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Sample records for bulk tank milk

  1. Haptoglobin and serum amyloid A in bulk tank milk in relation to raw milk quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerstedt, Maria; Waller, Karin Persson; Sternesjö, Ase

    2009-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate relationships between the presence of the two major bovine acute phase proteins haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid A (SAA) and raw milk quality parameters in bulk tank milk samples. Hp and SAA have been suggested as specific markers of mastitis but recently also as markers for raw milk quality. Since mastitis has detrimental effects on milk quality, it is important to investigate whether the presence of Hp or SAA indicates such changes in the composition and properties of the milk. Bulk tank milk samples (n=91) were analysed for Hp, SAA, total protein, casein, whey protein, proteolysis, fat, lactose, somatic cell count and coagulating properties. Samples with detectable levels of Hp had lower casein content, casein number and lactose content, but higher proteolysis than samples without Hp. Samples with detectable levels of SAA had lower casein number and lactose content, but higher whey protein content than samples without SAA. The presence of acute phase proteins in bulk tank milk is suggested as an indicator for unfavourable changes in the milk composition, e.g. protein quality, due to udder health disturbances, with economical implications for the dairy industry.

  2. Latent class analysis of bulk tank milk PCR and ELISA testing for herd level diagnosis of Mycoplasma bovis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Kantsø; Petersen, Mette Bisgaard; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum

    2015-01-01

    of this study was to evaluate the herd-level diagnostic performance of an indirect ELISA test by comparison to a real-time PCR test when diagnosing M. bovis in cattle herds of bulk tank milk. Bulk tank milk samples from Danish dairy herds (N=3437) were analysed with both the antibody detecting BIO K 302 M...

  3. Genomic investigation of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bulk tank milk and dairy cows with clinical mastitis.

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    Ronco, Troels; Klaas, Ilka C; Stegger, Marc; Svennesen, Line; Astrup, Lærke B; Farre, Michael; Pedersen, Karl

    2018-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common pathogens that cause mastitis in dairy cows. Various subtypes, virulence genes and mobile genetic elements have been associated with isolates from bulk tank milk and clinical mastitis. So far, no Danish cattle associated S. aureus isolates have been whole-genome sequenced and further analyzed. Thus, the main objective was to investigate the population structure and genomic content of isolates from bulk tank milk and clinical mastitis, using whole-genome sequencing. This may reveal the origin of strains that cause clinical mastitis. S. aureus isolates from bulk tank milk (n = 94) and clinical mastitis (n = 63) were collected from 91 and 24 different farms, respectively and whole-genome sequenced. The genomic content was analyzed and a phylogenetic tree based on single nucleotide polymorphisms was constructed. In general, the isolates from both bulk tank milk and clinical mastitis were of similar genetic background. This suggests that dairy cows are natural carriers of the S. aureus subtypes that cause clinical mastitis if the right conditions are present and that a broad range of subtypes cause mastitis. A phylogenetic cluster that mostly consisted of ST151 isolates carried three mobile genetic elements that were primarily found in this group. The prevalence of resistance genes was generally low. However, the first ST398 methicillin resistant S. aureus isolate from a Danish dairy cow with clinical mastitis was detected. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Stochastic simulation modeling to determine time to detect Bovine Viral Diarrhea antibodies in bulk tank milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foddai, Alessandro; Enøe, Claes; Krogh, Kaspar

    2014-01-01

    A stochastic simulation model was developed to estimate the time from introduction ofBovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) in a herd to detection of antibodies in bulk tank milk(BTM) samples using three ELISAs. We assumed that antibodies could be detected, after afixed threshold prevalence of seroco......A stochastic simulation model was developed to estimate the time from introduction ofBovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) in a herd to detection of antibodies in bulk tank milk(BTM) samples using three ELISAs. We assumed that antibodies could be detected, after afixed threshold prevalence......, which was the most efficient ELISA, could detect antibodiesin the BTM of a large herd 280 days (95% prediction interval: 218; 568) after a transientlyinfected (TI) milking cow has been introduced into the herd. The estimated time to detectionafter introduction of one PI calf was 111 days (44; 605...

  5. Relationship between climatic variables and the variation in bulk tank milk composition using canonical correlation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stürmer, Morgana; Busanello, Marcos; Velho, João Pedro; Heck, Vanessa Isabel; Haygert-Velho, Ione Maria Pereira

    2018-06-04

    A number of studies have addressed the relations between climatic variables and milk composition, but these works used univariate statistical approaches. In our study, we used a multivariate approach (canonical correlation) to study the impact of climatic variables on milk composition, price, and monthly milk production at a dairy farm using bulk tank milk data. Data on milk composition, price, and monthly milk production were obtained from a dairy company that purchased the milk from the farm, while climatic variable data were obtained from the National Institute of Meteorology (INMET). The data are from January 2014 to December 2016. Univariate correlation analysis and canonical correlation analysis were performed. Few correlations between the climatic variables and milk composition were found using a univariate approach. However, using canonical correlation analysis, we found a strong and significant correlation (r c  = 0.95, p value = 0.0029). Lactose, ambient temperature measures (mean, minimum, and maximum), and temperature-humidity index (THI) were found to be the most important variables for the canonical correlation. Our study indicated that 10.2% of the variation in milk composition, pricing, and monthly milk production can be explained by climatic variables. Ambient temperature variables, together with THI, seem to have the most influence on variation in milk composition.

  6. Phytoestrogens and Their Metabolites in Bulk-Tank Milk: Effects of Farm Management and Season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler, Steffen A; Purup, Stig; Hansen-Møller, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Phytoestrogens have structures similar to endogenous steroids and may induce or inhibit the response of hormone receptors. The objectives of the present study were to compare the effects of long-term vs. short-term grassland management in organic and conventional dairy production systems, compare...... organic and conventional production systems and assess seasonal variation on phytoestrogen concentrations in bulk-tank milk. The concentrations of phytoestrogens were analyzed in bulk-tank milk sampled three times in two subsequent years from 28 dairy farms: Fourteen organic (ORG) dairy farms with either...... short-term or long-term grassland management were paired with 14 conventional (CON) farms with respect to grassland management. Grassland management varied in terms of time since establishment. Short-term grassland management (SG) was defined as establishment or reseeding every fourth year or more often...

  7. Phytoestrogens and Their Metabolites in Bulk-Tank Milk: Effects of Farm Management and Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Steffen A.; Purup, Stig; Hansen-Møller, Jens; Thuen, Erling; Steinshamn, Håvard

    2015-01-01

    Phytoestrogens have structures similar to endogenous steroids and may induce or inhibit the response of hormone receptors. The objectives of the present study were to compare the effects of long-term vs. short-term grassland management in organic and conventional dairy production systems, compare organic and conventional production systems and assess seasonal variation on phytoestrogen concentrations in bulk-tank milk. The concentrations of phytoestrogens were analyzed in bulk-tank milk sampled three times in two subsequent years from 28 dairy farms: Fourteen organic (ORG) dairy farms with either short-term or long-term grassland management were paired with 14 conventional (CON) farms with respect to grassland management. Grassland management varied in terms of time since establishment. Short-term grassland management (SG) was defined as establishment or reseeding every fourth year or more often, and long-term grassland management (LG) was defined as less frequent establishment or reseeding. The proportion of red clover (Trifolium pretense L.) in the herbage was positively correlated with milk concentrations of the mammalian isoflavone equol. Therefore, organically produced bulk-tank milk contained more equol than conventionally produced milk, and milk from ORG-SG farms had more equol than milk from ORG-LG farms. Milk produced during the indoor-feeding periods had more equol than milk produced during the outdoor feeding period, because pastures contained less red clover than fields intended for silage production. Organically produced milk had also higher concentrations of the mammalian lignan enterolactone, but in contrast to equol, concentrations increased in the outdoor-feeding periods compared to the indoor-feeding periods. There were no indications of fertility problems on ORG-SG farms who had the highest red clover proportions in the herbage. This study shows that production system, grassland management, and season affect milk concentrations of phytoestrogens

  8. Phytoestrogens and their metabolites in bulk-tank milk: effects of farm management and season.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen A Adler

    Full Text Available Phytoestrogens have structures similar to endogenous steroids and may induce or inhibit the response of hormone receptors. The objectives of the present study were to compare the effects of long-term vs. short-term grassland management in organic and conventional dairy production systems, compare organic and conventional production systems and assess seasonal variation on phytoestrogen concentrations in bulk-tank milk. The concentrations of phytoestrogens were analyzed in bulk-tank milk sampled three times in two subsequent years from 28 dairy farms: Fourteen organic (ORG dairy farms with either short-term or long-term grassland management were paired with 14 conventional (CON farms with respect to grassland management. Grassland management varied in terms of time since establishment. Short-term grassland management (SG was defined as establishment or reseeding every fourth year or more often, and long-term grassland management (LG was defined as less frequent establishment or reseeding. The proportion of red clover (Trifolium pretense L. in the herbage was positively correlated with milk concentrations of the mammalian isoflavone equol. Therefore, organically produced bulk-tank milk contained more equol than conventionally produced milk, and milk from ORG-SG farms had more equol than milk from ORG-LG farms. Milk produced during the indoor-feeding periods had more equol than milk produced during the outdoor feeding period, because pastures contained less red clover than fields intended for silage production. Organically produced milk had also higher concentrations of the mammalian lignan enterolactone, but in contrast to equol, concentrations increased in the outdoor-feeding periods compared to the indoor-feeding periods. There were no indications of fertility problems on ORG-SG farms who had the highest red clover proportions in the herbage. This study shows that production system, grassland management, and season affect milk concentrations of

  9. Evaluation of milk yield losses associated with Salmonella antibodies in bulk tank milk in bovine dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T D; Green, L E; Kudahl, Anne Margrethe Braad

    2012-01-01

    The effect of Salmonella on milk production is not well established in cattle. The objective of this study was to investigate whether introduction of Salmonella into dairy cattle herds was associated with reduced milk yield and determine the duration of any such effect. Longitudinal data from 2005...... through 2009 were used, with data from 12 mo before until 18 mo after the estimated date of infection. Twenty-eight case herds were selected based on an increase in the level of Salmonella-specific antibodies in bulk-tank milk from ... was randomly allocated to the control herds. Hierarchical mixed effect models with the outcome test-day yield of energy-corrected milk (ECM)/cow were used to investigate daily milk yield before and after the estimated herd infection date for cows in parities 1, 2, and 3+. Control herds were used to evaluate...

  10. Herd characteristics and management practices associated with bulk tank milk quality of dairy herds in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortinhas, Cristina Simões; Botaro, Bruno Garcia; de Macedo, Susana Nori; Dos Santos, Marcos Veiga

    2018-04-30

    This study identified the association of management practices and herd characteristics with milk quality of bulk tanks in southeastern, Brazil. Milk samples were collected weekly during 8 weeks from 63 dairy herds. Bulk tanks were evaluated for total bacteria (TBC), preliminary incubation (PIC), pasteurization (PC), coliform (CC), and somatic cell counts (SCC). Associations found were type of milking system utilized in the farm with TBC, PIC, and SCC; the use of gloves for milking with TBC and PIC; sanitation of milking equipment prior to milking with PC and CC; strip cup testing of cows with PC; teat washing prior to milking with SCC; pre-milking teat disinfection with TBC and CC; post-dipping with TBC and SCC; and the alkaline-acid washing procedure of milking equipment with PIC and PC. The regression analysis explained the variation of bulk tank PC (- 0.47 log cfu/mL) due to the adoption of strip cup test (P = 0.036) and, by 0.366 log cfu/mL due to alkaline and acid washing of milking equipment (P = 0.036). Herringbone milking systems adopted on farms represented a change of - 0.11 log cfu/mL on the log SCC (P = 0.048). Findings may provide a guideline to prioritize efforts aimed at improving milk quality at the farm level in Brazil.

  11. Detection of Coxiella burnetii by PCR in bulk tank milk samples from dairy caprine herds in southeast of Iran

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    Mohammad Khalili

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To use PCR for the detection of Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii in bulk tank milk samples collected from dairy caprine herds in southeast Iran. Methods: In the present study, 31 goat bulk milk from 31 dairy goat herds were tested for C. burnetii using trans-PCR assay. The animals which their milk samples collected for this study were clinically healthy. Results: In total, 5 of 31 (16.12% goat milk samples were positive. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate clinically healthy dairy goats are important sources of C. burnetii infection in this area.

  12. Evaluation of milk yield losses associated with Salmonella antibodies in bulk tank milk in bovine dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, T D; Green, L E; Kudahl, A B; Østergaard, S; Nielsen, L R

    2012-09-01

    The effect of Salmonella on milk production is not well established in cattle. The objective of this study was to investigate whether introduction of Salmonella into dairy cattle herds was associated with reduced milk yield and determine the duration of any such effect. Longitudinal data from 2005 through 2009 were used, with data from 12 mo before until 18 mo after the estimated date of infection. Twenty-eight case herds were selected based on an increase in the level of Salmonella-specific antibodies in bulk-tank milk from levels consistently energy-corrected milk (ECM)/cow were used to investigate daily milk yield before and after the estimated herd infection date for cows in parities 1, 2, and 3+. Control herds were used to evaluate whether the effects in the case herds could be reproduced in herds without Salmonella infection. Herd size, days in milk, somatic cell count, season, and year were included in the models. Yield in first-parity cows was reduced by a mean of 1.4 kg (95% confidence interval: 0.5 to 2.3) of ECM/cow per day from 7 to 15 mo after the estimated herd infection date, compared with that of first-parity cows in the same herds in the 12 mo before the estimated herd infection date. Yield for parity 3+ cows was reduced by a mean of 3.0 kg (95% confidence interval: 1.3 to 4.8) of ECM/cow per day from 7 to 15 mo after herd infection compared with that of parity 3+ cows in the 12 mo before the estimated herd infection. We observed minor differences in yield in second-parity cows before and after herd infection and observed no difference between cows in control herds before and after the simulated infection date. Milk yield decreased significantly in affected herds and the reduction was detectable several months after the increase in bulk tank milk Salmonella antibodies. It took more than 1 yr for milk yield to return to preinfection levels. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae in bulk tank milk from German dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odenthal, Sabrina; Akineden, Ömer; Usleber, Ewald

    2016-12-05

    Although the dairy farm environment is a known source of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria, surveillance data on ESBL in the milk production chain are still scarce. This study aimed at estimating the dimensions of the problem for public health and animal welfare by surveying ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in raw bulk tank milk in Germany. Samples from 866 dairy farms, comprising about 1% of the total number of dairy farms in Germany, were first screened for presence of cefotaxime-resistant bacteria by selective enrichment. Suspect colonies were identified phenotypically and further characterized by biochemical and molecular methods, including analysis of resistance genes and clonal diversity in ESBL-producing isolates. Bulk tank milk from 82 (9.5%) farms yielded Enterobacteriaceae with confirmed ESBL-production. The most frequent ESBL-producing species was Escherichia coli (75.6%), followed by Citrobacter spp. (9.6%), Enterobacter cloacae (6.1%), and Klebsiella oxytoca (3.7%), a few isolates belonged to other species within the genera Hafnia, Raoutella and Serratia. The majority of isolates (95.1%) harbored the β-lactamase blaCTX-M gene, which has gained increased importance among ESBL-producing strains worldwide; the CTX-M group 1 was found to be the dominating (88.4%) phylogenetic group. All ESBL-positive Escherichia coli isolates were clonally heterogeneous, as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The results from this survey demonstrate that ESBL-producing bacteria are distributed widely in the dairy farm environment in Germany. Therefore, raw milk is a potential source of exposure for the consumer, which is of increasing importance considering the trend of farmer-to-consumer direct marketing. Furthermore, dairy farm staff have an increased likelihood of exposure to ESBL-producing bacteria. Finally, ESBL-producing bacteria may also be transferred via waste milk to calves, thus further spreading antibiotic resistance in the

  14. Prevalence of Bovine Mastitis Pathogens in Bulk Tank Milk in China

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    Wang, Ya Jing; Qin, Yun; Guix Vallverdú, Roger; Maldonado García, Jaime; Sun, Wei; Li, Shengli; Cao, Zhijun

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the herd prevalence of major mastitis pathogens in bulk tank milk (BTM) in China dairy herds, to determine the relationship between the presence of mastitis pathogens and bulk tank milk somatic cell counts (BTSCC), and to investigate the impact of different dairy cattle farming modes and region on bacterial species. BTM samples collected from 894 dairy herds in China were examined for the presence of mastitis pathogens. The Flinders Technology Associates (FTA) cards were used for BTM sample collection, storage, and transportation and bacterial DNA amplification by real-time PCR. Among contagious pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Streptococcus dysgalactiae were detected in 50.1, 92.2, and 72.3% of the 894 BTM samples, respectively. Among environmental pathogens, E. coli, Streptococcus uberis, Enterococcus spp., Klebsiella spp., Serratia marcescens, Corynebacterium bovis, and Arcanobacterium pyogenes were detected in 28.6, 8.9, 35.7, 20.0, 1.3, 17.0, and 67.2% of the BTM samples, respectively. Staphylococcal β-lactamase gene was detected in 61.7% of the BTM samples. The presence of Staphylococcus aureus and Arcanobacterium pyogenes were significantly associated with high BTSCC, respectively. Significant differences were found in presence of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Streptococcus dysgalactiae in BTM sampled from the small household farms, dairy-farming communities, and large-scaled dairy farms. There were significant differences in the presence of Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Arcanobacterium pyogenes, staphylococcal β-lactamase gene, Staphylococcus spp., Klebsiella spp., Enterococcus spp., and Streptococcus uberis in BTM among Inner Mongolia, Heilongjiang, and Hebei province. In conclusion, contagious mammary pathogens are predominated among pathogens in BTM samples in China. PMID:27187065

  15. Association between antibodies to Coxiella burnetii in bulk tank milk and perinatal mortality of Danish dairy calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Katrine T.; Nielsen, Søren S.; Agger, Jens F.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Coxiella burnetii is a well-known cause of placentitis and subsequent abortion in ruminants, but there are no reports on the relationship with perinatal mortality. The study was performed to determine the influence of level and change of bulk tank milk (BTM) antibodies to C. burnetii ...

  16. Occurrence and antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus in bulk tank milk and milk filters

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    Kateřina Bogdanovičová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This work is focused on the monitoring of Staphylococcus aureus prevalence in raw milk and milk filters, its antibiotic resistance and detection of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. Samples of raw cow´s milk and milk filters were collected in the period from 2012 till 2014, from 50 dairy farms in the Czech Republic. The total of 261 samples (164 samples of raw milk and 97 milk filters were cultivated on Baird-Parker agar. Both the typical and atypical colonies were examined by plasmacoagulase test and PCR method was used for detection of species specific fragment SA442 and mecA gene. Standard disk diffusion method was used to determinate resistance to antimicrobial agents. The bacterium Staphylococcus aureus was detected on 25 farms (50%. The antimicrobial resistance showed differences between the farms. Total of 58 samples were positive for Staphylococcus aureus, of which were 37 (14.2% isolated from raw milk samples and 21 (8.1% from milk filters. From these samples we isolated 62 Staphylococcus aureus strains, 41 isolates bacteria S. aureus from raw milk (66.1% and 21 isolates S. aureus from milk filters (33.9%. The presence of antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolates was low, most of them were resistant to amoxicilin. According to the results obtained by the PCR method for the methicillin - resistant S. aureus (MRSA, the mecA gene was present in 6 strains (9.7%, 4 isolates obtained from milk samples (6.5% and 2 isolates from milk filters (3.2%.  These isolates can be considered as a possible source of resistance genes, which can be spread through the food chain. Nowadays, a globally unfavourable increasing trend of prevalence of methicillin resistant staphylococci strains especially Staphylococcus aureus is being observed worldwide. The improper hygiene and poor farm management practices contributed to the presence of S. aureus in the milk. This may have contributed to the high level of S. aureus isolated

  17. Dynamics of relationship between the presence of Coxiella burnetii DNA, antibodies, and intrinsic variables in cow milk and bulk tank milk from Danish dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angen, Øystein; Ståhl, Marie; Agerholm, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    protein concentration in milk. The antibody levels in bulk tank milk and prevalence levels of C. burnetii DNA and antibodies in individual cow milk samples were correlated. A significant correlation was also found between the quantification cycle values of the cow samples (weighted according to milk yield......Milk samples of 12 Danish dairy herds were collected 3 times during an 11-mo period and tested for Coxiella burnetii DNA by real-time PCR, detecting the IS1111 element, and for the presence of antibodies against the bacterium by ELISA. On average, 25% of 1,514 samples were seropositive and 32% were...... positive for C. burnetii DNA. Among the 485 DNA-positive samples, quantification cycle values ranging from 15.8 to 37.8 were found. Test sensitivity did not increase after DNA extraction from the cream fraction compared with full milk. The relationship between antibody levels and bacterial shedding...

  18. Survey of pyrethroid, macrocyclic lactone and antibacterial residues in bulk milk tank from Minas Gerais State, Brazil

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    Lidia C.A. Picinin

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: A survey of veterinary drug residues in bulk milk tank from Minas Gerais State, Brazil, was carried out through a broad scope analysis. Here, 132 raw milk samples were collected at 45 dairy farms in Minas Gerais from August 2009 to February 2010, and analyzed for 42 analytes, comprising pyrethroids, macrocyclic lactones and antibacterials, using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry in tandem mode and gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Within all milk samples, at least one veterinary drug residue was identified in 40 milk samples (30.30% by confirmatory tests, whereas 16 samples (12.12% showed the presence of at least two residues. With regard to the Brazilian maximum residue levels, 11 milk samples (8.33% were non-compliant according to Brazilian Legislation. The veterinary drugs detected in the non-compliant milk samples include penicillin V (one sample, abamectin (one sample and cypermethrin (nine samples. Furthermore, the antibacterial screening methods failed to identify most of the positive samples that were detected by confirmatory tests, leading to a large discrepancy between the screening and confirmatory antimicrobial tests. Thus, the present study indicated that the veterinary drugs residues still represents a great concern for the milk production chain.

  19. Short communication: Correlation between within-herd antibody-prevalence and bulk tank milk antibody levels to Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis using 2 commercial immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesqueira, M N; Yus, E; Factor, C; Mato, I; Sanjuán, M L; Eiras, C; Arnaiz, I; Diéguez, F J

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the correlation between the results obtained with the ELISA technique for antibodies to Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in serum and bulk tank milk at the herd level. For this purpose, 203 samples of bulk tank milk were analyzed with 2 commercial ELISA from dairy herds with a prevalence of seropositive animals that was also determined. In regard to the reference test (results in blood serum), the sensitivity of the bulk tank milk test to detect high-positive herds (≥10% seroprevalence) ranged from 85.7 to 71.4%. The specificity to detect herds with no seropositive animals ranged from 70.5 to 53%. In a quantitative approach, Pearson correlation coefficients, reported as a measure of the linear association between herd seroprevalences and transformed optical density values recorded in bulk tank milk, were 0.39 and 0.54 for the studied ELISA. Although the test results were relatively fairly correlated with the within-herd prevalence, the practical utility of bulk tank milk testing for Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis seems limited, especially regarding specificity. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevalence, characterization, and antimicrobial resistance of Yersinia species and Yersinia enterocolitica isolated from raw milk in farm bulk tanks.

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    Jamali, Hossein; Paydar, Mohammadjavad; Radmehr, Behrad; Ismail, Salmah

    2015-02-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence and to characterize and determine the antibiotic resistance of Yersinia spp. isolates from raw milk. From September 2008 to August 2010, 446 raw milk samples were obtained from farm bulk milk tanks in Varamin, Iran. Yersinia spp. were detected in 29 (6.5%) samples, out of which 23 (79.3%), 5 (17.2%), and 1 (3.4%) were isolated from cow, sheep, and goat raw milk, respectively. The most common species isolated was Yersinia enterocolitica (65.5%), followed by Yersinia frederiksenii (31%), and Yersinia kristensenii (3.4%). Of the 19 Y. enterocolitica isolates, 14 (73.7%) were grouped into bioserotype 1A/O:9, 4 (21.1%) belonged to bioserotype 1B:O8, 1 (5.3%) belonged to bioserotype 4/O:3, and 1 isolate (biotype 1A) was not typable. All the isolates of biotypes 1B and 4harbored both the ystA and ail genes. However, all the isolates of biotype 1A were only positive for the ystB gene. The tested Yersinia spp. showed the highest percentages of resistance to tetracycline (48.3%), followed by ciprofloxacin and cephalothin (each 17.2%), ampicillin (13.8%), streptomycin (6.9%), and amoxicillin and nalidixic acid (each 3.4%). All of the tested isolates demonstrated significant sensitivity to gentamicin and chloramphenicol. Recovery of potentially pathogenic Y. enterocolitica from raw milk indicates high risks of yersiniosis associated with consumption of raw milk. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Long-term detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in individual and bulk tank milk from a dairy herd with a low prevalence of Johne's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khol, J L; Wassertheurer, M; Sodoma, E; Revilla-Fernández, S; Damoser, J; Osterreicher, E; Dünser, M; Kleb, U; Baumgartner, W

    2013-06-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes Johne's disease (JD) in ruminants and is shed into the milk of infected cows, which contributes to the controversial discussion about a possible link between MAP and Crohn's disease in humans. The aim of the study was to investigate the risk for the entry of MAP in the food chain via milk from dairy farms with subclinical JD. Therefore, the occurrence of MAP in the milk of a dairy herd with a low prevalence of JD was studied in single and bulk tank milk samples over a period of 23 mo and compared with MAP shedding into feces. Milk, fecal, and blood samples were taken from all cows older than 1.5 yr of age at the beginning and the end of the trial and analyzed for MAP or specific antibodies. In addition, 63 cows (33 MAP infected and 30 MAP noninfected) were selected for monthly sampling. Raw and pasteurized bulk tank milk samples were collected on a monthly basis. The milk samples were tested for MAP by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR), and the fecal samples were tested for bacterial shedding by qPCR or solid culture. Based on the results of the herd investigations, the prevalence of cows shedding MAP was around 5%; no cases of clinical JD were observed during the study period. The results of the ELISA showed high variation, with 2.1 to 5.1% positive milk samples and 14.9 to 18.8% ELISA-positive blood samples. Monthly milk sampling revealed low levels of MAP shedding into the individual milk samples of both MAP-infected and noninfected cows, with only 13 cows shedding the bacterium into milk during the study period. Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis was not detected by qPCR in any raw or pasteurized bulk tank milk sample throughout the study. A significant positive association could be found between MAP shedding into milk and feces. From the results of the present study, it can be concluded that MAP is only shed via milk in a small proportion of cows with subclinical JD for a limited period of time and

  2. Longitudinal assessment of dairy farm management practices associated with the presence of psychrotolerant Bacillales spores in bulk tank milk on 10 New York State dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiello, S N; Kent, D; Martin, N H; Schukken, Y H; Wiedmann, M; Boor, K J

    2017-11-01

    The ability of certain spore-forming bacteria in the order Bacillales (e.g., Bacillus spp., Paenibacillus spp.) to survive pasteurization in spore form and grow at refrigeration temperatures results in product spoilage and limits the shelf life of high temperature, short time (HTST)-pasteurized fluid milk. To facilitate development of strategies to minimize contamination of raw milk with psychrotolerant Bacillales spores, we conducted a longitudinal study of 10 New York State dairy farms, which included yearlong monthly assessments of the frequency and levels of bulk tank raw milk psychrotolerant spore contamination, along with administration of questionnaires to identify farm management practices associated with psychrotolerant spore presence over time. Milk samples were first spore pasteurized (80°C for 12 min) and then analyzed for sporeformer counts on the initial day of spore pasteurization (SP), and after refrigerated storage (6°C) for 7, 14, and 21 d after SP. Overall, 41% of samples showed sporeformer counts of >20,000 cfu/mL at d 21, with Bacillus and Paenibacillus spp. being predominant causes of high sporeformer counts. Statistical analyses identified 3 management factors (more frequent cleaning of the bulk tank area, the use of a skid steer to scrape the housing area, and segregating problem cows during milking) that were all associated with lower probabilities of d-21 Bacillales spore detection in SP-treated bulk tank raw milk. Our data emphasize that appropriate on-farm measures to improve overall cleanliness and cow hygiene will reduce the probability of psychrotolerant Bacillales spore contamination of bulk tank raw milk, allowing for consistent production of raw milk with reduced psychrotolerant spore counts, which will facilitate production of HTST-pasteurized milk with extended refrigerated shelf life. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Genomic investigation of Danish Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bulk tank milk and dairy cows with clinical mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronco, Troels; Klaas, Ilka C.; Stegger, Marc

    2018-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common pathogens that cause mastitis in dairy cows. Various subtypes, virulence genes and pathogenicity islands have been associated with isolates from bulk tank milk and clinical mastitis. So far, no Danish cattle associated S. aureus isolates have been...... and clinical mastitis were of similar genetic background. This suggests that dairy cows are natural carriers of the S. aureus subtypes that cause clinical mastitis if the right conditions are present and that a broad range of subtypes cause mastitis. A phylogenetic cluster that mostly consisted of ST151...... isolates carried three pathogenicity islands that were primarily found in this group. The prevalence of resistance genes was generally low. However, the first ST398 methicillin resistant S. aureus isolate from a Danish dairy cow with clinical mastitis was detected....

  4. Diagnostic performance of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect bovine leukemia virus antibodies in bulk-tank milk samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekouei, Omid; Durocher, Jean; Keefe, Greg

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the diagnostic performance of a commercial ELISA for detecting bovine leukemia virus antibodies in bulk-tank milk samples from eastern Canada. Sensitivity and specificity of the test were estimated at 97.2% and 100%, respectively. The test was recommended as a cost-efficient tool for large-scale screening programs. PMID:27429469

  5. Management practices associated with the bulk tank milk prevalence of Mycoplasma spp. in dairy herds in Northwestern Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, L; Thompson, G; Machado, M; Carvalheira, J

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of some management practices on the prevalence of Mycoplasma spp. in Northwestern Portuguese dairy farms from bulk tank milk (BTM) samples. Additionally, the within-herd prevalence of Mycoplasma spp. was also determined, but only in BTM positive herds. From May 2007 to November 2008, 492 BTM samples from 164 dairies randomly chosen in a population of 1234 dairy farms were analyzed. Five herds (3.0%) had positive mycoplasmal culture results, from which 4 out of 164 (2.4%) were Mycoplasma bovis, with simultaneous presence of Mycoplasma bovigenitalium or Mycoplasma canadense in two of those samples. In one out of 164 (0.6%) herds Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum was also found. In BTM positive Mycoplasma spp. herds, the apparent intra-herd prevalence was low and varied between 2.5% and 4.5%. Multiple locus variable-number of tandem-repeat analysis was conducted in order to compare the genetic relationship between the isolates. Mycoplasma spp. was found to be present in cows with subclinical mastitis with or without California Mastitis Test positive results, hence all cows should be tested when the agent is isolated from bulk tank rather than selecting suspected cows. A multivariable logistic regression using the Firth's penalized maximum likelihood estimation was performed showing that increasing number of lactating cows (OR=1.05; Pagent in mastitis control protocols in national dairies and in sanitary controls of transitioned animals between European countries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of Coxiella burnetii status in dairy cattle herds with bulk-tank milk positive by ELISA and PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñero, A; Barandika, J F; Hurtado, A; García-Pérez, A L

    2014-04-01

    Bulk-tank milk (BTM) samples are frequently used to evaluate the health status of dairy livestock. A large-scale investigation carried out in BTM samples from dairy cattle herds from a Q fever-endemic region in Northern Spain revealed a high degree of exposure to Coxiella burnetii. This study was aimed at assessing the value of BTM samples analysis as an indicator of the C. burnetii status in dairy cattle herds. Three herds with BTM samples positive for C. burnetii by ELISA and PCR were selected, and blood, faeces and individual milk and BTM samples were analysed by serology and PCR. In spite of the high antibodies titres found in BTM samples, only one of the three farms presented an active infection by C. burnetii, as revealed by the presence of bacterial DNA in vaginal mucus and in environmental samples collected in the calving area, a seroprevalence around 40% in heifers and the seroconversion rate observed in cows. Results obtained indicated that the analysis of BTM samples is a good epidemiological tool at the population level that can be used to discriminate between seropositive and seronegative herds, but at the herd level, additional tests are necessary to evaluate whether Q fever is a potential problem in the farm. When Q fever is suspected in a cattle herd, sera from a small group of 1- to 3-year-old animals need to be analysed to investigate recent contact with C. burnetii. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Effect of short-term versus long-term grassland management and seasonal variation in organic and conventional dairy farming on the composition of bulk tank milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler, S A; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Govasmark, E

    2013-01-01

    Bulk tank milk from 28 dairy farms was sampled every second month for 2 yr to assess the effects of grassland management, production system and season on milk fatty acid (FA) composition, concentrations of fat-soluble vitamins, Se, and milk sensory quality. Grassland management varied in terms of...... feeding periods had potential health benefits due to FA composition. In contrast, the higher milk-fat proportions of saturated FA in milk from ORG farms may be perceived as negative for human health.......:0 and C18:1 cis-9 associated with higher forage proportion and differences in concentrations of FA in concentrates. Compared with the outdoor-feeding periods, the indoor feeding periods yielded milk fat with higher proportions of most short-chain and medium-chain FA and lower proportions of most C18-FA....... In conclusion, grassland management had minor effects on milk composition, and differences between ORG farms and CON farms may be explained by differences in concentrate intake and concentrate FA concentrations. Milk produced on ORG farms versus CON farms and milk produced during the outdoor versus indoor...

  8. Management, nutrition, and lactation performance are related to bulk tank milk de novo fatty acid concentration on northeastern US dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolpert, M E; Dann, H M; Cotanch, K W; Melilli, C; Chase, L E; Grant, R J; Barbano, D M

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the relationship of management practices, dietary characteristics, milk composition, and lactation performance with de novo fatty acid (FA) concentration in bulk tank milk from commercial dairy farms with Holstein, Jersey, and mixed-breed cows. It was hypothesized that farms with higher de novo milk FA concentrations would more commonly use management and nutrition practices known to optimize ruminal conditions that enhance de novo synthesis of milk FA. Farms (n=44) located in Vermont and northeastern New York were selected based on a history of high de novo (HDN; 26.18±0.94g/100g of FA; mean ± standard deviation) or low de novo (LDN; 24.19±1.22g/100g of FA) FA in bulk tank milk. Management practices were assessed during one visit to each farm in March or April, 2014. Total mixed ration samples were collected and analyzed for chemical composition using near infrared spectroscopy. We found no differences in days in milk at the farm level. Yield of milk fat, true protein, and de novo FA per cow per day were higher for HDN versus LDN farms. The HDN farms had lower freestall stocking density (cows/stall) than LDN farms. Additionally, tiestall feeding frequency was higher for HDN than LDN farms. No differences between HDN and LDN farms were detected for dietary dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, starch, or percentage of forage in the diet. However, dietary ether extract was lower for HDN than LDN farms. This research indicates that overcrowded freestalls, reduced feeding frequency, and greater dietary ether extract content are associated with lower de novo FA synthesis and reduced milk fat and true protein yields on commercial dairy farms. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus and bovine coronavirus antibodies in bulk tank milk - risk factors and spatial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toftaker, Ingrid; Sanchez, Javier; Stokstad, Maria; Nødtvedt, Ane

    2016-10-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and bovine coronavirus (BCoV) are considered widespread among cattle in Norway and worldwide. This cross-sectional study was conducted based on antibody-ELISA of bulk tank milk (BTM) from 1347 herds in two neighboring counties in western Norway. The study aims were to determine the seroprevalence at herd level, to evaluate risk factors for BRSV and BCoV seropositivity, and to assess how these factors were associated with the spatial distribution of positive herds. The overall prevalence of BRSV and BCoV positive herds in the region was 46.2% and 72.2%, respectively. Isopleth maps of the prevalence risk distribution showed large differences in prevalence risk across the study area, with the highest prevalence in the northern region. Common risk factors of importance for both viruses were herd size, geographic location, and proximity to neighbors. Seropositivity for one virus was associated with increased odds of seropositivity for the other virus. Purchase of livestock was an additional risk factor for BCoV seropositivity, included in the model as in-degree, which was defined as the number of incoming movements from individual herds, through animal purchase, over a period of five years. Local dependence and the contribution of risk factors to this effect were assessed using the residuals from two logistic regression models for each virus. One model contained only the x- and y- coordinates as predictors, the other had all significant predictors included. Spatial clusters of high values of residuals were detected using the normal model of the spatial scan statistic and visualized on maps. Adjusting for the risk factors in the final models had different impact on the spatial clusters for the two viruses: For BRSV the number of clusters was reduced from six to four, for BCoV the number of clusters remained the same, however the log-likelihood ratios changed notably. This indicates that geographical differences in proximity to

  10. Association between the level of antibodies in bulk tank milk and bovine respiratory syncytial virus exposure in the herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klem, T B; Tollersrud, T; Osterås, O; Stokstad, M

    2014-07-12

    Antibody levels in bulk tank milk (BTM) against bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) are used to classify BRSV status of herds. The aim of this study was to investigate how these levels correspond with the time at which the herds were infected. Bulk tank milk, individual milk and serum samples from cows and young stock were investigated using an indirect ELISA. Screenings of BTM from 89 dairy herds during two winter seasons revealed a prevalence of positive herds from 82 per cent to 85 per cent. Eleven herds showed a marked increase in antibody levels between two screenings, indicating new infection. However, two of these herds had been free from BRSV for the last five to seven years. Two newly infected herds were monitored for four years and did not appear to get reinfected. Surprisingly, the BTM antibody levels in these herds remained high throughout the study period, but fluctuated significantly. This shows that the levels of antibodies in BTM can remain high for several years, even in herds where reinfection does not occur. BTM serology is a useful tool in the monitoring of infectious diseases in dairy herds, but has limitations as a diagnostic tool for BRSV infections. British Veterinary Association.

  11. First detection of livestock-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus CC398 in bulk tank milk in the United Kingdom, January to July 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, G K; Larsen, J; Harrison, E M; Larsen, A R; Morgan, F J; Peacock, S J; Parkhill, J; Zadoks, R N; Holmes, M A

    2013-01-01

    Livestock-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus belonging to clonal complex 398 (LA-MRSA CC398) is an important cause of zoonotic infections in several countries, but there is only a single published report of this lineage from the United Kingdom (UK). Here, we describe the isolation of LA-MRSA CC398 from bulk tank milk from five geographically dispersed farms in the UK. Our findings suggest that LA-MRSA CC398 is established in livestock in the UK. Awareness of the potential occupational risks and surveillance in other food-producing animal species should be promoted. PMID:23241232

  12. Evaluation of a multiplex immunoassay for bovine respiratory syncytial virus and bovine coronavirus antibodies in bulk tank milk against two indirect ELISAs using latent class analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftaker, Ingrid; Toft, Nils; Stokstad, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and bovine coronavirus (BCV) are responsible for respiratory disease and diarrhea in cattle worldwide. The Norwegian control program against these infections is based on herd-level diagnosis using a new multiplex immunoassay. The objective of this study...... was to estimate sensitivity and specificity across different cut-off values for the MVD-Enferplex BCV/BRSV multiplex, by comparing them to a commercially available ELISA, the SVANOVIR® BCV-Ab and SVANOVIR® BRSV-Ab, respectively. We analyzed bulk tank milk samples from 360 herds in a low- and 360 herds in a high...

  13. A space-time analysis of Mycoplasma bovis: bulk tank milk antibody screening results from all Danish dairy herds in 2013-2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arede, Margarida; Nielsen, Per Kantsø; Ahmed, Syed Sayeem Uddin

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is an important pathogen causing severe disease outbreaks in cattle farms. Since 2011, there has been an apparent increase in M. bovis outbreaks among Danish dairy cattle herds. The dairy cattle industry performed cross-sectional antibody screening for M. bovis on four occasions...... population throughout the study period. Repeated bulk tank milk samples were used as a proxy for the herd-level diagnosis. Descriptive and spatial analyses were performed for the four screening rounds. Based on a previous diagnostic test evaluation study, the M. bovis status for each herd was determined...

  14. Study of the association of atmospheric temperature and relative humidity with bulk tank milk somatic cell count in dairy herds using Generalized additive mixed models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Francesco; Marano, Giuseppe; Ambrogi, Federico; Boracchi, Patrizia; Casula, Antonio; Biganzoli, Elia; Moroni, Paolo

    2017-10-01

    Elevated bulk tank milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) has a negative impact on milk production, milk quality, and animal health. Seasonal increases in herd level somatic cell count (SCC) are commonly associated with elevated environmental temperature and humidity. The Temperature Humidity Index (THI) has been developed to measure general environmental stress in dairy cattle; however, additional work is needed to determine a specific effect of the heat stress index on herd-level SCC. Generalized Additive Model methods were used for a flexible exploration of the relationships between daily temperature, relative humidity, and bulk milk somatic cell count. The data consist of BMSCC and meteorological recordings collected between March 2009 and October 2011 of 10 dairy farms. The results indicate that, an average increase of 0.16% of BMSCC is expected for an increase of 1°C degree of temperature. A complex relationship was found for relative humidity. For example, increase of 0.099%, 0.037% and 0.020% are expected in correspondence to an increase of relative humidity from 50% to 51%, 80% to 81%; and 90% to 91%, respectively. Using this model, it will be possible to provide evidence-based advice to dairy farmers for the use of THI control charts created on the basis of our statistical model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Somatic cell counts in bulk milk and their importance for milk processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savić, N. R.; Mikulec, D. P.; Radovanović, R. S.

    2017-09-01

    Bulk tank milk somatic cell counts are the indicator of the mammary gland health in the dairy herds and may be regarded as an indirect measure of milk quality. Elevated somatic cell counts are correlated with changes in milk composition The aim of this study was to assess the somatic cell counts that significantly affect the quality of milk and dairy products. We examined the somatic cell counts in bulk tank milk samples from 38 farms during the period of 6 months, from December to the May of the next year. The flow cytometry, Fossomatic was used for determination of somatic cell counts. In the same samples content of total proteins and lactose was determined by Milcoscan. Our results showed that average values for bulk tank milk samples were 273,605/ml from morning milking and 292,895/ml from evening milking. The average values for total proteins content from morning and evening milking are 3,31 and 3,34%, respectively. The average values for lactose content from morning and evening milking are 4,56 and 4,63%, respectively. The highest somatic cell count (516,000/ml) was detected in bulk tank milk sample from evening milk in the Winter and the lowest content of lactose was 4,46%. Our results showed that obtained values for bulk tank milk somatic cell counts did not significantly affected the content of total proteins and lactose.

  16. Bulk tank milk ELISA for detection of antibodies to Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis: Correlation between repeated tests and within-herd antibody-prevalence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Toft, Nils

    2014-01-01

    Detection of bulk tank milk (BTM) antibodies using ELISA (BTM-ELISA) may constitute an inexpensive test for surveillance of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in dairy cattle herds provided that the test is accurate and consistent. The objectives of this study were...... Danish Holstein herds over a period of one year. All samples were tested using a commercial indirect ELISA for detection of MAP specific antibodies. The individual cow's results were dichotomised and used to estimate the within-herd antibody prevalence at each test-date. These prevalences were...... to 0.60 when corrected for the within-herd antibody prevalence. Although the test-results were relatively consistent and correlated with the within-herd prevalence, the magnitude of the test-values makes it difficult to use the BTM-ELISA for surveillance of MAP infections in practice....

  17. Quality of bulk tank milk samples from Danish dairy herds based on real-time polymerase chain reaction identification of mastitis pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katholm, Jørgen; Bennedsgaard, T.W.; Koskinen, M.T.

    2012-01-01

    Results of a commercial real-time PCR analysis for 11 mastitis pathogens from bulk tank milk (BTM) samples from all 4,258 Danish dairy herds in November 2009 to January 2010 were compared with somatic cell count (SCC) and total bacteria count (TBC) estimates in BTM. For Streptococcus agalactiae......, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and Streptococcus uberis, a low real-time PCR cycle threshold (Ct) value (corresponding to high bacterial DNA quantity) was correlated with higher SCC and higher TBC. For Staphylococcus aureus, low Ct values were correlated only with higher SCC. For the environmental mastitis...... pathogens Klebsiella spp., Enterococcus spp., and Escherichia coli, low Ct values had a correlation with higher TBC. Staphylococcus spp. were found in the BTM from all herds, Strep. uberis in 95%, Staph. aureus in 91%, and Strep. dysgalactiae in 86%, whereas E. coli, Klebsiella, and Strep. agalactiae were...

  18. A retrospective evaluation of a Bovine Herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) antibody ELISA on bulk-tank milk samples for classification of the BHV-1 status of Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nylin, Britta; Strøger, Ulla; Rønsholt, Leif

    2000-01-01

    Bulk-tank milk samples analysed in a Bovine Herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) blocking ELISA are still in use in the Danish BHV-1 programme as a tool to classify dairy herds as BHV-1 infected or BHV-1 free herds. in this retrospective study, we used data from the Danish BHV-1 eradication campaign to evaluate...

  19. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and of methicillin-resistant S. aureus clonal complexes in bulk tank milk from dairy cattle herds in Lombardy Region (Northern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortimiglia, C; Luini, M; Bianchini, V; Marzagalli, L; Vezzoli, F; Avisani, D; Bertoletti, M; Ianzano, A; Franco, A; Battisti, A

    2016-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most important causative agent of subclinical mastitis in cattle resulting in reduced milk production and quality. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains has a clear zoonotic relevance, especially in the case of occupational exposure. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA in bulk tank milk (BTM) from dairy cattle herds in the Lombardy Region (Northern Italy) and to identify the main MRSA circulating genotypes. MRSA strains were characterized by susceptibility testing, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing and SCCmec typing. A total 844 BTM samples were analysed and S. aureus and MRSA were detected in 47·2% and 3·8% of dairy herds, respectively. MLST showed that the majority (28/32) of isolates belonged to the typical livestock-associated lineages: ST398, ST97 and ST1. Interestingly, in this study we report for the first time the new ST3211, a single locus variant of ST(CC)22, with the newly described 462 aroE allele. Our study indicates high diffusion of S. aureus mastitis and low, but not negligible, prevalence of MRSA in the considered area, suggesting the need for planning specific control programmes for bovine mastitis caused by S. aureus, especially when MRSA is implicated.

  20. Sampling study in milk storage tanks by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, L.G.C.; Nadai Fernandes de, E.A.; Bacchi, M.A.; Tagliaferro, F.S.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the representativeness of samples for assessing chemical elements in milk bulk tanks. Milk samples were collected from a closed tank in a dairy plant and from an open top tank in a dairy farm. Samples were analyzed for chemical elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). For both experiments, Br, Ca, Cs, K, Na, Rb and Zn did not present significant differences between samples thereby indicating the appropriateness of the sampling procedure adopted to evaluate the analytes of interest. (author)

  1. Identification of dairy farm management practices associated with the presence of psychrotolerant sporeformers in bulk tank milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masiello, S. N.; Martin, N H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314123083; Watters, R D; Galton, D M; Schukken, Y H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075051907; Wiedmann, M.; Boor, K. J.

    Some strains of sporeforming bacteria (e.g., Bacillus spp. and Paenibacillus spp.) can survive pasteurization and subsequently grow at refrigeration temperatures, causing pasteurized fluid milk spoilage. To identify farm management practices associated with different levels of sporeformers in raw

  2. European Union bulk tank SCC standards and proposed US standards: Compliance based on data from four Federal Milk Marketing Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate compliance of US producers with the proposed BTSCC limits. Four different SCC levels of compliance were evaluated: 750K; 600K; 500K; 400K. For the 12 month period ending October 2010, 1.0% of producers and 0.2% of milk exceeded the current US limit of 750K...

  3. A survey of the exposure to Ostertagia ostertagi in dairy cow herds in Europe through the measurement of antibodies in milk samples from the bulk tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, A B; J Vercruysse; Charlier, J

    2008-10-20

    Measurement of antibodies to Ostertagia ostertagi in bulk tank milk (BTM) has value as a diagnostic indicator for potential production losses and anthelmintic treatment responses in dairy herds. Most of the recent data on O. ostertagi antibodies in milk have been generated in Belgium and Canada; the purpose of this study was to determine the range of O. ostertagi antibody levels in several European countries. BTM samples were collected during the autumn of 2005 and 2006 from a total of 1185 dairy herds from dairy farming regions in Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and the United Kingdom. Antibody titres to O. ostertagi were determined by indirect ELISA and expressed as optical density ratios (ODR). In addition, relationships between ODR and management practices were investigated. For each country the mean ODR and the 25th-75th percentile values were determined. Mean BTM ODR values in herds with access to yards, paddocks and pastures ranged from 0.3 in Italy to 0.6 in Portugal and the UK/Ireland. The BTM ODR values obtained in this study were generally lower than those described in the literature for Belgium, but comparable with those in Canada. Variations between different European countries appeared to reflect different husbandry practices, particularly those related to access to pasture. The association analyses showed correlations between the BTM O. ostertagi ODR, outside access and grazing management, consistent with the publications from Belgium and Canada. When diagnostic values appropriate for different production situations and environments have been further validated, the test will provide an objective, quantitative assessment of the O. ostertagi status of a dairy herd and the possible impact this may have on performance and potential responses to anthelmintic treatment. This represents a significant step forward in evidence-based medicine for dairy veterinarians, advisors and farmers.

  4. Prevalence and characteristics of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci from livestock, chicken carcasses, bulk tank milk, minced meat, and contact persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zweifel Claudio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MR-CNS are of increasing importance to animal and public health. In veterinary medicine and along the meat and milk production line, only limited data were so far available on MR-CNS characteristics. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of MR-CNS, to identify the detected staphylococci to species level, and to assess the antibiotic resistance profiles of isolated MR-CNS strains. Results After two-step enrichment and growth on chromogenic agar, MR-CNS were detected in 48.2% of samples from livestock and chicken carcasses, 46.4% of samples from bulk tank milk and minced meat, and 49.3% of human samples. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS, 414 selected MR-CNS strains belonged to seven different species (S. sciuri, 32.6%; S. fleurettii, 25.1%; S. haemolyticus, 17.4%; S. epidermidis, 14.5%, S. lentus, 9.2%; S. warneri, 0.7%; S. cohnii, 0.5%. S. sciuri and S. fleurettii thereby predominated in livestock, BTM and minced meat samples, whereas S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus predominated in human samples. In addition to beta-lactam resistance, 33-49% of all 414 strains were resistant to certain non-beta-lactam antibiotics (ciproflaxacin, clindamycin, erythromycin, tetracycline. Conclusions A high prevalence of MR-CNS was found in livestock production. This is of concern in view of potential spread of mecA to S. aureus (MRSA. Multiresistant CNS strains might become an emerging problem for veterinary medicine. For species identification of MR-CNS isolated from different origins, MALDI-TOF MS proved to be a fast and reliable tool and is suitable for screening of large sample amounts.

  5. Effect of oilseed type on milk fatty acid composition of individual cows, and also bulk tank milk fatty acid composition from commercial farms

    OpenAIRE

    Kliem, K. E.; Humphries, D. J.; Reynolds, C. K.; Morgan, R.; Givens, D. I.

    2016-01-01

    Supplementing dairy cow diets with oilseed preparations has been shown to replace milk saturated fatty acids (SFA) with mono- and/or polyunsaturated fatty acids (MUFA, PUFA), which may reduce risk factors associated with cardio-metabolic diseases in humans consuming milk and dairy products. Previous studies demonstrating this are largely detailed, highly controlled experiments involving small numbers of animals, but in order to transfer this feeding strategy to commercial situations further s...

  6. Prevalence of Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, and pathogenic Escherichia coli in bulk tank milk and milk filters from US dairy operations in the National Animal Health Monitoring System Dairy 2014 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnier, Jakeitha L; Karns, Jeffrey S; Lombard, Jason E; Kopral, Christine A; Haley, Bradd J; Kim, Seon-Woo; Van Kessel, Jo Ann S

    2018-03-01

    The dairy farm environment is a well-documented reservoir for zoonotic pathogens such as Salmonella enterica, Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli, and Listeria monocytogenes, and humans may be exposed to these pathogens via consumption of unpasteurized milk and dairy products. As part of the National Animal Health Monitoring System Dairy 2014 study, bulk tank milk (BTM, n = 234) and milk filters (n = 254) were collected from a total of 234 dairy operations in 17 major dairy states and analyzed for the presence of these pathogens. The invA gene was detected in samples from 18.5% of operations and Salmonella enterica was isolated from 18.0% of operations. Salmonella Dublin was detected in 0.7% of operations. Sixteen Salmonella serotypes were isolated, and the most common serotypes were Cerro, Montevideo, and Newport. Representative Salmonella isolates (n = 137) were tested against a panel of 14 antimicrobials. Most (85%) were pansusceptible; the remaining were resistant to 1 to 9 antimicrobials, and within the resistant strains the most common profile was resistance to ampicillin/clavulanic acid, ampicillin, cefoxitin, ceftiofur, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, and tetracycline. Listeria spp. were isolated from 19.9% of operations, and L. monocytogenes was isolated from 3.0% of operations. Serogroups 1/2a and 1/2b were the most common, followed by 4b and 4a. One or more E. coli virulence genes were detected in the BTM from 30.5% of operations and in the filters from 75.3% of operations. A combination of stx 2 , eaeA, and γ-tir genes was detected in the BTM from 0.5% of operations and in the filters from 6.6% of operations. The results of this study indicate an appreciable prevalence of bacterial pathogens in BTM and filters, including serovars known to infect humans. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Risk analysis of investments in-farm milk cooling tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle D. Sant´Anna

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A risk analysis for the installation of milk cooling tanks (250, 500 and 1,000 L on Brazilian rural properties was conducted in this study. The results showed that all investments had a return higher than the annual 12% minimum rate of attractiveness. There was a direct relationship between tank size and investment profitability and an inverse relation between size and risk. The probability of achieving returns lower than the opportunity cost was highest for the smallest tank (42%. In order to make the investment in small cooling tanks more attractive, the dairy industry incentives offered to farmers for supplying cooled milk could be increased. However, this approach might make investments in bulk milk collection by dairy companies infeasible. Thus, a recommendable strategy for a successful modernization of the Brazilian dairy sector’s inbound logistics would be to promote an increase in the volume of the milk produced per farm.

  8. 49 CFR 172.331 - Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.331 Section 172.331 Transportation Other Regulations... packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a) Each person...

