milk in bovine dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T D; Green, L E; Kudahl, Anne Margrethe Braad; Østergaard, Søren; Nielsen, L R

    2012-01-01

    randomly allocated to the control herds. Hierarchical mixed effect models with the outcome test-day yield of energy-corrected milk (ECM)/cow were used to investigate daily milk yield before and after the estimated herd infection date for cows in parities 1, 2, and 3+. Control herds were used to evaluate...... consecutive three-monthly measurements in the Danish Salmonella surveillance program. All selected case herds were conventional Danish Holstein herds. Control herds (n = 40) were selected randomly from Danish Holstein herds with Salmonella antibody levels consistently <10 ODC%. A date of herd infection was...... whether the effects in the case herds could be reproduced in herds without Salmonella infection. Herd size, days in milk, somatic cell count, season, and year were included in the models. Yield in first-parity cows was reduced by a mean of 1.4 kg (95% confidence interval: 0.5 to 2.3) of ECM/cow per day...

  16. Salmonella dublin in Danish dairy herds: Frequency of change to positive serological status in bulk tank milk ELISA in relation to serostatus of neighbouring farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedderkopp, A.; Strøger, U.; Lind, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Bulk tank milk from 1,429 herds were collected in 3 rounds from 19 different geographic areas. The milk samples were tested by use of indirect LPS-ELISA procedure to detect Salmonella dublin antibodies. From the obtained OD-values herd seroprevalence in the given area was determined and GR......-scores were found in herds changing to seropositive status compared with herds seronegative throughout the study period. The results indicate that the risk for a dairy herd to receive S. dublin infection increases with the disease status among the nearest neighbours and with the prevalence of seropositive...

  17. Salmonella dublin in Danish Dairy Herds: Frequency of Change to Positive Serological Status in Bulk Tank Milk ELISA in Relation to Serostatus of Neighbouring Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Lind P; Strøger U; Wedderkopp A

    2001-01-01

    Bulk tank milk from 1,429 herds were collected in 3 rounds from 19 different geographic areas. The milk samples were tested by use of indirect LPS-ELISA procedure to detect Salmonella dublin antibodies. From the obtained OD-values herd seroprevalence in the given area was determined and GR-scores calculated for each herd by addition of the number of positive sampling rounds by the 5 geographically closest neighbour herds. In the 19 different areas the calculated prevalence ranged from 0.01 t...

  18. Occurrence of enterotoxin genes and macrorestriction analysis of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis and bulk-tank milk samples in Italy. An epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rosmini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the study was to genotypically compare S. aureus isolates from mastitis milk and raw milk to identify therelation between strains and to assess the enterotoxigenicity of the isolates. Eighty-three Staphylococcus aureus isolatesrecovered from cows and bulk tank milk of five farms in northern Italy were compared genotypically. The genes for theenterotoxins A, D, G and I, but not for B, C, E and H and the toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1, were detected byPCR amplification. Macrorestriction analysis with the restrictions enzyme SmaI revealed 14 pulsed-field gel electrophoresispatterns. These were in part different from each other only in a few fragments and thus displayed a closeclonal relation. The results of the present investigation showed that identical or closely related clones seemed to beresponsible for the cases of bovine mastitis in the farms investigated and partly responsible for contamination of bulktank milk.

  19. Short communication: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in bulk tank milk of dairy cows and effect of swine population density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, C; Cremonesi, P; Bertocchi, L; Zanoni, M G; Barberio, A; Drigo, I; Varisco, G; Castiglioni, B; Bronzo, V; Moroni, P

    2016-03-01

    The methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has recently frequently been reported in dairy cattle, usually with low prevalence. The livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA) ST398 is especially involved in cases of subclinical and clinical mastitis. Swine carry LA-MRSA without clinical symptoms and are considered its reservoir and shedder. People exposed to swine are particularly at risk of LA-MRSA colonization. Environments with relevant livestock density are a demonstrated risk factor for humans to be carriers of a LA-MRSA. This work investigated dairy farms located in an area with a high livestock density, mainly represented by swine. Bulk tank milk samples from 224 dairy farms were collected, and their status was defined as MRSA-positive or MRSA-negative based on culture on chromogenic medium. The number of fattening swine and of fattening swine herds was calculated in an area of 3 km around each dairy farm through georeferencing. The probability of a Staphylococcus aureus-positive dairy farm to be MRSA positive based on the extent of potential infective pressure due to swine density was calculated. Both the number of swine herds and the number of swine were associated with the MRSA status of dairy herds. The 9 MRSA isolated were typed by multi-locus sequence typing and spa-typing, and characterized for their virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance profiles. The ST and spa-types detected are consistent with those present in the Italian swine population. Virulence and resistance profiles are mostly consistent with the types detected. This work provides the first evidence of the epidemiological challenge exerted by the density of the swine population on MRSA in dairy cows. PMID:26805972

  20. Prevalence of contagious and environmental mastitis-causing bacteria in bulk tank milk and its relationships with milking practices of dairy cattle herds in São Miguel Island (Azores).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Carla; Pacheco, Diana; Soares, Luísa; Romão, Ricardo; Moitoso, Mónica; Maldonado, Jaime; Guix, Roger; Simões, João

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to assess the degree of contamination of bulk tank milk (BTM) by Staphylococcus spp. and coliform bacteria and to identify major milking practices that help perpetuate them in dairy cattle herds in São Miguel Island. In July 2014, BTM was sampled and a survey concerning local milking practices was conducted on 100 herds. Semi quantitative multiplex polymerase chain reaction detected coagulase-negative staphylococci, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and other coliform bacteria (Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Serratia marcescens) in 100, 75, 59, and 35 % of BTM, respectively. According to multivariable univariate models, on herds not using hot water for cleaning the milking machine and teat liners, there was at least 3.4 more odds (P < 0.01) to have S. aureus or coliform bacteria contamination in BTM. The likelihood of finding S. aureus in BTM was higher (P < 0.001) on herds without high hygiene during milking, when milking mastitic cows at the end, on abrupt cessation of milking at dry-off, and official milk control implementation. The glove use also favored (odds ratio (OR) 5.8; P < 0.01) the detection of coliform bacteria in BTM. Poor milking practices identified in this study should be avoided in order to decrease S. aureus and coliform bacteria contamination of BTM. Other factors associated with milk quality in São Miguel Island also should be further investigated. PMID:26719295

  1. Associations among milk quality indicators in raw bulk milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoja, J C F; Reinemann, D J; Ruegg, P L

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine characteristics and associations among bulk milk quality indicators from a cohort of dairies that used modern milk harvest, storage, and shipment systems and participated in an intensive program of milk quality monitoring. Bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), total bacteria count (TBC), coliform count (CC), and laboratory pasteurization count (LPC) were monitored between July 2006 and July 2007. Bulk milk samples were collected 3 times daily (n = 3 farms), twice daily (n = 6 farms), once daily (n = 4 farms), or once every other day (n = 3 farms). Most farms (n = 11) had direct loading of milk into tankers on trucks, but 5 farms had stationary bulk tanks. The average herd size was 924 cows (range = 200 to 2,700), and daily milk produced per herd was 35,220 kg (range = 7,500 to 105,000 kg). Thresholds for increased bacterial counts were defined according to the 75th percentile and were >8,000 cfu/mL for TBC, >160 cfu/mL for CC, and >or=310 cfu/mL for LPC. Means values were 12,500 (n = 7,241 measurements), 242 (n = 7,275 measurements), and 226 cfu/mL (n = 7,220 measurements) for TBC, CC, and LPC, respectively. Increased TBC was 6.3 times more likely for bulk milk loads with increased CC compared with loads containing fewer coliforms. Increased TBC was 1.3 times more likely for bulk milk with increased LPC. The odds of increased TBC increased by 2.4% for every 10,000-cells/mL increase in SCC in the same milk load. The odds of increased CC increased by 4.3% for every 10,000-cells/mL increase in SCC. The odds of increased CC increased by 1% for every 0.1 degrees C increase in the milk temperature upon arrival at the dairy plant (or at pickup for farms with bulk tank). Laboratory pasteurization count was poorly associated with other milk quality indicators. Seasonal effects on bacterial counts and milk temperature varied substantially among farms. Results of this study can be used to aid the interpretation and analysis of

  2. A retrospective evaluation of a Bovine Herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) antibody ELISA on bulk-tank milk samples for classification of the BHV-1 status of Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nylin, Britta; Strøger, Ulla; Rønsholt, Leif

    2000-01-01

    Bulk-tank milk samples analysed in a Bovine Herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) blocking ELISA are still in use in the Danish BHV-1 programme as a tool to classify dairy herds as BHV-1 infected or BHV-1 free herds. in this retrospective study, we used data from the Danish BHV-1 eradication campaign to evaluate...

  3. Modeling of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in farm bulk tank milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okura, Hisako; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Toft, Nils

    2012-01-01

    super-shedders. At the prevalence of 15%, discarding milk from test positive cows would result in discarding 11% of milk and reduce the MAP level by 80%. The model was relatively simple yet capable of capturing true infection status and associated contributions from milk and feces. Further knowledge on...... simulating the effect of different control options at different infection prevalences. The concentration of MAP in milk was estimated using a hierarchical simulation model representing individual cows in a herd while taking both direct and indirect contamination with MAP into account. Parameters included...... true within-herd infection prevalences with cows in different infection stages, which were used to estimate prevalences of milk and fecal shedders, and subsequently MAP concentrations in milk and feces. Cows in different infection stages were considered with different risks of excreting MAP testing...

  4. Modeling of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in farm bulk tank milk

    OpenAIRE

    Okura, Hisako; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Toft, Nils

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in milk of bovine origin is suspected of being implicated Crohn’s disease in humans. Pasteurization is considered to reduce the concentration of MAP by at least 4 to 5 log10. This study aimed at estimating the level of MAP in milk at farm level and simulating the effect of different control options at different infection prevalences. The concentration of MAP in milk was estimated using a hierarchical simulation model representing individual co...

  5. Salmonella dublin in Danish Dairy Herds: Frequency of Change to Positive Serological Status in Bulk Tank Milk ELISA in Relation to Serostatus of Neighbouring Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lind P

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Bulk tank milk from 1,429 herds were collected in 3 rounds from 19 different geographic areas. The milk samples were tested by use of indirect LPS-ELISA procedure to detect Salmonella dublin antibodies. From the obtained OD-values herd seroprevalence in the given area was determined and GR-scores calculated for each herd by addition of the number of positive sampling rounds by the 5 geographically closest neighbour herds. In the 19 different areas the calculated prevalence ranged from 0.01 to 0.41. Totally 3,697 GR-scores were given. The mean GR-scores in the areas ranged from 0.0 to 6.5. Higher GR-scores were found in herds changing to seropositive status compared with herds seronegative throughout the study period. The results indicate that the risk for a dairy herd to receive S. dublin infection increases with the disease status among the nearest neighbours and with the prevalence of seropositive herds in the geographic area.

  6. European Union bulk tank SCC standards and proposed US standards: Compliance based on data from four Federal Milk Marketing Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate compliance of US producers with the proposed BTSCC limits. Four different SCC levels of compliance were evaluated: 750K; 600K; 500K; 400K. For the 12 month period ending October 2010, 1.0% of producers and 0.2% of milk exceeded the current US limit of 750K...

  7. Prevalence and characteristics of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci from livestock, chicken carcasses, bulk tank milk, minced meat, and contact persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zweifel Claudio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MR-CNS are of increasing importance to animal and public health. In veterinary medicine and along the meat and milk production line, only limited data were so far available on MR-CNS characteristics. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of MR-CNS, to identify the detected staphylococci to species level, and to assess the antibiotic resistance profiles of isolated MR-CNS strains. Results After two-step enrichment and growth on chromogenic agar, MR-CNS were detected in 48.2% of samples from livestock and chicken carcasses, 46.4% of samples from bulk tank milk and minced meat, and 49.3% of human samples. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS, 414 selected MR-CNS strains belonged to seven different species (S. sciuri, 32.6%; S. fleurettii, 25.1%; S. haemolyticus, 17.4%; S. epidermidis, 14.5%, S. lentus, 9.2%; S. warneri, 0.7%; S. cohnii, 0.5%. S. sciuri and S. fleurettii thereby predominated in livestock, BTM and minced meat samples, whereas S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus predominated in human samples. In addition to beta-lactam resistance, 33-49% of all 414 strains were resistant to certain non-beta-lactam antibiotics (ciproflaxacin, clindamycin, erythromycin, tetracycline. Conclusions A high prevalence of MR-CNS was found in livestock production. This is of concern in view of potential spread of mecA to S. aureus (MRSA. Multiresistant CNS strains might become an emerging problem for veterinary medicine. For species identification of MR-CNS isolated from different origins, MALDI-TOF MS proved to be a fast and reliable tool and is suitable for screening of large sample amounts.

  8. Cost-effectiveness of bulk-tank milk testing for surveys to demonstrate freedom from infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and bovine enzootic leucosis in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reber, A; Reist, M; Schwermer, H

    2012-05-01

    In Switzerland, annual surveys to substantiate freedom from infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) and enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) are implemented by a random allocation of farms to the respective survey as well as blood sampling of individual animals at farm level. Contrary to many other European countries, bulk-tank milk (BTM) samples have not been used for active cattle disease surveillance for several years in Switzerland. The aim of this project was to provide a financial comparison between the current surveillance programme consisting of blood sampling only and a modified surveillance programme including BTM sampling. A financial spreadsheet model was used for cost comparison. Various surveillance scenarios were tested with different sample sizes and sampling frequencies for BTM samples. The costs could be halved without compromising the power to substantiate the freedom from IBR and EBL through the surveillance programme. Alternatively, the sensitivity could be markedly increased when keeping the costs at the actual level and doubling the sample size. The risk-based sample size of the actual programme results in a confidence of 94,18 % that the farm level prevalence is below 0,2 %. Which the doubled sample size, the confidence is 99,69 % respectively. PMID:22547334

  9. Risk analysis of investments in-farm milk cooling tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle D. Sant´Anna

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A risk analysis for the installation of milk cooling tanks (250, 500 and 1,000 L on Brazilian rural properties was conducted in this study. The results showed that all investments had a return higher than the annual 12% minimum rate of attractiveness. There was a direct relationship between tank size and investment profitability and an inverse relation between size and risk. The probability of achieving returns lower than the opportunity cost was highest for the smallest tank (42%. In order to make the investment in small cooling tanks more attractive, the dairy industry incentives offered to farmers for supplying cooled milk could be increased. However, this approach might make investments in bulk milk collection by dairy companies infeasible. Thus, a recommendable strategy for a successful modernization of the Brazilian dairy sector’s inbound logistics would be to promote an increase in the volume of the milk produced per farm.

  10. [Cellular element study of bulk milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakhariev, Ts; Todorov, D; Filev, F D; Nenkov, M

    1980-01-01

    Cytologic and microbiological investigations were carried out of pooled milk arriving in two milk plants, coming from various farms in amounts of 300 to 4 000 1. Additional studies were made of milk samples taken in the barn after milking a group of 15--30 cows in amounts of 80--260 1 and samples from tanks with capacity of 6 to 10 tons stored in the milk plants. Cell content was indirectly determined by rapid mastitis tests and directly by Breed's method; cultures were made on TCT medium to establish mastitis Streprococci and most of all of Str. agalactiae. It was found that the cell content of pooled milk arriving in the milk plants is in 80.74 per cent under 400 000 and in 19.26 per cent over 400 000 cells per cc milk. Their determination in pooled milk is a reliable orientation index for evaluation of the farm's mastitis status. A norm is suggested for the cell content of pooled milk--400 000 in cc milk--which corresponds to the present yeild conditions and to those in the near future and to the real possibilities of occurence of secretion disturbances and bovine mastitis. The adoption of the norm will improve mastitis control and will raise milk quality. PMID:7434558

  11. The Application of Bulk Tank Somatic Cell Counts to Monitoring Mastitis Levels in Dairy Herds

    OpenAIRE

    Meek, A H; Barnum, D. A.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of developing a system whereby measurements taken on bulk tank milk samples could be used to monitor the level of subclinical mastitis in dairy herds.

  12. Isolation of Prototheca spp. from cows with mastitis, bulk tanks milk and in the environment of the animals/ Isolamento de Prototheca spp. de vacas com mastite, de leite de tanques de expansão e do ambiente dos animais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agda de Godoy

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The dairy cattle mammary gland infections cause serious economic losses to dairy farmers due to the decrease in milk production, therapeutic procedures and culling of chronic infected animals. High incidence of mastitis in herds also alters both the composition and the quality of the milk. Mastitis pathogens can also cause infections and poisoning in humans. In the last years, emphasis has been given to intramammary infections caused by the genus Prototheca which, besides their zoonotic characteristics, are considered mastitis pathogens of persistent infection and are refractory to traditional therapeutic procedures. The objective of this work was the isolation and identification of Prototheca spp. from milk samples collected from bulk tanks and milk cans, cows presenting mastitis and the dairy herd environment. Milk samples were collected from 81 bulk tanks and milk cans of 81 dairy herds. Prototheca zopfii was identified in milk samples in 10 dairy herds. From these, eight dairy herds were studied regarding Prototheca spp. mastitis and environmental occurrence as well as the main mastitis bacterial agents. Bacteria, algae and yeasts were isolated from 324 milk samples from 197 cows. P. zopfii was isolated in three dairy herds from eleven milk samples from five cows with clinical and subclinical mastitis. In these dairy herds with positive isolation of P. zopfii the agent was isolated from the herd environment, excrements of the calves and teat cup rubbers. The results of this work demonstrate the importance of isolation in bulk tanks as an indicative of Prototheca spp. presence in dairy herds.As infecções da glândula mamária de vacas leiteiras acarretam sérios prejuízos ao produtor pela diminuição da produção leiteira, tratamento e descarte de animais com infecções crônicas. Elevada incidência de mastite no rebanho também altera a composição e qualidade do leite. Agentes de mastite podem causar infecções ou intoxicações no

  13. 49 CFR 172.331 - Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.331 Section 172.331 Transportation Other Regulations... packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a) Each...

  14. Socioeconomic and technical assistance factors related to total bacteria count and somatic cell count of milk from bulk tanks in southern Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Gomes Paixão

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this survey was to evaluate the socioeconomic and technical assistance profiles of dairy farmers from six districts in the south of Minas Gerais state, Brazil, and to identify the possible risk factors associated with total milk bacteria count (TBC above 43,000 CFU mL-1 and bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC above 595,000 cells mL-1. Most of the producers were between 41 and 60 years of age (48.9%, 74.2% did not reach high school, and 72.3% of the respondents were satisfied with their profession, although 63% would not recommend dairy farming to their children. Only 34.7% used periodic technical assistance, but 59.1% consulted it in cases of doubt. The risk factors found in the final multivariable regression models were: TBC (Did not consult technical assistance in case of doubt, OR 3.97, P=0.030; Retirement, OR 9.32, P=0.041 and BMSCC (Producer does not reside on farm, OR 4.06, P=0.046; Presence of technical assistance OR 3.29, P=0.041. It can be concluded that the search for emergency technical assistance, as reported by farmers, was effective against the TBC problems; however, it was ineffective for controlling mastitis in the herd and reducing BMSCC levels. The 10 step mastitis control program from the National Mastitis Council needs to be included on the surveyed farms, especially the permanent advisory technical assistance from veterinarians, aiming towards the establishment of goals for udder health status, reviews and records.

  15. Aislamiento de Mycoplasma bovis en muestras de leche de estanque en rebaños lecheros del sur de Chile Detection of Mycoplasma bovis in bulk tank milk samples from herds in southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A SICKLES

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante el mes de julio de 1997 se realizaron exámenes bacteriológicos para el aislamiento de micoplasmas en 71 muestras de leche de estanque provenientes de rebaños lecheros del sur de Chile. Además, se cultivaron 53 muestras compuestas de leche de vacas con mastitis clínica o con elevado recuento de células somáticas. Los aislamientos de Mycoplasma se identificaron a nivel de especie mediante una prueba indirecta de inmunoperoxidasa. Mycoplasma bovis se aisló en 5 rebaños y Acholeplasma laidlawii en dos rebaños. De las muestras individuales de vaca sólo uno resultó positiva a A. laidlawii, siendo las 52 restantes negativas a Mycoplasma. Esta es la primera comunicación sobre aislamiento de micoplasmas de leche de vacas en Chile. Los médicos veterinarios y productores lecheros deberían tener presente que la mastitis por micoplasma, una enfermedad altamente contagiosa del bovino, está presente en los rebaños lecheros del sur de ChileDuring July 1997, 71 bulk tank milk samples from dairy herds located in southern Chile were examined for mycoplasma by bacteriological culture. Fifty-three composite milk samples from cows with clinical mastitis or high somatic cell counts were also examined. Isolates were differentiated to species level by an indirect immunoperoxidase test. Mycoplasma bovis was isolated from five herds while Acholeplasma laidlawii was isolated from two herds. Only one cow milk sample yielded A.laidlawii; the remaining 52 samples were negative for mycoplasma. This is the first report of isolation of mycoplasma from cow milk in Chile. Veterinarians and dairy farmers should be aware that mycoplasma bovine mastitis, a highly contagious disease, is present in dairy herds in Chile

  16. QUALIDADE DE LEITE CRU PRODUZIDO E ARMAZENADO EM TANQUES DE EXPANSÃO NO ESTADO DE GOIÁS RAW QUALITY OF MILK PRODUCED AND STORED IN BULK TANKS IN GOIAS STATE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcele Louise Tadaieski Arruda

    2008-12-01

    raw milk quality in samples obtained from bulk tanks in the Goiás State. Thirty raw milk  samples of 1000 mL were harvest. It was performed the following analyses: total bacterial count (TBC by Flow Citometry, search for the presence of residues of antimicrobial agents by the Delvotest® SP kit and investigation for the fraud by adding to milk the following substances: hydrogen peroxide, formaldehyde, sodium bicarbonate and sodium hydroxide. It was not found any residues of antimicrobial agents in all (100% samples. Physicochemical test also showed the absence of hydrogen peroxide, formaldehyde, sodium bicarbonate and sodium hydroxide in milk. About TBC, it was observed that 30% (9/30 of bulk tanks showed TBC>106 CFU/mL, in 46.67% (14/30 the TBC was between 105 to 106 CFU/mL and 23.33% (7/30 showed TBC <105 CFU/mL. Means observed were TBC of 9.2 X 106, TBC of 4.5 X 105, TBC of 5.1 X 104, respectively. From bulk tanks with TBC>106 CFU/mL, 100% were available for common utilization and had significantly higher values for TBC (P<0.05. Educational standards and training about the hygienic procedures applied to milk obtainment and to milking equipments, a well implemented mastitis control program and correct use of milk cooling system after milking must be adopted in order to provide a better raw milk quality. These measures provide benefits to industry due to the higher income of quality raw material. It also provides benefits for the farmer, since they can receive a better wage from dairy companies that pay higher for better quality products; to the trade because quality products have a longer shelf-life and to consumer, that can have an increase in quality of life.

    KEY WORDS: CFU, raw milk,  quality, residues.

  17. Effect of short-term versus long-term grassland management and seasonal variation in organic and conventional dairy farming on the composition of bulk tank milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler, S A; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Govasmark, E;

    2013-01-01

    time since establishment. Short-term grassland management (SG) was defined as establishment or reseeding every fourth year or more often, and long-term grassland management (LG) was defined as less frequent establishment or reseeding. Fourteen organic (ORG) dairy farms with either short-term or long......-term grassland management were paired with 14 conventional (CON) farms with respect to grassland management. Within ORG farms, SG farms differed from LG farms in herbage botanical composition, but not in concentrate FA concentrations, dry matter intake, or milk yield. Within CON farms, herbage composition......, concentrate FA concentrations, dry matter intake, and milk yield showed no or insignificant variations. The ORG farms differed from CON farms in herbage botanical composition, concentrate FA concentrations, concentrate intake, and milk yield. Compared with ORG-LG farms, ORG-SG farms produced milk fat with...

  18. Avaliação da sensibilidade da cultura de leite do tanque para isolamento de agentes contagiosos da mastite bovina Evaluation of the sensitivity of bulk tank milk cultures for the isolation of contagious bovine mastitis pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida V. P. Brito

    1998-01-01

    ,7% para os quartos mamários. S. aureus foi isolado de todas três amostras do tanque dos rebanhos A, B e D. Somente a terceira amostra do rebanho C foi positiva para S. aureus. S agalactiae foi recuperado de todas as amostras do rebanho D, duas do rebanho C e de uma do rebanho A. Todas as amostras do tanque dos rebanhos A, B, C e D apresentaram contaminação com coliformes e somente uma das amostras coletadas na plataforma de recepção da indústria foi negativa para coliformes. Leveduras foram isoladas de 16 amostras coletadas na indústria e de todas amostras do tanque dos rebanhos A, B, C e D. Não foram isolados coliformes ou leveduras dos quartos mamários dos animais destes rebanhos, sugerindo que ocorreu contaminação do leite durante ou após a ordenha, provavelmente devido a deficiências nos processos de limpeza e higienização. A análise dos resultados das culturas do leite do tanque mostrou que o exame foi específico para detectar os patógenos contagiosos da mastite. A sensibilidade do teste aumentou quando se examinaram mais de duas amostras consecutivas.Samples of bulk tank milk from 33 herds were collected at the dairy processing plant and cultured, as a means of detecting specific (contagious bovine mastitis pathogens. Somatic cell counts (SCC were made on a Fossomatic 90. Two and three weekly consecutive samples were obtained from 13 and 12 herds, respectively. Only one sample was examined from eight herds. Three daily consecutive samples of bulk milk and individual quarter samples from all lactating cows from four herds (A, B, C and D were also examined. Milk from individual quarters were cultured on blood agar, while tank milk samples were cultured on TKT, Mannitol Salt, MacConkey agars and Sabouraud containing chloramphenicol. Staphylococcus aureus was recovered from 26 of the 33 herds sampled in the dairy processing plant. Nine of these samples also contained Streptococcus agalactiae. Nine herds had SCC above 500,000 ml-1. The remaining 23

  19. Repeatability of differential goat bulk milk culture and associations with somatic cell count, total bacterial count, and standard plate count

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koop, G.; Dik, N.; Nielen, M.; Lipman, L.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess how different bacterial groups in bulk milk are related to bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), bulk milk total bacterial count (TBC), and bulk milk standard plate count (SPC) and to measure the repeatability of bulk milk culturing. On 53 Dutch dairy goat farms,

  20. Adhesion and production of degrading enzymes by bacteria isolated from biofilms in raw milk cooling tanks

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Flach; Valeska Grzybowski; Geciane Toniazzo; Gertrudes Corção

    2014-01-01

    Biofilms in milk cooling tanks compromise product quality even on farms. Due to the lack of studies of this topic, this study evaluated the microbiological conditions of raw milk cooling tanks on farms and characterized the microorganisms isolated from these tanks. Samples were wiped off with sterile swabs from seven milk cooling tanks in three different points in each tank. Mesophiles and psychrotrophic counts were performed in all samples. The isolation of Pseudomonas spp., Bacillus cereus ...

  1. Efficiency of cleaning procedure of milking equipment and bacterial quality of milk

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Sandrucci; Lucio Zanini; Milena Brasca; Maddalena Zucali; Luciana Bava

    2010-01-01

    The cleaning and sanitation of milking equipment could be consider a critical point in the milking procedure because a cleaning failure could influence the level of bacteria contamination of bulk tank milk. Aim of the study is to monitor the cleaning procedures of milking systems in 7 dairy cows farms in Lombardy and to find a relation between efficacy of cleaning system and the bacterial quality of bulk tank milk, remaining washing water through milking equipment and teat cup surface. Cleani...

  2. Milk adulteration: Detection of bovine milk in bulk goat milk produced by smallholders in northeastern Brazil by a duplex PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, N P A; Givisiez, P E N; Queiroga, R C R E; Azevedo, P S; Gebreyes, W A; Oliveira, C J B

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the adulteration of goat milk produced by smallholders in semiarid northeastern Brazil with bovine milk as an adulterant. The study was requested by the association of smallholder producers in the region to investigate and to inhibit adulteration practices as a need to ensure the quality and safety of goat milk. A duplex PCR assay has been developed and standardized. Further validation was performed in 160 fresh bulk goat milk samples. The detection limit of the duplex PCR was 0.5% bovine milk in goat milk and the results indicated that 41.2% of the goat milk presented to market was positive for bovine milk. Making the test available to the association of producers, together with extension activities, have been applied to reduce adulteration in goat milk sold to small-scale dairy plants and to ensure the species origin for goat milk in the state of Paraíba. PMID:22541505

  3. Optimizing bulk milk dioxin monitoring based on costs and effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascano-Alcoser, V H; Velthuis, A G J; van der Fels-Klerx, H J; Hoogenboom, L A P; Oude Lansink, A G J M

    2013-07-01

    Dioxins are environmental pollutants, potentially present in milk products, which have negative consequences for human health and for the firms and farms involved in the dairy chain. Dioxin monitoring in feed and food has been implemented to detect their presence and estimate their levels in food chains. However, the costs and effectiveness of such programs have not been evaluated. In this study, the costs and effectiveness of bulk milk dioxin monitoring in milk trucks were estimated to optimize the sampling and pooling monitoring strategies aimed at detecting at least 1 contaminated dairy farm out of 20,000 at a target dioxin concentration level. Incidents of different proportions, in terms of the number of contaminated farms, and concentrations were simulated. A combined testing strategy, consisting of screening and confirmatory methods, was assumed as well as testing of pooled samples. Two optimization models were built using linear programming. The first model aimed to minimize monitoring costs subject to a minimum required effectiveness of finding an incident, whereas the second model aimed to maximize the effectiveness for a given monitoring budget. Our results show that a high level of effectiveness is possible, but at high costs. Given specific assumptions, monitoring with 95% effectiveness to detect an incident of 1 contaminated farm at a dioxin concentration of 2 pg of toxic equivalents/g of fat [European Commission's (EC) action level] costs €2.6 million per month. At the same level of effectiveness, a 73% cost reduction is possible when aiming to detect an incident where 2 farms are contaminated at a dioxin concentration of 3 pg of toxic equivalents/g of fat (EC maximum level). With a fixed budget of €40,000 per month, the probability of detecting an incident with a single contaminated farm at a dioxin concentration equal to the EC action level is 4.4%. This probability almost doubled (8.0%) when aiming to detect the same incident but with a dioxin

  4. A Study of the Somatic Cell Count of Kosovo Bulk Milk Farm Management and Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HYSEN BYTYQI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the somatic cell count (SCC in bulk milk farm management and its commercial perspective according to the milk quality standards in Kosovo. A 2069 raw bulk milk samples were taken from a milk collection points in four regions of Kosovo, with two months visits throughout a year. All samples were analyzed by using “FossomaticMinor” equipment, while for the results obtained and identification of different variables effect of SCC on raw bulk milk a general linear model was used. The effect of all variables was considered as a fixed. The overall results show that herd, region, and month of the year (P smaller than 0.0001, respectively, had a significant effect on the presence of SCC. Based on the country existing milk standards for raw milk, the results gained show about 29.6 % belong to extra class milk (SCC/mL less than 300.000, followed by milk quality class IIId, Ist and IId, 24.3%, 8.5%, 8.2%. Of concern is the fact that about 29.5% of total bulk milk analyzed tend to be out of milk quality standards, poor quality ((SCC/mL more than 600.000. The overall mean of SCC on milk was high 772.475 per mL milk, indicating negative farm profit correlation, poor animal health and food safety. The result obtained can be used for assessing raw milk quality and controlling herd management programs.

  5. Adhesion and production of degrading enzymes by bacteria isolated from biofilms in raw milk cooling tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Flach

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Biofilms in milk cooling tanks compromise product quality even on farms. Due to the lack of studies of this topic, this study evaluated the microbiological conditions of raw milk cooling tanks on farms and characterized the microorganisms isolated from these tanks. Samples were wiped off with sterile swabs from seven milk cooling tanks in three different points in each tank. Mesophiles and psychrotrophic counts were performed in all samples. The isolation of Pseudomonas spp., Bacillus cereus and atypical colonies formed on selective media were also performed, totalizing 297 isolates. All isolates were tested for protease and lipase production and biofilm formation. Of the total isolates, 62.9% produced protease, 55.9% produced lipase, and 50.2% produced biofilm. The most widespread genus inside the milk cooling tank was Pseudomonas since it was not possible to associate this contamination with a single sampling point in the equipment. High counts of microorganisms were found in some cooling tanks, indicating poor cleaning of the equipment and providing strong evidences of microbial biofilm presence. Moreover, it is worth mentioning the milk potential contamination with both microbial cells and their degrading enzymes, which compromises milk quality.

  6. Visible and near-infrared bulk optical properties of raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aernouts, B; Van Beers, R; Watté, R; Huybrechts, T; Lammertyn, J; Saeys, W

    2015-10-01

    The implementation of optical sensor technology to monitor the milk quality on dairy farms and milk processing plants would support the early detection of altering production processes. Basic visible and near-infrared spectroscopy is already widely used to measure the composition of agricultural and food products. However, to obtain maximal performance, the design of such optical sensors should be optimized with regard to the optical properties of the samples to be measured. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the visible and near-infrared bulk absorption coefficient, bulk scattering coefficient, and scattering anisotropy spectra for a diverse set of raw milk samples originating from individual cow milkings, representing the milk variability present on dairy farms. Accordingly, this database of bulk optical properties can be used in future simulation studies to efficiently optimize and validate the design of an optical milk quality sensor. In a next step of the current study, the relation between the obtained bulk optical properties and milk quality properties was analyzed in detail. The bulk absorption coefficient spectra were found to mainly contain information on the water, fat, and casein content, whereas the bulk scattering coefficient spectra were found to be primarily influenced by the quantity and the size of the fat globules. Moreover, a strong positive correlation (r ≥ 0.975) was found between the fat content in raw milk and the measured bulk scattering coefficients in the 1,300 to 1,400 nm wavelength range. Relative to the bulk scattering coefficient, the variability on the scattering anisotropy factor was found to be limited. This is because the milk scattering anisotropy is nearly independent of the fat globule and casein micelle quantity, while it is mainly determined by the size of the fat globules. As this study shows high correlations between the sample's bulk optical properties and the milk composition and fat globule size, a

  7. The milk delivery chain and presence of Brucella spp. antibodies in bulk milk in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Kim Toeroek; Mugizi, Denis Rwabiita; Ståhl, Karl; Magnusson, Ulf; Boqvist, Sofia

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the influence of informal milk delivery chains on the risk of human exposure to Brucella spp. through milk consumption in two regions of Uganda (Gulu and Soroti Districts). The work involved describing milk delivery chains, investigating brucellosis awareness amongst milk deliverers and determining the presence of Brucella spp. antibodies in cattle milk on delivery to primary collection points (boiling points and dairies). Milk samples (n = 331) were collected from deliverers at primary collection points and from street vendors at point of sale and analysed using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA). A written questionnaire was used to collect data from deliverers (n = 279) on their milk delivery chains and their brucellosis awareness. The most common delivery points in Gulu District were small dairies and in Soroti District boiling points. The presence of Brucella spp. antibodies in milk samples was higher in Soroti (40 %) than in Gulu (11 %) (P < 0.0001). There are possible public health risk consequences of this finding as 42 % of deliverers in Soroti District reported drinking raw milk, compared with 15 % in Gulu District (P < 0.0001). Awareness of brucellosis was low, with 70 % of all milk deliverers reporting not having heard of the disease or the bacterium. Application of quality controls for milk (colour and odour) along the delivery chain varied depending upon supply and demand. This study provides evidence of the diversity of informal milk markets in low-income countries and of the potential public health risks of consuming unpasteurised milk. These results can be useful to those planning interventions to reduce brucellosis. PMID:27026231

  8. Seasonal and Milking-to-Milking Variations in Cow Milk Fat, Protein and Somatic Cell Counts

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Raluca PAVEL; Constantin GAVAN

    2011-01-01

    The first objective of this study was to examine milking-to-milking variations in milk fat, protein and SCC (somatic cell count). The second objective of this study was to examine variations of milk components (fat, protein and SCC) over a period of six months (April-September 2010) at Agricultural Research Development Station Simnic. A total of 128 milk samples (64 morning milking and 64 evening milking ones) from milk bulk tank commingled from 90�4 Holstein cows, were collected and analyzed...

  9. Challenges for bovine viral diarrhoea virus antibody detection in bulk milk by antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays due to changes in milk production levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foddai, Alessandro; Enøe, Claes; Stockmarr, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    eradication program, initiated in 1994. During the last decade, the cattle herd size has increased while the prevalence of BVDV has decreased. In this study, we investigated how these changes could affect the performance of the Danish blocking ELISA and of the SVANOVIR® BVDV-Ab indirect ELISA. The latter has...... successfully been used to eradicate BVD in Sweden. Data (2003–2010) on changes in median herd size and milk production levels, occurrence of viremic animals and bulk milk surveillance were analysed. Additionally, the Danish blocking ELISA and the SVANOVIR ELISA were compared analyzing milk and serum samples...... BVDV infected herds decreased from 0.51 to 0.02 %. The daily milk yield contribution of a single seropositive cow to the entire daily bulk milk was reduced from 1.61 % in 2003 to 0.95 % in 2010 due to the increased herd size. It was observed that antibody levels in bulk milk decreased at national level...

  10. Improving farm management by modeling the contamination of farm tank milk with butyric acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.M.M.; Driehuis, F.; Giffel, te M.C.; Jong, de P.; Lankveld, J.M.G.

    2006-01-01

    Control of contamination of farm tank milk (FTM) with the spore-forming butyric acid bacteria (BAB) is important to prevent the late-blowing defect in semi-hard cheeses. The risk of late blowing can be decreased via control of the contamination level of FTM with BAB. A modeling approach was applied

  11. Minimizing the level of butyric acid bacteria spores in farm tank milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.M.M.; Driehuis, F.; Giffel, M.C.T.; Jong, de P.; Lankveld, J.M.G.

    2007-01-01

    A year-long survey of 24 dairy farms was conducted to determine the effects of farm management on the concentrations of butyric acid bacteria (BAB) spores in farm tank milk (FTM). The results were used to validate a control strategy derived from model simulations. The BAB spore concentrations were m

  12. Herd management and social variables associated with bulk tank somatic cell count in dairy herds in the eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schewe, R L; Kayitsinga, J; Contreras, G A; Odom, C; Coats, W A; Durst, P; Hovingh, E P; Martinez, R O; Mobley, R; Moore, S; Erskine, R J

    2015-11-01

    The ability to reduce somatic cell counts (SCC) and improve milk quality depends on the effective and consistent application of established mastitis control practices. The US dairy industry continues to rely more on nonfamily labor to perform critical tasks to maintain milk quality. Thus, it is important to understand dairy producer attitudes and beliefs relative to management practices, as well as employee performance, to advance milk quality within the changing structure of the dairy industry. To assess the adoption rate of mastitis control practices in United States dairy herds, as well as assess social variables, including attitudes toward employees relative to mastitis control, a survey was sent to 1,700 dairy farms in Michigan, Pennsylvania, and Florida in January and February of 2013. The survey included questions related to 7 major areas: sociodemographics and farm characteristics, milking proficiency, milking systems, cow environment, infected cow monitoring and treatment, farm labor, and attitudes toward mastitis and related antimicrobial use. The overall response rate was 41% (21% in Florida, 39% in Michigan, and 45% in Pennsylvania). Herd size ranged from 9 to 5,800 cows. Self-reported 3-mo geometric mean bulk tank SCC (BTSCC) for all states was 194,000 cells/mL. Multivariate analysis determined that proven mastitis control practices such as the use of internal teat sealants and blanket dry cow therapy, and not using water during udder preparation before milking, were associated with lower BTSCC. Additionally, farmer and manager beliefs and attitudes, including the perception of mastitis problems and the threshold of concern if BTSCC is above 300,000 cells/mL, were associated with BTSCC. Ensuring strict compliance with milking protocols, giving employees a financial or other penalty if BTSCC increased, and a perceived importance of reducing labor costs were negatively associated with BTSCC in farms with nonfamily employees. These findings highlight the

  13. The potential of measuring serum amyloid A in individual ewe milk and in farm bulk milk for monitoring udder health on sheep dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Petra; Miny, Martina; Fuchs, Klemens; Baumgartner, Walter

    2006-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the diagnostic value of measuring serum amyloid A (SAA) concentrations in milk of individual ewes and in farm bulk milk for monitoring udder health. Udder health was calculated by examining a randomly selected group of seven flocks at each farm visit by means of California mastitis test and bacteriological examination of 5749 milk samples. SAA was determined additionally in 267 randomly selected milk samples from six flocks. Thirty-one bulk milk samples from these farms were tested for SCC and SAA levels. Subclinical infections were detected in 29.5% of samples whereas no clinical infections were observed. Intramammary infected udder halves showed significantly elevated SAA concentrations (121.3+/-25.3 microg/ml) in milk compared to the levels of healthy udder halves (8.0+/-1.9 microg/ml; pCMT scores and positive bacteriological results. Bulk milk SAA levels ranged from 18.6+/-6.7 to 37.4+/-14.1 microg/ml and showed a positive correlation with bSCC (r=0.38, p=0.018) but not with percent infected glands (r=0.022, p=0.453). This study demonstrated that SAA levels in milk can be used to detect subclinical mastitis in individual ewes whereas further investigations are needed to determine the value of measuring SAA in bulk milk for monitoring flock udder health. PMID:16677674

  14. Correlation between precipitation and geographical location of the δ2H values of the fatty acids in milk and bulk milk powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehtesham, E.; Baisden, W. T.; Keller, E. D.; Hayman, A. R.; Van Hale, R.; Frew, R. D.

    2013-06-01

    Hydrogen isotope ratios (δ2H) have become a tool for food traceability and authentication of agricultural products. The principle is that the isotopic composition of the produce is influenced by environmental and biological factors and hence exhibits a spatial differentiation of δ2H. This study investigates the variation in δ2H values of New Zealand milk, both in the bulk powder and individual fatty acids extracted from milk samples from dairy factories across New Zealand. Multivariate statistical analyses were used to test for relationships between δ2H of bulk milk powder, milk fatty acid and geographical location. Milk powder samples from different regions of New Zealand were found to exhibit patterns in isotopic composition similar to the corresponding regional precipitation associated with their origin. A model of δ2H in precipitation was developed based on measurements between 2007 and 2010 at 51 stations across New Zealand (Frew and Van Hale, 2011). The model uses multiple linear regressions to predict daily δ2H from 2 geographic and 5 rain-weighted climate variables from the 5 × 5 km New Zealand Virtual Climate Station Network (VCSN). To approximate collection radius for a drying facility the modelled values were aggregated within a 50 km radius of each dairy factory and compared to observed δ2H values of precipitation and bulk milk powder. Daily δ2H predictions for the period from August to December for the area surrounding the sample collection sites were highly correlated with the δ2H values of bulk milk powder. Therefore the δ2H value of milk fatty acids demonstrates promise as a tool for determining the provenance of milk powders and products where milk powder is an ingredient. Separation of milk powder origin to geographic sub-regions within New Zealand was achieved. Hydrogen isotope measurements could be used to complement traditional tracking systems in verifying point of origin.

  15. Short communication: Prevalence of methicillin resistance in coagulase-negative staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bulk milk on organic and conventional dairy farms in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicconi-Hogan, K M; Belomestnykh, N; Gamroth, M; Ruegg, P L; Tikofsky, L; Schukken, Y H

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. in bulk tank milk samples from 288 organic and conventional dairy farms located in New York, Wisconsin, and Oregon from March 2009 to May 2011. Due to recent publications reporting the presence mecC (a mecA homolog not detected by traditional mecA-based PCR methods), a combination of genotypic and phenotypic approaches was used to enhance the recovery of methicillin-resistant organisms from bulk tank milk. In total, 13 isolates were identified as methicillin resistant: Staph. aureus (n=1), Staphylococcus sciuri (n=5), Staphylococcus chromogenes (n=2), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (n=3), Staphylococcus agnetis (n=1), and Macrococcus caseolyticus (n=1). The single methicillin-resistant Staph. aureus isolate was identified from an organic farm in New York, for an observed 0.3% prevalence at the farm level. The methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci prevalence was 2% in the organic population and 5% in the conventional population. We did not identify mecC in any of the isolates from our population. Of interest was the relatively high number of methicillin-resistant Staph. sciuri recovered, as the number of isolates from our study was considerably higher than those recovered from other recent studies that also assessed milk samples. Our research suggests that the presence of a potential methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus reservoir in milk, and likely the dairy farm population in the United States, is independent of the organic or conventional production system. PMID:24582450

  16. Risk factors for bulk milk somatic cell counts and total bacterial counts in smallholder dairy farms in the 10th region of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaik, G; Green, L E; Guzmán, D; Esparza, H; Tadich, N

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the principal management factors that influenced bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) and total bacterial count (TBC) of smallholder dairy farms in the 10th region of Chile. One hundred and fifty smallholder milk producers were selected randomly from 42 milk collection centres (MCCs). In April and May of 2002, all farms were visited and a detailed interview questionnaire on dairy-cow management related to milk quality was conducted. In addition, the BMSCC and TBC results from the previous 2 months' fortnightly tests were obtained from the MCCs. The mean BMSCC and TBC were used as the dependent variables in the analyses and were normalised by a natural-logarithm transformation (LN). All independent management variables were categorised into binary outcomes and present (=1) was compared with absent (=0). Biserial correlations were calculated between the LNBMSCC or LNTBC and the management factors of the smallholder farms. Management factors with correlations with P0.05) factors. A random MCC effect was included in the models to investigate the importance of clustering of herds within MCC. In the null model for mean LNTBC, the random effect of MCCs was highly significant. It was explained by: milk collected once a day or less compared with collection twice a day, not cleaning the bucket after milking mastitic cows versus cleaning the bucket and cooling milk in a vat of water versus not cooling milk or using ice or a bulk tank to cool milk. Other factors that increased the LNTBC were a waiting yard with a soil or gravel floor versus concrete, use of plastic buckets for milking instead of metal, not feeding California mastitis test (CMT)-positive milk to calves and cows of dual-purpose breed. The final model explained 35% of the variance. The model predicted that a herd that complied with all the management practices had a mean predicted TBC of 105 colony forming units (cfu)/ml, whereas a herd that did not comply with any of these management factors had

  17. Microbiological quality and somatic cell count in bulk milk of dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius): descriptive statistics, correlations, and factors of variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, P; Faye, B; Marko, O; Thomas, S; Wernery, U; Juhasz, J

    2013-09-01

    The objectives of the present study were to monitor the microbiological quality and somatic cell count (SCC) of bulk tank milk at the world's first large-scale camel dairy farm for a 2-yr period, to compare the results of 2 methods for the enumeration of SCC, to evaluate correlation among milk quality indicators, and to determine the effect of specific factors (year, season, stage of lactation, and level of production) on milk quality indicators. The study was conducted from January 2008 to January 2010. Total viable count (TVC), coliform count (CC), California Mastitis Test (CMT) score, and SCC were determined from daily bulk milk samples. Somatic cell count was measured by using a direct microscopic method and with an automatic cell counter. In addition, production parameters [total daily milk production (TDM, kg), number of milking camels (NMC), average milk per camel (AMC, kg)] and stage of lactation (average postpartum days, PPD) were recorded for each test day. A strong correlation (r=0.33) was found between the 2 methods for SCC enumeration; however, values derived using the microscopic method were higher. The geometric means of SCC and TVC were 394×10(3) cells/mL and 5,157 cfu/mL during the observation period, respectively. Somatic cell count was >500×10(3) cells/mL on 14.6% (106/725) and TVC was >10×10(3) cfu/mL on 4.0% (30/742) of the test days. Both milk quality indicators had a distinct seasonal pattern. For log SCC, the mean was lowest in summer and highest in autumn. The seasonal pattern of log TVC was slightly different, with the lowest values being recorded during the spring. The monthly mean TVC pattern showed a clear difference between years. Coliform count was CMT score (r=0.26), and between log TVC and CC in yr 1 (r=0.30). All production parameters and stage of lactation showed strong seasonal variation. Log SCC was negatively correlated with TDM (r=-0.35), AMC (r=-0.37), and NMC (r=-0.15) and positively correlated with PPD (r=0.40). Log TVC

  18. Efficiency of cleaning procedure of milking equipment and bacterial quality of milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sandrucci

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The cleaning and sanitation of milking equipment could be consider a critical point in the milking procedure because a cleaning failure could influence the level of bacteria contamination of bulk tank milk. Aim of the study is to monitor the cleaning procedures of milking systems in 7 dairy cows farms in Lombardy and to find a relation between efficacy of cleaning system and the bacterial quality of bulk tank milk, remaining washing water through milking equipment and teat cup surface. Cleaning procedures were monitored with Lactocorder, that measured: duration, water temperature, turbulence, percentage of water in pipes, water conductivity of pre- and post-rinse and detergent phases. Results showed that the monitored farms the most of the cleaning parameters were lower than recommendations, in particular maximum water temperature (42.1±9.9°C and percentage of water during detergent phase (76.1±13.9 %. A maximum temperature of detergent phase <40°C determined a high Standard Plate Count (SPC, thermoduric bacteria and Coliform Count (CC of bulk tank milk, SPC and CC of teat cup surface. The research indicated that monitoring the efficiency of cleaning milking equipment with proper tools provide useful information about possible sources of contamination of bulk tank milk. Improving cleaning milking efficiency allow to improve milk quality.