  9. Isolation of Prototheca spp. from cows with mastitis, bulk tanks milk and in the environment of the animals/ Isolamento de Prototheca spp. de vacas com mastite, de leite de tanques de expansão e do ambiente dos animais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agda de Godoy

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The dairy cattle mammary gland infections cause serious economic losses to dairy farmers due to the decrease in milk production, therapeutic procedures and culling of chronic infected animals. High incidence of mastitis in herds also alters both the composition and the quality of the milk. Mastitis pathogens can also cause infections and poisoning in humans. In the last years, emphasis has been given to intramammary infections caused by the genus Prototheca which, besides their zoonotic characteristics, are considered mastitis pathogens of persistent infection and are refractory to traditional therapeutic procedures. The objective of this work was the isolation and identification of Prototheca spp. from milk samples collected from bulk tanks and milk cans, cows presenting mastitis and the dairy herd environment. Milk samples were collected from 81 bulk tanks and milk cans of 81 dairy herds. Prototheca zopfii was identified in milk samples in 10 dairy herds. From these, eight dairy herds were studied regarding Prototheca spp. mastitis and environmental occurrence as well as the main mastitis bacterial agents. Bacteria, algae and yeasts were isolated from 324 milk samples from 197 cows. P. zopfii was isolated in three dairy herds from eleven milk samples from five cows with clinical and subclinical mastitis. In these dairy herds with positive isolation of P. zopfii the agent was isolated from the herd environment, excrements of the calves and teat cup rubbers. The results of this work demonstrate the importance of isolation in bulk tanks as an indicative of Prototheca spp. presence in dairy herds.As infecções da glândula mamária de vacas leiteiras acarretam sérios prejuízos ao produtor pela diminuição da produção leiteira, tratamento e descarte de animais com infecções crônicas. Elevada incidência de mastite no rebanho também altera a composição e qualidade do leite. Agentes de mastite podem causar infecções ou intoxicações no

  10. Avaliação da sensibilidade da cultura de leite do tanque para isolamento de agentes contagiosos da mastite bovina Evaluation of the sensitivity of bulk tank milk cultures for the isolation of contagious bovine mastitis pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida V. P. Brito

    1998-01-01

    ,7% para os quartos mamários. S. aureus foi isolado de todas três amostras do tanque dos rebanhos A, B e D. Somente a terceira amostra do rebanho C foi positiva para S. aureus. S agalactiae foi recuperado de todas as amostras do rebanho D, duas do rebanho C e de uma do rebanho A. Todas as amostras do tanque dos rebanhos A, B, C e D apresentaram contaminação com coliformes e somente uma das amostras coletadas na plataforma de recepção da indústria foi negativa para coliformes. Leveduras foram isoladas de 16 amostras coletadas na indústria e de todas amostras do tanque dos rebanhos A, B, C e D. Não foram isolados coliformes ou leveduras dos quartos mamários dos animais destes rebanhos, sugerindo que ocorreu contaminação do leite durante ou após a ordenha, provavelmente devido a deficiências nos processos de limpeza e higienização. A análise dos resultados das culturas do leite do tanque mostrou que o exame foi específico para detectar os patógenos contagiosos da mastite. A sensibilidade do teste aumentou quando se examinaram mais de duas amostras consecutivas.Samples of bulk tank milk from 33 herds were collected at the dairy processing plant and cultured, as a means of detecting specific (contagious bovine mastitis pathogens. Somatic cell counts (SCC were made on a Fossomatic 90. Two and three weekly consecutive samples were obtained from 13 and 12 herds, respectively. Only one sample was examined from eight herds. Three daily consecutive samples of bulk milk and individual quarter samples from all lactating cows from four herds (A, B, C and D were also examined. Milk from individual quarters were cultured on blood agar, while tank milk samples were cultured on TKT, Mannitol Salt, MacConkey agars and Sabouraud containing chloramphenicol. Staphylococcus aureus was recovered from 26 of the 33 herds sampled in the dairy processing plant. Nine of these samples also contained Streptococcus agalactiae. Nine herds had SCC above 500,000 ml-1. The remaining 23

  11. Risk factors associated with bulk tank standard plate count, bulk tank coliform count, and the presence of Staphylococcus aureus on organic and conventional dairy farms in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicconi-Hogan, K M; Gamroth, M; Richert, R; Ruegg, P L; Stiglbauer, K E; Schukken, Y H

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the association of bulk tank milk standard plate counts, bulk tank coliform counts (CC), and the presence of Staphylococcus aureus in bulk tank milk with various management and farm characteristics on organic and conventional dairy farms throughout New York, Wisconsin, and Oregon. Data from size-matched organic farms (n=192), conventional nongrazing farms (n=64), and conventional grazing farms (n=36) were collected at a single visit for each farm. Of the 292 farms visited, 290 bulk tank milk samples were collected. Statistical models were created using data from all herds in the study, as well as exclusively for the organic subset of herds. Because of incomplete data, 267 of 290 herds were analyzed for total herd modeling, and 173 of 190 organic herds were analyzed for the organic herd modeling. Overall, more bulk tanks from organic farms had Staph. aureus cultured from them (62% of organic herds, 42% conventional nongrazing herds, and 43% of conventional grazing herds), whereas fewer organic herds had a high CC, defined as ≥50 cfu/mL, than conventional farms in the study. A high standard plate count (×1,000 cfu/mL) was associated with decreased body condition score of adult cows and decreased milk production in both models. Several variables were significant only in the model created using all herds or only in organic herds. The presence of Staph. aureus in the bulk tank milk was associated with fewer people treating mastitis, increased age of housing, and a higher percentage of cows with 3 or fewer teats in both the organic and total herd models. The Staph. aureus total herd model also showed a relationship with fewer first-lactation animals, higher hock scores, and less use of automatic takeoffs at milking. High bulk tank CC was related to feeding a total mixed ration and using natural service in nonlactating heifers in both models. Overall, attentive management and use of outside resources were useful with regard to CC

  12. Genetic Variation among Staphylococcus aureus Strains from Norwegian Bulk Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, H. J.; Mørk, T.; Caugant, D. A.; Kearns, A.; Rørvik, L. M.

    2005-01-01

    Strains of Staphylococcus aureus obtained from bovine (n = 117) and caprine (n = 114) bulk milk were characterized and compared with S. aureus strains from raw-milk products (n = 27), bovine mastitis specimens (n = 9), and human blood cultures (n = 39). All isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). In addition, subsets of isolates were characterized using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), multiplex PCR (m-PCR) for genes encoding nine of the staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE), and the cloverleaf method for penicillin resistance. A variety of genotypes were observed, and greater genetic diversity was found among bovine than caprine bulk milk isolates. Certain genotypes, with a wide geographic distribution, were common to bovine and caprine bulk milk and may represent ruminant-specialized S. aureus. Isolates with genotypes indistinguishable from those of strains from ruminant mastitis were frequently found in bulk milk, and strains with genotypes indistinguishable from those from bulk milk were observed in raw-milk products. This indicates that S. aureus from infected udders may contaminate bulk milk and, subsequently, raw-milk products. Human blood culture isolates were diverse and differed from isolates from other sources. Genotyping by PFGE, MLST, and m-PCR for SE genes largely corresponded. In general, isolates with indistinguishable PFGE banding patterns had the same SE gene profile and isolates with identical SE gene profiles were placed together in PFGE clusters. Phylogenetic analyses agreed with the division of MLST sequence types into clonal complexes, and isolates within the same clonal complex had the same SE gene profile. Furthermore, isolates within PFGE clusters generally belonged to the same clonal complex. PMID:16332822

  13. Repeatability of differential goat bulk milk culture and associations with somatic cell count, total bacterial count, and standard plate count

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koop, G.; Dik, N.; Nielen, M.; Lipman, L.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess how different bacterial groups in bulk milk are related to bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), bulk milk total bacterial count (TBC), and bulk milk standard plate count (SPC) and to measure the repeatability of bulk milk culturing. On 53 Dutch dairy goat farms,

  14. Repeatability of differential goat bulk milk culture and associations with somatic cell count, total bacterial count, and standard plate count

    OpenAIRE

    Koop, G.; Dik, N.; Nielen, M.; Lipman, L.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess how different bacterial groups in bulk milk are related to bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), bulk milk total bacterial count (TBC), and bulk milk standard plate count (SPC) and to measure the repeatability of bulk milk culturing. On 53 Dutch dairy goat farms, 3 bulk milk samples were collected at intervals of 2 wk. The samples were cultured for SPC, coliform count, and staphylococcal count and for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, SCC ...

  15. Validation of the BetaStar® Advanced for Beta-lactams Test Kit for the Screening of Bulk Tank and Tanker Truck Milks for the Presence of Beta-lactam Drug Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denhartigh, Andrew; Reynolds, Lindsay; Palmer, Katherine; Klein, Frank; Rice, Jennifer; Rejman, John J

    2018-05-18

    A validation study was conducted for an immunochromatographic method (BetaStar ® Advanced for Beta-lactams) for the detection of beta-lactam residues in raw, commingled bovine milk. The assay detected amoxicillin, ampicillin, cloxacillin, penicillin, cephapirin, and ceftiofur below the U.S. Food and Drug Administration tolerance levels but above the maximum sensitivity thresholds established by the National Conference on Interstate Milk Shipments. The results of internal and independent laboratory dose-response studies employing spiked samples were in agreement. The test detected all six drugs at the approximate 90/95% sensitivity levels in milk from cows treated with each drug. Selectivity of the assay was 100%, as no false-positive results were obtained in testing 1148 control milk samples. Testing the estimated 90/95% sensitivity level for amoxicillin (8.5 ppb), ampicillin (6.9 ppb), cloxacillin (8.9 ppb), penicillin (4.2 ppb), and cephapirin (17.6 ppb), and at 100 ppb for each antibiotic, resulted in 94-100% positive tests for each of the beta-lactam drugs. The results of ruggedness experiments established the operating parameter tolerances for the assay. Cross-reactivity testing established that the assay detects other certain beta-lactam drugs, but it does not cross-react with any of 30 drugs belonging to seven different drug classes. Abnormally high bacterial or somatic cell counts in raw milk produced no assay interference.

  16. Molecular detection of Coxiella burnetii in goat bulk milk samples in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence rate of C. burnetii in bulk milk samples from dairy goat herds in Fars, Ghom, Kerman, Khuzestan and Yazd provinces, Iran. In this study, 296 bulk milk samples from 89 dairy goat ...

  17. The assessment of iodine-in-milk levels in bulk milk supplies following a reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, R.E.

    1961-10-01

    The suitability of some readily available, portable, beta-gamma measuring instruments has been assessed for field use in monitoring bulk supplies of milk, contained in standard 10 gallon cans, contaminated with Iodine-131 in the range 400 μμc/litre to 325 mμc/litre. The Jefferson probe scintillation detector, employing a 1 1/2 inch diameter by 1 inch thick sodium iodide crystal, used in conjunction with a 1320c rate-meter was shown to be the most satisfactory. Air hazard and decontamination problems were also evaluated. (author)

  18. Association between product quality control and process quality control of bulk milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis, A.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Assessment of dairy-milk quality is based on product quality control (testing bulk-milk samples) and process quality control (auditing dairy farms). It is unknown whether process control improves product quality. To quantify possible association between product control and process control a

  19. Process audits versus product quality monitoring of bulk milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis, A.G.J.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to investigate whether on-line somatic cell count (SCC) assessment, when combined with electrical conductivity (EC), should be implemented at the udder quarter or at the cow level. Data were collected from 3 farms with automatic milking systems, resulting in 3,191 quarter milkings used

  20. Contamination levels of aflatoxin M1 in bulk raw milk of Chaloos and Ramsar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R Barami

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 appears in milk as a direct result of the ingestion of feed contaminated with aflatoxin B1 by cattle. This study was conducted to investigate the contamination rate of raw milk whit aflatoxin M1 in Chaloos and Ramsar raw milk collection centers. Two hundred bulk raw milk samples were collected during winter (January and February and summer (June and July seasons. The milk samples were analyzed by ELISA method for the presence of AFM1. During the winter, AFM1 was detected in 100% and 59/79% of the bulk raw milk samples in Ramsar and Chaloos, respectively; however, during summer 83/52% and 50/1 of the samples was found as positive in Ramsar and Chaloos, respectively. Furthermore, 45% of Ramsar and 30% of Chaloos bulk milk samples showed higher contamination level of AFM1 than maximum tolerance limit (50 ng/l accepted by National Standard as well as European Union. Although, the difference between the contamination rate in samples obtained during summer and winter seasons was not statistically significantly, (p

  1. Optimizing bulk milk dioxin monitoring based on costs and effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lascano Alcoser, V.; Velthuis, A.G.J.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Dioxins are environmental pollutants, potentially present in milk products, which have negative consequences for human health and for the firms and farms involved in the dairy chain. Dioxin monitoring in feed and food has been implemented to detect their presence and estimate their levels in food

  2. Fermentation capability of bulk milk under usual conditions

    OpenAIRE

    BOUŠKOVÁ, Lucie

    2012-01-01

    The evaluation of changes during fermentation of heat-modified milk in connection with different fermentation temperatures was main goal of this thesis. Titrable acidity, active acidity and growth dynamics of bacteria strains - Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus were observed during fermentation process.

  3. A Heuristic and Hybrid Method for the Tank Allocation Problem in Maritime Bulk Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Charlotte; Larsen, Jesper; Lusby, Richard Martin

    Many bulk ships have multiple tanks and can thereby carry multiple inhomogeneous products at a time. A major challenge when operating such ships is how to best allocate cargoes to available tanks while taking tank capacity, safety restrictions, ship stability and strength as well as other...... ship route. We have developed a randomised heuristic for eciently nding feasible allocations and computational results show that it can solve 99% of the considered instances within 0.5 seconds and all of them if allowed longer time. The heuristic is designed to work as an ecient subproblem solver...... and in such a setting with running times below e.g. 5 seconds, the heuristic clearly outperforms an earlier method by consistently solving more instances and eectively cutting 84% of the average running time. Furthermore, we have combined our heuristic with a modied version of the earlier method to derive a hybrid...

  4. A heuristic and hybrid method for the tank allocation problem in maritime bulk shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Charlotte; Larsen, Jesper; Lusby, Richard Martin

    2016-01-01

    In bulk shipping, ships often have multiple tanks and carry multiple inhomogeneous products at a time. When operating such ships it is therefore a major challenge to decide how to best allocate cargoes to available tanks while taking into account tank capacity, safety restrictions, ship stability...... finding a feasible solution. We have developed a heuristic that can efficiently find feasible cargo allocations. Computational results show that it can solve 99 % of the considered instances within 0.4 s and all of them if allowed longer time. We have also modified an optimality based method from...... the literature. The heuristic is much faster than this modified method on the vast majority of considered instances. However, the heuristic struggles on two instances which are relatively quickly solved by the modified optimality based method. These two methods therefore complement each other nicely and so, we...

  5. A Heuristic and Hybrid Method for the Tank Allocation Problem in Maritime Bulk Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Charlotte; Larsen, Jesper; Lusby, Richard Martin

    In bulk shipping, ships often have multiple tanks and carry multiple inhomogeneous products at a time. When operating such ships it is therefore a major challenge to decide how to best allocate cargoes to available tanks while taking into account tank capacity, safety restrictions, ship stability...... finding a feasible solution. We have developed a heuristic that can efficiently find feasible cargo allocations. Computational results show that it can solve 99% of the considered instances within 0.4 seconds and all of them if allowed longer time. We have also modified an optimality based method from...... the literature. The heuristic is much faster than this modified method on the vast majority of considered instances. However, the heuristic struggles on two instances which are relatively quickly solved by the modified optimality based method. These two methods therefore complement each other nicely and so, we...

  6. Minimizing the level of Bacillus cereus spores in farm tank milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.M.M.; Giffel, M.C.T.; Driehuis, F.; Jong, de P.; Lankveld, J.M.G.

    2007-01-01

    In a year-long survey on 24 Dutch farms, Bacillus cereus spore concentrations were measured in farm tank milk (FTM), feces, bedding material, mixed grass and corn silage, and soil from the pasture. The aim of this study was to determine, in practice, factors affecting the concentration of B. cereus

  7. Improving farm management by modeling the contamination of farm tank milk with butyric acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.M.M.; Driehuis, F.; Giffel, te M.C.; Jong, de P.; Lankveld, J.M.G.

    2006-01-01

    Control of contamination of farm tank milk (FTM) with the spore-forming butyric acid bacteria (BAB) is important to prevent the late-blowing defect in semi-hard cheeses. The risk of late blowing can be decreased via control of the contamination level of FTM with BAB. A modeling approach was applied

  8. Effects of feeding untreated, pasteurized and acidified waste milk and bunk tank milk on the performance, serum metabolic profiles, immunity, and intestinal development in Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yang; Wang, Yajing; Deng, Youfei; Cao, Zhijun; Li, Shengli; Wang, Jiufeng

    2017-01-01

    The present experiment was performed to assess the effects of different sources of milk on the growth performance, serum metabolism, immunity, and intestinal development of calves. Eighty-four Holstein male neonatal calves were assigned to one of the following four treatment groups: those that received bunk tank milk (BTM), untreated waste milk (UWM), pasteurized waste milk (PWM), and acidified waste milk (AWM) for 21 d. Calves in the BTM and AWM groups consumed more starter ( P  feeding on BTM had lower ( P  waste milk. The efficiency of feeding pasteurized and acidified waste milk are comparable, and the acidification of waste milk is an acceptable labor-saving and diarrhea-preventing feed for young calves.

  9. Investigation of some additive residues in bulk raw milk collected from Pakdasht area in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Moosavi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Milk is one of the most important sources of human nutrition and because of high nutrient content; it is a very suitable medium for microbial growth and spoilage. Sometimes farmers cheat and add some additives to milk in order to cover the spoilage or other defects in milk. In this study 120 samples of bulk raw milk (10 samples each month were collected from dairy farms of Pakdasht under sterile condition and send to veterinary faculty of GarmsarUniversity. The following tests were done on each sample: Anti-microbial residues, residues milk acidity neutralizer, evaluation of sugar, formalin, Hydrogen peroxide, Salicylic acid and salt presence. Results were analyzed with Spss software and the results of the first six months of the year were compared statistically with the results of the second six months of the year. The mean of antimicrobial agents, milk acid neutralizer, formalin, hydrogen peroxide and salicylic acid showed no significant difference. But sugar in first semester were more than second semester (p

  10. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species in bulk milk: Prevalence, distribution, and associated subgroup- and species-specific risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Visscher, A; Piepers, S; Haesebrouck, F; Supré, K; De Vliegher, S

    2017-01-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) have become the main pathogens causing bovine mastitis in recent years. A huge variation in species distribution among herds has been observed in several studies, emphasizing the need to identify subgroup- and species-specific herd-level factors to improve our understanding of the differences in ecological and epidemiological nature between species. The use of bulk milk samples enables the inclusion of a large(r) number of herds needed to identify herd-level risk factors and increases the likelihood of recovering enough isolates per species needed for conducting subgroup- and, eventually, species-specific analyses at the same time. This study aimed to describe the prevalence and distribution of CNS species in bulk milk samples and to identify associated subgroup- and species-specific herd-level factors. Ninety percent of all bulk milk samples yielded CNS. Staphylococcus equorum was the predominant species, followed by Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. A seasonal effect was observed for several CNS species. Bulk milk samples from herds with a loose-pack or a tiestall housing system were more likely to yield CNS species compared with herds with a freestall barn, except for S. epidermidis, Staphylococcus simulans, and Staphylococcus cohnii. In September, herds in which udders were clipped had lower odds of yielding Staphylococcus chromogenes, S. simulans, and Staphylococcus xylosus, the CNS species assumed to be most relevant for udder health, in their bulk milk than herds in which udder clipping was not practiced. Bulk milk of herds participating in a monthly veterinary udder health-monitoring program was more likely to yield these 3 CNS species. Herds always receiving their milk quality premium or predisinfecting teats before attachment of the milking cluster had lower odds of having S. equorum in their bulk milk. Herds not using a single dry cotton or paper towel for each cow during premilking udder

  11. Bulk tank somatic cell counts analyzed by statistical process control tools to identify and monitor subclinical mastitis incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, J M; Hawkins, D M; Kinsel, M L; Reneau, J K

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between monthly Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) subclinical mastitis and new infection rate estimates and daily bulk tank somatic cell count (SCC) summarized by statistical process control tools. Dairy Herd Improvement Association test-day subclinical mastitis and new infection rate estimates along with daily or every other day bulk tank SCC data were collected for 12 mo of 2003 from 275 Upper Midwest dairy herds. Herds were divided into 5 herd production categories. A linear score [LNS = ln(BTSCC/100,000)/0.693147 + 3] was calculated for each individual bulk tank SCC. For both the raw SCC and the transformed data, the mean and sigma were calculated using the statistical quality control individual measurement and moving range chart procedure of Statistical Analysis System. One hundred eighty-three herds of the 275 herds from the study data set were then randomly selected and the raw (method 1) and transformed (method 2) bulk tank SCC mean and sigma were used to develop models for predicting subclinical mastitis and new infection rate estimates. Herd production category was also included in all models as 5 dummy variables. Models were validated by calculating estimates of subclinical mastitis and new infection rates for the remaining 92 herds and plotting them against observed values of each of the dependents. Only herd production category and bulk tank SCC mean were significant and remained in the final models. High R2 values (0.83 and 0.81 for methods 1 and 2, respectively) indicated a strong correlation between the bulk tank SCC and herd's subclinical mastitis prevalence. The standard errors of the estimate were 4.02 and 4.28% for methods 1 and 2, respectively, and decreased with increasing herd production. As a case study, Shewhart Individual Measurement Charts were plotted from the bulk tank SCC to identify shifts in mastitis incidence. Four of 5 charts examined signaled a change in bulk tank SCC before

  12. Correlation between precipitation and geographical location of the δ2H values of the fatty acids in milk and bulk milk powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehtesham, E.; Baisden, W. T.; Keller, E. D.; Hayman, A. R.; Van Hale, R.; Frew, R. D.

    2013-06-01

    Hydrogen isotope ratios (δ2H) have become a tool for food traceability and authentication of agricultural products. The principle is that the isotopic composition of the produce is influenced by environmental and biological factors and hence exhibits a spatial differentiation of δ2H. This study investigates the variation in δ2H values of New Zealand milk, both in the bulk powder and individual fatty acids extracted from milk samples from dairy factories across New Zealand. Multivariate statistical analyses were used to test for relationships between δ2H of bulk milk powder, milk fatty acid and geographical location. Milk powder samples from different regions of New Zealand were found to exhibit patterns in isotopic composition similar to the corresponding regional precipitation associated with their origin. A model of δ2H in precipitation was developed based on measurements between 2007 and 2010 at 51 stations across New Zealand (Frew and Van Hale, 2011). The model uses multiple linear regressions to predict daily δ2H from 2 geographic and 5 rain-weighted climate variables from the 5 × 5 km New Zealand Virtual Climate Station Network (VCSN). To approximate collection radius for a drying facility the modelled values were aggregated within a 50 km radius of each dairy factory and compared to observed δ2H values of precipitation and bulk milk powder. Daily δ2H predictions for the period from August to December for the area surrounding the sample collection sites were highly correlated with the δ2H values of bulk milk powder. Therefore the δ2H value of milk fatty acids demonstrates promise as a tool for determining the provenance of milk powders and products where milk powder is an ingredient. Separation of milk powder origin to geographic sub-regions within New Zealand was achieved. Hydrogen isotope measurements could be used to complement traditional tracking systems in verifying point of origin.

  13. Short communication: Prevalence of methicillin resistance in coagulase-negative staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bulk milk on organic and conventional dairy farms in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicconi-Hogan, K M; Belomestnykh, N; Gamroth, M; Ruegg, P L; Tikofsky, L; Schukken, Y H

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. in bulk tank milk samples from 288 organic and conventional dairy farms located in New York, Wisconsin, and Oregon from March 2009 to May 2011. Due to recent publications reporting the presence mecC (a mecA homolog not detected by traditional mecA-based PCR methods), a combination of genotypic and phenotypic approaches was used to enhance the recovery of methicillin-resistant organisms from bulk tank milk. In total, 13 isolates were identified as methicillin resistant: Staph. aureus (n=1), Staphylococcus sciuri (n=5), Staphylococcus chromogenes (n=2), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (n=3), Staphylococcus agnetis (n=1), and Macrococcus caseolyticus (n=1). The single methicillin-resistant Staph. aureus isolate was identified from an organic farm in New York, for an observed 0.3% prevalence at the farm level. The methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci prevalence was 2% in the organic population and 5% in the conventional population. We did not identify mecC in any of the isolates from our population. Of interest was the relatively high number of methicillin-resistant Staph. sciuri recovered, as the number of isolates from our study was considerably higher than those recovered from other recent studies that also assessed milk samples. Our research suggests that the presence of a potential methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus reservoir in milk, and likely the dairy farm population in the United States, is independent of the organic or conventional production system. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Farm business and operator variables associated with bulk tank somatic cell count from dairy herds in the southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLong, Karen L; Lambert, Dayton M; Schexnayder, Susan; Krawczel, Peter; Fly, Mark; Garkovich, Lorraine; Oliver, Steve

    2017-11-01

    Mastitis is a worldwide problem in dairy cows and results in reduced milk production, the culling of cows, and other economic losses. Bulk tank somatic cell count (BTSCC) over 200,000 cells/mL often indicates underlying subclinical mastitis in dairy herds. Several preventative measures that can be implemented to help improve the incidence of mastitis exist, but surveys find these practices not fully adopted by producers. The goal of this research was to analyze the farm and operator characteristics associated with BTSCC in dairy herds by analyzing a survey of dairy producers in the southeastern United States. We examined this region because it has experienced a decline in the number of dairy farms, dairy cows, and milk production over the past 2 decades. The southeast region is also associated with higher BTSCC levels than the national average. Dairy farms in Georgia, Mississippi, Kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia were surveyed. Producers were asked questions about the BTSCC at which they take action to address BTSCC, the information sources they use to learn about and manage BTSCC, farm structure and management characteristics, and attitudinal variables associated with profitability, managerial control, and planning horizon. Least squares regression was used to determine how these factors were associated with BTSCC levels across the 7-state region. Concern over mastitis, financial consequences of mastitis, and increased previous-year BTSCC were associated with higher current BTSCC levels. Obtaining information about mastitis from veterinarians and extension personnel, taking action against mastitis at a BTSCC less than 300,000 cells/mL, and perceived ability to control processes and mastitis incidence were associated with reduced BTSCC. We found average BTSCC was lower in North Carolina and Virginia. These results suggest that proactive producers (i.e., those that perceive they can control BTSCC and seek information from reliable

  15. Somatic Cells in Bulk Samples and Purchase Prices of Cow Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jindřich Kvapilík

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There were calculated the somatic cell count (SCC 209 (36 – 468 103ml–1, the total count of microorganisms (TCM 25 103ml–1 (from 5 to 377, fat 3.84 % (from 3.23 to 4.46 and protein content 3.39 % (from 3.04 to 3.75 and milk freezing point (MFP –0.525 °C (from –0.534 to –0.395 of the 522 monthly bulk milk samples from 11 experimental stables during the period from 2012 to 2015. Residues of inhibitory substances were not detected in any sample. Milk sale reached 7,999 liters (l with fluctuating between 6,150 and 10,532 l per cow. This can be deduced from the regression coefficients that due to increase in the SCC by 100 103ml–1 the TCM increased by 2.9 to 4.2 103ml–1, the fat content decreased by 0.09 to 0.13 % and protein about 0.01 to 0.05 %. Influence of SCC, TCM and the fat and protein content calculated from monthly samples for individual stables can be estimated at –0.12 CZC, fluctuations between the stables at +0.46 to –0.84 CZC per l of milk. The increase in milk price by 0.17 CZC in the range of –0.92 to +0.92 CZC per l of milk corresponds to averages of indicators calculated from 522 samples.

  16. Total bacterial count and somatic cell count in refrigerated raw milk stored in communal tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmar da Costa Alves

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The current industry demand for dairy products with extended shelf life has resulted in new challenges for milk quality maintenance. The processing of milk with high bacterial counts compromises the quality and performance of industrial products. The study aimed to evaluate the total bacteria counts (TBC and somatic cell count (SCC in 768 samples of refrigerated raw milk, from 32 communal tanks. Samples were collected in the first quarter of 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 and analyzed by the Laboratory of Milk Quality - LQL. Results showed that 62.5%, 37.5%, 15.6% and 27.1% of the means for TBC in 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively, were above the values established by legislation. However, we observed a significant reduction in the levels of total bacterial count (TBC in the studied periods. For somatic cell count, 100% of the means indicated values below 600.000 cells/mL, complying with the actual Brazilian legislation. The values found for the somatic cell count suggests the adoption of effective measures for the sanitary control of the herd. However, the results must be considered with caution as it highlights the need for quality improvements of the raw material until it achieves reliable results effectively.

  17. Use of DNA from milk tank for diagnosis and typing of bovine leukaemia virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felmer, R.; Zuniga, J.; Recabal, M.; Floody, H.

    2005-01-01

    With the aim of achieving a better understanding of the epidemiology of Bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) infection, we investigated the suitability of milk tank samples for effecting molecular epidemiology studies of BLV in a southern area of Chile. As part of a serological survey for BLV antibodies carried out in 280 herds, we selected 33 strong positive samples, from which DNA was isolated to perform a BLV-specific nested PCR. Using RFLP analysis, all 33 PCR products could be assigned to the known Australian or the Belgium subgroups. A phylogenetic tree resulting from the comparison of these sequences demonstrates the relations and differences among and within the subgroups. (author)

  18. Surveillance of Bulk Raw and Commercially Pasteurized Cows' Milk from Approved Irish Liquid-Milk Pasteurization Plants To Determine the Incidence of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    O'Reilly, Ciara E.; O'Connor, Lisa; Anderson, Wayne; Harvey, Peter; Grant, Irene R.; Donaghy, John; Rowe, Michael; O'Mahony, Pat

    2004-01-01

    Over the 13-month period from October 2000 to November 2001 (inclusive), the Food Safety Authority of Ireland (FSAI) carried out surveillance of Irish bulk raw (n = 389) and commercially pasteurized (n = 357) liquid-milk supplies to determine the incidence of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. The pasteurization time-temperature conditions were recorded for all pasteurized samples. Overall, 56% of whole-milk pasteurized samples had been heat treated at or above a time-temperature combination of ...

  19. 40 CFR 63.11087 - What requirements must I meet for gasoline storage tanks if my facility is a bulk gasoline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline storage tanks if my facility is a bulk gasoline terminal, pipeline breakout station, or pipeline... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline... § 63.11087 What requirements must I meet for gasoline storage tanks if my facility is a bulk gasoline...

  20. Dairy Herd Mastitis Program in Argentina: Farm Clusters and Effects on Bulk Milk Somatic Cell Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Vissio1*, SA Dieser2, CG Raspanti2, JA Giraudo1, CI Bogni2, LM Odierno2 and AJ Larriestra1

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research has been conducted to characterize dairy farm clusters according to mastitis control program practiced among small and medium dairy producer from Argentina, and also to evaluate the effect of such farm cluster patterns on bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC. Two samples of 51 (cross-sectional and 38 (longitudinal herds were selected to identify farm clusters and study the influence of management on monthly BMSCC, respectively. The cross-sectional sample involved the milking routine and facilities assessment of each herd visited. Hierarchical cluster analysis was used to find the most discriminating farm attributes in the cross sectional sample. Afterward, the herd cluster typologies were identified in the longitudinal sample. Herd monthly BMSCC average was evaluated during 12 months fitting a linear mixed model. Two clusters were identified, the farms in the Cluster I applied a comprehensive mastitis program in opposite to Cluster II. Post-dipping, dry cow therapy and milking machine test were routinely applied in Cluster I. In the longitudinal study, 14 out of 38 dairy herds were labeled as Cluster I and the rest were assigned to Cluster II. Significant difference in BMSCC was found between cluster I and II (60,000 cells/mL. The present study showed the relevance and potential impact of promoting mastitis control practices among small and medium sized dairy producers in Argentina.

  1. Short communication: Repeatability of differential goat bulk milk culture and associations with somatic cell count, total bacterial count, and standard plate count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koop, G; Dik, N; Nielen, M; Lipman, L J A

    2010-06-01

    The aims of this study were to assess how different bacterial groups in bulk milk are related to bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), bulk milk total bacterial count (TBC), and bulk milk standard plate count (SPC) and to measure the repeatability of bulk milk culturing. On 53 Dutch dairy goat farms, 3 bulk milk samples were collected at intervals of 2 wk. The samples were cultured for SPC, coliform count, and staphylococcal count and for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, SCC (Fossomatic 5000, Foss, Hillerød, Denmark) and TBC (BactoScan FC 150, Foss) were measured. Staphylococcal count was correlated to SCC (r=0.40), TBC (r=0.51), and SPC (r=0.53). Coliform count was correlated to TBC (r=0.33), but not to any of the other variables. Staphylococcus aureus did not correlate to SCC. The contribution of the staphylococcal count to the SPC was 31%, whereas the coliform count comprised only 1% of the SPC. The agreement of the repeated measurements was low. This study indicates that staphylococci in goat bulk milk are related to SCC and make a significant contribution to SPC. Because of the high variation in bacterial counts, repeated sampling is necessary to draw valid conclusions from bulk milk culturing. 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The prevalence of Neospora caninum antibodies in bulk milk of dairy herds in the Czech Republic: a case report

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hůrková, L.; Halova, D.; Modrý, David

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 12 (2005), s. 549-552 ISSN 0375-8427 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : cattle * iscom ELISA * bulk milk ELISA Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.621, year: 2005

  3. STATUS and DIRECTION OF THE BULK VITRIFICATION PROGRAM FOR THE SUPPLEMENTAL TREATMENT OF LOW ACTIVITY TANK WASTE AT HANFORD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RAYMOND, R.E.

    2005-01-01

    The DOE Office of River Protection (ORP) is managing a program at the Hanford site that will retrieve and treat more than 200 million liters (53 million gal.) of radioactive waste stored in underground storage tanks. The waste was generated over the past 50 years as part of the nation's defense programs. The project baseline calls for the waste to be retrieved from the tanks and partitioned to separate the highly radioactive constituents from the large volumes of chemical waste. These highly radioactive components will be vitrified into glass logs in the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP), temporarily stored on the Hanford Site, and ultimately disposed of as high-level waste in the offsite national repository. The less radioactive chemical waste, referred to as low-activity waste (LAW), is also planned to be vitrified by the WTP, and then disposed of in approved onsite trenches. However, additional treatment capacity is required in order to complete the pretreatment and immobilization of the tank waste by 2028, which represents a Tri-Party Agreement milestone. To help ensure that the treatment milestones will be met, the Supplemental Treatment Program was undertaken. The program, managed by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., involves several sub-projects each intended to supplement part of the treatment of waste being designed into the WTP. This includes the testing, evaluation, design, and deployment of supplemental LAW treatment and immobilization technologies, retrieval and treatment of mixed TRU waste stored in the Hanford Tanks, and supplemental pre-treatment. Applying one or more supplemental treatment technologies to the LAW has several advantages, including providing additional processing capacity, reducing the planned loading on the WTP, and reducing the need for double-shell tank space for interim storage of LAW. In fiscal year 2003, three potential supplemental treatment technologies were evaluated including grout, steam reforming and bulk vitrification using AMEC

  4. Surveillance of bulk raw and commercially pasteurized cows' milk from approved Irish liquid-milk pasteurization plants to determine the incidence of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Ciara E; O'Connor, Lisa; Anderson, Wayne; Harvey, Peter; Grant, Irene R; Donaghy, John; Rowe, Michael; O'Mahony, Pat

    2004-09-01

    Over the 13-month period from October 2000 to November 2001 (inclusive), the Food Safety Authority of Ireland (FSAI) carried out surveillance of Irish bulk raw (n = 389) and commercially pasteurized (n = 357) liquid-milk supplies to determine the incidence of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. The pasteurization time-temperature conditions were recorded for all pasteurized samples. Overall, 56% of whole-milk pasteurized samples had been heat treated at or above a time-temperature combination of 75 degrees C for 25 s. All analyses were undertaken at the Department of Food Science (Food Microbiology) laboratory at Queen's University Belfast. Each milk sample was subjected to two tests for M. paratuberculosis: immunomagnetic separation-PCR (IMS-PCR; to detect the presence of M. paratuberculosis cells, live or dead) and chemical decontamination and culture (to confirm the presence of viable M. paratuberculosis). Overall, M. paratuberculosis DNA was detected by IMS-PCR in 50 (12.9%; 95% confidence interval, 9.9 to 16.5%) raw-milk samples and 35 (9.8%; 95% confidence interval, 7.1 to 13.3%) pasteurized-milk samples. Confirmed M. paratuberculosis was cultured from one raw-milk sample and no pasteurized-milk samples. It is concluded that M. paratuberculosis DNA is occasionally present at low levels in both raw and commercially pasteurized cows' milk. However, since no viable M. paratuberculosis was isolated from commercially pasteurized cows' milk on retail sale in the Republic of Ireland, current pasteurization procedures are considered to be effective.

  5. Occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus in raw milk produced in dairy farms in São Paulo state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Fagundes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus in milk produced in 37 farms located in the regions of Ribeirão Preto and São Carlos, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Two-hundred and eight samples of milk from individual cows showing subclinical mastitis, and 37 samples of bulk tank milk were analyzed. S. aureus strains were detected in 18 (7.3% milk samples: 14 (6.7% from samples of individual cows, and 4 (10.8% from bulk tank milk. Two individual milk samples (14.3% and two bulk milk samples contained enterotoxigenic S. aureus. PFGE analysis revealed the genetic heterogeneity of the strains isolated from raw milk, which presented to 13 S. aureus patterns. Results confirmed the potential transmission of staphylococcal food poisoning to consumers via milk of cows affected by subclinical mastitis, mainly when raw milk is ingested.

  6. Testing of bulk tank milk for Salmonella Dublin infection in Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedderkopp, A.; Stroger, U.; Bitsch, V.

    2001-01-01

    -negative to test-positive in each area was correlated with the incidence of S. Dublin outbreaks in the corresponding county (r = 0.48, n = 19; P third test rounds was not constant (Pr \\t\\ = 0.0001). The study demonstrated that the probability...... of being test-negative in the third test round was 0.926 for a herd with 2 previous test-negative results. It was concluded that the investigated ELISA method was in general accordance with the cases of clinical S. Dublin infection recorded. and that the method has a potential for national screening...

  7. A flow cytometric technique for quantification and differentiation of bacteria in bulk tank milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, C.; Mathiasen, T.; Jespersen, Lene

    2004-01-01

    were defined: region 1 includes bacteria mainly associated with poor hygiene, region 2 includes psychrotrophic hygiene bacteria and region 3 includes bacteria mainly related to mastitis. The ability of the flow cytometric technique to predict the main cause of elevated bacterial counts on routine...

  8. TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT OF BULK VITRIFICATION PROCESS/ PRODUCT FOR TANK WASTE TREATMENT AT THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HANFORD SITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCHAUS, P.S.

    2006-01-01

    At the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) is being constructed to immobilize both high-level waste (IUW) for disposal in a national repository and low-activity waste (LAW) for onsite, near-surface disposal. The schedule-controlling step for the WTP Project is vitrification of the large volume of LAW, current capacity of the WTP (as planned) would require 50 years to treat the Hanford tank waste, if the entire LAW volume were to be processed through the WTP. To reduce the time and cost for treatment of Hanford Tank Waste, and as required by the Tank Waste Remediation System Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision and the Hanford Federal Facility Consent Agreement (Tn-Party Agreement), DOE plans to supplement the LAW treatment capacity of the WTP. Since 2002, DOE, in cooperation with the Environmental Protection Agency and State of Washington Department of Ecology has been evaluating technologies that could provide safe and effective supplemental treatment of LAW. Current efforts at Hanford are intended to provide additional information to aid a joint agency decision on which technology will be used to supplement the WTP. A Research, Development and Demonstration permit has been issued by the State of Washington to build and (for a limited time) operate a Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) facility to provide information for the decision on a supplemental treatment technology for up to 50% of the LAW. In the Bulk Vitrification (BV) process, LAW, soil, and glass-forming chemicals are mixed, dried, and placed in a refractory-lined box, Electric current, supplied through two graphite electrodes in the box, melts the waste feed, producing a durable glass waste-form. Although recent modifications to the process have resulted in significant improvements, there are continuing technical concerns

  9. TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT OF BULK VITRIFICATION PROCESS & PRODUCT FOR TANK WASTE TREATMENT AT THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SCHAUS, P.S.

    2006-07-21

    At the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) is being constructed to immobilize both high-level waste (IUW) for disposal in a national repository and low-activity waste (LAW) for onsite, near-surface disposal. The schedule-controlling step for the WTP Project is vitrification of the large volume of LAW, current capacity of the WTP (as planned) would require 50 years to treat the Hanford tank waste, if the entire LAW volume were to be processed through the WTP. To reduce the time and cost for treatment of Hanford Tank Waste, and as required by the Tank Waste Remediation System Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision and the Hanford Federal Facility Consent Agreement (Tn-Party Agreement), DOE plans to supplement the LAW treatment capacity of the WTP. Since 2002, DOE, in cooperation with the Environmental Protection Agency and State of Washington Department of Ecology has been evaluating technologies that could provide safe and effective supplemental treatment of LAW. Current efforts at Hanford are intended to provide additional information to aid a joint agency decision on which technology will be used to supplement the WTP. A Research, Development and Demonstration permit has been issued by the State of Washington to build and (for a limited time) operate a Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) facility to provide information for the decision on a supplemental treatment technology for up to 50% of the LAW. In the Bulk Vitrification (BV) process, LAW, soil, and glass-forming chemicals are mixed, dried, and placed in a refractory-lined box, Electric current, supplied through two graphite electrodes in the box, melts the waste feed, producing a durable glass waste-form. Although recent modifications to the process have resulted in significant improvements, there are continuing technical concerns.

  10. Seasonal and Milking-to-Milking Variations in Cow Milk Fat, Protein and Somatic Cell Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Raluca PAVEL

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The first objective of this study was to examine milking-to-milking variations in milk fat, protein and SCC (somatic cell count. The second objective of this study was to examine variations of milk components (fat, protein and SCC over a period of six months (April-September 2010 at Agricultural Research Development Station Simnic. A total of 128 milk samples (64 morning milking and 64 evening milking ones from milk bulk tank commingled from 904 Holstein cows, were collected and analyzed for fat, protein and SCC. Data suggested that milking period effects milk fat, making the fat percentage lower in the morning compared with the evening milking period, effect which was not similar in protein content. Seasonal differences in milk fat and protein were also investigated. The season of year had influenced SCC, fat and protein: SCC increased, while fat and protein decreased. The period of the day when milking took place and the season influenced fat, protein and SCC, but the composition of milk, as well as its hygienic quality, fell within the aplicabile standards for raw milk.

  11. Seasonal and Milking-to-Milking Variations in Cow Milk Fat, Protein and Somatic Cell Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Raluca PAVEL

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The first objective of this study was to examine milking-to-milking variations in milk fat, protein and SCC (somatic cell count. The second objective of this study was to examine variations of milk components (fat, protein and SCC over a period of six months (April-September 2010 at Agricultural Research Development Station Simnic. A total of 128 milk samples (64 morning milking and 64 evening milking ones from milk bulk tank commingled from 90�4 Holstein cows, were collected and analyzed for fat, protein and SCC. Data suggested that milking period effects milk fat, making the fat percentage lower in the morning compared with the evening milking period, effect which was not similar in protein content. Seasonal differences in milk fat and protein were also investigated. The season of year had influenced SCC, fat and protein: SCC increased, while fat and protein decreased. The period of the day when milking took place and the season influenced fat, protein and SCC, but the composition of milk, as well as its hygienic quality, fell within the aplicabile standards for raw milk.

  12. DESIGN OF THE DEMOSNTRATION BULK VITRIFICATION SYSTEM FOR THE SUPPLEMENTAL TREATMENT OF LOW ACTIVITY TANK WASTE AT HANFORD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VAN BEEK JE

    2008-01-01

    In June 2004, the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) was initiated with the intent to design, construct, and operate a full-scale bulk vitrification pilot-plant to treat low-activity tank waste from Hanford Tank 241-S-109. The DBVS facility uses In-Container Vitrification(trademark) (ICV(trademark)) at the core of the treatment process. The basic process steps combine liquid low-activity waste (LAW) and glassformers; dry the mixture; and then vitrify the mixture in a batch feed-while-melt process in a refractory lined steel container. Off-gases are processed through a state-of-the-art air pollution control system including sintered-metal filtration, thermal oxidation, acid gas scrubbing, and high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) and high-efficiency gas adsorber (HEGA) filtration. Testing has focused on development and validation of the waste dryer, ICV, and sintered-metal filters (SMFs) equipment, operations enhancements, and glass formulation. With a parallel testing and design process, testing has allowed improvements to the DBVS equipment configuration and operating methodology, since its original inception. Design improvements include optimization of refractory panels in the ICV, simplifying glassformer addition equipment, increasing the number of waste feed chutes to the ICV, and adding capability for remote clean-out of piping, In addition, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has provided an independent review of the entire DBVS process. While the review did not find any fatal flaws, some technical issues were identified that required a re-evaluation of the DBVS design and subsequent changes to the design. A 100 percent design package for the pilot plant will be completed and submitted to DOE for review in early 2008 that incorporates process improvements substantiated through testing and reviews. This paper provides a description of the bulk vitrification process and a discussion of major equipment design changes that have occurred based on full

  13. Influence of raw milk quality on fluid milk shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbano, D M; Ma, Y; Santos, M V

    2006-03-01

    Pasteurized fluid milk shelf life is influenced by raw milk quality. The microbial count and somatic cell count (SCC) determine the load of heat-resistant enzymes in milk. Generally, high levels of psychrotrophic bacteria in raw milk are required to contribute sufficient quantities of heat-stable proteases and lipases to cause breakdown of protein and fat after pasteurization. Sanitation, refrigeration, and the addition of CO2 to milk are used to control both total and psychrotrophic bacteria count. It is not uncommon for total bacterial counts of raw milk to be milk processors have not focused much attention on milk SCC. Increased SCC is correlated with increased amounts of heat-stable protease (plasmin) and lipase (lipoprotein lipase) in milk. When starting with raw milk that has a low bacterial count, and in the absence of microbial growth in pasteurized milk, enzymes associated with high SCC will cause protein and fat degradation during refrigerated storage, and produce off-flavors. As the ability to kill, remove, or control microbial growth in pasteurized refrigerated milk continues to improve, the original milk SCC will be the factor limiting the time of refrigerated storage before development of an off-flavor in milk. Most healthy cows in a dairy herd have a milk SCC 200,000 cell/mL are usually due to the contribution of high SCC milk from a small number of cows in the herd. Technology to identify these cows and keep their milk out of the bulk tank could substantially increase the value of the remaining milk for use in fluid milk processing. To achieve a 60- to 90-d shelf life of refrigerated fluid milk, fluid processors and dairy farmers need to work together to structure economic incentives that allow farmers to produce milk with the SCC needed for extended refrigerated shelf life.

  14. Prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, and molecular characterization of Campylobacter spp. in bulk tank milk and milk filters from US dairies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter spp. are frequently isolated from dairy cows as commensal organisms. While sporadic Campylobacter infections in humans in the US are generally attributed to poultry, outbreaks (defined as 2 or more affected people) are commonly associated with dairy products, particularly nonpasteurize...

  15. Prevalence and molecular characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin resistant strains, isolated from bulk can milk and raw milk products in pastoral communities of South-West Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiimwe, Benon B; Baldan, Rossella; Trovato, Alberto; Cirillo, Daniela M

    2017-06-13

    Staphylococcus aureus strains are now regarded as zoonotic agents. In pastoral settings where human-animal interaction is intimate, multi-drug resistant microorganisms have become an emerging zoonotic issue of public health concern. The study of S. aureus prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and clonal lineages in humans, animals and food in African settings has great relevance, taking into consideration the high diversity of ethnicities, cultures and food habits that determine the lifestyle of the people. Little is known about milk carriage of methicillin resistant S. aureus strains (MRSA) and their virulence factors in Uganda. Here, we present the prevalence of MRSA in bulk can milk and raw milk products in pastoral communities of south-west Uganda. We also present PFGE profiles, spa-types, as well as frequency of enterotoxins genes. S. aureus was identified by the coagulase test, susceptibility testing by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion and E-test methods and MRSA by detection of the mecA gene and SCCmec types. The presence of Panton - Valentine Leucocidin (PVL) genes and staphylococcal enterotoxins was determined by PCR, while genotyping was by PFGE and spa typing. S. aureus were isolated from 30/148 (20.3%) milk and 11/91(12%) sour milk samples. mecA gene carriage, hence MRSA, was detected in 23/41 (56.1%) of the isolates, with 21 of the 23 (91.3%) being SCCmec type V; while up to 30/41 (73.2%) of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline. Only five isolates carried the PVL virulence gene, while PFGE typing revealed ten clusters (ranging from two seven isolates each) that comprised 83% of the sample, and only eight isolates with unique pulsotypes. The largest PFGE profile (E) consisted of seven isolates while t7753, t1398, and t2112 were the most common spa-types. Thirty seven of the 41 strains (90.2%) showed at least one of the eight enterotoxin genes tested, with sem 29 (70.7%), sei 25 (61%) and seg 21 (51.2%) being the most frequently observed genes. This

  16. Application of the simulation of a tank capacity proposal for loading and unloading process of bulk material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janka Šaderová

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available n this paper, the algorithm is given - how to design a tankfor bulk materials. An important part of the proposal is to setthe loading and unloading of a tank, which is also closely related to the proposal of its capacity and volume. Loading and unloadingprocess is dependent on several factors but the main are: method and speed of loading which represents the parameter - hour powerof loading device (e.g. continuous by a conveyor belt, method andspeed of unloading (continuousor at intervals and a typeand capacity of means of transport, in which the material loading (truck, rail car, conveyor belt system. The paper presents twomethods for determination of the loadingand unloading process - the graphic method and determination during the simulation -creating a simulation model.

  17. How are flexible tanks becoming a solution for wine in bulk transportation?

    OpenAIRE

    Aaltonen, Alisa

    2015-01-01

    Past decades have proven that logistics is taking a crucial role in both domestic and international trade. Additionally, logistics have played an essential role in wars recorded in past human history. Bulk shipping is becoming an increasingly attractive option for wine shippers around the world because this method of shipping allows transporting up to 13,400 litres more of the product when compared to the conventional method of wine transportation, which dramatically cuts transportation costs...

  18. Dismantlement and removal of Old Hydrofracture Facility bulk storage bins and water tank, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    The Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF), located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), was constructed in 1963 to allow experimentation and operations with an integrated solid storage, mixing, and grout injection facility. During its operation, OHF blended liquid low-level waste with grout and used a hydrofracture process to pump the waste into a deep low-permeable shale formation. Since the OHF Facility was taken out of service in 1980, the four bulk storage bins located adjacent to Building 7852 had deteriorated to the point that they were a serious safety hazard. The ORNL Surveillance and Maintenance Program requested and received permission from the US Department of Energy to dismantle the bins as a maintenance action and send the free-released metal to an approved scrap metal vendor. A 25,000-gal stainless steel water tank located at the OHF site was included in the scope. A fixed-price subcontract was signed with Allied Technology Group, Inc., to remove the four bulk storage bins and water tank to a staging area where certified Health Physics personnel could survey, segregate, package, and send the radiologically clean scrap metal to an approved scrap metal vendor. All radiologically contaminated metal and metal that could not be surveyed was packaged and staged for later disposal. Permissible personnel exposure limits were not exceeded, no injuries were incurred, and no health and safety violations occurred throughout the duration of the project. Upon completion of the dismantlement, the project had generated 53,660 lb of clean scrap metal (see Appendix D). This resulted in $3,410 of revenue generated and a cost avoidance of an estimated $100,000 in waste disposal fees

  19. Predictive modeling of Bacillus cereus spores in farm tank milk during grazing and housing periods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.M.M.; Giffel, M.C.T.; Driehuis, F.; Jong, de P.; Lankveld, J.M.G.

    2007-01-01

    The shelf life of pasteurized dairy products depends partly on the concentration of Bacillus cereus spores in raw milk. Based on a translation of contamination pathways into chains of unit-operations, 2 simulation models were developed to quantitatively identify factors that have the greatest effect

  20. Correlation between mastitis occurrence and the count of microorganisms in bulk raw milk of bovine dairy herds in four selective culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, Luís I M; Minagawa, Clarice Y; Telles, Evelise O; Garbuglio, Márcio A; Amaku, Marcos; Melville, Priscilla A; Dias, Ricardo A; Sakata, Sonia T; Benites, Nilson R

    2010-02-01

    Milk is the normal secretion of the mammary gland, practically free of colostrum and obtained by the complete milking of one or more healthy animals. Mastitis is an inflammatory process of the mammary gland and it may cause alterations in the milk. The present work aimed to verify whether it is possible, by means of the counts of microorganism in the bulk raw milk in four selective culture media, to establish a correlation with the occurrence of mastitis and therefore, to monitor this disease in bovine dairy herds. The following selective culture media were used: KF Streptococcus Agar, Edwards Agar, Baird-Parker Agar, Blood Agar plus potassium tellurite. Spearman's correlation coefficient was calculated in order to compare the occurrence of mastitis (percentage) in each herd with respective selective culture media counts of microorganisms in bulk raw milk. Thirty-six possibilities were analysed (Tamis and CMT-positive rates were compared with the log-transformed count in four selective culture media) and there was a negative correlation between Tamis 3 and the Baird-Parker Agar plate count. The total results of microbiological tests showed that there were three correlations of the counts in selective culture media. Fifty-two possibilities were analysed and there was a negative correlation between no-bacterial-growth mastitis rates and log10 of KF Streptoccocus Agar plate count and there were two positive correlations between coagulase-positive staphylococci and log10 of Baird-Parker Agar plate count and Blood Agar plus potassium tellurite plate count.

  1. A survey on Aflatoxin M1 content in sheep and goat milk produced in Sardinia Region, Italy (2005-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Virdis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the results of a survey conducted in Sardinia Region on Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 contamination in milk of small ruminants from 2005 to 2013 are reported. A total of 517 sheep and 88 goat milk samples from bulk tank, tank trucks and silo tank milk were collected. Analyses were performed by the Regional Farmers Association laboratory using high-performance liquid chromatography following the ISO 14501:1998 standard. None of the sheep milk samples analysed during 2005- 2012 showed AFM1 contamination. In sheep milk samples collected in 2013, 8 out of 172 (4.6% were contaminated by AFM1 with a concentration (mean±SD of 12.59±14.05 ng/L. In one bulk tank milk sample 58.82 ng/L AFM1 was detected, exceeding the EU limit. In none of goat milk samples analysed from 2010 to 2012 AFM1 was detected. In 2013, 9 out of 66 goat milk samples (13.6% showed an AFM1 concentration of 47.21±19.58 ng/L. Two of these samples exceeded the EU limit, with concentrations of 62.09 and 138.6 ng/L. Higher contamination frequency and concentration rates were detected in bulk tank milk samples collected at farm than in bulk milk truck or silo samples, showing a dilution effect on AFM1 milk content along small ruminants supply chain. The rate and levels of AFM1 contamination in sheep and goat milk samples were lower than other countries. However, the small number of milk samples analysed for AFM1 in Sardinia Region in 2005-2013 give evidence that food business operators check programmes should be improved to ensure an adequate monitoring of AFM1 contamination in small ruminant dairy chain.

  2. A Survey on Aflatoxin M1 Content in Sheep and Goat Milk Produced in Sardinia Region, Italy (2005-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virdis, Salvatore; Scarano, Christian; Spanu, Vincenzo; Murittu, Gavino; Spanu, Carlo; Ibba, Ignazio; De Santis, Enrico Pietro Luigi

    2014-12-09

    In the present work the results of a survey conducted in Sardinia Region on Aflatoxin M 1 (AFM 1 ) contamination in milk of small ruminants from 2005 to 2013 are reported. A total of 517 sheep and 88 goat milk samples from bulk tank, tank trucks and silo tank milk were collected. Analyses were performed by the Regional Farmers Association laboratory using high-performance liquid chromatography following the ISO 14501:1998 standard. None of the sheep milk samples analysed during 2005-2012 showed AFM 1 contamination. In sheep milk samples collected in 2013, 8 out of 172 (4.6%) were contaminated by AFM 1 with a concentration (mean±SD) of 12.59±14.05 ng/L. In one bulk tank milk sample 58.82 ng/L AFM 1 was detected, exceeding the EU limit. In none of goat milk samples analysed from 2010 to 2012 AFM 1 was detected. In 2013, 9 out of 66 goat milk samples (13.6%) showed an AFM 1 concentration of 47.21±19.58 ng/L. Two of these samples exceeded the EU limit, with concentrations of 62.09 and 138.6 ng/L. Higher contamination frequency and concentration rates were detected in bulk tank milk samples collected at farm than in bulk milk truck or silo samples, showing a dilution effect on AFM 1 milk content along small ruminants supply chain. The rate and levels of AFM 1 contamination in sheep and goat milk samples were lower than other countries. However, the small number of milk samples analysed for AFM 1 in Sardinia Region in 2005-2013 give evidence that food business operators check programmes should be improved to ensure an adequate monitoring of AFM 1 contamination in small ruminant dairy chain.

  3. Quality based payment program and milk quality in dairy cooperatives of Southern Brazil: an econometric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Garcia Botaro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Programs designed to enhance milk quality have been used to motivate dairy farmers to improve the quality of the raw milk they produce. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between a milk quality payment program and four indicative variables of milk quality, by testing bulk tank somatic cell count (SCC, bulk tank total bacterial count (TBC, fat (FAT and protein (PROT percentages over three years in four dairy cooperatives in Southern Brazil. We used a multiple regression econometric model estimated from market data of milk delivered by farmers to the cooperatives. Bulk tank milk samples (n = 19,644 were monthly collected. The data set was analyzed for the effects of seasonality, average daily volume of milk, the award/penalty, producer, and cooperatives on SCC, TBC, FAT and PROT. Results suggested an association between the adoption of a payment program based on milk quality and the reduction of SCC and TBC. Nevertheless, the program seems to have not contributed to increase fat and protein milk percentages. This information may help the dairy industry in developing countries to conceive strategies to enhance overall milk quality.

  4. The effect of different precooling rates and cold storage on milk microbiological quality and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paludetti, Lizandra F; Kelly, Alan L; O'Brien, Bernadette; Jordan, Kieran; Gleeson, David

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the effect of different milk cooling rates, before entering the bulk tank, on the microbiological load and composition of the milk, as well as on energy usage. Three milk precooling treatments were applied before milk entered 3 identical bulk milk tanks: no plate cooler (NP), single-stage plate cooler (SP), and double-stage plate cooler (DP). These precooling treatments cooled the milk to 32.0 ± 1.4°C, 17.0 ± 2.8°C, and 6.0 ± 1.1°C, respectively. Milk was added to the bulk tank twice daily for 72 h, and the tank refrigeration temperature was set at 3°C. The blend temperature within each bulk tank was reduced after each milking event as the volume of milk at 3°C increased simultaneously. The bacterial counts of the milk volumes precooled at different rates did not differ significantly at 0 h of storage or at 24-h intervals thereafter. After 72 h of storage, the total bacterial count of the NP milk was 3.90 ± 0.09 log 10 cfu/mL, whereas that of the precooled milk volumes were 3.77 ± 0.09 (SP) and 3.71 ± 0.09 (DP) log 10 cfu/mL. The constant storage temperature (3°C) over 72 h helped to reduce bacterial growth rates in milk; consequently, milk composition was not affected and minimal, if any, proteolysis occurred. The DP treatment had the highest energy consumption (17.6 ± 0.5 Wh/L), followed by the NP (16.8 ± 2.7 Wh/L) and SP (10.6 ± 1.3 Wh/L) treatments. This study suggests that bacterial count and composition of milk are minimally affected when milk is stored at 3°C for 72 h, regardless of whether the milk is precooled; however, milk entering the tank should have good initial microbiological quality. Considering the numerical differences between bacterial counts, however, the use of the SP or DP precooling systems is recommended to maintain low levels of bacterial counts and reduce energy consumption. The Authors. Published by FASS Inc. and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association

  5. Bulk milk-estimated seroprevalence of Fasciola hepatica in dairy herds and collecting of risk factor data in East Frisia, northern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuerpick, Birte; Fiedor, Christiane; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Schnieder, Thomas; Strube, Christina

    2012-01-01

    The liver fluke Fasciola (F) hepatica is one of the most important trematodes in cattle farming worldwide. Fasciolosis in dairy cows is leading to production losses due to decreased milk yield, liver condemnation and impaired reproduction. The treatment of dairy cows is unsatisfactory, because available drugs are either effective against adult flukes only or have long withdrawal times or in some countries may not be used at all. In the present study the prevalence of F. hepatica in dairy farms located in East Frisia, which is part of the federal state Lower Saxony, was investigated. East Frisia is considered a high risk area for Fasciola hepatica infections, because of its coastal location, high precipitation and moist pastures. About 750 bulk milk samples were collected in January and November 2006 and analysed for F. hepatica antibodies using the Pourquier ELISA. In addition, questionnaires, which were answered by 260 of the participating farmers, were evaluated to analyse management-related factors associated with fasciolosis. In January and November, 52.1% and 53.6% of the bulk milk samples, respectively, showed positive results. Thereby, 88.1% of the examined farms showed an unchanged infection status, whereas 6.2% of the farms became seropositive during the grazing season and 5.8% of the dairy herds turned seronegative. Statistical analysis revealed a significant negative association between average annual milk production and the frequency of infections with F. hepatica.

  6. Risk factors for Coxiella burnetii antibodies in bulk tank milk from Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Jens Frederik; Paul, Suman; Christoffersen, Anna-Bodil

    2013-01-01

    .2), artificial insemination by other people than artificial insemination technicians (OR = 7.7), routine herd health contract with the veterinarian (OR = 4.3) and hygiene precautions taken by veterinarians (OR = 5). In addition, herd size, hired labour, trading of cattle between farms, quarantine and use...

  7. Detection of antimicrobial and anthelmintic residues in bulk tank milk from four different mesoregions of Minas Gerais State - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M.O.P. Cerqueira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a presença de resíduos antimicrobianos (ceftiofur, estreptomicinas, quinolonas, tetraciclinas, tianfenicol e tilosina e anti-helmínticos (benzimidazóis, aminobenzimidazóis, levamisol, avermectinas, tiabendazóis, moxidectina e triclabendazóis em, respectivamente, 70 e 83 amostras de leite cru provenientes de quatro mesorregiões (Triângulo Mineiro/Alto Paranaíba, Central Mineira, Oeste de Minas e Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte do estado de Minas Gerais. Este estudo demonstrou a presença de quinolonas (2,86%, estreptomicinas (2,86% e tetraciclinas (11,43% nas amostras de leite cru analisadas. Ademais, observou-se expressiva porcentagem de amostras de leite cru positivas para os anti-helmínticos amino- benzimidazóis (55,42%, levamisol (53,57%, avermectinas (60,24%, tiabendazóis (67.47%, moxidectina (73,49% e triclabendazóis (45,78%, e em menor porcentagem os benzimidazóis (6,02%. Desta forma, os resultados do presente estudo indicam que os resíduos de antimicrobianos e anti-helmínticos no leite em Minas Gerais devem ser constantemente monitorados pelas autoridades competentes com intuito de oferecer aos consumidores um alimento sem riscos à saúde humana.

  8. Impact of automatic milking systems on dairy cattle producers' reports of milking labour management, milk production and milk quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, C; Barkema, H W; DeVries, T J; Rushen, J; Pajor, E A

    2018-04-04

    Automatic milking systems (AMS), or milking robots, are becoming widely accepted as a milking technology that reduces labour and increases milk yield. However, reported amount of labour saved, changes in milk yield, and milk quality when transitioning to AMS vary widely. The purpose of this study was to document the impact of adopting AMS on farms with regards to reported changes in milking labour management, milk production, milk quality, and participation in dairy herd improvement (DHI) programmes. A survey was conducted across Canada over the phone, online, and in-person. In total, 530 AMS farms were contacted between May 2014 and the end of June 2015. A total of 217 AMS producers participated in the General Survey (Part 1), resulting in a 41% response rate, and 69 of the respondents completed the more detailed follow-up questions (Part 2). On average, after adopting AMS, the number of employees (full- and part-time non-family labour combined) decreased from 2.5 to 2.0, whereas time devoted to milking-related activities decreased by 62% (from 5.2 to 2.0 h/day). Median milking frequency was 3.0 milkings/day and robots were occupied on average 77% of the day. Producers went to fetch cows a median of 2 times/day, with a median of 3 fetch cows or 4% of the herd per robot/day. Farms had a median of 2.5 failed or incomplete milkings/robot per day. Producers reported an increase in milk yield, but little effect on milk quality. Mean milk yield on AMS farms was 32.6 kg/cow day. Median bulk tank somatic cell count was 180 000 cells/ml. Median milk fat on AMS farms was 4.0% and median milk protein was 3.3%. At the time of the survey, 67% of producers were current participants of a DHI programme. Half of the producers who were not DHI participants had stopped participation after adopting AMS. Overall, this study characterized impacts of adopting AMS and may be a useful guide for making this transition.

  9. Six-year longitudinal study of Fasciola hepatica bulk milk antibody ELISA in the dairy dense region of the Republic Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munita, M P; Rea, R; Bloemhoff, Y; Byrne, N; Martinez-Ibeas, A M; Sayers, R G

    2016-11-01

    Completion of the F. hepatica lifecycle is dependent on suitable climatic conditions for development of immature stages of the parasite, and its snail intermediate host. Few investigations have been conducted regarding temporal variations in F. hepatica status in Irish dairy herds. The current study aimed to conduct a longitudinal study examining annual and seasonal trends in bulk milk seropositivity over six years, while also investigating associations with soil temperature, rainfall and flukicide treatment. Monthly bulk milk samples (BTM) were submitted by 28 herds between March 2009 and December 2014. In all, 1337 samples were analysed using a Cathepsin L1 ELISA. Soil temperature, rainfall and management data were obtained for general estimating equation and regression analyses. A general decrease in milk seropositivity was observed over the six year study period and was associated with an increased likelihood of treating for liver fluke (OR range=2.73-6.96). Annual and seasonal analyses of rainfall and F. hepatica BTM status yielded conflicting results. Higher annual rainfall (>1150mm) yielded a lower likelihood of being BTM positive than annual rainfall of hepatica in wetter years, although a 'wash effect' by high rainfall of the free living stages and snails cannot be ruled out. Higher seasonal rainfall (>120mm), however, was associated with increased ELISA S/P% values (Coefficient=9.63S/P%; P=0.001). Soil temperature was not found to influence F. hepatica to the same extent as rainfall and may reflect the lack of severe temperature fluctuations in Ireland. Flukicides active against both immature and mature F. hepatica were approximately half as likely to record a positive F. hepatica herd BTM status than a flukicide active against only the mature stage of the parasite (OR≅0.45; Phepatica data, which can vary significantly. Additionally, it highlights the progress that can be achieved in fluke control by application of a continuous BTM monitoring program

  10. Oxidative stability of structured lipids containing C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, C18:3 or CLA in sn 2-position - as bulk lipids and in milk drinks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm Heinrich, Maike; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Xu, Xuebing

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we compared the oxidative stability of a specific structured lipid (SL) containing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in the sn2-position with SL containing other C18 fatty acids of different degree of unsaturation (stearic, oleic, linoleic or linolenic acid). SL was produced...... by enzymatic interesterification with caprylic acid. Oxidative stability was compared in the five lipids themselves and in milk drinks containing 5% of the different SL. During storage, samples were taken for chemical and physical analyses. Moreover, sensory assessments were performed on milk drinks....... The oxidative stability of our SL was very different when comparing (a) bulk lipids and milk drink and (b) the five different batches of each product. SL based on oleic acid was the most unstable as bulk lipid, while SL based on linoleic acid was the most unstable in milk drink. SL based on CLA was the second...

  11. Antibiotic residues in milk from small dairy farms in rural Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redding, L E; Cubas-Delgado, F; Sammel, M D; Smith, G; Galligan, D T; Levy, M Z; Hennessy, S

    2014-01-01

    The use of antibiotics in livestock can pose a public health threat, especially if antibiotic residues remain in the food product. Understanding how often and why farmers sell products with antibiotic residues is critical to improving the quality of these products. To understand how often milk with antibiotic residues is sold on small farms in a major dairy-producing region of Peru and identify factors associated with selling milk with antibiotic residues, we tested milk samples for antibiotic residues from every provider on three routes of commercial milk companies and from bulk tanks of farmers currently treating cows with antibiotics. We also asked farmers if they sold milk from treated cows and examined factors associated with the tendency to do so. The prevalence of milk contamination with antibiotic residues on commercial routes was low (0-4.2%); however, 33/36 farmers treating their animals with antibiotics sold milk that tested positive for antibiotic residues. The self-reported sale of milk from treated cows had a sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 75.8%, 100%, 100% and 27.2%, respectively (with testing of milk for residues as the gold standard). Finally, 69/156 randomly selected farmers reported selling milk from treated cows, and farmers' knowledge of antibiotics and the milk purchaser were significantly associated with a farmer's tendency to report doing so. Educating farmers on the risks associated with antibiotics and enforcement of penalties for selling contaminated milk by milk companies are needed to improve milk quality.

  12. A predictive model to evaluate the impact of the cooling profile on growth of psychrotrophic bacteria in raw milk from conventional and robotic milking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansson, Anders

    2017-08-01

    This Research Communication explores the usefulness of predictive modelling to explain bacterial behaviour during cooling. A simple dynamic lag phase model was developed and validated. The model takes into account the effect of the cooling profile on the lag phase and growth in bulk tank milk. The time before the start of cooling was the most critical and should not exceed 1 h. The cooling rate between 30 and approximately 10 °C was the second most critical period. Cooling from 30 to 10 °C within 2 h ensured minimal growth of psychrotrophic bacteria in the milk. The cooling rate between 10 and 4 °C (the slowest phase of cooling) was of surprisingly little importance. Given a normal cooling profile to 10 °C, several hours of prolonged cooling time made practically no difference in psychrotrophic counts. This behaviour can be explained by the time/temperature dependence of the work needed by the bacteria to complete the lag phase at low temperature. For milk quality advisors, it is important to know that slow cooling below 10 °C does not result in high total counts of bacteria. In practice, slow cooling is occasionally found at farms with robotic milking. However, when comparing psychrotrophic growth in bulk milk tanks designed for robotic milking or conventional milking, the model predicted less growth for robotic milking for identical cooling profiles. It is proposed that due to the different rates of milk entering the tank, fewer bacteria will exit the lag phase during robotic milking and they will be more diluted than in conventional milking systems. At present, there is no international standard that specifies the cooling profile in robotic systems. The information on the insignificant effect of the cooling rate below 10 °C may be useful in the development of a standard.

  13. Short communication: The effect of raw milk cooling on sensory perception and shelf life of high-temperature, short-time (HTST)-pasteurized skim milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, A P; Barbano, D M; Drake, M A

    2016-12-01

    The cooling rate of raw milk may influence sensory properties and pasteurized shelf life. Under the Pasteurized Milk Ordinance for grade A milk, raw milk may be cooled instantaneously by on-farm heat exchangers but is also acceptable if "cooled to 10°C or less within four (4) hours of the commencement of the first milking." The objective of this study was to determine the effect of raw milk cooling on consumer perception and shelf life. Raw milk (18-21°C) was obtained and transported within 1h of milking to North Carolina State University (Raleigh). The batch of raw milk was split in 2 portions, and a plate heat exchanger was used to quickly cool one portion to <6°C within 1min. The second portion was stored in a jacketed bulk tank and slowly cooled over 4h to <10°C. Milk from 3 consecutive milkings was collected every 12h, with subsequent milkings added to the previous collections. The bulk milk was kept below 10°C while adding milk for the slow cool milk treatment. After 72h, each whole milk was separated; the skim milk was pasteurized at 73 or 78°C for 20 s, homogenized, and held at 4°C. Difference tests (n=75) and consumer acceptance tests (n=100) were conducted to determine if consumers could detect differences among milks. Descriptive analysis and microbial testing for aerobic, psychrotrophic, and psychrotolerant spore counts were conducted through shelf life. The entire experiment was repeated in triplicate. Raw milks averaged 3.3 logcfu/mL by aerobic plate count, <25cfu/mL coliforms, somatic cell count of 300,000 cells/mL, and 3.15±0.07% protein. Psychrotolerant spores were not found in the raw milk. Consumers could not detect differences between cooling treatments of the same pasteurization temperature or between different temperatures of the same cooling treatment. Milks reached sensory failure 49±4d on average after processing, and aerobic counts were between 5 to 7 logcfu/mL. Cooling treatment had no effect on shelf life. These results suggest

  14. Effect of leaving milk trucks empty and idle for 6 h between raw milk loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Eva; Meunier-Goddik, Lisbeth; Waite-Cusic, Joy G

    2018-02-01

    The US Pasteurized Milk Ordinance (PMO) allows milk tanker trucks to be used repeatedly for 24 h before mandatory clean-in-place cleaning, but no specifications are given for the length of time a tanker can be empty between loads. We defined a worst-case hauling scenario as a hauling vessel left empty and dirty (idle) for extended periods between loads, especially in warm weather. Initial studies were conducted using 5-gallon milk cans (pilot-scale) as a proof-of-concept and to demonstrate that extended idle time intervals could contribute to compromised raw milk quality. Based on pilot-scale results, a commercial hauling study was conducted through partnership with a Pacific Northwest dairy co-op to verify that extended idle times of 6 h between loads have minimal influence on the microbiological populations and enzyme activity in subsequent loads of milk. Milk cans were used to haul raw milk (load 1), emptied, incubated at 30°C for 3, 6, 10, and 20 h, and refilled with commercially pasteurized whole milk (load 2) to measure cross-contamination. For the commercial-scale study, a single tanker was filled with milk from a farm known to have poorer quality milk (farm A, load 1), emptied, and refilled immediately (0 h) or after a delay (6 h) with milk from a farm known to have superior quality milk (farm B, load 2). In both experiments, milk samples were obtained from each farm's bulk tank and from the milk can or tanker before unloading. Each sample was microbiologically assessed for standard plate count (SPC), lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and coliform counts. Selected isolates were assessed for lipolytic and proteolytic activity using spirit blue agar and skim milk agar, respectively. The pilot-scale experiment effectively demonstrated that extended periods of idle (>3 h) of soiled hauling vessels can significantly affect the microbiological quality of raw milk in subsequent loads; however, extended idle times of 6 h or less would not measurably compromise milk

  15. Assessment of the application of an automated electronic milk analyzer for the enumeration of total bacteria in raw goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsahoi, L; Gao, A; Fabri, M; Odumeru, J A

    2011-07-01

    Automated electronic milk analyzers for rapid enumeration of total bacteria counts (TBC) are widely used for raw milk testing by many analytical laboratories worldwide. In Ontario, Canada, Bactoscan flow cytometry (BsnFC; Foss Electric, Hillerød, Denmark) is the official anchor method for TBC in raw cow milk. Penalties are levied at the BsnFC equivalent level of 50,000 cfu/mL, the standard plate count (SPC) regulatory limit. This study was conducted to assess the BsnFC for TBC in raw goat milk, to determine the mathematical relationship between the SPC and BsnFC methods, and to identify probable reasons for the difference in the SPC:BsnFC equivalents for goat and cow milks. Test procedures were conducted according to International Dairy Federation Bulletin guidelines. Approximately 115 farm bulk tank milk samples per month were tested for inhibitor residues, SPC, BsnFC, psychrotrophic bacteria count, composition (fat, protein, lactose, lactose and other solids, and freezing point), and somatic cell count from March 2009 to February 2010. Data analysis of the results for the samples tested indicated that the BsnFC method would be a good alternative to the SPC method, providing accurate and more precise results with a faster turnaround time. Although a linear regression model showed good correlation and prediction, tests for linearity indicated that the relationship was linear only beyond log 4.1 SPC. The logistic growth curve best modeled the relationship between the SPC and BsnFC for the entire sample population. The BsnFC equivalent to the SPC 50,000 cfu/mL regulatory limit was estimated to be 321,000 individual bacteria count (ibc)/mL. This estimate differs considerably from the BsnFC equivalent for cow milk (121,000 ibc/mL). Because of the low frequency of bulk tank milk pickups at goat farms, 78.5% of the samples had their oldest milking in the tank to be 6.5 to 9.0 d old when tested, compared with the cow milk samples, which had their oldest milking at 4 d

  16. 46 CFR 154.420 - Tank design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank design. 154.420 Section 154.420 Shipping COAST... SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Integral Tanks § 154.420 Tank design. (a) The structure of an integral tank must meet the deep tank scantling standards...

  17. 46 CFR 154.439 - Tank design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank design. 154.439 Section 154.439 Shipping COAST... SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Independent Tank Type A § 154.439 Tank design. An independent tank type A must meet the deep tank standard of the...

  18. Survey on the fatty acids profile of fluid goat milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Pittau

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Fluid goat milk submitted to thermal treatment has interesting nutritional properties and a potential expanding market. The present study was aimed to conduct fatty acids profile characterisation of goat milk placed on market. Forty-nine fluid milk samples were collected: 12 pasteurised, 12 pasteurised at high temperature, 11 ultrahigh temperature (UHT whole milk and 14 UHT semi-skimmed milk. Milk samples were collected at retail level from 7 different companies and from different production batches. After extraction and methilation, fatty acids (FAs profile was determined on each sample using a gas chromatograph with flame ionisation detector (GC-FID with high-polarity capillary column. The concentration (g/100mL of saturated fatty acids (SFAs, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, trans fatty acids (t-FAs, and isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA was determined. N-6/n-3 ratio, atherogenic index (AI and thrombogenic index (TI were also assessed. Fluid goat milk lipid profile was characterised by SFAs (68.4% of total FAs, PUFAs (5.3%, MUFAs (21.3%, t-FAs (3.6% and CLA (0.8%. The most represented fatty acids were: 16:0 (24.5%, 9cis-18:1 (18.2%, 18:0 (9.6%, 14:0 (9.5%, 10:0 (9.3% and 12:0 (4.5%. Nutritional indices were 2.8-6.8 for n-6/n-3 ratio; 2.3-2.9 for AI; and 2.7-3.2 for TI. Milk produced by small scale plants, with no milk fat standardisation, showed greater differences in fatty acid profile as compared to industrial plants milk. Large scale production is characterised by commingled bulk tank milk of different origins and then is more homogeneous. The whole goat milk supply chain should be controlled to obtain milk with fatty acids of high nutritional value.

  19. Milk hygiene in small ruminants: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalo, C.

    2017-07-01

    Somatic cell count (SCC), mammary pathogens prevalence, total and specific bacterial counts, antimicrobial residues, macroscopic sediment, water addition, aflatoxins and other contaminants constitute the basis for milk payment-schemes, monitoring and improvement of flock hygiene and health management, and development of analytical surveillance programs in the dairy small ruminants. The present work reviews factors influencing the variation of these variables, including milk analytical methods, storage and preservation, along with management implications during the last two decades. Following farmer and cooperative educational programs, progressive reductions have been reported for total bacterial count and antimicrobial residue occurrence in bulk tank milk. These results were consistent, however, with high values for SCC and specific bacterial populations. Thus, mastitis control programs should be intensified to increase hygiene in milk and economic returns for producers and processors. In addition, the implementation of programs to reduce specific bacterial counts (i.e., psychrotrophs, coliforms, Clostridium spp. spores) and mammary pathogen prevalence (i.e., Staph. aureus, Mycoplasma spp.), as well as the use of combined screening methods for an increased rate of antimicrobial detection, are currently required strategies which are positively valuated by milk processors, industry and consumers. Other contaminants may also be present, but cost-effective screening and analytical systems have not yet been implemented. This review aims to be helpful for troubleshooting milk quality and safety, developing future premium payment systems and industry quality-standards, optimizing management, on-farm risk traceability systems and consumer acceptance.

  20. Milk hygiene in small ruminants: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalo, C.

    2017-01-01

    Somatic cell count (SCC), mammary pathogens prevalence, total and specific bacterial counts, antimicrobial residues, macroscopic sediment, water addition, aflatoxins and other contaminants constitute the basis for milk payment-schemes, monitoring and improvement of flock hygiene and health management, and development of analytical surveillance programs in the dairy small ruminants. The present work reviews factors influencing the variation of these variables, including milk analytical methods, storage and preservation, along with management implications during the last two decades. Following farmer and cooperative educational programs, progressive reductions have been reported for total bacterial count and antimicrobial residue occurrence in bulk tank milk. These results were consistent, however, with high values for SCC and specific bacterial populations. Thus, mastitis control programs should be intensified to increase hygiene in milk and economic returns for producers and processors. In addition, the implementation of programs to reduce specific bacterial counts (i.e., psychrotrophs, coliforms, Clostridium spp. spores) and mammary pathogen prevalence (i.e., Staph. aureus, Mycoplasma spp.), as well as the use of combined screening methods for an increased rate of antimicrobial detection, are currently required strategies which are positively valuated by milk processors, industry and consumers. Other contaminants may also be present, but cost-effective screening and analytical systems have not yet been implemented. This review aims to be helpful for troubleshooting milk quality and safety, developing future premium payment systems and industry quality-standards, optimizing management, on-farm risk traceability systems and consumer acceptance.

  1. High-throughput metataxonomic characterization of the raw milk microbiota identifies changes reflecting lactation stage and storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Conor J; Gleeson, David; O'Toole, Paul W; Cotter, Paul D

    2017-08-16

    Low temperature is used to control the growth of bacteria in milk, both pre- and post-pasteurization. As the duration of refrigerated storage extends, psychrotrophs dominate the milk microbiota, that can produce heat stable lipases which negatively impact the organoleptic qualities of milk. Here we examine the influence that refrigeration temperature (2°C, 4°C and 6°C) and storage duration (96h) have on the microbiota composition (16S profiling) of raw bulk tank milk (BTM). To reflect a proposed change to current farming practices, raw milk was blended after each milking (8 milkings) and stored for five consecutive days in each temperature-specific tank. Here 16S rRNA-based microbiota compositional analysis was performed after milk was collected on day 1 and again after the final addition of milk at day 5. In addition to assessing the impact of the duration and temperature of storage, the influence of lactation stage, i.e. mid- versus late-lactation, on the microbiota of the blended BTM was also examined. Overall, both temperature and length of storage had surprisingly little influence on the raw milk microbiota, other than an increase in proportions of Gammaproteobacteria in the blended milk samples collected after pooling on day 5, and in samples stored at 6°C. However, lactation stage had a considerable influence on microbiota composition, with milk from mid-lactation containing higher proportions of Bacteroides, Faecalibacterium, Campylobacter and Rhodanobacter, and late-lactation milk containing higher proportions of Actinobacteria. Overall, the study demonstrates that current temperature and storage duration practises impact the microbiota of raw milk, but these impacts are modest relative to the more considerable differences between mid and late-lactation milk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Short communication: Microbiological quality of raw cow milk and its association with herd management practices in Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, X Y; Zhao, S G; Zheng, N; Li, S L; Zhang, Y D; Liu, H M; McKillip, J; Wang, J Q

    2017-06-01

    Contamination of raw milk with bacterial pathogens is potentially hazardous to human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the total bacteria count (TBC) and presence of pathogens in raw milk in Northern China along with the associated herd management practices. A total of 160 raw milk samples were collected from 80 dairy herds in Northern China. All raw milk samples were analyzed for TBC and pathogens by culturing. The results showed that the number of raw milk samples with TBC milk samples were Staphylococcus aureus positive, 72 (45.00%) were Escherichia coli positive, 2 (1.25%) were Salmonella positive, 2 (1.25%) were Listeria monocytogenes positive, and 3 (1.88%) were Campylobacter positive. The prevalence of S. aureus was influenced by season, herd size, milking frequency, disinfection frequency, and use of a Dairy Herd Improvement program. The TBC was influenced by season and milk frequency. The correlation between TBC and prevalence of S. aureus or E. coli is significant. The effect size statistical analysis showed that season and herd (but not Dairy Herd Improvement, herd size, milking frequency, disinfection frequency, and area) were the most important factors affecting TBC in raw milk. In conclusion, the presence of bacteria in raw milk was associated with season and herd management practices, and further comprehensive study will be powerful for effectively characterizing various factors affecting milk microbial quality in bulk tanks in China. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Influence of Season on the Cow Milk Quantity, Quality and Hygiene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic Toma Cziszter

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of season of collection on the quantity, quality and hygienicproperties of the raw milk delivered from one dairy farm. The studied traits were: bulk tank milk yield, chemicalcomposition (fat, protein, lactose, and total solids, freezing point, density, total bacteria count, coliform bacteriacount and somatic cell count, during years 2010 and 2011. A total of 727 samples were drawn and analysed in twolaboratories, using the standard methods. Average milk production per day per head in the farm was 13.58 kg,obtained from 252 cows. Year of collection had a significant effect on the bulk tank raw milk yield, quality andhygiene, except for freezing point and total bacteria count. The raw milk yield and chemical composition improved(p<0.05 from year 2010 to year 2011, as well as the hygienic quality. Season of collection had a significant (p<0.05influence on the milk yield and chemical composition, the highest milk yield with the lowest concentration beingobtained during summer, while the lowest milk yield with the highest chemical composition was obtained in winter.Physical properties of the raw milk were less affected by the season of collection, with the lowest freezing point inthe winter and the highest density in the autumn. The highest somatic cell count and coliform bacteria count wasobtained during the spring and the lowest total bacteria count was obtained in winter season. There was a significant(p<0.05 interaction between year and season of production for all raw milk traits.

  4. Impact of Heat Treatment on the Freezing Points of Cow and Goat Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohumíra Janštová

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to monitor the impact of heat treatment variables on the freezing point of cow and goat milk. The freezing point (FP was established in 30 bulk tank samples of goat milk and in 30 bulk tank samples of cow milk which were subject to laboratory heat treatment at temperatures of 72 °C (A, 85 °C (B, 95 °C (C, with the same exposition times of 20 s. Freezing point measurements of raw and heat-treated milk were carried out in compliance with the Standard CTS 57 0538 by a thermistor cryoscope. The FP of raw cow milk increased with heat treatment from the initial values of -0.5252 ± 0.0114 °C (O by 0.0023 °C (A, 0.0034 °C (B and 0.0051°C (C. Changes in FP values of goat milk were detected, from its initial value of –0.5530 ± 0.0086 °C there was an increase in the FP depending on the mode of heat treatment due to pasteurization by an average of 0.0028 °C (A, 0.0036 °C (B and 0.0054 °C (C. The dynamics of the changes were similar both in goat and cow milk. Freezing point values in cow and goat milk differed (P ⪬ 0.01 when compared to the freezing point of untreated milk after the individual interventions as well as when compared between each other. An increase in the heat treatment temperature of cow and goat milk causes an increase in the freezing point (a shift towards zero. These results can be used in practice for checking the raw material in dairy industry.

  5. THE MICROBIOLOGICAL LOAD OF SHEEP MILK FROM PRIMARY PRODUCTION TO ITS PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Farkašová

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In the breeding with the average number of 220 sheep (zošľachtená valaška with traditional hand milking in the Eastern Slovakia the microbiological load of milk during the process of primary production, transport, before and after pasteurisation as well as during dairy processing to cheese curd was observed. The results in three seasons were compared to those obtained at finishing of milking in the season before. The microbiological load of milk was observed using the bacteriological methods for determination of the presence of Staphylococcus sp. and other bacteria, and determination of the total number of staphylococci: a  in milliliter of pool milk sample; b  the transport control – smears from transport tank and determination of the total number of staphylococci in the tank milk sample; c bacteriological examination of bulk tank milk in the dairy plant before and after pasteurisation, including examination of cheese curd. After pasteurisation no staphylococci were recorded as in milk as in cheese. Out of 112 strains of Staphylococcus aureus only four strain produced staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE, but in another 7 strains a gene for production of SE, type C was found. The measures introduced during the following season led to the fact that total numbers of coagulase-positive staphylococci in milk within the process of primary production and transport did not exceed the limit permitted by legislation, and after pasteurisation of milk and cheese curd they were not found at all.  doi:10.5219/58

  6. [Occurrence and typing of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from raw cow's milk collected on farms and from vending machines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelbícová, T; Karpísková, R

    2012-04-01

    Evaluation of the incidence and characteristics of L. monocytogenes in samples of raw cow's milk collected on farms (bulk tank milk samples) and from vending machines. Detection of L. monocytogenes and enumeration were carried out according to EN/ISO 11290--1, 2. Strains were characterised by serotyping and macrorestriction analysis using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The presence of L. monocytogenes was detected in 3,2 % (11/346) of bulk tank milk samples and 1,8 % (4/219) samples of raw cow's milk from vending machines. Findings of L. monocytogenes in raw milk were sporadic. Only on one farm strains of L. monocytogenes were detected repeatedly. Thirteen strains of L. monocytogenes belonged to serotype 1/2a, two strains to serotype 1/2b and one to serotype 4b. Macrorestriction analysis revealed considerable heterogeinity of profiles, with nine different pulsotypes being detected. Pulsotype 711 was the most frequent. This pulsotype was found on three different farms. The incidence of L. monocytogenes in raw cow's milk is relatively low in the Czech Republic. The results confirmed that some clones of L. monocytogenes from raw milk are identical with food and human strains.

  7. 46 CFR 154.446 - Tank design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank design. 154.446 Section 154.446 Shipping COAST... SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Independent Tank Type B § 154.446 Tank design. An independent tank type B must meet the calculations under § 154...

  8. Longitudinal assessment of dairy farm management practices associated with the presence of psychrotolerant Bacillales spores in bulk tank milk on 10 New York State dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masiello, S. N.; Kent, D.V.; Martin, N. H.; Schukken, Y. H.; Wiedmann, M.; Boor, K. J.

    2017-01-01

    The ability of certain spore-forming bacteria in the order Bacillales (e.g., Bacillus spp., Paenibacillus spp.) to survive pasteurization in spore form and grow at refrigeration temperatures results in product spoilage and limits the shelf life of high temperature, short time (HTST)-pasteurized

  9. A space-time analysis of Mycoplasma bovis: bulk tank milk antibody screening results from all Danish dairy herds in 2013-2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arede, Margarida; Nielsen, Per Kantsø; Ahmed, Syed Sayeem Uddin

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is an important pathogen causing severe disease outbreaks in cattle farms. Since 2011, there has been an apparent increase in M. bovis outbreaks among Danish dairy cattle herds. The dairy cattle industry performed cross-sectional antibody screening for M. bovis on four occasions,...

  10. Evaluation of energy status of dairy cows using milk fat, protein and urea concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirovski Danijela

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy status of dairy cows may be estimated using results for concentrations of fat, protein and urea (MUN in milk samples obtained from bulk tank or individual cows. Using individual cow milk samples is recommended on dairy farms in our geografical region due to the unhomogenity of cows in the herds in respect to their genetic potential for milk production. Depression of milk fat occurs as a consequence of heat stress, underfeeding of peripartal cows, overfeeding concentrate with reduced ration fiber levels or overfeeding with dietary fat. High milk fat content is usually combined with severe negative energy balance. Nutrition and feeding practices have great impact on milk protein level. A deficiency of crude protein in the ration may depress protein in milk. Feeding excessive dietary protein does not significantly increase milk protein. MUN analyses point out potential problems in feeding program on dairy farm. High MUN values may reflect excessive dietary crude protein and/or low rumen degradable non fiber carbohydrates intake. Also, MUN levels is impacted by heat stress since its value is increased during the summer season. Low MUNs indicate a possible dietary protein deficiency. Additionally, low MUNs concentration may indicate excess in dietary nonstructural carbohydrates. On the bases on the interrelationships between protein and urea concentrations, as well as protein and fat concentrations in individual milk sample, estimation of energy balance of dairy cows may be done more accurately.

  11. Investigation on bisphenol A levels in human milk and dairy supply chain: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercogliano, Raffaelina; Santonicola, Serena

    2018-04-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), widely used as additive in food packaging, is an environmental and food contaminant that shows a weak estrogenic activity in general population and toxicity in the infant population. A temporary tolerable daily intake (t-TDI) of 4 μg/kg bw/day and a migration limit of 0.6 mg/kg in food from plastic materials, intended to come in contact with food, were fixed. Dietary milk is important in the human diet. The review investigated the contamination levels in human milk and along the dairy supply chain. Despite the reported levels are generally below the fixed limits, breast milk is considered a continuous low-level exposure to endocrine-active compounds for infants. In addition, BPA residues are detected in milk and dairy products posing a risk to human health. BPA enters into milk chain via multiple pathways at various points during milk production (e.g., PVC tubing used during the milking process, transfer from bulk milk to storage tanks, during milk processing). To prevent or mitigate this hazard, a specific TDI for infants is recommended and evaluation of risk factors at each phase of the dairy supply chain, in the quality systems, is recommended. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Milk quality and financial management at different scales of production on dairy farms located in the south of Minas Gerais state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Gomes Paixão

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between aspects related to financial management and scale of production with quality traits (total bacteria count - TBC; somatic cell count - SCC and composition (protein, fat, lactose, total solids, and non-fat solids of refrigerated bulk tank milk from 100 dairy farmers located in the south of Minas Gerais state, Brazil, by application of a semi-structured questionnaire. Dairy farmers were categorized according to the daily milk production: small (lower than 150 L; medium (151 to 500 L; and large (higher than 501 L. Chi-square tests and identification of possible relative risks between financial aspects and current regulation standards (Normative Instruction No. 62 of December 29, 2011, Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply associated to TBC (higher 300,000 CFU/mL and SCC (higher than 500,000 cells/mL means from bulk tank milk among different milk scales productions were performed. Bulk tanks milk composition met the legislation standards and had not differ between scales of production; however, SCC means within all scales, and TBC of small farmers had not attended the legislation standards and differences were identified (P ≤ 0.05. Regarding the financial management aspects, most farmers had no control over incomes, costs, nor calculated milk production cost, with decreased incidences as scale of production increased. Chi-square tests identified that producers that had no concern about milk quality payment bonuses had TBC means 2.95 times more likely (P ≤ 0.05 to be above the current regulations. Small dairy farmers had a greater negligence of the costs management and hygienic milk production as compared to medium and large farmers.

  13. Occurrence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk at dairy cattle farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okura, Hisako; Toft, Nils; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2012-01-01

    Presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in milk for human consumption is a concern due to its possible relationship with Crohn’s disease in humans. Pasteurization effectively reduces the MAP load by four to five logs, but the efficacy depends on the MAP concentration, which...... depends on the prevalence among contributing herds and individuals. Considerable variation of MAP in bulk tank milk (BTM) and individual cow’s milk (IM) is reported, but factors associated with MAP occurrence in milk at farm level have not been described. This study systematically reviewed published...... studies aiming at estimating the occurrence of MAP in on-farm BTM and IM by meta-analysis. A total of 692 articles were identified through electronic databases and initially screened using title and abstract. The quality of the 61 potentially relevant articles was assessed using full text and 31 articles...

  14. Evaluation of a microbiological indicator test for antibiotic detection in ewe and goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comunian, R; Paba, A; Dupré, I; Daga, E S; Scintu, M F

    2010-12-01

    Antibiotics are widely used for therapeutic and prophylactic purposes in dairy animals. The presence of residual antibiotics in milk could cause potentially serious problems in human health and have technological implication in the manufacturing of dairy products. The aim of this study was to evaluate Delvotest Accelerator (DSM Food Specialties, Delft, the Netherlands), a new system for a fully automated microbial test to detect antibiotic residues in ewe and goat milk. Forty-three samples of raw, whole, refrigerated bulk-tank milk samples (22 of ewe milk and 21 of goat milk) were analyzed during the whole lactation period. Four concentrations of 4 antibiotics were diluted in milk: penicillin G at 1, 2, 3, and 4 μg/L; sulfadiazine at 25, 50, 100, and 200 μg/L; tetracycline at 50, 100, 200, and 400 μg/L; and gentamicin at 25, 50, 100, and 200 μg/L. The detection limit of the Delvotest Accelerator was calculated as the range of antibiotic concentrations within which 95% of positive result lie. The range of detection limit of penicillin G and sulfadiazine was easily detected by Delvotest Accelerator at or below the European Union maximum residue limits, both for ewe and goat milk samples. In contrast, the system showed a lower ability to detect tetracycline and gentamicin both for ewe and goat milk samples. Very low percentages of false-positive outcomes were obtained. Lactation phase did not seem to be a crucial factor affecting the ability of the Delvotest Accelerator to detect spiked milk samples. A higher detection ability was observed for goat milk samples compared with ewe milk samples. A negative correlation between the percentage of positive milk samples detected and milk fat, protein, and lactose contents was observed for gentamicin only. Copyright © 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of rumen degradable protein balance and forage type on bulk milk urea concentration and emission of ammonia from dairy cow houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duinkerken, van G.; Andre, G.; Smits, M.C.J.; Monteny, G.J.; Sebek, L.B.J.

    2005-01-01

    As the Dutch government and dairy farming sector have given priority to reducing ammonia emission, the effect of diet on the ammonia emission from dairy cow barns was studied. In addition, the usefulness of milk urea content as an indicator of emission reduction was evaluated. An experiment was

  16. Comparison of Coxiella burnetii shedding in milk of dairy bovine, caprine, and ovine herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodolakis, A; Berri, M; Héchard, C; Caudron, C; Souriau, A; Bodier, C C; Blanchard, B; Camuset, P; Devillechaise, P; Natorp, J C; Vadet, J P; Arricau-Bouvery, N

    2007-12-01

    The shedding of Coxiella burnetii in bovine, caprine, and ovine milk was measured using PCR, in 3 herds for each species, the bulk tank milk samples of which were positive at the time of their selection. Milk samples of 95 cows, 120 goats, and 90 ewes were sampled over 16 wk, as was the bulk tank milk. The shedding of C. burnetii in vaginal mucus and feces was checked at the beginning of the experiment and 2 mo later. The clinical signs in the selected herds as well as the duration and the shedding routes differed among the 3 species. The cows were asymptomatic and shed C. burnetii almost exclusively in milk. In one of the caprine herds, abortions due to C. burnetii were reported. The goats excreted the bacteria mainly in milk. In contrast, the ewes, which came from flocks with abortions due to Q fever (C. burnetii infection), shed the bacteria mostly in feces and in vaginal mucus. This could explain why human outbreaks of Q fever are more often related to ovine flocks than to bovine herds. These excretions did not seem more frequent when the samples were taken close to parturition. The samples were taken from 0 to 421 d after parturition in bovine herds and from 5 to 119 d and 11 to 238 d after parturition in the caprine and ovine herds, respectively. The shedding in milk was sometimes intermittent, and several animals shed the bacteria but were negative by ELISA: 80% of the ewes were seronegative, underscoring the lack of sensitivity of the ELISA tests available for veterinary diagnosis. The detection of antibodies in milk seems more sensitive than it is in serum.

  17. Experiences with an identification and quantification program for inhibitor-positive milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, Claudia; Seidler, Caroline; Kerp, Bianca; Schneider, Elisabeth; Usleber, Ewald

    2007-03-14

    Beta-lactam antibiotics (penicillins, cephalosporins) are still the most commonly used antibiotics for dairy cows in Germany. In routine milk testing, according to the German milk quality regulation, a positive result obtained for bulk tank milk by microbiological inhibitor tests needs no further confirmation, but results in reduced milk payment of 0.05 euros kg(-1) for one month. In some cases, however, further identification of the causative agent can be of interest, either if antimicrobial drugs have not knowingly been used recently, or if improper use of such drugs is denied. As a service for milk producers, our laboratory offers further analyses of violative milk samples, aiming at the identification and quantification of the inhibitor(s). In this program, a panel of microbiological inhibitor tests, receptor tests, and enzyme immunoassays (EIA) is used in a step-by-step analysis, which primarily focusses on beta-lactams, but also includes other compounds such as sulfonamides or tetracyclines, respectively. Here we report results for violative milk samples (n=63) analysed between 2003 and 2005. In most cases (95%), beta-lactam antibiotics could be identified, although not always at levels exceeding the respective MRL values. Penicillin G (mostly together with benzylpenicilloyl metabolites) could be identified in 74.6% of all samples. Other compounds identified were, in decreasing order, ceftiofur (11%), ampicillin/amoxicillin (6.3%), isoxazolyl penicillins (3.2%), and sulfonamides (1.6%). The results indicate that penicillin G is still the predominant antibiotic responsible for violative bulk tank milk samples as detected during regulatory control.

  18. Incorporation of Listeria monocytogenes strains in raw milk biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Christiane; Ifland, Andrea; Naumann, Annette; Kleta, Sylvia; Noll, Matthias

    2013-02-01

    Biofilms develop successively on devices of milk production without sufficient cleaning and originate from the microbial community of raw milk. The established biofilm matrices enable incorporation of pathogens like Listeria monocytogenes, which can cause a continuous contamination of food processing plants. L. monocytogenes is frequently found in raw milk and non-pasteurized raw milk products and as part of a biofilm community in milk meters and bulk milk tanks. The aim of this study was to analyze whether different L. monocytogenes strains are interacting with the microbial community of raw milk in terms of biofilm formation in the same manner, and to identify at which stage of biofilm formation a selected L. monocytogenes strain settles best. Bacterial community structure and composition of biofilms were analyzed by a cloning and sequencing approach and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (T-RFLP) based on the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. The chemical composition of biofilms was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), while settled L. monocytogenes cells were quantified by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Addition of individual L. monocytogenes strains to raw milk caused significant shifts in the biofilm biomass, in the chemical as well as in the bacterial community composition. Biofilm formation and attachment of L. monocytogenes cells were not serotype but strain specific. However, the added L. monocytogenes strains were not abundant since mainly members of the genera Citrobacter and Lactococcus dominated the bacterial biofilm community. Overall, added L. monocytogenes strains led to a highly competitive interaction with the raw milk community and triggered alterations in biofilm formation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Short communication: Microbial quality of raw milk following commercial long-distance hauling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darchuk, Emily M; Meunier-Goddik, Lisbeth; Waite-Cusic, Joy

    2015-12-01

    Hauling is a critical part of the commercial milk supply chain, yet very few studies have aimed to understand its effect on raw milk quality. This study focused on the effect of extended-duration tanker use during hauling on raw milk quality at a commercial facility. Standard tanker use [cleaned-in-place (CIP) once per 24h] served as a control and an incremental between-load water rinse with sanitizer treatment (RS) was evaluated to mitigate any effect from extended duration hauling. During this study, 1 commercial truck with 2 trailers was monitored for 10d. The truck collected milk at a large dairy farm, transported the milk to a manufacturing facility, and then returned to the same farm for a second load. Each round-trip journey took between 10 and 12h, allowing for 2 loads per 24-h use period. Following the second delivery, the truck was cleaned by CIP treatment starting a new treatment day. Producer samples were collected from the raw milk bulk tank on the farm before loading milk into the tanker. The same milk was sampled directly out of the tanker truck before unloading at the manufacturer. Effect on individual bacteria count, thermophilic spore count, and preliminary incubation count was quantified through common industry tests. Surface sponge swabs were also used to monitor tanker sanitation and the efficacy of cleaning treatments. Results did not identify a negative effect on raw milk quality due to extended duration hauling. Whereas the addition of RS did not provide any measurable quality benefits for the microbial milk quality, swab results demonstrated that the RS treatment was able to reduce surface bacteria in the tanker, although not to the same level as the full CIP treatment. Based on this study, current CIP practices for long distance milk hauling appear to be effective in mitigating any measurable effect on raw milk quality. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Tank characterization report for double-shell tank 241-AP-102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LAMBERT, S.L.

    1999-01-01

    In April 1993, Double-Shell Tank 241-AP-102 was sampled to determine waste feed characteristics for the Hanford Grout Disposal Program. This Tank Characterization Report presents an overview of that tank sampling and analysis effort, and contains observations regarding waste characteristics, expected bulk inventory, and concentration data for the waste contents based on this latest sampling data and information on the history of the tank. Finally, this report makes recommendations and conclusions regarding tank operational safety issues

  1. The bacteriological quality of goat and ovine milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Bogdanovičová

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study concentrates on information concerning the microbiological hazards that can be present in raw milk from animal species other than cows. A total of 54 (23 of ovine and 31 of goat bulk tank milk samples from 10 farms in the Czech Republic were collected in years 2013 - 2014. The sampling was done at regular time intervals during the whole year, with five to eight samples collected from each of the 10 dairy farms involved in the study. All milk samples were collected into sterile sampling bottles and transported in a cooler sampling case to the laboratory for immediate examination. Farms were randomly selected to cover the whole area of the Czech Republic. The prevalence and characteristic of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes was studied. Raw cow's milk can be contaminated by E. coli intramammarily during clinical or subclinical mastitis and either directly through animal feces or indirectly during milk collection through farm employees or the milking equipment. E. coli was detected in 90.3% of the goat milk and 95.7% of the ovine milk samples. The genes encoding Shiga toxins 1 and 2- (stx1, stx2 were not detected and no STEC was identified. The Eae was the detected in 3 (4.6% isolates. S. aureus was detected in 9 (29.0% samples of goat milk and 8 (34.8% samples of ovine milk. A total 12 (57.1% enterotoxin positive S. aureus were obtained; 6 (28.6% were positive for the production of sec encoding enterotoxin SEC; in 4 (19.0% isolates the gene seh was detected; 2 (9.5% isolates were proven positive for seg (4.8% and combination seg and sei (4.8%. The presence of MRSA was not detected in the tested samples in our study. L. monocytogenes was detected in 1 (3.2% samples of goat milk and 1 (4.3% samples of ovine milk. The serotype (1/2a, 1/2b was detected in our study. Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. were not isolated from any of the samples. These results form

  2. 7 CFR 58.250 - Dry whole milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dry whole milk. 58.250 Section 58.250 Agriculture... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.250 Dry whole milk. Dry whole milk in commercial bulk... Grades of Dry Whole Milk. Quality requirements for dry whole milk in consumer packages shall be for U.S...

  3. In-field evaluation of clinoptilolite feeding efficacy on the reduction of milk aflatoxin M1 concentration in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis D. Katsoulos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinoptilolite is a natural zeolite with high adsorption capacity for polar mycotoxins such as aflatoxins. The efficacy of clinoptilolite in ameliorating the toxic effects of aflatoxicosis has been proven in monogastric animals, but there is no such evidence for ruminants. The aim of this study was to evaluate, under field conditions, whether the dietary administration of clinoptilolite in dairy cows could reduce the concentration of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 in bulk-tank milk, in farms with higher than or close to 0.05 μg/kg of milk (European maximum allowed residual level. An objective of the present study was also to investigate the effect of particle size of clinoptilolite on aflatoxin binding. Methods Fifteen commercial Greek dairy herds with AFM1 concentrations in bulk tank milk ≥0.05 μg/kg were selected. Bulk tank milk AFM1 was determined prior to the onset and on day 7 of the experiment. Clinoptilolite was added in the total mixed rations of all farms at the rate of 200 g per animal per day, throughout this period. Two different particle sizes of clinoptilolite were used; less than 0.15 mm in 9 farms (LC group and less than 0.8 mm in 6 farms (HC group. Results Clinoptilolite administration significantly reduced AFM1 concentrations in milk in all farms tested at an average rate of 56.2 % (SD: 15.11. The mean milk AFM1 concentration recorded on Day 7 was significantly (P < 0.001 lower compared to that of Day 0 (0.036 ± 0.0061 vs. 0.078 ± 0.0074 μg/kg. In LC group farms the reduction of milk AFM1 concentration was significantly higher than HC group farms (0.046 ± 0.0074 vs. 0.036 ± 0.0061 μg/kg, P = 0.002. As indicated by the Pearson correlation, there was a significant and strong linear correlation among the milk AFM1 concentrations on Days 0 and 7 (R = 0.95, P < 0.001. Conclusions Dietary administration of clinoptilolite, especially of smallest particle size, at the rate of

  4. Comparative analysis of the microbial communities in raw milk produced in different regions of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In Seon; Hur, Yoo Kyung; Kim, Eun Ji; Ahn, Young-Tae; Kim, Jong Geun; Choi, Yun-Jaie; Huh, Chul Sung

    2017-11-01

    The control of psychrotrophic bacteria causing milk spoilage and illness due to toxic compounds is an important issue in the dairy industry. In South Korea, Gangwon-do province is one of the coldest terrains in which eighty percent of the area is mountainous regions, and mainly plays an important role in the agriculture and dairy industries. The purposes of this study were to analyze the indigenous microbiota of raw milk in Gangwon-do and accurately investigate a putative microbial group causing deterioration in milk quality. We collected raw milk from the bulk tank of 18 dairy farms in the Hoengseong and Pyeongchang regions of Gangwon-do. Milk components were analyzed and the number of viable bacteria was confirmed. The V3 and V4 regions of 16S rRNA gene were amplified and sequenced on an Illumina Miseq platform. Sequences were then assigned to operational taxonomic units, followed by the selection of representative sequences using the QIIME software package. The milk samples from Pyeongchang were higher in fat, protein, lactose, total solid, and solid non-fat, and bacterial cell counts were observed only for the Hoengseong samples. The phylum Proteobacteria was detected most frequently in both the Hoengseong and Pyeongchang samples, followed by the phyla Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. Notably, Corynebacterium, Pediococcus, Macrococcus, and Acinetobacter were significantly different from two regions. Although the predominant phylum in raw milk is same, the abundances of major genera in milk samples were different between Hoengseong and Pyeongchang. We assumed that these differences are caused by regional dissimilar farming environments such as soil, forage, and dairy farming equipment so that the quality of milk raw milk from Pyeongchang is higher than that of Hoengseong. These results could provide the crucial information for identifying the microbiota in raw milk of South Korea.

  5. Evaluation of Brucella contamination in raw milk in Kerman dairy farms by PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khalili

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human brucellosis is a significant public health problem in many middle east countries including Iran. In endemic developing countries, dairy products produced from untreated milk are a potential threat to public health. The aim of this study was to detect brucellae in milk from dairy cattle farms in Kerman (Iran. Methods: Forthy and eight Bulk Tank Milk (BTM  were collected from 48 dairy cattle farm including 4200 cow. All milk samples were examined by PCR to detect Brucella-specific DNA. Results: Using IS711 primer were detected in 4 samples (8.3% Brucella spp from 48 BTM samples in this area.. Conclusions: The detection of Brucella DNA in milk for human consumption, especially the highly pathogenic species B. melitensis, is of obvious concern. The shedding of Brucella spp. in milk poses an increasing threat to consumers in Iran. Consumption of dairy products produced from non-pasteurized milk by individual farmers operating under poor hygienic conditions represents an unacceptable risk to public health.

  6. β-Galactosidase activity of commercial lactase samples in raw and pasteurized milk at refrigerated temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, T W; Dunn, M L; Eggett, D L; Ogden, L V

    2011-07-01

    Many consumers are unable to enjoy the benefits of milk due to lactose intolerance. Lactose-free milk is available but at about 2 times the cost of regular milk or greater, it may be difficult for consumers to afford. The high cost of lactose-free milk is due in part to the added cost of the lactose hydrolysis process. Hydrolysis at refrigerated temperatures, possibly in the bulk tank or package, could increase the flexibility of the process and potentially reduce the cost. A rapid β-galactosidase assay was used to determine the relative activity of commercially available lactase samples at different temperatures. Four enzymes exhibited low-temperature activity and were added to refrigerated raw and pasteurized milk at various concentrations and allowed to react for various lengths of time. The degree of lactose hydrolysis by each of the enzymes as a function of time and enzyme concentration was determined by HPLC. The 2 most active enzymes, as determined by the β-galactosidase assay, hydrolyzed over 98% of the lactose in 24h at 2°C using the supplier's recommended dosage. The other 2 enzymes hydrolyzed over 95% of the lactose in 24h at twice the supplier's recommended dosage at 2°C. Results were consistent in all milk types tested. The results show that it is feasible to hydrolyze lactose during refrigerated storage of milk using currently available enzymes. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A survey of aflatoxin M1 in cow milk in Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Hashemi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique was used to evaluate aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 levels in 168 samples of raw milk (135 samples and 33 samples from bulk tanks of farms and milk collection centers, respectively and 12 samples of pasteurized milk in Fars province, Southern Iran. AFM1 was found in 55.56% of the samples with a mean concentration of 21.31 ng/L. The concentration of AFM1 in raw milk samples from farms was significantly (p < 0.05 lower than that in samples from collection centers and pasteurized milk. The concentration of AFM1 was not influenced by season, location, or type of farm. The concentrations of AFM1 in all samples were lower than the Iranian national standard limit (100 ng/L, but in 30% of raw cow milk samples they were higher than the maximum tolerance limit accepted by the European Union (50 ng/L; therefore, more effort is needed to control AFM1 levels in milk produced in Southern Iran.

  8. ANALYSIS OF MILK QUALITY AND ITS IMPORTANCE FOR MILK PROCESSORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGATHA POPESCU

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to present some aspects regarding milk quality and its importance for milk processors , taking into account a study case at FLAV O’RICH DAIRY INC,USA. The study analyses how milk quality is checked from the bulk milk to final product according to the Milk Quality Program in force. The main aspects concerning raw milk selection criteria such as : antibiotic test, temperature, bacteria, organoleptic properties , acidity, somatic cell count , but also main milk components such as water, butterfat , total solids, protein, lactose , solids non fats , minerals, acids have been approached . Also a comparison for 7 butterfat producers for East Fluid Group has been done . Milk processing assures the destruction of human pathogens , the maintenance of product quality without significant loss of flavor, appearance, physical and nutritive properties and the selection of organisms which may produce unsatisfactory products.

  9. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157... OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo tank. (b...

  10. Milk Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... contain blood Abdominal cramps Runny nose Watery eyes Colic, in babies Milk allergy or milk intolerance? A ... fat milk, skim milk, buttermilk Butter Yogurt Ice cream, gelato Cheese and anything that contains cheese Half- ...