  19. Performance evaluation of bulk freeze dried starter cultures of dahi and yoghurt along with probiotic strains in standardized milk of cow and buffalo

    OpenAIRE

    Vijayendra, S. V. N.; Gupta, R. C.

    2013-01-01

    Performance of bulk freeze dried (BFD) cultures of dahi (D) and yoghurt (Y) either with or without probiotic cultures (AB -Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum) in standardized milk of cow and buffalo was evaluated. In buffalo milk, significantly (p 

  20. Dairy Herd Mastitis Program in Argentina: Farm Clusters and Effects on Bulk Milk Somatic Cell Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Vissio1*, SA Dieser2, CG Raspanti2, JA Giraudo1, CI Bogni2, LM Odierno2 and AJ Larriestra1

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research has been conducted to characterize dairy farm clusters according to mastitis control program practiced among small and medium dairy producer from Argentina, and also to evaluate the effect of such farm cluster patterns on bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC. Two samples of 51 (cross-sectional and 38 (longitudinal herds were selected to identify farm clusters and study the influence of management on monthly BMSCC, respectively. The cross-sectional sample involved the milking routine and facilities assessment of each herd visited. Hierarchical cluster analysis was used to find the most discriminating farm attributes in the cross sectional sample. Afterward, the herd cluster typologies were identified in the longitudinal sample. Herd monthly BMSCC average was evaluated during 12 months fitting a linear mixed model. Two clusters were identified, the farms in the Cluster I applied a comprehensive mastitis program in opposite to Cluster II. Post-dipping, dry cow therapy and milking machine test were routinely applied in Cluster I. In the longitudinal study, 14 out of 38 dairy herds were labeled as Cluster I and the rest were assigned to Cluster II. Significant difference in BMSCC was found between cluster I and II (60,000 cells/mL. The present study showed the relevance and potential impact of promoting mastitis control practices among small and medium sized dairy producers in Argentina.

  1. Use of DNA from milk tank for diagnosis and typing of bovine leukaemia virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the aim of achieving a better understanding of the epidemiology of Bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) infection, we investigated the suitability of milk tank samples for effecting molecular epidemiology studies of BLV in a southern area of Chile. As part of a serological survey for BLV antibodies carried out in 280 herds, we selected 33 strong positive samples, from which DNA was isolated to perform a BLV-specific nested PCR. Using RFLP analysis, all 33 PCR products could be assigned to the known Australian or the Belgium subgroups. A phylogenetic tree resulting from the comparison of these sequences demonstrates the relations and differences among and within the subgroups. (author)

  2. Use of DNA from milk tank for diagnostic and typing of bovine leukosis virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) is an exogenous retrovirus distributed worldwide. Most BLV infected cattle remain clinically normal during their lifetime, with only 1-5% eventually developing lymphosarcoma. However, up to one-third of BLV-infected cattle may develop persistent lymphocytosis (PL), a polyclonal expansion of infected B-lymphocytes. In Chile the infection was first described in the early 80's, and has since progressed slowly since then mainly because of a National Program implemented in the middle 90's. Nevertheless, infection persists and there is a continue need for development of more sensitive tests that can be applied to control the spread of the disease. We have been evaluating milk as a source of DNA that can be used for the rapid diagnosis and typing of BLV. In order to find seropositive herds we made a random screening of milk tank samples obtained directly from our milk quality laboratory. Samples were analysed by an indirect ELISA (BLV Svanova Biotech) according to the manufacturer instructions. Twenty three out of 76 milk tank samples analysed gave seropositive results to BLV antibodies with various degrees of reaction. To confirm the diagnosis through direct detection of proviral BLV DNA, leukocyte preparations from all 23 milk tank samples were prepared by an 'in house DNA protocol'. DNA samples were tested by nested PCR using primers specific for a highly conserved region of the env gene and PCR conditions described elsewhere. In samples from 15 herds BLV-env specific amplification products were detected (65%). The restriction analysis of these amplicons using the endonucleases BamH I, Bcl I and Pvu II, showed that 11 samples yielded the same pattern as first characterised by in Australia. Three other isolates produced the same pattern as the Belgian variant and no Japanese variants have been found so far. A wide variability in somatic cell count was observed in the analysed herd samples, which could explain the relatively low correlation

  3. Effects of a single prolonged milking interval in cows

    OpenAIRE

    Lakic, Branislav

    2011-01-01

    A single prolonged milking interval (PMI), such as might be associated with technical failures in automatic milking systems, leads to a subsequent somatic cell count (SCC) peak in bulk tank milk. Increased SCC indicates mastitis in cows. It is generally correlated with reduced milk yield and quality, and is often used as a criterion for milk payment. Whether the transient SCC peak after a single PMI affects yield and quality is not known. The short duration of the inflammatory ...

  4. Herd level approach to high bulk milk somatic cell count problems in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkema, Herman W; De Vliegher, Sarne; Piepers, Sofie; Zadoks, Ruth N

    2013-06-01

    Since the introduction of the standard mastitis prevention program in the late 1960s, enormous progress has been made in decreasing the average bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC). In many countries, reduction of BMSCC has been encouraged through premium payments or penalty systems. However, the success of the program depends heavily on consistent implementation of management practices. The approach to problem solving in a herd with high BMSCC must include the following elements: (1) problem definition using primary udder health parameters; (2) detection of cows causing the problem; (3) definition of short- and long-term goals; (4) formulation and implementation of a herd management plan; and (5) evaluation of the results. Findings and plans are recorded for use at follow-up visits. Every high BMSCC problem can be solved if farmers are sufficiently motivated, if farm advisors are sufficiently knowledgeable, and if farmer and advisors work together according to a jointly determined plan. PMID:23706026

  5. The prevalence of Neospora caninum antibodies in bulk milk of dairy herds in the Czech Republic: a case report

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hůrková, L.; Halova, D.; Modrý, David

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 12 (2005), s. 549-552. ISSN 0375-8427 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : cattle * iscom ELISA * bulk milk ELISA Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.621, year: 2005

  6. Effect of precipitation, geographical location and biosynthesis on New Zealand milk powder bulk and fatty acids D/H ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, R.; Emad Ehtesham, R.; Van Hale, R.; Hayman, A.; Baisden, T.

    2012-04-01

    D/H ratio measurements provide useful information for the investigation of biogeochemical influences on natural and agricultural produce, particularly with application to food traceability and authentication. Numerous studies have shown that variation of a product's D/H ratio is influenced by both environmental factors and biological processes. This study investigates the D/H ratio of New Zealand milk powder and individual fatty acids, and causal determinants of isotopic variation. One of the key environmental factors is precipitation, and the D/H ratio "isoscaping" of NZ has been undertaken. New Zealand provides a unique geography for these kinds of study in terms of proximity to the ocean and natural geographical variability from sea level to elevations as high as 3700 m. Milk powder samples were collected from different geographical regions from milk processing units, which were supplied by producers in the immediate region. H/D ratios of bulk milk powder and of individual fatty acids were determined. Initial comparison of the precipitation and milk powder bulk D/H data show a very good differentiation from north to southernmost parts of New Zealand and a relation between rain and milk bulk D/H abundance ratio. Almost 98% of milk FAs are in the form of triglycerides that have been extracted and hydrolysed to free FAs. Free FAs were esterified and analyzed with GC-IRMS. Individual FAs show variation in D/H ratio, and all values are depleted relative to the precipitation data. The difference in D/H ratio amongst individual FAs reflects the geographical environment and biological processes i.e. micro-organisms activity in the rumen of the cow. Short chain FAs (less than 8 carbons), particularly C4 (Butyric acid), appear to be key determinants. The variation in the data can be rationalized using statistical multivariate analysis.

  7. Occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus in raw milk produced in dairy farms in São Paulo state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Fagundes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus in milk produced in 37 farms located in the regions of Ribeirão Preto and São Carlos, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Two-hundred and eight samples of milk from individual cows showing subclinical mastitis, and 37 samples of bulk tank milk were analyzed. S. aureus strains were detected in 18 (7.3% milk samples: 14 (6.7% from samples of individual cows, and 4 (10.8% from bulk tank milk. Two individual milk samples (14.3% and two bulk milk samples contained enterotoxigenic S. aureus. PFGE analysis revealed the genetic heterogeneity of the strains isolated from raw milk, which presented to 13 S. aureus patterns. Results confirmed the potential transmission of staphylococcal food poisoning to consumers via milk of cows affected by subclinical mastitis, mainly when raw milk is ingested.

  8. Bayesian inference for within-herd prevalence of Leptospira interrogans serovar Hardjo using bulk milk antibody testing

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Fraser I; Gunn, George J.; Mckendrick, Iain J.; Murray, Fiona M.

    2009-01-01

    Leptospirosis is the most widespread zoonosis throughout the world and human mortality from severe disease forms is high even when optimal treatment is provided. Leptospirosis is also one of the most common causes of reproductive losses in cattle worldwide and is associated with significant economic costs to the dairy farming industry. Herds are tested for exposure to the causal organism either through serum testing of individual animals or through testing bulk milk samples. Using serum resul...

  9. Exploring the characteristics and dynamics of Ontario dairy herds experiencing increases in bulk milk somatic cell count during the summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shock, D A; LeBlanc, S J; Leslie, K E; Hand, K; Godkin, M A; Coe, J B; Kelton, D F

    2015-06-01

    Regionally aggregated bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) data from around the world shows a repeatable cyclicity, with the highest levels experienced during warm, humid seasons. No studies have evaluated this seasonal phenomenon at the herd level. The objectives of this study were to define summer seasonality in BMSCC on an individual herd basis, and subsequently to describe the characteristics and dynamics of herds with increased BMSCC in the summer. The data used for this analysis were from all dairy farms in Ontario, Canada, between January 2000 and December 2011 (n≈4,000 to 6,000 herds/yr). Bulk milk data were obtained from the milk marketing board and consisted of bulk milk production, components (fat, protein, lactose, other solids), and quality (BMSCC, bacterial count, inhibitor presence, freezing point), total milk quota of the farm, and milk quota and incentive fill percentage. A time-series linear mixed model, with random slopes and intercepts, was constructed using sine and cosine terms as predictors to describe seasonality, with herd as a random effect. For each herd, seasonality was described with reference to 1 cosine function of variable amplitude and phase shift. The predicted months of maximal and minimal BMSCC were then calculated. Herds were assigned as low, medium, and high summer increase (LSI, MSI, and HSI, respectively) based on percentiles of amplitude in BMSCC change for each of the 4 seasons. Using these seasonality classifications, 2 transitional repeated measures logistic regression models were built to assess the characteristics of MSI and HSI herds, using LSI herds as controls. Based on the analyses performed, a history of summer BMSCC increases increased the odds of experiencing a subsequent increase. As herd size decreased, the odds of experiencing HSI to MSI in BMSCC increased. Herds with more variability in daily BMSCC were at higher odds of experiencing MSI and HSI in BMSCC, as were herds with lower annual mean BMSCC. Finally

  10. RENEWABLE ENERGY-POWERED BULK MILK COOLING FOR SMALLHOLDER DAIRY FARMERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    We will show that the cooler can successfully add the evening milk to the cold chain and that it’s wide spread use has potential to reduce the amount of methane released into the atmospheres from smallholder dairy farms.

  11. Potentials to Differentiate Milk Composition by Different Feeding Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slots, Tina; Butler, Gillian; Leifert, Carlo;

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the effect of the dietary intake of the cow on milk composition, bulk-tank milk was collected on 5 occasions from conventional (n = 15) and organic (n = 10) farms in Denmark and on 4 occasions from low-input nonorganic farms in the United Kingdom, along with management and production......-tocopherol (32.0 +/- 0.8 mg/kg of milk fat), RRR-alpha-tocopherol (30.2 +/- 0.8 mg/kg of milk fat), and beta-carotene (9.3 +/- 0.5 mg/kg of milk fat) compared with the organic and conventional milk. Moreover, the concentration of LA (9.2 +/- 0.7 g/kg of fatty acids) in milk from the extensive milk production...... system was found to approach the recommended unity ratio between n-6 and n-3, although extensive milk production also resulted in a lower daily milk yield...

  12. A flow cytometric technique for quantification and differentiation of bacteria in bulk tank milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, C.; Mathiasen, T.; Jespersen, Lene

    2004-01-01

    were defined: region 1 includes bacteria mainly associated with poor hygiene, region 2 includes psychrotrophic hygiene bacteria and region 3 includes bacteria mainly related to mastitis. The ability of the flow cytometric technique to predict the main cause of elevated bacterial counts on routine...

  13. 40 CFR 63.11087 - What requirements must I meet for gasoline storage tanks if my facility is a bulk gasoline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) If your gasoline storage tank is subject to, and complies with, the control requirements of 40 CFR... gasoline storage tanks if my facility is a bulk gasoline terminal, pipeline breakout station, or pipeline... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category:...

  14. A wireless electronic monitoring system for securing milk from farm to processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womble, Phillip; Hopper, Lindsay; Thompson, Chris; Alexander, Suraj M.; Crist, William; Payne, Fred; Stombaugh, Tim; Paschal, Jon; Moore, Ryan; Luck, Brian; Tabayehnejab, Nasrin

    2008-04-01

    The Department of Homeland Security and the Department of Health and Human Services have targeted bulk food contamination as a focus for attention. The contamination of bulk food poses a high consequence threat to our society. Milk transport falls into three of the 17 targeted NIPP (National Infrastructure Protection Plan) sectors including agriculture-food, public health, and commercial facilities. Minimal security safeguards have been developed for bulk milk transport. The current manual methods of securing milk are paper intensive and prone to errors. The bulk milk transportation sector requires a security enhancement that will both reduce recording errors and enable normal transport activities to occur while providing security against unauthorized access. Milk transportation companies currently use voluntary seal programs that utilize plastic, numbered seals on milk transport tank openings. Our group has developed a Milk Transport Security System which is an electromechanical access control and communication system that assures the secure transport of milk, milk samples, milk data, and security data between locations and specifically between dairy farms, transfer stations, receiving stations, and milk plants. It includes a security monitoring system installed on the milk transport tank, a hand held device, optional printers, data server, and security evaluation software. The system operates automatically and requires minimal or no attention by the bulk milk hauler/sampler. The system is compatible with existing milk transport infrastructure, and has the support of the milk producers, milk transportation companies, milk marketing agencies, and dairy processors. The security protocol developed is applicable for transport of other bulk foods both nationally and internationally. This system adds significantly to the national security infrastructure for bulk food transport. We are currently demonstrating the system in central Kentucky and will report on the results

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF THE BULK VITRIFICATION TREATMENT PROCESS FOR THE LOW ACTIVITY FRACTION OF HANFORD SINGLE SHELL TANK WASTES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AMEC Earth and Environmental, Inc. and RWE NUKEM Corporation have teamed to develop and apply a waste pre-treatment and bulk vitrification process for low activity waste (LAW) from Hanford Single Shell Tanks (SSTs). The pretreatment and bulk vitrification process utilizes technologies that have been successfully deployed to remediate both radioactive and chemically hazardous wastes at nuclear power plants, DOE sites, and commercial waste sites in the US and abroad. The process represents an integrated systems approach. The proposed AMEC/NUKEM process follow the extraction and initial segregation activities applied to the tank wastes carried out by others. The first stage of the process will utilize NUKEM's concentrate dryer (CD) system to concentrate the liquid waste stream. The concentrate will then be mixed with soil or glass formers and loaded into refractory-lined steel containers for bulk vitrification treatment using AMEC's In-Container Vitrification (ICV) process. Following the vitrification step, a lid will be placed on the container of cooled, solidified vitrified waste, and the container transported to the disposal site. The container serves as the melter vessel, the transport container and the disposal container. AMEC and NUKEM participated in the Mission Acceleration Initiative Workshop held in Richland, Washington in April 2000 [1]. An objective of the workshop was to identify selected technologies that could be combined into viable treatment options for treatment of the LAW fraction from selected Hanford waste tanks. AMEC's ICV process combined with NUKEM's CD system and other remote operating capabilities were presented as an integrated solution. The Team's proposed process received some of the highest ratings from the Workshop's review panel. The proposed approach compliments the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) by reducing the amount of waste that the WTP would have to process. When combined with the capabilities of the WTP, the proposed

  16. Enterotoxin-encoding genes in Staphylococcus spp. from bulk goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyra, Daniele G; Sousa, Francisca G C; Borges, Maria F; Givisiez, Patrícia E N; Queiroga, Rita C R E; Souza, Evandro L; Gebreyes, Wondwossen A; Oliveira, Celso J B

    2013-02-01

    Although Staphylococcus aureus has been implicated as the main Staphylococcus species causing human food poisoning, recent studies have shown that coagulase-negative Staphylococcus could also harbor enterotoxin-encoding genes. Such organisms are often present in goat milk and are the most important mastitis-causing agents. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the occurrence of enterotoxin-encoding genes among coagulase-positive (CoPS) and coagulase-negative (CoNS) staphylococci isolated from raw goat milk produced in the semi-arid region of Paraiba, the most important region for goat milk production in Brazil. Enterotoxin-encoding genes were screened in 74 staphylococci isolates (30 CoPS and 44 CoNS) by polymerase chain reaction targeting the genes sea, seb, sec, sed, see, seg, seh, and sei. Enterotoxin-encoding genes were found in nine (12.2%) isolates, and four different genes (sea, sec, seg, and sei) were identified amongst the isolates. The most frequent genes were seg and sei, which were often found simultaneously in 44.5% of the isolates. The gene sec was the most frequent among the classical genes, and sea was found only in one isolate. All CoPS isolates (n=7) harboring enterotoxigenic genes were identified as S. aureus. The two coagulase-negative isolates were S. haemolyticus and S. hominis subsp. hominis and they harbored sei and sec genes, respectively. A higher frequency of enterotoxin-encoding genes was observed amongst CoPS (23.3%) than CoNS (4.5%) isolates (pgoat milk should not be ignored because it has a higher occurrence in goat milk and enterotoxin-encoding genes were detected in some isolates. PMID:23441914

  17. A survey on Aflatoxin M1 content in sheep and goat milk produced in Sardinia Region, Italy (2005-2013)

    OpenAIRE

    Salvatore Virdis; Christian Scarano; Vincenzo Spanu; Gavino Murittu; Carlo Spanu; Ignazio Ibba; Enrico Pietro Luigi De Santis

    2014-01-01

    In the present work the results of a survey conducted in Sardinia Region on Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) contamination in milk of small ruminants from 2005 to 2013 are reported. A total of 517 sheep and 88 goat milk samples from bulk tank, tank trucks and silo tank milk were collected. Analyses were performed by the Regional Farmers Association laboratory using high-performance liquid chromatography following the ISO 14501:1998 standard. None of the sheep milk samples analysed during 2005- 2012 showed...

  18. Evaluation of the specificity of three enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for detection of antibodies against Salmonella in bovine bulk milk

    OpenAIRE

    Nyman, Ann-Kristin J; Ågren, Estelle CC; Bergström, Karin; Wahlström, Helene

    2013-01-01

    Background The Swedish Salmonella control program has been running for decades and has resulted in a low prevalence of Salmonella in Swedish food producing animals. Routine bacteriology is used to detect Salmonella, however, bacteriology is time consuming, costly and has a low sensitivity. Different enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) have been developed for detection of antibodies against Salmonella Dublin and S. Typhimurium in bovine bulk milk, individual milk samples as well as in ...

  19. TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT OF BULK VITRIFICATION PROCESS/ PRODUCT FOR TANK WASTE TREATMENT AT THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HANFORD SITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) is being constructed to immobilize both high-level waste (IUW) for disposal in a national repository and low-activity waste (LAW) for onsite, near-surface disposal. The schedule-controlling step for the WTP Project is vitrification of the large volume of LAW, current capacity of the WTP (as planned) would require 50 years to treat the Hanford tank waste, if the entire LAW volume were to be processed through the WTP. To reduce the time and cost for treatment of Hanford Tank Waste, and as required by the Tank Waste Remediation System Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision and the Hanford Federal Facility Consent Agreement (Tn-Party Agreement), DOE plans to supplement the LAW treatment capacity of the WTP. Since 2002, DOE, in cooperation with the Environmental Protection Agency and State of Washington Department of Ecology has been evaluating technologies that could provide safe and effective supplemental treatment of LAW. Current efforts at Hanford are intended to provide additional information to aid a joint agency decision on which technology will be used to supplement the WTP. A Research, Development and Demonstration permit has been issued by the State of Washington to build and (for a limited time) operate a Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) facility to provide information for the decision on a supplemental treatment technology for up to 50% of the LAW. In the Bulk Vitrification (BV) process, LAW, soil, and glass-forming chemicals are mixed, dried, and placed in a refractory-lined box, Electric current, supplied through two graphite electrodes in the box, melts the waste feed, producing a durable glass waste-form. Although recent modifications to the process have resulted in significant improvements, there are continuing technical concerns

  20. TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT OF BULK VITRIFICATION PROCESS & PRODUCT FOR TANK WASTE TREATMENT AT THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SCHAUS, P.S.

    2006-07-21

    At the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) is being constructed to immobilize both high-level waste (IUW) for disposal in a national repository and low-activity waste (LAW) for onsite, near-surface disposal. The schedule-controlling step for the WTP Project is vitrification of the large volume of LAW, current capacity of the WTP (as planned) would require 50 years to treat the Hanford tank waste, if the entire LAW volume were to be processed through the WTP. To reduce the time and cost for treatment of Hanford Tank Waste, and as required by the Tank Waste Remediation System Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision and the Hanford Federal Facility Consent Agreement (Tn-Party Agreement), DOE plans to supplement the LAW treatment capacity of the WTP. Since 2002, DOE, in cooperation with the Environmental Protection Agency and State of Washington Department of Ecology has been evaluating technologies that could provide safe and effective supplemental treatment of LAW. Current efforts at Hanford are intended to provide additional information to aid a joint agency decision on which technology will be used to supplement the WTP. A Research, Development and Demonstration permit has been issued by the State of Washington to build and (for a limited time) operate a Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) facility to provide information for the decision on a supplemental treatment technology for up to 50% of the LAW. In the Bulk Vitrification (BV) process, LAW, soil, and glass-forming chemicals are mixed, dried, and placed in a refractory-lined box, Electric current, supplied through two graphite electrodes in the box, melts the waste feed, producing a durable glass waste-form. Although recent modifications to the process have resulted in significant improvements, there are continuing technical concerns.

  1. The continuing debate over increasing consumption of raw (unpasteurised) milk: is it safe?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, K. N.; Hunt, K.; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    The debate on the consumption of raw (unpasteurised) milk continues. On one side there is the risk of illness associated with pathogenic bacteria that may be in the milk, a risk that can be mitigated by pasteurisation of the milk prior to consumption. On the other side, there are those who believ...... that pasteurisation of milk damages its nutrient qualities, and that hygienically produced milk will not contain pathogens. But who is right? The discussion is illustrated by a case study on the contamination of raw bulk tank milk by Listeria monocytogenes....

  2. DESIGN OF THE DEMOSNTRATION BULK VITRIFICATION SYSTEM FOR THE SUPPLEMENTAL TREATMENT OF LOW ACTIVITY TANK WASTE AT HANFORD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VAN BEEK JE

    2008-02-14

    In June 2004, the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) was initiated with the intent to design, construct, and operate a full-scale bulk vitrification pilot-plant to treat low-activity tank waste from Hanford Tank 241-S-109. The DBVS facility uses In-Container Vitrification{trademark} (ICV{trademark}) at the core of the treatment process. The basic process steps combine liquid low-activity waste (LAW) and glassformers; dry the mixture; and then vitrify the mixture in a batch feed-while-melt process in a refractory lined steel container. Off-gases are processed through a state-of-the-art air pollution control system including sintered-metal filtration, thermal oxidation, acid gas scrubbing, and high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) and high-efficiency gas adsorber (HEGA) filtration. Testing has focused on development and validation of the waste dryer, ICV, and sintered-metal filters (SMFs) equipment, operations enhancements, and glass formulation. With a parallel testing and design process, testing has allowed improvements to the DBVS equipment configuration and operating methodology, since its original inception. Design improvements include optimization of refractory panels in the ICV, simplifying glassformer addition equipment, increasing the number of waste feed chutes to the ICV, and adding capability for remote clean-out of piping, In addition, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has provided an independent review of the entire DBVS process. While the review did not find any fatal flaws, some technical issues were identified that required a re-evaluation of the DBVS design and subsequent changes to the design. A 100 percent design package for the pilot plant will be completed and submitted to DOE for review in early 2008 that incorporates process improvements substantiated through testing and reviews. This paper provides a description of the bulk vitrification process and a discussion of major equipment design changes that have occurred based on full

  3. DESIGN OF THE DEMOSNTRATION BULK VITRIFICATION SYSTEM FOR THE SUPPLEMENTAL TREATMENT OF LOW ACTIVITY TANK WASTE AT HANFORD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In June 2004, the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) was initiated with the intent to design, construct, and operate a full-scale bulk vitrification pilot-plant to treat low-activity tank waste from Hanford Tank 241-S-109. The DBVS facility uses In-Container Vitrification(trademark) (ICV(trademark)) at the core of the treatment process. The basic process steps combine liquid low-activity waste (LAW) and glassformers; dry the mixture; and then vitrify the mixture in a batch feed-while-melt process in a refractory lined steel container. Off-gases are processed through a state-of-the-art air pollution control system including sintered-metal filtration, thermal oxidation, acid gas scrubbing, and high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) and high-efficiency gas adsorber (HEGA) filtration. Testing has focused on development and validation of the waste dryer, ICV, and sintered-metal filters (SMFs) equipment, operations enhancements, and glass formulation. With a parallel testing and design process, testing has allowed improvements to the DBVS equipment configuration and operating methodology, since its original inception. Design improvements include optimization of refractory panels in the ICV, simplifying glassformer addition equipment, increasing the number of waste feed chutes to the ICV, and adding capability for remote clean-out of piping, In addition, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has provided an independent review of the entire DBVS process. While the review did not find any fatal flaws, some technical issues were identified that required a re-evaluation of the DBVS design and subsequent changes to the design. A 100 percent design package for the pilot plant will be completed and submitted to DOE for review in early 2008 that incorporates process improvements substantiated through testing and reviews. This paper provides a description of the bulk vitrification process and a discussion of major equipment design changes that have occurred based on full

  4. A Survey on aflatoxin M1 content in sheep and goat milk produced in Sardinia region, Italy (2005-2013)

    OpenAIRE

    Virdis, Salvatore; Scarano, Christian; Spanu, Vincenzo; Murittu, Gavino; Spanu, Carlo; Ibba, Ignazio; De Santis, Enrico Pietro Luigi

    2014-01-01

    In the present work the results of a survey conducted in Sardinia Region on Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) contamination in milk of small ruminants from 2005 to 2013 are reported. A total of 517 sheep and 88 goat milk samples from bulk tank, tank trucks and silo tank milk were collected. Analyses were performed by the Regional Farmers Association laboratory using high-performance liquid chromatography following the ISO 14501:1998 standard. None of the sheep milk samples analysed during 2005- 2012 showed...

  5. Dismantlement and removal of Old Hydrofracture Facility bulk storage bins and water tank, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF), located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), was constructed in 1963 to allow experimentation and operations with an integrated solid storage, mixing, and grout injection facility. During its operation, OHF blended liquid low-level waste with grout and used a hydrofracture process to pump the waste into a deep low-permeable shale formation. Since the OHF Facility was taken out of service in 1980, the four bulk storage bins located adjacent to Building 7852 had deteriorated to the point that they were a serious safety hazard. The ORNL Surveillance and Maintenance Program requested and received permission from the US Department of Energy to dismantle the bins as a maintenance action and send the free-released metal to an approved scrap metal vendor. A 25,000-gal stainless steel water tank located at the OHF site was included in the scope. A fixed-price subcontract was signed with Allied Technology Group, Inc., to remove the four bulk storage bins and water tank to a staging area where certified Health Physics personnel could survey, segregate, package, and send the radiologically clean scrap metal to an approved scrap metal vendor. All radiologically contaminated metal and metal that could not be surveyed was packaged and staged for later disposal. Permissible personnel exposure limits were not exceeded, no injuries were incurred, and no health and safety violations occurred throughout the duration of the project. Upon completion of the dismantlement, the project had generated 53,660 lb of clean scrap metal (see Appendix D). This resulted in $3,410 of revenue generated and a cost avoidance of an estimated $100,000 in waste disposal fees.

  6. Dismantlement and removal of Old Hydrofracture Facility bulk storage bins and water tank, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF), located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), was constructed in 1963 to allow experimentation and operations with an integrated solid storage, mixing, and grout injection facility. During its operation, OHF blended liquid low-level waste with grout and used a hydrofracture process to pump the waste into a deep low-permeable shale formation. Since the OHF Facility was taken out of service in 1980, the four bulk storage bins located adjacent to Building 7852 had deteriorated to the point that they were a serious safety hazard. The ORNL Surveillance and Maintenance Program requested and received permission from the US Department of Energy to dismantle the bins as a maintenance action and send the free-released metal to an approved scrap metal vendor. A 25,000-gal stainless steel water tank located at the OHF site was included in the scope. A fixed-price subcontract was signed with Allied Technology Group, Inc., to remove the four bulk storage bins and water tank to a staging area where certified Health Physics personnel could survey, segregate, package, and send the radiologically clean scrap metal to an approved scrap metal vendor. All radiologically contaminated metal and metal that could not be surveyed was packaged and staged for later disposal. Permissible personnel exposure limits were not exceeded, no injuries were incurred, and no health and safety violations occurred throughout the duration of the project. Upon completion of the dismantlement, the project had generated 53,660 lb of clean scrap metal (see Appendix D). This resulted in $3,410 of revenue generated and a cost avoidance of an estimated $100,000 in waste disposal fees

  7. Quality milk and tests for antibiotic residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sischo, W M

    1996-06-01

    One goal of total quality management is to prevent the occurrence of antibiotics in raw milk shipped from the farm. An effective approach to meet this goal is the implementation of HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) procedures, which are part of the Milk and Dairy Beef Quality Assurance Program for antibiotic avoidance. The program defines 10 critical control points, including screening tests for preventing antibiotic residues. Although milk from individual cows clearly should be tested to ensure that antibiotic-free milk is leaving the farm, it is not clear whether any existing tests can be reliably used on milk samples from individual cows, or even on samples from bulk tanks. The FDA acceptance procedures have not required that bulk milk tests undergo a population evaluation; these tests have not been objectively evaluated for individual cows. Of more concern, detection limits differ among tests, sometimes approaching zero. Despite the intent of the Pasteurized Milk Ordinance, milk acceptability definitions vary between states. In addition, the predictive value of test results has not been integrated into the regulatory process. Although largely ignored by the regulatory agencies, these issues cannot be ignored by the dairy industry. Ultimately, the milk testing program should become a component of the quality process that is centered on the farm and that measures the success of the industry in producing high quality milk rather than being a regulatory program that searches for a flawed product. PMID:8827472

  8. A survey on Aflatoxin M1 content in sheep and goat milk produced in Sardinia Region, Italy (2005-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Virdis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the results of a survey conducted in Sardinia Region on Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 contamination in milk of small ruminants from 2005 to 2013 are reported. A total of 517 sheep and 88 goat milk samples from bulk tank, tank trucks and silo tank milk were collected. Analyses were performed by the Regional Farmers Association laboratory using high-performance liquid chromatography following the ISO 14501:1998 standard. None of the sheep milk samples analysed during 2005- 2012 showed AFM1 contamination. In sheep milk samples collected in 2013, 8 out of 172 (4.6% were contaminated by AFM1 with a concentration (mean±SD of 12.59±14.05 ng/L. In one bulk tank milk sample 58.82 ng/L AFM1 was detected, exceeding the EU limit. In none of goat milk samples analysed from 2010 to 2012 AFM1 was detected. In 2013, 9 out of 66 goat milk samples (13.6% showed an AFM1 concentration of 47.21±19.58 ng/L. Two of these samples exceeded the EU limit, with concentrations of 62.09 and 138.6 ng/L. Higher contamination frequency and concentration rates were detected in bulk tank milk samples collected at farm than in bulk milk truck or silo samples, showing a dilution effect on AFM1 milk content along small ruminants supply chain. The rate and levels of AFM1 contamination in sheep and goat milk samples were lower than other countries. However, the small number of milk samples analysed for AFM1 in Sardinia Region in 2005-2013 give evidence that food business operators check programmes should be improved to ensure an adequate monitoring of AFM1 contamination in small ruminant dairy chain.

  9. Correlation between mastitis occurrence and the count of microorganisms in bulk raw milk of bovine dairy herds in four selective culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, Luís I M; Minagawa, Clarice Y; Telles, Evelise O; Garbuglio, Márcio A; Amaku, Marcos; Melville, Priscilla A; Dias, Ricardo A; Sakata, Sonia T; Benites, Nilson R

    2010-02-01

    Milk is the normal secretion of the mammary gland, practically free of colostrum and obtained by the complete milking of one or more healthy animals. Mastitis is an inflammatory process of the mammary gland and it may cause alterations in the milk. The present work aimed to verify whether it is possible, by means of the counts of microorganism in the bulk raw milk in four selective culture media, to establish a correlation with the occurrence of mastitis and therefore, to monitor this disease in bovine dairy herds. The following selective culture media were used: KF Streptococcus Agar, Edwards Agar, Baird-Parker Agar, Blood Agar plus potassium tellurite. Spearman's correlation coefficient was calculated in order to compare the occurrence of mastitis (percentage) in each herd with respective selective culture media counts of microorganisms in bulk raw milk. Thirty-six possibilities were analysed (Tamis and CMT-positive rates were compared with the log-transformed count in four selective culture media) and there was a negative correlation between Tamis 3 and the Baird-Parker Agar plate count. The total results of microbiological tests showed that there were three correlations of the counts in selective culture media. Fifty-two possibilities were analysed and there was a negative correlation between no-bacterial-growth mastitis rates and log10 of KF Streptoccocus Agar plate count and there were two positive correlations between coagulase-positive staphylococci and log10 of Baird-Parker Agar plate count and Blood Agar plus potassium tellurite plate count. PMID:19939321

  10. Real-time evaluation of individual cow milk for higher cheese-milk quality with increased cheese yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, G; Merin, U; Bezman, D; Lavie, S; Lemberskiy-Kuzin, L; Leitner, G

    2016-06-01

    Cheese was produced in a series of experiments from milk separated in real time during milking by using the Afilab MCS milk classification service (Afikim, Israel), which is installed on the milk line in every stall and sorts milk in real time into 2 target tanks: the A tank for cheese production (CM) and the B tank for fluid milk products (FM). The cheese milk was prepared in varying ratios ranging from ~10:90 to ~90:10 CM:FM by using this system. Cheese was made with corrected protein-to-fat ratio and without it, as well as from milk stored at 4°C for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 8d before production. Cheese weight at 24h increased along the separation cutoff level with no difference in moisture, and dry matter increased. The data compiled allowed a theoretical calculation of cheese yield and comparing it to the original van Slyke equation. Whenever the value of Afi-Cf, which is the optical measure of curd firmness obtained by the Afilab instrument, was used, a better predicted level of cheese yield was obtained. In addition, 27 bulk milk tanks with milk separated at a 50:50 CM:FM ratio resulted in cheese with a significantly higher fat and protein, dry matter, and weight at 24h. Moreover, solids incorporated from the milk into the cheese were significantly higher in cheeses made of milk from A tanks. The influence of storage of milk up to 8d before cheese making was tested. Gross milk composition did not change and no differences were found in cheese moisture, but dry matter and protein incorporated in the cheese dropped significantly along the storage time. These findings confirm that milk stored for several days before processing is prone to physico-chemical deterioration processes, which result in loss of milk constituents to the whey and therefore reduced product yield. The study demonstrates that introducing the unknown parameters for calculating the predicted cheese yield, such as the empiric measured Afi-Cf properties, are more accurate and the increase in cheese

  11. Risk factors for Coxiella burnetii antibodies in bulk tank milk from Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Jens Frederik; Paul, Suman; Christoffersen, Anna-Bodil;

    2013-01-01

    .2), artificial insemination by other people than artificial insemination technicians (OR = 7.7), routine herd health contract with the veterinarian (OR = 4.3) and hygiene precautions taken by veterinarians (OR = 5). In addition, herd size, hired labour, trading of cattle between farms, quarantine and use...

  12. Latent class analysis of bulk tank milk PCR and ELISA testing for herd level diagnosis of Mycoplasma bovis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Kantsø; Petersen, Mette Bisgaard; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Toft, Nils

    . bovis ELISA kit and the antigen detecting PathoProof Mastitis Major-3 kit. As none of these are considered a gold standard test for herd-level diagnostics we applied a series of Bayesian latent class analyses for a range of ELISA cut-off values. The negative and positive predictive values were...... calculated for hypothetical true national prevalences (1, 5, 10, 15 and 20%) of infected herds. We estimated that the ELISA test had a median sensitivity and specificity of 60.4 [37.5-96.2 95% Posterior Credibility Interval] and 97.3 [94.0-99.8 95% PCI] at the currently recommended cut-off (37% Optical...

  13. Correlations among the somatic cell count of individual bulk milk, result of the California Mastitis Test and bacteriological status of the udder in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jánosi, Sz; Baltay, Zs

    2004-01-01

    In a survey of about 3000 dairy cows producing low somatic cell count (SCC) milk and kept on a large-scale dairy farm, California Mastitis Test (CMT) positivity was found in 2714 udder quarters of 1491 cows. Pathogenic microorganisms were isolated from 57.6% of these 2714 udder quarters during bacteriological examination. The commonest pathogens were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS, 41%) and Staphylococcus aureus (32.5%); however, udder infections caused by environmental streptococci (12.8%) and coliform bacteria (6.8%) were also common. All pathogens resulted in a significant increase of the SCC in individual bulk milk (IBM) samples. In the case of CNS, this SCC elevation in IBM was significantly lower than in the case of infection by the other pathogens. In spite of this, because of the high number of udder infections caused by CNS, the adverse effect exerted by CNS on dairy herds is considered to be substantial. It was found that 54.6% of all CMT-positive cows produced IBM of an SCC below 400 thousand per ml. The milk produced by 41% of the 315 cows excreting S. aureus also had an SCC below 400 thousand per ml. This poses a serious risk of infection to the healthy herdmates. At the same time, 11% of the infected cows produced IBM with an SCC below 100 thousand per ml. On the basis of these findings, only the regular analysis of SCC of IBM can be a reliable indicator of chronic intramammary infection. As the SCC of milk produced by CMT-positive cows (and especially of those excreting pathogens) tended to increase with advancing lactation, the authors suggest that an efficient drying-off therapy should be used to restore udder health and, whenever justified, culling of cows cannot be avoided either. PMID:15168749

  14. ANALYSIS OF MILK QUALITY AND ITS IMPORTANCE FOR MILK PROCESSORS

    OpenAIRE

    AGATHA POPESCU; ELENA ANGEL

    2013-01-01

    The paper aimed to present some aspects regarding milk quality and its importance for milk processors , taking into account a study case at FLAV O’RICH DAIRY INC,USA. The study analyses how milk quality is checked from the bulk milk to final product according to the Milk Quality Program in force. The main aspects concerning raw milk selection criteria such as : antibiotic test, temperature, bacteria, organoleptic properties , acidity, somatic cell count , but also main milk components such as...

  15. Oxidative stability of structured lipids containing C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, C18:3 or CLA in sn 2-position - as bulk lipids and in milk drinks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm Heinrich, Maike; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Xu, Xuebing;

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we compared the oxidative stability of a specific structured lipid (SL) containing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in the sn2-position with SL containing other C18 fatty acids of different degree of unsaturation (stearic, oleic, linoleic or linolenic acid). SL was produced by...... oxidative stability of our SL was very different when comparing (a) bulk lipids and milk drink and (b) the five different batches of each product. SL based on oleic acid was the most unstable as bulk lipid, while SL based on linoleic acid was the most unstable in milk drink. SL based on CLA was the second...

  16. Occurrence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk at dairy cattle farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okura, Hisako; Toft, Nils; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2012-01-01

    Presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in milk for human consumption is a concern due to its possible relationship with Crohn’s disease in humans. Pasteurization effectively reduces the MAP load by four to five logs, but the efficacy depends on the MAP concentration, which...... depends on the prevalence among contributing herds and individuals. Considerable variation of MAP in bulk tank milk (BTM) and individual cow’s milk (IM) is reported, but factors associated with MAP occurrence in milk at farm level have not been described. This study systematically reviewed published...

  17. Relations between basic milk components and free fatty acid content in Holstein cow milk as lipolysis parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luděk Stádník

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate in detail the relationship between the basic milk components (fat and protein percentage and the free fatty acids (FFA content, as indicators of spontaneous and/or induced lipolysis. The additional aim of the study was to compare the FFA content of milk with respect to spontaneous and induced lipolysis. Milking was carried out in herringbone parlour twice a day. In total, 540 milk samples were obtained for evaluation of spontaneous (n=240 and induced lipolysis (n=300. The milk samples for determination of basic milk components and FFA (li¬polysis levels were collected during four subsequent lactation weeks. Milk samples for spontaneous lipolysis detection were taken directly in parlour immediately after milking using the ICAR methodology and subsequently grouped. Induced lipolysis was observed from bulk milk in time 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 hours after milking (T0-T4. The evaluation of basic components and FFA content was carried on MILKOSCAN F120 (Foss Electronic; Denmark. Statistical evaluation was carried out using SAS 9.3. (SAS/STAT® 9.3, 2011. An increase of one percentage of milk fat was equal to 0.318 mmol x 100 g-1 FFA decline (spontaneous lipolysis or from 0.232 to 0.370 mmol x 100 g-1 FFA decline (induced lipolysis T0-T4 respectively. One percentage increase of milk protein was equal to 1.219 mmol x 100 g-1 FFA increase (spontaneous lipolysis or 0.421 to 1.531 mmol x 100 g-1 FFA decrease (induced lipolysis T0 - T4 respectively. Significant differences (P<0.01 were detected among FFA content in relation to spontaneous and induced lipolysis evaluated during storage and cooling after milking. The minimal differences were detected between the FFA content during 4 hours cooling and storage of milk in the tank.

  18. Assessment of the application of an automated electronic milk analyzer for the enumeration of total bacteria in raw goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsahoi, L; Gao, A; Fabri, M; Odumeru, J A

    2011-07-01

    Automated electronic milk analyzers for rapid enumeration of total bacteria counts (TBC) are widely used for raw milk testing by many analytical laboratories worldwide. In Ontario, Canada, Bactoscan flow cytometry (BsnFC; Foss Electric, Hillerød, Denmark) is the official anchor method for TBC in raw cow milk. Penalties are levied at the BsnFC equivalent level of 50,000 cfu/mL, the standard plate count (SPC) regulatory limit. This study was conducted to assess the BsnFC for TBC in raw goat milk, to determine the mathematical relationship between the SPC and BsnFC methods, and to identify probable reasons for the difference in the SPC:BsnFC equivalents for goat and cow milks. Test procedures were conducted according to International Dairy Federation Bulletin guidelines. Approximately 115 farm bulk tank milk samples per month were tested for inhibitor residues, SPC, BsnFC, psychrotrophic bacteria count, composition (fat, protein, lactose, lactose and other solids, and freezing point), and somatic cell count from March 2009 to February 2010. Data analysis of the results for the samples tested indicated that the BsnFC method would be a good alternative to the SPC method, providing accurate and more precise results with a faster turnaround time. Although a linear regression model showed good correlation and prediction, tests for linearity indicated that the relationship was linear only beyond log 4.1 SPC. The logistic growth curve best modeled the relationship between the SPC and BsnFC for the entire sample population. The BsnFC equivalent to the SPC 50,000 cfu/mL regulatory limit was estimated to be 321,000 individual bacteria count (ibc)/mL. This estimate differs considerably from the BsnFC equivalent for cow milk (121,000 ibc/mL). Because of the low frequency of bulk tank milk pickups at goat farms, 78.5% of the samples had their oldest milking in the tank to be 6.5 to 9.0 d old when tested, compared with the cow milk samples, which had their oldest milking at 4 d

  19. Survey on the fatty acids profile of fluid goat milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Pittau

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Fluid goat milk submitted to thermal treatment has interesting nutritional properties and a potential expanding market. The present study was aimed to conduct fatty acids profile characterisation of goat milk placed on market. Forty-nine fluid milk samples were collected: 12 pasteurised, 12 pasteurised at high temperature, 11 ultrahigh temperature (UHT whole milk and 14 UHT semi-skimmed milk. Milk samples were collected at retail level from 7 different companies and from different production batches. After extraction and methilation, fatty acids (FAs profile was determined on each sample using a gas chromatograph with flame ionisation detector (GC-FID with high-polarity capillary column. The concentration (g/100mL of saturated fatty acids (SFAs, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, trans fatty acids (t-FAs, and isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA was determined. N-6/n-3 ratio, atherogenic index (AI and thrombogenic index (TI were also assessed. Fluid goat milk lipid profile was characterised by SFAs (68.4% of total FAs, PUFAs (5.3%, MUFAs (21.3%, t-FAs (3.6% and CLA (0.8%. The most represented fatty acids were: 16:0 (24.5%, 9cis-18:1 (18.2%, 18:0 (9.6%, 14:0 (9.5%, 10:0 (9.3% and 12:0 (4.5%. Nutritional indices were 2.8-6.8 for n-6/n-3 ratio; 2.3-2.9 for AI; and 2.7-3.2 for TI. Milk produced by small scale plants, with no milk fat standardisation, showed greater differences in fatty acid profile as compared to industrial plants milk. Large scale production is characterised by commingled bulk tank milk of different origins and then is more homogeneous. The whole goat milk supply chain should be controlled to obtain milk with fatty acids of high nutritional value.