  11. Interspecies and seasonal differences of retinol in dairy ruminant´s milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Hodulová

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Milk is an essential source of macronutrients and among lipophilic vitamins is significant source of retinol. The contribution of milk to the reference daily intake for retinol varies from 11% to 16%, worldwide. The most consumed dairy products are fresh, dehydrated and condensed milk in which the amonuts of retinol are not modified to those of in whole milk. Retinol is essential to ensure a good functionality of the immune system and plays a critical role in vision, reproduction, cell differentiation as well as growth and development and is found only in animal tissues. The aim of our study was to evaluate the interspecies differences in the retinol concentration of whole raw bovine, caprine and ovine milk and to observe seasonal variation of retinol in bulk tank milk samples. Samples of raw milk were colleceted on different farms in the Czech Republic between 2013 and 2014. Retinol was measured by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (325 nm in isocratic mode after alkaline saponification with methanolic potassium hydroxide solution and liquid-liquid extraction into non polar organic solvent of whole raw milk. To avoid vitamin losses or degradation during the procedure, antioxidants were added to the sample extraction media. Our results indicate significant interspecies differences between bovine and ovine milk and caprine and ovine milk. Concentration of retinol is very similar in bovine and caprine milk 0.96 ±0.11 mg/L, 0.94 ±0.25 mg/L, respectively. The mean concentration in sheep´s milk is 1.75 ±0.24 mg/L. The seasonal variation of retinol in raw bovine milk was detected as high significant, with the highest concentration during winter. These results contribute to the nutrition evaluation of milk in the Czech Republic and indicate, that the sheep´s milk is the best source of retinol among the milks of ruminants kept in the Czech Republic, however it is not used in its fluid form for human consumption.

  12. The freezing point of raw and heat treated sheep milk and its variation during lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohumíra Janštová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The freezing point of milk is an important indicator of the adulteration of the milk with water, but heat treatment may also affect its value. The aim of this study was determine freezing point of raw and heat treated sheep milk and its variation during lactation. The freezing point was determined in 42 bulk tank raw sheep milk samples and 42 pasteurized milk samples collected during lactation of sheep at one ecofarm in Moravian Walachia (Valašsko in the Czech Republic. The freezing point was determined in accordance with the standard ČSN 57 0538 using a thermistor cryoscope. The average freezing point of raw milk was -0.617 ± 0.052 °C, with a range from -0.560 to -0.875 °C. The freezing point was lower in the first months of lactation and increased at the end of lactation. The freezing point correlated (r = 0.8967 with the content of total non-fat solids. The average freezing point of sheep milk pasteurized at 65 °C for 30 min was -0.614 ± 0.053 °C, with a range from -0.564 to -0.702 °C. The median of freezing point differences between raw and pasteurized milk was 0.004 °C. Our study extends data about physico-chemical properties of sheep milk and registers for the first time specific changes in the freezing point value of sheep milk by heating.

  13. Brucella contamination in raw milk by polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khalili

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human brucellosis is a significant public health problem in many middle east countries including Iran. Brucella organisms, which are small aerobic, facultative intracellular coccobacilli, localize in the reproductive organs of host animals, causing abortions and sterility. They are shed in large numbers in the animal’s urine, milk, placental fluid, and other fluids. Dairy product from raw milk are a potential threat to public health in endemic developing countries. The gold standard for the diagnosis of brucellosis is isolation of Brucella species. However, isolation Brucella species is time consuming and needed to level 3 biocontainment facilities and highly skilled technical personnel to handle samples and live bacteria for eventual identification. Handling Brucella species increase risk of laboratory infection. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR with high sensitivity and specifity overcomed to these disadvantages. The aim of this study was to detect Brucella species in milk from dairy cattle farms in Kerman province, Iran by PCR technique. Methods: Forty and eight bulk tank milk (BTM were collected from October 2015 to March 2016 from 48 dairy cattle farm including 4200 cows. DNA of milk samples extracted by lysis buffer and proteinase K method. All milk samples were examined by PCR to detect Brucella-specific DNA targeting IS 711. Positive samples must be showed 317 bp amplified, corresponding to the expected size of the IS 711 genome region in all Brucella species. Results: Using IS711 primer were detected in 4 samples (8.3% Brucella spp. from 48 BTM samples in this area. Conclusion: The results indicate that brucellosis by Brucella species is endemic in the Kerman province dairy farms. Consumption of raw milk dairy products by individual farmers operating under poor hygienic conditions represents an high risk to public health. The need for implementing control measures and raising public awareness on zoonotic transmission of

  14. Do farm audits improve milk quality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores-Miyamoto, A.; Reij, M.W.; Velthuis, A.G.J.

    2014-01-01

    Milk quality is assessed using bulk milk analysis and by farm audits in the Netherlands. However, the extent of the effect that dairy farm audits have on milk quality is unknown. Data from over 13,000 audits performed on 12,855 dairy farms from February 2006 to April 2008 were merged with laboratory

  15. Robotic milking and milk quality: effects on the cheese-making properties of milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Pirlo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Robotic milking systems (RMS modify dairy herd management and therefore some aspects of production. The mainresults from scientific literature on RMS and cheese-making properties have been reported. The decrease in fat content,as a consequence of the increased milking frequency, is generally confirmed. The lack of specific studies on creamingproperties of milk from robotic milking experiences and with different milking frequencies has been highlighted.Indications on clotting features were obtained with a different milking frequency in a traditional milking parlour; theseresults showed an improvement in the casein index of milk from three daily milkings. A reduction of casein exposure tothe plasminogen-plasmin complex activity in the mammary gland between two consecutive milkings seems to explainthis result. The effect of RMS on milk quality for cheese-making purposes was first evaluated in a two-year monitoringstudy in a herd representative of Po Valley dairy farms. Preliminary results from laboratory tests on bulk milk samplesindicate that milk from RMS seems suitable for cheese-making processes.

  16. Tank design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earle, F.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that aboveground tanks can be designed with innovative changes to complement the environment. Tanks can be constructed to eliminate the vapor and odor emanating from their contents. Aboveground tanks are sometimes considered eyesores, and in some areas the landscaping has to be improved before they are tolerated. A more universal concern, however, is the vapor or odor that emanates from the tanks as a result of the materials being sorted. The assertive posture some segments of the public now take may eventually force legislatures to classify certain vapors as hazardous pollutants or simply health risks. In any case, responsibility will be leveled at the corporation and subsequent remedy could increase cost beyond preventive measures. The new approach to design and construction of aboveground tanks will forestall any panic which might be induced or perceived by environmentalists. Recently, actions by local authorities and complaining residents were sufficient to cause a corporation to curtail odorous emissions through a change in tank design. The tank design change eliminated the odor from fuel oil vapor thus removing the threat to the environment that the residents perceived. The design includes reinforcement to the tank structure and the addition of an adsorption section. This section allows the tanks to function without any limitation and their contents do not foul the environment. The vapor and odor control was completed successfully on 6,000,000 gallon capacity tanks

  17. Microstructure of milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fat and protein in milk may be examined by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy, and any bacteria present may be viewed by light microscopy. The fat exists as globules, the bulk of the protein is in the form of casein micelles, a...

  18. Milk Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Milk Allergy KidsHealth / For Teens / Milk Allergy What's in this ... to find out. What Happens With a Milk Allergy? Food allergies involve the body's immune system, which ...

  19. Tanker milk variability according to farm feeding practices: vitamins A and E, carotenoids, color, and terpenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agabriel, C; Cornu, A; Journal, C; Sibra, C; Grolier, P; Martin, B

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this work was to study the variability in the composition of bulk milk mixtures of fat-soluble compounds (vitamins A and E, carotenoids, and terpenoids) and assess the links with milk production conditions. Milk from 10 collection trips in the French department of the Haute-Loire (10 to 36 herds per trip) was sampled in the tanker twice during the winter period and 3 times during the grazing season. The collection trips differed in their altitude (440 to 1,150 m) and the forage system (grass or based on corn silage). Vitamins A and E, carotenoids, and terpenoids of the 50 tanker loads of milk were analyzed. Data of milk production conditions in the 204 farms made it possible to constitute indicators for the collection trip and to define 50 mean herds. The relationships between mean herd characteristics (breed, stage of lactation, and feed) and milk characteristics were investigated. The constituents of tanker loads of milk were comparable to those observed in milk produced by groups of animals receiving contrasting diets (rich in concentrate or corn silage vs. pasture). The characteristics of the milk differed according to the period; those produced at grazing were more yellow (1.02 +/- 0.4; mean of difference) and richer in beta-carotene, lutein, vitamin E (2.0 +/- 1.2, 0.23 +/- 0.12, and 6.1 +/- 5.0 mug/g of fat, respectively), and sesquiterpenes (2.7 +/- 2.5) than winter. The variations observed for beta-carotene, lutein, and vitamin E were linked to the proportion of grazed grass or grass silage in the forage (r = 0.66, 0.69, and 0.51, respectively), unlike the vitamin A content. During grazing, 20 of the 32 terpenoids identified were associated with the proportion of permanent grassland available for grazing or cut. These results show that feeding is an effective way to modify the quality of dairy products, even in the case of bulk tank milk mixtures. Dairy plants could market different milks, which would contain specific compositions.

  20. Decay tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Seiichi; Tagishi, Akinori; Sakata, Yuji; Kontani, Koji; Sudo, Yukio; Kaminaga, Masanori; Kameyama, Iwao; Ando, Koei; Ishiki, Masahiko.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention concerns an decay tank for decaying a radioactivity concentration of a fluid containing radioactive material. The inside of an decay tank body is partitioned by partitioning plates to form a flow channel. A porous plate is attached at the portion above the end of the partitioning plate, that is, a portion where the flow is just turned. A part of the porous plate has a slit-like opening on the side close to the partitioning plate, that is, the inner side of the flow at the turning portion thereof. Accordingly, the primary coolants passed through the pool type nuclear reactor and flown into the decay tank are flow caused to uniformly over the entire part of the tank without causing swirling. Since a distribution in a staying time is thus decreased, the effect of decaying 16 N as radioactive nuclides in the primary coolants is increased even in a limited volume of the tank. (I.N.)

  1. Canadian National Dairy Study: Herd-level milk quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, C A; Barkema, H W; Dubuc, J; Keefe, G P; Kelton, D F

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate Canadian national milk quality parameters and estimate the bulk tank milk (BTM) prevalence of 4 mastitis pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Mycoplasma bovis, and Prototheca spp., on Canadian dairy farms. A questionnaire was sent to all Canadian dairy producers. Of the 1,062 producers who completed the questionnaire, 374 producers from across the country were visited and milking hygiene was assessed. Farm-level milk quality data for all Canadian dairy producers was collected from the provincial marketing boards and combined with the questionnaire and farm visit data. In addition, a BTM sample was collected either during the farm visit or by the marketing board in November of 2015 and was tested for 4 major mastitis pathogens using the PathoProof Mastitis Major 4 PCR Assay (Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc., Waltham, MA). Apparent herd-level prevalence was 46% for S. aureus, 6% for Prototheca spp., 0% for M. bovis, and 0% for Strep. agalactiae. Due to the low prevalence of M. bovis and Strep. agalactiae and a lack of significant factors associated with farms testing positive for Prototheca spp., an association analysis could only be carried out for Staph. aureus-positive farms. Factors associated with Staph. aureus-positive farms were not fore-stripping cows before milking (odds ratio = 1.87), milking with a pipeline system (odds ratio = 2.21), and stall bases made of a rubberized surface (mats and mattresses), whereas protective factors were using blanket dry cow therapy (odds ratio = 0.49) and applying a tag or visible mark on cows known to have chronic mastitis infections (odds ratio = 0.45). The Canadian national production-weighted geometric mean somatic cell count was determined to be 208,000 cells/mL. This is the first national dairy study conducted in Canada. Participating farms had higher milk yield; were more likely to have a loose housing system, parlor, or automated milking system; and had

  2. 46 CFR 154.188 - Membrane tank: Inner hull steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. 154.188 Section 154.188... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Hull Structure § 154.188 Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. For a vessel with membrane tanks, the inner hull...

  3. 46 CFR 154.235 - Cargo tank location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo tank location. 154.235 Section 154.235 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS... Survival Capability and Cargo Tank Location § 154.235 Cargo tank location. (a) For type IG hulls, cargo...

  4. SRS tank closure. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-08-01

    High-level waste (HLW) tank closure technology is designed to stabilize any remaining radionuclides and hazardous constituents left in a tank after bulk waste removal. Two Savannah River Site (SRS) HLW tanks were closed after cleansing and then filling each tank with three layers of grout. The first layer consists of a chemically reducing grout. The fill material has chemical properties that retard the movement of some radionuclides and chemical constituents. A layer of controlled low-strength material (CLSM), a self-leveling fill material, is placed on top of the reducing grout. CLSM provides sufficient strength to support the overbearing weight. The final layer is a free-flowing, strong grout similar to normal concrete. After the main tank cavity is filled, risers are filled with grout, and all waste transfer piping connected to the tank is isolated. The tank ventilation system is dismantled, and the remaining systems are isolated. Equipment that remains with the tank is filled with grout. The tank and ancillary systems are left in a state requiring only limited surveillance. Administrative procedures are in place to control land use and access. DOE eventually plans to remove all of its HLW storage tanks from service. These tanks are located at SRS, Hanford, and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Low-activity waste storage tanks at Oak Ridge Reservation are also scheduled for closure

  5. Important vectors for Listeria monocytogenes transmission at farm dairies manufacturing fresh sheep and goat cheese from raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoder, Dagmar; Melzner, Daniela; Schmalwieser, Alois; Zangana, Abdoulla; Winter, Petra; Wagner, Martin

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the transmission routs of Listeria spp. in dairy farms manufacturing fresh cheese made from ovine and caprine raw milk and to evaluate the impact of Listeria monocytogenes mastitis on raw milk contamination. Overall, 5,799 samples, including 835 environmental samples, 230 milk and milk product samples, and 4,734 aseptic half-udder foremilk samples were collected from 53 dairy farms in the dairy intensive area of Lower Austria. Farms were selected for the study because raw milk was processed to cheese that was sold directly to consumers. A total of 153 samples were positive for Listeria spp., yielding an overall prevalence of 2.6%; L. monocytogenes was found in 0.9% of the samples. Bulk tank milk, cheese, and half-udder samples were negative for Listeria spp. Because none of the sheep and goats tested positive from udder samples, L. monocytogenes mastitis was excluded as a significant source of raw milk contamination. L. monocytogenes was detected at 30.2% of all inspected farms. Swab samples from working boots and fecal samples had a significantly higher overall prevalence (P < 0.001) of L. monocytogenes (15.7 and 13.0%, respectively) than did swab samples from the milk processing environment (7.9%). A significant correlation was found between the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in the animal and in the milk processing environment and the silage feeding practices. Isolation of L. monocytogenes was three to seven times more likely from farms where silage was fed to animals throughout the year than from farms where silage was not fed to the animals.

  6. Nitrogen tank

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Wanted The technical file about the pressure vessel RP-270 It concerns the Nitrogen tank, 60m3, 22 bars, built in 1979, and installed at Point-2 for the former L3 experiment. If you are in possession of this file, or have any files about an equivalent tank (probably between registered No. RP-260 and -272), please contact Marc Tavlet, the ALICE Glimos.

  7. Safety evaluation for packaging transport of LSA-II liquids in MC-312 cargo tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlstrom, R.F.

    1996-09-11

    This safety evaluation for packaging authorizes the onsite transfer of bulk LSA-II radioactive liquids in the 222-S Laboratory Cargo Tank and Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility Cargo Tanks (which are U.S. Department of Transportation MC-312 specification cargo tanks) from their operating facilities to tank farm facilities.

  8. Safety evaluation for packaging (Onsite) transport of LSA-II liquids in MC-312 cargo tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlstrom, R.F.

    1996-01-01

    This safety evaluation for packaging authorizes the onsite transfer of bulk LSA-II radioactive liquids in the 222-S Laboratory Cargo Tank and Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility Cargo Tanks (which are U.S. Department of Transportation MC-312 specification cargo tanks) from their operating facilities to tank farm facilities

  9. Underground Storage Tanks - Storage Tank Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Storage Tank Location is a DEP primary facility type, and its sole sub-facility is the storage tank itself. Storage tanks are aboveground or underground, and are...

  10. Fate of ivermectin residues in ewes' milk and derived products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerkvenik, V.; Perko, B.; Rogelj, I.; Doganoc, D.Z.; Skubic, V.; Beek, W.M.J.; Keukens, H.J.

    2004-01-01

    The fate of ivermectin (IVM) residues was studied throughout the processing of daily bulk milk from 30 ewes (taken up to 33 d following subcutaneous administration of 0·2 mg IVM/kg b.w.) in the following milk products: yoghurt made from raw and pasteurized milk; cheese after pressing; 30- and 60-day

  11. Dual Tank Fuel System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Richard William; Burkhard, James Frank; Dauer, Kenneth John

    1999-11-16

    A dual tank fuel system has primary and secondary fuel tanks, with the primary tank including a filler pipe to receive fuel and a discharge line to deliver fuel to an engine, and with a balance pipe interconnecting the primary tank and the secondary tank. The balance pipe opens close to the bottom of each tank to direct fuel from the primary tank to the secondary tank as the primary tank is filled, and to direct fuel from the secondary tank to the primary tank as fuel is discharged from the primary tank through the discharge line. A vent line has branches connected to each tank to direct fuel vapor from the tanks as the tanks are filled, and to admit air to the tanks as fuel is delivered to the engine.

  12. Milk removal

    OpenAIRE

    Ferneborg, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Milk from dairy cows is a staple dietary component for humans all over the world. Regardless of whether milk is consumed in its purest, unaltered form or as high-end products such as fine cheese or ice cream, it needs to be of high quality when taken from the cow, produced at a low price and produced in a system that consider aspects such as animal health, animal welfare and sustainability. This thesis investigated the role of milk removal and the importance of residual milk on milk yield...

  13. Effects on goat milk quality of the presence of Mycoplasma spp. in herds without symptoms of contagious agalactia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fe, Christian; Sánchez, Antonio; Gutierrez, Aldo; Contreras, Antonio; Carlos Corrales, Juan; Assunçao, Patricia; Poveda, Carlos; Poveda, José B

    2009-02-01

    This study was designed to assess the possible effects of mycoplasmas on the quality of milk produced by goat herds in a contagious agalactia (CA) endemic area with absence of classical symptoms. Several factors related to milk quality (percentages of fat, total protein, lactose and total solids, standard plate counts (SPC) and presence of Staphylococcus aureus) were compared in mycoplasma-infected and non-infected herds. To define the CA status of 26 herds on the island of Lanzarote (Spain), where CA is endemic, 570 individual milk samples and 266 bulk tank milk (BTM) samples were microbiologically analysed for the presence of Mycoplasma spp. A herd was considered infected by mycoplasmas when at least a sample (individual or BTM) was positive. BTM samples were also used to determine milk quality parameters. Mycoplasma infection was confirmed in 13 herds. A total of 31, 10 and 11 strains of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides LC (MmmLC), Mp. agalactiae and Mp. capricolum subsp. capricolum were isolated. No significant differences were observed between the least square means of the variables fat, total protein, lactose and total solids or SPC recorded for the infected v. non-infected herds. The Staph. aureus status of a herd was also found to be independent of the presence of Mycoplasma spp. Our findings indicate that neither the presence of mycoplasmas in a goat herd with absence of classical symptoms seem to compromise the quality of the BTM.

  14. Spoilage of Microfiltered and Pasteurized Extended Shelf Life Milk Is Mainly Induced by Psychrotolerant Spore-Forming Bacteria that often Originate from Recontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Etienne V; Scherer, Siegfried; Wenning, Mareike

    2017-01-01

    Premature spoilage and varying product quality due to microbial contamination still constitute major problems in the production of microfiltered and pasteurized extended shelf life (ESL) milk. Spoilage-associated bacteria may enter the product either as part of the raw milk microbiota or as recontaminants in the dairy plant. To identify spoilage-inducing bacteria and their routes of entry, we analyzed end products for their predominant microbiota as well as the prevalence and biodiversity of psychrotolerant spores in bulk tank milk. Process analyses were performed to determine the removal of psychrotolerant spores at each production step. To detect transmission and recontamination events, strain typing was conducted with isolates obtained from all process stages. Microbial counts in 287 ESL milk packages at the end of shelf life were highly diverse ranging from shelf life is influenced only to a minor extent by raw-milk-associated factors. In contrast, recontamination with spores, particularly from the B. cereus complex, seems to occur. To enhance milk quality throughout the entire shelf life, improved plant sanitation and disinfection that target the elimination of spores are necessary.

  15. Cow's milk and goat's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turck, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Cow's milk is increasingly suggested to play a role in the development of chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders whereas goat's milk is advocated as having several health benefits. Cow's milk is a rich and cheap source of protein and calcium, and a valuable food for bone health. Despite their high content in saturated fats, consumption of full-fat dairy products does not seem to cause significant changes in cardiovascular disease risk variables. Early introduction of cow's milk is a strong negative determinant of iron status. Unmodified cow's milk does not meet nutritional requirements of infants although it is acceptable to add small volumes of cow's milk to complementary foods. Cow's milk protein allergy has a prevalence ranging from 2 to 7%, and the age of recovery is usually around 2-3 years. The evidence linking cow's milk intake to a later risk of type 1 diabetes or chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders (obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension) is not convincing. Milk probably protects against colorectal cancer, diets high in calcium are a probable cause of prostate cancer, and there is limited evidence suggesting that high consumption of milk and dairy products increases the risk for prostate cancer. There is no evidence to support the use of a cow's milk-free diet as a primary treatment for individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. Unmodified goat's milk is not suitable for infants because of the high protein and minerals content and of a low folate content. Goat's milk has no clear nutritional advantage over cow's milk and is not less allergenic. The European Food Safety Authority recently stated that proteins from goat's milk can be suitable as a protein source for infant and follow-on formula, provided the final product complies with the compositional criteria laid down in Directive 2006/141/EC. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Camel milk and milk products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Brezovečki

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Camel milk and camel milk products have always been highly esteemed playing even today an important role in the diet of the population in the rural areas of Africa, Asia and the Middle East, with scarce agricultural areas, high temperatures and small amount of precipitation. In aggravated environmental circumstances, camels may produce more milk than any other species, while their demand for food is very modest. A camel produces between 1000 and 2000 L of milk during the lactation period of 8 to 18 months, while the daily production of milk is between 3 and 10 L. The goal of the overview is to present the chemical composition of camel milk, and products made from camel milk. On average camel milk contains 81.4-87 % water, 10.4 % dry matter, 1.2-6.4 % milk fat, 2.15-4.90 % protein, 1.63-2.76 % casein, 0.65-0.80 % whey protein, 2.90-5.80 % lactose and 0.60-0.90 % ash. Variations in the contents of camel milk may be attributed to several factors such as analytical methods, geographical area, nutrition conditions, breed, lactation stage, age and number of calvings. Camel milk is becoming an increasingly interesting product in the world, not only for its good nutritive properties, but also for its interesting and tasteful products.

  17. A flow-cytometric gram-staining technique for milk-associated bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Claus; Jespersen, Lene

    2003-05-01

    A Gram-staining technique combining staining with two fluorescent stains, Oregon Green-conjugated wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) and hexidium iodide (HI) followed by flow-cytometric detection is described. WGA stains gram-positive bacteria while HI binds to the DNA of all bacteria after permeabilization by EDTA and incubation at 50 degrees C for 15 min. For WGA to bind to gram-positive bacteria, a 3 M potassium chloride solution was found to give the highest fluorescence intensity. A total of 12 strains representing some of the predominant bacterial species in bulk tank milk and mixtures of these were stained and analyzed by flow cytometry. Overall, the staining method showed a clear differentiation between gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial populations. For stationary-stage cultures of seven gram-positive bacteria and five gram-negative bacteria, an average of 99% of the cells were correctly interpreted. The method was only slightly influenced by the growth phase of the bacteria or conditions such as freezing at -18 degrees C for 24 h. For any of these conditions, an average of at least 95% of the cells were correctly interpreted. When stationary-stage cultures were stored at 5 degrees C for 14 days, an average of 86% of the cells were correctly interpreted. The Gram-staining technique was applied to the flow cytometry analysis of bulk tank milk inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. These results demonstrate that the technique is suitable for analyzing milk samples without precultivation.

  18. Tank Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    For NASA's Apollo program, McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company, Huntington Beach, California, developed and built the S-IVB, uppermost stage of the three-stage Saturn V moonbooster. An important part of the development task was fabrication of a tank to contain liquid hydrogen fuel for the stage's rocket engine. The liquid hydrogen had to be contained at the supercold temperature of 423 degrees below zero Fahrenheit. The tank had to be perfectly insulated to keep engine or solar heat from reaching the fuel; if the hydrogen were permitted to warm up, it would have boiled off, or converted to gaseous form, reducing the amount of fuel available to the engine. McDonnell Douglas' answer was a supereffective insulation called 3D, which consisted of a one-inch thickness of polyurethane foam reinforced in three dimensions with fiberglass threads. Over a 13-year development and construction period, the company built 30 tanks and never experienced a failure. Now, after years of additional development, an advanced version of 3D is finding application as part of a containment system for transporting Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) by ship.

  19. Tank characterization report for double-shell Tank 241-AW-105

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiCenso, A.T.; Amato, L.C.; Franklin, J.D.; Lambie, R.W.; Stephens, R.H.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-01-01

    In May 1990, double-shell Tank 241-AW-105 was sampled to determine proper handling of the waste, to address corrosivity and compatibility issues, and to comply with requirements of the Washington Administrative Code. This Tank Characterization Report presents an overview of that tank sampling and analysis effort, and contains observations regarding waste characteristics. It also addresses expected concentration and bulk inventory data for the waste contents based on this latest sampling data and background tank information. This report summarizes the available information regarding the waste in Tank 241-AW-105, and using the historical information to place the analytical data in context, arranges this information in a useful format for making management and technical decisions concerning this waste tank. In addition, conclusions and recommendations are given based on safety issues and further characterization needs

  20. Feed tank transfer requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover. Also, DOE and PC responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements are presented for two cases (i.e., tank modifications occurring before tank turnover and tank modification occurring after tank turnover). Finally, records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor are presented

  1. Feed tank transfer requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-09-16

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover. Also, DOE and PC responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements are presented for two cases (i.e., tank modifications occurring before tank turnover and tank modification occurring after tank turnover). Finally, records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor are presented.

  2. Colostrum and milk pasteurization improve health status and decrease mortality in neonatal calves receiving appropriate colostrum ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armengol, Ramon; Fraile, Lorenzo

    2016-06-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate if on-farm heat treatment of colostrum and bulk tank milk can improve calf health status and morbidity and mortality rates during the first 21d of life in neonatal Holstein calves receiving appropriate colostrum ingestion. A total of 587 calves were randomly assigned to 2 groups of males and females over 18mo. The nonpasteurized group (n=287, 143 males and 144 females) was fed frozen (-20°C) colostrum (6-8L during the first 12h of life) that was previously reheated up to 40°C. They were also fed refrigerated (4°C) raw milk from the bulk tank that was also reheated up to 40°C (1.8L every 12h). The pasteurized group (n=300, 150 males and 150 females) was also fed colostrum and milk, but both were pasteurized before freezing. Blood samples were drawn from all calves to obtain serum at 2 to 5d of life. Serum total protein (g/dL) was determined using a commercially available refractometer. Colostrum and milk underwent routine bacteriological analysis to determine total plate counts (cfu/mL) and total coliform counts (cfu/mL). All the calves underwent clinical examination every 24h during the first 21d of life. Every day, calves were clinically diagnosed either as being healthy or suffering from respiratory disease, neonatal calf diarrhea, or suffering other diseases. On-farm heat treatment for colostrum and milk reduced total plate counts and total coliform counts between 1 and 2 log10. Pasteurization of colostrum and milk significantly decreased the morbidity and mortality (5.2 and 2.8%) in comparison with calves receiving nonpasteurized colostrum and milk (15.0 and 6.5%), respectively, during the first 21d of life, even in animals receiving appropriate colostrum ingestion. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of the type of milking and storage of milk on the chem ical composition, Somatic Cell Count and bacterial count Total

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Leite Peixoto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The refrigeration of milk and the usage of mechanical milking are important to obtain milk in accordance with quality standards. In this work we evaluated the influence of the type of milking process and type of storage on the quality of the refrigerated milk. It was obtained 1363 refrigerated milk samples stored in single or collective expansion tanks, from manually or mechanically milked animals. The experiment was carried out in a 2x2 randomized factorial scheme. Two types of expansion tanks (single and collective and two types of milking (manual and mechanical. The average comparison test and Tukey test was carried out with 95% confidence. The levels of fat, protein, lactose and defatted dry extract, were evaluated according to the type of milking and type of milk storage. The values obtained were higher when compared to the values stabilished by the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply. The level of milk fat was higher in samples with somatic cell count above 501,000 SC/mL. However, the levels of protein and defatted dry extract were higher in samples with somatic cell count below 500,000 SC/mL. The type of milking and the type of storage have influence on parameters related to milk quality such as levels of fat, protein, lactose and somatic cell count. The milk chemical composition revealed in accordance with the values stabilished by the Brazilian legislation. The total bacterial count did not vary with storage type nor the type of milking.

  4. 27 CFR 24.168 - Identification of tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Construction and Equipment § 24.168 Identification of tanks. (a) General. Each tank, barrel, puncheon, or similar bulk container, used to ferment wine or used to process or store wine, spirits, or wine making materials will have the contents marked and will be marked as...

  5. MIXING OF INCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS IN WASTE TANKS TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SANDGREN, K.R.

    2006-01-01

    This document presents onsite radiological, onsite toxicological, and offsite toxicological consequences, risk binning, and control decision results for the mixing of incompatible materials in waste tanks representative accident. Revision 4 updates the analysis to consider bulk chemical additions to single shell tanks (SSTs)

  6. AX Tank Farm tank removal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    1999-02-24

    This report examines the feasibility of remediating ancillary equipment associated with the 241-AX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site. Ancillary equipment includes surface structures and equipment, process waste piping, ventilation components, wells, and pits, boxes, sumps, and tanks used to make waste transfers to/from the AX tanks and adjoining tank farms. Two remedial alternatives are considered: (1) excavation and removal of all ancillary equipment items, and (2) in-situ stabilization by grout filling, the 241-AX Tank Farm is being employed as a strawman in engineering studies evaluating clean and landfill closure options for Hanford single-shell tanks. This is one of several reports being prepared for use by the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project to explore potential closure options and to develop retrieval performance evaluation criteria for tank farms.

  7. Correlation between somatic cell count and chemical composition of cooled raw milk in properties of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Henrique do Nascimento Rangel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the damage caused by subclinical mastitis in loss of production and quality of milk, the present study aimed to verify the correlation between somatic cell count (SCC and the chemical composition of cooled raw milk collected in the Agreste region of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, in drought and rain seasons. Samples were collected in seven dairy farms during morning time, between January 2010 and March 2012, and sent to the Brazilian et of Milk Quality Laboratory (ESALQ/USP. The contents of protein, fat, lactose, casein, total solids, nonfat dry extract and urea nitrogen, besides of SCC and total bacterial count were performed. Data were submitted to analysis of variance, correlation analysis and comparison of means by Tuckey test , 5%. The average SCC was 604,000 cells/mL and had significant variation in the dry period (558 000 cells/mL and rainy (650 000 cells/mL. The SCC was positively correlated with fat and total solids but negatively with the lactose cow’s milk of bulk tank, regardless of the season in the Agreste of Rio Grande do Norte.

  8. Tank 241-U-203: Tank Characterization Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathyanarayana, P.

    1995-01-01

    The revised Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order states that a tank characterization plan will be developed for each double-shell tank and single-shell tank using the data quality objective process. The plans are intended to allow users and regulators to ensure their needs will be met and resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information. This document satisfies that requirement for Tank 241-U-203 sampling activities

  9. Use of molecular and milk production information for the cost-effective diagnosis of bovine viral diarrhoea infection in New Zealand dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, F I; Reichel, M P; Tisdall, D J

    2010-04-21

    An increase in veterinary and farmer interest in bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) in New Zealand over recent years led to requests for cost-effective identification of BVD virus (BVDV) infected herds and individuals. This study was undertaken to determine if the use of real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technology and dairy cow production data could identify persistently infected (PI) animals in milking herds. Milk samples were collected from the vats of dairy herds and tested for the presence of BVDV by RT-PCR till four herds were found containing PI animals. Individual serum samples were then collected from every cow in the herd and tested by both RT-PCR and antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ACE) to identify the PI animals. Individual animal testing found 1/223, 1/130, 2/800 and 1/275 PI's respectively in the four herds. Based on these results a maximum pool size of 400 cows contributing to the bulk tank milk was selected. After removal of the PI from the herds, further bulk milk samples were shown to be BVDV negative by RT-PCR. All the PI animals identified by this method were found in the lowest producing 10-20% of herd. This approach of targeted testing of dairy herds using PCR technology, in conjunction with animal production information, markedly reduced the cost of diagnostic testing for BVDV in dairy herds in New Zealand. Questionnaire follow-up on 81 BVDV-positive herds (15% of those tested) indicated the stratification approach identified milking PIs successfully over 90% of the time and reduced the number of individual tests to 12% of the milking herd. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Tank 241-BY-108 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1994-01-01

    The sampling and analytical needs associated with the 51 Hanford Site underground storage tanks classified on one or more of the four Watch Lists (ferrocyanide, organic, flammable gas, and high heat), and the safety screening of all 177 tanks have been identified through the Data Quality Objective (DQO) process. DQOs identity information needed by a program group in the Tank Waste Remediation System concerned with safety issues, regulatory requirements, or the transporting and processing of tank waste. This Tank Characterization Plan will identify characterization objectives for tank BY-108 pertaining to sample collection, sample preparation and analysis, and laboratory analytical evaluation and reporting requirements. In addition, an estimate of the current contents and status of the tank is given. Single-shell tank BY-108 is classified as a Ferrocyanide Watch List tank. The tank was declared an assumed leaker and removed from service in 1972; interim stabilized was completed in February 1985. Although not officially an Organic Watch List tank, restrictions have been placed on intrusive operations by Standing Order number-sign 94-16 (dated 09/08/94) since the tank is suspected to contain or to have contained a floating organic layer

  11. Milk Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... flavor Baked goods Caramel candies Chocolate Lactic acid starter culture and other bacterial cultures Luncheon meat, hot ... Cream of tartar Lactic acid (however, lactic acid starter culture may contain milk) Oleoresin Sodium lactate Sodium ...

  12. Engineering study of tank leaks related to hydraulic retrieval of sludge from tank 241-C-106

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, S.S.; Carlos, W.C.; Irwin, J.J.; Khaleel, R.; Kline, N.W.; Ludowise, J.D.; Marusich, R.M.; Rittman, P.D.

    1993-01-01

    This study evaluates hydraulic retrieval (sluicing) of the waste in single-shell tank 241-C-106 with respect to the likelihood of tank leaks, gross volumes of potential leaks, and their consequences. A description of hydraulic retrieval is developed to establish a baseline for the study. Leak models are developed based on postulated leak mechanisms to estimate the amount of waste that could potentially leak while sluicing. Transport models describe the movement of the waste constituents in the surrounding soil and groundwater after a leak occurs. Environmental impact and risk associated with tank leaks are evaluated. Transport of leaked material to the groundwater is found to be dependent on the rate of recharge of moisture in the soil for moderate-sized leaks. Providing a cover over the tank and surrounding area would eliminate the recharge. The bulk of any leaked material would remain in the vicinity of the tank for remedial action

  13. 49 CFR 172.330 - Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.330..., TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.330 Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a... material— (1) In a tank car unless the following conditions are met: (i) The tank car must be marked on...

  14. Potassium in milk and milk products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sombrito, E.Z.; Nuguid, Z.F.S.; Tangonan, M.C.

    1989-01-01

    The amount of potassium in imported processed milk was determined by gamma spectral analysis. The results show that the potassium content of diluted infant formula milk is closest to the reported mean concentration of potassium in human milk while other milk types have potassium values similar to the potassium content of cow milk. (Auth.). 2 figs., 5 refs

  15. Tank 241-BY-111 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homi, C.S.

    1994-01-01

    The sampling and analytical needs associated with the 51 Hanford Site underground storage tanks classified on one or more of the four Watch Lists (ferrocyanide, organic, flammable gas, and high heat), and the safety screening of all 177 tanks have been identified through the Data Quality Objective (DQO) process. DQO's identify information needed by a program group in the Tank Waste Remediation System concerned with safety issues, regulatory requirements, or the transporting and processing of tank waste. This Tank Characterization Plan will identify characterization objectives for Tank BY-111 pertaining to sample collection, sample preparation and analysis, and laboratory analytical evaluation and reporting requirements. In addition, an estimate of the current contents and status of the tank is given

  16. AX Tank Farm tank removal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    1998-01-01

    This report considers the feasibility of exposing, demolishing, and removing underground storage tanks from the 241-AX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site. For the study, it was assumed that the tanks would each contain 360 ft 3 of residual waste (corresponding to the one percent residual Inventory target cited in the Tri-Party Agreement) at the time of demolition. The 241-AX Tank Farm is being employed as a ''strawman'' in engineering studies evaluating clean and landfill closure options for Hanford single-shell tank farms. The report is one of several reports being prepared for use by the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project to explore potential closure options and to develop retrieval performance evaluation criteria for tank farms

  17. The impact of changes in the milk payment system and season on the hygienic quality of milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedat PAŠIĆ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this paper were to investigate the impact of changes in the milk payment system and the season on the hygienic quality of raw milk. The bulk cow’s milk samples were collected throughout the whole area of Bosnia and Herzegovina over the period of four years (2010-2013, from farms that deliver milk to the dairy industry. The total bacterial count (TBC was analysed in 52,999 milk samples and the somatic cell count (SCC in 53,363 milk samples. The results of the research showed that the proportion of bulk milk with the SCC < 300,000 mL-1 significantly increased in the observed period, as well as the proportion of farms that produce milk of EU quality (P < 0.05. The season had a significant effect (P < 0.05 on the SCC; in April the proportion of bulk milk with SCC < 300,000 mL-1 was significantly higher (P < 0.05. A significant increase (P < 0.05 in the proportion of milk with the TBC < 200,000 cfu∙mL -1 was perceived, as well as the proportion of farms which deliver that type of milk (P < 0.05. A Significant lower (P < 0.05 proportion of milk in the summer period with TBC < 200,000 cfu∙mL-1 was determined. It can be concluded that consistent appliance of regulations which determine the quality of milk, leads to the improvement of the hygienic quality of redeemed milk, as illustrated by the case of Bosnia and Herzegovina. This kind of milk payment system is important for both, the higher economic benefit of farms and the dairy processing industry.

  18. The effect of estrus synchronization treatments on somatic cell count of transitional-anestrus Awassi ewes' milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talafha, A Q; Lafi, S Q; Ababneh, M M

    2009-02-01

    Fifty-three transitional-anestrus Awassi ewes, randomly assigned to three groups: fluorogestone acetate (FGA, n = 18), FGA-Prostaglandin (FGA-PGF, n = 18) and control (n = 17), were used to examine the effect of estrus synchronization protocols and steroid hormones concentrations on milk somatic cell count (SCC). Intravaginal FGA sponge was inserted for 13 days and 600 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin was administered for ewes of FGA and FGA-PGF groups at the time of sponge removal (day 0). In addition, 10 mg was administered to ewes of FGA-PGF group on day 0. Blood and milk samples were collected from all ewes on days -13, -6, 0, 1, 2, 7 and 14. Estradiol had significant positive correlation with the SCC during the periods of sponge insertion (P = 0.015, r = 0.235) and within two days (P = 0.063 r = 0.23) after sponge removal with no correlation with SCC of both udder halves during the luteal phase. Progesterone concentrations, on the other hand, had a significant positive correlation (P progesterone on days 7 and 14 to pre-synchronization values. In conclusion, sheep milk SCC is affected significantly with induction of estrus and steroid hormones concentrations. However, peak SCC recorded during estrus was far below the upper limit of the current standard for normal milk. With the current standards for SCC of 1,000,000/ml as legal limit for abnormal milk control programs in sheep, estrus synchronization programs and the estrus status should not be considered when bulk-tank milk SCC is being investigated, but should be considered during the process of setting new standards.

  19. PRESENCE OF ENTEROCOCCI IN COW MILK AND THEIR ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Kročko

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Enterococci represent an important part of contaminate microflora in raw milk and dairy products. They constitute significant part of nosocomial pathogens with a remarkable capacity of expressing resistance to several antimicrobial  agents. We aimed to assess occurrence and antibiotic resistance of enterococci in the raw milk samples and pasteurized milk samples. In this study total bacterial count, psychrotrophic count and count of enterococci were determine in raw milk cistern samples, storage tank milk samples and milk samples after pasteurization. A collection of 46 enterococcal isolates were identified and screened for their antibiotic resistance. Isolates of E. faecalis were dominant in raw milk samples (56.5 %. Sensitive to teicoplanine (30 mcg/disk were 97.9 % of enterococcal isolates and 15.2 % isolates were resistant to vankomycin (30 mcg/disk.  

  20. 46 CFR 153.900 - Certificates and authorization to carry a bulk liquid hazardous material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ship must have a Subchapter D or I Certificate of Inspection that is endorsed to allow the cargo tank... requirements for the bulk liquid cargo; and (2) The ship— (i) Has a Certificate of Inspection, Certificate of...) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS...

  1. Spoilage potential of Pseudomonas species isolated from goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scatamburlo, T M; Yamazi, A K; Cavicchioli, V Q; Pieri, F A; Nero, L A

    2015-02-01

    Pseudomonas spp. are usually associated with spoilage microflora of dairy products due to their proteolytic potential. This is of particular concern for protein-based products, such as goat milk cheeses and fermented milks. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to characterize the proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. isolated from goat milk. Goat milk samples (n=61) were obtained directly from bulk tanks on dairy goat farms (n=12), and subjected to a modified International Organization for Standardization (ISO) protocol to determine the number and proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. Isolates (n=82) were obtained, identified by PCR, and subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with XbaI macro-restriction. Then, the isolates were subjected to PCR to detect the alkaline protease gene (apr), and phenotypic tests were performed to check proteolytic activity at 7°C, 25°C, and 35°C. Mean Pseudomonas spp. counts ranged from 2.9 to 4.8 log cfu/mL, and proteolytic Pseudomonas spp. counts ranged from 1.9 to 4.6 log cfu/mL. All isolates were confirmed to be Pseudomonas spp., and 41 were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens, which clustered into 5 groups sharing approximately 82% similarity. Thirty-six isolates (46.9%) were positive for the apr gene; and 57 (69.5%) isolates presented proteolytic activity at 7°C, 82 (100%) at 25°C, and 64 (78%) at 35°C. The isolates were distributed ubiquitously in the goat farms, and no relationship among isolates was observed when the goat farms, presence of apr, pulsotypes, and proteolytic activity were taken into account. We demonstrated proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. present in goat milk by phenotypic and genotypic tests and indicated their spoilage potential at distinct temperatures. Based on these findings and the ubiquity of Pseudomonas spp. in goat farm environments, proper monitoring and control of Pseudomonas spp. during production are critical. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association

  2. Mediterranean milk and milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichs, Jörg

    2004-03-01

    Milk and dairy products are part of a healthy Mediterranean diet which, besides cow's milk, also consists of sheep's, goat's and buffalo's milk--alone or as a mixture---as raw material. The fat and protein composition of the milk of the various animal species differs only slightly, but in every case it has a high priority in human nutrition. The milk proteins are characterized by a high content of essential amino acids. Beyond that macromolecules,which have various biological functions, are available or may be formed by proteolysis in milk. Taking this into consideration, the technology of different well-known Italian and German cheese types is presented and the differences as well as correspondences regarding nutrition are discussed. Especially Ricotta and Mascarpone are discussed in detail. Ricotta represents a special feature as this cheese is traditionally made of whey and cream. Thus the highly valuable whey proteins which contain a higher amount of the amino acids lysine, methionine and cysteic acid in comparison to casein and, additionally, to soy protein, are made usable for human nutrition. Finally, it is pointed out on the basis of individual examples that technologies to enrich whey proteins in cheese are already available and in use. Thus, the flavor of low fat cheese is improved and the nutritional value is increased.

  3. Cow's milk and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milk and children; Cow's milk allergy - children; Lactose intolerance - children ... You may have heard that cow's milk should not be given to babies younger than 1 year old. This is because cow's milk doesn't provide enough ...

  4. Hanford Tank Cleanup Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berriochoa, M.V.

    2011-01-01

    Access to Hanford's single-shell radioactive waste storage tank C-107 was significantly improved when workers completed the cut of a 55-inch diameter hole in the top of the tank. The core and its associated cutting equipment were removed from the tank and encased in a plastic sleeve to prevent any potential spread of contamination. The larger tank opening allows use of a new more efficient robotic arm to complete tank retrieval.

  5. Tank 241-C-103 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    The data quality objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used to identify the sampling analytical needs for the resolution of safety issues. A Tank Characterization Plant (TCP) will be developed for each double shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process. There are four Watch list tank classifications (ferrocyanide, organic salts, hydrogen/flammable gas, and high heat load). These classifications cover the six safety issues related to public and worker health that have been associated with the Hanford Site underground storage tanks. These safety issues are as follows: ferrocyanide, flammable gas, organic, criticality, high heat, and vapor safety issues. Tank C-103 is one of the twenty tanks currently on the Organic Salts Watch List. This TCP will identify characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, hot cell sample isolation, and laboratory analytical evaluation and reporting requirements in accordance with the appropriate DQO documents. In addition, the current contents and status of the tank are projected from historical information. The relevant safety issues that are of concern for tanks on the Organic Salts Watch List are: the potential for an exothermic reaction occurring from the flammable mixture of organic materials and nitrate/nitrite salts that could result in a release of radioactive material and the possibility that other safety issues may exist for the tank

  6. Tank 241-AW-101 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathyanarayana, P.

    1994-01-01

    The first section gives a summary of the available information for Tank AW-101. Included in the discussion are the process history and recent sampling events for the tank, as well as general information about the tank such as its age and the risers to be used for sampling. Tank 241-AW-101 is one of the 25 tanks on the Flammable Gas Watch List. To resolve the Flammable Gas safety issue, characterization of the tanks, including intrusive tank sampling, must be performed. Prior to sampling, however, the potential for the following scenarios must be evaluated: the potential for ignition of flammable gases such as hydrogen-air and/or hydrogen-nitrous oxide; and the potential for secondary ignition of organic-nitrate/nitrate mixtures in crust layer initiated by the burning of flammable gases or by a mechanical in-tank energy source. The characterization effort applicable to this Tank Characterization Plan is focused on the resolution of the crust burn flammable gas safety issue of Tank AW-101. To evaluate the potential for a crust burn of the waste material, calorimetry tests will be performed on the waste. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) will be used to determine whether an exothermic reaction exists

  7. Radiating school milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    School milk is milk delivered by a separate distribution network to schools and sold there at reduced prices. Radioactivities of these school milk have been sampled and compared to the milk sold in the usual shops. It turns out that the school milk is frequently more active than the ordinary milk: this is critisized. (qui)

  8. Tank characterization report for single-shell tank 241-T-104

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiCenso, A.T.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-01-01

    In August 1992, Single-Shell Tank 241-T-104 was sampled to determine proper handling of the waste, to address corrosivity and compatibility issues, and to comply with requirements of the Washington Administrative Code (Ecology, 1991). This Tank Characterization Report presents an overview of that tank sampling and analysis effort, and contains observations regarding waste characteristics. It also addresses expected concentration and bulk inventory data for the waste contents based on this latest sampling data and background tank information. The purpose of this report is to describe and characterize the waste in Single-Shall Tank 241-T-104 (hereafter, Tank 241-T-104) based on information given from various sources. This report summarizes the available information regarding the waste in Tank 241-T-104, and using the historical information to place the analytical data in context, arranges this information in a useful format for making management and technical decisions concerning this waste tank. In addition, conclusions and recommendations are given based on safety issues and further characterization needs

  9. Tank characterization report for single-shell tank 241-S-104

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiCenso, A.T.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-01-01

    In July and August 1992, Single-Shell Tank 241-S-104 was sampled as part of the overall characterization effort directed by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Sampling was also performed to determine proper handling of the waste, to address corrosivity and compatibility issues, and to comply with requirements of the Washington Administrative Code. This Tank Characterization Report presents an overview of that tank sampling and analysis effort, and contains observations regarding waste characteristics. It also presents expected concentration and bulk inventory data for the waste contents based on this latest sampling data and background historical and surveillance tank information. Finally, this report makes recommendations and conclusions regarding operational safety. The purpose of this report is to describe the characteristics the waste in Single-Shell Tank 241-S-104 (hereafter, Tank 241-S-104) based on information obtained from a variety of sources. This report summarizes the available information regarding the chemical and physical properties of the waste in Tank 241-S-104, and using the historical information to place the analytical data in context, arranges this information in a format useful for making management and technical decisions concerning waste tank safety and disposal issues. In addition, conclusions and recommendations are presented based on safety issues and further characterization needs

  10. Performances in Tank Cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanel-Viorel Panaitescu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There are several operations which must do to maximize the performance of tank cleaning. The new advanced technologies in tank cleaning have raised the standards in marine areas. There are many ways to realise optimal cleaning efficiency for different tanks. The evaluation of tank cleaning options means to start with audit of operations: how many tanks require cleaning, are there obstructions in tanks (e.g. agitators, mixers, what residue needs to be removed, are cleaning agents required or is water sufficient, what methods can used for tank cleaning. After these steps, must be verify the results and ensure that the best cleaning values can be achieved in terms of accuracy and reliability. Technology advancements have made it easier to remove stubborn residues, shorten cleaning cycle times and achieve higher levels of automation. In this paper are presented the performances in tank cleaning in accordance with legislation in force. If tank cleaning technologies are effective, then operating costs are minimal.

  11. Tank 244A tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    The Double-Shell Tank (DST) System currently receives waste from the Single-Shell Tank (SST) System in support of SST stabilization efforts or from other on-site facilities which generate or store waste. Waste is also transferred between individual DSTs. The mixing or commingling of potentially incompatible waste types at the Hanford Site must be addressed prior to any waste transfers into the DSTs. The primary goal of the Waste Compatibility Program is to prevent the formation of an Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) as a result of improper waste management. Tank 244A is a Double Contained Receiver Tank (DCRT) which serves as any overflow tank for the East Area Farms. Waste material is able to flow freely between the underground storage tanks and tank 244A. Therefore, it is necessary to test the waste in tank 244A for compatibility purposes. Two issues related to the overall problem of waste compatibility must be evaluated: Assurance of continued operability during waste transfer and waste concentration and Assurance that safety problems are not created as a result of commingling wastes under interim storage. The results of the grab sampling activity prescribed by this Tank Characterization Plan shall help determine the potential for four kinds of safety problems: criticality, flammable gas accumulation, energetics, and corrosion and leakage

  12. Theoretical comparison between solar combisystems based on bikini tanks and tank-in-tank solar combisystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanshenas, Eshagh; Furbo, Simon; Bales, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical investigations have shown that solar combisystems based on bikini tanks for low energy houses perform better than solar domestic hot water systems based on mantle tanks. Tank-in-tank solar combisystems are also attractive from a thermal performance point of view. In this paper......, theoretical comparisons between solar combisystems based on bikini tanks and tank-in-tank solar combisystems are presented....

  13. Protein, casein and micellar salts in milk: Current content and historical perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, E.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.; Huppertz, T.; Hooijdonk, van A.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    The protein and fat content of Dutch bulk milk has been monitored since the 1950s and has increased considerably, by 11 and 20%, respectively, whereas milk yield has more than doubled. The change in protein and fat content of milk is advantageous for the dairy industry, as these are the 2 most

  14. Microencapsulation of babassu coconut milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audirene Amorim Santana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to obtain babassu coconut milk powder microencapsulated by spray drying process using gum Arabic as wall material. Coconut milk was extracted by babassu peeling, grinding (with two parts of water, and vacuum filtration. The milk was pasteurized at 85 ºC for 15 minutes and homogenized to break up the fat globules, rendering the milk a uniform consistency. A central composite rotatable design with a range of independent variables was used: inlet air temperature in the dryer (170-220 ºC and gum Arabic concentration (10-20%, w/w on the responses: moisture content (0.52-2.39%, hygroscopicity (6.98-9.86 g adsorbed water/100g solids, water activity (0.14-0.58, lipid oxidation (0.012-0.064 meq peroxide/kg oil, and process yield (20.33-30.19%. All variables influenced significantly the responses evaluated. Microencapsulation was optimized for maximum process yield and minimal lipid oxidation. The coconut milk powder obtained at optimum conditions was characterized in terms of morphology, particle size distribution, bulk and absolute density, porosity, and wettability.

  15. Milk Thistle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Grants and Contracts General Award Mechanisms Small Business Research Grant Program (SBIR) Funding for: Natural Product Research ... Festi D. Silybin and the liver: from basic research to clinical practice. World Journal of Gastroenterology. 2011;17(18):2288-2301. Milk ...

  16. Milk Money

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China’s leading food company has expanded its business into the dairy industry A combined financial venture between China’s largest agricultural trading and processing company and a private equity firm formed to milk profits from the dairy business has led to

  17. Tank 241-U-111 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-U-111

  18. Tank 241-T-111 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-T-111

  19. Tank 241-U-103 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-U-103

  20. Tank 241-TX-118 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-TX-118

  1. Tank 241-BX-104 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-BX-104

  2. Tank 241-TY-101 Tank Characterization Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-TY-101

  3. Tank 241-T-107 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-T-107

  4. Tank 241-TX-105 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-TX-105

  5. Tank car leaks gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    On January 27, 1994, a Canadian National (CN) tank car loaded with gasoline began to leak from a crack in the tank shell on the end of the car near the stub sill. The tank car had been damaged from impact switching. A part of the tank car was sent for laboratory analysis which concluded that: (1) the fracture originated in two locations in welds, (2) the cracks propagated in a symmetrical manner and progressed into the tank plate, (3) the fracture surface revealed inadequate weld fusion. A stress analysis of the tank car was conducted to determine the coupling force necessary to cause the crack. It was noted that over the last decade several problems have occurred pertaining to stub sill areas of tank cars that have resulted in hazardous material spills. An advisory was sent to Transport Canada outlining many examples where tank cars containing serious defects had passed CN inspections that were specifically designed to identify such defects. 4 figs

  6. Bulk oil clauses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gough, N.

    1993-01-01

    The Institute Bulk Oil Clauses produced by the London market and the American SP-13c Clauses are examined in detail in this article. The duration and perils covered are discussed, and exclusions, adjustment clause 15 of the Institute Bulk Oil Clauses, Institute War Clauses (Cargo), and Institute Strikes Clauses (Bulk Oil) are outlined. (UK)

  7. RESEARCH REGARDING THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF POWDER MILK WITH NUTRIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Giurgiulescu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Powdered milk is a manufactured dairy product made by evaporating milk to dryness. This product has incomposition powder apple, powder carrots, rice flour and corn flour, vitamins, minerals.One purpose of drying milk is to preserve it; milk powder has a far longer self life than liquid milk and does notneed to be refrigerated, due to its low moisture content. Another purpose is to reduce its bulk for economy oftransportation. Milk powders contain all twenty standards amino acids and are high insoluble vitamins and minerals.The typical average amounts of major nutrients in the un reconstituted in 100 g milk are (by weight 12,7g protein,68,2g carbohydrates (predominantly lactose, calcium 427g , potassium g, vitamins11g, Inappropriate storageconditions (high relative humidity and high ambient temperature can significantly degrade the nutritive value ofmilk powder.

  8. 46 CFR 153.488 - Design and equipment for tanks carrying high melting point NLSs: Category B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS... equipment for tanks carrying high melting point NLSs: Category B. Unless waived under § 153.491, for a ship to have its Certificate of Inspection or Certificate of Compliance endorsed allowing a tank to carry...