  20. Molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus isolates at different sites in the milk producing dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Viviane; Nader Filho, Antonio; de Castro Melo, Poliana; Ferraudo, Guilherme Moraes; Antônio Sérgio, Ferraudo; de Oliveira Conde, Sandra; Fogaça Junior, Flavio Augusto

    2012-10-01

    The epidemiological relationships between isolated Staphylococcus aureus strains in milk samples of dairy cows, reagent to California Mastitis Test, individual and group milk was demonstrated in different sites of the production fluxogram, in 12 milk-producing farms in the Gameleira region, municipality of Sacramento MG Brazil, so that localization and transmission modes may be identified. Two hundred and forty-four strains out of 446 samples collected at several sites were isolated and bio-chemically characterized as coagulase-positive staphylococcus. Specific chromosome DNA fragment of the species Staphylococcus aureus was amplified to 106 strains and 103 underwent (PFGE). Samples' collection sites with the highest isolation frequency of Staphylococcus aureus strains comprised papillary ostia (31.1%), CMT-reagent cow milk (21.7%), mechanical milking machines' insufflators (21,7%), milk in milk pails (6.6%) and the milk in community bulk tanks (5.6%). Genetic heterogeneity existed among the isolated 103 Staphylococcus aureus strains, since 32 different pulse-types were identified. Pulse-type 1 had the highest similarity among the isolated strains within the different sites of the milk-production fluxogram. Highest occurrence of pulsetype 1 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus strains was reported in samples collected from the papillary ostia (10.6%), followed by milk samples from CMT-reagent dairy cows (5.8%) and mechanical milking machine insufflators (3.8%). The above shows the relevance of these sites in the agents' transmission mechanism within the context of the farms investigated. PMID:24031997

  1. Handling milking as a risk factor in the occurrence of microorganisms in raw milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Picoli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Milk is naturally a good provider of a whole range of nutrients, however an inadequate milking may significantly interfere on its nutritional and microbiological quality. The main purpose of this study was to isolate and identify microorganisms from bulk tanks of southern Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil and establish a correlation between animal management and presence of pathogens in the milk. To this end, raw milk samples were collected from different dairy herds and submitted to microbiological analyses. Mean bacterial counts were Staphylococcus sp. (5,32x106 CFU/mL, S. aureus (1,33x105 CFU/mL and enterobacteria (1,82x107 CFU/mL. The major pathogens isolated and their respective frequency were Escherichia coli (27.8%, Streptococcus agalactiae (6.2%, S. dysgalactiae (37.2%, S. uberis (16.8%, Candida sp. (15.7%, Aspergillus sp. (5.8%, Trichosporum sp. (3.6% and Cryptococcus sp. (1.5%. In addition, it was identified an Odds Ratio of 3.2 for S. agalactiae regarding manual milking and 3.1 when a single cloth towel was used for drying the udder. For S. bovis the Odds Ratio was 2.8 in properties milking their animals in stalls wood. Somatic cell count (SCC was significantly higher (p=0,003 in milk samples manually extracted in comparison with machine milking. Likewise, manual milking resulted in the increase in S. aureus counts (p=0.04. Pre-dipping practice have contributed for a significant reduction (p=0.04 in the Staphylococcus sp. counts. Taken together, our results show that the adoption of poor management practices can negatively interfere in the microbiological quality of milk increasing the risks of occurrence of pathogens and their counts.

  2. Biosensor assay for determination of haptoglobin in bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerstedt, Maria; Björck, Lennart; Persson Waller, Karin; Sternesjö, Ase

    2006-08-01

    Despite more than 30 years of research into mastitis diagnostics, there are few alternatives to the somatic cell count (SCC) in practical use for identification of cows with subclinical mastitis. Mastitis is not only an animal welfare problem, but also affects the yield, composition and technological properties of milk. Hence, dairy cooperatives give farmers a premium quality payment to encourage low SCC although there is no clear scientific data defining the level of SCC in bulk tank milk that is associated with additional benefits in terms of milk quality. Recent research on alternative markers for inflammatory reactions in the lactating cow, e.g. in mastitis, includes investigations of the acute phase protein, haptoglobin (Hp). So far, the content of Hp in milk has mainly been studied in relation to mastitis diagnostics, with little attention given to its importance for milk composition and technological properties. At present, Hp in milk is measured using ELISA, but this technique is not suitable for routine large-scale analysis. In recent years, optical biosensor technology has been used for automated and rapid quantitative analysis of different components in milk, but so far not for analysis of acute phase proteins. The aim of the present study was to develop a rapid and sensitive biosensor method to determine Hp in milk. An affinity sensor assay based on the interaction between Hp and haemoglobin was developed using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor technology. The assay was used to analyse Hp in composite milk samples from cows without any clinical signs of mastitis and quarter milk samples with a weak to strong reaction in the California Mastitis Test (CMT). A commercial ELISA for determination of Hp in milk was used for comparison. The limit of detection (LOD) of the biosensor assay was determined as 1.1 mg/l. Within-assay and between-day variations were determined both with bulk tank milk spiked with human Hp and with composite milk samples

  3. Occurrence and characteristics of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae in food producing animals, minced meat and raw milk

    OpenAIRE

    Geser Nadine; Stephan Roger; Hächler Herbert

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The impact of food animals as a possible reservoir for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae, and the dissemination of such strains into the food production chain need to be assessed. In this study 334 fecal samples from pigs, cattle, chicken and sheep were investigated at slaughter. Additionally, 100 raw milk samples, representing bulk tank milk of 100 different dairy farms, 104 minced meat (pork and beef) samples and 67 E. coli isolates fro...

  4. THE MICROBIOLOGICAL LOAD OF SHEEP MILK FROM PRIMARY PRODUCTION TO ITS PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Farkašová

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In the breeding with the average number of 220 sheep (zošľachtená valaška with traditional hand milking in the Eastern Slovakia the microbiological load of milk during the process of primary production, transport, before and after pasteurisation as well as during dairy processing to cheese curd was observed. The results in three seasons were compared to those obtained at finishing of milking in the season before. The microbiological load of milk was observed using the bacteriological methods for determination of the presence of Staphylococcus sp. and other bacteria, and determination of the total number of staphylococci: a  in milliliter of pool milk sample; b  the transport control – smears from transport tank and determination of the total number of staphylococci in the tank milk sample; c bacteriological examination of bulk tank milk in the dairy plant before and after pasteurisation, including examination of cheese curd. After pasteurisation no staphylococci were recorded as in milk as in cheese. Out of 112 strains of Staphylococcus aureus only four strain produced staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE, but in another 7 strains a gene for production of SE, type C was found. The measures introduced during the following season led to the fact that total numbers of coagulase-positive staphylococci in milk within the process of primary production and transport did not exceed the limit permitted by legislation, and after pasteurisation of milk and cheese curd they were not found at all.  doi:10.5219/58

  5. Milking hygiene: new issues and opportunities from automatic milking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotte Bach Larsen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic milking offers the opportunity of in-line measurements of milk components, check of milking and cleaning procedures,and surveillance through the management program. These advantages may directly benefit the milk quality.Diversion of abnormal milk at time of milking is critical to the milk quality. It is proposed to define abnormal milk as milkbeing visibly changed in homogeneity or colour from that of normal milk. Several enzymes and other milk componentsmay be involved in the formation of clots in the milk. Based on reported changes in primarily the milk protein fraction asa response to infection of the mammary gland, different explanations for the generation of precipitates in mastitis milkare discussed. Automatic milking systems (AMS should have sensors to monitor and divert abnormal milk. The managementsystem of AMS provides an excellent opportunity to introduce Hazard Analyses Critical Control Points (HACCPsystems for surveying the milk quality. HACCP-based proposals are given for avoiding contamination of the bulk milk withmilk from cows with clinical mastitis and for ensuring a low bulk milk bacterial count.

  6. The Influence of Season on the Cow Milk Quantity, Quality and Hygiene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic Toma Cziszter

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of season of collection on the quantity, quality and hygienicproperties of the raw milk delivered from one dairy farm. The studied traits were: bulk tank milk yield, chemicalcomposition (fat, protein, lactose, and total solids, freezing point, density, total bacteria count, coliform bacteriacount and somatic cell count, during years 2010 and 2011. A total of 727 samples were drawn and analysed in twolaboratories, using the standard methods. Average milk production per day per head in the farm was 13.58 kg,obtained from 252 cows. Year of collection had a significant effect on the bulk tank raw milk yield, quality andhygiene, except for freezing point and total bacteria count. The raw milk yield and chemical composition improved(p<0.05 from year 2010 to year 2011, as well as the hygienic quality. Season of collection had a significant (p<0.05influence on the milk yield and chemical composition, the highest milk yield with the lowest concentration beingobtained during summer, while the lowest milk yield with the highest chemical composition was obtained in winter.Physical properties of the raw milk were less affected by the season of collection, with the lowest freezing point inthe winter and the highest density in the autumn. The highest somatic cell count and coliform bacteria count wasobtained during the spring and the lowest total bacteria count was obtained in winter season. There was a significant(p<0.05 interaction between year and season of production for all raw milk traits.

  7. 46 CFR 154.439 - Tank design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank design. 154.439 Section 154.439 Shipping COAST... SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Independent Tank Type A § 154.439 Tank design. An independent tank type A must meet the deep tank standard of...

  8. 46 CFR 154.420 - Tank design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank design. 154.420 Section 154.420 Shipping COAST... SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Integral Tanks § 154.420 Tank design. (a) The structure of an integral tank must meet the deep tank scantling...

  9. Staphylococcus aureus isolates from goat and sheep milk seem to be closely related and differ from isolates detected among bovine milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel eMerz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Dairy goat and sheep farms suffer severe economic losses due to intramammary infections, with S. aureus representing the main cause of clinical mastitis in small ruminants. In addition, S. aureus contamination of goat and sheep milk may cause staphylococcal food poisoning, as many traditional caprine and ovine milk products are not subjected to pasteurization. Data on virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes, as well as on the clonality of S. aureus detected in goat and sheep milk is scarce. Therefore, it was the aim of this study to determine i spa types and clonal complexes and ii virulence and resistance gene profiles of S. aureus isolated from goat and sheep milk. A total of 162 milk samples from sheep and goats presenting signs of an intramammary infection and 104 bulk milk samples were collected. While low prevalence rates of S. aureus were detected on single animal level, 46% of the bulk tank milk samples from small ruminants were positive for S. aureus. All isolates were spa typed and clonal complexes and virulence and resistance gene patterns were determined using a DNA microarray. Data from 49 S. aureus isolates was included in the statistical analysis and the construction of a SplitsTree. The analyzed isolates could be assigned to eleven clonal complexes, with the large majority of goat and sheep isolates being assigned to CC130 and CC133. The findings of this study suggest that S. aureus shows pronounced adaptation to small ruminants in general, but not to sheep or goats in particular. Although some common characteristics among S. aureus from caprine, ovine, and bovine milk samples were observed, S. aureus from small ruminants seem to form a distinct population. As 67% of the detected S. aureus strains exhibited at least one enterotoxin gene, many caprine or ovine raw milk products may be contaminated with low levels of enterotoxigenic S. aureus, stressing the importance of strict maintenance of the cold chain.

  10. Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Goat and Sheep Milk Seem to Be Closely Related and Differ from Isolates Detected from Bovine Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Axel; Stephan, Roger; Johler, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    Dairy goat and sheep farms suffer severe economic losses due to intramammary infections, with Staphylococcus aureus representing the main cause of clinical mastitis in small ruminants. In addition, S. aureus contamination of goat and sheep milk may cause staphylococcal food poisoning, as many traditional caprine and ovine milk products are not subjected to pasteurization. Data on virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes, as well as on the clonality of S. aureus detected in goat and sheep milk is scarce. Therefore, it was the aim of this study to determine (i) spa types and clonal complexes (CC) and (ii) virulence and resistance gene profiles of S. aureus isolated from goat and sheep milk. A total of 162 milk samples from sheep and goats presenting signs of an intramammary infection and 104 bulk milk samples were collected. While low prevalence rates of S. aureus was detected on single animal level, 46% of the bulk tank milk samples from small ruminants were positive for S. aureus. All isolates were spa typed and CC and virulence and resistance gene patterns were determined using a DNA microarray. Data from 49 S. aureus isolates was included in the statistical analysis and the construction of a SplitsTree. The analyzed isolates could be assigned to eleven CC, with the large majority of goat and sheep isolates being assigned to CC130 and CC133. The findings of this study suggest that S. aureus shows pronounced adaptation to small ruminants in general, but not to sheep or goats in particular. Although some common characteristics among S. aureus from caprine, ovine, and bovine milk samples were observed, S. aureus from small ruminants seem to form a distinct population. As 67% of the detected S. aureus strains exhibited at least one enterotoxin gene, many caprine, or ovine raw milk products may be contaminated with low levels of enterotoxigenic S. aureus, stressing the importance of strict maintenance of the cold chain. PMID:27014240

  11. Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Goat and Sheep Milk Seem to Be Closely Related and Differ from Isolates Detected from Bovine Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Axel; Stephan, Roger; Johler, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    Dairy goat and sheep farms suffer severe economic losses due to intramammary infections, with Staphylococcus aureus representing the main cause of clinical mastitis in small ruminants. In addition, S. aureus contamination of goat and sheep milk may cause staphylococcal food poisoning, as many traditional caprine and ovine milk products are not subjected to pasteurization. Data on virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes, as well as on the clonality of S. aureus detected in goat and sheep milk is scarce. Therefore, it was the aim of this study to determine (i) spa types and clonal complexes (CC) and (ii) virulence and resistance gene profiles of S. aureus isolated from goat and sheep milk. A total of 162 milk samples from sheep and goats presenting signs of an intramammary infection and 104 bulk milk samples were collected. While low prevalence rates of S. aureus was detected on single animal level, 46% of the bulk tank milk samples from small ruminants were positive for S. aureus. All isolates were spa typed and CC and virulence and resistance gene patterns were determined using a DNA microarray. Data from 49 S. aureus isolates was included in the statistical analysis and the construction of a SplitsTree. The analyzed isolates could be assigned to eleven CC, with the large majority of goat and sheep isolates being assigned to CC130 and CC133. The findings of this study suggest that S. aureus shows pronounced adaptation to small ruminants in general, but not to sheep or goats in particular. Although some common characteristics among S. aureus from caprine, ovine, and bovine milk samples were observed, S. aureus from small ruminants seem to form a distinct population. As 67% of the detected S. aureus strains exhibited at least one enterotoxin gene, many caprine, or ovine raw milk products may be contaminated with low levels of enterotoxigenic S. aureus, stressing the importance of strict maintenance of the cold chain. PMID:27014240

  12. The bacteriological quality of goat and ovine milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Bogdanovičová

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study concentrates on information concerning the microbiological hazards that can be present in raw milk from animal species other than cows. A total of 54 (23 of ovine and 31 of goat bulk tank milk samples from 10 farms in the Czech Republic were collected in years 2013 - 2014. The sampling was done at regular time intervals during the whole year, with five to eight samples collected from each of the 10 dairy farms involved in the study. All milk samples were collected into sterile sampling bottles and transported in a cooler sampling case to the laboratory for immediate examination. Farms were randomly selected to cover the whole area of the Czech Republic. The prevalence and characteristic of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes was studied. Raw cow's milk can be contaminated by E. coli intramammarily during clinical or subclinical mastitis and either directly through animal feces or indirectly during milk collection through farm employees or the milking equipment. E. coli was detected in 90.3% of the goat milk and 95.7% of the ovine milk samples. The genes encoding Shiga toxins 1 and 2- (stx1, stx2 were not detected and no STEC was identified. The Eae was the detected in 3 (4.6% isolates. S. aureus was detected in 9 (29.0% samples of goat milk and 8 (34.8% samples of ovine milk. A total 12 (57.1% enterotoxin positive S. aureus were obtained; 6 (28.6% were positive for the production of sec encoding enterotoxin SEC; in 4 (19.0% isolates the gene seh was detected; 2 (9.5% isolates were proven positive for seg (4.8% and combination seg and sei (4.8%. The presence of MRSA was not detected in the tested samples in our study. L. monocytogenes was detected in 1 (3.2% samples of goat milk and 1 (4.3% samples of ovine milk. The serotype (1/2a, 1/2b was detected in our study. Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. were not isolated from any of the samples. These results form

  13. 7 CFR 58.250 - Dry whole milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dry whole milk. 58.250 Section 58.250 Agriculture... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.250 Dry whole milk. Dry whole milk in commercial bulk... Grades of Dry Whole Milk. Quality requirements for dry whole milk in consumer packages shall be for...

  14. Quality of bulk tank milk samples from Danish dairy herds based on real-time polymerase chain reaction identification of mastitis pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katholm, Jørgen; Bennedsgaard, T.W.; Koskinen, M.T.; Rattenborg, Erik

    2012-01-01

    pathogens Klebsiella spp., Enterococcus spp., and Escherichia coli, low Ct values had a correlation with higher TBC. Staphylococcus spp. were found in the BTM from all herds, Strep. uberis in 95%, Staph. aureus in 91%, and Strep. dysgalactiae in 86%, whereas E. coli, Klebsiella, and Strep. agalactiae were......, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and Streptococcus uberis, a low real-time PCR cycle threshold (Ct) value (corresponding to high bacterial DNA quantity) was correlated with higher SCC and higher TBC. For Staphylococcus aureus, low Ct values were correlated only with higher SCC. For the environmental mastitis...

  15. A space-time analysis of Mycoplasma bovis: bulk tank milk antibody screening results from all Danish dairy herds in 2013-2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arede, Margarida; Nielsen, Per Kantsø; Ahmed, Syed Sayeem Uddin;

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is an important pathogen causing severe disease outbreaks in cattle farms. Since 2011, there has been an apparent increase in M. bovis outbreaks among Danish dairy cattle herds. The dairy cattle industry performed cross-sectional antibody screening for M. bovis on four occasions,...

  16. Economic consequences of mastitis and withdrawal of milk with high somatic cell count in Swedish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C; Østergaard, Søren; Emanuelson, U;

    2010-01-01

    The main aim was to assess the impact of mastitis on technical and economic results of a dairy herd under current Swedish farming conditions. The second aim was to investigate the effects obtained by withdrawing milk with high somatic cell count (SCC). A dynamic and stochastic simulation model, Sim...... the predicted bulk tank SCC exceeded 220 000, 200 000 or 180 000 cells/ml, and on cow-level information in three scenarios: withdrawal was initiated when the predicted SCC in an individual cow's milk exceeded 1 000 000, 750 000 or 500 000 cells/ml. The accuracy with which SCC was measured and...

  17. Molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus isolates at different sites in the milk producing dairy farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Souza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiological relationships between isolated Staphylococcus aureus strains in milk samples of dairy cows, reagent to California Mastitis Test, individual and group milk was demonstrated in different sites of the production fluxogram, in 12 milk-producing farms in the Gameleira region, municipality of Sacramento MG Brazil, so that localization and transmission modes may be identified. Two hundred and forty-four strains out of 446 samples collected at several sites were isolated and bio-chemically characterized as coagulase-positive staphylococcus. Specific chromosome DNA fragment of the species Staphylococcus aureus was amplified to 106 strains and 103 underwent (PFGE. Samples' collection sites with the highest isolation frequency of Staphylococcus aureus strains comprised papillary ostia (31.1%, CMT-reagent cow milk (21.7%, mechanical milking machines' insufflators (21,7%, milk in milk pails (6.6% and the milk in community bulk tanks (5.6%. Genetic heterogeneity existed among the isolated 103 Staphylococcus aureus strains, since 32 different pulse-types were identified. Pulse-type 1 had the highest similarity among the isolated strains within the different sites of the milk-production fluxogram. Highest occurrence of pulsetype 1 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus strains was reported in samples collected from the papillary ostia (10.6%, followed by milk samples from CMT-reagent dairy cows (5.8% and mechanical milking machine insufflators (3.8%. The above shows the relevance of these sites in the agents' transmission mechanism within the context of the farms investigated.

  18. ANALYSIS OF MILK QUALITY AND ITS IMPORTANCE FOR MILK PROCESSORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGATHA POPESCU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to present some aspects regarding milk quality and its importance for milk processors , taking into account a study case at FLAV O’RICH DAIRY INC,USA. The study analyses how milk quality is checked from the bulk milk to final product according to the Milk Quality Program in force. The main aspects concerning raw milk selection criteria such as : antibiotic test, temperature, bacteria, organoleptic properties , acidity, somatic cell count , but also main milk components such as water, butterfat , total solids, protein, lactose , solids non fats , minerals, acids have been approached . Also a comparison for 7 butterfat producers for East Fluid Group has been done . Milk processing assures the destruction of human pathogens , the maintenance of product quality without significant loss of flavor, appearance, physical and nutritive properties and the selection of organisms which may produce unsatisfactory products.

  19. 46 CFR 154.446 - Tank design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank design. 154.446 Section 154.446 Shipping COAST... SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Independent Tank Type B § 154.446 Tank design. An independent tank type B must meet the calculations under §...

  20. Interspecies and seasonal differences of retinol in dairy ruminant´s milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Hodulová

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Milk is an essential source of macronutrients and among lipophilic vitamins is significant source of retinol. The contribution of milk to the reference daily intake for retinol varies from 11% to 16%, worldwide. The most consumed dairy products are fresh, dehydrated and condensed milk in which the amonuts of retinol are not modified to those of in whole milk. Retinol is essential to ensure a good functionality of the immune system and plays a critical role in vision, reproduction, cell differentiation as well as growth and development and is found only in animal tissues. The aim of our study was to evaluate the interspecies differences in the retinol concentration of whole raw bovine, caprine and ovine milk and to observe seasonal variation of retinol in bulk tank milk samples. Samples of raw milk were colleceted on different farms in the Czech Republic between 2013 and 2014. Retinol was measured by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (325 nm in isocratic mode after alkaline saponification with methanolic potassium hydroxide solution and liquid-liquid extraction into non polar organic solvent of whole raw milk. To avoid vitamin losses or degradation during the procedure, antioxidants were added to the sample extraction media. Our results indicate significant interspecies differences between bovine and ovine milk and caprine and ovine milk. Concentration of retinol is very similar in bovine and caprine milk 0.96 ±0.11 mg/L, 0.94 ±0.25 mg/L, respectively. The mean concentration in sheep´s milk is 1.75 ±0.24 mg/L. The seasonal variation of retinol in raw bovine milk was detected as high significant, with the highest concentration during winter. These results contribute to the nutrition evaluation of milk in the Czech Republic and indicate, that the sheep´s milk is the best source of retinol among the milks of ruminants kept in the Czech Republic, however it is not used in its fluid form for human consumption.

  1. Seasonal variations in the composition of Holstein cow's milk and temperature-humidity index relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertocchi, L; Vitali, A; Lacetera, N; Nardone, A; Varisco, G; Bernabucci, U

    2014-04-01

    A retrospective study on seasonal variations in the characteristics of cow's milk and temperature-humidity index (THI) relationship was conducted on bulk milk data collected from 2003 to 2009. The THI relationship study was carried out on 508 613 bulk milk data items recorded in 3328 dairy farms form the Lombardy region, Italy. Temperature and relative humidity data from 40 weather stations were used to calculate THI. Milk characteristics data referred to somatic cell count (SCC), total bacterial count (TBC), fat percentage (FA%) and protein percentage (PR%). Annual, seasonal and monthly variations in milk composition were evaluated on 656 064 data items recorded in 3727 dairy farms. The model highlighted a significant association between the year, season and month, and the parameters analysed (SCC, TBC, FA%, PR%). The summer season emerged as the most critical season. Of the summer months, July presented the most critical conditions for TBC, FA% and PR%, (52 054 ± 183 655, 3.73% ± 0.35% and 3.30% ± 0.15%, respectively), and August presented higher values of SCC (369 503 ± 228 377). Each milk record was linked to THI data calculated at the nearest weather station. The analysis demonstrated a positive correlation between THI and SCC and TBC, and indicated a significant change in the slope at 57.3 and 72.8 maximum THI, respectively. The model demonstrated a negative correlation between THI and FA% and PR% and provided breakpoints in the pattern at 50.2 and 65.2 maximum THI, respectively. The results of this study indicate the presence of critical climatic thresholds for bulk tank milk composition in dairy cows. Such indications could facilitate the adoption of heat management strategies, which may ensure the health and production of dairy cows and limit related economic losses. PMID:24513161

  2. RESEARCH REGARDING THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF POWDER MILK WITH NUTRIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Liviu Giurgiulescu; Alina Veronica Lapusan

    2009-01-01

    Powdered milk is a manufactured dairy product made by evaporating milk to dryness. This product has incomposition powder apple, powder carrots, rice flour and corn flour, vitamins, minerals.One purpose of drying milk is to preserve it; milk powder has a far longer self life than liquid milk and does notneed to be refrigerated, due to its low moisture content. Another purpose is to reduce its bulk for economy oftransportation. Milk powders contain all twenty standards amino acids and are high ...

  3. Colostrum and milk pasteurization improve health status and decrease mortality in neonatal calves receiving appropriate colostrum ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armengol, Ramon; Fraile, Lorenzo

    2016-06-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate if on-farm heat treatment of colostrum and bulk tank milk can improve calf health status and morbidity and mortality rates during the first 21d of life in neonatal Holstein calves receiving appropriate colostrum ingestion. A total of 587 calves were randomly assigned to 2 groups of males and females over 18mo. The nonpasteurized group (n=287, 143 males and 144 females) was fed frozen (-20°C) colostrum (6-8L during the first 12h of life) that was previously reheated up to 40°C. They were also fed refrigerated (4°C) raw milk from the bulk tank that was also reheated up to 40°C (1.8L every 12h). The pasteurized group (n=300, 150 males and 150 females) was also fed colostrum and milk, but both were pasteurized before freezing. Blood samples were drawn from all calves to obtain serum at 2 to 5d of life. Serum total protein (g/dL) was determined using a commercially available refractometer. Colostrum and milk underwent routine bacteriological analysis to determine total plate counts (cfu/mL) and total coliform counts (cfu/mL). All the calves underwent clinical examination every 24h during the first 21d of life. Every day, calves were clinically diagnosed either as being healthy or suffering from respiratory disease, neonatal calf diarrhea, or suffering other diseases. On-farm heat treatment for colostrum and milk reduced total plate counts and total coliform counts between 1 and 2 log10. Pasteurization of colostrum and milk significantly decreased the morbidity and mortality (5.2 and 2.8%) in comparison with calves receiving nonpasteurized colostrum and milk (15.0 and 6.5%), respectively, during the first 21d of life, even in animals receiving appropriate colostrum ingestion. PMID:26995131

  4. Application of One-step RT-PCR Used to Detect Bulk Milk in BVDV Eradication Programme%一步法RT—PCR检测大缸奶在BVDV清除计划中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄凯; 邵晓磊; 李锡智

    2011-01-01

    本文利用一步法RT—PCR对28个牛场共计50份大缸奶样进行了BVDV核酸检测。在与全群抗原检测结果对比后发现.9个已知存有PI牛的泌乳牛群,其大缸奶核酸检测均为阳性,其余41个已知无PI牛的泌乳牛群.除1个因为存在急性感染牛造成阳性结果外,其余40个均为阴性。由此可见,本方法对与泌乳牛群内是否存在PI牛可以做出准确判断,其检测灵敏度和特异性均为100%,阳性预测结果可信度为0.9(9/10),阴性预测结果可信度为0.98(40/41)。此外.针对50个大缸奶样进行的抗体检测表明,对于已感染牛场,泌乳牛群是否存在PI牛,抗体水平没有明显差异(OD1.12±0.12vsOD1.34±0.23,P〉0.05)。实验室条件下,本试验使用的RT—PCR方法对于阳性乳的最低检出限为50uL/头,因此理论上,最多可从1000份样品中检出阳性乳成分(总体积为50mL)。综上可知,本试验确立的RT—PCR方法灵敏度高、特异性强,可对泌乳牛群是否存在PI牛进行准确预测,相比大缸奶抗体检测更具实际指导意义,联合ELISA—Ag使用时还可大幅度降低泌乳牛群BVDV清除计划的检测成本,因而值得推广使用。%A single step, single-tube reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test was developed to detect the presence of bovine viral diarrhoea virus(BVDV) in somatic cells from bulk milk samples. The test was validated by examining 50 bulk milk samples from 28 herds with result of BVDV elimination programme. Results showed that a total of 9 groups which contained one persistently infected animal were positive on bulk milk samples. Another 41 herds were negative except one herd which was positive because there was one acute infection cow. So the test was proved to be highly specific and sensitivity, which the positive predictive value(PPV) and the negative predictive value

  5. Detection and Enumeration of Streptococcus agalactiae from Bovine Milk Samples by Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Nara Ladeira; Gonçalves, Juliano Leonel; Botaro, Bruno Garcia; Silva, Luis Felipe de Prada E; dos Santos, Marcos Veiga

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) combined with DNA extraction directly from composite milk and bulk tank samples for detection and enumeration of Streptococcus agalactiae (SAG) causing subclinical mastitis. Dilutions of sterile reconstituted skim milk inoculated with SAG ATCC 13813 were used to establish a standard curve (cfu/mL) for the qPCR assay targeting SAG. The analytical sensitivity and repeatability of the qPCR assay were determined. Bulk tank (BTM; n = 38) and composite milk samples (CM; n = 26) collected from lactating cows with positive isolation of SAG were submitted to the qPCR protocol and SAG plate counting, with results from both methods compared. Amplification of DNA was not possible in two out of 64 samples, indicating that qPCR was able to detect SAG in 96 and 97% of BTM and CM samples, respectively. The inter-assay coefficient of variation was <5%, showing that the technique had adequate repeatability. The qPCR protocol can be a high-throughput and rapid diagnostic assay to accurately detect SAG from BTM and CM samples compared with conventional microbiological culture method. However, the evaluated qPCR protocol is not accurate for enumerating SAG in milk samples, probably due to quantification of DNA of non-viable cells. PMID:26134534

  6. Microstructure of milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fat and protein in milk may be examined by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy, and any bacteria present may be viewed by light microscopy. The fat exists as globules, the bulk of the protein is in the form of casein micelles, a...

  7. 33 CFR 157.147 - Similar tank design: Inspections on foreign tank vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels...

  8. Tank characterization report for double-shell tank 241-AP-102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In April 1993, Double-Shell Tank 241-AP-102 was sampled to determine waste feed characteristics for the Hanford Grout Disposal Program. This Tank Characterization Report presents an overview of that tank sampling and analysis effort, and contains observations regarding waste characteristics, expected bulk inventory, and concentration data for the waste contents based on this latest sampling data and information on the history of the tank. Finally, this report makes recommendations and conclusions regarding tank operational safety issues

  9. Fatores de risco associados à alta contagem de células somáticas do leite do tanque em rebanhos leiteiros da Zona da Mata de Minas Gerais Risk factors associated with high bulk milk somatic cell count in dairy herds from Zona da Mata of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.N. Souza

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Características do rebanho e práticas de manejo associadas à contagem de células somáticas do leite do tanque (CCSLT foram estudadas em 175 rebanhos envolvidos em programas de acompanhamento entre junho de 2000 e dezembro de 2001. Os dados foram obtidos por meio de aplicação de questionários. Os rebanhos foram classificados em dois grupos de acordo com a média geométrica de seis CCSLT mensais, consecutivas, tendo como referência o valor de 500.000 células/ml. Os métodos estatísticos utilizados foram a análise exploratória dos dados e os modelos logísticos de regressão. Procedimentos relacionados ao controle e à prevenção de mastite foram adotados por pequeno número de rebanhos. O tipo de ordenha (manual, mecânica canalizada e balde-ao-pé, a idade média dos rebanhos, o local de ordenha e a realização de exames dos primeiros jatos de leite não foram associados à alta CCSLT. Os fatores associados à alta CCSLT foram a não adoção de linha de ordenha, a alimentação durante a ordenha e a ausência de anti-sepsia dos tetos após a ordenha.Herd features and management practices associated with high bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC were studied in 175 dairy herds enrolled on BMSCC programs. Herds data were obtained from June/2000 to December/2001 by questionnaires application. Herds were classified according to the geometric mean of six consecutive BMSCC records. Exploratory analysis and logistic regression models were the statistical analysis applied. Procedures about mastitis control and prevention were adopted in a few herds. Type of milking (machine or hand milking, herd age, milking place (milking parlour, pen, corral and strip test practice (first streams of milk were not associated with high BMSCC. Factors associated with high BMSCC were the following: do not milk clinical mastitic cows at the end of milking, feeding cows at milking and absence of post milking teat disinfection.

  10. Important vectors for Listeria monocytogenes transmission at farm dairies manufacturing fresh sheep and goat cheese from raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoder, Dagmar; Melzner, Daniela; Schmalwieser, Alois; Zangana, Abdoulla; Winter, Petra; Wagner, Martin

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the transmission routs of Listeria spp. in dairy farms manufacturing fresh cheese made from ovine and caprine raw milk and to evaluate the impact of Listeria monocytogenes mastitis on raw milk contamination. Overall, 5,799 samples, including 835 environmental samples, 230 milk and milk product samples, and 4,734 aseptic half-udder foremilk samples were collected from 53 dairy farms in the dairy intensive area of Lower Austria. Farms were selected for the study because raw milk was processed to cheese that was sold directly to consumers. A total of 153 samples were positive for Listeria spp., yielding an overall prevalence of 2.6%; L. monocytogenes was found in 0.9% of the samples. Bulk tank milk, cheese, and half-udder samples were negative for Listeria spp. Because none of the sheep and goats tested positive from udder samples, L. monocytogenes mastitis was excluded as a significant source of raw milk contamination. L. monocytogenes was detected at 30.2% of all inspected farms. Swab samples from working boots and fecal samples had a significantly higher overall prevalence (P milk processing environment (7.9%). A significant correlation was found between the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in the animal and in the milk processing environment and the silage feeding practices. Isolation of L. monocytogenes was three to seven times more likely from farms where silage was fed to animals throughout the year than from farms where silage was not fed to the animals. PMID:21669068

  11. 33 CFR 157.132 - Cargo tanks: Hydrocarbon vapor emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.132 Cargo tanks: Hydrocarbon vapor emissions. Each tank vessel having a COW system under §...

  12. 33 CFR 157.140 - Tank vessel inspections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Inspections § 157.140 Tank vessel inspections. (a) Before... having a COW system under § 157.10(e), § 157.10(a)(2), or § 157.10c(b)(2) and each foreign tank...

  13. 33 CFR 157.144 - Tank vessels of the same class: Inspections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Inspections § 157.144 Tank vessels...

  14. 33 CFR 157.134 - Cargo tank drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.134 Cargo...

  15. 7 CFR 58.512 - Cheese vats or tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... direct steam injection is used for heating the milk, the vat or tank may be of single shell construction. The steam shall be culinary steam. (b) Vats shall be equipped with valves to control the heating...

  16. Microbiological surveillance of a bovine raw milk farm through multiplex real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amagliani, Giulia; Petruzzelli, Annalisa; Omiccioli, Enrica; Tonucci, Franco; Magnani, Mauro; Brandi, Giorgio

    2012-05-01

    Raw milk is increasingly appreciated by consumers but can be contaminated by a variety of zoonotic pathogens. Therefore, preventive measures, such as on-farm hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) programs, must be applied to protect consumers. The aim of the present study was the comparison of a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay with a culture-based approach in an on-farm quality assurance program for the detection of Escherichia coli O157, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes in bulk tank milk, in-line milk filters, manure, and feces. Results revealed that the real-time PCR was more sensitive in detecting E. coli O157 than the culture method in filters (48% vs. 4% positive), manure (93% vs. 7% positive) and feces (60% vs. 4% positive). The two methods were equally efficient in detecting L. monocytogenes (8% of filters), while Salmonella spp. was not detected in any sample. In conclusion, the real-time PCR, by reducing analysis time to two working days, can be proposed as a useful tool in the raw milk primary production setting as a rapid and user-friendly screening method. PMID:22471929

  17. Milk lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milk fat conveys a number of desirable qualities to food, and various lipid components contribute to human nutrition and health. Over 96% of milk lipids consist of triacylglycerols, which contain a variety of fatty acids. Di- and monoacylglycerols, free fatty acids, sterols, and phospho-, glyco-,...

  18. Tank design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that aboveground tanks can be designed with innovative changes to complement the environment. Tanks can be constructed to eliminate the vapor and odor emanating from their contents. Aboveground tanks are sometimes considered eyesores, and in some areas the landscaping has to be improved before they are tolerated. A more universal concern, however, is the vapor or odor that emanates from the tanks as a result of the materials being sorted. The assertive posture some segments of the public now take may eventually force legislatures to classify certain vapors as hazardous pollutants or simply health risks. In any case, responsibility will be leveled at the corporation and subsequent remedy could increase cost beyond preventive measures. The new approach to design and construction of aboveground tanks will forestall any panic which might be induced or perceived by environmentalists. Recently, actions by local authorities and complaining residents were sufficient to cause a corporation to curtail odorous emissions through a change in tank design. The tank design change eliminated the odor from fuel oil vapor thus removing the threat to the environment that the residents perceived. The design includes reinforcement to the tank structure and the addition of an adsorption section. This section allows the tanks to function without any limitation and their contents do not foul the environment. The vapor and odor control was completed successfully on 6,000,000 gallon capacity tanks

  19. Variation in milk protein composition and its importance for the quality of cheese milk

    OpenAIRE

    Wedholm, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Variations within the bovine milk protein profile can have both positive and negative impacts on the quality of cheese milk. As main contributors to the cheese structure, the caseins are important for the cheese yield. During the last decades, the proportion of casein in relation to the total protein amount (the casein number) has decreased in Swedish bulk milk. This decline is unexplained and the reason for this deteriorating trend is unknown. Therefore, more knowledge in how the protein com...

  20. BACILLUS CEREUS: ISOLATION IN JENNET MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Scatassa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Jennet milk as human food is hypoallergenic for patients affected by Cow Milk Protein Allergy and multiple food allergies. For these pathologies, jennet milk represents the best alternative to other types of milk. Therefore, jennet milk consumers are very sensible to the effects of pathogens' contaminations, and several hygienic practices during the milk production need to be adopted. During regular monitoring in one Sicilian jennet farm, Bacillus cereus in the milk was detected. In 3 bulk milk samples (maximum concentration: 1.2 x 103 ufc/ml, in 3 individual milk samples (10, 20 e 60 ufc/ml, in the milk filter (5 ufc/cm2, in the soil (maximum concentration: 1.5 x 103 ufc/g, on the hands and the gloves of two milkers, on the animal hide (from 1 to 3 ufc/cm2. No spores were detected. A total of 8 Bacillus cereus s.s. strains were analyzed for diarrhoic toxin, and 6 strains producing enterotoxins resulted. The improvement of environmental and milking hygienic conditions reduced Bacillus cereus concentration.

  1. The Determination of Somatic Cell Count and Some Components of Raw Milk Evaluated By a Private Company in Trakya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Onal

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the amount of bulk tank somatic cell counts. Chemical and microbiological compositions of raw milk produced in Trakya were also reached in order to evaluate the structure of milk production. For this purpose 36 raw milk samples were collected from bulk milk tank within three different location of Trakya (18 samples from Edirne, 10 from Tekirdağ and 8 from Kırklareli. The arithmetic means and standard errors of fat percentages, non-fat dry matter, protein percentages, BTSCC (Bulk Tank Milk Somatic Cell Count and TB (Total Bacteria for Edirne, Tekirdağ and Kırklareli provinces were; 3.70 0.052, 3.60 0.098, 3.76 0.064; 8.34 0.025, 8.50 0.035, 8.39 0.038; 3.05 0.012, 3.09 0.019, 3.05 0.016; 308.555 26.510 SCC/ml (log 5.459 0.04 SCC/ml, 350.200 53.627 SCC/ml (Log 5.500 0.06 SCC/ml, 254.500 37.645 SCC/ml (Log 5.370 0.06 SCC/ml; 479.481 51.777 cfu/ml (Log 5.630 0.05 cfu/ml, 435.716 91.194 cfu/ml (Log 5.5230.12 cfu/ml, 446.958 81.515 cfu/ml (Log 5.602 0.075 cfu/ml respectively. Consequentially, the correlation coefficient for LogBTSCC and fat percentage, non-fat dry matter, protein percentage and LogTB were found to be 0.036, 0.251, 0.421 and 0.219 respectively. A significant (p<0.05 correlation coefficient was obtained between LogBTSCC and protein percentage.

  2. Milk Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lactoferrin, lactulose non-dairy creamers whey, whey hydrolysate Vegan foods are made without animal products, such as eggs or milk. You can buy vegan products at health food stores. Be careful to ...

  3. Potassium in milk and milk products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amount of potassium in imported processed milk was determined by gamma spectral analysis. The results show that the potassium content of diluted infant formula milk is closest to the reported mean concentration of potassium in human milk while other milk types have potassium values similar to the potassium content of cow milk. (Auth.). 2 figs., 5 refs

  4. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation §...

  5. Milk Thistle (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Milk Thistle (PDQ®)–Patient Version Overview Go to Health ... supplement (see Question 9 ). Questions and Answers About Milk Thistle What is milk thistle? Milk thistle is ...

  6. Cow's milk and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milk and children; Cow’s milk allergy - children; Lactose intolerance - children ... are overweight. Some children have problems from drinking cow's milk. For instance, a milk allergy may cause: Belly pain or cramping Nausea and ...

  7. SRS tank closure. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-level waste (HLW) tank closure technology is designed to stabilize any remaining radionuclides and hazardous constituents left in a tank after bulk waste removal. Two Savannah River Site (SRS) HLW tanks were closed after cleansing and then filling each tank with three layers of grout. The first layer consists of a chemically reducing grout. The fill material has chemical properties that retard the movement of some radionuclides and chemical constituents. A layer of controlled low-strength material (CLSM), a self-leveling fill material, is placed on top of the reducing grout. CLSM provides sufficient strength to support the overbearing weight. The final layer is a free-flowing, strong grout similar to normal concrete. After the main tank cavity is filled, risers are filled with grout, and all waste transfer piping connected to the tank is isolated. The tank ventilation system is dismantled, and the remaining systems are isolated. Equipment that remains with the tank is filled with grout. The tank and ancillary systems are left in a state requiring only limited surveillance. Administrative procedures are in place to control land use and access. DOE eventually plans to remove all of its HLW storage tanks from service. These tanks are located at SRS, Hanford, and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Low-activity waste storage tanks at Oak Ridge Reservation are also scheduled for closure

  8. SRS tank closure. Innovative technology summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-08-01

    High-level waste (HLW) tank closure technology is designed to stabilize any remaining radionuclides and hazardous constituents left in a tank after bulk waste removal. Two Savannah River Site (SRS) HLW tanks were closed after cleansing and then filling each tank with three layers of grout. The first layer consists of a chemically reducing grout. The fill material has chemical properties that retard the movement of some radionuclides and chemical constituents. A layer of controlled low-strength material (CLSM), a self-leveling fill material, is placed on top of the reducing grout. CLSM provides sufficient strength to support the overbearing weight. The final layer is a free-flowing, strong grout similar to normal concrete. After the main tank cavity is filled, risers are filled with grout, and all waste transfer piping connected to the tank is isolated. The tank ventilation system is dismantled, and the remaining systems are isolated. Equipment that remains with the tank is filled with grout. The tank and ancillary systems are left in a state requiring only limited surveillance. Administrative procedures are in place to control land use and access. DOE eventually plans to remove all of its HLW storage tanks from service. These tanks are located at SRS, Hanford, and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Low-activity waste storage tanks at Oak Ridge Reservation are also scheduled for closure.

  9. PRESENCE OF ENTEROCOCCI IN COW MILK AND THEIR ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Kročko

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Enterococci represent an important part of contaminate microflora in raw milk and dairy products. They constitute significant part of nosocomial pathogens with a remarkable capacity of expressing resistance to several antimicrobial  agents. We aimed to assess occurrence and antibiotic resistance of enterococci in the raw milk samples and pasteurized milk samples. In this study total bacterial count, psychrotrophic count and count of enterococci were determine in raw milk cistern samples, storage tank milk samples and milk samples after pasteurization. A collection of 46 enterococcal isolates were identified and screened for their antibiotic resistance. Isolates of E. faecalis were dominant in raw milk samples (56.5 %. Sensitive to teicoplanine (30 mcg/disk were 97.9 % of enterococcal isolates and 15.2 % isolates were resistant to vankomycin (30 mcg/disk.  

  10. Bulk undercooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattamis, T. Z.

    1984-01-01

    Bulk undercooling methods and procedures will first be reviewed. Measurement of various parameters which are necessary to understand the solidification mechanism during and after recalescence will be discussed. During recalescence of levitated, glass-encased large droplets (5 to 8 mm diam) high speed temperature sensing devices coupled with a rapid response oscilloscope are now being used at MIT to measure local thermal behavior in hypoeutectic and eutectic binary Ni-Sn alloys. Dendrite tip velocities were measured by various investigators using thermal sensors or high speed cinematography. The confirmation of the validity of solidification models of bulk-undercooled melts is made difficult by the fineness of the final microstructure, the ultra-rapid evolution of the solidifying system which makes measurements very awkward, and the continuous modification of the microstructure which formed during recalescence because of precipitation, remelting and rapid coarsening.

  11. Correlation between somatic cell count and chemical composition of cooled raw milk in properties of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Henrique do Nascimento Rangel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the damage caused by subclinical mastitis in loss of production and quality of milk, the present study aimed to verify the correlation between somatic cell count (SCC and the chemical composition of cooled raw milk collected in the Agreste region of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, in drought and rain seasons. Samples were collected in seven dairy farms during morning time, between January 2010 and March 2012, and sent to the Brazilian et of Milk Quality Laboratory (ESALQ/USP. The contents of protein, fat, lactose, casein, total solids, nonfat dry extract and urea nitrogen, besides of SCC and total bacterial count were performed. Data were submitted to analysis of variance, correlation analysis and comparison of means by Tuckey test , 5%. The average SCC was 604,000 cells/mL and had significant variation in the dry period (558 000 cells/mL and rainy (650 000 cells/mL. The SCC was positively correlated with fat and total solids but negatively with the lactose cow’s milk of bulk tank, regardless of the season in the Agreste of Rio Grande do Norte.

  12. Nitrogen tank

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Wanted The technical file about the pressure vessel RP-270 It concerns the Nitrogen tank, 60m3, 22 bars, built in 1979, and installed at Point-2 for the former L3 experiment. If you are in possession of this file, or have any files about an equivalent tank (probably between registered No. RP-260 and -272), please contact Marc Tavlet, the ALICE Glimos.

  13. 33 CFR 157.146 - Similar tank design: Inspections on U.S. tank vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Inspections... Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, of the zone in which the COW system is inspected, for only one...

  14. Safety evaluation for packaging (Onsite) transport of LSA-II liquids in MC-312 cargo tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This safety evaluation for packaging authorizes the onsite transfer of bulk LSA-II radioactive liquids in the 222-S Laboratory Cargo Tank and Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility Cargo Tanks (which are U.S. Department of Transportation MC-312 specification cargo tanks) from their operating facilities to tank farm facilities

  15. 33 CFR 157.116 - Required documents: U.S. tank vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General § 157.116 Required documents: U.S. tank vessels. The owner, operator, and master of a U.S. tank vessel having a COW system...

  16. 40 CFR 280.43 - Methods of release detection for tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... described in the American Petroleum Institute Publication 1621, “Recommended Practice for Bulk Liquid Stock... paragraph. (b) Manual tank gauging. Manual tank gauging must meet the following requirements: (1) Tank... of release detection. Tanks of 551 to 2,000 gallons may use the method in place of manual...

  17. Prevalence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk and dairy cattle in Southern Italy: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Marchetti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Paratuberculosis affects all ruminants worldwide. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP could have a role in human diseases like Crohn’s. Some extra European Union (EU countries request importation of MAP-free products. Italy has not yet actualised a control programme and the diffusion of the infection is still unknown in Southern Italy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of the infection in five regions of Southern Italy. Bulk tank milk and in-line milk filters were sampled in 780 dairy cattle herds and respectively analysed by ELISA and real time-polymerase chain reaction (PCR. One hundred and 55 out of 780 herds (19.9% were found positive by ELISA and/or real time PCR. Individual milk samples were then collected from all the producing animals of positive herds and from a selection of negative herds. The estimated prevalence varies from region to region between 2.8 and 5.5%. Our results indicate that the disease is widespread in the five regions. The observed prevalence could be underestimated.

  18. Spoilage potential of Pseudomonas species isolated from goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scatamburlo, T M; Yamazi, A K; Cavicchioli, V Q; Pieri, F A; Nero, L A

    2015-02-01

    Pseudomonas spp. are usually associated with spoilage microflora of dairy products due to their proteolytic potential. This is of particular concern for protein-based products, such as goat milk cheeses and fermented milks. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to characterize the proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. isolated from goat milk. Goat milk samples (n=61) were obtained directly from bulk tanks on dairy goat farms (n=12), and subjected to a modified International Organization for Standardization (ISO) protocol to determine the number and proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. Isolates (n=82) were obtained, identified by PCR, and subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with XbaI macro-restriction. Then, the isolates were subjected to PCR to detect the alkaline protease gene (apr), and phenotypic tests were performed to check proteolytic activity at 7°C, 25°C, and 35°C. Mean Pseudomonas spp. counts ranged from 2.9 to 4.8 log cfu/mL, and proteolytic Pseudomonas spp. counts ranged from 1.9 to 4.6 log cfu/mL. All isolates were confirmed to be Pseudomonas spp., and 41 were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens, which clustered into 5 groups sharing approximately 82% similarity. Thirty-six isolates (46.9%) were positive for the apr gene; and 57 (69.5%) isolates presented proteolytic activity at 7°C, 82 (100%) at 25°C, and 64 (78%) at 35°C. The isolates were distributed ubiquitously in the goat farms, and no relationship among isolates was observed when the goat farms, presence of apr, pulsotypes, and proteolytic activity were taken into account. We demonstrated proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. present in goat milk by phenotypic and genotypic tests and indicated their spoilage potential at distinct temperatures. Based on these findings and the ubiquity of Pseudomonas spp. in goat farm environments, proper monitoring and control of Pseudomonas spp. during production are critical. PMID:25497792

  19. Milk Money

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China’s leading food company has expanded its business into the dairy industry A combined financial venture between China’s largest agricultural trading and processing company and a private equity firm formed to milk profits from the dairy business has led to

  20. Coagulation properties of milk

    OpenAIRE

    Hallén, Elin

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of the different proteins in milk are important for the outcome of the coagulation processes which yield our dairy products, whereas total milk protein content is a poor indicator of coagulation properties of milk. In order to design the milk protein composition to meet dairy processing requirements, selection for genetic variants of milk proteins have been proposed. This work aimed to study genetic milk protein polymorphism and its association with the detailed milk protein co...

  1. Usage of antimicrobials on 60 dairy farms in Northern Germany and characterization of Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and extended spectrum beta-lactamases producing Escherichia coli (ESBLs-producing E. coli) isolated from bulk tank milk samples

    OpenAIRE

    Kreausukon, Khwanchai

    2011-01-01

    Das Ziel der Studie war, Informationen über den Einsatz von Antibiotika in deutschen Milchkuhherden zu sammeln. Zudem sollte auf das Vorkommen von MRSA und ESBL-produzierenden E. coli in Tankmilchproben untersucht werden. Fragebögen wurden unter den Herdenmanagern von 60 norddeutschen Betrieben (Herdengröße von 25 bis 3000 Tiere) verteilt, die auf freiwilliger Basis an den Untersuchungen teilnahmen. Tankmilchproben wurden in den Betrieben einmalig entnommen und auf das Vorkommen von MRSA u...

  2. Tracking sources of microbiologic contamination of raw milk during milking process in dairy farms from Agreste of Pernambuco/ Rastreamento de fontes da contaminação microbiológica do leite cru durante a ordenha em propriedades leiteiras do Agreste Pernambucano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Camelo Travassos de Arruda

    Full Text Available The procedures employed in milking process are determinant for obtaining milk with good microbiological quality. The study of contaminant microorganisms permits the identification of its source, what allows the adoption of control measures that will conform to the standards established by legislation. The aim of this work was to determine main points of milk microbiological contamination during milking process. For that mesophilic aerobes (MA, psychrotrophics (PS, coagulase positive Staphylococci (CPE, total coliforms (TC and Escherichia coli (EC were quantified in different steps of milking in six dairy farms and one communitarian bulk tank on Agreste region of Pernambuco, between august and september of 2005. Poor microbiological milk quality was indicated by the high counts of the groups of microorganisms studied. The average counts of microorganisms in milk samples from the dairy farms were 8,3 x 106 (MA, 2,6 x 107 (PS, 1,3 x 104 (CPE, 2,5 x 105 (TC and 3,7 x 103 (EC. In the milk collected from the communitarian bulk tank counts were 6,1 x 107 (MA, 3,4 x 107 (PS, 6,5 x 104 (CPE, > 1,5 x 104 (TC and 2,0 x 103 (EC.Most contaminated points found were residual water of cans, the bottom of cans, bulk tank, teats, first three jets of milk, teatcups, bucket and milker’s hands, and the main cause of milk contamination is improper employ or the absence of good hygiene practices during milking process.Os procedimentos empregados na ordenha são determinantes para a obtenção de leite de boa qualidade microbiológica. O estudo dos grupos de microrganismos contaminantes permite identificar sua origem, o que possibilita a adoção de medidas de controle de forma a atender os padrões estabelecidos pela legislação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar os principais pontos de contaminação microbiológica do leite durante a ordenha. Para isso foram enumerados microrganismos aeróbios mesófilos (AM, psicrotróficos (PS, Estafilococos coagulase

  3. Microencapsulation of babassu coconut milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audirene Amorim Santana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to obtain babassu coconut milk powder microencapsulated by spray drying process using gum Arabic as wall material. Coconut milk was extracted by babassu peeling, grinding (with two parts of water, and vacuum filtration. The milk was pasteurized at 85 ºC for 15 minutes and homogenized to break up the fat globules, rendering the milk a uniform consistency. A central composite rotatable design with a range of independent variables was used: inlet air temperature in the dryer (170-220 ºC and gum Arabic concentration (10-20%, w/w on the responses: moisture content (0.52-2.39%, hygroscopicity (6.98-9.86 g adsorbed water/100g solids, water activity (0.14-0.58, lipid oxidation (0.012-0.064 meq peroxide/kg oil, and process yield (20.33-30.19%. All variables influenced significantly the responses evaluated. Microencapsulation was optimized for maximum process yield and minimal lipid oxidation. The coconut milk powder obtained at optimum conditions was characterized in terms of morphology, particle size distribution, bulk and absolute density, porosity, and wettability.

  4. Covariance among milking frequency, milk yield, and milk composition from automatically milked cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvendahl, Peter; Chagunda, G G

    2011-01-01

    Automatic milking systems allow cows voluntary access to milking and concentrates within set limits. This leads to large variation in milking intervals, both within and between cows, which further affects yield per milking and composition of milk. This study aimed to describe the degree to which...... differences in milking interval were attributable to individual cows, and how this correlated to individual differences in yield and composition of milk throughout lactation. Data from 288,366 milkings from 664 cow-lactations were used, of which 229,020 milkings had milk composition results. Cows were...... variance was generally greatest in early lactation and declined thereafter. Accordingly, animal-related variance tended to increase with progression of lactation. Milking frequency (the reverse of milking interval) was found to be moderately repeatable throughout lactation. Daily milk yield expressed per...

  5. Making milk

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver, Carrie H.; Watson, Christine J.

    2013-01-01

    The transcription factor STAT5A is essential for two processes during mammary gland development. First, it controls the development of luminal progenitor cells from stem cells 1 and second, it has a role during pregnancy where it is required for alveologenesis 2 , 3 the production of clusters of luminal cells that synthesize and secrete milk during lactation. Thus, deletion of STAT5A in late pregnancy results in lactation failure. Alveologenesis requires the proliferation of a different linea...

  6. Pregnancy test via milk

    OpenAIRE

    H. Siemes; Woelders, H.

    2011-01-01

    Determining a pregnancy through the milk. Wageningen University is researching the possibilities. The first steps have been taken. Researchers have identified five milk proteins that release a signal of a pregnancy. A pregnancy test via the milk comes within sight.

  7. Analysis of milk sector

    OpenAIRE

    Šemberová, Veronika

    2014-01-01

    Milk and milk products are important sources of protein, vitamins and minerals that are hard to substitute in the human nutrition. In last two decades agricultural underwent several changes and the size of cattle herd decreased. Share of imports on consumption of milk and milk products increased and simultaneously export of raw milk grew. Self-sustainability in milk production so decreased from 118 % to 103 % between 2004 and 2009. The main aim of this thesis called Analysis of the sector ...

  8. Tank 241-S-111: Tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, ORNL, and PNL tank vapor program. Scope of this plan is to provide guidance for sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-S-111 (this tank is on the organic and flammable gas watch list). This tank received Redox plant waste, among other wastes

  9. Tank 241-U-204 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is the tank characterization plan for Tank 241-U-204 located in the 200 Area Tank Farm on the Hanford Reservation in Richland, Washington. This plan describes Data Quality Objectives (DQO) and presents historical information and scheduled sampling events for tank 241-U-204

  10. Tank 241-S-111: Tank characterization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-03-07

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, ORNL, and PNL tank vapor program. Scope of this plan is to provide guidance for sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-S-111 (this tank is on the organic and flammable gas watch list). This tank received Redox plant waste, among other wastes.

  11. Tank characterization report for double-shell Tank 241-AW-105

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiCenso, A.T.; Amato, L.C.; Franklin, J.D.; Lambie, R.W.; Stephens, R.H. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Kennewick, WA (United States); Simpson, B.C. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-09-28

    In May 1990, double-shell Tank 241-AW-105 was sampled to determine proper handling of the waste, to address corrosivity and compatibility issues, and to comply with requirements of the Washington Administrative Code. This Tank Characterization Report presents an overview of that tank sampling and analysis effort, and contains observations regarding waste characteristics. It also addresses expected concentration and bulk inventory data for the waste contents based on this latest sampling data and background tank information. This report summarizes the available information regarding the waste in Tank 241-AW-105, and using the historical information to place the analytical data in context, arranges this information in a useful format for making management and technical decisions concerning this waste tank. In addition, conclusions and recommendations are given based on safety issues and further characterization needs.

  12. Feed tank transfer requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover. Also, DOE and PC responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements are presented for two cases (i.e., tank modifications occurring before tank turnover and tank modification occurring after tank turnover). Finally, records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor are presented

  13. Assessment of dairy cow energy status using milk fat, protein and urea concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Kirovski Danijela; Šamanc Horea; Prodanović Radiša

    2012-01-01

    One of the ways to make an assessment of the energy status of cows in lactation is to consider the results obtained from the evaluation of the concentrations of organic milk components. The advantages of this method are that the taking of milk samples is not stressful for the cow and that it is also possible to use the results of milk examinations carried out by dairy plants within regular control. A bulk milk sample from all individual cows can be used, or...

  14. Tank Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    For NASA's Apollo program, McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company, Huntington Beach, California, developed and built the S-IVB, uppermost stage of the three-stage Saturn V moonbooster. An important part of the development task was fabrication of a tank to contain liquid hydrogen fuel for the stage's rocket engine. The liquid hydrogen had to be contained at the supercold temperature of 423 degrees below zero Fahrenheit. The tank had to be perfectly insulated to keep engine or solar heat from reaching the fuel; if the hydrogen were permitted to warm up, it would have boiled off, or converted to gaseous form, reducing the amount of fuel available to the engine. McDonnell Douglas' answer was a supereffective insulation called 3D, which consisted of a one-inch thickness of polyurethane foam reinforced in three dimensions with fiberglass threads. Over a 13-year development and construction period, the company built 30 tanks and never experienced a failure. Now, after years of additional development, an advanced version of 3D is finding application as part of a containment system for transporting Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) by ship.

  15. Microbiological Quality of Raw Goat Milk in Bogor, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Taufik

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Milk samples were investigated for counts and prevalence of indicator bacteria, which were TPC, coliforms, coagulase positive Staphylococci (CPS, and coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS. Ten potential risk factors were also evaluated in relation to the prevalence of indicator bacteria. The results showed that the median values of indicator bacterial counts from overall udder-half milk samples were 3.74, 0.70, 1.70, and 2.52 log cfu/ml and from bulk milk samples were 5.69, 2.98, 3.66 and 3.32 log cfu/ml for TPC, coliforms, CPS, and CNS, respectively. None of the median values of overall udder-half milk samples exceeded the maximum limit of the standards for all indicator bacteria. However, in the bulk milk samples only the median value of TPC below the maximum limit of the standards. Overall prevalence of coliforms, CPS and CNS from udder-half milk samples were 46.3%, 37.7%, and 66.0%, respectively, and from bulk milk samples were 86.7%, 76.7%, and 86.7%, respectively. Saanen crossbreed, fifth parity and udders with inflammation were found to be risk factors. This study results indicated that the hygienic practices in the dairy goat farms are still need to be increased. To increase the hygienic level of the milk, the identified significant risk factors must be controlled.

  16. Cow's milk and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milk and children; Cow’s milk allergy - children; Lactose intolerance - children ... You may have heard that cow's milk should not be given to babies younger than 1 year old. This is because cow's milk doesn't provide enough of certain ...

  17. The hygienic quality of raw reindeer milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kurki

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The somatic cell count (SCC and total bacterial count (TBC as well as the presence of major food-borne pathogens and udder pathogens in reindeer raw milk were studied. Two groups of 4 female reindeer were milked on alternate days for six weeks. A milk sample from each quarter was taken before milking and of the bulk milk at the end of milking. Micrococcus sp. was observed in one, Staphylococcus aureus in one and coagulase-negative staphylococci in five of the quarter samples (n=318. In the bulk milk (n=19 TBC varied between 700 and 1 700 000 cfu (colony forming units/ml and SCC between 52 000 and 183 000 cells/ml. No Bacillus cereus, S. aureus or Listeria monocytogenes were detected in the bulk milk, but Escherichia coli and Enterobacteriaceae were found in 5 bulk milk samples. According to the bacteriological examination the udder health of the reindeer was good. Indicative information on the SCC of healthy reindeer was obtained. None of the common potential food-poisoning bacteria were found in raw milk. There was great variation in the bulk milk TBC and the average TBC was rather high (ca. 300 000 cfu/ml. The hygienic quality of raw reindeer milk makes it well suited for food manufacture. However, the results indicate that the milking conditions may be crucial for the quality of raw milk.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto:Tutkimuksen kohteena oli poron raakamaidon solupitoisuus ja kokonaispesäkeluku sekä tärkeimpien elintarvike- ja utarepatogeenien esiintyminen raakamaidossa. Kaksi 4 vaatimen ryhmää lypsettiin vuoropäivinä 6 viikon ajan. Ennen lypsyä vaatimista otettiin vedinkohtaiset näytteet ja lypsyn päätyttyä näyte yhteismaidosta. Micrococcus sp. todettiin yhdessä, Staphylococcus aureus yhdessä ja koagulaasinegatiivisia stafylokokkeja viidessä vedinkohtaisessa näytteessä (n=318. Yhteismaitonäytteiden (n=19 kokonaispesäkeluvut vaihtelivat välillä 700-1 700 000 pmy (pesäkkeitä muodostava yksikkö/ml ja somaattisten

  18. The comparison of milk production and quality in cows from conventional and automatic milking systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Touov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of two different types of milking systems (conventional parlour vs. automatic milking system and the season of the year on the composition and hygienic quality of milk from Czech Fleckvieh cows. A total of 500 cows were involved; 200 and 300 in conventional and automatic milking systems, respectively. Bulk milk samples were collected for 12 months from July 2010 to June 2011. The following milk components and quality indicators were determined: % of fat, % of protein, % of lactose, % of fat-free dry matter (FFDM, % of casein, urea content, somatic cell count (SSC, total germ count (TGC and milk freezing point (FP. The data were processed and evaluated with MS Excel and the statistical software SAS 9.1. Significantly higher (P<0.05 0.01 contents of fat, protein, FFDM and casein and increased TGC were observed in the automatic milking system, whereas SCC and FP were significantly lower (P<0.01. The highest contents of fat, protein and casein, and the lowest lactose content were found in the winter season. The highest contents of FFDM, urea and SCC were observed in autumn, whereas TGC was highest in summer (P<0.05 0.01. Only FP was not influenced by the season.

  19. Prevalence of the pathogen microorganisms in raw cow milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelovski Ljupco

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to study the prevalence of Salmonella spp., Listeria spp., Staphylococcus spp. and E. coli in the raw cow milk. In this study 133 milk-tank samples from several milk collecting points were analysed. After the tests the following prevalence was detected: for Listeria spp. 13 positive samples (9.77%, with 9 Listeria monocytogenes samples confirmed (6.76%. Salmonella spp. was not detected in any of the the samples. The biggest presence was detected for Staphylococcus spp. with 113 positive samples (85.0%. Further testes has shown prevalence of coagulase-positive staphylococci of 73% (97 positive samples. Escherichia coli was confirmed in 57 samples (46.0%. The results from this study clearly indicate that pathogen microorganisms which are important for the human health can be found in the raw cow milk and their presence can be potential hazard for contamination of the milk-processing establishments.

  20. MIXING OF INCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS IN WASTE TANKS TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents onsite radiological, onsite toxicological, and offsite toxicological consequences, risk binning, and control decision results for the mixing of incompatible materials in waste tanks representative accident. Revision 4 updates the analysis to consider bulk chemical additions to single shell tanks (SSTs)

  1. 46 CFR 151.13-5 - Cargo segregation-tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo segregation-tanks. 151.13-5 Section 151.13-5... CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Cargo Segregation § 151.13-5 Cargo segregation—tanks. (a... and list the various degrees of segregation required. Paragraphs and (2) of this section explain...

  2. 33 CFR 157.118 - Required documents: Foreign tank vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General § 157.118 Required documents... having a COW system under § 157.10c(b)(2) shall ensure that the vessel does not enter the...

  3. Analysis Of Samples From Tank 6F Chemical Cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is preparing Tank 6F for closure. The first step in preparing the tank for closure is mechanical sludge removal. In mechanical sludge removal, personnel add liquid (e.g., inhibited water or supernate salt solution) to the tank to form a slurry. They mix the liquid and sludge with pumps, and transfer the slurry to another tank for further processing. Mechanical sludge removal effectively removes the bulk of the sludge from a tank, but is not able to remove all of the sludge. In Tank 6F, SRR estimated a sludge heel of 5,984 gallons remained after mechanical sludge removal. To remove this sludge heel, SRR performed chemical cleaning. The chemical cleaning included two oxalic acid strikes, a spray wash, and a water wash. SRR conducted the first oxalic acid strike as follows. Personnel added 110,830 gallons of 8 wt % oxalic acid to Tank 6F and mixed the contents of Tank 6F with two submersible mixer pumps (SMPs) for approximately four days. Following the mixing, they transferred 115,903 gallons of Tank 6F material to Tank 7F. The SMPs were operating when the transfer started and were shut down approximately five hours after the transfer started. SRR collected a sample of the liquid from Tank 6F and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. Mapping of the tank following the transfer indicated that 2,400 gallons of solids remained in the tank. SRR conducted the second oxalic acid strike as follows. Personnel added 28,881 gallons of 8 wt % oxalic acid to Tank 6F. Following the acid addition, they visually inspected the tank and transferred 32,247 gallons of Tank 6F material to Tank 7F. SRR collected a sample of the liquid from Tank 6F and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. Mapping of the tank following the transfer indicated that 3,248 gallons of solids remained in the tank. Following the oxalic acid strikes, SRR performed Spray Washing with oxalic acid to remove waste collected on internal structures, cooling coils, tank top internals, and tank

  4. Milk processing quality of suckled/milked goats: effects of milk accumulation interval and milking regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Högberg, M; Dahlborn, K; Hydbring-Sandberg, E; Hartmann, E; Andrén, A

    2016-05-01

    Milk with a high concentration of fat and casein is required for cheese production, and these components have a major impact for both quality and yield of the curd. Recent observations have shown that suckling can elevate milk fat concentration in goats and our aim was therefore to check the hypothesis that animal welfare and cheese-processing properties of goat milk could be optimised by appropriate management of suckled/milked goats. Twelve Swedish dairy goats were kept together with one kid each in 4 different mixed management-systems (milking combined with partial suckling) in a cross-over design. Two milk accumulation intervals were tested; Short = dams and kids were together for 16 h (T16) and Long = ; dams and kids were together for 8 h (T8 h). In addition, two milking regimes were used; Suckled Before Milking = S and Milked Before Suckling = M. Milk accumulation interval referred to how long dams and kids were separated. The milk yield available for processing (milk offtake), was weighed and analysed from each milking occasion and the suckled milk yield was estimated by a weigh-suckle-weigh method (WSW) in combination with observing the suckling behaviour during the free suckling periods. Milking managements, such as 'suckling before milking (S)', increased milk fat concentration compared to milking before suckling (M) and 'Short accumulation treatments (T16)' gave higher milk fat, casein concentration and individual curd yield (%) compared to the 'Long accumulation treatment (T8)'. The total individual curd yield (g) was the same despite treatment, but the animal welfare was most likely higher in T16 where dams and kids spent more time together. PMID:27056664

  5. Microbiological quality of goat's milk obtained under different production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Kyozaire

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the safety of milk produced by smallholder dairy goat farms, a farm-based research study was conducted on commercial dairy goat farms to compare the microbiological quality of milk produced using 3 different types of dairy goat production systems (intensive, semi-intensive and extensive. A survey of dairy goat farms in and around Pretoria carried out by means of a questionnaire revealed that most of the smallholder dairy goat farms surveyed used an extensive type of production system. The method of milking varied with the type of production system, i.e. machine milking; bucket system machine milking and hand-milking, respectively. Udder half milk samples (n=270 were analysed, of which 31.1 % were infected with bacteria. The lowest intra-mammary infection was found amongst goats in the herd under the extensive system (13.3 %, compared with 43.3 % and 36.7 % infection rates under the intensive and semi-intensive production systems, respectively. Staphylococcus intermedius (coagulase positive, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus simulans (both coagulase negative, were the most common cause of intramammary infection with a prevalence of 85.7 % of the infected udder halves. The remaining 14.3 % of the infection was due to Staphylococcus aureus. Bacteriology of bulk milk samples on the other hand, showed that raw milk obtained by the bucket system milking machine had the lowest total bacterial count (16 450 colony forming units (CFU/mℓ compared to that by pipeline milking machine (36 300 CFU/mℓ or handmilking (48 000 CFU/mℓ. No significant relationship was found between the somatic cell counts (SCC and presence of bacterial infection in goat milk. In comparison with the herds under the other 2 production systems, it was shown that dairy goat farming under the extensive production system, where hand-milking was used, can be adequate for the production of safe raw goat milk.

  6. Staphylococcus aureus genotype B and other genotypes isolated from cow milk in European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosandey, A; Boss, R; Luini, M; Artursson, K; Bardiau, M; Breitenwieser, F; Hehenberger, E; Lam, Th; Mansfeld, M; Michel, A; Mösslacher, G; Naskova, J; Nelson, S; Podpečan, O; Raemy, A; Ryan, E; Salat, O; Zangerl, P; Steiner, A; Graber, H U

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is globally one of the most important pathogens causing contagious mastitis in cattle. Previous studies, however, have demonstrated in Swiss cows that Staph. aureus isolated from bovine intramammary infection is genetically heterogeneous, with Staph. aureus genotype B (GTB) and GTC being the most prominent genotypes. In addition, Staph. aureus GTB was found to be contagious, whereas Staph. aureus GTC and all the remaining genotypes were involved in individual cow disease. The aim of this study was to subtype strains of Staph. aureus isolated from bovine mastitic milk and bulk tank milk to obtain a unified view of the presence of bovine staphylococcal subtypes in 12 European countries. A total of 456 strains of Staph. aureus were subjected to different typing methods: ribosomal spacer PCR, detection of enterotoxin genes, and detection of gene polymorphisms (lukE, coa). Major genotypes with their variants were combined into genotypic clusters (CL). This study revealed 5 major CL representing 76% of all strains and comprised CLB, CLC, CLF, CLI, and CLR. The clusters were characterized by the same genetic properties as the Swiss isolates, demonstrating high clonality of bovine Staph. aureus. Interestingly, CLB was situated in central Europe whereas the other CL were widely disseminated. The remaining 24% of the strains comprised 41 genotypes and variants, some of which (GTAM, GTBG) were restricted to certain countries; many others, however, were observed only once. PMID:26585469

  7. AX Tank Farm tank removal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    1999-02-24

    This report examines the feasibility of remediating ancillary equipment associated with the 241-AX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site. Ancillary equipment includes surface structures and equipment, process waste piping, ventilation components, wells, and pits, boxes, sumps, and tanks used to make waste transfers to/from the AX tanks and adjoining tank farms. Two remedial alternatives are considered: (1) excavation and removal of all ancillary equipment items, and (2) in-situ stabilization by grout filling, the 241-AX Tank Farm is being employed as a strawman in engineering studies evaluating clean and landfill closure options for Hanford single-shell tanks. This is one of several reports being prepared for use by the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project to explore potential closure options and to develop retrieval performance evaluation criteria for tank farms.

  8. 33 CFR 157.160 - Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil washing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... washing. 157.160 Section 157.160 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.160 Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil washing. (a) The owner, operator, and master of a tank vessel under §...

  9. 19 CFR 151.28 - Gauging of sirup or molasses discharged into storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gauging of sirup or molasses discharged into... Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.28 Gauging of sirup or molasses discharged into storage tanks. (a) Plans of storage tank to be filed. When sirup or molasses is imported in bulk in tank vessels and is...

  10. RECENT PROGRESS IN DOE WASTE TANK CLOSURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C

    2008-02-01

    The USDOE complex currently has over 330 underground storage tanks that have been used to process and store radioactive waste generated from the production of weapons materials. These tanks contain over 380 million liters of high-level and low-level radioactive waste. The waste consists of radioactively contaminated sludge, supernate, salt cake or calcine. Most of the waste exists at four USDOE locations, the Hanford Site, the Savannah River Site, the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center and the West Valley Demonstration Project. A summary of the DOE tank closure activities was first issued in 2001. Since then, regulatory changes have taken place that affect some of the sites and considerable progress has been made in closing tanks. This paper presents an overview of the current regulatory changes and drivers and a summary of the progress in tank closures at the various sites over the intervening six years. A number of areas are addressed including closure strategies, characterization of bulk waste and residual heel material, waste removal technologies for bulk waste, heel residuals and annuli, tank fill materials, closure system modeling and performance assessment programs, lessons learned, and external reviews.

  11. [Cow's milk protein allergy through human milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, M; Loras-Duclaux, I; Lachaux, A

    2012-03-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is the first allergy that affects infants. In this population, the incidence rate reaches 7.5%. The multiplicity and aspecificity of the symptoms makes its diagnosis sometimes complicated, especially in the delayed type (gastrointestinal, dermatological, and cutaneous). CMPA symptoms can develop in exclusively breastfed infants with an incidence rate of 0.5%. It, therefore, raises questions about sensitization to cow's milk proteins through breast milk. Transfer of native bovine proteins such as β-lactoglobulin into the breast milk is controversial: some authors have found bovine proteins in human milk but others point to cross-reactivity between human milk proteins and cow's milk proteins. However, it seems that a small percentage of dietary proteins can resist digestion and become potentially allergenic. Moreover, some authors suspect the transfer of some of these dietary proteins from the maternal bloodstream to breast milk, but the mechanisms governing sensitization are still being studied. Theoretically, CMPA diagnosis is based on clinical observations, prick-test or patch-test results, and cow's milk-specific IgE antibody concentration. A positive food challenge test usually confirms the diagnosis. No laboratory test is available to make a certain diagnosis, but the detection of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in the mother's milk, for example, seems to be advantageous since it is linked to CMA. Excluding cow's milk from the mother's diet is the only cure when she still wants to breastfeed. Usually, cow's milk proteins are reintroduced after 6 months of exclusion. Indeed, the prognosis for infants is very good: 80% acquire a tolerance before the age of 3 or 4 years. Mothers should not avoid dairy products during pregnancy and breastfeeding as preventive measures against allergy. PMID:22226014

  12. LIFE ESTIMATION OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANK STEEL FOR F-TANK FARM CLOSURE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, K

    2007-10-01

    High level radioactive waste (HLW) is stored in underground storage tanks at the Savannah River Site. The SRS is proceeding with closure of the 22 tanks located in F-Area. Closure consists of removing the bulk of the waste, chemical cleaning, heel removal, stabilizing remaining residuals with tailored grout formulations and severing/sealing external penetrations. A performance assessment is being performed in support of closure of the F-Tank Farm. Initially, the carbon steel construction materials of the high level waste tanks will provide a barrier to the leaching of radionuclides into the soil. However, the carbon steel liners will degrade over time, most likely due to corrosion, and no longer provide a barrier. The tank life estimation in support of the performance assessment has been completed. The estimation considered general and localized corrosion mechanisms of the tank steel exposed to the contamination zone, grouted, and soil conditions. The estimation was completed for Type I, Type III, and Type IV tanks in the F-Tank Farm. The tank life estimation in support of the F-Tank Farm closure performance assessment has been completed. The estimation considered general and localized corrosion mechanisms of the tank steel exposed to the contamination zone, grouted, and soil conditions. The estimation was completed for Type I, Type III, and Type IV tanks in the F-Tank Farm. Consumption of the tank steel encased in grouted conditions was determined to occur either due to carbonation of the concrete leading to low pH conditions, or the chloride-induced de-passivation of the steel leading to accelerated corrosion. A deterministic approach was initially followed to estimate the life of the tank liner in grouted conditions or in soil conditions. The results of this life estimation are shown in Table 1 and Table 2 for grouted and soil conditions respectively. The tank life has been estimated under conservative assumptions of diffusion rates. However, the same process of

  13. 49 CFR 172.330 - Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.330..., TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.330 Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a... material— (1) In a tank car unless the following conditions are met: (i) The tank car must be marked...

  14. Goat's milk: characteristics and possibility

    OpenAIRE

    Ljubica Tratnik; Rajka Božanić; Ida Drgalić

    2002-01-01

    Goat's milk today gets more and more attention. In comparison with other types of milk, the production of goat's milk increases the most. Although, the basic composition of goat's and cow's milk is very similar, goat's milk has an important dietetic and therapeutic advantages. In spite of that goat's milk is less explored. In this paper all main components of goat's milk and the somatic cells number are compared with cow's milk. Special emphasis is given on taste and therapeutic value of goat...

  15. Selenium content of milk and milk products of Turkey. II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanardağ, R; Orak, H

    1999-04-01

    Selenium content of 1028 milk and milk products of Turkey are presented in this study. The selenium content of human milk (colostrum, transitional, and mature milk), various kinds of milk [cow, sheep, goat, buffalo, paper boxes (3%, 1.5%, 0.012% fat), bottled milk, condensed milk (10% fat), mineral added milk (1.6%), and banana, strawberry, and chocolate milk] and milk products (kefir, yogurt, Ayran, various cheese, coffee cream, ice cream, butter, margarine, milk powder, and fruit yogurt) in Turkey were determined by a spectrofluorometric method. The selenium levels of cow milks collected from 57 cities in Turkey were also determined. Selenium levels in cow milk varied with geographical location in Turkey and were found to be lowest for Van and highest for Aksaray. The results [milk (cow, sheep, goat, buffalo and human) and milks products] were compared with literature data from different countries. PMID:10208658

  16. AX Tank Farm tank removal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report considers the feasibility of exposing, demolishing, and removing underground storage tanks from the 241-AX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site. For the study, it was assumed that the tanks would each contain 360 ft3 of residual waste (corresponding to the one percent residual Inventory target cited in the Tri-Party Agreement) at the time of demolition. The 241-AX Tank Farm is being employed as a ''strawman'' in engineering studies evaluating clean and landfill closure options for Hanford single-shell tank farms. The report is one of several reports being prepared for use by the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project to explore potential closure options and to develop retrieval performance evaluation criteria for tank farms

  17. AX Tank Farm tank removal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    1998-10-14

    This report considers the feasibility of exposing, demolishing, and removing underground storage tanks from the 241-AX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site. For the study, it was assumed that the tanks would each contain 360 ft{sup 3} of residual waste (corresponding to the one percent residual Inventory target cited in the Tri-Party Agreement) at the time of demolition. The 241-AX Tank Farm is being employed as a ''strawman'' in engineering studies evaluating clean and landfill closure options for Hanford single-shell tank farms. The report is one of several reports being prepared for use by the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project to explore potential closure options and to develop retrieval performance evaluation criteria for tank farms.

  18. Cow's milk - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002448.htm Cow's milk - infants To use the sharing features on this ... old, you should not feed your baby cow's milk, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). ...

  19. Breastfeeding and Breast Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Breastfeeding and Breast Milk: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Breastfeeding and Breast Milk: Condition Information​ ​​Breastfeeding, also called nursing, is the ...

  20. Milk-alkali syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000332.htm Milk-alkali syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Milk-alkali syndrome is a condition in which there ...

  1. DEMONSTRATION BULK VITRIFICATION SYSTEM (DBVS) EXTERNAL REVIEW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford mission to retrieve and immobilize 53 million gallons of radioactive waste from 177 underground storage tanks will be accomplished using a combination of processing by the waste treatment plant currently under construction, and a supplemental treatment that would process low-activity waste. Under consideration for this treatment is bulk vitrification, a versatile joule-heated melter technology which could be deployed in the tank farms. The Department proposes to demonstrate this technology under a Research, Development and Demonstration (RD and D) permit issued by the Washington State Department of Ecology using both non-radioactive simulant and blends of actual tank waste. From the demonstration program, data would be obtained on cost and technical performance to enable a decision on the potential use of bulk vitrification as the supplemental treatment technology for Hanford. An independent review by sixteen subject matter experts was conducted to assure that the technical basis of the demonstration facility design would be adequate to meet the objectives of the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) program. This review explored all aspects of the program, including flowsheet chemistry, project risk, vitrification, equipment design and nuclear safety, and was carried out at a time when issues can be identified and corrected. This paper describes the mission need, review approach, technical recommendations and follow-on activities for the DBVS program

  2. Qualidade microbiológica do leite refrigerado nas fazendas Microbiological quality of refrigerated milk on farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.F. Arcuri

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a qualidade microbiológica do leite obtido mecanicamente e refrigerado durante 48 horas, em 24 rebanhos, e a associação entre a contaminação microbiana e os procedimentos de higienização dos equipamentos de ordenha e armazenamento do leite. Os procedimentos de higiene foram avaliados in loco com auxilio de questionários. Foram realizadas a contagem padrão em placas, a contagem de coliformes totais e a pesquisa de Staphylococcus aureus e Streptococcus agalactiae. No leite de 14 rebanhos, foram pesquisadas Salmonella spp. e Listeria monocytogenes. As médias geométricas da contagem padrão foram 10³ UFC/ml foram verificadas em sete rebanhos. S. aureus e S. agalactiae foram isolados em 22 e 12 dos 24 rebanhos, respectivamente, e não foram encontradas Salmonella spp. e L. monocytogenes. O uso de detergentes alcalino e ácido, mais o de sanitizante foi associado (P5×10(5 UFC/ml.The effect of bulk tank and milking machine cleaning procedures (determined from a questionnaire on bacterial contamination of 48-hour refrigerated milk was examined in 24 herds. Milk samples were analyzed for standard plate count (SPC and for total coliform, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae contamination. Milk samples from 14 herds were cultured for Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes. Geometrical means of SPC were 10³ UFC/ml of total coliforms were observed in seven herds. S. aureus and S. agalactiae were found in 22 and 12 herds, respectively. Salmonella and L. monocytogenes were not found in any of the samples. The use of alkaline and acid detergents plus sanitizing was associated (P5.0×10(5 UFC/ml.

  3. Milk Allergy in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Milk Allergy in Infants KidsHealth > For Parents > Milk Allergy ... español Alergia a la leche en bebés About Milk Allergy Almost all infants are fussy at times. ...

  4. Special Milk Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Agriculture, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Special Milk Program provides milk to children in schools, child care institutions and eligible camps that do not participate in other Federal child nutrition meal service programs. The program reimburses schools and institutions for the milk they serve. In 2008, 4,676 schools and residential child care institutions participated, along with…

  5. Milk demystified by chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obladen, Michael

    2014-09-01

    This article traces the decline of milk from a heavenly elixir to a tradeable food. Early cultures regarded milk not as a simple nutrient, but a living fluid. Heroes and gods were believed to have been nurtured by animals after being abandoned. Character traits were assumed to be transmitted by milk; infantile diseases were attributed to "bad milk", whereas "good milk" was used as a remedy. With chemical methods developed at the end of the 18th century, it became known that human milk was higher in sugar and lower in protein than cow's milk. During the 19th century, "scientific" feeding emerged that meant modifying cow's milk to imitate the proportion of nutrients in human milk. In Boston from 1893, Rotch initiated the "percentage" method, requiring a physician's prescription. In Paris from 1894, Budin sterilized bottled infant milk. In Berlin in 1898, Rubner measured oxygen and energy uptake by calorimetry, prompting feeding by calories, and Czerny introduced regulated feeding by the clock. These activities ignored the emotional dimension of infant nutrition and the anti-infective properties of human milk. They may have also enhanced the decline in breastfeeding, which reached an all-time low in 1971. Milk's demystification made artificial nutrition safer, but paved the way for commercially produced infant formula. PMID:24558227

  6. Alternative to decrease cholesterol in sheep milk cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Cortés, P; Viturro, E; Juárez, M; de la Fuente, M A

    2015-12-01

    The presence of cholesterol in foods is of nutritional interest because high levels of this molecule in human plasma are associated with an increasing risk of cardiovascular disease and nowadays consumers are demanding healthier products. The goal of this experiment was to diminish the cholesterol content of Manchego, the most popular Spanish cheese manufactured from ewes milk. For this purpose three bulk milks coming from dairy ewe fed with 0 (Control), 3 and 6% of linseed supplement on their diet were used. Nine cheeses (3 per bulk milk) were manufactured and ripened for 3 months. Cholesterol of ewes milk cheese from 6% to 12% linseed supplemented diets decreased by 9.6% and 16.1% respectively, therefore supplying a healthier profile. In a second experiment, different sources of unsaturated fatty acids (rich in oleic, linoleic and α-linolenic acids) were supplemented to dairy ewes and no significant differences were found on cheese cholesterol levels. PMID:26041199

  7. Tank 241-C-103 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data quality objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used to identify the sampling analytical needs for the resolution of safety issues. A Tank Characterization Plant (TCP) will be developed for each double shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process. There are four Watch list tank classifications (ferrocyanide, organic salts, hydrogen/flammable gas, and high heat load). These classifications cover the six safety issues related to public and worker health that have been associated with the Hanford Site underground storage tanks. These safety issues are as follows: ferrocyanide, flammable gas, organic, criticality, high heat, and vapor safety issues. Tank C-103 is one of the twenty tanks currently on the Organic Salts Watch List. This TCP will identify characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, hot cell sample isolation, and laboratory analytical evaluation and reporting requirements in accordance with the appropriate DQO documents. In addition, the current contents and status of the tank are projected from historical information. The relevant safety issues that are of concern for tanks on the Organic Salts Watch List are: the potential for an exothermic reaction occurring from the flammable mixture of organic materials and nitrate/nitrite salts that could result in a release of radioactive material and the possibility that other safety issues may exist for the tank

  8. Tank 241-AW-101 tank characterization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathyanarayana, P.

    1994-11-22

    The first section gives a summary of the available information for Tank AW-101. Included in the discussion are the process history and recent sampling events for the tank, as well as general information about the tank such as its age and the risers to be used for sampling. Tank 241-AW-101 is one of the 25 tanks on the Flammable Gas Watch List. To resolve the Flammable Gas safety issue, characterization of the tanks, including intrusive tank sampling, must be performed. Prior to sampling, however, the potential for the following scenarios must be evaluated: the potential for ignition of flammable gases such as hydrogen-air and/or hydrogen-nitrous oxide; and the potential for secondary ignition of organic-nitrate/nitrate mixtures in crust layer initiated by the burning of flammable gases or by a mechanical in-tank energy source. The characterization effort applicable to this Tank Characterization Plan is focused on the resolution of the crust burn flammable gas safety issue of Tank AW-101. To evaluate the potential for a crust burn of the waste material, calorimetry tests will be performed on the waste. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) will be used to determine whether an exothermic reaction exists.

  9. Tank 241-AW-101 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first section gives a summary of the available information for Tank AW-101. Included in the discussion are the process history and recent sampling events for the tank, as well as general information about the tank such as its age and the risers to be used for sampling. Tank 241-AW-101 is one of the 25 tanks on the Flammable Gas Watch List. To resolve the Flammable Gas safety issue, characterization of the tanks, including intrusive tank sampling, must be performed. Prior to sampling, however, the potential for the following scenarios must be evaluated: the potential for ignition of flammable gases such as hydrogen-air and/or hydrogen-nitrous oxide; and the potential for secondary ignition of organic-nitrate/nitrate mixtures in crust layer initiated by the burning of flammable gases or by a mechanical in-tank energy source. The characterization effort applicable to this Tank Characterization Plan is focused on the resolution of the crust burn flammable gas safety issue of Tank AW-101. To evaluate the potential for a crust burn of the waste material, calorimetry tests will be performed on the waste. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) will be used to determine whether an exothermic reaction exists

  10. Tank characterization report for single-shell tank 241-S-104

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiCenso, A.T.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-09-29

    In July and August 1992, Single-Shell Tank 241-S-104 was sampled as part of the overall characterization effort directed by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Sampling was also performed to determine proper handling of the waste, to address corrosivity and compatibility issues, and to comply with requirements of the Washington Administrative Code. This Tank Characterization Report presents an overview of that tank sampling and analysis effort, and contains observations regarding waste characteristics. It also presents expected concentration and bulk inventory data for the waste contents based on this latest sampling data and background historical and surveillance tank information. Finally, this report makes recommendations and conclusions regarding operational safety. The purpose of this report is to describe the characteristics the waste in Single-Shell Tank 241-S-104 (hereafter, Tank 241-S-104) based on information obtained from a variety of sources. This report summarizes the available information regarding the chemical and physical properties of the waste in Tank 241-S-104, and using the historical information to place the analytical data in context, arranges this information in a format useful for making management and technical decisions concerning waste tank safety and disposal issues. In addition, conclusions and recommendations are presented based on safety issues and further characterization needs.

  11. Tank characterization report for single-shell tank 241-S-104

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In July and August 1992, Single-Shell Tank 241-S-104 was sampled as part of the overall characterization effort directed by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Sampling was also performed to determine proper handling of the waste, to address corrosivity and compatibility issues, and to comply with requirements of the Washington Administrative Code. This Tank Characterization Report presents an overview of that tank sampling and analysis effort, and contains observations regarding waste characteristics. It also presents expected concentration and bulk inventory data for the waste contents based on this latest sampling data and background historical and surveillance tank information. Finally, this report makes recommendations and conclusions regarding operational safety. The purpose of this report is to describe the characteristics the waste in Single-Shell Tank 241-S-104 (hereafter, Tank 241-S-104) based on information obtained from a variety of sources. This report summarizes the available information regarding the chemical and physical properties of the waste in Tank 241-S-104, and using the historical information to place the analytical data in context, arranges this information in a format useful for making management and technical decisions concerning waste tank safety and disposal issues. In addition, conclusions and recommendations are presented based on safety issues and further characterization needs

  12. Tank characterization report for single-shell tank 241-T-104

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In August 1992, Single-Shell Tank 241-T-104 was sampled to determine proper handling of the waste, to address corrosivity and compatibility issues, and to comply with requirements of the Washington Administrative Code (Ecology, 1991). This Tank Characterization Report presents an overview of that tank sampling and analysis effort, and contains observations regarding waste characteristics. It also addresses expected concentration and bulk inventory data for the waste contents based on this latest sampling data and background tank information. The purpose of this report is to describe and characterize the waste in Single-Shall Tank 241-T-104 (hereafter, Tank 241-T-104) based on information given from various sources. This report summarizes the available information regarding the waste in Tank 241-T-104, and using the historical information to place the analytical data in context, arranges this information in a useful format for making management and technical decisions concerning this waste tank. In addition, conclusions and recommendations are given based on safety issues and further characterization needs

  13. Theoretical comparison between solar combisystems based on bikini tanks and tank-in-tank solar combisystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanshenas, Eshagh; Furbo, Simon; Bales, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical investigations have shown that solar combisystems based on bikini tanks for low energy houses perform better than solar domestic hot water systems based on mantle tanks. Tank-in-tank solar combisystems are also attractive from a thermal performance point of view. In this paper......, theoretical comparisons between solar combisystems based on bikini tanks and tank-in-tank solar combisystems are presented....