  9. Tank 241-AZ-101 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has advised the DOE to concentrate the near-term sampling and analysis activities on identification and resolution of safety issues. The Data Quality Objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used in the resolution of safety issues. As a result, A revision in the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestone M-44 has been made, which states that ''A Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) will also be developed for each double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process. Development of TCPs by the DQO process is intended to allow users to ensure their needs will be met and that resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information''. This document satisfies that requirement for Tank 241-AZ-101 (AZ-101) sampling activities. Tank AZ-101 is currently a non-Watch List tank, so the only DQOs applicable to this tank are the safety screening DQO and the compatibility DQO, as described below. The contents of Tank AZ-101, as of October 31, 1994, consisted of 3,630 kL (960 kgal) of dilute non-complexed waste and aging waste from PUREX (NCAW, neutralized current acid waste). Tank AZ-101 is expected to have two primary layers. The bottom layer is composed of 132 kL of sludge, and the top layer is composed of 3,500 kL of supernatant, with a total tank waste depth of approximately 8.87 meters

  10. Tank 241-AZ-102 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has advised the DOE to concentrate the near-term sampling and analysis activities on identification and resolution of safety issues. The Data Quality Objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used in the resolution of safety issues. As a result, a revision in the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestone M-44 has been made, which states that ''A Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) will also be developed for each double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process ... Development of TCPs by the DQO process is intended to allow users to ensure their needs will be met and that resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information''. This document satisfies that requirement for tank 241-AZ-102 (AZ-102) sampling activities. Tank AZ-102 is currently a non-Watch List tank, so the only DQOs applicable to this tank are the safety screening DQO and the compatibility DQO, as described below. The current contents of Tank AZ-102, as of October 31, 1994, consisted of 3,600 kL (950 kgal) of dilute non-complexed waste and aging waste from PUREX (NCAW, neutralized current acid waste). Tank AZ-102 is expected to have two primary layers. The bottom layer is composed of 360 kL of sludge, and the top layer is composed of 3,240 kL of supernatant, with a total tank waste depth of approximately 8.9 meters

  11. Think Tanks in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Jesper Dahl

    in their national contexts. Questions regarding patterns and differences in think tank organisations and functions across countries have largely been left unanswered. This paper advances a definition and research design that uses different expert roles to categorise think tanks. A sample of 34 think tanks from...

  12. Feed tank transfer requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover; DOE responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements; records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor for use during Phase 1B

  13. Underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental contamination from leaking underground storage tanks poses a significant threat to human health and the environment. An estimated five to six million underground storage tanks containing hazardous substances or petroleum products are in use in the US. Originally placed underground as a fire prevention measure, these tanks have substantially reduced the damages from stored flammable liquids. However, an estimated 400,000 underground tanks are thought to be leaking now, and many more will begin to leak in the near future. Products released from these leaking tanks can threaten groundwater supplies, damage sewer lines and buried cables, poison crops, and lead to fires and explosions. As required by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA), the EPA has been developing a comprehensive regulatory program for underground storage tanks. The EPA proposed three sets of regulations pertaining to underground tanks. The first addressed technical requirements for petroleum and hazardous substance tanks, including new tank performance standards, release detection, release reporting and investigation, corrective action, and tank closure. The second proposed regulation addresses financial responsibility requirements for underground petroleum tanks. The third addressed standards for approval of state tank programs

  14. 7 CFR 1032.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... described in § 1032.7(a), (b) or (i) less any transfer or diversion of bulk fluid milk products from such... classification and pricing program imposed under the authority of a State government maintaining marketwide... the 125 percent limitation: (i) For a new handler on the order, subject to the provisions of paragraph...

  15. Covariance among milking frequency, milk yield, and milk composition from automatically milked cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvendahl, Peter; Chagunda, G G

    2011-01-01

    Automatic milking systems allow cows voluntary access to milking and concentrates within set limits. This leads to large variation in milking intervals, both within and between cows, which further affects yield per milking and composition of milk. This study aimed to describe the degree to which ...

  16. Tank 241-B-103 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) has advised the US Department of Energy (DOE) to concentrate the near-term sampling and analysis activities on identification and resolution of safety issues. The data quality objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used to identify sampling and analytical needs for the resolution of safety issues. As a result, a revision in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement or TPA) milestone M-44-00 has been made, which states that ''A Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) will also be developed for each double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process... Development of TCPs by the DQO process is intended to allow users (e.g., Hanford Facility user groups, regulators) to ensure their needs will be met and that resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information.'' This document satisfies that requirement for Tank 241-B-103 (B-103) sampling activities. Tank B-103 was placed on the Organic Watch List in January 1991 due to review of TRAC data that predicts a TOC content of 3.3 dry weight percent. The tank was classified as an assumed leaker of approximately 30,280 liters (8,000 gallons) in 1978 and declared inactive. Tank B-103 is passively ventilated with interim stabilization and intrusion prevention measures completed in 1985

  17. Fuel storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peehs, M.; Stehle, H.; Weidinger, H.

    1979-01-01

    The stationary fuel storage tank is immersed below the water level in the spent fuel storage pool. In it there is placed a fuel assembly within a cage. Moreover, the storage tank has got a water filling and a gas buffer. The water in the storage tank is connected with the pool water by means of a filter, a surge tank and a water purification facility, temperature and pressure monitoring being performed. In the buffer compartment there are arranged catalysts a glow plugs for recombination of radiolysis products into water. The supply of water into the storage tank is performed through the gas buffer compartment. (DG) [de

  18. Longitudinal relationship between fecal culture, fecal quantitative PCR, and milk ELISA in Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis-infected cows from low-prevalence dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, A; Sweeney, R W; Hovingh, E; Wolfgang, D R; Gröhn, Y T; Schukken, Y H

    2017-09-01

    samples and the complete absence of detectable MAP in the bulk tank throughout the study period indicate that contamination of milk with MAP may not be of chief concern in low-prevalence herds. An enhanced understanding of the interrelationships between diagnostic tests can only benefit the development of testing strategies and objectives, which in turn may lessen MAP infection prevalence in dairy herds. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Tank 241-A-104 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of auger samples from tank 241-A-104. This Tank Characterization Plan will identify characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, hot cell sample isolation, and laboratory analytical evaluation and reporting requirements in addition to reporting the current contents and status of the tank as projected from historical information

  20. WWTP Process Tank Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Jesper

    The present thesis considers numerical modeling of activated sludge tanks on municipal wastewater treatment plants. Focus is aimed at integrated modeling where the detailed microbiological model the Activated Sludge Model 3 (ASM3) is combined with a detailed hydrodynamic model based on a numerical...... solution of the Navier-Stokes equations in a multiphase scheme. After a general introduction to the activated sludge tank as a system, the activated sludge tank model is gradually setup in separate stages. The individual sub-processes that are often occurring in activated sludge tanks are initially...... hydrofoil shaped propellers. These two sub-processes deliver the main part of the supplied energy to the activated sludge tank, and for this reason they are important for the mixing conditions in the tank. For other important processes occurring in the activated sludge tank, existing models and measurements...

  1. Microbiological Quality of Raw Goat Milk in Bogor, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Taufik

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Milk samples were investigated for counts and prevalence of indicator bacteria, which were TPC, coliforms, coagulase positive Staphylococci (CPS, and coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS. Ten potential risk factors were also evaluated in relation to the prevalence of indicator bacteria. The results showed that the median values of indicator bacterial counts from overall udder-half milk samples were 3.74, 0.70, 1.70, and 2.52 log cfu/ml and from bulk milk samples were 5.69, 2.98, 3.66 and 3.32 log cfu/ml for TPC, coliforms, CPS, and CNS, respectively. None of the median values of overall udder-half milk samples exceeded the maximum limit of the standards for all indicator bacteria. However, in the bulk milk samples only the median value of TPC below the maximum limit of the standards. Overall prevalence of coliforms, CPS and CNS from udder-half milk samples were 46.3%, 37.7%, and 66.0%, respectively, and from bulk milk samples were 86.7%, 76.7%, and 86.7%, respectively. Saanen crossbreed, fifth parity and udders with inflammation were found to be risk factors. This study results indicated that the hygienic practices in the dairy goat farms are still need to be increased. To increase the hygienic level of the milk, the identified significant risk factors must be controlled.

  2. Tank 241-AP-104 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-11-01

    This document is a plan that identifies the information needed to address relevant issues concerning short-term and long-term safe storage and long-term management of Double-Shell Tank (DST) 241-AP-104

  3. Tank 241-C-107 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) has advised the US Department of Energy (DOE) to concentrate the near-term sampling and analysis activities on identification and resolution of safety issues. The data quality objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used to identify sampling and analytical needs for the resolution of safety issues. As a result, a revision in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement or TPA) milestone M-44-00 has been made, which states that ''A Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) will also be developed for each double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process... Development of TCPs by the DQO process is intended to allow users (e.g., Hanford Facility user groups, regulators) to ensure their needs will be met and that resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information.'' This document satisfies that requirement for the Tank 241-C-107 (C-107) sampling activities. Currently tank C-107 is categorized as a sound, low-heat load tank with partial isolation completed in December 1982. The tank is awaiting stabilization. Tank C-107 is expected to contain three primary layers of waste. The bottom layer should contain a mixture of the following wastes: ion exchange, concentrated phosphate waste from N-Reactor, Hanford Lab Operations, strontium semi-works, Battelle Northwest, 1C, TBP waste, cladding waste, and the hot semi-works. The middle layer should contain strontium recovery supernate. The upper layer should consist of non-complexed waste

  4. Tank SY-102 remediation project: Flowsheet and conceptual design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarbro, S.L.; Punjak, W.A.; Schreiber, S.B.; Dunn, S.L.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Marsh, S.F.; Pope, N.G.; Agnew, S.; Birnbaum, E.R.; Thomas, K.W.; Ortic, E.A.

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) to safely manage and dispose of radioactive waste stored in underground tanks on the Hanford Site. A major program in TWRS is pretreatment which was established to process the waste prior to disposal. Pretreatment is needed to resolve tank safety issues and to separate wastes into high-level and low-level fractions for subsequent immobilization and disposal. There is a fixed inventory of actinides and fission products in the tank which must be prepared for disposal. By segregating the actinides and fission products from the bulk of the waste, the tank`s contents can be effectively managed. Due to the high public visibility and environmental sensitivity of this problem, real progress and demonstrated efforts toward addressing it must begin as soon as possible. As a part of this program, personnel at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) have developed and demonstrated a flowsheet to remediate tank SY-102 which is located in the 200 West Area and contains high-level radioactive waste. This report documents the results of the flowsheet demonstrations performed with simulated, but radioactive, wastes using an existing glovebox line at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility. The tank waste was characterized using both a tank history approach and an exhaustive evaluation of the available core sample analyses. This report also presents a conceptual design complete with a working material flow model, a major equipment list, and cost estimates.

  5. 49 CFR 179.400 - General specification applicable to cryogenic liquid tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... liquid tank car tanks. 179.400 Section 179.400 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and... liquid tank car tanks. ...

  6. The hygienic quality of raw reindeer milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kurki

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The somatic cell count (SCC and total bacterial count (TBC as well as the presence of major food-borne pathogens and udder pathogens in reindeer raw milk were studied. Two groups of 4 female reindeer were milked on alternate days for six weeks. A milk sample from each quarter was taken before milking and of the bulk milk at the end of milking. Micrococcus sp. was observed in one, Staphylococcus aureus in one and coagulase-negative staphylococci in five of the quarter samples (n=318. In the bulk milk (n=19 TBC varied between 700 and 1 700 000 cfu (colony forming units/ml and SCC between 52 000 and 183 000 cells/ml. No Bacillus cereus, S. aureus or Listeria monocytogenes were detected in the bulk milk, but Escherichia coli and Enterobacteriaceae were found in 5 bulk milk samples. According to the bacteriological examination the udder health of the reindeer was good. Indicative information on the SCC of healthy reindeer was obtained. None of the common potential food-poisoning bacteria were found in raw milk. There was great variation in the bulk milk TBC and the average TBC was rather high (ca. 300 000 cfu/ml. The hygienic quality of raw reindeer milk makes it well suited for food manufacture. However, the results indicate that the milking conditions may be crucial for the quality of raw milk.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto:Tutkimuksen kohteena oli poron raakamaidon solupitoisuus ja kokonaispesäkeluku sekä tärkeimpien elintarvike- ja utarepatogeenien esiintyminen raakamaidossa. Kaksi 4 vaatimen ryhmää lypsettiin vuoropäivinä 6 viikon ajan. Ennen lypsyä vaatimista otettiin vedinkohtaiset näytteet ja lypsyn päätyttyä näyte yhteismaidosta. Micrococcus sp. todettiin yhdessä, Staphylococcus aureus yhdessä ja koagulaasinegatiivisia stafylokokkeja viidessä vedinkohtaisessa näytteessä (n=318. Yhteismaitonäytteiden (n=19 kokonaispesäkeluvut vaihtelivat välillä 700-1 700 000 pmy (pesäkkeitä muodostava yksikkö/ml ja somaattisten

  7. Extended tank use analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeFigh-Price, C.; Green, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    The single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site were originally designed for open-quotes temporaryclose quotes use. The newer double-shell tanks were designed for 50 years of use. A number of single-shell tanks failed their original design criteria to contain liquid waste soon after they were constructed. These single-shell and double-shell tanks now will be required to contain semi-solid high-activity waste well beyond their design lives. It must be determined that the waste contained in these tanks will remain stable for up to an additional 30 years of storage. This paper describes the challenge of demonstrating that the tanks that have exceeded or will exceed their design lifetime can safely store high-level waste until planned disposal actions are taken. Considerations will include structural and chemical analyses

  8. Think tanks in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blach-Ørsten, Mark; Kristensen, Nete Nørgaard

    2016-01-01

    outside the media. The study shows that the two largest and oldest think tanks in Denmark, the liberal think tank CEPOS and the social democratic think tank ECLM, are very active and observable in the media; that the media’s distribution of attention to these think tanks, to some extent, confirms a re......-politicization of Danish newspapers; but also that the news media as an arena of influence is only one part of the equation, since some of the corporatist political networks are still intact and working outside the media...... half of the 2010s, because in this national setting think tanks are still a relatively new phenomenon. Based on theories of mediatization and de-corporatization, we present 1) an analysis of the visibility of selected Danish think tanks in the media and 2) an analysis of their political networks...

  9. Commercial Submersible Mixing Pump For SRS Tank Waste Removal - 15223

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, Mike; Herbert, James E.; Scheele, Patrick W.

    2015-01-01

    motor pumps designed to fit within available risers and have significant agitation capabilities to suspend waste solids. Waste removal and closure of two tanks has been accomplished with agitation provided by 3 SMPs installed within the tanks. In 2012, a team was assembled to investigate alternative solids removal technologies to support waste removal for closing tanks. The goal of the team was to find a more cost effective approach that could be used to replace the current mixing pump technology. This team was unable to identify an alternative technology outside of mixing pumps to support waste agitation and removal from SRS waste tanks. However, the team did identify a potentially lower cost mixing pump compared to the baseline SLPs and SMPs. Rather than using the traditional procurement using an engineering specification, the team proposed to seek commercially available submersible mixer pumps (CSMP) as alternatives to SLPs and SMPs. SLPs and SMPs have a high procurement cost and the actual cost of moving pumps between tanks has shown to be significantly higher than the original estimates that justified the reuse of SMPs and SLPs. The team recommended procurement of @@@off-the-shelf@@@ industry pumps which may be available for significant savings, but at an increased risk of failure and reduced operating life in the waste tank. The goal of the CSMP program is to obtain mixing pumps that could mix from bulk waste removal through tank closure and then be abandoned in place as part of tank closure. This paper will present the development, progress and relative advantages of the CSMP.

  10. Commercial Submersible Mixing Pump For SRS Tank Waste Removal - 15223

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, Mike [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Herbert, James E. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Scheele, Patrick W. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-01-12

    product lubricated canned motor pumps designed to fit within available risers and have significant agitation capabilities to suspend waste solids. Waste removal and closure of two tanks has been accomplished with agitation provided by 3 SMPs installed within the tanks. In 2012, a team was assembled to investigate alternative solids removal technologies to support waste removal for closing tanks. The goal of the team was to find a more cost effective approach that could be used to replace the current mixing pump technology. This team was unable to identify an alternative technology outside of mixing pumps to support waste agitation and removal from SRS waste tanks. However, the team did identify a potentially lower cost mixing pump compared to the baseline SLPs and SMPs. Rather than using the traditional procurement using an engineering specification, the team proposed to seek commercially available submersible mixer pumps (CSMP) as alternatives to SLPs and SMPs. SLPs and SMPs have a high procurement cost and the actual cost of moving pumps between tanks has shown to be significantly higher than the original estimates that justified the reuse of SMPs and SLPs. The team recommended procurement of “off-the-shelf” industry pumps which may be available for significant savings, but at an increased risk of failure and reduced operating life in the waste tank. The goal of the CSMP program is to obtain mixing pumps that could mix from bulk waste removal through tank closure and then be abandoned in place as part of tank closure. This paper will present the development, progress and relative advantages of the CSMP.

  11. Hanford tanks initiative plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, K.E.

    1997-01-01

    Abstract: The Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) is a five-year project resulting from the technical and financial partnership of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Waste Management (EM-30) and Office of Science and Technology Development (EM-50). The HTI project accelerates activities to gain key technical, cost performance, and regulatory information on two high-level waste tanks. The HTI will provide a basis for design and regulatory decisions affecting the remainder of the Tank Waste Remediation System's tank waste retrieval Program

  12. Mineral concentrations in diets, water, and milk and their value in estimating on-farm excretion of manure minerals in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, A R; St-Pierre, N R; Silva del Rio, N; Weiss, W P

    2013-05-01

    Thirty-nine commercial dairies in Merced County, California were enrolled in the present study to (1) compare lactating cow mineral intakes (via drinking water and total mixed ration) to the National Research Council (NRC) requirements, (2) evaluate the association between dietary concentrations of minerals with and without drinking water and adjusted for mineral concentrations in milk, and (3) compare 4 different methods to estimate excretion of minerals using either assays or estimations of milk mineral outputs and total daily mineral intake per cow with or without minerals coming from drinking water. Dairies were selected to represent a range of herd milk yields and a range of water mineral contents. Samples of total mixed ration, drinking water, and bulk tank milk were taken on 2 different days, 3 to 7d apart in each farm. Across-farm medians and percentile distributions were used to analyze results. The herd median milk yield interquartile ranged (10th to 90th percentile) from less than 25 to more than 39 kg/d and the concentration of total solids in water interquartile ranged from less than 200 to more than 1,490 mg/L. Including drinking water minerals in the diets increased dietary concentrations by minerals except for Na and Cl, which increased by 9.3 and 6.5%, respectively. Concentrations of P and K in milk were essentially the same as the NRC value to estimate lactation requirements. However, NRC milk values of Ca, Cl, and Zn were 10 to 20% greater than dairy farm values; and Na, Cu, Fe, and Mn were no less than 36% below NRC values. Estimated excretion of minerals via manure varied substantially across farms. Farms in the 10th percentile did have 2 to 3 times less estimated mineral excretions than those in the 90th percentile (depending on the mineral). Although including water minerals increased excretion of most minerals, the actual median effect of Ca, Mg, S, Cu, Fe, and Mn was less than 5%, and about 8% for Na and Cl. Replacing assayed concentrations

  13. Prevalence of the pathogen microorganisms in raw cow milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelovski Ljupco

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to study the prevalence of Salmonella spp., Listeria spp., Staphylococcus spp. and E. coli in the raw cow milk. In this study 133 milk-tank samples from several milk collecting points were analysed. After the tests the following prevalence was detected: for Listeria spp. 13 positive samples (9.77%, with 9 Listeria monocytogenes samples confirmed (6.76%. Salmonella spp. was not detected in any of the the samples. The biggest presence was detected for Staphylococcus spp. with 113 positive samples (85.0%. Further testes has shown prevalence of coagulase-positive staphylococci of 73% (97 positive samples. Escherichia coli was confirmed in 57 samples (46.0%. The results from this study clearly indicate that pathogen microorganisms which are important for the human health can be found in the raw cow milk and their presence can be potential hazard for contamination of the milk-processing establishments.

  14. Fuel tank integrity research : fuel tank analyses and test plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    The Federal Railroad Administrations Office of Research : and Development is conducting research into fuel tank : crashworthiness. Fuel tank research is being performed to : determine strategies for increasing the fuel tank impact : resistance to ...

  15. 27 CFR 19.342 - Receipt and storage of bulk spirits and wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... bulk spirits and wines. 19.342 Section 19.342 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Receipt and storage of bulk spirits and wines. (a) Deposit. All spirits entered for deposit in the storage... spirits or wines are being deposited in a partially filled tank in storage on bonded premises...

  16. The Tchernobyl milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes Nadai, E.A.; Pessenda, L.C.R.; Nascimento Filho, V.F. do; Ferraz, E.S.B.

    1988-01-01

    The Tchernobyl nuclear accident contamined the milk exported to Brazil. A lot of analysis in this powder milk were realized in this powder milk were realized to identify the cesium 137 and 134 contamination. The results of the milk samples are discussed. (author)

  17. Milk Allergy in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Milk Allergy in Infants KidsHealth / For Parents / Milk Allergy in ... Alergia a la leche en bebés About Milk Allergy People of any age can have a milk ...

  18. Incidence of Listeria species in bovine, ovine, caprine, camel and water buffalo milk using cultural method and the PCR assay

    OpenAIRE

    Rahimi, Ebrahim; Momtaz, Hassan; Behzadnia, Asma; Baghbadorani, Zeinab Torki

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence rate of Listeria species in bovine, ovine, caprine, camel and water buffalo milk in Iran. Methods: From September 2010 to December 2011 a total of 260 bulk milk samples including 85 bovine, 37 camel, 34 water buffalo, 56 ovine and 48 caprine bulk milk samples were collected from commercial dairy herds, in Fars and Khuzestan provinces, Iran and were evaluated for the presence of Listeria species using cultural method and the PCR assay. R...

  19. Coxiella burnetii Circulation in a Naturally Infected Flock of Sheep: Individual Follow-Up of Antibodies in Serum and Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joulié, A; Rousset, E; Gasqui, P; Lepetitcolin, E; Leblond, A; Sidi-Boumedine, K; Jourdain, E

    2017-07-01

    antibody levels are stable over time and seropositivity and vaginal shedding are not clearly correlated, whereas antibody levels in milk are strongly correlated with those in serum. Accordingly, we find that antibody levels in bulk tank milk are consistent with the variations observed in the serum of dairy females over time. We report the existence of maternal antibody transmission to ewe lambs and we show that the presence of maternal antibodies at birth does not prevent the development of a serological response to vaccination at the age of 4 months. Finally, we report that adult ewes generally seroconvert after vaccination, including during pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  20. Heated Aluminum Tanks Resist Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L. E.

    1983-01-01

    Simple expedient of heating foam-insulated aluminum alloy tanks prevents corrosion by salt-laden moisture. Relatively-small temperature difference between such tank and surrounding air will ensure life of tank is extended by many years.

  1. Microbiological quality of goat's milk obtained under different production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Kyozaire

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the safety of milk produced by smallholder dairy goat farms, a farm-based research study was conducted on commercial dairy goat farms to compare the microbiological quality of milk produced using 3 different types of dairy goat production systems (intensive, semi-intensive and extensive. A survey of dairy goat farms in and around Pretoria carried out by means of a questionnaire revealed that most of the smallholder dairy goat farms surveyed used an extensive type of production system. The method of milking varied with the type of production system, i.e. machine milking; bucket system machine milking and hand-milking, respectively. Udder half milk samples (n=270 were analysed, of which 31.1 % were infected with bacteria. The lowest intra-mammary infection was found amongst goats in the herd under the extensive system (13.3 %, compared with 43.3 % and 36.7 % infection rates under the intensive and semi-intensive production systems, respectively. Staphylococcus intermedius (coagulase positive, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus simulans (both coagulase negative, were the most common cause of intramammary infection with a prevalence of 85.7 % of the infected udder halves. The remaining 14.3 % of the infection was due to Staphylococcus aureus. Bacteriology of bulk milk samples on the other hand, showed that raw milk obtained by the bucket system milking machine had the lowest total bacterial count (16 450 colony forming units (CFU/mℓ compared to that by pipeline milking machine (36 300 CFU/mℓ or handmilking (48 000 CFU/mℓ. No significant relationship was found between the somatic cell counts (SCC and presence of bacterial infection in goat milk. In comparison with the herds under the other 2 production systems, it was shown that dairy goat farming under the extensive production system, where hand-milking was used, can be adequate for the production of safe raw goat milk.

  2. Large area bulk superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Dean J.; Field, Michael B.

    2002-01-01

    A bulk superconductor having a thickness of not less than about 100 microns is carried by a polycrystalline textured substrate having misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.; the bulk superconductor may have a thickness of not less than about 100 microns and a surface area of not less than about 50 cm.sup.2. The textured substrate may have a thickness not less than about 10 microns and misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.. Also disclosed is a process of manufacturing the bulk superconductor and the polycrystalline biaxially textured substrate material.

  3. Tank SY-102 remediation project: Flowsheet and conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarbro, S.L.; Punjak, W.A.; Schreiber, S.B.; Dunn, S.L.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Marsh, S.F.; Pope, N.G.; Agnew, S.; Birnbaum, E.R.; Thomas, K.W.; Ortic, E.A.

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) to safely manage and dispose of radioactive waste stored in underground tanks on the Hanford Site. A major program in TWRS is pretreatment which was established to process the waste prior to disposal. Pretreatment is needed to resolve tank safety issues and to separate wastes into high-level and low-level fractions for subsequent immobilization and disposal. There is a fixed inventory of actinides and fission products in the tank which must be prepared for disposal. By segregating the actinides and fission products from the bulk of the waste, the tank's contents can be effectively managed. Due to the high public visibility and environmental sensitivity of this problem, real progress and demonstrated efforts toward addressing it must begin as soon as possible. As a part of this program, personnel at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) have developed and demonstrated a flowsheet to remediate tank SY-102 which is located in the 200 West Area and contains high-level radioactive waste. This report documents the results of the flowsheet demonstrations performed with simulated, but radioactive, wastes using an existing glovebox line at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility. The tank waste was characterized using both a tank history approach and an exhaustive evaluation of the available core sample analyses. This report also presents a conceptual design complete with a working material flow model, a major equipment list, and cost estimates

  4. Tank characterization reference guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Lorenzo, D.S.; DiCenso, A.T.; Hiller, D.B.; Johnson, K.W.; Rutherford, J.H.; Smith, D.J.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-09-01

    Characterization of the Hanford Site high-level waste storage tanks supports safety issue resolution; operations and maintenance requirements; and retrieval, pretreatment, vitrification, and disposal technology development. Technical, historical, and programmatic information about the waste tanks is often scattered among many sources, if it is documented at all. This Tank Characterization Reference Guide, therefore, serves as a common location for much of the generic tank information that is otherwise contained in many documents. The report is intended to be an introduction to the issues and history surrounding the generation, storage, and management of the liquid process wastes, and a presentation of the sampling, analysis, and modeling activities that support the current waste characterization. This report should provide a basis upon which those unfamiliar with the Hanford Site tank farms can start their research

  5. Tank 18-F And 19-F Tank Fill Grout Scale Up Test Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanko, D.; Langton, C.

    2012-01-01

    High-level waste (HLW) tanks 18-F and 19-F have been isolated from FTF facilities. To complete operational closure the tanks will be filled with grout for the purpose of: (1) physically stabilizing the tanks, (2) limiting/eliminating vertical pathways to residual waste, (3) entombing waste removal equipment, (4) discouraging future intrusion, and (5) providing an alkaline, chemical reducing environment within the closure boundary to control speciation and solubility of select radionuclides. This report documents the results of a four cubic yard bulk fill scale up test on the grout formulation recommended for filling Tanks 18-F and 19-F. Details of the scale up test are provided in a Test Plan. The work was authorized under a Technical Task Request (TTR), HLE-TTR-2011-008, and was performed according to Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP), SRNL-RP-2011-00587. The bulk fill scale up test described in this report was intended to demonstrate proportioning, mixing, and transportation, of material produced in a full scale ready mix concrete batch plant. In addition, the material produced for the scale up test was characterized with respect to fresh properties, thermal properties, and compressive strength as a function of curing time.

  6. TANK 18-F AND 19-F TANK FILL GROUT SCALE UP TEST SUMMARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanko, D.; Langton, C.

    2012-01-03

    High-level waste (HLW) tanks 18-F and 19-F have been isolated from FTF facilities. To complete operational closure the tanks will be filled with grout for the purpose of: (1) physically stabilizing the tanks, (2) limiting/eliminating vertical pathways to residual waste, (3) entombing waste removal equipment, (4) discouraging future intrusion, and (5) providing an alkaline, chemical reducing environment within the closure boundary to control speciation and solubility of select radionuclides. This report documents the results of a four cubic yard bulk fill scale up test on the grout formulation recommended for filling Tanks 18-F and 19-F. Details of the scale up test are provided in a Test Plan. The work was authorized under a Technical Task Request (TTR), HLE-TTR-2011-008, and was performed according to Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP), SRNL-RP-2011-00587. The bulk fill scale up test described in this report was intended to demonstrate proportioning, mixing, and transportation, of material produced in a full scale ready mix concrete batch plant. In addition, the material produced for the scale up test was characterized with respect to fresh properties, thermal properties, and compressive strength as a function of curing time.

  7. Milk production, raw milk quality and fertility of dromedary camels (Camelus Dromedarius) under intensive management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Péter; Thomas, Sonia; Markó, Orsolya; Juhász, Jutka

    2013-03-01

    In many arid countries, dromedaries play an important role as a milk source in rural areas. However, the milk and meat production potential of this species is not well understood and documented. A large-scale camel dairy farm was established in 2006 in the United Arab Emirates. This study summarises the most important data on milk production, raw milk quality and reproductive efficiency collected on this farm during the first three years of operation. The average daily milk production, the mean length of lactation and the mean total milk production per lactation of 174 dromedaries were 6.0 ± 0.12 kg (± SEM), 586 ± 11.0 days (± SEM) and 3314 ± 98.5 kg (± SEM), respectively. The lactation curve reached its peak during the 4th month after parturition (mean ± SEM, 8.9 ± 0.04 kg), then it declined gradually, falling to 50% of the maximum by the 16th month postpartum (mean ± SEM, 4.3 ± 0.06 kg). Milking three times a day did not increase daily milk production compared to two times milking. Mean total viable bacterial count (TVC) and mean somatic cell count (SCC, ± SEM) of bulk raw camel milk were 4,403 ± 94 CFU/cm3 and 392,602 ± 5,999 cells/cm3 for a one-year period, respectively. There was a significant difference among months (P fat, protein, lactose, total solids (TS) and solid-non-fat (SNF) concentrations of individual milk samples were 2.51 ± 0.03%, 2.60 ± 0.01%, 4.03 ± 0.03%, 9.98 ± 0.03% and 7.56 ± 0.03%, respectively. Lactation period, average daily milk production and morning vs. evening milking significantly influenced milk chemical composition. For the 470 camels in the breeding programme, end-of-season pregnancy rate and birth rate were 87.0% and 82.6%, respectively, after natural mating. We have demonstrated that sustainable milk production is possible from a traditional species, the dromedary camel, under an intensive management system.

  8. Cattle milk quality in the Semiarid region of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcone Macêdo Tôrres Angicano

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the composition and quality of raw milk that was refrigerated in tanks, according to the farm structures, bovine diet, and production levels of the dairy producers that provide milk for the Association of Small-Scale Ranchers of the Angicos Wilderness (ASRAW. Data were collected from 47 dairy farmers from different cities of the state of Rio Grande do Norte who are associated with ASRAW. Twenty-three tanks were sampled throughout the month of June 2013, with two collections per week and five samples per tank, for a total of 920 samples. The properties were characterized according to the type of tank (private or community, the food provided during milk collection (voluminous or voluminous and concentrated, the structure of the dairy producer (family producer or non-family producer, and the amounts of each component. Analyses of fat content, total protein, casein levels, lactose levels, total solids, degreased dry extract (DDE, freezing point, urea levels, somatic cell counts (SCC, and antibiotic residues were performed. Statistical analyses were conducted for each group, and the means were compared by Tukey tests, with a critical significance level of 5% probability calculated with the PROC GLM procedure of the SAS® program. Most components differed significantly for each parameter. The highest difference was noted between the urea and SCC levels, which was probably due to the wide variety of dairy producer profiles. The SCC values exhibited the largest amplitude variations. Most milk components significantly differed according to the strata, producer, food, and tank. These changes probably had little influence on the animal’s physiology and productivity. Therefore, despite the small variations in the components of the milk supplied by ASRAW, the different types of milk storage tank, milk volume produced, and type of dairy producer affected the overall milk quality.

  9. Hanford Tank Waste Particle Atlas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herting, D. L. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC (WRPS), Richland, WA (United States); Cooke, G. A. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC (WRPS), Richland, WA (United States); Page, J S [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC (WRPS), Richland, WA (United States); Valerio, J. L. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC (WRPS), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Several methods have been utilized to perform solid phase characterization. Polarized light microscopy (PLM) is used to identify individual particles based on size, shape, color, and optical properties (e.g., refractive index1, birefringence, extinction positions, and interference figures). Scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) is used to detect which elements are present in individual particles and to infer chemical phase identification based on the metals present in combination with the size and shape of the particles. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) is used to identify crystalline phases present in bulk samples by matching the X-ray patterns with a library of known patterns for pure phases. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is used to identify individual particles by their X-ray diffraction patterns. RAMAN analysis is used to identify bulk sample compositions by matching RAMAN spectra with a library of known patterns. Other specialized techniques have not been employed routinely for Hanford tank waste samples.

  10. Tank 241-C-105 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples from tank 241-C-105

  11. Tank 241-BY-106 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, and WHC 222-S Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-BY-106

  12. Tank 241-AX-104 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathyanarayana, P.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of auger samples from tank 241-AX-104

  13. Tank 241-AX-102 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of auger samples from tank 241-AX-102

  14. Tank 241-C-101 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples from tank 241-C-101

  15. Tank 241-AP-107 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples from tank 241-AP-107

  16. Tank Space Options Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOYLES, V.C.

    2001-01-01

    A risk-based priority for the retrieval of Hanford Site waste from the 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) has been adopted as a result of changes to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (HFFACO) (Ecology et al. 1997) negotiated in 2000. Retrieval of the first three tanks in the retrieval sequence fills available capacity in the double-shell tanks (DSTs) by 2007. As a result, the HFFACO change established a milestone (M-45-12-TO1) requiring the determination of options that could increase waste storage capacity for single-shell tank waste retrieval. The information will be considered in future negotiations. This document fulfills the milestone requirement. This study presents options that were reviewed for the purpose of increasing waste storage capacity. Eight options are identified that have the potential for increasing capacity from 5 to 10 million gallons, thus allowing uninterrupted single-shell tank retrieval until the planned Waste Treatment Plant begins processing substantial volumes of waste from the double-shell tanks in 2009. The cost of implementing these options is estimated to range from less than $1 per gallon to more than $14 per gallon. Construction of new double-shell tanks is estimated to cost about $63 per gallon. Providing 5 to 10 million gallons of available double-shell tank space could enable early retrieval of 5 to 9 high-risk single-shell tanks beyond those identified for retrieval by 2007. These tanks are A-101, AX-101, AX-103, BY-102, C-107, S-105, S-106, S-108, and S-109 (Garfield et al. 2000). This represents a potential to retrieve approximately 14 million total curies, including 3,200 curies of long-lived mobile radionuclides. The results of the study reflect qualitative analyses conducted to identify promising options. The estimated costs are rough-order-of magnitude and, therefore, subject to change. Implementing some of the options would represent a departure from the current baseline and may adversely impact the

  17. Relationship of goat milk flow emission variables with milking routine, milking parameters, milking machine characteristics and goat physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, G; Panzalis, R; Ruegg, P

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the relationship between milk flow emission variables recorded during milking of dairy goats with variables related to milking routine, goat physiology, milking parameters and milking machine characteristics, to determine the variables affecting milking performance and help the goat industry pinpoint farm and milking practices that improve milking performance. In total, 19 farms were visited once during the evening milking. Milking parameters (vacuum level (VL), pulsation ratio and pulsation rate, vacuum drop), milk emission flow variables (milking time, milk yield, maximum milk flow (MMF), average milk flow (AVMF), time until 500 g/min milk flow is established (TS500)), doe characteristics of 8 to 10 goats/farm (breed, days in milk and parity), milking practices (overmilking, overstripping, pre-lag time) and milking machine characteristics (line height, presence of claw) were recorded on every farm. The relationships between recorded variables and farm were analysed by a one-way ANOVA analysis. The relationships of milk yield, MMF, milking time and TS500 with goat physiology, milking routine, milking parameters and milking machine design were analysed using a linear mixed model, considering the farm as the random effect. Farm was significant (Pfarms, being similar to those recommended in scientific studies. Few milking parameters and milking machine characteristics affected the tested variables: average vacuum level only showed tendency on MMF, and milk pipeline height on TS500. Milk yield (MY) was mainly affected by parity, as the interaction of days in milk with parity was also significant. Milking time was mainly affected by milk yield and breed. Also significant were parity, the interaction of days in milk with parity and overstripping, whereas overmilking showed a slight tendency. We concluded that most of the studied variables were mainly related to goat physiology characteristics, as the effects of milking parameters and

  18. 49 CFR 179.201 - Individual specification requirements applicable to non-pressure tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to non-pressure tank car tanks. 179.201 Section 179.201 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes... car tanks. ...

  19. TANK FARM ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TIFFT, S.R.

    2003-01-01

    Through regulations, permitting or binding negotiations, Regulators establish requirements, limits, permit conditions and Notice of Construction (NOC) conditions with which the Office of River Protection (ORP) and the Tank Farm Contractor (TFC) must comply. Operating Specifications are technical limits which are set on a process to prevent injury to personnel, or damage to the facility or environment, The main purpose of this document is to provide specification limits and recovery actions for the TFC Environmental Surveillance Program at the Hanford Site. Specification limits are given for monitoring frequencies and permissible variation of readings from an established baseline or previous reading. The requirements in this document are driven by environmental considerations and data analysis issues, rather than facility design or personnel safety issues. This document is applicable to all single-shell tank (SST) and double-shell tank (DST) waste tanks, and the associated catch tanks and receiver tanks, and transfer systems. This Tank Farm Environmental Specifications Document (ESD) implements environmental-regulatory limits on the configuration and operation of the Hanford Tank Farms facility that have been established by Regulators. This ESD contains specific field operational limits and recovery actions for compliance with airborne effluent regulations and agreements, liquid effluents regulations and agreements, and environmental tank system requirements. The scope of this ESD is limited to conditions that have direct impact on Operations/Projects or that Operations Projects have direct impact upon. This document does not supercede or replace any Department of Energy (DOE) Orders, regulatory permits, notices of construction, or Regulatory agency agreements binding on the ORP or the TFC. Refer to the appropriate regulation, permit, or Notice of Construction for an inclusive listing of requirements

  20. [Cow's milk protein allergy through human milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, M; Loras-Duclaux, I; Lachaux, A

    2012-03-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is the first allergy that affects infants. In this population, the incidence rate reaches 7.5%. The multiplicity and aspecificity of the symptoms makes its diagnosis sometimes complicated, especially in the delayed type (gastrointestinal, dermatological, and cutaneous). CMPA symptoms can develop in exclusively breastfed infants with an incidence rate of 0.5%. It, therefore, raises questions about sensitization to cow's milk proteins through breast milk. Transfer of native bovine proteins such as β-lactoglobulin into the breast milk is controversial: some authors have found bovine proteins in human milk but others point to cross-reactivity between human milk proteins and cow's milk proteins. However, it seems that a small percentage of dietary proteins can resist digestion and become potentially allergenic. Moreover, some authors suspect the transfer of some of these dietary proteins from the maternal bloodstream to breast milk, but the mechanisms governing sensitization are still being studied. Theoretically, CMPA diagnosis is based on clinical observations, prick-test or patch-test results, and cow's milk-specific IgE antibody concentration. A positive food challenge test usually confirms the diagnosis. No laboratory test is available to make a certain diagnosis, but the detection of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in the mother's milk, for example, seems to be advantageous since it is linked to CMA. Excluding cow's milk from the mother's diet is the only cure when she still wants to breastfeed. Usually, cow's milk proteins are reintroduced after 6 months of exclusion. Indeed, the prognosis for infants is very good: 80% acquire a tolerance before the age of 3 or 4 years. Mothers should not avoid dairy products during pregnancy and breastfeeding as preventive measures against allergy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Reactor pressure tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorner, H.; Scholz, M.; Jungmann, A.

    1975-01-01

    In a reactor pressure tank for a nuclear reactor, self-locking hooks engage a steel ring disposed over the removable cover of the steel vessel. The hooks exert force upon the cover to maintain the cover in a closed position during operation of the reactor pressure tank. The force upon the removal cover is partly the result of the increasing temperature and thermal expansion of the steel vessel during operation. The steel vessel is surrounded by a reinforced-concrete tank. (U.S.)

  2. Milk phospholipids: Organic milk and milk rich in conjugated linoleic acid compared with conventional milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro, T; Gayoso, L; Rodríguez-Otero, J L

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the phospholipid content of conventional milk with that of organic milk and milk rich in conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). The membrane enclosing the fat globules of milk is composed, in part, of phospholipids, which have properties of interest for the development of so-called functional foods and technologically novel ingredients. They include phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylserine (PS), and the sphingophospholipid sphingomyelin (SM). Milk from organically managed cows contains higher levels of vitamins, antioxidants, and unsaturated fatty acids than conventionally produced milk, but we know of no study with analogous comparisons of major phospholipid contents. In addition, the use of polyunsaturated-lipid-rich feed supplement (extruded linseed) has been reported to increase the phospholipid content of milk. Because supplementation with linseed and increased unsaturated fatty acid content are the main dietary modifications used for production of CLA-rich milk, we investigated whether these modifications would lead to this milk having higher phospholipid content. We used HPLC with evaporative light scattering detection to determine PE, PI, PC, PS, and SM contents in 16 samples of organic milk and 8 samples of CLA-rich milk, in each case together with matching reference samples of conventionally produced milk taken on the same days and in the same geographical areas as the organic and CLA-rich samples. Compared with conventional milk and milk fat, organic milk and milk fat had significantly higher levels of all the phospholipids studied. This is attributable to the differences between the 2 systems of milk production, among which the most influential are probably differences in diet and physical exercise. The CLA-rich milk fat had significantly higher levels of PI, PS, and PC than conventional milk fat, which is also attributed to dietary differences: rations for

  3. Tank farm potential ignition sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaief, C.C. III.

    1996-01-01

    This document identifies equipment, instrumentation, and sensors that are located in-tank as well as ex-tank in areas that may have communication paths with the tank vapor space. For each item, and attempt is made to identify the potential for ignition of flammable vapors using a graded approach. The scope includes all 177 underground storage tanks

  4. Improving the Tank Scout

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burton, R. L

    2006-01-01

    .... While the tank battalions recognize the importance and value of the scout platoon, they are restricted from employing scouts to their full potential due to the platoon's inflexible structure and limited capabilities...

  5. Tank waste treatment science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaFemina, J.P.; Blanchard, D.L.; Bunker, B.C.; Colton, N.G.; Felmy, A.R.; Franz, J.A.; Liu, J.; Virden, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    Remediation efforts at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site require that many technical and scientific principles be combined for effectively managing and disposing the variety of wastes currently stored in underground tanks. Based on these principles, pretreatment technologies are being studied and developed to separate waste components and enable the most suitable treatment methods to be selected for final disposal of these wastes. The Tank Waste Treatment Science Task at Pacific Northwest Laboratory is addressing pretreatment technology development by investigating several aspects related to understanding and processing the tank contents. The experimental work includes evaluating the chemical and physical properties of the alkaline wastes, modeling sludge dissolution, and evaluating and designing ion exchange materials. This paper gives some examples of results of this work and shows how these results fit into the overall Hanford waste remediation activities. This work is part of series of projects being conducted for the Tank Waste Remediation System

  6. Ocean Technology Development Tank

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The new SWFSC laboratory in La Jolla incorporates a large sea- and fresh-water Ocean Technology Development Tank. This world-class facility expands NOAA's ability to...

  7. Sonar Tank Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Sonar Tank Facility permits low cost initial 'wet' testing and check out prior to full scale deployment at sea. It can manage controlled conditions calibration...

  8. Improving the Tank Scout

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burton, R. L

    2006-01-01

    Within the Marine Corps' tank battalions is a unique asset that is often improperly employed and not well known within the other components of the Marine Air Ground Task Force (MAGTF): the scout platoon...

  9. Modeling Propellant Tank Dynamics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main objective of my work will be to develop accurate models of self-pressurizing propellant tanks for use in designing hybrid rockets. The first key goal is to...

  10. Damage analysis of TRIGA MARK II Bandung reactor tank material structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soedardjo; Sumijanto

    2000-01-01

    Damage of Triga Mark II Bandung reactor tank material structure has been analyzed. The analysis carried out was based on ultrasonic inspection result in 1996 and the monthly reports of reactor operation by random data during 1988 up to 1995. Ultrasonic test data had shown that thinning processes on south and west region of reactor out side wall at upper part of water level had happened. Reactor operation data had shown the demineralized water should be added monthly to the reactor and bulk shielding water tank. Both reactor and bulk shielding tank are shielded by concrete of Portland type I cement consisting of CaO content about 58-68 %. The analysis result shows that the reaction between CaO and seepage water from bulk shielding wall had taken place and consequently the reactor out sidewall surroundings became alkaline. Based on Pourbaix diagram, the aluminum reactor tank made of aluminum alloy 6061 T6 would be corroded easily at pH equal an greater than 8.6. The passive layer AI 2 O 3 aluminum metal surface would be broken due to water reaction taken place continuously at high pH and produces hydrogen gas. The light hydrogen gas would expand the concrete cement and its expanding power would open the passive layer of aluminum metal upper tank. The water sea pages from adding water into reactor tank could indicate the upper water level tank corrosion is worse than the lower water level tank. (author)

  11. Upgrading a 1950s tank farm to meet the environmental standards of the 1990S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, C.F.; Peterson, S.W.

    1995-01-01

    The Texaco Inc. Research and Development (Texaco) facility in Beacon, New York includes an above ground storage tank (AST) farm, known as Tank Farm No. 1, which consists of eighteen tanks with capacities ranging from 10,000 to 21,000 gallons. A second tank farm, at the Texaco, Beacon facility, designated as the Boiler House Tank Farm, includes three additional tanks with capacities from 10,000 to 44,900 gallons. The Tank Farm No. 1 AST systems are all vertical, carbon steel tanks which were initially installed in several phases in the 1950s. The Boiler House Tank Farm ASTs are also vertical, carbon steel tanks, including one riveted construction tank that was installed in 1931. Each of the Texaco ASTs are used to store a variety of petroleum products, including diesel fuel, stoddard solvent, used oil, and various grades of gasoline and gasoline components. The New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) has established regulations for petroleum bulk storage in 6 NYCRR Parts 612 through 614. These regulations include requirements for monitoring and inspecting AST systems, including a rigorous ''out of service'' inspection, to be completed at least once every ten years. Although several revisions had been completed at Tank Farm No. 1 in recent years, including installation of a reinforced concrete secondary containment dike system and new above ground piping, the tank shells and most appurtenances (e.g. water drawoff valves), were unmodified since they were initially installed. On this basis, Texaco decided to upgrade the AST systems in conjunction with the NYSDEC ten-year inspections, by installing reinforced fiberglass liners in the tank floors, and by removing and/or replacing tank appurtenances to meet current industry standards and fire code requirements. This paper presents a summary of the program implemented to upgrade the Texaco, Beacon tank farm AST systems

  12. Cow's milk - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002448.htm Cow's milk - infants To use the sharing features on ... year old, you should not feed your baby cow's milk, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics ( ...

  13. Superductile bulk metallic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, K.F.; Ruan, F.; Yang, Y.Q.; Chen, N.

    2006-01-01

    Usually, monolithic bulk metallic glasses undergo inhomogeneous plastic deformation and exhibit poor ductility (<2%) at room temperature. We report a newly developed Pd-Si binary bulk metallic glass, which exhibits a uniform plastic deformation and a large plastic engineering strain of 82% and a plastic true strain of 170%, together with initial strain hardening, slight strain softening and final strain hardening characteristics. The uniform shear deformation and the ultrahigh plasticity are mainly attributed to strain hardening, which results from the nanoscale inhomogeneity due to liquid phase separation. The formed nanoscale inhomogeneity will hinder, deflect, and bifurcate the propagation of shear bands

  14. Occurrence and characteristics of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae in food producing animals, minced meat and raw milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geser Nadine

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of food animals as a possible reservoir for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae, and the dissemination of such strains into the food production chain need to be assessed. In this study 334 fecal samples from pigs, cattle, chicken and sheep were investigated at slaughter. Additionally, 100 raw milk samples, representing bulk tank milk of 100 different dairy farms, 104 minced meat (pork and beef samples and 67 E. coli isolates from cattle E. coli mastitis were analyzed. Results As many as 15.3% of the porcine, 13.7% of the bovine, 8.6% of the sheep and 63.4% of the chicken fecal samples yielded ESBL producers after an enrichment step. In contrast, none of the minced meat, none of the bulk tank milk samples and only one of the mastitis milk samples contained ESBL producing strains. Of the total of 91 isolates, 89 were E. coli, one was Citrobacter youngae and one was Enterobacter cloacae. PCR analysis revealed that 78 isolates (85.7% produced CTX-M group 1 ESBLs while six isolates (6.6% produced CTX-M group 9 enzymes. Five detected ESBLs (5.5% belonged to the SHV group and 2 isolates (2.2% contained a TEM-type enzyme. A total of 27 CTX-M producers were additionally PCR-positive for TEM-beta-lactamase. The ESBL-encoding genes of 53 isolates were sequenced of which 34 produced CTX-M-1, 6 produced CTX-M-14, 5 produced CTX-M-15 and also 5 produced SHV-12. Two isolates produced TEM-52 and one isolate expressed a novel CTX-M group 1 ESBL, CTX-M-117. One isolate--aside from a CTX-M ESBL-- contained an additional novel TEM-type broad-spectrum beta-lactamase, TEM-186. Conclusions The relatively high rates of ESBL producers in food animals and the high genetic diversity among these isolates are worrisome and indicate an established reservoir in farm animals.

  15. Special Milk Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Agriculture, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Special Milk Program provides milk to children in schools, child care institutions and eligible camps that do not participate in other Federal child nutrition meal service programs. The program reimburses schools and institutions for the milk they serve. In 2008, 4,676 schools and residential child care institutions participated, along with…

  16. Auctioning Bulk Mobile Messages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Meij (Simon); L-F. Pau (Louis-François); H.W.G.M. van Heck (Eric)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe search for enablers of continued growth of SMS traffic, as well as the take-off of the more diversified MMS message contents, open up for enterprises the potential of bulk use of mobile messaging , instead of essentially one-by-one use. In parallel, such enterprises or value added

  17. Diffusion or bulk flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    is currently matter of discussion, called passive symplasmic loading. Based on the limited material available, this review compares the different loading modes and suggests that diffusion is the driving force in apoplasmic loaders, while bulk flow plays an increasing role in plants having a continuous...

  18. Ferromagnetic bulk glassy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Akihisa; Makino, Akihiro; Mizushima, Takao

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with the review on the formation, thermal stability and magnetic properties of the Fe-based bulk glassy alloys in as-cast bulk and melt-spun ribbon forms. A large supercooled liquid region over 50 K before crystallization was obtained in Fe-(Al, Ga)-(P, C, B, Si), Fe-(Cr, Mo, Nb)-(Al, Ga)-(P, C, B) and (Fe, Co, Ni)-Zr-M-B (M=Ti, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo and W) systems and bulk glassy alloys were produced in a thickness range below 2 mm for the Fe-(Al, Ga)-(P, C, B, Si) system and 6 mm for the Fe-Co-(Zr, Nb, Ta)-(Mo, W)-B system by copper-mold casting. The ring-shaped glassy Fe-(Al, Ga)-(P, C, B, Si) alloys exhibit much better soft magnetic properties as compared with the ring-shaped alloy made from the melt-spun ribbon because of the formation of the unique domain structure. The good combination of high glass-forming ability and good soft magnetic properties indicates the possibility of future development as a new bulk glassy magnetic material

  19. Bayesian estimation of test characteristics of real-time PCR, bacteriological culture and California mastitis test for diagnosis of intramammary infections with Staphylococcus aureus in dairy cattle at routine milk recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmmod, Yasser S; Toft, Nils; Katholm, Jørgen; Grønbæk, Carsten; Klaas, Ilka C

    2013-11-01

    Danish farmers can order a real-time PCR mastitis diagnostic test on routinely taken cow-level samples from milk recordings. Validation of its performance in comparison to conventional mastitis diagnostics under field conditions is essential for efficient control of intramammary infections (IMI) with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Therefore, the objective of this study was to estimate the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of real-time PCR, bacterial culture (BC) and California mastitis test (CMT) for the diagnosis of the naturally occurring IMI with S. aureus in routinely collected milk samples using latent class analysis (LCA) to avoid the assumption of a perfect reference test. Using systematic random sampling, a total of 609 lactating dairy cows were selected from 6 dairy herds with bulk tank milk PCR cycle threshold (Ct) value ≤39 for S. aureus. At routine milk recordings, automatically obtained cow-level (composite) milk samples were analyzed by PCR and at the same milking, 2436 quarter milk samples were collected aseptically for BC and CMT. Results showed that 140 cows (23%) were positive for S. aureus IMI by BC while 170 cows (28%) were positive by PCR. Estimates of Se and Sp for PCR were higher than test estimates of BC and CMT. SeCMT was higher than SeBC however, SpBC was higher than SpCMT. SePCR was 91%, while SeBC was 53%, and SeCMT was 61%. SpPCR was 99%, while SpBC was 89%, and SpCMT was 65%. In conclusion, PCR has a higher performance than the conventional diagnostic tests (BC and CMT) suggesting its usefulness as a routine test for accurate diagnosis of S. aureus IMI from dairy cows at routine milk recordings. The use of LCA provided estimates of the test characteristics for two currently diagnostic tests (BC, CMT) and a novel technique (real-time PCR) for diagnosing S. aureus IMI under field conditions at routine milk recordings in Denmark. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The Retrieval Knowledge Center Evaluation Of Low Tank Level Mixing Technologies For DOE High Level Waste Tank Retrieval 10516

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellinger, A.

    2009-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Complex has over two-hundred underground storage tanks containing over 80-million gallons of legacy waste from the production of nuclear weapons. The majority of the waste is located at four major sites across the nation and is planned for treatment over a period of almost forty years. The DOE Office of Technology Innovation and Development within the Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) sponsors technology research and development programs to support processing advancements and technology maturation designed to improve the costs and schedule for disposal of the waste and closure of the tanks. Within the waste processing focus area are numerous technical initiatives which included the development of a suite of waste removal technologies to address the need for proven equipment and techniques to remove high level radioactive wastes from the waste tanks that are now over fifty years old. In an effort to enhance the efficiency of waste retrieval operations, the DOE-EM Office of Technology Innovation and Development funded an effort to improve communications and information sharing between the DOE's major waste tank locations as it relates to retrieval. The task, dubbed the Retrieval Knowledge Center (RKC) was co-lead by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with core team members representing the Oak Ridge and Idaho sites, as well as, site contractors responsible for waste tank operations. One of the greatest challenges to the processing and closure of many of the tanks is complete removal of all tank contents. Sizeable challenges exist for retrieving waste from High Level Waste (HLW) tanks; with complications that are not normally found with tank retrieval in commercial applications. Technologies currently in use for waste retrieval are generally adequate for bulk removal; however, removal of tank heels, the materials settled in the bottom of the tank, using the same

  1. Human Milk Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiden, Nadja; Ziegler, Ekhard E

    2016-01-01

    Human milk banks play an essential role by providing human milk to infants who would otherwise not be able to receive human milk. The largest group of recipients are premature infants who derive very substantial benefits from it. Human milk protects premature infants from necrotizing enterocolitis and from sepsis, two devastating medical conditions. Milk banks collect, screen, store, process, and distribute human milk. Donating women usually nurse their own infants and have a milk supply that exceeds their own infants' needs. Donor women are carefully selected and are screened for HIV-1, HIV-2, human T-cell leukemia virus 1 and 2, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and syphilis. In the milk bank, handling, storing, processing, pooling, and bacterial screening follow standardized algorithms. Heat treatment of human milk diminishes anti-infective properties, cellular components, growth factors, and nutrients. However, the beneficial effects of donor milk remain significant and donor milk is still highly preferable in comparison to formula. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Human milk banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, Esther Marie; Wood, Angela; Fiske, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Forms of human milk banking and donation have been present for more than a century worldwide, but, since 1985, the Human Milk Banking Association of North America (HM BANA) has established guidelines to make the use of donor's breast milk safe and the second best form of feeding to maternal breast milk for a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) infant. The Indiana Mother's Human Milk Bank provides an extensive and meticulous process of selecting breast milk donors. The process begins with a phone interview with a potential donor and includes the review of the donor's medical records, blood laboratory screening, medication and dietary intake, as well as consent from the donor's pediatrician. The milk bank follows steps of collecting, storing, and receiving the breast milk in accordance with the guidelines of the HM BANA. Pasteurization is the method used to ensure the proper heating and cooling of breast milk. Despite the rigorous pasteurization method, the donor's breast milk will not lose most of the important beneficial components needed for sick or ill NICU infants. Every batch of pasteurized breast milk will be cultured for any possible contamination and shipped to NICUs after it has been cleared by laboratory testing.