  14. Tank characterization report: Tank 241-C-109

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single-shell tank 241-C-109 is a Hanford Site Ferrocyanide Watch List tank that was most recently sampled in September 1992. Analyses of materials obtained from tank 241-C-109 were conducted to support the resolution of the ferrocyanide unreviewed safety question (USQ) and to support Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and consent Order (Tri- Party Agreement) Milestone M-10-00. This report describes this analysis

  15. Tank characterization report: Tank 241-C-109

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, B.C.; Borshiem, G.L.; Jensen, L.

    1993-09-01

    Single-shell tank 241-C-109 is a Hanford Site Ferrocyanide Watch List tank that was most recently sampled in September 1992. Analyses of materials obtained from tank 241-C-109 were conducted to support the resolution of the ferrocyanide unreviewed safety question (USQ) and to support Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and consent Order (Tri- Party Agreement) Milestone M-10-00. This report describes this analysis.

  16. Tank 241-B-101 tank characterization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, R.D. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-04-28

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) has advised the US Department of Energy (DOE) to concentrate the near-term sampling and analysis activities on identification and resolution of safety issues (Conway 1993). The data quality objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used to identify the sampling and analytical needs for the resolution of safety issues. As a result, a revision in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement or TPA) milestone M-44 has been made, which states that ``A Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) will be developed for each double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process``. This document satisfies that requirement for tank 241-B-101 (B-101) sampling activities. Tank B-101 is identified as a low-heat load non-Watch List tank, and is classified as an assumed leaker. The tank is passively ventilated, interim stabilized, and intrusion prevention measures have been completed. As of January 31, 1995, approximately 428,000 liters of non-complexed waste was contained in the tank. Tank B-101 is expected to have two primary layers. A layer of saltcake waste generated from the 242-B evaporator, followed by a top layer of sludge composed of B-Plant high-level, B-Plant low-level, and unknown waste.

  17. Tank 244A tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Double-Shell Tank (DST) System currently receives waste from the Single-Shell Tank (SST) System in support of SST stabilization efforts or from other on-site facilities which generate or store waste. Waste is also transferred between individual DSTs. The mixing or commingling of potentially incompatible waste types at the Hanford Site must be addressed prior to any waste transfers into the DSTs. The primary goal of the Waste Compatibility Program is to prevent the formation of an Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) as a result of improper waste management. Tank 244A is a Double Contained Receiver Tank (DCRT) which serves as any overflow tank for the East Area Farms. Waste material is able to flow freely between the underground storage tanks and tank 244A. Therefore, it is necessary to test the waste in tank 244A for compatibility purposes. Two issues related to the overall problem of waste compatibility must be evaluated: Assurance of continued operability during waste transfer and waste concentration and Assurance that safety problems are not created as a result of commingling wastes under interim storage. The results of the grab sampling activity prescribed by this Tank Characterization Plan shall help determine the potential for four kinds of safety problems: criticality, flammable gas accumulation, energetics, and corrosion and leakage

  18. 9 CFR 94.16 - Milk and milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... are not limited to condensed milk, long-life milks such as sterilized milk, casein and caseinates... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Milk and milk products. 94.16 Section... VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY: PROHIBITED AND RESTRICTED IMPORTATIONS § 94.16...

  19. Effect of flavored milk vs plain milk on total milk intake and nutrient provision in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayet-Moore, Flavia

    2016-01-01

    Concerns surrounding added sugars and their effects on health have created a need to review the literature to assess consumption of flavored milk, consumer preferences for flavored milk, behavior related to the intake of flavored milk, and the effect of flavored milk on the diet and health of children. A review of the literature was performed using the following keywords: milk, flavored, flavoured, sweetened, and chocolate. The search was limited to articles published in English, studies conducted in children, and studies reporting on prevalence of consumption, trends in consumption, preferences for flavored milk, intakes of milk and nutrients, and health outcomes. Fifty-three studies were included. Flavored milk receives the highest palatability rating among children. Children drink more flavored milk than plain milk and, when flavored milk is not available, children drink less plain milk and, consequently, less milk overall. Consumers of flavored milk have a higher total milk intake. Micronutrient intake among consumers of flavored milk is similar to that among consumers of plain milk, while intakes of energy and sugars vary, owing to differences in reporting across studies. There is no association between flavored milk intake and weight status among normal-weight children, and some contradictory effects of flavored milk intake have been observed in subgroups of overweight children. Flavored milk is a palatable beverage choice that helps children to meet calcium targets. Further research to test the effect of flavored milk consumption among overweight children is warranted. PMID:26534904

  20. Think tanks in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsten, Mark; Nørgaard Kristensen, Nete

    2016-01-01

    Though think tanks have a long history internationally, they have especially in recent years come to play an increasingly important role in both policy-formulation and public debate. In this article, we analyse the growing presence of think tanks in a Danish context during the 2000s and the first...... half of the 2010s, because in this national setting think tanks are still a relatively new phenomenon. Based on theories of mediatization and de-corporatization, we present 1) an analysis of the visibility of selected Danish think tanks in the media and 2) an analysis of their political networks...... outside the media. The study shows that the two largest and oldest think tanks in Denmark, the liberal think tank CEPOS and the social democratic think tank ECLM, are very active and observable in the media; that the media’s distribution of attention to these think tanks, to some extent, confirms a re...

  1. Tank 241-TY-101 Tank Characterization Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-TY-101

  2. Tank 241-U-105 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-U-105

  3. Tank 241-U-103 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-U-103

  4. Tank 241-SX-103 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-SX-103

  5. Tank 241-BX-104 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-BX-104

  6. Tank 241-T-107 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-T-107

  7. Tank 241-TY-101 Tank Characterization Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-03-20

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-TY-101.

  8. Tank 241-T-111 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-T-111

  9. Tank 241-TX-105 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-TX-105

  10. 33 CFR 157.110 - Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual for foreign tank vessels: Submission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Crude Oil Washing Operations and... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General § 157.110 Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual for foreign tank...

  11. 33 CFR 157.108 - Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual for U.S. tank vessels: Submission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Crude Oil Washing Operations and... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General § 157.108 Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual for U.S. tank...

  12. Bayesian estimation of test characteristics of real-time PCR, bacteriological culture and California mastitis test for diagnosis of intramammary infections with Staphylococcus aureus in dairy cattle at routine milk recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmmod, Yasser S; Toft, Nils; Katholm, Jørgen; Grønbæk, Carsten; Klaas, Ilka C

    2013-11-01

    Danish farmers can order a real-time PCR mastitis diagnostic test on routinely taken cow-level samples from milk recordings. Validation of its performance in comparison to conventional mastitis diagnostics under field conditions is essential for efficient control of intramammary infections (IMI) with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Therefore, the objective of this study was to estimate the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of real-time PCR, bacterial culture (BC) and California mastitis test (CMT) for the diagnosis of the naturally occurring IMI with S. aureus in routinely collected milk samples using latent class analysis (LCA) to avoid the assumption of a perfect reference test. Using systematic random sampling, a total of 609 lactating dairy cows were selected from 6 dairy herds with bulk tank milk PCR cycle threshold (Ct) value ≤39 for S. aureus. At routine milk recordings, automatically obtained cow-level (composite) milk samples were analyzed by PCR and at the same milking, 2436 quarter milk samples were collected aseptically for BC and CMT. Results showed that 140 cows (23%) were positive for S. aureus IMI by BC while 170 cows (28%) were positive by PCR. Estimates of Se and Sp for PCR were higher than test estimates of BC and CMT. SeCMT was higher than SeBC however, SpBC was higher than SpCMT. SePCR was 91%, while SeBC was 53%, and SeCMT was 61%. SpPCR was 99%, while SpBC was 89%, and SpCMT was 65%. In conclusion, PCR has a higher performance than the conventional diagnostic tests (BC and CMT) suggesting its usefulness as a routine test for accurate diagnosis of S. aureus IMI from dairy cows at routine milk recordings. The use of LCA provided estimates of the test characteristics for two currently diagnostic tests (BC, CMT) and a novel technique (real-time PCR) for diagnosing S. aureus IMI under field conditions at routine milk recordings in Denmark. PMID:23992955

  13. The importance of milk and milk products in human nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Plisková, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    Milk and dairy products are a pivotal part of human nutrition for all life. In this work all the important components of milk and then influence the consumption of milk and milk products on human health are evaluated. Milk is an important source of energy in the form of carbohydrates, proteins and fats, also substances for enhancing metabolism i.e. vitamins and minerals. This work also describes in details specific dairy products. Milk is very important immediately after birth, breast mil...

  14. Effects of storage on the major constituents of raw milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Zajác

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Milk testing and quality control should be carried out at all stages of the dairy chain. Milk can be tested for quantity, organoleptic characteristic, compositional characteristic, physical and chemical characteristics, hygienic characteristics, adulteration or drug residues. The content of the major constituents of raw milk is important for milk payment system. Enzymes naturally present in the milk can change the chemical composition of raw milk. Also, enzymes secreted by bacteria or enzymes from somatic cells can degrade the raw milk composition. Products of these degradation reactions can have undesirable effects on milk structure, smell and taste. It is very important that farm-fresh raw milk be cooled immediately to not more than 8 °C in the case of daily collection, or not more than 6 °C if collection is not daily. During transport the cold chain must be maintained. An authorized person, properly trained in the appropriate technique, shall perform sampling of bulk milk in farm. Laboratory samples should be dispatched immediately after sampling to the dairy company and consequently to the testing laboratory. The time for dispatch of the samples to the testing laboratory should be as short as possible, preferably within 24 h. Laboratory samples shall be transported and stored at temperature 1 to 5 °C. Higher temperatures may adversely affect the composition of the laboratory sample and may cause disputes between the farmer, the dairy company and the laboratory. The effect of refrigerated storage at temperature 4 °C during 24 h on the composition of raw milk were investigated in this work, because we wanted to know how the milk composition will be changed and how the laboratory results will be affected. In many cases, the samples are not preserved with chemical preservants like azidiol, bronopol, potassium dichromate or Microtabs. We found, that the composition of raw cows' milk after 24 was changed significantly (p >0.005. We found an

  15. Feed tank transfer requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover; DOE responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements; records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor for use during Phase 1B

  16. Tank 241-AZ-101 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has advised the DOE to concentrate the near-term sampling and analysis activities on identification and resolution of safety issues. The Data Quality Objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used in the resolution of safety issues. As a result, A revision in the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestone M-44 has been made, which states that ''A Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) will also be developed for each double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process. Development of TCPs by the DQO process is intended to allow users to ensure their needs will be met and that resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information''. This document satisfies that requirement for Tank 241-AZ-101 (AZ-101) sampling activities. Tank AZ-101 is currently a non-Watch List tank, so the only DQOs applicable to this tank are the safety screening DQO and the compatibility DQO, as described below. The contents of Tank AZ-101, as of October 31, 1994, consisted of 3,630 kL (960 kgal) of dilute non-complexed waste and aging waste from PUREX (NCAW, neutralized current acid waste). Tank AZ-101 is expected to have two primary layers. The bottom layer is composed of 132 kL of sludge, and the top layer is composed of 3,500 kL of supernatant, with a total tank waste depth of approximately 8.87 meters

  17. Tank 241-AZ-102 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has advised the DOE to concentrate the near-term sampling and analysis activities on identification and resolution of safety issues. The Data Quality Objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used in the resolution of safety issues. As a result, a revision in the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestone M-44 has been made, which states that ''A Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) will also be developed for each double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process ... Development of TCPs by the DQO process is intended to allow users to ensure their needs will be met and that resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information''. This document satisfies that requirement for tank 241-AZ-102 (AZ-102) sampling activities. Tank AZ-102 is currently a non-Watch List tank, so the only DQOs applicable to this tank are the safety screening DQO and the compatibility DQO, as described below. The current contents of Tank AZ-102, as of October 31, 1994, consisted of 3,600 kL (950 kgal) of dilute non-complexed waste and aging waste from PUREX (NCAW, neutralized current acid waste). Tank AZ-102 is expected to have two primary layers. The bottom layer is composed of 360 kL of sludge, and the top layer is composed of 3,240 kL of supernatant, with a total tank waste depth of approximately 8.9 meters

  18. Evaluation of an O antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for screening of milk samples for Salmonella dublin infection in dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Lind, Peter; Bitsch, V.

    1995-01-01

    Levels of antibodies to the O antigens (0:1,9,12) of Salmonella dublin were tested in 1355 serum, 1143 cow milk and 160 bulk milk samples from dairy herds using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In order to define the background reaction, milk samples from all lactating cows and serum...

  19. The minerals of milk

    OpenAIRE

    Gaucheron, Frédéric

    2005-01-01

    International audience The salt of milk constitutes a small part of milk (8-9 g*L-1); this fraction contains calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium for the main cations and inorganic phosphate, citrate and chloride for the main anions. In milk, these ions are more or less associated between themselves and with proteins. Depending on the type of ion, they are diffusible (cases of sodium, potassium and chloride) or partially associated with casein molecules (cases of calcium, magnesium, ph...

  20. Comparison of Chamcham manufactured from cow milk and buffalo milk

    OpenAIRE

    Haque, M. A.; Rashid, M.H.; Kajal, M.F.I.; Istiak, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study quality of Chamcham manufactured from cow milk and to compare it with Chamcham manufactured from buffalo milk and mixture of cow and buffalo milk. Three types of Chamcham were prepared from cow milk(A), buffalo milk(B) and 50% cow +50% buffalo milk(C).In this experiment the quality of prepared Chamcham were evaluated with the help of chemical test. The moisture, total solids, protein, fat, ash and carbohydrate contents of cow milk and buffalo milk Chamch...

  1. Machine milking management and milk nitrogen fractions in primiparous ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Pulina

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Little work has been carried out on management techniques to reduce stress of first machine milking in ewes. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of milking parlour training before weaning on sheep milk yield and milk protein fractions. One week before weaning, an experimental group (EG was introduced into the machine milking parlour and hand-milked once a day, to adapt them to the new environment and noise of the milking machine, while a control group (CG was hand-milked once a day in a traditional fold parlour until weaning. After weaning, both groups were machine milked, separately, twice a day in the milking parlour. Milk yield and nitrogen fractions were recorded for the first 10 days of machine milking. Differences between samplings within group were observed for all parameters considered. Only on the first day of machine milking, differences between groups occurred for total nitrogen, total protein and casein. Higher content of nitrogen fractions in the milk of EG was due to its lower milk production. In fact, daily production of nitrogen fractions was higher in CG than in EG. High variability for most parameters was observed during the first 5 days of machine milking in both groups. A week of training to machine milking parlour was not enough to reduce the negative effects of weaning and machine milking stresses on primiparous ewes. (interaction?

  2. Uranium assay in milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powder milk, and fresh milk from buffalo and dairy cattle in North India, were irradiated with a thermal neutron flux of 1017 n cm-2. Neutron dose was calculated by counting tracks on an etched K-43 glass dosimeter. The uranium concentration in milk is low when compared with concentrations in other food stuffs, and its radiotoxicity to humans is considerably lower than chemical toxicity. If a human consumes 1 litre of milk/day, containing .1 μg uranium/litre, for 60 yrs, total intake of uranium would be only 2 mg compared to a maximum permissible intake of 40mg. (U.K.)

  3. Sphingosine basis in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavica Ribar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Sphingolipids are widespread membrane components that are found in all eukaryotic cells. They are defined as compounds having a long-chain sphingoid base as the backbone. The most frequent long-chain bases in most of the mammals are D-erythro-sphinganine and sphingosine. Sphingolipids can be expected in minor quantities in all food products. Milk fat contains a number of different sphingolipid classes. Originally they were presumed to contribute to the structural integrity of membranes, but there nowadays it is confirmed that they have an important physiological role. Dietary sphingolipids have gained attention because of their possibility to inhibit colon cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of free and total sphinganine and sphingosine in milk (human, cow's, sheep’s, goat’s, soy’s Sphingolipids were extracted from milk. Free and total sphingoid bases were obtained by alkaline and acid hydrolysis respectively. Sphinganin and sphingosine were determined by means of high-performance liquid chromatography. The results of this research illustrate the differences between the concentrations of sphingoid bases in cow’s milk with various content of milk fat. The concentrations of free sphingosine and sphinganine in cow’s milk were lower than in human milk. In sheep’s and goat’s milk, the concentrations of total sphingoid bases were higher than in human and cow’s milk. Quantity of the most sphingoid bases decreased during pasteurization.

  4. Occurrence and characteristics of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae in food producing animals, minced meat and raw milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geser Nadine

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of food animals as a possible reservoir for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae, and the dissemination of such strains into the food production chain need to be assessed. In this study 334 fecal samples from pigs, cattle, chicken and sheep were investigated at slaughter. Additionally, 100 raw milk samples, representing bulk tank milk of 100 different dairy farms, 104 minced meat (pork and beef samples and 67 E. coli isolates from cattle E. coli mastitis were analyzed. Results As many as 15.3% of the porcine, 13.7% of the bovine, 8.6% of the sheep and 63.4% of the chicken fecal samples yielded ESBL producers after an enrichment step. In contrast, none of the minced meat, none of the bulk tank milk samples and only one of the mastitis milk samples contained ESBL producing strains. Of the total of 91 isolates, 89 were E. coli, one was Citrobacter youngae and one was Enterobacter cloacae. PCR analysis revealed that 78 isolates (85.7% produced CTX-M group 1 ESBLs while six isolates (6.6% produced CTX-M group 9 enzymes. Five detected ESBLs (5.5% belonged to the SHV group and 2 isolates (2.2% contained a TEM-type enzyme. A total of 27 CTX-M producers were additionally PCR-positive for TEM-beta-lactamase. The ESBL-encoding genes of 53 isolates were sequenced of which 34 produced CTX-M-1, 6 produced CTX-M-14, 5 produced CTX-M-15 and also 5 produced SHV-12. Two isolates produced TEM-52 and one isolate expressed a novel CTX-M group 1 ESBL, CTX-M-117. One isolate--aside from a CTX-M ESBL-- contained an additional novel TEM-type broad-spectrum beta-lactamase, TEM-186. Conclusions The relatively high rates of ESBL producers in food animals and the high genetic diversity among these isolates are worrisome and indicate an established reservoir in farm animals.

  5. NMR-Based Milk Metabolomics

    OpenAIRE

    Bertram, Hanne C.; Larsen, Lotte B; Sundekilde, Ulrik K

    2013-01-01

    Milk is a key component in infant nutrition worldwide and, in the Western parts of the world, also in adult nutrition. Milk of bovine origin is both consumed fresh and processed into a variety of dairy products including cheese, fermented milk products, and infant formula. The nutritional quality and processing capabilities of bovine milk is closely associated to milk composition. Metabolomics is ideal in the study of the low-molecular-weight compounds in milk, and this review focuses on the ...

  6. Detection of Helicobacter pylori in bovine, buffalo, camel, ovine, and caprine milk in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Ebrahim; Kheirabadi, Elahe Kazemi

    2012-05-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection in humans is one of the most common infections worldwide. However, the origin and transmission of this bacterium has not been clearly explained. One of the suggested theories is transmission via raw milk from animals to human beings. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence rate of H. pylori in bulk milk samples from dairy bovine, buffalo, camel, ovine, and caprine herds in Iran. In the present study, 447 bulk milk samples from 230 dairy bovine, buffalo, camel, ovine, and caprine herds were collected in four provinces and tested for H. pylori by cultural method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of the ureC (glmM) gene. The animals whose milk samples collected for this study were clinically healthy. Using the cultural method, three of 447 milk samples (0.67%), including two sheep (2.2%) and one buffalo (1.6%) milk samples, were found to be contaminated with H. pylori. H. pylori ureC gene was detected in 56 (12.5%) of milk samples, including 19 cow (14.1%), 11 sheep (12.2%), nine goat (8.7%), two camel (3.6%), and 15 buffalo (23.4%) milk samples. Using PCR method, there were significant differences (pmilk samples collected from different species. The present study is the first report of the isolation of H. pylori from raw sheep and buffalo milk in Iran and the first demonstration of H. pylori DNA in camel and buffalo milk. PMID:22458716

  7. Effects of milk somatic cell counts on some physicochemical and functional characteristics of skim and whole milk powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sert, Durmuş; Mercan, Emin; Aydemir, Serdar; Civelek, Mustafa

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of milk somatic cell count (SCC) levels on spray-dried milk powders. For this reason, 3 cow milks with different SCC (700,000 SCC/mL) were processed into skim (SMP) and whole milk powder (WMP). The effect of SCC on the physicochemical and functional characteristics of the milk powders and textural properties of set-type yogurts produced from reconstituted milk powders with different SCC was evaluated. A crucial difference was noted between milk powders depending on different SCC. Protein values and ash content of powder samples decreased correlatively with increasing SCC. The hydroxymethylfurfural content of SMP was higher than WMP. We noted an increase in hydroxymethylfurfural content of both SMP and WMP depending on elevated SCC. Solubility index of SMP and WMP was 1.280 to 1.632 and 0.940 to 1.208mL, respectively; with increasing SCC, solubility index was affected adversely. The highest foam stability was determined in SMP containing >700,000 SCC. Bulk density of SMP and WMP was between 0.682 and 0.708 and 0.660 to 0.685g/cm(3), respectively. An increase was observed in scorched particle of both SMP and WMP depending on increasing SCC. We found significant differences in particle size distribution of milk powders produced from milk with SCC at different levels. Although WMP had more uniform and big particle structure, SMP had more specific area. A negative correlation was noted between yogurt texture and SCC. Results indicate that milk SCC has negative influences on milk powder quality. PMID:27179852

  8. Tank 241-B-103 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) has advised the US Department of Energy (DOE) to concentrate the near-term sampling and analysis activities on identification and resolution of safety issues. The data quality objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used to identify sampling and analytical needs for the resolution of safety issues. As a result, a revision in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement or TPA) milestone M-44-00 has been made, which states that ''A Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) will also be developed for each double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process... Development of TCPs by the DQO process is intended to allow users (e.g., Hanford Facility user groups, regulators) to ensure their needs will be met and that resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information.'' This document satisfies that requirement for Tank 241-B-103 (B-103) sampling activities. Tank B-103 was placed on the Organic Watch List in January 1991 due to review of TRAC data that predicts a TOC content of 3.3 dry weight percent. The tank was classified as an assumed leaker of approximately 30,280 liters (8,000 gallons) in 1978 and declared inactive. Tank B-103 is passively ventilated with interim stabilization and intrusion prevention measures completed in 1985

  9. Think Tanks in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Jesper Dahl

    The emergence of more think tanks in recent decades has spawned some interest in how they function and impact policy-making in the European Union and its member states. So far however few empirical studies of think tanks have been carried out and think tanks have mainly been studied in their...... national contexts. Questions regarding patterns and differences in think tank organisations and functions across countries have largely been left unanswered. This paper advances a definition and research design that uses different expert roles to categorise think tanks. A sample of 34 think tanks from...... Brussels, Denmark and Germany are categorised according to different expert roles in a pilot analysis. As the analysis is sensitive to the interpretation and weight given to different indicators, besides from picturing the think tank landscape, the analysis is intended to trigger a discussion of how and...

  10. Filling Tanks with Hydrazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, K.

    2004-10-01

    At the Hydrazine workshop in 2002 in Noordwijk several presentations dealt with the filling of satellite tanks. I was a bit surprised about the amount of manpower that is needed for this work. But I saw the same during the filling of the SCA system tanks some years ago in Trauen/Germany. I want to present the work flow of filling RESUS Hydrazine tanks. This bladder tanks have a capacity of 64 litres and are similar to some of the satellite tanks. We fill this tanks 25 to 50 times a year. Although the specifications are not exactly the same as those for satellite tank filling, it might be interesting to see how this work can be done half-automatically, because handling with Hydrazine is not a nice job, and the faster it goes, the better.

  11. Microbiological quality of milk in Tanzania: from Maasai stable to African consumer table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoder, Dagmar; Maichin, Andreas; Lema, Benedict; Laffa, John

    2013-11-01

    In Tanzania, pastoralists such as the Maasai and small urban farmers are responsible for the country's milk production, and 95% of the national milk supply is sold without regulation. This study was conducted using hygiene checklists and milk sampling to investigate milk quality and safety at various steps throughout the milk production chain. In regions of Dar es Salaam and Lake Victoria, 196 milk samples were collected: 109 samples of raw milk, 41 samples of packed or open served heat-treated products, and 46 samples of fermented products. Samples were taken from (i) the production level (pastoralists and urban farmers), (ii) the collection level (middlemen and depots), (iii) processors (dairies), and (iv) retailers (kiosks). Samples were analyzed for hygiene criteria (total bacteria, total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and coagulase-positive staphylococci) and foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella, enterohemorrhagic E. coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes. Adequate heating of milk for drinking was determined via heat labile alkaline phosphatase and lactoperoxidase analysis. Total bacterial counts indicated that only 67% (73 of 109) of raw milk samples and 46% (19 of 41) of heat-treated samples met national Tanzanian standards. Bulk milk samples taken from the traditional milking vessels of Maasai pastoralists had the lowest total bacterial counts: ≥ 1 × 10(2) CFU/ml. Foodborne pathogens such as E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella were isolated from 10.1% (11 of 109) of raw milk samples but were not detected in heat-treated or fermented products, and 83% of heat-treated milk samples were lactoperoxidase negative, indicating overpasteurization. Coliforms were detected in 41% (17 of 41) of processed milk samples, thus indicating a high rate of recontamination. A progressive decrease in microbial quality along the milk production chain was attributed to departures from traditional methods, inadequate milk containers, long transport distances, lack of cooling, and

  12. 49 CFR 179.400 - General specification applicable to cryogenic liquid tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... liquid tank car tanks. 179.400 Section 179.400 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and... liquid tank car tanks....

  13. A proteomic perspective on the changes in milk proteins due to high somatic cell count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Boeren, S; van Hooijdonk, A C M; Vervoort, J M; Hettinga, K A

    2015-08-01

    Although cows with subclinical mastitis have no difference in the appearance of their milk, milk composition and milk quality are altered because of the inflammation. To know the changes in milk quality with different somatic cell count (SCC) levels, 5 pooled bovine milk samples with SCC from 10(5) to 10(6) cells/mL were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively using both one-dimension sodium dodecyl sulfate PAGE and filter-aided sample preparation coupled with dimethyl labeling, both followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Minor differences were found on the qualitative level in the proteome from milk with different SCC levels, whereas the concentration of milk proteins showed remarkable changes. Not only immune-related proteins (cathelicidins, IGK protein, CD59 molecule, complement regulatory protein, lactadherin), but also proteins with other biological functions (e.g., lipid metabolism: platelet glycoprotein 4, butyrophilin subfamily 1 member A1, perilipin-2) were significantly different in milk from cows with high SCC level compared with low SCC level. The increased concentration of protease inhibitors in the milk with higher SCC levels may suggest a protective role in the mammary gland against protease activity. Prostaglandin-H2 D-isomerase showed a linear relation with SCC, which was confirmed with an ELISA. However, the correlation coefficient was lower in individual cows compared with bulk milk. These results indicate that prostaglandin-H2 D-isomerase may be used as an indicator to evaluate bulk milk quality and thereby reduce the economic loss in the dairy industry. The results from this study reflect the biological phenomena occurring during subclinical mastitis and in addition provide a potential indicator for the detection of bulk milk with high SCC. PMID:26094216

  14. Fermented milk for hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usinger, Lotte; Reimer, Christina; Ibsen, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Fermented milk has been suggested to have a blood pressure lowering effect through increased content of proteins and peptides produced during the bacterial fermentation. Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease world wide and new blood pressure reducing lifestyle...... interventions, such as fermented milk, would be of great importance....

  15. Cow's Milk Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Arne; Halken, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1930's the scientific literature on cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) has accumulated. Over the last decade new diagnostic tools and treatment approaches have been developed. The diagnosis of reproducible adverse reactions to cow's milk proteins (CMP), i.e. CMPA, still has to be confirm...

  16. Herpesviruses and breast milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Pietrasanta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Breast milk has always been the best source of nourishment for newborns. However, breast milk can carry a risk of infection, as it can be contaminated with bacterial or viral pathogens. This paper reviews the risk of acquisition of varicella-zoster virus (VZV and cytomegalovirus (CMV, herpesviruses frequently detected in breastfeeding mothers, via breast milk, focusing on the clinical consequences of this transmission and the possible strategies for preventing it. Maternal VZV infections are conditions during which breastfeeding may be temporarily contraindicated, but expressed breast milk should always be given to the infant. CMV infection acquired through breast milk rarely causes disease in healthy term newborns; an increased risk of CMV disease has been documented in preterm infants. However, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP does not regard maternal CMV seropositivity as a contraindication to breastfeeding; according to the AAP, in newborns weighing less than 1500 g, the decision should be taken after weighing the benefits of breast milk against the risk of transmission of infection. The real efficacy of the different methods of inactivating CMV in breast milk should be compared in controlled clinical trials, rigorously examining the negative consequences that each of these methods can have on the immunological and nutritional properties of the milk itself, with a view to establish the best risk-benefit ratio of these strategies before they are recommended for use in clinical practice.

  17. The influence of chemical composition of milk on yield of semi-hard cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Bojanić-Rašović M.; Mirecki S.; Nikolić N.; Rašović R.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of paper was to examine the impact of the milk quality on yield of semi-hard naturally dried cheese, produced in cheese plant factory ZZ 'Cijevna' in Podgorica. Tests were conducted on 6 samples of bulk milk of cows and 6 productive batch of cheese. Chemical tests of the bulk milk have been done on the device MilcoScan 4000, and the determination content dry matter of whey and dry matter of cheese on the device MilcoScan FT 120. Theoretical yield of cheese wa...

  18. Commercial Submersible Mixing Pump For SRS Tank Waste Removal - 15223

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    motor pumps designed to fit within available risers and have significant agitation capabilities to suspend waste solids. Waste removal and closure of two tanks has been accomplished with agitation provided by 3 SMPs installed within the tanks. In 2012, a team was assembled to investigate alternative solids removal technologies to support waste removal for closing tanks. The goal of the team was to find a more cost effective approach that could be used to replace the current mixing pump technology. This team was unable to identify an alternative technology outside of mixing pumps to support waste agitation and removal from SRS waste tanks. However, the team did identify a potentially lower cost mixing pump compared to the baseline SLPs and SMPs. Rather than using the traditional procurement using an engineering specification, the team proposed to seek commercially available submersible mixer pumps (CSMP) as alternatives to SLPs and SMPs. SLPs and SMPs have a high procurement cost and the actual cost of moving pumps between tanks has shown to be significantly higher than the original estimates that justified the reuse of SMPs and SLPs. The team recommended procurement of @@@off-the-shelf@@@ industry pumps which may be available for significant savings, but at an increased risk of failure and reduced operating life in the waste tank. The goal of the CSMP program is to obtain mixing pumps that could mix from bulk waste removal through tank closure and then be abandoned in place as part of tank closure. This paper will present the development, progress and relative advantages of the CSMP.

  19. Commercial Submersible Mixing Pump For SRS Tank Waste Removal - 15223

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, Mike [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Herbert, James E. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Scheele, Patrick W. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-01-12

    product lubricated canned motor pumps designed to fit within available risers and have significant agitation capabilities to suspend waste solids. Waste removal and closure of two tanks has been accomplished with agitation provided by 3 SMPs installed within the tanks. In 2012, a team was assembled to investigate alternative solids removal technologies to support waste removal for closing tanks. The goal of the team was to find a more cost effective approach that could be used to replace the current mixing pump technology. This team was unable to identify an alternative technology outside of mixing pumps to support waste agitation and removal from SRS waste tanks. However, the team did identify a potentially lower cost mixing pump compared to the baseline SLPs and SMPs. Rather than using the traditional procurement using an engineering specification, the team proposed to seek commercially available submersible mixer pumps (CSMP) as alternatives to SLPs and SMPs. SLPs and SMPs have a high procurement cost and the actual cost of moving pumps between tanks has shown to be significantly higher than the original estimates that justified the reuse of SMPs and SLPs. The team recommended procurement of “off-the-shelf” industry pumps which may be available for significant savings, but at an increased risk of failure and reduced operating life in the waste tank. The goal of the CSMP program is to obtain mixing pumps that could mix from bulk waste removal through tank closure and then be abandoned in place as part of tank closure. This paper will present the development, progress and relative advantages of the CSMP.

  20. Effect of prolonged storage on microbiological quality of raw milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Perko

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The changing of milk microbiota composition in collection tank due to two-day collection was investigated. Each out of 10 independent cycles of every two-day collection was sampled 4 times and microbiologically examined. PCA medium supplemented with skim milk powder was used to determine the total counts of mesophilic aerobic bacteria, proteolytic bacteria, psychrotrophic and proteolytic psychrotrophic bacteria, respectively. MRS and M17 media were used to determine the counts of lactobacilli and cocci (lactococci and enterococci, respectively. As expected the counts of microbial groups increased but particularly the ratio between the groups of microorganisms was changed. The most evident shift in composition of milk microbiota was detected for psychrotrophic, particularly proteolytic psychrotrophic bacteria that are of particular concern to the dairy industry. Proteolytic psychrotrophs are notorious for their proteolytic activities which adversely influence milk proteins. Moreover, secreted proteolytic enzymes cannot be destroyed by heat treatment processes that are normally used in milk processing. The counts of microbial groups sharply increased on the second day of two-day collection. From selected bacterial consortia, the presence of the individual group of microbes was also PCR examined. Results indicate that the microbiological quality of milk in a two-day collection system is remarkably lower in comparison with daily collection system.

  1. Tank 241-T-111 characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In late October and early November of 1991, single-shell tank (SST) 241-T-111 (on the Organic Watch List) was sampled and analyses were conducted on the materials obtained to complete Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-10-00 to sample and analyze two cores from each tank. Other objectives that these measurements and inventory estimates support are as follows: Obtain estimates of both the concentration and total quantity of key analytes relating to safety issues, such as organics and radionuclides; Provided input to risk assessment-based disposal decisions for the waste; and Implement physical property measurements, such as rheology, bulk density, and particle size. These measurements are necessary for the design and fabrication of retrieval, pretreatment, and vitrification systems. The purpose of the tank characterization report is to describe and characterize the waste in SST 241-T-111, based on information from various sources. This report summarizes the available information regarding the waste in tank 241-T-111, and arranges this information in a format useful to support management and technical decisions concerning this waste tank

  2. Completion of the Operational Closure of Tank 18F and Tank 19F at the Savannah River Site by Grouting - 13236

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste is stored in underground waste tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The low-level fraction of the waste is immobilized in a grout waste form, and the high level fraction is disposed of in a glass waste form. Once the waste is removed, the tanks are prepared for closure. Operational closure of the tanks consists of filling with grout for the purpose of chemically stabilizing residual material, filling the tank void space for long-term structural stability, and discouraging future intrusion. Two of the old-style single-shell tanks at the SRS have received regulatory approval confirming waste removal had been completed, and have been stabilized with grout as part of completing operational closure and removal from service. Consistent with the regulatory framework, two types of grout were used for the filling of Tanks 18F and 19F. Reducing grout was used to fill the entire volume of Tanks 18F and 19F (bulk fill grout) and a more flowable grout was used to fill equipment that was left in the tank (equipment fill grout). The reducing grout was added to the tanks using portable grout pumps filled from concrete trucks, and delivered the grout through slick lines to the center riser of each tank. Filling of the two tanks has been completed, and all equipment has been filled. The final capping of riser penetrations brings the operation closure of Tanks 18F and 19F to completion. (authors)

  3. Public health risk of some milk borne pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M.A. Zeinhom

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 150 samples of raw milk, 75 each of farm and market milk were collected from different farms and supermarkets in Beni-Suef Governorate, in addition to 30 stool samples from milk handlers and 25 milker's hand swabs were examined for the presence of Escherichia coli, E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, Aeromonas and Yersinia. Isolates were identified biochemically and serologically. The obtained results revealed that E. coli was detected in a percentage of 26.7% and 16% in the examined raw market and bulk farm milk respectively, while in stool and hand swabs samples were 16.6% and 16%, respectively. E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. failed to be detected in any of the examined samples. Additionally, 45% and 16.7% of the recovered E. coli strains from the examined raw market and farm milk samples were enteropathogenic O166, while 55% and 83.3 were untypable, respectively. On the other hand 60% of human stool samples isolates were O 148 and 40% of the isolates were untypable, while 100% of the hand swab isolates were untypable. The results also exhibits isolation rate of Aeromonas hydrophila in a percentage of 24%, 13.3%, 10% and 16% from market milk, farm milk samples, stool and hand swabs respectively. While Yersinea enterocolitica represent 3.3% in the stool samples only. The public health significance of isolated strains as well as suggested control measures were discussed.

  4. WWTP Process Tank Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Jesper

    solution of the Navier-Stokes equations in a multiphase scheme. After a general introduction to the activated sludge tank as a system, the activated sludge tank model is gradually setup in separate stages. The individual sub-processes that are often occurring in activated sludge tanks are initially...... investigated individually, with the purpose of obtaining a better understanding before the final integrated model is setup. In the sub-process investigations focus is addressed especially at aeration by bottom mounted diffusers and mechanical mixing of the activated sludge suspension via slowly rotating...... hydrofoil shaped propellers. These two sub-processes deliver the main part of the supplied energy to the activated sludge tank, and for this reason they are important for the mixing conditions in the tank. For other important processes occurring in the activated sludge tank, existing models and measurements...

  5. The potential of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of milk samples to predict energy intake and efficiency in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McParland, S; Berry, D P

    2016-05-01

    Knowledge of animal-level and herd-level energy intake, energy balance, and feed efficiency affect day-to-day herd management strategies; information on these traits at an individual animal level is also useful in animal breeding programs. A paucity of data (especially at the individual cow level), of feed intake in particular, hinders the inclusion of such attributes in herd management decision-support tools and breeding programs. Dairy producers have access to an individual cow milk sample at least once daily during lactation, and consequently any low-cost phenotyping strategy should consider exploiting measureable properties in this biological sample, reflecting the physiological status and performance of the cow. Infrared spectroscopy is the study of the interaction of an electromagnetic wave with matter and it is used globally to predict milk quality parameters on routinely acquired individual cow milk samples and bulk tank samples. Thus, exploiting infrared spectroscopy in next-generation phenotyping will ensure potentially rapid application globally with a negligible additional implementation cost as the infrastructure already exists. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS) analysis is already used to predict milk fat and protein concentrations, the ratio of which has been proposed as an indicator of energy balance. Milk FTIRS is also able to predict the concentration of various fatty acids in milk, the composition of which is known to change when body tissue is mobilized; that is, when the cow is in negative energy balance. Energy balance is mathematically very similar to residual energy intake (REI), a suggested measure of feed efficiency. Therefore, the prediction of energy intake, energy balance, and feed efficiency (i.e., REI) from milk FTIRS seems logical. In fact, the accuracy of predicting (i.e., correlation between predicted and actual values; root mean square error in parentheses) energy intake, energy balance, and REI from milk FTIRS in

  6. 27 CFR 19.342 - Receipt and storage of bulk spirits and wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... bulk spirits and wines. 19.342 Section 19.342 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Receipt and storage of bulk spirits and wines. (a) Deposit. All spirits entered for deposit in the storage... spirits or wines are being deposited in a partially filled tank in storage on bonded...

  7. 78 FR 54775 - Bulk Packaging To Allow for Transfer of Hazardous Liquid Cargoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... DOT Department of Transportation FR Federal Register IBC Intermediate Bulk Container IBC Code..., we published in the Federal Register (77 FR 14327) a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) titled Bulk... portable tank. (77 FR 14327, at 14330),'' (emphasis added) The above excerpt provides a general...

  8. CONDUCTIVITY OF DONKEY MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Conte

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The electrical conductivity (EC of milk is considered as one of the most important parameters which supports the diagnosis of mastitis in cows.Milk ions have a considerable influence on EC and their concentrations vary depending on animal species, season, lactation stage, etc. Some components of milk can change the EC, e.g. lactose. A negative correlation between EC values and the concentration of lactose is noticed, as a consequence of the inverse relation between this disaccharide and the chlorine content in milk. Fat and casein contents exert some influence on the EC, too. This study provides preliminary results on the physiological EC values in donkey milk and aims to highlight any correlation with some of its chemical-physical parameters and Somatic Cell Count (SCC. Mean EC value in donkey milk was found to be 3.57 mS. Statistically significant correlations were found between EC and SCC (r = 0.57 , p < 0.01 and between EC and (r = 0.30 , p < 0.05. The EC and lactose were not correlated although a reduction of EC was often observed when the lactose content increased, as reported in the literature for bovine milk. According to the EC can be considered as a reliable parameter to identify any breast disorder, taking into account the physiological factors that influence EC.

  9. Plasmin: indigenous milk proteinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Kalit

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The most important characteristic of plasmin, as significant indigenous milk proteinase, its concentration, concentration measuring procedure and activity of plasmin are described. The most important factors, which have an influence on concentration and plasmin activity in milk, are stage of lactation and mastitis (high somatic cell count – SCC. In high SCC milk indigenous proteinase activity increased, especially in plasmin and plasminogen system.Specific hydrolytic activity of plasmin during primary proteolysis of some casein fractions is described. ß-CN is most susceptible fraction, but αs1-CN and αs2-Cn are less susceptible to degradation by plasmin. Almost all fractions of κ-CN are resistant to degradation by plasmin. Activation of plasminogen to plasmin is very complex biochemical process influenced by activators and inhibitors in milk, and can be increased in high SCC milk. There are many various types of inhibitors in milk serum and ßlactoglobulin is the most important after its thermal denaturation. Addition of aprotinin and soybean tripsin inhibitors in milk inhibits plasmin activity. Most important characteristic of plasmin is its thermostability onpasteurisation and even sterilisation. Mechanism of thermal inactivation of plasmin with developing covalent disulphide interaction between molecule of plasmin and serum proteins (mostly ß-laktoglobulin is described. Thermosensitive inhibitors of plasminogen activators and inhibitors of plasmin are inactivated by short pasteurisation and therefore increase plasmin activity,while higher temperature and longer treatment time inactivate plasmin activity.

  10. Automated monitoring of milk meters

    OpenAIRE

    Mol, de, M.J.; Andre, G.

    2009-01-01

    Automated monitoring might be an alternative for periodic checking of electronic milk meters. A computer model based on Dynamic Linear Modelling (DLM) has been developed for this purpose. Two situations are distinguished: more milking stands in the milking parlour and only one milking stand in the milking parlour, e.g. in case of robotic milking. In the first case the model is based on a comparison per milking session of the average per stand with the overall average over all stands. The mode...

  11. 7 CFR 1160.109 - Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Milk. 1160.109 Section 1160.109 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.109 Milk. Milk means any class of cow's milk produced in the United States....

  12. Donor milk: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliani F

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Francesca Giuliani,1 Ilaria Rovelli,1 Chiara Peila,1 Stefania Alfonsina Liguori,2 Enrico Bertino,1 Alessandra Coscia1 1SCDU Neonatologia, Dipartimento di Scienze Pediatriche e dell'Adolescenza, Università degli Studi di Torino, Torino, Italy; 2SC Neonatologia, Ospedale Maria Vittoria, Torino, Italy Abstract: Mother's own milk is widely recognized as the optimal feeding for term infants, but increasing evidence exists of its benefits also for sick and preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units. However, the nutritional needs for appropriate growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes of such a particular population of infants should be attentively evaluated, considering also the indication to an appropriate fortification of human milk. The target is to achieve growth potential for preterm newborns while ensuring good metabolic outcomes and normal neurological development. When mother's milk is unavailable or in short supply, donor human milk (DHM represents the second best choice and, although somewhat modified by the Holder pasteurization process, it preserves many benefits when compared to formula, as documented by more and more reports, randomized controlled trials, and meta-analyses published in the past few years. Evidence exists of the protection exerted by DHM from necrotizing enterocolitis, while further studies are required to look at possible beneficial effects regarding infections, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, long-term cardiovascular risk factors, feeding tolerance, neurological outcome, and allergy. Finally, the concern that the use of DHM might decrease preterm infant breastfeeding is being raised. Conversely, publications exist showing that the use of DHM in the neonatal unit increases breastfeeding rates at discharge for infants of very low birth weight. Keywords: human milk, preterm infant feeding, milk bank, breast milk, mother's own milk, pasteurized human milk, fortification

  13. NMR-based milk metabolomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundekilde, Ulrik; Larsen, Lotte Bach; Bertram, Hanne Christine S.

    2013-01-01

    Milk is a key component in infant nutrition worldwide and, in the Western parts of the world, also in adult nutrition. Milk of bovine origin is both consumed fresh and processed into a variety of dairy products including cheese, fermented milk products, and infant formula. The nutritional quality...... and processing capabilities of bovine milk is closely associated to milk composition. Metabolomics is ideal in the study of the low-molecular-weight compounds in milk, and this review focuses on the recent nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics trends in milk research, including...... applications linking the milk metabolite profiling with nutritional aspects, and applications which aim to link the milk metabolite profile to various technological qualities of milk. The metabolite profiling studies encompass the identification of novel metabolites, which potentially can be used as biomarkers...

  14. Unexpected Decrease in Milk Production after Fenbendazole Treatment of Dairy Cows during Early Grazing Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravinet, Nadine; Chartier, Christophe; Bareille, Nathalie; Lehebel, Anne; Ponnau, Adeline; Brisseau, Nadine; Chauvin, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) infection can impair milk production (MP) in dairy cows. To investigate whether MP would be optimized by spring targeted-selective anthelmintic treatment in grazing cows, we assessed (1) the effect on MP of an anthelmintic treatment applied 1.5 to 2 months after turn-out, and (2) herd and individual indicators associated with the post-treatment MP response. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in 13 dairy farms (578 cows) in western France in spring 2012. In each herd, lactating cows of the treatment group received fenbendazole orally, control cows remained untreated. Daily cow MP was recorded from 2 weeks before until 15 weeks after treatment. Individual serum pepsinogen and anti-Ostertagia antibody levels (expressed as ODR), faecal egg count and bulk tank milk (BTM) Ostertagia ODR were measured at treatment time. Anthelmintic treatment applied during the previous housing period was recorded for each cow. In each herd, information regarding heifers' grazing and anthelmintic treatment history was collected to assess the Time of Effective Contact (TEC, in months) with GIN infective larvae before the first calving. The effect of treatment on weekly MP averages and its relationships with herd and individual indicators were studied using linear mixed models with two nested random effects (cow within herd). Unexpectedly, spring treatment had a significant detrimental effect on MP (-0.92 kg/cow/day on average). This negative MP response was particularly marked in high producing cows, in cows not treated during the previous housing period or with high pepsinogen levels, and in cows from herds with a high TEC or a high BTM ODR. This post-treatment decrease in MP may be associated with immuno-inflammatory mechanisms. Until further studies can assess whether this unexpected result can be generalized, non-persistent treatment of immunized adult dairy cows against GIN should not be recommended in early grazing season. PMID

  15. Hanford tanks initiative plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abstract: The Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) is a five-year project resulting from the technical and financial partnership of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Waste Management (EM-30) and Office of Science and Technology Development (EM-50). The HTI project accelerates activities to gain key technical, cost performance, and regulatory information on two high-level waste tanks. The HTI will provide a basis for design and regulatory decisions affecting the remainder of the Tank Waste Remediation System's tank waste retrieval Program

  16. Hanford tanks initiative plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKinney, K.E.

    1997-07-01

    Abstract: The Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) is a five-year project resulting from the technical and financial partnership of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Waste Management (EM-30) and Office of Science and Technology Development (EM-50). The HTI project accelerates activities to gain key technical, cost performance, and regulatory information on two high-level waste tanks. The HTI will provide a basis for design and regulatory decisions affecting the remainder of the Tank Waste Remediation System`s tank waste retrieval Program.

  17. Liquid metal storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention concerns a liquid metal storage tank used for an FBR type reactor plant. It comprises a tank main body disposed in a pit chamber, a sealing tub disposed at an upper outer circumferential surface of the tank main body, a roof portion which closes the opening a the upper end of the pit chamber, a sealing partitioning cylinder suspended from the lower surface of the roof and having its lower end extended to the inside of the tub and a sealing liquid metal filled in the tub. The tank main body is kept at a high temperature by the liquid metal while the roof in the upper portion of the pit chamber is kept at a low temperature. Further, since the tank main body and the inside of the pit chamber are sealed by the sealing partitioning cylinder, no large thermal stresses are caused to the wall of the tank main body. Even if hydrogen gases are generated in the tank main body, since they can be released to the inside of the pit chamber, the integrity of the tank can be maintained, even if abrupt pressure elevation is caused in the tank main body. (I.S.)

  18. Fuel reprocessing tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A tank of the present invention for spent fuels comprises a stainless steel tank main body for storing a highly corrosive dissolving solution, a steam jet pump disposed to the inside of the tank main body for transferring the dissolving solution to the outside of the tank main body and pipelines connecting them. With such a constitution, abnormal abrasion and drag of mechanical parts are less caused. In addition, a cleaning nozzle and a cleaning liquid pipeline which eliminates clogging of a sucking port of the steam jet pump if clogging is caused by sludges are disposed thereby enabling to avoid possibility of clogging. (T.M.)

  19. Consumer Cohorts and Milk Purchases

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavsen, Geir Waehler; Rickertsen, Kyrre

    2008-01-01

    Fluid milk is the most important product of Norwegian agriculture, and the decline in milk purchase has impact in many rural communities. By decomposing the milk purchase into cohort effects, age effects and year effects we show that the reason for the decline is that older generations purchase more milk than younger generations, and during lifetime consumption decline with age. Consequently, as younger generations replace older generations milk purchase decline. We show that towards 2021 the...

  20. 46 CFR 153.981 - Leaving room in tank for cargo expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Leaving room in tank for cargo expansion. 153.981 Section 153.981 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Transfer Procedures § 153.981 Leaving room in tank for cargo expansion. The person in charge of...

  1. 33 CFR 157.100 - Plans for U.S. tank vessels: Submission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... system that meets 46 CFR 56.01-10(d); (2) The design of each COW machine; (3) The arrangement, location... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General § 157.100 Plans for U.S....

  2. 33 CFR 157.102 - Plans for foreign tank vessels: Submission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... include— (a) A drawing or diagram of the COW pumping and piping system that meets 46 CFR 56.01-10(d); (b... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General § 157.102 Plans for...

  3. Research and design on measurable milk cans%可计量奶粉罐的研究与设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周兰美

    2013-01-01

    In view of the milk powder package can not be directed measurement and easily polluting in using, a milk cans was designed. It's made of the lower tank, the upper tank and the metrology room in the upper tank. The milk is stored in the lower tank. An opening is arranged in the upper part of the tank and connected with the upper metrology room. When brewing the milk, open the lid of the milk can, upside down it in the bottle, then pull out the rope, the milk powder will automatically enter the bottle. Through the design calculation and analysis to determine the overall structure of the milk can and analyzing the causes that influence factors on inaccurate measurement and pollution. The designed milk can has the advantages of simple structure and accurate measurement.%针对现有奶粉包装不能直接计量,使用过程中容易污染等问题,设计一种可计量奶粉罐.它由下端罐体、上端罐体以及上端罐体中的计量室组成.奶粉储存在下端罐体中,在罐体的上端设置有开口,开口直接与上端的计量室相连.需要冲泡奶粉时,打开盖子,把奶粉罐倒扣在奶瓶上,然后拉动外面的绳子,奶粉就自动进入奶瓶中.通过计算分析确定奶粉罐的总体结构,分析影响计量不准确和容易污染的原因,该设计结构简单,可精确计量.

  4. Ultrasound effects on the assembly of casein micelles in reconstituted skim milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng; Juliano, Pablo; Williams, Roderick P W; Niere, Julie; Augustin, Mary Ann

    2014-05-01

    Reconstituted skim milks (10 % w/w total solids, pH 6·7-8·0) were ultrasonicated (20, 400 or 1600 kHz at a specific energy input of 286 kJ/kg) at a bulk milk temperature of casein micelle in milk, with greater effects at higher pH and lower frequency. Low frequency ultrasound caused greater disruption of casein micelles causing release of protein from the micellar to the serum phase than high frequency. The released protein re-associated to form aggregates of smaller size but with surface charge similar to the casein micelles in the original milk. Ultrasound may be used as a physical intervention to alter the size of the micelles and the partitioning of caseins between the micellar and serum phases in milk. The altered protein equilibria induced by ultrasound treatment may have potential for the development of milk with novel functionality. PMID:24351847

  5. Milk production, quality, and consumption in Jimma (Ethiopia): Facts and producers', retailers', and consumers' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolosa, T; Verbeke, J; Piepers, S; Tefera, M; Getachew, Y; Supré, K; DeVliegher, S

    2016-02-01

    Four studies were performed to quantify milk production, quality and consumption in the town Jimma, Ethiopia. First, 47 dairy farmers and 44 milk retailers were interviewed to gain more insights in dairy farming and marketing, and associated constraints. Second, bulk milk samples (n=188) were collected for 4 consecutive weeks to investigate milk quality [Total Bacterial Counts (TBC), Coliform Counts (CC), Somatic Cell Counts (SCC), and antimicrobial residues]. Third, (bulk) milk samples from 32 farms, 46 milk retailers and the 3 local milk collection centers were collected to determine the presence of oxacillin susceptible-and oxacillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Fourth, 208 adult inhabitants were interviewed to gain more insight in milk consumption and associated concerns of consumers. The average dairy farm included in the studies consisted of 5 lactating cows, produced 43 liters of milk per day and was owned by male, literate adults. Milk was sold to retailers (71% of the production) and directly to customers (25%) without any quality control, whereas 4% was self-consumed. Shortage of animal nutrition and adulteration of the milk were the main constraints for farmers and retailers, respectively. The median TBC, CC and SCC were 122,500CFU/mL, 1,005CFU/mL and 609,500cells/mL, respectively. Antimicrobial residues were detected in 20% of all samples. In general, the milk quality was considered to be poor (TBC>10,000CFU/mL, and/or CC>100CFU/mL, and/or SCC>400,000cells/mL and/or presence of antimicrobial residues) in 97% of all samples. S. aureus was isolated from 12 (38%), 13 (33%), and 2 out of 3 of the milk samples originating from the dairy farms, the milk retailers, and the milk collection centers, respectively. Seven (26%) of the isolates were resistant to oxacillin suggesting the presence of MRSA (Lee, 2003). Local milk is occasionally consumed by adults but more frequently by children. Adults mainly drink spontaneously fermented milk (57% of 105

  6. Milking Efficiency – A Milkability Trait for Automatically Milked Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvendahl, Peter; Lassen, Jan; Chagunda, M G G

    Data from an experimental herd with automatic milkings from 486 first lactation cows were used to study alternative measures of milkability. One trait was milking efficiency, (kg milk per minute used in robot) the other “residual milking box time” using a linear regression to adjust daily time for...... daily fat and protein corrected yield. Both traits were moderate to highly heritable and closely correlated (ra = 0.85). The two traits differed by milking efficiency being correlated to yield (ra = 0.48). Residual box time was closely correlated to milking time (ra = 0.93) compared to milking...... efficiency which showed only intermediate correlation. Both traits had weak correlations to somatic cell counts. It is concluded that either trait will be effective in selecting for cows giving more milk per minute occupying the milking robot, without increasing risk of mastitis...

  7. Detection of cow milk adulteration in yak milk by ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Q R; Zhang, H; Guo, H Y; Jiang, L; Tian, M; Ren, F Z

    2014-10-01

    In the current study, a simple, sensitive, and specific ELISA assay using a high-affinity anti-bovine β-casein monoclonal antibody was developed for the rapid detection of cow milk in adulterated yak milk. The developed ELISA was highly specific and could be applied to detect bovine β-casein (10-8,000 μg/mL) and cow milk (1:1,300 to 1:2 dilution) in yak milk. Cross-reactivity was milk. The linear range of adulterant concentration was 1 to 80% (vol/vol) and the minimum detection limit was 1% (vol/vol) cow milk in yak milk. Different treatments, including heating, acidification, and rennet addition, did not interfere with the assay. Moreover, the results were highly reproducible (coefficient of variation milk adulterated with cow milk. PMID:25151876

  8. Tank SY-102 remediation project: Flowsheet and conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) to safely manage and dispose of radioactive waste stored in underground tanks on the Hanford Site. A major program in TWRS is pretreatment which was established to process the waste prior to disposal. Pretreatment is needed to resolve tank safety issues and to separate wastes into high-level and low-level fractions for subsequent immobilization and disposal. There is a fixed inventory of actinides and fission products in the tank which must be prepared for disposal. By segregating the actinides and fission products from the bulk of the waste, the tank's contents can be effectively managed. Due to the high public visibility and environmental sensitivity of this problem, real progress and demonstrated efforts toward addressing it must begin as soon as possible. As a part of this program, personnel at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) have developed and demonstrated a flowsheet to remediate tank SY-102 which is located in the 200 West Area and contains high-level radioactive waste. This report documents the results of the flowsheet demonstrations performed with simulated, but radioactive, wastes using an existing glovebox line at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility. The tank waste was characterized using both a tank history approach and an exhaustive evaluation of the available core sample analyses. This report also presents a conceptual design complete with a working material flow model, a major equipment list, and cost estimates

  9. Colostrum and milk production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quesnel, H; Farmer, Chantal; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2015-01-01

    the sow. More specifically, fetal growth, mammary growth, colostrum production and sow maintenance require substantial amounts of nutrients during late gestation. After parturition, nutrients are mainly required for milk synthesis and sow maintenance, but the regressing uterus supplies considerable...... becomes catabolic due to the high priority of milk production and to current feeding practices. Indeed, feed is changed from a gestation to a lactation diet for most sows and the feed supply typically goes from a restricted supply to an ad libitum allowance. In addition, transition sows are often exposed...... to shifts in housing, and in Europe, this shift is now associated with a change from loose group housing to individual housing. Around parturition, colostrum is being secreted and milk synthesis is initiated in the mammary glands. After the onset of lactation, milk composition changes, especially...

  10. [Milk phospholipids as nutraceutic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambroziak, Adam; Cichosz, Grazyna

    2013-01-01

    Almost the all milk fat is closed inside fat globules possessing envelope of phospholipids, glycosphingolipids, cholesterols and proteins. Phospholipids of milk are composed of phosphatidylcholine (lecithin), phosphatidylethanolamine (kefalin), sphingomyelin, also phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine and lizophosphatidylcholine (lizolecithin) and make 30% of the milk fat globule membrane. Phospholipids possess pro-health properties. They act neuroprotectively, regulate brain activity, improve memory and resistance to stress, reduce depression risk, Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases. Due to participation in molecular transport, they influence cell growth and development, speed up organism regeneration after great physical effort. The phospholipids limit cholesterol absorption from gastrointestinal tract, are effective in liver therapy (steatosis, alcohol intoxication). Moreover, they are inhibitors of proinflammation factors, pathogens of alimentary canal and cancers (e.g. of colon and adenoma). Alkiloglycerphospholipids - unique component of milk fat - stimulate immune system and protect tissues against toxic action of hydroxyl radicals that is generated during radiotherapy. PMID:23488289

  11. Characteristics of breast milk and serology of women donating breast milk to a milk bank

    OpenAIRE

    Lindemann, P.; Foshaugen, I; Lindemann, R

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Breast milk is the most important nutrient to all newborn babies. If the mother's milk production is insufficient, it is important to provide donor breast milk without reduction of its immunologic and antimicrobial properties. Early use of breast milk to preterm infants has shown a reduced incidence of necrotising enterocolitis, a faster tolerance of enteral feeding, and a reduced need of parenteral nutrition. It is important to have milk from a CMV-IgG negative donor to VLBW infan...

  12. Residual contaminants in milk

    OpenAIRE

    Nevijo Zdolec; Mirza Hadžiosmanović; Lidija Kozačinski; Željka Cvrtila; Ivana Filipović

    2006-01-01

    Various chemical agents are used during the whole production chain of milk and dairy products. Production of feedingstuffs is accompanied with pesticide usage, which may remain in environment, thus are transported through feeding into animals, animal products and finally in human organism. Preparation procedure and storage conditions of feed also influence on milk safety in the sense of mycotoxins entering into the food chain. Chemical agents are, on daily basis, used on dairy farms either as...

  13. Milk oligosaccharides: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Diana; Wilbey, R. Andrew; Grandison, A S; Roseiro, Luísa

    2015-01-01

    Milk oligosaccharides (OSs) confer unique health benefits to the neonate. Although human digestive enzymes cannot degrade these sugars, they support specific commensal microbes and act as decoys to prevent the adhesion of pathogenic micro-organisms to gastrointestinal cells. The limited availability of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) impedes research into these molecules and their potential applications in functional food formulations. Recent studies show that complex OSs with fucose and N...

  14. Got green milk?

    OpenAIRE

    Elofsson, Katarina; Matsdotter, Elina; Arntyr, Johan

    2014-01-01

    A majority of consumers claim to prefer climate-labelled food over non-labelled alternatives. However, there is limited empirical evidence that such labels actually influence consumer behaviour when shopping.The purpose of this study is to investigate whether qualitative information about a voluntary climate labelling scheme affects the demand for milk in the short run.In a randomized field experiment conducted in 17 retail stores in Sweden, the effects of a climate label on milk demand was m...

  15. HAWAII UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a point coverage of underground storage tanks(UST) for the state of Hawaii. The original database was developed and is maintained by the State of Hawaii, Dept. of Health. The point locations represent facilities where one or more underground storage tanks occur. Each fa...

  16. Tank characterization reference guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characterization of the Hanford Site high-level waste storage tanks supports safety issue resolution; operations and maintenance requirements; and retrieval, pretreatment, vitrification, and disposal technology development. Technical, historical, and programmatic information about the waste tanks is often scattered among many sources, if it is documented at all. This Tank Characterization Reference Guide, therefore, serves as a common location for much of the generic tank information that is otherwise contained in many documents. The report is intended to be an introduction to the issues and history surrounding the generation, storage, and management of the liquid process wastes, and a presentation of the sampling, analysis, and modeling activities that support the current waste characterization. This report should provide a basis upon which those unfamiliar with the Hanford Site tank farms can start their research

  17. 49 CFR 179.201 - Individual specification requirements applicable to non-pressure tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to non-pressure tank car tanks. 179.201 Section 179.201 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes... car tanks....

  18. Household Milk consumption and Its Socio-economic Associates in West Azarbayejan Province, North-west Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Esfarjani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: According to the available evidence, consumption of milk and other dairy products among Iranians is far less than recommendations. The share of different milks (i.e., traditionally vs. industrially processed and its associated variables are, however, neither consistent nor fully known in different Provinces.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine household milk consumption and its association with selected socio-demographic factors in West Azarbayejan Province, North-west Iran. A total of 650 households were selected from urban and rural areas in three major Azeri and Kurdish districts (i.e. Urmia, Khoy and Mahabad using a multi-stage cluster sampling method. Data were collected using socio-economic and milk frequency questionnaires. Results: The findings indicated that traditionally-processed milk (bulk was the most common milk consumed at household level (62.5%. Mean of bulk milk consumption in urban and rural areas was 479±23 and 730±64 ml/wk per capita, respectively. It was also shown that establishment of the new food subsidization policy has decreased the mean of household milk consumption by approximately 3 l/wk in urban areas. Factor analysis detected a significant decrease in the higher tertiles of family size/ethnicity score consumption of both bulk and pasteurized milk, which resulted in decreased consumption of total milk. Conclusions: Designing and implementation of alternative approaches, such as targeted milk subsidies for poor households or vulnerable age-groups should be considered. Keywords: Household milk consumption, Milk processing method, Socio-economic variables, Iran.

  19. Tank 18-F And 19-F Tank Fill Grout Scale Up Test Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-level waste (HLW) tanks 18-F and 19-F have been isolated from FTF facilities. To complete operational closure the tanks will be filled with grout for the purpose of: (1) physically stabilizing the tanks, (2) limiting/eliminating vertical pathways to residual waste, (3) entombing waste removal equipment, (4) discouraging future intrusion, and (5) providing an alkaline, chemical reducing environment within the closure boundary to control speciation and solubility of select radionuclides. This report documents the results of a four cubic yard bulk fill scale up test on the grout formulation recommended for filling Tanks 18-F and 19-F. Details of the scale up test are provided in a Test Plan. The work was authorized under a Technical Task Request (TTR), HLE-TTR-2011-008, and was performed according to Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP), SRNL-RP-2011-00587. The bulk fill scale up test described in this report was intended to demonstrate proportioning, mixing, and transportation, of material produced in a full scale ready mix concrete batch plant. In addition, the material produced for the scale up test was characterized with respect to fresh properties, thermal properties, and compressive strength as a function of curing time.

  20. TANK 18-F AND 19-F TANK FILL GROUT SCALE UP TEST SUMMARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanko, D.; Langton, C.

    2012-01-03

    High-level waste (HLW) tanks 18-F and 19-F have been isolated from FTF facilities. To complete operational closure the tanks will be filled with grout for the purpose of: (1) physically stabilizing the tanks, (2) limiting/eliminating vertical pathways to residual waste, (3) entombing waste removal equipment, (4) discouraging future intrusion, and (5) providing an alkaline, chemical reducing environment within the closure boundary to control speciation and solubility of select radionuclides. This report documents the results of a four cubic yard bulk fill scale up test on the grout formulation recommended for filling Tanks 18-F and 19-F. Details of the scale up test are provided in a Test Plan. The work was authorized under a Technical Task Request (TTR), HLE-TTR-2011-008, and was performed according to Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP), SRNL-RP-2011-00587. The bulk fill scale up test described in this report was intended to demonstrate proportioning, mixing, and transportation, of material produced in a full scale ready mix concrete batch plant. In addition, the material produced for the scale up test was characterized with respect to fresh properties, thermal properties, and compressive strength as a function of curing time.

  1. Detecting β-Casein Variation in Bovine Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Caroli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In bovine species, β-casein (β-CN is characterized by genetic polymorphism. The two most common protein variants are β-CN A2 (the original one and A1, differing from A2 for one amino acid substitution (Pro67 to His67. Several bioactive peptides affecting milk nutritional properties can originate from β-CN. Among them, β-casomorphin-7 (BCM7 ranging from amino acid 60 to 66 can be released more easily from β-CN variants carrying His67 (A1 type instead of Pro67 (A2 type. Nowadays, “A2 milk” is produced in different countries claiming its potential benefits in human health. The aim of this study was to further develop and apply an isoelectric focusing electrophoresis (IEF method to bulk and individual milk samples in order to improve its use for β-CN studies. We succeeded in identifying A2 milk samples correctly and quantifying the percentage of A2, A1, and B variants in bulk samples not derived from A2 milk as well as in individual milk samples. The method allows us to quantify the relative proportion of β-CN variants in whole milk without eliminating whey protein by acid or enzymatic precipitation of caseins. The aim of this study was also to study the different behavior of β-CN and β-lactoglobulin (β-LG in the presence of trichloroacetic acid (TCA. The higher sensitivity of β-CN to TCA allows quantifying β-CN variants after TCA fixation because β-LG is not visible. Monitoring β-CN variation in cattle breeds is important in order to maintain a certain balance between Pro67 and His67 in dairy products. Overall, the debate between A1 and A2 milk needs further investigation.

  2. Cattle Candidate Genes for Milk Production Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Kadlec,Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to make an overview of important candidate genes affecting milk yield and milk quality parameters, with an emphasis on genes associated with the quantity and quality of milk proteins and milk fat.

  3. Tank 241-C-101 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples from tank 241-C-101

  4. Tank 241-C-101 tank characterization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1994-12-06

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples from tank 241-C-101.

  5. Tank 241-AX-102 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples from tank 241-AX-102

  6. Tank 241-BY-105 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, and WHC 222-S Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-BY-105

  7. Tank 241-BX-103 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, and WHC 222-S Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-BX-103

  8. Tank 241-C-102 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples from tank 241-C-102

  9. Tank 241-AP-107 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples from tank 241-AP-107

  10. Tank 241-TY-104 Tank characterization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, R.D. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-02-15

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, and WHC 222-C Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-TY-104.

  11. Tank 241-TY-106 Tank Characterization Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-02-22

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, and WHC 222-S Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-TY-106.

  12. Tank 241-BX-103 tank characterization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, K.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-04-21

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, and WHC 222-S Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-BX-103.

  13. Tank 241-C-203: Tank characterization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-03-06

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, and WHC 222-S Laboratory. Scope of this plan is to provide guidance for sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-C-203.

  14. Tank 241-U-201 tank characterization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-02-21

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, and WHC 22-S Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-U-201.

  15. Tank 241-SX-115 tank characterization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, L.M.

    1995-04-24

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Project, Sampling Operations, and WHC 222-S Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-SX-115.

  16. Tank 241-C-202: Tank characterization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-03-06

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, and WHC 222-S Laboratory. Scope of this plan is to provide guidance for sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-C-202.

  17. Tank 241-U-202 tank characterization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-02-21

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, and WHC 222-S Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-U-202.

  18. Tank 241-BY-106 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, and WHC 222-S Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-BY-106

  19. Tank 241-SX-115 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Project, Sampling Operations, and WHC 222-S Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-SX-115

  20. Tank 241-BY-103 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL 329 Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-BY-103

  1. Tank 241-C-105 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples from tank 241-C-105

  2. Milk Enhancements Improve Milk Consumption and Increase Meal Participation in the NSLP: The School Milk Pilot Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Karen; Zipay, Diane; Patey, Camellia; Meyer, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The objective of the School Milk Pilot Test and the Westside School Milk Pilot Study was to test the effect of a milk enhancement initiative to make milk more appealing and attractive to elementary and secondary school students and to improve milk consumption. Methods: 146 schools participated in the national School Milk Pilot…

  3. Camel milk is a safer choice than goat milk for feeding children with cow milk allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlayel, Mohammad; Bener, Abdulbari; Abu Hazeima, Khalid; Al-Mesaifri, Fatima

    2011-01-01

    Background. Various sources of mammalian milk have been tried in CMA. Objectives. To determine whether camel milk is safer than goat milk in CMA. Methods. Prospective study conducted at Hamad Medical Corporation between April 2007 and April 2010, on children with CMA. Each child had medical examination, CBC, total IgE, cow milk-specific IgE and SPT. CMA children were tested against fresh camel and goat milks. Results. Of 38 children (median age 21.5 months), 21 (55.3%) presented with urticaria, 17 (39.5%) atopic dermatitis, 10 (26.3%) anaphylaxis. WBC was 10, 039 ± 4, 735 cells/μL, eosinophil 1, 143 ± 2, 213 cells/μL, IgE 694 ± 921 IU/mL, cow's milk-specific-IgE 23.5 ± 35.6 KU/L. Only 7 children (18.4%) tested positive to camel milk and 24 (63.2%) to goat milk. 6 (15.8%) were positive to camel, goat, and cow milks. Patients with negative SPT tolerated well camel and goat milks. Conclusions. In CMA, SPT indicates low cross-reactivity between camel milk and cow milk, and camel milk is a safer alternative than goat milk. PMID:23724227

  4. Organic Milk Quality in the Netherlands : Distinguishable from conventional milk?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hospers-Brands, A.J.T.M.; Burgt, van der G.J.H.M.

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated possible positive interactions between organic animal production and, particularly, and various vitamins. As possible distinguishing quality parameters for organic milk, the differences between organic and conventional milk in Netherlands for fatty acid composition and

  5. Determining concentration inhomogeneity inside liquid holding tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incorporating concentration measurements of special nuclear material (SNM) in a chemical processing accountability program requires uncertainty data for three types of errors: mixing, sampling, and analytical. Usually, the analytical measurement uncertainties - both random and systematic - are routinely determined for the laboratory instruments and procedures being used to measure the concentration of withdrawn liquid samples. However, little data currently exists to determine how representative the withdrawn liquid sample is in relation to the true average bulk concentration within the tank itself. This sample representativeness depends upon uncertainties associated with the tank mixing and sampling procedures. Both types of uncertainties are investigated. Mixing uncertainty or inhomogeneity has been found to be primarily a fluid mechanics problem while sampling uncertainty involves mostly chemistry. Experimental results are presented along with the early developments of a scaling analysis for future process design and accountability work. Tests were performed on full size pencil, double pencil, and annular tanks using saltwater solutions to achieve various levels of density stratifications within the tanks analogous to nitric acids solutions of different normalities

  6. Tow Tank #1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1930-01-01

    Digging the channel for the Tow Tank. In the late 1920s, the NACA decided to investigate the aero/hydro dynamics of floats for seaplanes. A Hydrodynamics Branch was established in 1929 and special towing basin was authorized in March of that same year. Starr Truscott (the first head of the new division) described the tank in NACA TR 470: 'The N.A.C.A. tank is of the Froude type; that is, the model which is being tested is towed through still water at successive constant speeds from a carriage spanning the tank. At each constant speed the towing pull is measured, the trim and the rise, or change of draft, are recorded and, if the model is being towed at a fixed trim, the moment required to hold it there is measured and recorded.' 'The reinforced concrete basin containing the water has the following dimensions: (1) Length on water, extreme, 2,020 feet; (2) Normal width of water surface, 24 feet; (3) Normal depth of water, 12 feet; (4) Length of 12 foot depth, 1,980 feet.' The tank was dedicated on May 27, 1931. In 1936 the tank was extended to a total length of 2,960 feet. In 1959 the facility was turned over to the U.S. Navy.Published in NACA TR No. 470, 'The N.A.C.A. Tank: A High-Speed Towing Basin for Testing Models of Seaplane Floats,' by Starr Truscott, 1933.

  7. Bifidus milk powder: processing parameter standardization and shelf stability evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvamuthukumaran, Meenakshisundaram; Muthukumaran, Selva; Shukla, Shiv Shankar

    2016-04-01

    Spray dried bifidus milk powder was prepared by supplementing cow milk with different level of additives to obtain slurry of desired concentration. The slurry was pasteurized, cooled and inoculated with Bifidobacterium bifidum, incubated and dried to produce a bifidus milk powder. Among the various bifidus milk powder prepared, the slurry of mention the level total soluble solids exhibited good organoleptic characteristics and it has been standardized for further analysis. Moisture content, bulk density, insolubility index, hydroxymethyl furfural and thiobarbituric acid value of bifidus milk powder significantly increased, while the reflectance value significantly decreased during storage. The B. bifidum count significantly reduced and the bacterium were not detected at the end of the mention storage duration. As such the sentence is not acceptable in the abstract. The reconstituted bifidus milk powder was considered acceptable with an overall acceptability score of 6.97 on a nine-point Hedonic scale and showed a shelf stability of 120 days at ambient temperature condition (27 ± 2 °C). PMID:27413234

  8. NMR-Based Milk Metabolomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne C. Bertram

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Milk is a key component in infant nutrition worldwide and, in the Western parts of the world, also in adult nutrition. Milk of bovine origin is both consumed fresh and processed into a variety of dairy products including cheese, fermented milk products, and infant formula. The nutritional quality and processing capabilities of bovine milk is closely associated to milk composition. Metabolomics is ideal in the study of the low-molecular-weight compounds in milk, and this review focuses on the recent nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR-based metabolomics trends in milk research, including applications linking the milk metabolite profiling with nutritional aspects, and applications which aim to link the milk metabolite profile to various technological qualities of milk. The metabolite profiling studies encompass the identification of novel metabolites, which potentially can be used as biomarkers or as bioactive compounds. Furthermore, metabolomics applications elucidating how the differential regulated genes affects milk composition are also reported. This review will highlight the recent advances in NMR-based metabolomics on milk, as well as give a brief summary of when NMR spectroscopy can be useful for gaining a better understanding of how milk composition is linked to nutritional or quality traits.

  9. NMR-Based Milk Metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundekilde, Ulrik K; Larsen, Lotte B; Bertram, Hanne C

    2013-01-01

    Milk is a key component in infant nutrition worldwide and, in the Western parts of the world, also in adult nutrition. Milk of bovine origin is both consumed fresh and processed into a variety of dairy products including cheese, fermented milk products, and infant formula. The nutritional quality and processing capabilities of bovine milk is closely associated to milk composition. Metabolomics is ideal in the study of the low-molecular-weight compounds in milk, and this review focuses on the recent nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics trends in milk research, including applications linking the milk metabolite profiling with nutritional aspects, and applications which aim to link the milk metabolite profile to various technological qualities of milk. The metabolite profiling studies encompass the identification of novel metabolites, which potentially can be used as biomarkers or as bioactive compounds. Furthermore, metabolomics applications elucidating how the differential regulated genes affects milk composition are also reported. This review will highlight the recent advances in NMR-based metabolomics on milk, as well as give a brief summary of when NMR spectroscopy can be useful for gaining a better understanding of how milk composition is linked to nutritional or quality traits. PMID:24957988

  10. TANK FARM ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through regulations, permitting or binding negotiations, Regulators establish requirements, limits, permit conditions and Notice of Construction (NOC) conditions with which the Office of River Protection (ORP) and the Tank Farm Contractor (TFC) must comply. Operating Specifications are technical limits which are set on a process to prevent injury to personnel, or damage to the facility or environment, The main purpose of this document is to provide specification limits and recovery actions for the TFC Environmental Surveillance Program at the Hanford Site. Specification limits are given for monitoring frequencies and permissible variation of readings from an established baseline or previous reading. The requirements in this document are driven by environmental considerations and data analysis issues, rather than facility design or personnel safety issues. This document is applicable to all single-shell tank (SST) and double-shell tank (DST) waste tanks, and the associated catch tanks and receiver tanks, and transfer systems. This Tank Farm Environmental Specifications Document (ESD) implements environmental-regulatory limits on the configuration and operation of the Hanford Tank Farms facility that have been established by Regulators. This ESD contains specific field operational limits and recovery actions for compliance with airborne effluent regulations and agreements, liquid effluents regulations and agreements, and environmental tank system requirements. The scope of this ESD is limited to conditions that have direct impact on Operations/Projects or that Operations Projects have direct impact upon. This document does not supercede or replace any Department of Energy (DOE) Orders, regulatory permits, notices of construction, or Regulatory agency agreements binding on the ORP or the TFC. Refer to the appropriate regulation, permit, or Notice of Construction for an inclusive listing of requirements

  11. NACA Tow Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    1930-01-01

    L4695 shows the interior view of construction of the Tow Tank. In the late 1920s, the NACA decided to investigate the aero/hydro dynamics of floats for seaplanes. A Hydrodynamics Branch was established in 1929 and special towing basin was authorized in March of that same year. Starr Truscott (the first head of the new division) described the tank in NACA TR 470: 'The N.A.C.A. tank is of the Froude type; that is, the model which is being tested is towed through still water at successive constant speeds from a carriage spanning the tank. At each constant speed the towing pull is measured, the trim and the rise, or change of draft, are recorded and, if the model is being towed at a fixed trim, the moment required to hold it there is measured and recorded.' 'The reinforced concrete basin containing the water has the following dimensions: (1) Length on water, extreme, 2,020 feet; (2) Normal width of water surface, 24 feet; (3) Normal depth of water, 12 feet; (4) Length of 12 foot depth, 1,980 feet.' This picture shows the tank before the coving was added. This brought the rails for the carriage closer together and helped suppress waves produced by the models. The finished tank would be filled with approximately 4 million gallons of salt water pumped in from the Back River. The tank was covered by a shelter which protected the water surface. The tank was dedicated on May 27, 1931. In 1936 the tank was extended to a total length of 2,960 feet. In 1959 the facility was turned over to the U.S. Navy.

  12. Evaluation and implementation of good pratices in main points of microbiological contamination in milk production/
    Avaliação e implantação de boas práticas nos principais pontos de contaminação microbiológica na produção leiteira

    OpenAIRE

    Mykell S. Pereira; Luiz C. Silva; Emanuel R. Vacarelli; Douglas Furtado Magnani; Elsa H.W. Santana; Luís A. Nero; Ernst E. Muller; Márcia de A. F. Barros; Vanerli Beloti; Éder Paulo Fagan

    2005-01-01

    In order to improve the microbiological quality of Brazilian milk and dairy products some measures have been implemented in the milk-producing sector throughout the years, such as milk refrigeration and bulk collection. Refrigeration is a very efficient procedure, however allows psychrotrophics multiplication, which are largely found in milk produced in poor hygienic conditions. To assure and improve the microbiologic quality of milk turns out to be necessary the implementation of hygienic me...

  13. Upgrading a 1950s tank farm to meet the environmental standards of the 1990S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Texaco Inc. Research and Development (Texaco) facility in Beacon, New York includes an above ground storage tank (AST) farm, known as Tank Farm No. 1, which consists of eighteen tanks with capacities ranging from 10,000 to 21,000 gallons. A second tank farm, at the Texaco, Beacon facility, designated as the Boiler House Tank Farm, includes three additional tanks with capacities from 10,000 to 44,900 gallons. The Tank Farm No. 1 AST systems are all vertical, carbon steel tanks which were initially installed in several phases in the 1950s. The Boiler House Tank Farm ASTs are also vertical, carbon steel tanks, including one riveted construction tank that was installed in 1931. Each of the Texaco ASTs are used to store a variety of petroleum products, including diesel fuel, stoddard solvent, used oil, and various grades of gasoline and gasoline components. The New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) has established regulations for petroleum bulk storage in 6 NYCRR Parts 612 through 614. These regulations include requirements for monitoring and inspecting AST systems, including a rigorous ''out of service'' inspection, to be completed at least once every ten years. Although several revisions had been completed at Tank Farm No. 1 in recent years, including installation of a reinforced concrete secondary containment dike system and new above ground piping, the tank shells and most appurtenances (e.g. water drawoff valves), were unmodified since they were initially installed. On this basis, Texaco decided to upgrade the AST systems in conjunction with the NYSDEC ten-year inspections, by installing reinforced fiberglass liners in the tank floors, and by removing and/or replacing tank appurtenances to meet current industry standards and fire code requirements. This paper presents a summary of the program implemented to upgrade the Texaco, Beacon tank farm AST systems

  14. 7 CFR 1033.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1033.13 Section 1033.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  15. 7 CFR 1032.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1032.13 Section 1032.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  16. 7 CFR 1126.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1126.13 Section 1126.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  17. 7 CFR 1001.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1001.13 Section 1001.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  18. 21 CFR 131.130 - Evaporated milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evaporated milk. 131.130 Section 131.130 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.130 Evaporated milk. (a) Description. Evaporated milk is the liquid food obtained by partial removal of water only from milk....

  19. 7 CFR 1006.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1006.13 Section 1006.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  20. 7 CFR 58.137 - Excluded milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excluded milk. 58.137 Section 58.137 Agriculture... Milk § 58.137 Excluded milk. A plant shall not accept milk from a producer if: (a) The milk has been in...) Three of the last five milk samples have exceeded the maximum bacterial estimate of 500,000 per...

  1. 7 CFR 1131.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the event some of the milk of any producer is determined not to be producer milk pursuant to this... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1131.13 Section 1131.13 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1131.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  2. Prion protein in milk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Franscini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prions are known to cause transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE after accumulation in the central nervous system. There is increasing evidence that prions are also present in body fluids and that prion infection by blood transmission is possible. The low concentration of the proteinaceous agent in body fluids and its long incubation time complicate epidemiologic analysis and estimation of spreading and thus the risk of human infection. This situation is particularly unsatisfactory for food and pharmaceutical industries, given the lack of sensitive tools for monitoring the infectious agent. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have developed an adsorption matrix, Alicon PrioTrap, which binds with high affinity and specificity to prion proteins. Thus we were able to identify prion protein (PrP(C--the precursor of prions (PrP(Sc--in milk from humans, cows, sheep, and goats. The absolute amount of PrP(C differs between the species (from microg/l range in sheep to ng/l range in human milk. PrP(C is also found in homogenised and pasteurised off-the-shelf milk, and even ultrahigh temperature treatment only partially diminishes endogenous PrP(C concentration. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In view of a recent study showing evidence of prion replication occurring in the mammary gland of scrapie infected sheep suffering from mastitis, the appearance of PrP(C in milk implies the possibility that milk of TSE-infected animals serves as source for PrP(Sc.

  3. Development of smart solar tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Andersen, Elsa

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the project is to develop smart solar tanks. A smart solar tank is a tank in which the domestic water can bee heated both by solar collectors and by an auxiliary energy supply system. The auxiliary energy supply system heats up the hot-water tank from the top and the water volume heated...

  4. Breast milk - pumping and storing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a comfortable chair, sink, and electric pump. If pumping at work is going to be hard, build ... up your milk supply. Wash your hands before pumping. Collect breast milk when pumping. You can use: ...

  5. Comparative analysis of antibiotic residue in milk using enzyme and microbiological methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Jelena

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic residue can have a harmful effect on human health and can disrupt the processing of milk and milk products. In order to prevent these unwanted effects of residue, different screening methods are used today. The basic goal of this paper is to compare screening methods performed during the testing of milk from different points of the production chain. In this paper we have comparatively analyzed three screening methods: microbiological methods - the Delvo SP test and the diffusion method with B. stearothermophilus as the test microorganism, and an enzyme method - the Penzym S test. Twenty samples of farm milk from collective tanks were analyzed, as well as 20 samples of milk from transport cisterns, 10 samples of pasteurized milk and 10 samples of sterilized market milk. Based on the comparative analysis of the diffusion method, Delvo SP test and Panzym S test, we conclude that all three methods are in hgih mutual accordance (the kappa value oscillates from nearly ideal to ideal coinciding and thus meet one of the criteria for being included in the systematic control of milk for the presence of antibiotic residue.

  6. Bulk chemicals from biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveren, van J.; Scott, E.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Given the current robust forces driving sustainable production, and available biomass conversion technologies, biomass-based routes are expected to make a significant impact on the production of bulk chemicals within 10 years, and a huge impact within 20-30 years. In the Port of Rotterdam there is a

  7. Ferromagnetic bulk glassy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the review on the formation, thermal stability and magnetic properties of the Fe-based bulk glassy alloys in as-cast bulk and melt-spun ribbon forms. A large supercooled liquid region over 50 K before crystallization was obtained in Fe-(Al, Ga)-(P, C, B, Si), Fe-(Cr, Mo, Nb)-(Al, Ga)-(P, C, B) and (Fe, Co, Ni)-Zr-M-B (M=Ti, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo and W) systems and bulk glassy alloys were produced in a thickness range below 2 mm for the Fe-(Al, Ga)-(P, C, B, Si) system and 6 mm for the Fe-Co-(Zr, Nb, Ta)-(Mo, W)-B system by copper-mold casting. The ring-shaped glassy Fe-(Al, Ga)-(P, C, B, Si) alloys exhibit much better soft magnetic properties as compared with the ring-shaped alloy made from the melt-spun ribbon because of the formation of the unique domain structure. The good combination of high glass-forming ability and good soft magnetic properties indicates the possibility of future development as a new bulk glassy magnetic material

  8. [Breast milk substitutes based on cow milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofoed, P E

    1990-08-20

    "Adapted" or "humanized" breast-milk substitutes based on cows' milk are manufactured according to directives from a publication issued by the Ministry of Agriculture. The accepted recommendations for the daily intake (RDA) of nutrients is adjusted to the neonates' relatively low tolerance and provides a certain margin of safety in case of illness and slight inaccuracies in preparation. The recommendations are, however, often based on animal experiments, studies of pathological conditions etc. because the needs of the neonate are not known. There is a fundamental difference between RDA for chemical energy and various nutrients as the energy requirement is stated on the basis of average values while the requirements for specific nutrients are gives as upper and lower limiting values. In addition to nutrients, a long series of hormones, enzymes and antimicrobial factors are transferred to the infant via breast-milk. The nutritional significance of these is entirely or partially unknown. It is thus impossible to give the bottle-fed infant a diet which is quantitatively and qualitatively identical with that of a breastfed baby. Nevertheless, experience has shown that bottle-feeding usually proceeds satisfactorily. Galactosaemia and certain forms of medication in the mother constitute absolute contraindications to breast-feeding while phenylketonuria, certain maternal infections are relative contraindications to breast-feeding. Mothers should be prepared for breast-feeding already during pregnancy but in the cases where the mother cannot, should not or does not wish to breast-feed, it is important to counteract any feelings of guilt, neglect or incompetence and, on the other hand, give her thorough training in artificial feeding of the infant. PMID:2205958

  9. Tank 48 - Chemical Destruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simner, Steven P.; Aponte, Celia I.; Brass, Earl A.

    2013-01-09

    Small tank copper-catalyzed peroxide oxidation (CCPO) is a potentially viable technology to facilitate the destruction of tetraphenylborate (TPB) organic solids contained within the Tank 48H waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS). A maturation strategy was created that identified a number of near-term development activities required to determine the viability of the CCPO process, and subsequent disposition of the CCPO effluent. Critical activities included laboratory-scale validation of the process and identification of forward transfer paths for the CCPO effluent. The technical documentation and the successful application of the CCPO process on simulated Tank 48 waste confirm that the CCPO process is a viable process for the disposition of the Tank 48 contents.

  10. Tank waste treatment science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remediation efforts at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site require that many technical and scientific principles be combined for effectively managing and disposing the variety of wastes currently stored in underground tanks. Based on these principles, pretreatment technologies are being studied and developed to separate waste components and enable the most suitable treatment methods to be selected for final disposal of these wastes. The Tank Waste Treatment Science Task at Pacific Northwest Laboratory is addressing pretreatment technology development by investigating several aspects related to understanding and processing the tank contents. The experimental work includes evaluating the chemical and physical properties of the alkaline wastes, modeling sludge dissolution, and evaluating and designing ion exchange materials. This paper gives some examples of results of this work and shows how these results fit into the overall Hanford waste remediation activities. This work is part of series of projects being conducted for the Tank Waste Remediation System

  11. Heat transport in bulk/nanoporous/bulk silicon devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Criado-Sancho, M. [Departamento de Ciencias y Técnicas Físicoquimicas, Facultad de Ciencias, UNED, Senda del Rey 9, 20040 Madrid (Spain); Jou, D., E-mail: David.Jou@uab.cat [Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Institut d' Estudis Catalans, Carme 47, 08001 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2013-02-04

    We study heat transport in bulk/nanoporous/bulk silicon devices; we show that, despite bulk/nanoporous devices may act as thermal rectifiers, the non-linear aspects of their joint thermal conductance are not strong enough to lead to a negative differential thermal resistance, necessary to allow bulk/nanoporous/bulk Si devices to act as thermal transistors. Furthermore, we explicitly study the effective thermal conductivity of the mentioned devices for several temperatures, geometries, porosities, and pore size.

  12. Raw milk consumption and health

    OpenAIRE

    Popović-Vranješ Anka; Popović Milka; Jevtić Marija

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to the safe practices of milk pasteurization or sterilization, which effectively reduce foodborne outbreaks incidence associated with raw milk and dairy products use, outbreaks caused by such products continue to occur. Despite this fact, a worldwide movement advocating for the rights of raw milk and cheese selling and consumption, due to their specific nutritive characteristics, has strengthened significantly in recent years. Traditional agricultu...

  13. A New ELISA Using the ANANAS Technology Showing High Sensitivity to diagnose the Bovine Rhinotracheitis from Individual Sera to Pooled Milk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Casarin

    Full Text Available Diagnostic tests for veterinary surveillance programs should be efficient, easy to use and, possibly, economical. In this context, classic Enzyme linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA remains the most common analytical platform employed for serological analyses. The analysis of pooled samples instead of individual ones is a common procedure that permits to certify, with one single test, entire herds as "disease-free". However, diagnostic tests for pooled samples need to be particularly sensitive, especially when the levels of disease markers are low, as in the case of anti-BoHV1 antibodies in milk as markers of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR disease. The avidin-nucleic-acid-nanoassembly (ANANAS is a novel kind of signal amplification platform for immunodiagnostics based on colloidal poly-avidin nanoparticles that, using model analytes, was shown to strongly increase ELISA test performance as compared to monomeric avidin. Here, for the first time, we applied the ANANAS reagent integration in a real diagnostic context. The monoclonal 1G10 anti-bovine IgG1 antibody was biotinylated and integrated with the ANANAS reagents for indirect IBR diagnosis from pooled milk mimicking tank samples from herds with IBR prevalence between 1 to 8%. The sensitivity and specificity of the ANANAS integrated method was compared to that of a classic test based on the same 1G10 antibody directly linked to horseradish peroxidase, and a commercial IDEXX kit recently introduced in the market. ANANAS integration increased by 5-fold the sensitivity of the 1G10 mAb-based conventional ELISA without loosing specificity. When compared to the commercial kit, the 1G10-ANANAS integrated method was capable to detect the presence of anti-BHV1 antibodies from bulk milk of gE antibody positive animals with 2-fold higher sensitivity and similar specificity. The results demonstrate the potentials of this new amplification technology, which permits improving current classic ELISA

  14. A New ELISA Using the ANANAS Technology Showing High Sensitivity to diagnose the Bovine Rhinotracheitis from Individual Sera to Pooled Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarin, Elisabetta; Lucchese, Laura; Grazioli, Santina; Facchin, Sonia; Realdon, Nicola; Brocchi, Emiliana; Morpurgo, Margherita; Nardelli, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic tests for veterinary surveillance programs should be efficient, easy to use and, possibly, economical. In this context, classic Enzyme linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA) remains the most common analytical platform employed for serological analyses. The analysis of pooled samples instead of individual ones is a common procedure that permits to certify, with one single test, entire herds as "disease-free". However, diagnostic tests for pooled samples need to be particularly sensitive, especially when the levels of disease markers are low, as in the case of anti-BoHV1 antibodies in milk as markers of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR) disease. The avidin-nucleic-acid-nanoassembly (ANANAS) is a novel kind of signal amplification platform for immunodiagnostics based on colloidal poly-avidin nanoparticles that, using model analytes, was shown to strongly increase ELISA test performance as compared to monomeric avidin. Here, for the first time, we applied the ANANAS reagent integration in a real diagnostic context. The monoclonal 1G10 anti-bovine IgG1 antibody was biotinylated and integrated with the ANANAS reagents for indirect IBR diagnosis from pooled milk mimicking tank samples from herds with IBR prevalence between 1 to 8%. The sensitivity and specificity of the ANANAS integrated method was compared to that of a classic test based on the same 1G10 antibody directly linked to horseradish peroxidase, and a commercial IDEXX kit recently introduced in the market. ANANAS integration increased by 5-fold the sensitivity of the 1G10 mAb-based conventional ELISA without loosing specificity. When compared to the commercial kit, the 1G10-ANANAS integrated method was capable to detect the presence of anti-BHV1 antibodies from bulk milk of gE antibody positive animals with 2-fold higher sensitivity and similar specificity. The results demonstrate the potentials of this new amplification technology, which permits improving current classic ELISA sensitivity limits

  15. Milk and Soy Allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Kattan, Jacob D.; Cocco, Renata R.; Järvinen, Kirsi M.