  3. Fuel tank tourism; Tanktourismus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, M.; Banfi, S.; Haan, P. de

    2000-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made of the extent of so-called 'tank tourism' in Switzerland. The report attempts to how much motor fuel is purchased in border-near filling stations by persons from the other side of the border as a result of price differences in the different countries. The two methods used to estimate the extent of tank tourism, an ex-post analysis and the analysis of filling station turnover, are explained. Only road-traffic is considered; tank tourism in the aviation area is not looked at in this study. The extent of tank tourism is estimated for petrol and diesel fuels. The individual figures produced by the two methods are compared and the difference between them discussed. The report also investigates the effect of changing prices on tank tourism and discusses the problem of estimating the figures for 'off-road' consumers such as tractors and construction machines.

  4. Ferrocyanide tank waste stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, K.D.

    1993-01-01

    Ferrocyanide wastes were generated at the Hanford Site during the mid to late 1950s as a result of efforts to create more tank space for the storage of high-level nuclear waste. The ferrocyanide process was developed to remove 137 CS from existing waste and newly generated waste that resulted from the recovery of valuable uranium in Hanford Site waste tanks. During the course of research associated with the ferrocyanide process, it was recognized that ferrocyanide materials, when mixed with sodium nitrate and/or sodium nitrite, were capable of violent exothermic reaction. This chemical reactivity became an issue in the 1980s, when safety issues associated with the storage of ferrocyanide wastes in Hanford Site tanks became prominent. These safety issues heightened in the late 1980s and led to the current scrutiny of the safety issues associated with these wastes, as well as current research and waste management programs. Testing to provide information on the nature of possible tank reactions is ongoing. This document supplements the information presented in Summary of Single-Shell Tank Waste Stability, WHC-EP-0347, March 1991 (Borsheim and Kirch 1991), which evaluated several issues. This supplement only considers information particular to ferrocyanide wastes

  5. 33 CFR Appendix D to Part 157 - Example of a Procedure for Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Example of a Procedure for... ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Pt. 157, App. D Appendix D to Part 157—Example of a Procedure for Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations 1. Source. The example procedure for dedicated clean...

  6. Characterisation of bulk solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. McGlinchey [Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow (United Kingdom). Centre for Industrial Bulk Solids Handling

    2005-07-01

    Handling of powders and bulk solids is a critical industrial technology across a broad spectrum of industries, including minerals processing. With contributions from leading authors in their respective fields, this book provides the reader with a sound understanding of the techniques, importance and application of particulate materials characterisation. It covers the fundamental characteristics of individual particles and bulk particulate materials, and includes discussion of a wide range of measurement techniques, and the use of material characteristics in design and industrial practice. Contents: Characterising particle properties; Powder mechanics and rheology; Characterisation for hopper and stockpile design; Fluidization behaviour; Characterisation for pneumatic conveyor design; Explosiblility; 'Designer' particle characteristics; Current industrial practice; and Future trends. 130 ills.

  7. C-tank transfers: Transuranic sludge removal from the C-1, C-2, and W-23 waste storage tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, T.L.; Lay, A.C.; Taylor, S.A.; Moore, J.W.

    1999-01-01

    Two fluidic pulse jet mixing systems were used to successfully mobilize remote-handled transuranic sludge for retrieval from three 50,000-gal horizontal waste storage tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The results of this operation indicate that the pulse jet system should be considered for mixing and bulk retrieval of sludges in other vertical and horizontal waste tanks at ORNL and at other U.S. Department of Energy sites

  8. Micromegas in a bulk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giomataris, I.; De Oliveira, R.; Andriamonje, S.; Aune, S.; Charpak, G.; Colas, P.; Fanourakis, G.; Ferrer, E.; Giganon, A.; Rebourgeard, Ph.; Salin, P.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel way to manufacture the bulk Micromegas detector. A simple process based on the Printed Circuit Board (PCB) technology is employed to produce the entire sensitive detector. Such a fabrication process could be extended to very large area detectors made by the industry. The low cost fabrication together with the robustness of the electrode materials will make it attractive for several applications ranging from particle physics and astrophysics to medicine

  9. Inerting ballast tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baes, Gabriel L.; Bronneberg, Jos [SBM Offshore, AA Schiedam (Netherlands); Barros, Maria A.S.D. de [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This report expands upon the work conducted by SBM Offshore to develop a tank preservation treatment, which is intended to achieve a service life of 30 years. This work focuses on the corrosion problems, in the ballast tanks, based on new built hulls, both for the Gas Exploration Market, the FLNG - Floating Liquefied Natural Gas, and for the Oil Exploration market - FPSO's - Floating Production Storage and offloading Units. Herein, the corrosion rate input comes from the various references related to the process of nitrogen injection, which is expected to extend the vessel's time life. The essential elements of this solution comprise the deoxygenation process, corrosion models, coating effects, tests from laboratory, shipboard tests, corrosion institutes and regulations applicable to the operation. The best corrosion protection system for ballast tanks area combines a coating system and an inert gas system. The condition of the tanks will be dependent upon the level of protection applied to the steel structure, including, but not limited to coating, cathodic protection, etc. There is a need for products which extend the life time. It is not sufficient, only have good theoretical base for the corrosion and an excellent treatment system. In addition, the design of the ships structure must also eliminate the presence of local stress concentrations which can result in fatigue cracking and rupture of the protective coating barrier starting the corrosion. As a direct result of this, more problems in corrosion can be mitigated, vessels can have a better corrosion performance with less maintenance and repairs to coating systems in ballast tanks. Furthermore ships will be positively impacted operationally due to less frequent dry docking. There is a huge potential in the application of inert gas to combat the corrosion rate inside the ballast tanks, one of the most corrosive environments on earth. This application can have a direct impact on vessel structure

  10. Failure analysis of buried tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, R.K.

    1994-01-01

    Failure of a buried tank can be hazardous. Failure may be a leak through which product is lost from the tank; but also through which contamination can occur. Failures are epidemic -- because buried tanks are out of sight, but also because designers of buried tanks have adopted analyses developed for pressure tanks. So why do pressure tanks fail when they are buried? Most failures of buried tanks are really soil failures. Soil compresses, or slips, or liquefies. Soil is not only a load, it is a support without which the tank deforms. A high water table adds to the load on the tank. It also reduces the strength of the soil. Based on tests, structural analyses are proposed for empty tanks buried in soils of various quality, with the water table at various levels, and with internal vacuum. Failure may be collapse tank. Such collapse is a sudden, audible inversion of the cylinder when the sidefill soil slips. Failure may be flotation. Failure may be a leak. Most leaks are fractures in the welds in overlap seams at flat spots. Flat spots are caused by a hard bedding or a heavy surface wheel load. Because the tank wall is double thick at the overlap, shearing stress in the weld is increased. Other weld failures occur when an end plate shears down past a cylinder; or when the tank is supported only at its ends like a beam. These, and other, failures can be analyzed with justifiable accuracy using basic principles of mechanics of materials. 10 figs

  11. TANK SPACE OPTIONS REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, W.L.; Ahrendt, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    Since this report was originally issued in 2001, several options proposed for increasing double-shell tank (DST) storage space were implemented or are in the process of implementation. Changes to the single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval schedule, completion of DST space saving options, and the DST space saving options in progress have delayed the projected shortfall of DST storage space from the 2007-2011 to the 2018-2025 timeframe (ORP-11242, River Protection Project System Plan). This report reevaluates options from Rev. 0 and includes evaluations of new options for alleviating projected restrictions on SST waste retrieval beginning in 2018 because of the lack of DST storage space.

  12. Effects of storage on the major constituents of raw milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Zajác

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Milk testing and quality control should be carried out at all stages of the dairy chain. Milk can be tested for quantity, organoleptic characteristic, compositional characteristic, physical and chemical characteristics, hygienic characteristics, adulteration or drug residues. The content of the major constituents of raw milk is important for milk payment system. Enzymes naturally present in the milk can change the chemical composition of raw milk. Also, enzymes secreted by bacteria or enzymes from somatic cells can degrade the raw milk composition. Products of these degradation reactions can have undesirable effects on milk structure, smell and taste. It is very important that farm-fresh raw milk be cooled immediately to not more than 8 °C in the case of daily collection, or not more than 6 °C if collection is not daily. During transport the cold chain must be maintained. An authorized person, properly trained in the appropriate technique, shall perform sampling of bulk milk in farm. Laboratory samples should be dispatched immediately after sampling to the dairy company and consequently to the testing laboratory. The time for dispatch of the samples to the testing laboratory should be as short as possible, preferably within 24 h. Laboratory samples shall be transported and stored at temperature 1 to 5 °C. Higher temperatures may adversely affect the composition of the laboratory sample and may cause disputes between the farmer, the dairy company and the laboratory. The effect of refrigerated storage at temperature 4 °C during 24 h on the composition of raw milk were investigated in this work, because we wanted to know how the milk composition will be changed and how the laboratory results will be affected. In many cases, the samples are not preserved with chemical preservants like azidiol, bronopol, potassium dichromate or Microtabs. We found, that the composition of raw cows' milk after 24 was changed significantly (p >0.005. We found an

  13. Fuel tank crashworthiness : loading scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    The Federal Railroad Administrations Office of Research and Development is conducting research into fuel tank crashworthiness. The breaching of fuel tanks during passenger : rail collisions and derailments increases the potential of serious injury...

  14. Vibration Considerations for Cryogenic Tanks Using Glass Bubbles Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werlink, Rudolph J.; Fesmire, James E.; Sass, Jared P.

    2011-01-01

    The use of glass bubbles as an efficient and practical thermal insulation system has been previously demonstrated in cryogenic storage tanks. One such example is a spherical, vacuum-jacketed liquid hydrogen vessel of 218,000 liter capacity where the boiloff rate has been reduced by approximately 50 percent. Further applications may include non-stationary tanks such as mobile tankers and tanks with extreme duty cycles or exposed to significant vibration environments. Space rocket launch events and mobile tanker life cycles represent two harsh cases of mechanical vibration exposure. A number of bulk fill insulation materials including glass bubbles, perlite powders, and aerogel granules were tested for vibration effects and mechanical behavior using a custom design holding fixture subjected to random vibration on an Electrodynamic Shaker. The settling effects for mixtures of insulation materials were also investigated. The vibration test results and granular particle analysis are presented with considerations and implications for future cryogenic tank applications. A thermal performance update on field demonstration testing of a 218,000 L liquid hydrogen storage tank, retrofitted with glass bubbles, is presented. KEYWORDS: Glass bubble, perlite, aerogel, insulation, liquid hydrogen, storage tank, mobile tanker, vibration.

  15. Initial tank calibration at NUCEF critical facility. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Hiroshi

    1994-07-01

    Analyses on initial tank calibration data were carried out for the purpose of the nuclear material accountancy and control for critical facilities in NUCEF: Nuclear Fuel Cycle Safety Engineering Research Facility. Calibration functions to evaluate volume of nuclear material solution in accountancy tanks were determined by regression analysis on the data considering dimension and shape of the tank. The analyses on dip-tube separation (probe separation), which are necessary to evaluate solution density in the tanks, were also carried out. As a result, regression errors of volume calculated with the calibration functions were within 0.05 lit. (0.01%) at a nominal level of Pu accountancy tanks. Errors of the evaluated dip-tube separations were also small, e.g. within 0.2mm (0.11%). Therefore, it was estimated that systematic errors of bulk measurements would satisfy the target value of NUCEF critical facilities (0.3% for Pu accountancy tanks). This paper summarizes the data analysis methods, results of analysis and evaluated errors. (author)

  16. A case of bovine raw milk contamination with Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunt Karen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During routine sampling of bulk raw milk on a dairy farm, the pathogenic bacteria Listeria monocytogenes was found to be a contaminant, at numbers L. monocytogenes, indicating a possible case of excretion of the L. monocytogenes directly into the milk. Milk samples were collected from the individual cows and analysed, resulting in the identification of L. monocytogenes excretion (at 280 cfu/ml from one of the 4 mammary quarters of one dairy cow out of 180. When the infected cow was isolated from the herd, no L. monocytogenes was detected from the remaining herd. The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern of the strain from the individual cow was indistinguishable from that originally isolated from the bulk milk. The infected cow did not show any clinical signs of disease, nor did the appearance of the milk have any physical abnormalities. Antibiotic treatment of the infected mammary quarter was found to be ineffective. This study shows that there can be risks associated with direct contamination of raw milk with L. monocytogenes.

  17. Cow's milk proteins in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscia, A; Orrù, S; Di Nicola, P; Giuliani, F; Rovelli, I; Peila, C; Martano, C; Chiale, F; Bertino, E

    2012-01-01

    Cow's milk proteins (CMPs) are among the best characterized food allergens. Cow's milk contains more than twenty five different proteins, but only whey proteins alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, bovine serum albumin (BSA), and lactoferrin, as well as the four caseins, have been identified as allergens. Aim of this study was to investigate by proteomics techniques cow's milk allergens in human colostrum of term and preterm newborns' mothers, not previously detected, in order to understand if such allergens could be cause of sensitization during lactation. Term colostrum samples from 62 healthy mothers and preterm colostrum samples from 11 healthy mothers were collected for this purpose. The most relevant finding was the detection of the intact bovine alpha-S1-casein in both term and preterm colostrum. Using this method, which allows direct proteins identification, beta-lactoglobulin was not detected in any of colostrum samples. According to our results bovine alpha 1 casein that is considered a major cow's milk allergen is readily secreted in human milk: further investigations are needed in order to clarify if alpha-1-casein has a major role in sensitization or tolerance to cow's milk of exclusively breastfed predisposed infants.

  18. Aboveground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzo, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    With the 1988 promulgation of the comprehensive Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations for underground storage of petroleum and hazardous substances, many existing underground storage tank (UST) owners have been considering making the move to aboveground storage. While on the surface, this may appear to be the cure-all to avoiding the underground leakage dilemma, there are many other new and different issues to consider with aboveground storage. The greatest misconception is that by storing materials above ground, there is no risk of subsurface environmental problems. it should be noted that with the aboveground storage tank (AGST) systems, there is still considerable risk of environmental contamination, either by the failure of onground tank bottoms or the spillage of product onto the ground surface where it subsequently finds its way to the ground water. In addition, there are added safety concerns that must be addressed. So what are the other specific areas of concern besides environmental to be addressed when making the decision between underground and aboveground tanks? The primary issues that will be addressed in this paper are: Safety, Product Losses, Cost Comparison of USTs vs AGSTs, Space Availability/Accessibility, Precipitation Handling, Aesthetics and Security, Pending and Existing Regulations

  19. Underground storage tank program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.W.

    1994-01-01

    Underground storage tanks, UST'S, have become a major component of the Louisville District's Environmental Support Program. The District's Geotechnical and Environmental Engineering Branch has spear-headed an innovative effort to streamline the time, effort and expense for removal, replacement, upgrade and associated cleanup of USTs at military and civil work installations. This program, called Yank-A-Tank, creates generic state-wide contracts for removal, remediation, installation and upgrade of storage tanks for which individual delivery orders are written under the basic contract. The idea is to create a ''JOC type'' contract containing all the components of work necessary to remove, reinstall or upgrade an underground or above ground tank. The contract documents contain a set of generic specifications and unit price books in addition to the standard ''boiler plate'' information. Each contract requires conformance to the specific regulations for the state in which it is issued. The contractor's bid consists of a bid factor which in the multiplier used with the prices in the unit price book. The solicitation is issued as a Request for Proposal (RPP) which allows the government to select a contractor based on technical qualification an well as bid factor. Once the basic contract is awarded individual delivery orders addressing specific areas of work are scoped, negotiated and awarded an modifications to the original contract. The delivery orders utilize the prepriced components and the contractor's factor to determine the value of the work

  20. Task 7c: Worm tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Worm tank has a unique shape. In the seismic design of a worm tank, it is desirable to clear the behavior of the worm tank under the seismic loading. We assumed that there are two phenomena in the seismic behavior of the worm tank same as the behavior of the cylindrical and rectangular tanks. One is a sloshing behavior of the water and another is the dynamic response of the worm tank. In this study, we investigate the dynamic characteristics of the worm tank during the strong earthquakes. We conducted the vibration tests to clarify the seismic behaviors of the worm tanks and obtained the valuable data to verify the analytical method. It was found that the natural frequency can be calculated using the eigenvalue formula of the cylindrical and rectangular tanks. Lower modes of the worm tank are identical with that of the rectangular tank. We can estimate the surface behavior and the impact mode using the data of the rectangular tank. (author)

  1. SRS Tank Structural Integrity Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maryak, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    The mission of the Structural Integrity Program is to ensure continued safe management and operation of the waste tanks for whatever period of time these tanks are required. Matthew Maryak provides an overview of the Structural Integrity Program to open Session 5 (Waste Storage and Tank Inspection) of the 2010 EM Waste Processing Technical Exchange.

  2. Alternative Chemical Cleaning Methods for High Level Waste Tanks: Actual Waste Testing with SRS Tank 5F Sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, William D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hay, Michael S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-30

    Solubility testing with actual High Level Waste tank sludge has been conducted in order to evaluate several alternative chemical cleaning technologies for the dissolution of sludge residuals remaining in the tanks after the exhaustion of mechanical cleaning and sludge sluicing efforts. Tests were conducted with archived Savannah River Site (SRS) radioactive sludge solids that had been retrieved from Tank 5F in order to determine the effectiveness of an optimized, dilute oxalic/nitric acid cleaning reagent toward dissolving the bulk non-radioactive waste components. Solubility tests were performed by direct sludge contact with the oxalic/nitric acid reagent and with sludge that had been pretreated and acidified with dilute nitric acid. For comparison purposes, separate samples were also contacted with pure, concentrated oxalic acid following current baseline tank chemical cleaning methods. One goal of testing with the optimized reagent was to compare the total amounts of oxalic acid and water required for sludge dissolution using the baseline and optimized cleaning methods. A second objective was to compare the two methods with regard to the dissolution of actinide species known to be drivers for SRS tank closure Performance Assessments (PA). Additionally, solubility tests were conducted with Tank 5 sludge using acidic and caustic permanganate-based methods focused on the “targeted” dissolution of actinide species.

  3. Unexpected Decrease in Milk Production after Fenbendazole Treatment of Dairy Cows during Early Grazing Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravinet, Nadine; Chartier, Christophe; Bareille, Nathalie; Lehebel, Anne; Ponnau, Adeline; Brisseau, Nadine; Chauvin, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) infection can impair milk production (MP) in dairy cows. To investigate whether MP would be optimized by spring targeted-selective anthelmintic treatment in grazing cows, we assessed (1) the effect on MP of an anthelmintic treatment applied 1.5 to 2 months after turn-out, and (2) herd and individual indicators associated with the post-treatment MP response. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in 13 dairy farms (578 cows) in western France in spring 2012. In each herd, lactating cows of the treatment group received fenbendazole orally, control cows remained untreated. Daily cow MP was recorded from 2 weeks before until 15 weeks after treatment. Individual serum pepsinogen and anti-Ostertagia antibody levels (expressed as ODR), faecal egg count and bulk tank milk (BTM) Ostertagia ODR were measured at treatment time. Anthelmintic treatment applied during the previous housing period was recorded for each cow. In each herd, information regarding heifers' grazing and anthelmintic treatment history was collected to assess the Time of Effective Contact (TEC, in months) with GIN infective larvae before the first calving. The effect of treatment on weekly MP averages and its relationships with herd and individual indicators were studied using linear mixed models with two nested random effects (cow within herd). Unexpectedly, spring treatment had a significant detrimental effect on MP (-0.92 kg/cow/day on average). This negative MP response was particularly marked in high producing cows, in cows not treated during the previous housing period or with high pepsinogen levels, and in cows from herds with a high TEC or a high BTM ODR. This post-treatment decrease in MP may be associated with immuno-inflammatory mechanisms. Until further studies can assess whether this unexpected result can be generalized, non-persistent treatment of immunized adult dairy cows against GIN should not be recommended in early grazing season.

  4. Unexpected Decrease in Milk Production after Fenbendazole Treatment of Dairy Cows during Early Grazing Season.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Ravinet

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN infection can impair milk production (MP in dairy cows. To investigate whether MP would be optimized by spring targeted-selective anthelmintic treatment in grazing cows, we assessed (1 the effect on MP of an anthelmintic treatment applied 1.5 to 2 months after turn-out, and (2 herd and individual indicators associated with the post-treatment MP response. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in 13 dairy farms (578 cows in western France in spring 2012. In each herd, lactating cows of the treatment group received fenbendazole orally, control cows remained untreated. Daily cow MP was recorded from 2 weeks before until 15 weeks after treatment. Individual serum pepsinogen and anti-Ostertagia antibody levels (expressed as ODR, faecal egg count and bulk tank milk (BTM Ostertagia ODR were measured at treatment time. Anthelmintic treatment applied during the previous housing period was recorded for each cow. In each herd, information regarding heifers' grazing and anthelmintic treatment history was collected to assess the Time of Effective Contact (TEC, in months with GIN infective larvae before the first calving. The effect of treatment on weekly MP averages and its relationships with herd and individual indicators were studied using linear mixed models with two nested random effects (cow within herd. Unexpectedly, spring treatment had a significant detrimental effect on MP (-0.92 kg/cow/day on average. This negative MP response was particularly marked in high producing cows, in cows not treated during the previous housing period or with high pepsinogen levels, and in cows from herds with a high TEC or a high BTM ODR. This post-treatment decrease in MP may be associated with immuno-inflammatory mechanisms. Until further studies can assess whether this unexpected result can be generalized, non-persistent treatment of immunized adult dairy cows against GIN should not be recommended in early grazing season.

  5. Unexpected Decrease in Milk Production after Fenbendazole Treatment of Dairy Cows during Early Grazing Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravinet, Nadine; Chartier, Christophe; Bareille, Nathalie; Lehebel, Anne; Ponnau, Adeline; Brisseau, Nadine; Chauvin, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) infection can impair milk production (MP) in dairy cows. To investigate whether MP would be optimized by spring targeted-selective anthelmintic treatment in grazing cows, we assessed (1) the effect on MP of an anthelmintic treatment applied 1.5 to 2 months after turn-out, and (2) herd and individual indicators associated with the post-treatment MP response. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in 13 dairy farms (578 cows) in western France in spring 2012. In each herd, lactating cows of the treatment group received fenbendazole orally, control cows remained untreated. Daily cow MP was recorded from 2 weeks before until 15 weeks after treatment. Individual serum pepsinogen and anti-Ostertagia antibody levels (expressed as ODR), faecal egg count and bulk tank milk (BTM) Ostertagia ODR were measured at treatment time. Anthelmintic treatment applied during the previous housing period was recorded for each cow. In each herd, information regarding heifers’ grazing and anthelmintic treatment history was collected to assess the Time of Effective Contact (TEC, in months) with GIN infective larvae before the first calving. The effect of treatment on weekly MP averages and its relationships with herd and individual indicators were studied using linear mixed models with two nested random effects (cow within herd). Unexpectedly, spring treatment had a significant detrimental effect on MP (-0.92 kg/cow/day on average). This negative MP response was particularly marked in high producing cows, in cows not treated during the previous housing period or with high pepsinogen levels, and in cows from herds with a high TEC or a high BTM ODR. This post-treatment decrease in MP may be associated with immuno-inflammatory mechanisms. Until further studies can assess whether this unexpected result can be generalized, non-persistent treatment of immunized adult dairy cows against GIN should not be recommended in early grazing season. PMID

  6. Herpesviruses and breast milk

    OpenAIRE

    C. Pietrasanta; B. Ghirardi; M.F. Manca; S. Uccella; C. Gualdi; E. Tota; L. Pugni; F. Mosca

    2014-01-01

    Breast milk has always been the best source of nourishment for newborns. However, breast milk can carry a risk of infection, as it can be contaminated with bacterial or viral pathogens. This paper reviews the risk of acquisition of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpesviruses frequently detected in breastfeeding mothers, via breast milk, focusing on the clinical consequences of this transmission and the possible strategies for preventing it. Maternal VZV infections ar...

  7. ANALYSIS OF THE TANK 5F FINAL CHARACTERIZATION SAMPLES-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L.; Diprete, D.; Coleman, C.; Hay, M.

    2012-08-03

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by SRR to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 5F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Two types of samples were collected and delivered to SRNL: floor samples across the tank and subsurface samples from mounds near risers 1 and 5 of Tank 5F. These samples were taken from Tank 5F between January and March 2011. These samples from individual locations in the tank (nine floor samples and six mound Tank 5F samples) were each homogenized and combined in a given proportion into 3 distinct composite samples to mimic the average composition in the entire tank. These Tank 5F composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 5F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble species. With analyses for certain challenging radionuclides as the exception, all composite Tank 5F samples were analyzed and reported in triplicate. The target detection limits for isotopes analyzed were based on customer desired detection limits as specified in the technical task request documents. SRNL developed new methodologies to meet these target detection limits and provide data for the extensive suite of components. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 5F, as specified in the technical task request, some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The Technical Task Request allows that while the analyses of these isotopes is needed, meeting the detection limits for these isotopes is a lower priority than meeting detection limits for the other specified isotopes. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included the

  8. Analysis Of The Tank 5F Final Characterization Samples-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N.; Diprete, D.; Coleman, C. J.; Hay, M. S.

    2012-09-27

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by SRR to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 5F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Two types of samples were collected and delivered to SRNL: floor samples across the tank and subsurface samples from mounds near risers 1 and 5 of Tank 5F. These samples were taken from Tank 5F between January and March 2011. These samples from individual locations in the tank (nine floor samples and six mound Tank 5F samples) were each homogenized and combined in a given proportion into 3 distinct composite samples to mimic the average composition in the entire tank. These Tank 5F composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 5F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble species. With analyses for certain challenging radionuclides as the exception, all composite Tank 5F samples were analyzed and reported in triplicate. The target detection limits for isotopes analyzed were based on customer desired detection limits as specified in the technical task request documents. SRNL developed new methodologies to meet these target detection limits and provide data for the extensive suite of components. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 5F, as specified in the technical task request, some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The Technical Task Request allows that while the analyses of these isotopes is needed, meeting the detection limits for these isotopes is a lower priority than meeting detection limits for the other specified isotopes. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included the

  9. Storage Tanks - Selection Of Type, Design Code And Tank Sizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shatla, M.N; El Hady, M.

    2004-01-01

    The present work gives an insight into the proper selection of type, design code and sizing of storage tanks used in the Petroleum and Process industries. In this work, storage tanks are classified based on their design conditions. Suitable design codes and their limitations are discussed for each tank type. The option of storage under high pressure and ambient temperature, in spherical and cigar tanks, is compared to the option of storage under low temperature and slight pressure (close to ambient) in low temperature and cryogenic tanks. The discussion is extended to the types of low temperature and cryogenic tanks and recommendations are given to select their types. A study of pressurized tanks designed according to ASME code, conducted in the present work, reveals that tanks designed according to ASME Section VIII DIV 2 provides cost savings over tanks designed according to ASME Section VIII DlV 1. The present work is extended to discuss the parameters that affect sizing of flat bottom cylindrical tanks. The analysis shows the effect of height-to-diameter ratio on tank instability and foundation loads

  10. Microbiological quality of milk in Tanzania: from Maasai stable to African consumer table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoder, Dagmar; Maichin, Andreas; Lema, Benedict; Laffa, John

    2013-11-01

    In Tanzania, pastoralists such as the Maasai and small urban farmers are responsible for the country's milk production, and 95% of the national milk supply is sold without regulation. This study was conducted using hygiene checklists and milk sampling to investigate milk quality and safety at various steps throughout the milk production chain. In regions of Dar es Salaam and Lake Victoria, 196 milk samples were collected: 109 samples of raw milk, 41 samples of packed or open served heat-treated products, and 46 samples of fermented products. Samples were taken from (i) the production level (pastoralists and urban farmers), (ii) the collection level (middlemen and depots), (iii) processors (dairies), and (iv) retailers (kiosks). Samples were analyzed for hygiene criteria (total bacteria, total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and coagulase-positive staphylococci) and foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella, enterohemorrhagic E. coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes. Adequate heating of milk for drinking was determined via heat labile alkaline phosphatase and lactoperoxidase analysis. Total bacterial counts indicated that only 67% (73 of 109) of raw milk samples and 46% (19 of 41) of heat-treated samples met national Tanzanian standards. Bulk milk samples taken from the traditional milking vessels of Maasai pastoralists had the lowest total bacterial counts: ≥ 1 × 10(2) CFU/ml. Foodborne pathogens such as E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella were isolated from 10.1% (11 of 109) of raw milk samples but were not detected in heat-treated or fermented products, and 83% of heat-treated milk samples were lactoperoxidase negative, indicating overpasteurization. Coliforms were detected in 41% (17 of 41) of processed milk samples, thus indicating a high rate of recontamination. A progressive decrease in microbial quality along the milk production chain was attributed to departures from traditional methods, inadequate milk containers, long transport distances, lack of cooling, and

  11. Tank drive : ZCL takes its composite tank technology worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byfield, M.

    2010-06-15

    Edmonton-based ZCL Composites Inc. is North America's largest manufacturer and supplier of fibreglass reinforced plastic (FRP) underground storage tanks. The company has aggressively pursued new markets in the oil sands, shale gas gas, and other upstream petroleum industries. The manufacturer also targets water and sewage applications, and provides customized corrosion solutions for a variety of industries. The company developed its double-walled FRP tanks in response to Canadian Environmental Protection Act rules requiring cathodic protection for steel tanks, leak detection, and secondary containment. ZCL supplies approximately 90 per cent of the new tanks installed by gasoline retailers in Canada. Future growth is expected to be strong, as many old tanks will soon need to be replaced. The company has also developed a method of transforming underground single wall tanks into secondarily contained systems without digging them out. The company has also recently signed licence agreements with tank manufacturers in China. 3 figs.

  12. Material selection for Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, W.C.

    1994-01-01

    This report briefly summarizes the history of the materials selection for the US Department of Energy's high-level waste carbon steel storage tanks. It also provide an evaluation of the materials for the construction of new tanks at the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. The evaluation included a materials matrix that summarized the critical design, fabrication, construction, and corrosion resistance requirements; assessed each requirement; and cataloged the advantages and disadvantages of each material. This evaluation is based on the mission of the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. On the basis of the compositions of the wastes stored in Hanford waste tanks, it is recommended that tanks for the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility be constructed of normalized ASME SA 516, Grade 70, carbon steel

  13. Milk: Past and Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulajić, S.; Đorđević, J.; Ledina, T.; Šarčević, D.; Baltić, M. Ž.

    2017-09-01

    Although milk/dairy consumption is part of many cultures and is recommended in most dietary guidelines around the world, its contribution to overall diet quality remains a matter of controversy, leading to a highly polarized debate within the scientific community, media and public sector. The present article, at first, describes the evolutionary roots of milk consumption, then reviews the milk-derived bioactive peptides as health-promoting components. The third part of the article, in general, presents the associations between milk nutrients, disease prevention, and health promotion.

  14. Enzymes in Human Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallas, David C; German, J Bruce

    2017-01-01

    Milk proteins are a complex and diverse source of biological activities. Beyond their function, intact milk proteins also act as carriers of encrypted functional sequences that, when released as peptides, exert biological functions, including antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activity, which could contribute to the infant's competitive success. Research has now revealed that the release of these functional peptides begins within the mammary gland itself. A complex array of proteases produced in mother's milk has been shown to be active in the milk, releasing these peptides. Moreover, our recent research demonstrates that these milk proteases continue to digest milk proteins within the infant's stomach, possibly even to a larger extent than the infant's own proteases. As the neonate has relatively low digestive capacity, the activity of milk proteases in the infant may provide important assistance to digesting milk proteins. The coordinated release of these encrypted sequences is accomplished by selective proteolytic action provided by an array of native milk proteases and infant-produced enzymes. The task for scientists is now to discover the selective advantages of this protein-protease-based peptide release system. © 2017 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Sphingosine basis in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavica Ribar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Sphingolipids are widespread membrane components that are found in all eukaryotic cells. They are defined as compounds having a long-chain sphingoid base as the backbone. The most frequent long-chain bases in most of the mammals are D-erythro-sphinganine and sphingosine. Sphingolipids can be expected in minor quantities in all food products. Milk fat contains a number of different sphingolipid classes. Originally they were presumed to contribute to the structural integrity of membranes, but there nowadays it is confirmed that they have an important physiological role. Dietary sphingolipids have gained attention because of their possibility to inhibit colon cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of free and total sphinganine and sphingosine in milk (human, cow's, sheep’s, goat’s, soy’s Sphingolipids were extracted from milk. Free and total sphingoid bases were obtained by alkaline and acid hydrolysis respectively. Sphinganin and sphingosine were determined by means of high-performance liquid chromatography. The results of this research illustrate the differences between the concentrations of sphingoid bases in cow’s milk with various content of milk fat. The concentrations of free sphingosine and sphinganine in cow’s milk were lower than in human milk. In sheep’s and goat’s milk, the concentrations of total sphingoid bases were higher than in human and cow’s milk. Quantity of the most sphingoid bases decreased during pasteurization.

  16. Comparison of Chamcham manufactured from cow milk and buffalo milk

    OpenAIRE

    Haque, M.A.; Rashid, M.H.; Kajal, M.F.I.; Istiak, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study quality of Chamcham manufactured from cow milk and to compare it with Chamcham manufactured from buffalo milk and mixture of cow and buffalo milk. Three types of Chamcham were prepared from cow milk(A), buffalo milk(B) and 50% cow +50% buffalo milk(C).In this experiment the quality of prepared Chamcham were evaluated with the help of chemical test. The moisture, total solids, protein, fat, ash and carbohydrate contents of cow milk and buffalo milk Chamch...

  17. Food Safety and Raw Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Food Safety Food Safety Modernization Act Raw Milk Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir RAW MILK ... Decide? Questions & Answers Outbreak Studies Resources & Publications Raw Milk Infographic [PDF – 1 page] More Resources 5 Raw ...

  18. Low temperature hydrothermal destruction of organics in Hanford tank wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orth, R.J.; Elmore, M.R.; Zacher, A.H.; Neuenschwander, G.G.; Schmidt, A.J.; Jones, E.O.; Hart, T.R.; Poshusta, J.C.

    1994-08-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate and develop a low temperature hydrothermal process (HTP) for the destruction of organics that are present wastes temporarily stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site. Organic compounds contribute to tank waste safety issues, such as hydrogen generation. Some organic compounds act as complexants, promoting the solubility of radioactive constituents such as 90 Sr and 241 Am, which is undesirable for waste pretreatment processing. HTP is thermal-chemical autogenous processing method that is typically operated between 250 degrees C and 375 degrees C and approximately 200 atm. Testing with simulated tank waste, containing a variety of organics has been performed. The distribution of strontium, cesium and bulk metals between the supernatant and solid phases as a function of the total organic content of the waste simulant will be presented. Test results using simulant will be compared with similar tests conducted using actual radioactive waste

  19. Tank farm nuclear criticality review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratzel, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    The technical basis for the nuclear criticality safety of stored wastes at the Hanford Site Tank Farm Complex was reviewed by a team of senior technical personnel whose expertise covered all appropriate aspects of fissile materials chemistry and physics. The team concluded that the detailed and documented nucleonics-related studies underlying the waste tanks criticality safety basis were sound. The team concluded that, under current plutonium inventories and operating conditions, a nuclear criticality accident is incredible in any of the Hanford single-shell tanks (SST), double-shell tanks (DST), or double-contained receiver tanks (DCRTS) on the Hanford Site

  20. Real-Time Dispatch of Petroleum Tank Trucks

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald G. Brown; Glenn W. Graves

    1981-01-01

    A highly automated, real-time dispatch system is described which uses embedded optimization routines to replace extensive manual operations and to reduce substantially operating costs for a nation-wide fleet of petroleum tank trucks. The system is currently used in daily operations by the Order Entry and Dispatch segment of the Chevron U.S.A. Marketing System. Refined petroleum products valued at several billion dollars per year are dispatched from more than 80 bulk terminals on a fleet excee...

  1. Do Fish Enhance Tank Mixing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael R.; Laursen, Jesper; Craig, Steven R.

    2005-01-01

    The design of fish rearing tanks represents a critical stage in the development of optimal aquaculture systems, especially in the context of recirculating systems. Poor hydrodynamics can compromise water quality, waste management and the physiology and behaviour of fish, and thence, production...... potential and operational profitability. The hydrodynamic performance of tanks, therefore, represents an important parameter during the tank design process. Because there are significant complexities in combining the rigid principles of hydrodynamics with the stochastic behaviour of fish, however, most data...... upon tank hydrokinetics has been derived using tanks void of fish. Clearly, the presence of randomly moving objects, such as fish, in a water column will influence not only tank volumes by displacing water, but due to their activity, water dynamics and associated in-tank processes. In order...

  2. 49 CFR 179.101 - Individual specification requirements applicable to pressure tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to pressure tank car tanks. 179.101 Section 179.101 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT... tank car tanks. Editorial Note: At 66 FR 45186, Aug. 28, 2001, an amendment published amending a table...

  3. 49 CFR 179.301 - Individual specification requirements for multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-unit tank car tanks. 179.301 Section 179.301 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Multi-Unit Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-106A and 110AW) § 179.301 Individual specification requirements for multi-unit tank car tanks. (a) In...

  4. 49 CFR 179.500 - Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... car tanks. 179.500 Section 179.500 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.500 Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank car tanks. ...

  5. Bulk-Fill Resin Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Havndrup-Pedersen, Cæcilie; Honoré, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    the restorative procedure. The aim of this study, therefore, was to compare the depth of cure, polymerization contraction, and gap formation in bulk-fill resin composites with those of a conventional resin composite. To achieve this, the depth of cure was assessed in accordance with the International Organization...... for Standardization 4049 standard, and the polymerization contraction was determined using the bonded-disc method. The gap formation was measured at the dentin margin of Class II cavities. Five bulk-fill resin composites were investigated: two high-viscosity (Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, SonicFill) and three low......-viscosity (x-tra base, Venus Bulk Fill, SDR) materials. Compared with the conventional resin composite, the high-viscosity bulk-fill materials exhibited only a small increase (but significant for Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill) in depth of cure and polymerization contraction, whereas the low-viscosity bulk...

  6. Detecting β-Casein Variation in Bovine Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroli, Anna Maria; Savino, Salvatore; Bulgari, Omar; Monti, Eugenio

    2016-01-25

    In bovine species, β-casein (β-CN) is characterized by genetic polymorphism. The two most common protein variants are β-CN A² (the original one) and A¹, differing from A² for one amino acid substitution (Pro67 to His67). Several bioactive peptides affecting milk nutritional properties can originate from β-CN. Among them, β-casomorphin-7 (BCM7) ranging from amino acid 60 to 66 can be released more easily from β-CN variants carrying His67 (A¹ type) instead of Pro67 (A² type). Nowadays, "A2 milk" is produced in different countries claiming its potential benefits in human health. The aim of this study was to further develop and apply an isoelectric focusing electrophoresis (IEF) method to bulk and individual milk samples in order to improve its use for β-CN studies. We succeeded in identifying A2 milk samples correctly and quantifying the percentage of A², A¹, and B variants in bulk samples not derived from A2 milk as well as in individual milk samples. The method allows us to quantify the relative proportion of β-CN variants in whole milk without eliminating whey protein by acid or enzymatic precipitation of caseins. The aim of this study was also to study the different behavior of β-CN and β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) in the presence of trichloroacetic acid (TCA). The higher sensitivity of β-CN to TCA allows quantifying β-CN variants after TCA fixation because β-LG is not visible. Monitoring β-CN variation in cattle breeds is important in order to maintain a certain balance between Pro67 and His67 in dairy products. Overall, the debate between A1 and A2 milk needs further investigation.

  7. Precipitation and Deposition of Aluminum-Containing Phases in Tank Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabbs, Daniel M.; Aksay, Ilhan A.

    2005-01-01

    Aluminum-containing phases compose the bulk of solids precipitating during the processing of radioactive tank wastes. Processes designed to minimize the volume of high-level waste through conversion to glassy phases require transporting waste solutions near-saturated with aluminum-containing species from holding tank to processing center. The uncontrolled precipitation within transfer lines results in clogged pipes and lines and fouled ion exchangers, with the potential to shut down processing operations

  8. Public health risk of some milk borne pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M.A. Zeinhom

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 150 samples of raw milk, 75 each of farm and market milk were collected from different farms and supermarkets in Beni-Suef Governorate, in addition to 30 stool samples from milk handlers and 25 milker's hand swabs were examined for the presence of Escherichia coli, E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, Aeromonas and Yersinia. Isolates were identified biochemically and serologically. The obtained results revealed that E. coli was detected in a percentage of 26.7% and 16% in the examined raw market and bulk farm milk respectively, while in stool and hand swabs samples were 16.6% and 16%, respectively. E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. failed to be detected in any of the examined samples. Additionally, 45% and 16.7% of the recovered E. coli strains from the examined raw market and farm milk samples were enteropathogenic O166, while 55% and 83.3 were untypable, respectively. On the other hand 60% of human stool samples isolates were O 148 and 40% of the isolates were untypable, while 100% of the hand swab isolates were untypable. The results also exhibits isolation rate of Aeromonas hydrophila in a percentage of 24%, 13.3%, 10% and 16% from market milk, farm milk samples, stool and hand swabs respectively. While Yersinea enterocolitica represent 3.3% in the stool samples only. The public health significance of isolated strains as well as suggested control measures were discussed.

  9. Bulk muscles, loose cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyanage, Chamari R D G; Kodali, Venkata

    2014-10-17

    The accessibility and usage of body building supplements is on the rise with stronger internet marketing strategies by the industry. The dangers posed by the ingredients in them are underestimated. A healthy young man came to the emergency room with palpitations and feeling unwell. Initial history and clinical examination were non-contributory to find the cause. ECG showed atrial fibrillation. A detailed history for any over the counter or herbal medicine use confirmed that he was taking supplements to bulk muscle. One of the components in these supplements is yohimbine; the onset of symptoms coincided with the ingestion of this product and the patient is symptom free after stopping it. This report highlights the dangers to the public of consuming over the counter products with unknown ingredients and the consequential detrimental impact on health. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  10. Urea in Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Projectsatbangalore

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a low-cost, portable instrument using CO2 and NH3 gas sensor technology to quantify and differentiate milk samples containing excess urea. Milk containing urea, in presence of urease enzyme hydrolyses urea to form ammonia and carbon dioxide.

  11. Transglutaminase inhibitor from milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, G.A.H. de; Wijngaards, G.; Koppelman, S.J.

    2003-01-01

    Cross-linking experiments of skimmed bovine milk with bacterial transglutaminase isolated from Streptoverticillium mobaraense showed only some degree of formation of high-molecular-weight casein polymers. Studies on the nature of this phenomenon revealed that bovine milk contains an inhibitor of

  12. Milk free desserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-19

    Robinson's Baby Foods have added a new range of milk free desserts, including Banana and Pineapple Treat and Summer Fruit Salad. The desserts can be mixed with water for mothers who need to feed their babies on a milk free diet.

  13. Herpesviruses and breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrasanta, C; Ghirardi, B; Manca, M F; Uccella, S; Gualdi, C; Tota, E; Pugni, L; Mosca, F

    2014-06-30

    Breast milk has always been the best source of nourishment for newborns. However, breast milk can carry a risk of infection, as it can be contaminated with bacterial or viral pathogens. This paper reviews the risk of acquisition of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpesviruses frequently detected in breastfeeding mothers, via breast milk, focusing on the clinical consequences of this transmission and the possible strategies for preventing it. Maternal VZV infections are conditions during which breastfeeding may be temporarily contraindicated, but expressed breast milk should always be given to the infant. CMV infection acquired through breast milk rarely causes disease in healthy term newborns; an increased risk of CMV disease has been documented in preterm infants. However, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) does not regard maternal CMV seropositivity as a contraindication to breastfeeding; according to the AAP, in newborns weighing less than 1500 g, the decision should be taken after weighing the benefits of breast milk against the risk of transmission of infection. The real efficacy of the different methods of inactivating CMV in breast milk should be compared in controlled clinical trials, rigorously examining the negative consequences that each of these methods can have on the immunological and nutritional properties of the milk itself, with a view to establish the best risk-benefit ratio of these strategies before they are recommended for use in clinical practice.

  14. Herpesviruses and breast milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Pietrasanta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Breast milk has always been the best source of nourishment for newborns. However, breast milk can carry a risk of infection, as it can be contaminated with bacterial or viral pathogens. This paper reviews the risk of acquisition of varicella-zoster virus (VZV and cytomegalovirus (CMV, herpesviruses frequently detected in breastfeeding mothers, via breast milk, focusing on the clinical consequences of this transmission and the possible strategies for preventing it. Maternal VZV infections are conditions during which breastfeeding may be temporarily contraindicated, but expressed breast milk should always be given to the infant. CMV infection acquired through breast milk rarely causes disease in healthy term newborns; an increased risk of CMV disease has been documented in preterm infants. However, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP does not regard maternal CMV seropositivity as a contraindication to breastfeeding; according to the AAP, in newborns weighing less than 1500 g, the decision should be taken after weighing the benefits of breast milk against the risk of transmission of infection. The real efficacy of the different methods of inactivating CMV in breast milk should be compared in controlled clinical trials, rigorously examining the negative consequences that each of these methods can have on the immunological and nutritional properties of the milk itself, with a view to establish the best risk-benefit ratio of these strategies before they are recommended for use in clinical practice.

  15. [HTLV and "donating" milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigourd, V; Meyer, V; Kieffer, F; Aubry, S; Magny, J-F

    2011-08-01

    In France, the screening for human T-cell leukemia/ lymphoma virus type 1 and 2 (HTLV-1 and HTLV-2) during the donation of human milk has been carried out from 1992 with the application of the circular DGS 24 November 1992. The screening for antibodies against these viruses is regulated and done systematically during every donation of milk. Breast feeding being the main mode of transmission of the HTLV-1, the last ministerial decree of 25 August 2010 has made the screening test compulsory for the anonymous donation and for the personalized donation (of a mother for her own child) from all women including those affected by the infection. The milk delivered by milk banks is pasteurized (62.5 °C for 30 minutes) before freezing at -18 °C, which inactivates the pathogens. This double means of prevention of the transmission of the HTLV-1 paradoxically seems disproportionate in the absence of any precautionary measure in the case of direct breast-feeding and the use of mother's raw milk. Indeed, in most neonatal intensive care units in maternity hospitals, unpasteurized milk is administered to the neonates without any systematic preliminary testing of the serological HTLV-1 status of the mother. An increased sensitization of the community of the obstetricians, midwives and neonatologists by the Association of the Milk Banks of France (ADLF) and the Société de pathologie exotique could address the issue of screening for HTLV-1 in "donated" milk and breast-feeding.

  16. A science think tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devine, F [The Australian, (Australia)

    1999-07-01

    A journalist views on public perceptions on nuclear issues in Australia and Japan is presented. It is also emphasised that by not offering an undergraduate course in nuclear engineering, Australia have closed the door to the nuclear energy development in Australia and costed the country some depth of specialized knowledges. A scientific think tank with active participation of the nuclear scientists is thought to benefit Australia and be in the position to influence private industrial and governmental planning.

  17. A science think tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devine, F.

    1999-01-01

    A journalist views on public perceptions on nuclear issues in Australia and Japan is presented. It is also emphasised that by not offering an undergraduate course in nuclear engineering, Australia have closed the door to the nuclear energy development in Australia and costed the country some depth of specialized knowledges. A scientific think tank with active participation of the nuclear scientists is thought to benefit Australia and be in the position to influence private industrial and governmental planning

  18. Tank type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Fumio.

    1989-01-01

    The present invention concerns a tank type reactor capable of securing reactor core integrity by preventing incorporation of gases to an intermediate heat exchanger, thgereby improving the reliability. In a conventional tank type reactor, since vortex flows are easily caused near the inlet of an intermediate heat exchanger, there is a fear that cover gases are involved into the coolant main streams to induce fetal accidents. In the present invention, a reactor core is suspended by way of a suspending body to the inside of a reactor vessel and an intermediate heat exchanger and a pump are disposed between the suspending body and the reactor vessel, in which a vortex current preventive plate is attached at the outside near the coolant inlet on the primary circuit of the intermediate heat exchanger. In this way vortex or turbulence near the inlet of the intermediate heata exchanger or near the surface of coolants can be prevented. Accordingly, the cover gases are no more involved, to insure the reactor core integrity and obtain a tank type nuclear reactor of high reliability. (I.S.)

  19. Analysis Of The Tank 6F Final Characterization Samples-2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oji, L. N.; Diprete, D. P.; Coleman, C. J.; Hay, M. S.; Shine, E. P.

    2012-01-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 6F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Fourteen residual Tank 6F solid samples from three areas on the floor of the tank were collected and delivered to SRNL between May and August 2011. These Tank 6F samples were homogenized and combined into three composite samples based on a proportion compositing scheme and the resulting composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 6F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble components. The composite Tank 6F samples were analyzed and the data reported in triplicate. Sufficient quality assurance standards and blanks were utilized to demonstrate adequate characterization of the Tank 6F samples. The main evaluation criteria were target detection limits specified in the technical task request document. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 6F some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included Sn-126, Sb-126, Sb-126m, Eu-152, Cm-243 and Cf-249. SRNL, in conjunction with the customer, reviewed all of these cases and determined that the impacts of not meeting the target detection limits were acceptable. Based on the analyses of variance (ANOVA) for the inorganic constituents of Tank 6F, all the inorganic constituents displayed heterogeneity. The inorganic results demonstrated consistent differences across the composite samples: lowest concentrations for Composite Sample 1, intermediate-valued concentrations for Composite

  20. Analysis of the Tank 6F Final Characterization Samples-2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oji, L. N.; Diprete, D. P.; Coleman, C. J.; Hay, M. S.; Shine, E. P.

    2013-01-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 6F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Fourteen residual Tank 6F solid samples from three areas on the floor of the tank were collected and delivered to SRNL between May and August 2011. These Tank 6F samples were homogenized and combined into three composite samples based on a proportion compositing scheme and the resulting composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 6F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble components. The composite Tank 6F samples were analyzed and the data reported in triplicate. Sufficient quality assurance standards and blanks were utilized to demonstrate adequate characterization of the Tank 6F samples. The main evaluation criteria were target detection limits specified in the technical task request document. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 6F some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included Sn-126, Sb-126, Sb-126m, Eu-152, Cm- 243 and Cf-249. SRNL, in conjunction with the customer, reviewed all of these cases and determined that the impacts of not meeting the target detection limits were acceptable. Based on the analyses of variance (ANOVA) for the inorganic constituents of Tank 6F, all the inorganic constituents displayed heterogeneity. The inorganic results demonstrated consistent differences across the composite samples: lowest concentrations for Composite Sample 1, intermediate-valued concentrations for Composite

  1. ANALYSIS OF THE TANK 6F FINAL CHARACTERIZATION SAMPLES-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L.; Diprete, D.; Coleman, C.; Hay, M.; Shine, G.

    2012-06-28

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 6F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Fourteen residual Tank 6F solid samples from three areas on the floor of the tank were collected and delivered to SRNL between May and August 2011. These Tank 6F samples were homogenized and combined into three composite samples based on a proportion compositing scheme and the resulting composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 6F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble components. The composite Tank 6F samples were analyzed and the data reported in triplicate. Sufficient quality assurance standards and blanks were utilized to demonstrate adequate characterization of the Tank 6F samples. The main evaluation criteria were target detection limits specified in the technical task request document. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 6F some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included Sn-126, Sb-126, Sb-126m, Eu-152, Cm-243 and Cf-249. SRNL, in conjunction with the customer, reviewed all of these cases and determined that the impacts of not meeting the target detection limits were acceptable. Based on the analyses of variance (ANOVA) for the inorganic constituents of Tank 6F, all the inorganic constituents displayed heterogeneity. The inorganic results demonstrated consistent differences across the composite samples: lowest concentrations for Composite Sample 1, intermediate-valued concentrations for Composite

  2. Analysis of the Tank 6F Final Characterization Samples-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N.; Diprete, D. P.; Coleman, C. J.; Hay, M. S.; Shine, E. P.

    2013-01-31

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 6F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Fourteen residual Tank 6F solid samples from three areas on the floor of the tank were collected and delivered to SRNL between May and August 2011. These Tank 6F samples were homogenized and combined into three composite samples based on a proportion compositing scheme and the resulting composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 6F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble components. The composite Tank 6F samples were analyzed and the data reported in triplicate. Sufficient quality assurance standards and blanks were utilized to demonstrate adequate characterization of the Tank 6F samples. The main evaluation criteria were target detection limits specified in the technical task request document. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 6F some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included Sn-126, Sb-126, Sb-126m, Eu-152, Cm- 243 and Cf-249. SRNL, in conjunction with the customer, reviewed all of these cases and determined that the impacts of not meeting the target detection limits were acceptable. Based on the analyses of variance (ANOVA) for the inorganic constituents of Tank 6F, all the inorganic constituents displayed heterogeneity. The inorganic results demonstrated consistent differences across the composite samples: lowest concentrations for Composite Sample 1, intermediate-valued concentrations for Composite

  3. Analysis Of The Tank 6F Final Characterization Samples-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N.; Diprete, D. P.; Coleman, C. J.; Hay, M. S.; Shine, E. P.

    2012-09-27

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 6F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Fourteen residual Tank 6F solid samples from three areas on the floor of the tank were collected and delivered to SRNL between May and August 2011. These Tank 6F samples were homogenized and combined into three composite samples based on a proportion compositing scheme and the resulting composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 6F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble components. The composite Tank 6F samples were analyzed and the data reported in triplicate. Sufficient quality assurance standards and blanks were utilized to demonstrate adequate characterization of the Tank 6F samples. The main evaluation criteria were target detection limits specified in the technical task request document. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 6F some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included Sn-126, Sb-126, Sb-126m, Eu-152, Cm-243 and Cf-249. SRNL, in conjunction with the customer, reviewed all of these cases and determined that the impacts of not meeting the target detection limits were acceptable. Based on the analyses of variance (ANOVA) for the inorganic constituents of Tank 6F, all the inorganic constituents displayed heterogeneity. The inorganic results demonstrated consistent differences across the composite samples: lowest concentrations for Composite Sample 1, intermediate-valued concentrations for Composite

  4. Cow's Milk Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Arne; Halken, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1930's the scientific literature on cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) has accumulated. Over the last decade new diagnostic tools and treatment approaches have been developed. The diagnosis of reproducible adverse reactions to cow's milk proteins (CMP), i.e. CMPA, still has to be confirmed...... by controlled elimination and challenge procedures. Advanced diagnostic testing using epitope and microarray technology may in the future improve the diagnostic accuracy of CMPA by determination of specific IgE against specific allergen components of cow's milk protein. The incidence of CMPA in early childhood...... is approximately 2-3% in developed countries. Symptoms suggestive of CMPA may be encountered in 5-15% of infants emphasizing the importance of controlled elimination/milk challenge procedures. Reproducible clinical reactions to CMP in human milk have been reported in 0.5% of breastfed infants. Most infants...

  5. Theoretical study of solar combisystems based on bikini tanks and tank-in-tank stores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanshenas, Eshagh; Furbo, Simon

    2012-01-01

    . Originality/value - Many different Solar Combisystem designs have been commercialized over the years. In the IEA-SHC Task 26, twenty one solar combisystems have been described and analyzed. Maybe the mantle tank approach also for solar combisystems can be used with advantage? This might be possible...... if the solar heating system is based on a so called bikini tank. Therefore the new developed solar combisystems based on bikini tanks is compared to the tank-in-tank solar combisystems to elucidate which one is suitable for three different houses with low energy heating demand, medium and high heating demand.......Purpose - Low flow bikini solar combisystems and high flow tank-in-tank solar combisystems have been studied theoretically. The aim of the paper is to study which of these two solar combisystem designs is suitable for different houses. The thermal performance of solar combisystems based on the two...