    2011-01-01

    Cow’s milk allergy (CMA) affects 2% to 3% of young children and presents with a wide range of immunoglobulin E (IgE-) and non-IgE-mediated clinical syndromes, which have a significant economic and lifestyle impact. Definitive diagnosis is based on a supervised oral food challenge (OFC), but convincing clinical history, skin prick testing, and measurement of cow’s milk (CM)-specific IgE can aid in the diagnosis of IgE-mediated CMA and occasionally eliminate the need for OFCs. It is logical tha...

  16. Milk Production in Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiumei Ji; Tsam You; Zhang Oiang

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes milk production and livestock production in Tibet.Some information of market demand has also been presented.There has been very little information published in Tibetan journals on production and nutrition of cattle.This review provides a brief introduction to feeding systems and feeding resources.Many studies on milk production have been done in isolation,and do not go beyond the basic and practical level.Compared with dairy cattle research in other parts of China,large gaps in knowledge still exist in cattle production science,particularly related to nutrition,and systems approaches for the development of a dairy industry.

  17. Yoghurt fermentation trials utilizing mare milk: comparison with cow milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Giangiacomo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Mare milk shows a very interesting nutritional composition, similar to human milk. Whey protein fraction represents about 50% of total proteins, with a good amount of essential amino acids, and high lysozyme concentration (Jauregui-Adell, 1975. Mare milk contains essential fatty acids, progenitors of ω3 and ω6, higher than cow milk (Csapò et al., 1995; Curadi et al., 2002. In east european countries mare milk is utilized in dietetics and therapeutics for gastroenteric and cardiac pathologies (Sharmanov et al., 1982; Mirrakimov et al., 1986, or as a drink obtained from lactic and alcoholic fermentation (Koumiss...

  18. Association of bedding types with management practices and indicators of milk quality on larger Wisconsin dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowbotham, R F; Ruegg, P L

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to identify associations of bedding type and selected management practices with bulk milk quality and productivity of larger Wisconsin dairy farms. Dairy herds (n=325) producing ≥11,340 kg of milk daily were surveyed during a single farm visit. Monthly bulk milk SCC and total bacteria counts were obtained from milk buyers for 255 farms for a 2-yr period. Of farms with the same type of bedding in all pens during the study period, most used inorganic bedding (IB), followed by organic nonmanure bedding (OB) and manure products (MB). Almost all bulk milk total bacterial counts were subclinical mastitis and 965 kg greater on farms milking 3 times daily. Each 1% increase of cows with nonfunctioning mammary quarters was associated with a decrease of 57 kg of RHA. The BMSCS, proportions of cows with milk discarded and proportion of cows with nonfunctioning mammary quarters were least for herds using IB and were associated with increased productivity. Large Wisconsin dairy farms that used inorganic bedding had greater productivity and better milk quality compared with herds using other bedding types. PMID:26298761

  19. Detection of Antibiotic Resistant Staphylococcus aureus from Milk: A Public Health Implication

    OpenAIRE

    Muyiwa Ajoke Akindolire; Olubukola Oluranti Babalola; Collins Njie Ateba

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence, antibiotic susceptibility profiles, and virulence genes determinants of S. aureus isolated from milk obtained from retail outlets of the North-West Province, South Africa. To achieve this, 200 samples of raw, bulk and pasteurised milk were obtained randomly from supermarkets, shops and some farms in the North-West Province between May 2012 and April 2013. S. aureus was isolated and positively identified using morphological (Gram stainin...

  20. Screening of antibiotic residues in ewe milk destined to cheese by a commercial microbiological inhibition assay

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaki, Miho; Berruga, M. Isabel; Althaus, Rafael Lisandro; Molina, Pilar; Molina, Ana

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Bulk ewe milk from Spanish dairy farms situated in the Castilla-La Mancha region, and destined to Protected Denomination of Origin (PDO) Manchego cheese, were analysed each month for antimicrobial residues during one year. For this study a microbiological assay specific for ewe milk (Eclipse ?100ov??) was used. The number of positive samples by the Eclipse ?100ov?? test was 2.6%. A second examination of positives following heat treatment at 82?C for 10 min showed a reduc...

  1. A Sour Milk Rivalry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A libel scandal involving Mengniu taints its image and deals a blow to China’s dairy industry Mengniu,with the 2008 milk contamination incident still fresh in people’s memories,has brought China’s dairy industry into the spotlight again-this time the attention focused on a bitter rivalry.

  2. The Sweetest Chocolate Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Kristie J.

    2010-01-01

    Using a nonroutine problem can be an effective way to encourage students to draw on prior knowledge, work together, and reach important conclusions about the mathematics they are learning. This article discusses a problem on the mathematical preparation of chocolate milk which was adapted from an old book of puzzles (Linn 1969) and has been used…

  3. Residual contaminants in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevijo Zdolec

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Various chemical agents are used during the whole production chain of milk and dairy products. Production of feedingstuffs is accompanied with pesticide usage, which may remain in environment, thus are transported through feeding into animals, animal products and finally in human organism. Preparation procedure and storage conditions of feed also influence on milk safety in the sense of mycotoxins entering into the food chain. Chemical agents are, on daily basis, used on dairy farms either as detergents or disinfections. The residuals of cleaning agents might remain in milk if the cleaning agents and its dosage are not performed adequately. Besides already mentioned agents, a great influence in milk production can bee seen through veterinary drugs usage, particularly antibacterial drugs (mastitis. Proper application of drugs and by following legal recommendation, a by-reactions can be avoided such as allergic reaction in humans, development of resisting bacteria or even undesirable influence on starter cultures in dairy products manufacture. The maximum residue limits, monitoring plan as well as sampling procedures are set up within the harmonization of Croatian and European legislation, in order to provide official control of residues in foodstuffs of animal origin.

  4. Bovine milk exosome proteome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exosomes are 40-100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin and are found in blood, urine, amniotic fluid, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, as well as human and bovine milk. Exosomes are extracellular organelles important in intracellular communication/signaling, immune function, and biomarkers ...

  5. Effect of total proteose-peptone content on the variability of bovine milk foaming property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Buccioni

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Several authors demonstrated a strong linkage between proteose-peptones content and foaming properties of cow milk; this is of great interest for Italian dairy industries to create a new line of fresh milk characterized by a particular foaming property and, hence, particularly appreciate in catering industry. The aim of this trial was to quantify the relation between total concentration of proteose-peptones and the entity of foaming attitude in cow fresh milk. Ninety samples of raw bulk milk were analysed for proteose-peptones content, plasmin activity, fatty acid profile and foaming attitude. A negative relation was found among proteose-peptones percentage and foaming attitude which decreased with the increase of plasmin activity and somatic cell content in milk.

  6. Bulk materials handling review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-02-15

    The paper provides details of some of the most important coal handling projects and technologies worldwide. It describes development by Aubema Crushing Technology GmbH, Bedeschi, Cimbria Moduflex, DBT, Dynamic Air Conveying Systems, E & F Services, InBulk Technologies, Nord-Sen Metal Industries Ltd., Pebco Inc, Primasonics International Ltd., R.J.S. Silo Clean (International) Ltd., Takraf GmbH, and The ACT Group. 17 photos.

  7. Estimation of plutonium in Hanford Site waste tanks based on historical records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An estimation of plutonium in the Hanford Site waste storage tanks is important to nuclear criticality concerns. A reasonable approach for estimating the plutonium in the tanks can be established by considering the recovery efficiency of the chemical separation plants on the plutonium produced in the Hanford reactors. The waste loss from the separation processes represents the bulk of the plutonium in the waste tanks. The lesser contributor of plutonium to the waste tanks was the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). When the PFP waste is added to the plutonium waste from separations, the result is the total estimated amount of plutonium discharged to the waste tanks at the Hanford Site. This estimate is for criticality concerns, and therefore is based on conservative assumptions (giving higher plutonium values). The estimate has been calculated to be ∼981 kg of plutonium in the single- and double-shell high-level waste tanks

  8. Camel Milk Is a Safer Choice than Goat Milk for Feeding Children with Cow Milk Allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Ehlayel; Abdulbari Bener; Khalid Abu Hazeima; Fatima Al-Mesaifri

    2011-01-01

    Background. Various sources of mammalian milk have been tried in CMA. Objectives. To determine whether camel milk is safer than goat milk in CMA. Methods. Prospective study conducted at Hamad Medical Corporation between April 2007 and April 2010, on children with CMA. Each child had medical examination, CBC, total IgE, cow milk-specific IgE and SPT. CMA children were tested against fresh camel and goat milks. Results. Of 38 children (median age 21.5 months), 21 (55.3%) presented with urticari...

  9. Optical Cryogenic Tank Level Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffell, Amanda

    2005-01-01

    Cryogenic fluids play an important role in space transportation. Liquid oxygen and hydrogen are vital fuel components for liquid rocket engines. It is also difficult to accurately measure the liquid level in the cryogenic tanks containing the liquids. The current methods use thermocouple rakes, floats, or sonic meters to measure tank level. Thermocouples have problems examining the boundary between the boiling liquid and the gas inside the tanks. They are also slow to respond to temperature changes. Sonic meters need to be mounted inside the tank, but still above the liquid level. This causes problems for full tanks, or tanks that are being rotated to lie on their side.

  10. Validation of receptor-binding assays to detect antibiotics in goat's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, M C; Borràs, M; Nagel, O; Althaus, R L; Molina, M P

    2014-02-01

    The suitability of different receptor-binding assays to detect antibiotics in raw goat's milk was investigated. Detection capability of most β-lactams and tetracyclines assessed applying the Betastar Combo, the SNAP Betalactam, the SNAP Tetracycline, and the Twinsensor tests was at or below maximum residue limits established by European legislation. Regarding test specificity, cross-reactions with antibiotics other than β-lactams and tetracyclines were not found, and no false-positive results were obtained for the Betastar Combo and the SNAP tests when bulk samples of goat's milk were analyzed. For the Twinsensor test, the false-positive rate was 1%. The performance of the Betastar Combo and the SNAP tests was practically unaffected by the milk quality parameters using individual samples of goat's milk collected at points throughout the entire lactation period (false-positive rate, ≤5%). However, a larger number of positive results were obtained by the Twinsensor test in this type of milk sample (>10%), especially in the last weeks of lactation. Interferences related to the use of the preservative azidiol were not observed in any case. Neither were any significant differences found in relation to the interpretation method (visual versus instrumental) applied. In general, the response of the Betastar Combo, SNAP, and Twinsensor tests was optimal for the analysis of bulk caprine milk; thus, they may be used to monitor milk for the presence of β-lactam and tetracycline residues in quality control programs. PMID:24490926

  11. Casein fraction of ovine milk from indigenous Greek breeds

    OpenAIRE

    Moatsou, Golfo; Samolada, Maria; Katsabeki, Alexandra; Anifantakis, Emmanuel

    2004-01-01

    Whole casein fractions isoelectrically prepared from bulk milks from four different indigenous Greek ovine breeds were analysed by urea-PAGE and reversed-phase HPLC. Individual caseins prepared by fractionation on a cation-exchange column were used to locate the peaks on the chromatograms. Apart from heterogeneity that was depicted in the peak shape of caseins, there was also quantitative variability regarding the $\\alpha$s- and $\\beta$-casein contents. According to the RP-HPLC results, the r...

  12. Isolation of [i]Listeria monocytogenes[/i] from milks used for Iranian traditional cheese in Lighvan cheese factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir-Hassan Moosavy

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Lighvan cheese is a semi-hard cheese which has a popular market in Iran and neighboring countries. The aim of this study was evaluating the contamination of milks used for Lighvan cheese making with[i] Listeria monocytogenes[/i]. Raw milk samples were randomly collected from different cheese producing factories (sampling carried out from large milk tanks used cheese making in factories. Isolation of [i]L. monocytogenes[/i] was performed according to ISO 11290 and biochemical tests were done to identify and confirm L. monocytogenes. 9 samples (50% of the 18 collected samples from milk tanks in Lighvan cheese producing factories were contaminated with [i]L. monocytogenes[/i]. The concentration of [i]L. monocytogenes[/i] in all 9 positive samples was 40 CFU/ml. This study is the first report of [i]L. monocytogenes[/i] contamination in raw milks used for Lighvan cheese production in Iran. Regarding the fact that these cheeses are produced from raw milk and no heating process is performed on them its milk contamination can be a potential risk for consumers.

  13. C-tank transfers: Transuranic sludge removal from the C-1, C-2, and W-23 waste storage tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two fluidic pulse jet mixing systems were used to successfully mobilize remote-handled transuranic sludge for retrieval from three 50,000-gal horizontal waste storage tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The results of this operation indicate that the pulse jet system should be considered for mixing and bulk retrieval of sludges in other vertical and horizontal waste tanks at ORNL and at other U.S. Department of Energy sites

  14. C-tank transfers: Transuranic sludge removal from the C-1, C-2, and W-23 waste storage tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahl, T.L.; Lay, A.C.; Taylor, S.A.; Moore, J.W.

    1999-05-01

    Two fluidic pulse jet mixing systems were used to successfully mobilize remote-handled transuranic sludge for retrieval from three 50,000-gal horizontal waste storage tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The results of this operation indicate that the pulse jet system should be considered for mixing and bulk retrieval of sludges in other vertical and horizontal waste tanks at ORNL and at other U.S. Department of Energy sites.

  15. Material selection for Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larrick, A.P.; Blackburn, L.D.; Brehm, W.F.; Carlos, W.C.; Hauptmann, J.P. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Danielson, M.J.; Westerman, R.E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Divine, J.R. [ChemMet Ltd., West Richland, WA (United States); Foster, G.M. [ICF Kaiser Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    This paper briefly summarizes the history of the materials selection for the US Department of Energy`s high-level waste carbon steel storage tanks. It also provides an evaluation of the materials for the construction of new tanks at the evaluation of the materials for the construction of new tanks at the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. The evaluation included a materials matrix that summarized the critical design, fabrication, construction, and corrosion resistance requirements: assessed. each requirement: and cataloged the advantages and disadvantages of each material. This evaluation is based on the mission of the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. On the basis of the compositions of the wastes stored in Hanford waste tanks, it is recommended that tanks for the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility be constructed of ASME SA 515, Grade 70, carbon steel.

  16. Failure analysis of buried tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Failure of a buried tank can be hazardous. Failure may be a leak through which product is lost from the tank; but also through which contamination can occur. Failures are epidemic -- because buried tanks are out of sight, but also because designers of buried tanks have adopted analyses developed for pressure tanks. So why do pressure tanks fail when they are buried? Most failures of buried tanks are really soil failures. Soil compresses, or slips, or liquefies. Soil is not only a load, it is a support without which the tank deforms. A high water table adds to the load on the tank. It also reduces the strength of the soil. Based on tests, structural analyses are proposed for empty tanks buried in soils of various quality, with the water table at various levels, and with internal vacuum. Failure may be collapse tank. Such collapse is a sudden, audible inversion of the cylinder when the sidefill soil slips. Failure may be flotation. Failure may be a leak. Most leaks are fractures in the welds in overlap seams at flat spots. Flat spots are caused by a hard bedding or a heavy surface wheel load. Because the tank wall is double thick at the overlap, shearing stress in the weld is increased. Other weld failures occur when an end plate shears down past a cylinder; or when the tank is supported only at its ends like a beam. These, and other, failures can be analyzed with justifiable accuracy using basic principles of mechanics of materials. 10 figs

  17. Monitoring Milk Somatic Cell Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Şteţca

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of somatic cells in milk is a widely disputed issue in milk production sector. The somatic cell counts in raw milk are a marker for the specific cow diseases such as mastitis or swollen udder. The high level of somatic cells causes physical and chemical changes to milk composition and nutritional value, and as well to milk products. Also, the mastitic milk is not proper for human consumption due to its contribution to spreading of certain diseases and food poisoning. According to these effects, EU Regulations established the maximum threshold of admitted somatic cells in raw milk to 400000 cells / mL starting with 2014. The purpose of this study was carried out in order to examine the raw milk samples provided from small farms, industrial type farms and milk processing units. There are several ways to count somatic cells in milk but the reference accepted method is the microscopic method described by the SR EN ISO 13366-1/2008. Generally samples registered values in accordance with the admissible limit. By periodical monitoring of the somatic cell count, certain technological process issues are being avoided and consumer’s health ensured.

  18. Inerting ballast tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baes, Gabriel L.; Bronneberg, Jos [SBM Offshore, AA Schiedam (Netherlands); Barros, Maria A.S.D. de [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This report expands upon the work conducted by SBM Offshore to develop a tank preservation treatment, which is intended to achieve a service life of 30 years. This work focuses on the corrosion problems, in the ballast tanks, based on new built hulls, both for the Gas Exploration Market, the FLNG - Floating Liquefied Natural Gas, and for the Oil Exploration market - FPSO's - Floating Production Storage and offloading Units. Herein, the corrosion rate input comes from the various references related to the process of nitrogen injection, which is expected to extend the vessel's time life. The essential elements of this solution comprise the deoxygenation process, corrosion models, coating effects, tests from laboratory, shipboard tests, corrosion institutes and regulations applicable to the operation. The best corrosion protection system for ballast tanks area combines a coating system and an inert gas system. The condition of the tanks will be dependent upon the level of protection applied to the steel structure, including, but not limited to coating, cathodic protection, etc. There is a need for products which extend the life time. It is not sufficient, only have good theoretical base for the corrosion and an excellent treatment system. In addition, the design of the ships structure must also eliminate the presence of local stress concentrations which can result in fatigue cracking and rupture of the protective coating barrier starting the corrosion. As a direct result of this, more problems in corrosion can be mitigated, vessels can have a better corrosion performance with less maintenance and repairs to coating systems in ballast tanks. Furthermore ships will be positively impacted operationally due to less frequent dry docking. There is a huge potential in the application of inert gas to combat the corrosion rate inside the ballast tanks, one of the most corrosive environments on earth. This application can have a direct impact on vessel structure

  19. Tank plan for tank 241-C-104 retrieval testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HERTING, D.L.

    1999-05-21

    Tank 241-C-104 has been identified as one of the first tanks to be retrieved for high-level waste pretreatment and immobilization. Retrieval of the tank waste will require dilution. Laboratory tests are needed to determine the amount of dilution required for safe retrieval and transfer of feed. The proposed laboratory tests are described in this document.

  20. 49 CFR 180.519 - Periodic retest and inspection of tank cars other than single-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Periodic retest and inspection of tank cars other than single-unit tank car tanks. 180.519 Section 180.519 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... of Tank Cars § 180.519 Periodic retest and inspection of tank cars other than single-unit tank...

  1. 21 CFR 131.110 - Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Milk. 131.110 Section 131.110 Food and Drugs FOOD... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.110 Milk. (a) Description. Milk is the lacteal secretion, practically free from colostrum, obtained by the complete...

  2. 21 CFR 131.115 - Concentrated milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated milk. 131.115 Section 131.115 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.115 Concentrated milk. (a) Description. Concentrated milk is the liquid food obtained by partial removal of...

  3. 21 CFR 131.111 - Acidified milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acidified milk. 131.111 Section 131.111 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.111 Acidified milk. (a) Description. Acidified milk is the food produced by souring one or more of the optional dairy...

  4. 7 CFR 1150.111 - Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Milk. 1150.111 Section 1150.111 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.111 Milk. Milk means any class of cow's milk produced in the United States....

  5. 7 CFR 58.136 - Rejected milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rejected milk. 58.136 Section 58.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Milk § 58.136 Rejected milk. A plant shall reject specific milk from a producer if the milk fails...

  6. 21 CFR 131.112 - Cultured milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cultured milk. 131.112 Section 131.112 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.112 Cultured milk. (a) Description. Cultured milk is the food produced by culturing one or more of the optional dairy...

  7. TANK SPACE OPTIONS REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WILLIS WL; AHRENDT MR

    2009-08-11

    Since this report was originally issued in 2001, several options proposed for increasing double-shell tank (DST) storage space were implemented or are in the process of implementation. Changes to the single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval schedule, completion of DST space saving options, and the DST space saving options in progress have delayed the projected shortfall of DST storage space from the 2007-2011 to the 2018-2025 timeframe (ORP-11242, River Protection Project System Plan). This report reevaluates options from Rev. 0 and includes evaluations of new options for alleviating projected restrictions on SST waste retrieval beginning in 2018 because of the lack of DST storage space.

  8. Tank waste isotope contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the results of a calculation to determine the relative contribution of selected isotopes to the inhalation and ingestion doses for a postulated release of Hanford tank waste. The fraction of the dose due to 90Sr, 90Y, 137Cs and the alpha emitters for single shell solids and liquids, double shell solids and liquids, aging waste solids and liquids and all solids and liquids. An effective dose conversion factor was also calculated for the alpha emitters for each composite of the tank waste

  9. TANK SPACE OPTIONS REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since this report was originally issued in 2001, several options proposed for increasing double-shell tank (DST) storage space were implemented or are in the process of implementation. Changes to the single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval schedule, completion of DST space saving options, and the DST space saving options in progress have delayed the projected shortfall of DST storage space from the 2007-2011 to the 2018-2025 timeframe (ORP-11242, River Protection Project System Plan). This report reevaluates options from Rev. 0 and includes evaluations of new options for alleviating projected restrictions on SST waste retrieval beginning in 2018 because of the lack of DST storage space.

  10. Vibration Considerations for Cryogenic Tanks Using Glass Bubbles Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werlink, Rudolph J.; Fesmire, James E.; Sass, Jared P.

    2011-01-01

    The use of glass bubbles as an efficient and practical thermal insulation system has been previously demonstrated in cryogenic storage tanks. One such example is a spherical, vacuum-jacketed liquid hydrogen vessel of 218,000 liter capacity where the boiloff rate has been reduced by approximately 50 percent. Further applications may include non-stationary tanks such as mobile tankers and tanks with extreme duty cycles or exposed to significant vibration environments. Space rocket launch events and mobile tanker life cycles represent two harsh cases of mechanical vibration exposure. A number of bulk fill insulation materials including glass bubbles, perlite powders, and aerogel granules were tested for vibration effects and mechanical behavior using a custom design holding fixture subjected to random vibration on an Electrodynamic Shaker. The settling effects for mixtures of insulation materials were also investigated. The vibration test results and granular particle analysis are presented with considerations and implications for future cryogenic tank applications. A thermal performance update on field demonstration testing of a 218,000 L liquid hydrogen storage tank, retrofitted with glass bubbles, is presented. KEYWORDS: Glass bubble, perlite, aerogel, insulation, liquid hydrogen, storage tank, mobile tanker, vibration.

  11. World production and quality of cow's milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Bosnić

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available World milk production has a great economical effect being in the function of human food production and nutrition. Milk is obtained from cows, buffalos, sheeps, goats, camels and donkey with cow's milk production dominating. The world milk production in 2000 was 568.480 thousands of tons of all types of milk of which 484.895 thousands tons are cow's milk with a total of 85.30 % of the world milk production. Buffalo's milk production is on the second place with 61.913 thousands of tonnes (10.89 % production capacity. On the three continents (Europe, North America and Asia 81.82 % of total cow's milk production is located. Developed countries produce 50 % of total milk production, while higher milk production is forecast for the developing countries. The EU countries participate with 23.72 % in the world milk production and with 55.60 % on the European area. High annual lactation production, under selected cow's milk production, of above 6000 kg is located in developed countries, where annual participation of Israel accounts for over 10000 kg of milk per cow. Commercial milk production of genetics cattle accounts from 80 % to 85 %. Milk quality, with regard to milk fat and proteincontent, in developed countries is above an average value. With the annual milk production of 7000 kg of cow's milk, up to 294 kg of milk fat and 238 kg of protein are produced. Due to milk characteristics as agro-food product, milk and dairy products manufacture and transportation are in details regulated with existing quality standards. 95 % of the EU milk producers fulfil international hygienic rules on milk safety standards (somatic cells, microorganisms. With regard to long term development, until 2030, changes on herd management (outdoor and indoor exposure, between continents, will occur. In 2030, the world milk production is forecast to increase by 64%, with cow's milk production of 765.9 million tonnes.

  12. Radionuclides in milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activity concentrations of 137Cs, 90Sr and 131I in cow's milk from all Nordic countries for the NWF and the post-Chernobyl periods have previously been collated in an excel database. In 2004 the database was further extended by including new data from Finland, Sweden and Norway. In order to explain the time development of contamination in different Nordic regions dual regression analyses of some selected time-series were performed. Since the NWF period was subject to similar investigations in previous year's report, the present study focused on the post-Chernobyl period (1986-). Effective ecological half lives of Cs-137 in milk from 12 regions were estimated. The fast component (T1) was about 1 year for all series (except Sandnessjoeen in Norway), while the slow component (T2) was more variable (7-13 years) - and in some cases not applicable. (au)

  13. Concentrate composition for Automatic Milking Systems - Effect on milking frequency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hvelplund, Torben

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of affecting milking frequency in an Automatic Milking System (AMS) by changing ingredient composition of the concentrate fed in the AMS. In six experiments, six experimental concentrates were tested against a Standard concentrate all...... the Standard concentrate. A marked effect was found on the number of visits of the cows in the AMS and the subsequent milk production in relation to composition of the concentrate. The composition of the concentrates also influenced the composition of the milk and the MR intake. Based on the overall...

  14. Sphingosine basis in milk

    OpenAIRE

    Slavica Ribar; Ivana Karmelić; Marko Mesarić

    2006-01-01

    Sphingolipids are widespread membrane components that are found in all eukaryotic cells. They are defined as compounds having a long-chain sphingoid base as the backbone. The most frequent long-chain bases in most of the mammals are D-erythro-sphinganine and sphingosine. Sphingolipids can be expected in minor quantities in all food products. Milk fat contains a number of different sphingolipid classes. Originally they were presumed to contribute to the structural integrity of membranes, but t...

  15. Wormholes in Bulk Viscous Cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    Jamil, Mubasher

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the effects of the accretion of phantom energy with non-zero bulk viscosity onto a Morris-Thorne wormhole. We have found that if the bulk viscosity is large then the mass of wormhole increases rapidly as compared to small or zero bulk viscosity.

  16. ANALYSIS OF THE TANK 5F FINAL CHARACTERIZATION SAMPLES-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L.; Diprete, D.; Coleman, C.; Hay, M.

    2012-08-03

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by SRR to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 5F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Two types of samples were collected and delivered to SRNL: floor samples across the tank and subsurface samples from mounds near risers 1 and 5 of Tank 5F. These samples were taken from Tank 5F between January and March 2011. These samples from individual locations in the tank (nine floor samples and six mound Tank 5F samples) were each homogenized and combined in a given proportion into 3 distinct composite samples to mimic the average composition in the entire tank. These Tank 5F composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 5F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble species. With analyses for certain challenging radionuclides as the exception, all composite Tank 5F samples were analyzed and reported in triplicate. The target detection limits for isotopes analyzed were based on customer desired detection limits as specified in the technical task request documents. SRNL developed new methodologies to meet these target detection limits and provide data for the extensive suite of components. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 5F, as specified in the technical task request, some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The Technical Task Request allows that while the analyses of these isotopes is needed, meeting the detection limits for these isotopes is a lower priority than meeting detection limits for the other specified isotopes. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included the

  17. Analysis Of The Tank 5F Final Characterization Samples-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N.; Diprete, D.; Coleman, C. J.; Hay, M. S.

    2012-09-27

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by SRR to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 5F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Two types of samples were collected and delivered to SRNL: floor samples across the tank and subsurface samples from mounds near risers 1 and 5 of Tank 5F. These samples were taken from Tank 5F between January and March 2011. These samples from individual locations in the tank (nine floor samples and six mound Tank 5F samples) were each homogenized and combined in a given proportion into 3 distinct composite samples to mimic the average composition in the entire tank. These Tank 5F composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 5F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble species. With analyses for certain challenging radionuclides as the exception, all composite Tank 5F samples were analyzed and reported in triplicate. The target detection limits for isotopes analyzed were based on customer desired detection limits as specified in the technical task request documents. SRNL developed new methodologies to meet these target detection limits and provide data for the extensive suite of components. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 5F, as specified in the technical task request, some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The Technical Task Request allows that while the analyses of these isotopes is needed, meeting the detection limits for these isotopes is a lower priority than meeting detection limits for the other specified isotopes. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included the

  18. ANALYSIS OF THE TANK 5F FINAL CHARATERIZATION SAMPLES-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L.; Diprete, D.; Coleman, C.; Hay, M.

    2012-01-20

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by SRR to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 5F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Two types of samples were collected and delivered to SRNL: floor samples across the tank and subsurface samples from mounds near risers 1 and 5 of Tank 5F. These samples were taken from Tank 5F between January and March 2011. These samples from individual locations in the tank (nine floor samples and six mound Tank 5F samples) were each homogenized and combined in a given proportion into 3 distinct composite samples to mimic the average composition in the entire tank. These Tank 5F composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 5F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble species. With analyses for certain challenging radionuclides as the exception, all composite Tank 5F samples were analyzed and reported in triplicate. The target detection limits for isotopes analyzed were based on customer desired detection limits as specified in the technical task request documents. SRNL developed new methodologies to meet these target detection limits and provide data for the extensive suite of components. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 5F, as specified in the technical task request, some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The Technical Task Request allows that while the analyses of these isotopes is needed, meeting the detection limits for these isotopes is a lower priority than meeting detection limits for the other specified isotopes. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included the

  19. Analysis Of The Tank 5F Final Characterization Samples-2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by SRR to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 5F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Two types of samples were collected and delivered to SRNL: floor samples across the tank and subsurface samples from mounds near risers 1 and 5 of Tank 5F. These samples were taken from Tank 5F between January and March 2011. These samples from individual locations in the tank (nine floor samples and six mound Tank 5F samples) were each homogenized and combined in a given proportion into 3 distinct composite samples to mimic the average composition in the entire tank. These Tank 5F composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 5F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble species. With analyses for certain challenging radionuclides as the exception, all composite Tank 5F samples were analyzed and reported in triplicate. The target detection limits for isotopes analyzed were based on customer desired detection limits as specified in the technical task request documents. SRNL developed new methodologies to meet these target detection limits and provide data for the extensive suite of components. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 5F, as specified in the technical task request, some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The Technical Task Request allows that while the analyses of these isotopes is needed, meeting the detection limits for these isotopes is a lower priority than meeting detection limits for the other specified isotopes. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included the

  20. Analysis Of The Tank 5F Final Charaterization Samples-2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by SRR to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 5F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Two types of samples were collected and delivered to SRNL: floor samples across the tank and subsurface samples from mounds near risers 1 and 5 of Tank 5F. These samples were taken from Tank 5F between January and March 2011. These samples from individual locations in the tank (nine floor samples and six mound Tank 5F samples) were each homogenized and combined in a given proportion into 3 distinct composite samples to mimic the average composition in the entire tank. These Tank 5F composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 5F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble species. With analyses for certain challenging radionuclides as the exception, all composite Tank 5F samples were analyzed and reported in triplicate. The target detection limits for isotopes analyzed were based on customer desired detection limits as specified in the technical task request documents. SRNL developed new methodologies to meet these target detection limits and provide data for the extensive suite of components. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 5F, as specified in the technical task request, some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The Technical Task Request allows that while the analyses of these isotopes is needed, meeting the detection limits for these isotopes is a lower priority than meeting detection limits for the other specified isotopes. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included the

  1. Analysis Of The Tank 5F Final Characterization Samples-2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by SRR to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 5F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Two types of samples were collected and delivered to SRNL: floor samples across the tank and subsurface samples from mounds near risers 1 and 5 of Tank 5F. These samples were taken from Tank 5F between January and March 2011. These samples from individual locations in the tank (nine floor samples and six mound Tank 5F samples) were each homogenized and combined in a given proportion into 3 distinct composite samples to mimic the average composition in the entire tank. These Tank 5F composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 5F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble species. With analyses for certain challenging radionuclides as the exception, all composite Tank 5F samples were analyzed and reported in triplicate. The target detection limits for isotopes analyzed were based on customer desired detection limits as specified in the technical task request documents. SRNL developed new methodologies to meet these target detection limits and provide data for the extensive suite of components. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 5F, as specified in the technical task request, some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The Technical Task Request allows that while the analyses of these isotopes is needed, meeting the detection limits for these isotopes is a lower priority than meeting detection limits for the other specified isotopes. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included the

  2. Task 7c: Worm tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worm tank has a unique shape. In the seismic design of a worm tank, it is desirable to clear the behavior of the worm tank under the seismic loading. We assumed that there are two phenomena in the seismic behavior of the worm tank same as the behavior of the cylindrical and rectangular tanks. One is a sloshing behavior of the water and another is the dynamic response of the worm tank. In this study, we investigate the dynamic characteristics of the worm tank during the strong earthquakes. We conducted the vibration tests to clarify the seismic behaviors of the worm tanks and obtained the valuable data to verify the analytical method. It was found that the natural frequency can be calculated using the eigenvalue formula of the cylindrical and rectangular tanks. Lower modes of the worm tank are identical with that of the rectangular tank. We can estimate the surface behavior and the impact mode using the data of the rectangular tank. (author)

  3. Milk and oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Ingegerd; Lif Holgerson, Pernilla

    2011-01-01

    Oral health includes freedom from disease in the gums, the mucosa and the teeth. There has been a striking reduction in dental caries and periodontitis in industrialized countries, although the proportion with severe disease has remained at 10-15%, and the prevalence increases in less developed countries. If left untreated, these diseases may lead to pain, and impaired quality of life and nutritional status. Prevention and treatment need, besides traditional implementation of proper oral hygiene, sugar restriction and use of fluoride, newer cost-effective strategies. Non-sweetened dairy products, which are proven non-cariogenic, or specific bioactive components from alike sources might prove to be part of such strategies. Thus, milk proteins, such as bovine and human caseins and lactoferrin, inhibit initial attachment of cariogenic mutans streptococci to hydroxyapatite coated with saliva or purified saliva host ligands. In contrast, both bovine and human milk coated on hydroxyapatite promotes attachment of commensal Actinomyces naeslundii and other streptococci in vitro, and phosphorylated milk-derived peptides promote maintenance of tooth minerals, as shown for the β-casein-derived caseino-phosphate peptide. Observational studies are promising, but randomized clinical trials are needed to reveal if dairy products could be a complementary treatment for oral health. PMID:21335990

  4. Diagnóstico de brucelosis bovina en leche por el Ring Test y ELISA en lecherías de la provincia de Ñuble (VIII Región Bovine brucellosis diagnosis in milk by Ring Test and ELISA in dairy farms of Ñuble (VIII Region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. LOPEZ

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Se utilizaron los métodos de ELISA y Ring Test en leche para diagnosticar brucelosis bovina en estanques de recolección en frío a 60 predios lecheros de la provincia de Ñuble, VIII Región de Chile, durante los meses de noviembre y diciembre de 1995. Estos fueron estratificados en relación al número de vacas en producción de leche. Los resultados obtenidos por ambos métodos fueron similares,18 muestras positivas y 42 negativas. La diferencia se estableció en 5 muestras (8.3% que fueron clasificadas como positivas débiles al Ring Test y confirmadas como positivas por ELISA. Se determinó que la prevalencia predial de brucelosis bovina fue de un 30% en predios lecheros con estanque enfriador en la provincia de Ñuble. El métodode ELISA resultó ser una prueba confiable para diagnosticar brucelosis bovina en leches colectivas.ELISA and Ring Test were compared as diagnostic tests for bovine brucellosis in bulk tank refrigerated milk from 60 dairies in the Ñuble Province, VIII Region, Chile, from November to December. Samples were stratified according to the number of cows in the farm. Diagnosis obtained from both methods gave similar results: 18 positive and 42 negative. The difference was established in 5 samples (8.3% that were classified as weak positive to the Ring Test and confirmed as positives by ELISA. Furthermore, it was determined that there was 30% prevalence of bovine brucellosis in dairies with refrigerated tanks in the Ñuble province. The ELISA proved to be a reliable diagnostic test of bovine brucellosis in bulk milk

  5. Scanning Fuel Tanks’ Corrosion Wastage of Some Aged Bulk Carriers Due to Security Reasons

    OpenAIRE

    Bauk, Sanja; Aleksić, Marinko; Ivošević, Špiro

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with two different approaches in modelling corrosion wastage over the fuel tanks’ structures on the example of ten aged bulk carriers. The first applied method might be treated as a short-term, rather random oriented one, and it is based on the Monte Carlo simulation technique. This technique has been used in creating an appropriate predictive model for the characteristic steel damages over the bulk carriers’ fuel tanks caused by general corrosion in relatively short time int...

  6. Cows’ diet and milk composition

    OpenAIRE

    Harstad, Odd Magne; Steinshamn, Håvard

    2010-01-01

    The effect of cows' diets on milk composition is discussed, focusing on those components of particular interest for human health. First dietary sources of fatty acids and their digestion and metabolism are reviewed. Then feeding factors affecting milk fat content and fatty acid composition are discussed, with emphasis on those factors related to forage and fat supplements. The effects of diet on protein content and composition and milk content of minerals and vitamins are reviewed. Feeding st...

  7. Storage Tanks - Selection Of Type, Design Code And Tank Sizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work gives an insight into the proper selection of type, design code and sizing of storage tanks used in the Petroleum and Process industries. In this work, storage tanks are classified based on their design conditions. Suitable design codes and their limitations are discussed for each tank type. The option of storage under high pressure and ambient temperature, in spherical and cigar tanks, is compared to the option of storage under low temperature and slight pressure (close to ambient) in low temperature and cryogenic tanks. The discussion is extended to the types of low temperature and cryogenic tanks and recommendations are given to select their types. A study of pressurized tanks designed according to ASME code, conducted in the present work, reveals that tanks designed according to ASME Section VIII DIV 2 provides cost savings over tanks designed according to ASME Section VIII DlV 1. The present work is extended to discuss the parameters that affect sizing of flat bottom cylindrical tanks. The analysis shows the effect of height-to-diameter ratio on tank instability and foundation loads

  8. Material selection for Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report briefly summarizes the history of the materials selection for the US Department of Energy's high-level waste carbon steel storage tanks. It also provide an evaluation of the materials for the construction of new tanks at the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. The evaluation included a materials matrix that summarized the critical design, fabrication, construction, and corrosion resistance requirements; assessed each requirement; and cataloged the advantages and disadvantages of each material. This evaluation is based on the mission of the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. On the basis of the compositions of the wastes stored in Hanford waste tanks, it is recommended that tanks for the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility be constructed of normalized ASME SA 516, Grade 70, carbon steel

  9. Distribution of animal drugs between skim milk and milk fat fractions in spiked whole milk: Understanding the potential impact on commercial milk products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven animal drugs [penicillin G (PENG), sulfadimethoxine (SDMX), oxytetracycline (OTET), erythromycin (ERY), ketoprofen (KETO), thiabendazole (THIA) and ivermectin (IVR)] were used to evaluate drug distribution between milk fat and skim milk fractions of cow milk. Greater than 90% of radioactivity...

  10. Iodine-131 in Cumbrian milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milk was collected from twelve farms in west Cumbria on 12 October 1981, which happened to be one week after an unusual release of 131I from the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at Sellafield. The results presented in this brief paper provide reassurance that, in general, concentrations of 131I in milk were low, and consumption of the milk would give rise to small committed dose equivalents. The results also show that committed effective dose equivalents to infants from consumption of milk produced at the farm with the highest concentration are less than 1% of recommended limits. (U.K.)

  11. Cryogenic fuel tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fuel tank is provided for the automotive transport of a cryogenic liquid fuel which in the course of transport is being consumed by an engine or the like. The fuel tank consists essentially of two containers, one for the cryogenic fuel and the other for a secondary cryogenic liquid which is used to cool the fuel during storage when no fuel is being consumed. By the method of the invention the build up of fuel vapor pressure during storage is avoided and the vapor pressure maintained at a predetermined level. The fuel tank described herein was two distinct modes of operation, namely, the fuel storage mode and the fuel supply mode. In the fuel storage mode the cryogenic fuel is being stored for later use while the secondary fluid is being used as a heat sink for the heat absorbed by the tank from the environment. In the fuel supply mode fuel is being supplied by the tank for consumption both as a liquid and as a gas while the secondary fluid is being restored to its initial state of lower temperature by the use of a refrigerator which employs the fuel as a heat sink. The two containers are thermally insulated from the outside environment as well as from each other. The fuel container and the secondary fluid container are connected by a heat transfer bridge which permits heat flow from the fuel to the secondary fluid only during the storage mode of operation. The fuel container has two fuel discharge connections, one carrying the liquid fuel the other carrying gaseous fuel which is vaporized within the fuel container. The pressure in the fuel container is maintained at an adequate level for the fuel supply to proceed without the need for a fuel pump

  12. 49 CFR 179.500 - Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... car tanks. 179.500 Section 179.500 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.500 Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank car tanks....

  13. 49 CFR 179.301 - Individual specification requirements for multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-unit tank car tanks. 179.301 Section 179.301 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Multi-Unit Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-106A and 110AW) § 179.301 Individual specification requirements for multi-unit tank car tanks. (a)...

  14. 49 CFR 179.101 - Individual specification requirements applicable to pressure tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to pressure tank car tanks. 179.101 Section 179.101 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT... tank car tanks. Editorial Note: At 66 FR 45186, Aug. 28, 2001, an amendment published amending a...

  15. Tank characterization report for Single-Shell Tank T-102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tank 241-T-102 (hereafter referred to as T-102) is a 530,000 gallon single-shell waste tank located in the 200 West T Tank farm at the Hanford Site. In 1993, two cores were taken from this tank and analysis of the cores was conducted by Battelle's 325-A Laboratory. Characterization of the waste in this tank was conducted to support Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-44-05. Tank T-102 was constructed in 1943 and put into service in 1945; it is the second tank in a cascade system with Tanks T-101 and T-103. During its process history, Tank T-102 received mostly Metal Waste (MW) from the Bismuth Phosphate Process and Coating Waste (CW) from the REDOX Process via the cascade from Tank T-101 and in transfers from Tank C-102. In 1956, the MW was removed from T-102 by pumping and sluicing'. This tank was declared inactive and retired from service in 1976. In 1981, intrusion prevention and stabilization measures were taken to isolate the waste in T-102. The tank presently contains approximately 121,100 liters (32,000 gallons) of liquid and sludge-like waste. Historically, there are no unreviewed safety issues associated with this tank and none were revealed after reviewing the data from the latest core sampling event in 1993. An extensive set of analytical measurements was performed on the core composites. The major constituents (>0.5 wt%) of the waste are water, aluminum, sodium, iron, and nitrate, ordered from the largest concentration to the smallest. The concentrations and inventories of these and other constituents are given. The results of the chemical analyses have been compared to the dangerous waste codes in the Washington Dangerous Waste Regulations (WAC 173-303)

  16. Creating bulk nanocrystalline metal.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredenburg, D. Anthony (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Saldana, Christopher J. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Gill, David D.; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Roemer, Timothy John (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Vogler, Tracy John; Yang, Pin

    2008-10-01

    Nanocrystalline and nanostructured materials offer unique microstructure-dependent properties that are superior to coarse-grained materials. These materials have been shown to have very high hardness, strength, and wear resistance. However, most current methods of producing nanostructured materials in weapons-relevant materials create powdered metal that must be consolidated into bulk form to be useful. Conventional consolidation methods are not appropriate due to the need to maintain the nanocrystalline structure. This research investigated new ways of creating nanocrystalline material, new methods of consolidating nanocrystalline material, and an analysis of these different methods of creation and consolidation to evaluate their applicability to mesoscale weapons applications where part features are often under 100 {micro}m wide and the material's microstructure must be very small to give homogeneous properties across the feature.

  17. Explosive bulk charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jacob Lee

    2015-04-21

    An explosive bulk charge, including: a first contact surface configured to be selectively disposed substantially adjacent to a structure or material; a second end surface configured to selectively receive a detonator; and a curvilinear side surface joining the first contact surface and the second end surface. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface form a bi-truncated hemispherical structure. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface are formed from an explosive material. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface each have a substantially circular shape. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface consist of planar structures that are aligned substantially parallel or slightly tilted with respect to one another. The curvilinear side surface has one of a smooth curved geometry, an elliptical geometry, and a parabolic geometry.

  18. The Incredible Bulk

    CERN Document Server

    Fukushima, Keita; Kumar, Jason; Sandick, Pearl; Yamamoto, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    Recent experimental results from the LHC have placed strong constraints on the masses of colored superpartners. The MSSM parameter space is also constrained by the measurement of the Higgs boson mass, and the requirement that the relic density of lightest neutralinos be consistent with observations. Although large regions of the MSSM parameter space can be excluded by these combined bounds, leptophilic versions of the MSSM can survive these constraints. In this paper we consider a scenario in which the requirements of minimal flavor violation, vanishing $CP$-violation, and mass universality are relaxed, specifically focusing on scenarios with light sleptons. We find a large region of parameter space, analogous to the original bulk region, for which the lightest neutralino is a thermal relic with an abundance consistent with that of dark matter. We find that these leptophilic models are constrained by measurements of the magnetic and electric dipole moments of the electron and muon, and that these models have ...

  19. Bulk muscles, loose cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyanage, Chamari R D G; Kodali, Venkata

    2014-01-01

    The accessibility and usage of body building supplements is on the rise with stronger internet marketing strategies by the industry. The dangers posed by the ingredients in them are underestimated. A healthy young man came to the emergency room with palpitations and feeling unwell. Initial history and clinical examination were non-contributory to find the cause. ECG showed atrial fibrillation. A detailed history for any over the counter or herbal medicine use confirmed that he was taking supplements to bulk muscle. One of the components in these supplements is yohimbine; the onset of symptoms coincided with the ingestion of this product and the patient is symptom free after stopping it. This report highlights the dangers to the public of consuming over the counter products with unknown ingredients and the consequential detrimental impact on health. PMID:25326558

  20. Prevalencia y distribución espacial de brucelosis, leucosis bovina, diarrea viral bovina y rinotraqueítis infecciosa bovina a partir del análisis ELISA de estanques prediales en lecherías de la IX Región, Chile Prevalence and space distribution of brucellosis, bovine leukaemia, bovine viral diarrhea and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis by using bulk milk ELISA test in dairy herds of the IX Region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Felmer

    2009-01-01

    of the OIE List, including foot and mouth disease and classical swine fever. However, several infectious diseases are known to remain among herds, which produce a major effect in production due to losses by abortion, decrease of fertility and what it is more important, some of them represent barriers for export and constitute a risk of zoonosis for the population. In this work, a monitoring system based on the analysis of bulk milk antibodies by means of ELISA test, was implemented to study the epidemiology and distribution of 4 of the main bovine diseases that currently affect the IX Region of Chile (brucellosis, bovine leukaemia, IBR and BVD. The system allowed the surveillance of 279 dairies, which represented 43% of the dairies registered in IX the Region, and included 19,635 milking cows (14%. With this system, a high prevalence for leukaemia (59%, IBR (76% and BVD (96% could be established, whereas it was confirmed that brucellosis is restricted to a few dairies (5%. The surveillance system coupled to the satellite geographic information analysis, allowed to establish the space distribution of these diseases in the different communes of the Region, demonstrating to be an excellent and low cost support tool for the monitoring of the diseases in the herd, which guarantees the possibility of establishing this platform in the Region and its feasibility to project it at national level.