  6. Practical guidelines for small-volume additions of uninhibited water to waste storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, T.C.; Wiersma, B.J.; Zapp, P.E.; Pike, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Allowable volumes of uninhibited water additions to waste tanks are limited to volumes in which hydroxide and nitrite inhibitors reach required concentrations by diffusion from the bulk waste within five days. This diffusion process was modeled conservatively by Fick's second law of diffusion. The solution to the model was applied to all applicable conditions which exist in the waste tanks. Plant engineers adapted and incorporated the results into a practical working procedure for controlling and monitoring the addition of uninhibited water. Research, technical support, and field engineers worked together to produce an effective solution to a potential waste tank corrosion problem

  7. Tank 12H Acidic Chemical Cleaning Sample Analysis And Material Balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martino, C. J.; Reboul, S. H.; Wiersma, B. J.; Coleman, C. J.

    2013-01-01

    A process of Bulk Oxalic Acid (BOA) chemical cleaning was performed for Tank 12H during June and July of 2013 to remove all or a portion of the approximately 4400 gallon sludge heel. Three strikes of oxalic acid (nominally 4 wt % or 2 wt %) were used at 55 deg C and tank volumes of 96- to 140-thousand gallons. This report details the sample analysis of a scrape sample taken prior to BOA cleaning and dip samples taken during BOA cleaning. It also documents a rudimentary material balance for the Tank 12H cleaning results

  8. Effect of disinfecting teats post-milking or pre- and post-milking on intramammary infection and somatic cell count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, J H; Lacy-Hulbert, S J

    2013-09-01

    To determine the effects of (a) post-milking teat disinfection compared with no disinfection and (b) pre- and post-milking teat disinfection compared with post-milking disinfection alone, on the incidence of new intramammary infection (IMI), somatic cell count (SCC) and teat skin abnormalities in dairy cows. In Experiment 1, dairy cows in five dairy herds were randomly allocated to a post-milking teat disinfection group (n=230), that was sprayed with an iodine-based disinfectant (TeatguardPlus) for a complete lactation, or to a non-disinfected group (n=239). In Experiment 2, cows were randomly allocated to post-milking teat disinfection (n=239) or both pre- and post-milking teat disinfection (n=235), using a chloramine-T-based disinfectant (Teatsweet) for both treatments, from calving to 118-127 days in milk. The incidence of new IMI was determined by aseptic sampling of all quarters at calving, during lactation, and at trial end or at drying-off, with clinical mastitis cases sampled on detection. SCC and teat skin abnormalities were measured at 2-monthly intervals during lactation. In both experiments, disinfectant was applied by spray application. Cows that received post-milking teat disinfection had a lower incidence of new IMI caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, Corynebacterium spp and coagulase negative staphylococci, had lower bulk milk SCC during lactation, and had fewer teat skin abnormalities compared with the non-disinfected cows (p disinfection, in addition to post-milking teat disinfection, did not reduce the incidence of new IMI for any pathogens and did not reduce SCC (p> 0.05). Post-milking teat disinfection applied as a spray is a key component in mastitis control in New Zealand. There was no benefit from the addition of pre-milking disinfection. This study confirms previous findings of the effectiveness of post-milking teat disinfection in reducing the incidence of IMI caused by the common mastitis-causing pathogens in New

  9. Tank characterization data report: Tank 241-C-112

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, B.C.; Borsheim, G.L.; Jensen, L.

    1993-09-01

    Tank 241-C-112 is a Hanford Site Ferrocyanide Watch List tank that was most recently sampled in March 1992. Analyses of materials obtained from tank 241-C-112 were conducted to support the resolution of the Ferrocyanide Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) and to support Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-10-00. Analysis of core samples obtained from tank 241-C-112 strongly indicates that the fuel concentration in the tank waste will not support a propagating exothermic reaction. Analysis of the process history of the tank as well as studies of simulants provided valuable information about the physical and chemical condition of the waste. This information, in combination with the analysis of the tank waste, sup ports the conclusion that an exothermic reaction in tank 241-C-112 is not plausible. Therefore, the contents of tank 241-C-112 present no imminent threat to the workers at the Hanford Site, the public, or the environment from its forrocyanide inventory. Because an exothermic reaction is not credible, the consequences of this accident scenario, as promulgated by the General Accounting Office, are not applicable

  10. Tank characterization data report: Tank 241-C-112

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, B.C.; Borsheim, G.L.; Jensen, L.

    1993-09-01

    Tank 241-C-112 is a Hanford Site Ferrocyanide Watch List tank that was most recently sampled in March 1992. Analyses of materials obtained from tank 241-C-112 were conducted to support the resolution of the Ferrocyanide Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) and to support Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-10-00. Analysis of core samples obtained from tank 241-C-112 strongly indicates that the fuel concentration in the tank waste will not support a propagating exothermic reaction. Analysis of the process history of the tank as well as studies of simulants provided valuable information about the physical and chemical condition of the waste. This information, in combination with the analysis of the tank waste, sup ports the conclusion that an exothermic reaction in tank 241-C-112 is not plausible. Therefore, the contents of tank 241-C-112 present no imminent threat to the workers at the Hanford Site, the public, or the environment from its forrocyanide inventory. Because an exothermic reaction is not credible, the consequences of this accident scenario, as promulgated by the General Accounting Office, are not applicable.

  11. Tank characterization report for Single-Shell Tank B-111

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remund, K.M.; Tingey, J.M.; Heasler, P.G.; Toth, J.J.; Ryan, F.M.; Hartley, S.A.; Simpson, D.B.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-09-01

    Tank 241-B-111 (hereafter referred to as B-111) is a 2,006,300 liter (530,000 gallon) single-shell waste tank located in the 200 East B tank farm at Hanford. Two cores were taken from this tank in 1991 and analysis of the cores was conducted by Battelle's 325-A Laboratory in 1993. Characterization of the waste in this tank is being done to support Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-44-05. Tank B-111 was constructed in 1943 and put into service in 1945; it is the second tank in a cascade system with Tanks B-110 and B-112. During its process history, B-111 received mostly second-decontamination-cycle waste and fission products waste via the cascade from Tank B-110. This tank was retired from service in 1976, and in 1978 the tank was assumed to have leaked 30,300 liters (8,000 gallons). The tank was interim stabilized and interim isolated in 1985. The tank presently contains approximately 893,400 liters (236,000 gallons) of sludge-like waste and approximately 3,800 liters (1,000 gallons) of supernate. Historically, there are no unreviewed safety issues associated with this tank and none were revealed after reviewing the data from the latest core sampling event in 1991. An extensive set of analytical measurements was performed on the core composites. The major constituents (> 0.5 wt%) measured in the waste are water, sodium, nitrate, phosphate, nitrite, bismuth, iron, sulfate and silicon, ordered from largest concentration to the smallest. The concentrations and inventories of these and other constituents are given. Since Tanks B-110 and B-111 have similar process histories, their sampling results were compared. The results of the chemical analyses have been compared to the dangerous waste codes in the Washington Dangerous Waste Regulations (WAC 173-303). This assessment was conducted by comparing tank analyses against dangerous waste characteristics 'D' waste codes; and against state waste codes

  12. Microfabricated Bulk Piezoelectric Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barham, Oliver M.

    Piezoelectric voltage transformers (PTs) can be used to transform an input voltage into a different, required output voltage needed in electronic and electro- mechanical systems, among other varied uses. On the macro scale, they have been commercialized in electronics powering consumer laptop liquid crystal displays, and compete with an older, more prevalent technology, inductive electromagnetic volt- age transformers (EMTs). The present work investigates PTs on smaller size scales that are currently in the academic research sphere, with an eye towards applications including micro-robotics and other small-scale electronic and electromechanical sys- tems. PTs and EMTs are compared on the basis of power and energy density, with PTs trending towards higher values of power and energy density, comparatively, indicating their suitability for small-scale systems. Among PT topologies, bulk disc-type PTs, operating in their fundamental radial extension mode, and free-free beam PTs, operating in their fundamental length extensional mode, are good can- didates for microfabrication and are considered here. Analytical modeling based on the Extended Hamilton Method is used to predict device performance and integrate mechanical tethering as a boundary condition. This model differs from previous PT models in that the electric enthalpy is used to derive constituent equations of motion with Hamilton's Method, and therefore this approach is also more generally applica- ble to other piezoelectric systems outside of the present work. Prototype devices are microfabricated using a two mask process consisting of traditional photolithography combined with micropowder blasting, and are tested with various output electri- cal loads. 4mm diameter tethered disc PTs on the order of .002cm. 3 , two orders smaller than the bulk PT literature, had the followingperformance: a prototype with electrode area ratio (input area / output area) = 1 had peak gain of 2.3 (+/- 0.1), efficiency of 33 (+/- 0

  13. Calcination/dissolution testing for Hanford Site tank wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colby, S.A.; Delegard, C.H.; McLaughlin, D.F.; Danielson, M.J.

    1994-07-01

    Thermal treatment by calcination offers several benefits for the treatment of Hanford Site tank wastes, including the destruction of organics and ferrocyanides and an hydroxide fusion that permits the bulk of the mostly soluble nonradioactive constituents to be easily separated from the insoluble transuranic residue. Critical design parameters were tested, including: (1) calciner equipment design, (2) hydroxide fusion chemistry, and (3) equipment corrosion. A 2 gal/minute pilot plant processed a simulated Tank 101-SY waste and produced a free flowing 700 C molten calcine with an average calciner retention time of 20 minutes and >95% organic, nitrate, and nitrite destruction. Laboratory experiments using actual radioactive tank waste and the simulated waste pilot experiments indicate that 98 wt% of the calcine produced is soluble in water, leaving an insoluble transuranic fraction. All of the Hanford Site tank wastes can benefit from calcination/dissolution processing, contingent upon blending various tank waste types to ensure a target of 70 wt% sodium hydroxide/nitrate/nitrite fluxing agent. Finally, corrosion testing indicates that a jacketed nickel liner cooled to below 400 C would corrode <2 mil/year (0.05 mm/year) from molten calcine attack

  14. Developing bulk exchange spring magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccall, Scott K.; Kuntz, Joshua D.

    2017-06-27

    A method of making a bulk exchange spring magnet by providing a magnetically soft material, providing a hard magnetic material, and producing a composite of said magnetically soft material and said hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet. The step of producing a composite of magnetically soft material and hard magnetic material is accomplished by electrophoretic deposition of the magnetically soft material and the hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet.

  15. Underground or aboveground storage tanks - A critical decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzo, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    With the 1988 promulgation of the comprehensive Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations for underground storage of petroleum and hazardous substances, many existing underground storage tank (UST) owners have been considering making the move to aboveground storage. While on the surface, this may appear to be the cure-all to avoiding the underground leakage dilemma, there are many other new and different issues to consider with aboveground storage. The greatest misconception is that by storing materials above ground, there is no risk of subsurface environmental problems. It should be noted that with the aboveground storage tank (AGST) systems, there is still considerable risk of environmental contamination, either by the failure of onground tank bottoms or the spillage of product onto the ground surface where it subsequently finds its way to the ground water. In addition, there are added safety concerns that must be addressed. The greatest interest in AGSTs comes from managers with small volumes of used oil, fresh oil, solvents, chemicals, or heating oil. Dealing with small capacity tanks is not so different than large bulk storage - and, in fact, it lends itself to more options, such as portable storage, tank within tank configurations and inside installations. So what are the other specific areas of concern besides environmental to be addressed when making the decision between underground and aboveground tanks? The primary issues that will be addressed in this presentation are: (1) safety; (2) product losses; (3) cost comparison of USTs vs AGSTs; (4) space availability/accessibility; (5) precipitation handling; (6) aesthetics and security; (7) pending and existing regulations

  16. Underground tank remediation by use of in situ vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, L.E.

    1991-02-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing a remedial action technology for underground storage tanks through the adaptation of the in situ vitrification (ISV) process. The ISV process is a thermal treatment processes that was originally developed for the stabilization of contaminated soil contaminated with transuranic waste at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington for the Department of Energy (DOE). The application of ISV to underground storage tanks represents an entirely new application of the ISV technology and is being performed in support of the DOE primarily for the Hanford site and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). A field scale test was conducted in September 1990 at Hanford on a small cement and stainless steel tank (1-m dia.) that contained a simulated refractory sludge representing a worst-case sludge composition. The tank design and sludge composition was based on conditions present at the ORNL. The sludge contained high concentrations of heavy metals including lead, mercury, and cadmium, and also contained high levels of stable cesium and strontium to represent the predominant radionuclide species present in the tank wastes. The test was highly successful in that the entire tank and surrounding soil was transformed into a highly leach resistant glass and crystalline block with a mass of approximately 30 tons. During the process, the metal shell of the tank forms a metal pool at the base of the molten soil. Upon cooling, the glass and metal phases were subjected to TCLP (toxic characteristic leach procedure) testing and passed the TCLP criteria. Additional sampling and analyses are ongoing to determine the bulk composition of the waste forms, the fraction of volatile or semi-volatile species released to the off-gas treatment system, and to determine whether any soil surrounding the monolith was contaminated as a result of the ISV process. 4 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Cytokines in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Roberto

    2010-02-01

    Epidemiologic studies conducted in the past 30 years to investigate the protective functions of human milk strongly support the notion that breastfeeding prevents infantile infections, particularly those affecting the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts. However, more recent clinical and experimental observations also suggest that human milk not only provides passive protection, but also can directly modulate the immunological development of the recipient infant. The study of this remarkable defense system in human milk has been difficult because of its biochemical complexity, the small concentration of certain bioactive components, the compartmentalization of some of these agents, the dynamic quantitative and qualitative changes of milk during lactation, and the lack of specific reagents to quantify these agents. However, a host of bioactive substances, including hormones, growth factors, and immunological factors such as cytokines, have been identified in human milk. Cytokines are pluripotent polypeptides that act in autocrine/paracrine fashions by binding to specific cellular receptors. They operate in networks and orchestrate the development and functions of immune system. Several different cytokines and chemokines have been discovered in human milk in the past years, and the list is growing very rapidly. This article will review the current knowledge about the increasingly complex network of chemoattractants, activators, and anti-inflammatory cytokines present in human milk and their potential role in compensating for the developmental delay of the neonate immune system. Copyright 2010. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  18. CONDUCTIVITY OF DONKEY MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Conte

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The electrical conductivity (EC of milk is considered as one of the most important parameters which supports the diagnosis of mastitis in cows.Milk ions have a considerable influence on EC and their concentrations vary depending on animal species, season, lactation stage, etc. Some components of milk can change the EC, e.g. lactose. A negative correlation between EC values and the concentration of lactose is noticed, as a consequence of the inverse relation between this disaccharide and the chlorine content in milk. Fat and casein contents exert some influence on the EC, too. This study provides preliminary results on the physiological EC values in donkey milk and aims to highlight any correlation with some of its chemical-physical parameters and Somatic Cell Count (SCC. Mean EC value in donkey milk was found to be 3.57 mS. Statistically significant correlations were found between EC and SCC (r = 0.57 , p < 0.01 and between EC and (r = 0.30 , p < 0.05. The EC and lactose were not correlated although a reduction of EC was often observed when the lactose content increased, as reported in the literature for bovine milk. According to the EC can be considered as a reliable parameter to identify any breast disorder, taking into account the physiological factors that influence EC.

  19. Fortification of maternal milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Di Natale

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The beneficial effects of human milk (HM, well recognized for the term infant, extend to the feeding of premature infants, because their nutrition support must be designed to compensate for metabolic and gastrointestinal immaturity, immunologic compromise, and maternal psycosocial conditions. Studies show that preterm milk contains higher protein levels and more fat than term human milk. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommended that preterm neonates should receive sufficient nutrients to enable them to grow at a rate similar to that of fetuses of the same gestational age. There are no doubts about the fact that maternal milk is the best food for all neonates, but unfortified human breast milk may not meet the recommended nutritional needs of growing preterm infants. Human milk must therefore be supplemented (fortified with the nutrients in short supply. The objective of fortification is to increase the concentration of nutrients to such levels that at the customary feeding volumes infants receive amounts of all nutrients that meet the requirements. The are two different forms of fortification of human milk: standard and individualized. The new concepts and recommendations for optimization of human milk fortification is the “individualized fortification”. Actually, two methods have been proposed for individualization: the “targeted/tailored fortification” and the “adjustable fortification”. In summary, the use of fortified human milk produces adequate growth in premature infants and satisfies the specific nutritional requirements of these infants. The use of individualized fortification is recommended. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  20. Donor milk: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliani F

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Francesca Giuliani,1 Ilaria Rovelli,1 Chiara Peila,1 Stefania Alfonsina Liguori,2 Enrico Bertino,1 Alessandra Coscia1 1SCDU Neonatologia, Dipartimento di Scienze Pediatriche e dell'Adolescenza, Università degli Studi di Torino, Torino, Italy; 2SC Neonatologia, Ospedale Maria Vittoria, Torino, Italy Abstract: Mother's own milk is widely recognized as the optimal feeding for term infants, but increasing evidence exists of its benefits also for sick and preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units. However, the nutritional needs for appropriate growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes of such a particular population of infants should be attentively evaluated, considering also the indication to an appropriate fortification of human milk. The target is to achieve growth potential for preterm newborns while ensuring good metabolic outcomes and normal neurological development. When mother's milk is unavailable or in short supply, donor human milk (DHM represents the second best choice and, although somewhat modified by the Holder pasteurization process, it preserves many benefits when compared to formula, as documented by more and more reports, randomized controlled trials, and meta-analyses published in the past few years. Evidence exists of the protection exerted by DHM from necrotizing enterocolitis, while further studies are required to look at possible beneficial effects regarding infections, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, long-term cardiovascular risk factors, feeding tolerance, neurological outcome, and allergy. Finally, the concern that the use of DHM might decrease preterm infant breastfeeding is being raised. Conversely, publications exist showing that the use of DHM in the neonatal unit increases breastfeeding rates at discharge for infants of very low birth weight. Keywords: human milk, preterm infant feeding, milk bank, breast milk, mother's own milk, pasteurized human milk, fortification

  1. 7 CFR 1160.109 - Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Milk. 1160.109 Section 1160.109 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.109 Milk. Milk means any class of cow's milk produced in the United States. ...

  2. 27 CFR 24.229 - Tank car and tank truck requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.229 Tank car and tank truck requirements. Railroad tank cars and tank trucks used to transport spirits for use in wine production will be constructed...

  3. Tank Characterization Report for Double-Shell Tank (DST) 241-AN-107

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ADAMS, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    This report interprets information about the tank answering a series of six questions covering areas such as information drivers, tank history, tank comparisons, disposal implications, data quality and quantity, and unique aspects of the tank

  4. Tank Characterization Report for Single-Shell Tank 241-C-104

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ADAMS, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    Interprets information about the tank answering a series of six questions covering areas such as information drivers, tank history, tank comparisons, disposal implications, data quality and quantity, and unique aspects of the tank

  5. Colostrum and milk production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quesnel, H; Farmer, Chantal; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2015-01-01

    for the sow. More specifically, fetal growth, mammary growth, colostrum production and sow maintenance require substantial amounts of nutrients during late gestation. After parturition, nutrients are mainly required for milk synthesis and sow maintenance, but the regressing uterus supplies considerable...... to shifts in housing, and in Europe, this shift is now associated with a change from loose group housing to individual housing. Around parturition, colostrum is being secreted and milk synthesis is initiated in the mammary glands. After the onset of lactation, milk composition changes, especially during...

  6. Pasteurization of Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Barbosa Alzate

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We determined the time it takes milk, which is heated from 60°F to 150°F, to achieve pasteurization and compared this result with the standard pasteurization process of heating milk at a constant temperature of 150°F for 30 minutes. Instead of directly quantifying the bacterium population, we considered the bacteria to milk concentration ratio. To solve for the unknown time, we equated the final bacterium concentration ratio achieved through both varied temperature and constant temperature. After equating the final pasteurization concentrations we were unable to find an analytical solution, so we used numerical techniques to find the unknown heating time.

  7. Development of smart solar tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Andersen, Elsa

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the project is to develop smart solar tanks. A smart solar tank is a tank in which the domestic water can bee heated both by solar collectors and by an auxiliary energy supply system. The auxiliary energy supply system heats up the hot-water tank from the top and the water volume heated...... by the auxiliary energy supply system is fitted to the hot water consumption and consumption pattern. In periods with a large hot-water demand the volume is large, in periods with a small hot-water demand the volume is small. Based on measurements and calculations the advantage of smart SDHW systems is visualised....

  8. 49 CFR 238.423 - Fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuel tanks. 238.423 Section 238.423 Transportation....423 Fuel tanks. (a) External fuel tanks. Each type of external fuel tank must be approved by FRA's Associate Administrator for Safety upon a showing that the fuel tank provides a level of safety at least...

  9. 49 CFR 229.217 - Fuel tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuel tank. 229.217 Section 229.217 Transportation... tank. (a) External fuel tanks. Locomotives equipped with external fuel tanks shall, at a minimum... to the fuel tank safety requirements of § 238.223 or § 238.423 of this chapter. The Director of the...

  10. Tal en tanke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjernfelt, Frederik; Hendricks, Vincent

    Den svenske biskop og poet Esais Tegnèr har engang sagt: "Menneskers ord og tanker fødes sammen, at tale uklart er at tænke uklart." Denne lærebog er et lynkursus i at tænke og tale klart - og i at være på vagt over for uklar tænkning og tale, hvor den end optræder.Tal en tanke er hurtigt læst og...

  11. Tank closure reducing grout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, T.B.

    1997-01-01

    A reducing grout has been developed for closing high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. The grout has a low redox potential, which minimizes the mobility of Sr 90 , the radionuclide with the highest dose potential after closure. The grout also has a high pH which reduces the solubility of the plutonium isotopes. The grout has a high compressive strength and low permeability, which enhances its ability to limit the migration of contaminants after closure. The grout was designed and tested by Construction Technology Laboratories, Inc. Placement methods were developed by the Savannah River Site personnel

  12. Regulated underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    This guidance package is designed to assist DOE Field operations by providing thorough guidance on the underground storage tank (UST) regulations. [40 CFR 280]. The guidance uses tables, flowcharts, and checklists to provide a ''roadmap'' for DOE staff who are responsible for supervising UST operations. This package is tailored to address the issues facing DOE facilities. DOE staff should use this guidance as: An overview of the regulations for UST installation and operation; a comprehensive step-by-step guidance for the process of owning and operating an UST, from installation to closure; and a quick, ready-reference guide for any specific topic concerning UST ownership or operation

  13. Fate of ivermectin residues in ewes' milk and derived products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerkvenik, Vesna; Perko, Bogdan; Rogelj, Irena; Doganoc, Darinka Z; Skubic, Valentin; Beek, Wim M J; Keukens, Henk J

    2004-02-01

    The fate of ivermectin (IVM) residues was studied throughout the processing of daily bulk milk from 30 ewes (taken up to 33 d following subcutaneous administration of 0.2 mg IVM/kg b.w.) in the following milk products: yoghurt made from raw and pasteurized milk; cheese after pressing; 30- and 60-day ripened cheese; and whey, secondary whey and whey proteins obtained after cheese-making (albumin cheese). The concentration of the H2B1a component of IVM was analysed in these dairy products using an HPLC method with fluorescence detection. The mean recovery of the method was, depending on the matrix, between 87 and 100%. Limits of detection in the order of only 0.1 microg H2B1a/kg of product were achieved. Maximum concentrations of IVM were detected mostly at 2 d after drug administration to the ewes. The highest concentration of IVM was found on day 2 in 60-day ripened cheese (96 microg H2B1a/kg cheese). Secondary whey was the matrix with the lowest concentration of IVM (milk fat and solid content were evident. During yoghurt production, fermentation and thermal stability of IVM was observed. During cheese production, approximately 35% of the IVM, present in the raw (bulk) milk samples, was lost. From the results it was concluded that the processing of ewes' milk did not eliminate the drug residues under investigation. The consequences of IVM in the human diet were discussed. Milk from treated animals should be excluded from production of fat products like cheese for longer after treatment with IVM than for lower fat products.

  14. Detecting β-Casein Variation in Bovine Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Caroli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In bovine species, β-casein (β-CN is characterized by genetic polymorphism. The two most common protein variants are β-CN A2 (the original one and A1, differing from A2 for one amino acid substitution (Pro67 to His67. Several bioactive peptides affecting milk nutritional properties can originate from β-CN. Among them, β-casomorphin-7 (BCM7 ranging from amino acid 60 to 66 can be released more easily from β-CN variants carrying His67 (A1 type instead of Pro67 (A2 type. Nowadays, “A2 milk” is produced in different countries claiming its potential benefits in human health. The aim of this study was to further develop and apply an isoelectric focusing electrophoresis (IEF method to bulk and individual milk samples in order to improve its use for β-CN studies. We succeeded in identifying A2 milk samples correctly and quantifying the percentage of A2, A1, and B variants in bulk samples not derived from A2 milk as well as in individual milk samples. The method allows us to quantify the relative proportion of β-CN variants in whole milk without eliminating whey protein by acid or enzymatic precipitation of caseins. The aim of this study was also to study the different behavior of β-CN and β-lactoglobulin (β-LG in the presence of trichloroacetic acid (TCA. The higher sensitivity of β-CN to TCA allows quantifying β-CN variants after TCA fixation because β-LG is not visible. Monitoring β-CN variation in cattle breeds is important in order to maintain a certain balance between Pro67 and His67 in dairy products. Overall, the debate between A1 and A2 milk needs further investigation.

  15. Selected abiotic factors that influence raw cow milk freezing point depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oto Hanuš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Freezing point depression (FPD is an important property of milk that is influenced primarily by milk components connected to osmotic pressure. Under certain conditions it is possible to detect the addition of water to milk. It is necessary to have the right FPD limit in legislation for milk quality control. The aim of this study was to improve the estimation procedure of this limit. Apart from factors related to dairy cow nutrition, cattle breed and milk yield, it is important to take into account CO2 (6%, water steam evaporation and pasteurization under technological conditions. Bulk milk samples (1, 30, 6, 6, 10, 1 according to experiment from Holstein and Czech Fleckvieh breed (1:1 were used in the experiments and technologically treated. The effects of water addition (water saturated and unsaturated by CO2, carbon dioxide evaporation and pasteurization (80 °C for 22 min were quantified. Pasteurization aggravation of FPD was -0.00394 ± 0.00171 ºC (P P < 0.001 depending on practice. Increase in FPD is recorded after milking during technological procedures of milk storage, mixing, pumping, transport shaking and warming. During FPD shift, the acuteness of FPD data sets increases. This fact should be considered in the process of deriving standard raw cow milk FPD limits. Similar experimental analysis of milk FPD technological shifts has not been performed in this way until now.

  16. Tank Waste Remediation System Tank Waste Analysis Plan. FY 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, C.S.; Dove, T.H.

    1994-01-01

    This documents lays the groundwork for preparing the implementing the TWRS tank waste analysis planning and reporting for Fiscal Year 1995. This Tank Waste Characterization Plan meets the requirements specified in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, better known as the Tri-Party Agreement

  17. A New ELISA Using the ANANAS Technology Showing High Sensitivity to diagnose the Bovine Rhinotracheitis from Individual Sera to Pooled Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarin, Elisabetta; Lucchese, Laura; Grazioli, Santina; Facchin, Sonia; Realdon, Nicola; Brocchi, Emiliana; Morpurgo, Margherita; Nardelli, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic tests for veterinary surveillance programs should be efficient, easy to use and, possibly, economical. In this context, classic Enzyme linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA) remains the most common analytical platform employed for serological analyses. The analysis of pooled samples instead of individual ones is a common procedure that permits to certify, with one single test, entire herds as "disease-free". However, diagnostic tests for pooled samples need to be particularly sensitive, especially when the levels of disease markers are low, as in the case of anti-BoHV1 antibodies in milk as markers of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR) disease. The avidin-nucleic-acid-nanoassembly (ANANAS) is a novel kind of signal amplification platform for immunodiagnostics based on colloidal poly-avidin nanoparticles that, using model analytes, was shown to strongly increase ELISA test performance as compared to monomeric avidin. Here, for the first time, we applied the ANANAS reagent integration in a real diagnostic context. The monoclonal 1G10 anti-bovine IgG1 antibody was biotinylated and integrated with the ANANAS reagents for indirect IBR diagnosis from pooled milk mimicking tank samples from herds with IBR prevalence between 1 to 8%. The sensitivity and specificity of the ANANAS integrated method was compared to that of a classic test based on the same 1G10 antibody directly linked to horseradish peroxidase, and a commercial IDEXX kit recently introduced in the market. ANANAS integration increased by 5-fold the sensitivity of the 1G10 mAb-based conventional ELISA without loosing specificity. When compared to the commercial kit, the 1G10-ANANAS integrated method was capable to detect the presence of anti-BHV1 antibodies from bulk milk of gE antibody positive animals with 2-fold higher sensitivity and similar specificity. The results demonstrate the potentials of this new amplification technology, which permits improving current classic ELISA sensitivity limits

  18. A New ELISA Using the ANANAS Technology Showing High Sensitivity to diagnose the Bovine Rhinotracheitis from Individual Sera to Pooled Milk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Casarin

    Full Text Available Diagnostic tests for veterinary surveillance programs should be efficient, easy to use and, possibly, economical. In this context, classic Enzyme linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA remains the most common analytical platform employed for serological analyses. The analysis of pooled samples instead of individual ones is a common procedure that permits to certify, with one single test, entire herds as "disease-free". However, diagnostic tests for pooled samples need to be particularly sensitive, especially when the levels of disease markers are low, as in the case of anti-BoHV1 antibodies in milk as markers of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR disease. The avidin-nucleic-acid-nanoassembly (ANANAS is a novel kind of signal amplification platform for immunodiagnostics based on colloidal poly-avidin nanoparticles that, using model analytes, was shown to strongly increase ELISA test performance as compared to monomeric avidin. Here, for the first time, we applied the ANANAS reagent integration in a real diagnostic context. The monoclonal 1G10 anti-bovine IgG1 antibody was biotinylated and integrated with the ANANAS reagents for indirect IBR diagnosis from pooled milk mimicking tank samples from herds with IBR prevalence between 1 to 8%. The sensitivity and specificity of the ANANAS integrated method was compared to that of a classic test based on the same 1G10 antibody directly linked to horseradish peroxidase, and a commercial IDEXX kit recently introduced in the market. ANANAS integration increased by 5-fold the sensitivity of the 1G10 mAb-based conventional ELISA without loosing specificity. When compared to the commercial kit, the 1G10-ANANAS integrated method was capable to detect the presence of anti-BHV1 antibodies from bulk milk of gE antibody positive animals with 2-fold higher sensitivity and similar specificity. The results demonstrate the potentials of this new amplification technology, which permits improving current classic ELISA

  19. Incidence of Listeria species in bovine, ovine, caprine, camel and water buffalo milk using cultural method and the PCR assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Rahimi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence rate of Listeria species in bovine, ovine, caprine, camel and water buffalo milk in Iran. Methods: From September 2010 to December 2011 a total of 260 bulk milk samples including 85 bovine, 37 camel, 34 water buffalo, 56 ovine and 48 caprine bulk milk samples were collected from commercial dairy herds, in Fars and Khuzestan provinces, Iran and were evaluated for the presence of Listeria species using cultural method and the PCR assay. Results: Using cultural method, 19 samples (7.3% were positive for Listeria spp. The highest prevalence of Listeria was found in raw water buffalo milk (11.8%, followed by raw bovine milk (10.6%, raw ovine milk (7.1%, and raw caprine milk (4.2% samples. All 37 camel milk samples from 20 camel breeding farms were negative for Listeria spp. The overall prevalence of Listeria was 7.3%, in which Listeria innocua was the most recovered species (4.2%; the remaining isolates were Listeria monocytogenes (1.9%, Listeria ivanovii (0.08% and Listeria seeligari (0.04%. The PCR assay could identify 8 Listeria-contaminated milk samples that were negative using the cultural method. Conclusions: The results presented in this study indicate the potential risk of infection with Listeria in people consuming raw and unpasteurized milk.

  20. Produção e qualidade do leite em sistemas de produção da região leiteira de Pelotas, RS, Brasil Milk yield and quality at production systems of the dairy region of Pelotas, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Ricardo Garcia Martins

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a produção e a qualidade do leite em sistemas de produção da bacia leiteira de Pelotas. Entre setembro de 2001 e agosto de 2002, foram monitoradas, durante 11 meses, nove unidades produtoras de leite, classificadas nos seguintes sistemas de produção: especializado (ES, semi-especializado (SE e não-especializado (NE. Em amostras coletadas no tanque resfriador, foram determinadas características físico-químicas do leite e contagem de células somáticas. O percentual de mastite e a e produção leiteira corrigida para 4% de gordura foram avaliados. Adotou-se o delineamento completamente casualizado em parcelas subdivididas. A crioscopia, apesar de apresentar diferença estatística entre ES e NE (PThis research was aimed at characterizing milk yield and quality of three production systems at Pelotas dairy region. From September 2001 up to August 2002, nine dairy production units were visited for 11 months. Production units were classified as specialized (S, partially specialized (PS and non-specialized (NS. Bulk tank milk was sampled to analyze physical and chemical attributes and somatic cells count (SCC. Mastitis percentage and 4% fat-corrected milk yield were evaluated. A completely randomized split-plot design was adopted. Cryoscopic index differed between specialized and non-specialized systems (P<0.10, but all values were within the normal range. Specialized system showed lower mastitis occurrence than partially specialized and non-specialized systems (P<0.10. Production systems did not differ for 4% fat-corrected milk yield, contents of protein, casein, fat, lactose, solids non-fat, total solids, non-protein nitrogen, as well as titrable acidity and somatic cells count. Higher technology level application reduced mastitis occurrence, contributing to a better milk quality.

  1. 49 CFR 179.100 - General specifications applicable to pressure tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... car tanks. 179.100 Section 179.100 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.100 General specifications applicable to pressure tank car tanks. ...

  2. 49 CFR 179.102 - Special commodity requirements for pressure tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... car tanks. 179.102 Section 179.102 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.102 Special commodity requirements for pressure tank car tanks. (a) In addition to...

  3. 49 CFR 179.103 - Special requirements for class 114A * * * tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special requirements for class 114A * * * tank car... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.103 Special requirements for class 114A * * * tank car tanks. (a) In addition to the applicable...

  4. Milk-alkali syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcium-alkali syndrome; Cope syndrome; Burnett syndrome; Hypercalcemia; Calcium metabolism disorder ... Milk-alkali syndrome is almost always caused by taking too many calcium supplements, usually in the form of calcium carbonate. Calcium ...

  5. Hanford waste tank cone penetrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seda, R.Y.

    1995-12-01

    A new tool is being developed to characterize tank waste at the Hanford Reservation. This tool, known as the cone penetrometer, is capable of obtaining chemical and physical properties in situ. For the past 50 years, this tool has been used extensively in soil applications and now has been modified for usage in Hanford Underground Storage tanks. These modifications include development of new ''waste'' data models as well as hardware design changes to accommodate the hazardous and radioactive environment of the tanks. The modified cone penetrometer is scheduled to be deployed at Hanford by Fall 1996. At Hanford, the cone penetrometer will be used as an instrumented pipe which measures chemical and physical properties as it pushes through tank waste. Physical data, such as tank waste stratification and mechanical properties, is obtained through three sensors measuring tip pressure, sleeve friction and pore pressure. Chemical data, such as chemical speciation, is measured using a Raman spectroscopy sensor. The sensor package contains other instrumentation as well, including a tip and side temperature sensor, tank bottom detection and an inclinometer. Once the cone penetrometer has reached the bottom of the tank, a moisture probe will be inserted into the pipe. This probe is used to measure waste moisture content, water level, waste surface moisture and tank temperature. This paper discusses the development of this new measurement system. Data from the cone penetrometer will aid in the selection of sampling tools, waste tank retrieval process, and addressing various tank safety issues. This paper will explore various waste models as well as the challenges associated with tank environment

  6. TESTING OF ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING OF SRS ACTUAL WASTE TANK 5F AND TANK 12H SLUDGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, C.; King, W.

    2011-08-22

    Forty three of the High Level Waste (HLW) tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have internal structures that hinder removal of the last approximately five thousand gallons of waste sludge solely by mechanical means. Chemical cleaning can be utilized to dissolve the sludge heel with oxalic acid (OA) and pump the material to a separate waste tank in preparation for final disposition. This dissolved sludge material is pH adjusted downstream of the dissolution process, precipitating the sludge components along with sodium oxalate solids. The large quantities of sodium oxalate and other metal oxalates formed impact downstream processes by requiring additional washing during sludge batch preparation and increase the amount of material that must be processed in the tank farm evaporator systems and the Saltstone Processing Facility. Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) was identified as a potential method for greatly reducing the impact of oxalate additions to the SRS Tank Farms without adding additional components to the waste that would extend processing or increase waste form volumes. In support of Savannah River Site (SRS) tank closure efforts, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) conducted Real Waste Testing (RWT) to evaluate an alternative to the baseline 8 wt. % OA chemical cleaning technology for tank sludge heel removal. The baseline OA technology results in the addition of significant volumes of oxalate salts to the SRS tank farm and there is insufficient space to accommodate the neutralized streams resulting from the treatment of the multiple remaining waste tanks requiring closure. ECC is a promising alternative to bulk OA cleaning, which utilizes a more dilute OA (nominally 2 wt. % at a pH of around 2) and an oxalate destruction technology. The technology is being adapted by AREVA from their decontamination technology for Nuclear Power Plant secondary side scale removal. This report contains results from the SRNL small scale testing of the ECC process

  7. Microbiological quality and antibiotic residues in informally marketed raw cow milk within the coastal savannah zone of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addo, K K; Mensah, G I; Aning, K G; Nartey, N; Nipah, G K; Bonsu, C; Akyeh, M L; Smits, H L

    2011-02-01

    To investigate the microbiological quality and the presence of antibiotic residues in raw cow milk and in some indigenous milk products produced and marketed by the informal sector in the coastal savannah zone of Ghana. Milk samples were aseptically collected from 224 kraals and samples of 26 indigenous milk products were purchased from processors and retailers. Total plate counts, total coliform counts and the presence of Escherichia coli and E. coli O157:H7 were determined in all 250 samples. Milk samples were also tested for antibiotic residues. Total plate counts exceeded 10⁵ CFU/ml in 45.2% of the samples while coliforms exceeded 10³ CFU/ml in 66.0% and E. coli was detected in 11.2%. E. coli was present in raw cow milk but not in the indigenous products and all E. coli isolates were negative for E. coli O157:H7. Antibiotic residues were detected in 3.1% of the raw cow milk samples. Bulk milk contains unacceptable levels of hygiene indicators and antibiotic residues and is a potential source of milk-borne infections. The detection of E. coli and antibiotic residues raises public health concerns about the safety of fresh unpasteurized cow milk in the coastal savannah zone of Ghana and calls for improved farm hygiene, the need for milk pasteurization and the sensible use of antibiotics in the milk industry. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. CHARACTERIZATION AND ACTUAL WASTE TEST WITH TANK 5F SAMPLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, D.

    2007-01-01

    The initial phase of bulk waste removal operations was recently completed in Tank 5F. Video inspection of the tank indicates several mounds of sludge still remain in the tank. Additionally, a mound of white solids was observed under Riser 5. In support of chemical cleaning and heel removal programs, samples of the sludge and the mound of white solids were obtained from the tank for characterization and testing. A core sample of the sludge and Super Snapper sample of the white solids were characterized. A supernate dip sample from Tank 7F was also characterized. A portion of the sludge was used in two tank cleaning tests using oxalic acid at 50 C and 75 C. The filtered oxalic acid from the tank cleaning tests was subsequently neutralized by addition to a simulated Tank 7F supernate. Solids and liquid samples from the tank cleaning test and neutralization test were characterized. A separate report documents the results of the gas generation from the tank cleaning test using oxalic acid and Tank 5F sludge. The characterization results for the Tank 5F sludge sample (FTF-05-06-55) appear quite good with respect to the tight precision of the sample replicates, good results for the glass standards, and minimal contamination found in the blanks and glass standards. The aqua regia and sodium peroxide fusion data also show good agreement between the two dissolution methods. Iron dominates the sludge composition with other major contributors being uranium, manganese, nickel, sodium, aluminum, and silicon. The low sodium value for the sludge reflects the absence of supernate present in the sample due to the core sampler employed for obtaining the sample. The XRD and CSEM results for the Super Snapper salt sample (i.e., white solids) from Tank 5F (FTF-05-07-1) indicate the material contains hydrated sodium carbonate and bicarbonate salts along with some aluminum hydroxide. These compounds likely precipitated from the supernate in the tank. A solubility test showed the material

  9. Milking Efficiency – A Milkability Trait for Automatically Milked Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvendahl, Peter; Lassen, Jan; Chagunda, M G G

    efficiency which showed only intermediate correlation. Both traits had weak correlations to somatic cell counts. It is concluded that either trait will be effective in selecting for cows giving more milk per minute occupying the milking robot, without increasing risk of mastitis......Data from an experimental herd with automatic milkings from 486 first lactation cows were used to study alternative measures of milkability. One trait was milking efficiency, (kg milk per minute used in robot) the other “residual milking box time” using a linear regression to adjust daily time...

  10. Cleaning Validation of Fermentation Tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, Satu; Friis, Alan; Wirtanen, Gun

    2008-01-01

    Reliable test methods for checking cleanliness are needed to evaluate and validate the cleaning process of fermentation tanks. Pilot scale tanks were used to test the applicability of various methods for this purpose. The methods found to be suitable for validation of the clenlinees were visula...

  11. Modelling of baffled stirred tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlstedt, H.; Lahtinen, M. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Energy and Process Engineering

    1996-12-31

    The three-dimensional flow field of a baffled stirred tank has been calculated using four different turbulence models. The tank is driven by a Rushton-type impeller. The boundary condition for the impeller region has been given as a source term or by calculating the impeller using the sliding mesh technique. Calculated values have been compared with measured data. (author)

  12. Surplus yeast tank failing catastrophically

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2016-01-01

    GOOD REASON FOR CAUTION I A large surplus yeast tank shot into the air leaving the floor plate and the contents behind. Although not designed for overpressure, the tank was kept at “very slight overpressure” to suppress nuisance foaming. The brewery was unaware of the hazards of compressed air...

  13. Solitons in a wave tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, M.; Smith, H.; Scott, A.C.

    1984-01-01

    A wave tank experiment (first described by the nineteenth-century engineer and naval architect John Scott Russell) relates a linear eigenvalue problem from elementary quantum mechanics to a striking feature of modern nonlinear wave theory: multiple generation of solitons. The tank experiment is intended for lecture demonstrations. 19 references, 6 figures

  14. Modelling of baffled stirred tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlstedt, H; Lahtinen, M [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Energy and Process Engineering

    1997-12-31

    The three-dimensional flow field of a baffled stirred tank has been calculated using four different turbulence models. The tank is driven by a Rushton-type impeller. The boundary condition for the impeller region has been given as a source term or by calculating the impeller using the sliding mesh technique. Calculated values have been compared with measured data. (author)

  15. 1990 waste tank inspection program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNatt, F.G.

    1990-01-01

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Tank conditions are evaluated by inspection using periscopes, still photography, and video systems for visual imagery. Inspections made in 1990 are the subject of this report

  16. Enhanced Waste Tank Level Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M.R.

    1999-06-24

    'With the increased sensitivity of waste-level measurements in the H-Area Tanks and with periods of isolation, when no mass transfer occurred for certain tanks, waste-level changes have been recorded with are unexplained.'

  17. In-tank photo analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorvick, C.A.; Baird, D.B.; Heasler, P.G.

    1995-09-01

    This report documents an analysis performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) of photographs showing the interior of a single shell tank (SST) at the Hanford site. This report shows that in-tank photos can be used to create a plan-view map of the waste surface inside a tank, and that measuring the elevation of the waste surface from the photos is possible, but not accurate enough to be useful at this time. In-tank photos were acquired for Tanks BX111 and T111. The BX111 photos were used to create the waste surface map and to measure the waste surface elevation. T111 photos were used to measure the waste surface elevation. Uncertainty analyses of the mapping and surface elevation are included to show the accuracy of the calculations for both methods

  18. Hanford site waste tank characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Lorenzo, D.S.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-08-01

    This paper describes the on-going work in the characterization of the Hanford-Site high-level waste tanks. The waste in these tanks was produced as part of the nuclear weapons materials processing mission that occupied the Hanford Site for the first 40 years of its existence. Detailed and defensible characterization of the tank wastes is required to guide retrieval, pretreatment, and disposal technology development, to address waste stability and reactivity concerns, and to satisfy the compliance criteria for the various regulatory agencies overseeing activities at the Hanford Site. The resulting Tank Characterization Reports fulfill these needs, as well as satisfy the tank waste characterization milestones in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order

  19. Suspending Zeolite Particles In Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is in the process of removing waste (sludge and salt cake) from million gallon waste tanks. The current practice for removing waste from the tanks is adding water, agitating the tanks with long shaft vertical centrifugal pumps, and pumping the sludge/salt solution from the tank to downstream treatment processes. This practice has left sludge heels (tilde 30,000 gallons) in the bottom of the tanks. SRS is evaluating shrouded axial impeller mixers for removing the sludge heels in the waste tanks. The authors conducted a test program to determine mixer requirements for suspending sludge heels using the shrouded axial impeller mixers. The tests were performed with zeolite in scaled tanks which have diameters of 1.5, 6.0, and 18.75 feet. The mixer speeds required to suspend zeolite particles were measured at each scale. The data were analyzed with various scaling methods to compare their ability to describe the suspension of insoluble solids with the mixers and to apply the data to a full-scale waste tank. The impact of changes in particle properties and operating parameters was also evaluated. The conclusions of the work are: Scaling of the suspension of fast settling zeolite particles was best described by the constant power per unit volume method. Increasing the zeolite particle concentration increased the required mixer power needed to suspend the particles. Decreasing the zeolite particle size from 0.7 mm 0.3 mm decreased the required mixer power needed to suspend the particles. Increasing the number of mixers in the tank decreased the required mixer power needed to suspend the particles. A velocity of 1.6 ft/sec two inches above the tank bottom is needed to suspend zeolite particles

  20. Cow's Milk Contamination of Human Milk Purchased via the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim, Sarah A; Kulkarni, Manjusha M; McNamara, Kelly; Geraghty, Sheela R; Billock, Rachael M; Ronau, Rachel; Hogan, Joseph S; Kwiek, Jesse J

    2015-05-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration recommends against feeding infants human milk from unscreened donors, but sharing milk via the Internet is growing in popularity. Recipient infants risk the possibility of consuming contaminated or adulterated milk. Our objective was to test milk advertised for sale online as human milk to verify its human origin and to rule out contamination with cow's milk. We anonymously purchased 102 samples advertised as human milk online. DNA was extracted from 200 μL of each sample. The presence of human or bovine mitochondrial DNA was assessed with a species-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction assay targeting the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) dehydrogenase subunit 5 gene. Four laboratory-created mixtures representing various dilutions of human milk with fluid cow's milk or reconstituted infant formula were compared with the Internet samples to semiquantitate the extent of contamination with cow's milk. All Internet samples amplified human DNA. After 2 rounds of testing, 11 samples also contained bovine DNA. Ten of these samples had a level of bovine DNA consistent with human milk mixed with at least 10% fluid cow's milk. Ten Internet samples had bovine DNA concentrations high enough to rule out minor contamination, suggesting a cow's milk product was added. Cow's milk can be problematic for infants with allergy or intolerance. Because buyers cannot verify the composition of milk they purchase, all should be aware that it might be adulterated with cow's milk. Pediatricians should be aware of the online market for human milk and the potential risks. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  1. 46 CFR 153.491 - Waiver of certain equipment for dedicated cargo tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and endorses a ship's Certificate of Inspection or Certificate of Compliance allowing a cargo tank to carry a single, specific NLS cargo and no other cargo if the ship's owner— (1) Requests a waiver... DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design...

  2. ATMOSPHERIC DISPERSION COEFFICIENTS & RADIOLOGICAL & TOXICOLOGICAL EXPOSURE METHODOLOGY FOR USE IN TANK FARMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SANDGREN, K.R.

    2005-03-03

    This report presents the atmospheric dispersion coefficients used in Tank Farm safety analyses. The current revision also includes atmospheric dispersion coefficients used for analyses of the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System. The basic equations for calculating radiological and toxicological exposures are also included.

  3. NMR-based milk metabolomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundekilde, Ulrik; Larsen, Lotte Bach; Bertram, Hanne Christine S.

    2013-01-01

    and processing capabilities of bovine milk is closely associated to milk composition. Metabolomics is ideal in the study of the low-molecular-weight compounds in milk, and this review focuses on the recent nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics trends in milk research, including applications linking...... compounds. Furthermore, metabolomics applications elucidating how the differential regulated genes affects milk composition are also reported. This review will highlight the recent advances in NMR-based metabolomics on milk, as well as give a brief summary of when NMR spectroscopy can be useful for gaining...

  4. Mining the bulk positron lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aourag, H.; Guittom, A.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a new approach to investigate the bulk positron lifetimes of new systems based on data-mining techniques. Through data mining of bulk positron lifetimes, we demonstrate the ability to predict the positron lifetimes of new semiconductors on the basis of available semiconductor data already studied. Informatics techniques have been applied to bulk positron lifetimes for different tetrahedrally bounded semiconductors in order to discover computational design rules. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Tank-automotive robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Gerald R.

    1999-07-01

    To provide an overview of Tank-Automotive Robotics. The briefing will contain program overviews & inter-relationships and technology challenges of TARDEC managed unmanned and robotic ground vehicle programs. Specific emphasis will focus on technology developments/approaches to achieve semi- autonomous operation and inherent chassis mobility features. Programs to be discussed include: DemoIII Experimental Unmanned Vehicle (XUV), Tactical Mobile Robotics (TMR), Intelligent Mobility, Commanders Driver Testbed, Collision Avoidance, International Ground Robotics Competition (ICGRC). Specifically, the paper will discuss unique exterior/outdoor challenges facing the IGRC competing teams and the synergy created between the IGRC and ongoing DoD semi-autonomous Unmanned Ground Vehicle and DoT Intelligent Transportation System programs. Sensor and chassis approaches to meet the IGRC challenges and obstacles will be shown and discussed. Shortfalls in performance to meet the IGRC challenges will be identified.

  6. Flammable gas tank waste level reconciliation tank 241-SX-105

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddie, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    Fluor Daniel Northwest was authorized to address flammable gas issues by reconciling the unexplained surface level increases in Tank 241-SX-105 (SX-105, typical). The trapped gas evaluation document states that Tank SX-105 exceeds the 25% of the lower flammable limit criterion, based on a surface level rise evaluation. The Waste Storage Tank Status and Leak Detection Criteria document, commonly referred to as the Welty Report is the basis for this letter report. The Welty Report is also a part of the trapped gas evaluation document criteria. The Welty Report contains various tank information, including: physical information, status, levels, and dry wells. The unexplained waste level rises were attributed to the production and retention of gas in the column of waste corresponding to the unaccounted for surface level rise. From 1973 through 1980, the Welty Report tracked Tank SX-105 transfers and reported a net cumulative change of 20.75 in. This surface level increase is from an unknown source or is unaccounted for. Duke Engineering and Services Hanford and Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation are interested in determining the validity of unexplained surface level changes reported in the Welty Report based upon other corroborative sources of data. The purpose of this letter report is to assemble detailed surface level and waste addition data from daily tank records, logbooks, and other corroborative data that indicate surface levels, and to reconcile the cumulative unaccounted for surface level changes as shown in the Welty Report from 1973 through 1980. Tank SX-105 initially received waste from REDOX starting the second quarter of 1955. After June 1975, the tank primarily received processed waste (slurry) from the 242-S Evaporator/Crystallizer and transferred supernate waste to Tanks S-102 and SX-102. The Welty Report shows a cumulative change of 20.75 in. from June 1973 through December 1980

  7. Tank farms hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broz, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    Hanford contractors are writing new facility specific emergency procedures in response to new and revised US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders on emergency preparedness. Emergency procedures are required for each Hanford facility that has the potential to exceed the criteria for the lowest level emergency, an Alert. The set includes: (1) a facility specific procedure on Recognition and Classification of Emergencies, (2) area procedures on Initial Emergency Response and, (3) an area procedure on Protective Action Guidance. The first steps in developing these procedures are to identify the hazards at each facility, identify the conditions that could release the hazardous material, and calculate the consequences of the releases. These steps are called a Hazards Assessment. The final product is a document that is similar in some respects to a Safety Analysis Report (SAR). The document could br produced in a month for a simple facility but could take much longer for a complex facility. Hanford has both types of facilities. A strategy has been adopted to permit completion of the first version of the new emergency procedures before all the facility hazards Assessments are complete. The procedures will initially be based on input from a task group for each facility. This strategy will but improved emergency procedures in place sooner and therefore enhance Hanford emergency preparedness. The purpose of this document is to summarize the applicable information contained within the Waste Tank Facility ''Interim Safety Basis Document, WHC-SD-WM-ISB-001'' as a resource, since the SARs covering Waste Tank Operations are not current in all cases. This hazards assessment serves to collect, organize, document and present the information utilized during the determination process

  8. Chosen biotic factors influencing raw cow milk freezing point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oto Hanuš

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The milk freezing point depression (FPD is important physical property. FPD is influenced by milk composition especially by components with osmotic pressure activity and by other physiological factors. There is possible to indicate a foreign (extraneous water addition into milk by FPD. This is necessary to have a good estimated legislative FPD discrimination limit (FPD–L for purpose of milk quality control. This paper was aimed at obtaining information to improve such estimation. Impacts factors as season variations, estimated state of dairy cow nutrition and some milk components and properties on milk FPD and their relations to FPD were quantified (n 11 540 – 72 607 bulk raw cow milk samples. The highest FPD was in Spring (−0.52097 ± 0.004877 °C, the lowest in Autumn (−0.52516 ± 0.005725 °C; P < 0.001. Correlation between FPD and lactose was 0.35 (P < 0.001. 12% and 5.4% of FPD variability is explainable by lactose and casein variability. Relationship between FPD and urea (U was 0.26 (P < 0.001 in March. The worst FPD was in group with presupposed (according to milk urea and protein combination nitrogen matter (NM and energy (E insufficiency (−0.51855 ± 0.007288 °C. The best FPD was in group with presupposed NM and E surplus in feeding ration (−0.52536 ± 0.004785 °C; P < 0.001. The FPD was worse in suspicion on E deficiency (on the basis of fat/crude protein ratio as compared to presumption for balanced E nourishment of dairy herds (−0.52105 ± 0.006436 °C > −0.52244 ± 0.005367 °C; P < 0.001. Results can improve the estimation of objective FPD–L.

  9. Estimating Residual Solids Volume In Underground Storage Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Jason L.; Worthy, S. Jason; Martin, Bruce A.; Tihey, John R.

    2014-01-01

    The Savannah River Site liquid waste system consists of multiple facilities to safely receive and store legacy radioactive waste, treat, and permanently dispose waste. The large underground storage tanks and associated equipment, known as the 'tank farms', include a complex interconnected transfer system which includes underground transfer pipelines and ancillary equipment to direct the flow of waste. The waste in the tanks is present in three forms: supernatant, sludge, and salt. The supernatant is a multi-component aqueous mixture, while sludge is a gel-like substance which consists of insoluble solids and entrapped supernatant. The waste from these tanks is retrieved and treated as sludge or salt. The high level (radioactive) fraction of the waste is vitrified into a glass waste form, while the low-level waste is immobilized in a cementitious grout waste form called saltstone. Once the waste is retrieved and processed, the tanks are closed via removing the bulk of the waste, chemical cleaning, heel removal, stabilizing remaining residuals with tailored grout formulations and severing/sealing external penetrations. The comprehensive liquid waste disposition system, currently managed by Savannah River Remediation, consists of 1) safe storage and retrieval of the waste as it is prepared for permanent disposition; (2) definition of the waste processing techniques utilized to separate the high-level waste fraction/low-level waste fraction; (3) disposition of LLW in saltstone; (4) disposition of the HLW in glass; and (5) closure state of the facilities, including tanks. This paper focuses on determining the effectiveness of waste removal campaigns through monitoring the volume of residual solids in the waste tanks. Volume estimates of the residual solids are performed by creating a map of the residual solids on the waste tank bottom using video and still digital images. The map is then used to calculate the volume of solids remaining in the waste tank. The ability to

  10. A safeguards verification technique for solution homogeneity and volume measurements in process tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suda, S.; Franssen, F.