  1. Competitive Think Tanks in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Jesper Dahl

    view that changing policy environments results in convergence of think tank strategies across Europe. As a perspective the paper shows that competitive think tanks do have a high average impact pr. staff on both mass and new media compared to other types of think tanks. This may indicate that......This paper offers a model for understanding the strategies that think tanks use to influence policy-making. The model combines the concepts of policy environments (McGann and Weaver, 2000) and knowledge regimes (Campbell and Pedersen, 2011) and argues that think tank strategies reflect changes in...

  2. Milk metabolites and neurodegeneration: Is there crosstalk?

    OpenAIRE

    Thakur, Keshav; Anand, Akshay

    2015-01-01

    Milk has been considered as a natural source of nutrition for decades. Milk is known to be nutrient-rich which aids the growth and development of the human body. Milk contains both macro- and micronutrients. Breast milk is widely regarded as the optimal source of neonatal nutrition due to its composition of carbohydrates, proteins, minerals and antibodies. However, despite the wide use of milk products, investigations into the role of milk in degenerative diseases have been limited. This revi...

  3. Lactose intolerance and cow's milk protein allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Adriano Henrique do Nascimento RANGEL; Danielle Cavalcanti SALES; Urbano, Stela Antas; José Geraldo Bezerra GALVÃO JÚNIOR; Júlio César de ANDRADE NETO; Cláudia de Souza MACÊDO

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Adverse reactions to food intake have very diverse etiology and symptomatology. Regarding milk, its food allergy is presented as lactose intolerance, the sugar in milk, or allergy to milk protein. Despite having different symptomatology, confusions among allergic conditions to dairy and its mediators are common. Milk protein allergy originates from protein components present in milk, causing reactions to either the protein fractions in emulsion (caseins) or in whey (milk albumin). Th...

  4. Tank characterization technical sampling basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, T.M.

    1998-04-28

    Tank Characterization Technical Sampling Basis (this document) is the first step of an in place working process to plan characterization activities in an optimal manner. This document will be used to develop the revision of the Waste Information Requirements Document (WIRD) (Winkelman et al. 1997) and ultimately, to create sampling schedules. The revised WIRD will define all Characterization Project activities over the course of subsequent fiscal years 1999 through 2002. This document establishes priorities for sampling and characterization activities conducted under the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Tank Waste Characterization Project. The Tank Waste Characterization Project is designed to provide all TWRS programs with information describing the physical, chemical, and radiological properties of the contents of waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site. These tanks contain radioactive waste generated from the production of nuclear weapons materials at the Hanford Site. The waste composition varies from tank to tank because of the large number of chemical processes that were used when producing nuclear weapons materials over the years and because the wastes were mixed during efforts to better use tank storage space. The Tank Waste Characterization Project mission is to provide information and waste sample material necessary for TWRS to define and maintain safe interim storage and to process waste fractions into stable forms for ultimate disposal. This document integrates the information needed to address safety issues, regulatory requirements, and retrieval, treatment, and immobilization requirements. Characterization sampling to support tank farm operational needs is also discussed.

  5. Tank characterization technical sampling basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tank Characterization Technical Sampling Basis (this document) is the first step of an in place working process to plan characterization activities in an optimal manner. This document will be used to develop the revision of the Waste Information Requirements Document (WIRD) (Winkelman et al. 1997) and ultimately, to create sampling schedules. The revised WIRD will define all Characterization Project activities over the course of subsequent fiscal years 1999 through 2002. This document establishes priorities for sampling and characterization activities conducted under the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Tank Waste Characterization Project. The Tank Waste Characterization Project is designed to provide all TWRS programs with information describing the physical, chemical, and radiological properties of the contents of waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site. These tanks contain radioactive waste generated from the production of nuclear weapons materials at the Hanford Site. The waste composition varies from tank to tank because of the large number of chemical processes that were used when producing nuclear weapons materials over the years and because the wastes were mixed during efforts to better use tank storage space. The Tank Waste Characterization Project mission is to provide information and waste sample material necessary for TWRS to define and maintain safe interim storage and to process waste fractions into stable forms for ultimate disposal. This document integrates the information needed to address safety issues, regulatory requirements, and retrieval, treatment, and immobilization requirements. Characterization sampling to support tank farm operational needs is also discussed

  6. Milk contamination in different points of the dairy process. ii mesophilic, psychrotrophic and proteolytic microorganisms/ Contaminação do leite em diferentes pontos da produção leiteira: ii microrganismos mesófilos, psicrotróficos e proteolíticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Vieira Gusmão

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Psychrotrophics microorganisms are able to multiply under refrigeration temperatures. They can produce heat-resistant extracellular enzymes that cause organoleptic and structural changes in milk and dairy products. With the objective of determining the frequency of microorganisms in the dairy process, four farms were evaluated in Londrina city – Brazil and different points were assessed. Mesophilic (48hs at 35oC, psychrotrophic (25hs at 21oC and proteolytic (72hs at 22oC microorganisms were researched, and the proteolytic predominant microflora were determined by using the Gram stain technique. The main psychrotrophic contamination points were the residual water on milk cans, on bulk tank and bad cleaned teats, and milk cans and teats were the most important sources of proteolytics. Gram negative bacilli represented 69% of the microorganisms in the refrigerated milk that means 45% of the total proteolytics microorganisms in the dairy process. Gram negative bacilli is most frequent on bad cleaned teats, teatcups, residual water in milk cans and bulk tank. The psychrotroph count in the refrigerated milk was more than the mesophilic count, showing that that psychrotrophics are the best indicatator for refrigerated milk contamination. The psycrotrophics count at all points assessed were greater than the ideal limit (10% of the mesophilic count. Thus as refrigeration at 4oC is not sufficient to control the multiplication of the psycrotrophics group, good practices should be associated to avoid or control milk contamination by psycrotrophics.Os psicrotróficos são microrganismos que têm capacidade de multiplicação em temperaturas de refrigeração. Produzem enzimas termorresistentes como proteases e lipases que promovem alterações organolépticas no leite e comprometem a produção de derivados. Com o objetivo de determinar a freqüência desses microrganismos a produção do leite, foram estudadas 04 propriedades da região de Londrina, PR

  7. Brucellosis in Milk and Milk Products and Its Importance

    OpenAIRE

    Keskin, Dilek; TOROĞLU, Sevil

    2007-01-01

    Brucellosis, caused by Brucella spp, is a zoonotic disease which is patogenic to human. Brucella spp especially can be host cattle, sheep, goats, water bufalo pigs, dogs, camel, deer, certain poultry and human even tick and some artropod. Brucella spp are very important for public health because, along causing important economical losses, they infect man via milk and milk products of infected animals.

  8. North Tank Farm data report for the Gunite and Associated Tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rule, V.A. [XL Associates, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Burks, B.L. [Providence Group, Knoxville, TN (United States); Hoesen, S.D. van [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1998-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science and Technology, in cooperation with the Oak Ridge Environmental Management Program, has developed and demonstrated the first full-scale remotely operated system for cleaning radioactive liquid and waste from large underground storage tanks. The remotely operated waste retrieval system developed and demonstrated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is designed to accomplish both retrieval of bulk waste, including liquids, thick sludge, and scarified concrete, and final tank cleaning. This report provides a summary of the North Tank Farm (NTF) operations data and an assessment of the performance and efficiency of the waste retrieval system during NTF operations data and an assessment of the performance and efficiency of the waste retrieval system during NTF operations. The organization of this report is as follows: Section 1 provides an introduction to the report. Section 2 describes the NTF tank structures (W-3 and W-4 only) and the contents of the tanks. Section 3 outlines the objectives of the NTF testing and explains how these objectives were met. Section 4 provides a description of the various operating systems used in the NTF operations. Sections 5 and 6 present a summary of the data collected during NTF operations. Section 7 summarizes the maintenance activities performed and Section 8 summarizes the on-the-job training performed in the NTF. Section 9 summarizes the capital cost for the waste retrieval and characterization equipment and operating costs for performing the NTF work. Section 10 provides observations and lessons learned, and Section 11 provides a summary and conclusions.

  9. Precipitation and Deposition of Aluminum-Containing Phases in Tank Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aluminum-containing phases compose the bulk of solids precipitating during the processing of radioactive tank wastes. Processes designed to minimize the volume of high-level waste through conversion to glassy phases require transporting waste solutions near-saturated with aluminum-containing species from holding tank to processing center. The uncontrolled precipitation within transfer lines results in clogged pipes and lines and fouled ion exchangers, with the potential to shut down processing operations

  10. Precipitation and Deposition of Aluminum-Containing Phases in Tank Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel M. Dabbs; Ilhan A. Aksay

    2005-01-12

    Aluminum-containing phases compose the bulk of solids precipitating during the processing of radioactive tank wastes. Processes designed to minimize the volume of high-level waste through conversion to glassy phases require transporting waste solutions near-saturated with aluminum-containing species from holding tank to processing center. The uncontrolled precipitation within transfer lines results in clogged pipes and lines and fouled ion exchangers, with the potential to shut down processing operations.

  11. 14C-Profenofos Residues in Milk and Milk Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatment of lactating goats with only one dose of 14C-ethoxy profenofos (17.9 mg/Kg) in gelatin capsules and then feeding normally, resulted in the presence of 0.5% of the radioactive insecticide residues in the milk collected through the fourteen successive days. The highest activity level was depicted at the first day and almost disappeared after two weeks. After processing, the analysis of milk products revealed difference in radioactive residue level according to the nature of the product and increased in the order: whey< skim < yoghurt < pasteurized milk < cheese< cream. TLC analysis of milk and milk products revealed the absence of the parent compound and the presence of 4 major metabolites, which were identified by co-chromatography with authentic compounds

  12. Tank characterization data report: Tank 241-C-112

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, B.C.; Borsheim, G.L.; Jensen, L.

    1993-04-01

    Tank 241-C-112 is a Hanford Site Ferrocyanide Watch List tank that was most recently sampled in March 1992. Analyses of materials obtained from tank 241-C-112 were conducted to support the resolution of the Ferrocyanide Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) and to support Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-10-00. Analysis of core samples obtained from tank 241-C-112 strongly indicates that the fuel concentration in the tank waste will not support a propagating exothermic reaction. It is probable that tank 241-C-112 exceeds the 1,000 g-mol inventory criteria established for the Ferrocyanide USQ; however, extensive energetic analysis of the waste has determined a maximum exothermic value of -9 cal/g dry waste. This value is substantially below any levels of concern (-75 cal/g). In addition, an investigation of potential mechanisms to generate concentration levels of radionuclides high enough to be of concern was performed. No credible mechanism was postulated that could initiate the formation of such concentration levels in the tank. Tank 241-C-112 waste is a complex material made up primarily of water and inert salts. The insoluble solids are a mixture of phosphates, sulfates, and hydroxides in combination with aluminum, calcium, iron, nickel, and uranium. Disodium nickel ferrocyanide and sodium cesium nickel ferrocyanide probably exist in the tank; however, there appears to have been significant degradation of this material since the waste was initially settled in the tank.

  13. Tank 241-AP-106 tank characterization plan: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tank 241-AP-106 (AP-106) is a candidate feed tank which is expected to be processed at the 242-A Evaporator. Three issues related to the overall concern of the evaporator must be evaluated: compatibility of the candidate waste with respect to feed tank, slurry tank, and evaporator requirements; safety parameters of the candidate waste tank to avoid a facility condition which is outside the safety boundaries; and compliance of the waste as dictated by regulations from various government and environmental agencies. The characterization efforts of this Tank Characterization Plan are focused on the resolution of the issues above. To evaluate the potential for waste incompatibility with the feed tank, slurry tank, and evaporator, as well as relevant safety issues, analyses will be performed on the grab samples obtained from tank AP-106. These analyses are discussed in Section 4.0. Once the characterization of tank AP-106 has been performed, the waste compatibility and safety assessment shall be conducted. This effort is discussed elsewhere

  14. Tank characterization data report: Tank 241-C-112

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tank 241-C-112 is a Hanford Site Ferrocyanide Watch List tank that was most recently sampled in March 1992. Analyses of materials obtained from tank 241-C-112 were conducted to support the resolution of the Ferrocyanide Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) and to support Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-10-00. Analysis of core samples obtained from tank 241-C-112 strongly indicates that the fuel concentration in the tank waste will not support a propagating exothermic reaction. It is probable that tank 241-C-112 exceeds the 1,000 g-mol inventory criteria established for the Ferrocyanide USQ; however, extensive energetic analysis of the waste has determined a maximum exothermic value of -9 cal/g dry waste. This value is substantially below any levels of concern (-75 cal/g). In addition, an investigation of potential mechanisms to generate concentration levels of radionuclides high enough to be of concern was performed. No credible mechanism was postulated that could initiate the formation of such concentration levels in the tank. Tank 241-C-112 waste is a complex material made up primarily of water and inert salts. The insoluble solids are a mixture of phosphates, sulfates, and hydroxides in combination with aluminum, calcium, iron, nickel, and uranium. Disodium nickel ferrocyanide and sodium cesium nickel ferrocyanide probably exist in the tank; however, there appears to have been significant degradation of this material since the waste was initially settled in the tank

  15. ANALYSIS OF THE TANK 6F FINAL CHARACTERIZATION SAMPLES-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L.; Diprete, D.; Coleman, C.; Hay, M.; Shine, G.

    2012-06-28

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 6F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Fourteen residual Tank 6F solid samples from three areas on the floor of the tank were collected and delivered to SRNL between May and August 2011. These Tank 6F samples were homogenized and combined into three composite samples based on a proportion compositing scheme and the resulting composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 6F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble components. The composite Tank 6F samples were analyzed and the data reported in triplicate. Sufficient quality assurance standards and blanks were utilized to demonstrate adequate characterization of the Tank 6F samples. The main evaluation criteria were target detection limits specified in the technical task request document. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 6F some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included Sn-126, Sb-126, Sb-126m, Eu-152, Cm-243 and Cf-249. SRNL, in conjunction with the customer, reviewed all of these cases and determined that the impacts of not meeting the target detection limits were acceptable. Based on the analyses of variance (ANOVA) for the inorganic constituents of Tank 6F, all the inorganic constituents displayed heterogeneity. The inorganic results demonstrated consistent differences across the composite samples: lowest concentrations for Composite Sample 1, intermediate-valued concentrations for Composite

  16. Analysis of the Tank 6F Final Characterization Samples-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N.; Diprete, D. P.; Coleman, C. J.; Hay, M. S.; Shine, E. P.

    2013-01-31

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 6F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Fourteen residual Tank 6F solid samples from three areas on the floor of the tank were collected and delivered to SRNL between May and August 2011. These Tank 6F samples were homogenized and combined into three composite samples based on a proportion compositing scheme and the resulting composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 6F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble components. The composite Tank 6F samples were analyzed and the data reported in triplicate. Sufficient quality assurance standards and blanks were utilized to demonstrate adequate characterization of the Tank 6F samples. The main evaluation criteria were target detection limits specified in the technical task request document. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 6F some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included Sn-126, Sb-126, Sb-126m, Eu-152, Cm- 243 and Cf-249. SRNL, in conjunction with the customer, reviewed all of these cases and determined that the impacts of not meeting the target detection limits were acceptable. Based on the analyses of variance (ANOVA) for the inorganic constituents of Tank 6F, all the inorganic constituents displayed heterogeneity. The inorganic results demonstrated consistent differences across the composite samples: lowest concentrations for Composite Sample 1, intermediate-valued concentrations for Composite

  17. Analysis Of The Tank 6F Final Characterization Samples-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N.; Diprete, D. P.; Coleman, C. J.; Hay, M. S.; Shine, E. P.

    2012-09-27

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 6F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Fourteen residual Tank 6F solid samples from three areas on the floor of the tank were collected and delivered to SRNL between May and August 2011. These Tank 6F samples were homogenized and combined into three composite samples based on a proportion compositing scheme and the resulting composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 6F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble components. The composite Tank 6F samples were analyzed and the data reported in triplicate. Sufficient quality assurance standards and blanks were utilized to demonstrate adequate characterization of the Tank 6F samples. The main evaluation criteria were target detection limits specified in the technical task request document. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 6F some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included Sn-126, Sb-126, Sb-126m, Eu-152, Cm-243 and Cf-249. SRNL, in conjunction with the customer, reviewed all of these cases and determined that the impacts of not meeting the target detection limits were acceptable. Based on the analyses of variance (ANOVA) for the inorganic constituents of Tank 6F, all the inorganic constituents displayed heterogeneity. The inorganic results demonstrated consistent differences across the composite samples: lowest concentrations for Composite Sample 1, intermediate-valued concentrations for Composite

  18. Methods for determination of milk and cheese adulteration by other milk types

    OpenAIRE

    Dubravka Samaržija; Sonja Damjanović; Jasmina Havranek

    2006-01-01

    In the world milk production, the contribution of goat, ovine, buffalo and other types of milk is small, compared to the cows' milk. Because of great availability, cows' milk is often used for adulteration of other milk types and dairy products. Due to adulteration, food characteristics are changed. Several analytical techniques were reported in the literature for the detection of milk and dairy products adulteration. Most of them are based on detection of milk protein fractions. Methods base...

  19. ESTIMATION OF DAILY AND LACTATION MILK YIELD FROM ALTERNATIVE MILK RECORDING SCHEME

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanovac, Sonja; Gantner, Vesna; Kuterovac, K.; Klopčič, Marija; Cassandro, M.

    2008-01-01

    Statistical methods were to developed and evaluated for the estimation of daily and 305-day lactation milk yield of dairy cattle from alternative milk recording scheme. Data included 7,815 individual test-day milk yield records collected according to the A4 milk recording method on 769 cows reared on 15 family farms. Daily milk yield was estimated using five different methods. The 305-day lactation milk yields were calculated from estimated daily milk yields using the Test Interval Method. Th...

  20. Radiopharmaceuticals in breast milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As assessment has been made of the radiological hazards to an infant following the administration of a radiopharmaceutical to a breast feeding mother. Feeding should be discontinued after administration of most I-131 and I-125 compounds, Ga-67 citrate or Se-78 methionine, and for iodinated compounds where it was possible to resume feeding, a thyroid-blocking agent should be administered. For Tc-99m compounds, pertechnetate had the greatest excretion in milk and interruptions of 12hr and 4hr were considered appropriate for pertechnetate and MAA respectively. Other Tc-99m compounds, Cr-51 EDTA and In-111 leucocytes did not justify an interruption just on the grounds of their associated excretion in milk. The ingestion hazard could be minimized by reducing the administered activity, and in some cases, by the substitution of a radiopharmaceutical with lower breast milk excretion. For Tc-99m lung and brain scans, the absorbed dose due to radiation emitted by the mother (i.e. when cuddling) was less than the ingested dose, but for a Tc-99m bone scan the emitted dose was greater. In all three cases, the emitted dose did not exceed 0 x 5 mGy for the infant in close contact to the mother for one-third of the time. For In-111 leucocytes, the emitted dose was about 2mGy, and it was concluded that close contact should be restricted to feeding times during the first 3 days after injection. 36 references, 2 figures, 5 tables

  1. Environmental Chemicals in Breast Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most of the information available on environmental chemicals in breast milk is focused on persistent, lipophilic chemicals; the database on levels of these chemicals has expanded substantially since the 1950s. Currently, various types of chemicals are measured in breast milk and ...

  2. Trefoil factors in human milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Else Marie; Nexø, Ebba; Wendt, A;

    2008-01-01

    We measured concentrations of the gastrointestinal protective peptides Trefoil factors in human milk. By the use of in-house ELISA we detected high amounts of TFF3, less TFF1 and virtually no TFF2 in human breast milk obtained from 46 mothers with infants born extremely preterm (24-27 wk gestation...

  3. Breastfeeding, breast milk and viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Wendy K

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is seemingly consistent and compelling evidence that there is no association between breastfeeding and breast cancer. An assumption follows that milk borne viruses cannot be associated with human breast cancer. We challenge this evidence because past breastfeeding studies did not determine "exposure" of newborn infants to colostrum and breast milk. Methods We conducted a prospective review of 100 consecutive births of infants in the same centre to determine the proportion of newborn infants who were "exposed" to colostrum or breast milk, as distinct from being fully breast fed. We also report a review of the breastfeeding practices of mothers of over 87,000 newborn infants in the Australian State of New South Wales. This study was approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of the University of New South Wales (Sydney, Australia. Approval 05063, 29 September 2005. Results Virtually all (97 of 100 newborn infants in this centre were "exposed" to colostrum or breast milk whether or not they were fully breast fed. Between 82.2% to 98.7% of 87,000 newborn infants were "exposed" to colostrum or breast milk. Conclusion In some Western communities there is near universal exposure of new born infants to colostrum and breast milk. Accordingly it is possible for the transmission of human milk borne viruses. This is contrary to the widespread assumption that human milk borne viruses cannot be associated with breast cancer.

  4. Theoretical study of solar combisystems based on bikini tanks and tank-in-tank stores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanshenas, Eshagh; Furbo, Simon

    2012-01-01

    . Originality/value - Many different Solar Combisystem designs have been commercialized over the years. In the IEA-SHC Task 26, twenty one solar combisystems have been described and analyzed. Maybe the mantle tank approach also for solar combisystems can be used with advantage? This might be possible if the...... solar heating system is based on a so called bikini tank. Therefore the new developed solar combisystems based on bikini tanks is compared to the tank-in-tank solar combisystems to elucidate which one is suitable for three different houses with low energy heating demand, medium and high heating demand.......Purpose - Low flow bikini solar combisystems and high flow tank-in-tank solar combisystems have been studied theoretically. The aim of the paper is to study which of these two solar combisystem designs is suitable for different houses. The thermal performance of solar combisystems based on the two...

  5. [Medical application of breast milk banks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xi-Hong; Ding, Zong-Yi

    2014-07-01

    The history of breast milk banks is over 100 years. Most of the milk banks were closed because of HIV in the 80's. But more and more milk banks are re-opening and new ones are being established as the composition and superiority of breast milk are recognized again. The Human Milk Banking Association of North America and European Milk Bank Association have been set up and they have established and revised the standards and guidelines of breast milk banks. There is no doubt of the clinical effects of donor human milk on preterm infants worldwide. The Committee on Nutrition of the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition recommended that the preterm infants should use donor human milk when their own mothers' milk is not enough. The first breast milk bank was set up in China in 2013, and its clinical and social significance is worthy of further study. PMID:25008871

  6. Inflation from bulk viscosity

    CERN Document Server

    Bamba, Kazuharu

    2015-01-01

    We explore the perfect fluid description of the inflationary universe. In particular, we investigate a fluid model with the bulk-viscosity term. We find that the three observables of inflationary cosmology: the spectral index of the curvature perturbations, the tensor-to-scalar ratio of the density perturbations, and the running of the spectral index, can be consistent with the recent Planck results. We also reconstruct the explicit equation of state (EoS) of the viscous fluid from the spectral index of the curvature perturbations compatible with the Planck analysis. In the reconstructed models of the viscous fluid, the tensor-to-scalar ratio of the density perturbations can satisfy the constraints obtained from the Planck satellite. The running of the spectral index can explain the Planck data. In addition, it is demonstrated that in the reconstructed models of the viscous fluid, the graceful exit from inflation can be realized. Furthermore, we show that the singular inflation can occur in the viscous fluid ...

  7. Bulk-Fill Resin Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Havndrup-Pedersen, Cæcilie; Honoré, Daniel;

    2015-01-01

    restorative procedure. The aim of this study, therefore, was to compare the depth of cure, polymerization contraction, and gap formation in bulk-fill resin composites with those of a conventional resin composite. To achieve this, the depth of cure was assessed in accordance with the International Organization...... for Standardization 4049 standard, and the polymerization contraction was determined using the bonded-disc method. The gap formation was measured at the dentin margin of Class II cavities. Five bulk-fill resin composites were investigated: two high-viscosity (Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, SonicFill) and...... three low-viscosity (x-tra base, Venus Bulk Fill, SDR) materials. Compared with the conventional resin composite, the high-viscosity bulk-fill materials exhibited only a small increase (but significant for Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill) in depth of cure and polymerization contraction, whereas the low...

  8. Soundpainting think tank

    OpenAIRE

    Minors, Helen Julia; Thomspon, Walter

    2013-01-01

    The Soundpainting Think Tank brought together over 30 international Soundpainters to workshop ways in which Soundpainting is sued to create a multimodal piece. Over a week the workshop produced a series of live performances, including a flash mob in the centre of Kingston, as well as shooting footage which will lead to a movie/documentary about Soundpainting. The research question: what is it to build a piece across musicians, dancers, actors and visual artists using the specific creative lan...

  9. A science think tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A journalist views on public perceptions on nuclear issues in Australia and Japan is presented. It is also emphasised that by not offering an undergraduate course in nuclear engineering, Australia have closed the door to the nuclear energy development in Australia and costed the country some depth of specialized knowledges. A scientific think tank with active participation of the nuclear scientists is thought to benefit Australia and be in the position to influence private industrial and governmental planning

  10. Tank 12H Acidic Chemical Cleaning Sample Analysis And Material Balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, C. J.; Reboul, S. H.; Wiersma, B. J.; Coleman, C. J.

    2013-11-08

    A process of Bulk Oxalic Acid (BOA) chemical cleaning was performed for Tank 12H during June and July of 2013 to remove all or a portion of the approximately 4400 gallon sludge heel. Three strikes of oxalic acid (nominally 4 wt % or 2 wt %) were used at 55 �C and tank volumes of 96- to 140-thousand gallons. This report details the sample analysis of a scrape sample taken prior to BOA cleaning and dip samples taken during BOA cleaning. It also documents a rudimentary material balance for the Tank 12H cleaning results.

  11. Raw milk consumption and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović-Vranješ Anka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to the safe practices of milk pasteurization or sterilization, which effectively reduce foodborne outbreaks incidence associated with raw milk and dairy products use, outbreaks caused by such products continue to occur. Despite this fact, a worldwide movement advocating for the rights of raw milk and cheese selling and consumption, due to their specific nutritive characteristics, has strengthened significantly in recent years. Traditional agricultural manufacturers from Serbia still sell products related to thermally unprocessed milk, such as cottage cheese and raw cream. In AP Vojvodina during the period of 1981-2010 a total of 179 foodborne outbreaks were reported, where the incriminated cause of the outbreak were milk or diary. In 126 (70.39% outbreaks, totaling 2276 sick individuals and one casualty, it was confirmed that the incriminated food was from the group of dairy products. In 48 instances (26.82%, bacteriological tests confirmed that milk and dairy products were excluded as the outbreak causes, while in another 5 (2.79% outbreaks, microbiological analysis of food failed to confirm any relation to the actual epidemiological instances. In some cases, bacteriological testing of incriminated foods was not possible. In the cases of outbreaks associated with the consumption of milk and dairy products, traditional raw milk products were cited as being used. Consumption of unpasteurized milk and cheese represents public health threat. National and international rules ensuring use of safe products for human consumption have to set rules of trade of thermally processed milk and products on the market. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31095

  12. Calcination/dissolution testing for Hanford Site tank wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colby, S.A.; Delegard, C.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); McLaughlin, D.F. [Westinghouse Science and Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Danielson, M.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-07-01

    Thermal treatment by calcination offers several benefits for the treatment of Hanford Site tank wastes, including the destruction of organics and ferrocyanides and an hydroxide fusion that permits the bulk of the mostly soluble nonradioactive constituents to be easily separated from the insoluble transuranic residue. Critical design parameters were tested, including: (1) calciner equipment design, (2) hydroxide fusion chemistry, and (3) equipment corrosion. A 2 gal/minute pilot plant processed a simulated Tank 101-SY waste and produced a free flowing 700 C molten calcine with an average calciner retention time of 20 minutes and >95% organic, nitrate, and nitrite destruction. Laboratory experiments using actual radioactive tank waste and the simulated waste pilot experiments indicate that 98 wt% of the calcine produced is soluble in water, leaving an insoluble transuranic fraction. All of the Hanford Site tank wastes can benefit from calcination/dissolution processing, contingent upon blending various tank waste types to ensure a target of 70 wt% sodium hydroxide/nitrate/nitrite fluxing agent. Finally, corrosion testing indicates that a jacketed nickel liner cooled to below 400 C would corrode <2 mil/year (0.05 mm/year) from molten calcine attack.

  13. Tank characterization report for Single-Shell Tank B-111

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tank 241-B-111 (hereafter referred to as B-111) is a 2,006,300 liter (530,000 gallon) single-shell waste tank located in the 200 East B tank farm at Hanford. Two cores were taken from this tank in 1991 and analysis of the cores was conducted by Battelle's 325-A Laboratory in 1993. Characterization of the waste in this tank is being done to support Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-44-05. Tank B-111 was constructed in 1943 and put into service in 1945; it is the second tank in a cascade system with Tanks B-110 and B-112. During its process history, B-111 received mostly second-decontamination-cycle waste and fission products waste via the cascade from Tank B-110. This tank was retired from service in 1976, and in 1978 the tank was assumed to have leaked 30,300 liters (8,000 gallons). The tank was interim stabilized and interim isolated in 1985. The tank presently contains approximately 893,400 liters (236,000 gallons) of sludge-like waste and approximately 3,800 liters (1,000 gallons) of supernate. Historically, there are no unreviewed safety issues associated with this tank and none were revealed after reviewing the data from the latest core sampling event in 1991. An extensive set of analytical measurements was performed on the core composites. The major constituents (> 0.5 wt%) measured in the waste are water, sodium, nitrate, phosphate, nitrite, bismuth, iron, sulfate and silicon, ordered from largest concentration to the smallest. The concentrations and inventories of these and other constituents are given. Since Tanks B-110 and B-111 have similar process histories, their sampling results were compared. The results of the chemical analyses have been compared to the dangerous waste codes in the Washington Dangerous Waste Regulations (WAC 173-303). This assessment was conducted by comparing tank analyses against dangerous waste characteristics 'D' waste codes; and against state waste codes

  14. Tank characterization data report: Tank 241-C-112

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, B.C.; Borsheim, G.L.; Jensen, L.

    1993-09-01

    Tank 241-C-112 is a Hanford Site Ferrocyanide Watch List tank that was most recently sampled in March 1992. Analyses of materials obtained from tank 241-C-112 were conducted to support the resolution of the Ferrocyanide Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) and to support Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-10-00. Analysis of core samples obtained from tank 241-C-112 strongly indicates that the fuel concentration in the tank waste will not support a propagating exothermic reaction. Analysis of the process history of the tank as well as studies of simulants provided valuable information about the physical and chemical condition of the waste. This information, in combination with the analysis of the tank waste, sup ports the conclusion that an exothermic reaction in tank 241-C-112 is not plausible. Therefore, the contents of tank 241-C-112 present no imminent threat to the workers at the Hanford Site, the public, or the environment from its forrocyanide inventory. Because an exothermic reaction is not credible, the consequences of this accident scenario, as promulgated by the General Accounting Office, are not applicable.

  15. Tank characterization data report: Tank 241-C-112

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tank 241-C-112 is a Hanford Site Ferrocyanide Watch List tank that was most recently sampled in March 1992. Analyses of materials obtained from tank 241-C-112 were conducted to support the resolution of the Ferrocyanide Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) and to support Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-10-00. Analysis of core samples obtained from tank 241-C-112 strongly indicates that the fuel concentration in the tank waste will not support a propagating exothermic reaction. Analysis of the process history of the tank as well as studies of simulants provided valuable information about the physical and chemical condition of the waste. This information, in combination with the analysis of the tank waste, sup ports the conclusion that an exothermic reaction in tank 241-C-112 is not plausible. Therefore, the contents of tank 241-C-112 present no imminent threat to the workers at the Hanford Site, the public, or the environment from its forrocyanide inventory. Because an exothermic reaction is not credible, the consequences of this accident scenario, as promulgated by the General Accounting Office, are not applicable

  16. Bacteriological examination of milk and milk products sold in Harare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igumbor, E O; Obi, C L; Milingo, T

    2000-01-01

    A study to assess the bacteriological quality of milk and ice cream was conducted using the direct plate count method and the methylene blue dye reduction test. A total of 105 milk and 95 ice cream samples were obtained form two factories (depots) and distributing supermarkets (outlets) in Harare. Under the methylene blue test, all milk and ice cream samples passed the hour and 2 hour tests respectively. However, 99% of the milk and 69% of the ice cream samples reduced the dye after 5.5 and 4 hrs respectively. The results from the direct plate counts revealed the presence of both pathogens and non-pathogens. The median plate counts in the milk and ice cream were found 400 cfu / ml and 100 cfu / ml respectively. Organisms isolated in both samples and in all outlets were similar, these included Bacillus spp. Coagulase Staphlococcus spp., microcuccus spp., Steptococcus spp., Diphthroids, Fusiform bacterial Klebsiella spp., and Citrobacter spp. No significant differences were found in the plate counts of the samples obtained from the depots and outlets for the milk (P = 0.542, df = 1)) and ice cream samples (P = 0.377, df = 1). Results further revealed that there was no significant difference in isolates obtained form strawberry ice cream (0.0096). The study has therefore, revealed that milk and milk product sold in various outlets in Harare contained a variety of bacteria of public health importance and also that the methylene blue dye reduction test is not reliable for the detection of bacterial contaminants in dairy products. It is thus suggested that the use of methylene blue dyes be adapted in combination with other tests such as the plate count in assessing bacterial contaminants in milk products. PMID:17650038

  17. Underground or aboveground storage tanks - A critical decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the 1988 promulgation of the comprehensive Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations for underground storage of petroleum and hazardous substances, many existing underground storage tank (UST) owners have been considering making the move to aboveground storage. While on the surface, this may appear to be the cure-all to avoiding the underground leakage dilemma, there are many other new and different issues to consider with aboveground storage. The greatest misconception is that by storing materials above ground, there is no risk of subsurface environmental problems. It should be noted that with the aboveground storage tank (AGST) systems, there is still considerable risk of environmental contamination, either by the failure of onground tank bottoms or the spillage of product onto the ground surface where it subsequently finds its way to the ground water. In addition, there are added safety concerns that must be addressed. The greatest interest in AGSTs comes from managers with small volumes of used oil, fresh oil, solvents, chemicals, or heating oil. Dealing with small capacity tanks is not so different than large bulk storage - and, in fact, it lends itself to more options, such as portable storage, tank within tank configurations and inside installations. So what are the other specific areas of concern besides environmental to be addressed when making the decision between underground and aboveground tanks? The primary issues that will be addressed in this presentation are: (1) safety; (2) product losses; (3) cost comparison of USTs vs AGSTs; (4) space availability/accessibility; (5) precipitation handling; (6) aesthetics and security; (7) pending and existing regulations

  18. Tank Characterization Report for Double-Shell Tank (DST) 241-AN-107

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report interprets information about the tank answering a series of six questions covering areas such as information drivers, tank history, tank comparisons, disposal implications, data quality and quantity, and unique aspects of the tank

  19. Development of QCM Biosensor with Specific Cow Milk Protein Antibody for Candidate Milk Adulteration Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Sakti, Setyawan P.; Nur Chabibah; Ayu, Senja P.; Masdiana C. Padaga; Aulanni’am Aulanni’am

    2016-01-01

    Adulteration of goat milk is usually done using cow’s milk product. Cow milk is used as it is widely available and its price is cheaper compared to goat milk. This paper shows a development of candidate tools for milk adulteration using cow milk. A quartz crystal microbalance immunosensor was developed using commercial crystal resonator and polyclonal antibody specific to cow milk protein. A specific protein at 208 KDa is found only in cow milk and does not exist in goat milk. The existence o...

  20. Comparing milk yield, chemical properties and somatic cell count from organic and conventional mountain farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Bianchi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to investigate the effects of farming systems (organic vs. conventional, diet (hay/concentrate vs. pasture and their interaction on milk yield, gross composition and fatty acid (FA profile of dairy cows bred in mountainous areas. For this purpose four dairy farms (two organic and two conventional were chosen in the alpine territory of Aosta Valley (NW Italy; individual milk yield was recorded daily and bulk milk samples were collected monthly from February to September 2007 to cover dietary variations. Higher levels of milk production (P<0.05 and lower milk protein amounts (P<0.01 were observed in the organic farms with respect to the conventional ones, while no significant differences were noticed in milk fat and lactose contents and in somatic cell count. Concerning fatty acids, only small differences were detected between organic and conventional milk and such differences seemed to be related mainly to the stabled period. Diet affected almost all variables studied: pasture feeding provided a significant improvement in the fatty acid composition in both organic and conventional systems leading to lower hypercholesterolemic saturated fatty acids, higher mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid amounts (P<0.001.

  1. Role of adult fat body and milk gland in larval nourishment of Glossina morsitans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Glossina larva is nourished entirely in utero by 'milk' composed of equal parts lipid and protein or protein-derivatives, produced by the adult female accessory gland or milk gland. A series of experiments in which activities of the female fat body and milk gland were studied separately, showed that during early pregnancy fat body synthesized and stored triglyceride and, to a lesser extent, protein, utilizing either 14C leucine or 14C palmitate in the process. Late in the pregnancy cycle, synthetic activity of the fat body was reduced whereas that of the milk gland increased, both lipid and protein synthesis being conspicuous at this time. There was apparently a switch in mid-pregnancy at which time the milk gland became the dominant organ for synthesis of nutrient substances. Results support the hypothesis that the adult fat body provides the major store, derived from blood meals ingested during early pregnancy, from which the milk gland obtains the lipid component of the milk. The gland itself synthesizes the bulk of the protein components from digested blood meals ingested during the latter half of pregnancy. Control of the processes identified, and their cyclical nature, suggests a neuroendocrine involvement. Identification of this involvement, and the underlying control mechanisms for hormone synthesis and degradation, may well lead to more specific methods of vector control acting through disruption of larval nutrition. (author)

  2. 7 CFR 58.430 - Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Milk. 58.430 Section 58.430 Agriculture Regulations of....430 Milk. The milk shall be fresh, sweet, pleasing and desirable in flavor and shall meet the requirements as outlined under §§ 58.132 through 58.138. The milk may be adjusted by separating part of the...

  3. 7 CFR 1030.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1030.13 Section 1030.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER MIDWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this...

  4. 7 CFR 58.936 - Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Milk. 58.936 Section 58.936 Agriculture Regulations of... Official Identification § 58.936 Milk. To process and package evaporated and condensed milk of ultra... Shield the raw incoming milk shall meet the requirements as outlined in §§ 58.132 through 58.136....

  5. 7 CFR 1005.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1005.13 Section 1005.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this...

  6. 7 CFR 1007.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1007.13 Section 1007.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1007.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this...

  7. 7 CFR 58.233 - Skim milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Skim milk. 58.233 Section 58.233 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Materials § 58.233 Skim milk. The skim milk shall be separated from whole milk meeting the requirements...

  8. Growth of bifidobacteria in mammalian milk

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ročková, Š.; Rada, V.; Havlík, J.; Švejstil, R.; Vlková, E.; Bunešová, V.; Janda, K.; Profousová, Ilona

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 3 (2013), s. 99-105. ISSN 1212-1819 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : human milk * colostrum of swine * cow’s milk * sheep’s milk * rabbit’s milk * lysozyme Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.871, year: 2013 http://www.agriculturejournals.cz/publicFiles/86263.pdf

  9. 7 CFR 1124.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... plant shall be producer milk. In the event some of the milk of any producer is determined not to be... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1124.13 Section 1124.13 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (f) of...

  10. Milk Pricing at the Wholesale Level

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Rondo A.

    1987-01-01

    Although the average marketing margin for fluid milk products (retail price minus raw milk price) has increased with marketing costs in recent years in the U. S., not all markets have shared in the increase, and in some, margins have decreased. This has prompted some milk handlers to examine more closely what affects milk prices, marketing margins, and pricing practices.

  11. Case study of a commercial sheep flock under extensive mountain grazing: Pasture derived lipid compounds in milk and cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivielso, I; Bustamante, M A; Aldezabal, A; Amores, G; Virto, M; Ruiz de Gordoa, J C; de Renobales, M; Barron, L J R

    2016-04-15

    Terpenoid, fat-soluble antioxidant and fatty acid (FA) composition of pasture as well as those of milk and cheese from a commercial sheep flock managed under extensive mountain grazing in the east region of the Cantabrian mountain (Northern Spain) was investigated. The grazing period lasted for 2 months and ewes were at late lactation stage. Plants, feces, bulk milk and cheese samples were collected on two sampling dates. The abundance of the dominating botanical families in the mountain pasture prevailed in the sheep diet of the commercial flock. Major terpenoids and tocols in the pasture appeared as major ones in milk and cheese, whereas C18 unsaturated FAs in milk and cheese were derived from the intake of C18 polyunsaturated FAs which were prevalent in the pasture. No carotene was detected in the dairy samples but retinol (free or esterified), derived from the intake of β-carotene present in pasture plants, was found in milk and cheese. PMID:26616996

  12. Storage of Human Breast Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze Can

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Storage of human breast milk by freezing or refrigeration of milk has been recommended especially at some social circumstances of most mothers who are regularly separated from their infants because of work. The greatest fear that has hindered the prospects of in - vitro storage of breast milk for any considerable period of time is the possibility of bacterial contamination and growth of infectious pathogens in the stored milk, there by rendering them unsafe for human consumption. The storage container can influence the cell content of milk, as the cells adhere to the walls of a glass container but not to polyethylene or polypropylene containers. Bacteriological examination of refrigerated milks has proven their safety for human consumption for even up to 72 h. For a storage over longer periods up to 1 month, freezing at - 20 0C could be recommended, but the most preferred method, especially for longer storage would be fresh freezing at - 70 0C, if affordable or available. The nutrient value of human milk is essentially unchanged, but the immunological properties are reduced by various storage techniques. Boiling and microwave radiation have not been recommended. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(5.000: 375-379

  13. Tocopherol, carotenoids and fatty acid composition in organic and conventional milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slots, Tina; Sørensen, John; Nielsen, Jacob Holm

    2008-01-01

    Organic and conventional milk from silo tanks on Danish dairy plants was compared monthly during one year. The contents of α-tocopherol, carotenoids and α-linolenic acid (C18:3 ω-3) were higher in organic milk, where the content of synthetic 2R-stereo-isomers of α-tocopherol, the ratio between ω-6...... fatty acids and ω-3 fatty acids (ω-6/ω-3) and of the content of oleic acid (C18:1 (c9)) were higher in the conventional milk. The contents of α-tocopherol, the natural stereoisomer RRR-α-tocopherol, the carotenoids (β-carotene, lutein and zeaxanthine), almost all of the saturated fatty acids and of α...

  14. Milk metabolites and neurodegeneration: Is there crosstalk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Keshav; Anand, Akshay

    2015-10-01

    Milk has been considered as a natural source of nutrition for decades. Milk is known to be nutrient-rich which aids the growth and development of the human body. Milk contains both macro- and micronutrients. Breast milk is widely regarded as the optimal source of neonatal nutrition due to its composition of carbohydrates, proteins, minerals and antibodies. However, despite the wide use of milk products, investigations into the role of milk in degenerative diseases have been limited. This review will examine the relationship between the β-casein gene found in bovine milk and disease states by using age-related macular degeneration as an example. PMID:26526864

  15. 49 CFR 179.102 - Special commodity requirements for pressure tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... car tanks. 179.102 Section 179.102 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.102 Special commodity requirements for pressure tank car tanks. (a) In addition...

  16. 49 CFR 179.103 - Special requirements for class 114A * * * tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special requirements for class 114A * * * tank car... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.103 Special requirements for class 114A * * * tank car tanks. (a) In addition to the...

  17. 49 CFR 179.100 - General specifications applicable to pressure tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... car tanks. 179.100 Section 179.100 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.100 General specifications applicable to pressure tank car tanks....

  18. Milk from different species: Relationship between protein fractions and inflammatory response in infants affected by generalized epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albenzio, M; Santillo, A; Ciliberti, M G; Figliola, L; Caroprese, M; Marino, R; Polito, A N

    2016-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of protein fractions from bovine, caprine, and ovine milk on production of cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) by cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMBC) from infants with generalized epilepsy. Bovine, caprine, and ovine bulk milks were pasteurized and analyzed for chemical composition. Then, PBMC were isolated from 10 patients with generalized epilepsy (5 males; mean age 33.6±5.4mo). Production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-10, IL-6, and IL-1β was studied in cultured PBMC (from infants with epilepsy and controls) stimulated by bovine, caprine, and ovine milk and casein and whey protein fractions, and levels of ROS and RNS were measured in the culture supernatant. The ability of PBMC to secrete cytokines in response to milk and protein fraction stimulation may predict the secretion of soluble factor TNF-α in the bloodstream of challenged patients. Bovine, caprine, and ovine bulk milks induced low-level production of IL-10 by cultured PBMC in at least 50% of cases; the same behavior was observed in both casein and whey protein fractions for all species studied. Bovine and ovine milk and their casein fractions induced production of lower levels of IL-1β in 80% of patients, whereas caprine milk and its casein fraction induced the highest levels in 80% of patients. The amount of IL-6 detected after stimulation of PBMC by milk and its fractions for all species was lower than that of other proinflammatory cytokines. In the bovine, total free radicals were higher in bulk milk and lower in the casein fraction, whereas the whey protein fraction showed an intermediate level; in caprine, ROS/RNS levels were not different among milk fractions, whereas ovine had higher levels for bulk milk and casein than the whey protein fraction. Lower levels of ROS/RNS detected in PBMC cultured with caprine milk fraction could be responsible for the lower levels of

  19. Digital Prototyping of Milk Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Nielsen, Otto Højager Attermann; Skytte, Jacob Lercke;

    2012-01-01

    reflectance measurements can be used for more extensive validation and for gathering data that can be used to extend our current model such that it can also predict how the optical properties develop during fermentation or acidification of milk to yogurt. A well-established way of measuring optical properties...... prototyping of milk products such that it can also predict how the optical properties develop during gelation of milk to yogurt. The influence of the colloidal aggregation on the optical properties is described by the static structure factor. As our method is noninvasive, we can use our setup for monitoring...

  20. Milk ejection during automatic milking in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Succi, G; Tamburini, A; A. Sandrucci; L. Bava

    2010-01-01

    Tactile stimulation (manual or mechanical) of the mammary gland causes alveolar milk ejection through a neuro-endocrine reflex arc (Dzidic et al., 2004). Oxytocin is the hormone that induces the contraction of the myoepitelial cells surrounding the alveoli.