    1987-01-01

    A safeguards verification technique is being developed for determining whether process-liquid homogeneity has been achieved in process tanks and for authenticating volume-measurement algorithms involving temperature corrections. It is proposed that, in new designs for bulk-handling plants employing automated process lines, bubbler probes and thermocouples be installed at several heights in key accountability tanks. High-accuracy measurements of density using an electromanometer can now be made which match or even exceed analytical-laboratory accuracies. Together with regional determination of tank temperatures, these measurements provide density, liquid-column weight and temperature gradients over the fill range of the tank that can be used to ascertain when the tank solution has reached equilibrium. Temperature-correction algorithms can be authenticated by comparing the volumes obtained from the several bubbler-probe liquid-height measurements, each based on different amounts of liquid above and below the probe. The verification technique is based on the automated electromanometer system developed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The IAEA has recently approved the purchase of a stainless-steel tank equipped with multiple bubbler and thermocouple probes for installation in its Bulk Calibration Laboratory at IAEA Headquarters, Vienna. The verification technique is scheduled for preliminary trials in late 1987

  11. Milk Enhancements Improve Milk Consumption and Increase Meal Participation in the NSLP: The School Milk Pilot Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Karen; Zipay, Diane; Patey, Camellia; Meyer, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The objective of the School Milk Pilot Test and the Westside School Milk Pilot Study was to test the effect of a milk enhancement initiative to make milk more appealing and attractive to elementary and secondary school students and to improve milk consumption. Methods: 146 schools participated in the national School Milk Pilot…

  12. Use of milk-based kombucha inoculum for milk fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolarov Ljiljana A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation fermented milk beverages with 0.9% of milk fat were produced using 10 and 15% (v/v of traditional and milk-based kombucha inoculum by application of appropriate technological process. Milk fermentation using two types and concentrations of kombucha inoculum were stopped when the pH reached 4.5. Sigmoidal fermentation profiles were noticed with traditional kombucha inoculums and linear with milk-based kombucha inoculums. Chemical content and physico-chemical characteristics of kombucha fermented milk beverages were typical and yoghurt-like for all obtained products. The best textural and sensory characteristics possesed beverage obtained in fermentation of milk using 10% (v/v of milk-based kombucha inoculum.

  13. Supporting document for the Southeast Quadrant historical tank content estimate report for SY-tank farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.; Consort, S.D.

    1995-01-01

    Historical Tank Content Estimate of the Southeast Quadrant provides historical evaluations on a tank by tank basis of the radioactive mixed wastes stored in the underground double-shell tanks of the Hanford 200 East and West Areas. This report summarizes historical information such as waste history, temperature profiles, psychrometric data, tank integrity, inventory estimates and tank level history on a tank by tank basis. Tank Farm aerial photos and in-tank photos of each tank are provided. A brief description of instrumentation methods used for waste tank surveillance are included. Components of the data management effort, such as Waste Status and Transaction Record Summary, Tank Layer Model, Supernatant Mixing Model, Defined Waste Types, and Inventory Estimates which generate these tank content estimates, are also given in this report

  14. Milk by Any Other Name... Consumer Benefits from Labeled Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Dhar, Tirtha; Foltz, Jeremy D.

    2004-01-01

    This article uses revealed preferences of consumers to study the consumer benefits from rBST-free and organic labeled milk. The article specifies and estimates a quadratic AIDS demand system model for different milk types using U.S. supermarket scanner data. The introduction of rBST-free and organic milk is used to estimate consumer benefits that are decomposed into two components, competitive and variety effects. Results show significant consumer benefits from organic milk and to a lesser ex...

  15. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in milk (powdered milk)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Sr-90 and Cs-137 in powdered milk were determined using radiochemical analysis. Six brands of commercial milk were purchased as samples in consuming districts in December 1984. Milk in a stainless steel pan or a porcelain dish was evaporated to dryness followed by carbonization and ashing. The maximum values of Sr-90 and Cs-137 were 33 +- 1.0 pCi/kg and 140 +- 2 pCi/kg, respectively, in skim milk manufactured by Meiji. (Namekawa, K.)

  16. Analysis of natural milk and milk powder samples by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jobori, S. M.; Itawi, R. K.; Saad, A; Shihab, K. M.; Jalil, M.; Farhan, S. S.

    1993-01-01

    As a part of the Iraqi food analysis program (IFAP) the concentration of Na, Mg, P, Cl, K, Ca, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, and I in natural milk collected from different regions of Iraq, and in milk powder samples have been determined by using the NAA techniques. It was found that except for the elements I, Rb, and Br the concentrations of the elements was approximately identical in both the natural milk and milk powder. (author)

  17. Analysis of natural milk and milk powder samples by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jobori, S.M.; Itawi, R.K.; Saad, A.; Shihab, K.M.; Jalil, M.; Farhan, S.S.

    1990-01-01

    As a part of the Iraqi Food Analysis Programme the concentration of Na, Mg, P, Cl, K, Ca, Zn, Se, Br, Rb and I in natural milk collected from different regions of Iraq, and in milk powder samples was determined by NAA technique. It was found that except for the elements I, Rb and Br the concentration of the elements was approximately identical in both natural milk and milk powders. (author) 4 refs.; 3 figs.; 5 tabs

  18. Sloshing impact in roofed tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uras, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    A large number of high-level waste (HLW) storage tanks exists in various tank farms. Seismic activities at those locations may cause significant sloshing in HLW tanks. These tanks are covered to avoid any spilling during large amplitude earthquakes. However, large amplitude sloshing may result in impact on the cover or the roof of the tank. Hence, a better understanding of the impact phenomenon is necessary to assess the safety of the tanks currently in existence, and to establish design guidelines for future designs. A pressure based formulation is derived to model sloshing impact in roared tanks. It is incorporated into Argonne's in-house finite element code FLUSTR-ANL. A numerical test case with a harmonic input excitation is studied. The simulation results indicate that linear behavior is preserved beyond the first impact, and some mesh distortion is observed following a stronger second impact. During the impact, the displacement of the contacting surface nodes remains constant, and the velocities are reduced to zero. An identification of impacting nodes is possible from the dynamic pressures induced in surface elements

  19. Sloshing impact in roofed tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uras, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    A large number of high-level waste (HLW) storage tanks exists in various tank farms. Seismic activities at those locations may cause significant sloshing in HLW tanks. These tanks are covered to avoid any spilling during large amplitude earthquakes. However, large amplitude sloshing may result in impact on the cover or the roof of the tank. Hence, a better understanding of the impact phenomenon is necessary to assess the safety of the tanks currently in existence, and to establish design guidelines for future designs. A pressure based formulation is derived to model sloshing impact in roofed tanks. It is incorporated into Argonne's in-house finite element code FLUSTR-ANL. A numerical test case with a harmonic input excitation is studied. The simulation results indicate that linear behavior is preserved beyond the first impact, and some mesh distortion is observed following a stronger second impact. During the impact, the displacement of the contacting surface nodes remains constant, and the velocities are reduced to zero. An identification of impacting nodes is possible from the dynamic pressures induced in surface elements

  20. Waste tank characterization sampling limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tusler, L.A.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a result of the Plant Implementation Team Investigation into delayed reporting of the exotherm in Tank 241-T-111 waste samples. The corrective actions identified are to have immediate notification of appropriate Tank Farm Operations Shift Management if analyses with potential safety impact exceed established levels. A procedure, WHC-IP-0842 Section 12.18, ''TWRS Approved Sampling and Data Analysis by Designated Laboratories'' (WHC 1994), has been established to require all tank waste sampling (including core, auger and supernate) and tank vapor samples be performed using this document. This document establishes levels for specified analysis that require notification of the appropriate shift manager. The following categories provide numerical values for analysis that may indicate that a tank is either outside the operating specification or should be evaluated for inclusion on a Watch List. The information given is intended to translate an operating limit such as heat load, expressed in Btu/hour, to an analysis related limit, in this case cesium-137 and strontium-90 concentrations. By using the values provided as safety flags, the analytical laboratory personnel can notify a shift manager that a tank is in potential violation of an operating limit or that a tank should be considered for inclusion on a Watch List. The shift manager can then take appropriate interim measures until a final determination is made by engineering personnel

  1. Prion protein in milk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Franscini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prions are known to cause transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE after accumulation in the central nervous system. There is increasing evidence that prions are also present in body fluids and that prion infection by blood transmission is possible. The low concentration of the proteinaceous agent in body fluids and its long incubation time complicate epidemiologic analysis and estimation of spreading and thus the risk of human infection. This situation is particularly unsatisfactory for food and pharmaceutical industries, given the lack of sensitive tools for monitoring the infectious agent. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have developed an adsorption matrix, Alicon PrioTrap, which binds with high affinity and specificity to prion proteins. Thus we were able to identify prion protein (PrP(C--the precursor of prions (PrP(Sc--in milk from humans, cows, sheep, and goats. The absolute amount of PrP(C differs between the species (from microg/l range in sheep to ng/l range in human milk. PrP(C is also found in homogenised and pasteurised off-the-shelf milk, and even ultrahigh temperature treatment only partially diminishes endogenous PrP(C concentration. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In view of a recent study showing evidence of prion replication occurring in the mammary gland of scrapie infected sheep suffering from mastitis, the appearance of PrP(C in milk implies the possibility that milk of TSE-infected animals serves as source for PrP(Sc.

  2. Drugs in breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervada, A R; Feit, E; Sagraves, R

    1978-09-01

    The amount of drug excreted into breast milk is dependent upon the lipid solubility of the medication, the mechanism of transport, the degree of ionization, and change in plasma pH. The higher the lipid solubility, the greater the concentration in human milk. The majority of drugs are transported into mammary blood capillaries by passive diffusion. The rest are transported by reverse pinocytosis. Once the drug has entered the epithelial cells of breast tissue, the drug molecules are excreted into the human milk by active transport, passive diffusion, or apocrine secretion. The amount of free (active) drug available for transport depends on the degree of protein binding the plasma pH. Another factor affecting excretion of drugs is the time when breast feeding occurs. In the 1st few days of life, when colostrum is present, water-soluble drugs pass through the breast more easily than afterwards when milk is produced. Then lipid-soluble drugs cross in higher concentrations. The effect on nursing infants is dependent on the amount excreted into the milk, the total amount absorbed by the infant, and the toxicity of the drug. The use of the following drugs in breast feeding mothers is reviewed: anticoagulants, antihypertensives and diuretics, antimicrobials, drugs affecting the central nervous system (alcohol, chloral hydrate, meprobamate, lithium, and aspirin), marijuana, other drugs (antihistamines, atropine, ergot alkaloids, laxatives, nicotine, iodides, propylthiouracil, theophylline), hormones (insulin, thyroxine, and oral contraceptives), and radiopharmaceuticals.

  3. Potential radiation damage: Storage tanks for liquid radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caskey, G.R. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    High level waste at SRS is stored in carbon steel tanks constructed during the period 1951 to 1981. This waste contains radionuclides that decay by alpha, beta, or gamma emission or are spontaneous neutronsources. Thus, a low intensity radiation field is generated that is capable of causing displacement damage to the carbon steel. The potential for degradation of mechanical properties was evaluated by comparing the estimated displacement damage with published data relating changes in Charpy V-notch (CVN) impact energy to neutron exposure. Experimental radiation data was available for three of the four grades of carbonsteel from which the tanks were constructed and is applicable to all four steels. Estimates of displacement damage arising from gamma and neutron radiation have been made based on the radionuclide contents for high level waste that are cited in the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) for the Liquid Waste Handling Facilities in the 200-Area. Alpha and beta emissions do not penetrate carbon steel to a sufficient depth to affect the bulk properties of the tank walls but may aggravate corrosion processes. The damage estimates take into account the source of the waste (F- or H-Area), the several types of tank service, and assume wateras an attenuating medium. Estimates of displacement damage are conservative because they are based on the highest levels of radionuclide contents reported in the SAR and continuous replenishment of the radionuclides

  4. Human periodontal ligament cell viability in milk and milk substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Robert M; Liewehr, Frederick R; West, Leslie A; Patton, William R; McPherson, James C; Runner, Royce R

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of several milk substitutes compared to whole milk in maintaining the viability of human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells on avulsed teeth. PDL cells were obtained from freshly extracted, healthy third molars and cultured in Eagle's minimal essential media (EMEM). The cells were plated onto 24-well culture plates and allowed to attach for 24 h. EMEM was replaced with refrigerated whole milk (positive control), reconstituted powdered milk, evaporated milk, or one of two baby formulas (Similac or Enfamil). Tap water served as the negative control. Tissue culture plates were incubated with the experimental media at 37 degrees C for 1, 2, 4, or 8 h. Cell viability was determined by a cell proliferation assay (CellTiter 96 AQ Assay), with absorbance read at 450 nM. A two-way ANOVA (p effect on PDL cell viability between any of the materials and whole milk. At 2 h, Enfamil and Similac performed significantly better than whole milk, whereas evaporated milk performed worse. At 4 h, Enfamil performed better than whole milk, whereas all other milk substitutes performed worse. At 8 h, all substitutes performed worse than whole milk. These results suggest that Enfamil, which is supplied in powder form that does not require special storage and has a shelf life of 18 months, is a more effective storage medium for avulsed teeth than pasteurized milk for at least 4 h.

  5. Associations between milk protein polymorphisms and milk production traits.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenhuis, H.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Korver, S.

    1992-01-01

    Associations between milk protein genotypes and milk production traits were estimated from 6803 first lactation records. Exact tests of associated hypotheses and unbiased estimates of genotype effects were from an animal model. Milk protein genotype effects were estimated using a model in which each

  6. Association of Genetic Variants of Milk Proteins with Milk Production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    For example, increasing the frequency of a milk protein genotype associated with ... date of milking, somatic cell count, daily milk yield, protein and fat ..... G sulla ripartizione percentuale delle caseine αS1, αS2, β e κ in vacche die razze. Bruna.

  7. 7 CFR 58.137 - Excluded milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excluded milk. 58.137 Section 58.137 Agriculture... Milk § 58.137 Excluded milk. A plant shall not accept milk from a producer if: (a) The milk has been in...) Three of the last five milk samples have exceeded the maximum bacterial estimate of 500,000 per ml...

  8. Tank 241-BY-110 tank characterization plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan that identifies the information needed to address relevant issues concerning short-term and long-term safe storage and long-term management of Single-Shell Tank (SST) 241-BY-110

  9. Tank characterization report for single shell tank 241-SX-108

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggers, R.F., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-11

    This document summarizes the information on the historical uses, present status, and the sampling and analysis results of waste stored in tank 241-SX-108. This report supports the requirements of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-44-09.

  10. Tank 241-S-107 tank characterization plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan that identifies the information needed to address relevant issues concerning short-term and long-term safe storage and long-term management of Single-Shell Tank (SST) 241-S-107

  11. Tank vapor mitigation requirements for Hanford Tank Farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakestraw, L.D.

    1994-01-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company has contracted Los Alamos Technical Associates to listing of vapors and aerosols that are or may be emitted from the High Level Waste (HLW) tanks at Hanford. Mitigation requirements under Federal and State law, as well as DOE Orders, are included in the listing. The lists will be used to support permitting activities relative to tank farm ventilation system up-grades. This task is designated Task 108 under MJB-SWV-312057 and is an extension of efforts begun under Task 53 of Purchase Order MPB-SVV-03291 5 for Mechanical Engineering Support. The results of that task, which covered only thirty-nine tanks, are repeated here to provide a single source document for vapor mitigation requirements for all 177 HLW tanks

  12. Tank vapor mitigation requirements for Hanford Tank Farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakestraw, L.D.

    1994-11-15

    Westinghouse Hanford Company has contracted Los Alamos Technical Associates to listing of vapors and aerosols that are or may be emitted from the High Level Waste (HLW) tanks at Hanford. Mitigation requirements under Federal and State law, as well as DOE Orders, are included in the listing. The lists will be used to support permitting activities relative to tank farm ventilation system up-grades. This task is designated Task 108 under MJB-SWV-312057 and is an extension of efforts begun under Task 53 of Purchase Order MPB-SVV-03291 5 for Mechanical Engineering Support. The results of that task, which covered only thirty-nine tanks, are repeated here to provide a single source document for vapor mitigation requirements for all 177 HLW tanks.

  13. Tank 241-AN-102 tank characterization plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan that identifies the information needed to address relevant issues concerning short-term and long-term safe storage and long-term management of Single-Shell Tank (SST) 241-AN-102

  14. Tank 241-U-111 tank characterization plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan that identifies the information needed to address relevant issues concerning short-term and long-term safe storage and long-term management of Single-Shell Tank (SST) 241-U-111

  15. Tank 241-B-106 tank characterization plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan that identifies the information needed to address relevant issues concerning short-term and long-term safe storage and long-term management of Single-Shell Tank (SST) 241-B-106

  16. Tank 241-SY-103 tank characterization plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan that identifies the information needed to address relevant issues concerning short-term and long-term safe storage and long-term management of Single-Shell Tank (SST) 241-SY-103

  17. Tank characterization report for single-shell Tank B-201

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heasler, P.G.; Remund, K.M.; Tingey, J.M.; Baird, D.B.; Ryan, F.M.

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to characterize the waste in single shell Tank B-201. Characterization includes the determination of the physical, chemical (e.g., concentrations of elements and organic species), and radiological properties of the waste. These determinations are made using analytical results from B-201 core samples as well as historical information about the tank. The main objective is to determine average waste properties: but in some cases, concentrations of analytes as a function of depth were also determined. This report also consolidates the available historical information regarding Tank B-201, arranges the analytical information from the recent core sampling in a useful format, and provides an interpretation of the data within the context of what is known about the tank

  18. Ecodesign of Liquid Fuel Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gicevska, Jana; Bazbauers, Gatis; Repele, Mara

    2011-01-01

    The subject of the study is a 10 litre liquid fuel tank made of metal and used for fuel storage and transportation. The study dealt with separate life cycle stages of this product, compared environmental impacts of similar fuel tanks made of metal and plastic, as well as analysed the product's end-of-life cycle stage, studying the waste treatment and disposal scenarios. The aim of this study was to find opportunities for improvement and to develop proposals for the ecodesign of 10 litre liquid fuel tank.

  19. Cow's milk allergy in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cow's milk allergy is more common in children than in adults. CaSSim ... adverse reactions to cow's milk protein such as lactose intolerance. .... possible hormonal effects on the reproductive ... formula in humans – such studies are much.

  20. PROGRESS & CHALLENGES IN CLEANUP OF HANFORDS TANK WASTES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HEWITT, W.M.; SCHEPENS, R.

    2006-01-23

    plan to treat these wastes as transuranic waste (TRU) for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which will reduce the WTP system processing time by three years. We are also developing and testing bulk vitrification as a technology to supplement the WTP LAW vitrification facility for immobilizing the massive volume of LAW. We will conduct a full-scale demonstration of the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System by immobilizing up to 1,100 m{sup 3} (300,000 gallons) of tank S-109 low-curie soluble waste from which Cs-137 had previously been removed. This past year has been marked by both progress and new challenges. The focus of our tank farm work has been retrieving waste from the old single-shell tanks (SSTs). We have completed waste retrieval from three SSTs and are conducting retrieval operations on an additional three SSTs. While most waste retrievals have gone about as expected, we have faced challenges with some recalcitrant tank heel wastes that required enhanced approaches. Those enhanced approaches ranged from oxalic acid additions to deploying a remote high-pressure water lance. As with all large, long-term projects that employ first of a kind technologies, we continue to be challenged to control costs and maintain schedule. However, it is most important to work safely and to provide facilities that will do the job they are intended to do.

  1. PROGRESS and CHALLENGES IN CLEANUP OF HANFORDS TANK WASTES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HEWITT, W.M.; SCHEPENS, R.

    2006-01-01

    treat these wastes as transuranic waste (TRU) for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which will reduce the WTP system processing time by three years. We are also developing and testing bulk vitrification as a technology to supplement the WTP LAW vitrification facility for immobilizing the massive volume of LAW. We will conduct a full-scale demonstration of the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System by immobilizing up to 1,100 m 3 (300,000 gallons) of tank S-109 low-curie soluble waste from which Cs-137 had previously been removed. This past year has been marked by both progress and new challenges. The focus of our tank farm work has been retrieving waste from the old single-shell tanks (SSTs). We have completed waste retrieval from three SSTs and are conducting retrieval operations on an additional three SSTs. While most waste retrievals have gone about as expected, we have faced challenges with some recalcitrant tank heel wastes that required enhanced approaches. Those enhanced approaches ranged from oxalic acid additions to deploying a remote high-pressure water lance. As with all large, long-term projects that employ first of a kind technologies, we continue to be challenged to control costs and maintain schedule. However, it is most important to work safely and to provide facilities that will do the job they are intended to do

  2. Milk and dairy products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiechen, A.; Heine, K.; Bundesanstalt fuer Milchforschung, Kiel

    1985-01-01

    Gammaspectroscopic measurements are taken as an example to describe the monitoring programme of the FRG for monitoring of milk and dairy products. A table shows the number of milk samples taken every year in the FRG in the general environment, and in the vicinity of nuclear installations, together with the radioactivity data obtained by gammaspectroscopy. Due to the decreasing radioactivity as a result of the nuclear weapons tests fallout, the number of samples taken in the general environment has been cut down to half over the period under review. The monitoring capacity set free by this decision has been used during this period for enhanced monitoring of milk and dairy products in regions where nuclear installations such as nuclear power plants have been operating. The nuclides of interest are Sr-90, Cs-137, J-131. (orig./DG) [de

  3. The influence of milking procedures on cow’s teat tissue, milk yield and milking time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Špoljar

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two different milking procedures on teat length and diameter, milk yield and milking time. During the first milking procedure the milker decides when to remove the milking cluster from the udder, while in the second an automatic cluster removal, when milk flow was lower than 200 g/min, was performed. Measurements were made on two commercial farms B and A on 15 randomly chosen cows without any clinical sign of mastitis. There were no significant differencesbetween those farms in teat length and diameter differences before and after the milking. Average milking time on farm A was 6 min and 58 s, while on farm B was 5 min and 3 s. Average milk yield was 12.9 kg on farm B and 13.4 kg on farm A. Milking time was considerably shorter on farm B compared to farm A, while milk yield was almost equal on both farms. Automatic cluster weighting 2 kg removal was performed when milk flow was lower than 200 g/min in order to shorten the time needed to milk the cow, ensuring good udder health.

  4. Stabilization of in-tank residual wastes and external-tank soil contamination for the tank focus area, Hanford tank initiative: Applications to the AX Tank Farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balsley, S.D.; Krumhansl, J.L.; Borns, D.J.; McKeen, R.G.

    1998-07-01

    A combined engineering and geochemistry approach is recommended for the stabilization of waste in decommissioned tanks and contaminated soils at the AX Tank Farm, Hanford, WA. A two-part strategy of desiccation and gettering is proposed for treatment of the in-tank residual wastes. Dry portland cement and/or fly ash are suggested as an effective and low-cost desiccant for wicking excess moisture from the upper waste layer. Getters work by either ion exchange or phase precipitation to reduce radionuclide concentrations in solution. The authors recommend the use of specific natural and man-made compounds, appropriately proportioned to the unique inventory of each tank. A filler design consisting of multilayered cementitous grout with interlayered sealant horizons should serve to maintain tank integrity and minimize fluid transport to the residual waste form. External tank soil contamination is best mitigated by placement of grouted skirts under and around each tank, together with installation of a cone-shaped permeable reactive barrier beneath the entire tank farm. Actinide release rates are calculated from four tank closure scenarios ranging from no action to a comprehensive stabilization treatment plan (desiccant/getters/grouting/RCRA cap). Although preliminary, these calculations indicate significant reductions in the potential for actinide transport as compared to the no-treatment option

  5. Secondary containment systems for bulk oil storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency has conducted site inspections at several onshore bulk oil above ground storage facilities, to ensure that owners follow the spill prevention, control and countermeasure regulations. The four violations which were most frequently cited at these facilities were: (1) lack of a spill prevention plan, (2) lack of appropriate containment equipment to prevent discharged oil from reaching a navigable water course, (3) inadequate secondary containment structures, and (4) lack of an adequate quick drainage system in the facility tank loading/unloading area. Suggestions for feasible designs which would improve the impermeability of secondary containment for above ground storage tanks (AST) included the addition of a liner, retrofitting the bottom of an AST with a second steel plate, using a geosynthetic liner on top of the original bottom, installing a leak detection system in the interstitial space between the steel plates, or installing an under-tank liner with a leak detection system during construction of a new AST. 2 refs

  6. Remediation of Hanford tank waste using magnetic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worl, L.A.; Avens, L.R.; de Aguero, K.J.; Coyne Prenger, F.; Stewart, W.F.; Hill, D.D.

    1992-01-01

    Large volumes of high-level radioactive waste are stored at the Department of Energy's Hanford site. Magnetic separation, a physical separation, process, can be used to segregate actinides and certain fission products from the waste. High gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) tests have been performed successfully using a simulated, nonradioactive underground storage tank (UST) waste. Variations in HGMS test parameters included separator matrix material, magnetic field strength, slurry surfactant, and slurry solids loading. Cerium was added to the simulated tank waste to act as a uranium surrogate. Results show that over 77% of the uranium surrogate can be captured and concentrated from the original bulk with a simple procedure. The results of these tests and the feasibility of magnetic separation for pretreatment of UST waste are discussed

  7. Relationship between somatic cell count and lactose content in milk of various species of mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oto Hanuš

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Somatic cell count (SCC is an indicator of mammary gland health state. Lactose (L can be reduced with mastitis and SCC increase. Mammary gland health is an essential factor of milk quality. Monitoring of mammary gland health is important for prevention and treatment of milk secretion disorders. The goal of this work was to analyse the relationship between SCC and L in various biological species. 7 sets of individual and bulk milk samples (MSs were analysed (n = 479, 479, 345, 80, 90 and 102 for SCC and L content. 3 sets were with cow (C milk and 1 set with goat (G, 1 with sheep (S and 1 with human (H MSs. The relations in C milk were used as reference. SCC geometric means were markedly lower in C milk (62, 99 and 81 103 . ml−1 and H milk (103 103 . ml−1 as compared to small ruminants (G 3 509 and S 609 103 . ml−1. The mean L values were lower in small ruminants (G 4.36% and S 4.42% as compared to C milk (4.95%, 4.97% and in 1st lactation 5.10% and higher in H milk (5.77%. L contents in Czech Fleckvieh and Holstein correlated negatively to SCC (log SCC in all lactations (−0.36 P < 0.001 and −0.33 P < 0.001. L content in 1st lactation correlated with SCC markedly narrower than in cows for all lactations (−0.49 P < 0.001. The SCC×L relationship in G (White short–haired milk (−0.35 P < 0.01 was in good relation to C milk and in S (Tsigai milk (−0.51 P < 0.001 was markedly narrower as in C and G milk. Lower mean SCC in H milk as compared to G and S milk and comparable to C milk did not show significant negative relationship to L which was 0.08 (P > 0.05 for original SCC values. Surprisingly there was not found the SCC×L relationship in H milk which could be comparable to other mammal species milk. It could be caused by bacteriologically negative results in MSs with higher SCC (> 300 103 . ml−1. As well as at C milk also at G and S milk and in contrast to H milk it is possible to use the SCC×L relationship

  8. Mercury Dispersion Modeling And Purge Ventilation Stack Height Determination For Tank 40H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera-Giboyeaux, A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-05-19

    The SRNL Atmospheric Technologies Group performed an analysis for mercury emissions from H-Tank Farm - Tank 40 ventilation system exhaust in order to assess whether the Short Term Exposure Limit (STEL), or Threshold Limit Value (TLV) levels for mercury will be exceeded during bulk sludge slurry mixing and sludge removal operations. The American Meteorological Society/Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model (AERMOD) was used as the main dispersion modelling tool for this analysis. The results indicated that a 45-foot stack is sufficient to raise the plume centerline from the Tank 40 release to prevent mercury exposure problems for any of the stack discharge scenarios provided. However, a 42-foot stack at Tank 40 is sufficient to prevent mercury exposure concerns in all emission scenarios except the 50 mg/m3 release. At a 42-foot stack height, values exceeding the exposure standards are only measured on receptors located above 34 feet.

  9. Safety evaluation for packaging 222-S laboratory cargo tank for onetime type B material shipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP) is to evaluate and document the safety of the onetime shipment of bulk radioactive liquids in the 222-S Laboratory cargo tank (222-S cargo tank). The 222-S cargo tank is a US Department of Transportation (DOT) MC-312 specification (DOT 1989) cargo tank, vehicle registration number HO-64-04275, approved for low specific activity (LSA) shipments in accordance with the DOT Title 49, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). In accordance with the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) Order 5480.1A, Chapter III (RL 1988), an equivalent degree of safety shall be provided for onsite shipments as would be afforded by the DOT shipping regulations for a radioactive material package. This document demonstrates that this packaging system meets the onsite transportation safety criteria for a onetime shipment of Type B contents

  10. Double-shell tank emergency pumping guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BROWN, M.H.

    1999-01-01

    This Double-Shell Tank Emergency Pumping Guide provides the preplanning necessary to expeditiously remove any waste that may leak from the primary tank to the secondary tank for Hanfords 28 DSTs. The strategy is described, applicable emergency procedures are referenced, and transfer routes and pumping equipment for each tank are identified

  11. Double-shell tank emergency pumping guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BROWN, M.H.

    1999-01-01

    This Double-Shell Tank Emergency Pumping Guide provides the preplanning necessary to expeditiously remove any waste that may leak from the primary tank to the secondary tank for Hanford's 28 DSTS. The strategy is described, applicable emergency procedures are referenced, and transfer routes and pumping equipment for each tank are identified

  12. Effect of changes in milking routine on milking related behaviour and milk removal in Tunisian dairy dromedary camels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atigui, Moufida; Marnet, Pierre-Guy; Ayeb, Naziha; Khorchani, Touhami; Hammadi, Mohamed

    2014-11-01

    We studied the effects of changes in the milking routine (lack or presence of 30-s prestimulation, 0 or 1, 2 or 4-min delay between preparation and cluster attachment) and environmental perturbation (unusual loud sounds capable of frightening animals just after stall entry or during the course of milking) on milk removal and milking-related behaviour in dairy dromedary camels. A 30-s prestimulation decreased incidence of bimodal milk flow curves and increased occurrence of the best milk ejection patterns with higher milk flow but had limited effect on milk production in our well-trained animals within a good machine milking setting. However, unusual sounds heard from the beginning of milking or even after milk ejection caused inhibition or disruption of milk removal and modification of camels' behaviour. Milk ejection was significantly delayed (1·58±0·17 min), residual milk increased over 40% of total milk yield and average and peak milk flow rates were significantly lowered when unusual noises were heard from the beginning of milking. These environmental perturbations increased signs of vigilance and the number of attempts to escape the milking parlour. Delaying cluster attachment for over 1 min after the end of udder preparation caused serious milk losses. Up to 62% of total milk was withheld in the udder when the delay reached 4 min. Average and peak milk flow rates also decreased significantly with delayed milking. Signs of vigilance and attempts to escape from the milking parlour appeared when camels waited for over 2 min. After a 4-min delay, camels showed signs of acute stress. Defaecation prior to milk ejection (solid faeces) and rumination during milking can be used to assess camels' milk ejection during milking. Animal welfare and milking efficiency can be ensured when camels are pre-stimulated, milked in calm conditions and with cluster attachment within a maximum of a 1-min delay after stimulation.

  13. Yoghurt fermentation trials utilizing mare milk: comparison with cow milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Giangiacomo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Mare milk shows a very interesting nutritional composition, similar to human milk. Whey protein fraction represents about 50% of total proteins, with a good amount of essential amino acids, and high lysozyme concentration (Jauregui-Adell, 1975. Mare milk contains essential fatty acids, progenitors of ω3 and ω6, higher than cow milk (Csapò et al., 1995; Curadi et al., 2002. In east european countries mare milk is utilized in dietetics and therapeutics for gastroenteric and cardiac pathologies (Sharmanov et al., 1982; Mirrakimov et al., 1986, or as a drink obtained from lactic and alcoholic fermentation (Koumiss...

  14. Modelling of bulk superconductor magnetization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainslie, M D; Fujishiro, H

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a topical review of the current state of the art in modelling the magnetization of bulk superconductors, including both (RE)BCO (where RE = rare earth or Y) and MgB 2 materials. Such modelling is a powerful tool to understand the physical mechanisms of their magnetization, to assist in interpretation of experimental results, and to predict the performance of practical bulk superconductor-based devices, which is particularly important as many superconducting applications head towards the commercialization stage of their development in the coming years. In addition to the analytical and numerical techniques currently used by researchers for modelling such materials, the commonly used practical techniques to magnetize bulk superconductors are summarized with a particular focus on pulsed field magnetization (PFM), which is promising as a compact, mobile and relatively inexpensive magnetizing technique. A number of numerical models developed to analyse the issues related to PFM and optimise the technique are described in detail, including understanding the dynamics of the magnetic flux penetration and the influence of material inhomogeneities, thermal properties, pulse duration, magnitude and shape, and the shape of the magnetization coil(s). The effect of externally applied magnetic fields in different configurations on the attenuation of the trapped field is also discussed. A number of novel and hybrid bulk superconductor structures are described, including improved thermal conductivity structures and ferromagnet–superconductor structures, which have been designed to overcome some of the issues related to bulk superconductors and their magnetization and enhance the intrinsic properties of bulk superconductors acting as trapped field magnets. Finally, the use of hollow bulk cylinders/tubes for shielding is analysed. (topical review)

  15. continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and the small and large intestines as plug flow reactor (PFR) ... from the two equations are used for the reactor sizing of the modeled reactors.

  16. Underground Storage Tanks in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Underground storage tank (UST) sites which store petroleum in Iowa. Includes sites which have been reported to DNR, and have active or removed underground storage...

  17. Storage Tank Legionella and Community

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Storage Tank Legionella and Community. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Qin, K., I. Struewing, J. Santodomingo, D. Lytle, and J. Lu....

  18. Research Award: Think Tank Iniave

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Corey Piccioni

    2013-08-07

    Aug 7, 2013 ... be learned from these examples to help strengthen think tanks more widely? ... What is the nature of the applied research market in (some) ... A Master's in economics, development studies, public policy, or polical sciences;.

  19. 27 CFR 24.230 - Examination of tank car or tank truck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.230 Examination of tank car or tank truck. Upon arrival of a tank car or tank truck at the bonded wine premises, the proprietor shall... calibration chart is available at the bonded wine premises, the spirits may be gauged by volume in the tank...

  20. Variations in the milk yield and milk composition of dairy cows during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedö, S; Nikodémusz, E; Percsich, K; Bárdos, L

    1995-01-01

    Variations in the milk yield and milk composition of a dairy cow colony (n = 23) were analyzed during 11 months of lactation. Milk yield followed a characteristic decreasing pattern in negative correlations with solid components (milk protein, lactose, total solids, milk fat). Titrable acidity (degree SH) was significantly (p < 0.1) higher in the milk of fresh-milking cows and it correlated negatively with lactose and positively with milk protein, milk fat and total solids. The concentrations of Zn, Fe and Cu tended to decrease, while Mn showed insignificant variation during lactation. Milk vitamin A showed a significant positive whilst milk vitamin E had a negative correlation with milk fat.

  1. Development and flight test of metal-lined CFRP cryogenic tank for reusable rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Ken; Takeuchi, Shinsuke; Sato, Eiichi; Naruo, Yoshihiro; Inatani, Yoshifumi; Namiki, Fumiharu; Tanaka, Kohtaro; Watabe, Yoko

    2005-07-01

    A cryogenic tank made of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) shell with aluminum thin liner has been designed as a liquid hydrogen (LH2) tank for an ISAS reusable launch vehicle, and the function of it has been proven by repeated flights onboard the test vehicle called reusable vehicle testing (RVT) in October 2003. The liquid hydrogen tank has to be a pressure vessel, because the fuel of the engine of the test vehicle is supplied by fuel pressure. The pressure vessel of a combination of the outer shell of CFRP for strength element at a cryogenic temperature and the inner liner of aluminum for gas barrier has shown excellent weight merit for this purpose. Interfaces such as tank outline shape, bulk capacity, maximum expected operating pressure (MEOP), thermal insulation, pipe arrangement, and measurement of data are also designed to be ready onboard. This research has many aims, not only development of reusable cryogenic composite tank but also the demonstration of repeated operation including thermal cycle and stress cycle, familiarization with test techniques of operation of cryogenic composite tanks, and the accumulation of data for future design of tanks, vehicle structures, safety evaluation, and total operation systems.

  2. Modification of a liquid hydrogen tank for integrated refrigeration and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanger, A. M.; Jumper, K. M.; Fesmire, J. E.; Notardonato, W. U.

    2015-12-01

    The modification and outfitting of a 125,000-liter liquid hydrogen tank was performed to provide integrated refrigeration and storage capability. These functions include zero boil-off, liquefaction, and densification and therefore require provisions for sub-atmospheric tank pressures within the vacuum-jacketed, multilayer insulated tank. The primary structural modification was to add stiffening rings inside the inner vessel. The internal stiffening rings were designed, built, and installed per the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, to prevent collapse in the case of vacuum jacket failure in combination with sub-atmospheric pressure within the tank. For the integrated refrigeration loop, a modular, skeleton-type heat exchanger, with refrigerant temperature instrumentation, was constructed using the stiffening rings as supports. To support the system thermal performance testing, three custom temperature rakes were designed and installed along the 21-meter length of the tank, once again using rings as supports. The temperature rakes included a total of 20 silicon diode temperature sensors mounted both vertically and radially to map the bulk liquid temperature within the tank. The tank modifications were successful and the system is now operational for the research and development of integrated refrigeration technology.

  3. Immunology of breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmeira, Patricia; Carneiro-Sampaio, Magda

    2016-09-01

    In the critical phase of immunological immaturity of the newborn, particularly for the immune system of mucous membranes, infants receive large amounts of bioactive components through colostrum and breast milk. Colostrum is the most potent natural immune booster known to science. Breastfeeding protects infants against infections mainly via secretory IgA (SIgA) antibodies, but also via other various bioactive factors. It is striking that the defense factors of human milk function without causing inflammation; some components are even anti-inflammatory. Protection against infections has been well evidenced during lactation against, e.g., acute and prolonged diarrhea, respiratory tract infections, including otitis media, urinary tract infection, neonatal septicemia, and necrotizing enterocolitis. The milk's immunity content changes over time. In the early stages of lactation, IgA, anti-inflammatory factors and, more likely, immunologically active cells provide additional support for the immature immune system of the neonate. After this period, breast milk continues to adapt extraordinarily to the infant's ontogeny and needs regarding immune protection and nutrition. The need to encourage breastfeeding is therefore justifiable, at least during the first 6 months of life, when the infant's secretory IgA production is insignificant.

  4. The Sweetest Chocolate Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Kristie J.

    2010-01-01

    Using a nonroutine problem can be an effective way to encourage students to draw on prior knowledge, work together, and reach important conclusions about the mathematics they are learning. This article discusses a problem on the mathematical preparation of chocolate milk which was adapted from an old book of puzzles (Linn 1969) and has been used…

  5. Fermented milk for hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usinger, Lotte; Reimer, Christina; Ibsen, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Fermented milk has been suggested to have a blood pressure lowering effect through increased content of proteins and peptides produced during the bacterial fermentation. Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease world wide and new blood pressure reducing lifestyle...

  6. Milk contamination in different points of the dairy process. ii mesophilic, psychrotrophic and proteolytic microorganisms/ Contaminação do leite em diferentes pontos da produção leiteira: ii microrganismos mesófilos, psicrotróficos e proteolíticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Vieira Gusmão

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Psychrotrophics microorganisms are able to multiply under refrigeration temperatures. They can produce heat-resistant extracellular enzymes that cause organoleptic and structural changes in milk and dairy products. With the objective of determining the frequency of microorganisms in the dairy process, four farms were evaluated in Londrina city – Brazil and different points were assessed. Mesophilic (48hs at 35oC, psychrotrophic (25hs at 21oC and proteolytic (72hs at 22oC microorganisms were researched, and the proteolytic predominant microflora were determined by using the Gram stain technique. The main psychrotrophic contamination points were the residual water on milk cans, on bulk tank and bad cleaned teats, and milk cans and teats were the most important sources of proteolytics. Gram negative bacilli represented 69% of the microorganisms in the refrigerated milk that means 45% of the total proteolytics microorganisms in the dairy process. Gram negative bacilli is most frequent on bad cleaned teats, teatcups, residual water in milk cans and bulk tank. The psychrotroph count in the refrigerated milk was more than the mesophilic count, showing that that psychrotrophics are the best indicatator for refrigerated milk contamination. The psycrotrophics count at all points assessed were greater than the ideal limit (10% of the mesophilic count. Thus as refrigeration at 4oC is not sufficient to control the multiplication of the psycrotrophics group, good practices should be associated to avoid or control milk contamination by psycrotrophics.Os psicrotróficos são microrganismos que têm capacidade de multiplicação em temperaturas de refrigeração. Produzem enzimas termorresistentes como proteases e lipases que promovem alterações organolépticas no leite e comprometem a produção de derivados. Com o objetivo de determinar a freqüência desses microrganismos a produção do leite, foram estudadas 04 propriedades da região de Londrina, PR

  7. Status report: Pretreatment chemistry evaluation FY1997 -- Wash and leach factors for the single-shell tank waste inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colton, N.G.

    1997-08-01

    The wash factors will be used to partition the single-shell tank (SST) inventory into soluble and insoluble portions. The leach factors will be used to estimate the further removal of bulk analytes, such as chromium, aluminum, and phosphate, as well as minor components. Wash and leach factors are given here for 18 analytes, elements expected to drive the volume of material disposed of as high-level waste (HLW). These factors are determined by a weighting methodology developed earlier by this task. Tank-specific analyte inventory values depicted in Tank Waste Data Summary Worksheets, are calculated from concentrations obtained from characterization reports; the waste density; and the tank waste volume. The experimentally determined percentage of analytes removed by washing and leaching in a particular tank waste are translated into a mass (metric tons) in Experimental Washing and Leaching Data Summary Worksheets.

  8. Status report: Pretreatment chemistry evaluation FY1997 - Wash and leach factors for the single-shell tank waste inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colton, N.G.

    1997-08-01

    The wash factors will be used to partition the single-shell tank (SST) inventory into soluble and insoluble portions. The leach factors will be used to estimate the further removal of bulk analytes, such as chromium, aluminum, and phosphate, as well as minor components. Wash and leach factors are given here for 18 analytes, elements expected to drive the volume of material disposed of as high-level waste (HLW). These factors are determined by a weighting methodology developed earlier by this task. Tank-specific analyte inventory values depicted in Tank Waste Data Summary Worksheets, are calculated from concentrations obtained from characterization reports; the waste density; and the tank waste volume. The experimentally determined percentage of analytes removed by washing and leaching in a particular tank waste are translated into a mass (metric tons) in Experimental Washing and Leaching Data Summary Worksheets

  9. Bulk metallic glass matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi-Yim, H.; Johnson, W.L.

    1997-01-01

    Composites with a bulk metallic glass matrix were synthesized and characterized. This was made possible by the recent development of bulk metallic glasses that exhibit high resistance to crystallization in the undercooled liquid state. In this letter, experimental methods for processing metallic glass composites are introduced. Three different bulk metallic glass forming alloys were used as the matrix materials. Both ceramics and metals were introduced as reinforcement into the metallic glass. The metallic glass matrix remained amorphous after adding up to a 30 vol% fraction of particles or short wires. X-ray diffraction patterns of the composites show only peaks from the second phase particles superimposed on the broad diffuse maxima from the amorphous phase. Optical micrographs reveal uniformly distributed particles in the matrix. The glass transition of the amorphous matrix and the crystallization behavior of the composites were studied by calorimetric methods. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  10. Adipokines in human breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzsch, Juergen; Bae, Yoon Ju; Kiess, Wieland

    2018-01-01

    The review describes the molecular characteristics of so far detected breast milk adipokines and ranks their breast milk level compared to the respective levels in maternal and infant blood. Moreover, analytical knowledge for measurements of breast milk adipokines will be delineated. Next, we summarized data about two main potential influencing factors on adipokine concentration in breast milk, maternal weight and pasteurization of milk. Finally, associations between adipokines in breast milk and weight gain in infants as well as the putative mechanisms for effects of breast milk adipokines on food intake and weight gain in later life will debated. Our findings suggest that a source of adipokines in human breast milk cannot be uniformly defined. In dependence on the ratio between serum and breast milk levels the major quantity of these proteins may be derived from peripheral tissues, from the breast tissue itself or from both. Thus, leptin and in part adiponectin levels in breast milk are dependent on a plenty of influencing factors with an important relevance of maternal anthropometric characteristics There is some evidence that leptin, adiponectin and ghrelin levels in breast milk may be associated with growth gain of infants and even with increased risk for being overweight during infancy or childhood. We hypothesize that a dysregulation in adipokine homeostasis in early life could promote obesity and metabolic disturbance in later life. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A COMPREHENSIVE TECHNICAL REVIEW OF THE DEMONSTRATION BULK VITRIFICATION SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCHAUS, P.S.

    2006-01-01

    In May 2006, CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc. chartered an Expert Review Panel (ERP) to review the current status of the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS). It is the consensus of the ERP that bulk vitrification is a technology that requires further development and evaluation to determine its potential for meeting the Hanford waste stabilization mission. No fatal flaws (issues that would jeopardize the overall DBVS mission that cannot be mitigated) were found, given the current state of the project. However, a number of technical issues were found that could significantly affect the project's ability to meet its overall mission as stated in the project ''Justification of Mission Need'' document, if not satisfactorily resolved. The ERP recognizes that the project has changed from an accelerated schedule demonstration project to a formally chartered project that must be in full compliance with DOE 413.3 requirements. The perspective of the ERP presented herein, is measured against the formally chartered project as stated in the approved Justification of Mission Need document. A justification of Mission Need document was approved in July 2006 which defined the objectives for the DBVS Project. In this document, DOE concluded that bulk vitrification is a viable technology that requires additional development to determine its potential applicability to treatment of a portion of the Hanford low activity waste. The DBVS mission need statement now includes the following primary objectives: (1) process approximately 190,000 gallons of Tank S-109 waste into fifty 100 metric ton boxes of vitrified product; (2) store and dispose of these boxes at Hanford's Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF); (3) evaluate the waste form characteristics; (4) gather pilot plant operability data, and (5) develop the overall life cycle system performance of bulk vitrification and produce a comparison of the bulk vitrification process to building a second LAW Immobilization facility or other

  12. ROBOTIC TANK INSPECTION END EFFECTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rachel Landry

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this contract between Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS) and the Department of Energy (DOE) was to provide a tool for the DOE to inspect the inside tank walls of underground radioactive waste storage tanks in their tank farms. Some of these tanks are suspected to have leaks, but the harsh nature of the environment within the tanks precludes human inspection of tank walls. As a result of these conditions only a few inspection methods can fulfill this task. Of the methods available, OSS chose to pursue Alternating Current Field Measurement (ACFM), because it does not require clean surfaces for inspection, nor any contact with the Surface being inspected, and introduces no extra by-products in the inspection process (no coupling fluids or residues are left behind). The tool produced by OSS is the Robotic Tank Inspection End Effector (RTIEE), which is initially deployed on the tip of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA). The RTEE combines ACFM with a color video camera for both electromagnetic and visual inspection The complete package consists of an end effector, its corresponding electronics and software, and a user's manual to guide the operator through an inspection. The system has both coarse and fine inspection modes and allows the user to catalog defects and suspected areas of leakage in a database for further examination, which may lead to emptying the tank for repair, decommissioning, etc.. The following is an updated report to OSS document OSS-21100-7002, which was submitted in 1995. During the course of the contract, two related sub-tasks arose, the Wall and Coating Thickness Sensor and the Vacuum Scarifying and Sampling Tool Assembly. The first of these sub-tasks was intended to evaluate the corrosion and wall thinning of 55-gallon steel drums. The second was retrieved and characterized the waste material trapped inside the annulus region of the underground tanks on the DOE's tank farms. While these sub-tasks were derived from the original intent

  13. Laboratory and Consumer Evaluations of Alternative Formulations of Recombined Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    combining water, nonfat dry milk (NDM) and canola or coconut oil, blending at 120-140 *F (48.9-60 *C) , followed by high-temperature, short-time ( HTST ...use). A 200 gallon batch size was determined to be the minimum but adequate amount to be run through the 3500 gal/h HTST pasteurizing system, product...liquid oils were weighed out into clean containers and held at 95-100 OF (35-37.8 ’C) until transferred into the oil supply tank of the HTST system for

  14. Stabilization of in-tank residual wastes and external-tank soil contamination for the tank focus area, Hanford Tank Initiative: Applications to the AX tank farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report investigates five technical areas for stabilization of decommissioned waste tanks and contaminated soils at the Hanford Site AX Farm. The investigations are part of a preliminary evacuation of end-state options for closure of the AX Tanks. The five technical areas investigated are: (1) emplacement of cementations grouts and/or other materials; (2) injection of chemicals into contaminated soils surrounding tanks (soil mixing); (3) emplacement of grout barriers under and around the tanks; (4) the explicit recognition that natural attenuation processes do occur; and (5) combined geochemical and hydrological modeling. Research topics are identified in support of key areas of technical uncertainty, in each of the five areas. Detailed cost-benefit analyses of the technologies are not provided. This investigation was conducted by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, during FY 1997 by tank Focus Area (EM-50) funding

  15. [Allergy to cow's milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourrier, E

    1997-04-01

    After recalling the medical reluctance as well as the risks that there are in complete elimination of milk in infants, the author presents several clinical pictures and then a classification of the immunological types: Allergic shock of neonates, digestive and extra-digestive (skin and respiratory airways) symptoms finally the rare chronic gastro-enteritis to cow milk. Non-reaginic food allergies: Acute gastro-enteropathy to cow milk, with villous atrophy and Heiner's syndrome, delayed hypersensitivities are studied, of difficult diagnosis that may cover almost all pathologies. They may be found in the digestive system, respiratory, the kidneys and even in the organs of behaviour. Migraine of food origin must be remembered. Development in regressive rules is a function of the type of allergy and the suddenness of the symptoms. Diagnosis is above all by questioning and confirmation or not by skin and in vitro tests. Certainty can only be shown by tests of elimination and re-introduction. The diet, at the same time of both diagnostic and therapeutic value, is based on the replacement of cow milk by foods that contain the same amount of proteins. It is essential, especially in the very small, to have perfect match of food so as to avoid any risk of a dramatic hypoprotinemia, which may happen if the child does not like the suggested diet, or if the parents cannot buy the substitution products. In such conditions great care must be taken to avoid provoking a crisis. Care must be taken to decide: If the elimination of cow milk is always justified each time. If it is, always check that the substituted protein is properly made, the family may change the diet mistakenly.

  16. Bulk viscosity and cosmological evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beesham, A.

    1996-01-01

    In a recent interesting paper, Pimentel and Diaz-Rivera (Nuovo Cimento B, 109(1994) 1317) have derived several solutions with bulk viscosity in homogeneous and isotropic cosmological models. They also discussed the properties of these solutions. In this paper the authors relate the solutions of Pimentel and Diaz-Rivera by simple transformations to previous solutions published in the literature, showing that all the solutions can be derived from the known existing ones. Drawbacks to these approaches of studying bulk viscosity are pointed out, and better approaches indicated

  17. Verification of fresh grass feeding, pasture grazing and organic farming by FTIR spectroscopy analysis of bovine milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capuano, E.; Rademaker, J.; Bijgaart, van den H.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, a total of 116 tank milk samples were collected from 30 farms located in The Netherlands and analysed by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Samples were collected in April, May and June 2011 and in February 2012. The samples differed in the time spent by the cows

  18. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR SAMPLING OF TANK 19 IN F TANK FARM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, S.; Shine, G.

    2009-12-14

    Representative sampling is required for characterization of the residual material in Tank 19 prior to operational closure. Tank 19 is a Type IV underground waste storage tank located in the F-Tank Farm. It is a cylindrical-shaped, carbon steel tank with a diameter of 85 feet, a height of 34.25 feet, and a working capacity of 1.3 million gallons. Tank 19 was placed in service in 1961 and initially received a small amount of low heat waste from Tank 17. It then served as an evaporator concentrate (saltcake) receiver from February 1962 to September 1976. Tank 19 also received the spent zeolite ion exchange media from a cesium removal column that once operated in the Northeast riser of the tank to remove cesium from the evaporator overheads. Recent mechanical cleaning of the tank removed all mounds of material. Anticipating a low level of solids in the residual waste, Huff and Thaxton [2009] developed a plan to sample the waste during the final clean-up process while it would still be resident in sufficient quantities to support analytical determinations in four quadrants of the tank. Execution of the plan produced fewer solids than expected to support analytical determinations in all four quadrants. Huff and Thaxton [2009] then restructured the plan to characterize the residual separately in the North and the South regions: two 'hemispheres.' This document provides sampling recommendations to complete the characterization of the residual material on the tank bottom following the guidance in Huff and Thaxton [2009] to split the tank floor into a North and a South hemisphere. The number of samples is determined from a modification of the formula previously published in Edwards [2001] and the sample characterization data for previous sampling of Tank 19 described by Oji [2009]. The uncertainty is quantified by an upper 95% confidence limit (UCL95%) on each analyte's mean concentration in Tank 19. The procedure computes the uncertainty in analyte

  19. Evaluation of tank waste transfers at 241-AW tank farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, W.L.

    1998-01-01

    A number of waste transfers are needed to process and feed waste to the private contractors in support of Phase 1 Privatization. Other waste transfers are needed to support the 242-A Evaporator, saltwell pumping, and other ongoing Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) operations. The purpose of this evaluation is to determine if existing or planned equipment and systems are capable of supporting the Privatization Mission of the Tank Farms and continuing operations through the end of Phase 1B Privatization Mission. Projects W-211 and W-314 have been established and will support the privatization effort. Equipment and system upgrades provided by these projects (W-211 and W-314) will also support other ongoing operations in the tank farms. It is recognized that these projects do not support the entire transfer schedule represented in the Tank Waste Remediation system Operation and Utilization Plan. Additionally, transfers surrounding the 241-AW farm must be considered. This evaluation is provided as information, which will help to define transfer paths required to complete the Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) mission. This document is not focused on changing a particular project, but it is realized that new project work in the 241-AW Tank Farm is required

  20. Numerical Investigation of Microgravity Tank Pressure Rise Due to Boiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylton, Sonya; Ibrahim, Mounir; Kartuzova, Olga; Kassemi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The ability to control self-pressurization in cryogenic storage tanks is essential for NASAs long-term space exploration missions. Predictions of the tank pressure rise in Space are needed in order to inform the microgravity design and optimization process. Due to the fact that natural convection is very weak in microgravity, heat leaks into the tank can create superheated regions in the liquid. The superheated regions can instigate microgravity boiling, giving rise to pressure spikes during self-pressurization. In this work, a CFD model is developed to predict the magnitude and duration of the microgravity pressure spikes. The model uses the Schrage equation to calculate the mass transfer, with a different accommodation coefficient for evaporation at the interface, condensation at the interface, and boiling in the bulk liquid. The implicit VOF model was used to account for the moving interface, with bounded second order time discretization. Validation of the models predictions was carried out using microgravity data from the Tank Pressure Control Experiment, which flew aboard the Space Shuttle Mission STS-52. Although this experiment was meant to study pressurization and pressure control, it underwent boiling during several tests. The pressure rise predicted by the CFD model compared well with the experimental data. The ZBOT microgravity experiment is scheduled to fly on February 2016 aboard the ISS. The CFD model was also used to perform simulations for setting parametric limits for the Zero-Boil-Off Tank (ZBOT) Experiments Test Matrix in an attempt to avoid boiling in the majority of the test runs that are aimed to study pressure increase rates during self-pressurization. *Supported in part by NASA ISS Physical Sciences Research Program, NASA HQ, USA